Science.gov

Sample records for member states portugal

  1. Portugal.

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    Portugal's 1983 population of 10.04 million was growing at .7%/year. 97% were Roman Catholic, 80% were literate, and 4.1 million were in the labor force in 1984. Portugal is mountainous north of the Tagus River and consists of rolling plains in the central south. The Azores and Madeira islands belong to Portugal but enjoy considerable autonomy. Portugal's dependency of Macau on the Chinese coast is an autonomous entity under Portuguese administration. The former teritories of Goa and Portuguese Timor were annexed by India and Indonesia respectively in 1961 and 1976, and the former territories in Africa achieved independence in 1974 and 1975. Portugal, 1 of the oldest states in Europe, traces its modern history to A.D. 1140 when the 1st king was crowned. The approximate present day boundaries were secured in 1249. Portugal eventually became a massive colonial empire with territories in Africa and Latin America and outposts in the Far East. The Portuguese Republic replaced the monarchy in 1910. After some years of instability, Antonio Salazar became prime minister, and with his successor, ruled Portugal as an authoritarian "corporate" state for 42 years. An almost bloodless coup in 1974 led to establishment of a parliamentary democracy. The 4 main organs of national government are the presidency, the prime minister and council of ministers, the assembly of the republic, and the courts. Portugal's gross domestic product (GDP) in 1984 was $19.4 billion, and per capita income was $1930. After almost a decade of rapid growth, the economy declined in the mid 1970s due to disruption after the 1974 revolution and the large influx of refugees from Portugal's former colonies in Africa. Growth resumed in the late 1970s, but structural problems and an often adverse international economic climate have slowed progress. The proportion of the labor force in agriculture has dropped from 42% to 24.4% since 1960. Agricultural production now contributes only 8.8% to the GDP, and a

  2. Portugal.

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    Portugal's 1983 population of 10.04 million was growing at .7%/year. 97% were Roman Catholic, 80% were literate, and 4.1 million were in the labor force in 1984. Portugal is mountainous north of the Tagus River and consists of rolling plains in the central south. The Azores and Madeira islands belong to Portugal but enjoy considerable autonomy. Portugal's dependency of Macau on the Chinese coast is an autonomous entity under Portuguese administration. The former teritories of Goa and Portuguese Timor were annexed by India and Indonesia respectively in 1961 and 1976, and the former territories in Africa achieved independence in 1974 and 1975. Portugal, 1 of the oldest states in Europe, traces its modern history to A.D. 1140 when the 1st king was crowned. The approximate present day boundaries were secured in 1249. Portugal eventually became a massive colonial empire with territories in Africa and Latin America and outposts in the Far East. The Portuguese Republic replaced the monarchy in 1910. After some years of instability, Antonio Salazar became prime minister, and with his successor, ruled Portugal as an authoritarian "corporate" state for 42 years. An almost bloodless coup in 1974 led to establishment of a parliamentary democracy. The 4 main organs of national government are the presidency, the prime minister and council of ministers, the assembly of the republic, and the courts. Portugal's gross domestic product (GDP) in 1984 was $19.4 billion, and per capita income was $1930. After almost a decade of rapid growth, the economy declined in the mid 1970s due to disruption after the 1974 revolution and the large influx of refugees from Portugal's former colonies in Africa. Growth resumed in the late 1970s, but structural problems and an often adverse international economic climate have slowed progress. The proportion of the labor force in agriculture has dropped from 42% to 24.4% since 1960. Agricultural production now contributes only 8.8% to the GDP, and a

  3. Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckles, David; Toro, Leonor, Ed.

    Brief information is provided on the region, climate, agriculture and industry of 10 provinces in Portugal: Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, located in Portugal's northeastern region; Beira Alta, the province with Portugal's highest elevation point; Beira Baixa, one of Portugal's poorest regions; Beira Litoral, located in central Portugal along the…

  4. Finland Becomes Eleventh ESO Member State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    Finland has become the eleventh member state of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) [1]. The formal accession procedure was carried through as planned and has now been completed. Following the signing of the corresponding Agreement earlier this year (ESO PR 02/04), acceptance by the Finnish Parliament and ratification by the Finnish President of the Agreement as well as the ESO Convention and the associated protocols in June [2] and the deposit of the instruments of accession today, Finland has now officially joined ESO. ESO warmly welcomes the new member country and its scientific community that is renowned for their expertise in many frontline areas. The related opportunities will contribute to strenghtening of pioneering research with the powerful facilities at ESO's observatories, to the benefit of Astronomy and Astrophysics as well as European science in general. ESO also looks forward to collaboration with the Finnish high-tech industry. For Finland, the membership in ESO is motivated by scientific and technological objectives as well as by the objective of improving the public understanding of science. The Finnish Government is committed to increasing the public research funding in order to improve the quality, impact and internationalisation of research. Membership in ESO offers unique facilities for astronomical research which would not otherwise be available for Finnish astronomers. Finland is also very interested in taking part in technological development projects in fields like ICT, optics and instrumentation. For young scientists and engineers, ESO is a challenging, international working and learning environment. Finland has already taken part in the educational programmes of ESO, and as a member this activity will be broadened and intensified. In Finland there are also several science journalists and a large community of amateur astronomers who will be very happy to take part in ESO's outreach activities.

  5. The state of the fishery, conservation and management of the stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Teresa; Jacinto, David; Sousa, Alina; Penteado, Nélia; Pereira, Diana; Fernandes, Joana N; Silva, Teresa; Castro, João J

    2015-12-01

    The stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes is the most important intertidal economical resource in Portugal. The assessment of the state of the fishery, conservation and management of P. pollicipes in Portugal was made for the first time in three regions with different regulations regarding this fishery: two marine protected areas ("Reserva Natural das Berlengas", RNB; and "Parque Natural do Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina", PNSACV); and the Center coast. Different approaches (independent observations, inquiries, logbooks) and sources of data (past and recent) were used. An overall negative tendency of the state of the fishery and conservation of this resource was observed in all regions, with the exception of the stable tendency detected in PNSACV when using the inquiries approach. A weak management was considered to be in practice at Center and at PNSACV, while an acceptable management was inferred for RNB. We recommend a change into a co-management system that should be tested in pilot regions as RNB and/or PNSACV.

  6. The state of the fishery, conservation and management of the stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Teresa; Jacinto, David; Sousa, Alina; Penteado, Nélia; Pereira, Diana; Fernandes, Joana N; Silva, Teresa; Castro, João J

    2015-12-01

    The stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes is the most important intertidal economical resource in Portugal. The assessment of the state of the fishery, conservation and management of P. pollicipes in Portugal was made for the first time in three regions with different regulations regarding this fishery: two marine protected areas ("Reserva Natural das Berlengas", RNB; and "Parque Natural do Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina", PNSACV); and the Center coast. Different approaches (independent observations, inquiries, logbooks) and sources of data (past and recent) were used. An overall negative tendency of the state of the fishery and conservation of this resource was observed in all regions, with the exception of the stable tendency detected in PNSACV when using the inquiries approach. A weak management was considered to be in practice at Center and at PNSACV, while an acceptable management was inferred for RNB. We recommend a change into a co-management system that should be tested in pilot regions as RNB and/or PNSACV. PMID:26507313

  7. Nurse faculty members' ego states: transactional analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Keçeci, Ayla; Taşocak, Gülsün

    2009-10-01

    This study uses a Transactional Analysis Approach (TA) to investigate communication between faculty and students in nursing education. The research population was comprised of nurse faculty members (N=33) employed at a school of nursing and students (N=482) registered at the same school. The research sample was comprised of 26 faculty members and 325 students. Data collection was performed via questionnaires, focus group interviews and observation. Qualitative data were analyzed using descriptive analysis methods, and quantitative data were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Pearson moment correlation coefficients technique. Using the Transactional Analysis Approach (TA), faculty members viewed themselves as an Adult and felt they used the Critical Parent ego state the least. Students also perceived that faculty members used the Adult ego state the most and used the Free Child ego state the least. PMID:19329232

  8. Nurse faculty members' ego states: transactional analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Keçeci, Ayla; Taşocak, Gülsün

    2009-10-01

    This study uses a Transactional Analysis Approach (TA) to investigate communication between faculty and students in nursing education. The research population was comprised of nurse faculty members (N=33) employed at a school of nursing and students (N=482) registered at the same school. The research sample was comprised of 26 faculty members and 325 students. Data collection was performed via questionnaires, focus group interviews and observation. Qualitative data were analyzed using descriptive analysis methods, and quantitative data were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Pearson moment correlation coefficients technique. Using the Transactional Analysis Approach (TA), faculty members viewed themselves as an Adult and felt they used the Critical Parent ego state the least. Students also perceived that faculty members used the Adult ego state the most and used the Free Child ego state the least.

  9. Portugal and United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 3. Reference reports, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Statistical data on energy production and consumption and supporting information were obtained from US Bureau of Mines records supplemented by additional data obtained in Portugal. Geologic descriptions and analysis of known areas and of areas having possible future potential have been prepared by the US Geological Survey. Portugal lacks sufficient indigenous supplies of organic fuels to meet its energy demands, and so must import large quantities of petroleum and coal. Approximately 80% of Portugal's electric energy is produced by hydroelectric stations; thermal stations produce the other 20%. Portugal has produced no crude oil, natural gas, or condensate; no resources or reserves in these categories are listed for Portugal in the 1976 World Energy Conference report. Until the last year or so (1980), no significant onshore petroleum exploration had been done in Portugal since 1963. Production of coal in Portugal has declined steadily to the present annual yield of about 200,000 metric tons. On the basis of estimates in only three coal fields, resources of coal of all ranks in Portugal total at least 76 million (10/sup 6/) metric tons. Uranium is mined near Viseu and Guarda in the northern part of Portugal; the Nisa mine in east-central Portugal will begin producing uranium ore in 1985 after installation of a processing plant. Portugal produced 95 metric tons of uranium oxide (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/) from ore stocks in each year from 1972 through 1974; production is assumed to have continued at the same rate since then. Geothermal energy has not been developed in mainland Portugal; however, hot springs that may have geothermal energy potential are known in the Minho district in the northwest. Geothermal energy resources exist in the Azores and a program of evaluation and exploration with technical assistance from the USGS is presently in progress there.

  10. Patient rights in EU Member States after the ratification of the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Nys, Herman; Stultiëns, Loes; Borry, Pascal; Goffin, Tom; Dierickx, Kris

    2007-10-01

    The European Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine was adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on 19 November 1996 and opened for signature in Oviedo, Spain, on 4 April 1997. As of the moment of writing 11 Member States of the EU have ratified the Convention: Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Lithuania, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain. The overall purpose of this article is to analyze whether these ratifying EU Member States have fulfilled their obligation provided for in article 1 of Section 2 of the Convention ("each Party shall take in its internal law the necessary measures to give effect to the provisions of this Convention"). We further explored the legal consequences of ratification of the Convention. We analysed for each ratifying Member State whether and how the ratification of the Convention has influenced patient rights legislation and policies. Finally, we concluded by dividing the 11 Member States into 4 categories depending upon the already existing patient rights legislation at the moment of ratification and the constitutional provisions related to the ratification of an international treaty in general in a given Member State.

  11. Relations between Catholic Schools Funded by the State and the National Educational Inspectorate in Portugal-Freedom of Education with State Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melo, Rodrigo Queiroz E.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the balance found in Portugal between faith-based schools' freedom of educating with a religious perspective and the State's supervisory role of schools that receive state funding (government oversight of religious State funded schools). The research is a case study of four Catholic schools entirely funded by the…

  12. The Southern Regional Education Board and Member States, January 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services and how each member state participated in them from July 2012 through December 2013. The nation's first regional interstate compact for education, SREB is today the most comprehensive, bringing together states to enable them to achieve…

  13. The Southern Regional Education Board and Member States, December 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services and how each member state participated in them from December 2013 through November 2014. SREB serves a wide range of education policy leaders, including governors, state legislators, executive and legislative staff, and K-12 and postsecondary agency…

  14. The challenges of organising cervical screening programmes in the 15 old member states of the European Union.

    PubMed

    Arbyn, Marc; Rebolj, Matejka; De Kok, Inge M C M; Fender, Murielle; Becker, Nikolaus; O'Reilly, Marian; Andrae, Bengt

    2009-10-01

    Cervical cancer incidence and mortality can be reduced substantially by organised cytological screening at 3 to 5 year intervals, as was demonstrated in the Nordic countries, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and parts of Italy. Opportunistic screening, often proposed at yearly schedules, has also reduced the burden of cervical cancer in some, but not all, of the other old member states (belonging to the European Union since 1995) but at a cost that is several times greater. Well organised screening programmes have the potential to achieve greater participation of the target population at regular intervals, equity of access and high quality. Despite the consistent evidence that organised screening is more efficient than non-organised screening, and in spite of the Cancer Screening Recommendations of the European Council, health authorities of eight old member states (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Luxembourg, Portugal and Spain) have not yet started national organised implementation of screening for cervical cancer. A decision was made by the Irish government to extend their pilot programme nationally while new regional programmes commenced in Portugal and Spain. Introduction of new methods of prevention, such as HPV screening and prophylactic HPV vaccination, can reduce the burden further, but this will require a high level of organisation with particular attention needed for the maximisation of population coverage, compliance with evidence-based guidelines, monitoring of data enabling continued evaluation and improvement of the preventive programmes.

  15. EU member state government contribution to alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Katy

    2014-01-01

    Article 47 of the new EU Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes requires national governments to contribute to the development and promotion of alternative methods. A recent survey of EU member states found that reported funding of alternative (3Rs) methods totalled € 18.7 million in 2013, provided by only seven countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Sweden, and the UK). There were indications that the contributions of some of these countries have increased since the implementation of the new Directive. However, funding of alternatives is between 0 and 0.036% of national science R&D expenditure and nearly half of the countries that responded reported that they do not specifically contribute. Data (and, by assumption, financial contribution) remains unavailable from half of the member states across the EU, regardless of the method of collection.

  16. Higher Education Distance Learning in Portugal--State of the Art and Current Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Abrar; Laaser, Wolfram

    2010-01-01

    The paper is based on a recent report given to the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education on "Reforming Higher Education Distance Learning in Portugal" (Hasan et. al. 2009). The report was grounded on on-site visits of leading Portuguese Universities, Polytechnics and Business Schools as well as on written statements of…

  17. 32 CFR 720.13 - Request for delivery of members serving sentence of a State court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (a) General. Ordinarily, members serving protracted sentences resulting from a State criminal..., pursuant to conviction by a State court, to resolve criminal charges against the member before a court... the State penal system. The request shall designate the person(s) to whom the member is to...

  18. 32 CFR 720.13 - Request for delivery of members serving sentence of a State court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (a) General. Ordinarily, members serving protracted sentences resulting from a State criminal..., pursuant to conviction by a State court, to resolve criminal charges against the member before a court... the State penal system. The request shall designate the person(s) to whom the member is to...

  19. Geographic Data as Personal Data in Four EU Member States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, A. J.; van Loenen, B.; Zevenbergen, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    The EU Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data aims at harmonising data protection legislation in the European Union. This should promote the free flow of products and services within the EU. This research found a wide variety of interpretations of the application of data protection legislation to geographic data. The variety was found among the different EU Member States, the different stakeholders and the different types of geographic data. In the Netherlands, the Data Protection Authority (DPA) states that panoramic images of streets are considered personal data. While Dutch case law judges that the data protection legislation does not apply if certain features are blurred and no link to an address is provided. The topographic datasets studied in the case studies do not contain personal data, according to the Dutch DPA, while the German DPA and the Belgian DPA judge that topographic maps of a large scale can contain personal data, and impose conditions on the processing of topographic maps. The UK DPA does consider this data outside of the scope of legal definition of personal data. The patchwork of differences in data protection legislation can be harmonised by using a traffic light model. This model focuses on the context in which the processing of the data takes place and has four categories of data: (1) sensitive personal data, (2) personal data, (3), data that can possibly lead to identification, and (4) non-personal data. For some geographic data, for example factual data that does not reveal sensitive information about a person, can be categorised in the third category giving room to opening up data under the INSPIRE Directive.

  20. Training Needs of School Board Members in the State of Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossmiller, Susan; O'Brien, Melody F.

    2013-01-01

    This project examined the training needs of school board members in the state of Missouri. Of the 520 school districts in Missouri, 382 are members of the Missouri School Boards Association (MSBA). The school board members of the MSBA schools were surveyed in this project. Data was gathered relating to the training needs of board members with 1 to…

  1. Phosphorus flows and balances of the European Union Member States.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Kimo C; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Oenema, Oene

    2016-01-15

    Global society faces serious "phosphorus challenges" given the scarcity, essentiality, unequal global distribution and, at the same time, regional excess of phosphorus (P). Phosphorus flow studies can be used to analyze these challenges, providing insight into how society (re)uses and loses phosphorus, identifying potential solutions. Phosphorus flows were analyzed in detail for EU-27 and its Member States. To quantify food system and non-food flows, country specific data and historical context were considered. The sectors covered were crop production (CP), animal production (AP), food processing (FP), non-food production (NF) and consumption (HC). The results show that the EU-27 imported 2392 Gg P in 2005, half of which accumulated in agricultural soils (924 Gg) and half was lost as waste (1217 Gg). Net accumulation was 4.9 kg P/ha/year ranging between +23.2 (Belgium) and -2.8 (Slovakia). From the system losses, 54% was lost from HC in diverse waste flows and 28% from FP, mainly through incinerated slaughter residues. The largest HC losses (655 Gg) were wastewater (55%), food waste (27%), and pet excreta (11%). Phosphorus recycling rates were 73% in AP, 29% in FP, 21% in HC and ~0% in NF. The phosphorus use efficiencies showed that, relative to sector input, about 70% was taken up by crops (CP), 24% was retained in animals (AP), 52% was contained in food products (FP), 76% was stored in non-food materials (NF), and 21% was recycled (HC). Although wide-ranging variation between countries, generally phosphorus use in EU-27 was characterized by relatively (1) large dependency on (primary) imports, (2) long-term accumulation in agricultural soils, especially in west European countries, (3) leaky losses throughout entire society, especially emissions to the environment and sequestered waste, (4) little recycling with the exception of manure, and (5) low use efficiencies, because of aforementioned issues, providing ample opportunities for improvement.

  2. 77 FR 23539 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding European Communities and Certain Member States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... European Union (``EU'') member state governments of France, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom to... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding European Communities and Certain Member... dispute European Communities and Certain Member States--Measures Affecting Trade in Large Civil...

  3. 78 FR 65030 - Department of State Performance Review Board Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Residence, Bureau of Human Resources, Department of State. Dated: October 21, 2013. Hans Klemm, Acting Director General of the Foreign Service and Director of Human Resources, Department of State. BILLING CODE... of the United States Foreign Assistance Resources, Department of State; Linda Jacobson,...

  4. 32 CFR 720.13 - Request for delivery of members serving sentence of a State court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) General. Ordinarily, members serving protracted sentences resulting from a State criminal... the State penal system. The request shall designate the person(s) to whom the member is to be... request, the command should coordinate any further action with the Judge Advocate General....

  5. EU Rural Development Policy in the New Member States: Promoting Multifunctionality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramniceanu, Irina; Ackrill, Robert

    2007-01-01

    European Union (EU) enlargement has seen 10 new member states (NMS) adopt the full range of EU policies. Within this, the rural development arm of the Common Agricultural Policy offers particular points of interest. Member states chose from an extensive list of policy measures developed within the EU15 and intended, in particular, to…

  6. Apprenticeship in the EU Member States. A Comparison. CEDEFOP Document. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni Cheallaigh, Martina

    A study compared a number of features of apprenticeships in the 12 Member States of the European Union. The study showed that the apprentice contract or indenture has become an integral part of apprenticeship in all Member States. Admissions requirements for access to apprenticeshp, in general, are not high. Although it was an option open to those…

  7. 77 FR 9723 - Department of State Performance Review Board Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    .... Waxman, Senior Advisor, Office of the Under Secretary for Civilian Security, Democracy, and Human Rights... Service and Director of Human Resources, Department of State. BILLING CODE 4710-15-P...

  8. Method of producing ceramic distribution members for solid state electrolyte cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Douglas J. (Inventor); Galica, Leo M. (Inventor); Losey, Robert W. (Inventor); Suitor, Jerry W. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A solid state electrolyte cells apparatus and method of producing is disclosed. The apparatus can be used for separating oxygen from an oxygen-containing feedstock or as a fuel cell for reacting fluids. Cells can be stacked so that fluids can be introduced and removed from the apparatus through ceramic distribution members having ports designed for distributing the fluids in parallel flow to and from each cell. The distribution members can also serve as electrodes to membranes or as membrane members between electrodes, The distribution member design does not contain any horizontal internal ports which allows the member to be thin. A method of tape casting in combination with an embossing method allows intricate radial ribs and bosses to be formed on each distribution member. The bosses serve as seals for the ports and allow the distribution members to be made without any horizontal internal ports.

  9. Ceramic distribution members for solid state electrolyte cells and method of producing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Douglas J. (Inventor); Galica, Leo M. (Inventor); Losey, Robert W. (Inventor); Suitor, Jerry W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A solid state electrolyte cells apparatus and method of producing is disclosed. The apparatus can be used for separating oxygen from an oxygen-containing feedstock or as a fuel cell for reacting fluids. Cells can be stacked so that fluids can be introduced and removed from the apparatus through ceramic distribution members having ports designed for distributing the fluids in parallel flow to and from each cell. The distribution members can also serve as electrodes to membranes or as membrane members between electrodes. The distribution member design does not contain any horizontal internal ports which allows the member to be thin. A method of tape casting in combination with an embossing method allows intricate radial ribs and bosses to be formed on each distribution member. The bosses serve as seals for the ports and allow the distribution members to be made without any horizontal internal ports.

  10. 34 CFR 403.205 - What are the State's responsibilities for members of special populations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Are the Administrative Responsibilities of a State Under the State Vocational and Applied Technology Education Program? § 403.205 What are the State's... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the State's responsibilities for members...

  11. Multilevel Governance and Shared Sovereignty: European Union, Member States, and the FCTC

    PubMed Central

    MAMUDU, HADII M.; STUDLAR, DONLEY T.

    2010-01-01

    The Westphalian idea of sovereignty in international relations has undergone recent transformation. “Shared sovereignty” through multilevel governance describes the responsibility of the European Union (EU) and its Member States in tobacco control policy. We examine how this has occurred on the EU level through directives and recommendations, accession rules for new members, tobacco control campaigns, and financial support for antitobacco nongovernmental organizations. In particular, the negotiation and ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and the participation in the FCTC Conference of the Parties illustrates shared sovereignty. The EU Commission was the lead negotiator for Member States on issues over which it had jurisdiction, while individual Member States, through the EU presidency, could negotiate on issues on which authority was divided or remained with them. Shared sovereignty through multilevel governance has become the norm in the tobacco control policy area for EU members, including having one international organization negotiate within the context of another. PMID:20622934

  12. 34 CFR 403.205 - What are the State's responsibilities for members of special populations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... special populations? 403.205 Section 403.205 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... responsibilities for members of special populations? The State board shall— (a) Establish effective procedures, including an expedited appeals procedure, by which students who are members of special populations and...

  13. 34 CFR 403.205 - What are the State's responsibilities for members of special populations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... special populations? 403.205 Section 403.205 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... responsibilities for members of special populations? The State board shall— (a) Establish effective procedures, including an expedited appeals procedure, by which students who are members of special populations and...

  14. 34 CFR 403.205 - What are the State's responsibilities for members of special populations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... special populations? 403.205 Section 403.205 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... responsibilities for members of special populations? The State board shall— (a) Establish effective procedures, including an expedited appeals procedure, by which students who are members of special populations and...

  15. 34 CFR 403.205 - What are the State's responsibilities for members of special populations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... special populations? 403.205 Section 403.205 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... responsibilities for members of special populations? The State board shall— (a) Establish effective procedures, including an expedited appeals procedure, by which students who are members of special populations and...

  16. Priorities in national space strategies and governance of the member states of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriaensen, Maarten; Giannopapa, Christina; Sagath, Daniel; Papastefanou, Anastasia

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty Member States with a variety of strategic priorities and governance structures regarding their space activities. A number of countries engage in space activities exclusively though ESA, while others have also their own national space programme. Some consider ESA as their prime space agency and others have additionally their own national agency with respective programmes. The main objective of this paper is to provide an up-to date overview and a holistic assessment of strategic priorities and the national space governance structures in 20 ESA Member States. This analysis and assessment has been conducted by analysing the Member States public documents, information provided at ESA workshop on this topic and though unstructured interviews. The paper is structured to include two main elements: priorities and trends in national space strategies and space governance in ESA Member States. The first part of this paper focuses on the content and analysis of the national space strategies and indicates the main priorities and trends in Member States. The priorities are categorised with regards to technology domains, the role of space in the areas of sustainability and the motivators that boost engagement in space. These vary from one Member State to another and include with different levels of engagement in technology domains amongst others: science and exploration, navigation, Earth observation, human space flight, launchers, telecommunications, and integrated applications. Member States allocate a different role of space as enabling tool adding to the advancement of sustainability areas including: security, resources, environment and climate change, transport and communication, energy, and knowledge and education. The motivators motivating reasoning which enhances or hinders space engagement also differs. The motivators identified are industrial competitiveness, job creation, technology development and transfer, social benefits

  17. Policies of Adult Education in Portugal and France: The European Agenda of Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaco, C.; Lafont, P.; Pariat, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the influence of the European Union's educational policies on the implementation of devices for the recognition and the validation of informal and non-formal learning within public policies on education and training for adults in European Union Member States. Portugal and France are taken as examples. The European…

  18. Comparing pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in Croatia to the European Union Member States

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, Sabine; Habl, Claudia; Bogut, Martina; Vončina, Luka

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform a comparative analysis of the pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement systems in Croatia and the 27 European Union (EU) Member States. Methods Knowledge about the pharmaceutical systems in Croatia and the 27 EU Member States was acquired by literature review and primary research with stakeholders. Results Pharmaceutical prices are controlled at all levels in Croatia, which is also the case in 21 EU Member States. Like many EU countries, Croatia also applies external price referencing, ie, compares prices with other countries. While the wholesale remuneration by a statutorily regulated linear mark-up is applied in Croatia and in several EU countries, the pharmacy compensation for dispensing reimbursable medicines in the form of a flat rate service fee in Croatia is rare among EU countries, which usually apply a linear or regressive pharmacy mark-up scheme. Like in most EU countries, the Croatian Social Insurance reimburses specific medicines at 100%, whereas patients are charged co-payments for other reimbursable medicines. Criteria for reimbursement include the medicine’s importance from the public health perspective, its therapeutic value, and relative effectiveness. In Croatia and in many EU Member States, reimbursement is based on a reference price system. Conclusion The Croatian pharmaceutical system is similar to those in the EU Member States. Key policies, like external price referencing and reference price systems, which have increasingly been introduced in EU countries are also applied in Croatia and serve the same purpose: to ensure access to medicines while containing public pharmaceutical expenditure. PMID:21495202

  19. Implementing the European SEA Directive: the Member States' margin of discretion

    SciTech Connect

    Risse, Nathalie; Crowley, Michel; Vincke, Philippe; Waaub, Jean-Philippe

    2003-07-01

    Directive 2001/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 June 2001 on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on the environment was officialised in July 2001. It establishes a basic framework for the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on the environment, which should be adopted by the Member States of the European Union. In accordance with the principle of subsidiarity, the responsibility of developing a detailed procedure is left to the Member States. Within this context, this paper aims to assist the Member States with decisions concerning the implementation of a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) process conforming to the Directive by defining briefly some operational issues related to the Member State's discretionary margin and by analysing their consequences regarding the objectives stated by the Directive (in terms of protection of the environment, contribution to the integration of environmental considerations into the preparation and adoption of plans and programmes, and contribution to more transparent decision-making)

  20. Support Systems for Poor Readers: Empirical Data from Six EU Member States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ise, Elena; Blomert, Leo; Bertrand, Daisy; Faisca, Luis; Puolakanaho, Anne; Saine, Nina L.; Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Vaessen, Anniek; Csepe, Valeria; Lyytinen, Heikki; Reis, Alexandra; Ziegler, Johannes C.; Schulte-Korne, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    This study surveyed and compared support systems for poor readers in six member states of the European Union (EU). The goal was to identify features of effective support systems. A large-scale questionnaire survey was conducted among mainstream teachers (n = 4,210) and remedial teachers (n = 2,395). Results indicate that the six support systems…

  1. Faculty Member Perceptions of Department Head Leadership Effectiveness at a State University in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbulut, Meltem; Nevra Seggie, Fatma; Börkan, Bengü

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the leadership effectiveness of department heads at a state university in Turkey using a model of leadership effectiveness that includes the use of multiple leadership roles to manage situations arising from internal and external university environments. Leadership effectiveness was measured by surveying 70 faculty members in…

  2. Measuring the Heavens to Rule the Territory: Filipe Folque and the Teaching of Astronomy at the Lisbon Polytechnic School and the Modernization of the State Apparatus in Nineteenth Century Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolino, Luis Miguel

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the astronomy teaching at the Lisbon Polytechnic School and its role in building a modern technoscientific state in Portugal during the nineteenth century. It examines particularly the case of Filipe Folque, who taught astronomy and geodesy at the Lisbon Polytechnic from 1837 to 1856, and played a pivotal role in the geodetic…

  3. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 208 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State Member Banks: Tier 1 Leverage Measure

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State Member... RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Pt. 208, App. B Appendix B to Part 208—Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State... capital adequacy of state member banks. 1 The principal objective of this measure is to place a...

  4. Mobbing in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the member states of the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    Mobbing as a specific form of discrimination which applies only to the labor law, is a very young branch of labor law. It began to develop during the eighties of last century. This kind of psychoterror that appears in the workplace, was first spotted, formulated and diagnosed by the Swedish psychologist of German origin prof. Dr. Heinz Lejman (Heinz Leymann July 17, 1932.; Wolfenbuttel, Germany - 1999 Stockholm, Sweden). Today, the legal regulation of mobbing in terms of prevention, rules of behavior and sanctions is indispensable to every modern democratic state. I'll make a comparison of the legislative regulation provided by BiH with several European Union member states. I will compare the results of a survey conducted by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Condition, during the year 2000. In the European Union Member States, with the results of the questionnaire for employees, which I conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The conclusion I came to in this paper is: Bosnia and Herzegovina is lagging behind a lot of European Union member states, both in terms of prevention of mobbing, as well as legislation, that is insufficient to regulate this complex issue. Results of the questionnaire for the employees that I conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina are devastating and alarming.

  5. 12 CFR 723.20 - How can a state supervisory authority develop and enforce a member business loan regulation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and enforce a member business loan regulation? 723.20 Section 723.20 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MEMBER BUSINESS LOANS § 723.20 How can a state supervisory authority develop and enforce a member business loan regulation? (a) The NCUA Board may...

  6. Regarding the Charmed-Strange Member of the 23S1 Meson State

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xue-Chao; Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    By employing the mass relations derived from the mass matrix and Regge trajectory, we investigate the masses of charmed and charmed-strange members of the 23S1 meson. The masses are compared with the values predicted by other theoretical approaches and experimental data. The results may be useful for the discovery of the unobserved meson and the determination of the quantum number of the newly discovered states. PMID:24250272

  7. Minority Schooling and Intercultural Education: A Comparison of Recent Developments in the Old and New EU Member States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luciak, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    Comparative reports conducted by the author show different educational approaches concerning the schooling of ethnic minorities in the EU Member States as well as differences in the handling of issues of cultural diversity. Minority schooling in the new EU Member States primarily focuses on the education of national or autochthonous minority…

  8. Lessons from Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Vickie; Mechling, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Portugal has long been touted as a popular destination for savvy travelers, but now educators are touting it as something else--a professional development (PD) powerhouse for inquiry-based science! This article describes Portugal's ongoing efforts to reform its country's elementary science education program through a project known as the…

  9. Tertiary Education in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Portugal's tertiary education sector has expanded significantly over the last 20 years, but participation and overall educational attainment levels remain below European standards and enrolment rates have begun to decline. The OECD review recommends that Portugal's national government should focus on strategic direction and leave higher education…

  10. Women in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, M

    1981-01-01

    Prior to 1974, women in Portugal were restricted by the Penal Code and had little organizational power. Women's groups were formed within the Catholic Church to teach women about cooking, child care, and home economics. There was no contact with international women's groups. The press only reported events such as bra burning. 80% of all illiterates in Portugal are women. The conditions of Portuguese women are described after the revolution of April 25, 1974. Present roles are discussed for work, health, education, religion, trade unions and political parties, and women's organizations. The Women's Liberation Movement (WLM) appeared in May 1974 among a heterogenous group of women in Lisbon who were concerned about the oppression of women. WLM made feminist issues public amid ridicule and promoted the declaration of equal rights for women in the 1976 Republic Constitution and in the Family Code. Wage discrimination became illegal in 1979. Women represent 32.8% of the labor force. Unemployment is particularly high among women and is increasing. Women's wages and levels of skill are the lowest. The Christian Democratic government is actively engaged in a campaign to keep women at home and has formed the special Ministry of Family Affairs, which encourages large families and women's home activity in order to save jobs for men. There is a crisis in education: large class sizes and limited number of schools. Child care for the working mother is expensive when available and rarely available. An obstacle to women's rights has been the role of the Catholic Church, which fought equal rights legislation, condemned the Family Code and divorce laws, forbade the practice of contraception, and supported the movement against abortion. Only 1 member of government is a women, and she is considered a token. Trade unions have a women's section, but little attention is given to the problems of women. Women's groups within larger organizations have little autonomy. Those with autonomy

  11. An analysis of European shale gas policies: Why EU member states are pursuing divergent 'fracking' strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, Ben

    The recent progression in hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking' has enabled energy companies to extract once-considered, inaccessible hydrocarbons. The United States has been at the forefront of this controversial industry, revolutionizing the energy market by becoming the world's largest oil and natural gas producer as a result of its vast shale deposits. Shale oil and gas deposits are not unique to North America, however. EU member states are faced with the dilemma of whether to permit fracking domestically or suspend operations. The United Kingdom and Romania have issued concessions for exploring their reserves, while France and Bulgaria have halted all drilling efforts, citing environmental concerns. This paper evaluates why these four European countries pursued divergent fracking policies, arguing that energy security and Russian-relations are more relevant and powerful explanatory factors than a country's commitment to protecting the environment.

  12. Yoghurt and probiotic bacteria in dietary guidelines of the member states of the European Union.

    PubMed

    Smug, L N; Salminen, S; Sanders, M E; Ebner, S

    2014-03-01

    Beneficial microbes enter the food supply primarily through fermented foods (largely milks) and addition of probiotics. Fermented milks are a significant component of the diet of some geographical regions, including Europe. The fermentation process serves to preserve safety, nutritional quality and palatability of milk. In addition, the microbes associated with fermented milks and probiotics are associated with human health benefits. However, in the area of health claims only one claim for beneficial microbes has been approved in the European Union, that is for yoghurt to improve lactose tolerance. We searched for health messages that include probiotics or fermented milks in nutrition guidelines and recommendations in thirteen countries of the EU plus Switzerland. Such messages are allowed when they are made by non-commercial government bodies. Our analysis revealed that five EU member states have national nutrition guidelines or recommendations that include either probiotics or fermented milks with live bacteria. This supports that some EU member states recognise health benefits associated with consumption of live microbes, even if commercial marketing claims are not authorised. Harmonisation between recommendations and approved health-claims would benefit consumers and public health.

  13. HIV testing policies for migrants and ethnic minorities in EU/EFTA Member States

    PubMed Central

    Monge, Susana; Caro-Murillo, Ana M.; Ramírez-Rubio, Oriana; Azcoaga-Lorenzo, Amaya; Belza, Maria J.; Rivero-Montesdeoca, Yaiza; Noori, Teymur; Del Amo, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the context of an European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) research project, our objective was to describe current recommendations regarding HIV testing and counselling targeting migrants and ethnic minorities in the European Union/European Economic Area/European Free Trade Association (EU/EEA/EFTA) Member States. Methods: An on-line survey was conducted among 31 EU/EEA/EFTA Member States. The survey inquired on the existence of specific HIV testing and counselling recommendations or policies for migrants and/or ethnic minorities and the year of their publication. Additionally, we performed a review of national recommendations, guidelines or any other policy documents retrieved from an Internet search through the different countries’ competent bodies. Results: Twenty-nine (94%) country representatives responded the survey, and 28 documents from 27 countries were identified. National guidelines on HIV testing are heterogeneous and tailored, according to the epidemiological situation. Twenty-two countries identify migrants and four countries identify ethnic minorities as particularly vulnerable to HIV. Sixteen countries explicitly recommend offering an HIV test to migrants/ethnic minorities. Guidelines especially target people originating from HIV endemic countries, and benefits of HIV early detection are highlighted. HIV testing is not mandatory in any country, but some countries overtly facilitate this practice. Conclusion: Benefits of HIV testing in migrants and ethnic minorities, at both individual and community levels are recognized by many countries. In spite of this, not all countries identify the need to test these groups. PMID:23921295

  14. Evaluation of the implementation of radiation protection measures for aircrew in EU member states.

    PubMed

    Thierfeldt, S; Haider, C; Hans, P; Kaleve, M; Neuenfeldt, F

    2009-10-01

    An evaluation of the implementation of radiation protection measures for aircrew in EU Member States has recently been performed in a study sponsored by the European Commission. A comprehensive database has been gathered using questionnaires for civil aviation authorities, aircraft operators and radiation protection authorities in each country. The study has revealed the following results: all countries within the scope of this study where aircrew might receive annual doses >1 mSv have implemented appropriate legislation. The treatment of limits or constraints (action levels) for annual doses of 1, 6, 20 mSv could be an area where clear guidance by the European Commission might be needed. The way in which doses are determined might also be treated in a more harmonized way in the EU, including the transfer of dose data of freelancers or crew members working for other airlines. The establishment of the European Aviation Safety Agency leads to a gradual shift in responsibilities from the national civil aviation authorities towards this centralised European agency. Currently, however, tracking of doses for aircrew still lies with national bodies.

  15. 12 CFR 208.34 - Recordkeeping and confirmation of certain securities transactions effected by State member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... United States has a direct or indirect interest and which is designated by the Secretary of the Treasury... RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MEMBERSHIP OF STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS....34 Recordkeeping and confirmation of certain securities transactions effected by State member...

  16. 12 CFR 208.34 - Recordkeeping and confirmation of certain securities transactions effected by State member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... United States has a direct or indirect interest and which is designated by the Secretary of the Treasury... RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MEMBERSHIP OF STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS....34 Recordkeeping and confirmation of certain securities transactions effected by State member...

  17. The healthcare system and provision of oral healthcare in European Union member states. Part 4: Greece.

    PubMed

    Damaskinos, P; Koletsi-Kounari, H; Economou, C; Eaton, K A; Widström, E

    2016-03-11

    This paper presents a description of the healthcare system and how oral healthcare is organised and provided in Greece, a country in a deep economic and social crisis. The national health system is underfunded, with severe gaps in staffing levels and the country has a large private healthcare sector. Oral healthcare has been largely provided in the private sector. Most people are struggling to survive and have no money to spend on general and oral healthcare. Unemployment is rising and access to healthcare services is more difficult than ever. Additionally, there has been an overproduction of dentists and no development of team dentistry. This has led to under or unemployment of dentists in Greece and their migration to other European Union member states, such as the United Kingdom, where over 600 Greek dentists are currently working. PMID:26964601

  18. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by members of Leishmania braziliensis complex in Nayarit, State of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Tejeda, G; Rodríguez, N; Parra, C I; Hernandez-Montes, O; Barker, D C; Monroy-Ostria, A

    2001-01-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out in the northern Mexican state, Nayarit. Fourteen patients with possible cutaneous leishmaniasis skin lesions gave positive Montenegro skin tests. Biopsies were taken from the skin ulcer and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers for the Leishmania mexicana complex; however all biopsies were not amplified. PCR carried out with specific primers for the L. braziliensis complex resulted in the amplification of all patient DNA. DNA from 12 out of 14 biopsies gave positive amplification with primers species specific for L. (Viannia) braziliensis and hybridized with a species specific L. (V.) braziliensis probe. These results demonstrate the presence in Nayarit of at least two members of the L. braziliensis complex. Most of the cutaneous lesions were caused by L. (V.) braziliensis and two by another species belonging to the L. braziliensis complex. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of L. (V.) braziliensis in Nayarit. The main risk factor associated with the contraction of this disease in Nayarit is attributed to working on coffee plantations.

  19. Why eight EU Member States signed, but not yet ratified the Convention for Human Rights and Biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Goffin, Tom; Borry, Pascal; Dierickx, Kris; Nys, Herman

    2008-05-01

    The European Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine was adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on 19 November 1996 and opened for signature on 4 April 1997. At the moment 21 of the 33 countries that signed the Convention are EU Member States. Signing the Convention implies the obligation to put the Convention before the national Parliament within a reasonable period of time with a view to ratification. Eight of the 21 EU Member States--namely Finland, France, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Poland and Sweden - still have to complete the ratification. In this article the reasons why eight Member States have not yet ratified the Convention, but only signed it, are mapped and analyzed. Because of the concrete list of patient rights provided for in the Convention, we focus on the question whether the reasons for not ratifying are related to these patient rights provisions.

  20. Colorectal cancer in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Carlos Gouveia; Paquete, Ana Teresa; Pissarra, Irene

    2010-01-01

    Increasing diagnosis and deaths caused by colorectal cancer (CRC) warrant closer examination of affected patients and focus on management of CRC in Portugal. In order to assess the extent and quality of the information available in Portugal, we first analyse Portuguese cancer registries and then the management of CRC by discussing the diagnostic process and medical care provided, especially pharmaceuticals. Other cancer indications are mentioned in order to illustrate current approaches of cancer in Portugal. Current national data on cancer patients are scarce and there are divergencies in methods of data collection and treatment amongst regional cancer registries. However, the available data is sufficient enough to understand the dimension of CRC, with age-standardised incidence of 37 per 100,000 and mortality of 31 per 100,000 annually. An ongoing project is restructuring health services to improve efficiency and quality, however, some problems exist. The regional inequity of access to health care facilities and long waiting times for diagnostic examinations and surgery are major examples. Despite the non-availability of clinical guidelines, a pilot screening programme started at the beginning of 2009 in the Centre Region of the country. It is hoped that this overview will provide the basis for discussion on improvements in CRC management in Portugal and lead to better outcomes.

  1. Modernising Portugal's Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.

    2008-01-01

    Portugal has a total of 477 public secondary schools. Some date from the end of the 19th century but the majority were built after 1970, reflecting the period of expansion in the school network and the extension of compulsory schooling. The schools are heterogeneous in terms of building types, architectural features and quality. An assessment of…

  2. [State of the art of the French Society for Hand Surgery Internet Websites Members].

    PubMed

    Pereira, A; Hidalgo Diaz, J J; Ichihara, S; Facca, S; Bodin, F; Liverneaux, P

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the websites of the members of the French Society for Hand Surgery, examine the container and the content, and propose a common code of ethics. The census of Websites of the French Society for Hand Surgery Internet members was obtained through a survey questionnaire with 17 items online on the mode of exercise of the surgeon and the website itself. Forty-six out of 568 members of the SFCM responded to the questionnaire: 9 junior members, 6 associate members and 31 full members. A total of 12.5 % had the HONcode certification. They included educational materials for patients in 80.95 % of non-urgent conditions, and 68.42 % of emergency. Answers to questions about attendance and the cost of maintenance of websites were unusable. It would be interesting to create a specific code of ethics for hand surgery, free, certified by the SFCM, in partnership with the High Authority in Health (HAS, in French).

  3. 12 CFR 225.121 - Acquisition of Edge corporation affiliate by State member banks of registered bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... State member banks of registered bank holding company. 225.121 Section 225.121 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations §...

  4. 12 CFR 263.203 - Procedures for reclassifying a state member bank based on criteria other than capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Issuance and Review of Orders Pursuant to Prompt Corrective Action Provisions of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act § 263.203 Procedures for reclassifying a state member bank based on criteria other than... CFR 208.43(c)), the Board may reclassify a well capitalized bank as adequately capitalized or...

  5. Opportunities to Learn about Europe at School. A Comparative Analysis among European Adolescents in 21 European Member States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhaegen, Soetkin; Hooghe, Marc; Meeusen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the relationship between different learning methods and the formation of European identity among adolescents. The analysis is based on the European module of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (2009), with 70,502 respondents in 21 European member states. The results show that offering…

  6. School District Cabinet Member Task and Relationship Conflict Behavior during Budget Development in a State Fiscal Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, John

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. The first purpose of this study was to determine to what extent task and relationship conflict occurred in school district cabinets during budget development in a state budget crisis. The second purpose was to determine which cabinet member task and relationship conflict behaviors were demonstrated during budget development in a state…

  7. Status and Developments of eLearning in the EU10 Member States: The Cases of Estonia, Hungary and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ala-Mutka, Kirsti; Gaspar, Pal; Kismihok, Gabor; Suurna, Margit; Vehovar, Vasja

    2010-01-01

    This article summarises research carried out between 2006 and 2008 by IPTS (Institution for Prospective Technological Studies) in collaboration with a consortium of experts from 10 member states, led by ICEGEC. The project gathered information on eLearning developments to assess drivers and barriers and to suggest implications for policy and…

  8. Sport for All? Insight into Stratification and Compensation Mechanisms of Sporting Activity in the 27 European Union Member States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Tuyckom, Charlotte; Scheerder, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is an important public health issue and the benefits of an active lifestyle in relation to well-being and health have been strongly emphasised in recent years in Europe, as well as in most parts of the world. However, previous research has shown that physical activity within Europe and its member states is stratified. The present…

  9. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 208 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State Member Banks: Tier 1 Leverage Measure

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Tier 1 capital; deferred tax assets that are dependent upon future taxable income, net of their... assets; deferred tax assets that are dependent upon future taxable income, net of their valuation... on the maximum degree to which a state member bank can leverage its equity capital base. It...

  10. Assessment of collection schemes for packaging and other recyclable waste in European Union-28 Member States and capital cities.

    PubMed

    Seyring, Nicole; Dollhofer, Marie; Weißenbacher, Jakob; Bakas, Ioannis; McKinnon, David

    2016-09-01

    The Waste Framework Directive obliged European Union Member States to set up separate collection systems to promote high quality recycling for at least paper, metal, plastic and glass by 2015. As implementation of the requirement varies across European Union Member States, the European Commission contracted BiPRO GmbH/Copenhagen Resource Institute to assess the separate collection schemes in the 28 European Union Member States, focusing on capital cities and on metal, plastic, glass (with packaging as the main source), paper/cardboard and bio-waste. The study includes an assessment of the legal framework for, and the practical implementation of, collection systems in the European Union-28 Member States and an in depth-analysis of systems applied in all capital cities. It covers collection systems that collect one or more of the five waste streams separately from residual waste/mixed municipal waste at source (including strict separation, co-mingled systems, door-to-door, bring-point collection and civic amenity sites). A scoreboard including 13 indicators is elaborated in order to measure the performance of the systems with the capture rates as key indicators to identify best performers. Best performance are by the cities of Ljubljana, Helsinki and Tallinn, leading to the key conclusion that door-to-door collection, at least for paper and bio-waste, and the implementation of pay-as-you-throw schemes results in high capture and thus high recycling rates of packaging and other municipal waste. PMID:27357560

  11. CFL Labeling Harmonization in the United States, China, Brazil andELI Member Countries: Specifications, Testing, and MutualRecognition

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Denver, Andrea; Biermayer, Peter; Dillavou, Tyler

    2005-07-20

    This report examines critical differences among energy-efficient labeling programs for CFLs in Brazil, China, the United States, and the seven members of the international Efficient Lighting Initiative (ELI) in terms of technical specifications and test procedures, and review issues related to international harmonization of these standards.

  12. Assessment of collection schemes for packaging and other recyclable waste in European Union-28 Member States and capital cities.

    PubMed

    Seyring, Nicole; Dollhofer, Marie; Weißenbacher, Jakob; Bakas, Ioannis; McKinnon, David

    2016-09-01

    The Waste Framework Directive obliged European Union Member States to set up separate collection systems to promote high quality recycling for at least paper, metal, plastic and glass by 2015. As implementation of the requirement varies across European Union Member States, the European Commission contracted BiPRO GmbH/Copenhagen Resource Institute to assess the separate collection schemes in the 28 European Union Member States, focusing on capital cities and on metal, plastic, glass (with packaging as the main source), paper/cardboard and bio-waste. The study includes an assessment of the legal framework for, and the practical implementation of, collection systems in the European Union-28 Member States and an in depth-analysis of systems applied in all capital cities. It covers collection systems that collect one or more of the five waste streams separately from residual waste/mixed municipal waste at source (including strict separation, co-mingled systems, door-to-door, bring-point collection and civic amenity sites). A scoreboard including 13 indicators is elaborated in order to measure the performance of the systems with the capture rates as key indicators to identify best performers. Best performance are by the cities of Ljubljana, Helsinki and Tallinn, leading to the key conclusion that door-to-door collection, at least for paper and bio-waste, and the implementation of pay-as-you-throw schemes results in high capture and thus high recycling rates of packaging and other municipal waste.

  13. State Library Agencies and Member Libraries of the Association of Research Libraries. Final Report of Two Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chobot, Mary C.

    State Library Agencies (SLAs) and library members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) were surveyed to collect data from potential audiences for American Memory products to assist the planners for this Library of Congress (LC) project. This summary report briefly explains the purpose of the surveys; describes the survey methodology and…

  14. HNS-MS : Improving Member States preparedness to face an HNS pollution of the Marine System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Sebastien; Le Floch, Stéphane; Aprin, Laurent; Parthenay, Valérie; Donnay, Eric; Parmentier, Koen; Ovidio, Fabrice; Schallier, Ronny; Poncet, Florence; Chataing, Sophie; Poupon, Emmanuelle; Hellouvry, Yann-Hervé

    2016-04-01

    When dealing with a HNS pollution incident, one of the priority requirements is the identification of the hazard and an assessment of the risk posed to the public and responder safety, the environment and socioeconomic assets upon which a state or coastal community depend. The primary factors which determine the safety, environmental and socioeconomic impact of the released substance(s) relate to their physico-chemical properties and fate in the environment. Until now, preparedness actions at various levels have primarily aimed at classifying the general environmental or public health hazard of an HNS, or at performing a risk analysis of HNS transported in European marine regions. Operational datasheets have been (MIDSIS-TROCS) or are being (MAR-CIS) developed collating detailed, substance-specific information for responders and covering information needs at the first stage of an incident. However, contrary to oil pollution preparedness and response tools, only few decision-support tools used by Member State authorities (Coastguard agencies or other) integrate 3D models that are able to simulate the drift, fate and behaviour of HNS spills in the marine environment. When they do, they usually consider simplified or steady-state environmental conditions. Moreover, the above-mentioned available HNS information is currently not sufficiently detailed or not suitably classified to be used as an input for an advanced HNS support decision tool. HNS-MS aims at developing a 'one-stop shop' integrated HNS decision-support tool that is able to predict the drift, behaviour and Fate of HNS spills under realistic environmental conditions and at providing key product information - drawing upon and in complement to existing studies and databases - to improve the understanding and evaluation of a HNS spill situation in the field and the environmental and safety-related issues at stake. The 3D HNS drift and fate model and decision-support tool will also be useful at the preparedness

  15. Flora-On: Occurrence data of the vascular flora of mainland Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ana Júlia; Francisco, Ana; Porto, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Flora-On dataset currently includes 253,310 occurrence records for the class Embryopsidae (vascular plants), comprising data collated via the platform http://flora-on.pt/ relating to observation records of vascular plants across mainland Portugal. Observations are uploaded directly to the database primarily by experienced botanists and naturalists, typically on a weekly basis, and consist of geo-referenced data points for species (or infraspecific taxa) along with their date of observation and phenological state. The Flora-On project aims to compile and make publicly accessible chorological, ecological, morphological and photographic information for the entire vascular flora of Portugal. The project’s website offers powerful query and visualization capabilities, of which we highlight the probabilistic bioclimatic and phenological queries which operate based on the empirical density distributions of species in those variables. Flora-On was created and continues to be maintained by volunteers who are Associate members of Sociedade Portuguesa de Botânica (Botanical Society of Portugal). Given its focus on research-grade and current data, the Flora-On project represents a significant contribution to the knowledge of the present distribution and status of the Portuguese flora. PMID:27698587

  16. Flora-On: Occurrence data of the vascular flora of mainland Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ana Júlia; Francisco, Ana; Porto, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Flora-On dataset currently includes 253,310 occurrence records for the class Embryopsidae (vascular plants), comprising data collated via the platform http://flora-on.pt/ relating to observation records of vascular plants across mainland Portugal. Observations are uploaded directly to the database primarily by experienced botanists and naturalists, typically on a weekly basis, and consist of geo-referenced data points for species (or infraspecific taxa) along with their date of observation and phenological state. The Flora-On project aims to compile and make publicly accessible chorological, ecological, morphological and photographic information for the entire vascular flora of Portugal. The project’s website offers powerful query and visualization capabilities, of which we highlight the probabilistic bioclimatic and phenological queries which operate based on the empirical density distributions of species in those variables. Flora-On was created and continues to be maintained by volunteers who are Associate members of Sociedade Portuguesa de Botânica (Botanical Society of Portugal). Given its focus on research-grade and current data, the Flora-On project represents a significant contribution to the knowledge of the present distribution and status of the Portuguese flora.

  17. KLIMHIST: A Project on Historical Climatology in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Santos, João A.

    2013-04-01

    Climatic variability from the beginning of regular meteorological observations is now acknowledged. However, climate change prior to 1900 is far from being well known in Portugal, except for the 1675-1800 period in Southern Portugal. An interdisciplinary team is working in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", since May 2012. The main objectives of the project are: (i) to contribute to the creation of a long-term history of climate in Portugal by producing databases of documentary evidence and of instrumental data since 1645, a period of natural climate variability that includes the Maunder Minimum and the Dalton Minimum; (ii) to search systematically for the first simultaneous documentary and instrumental data in order to calibrate the series; (iii) to analyse simulated multi-decadal trends over Portugal generated by climate models; (iv) to compare results with those obtained from dendroclimatology and from geothermal studies regarding Portugal and (v) to study extreme events of the past, their impacts and the vulnerability of societies to weather during the last 350 years, and compare them with current analogues. With these tasks, we expect to help completing the spatial coverage of past European climate, as the data gap over SW Europe is often mentioned. As the team members come from four different Universities in Portugal (Évora, Lisbon, Oporto and UTAD), we expect to obtain a good spatial representation of documentary evidence. Teams are now progressing in data search activities in archives. An Access database frame was constructed. Some 18th century extreme events have been and are being studied (Barbara storm, Dec.1739, among others). The first workshop took place in Lisbon (October 2012): Prof Brázdil and Dr. Domínguez-Castro (two of our consultants) were keynote speakers. Key-words: Climate reconstruction, Documentary

  18. Pre-School Education in Portugal = Educacao Pre-Escolar em Portugal. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Lisbon (Portugal).

    This report, containing both English and Portuguese text, describes the historical background and current state of preschool education systems in Portugal, and presents recommendations on guideline consolidation in the implementation of a common preschool education policy. Part 1 of the report, "Historical Background," discusses the social,…

  19. 34 CFR 403.188 - What is a State's responsibility for the cost of services and activities for members of special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... services and activities for members of special populations? 403.188 Section 403.188 Education Regulations... activities for members of special populations? A State is not required to use non-Federal funds to pay the cost of services and activities that it provides to members of special populations pursuant to §...

  20. 34 CFR 403.188 - What is a State's responsibility for the cost of services and activities for members of special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... services and activities for members of special populations? 403.188 Section 403.188 Education Regulations... activities for members of special populations? A State is not required to use non-Federal funds to pay the cost of services and activities that it provides to members of special populations pursuant to §...

  1. 34 CFR 403.188 - What is a State's responsibility for the cost of services and activities for members of special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... services and activities for members of special populations? 403.188 Section 403.188 Education Regulations... activities for members of special populations? A State is not required to use non-Federal funds to pay the cost of services and activities that it provides to members of special populations pursuant to §...

  2. 34 CFR 403.188 - What is a State's responsibility for the cost of services and activities for members of special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... services and activities for members of special populations? 403.188 Section 403.188 Education Regulations... activities for members of special populations? A State is not required to use non-Federal funds to pay the cost of services and activities that it provides to members of special populations pursuant to §...

  3. 34 CFR 403.188 - What is a State's responsibility for the cost of services and activities for members of special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... services and activities for members of special populations? 403.188 Section 403.188 Education Regulations... activities for members of special populations? A State is not required to use non-Federal funds to pay the cost of services and activities that it provides to members of special populations pursuant to §...

  4. 12 CFR 250.166 - Treatment of mandatory convertible debt and subordinated notes of state member banks and bank...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., particularly with paragraphs II.c. through II.e. of appendix A of 12 CFR part 208 if the issuer is a state member bank and with paragraphs II.A.2.c. and II.A.2.d. of appendix A of 12 CFR part 225 if the issuer is... five years prior to maturity. If the instrument has a serial redemption feature such that, for...

  5. 12 CFR 250.166 - Treatment of mandatory convertible debt and subordinated notes of state member banks and bank...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., particularly with paragraphs II.c. through II.e. of appendix A of 12 CFR part 208 if the issuer is a state member bank and with paragraphs II.A.2.c. and II.A.2.d. of appendix A of 12 CFR part 225 if the issuer is... terms that could adversely affect liquidity or unduly restrict management's flexibility to run...

  6. Teaching Medicine in Medieval Portugal.

    PubMed

    Moisão, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the teaching of Medicine in Portugal in the Middle Ages, concerning the Visigoth, Moslem and Christian periods. With the foundation of Portugal in 1143, Medicine was initially taught by priests, but lately was settled in Lisbon the General Study and the activity of physicians, surgeons and apothecaries was ruled by the king.

  7. Teaching Medicine in Medieval Portugal.

    PubMed

    Moisão, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the teaching of Medicine in Portugal in the Middle Ages, concerning the Visigoth, Moslem and Christian periods. With the foundation of Portugal in 1143, Medicine was initially taught by priests, but lately was settled in Lisbon the General Study and the activity of physicians, surgeons and apothecaries was ruled by the king. PMID:27172734

  8. Mutatis Mutandis? The Court of Justice of the European Union Rules that Member States May Be Allowed to Impose Non-Resident Student Quotas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this month, the Court of Justice of the European Union (the Court), ruled that European Union (EU) member states can impose non-resident student quotas in certain circumstances. The Court, whose job is to ensure that all EU member states interpret and apply EU legislation in the same way, recently made the ruling in response to a…

  9. School Board Member Practices in Governance, Teamwork and Board Development, and Their Sense of Effectiveness in High and Low Math Academic Achievement Districts of New York State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Kyrie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among New York State school board member attitudes toward components of school board governance and their sense of effectiveness in high and low math academic achievement districts in New York State. The study examined board members' perceptions of their actual practices in policy…

  10. Phytoplankton Bloom Off Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Turquoise and greenish swirls marked the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom off the coast of Portugal on April 23, 2002. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. There are also several fires burning in northwest Spain, near the port city of A Coruna. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of this scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapidfire site.

  11. Ladies & Gentlemen, Girls & Boys, Grandparents & Community Members: Welcome to the Wowan State Primary School Theatre Restaurant!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exley, Beryl

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the teaching staff from the Central Queensland school of Wowan State Primary School have been responding to recently released Education Queensland initiatives or whole school literacy planning, "Literate Futures: Reading" (Education Queensland, 2002), and a framework for pedagogical reform, "Productive Pedagogies" (Education…

  12. Elastomeric member

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O.

    1985-01-01

    An energy storage device (10) is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member (16) disposed within a tubular housing (14), which elastomeric member (16) is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member (16) is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section (74), and transition end sections (76, 78), attached to rigid end piece assemblies (22, 24) of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections (76, 78) are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member (16), a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing (14). Each of the transition sections (76, 78) are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve (26, 28) having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve (26, 28) also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond therebetween. During manufacture, the sleeves (26, 28) are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section (76, 78) to provide the correct profile and helix angle.

  13. Elastomeric member

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, L.O.

    1985-07-30

    An energy storage device is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member disposed within a tubular housing, which elastomeric member is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section, and transition end sections, attached to rigid end piece assemblies of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member, a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing. Each of the transition sections are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond there between. During manufacture, the sleeves are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section to provide the correct profile and helix angle. 12 figs.

  14. Portugal: setting new goals for growth.

    PubMed

    Cutler, B

    1987-11-01

    Portugal has entered a period of economic recovery spearheaded by Prime Minister Anibal Cavaco Silva. A slow but steady rise in the standard of living may finally offset the 0.9% annual growth in the country's population. Growth in the gross national product (GNP) reached 5% in 1987 and fixed capital investment increased 9.5% in 1986. Cavaco Silva's economic recovery program has included entry into the Common Market, foreign investment in industry, attention to the enormous public debt, and dismantling of the state-centered economy of the 1970s. Per capita GNP increased from US$743 in 1985 to $1970 in 1986 and unemployment had fallen to 8.5% by 1988. The prolongation of average life expectancy to 68 years for men and 75 years for women indicates a general improvement in the health and lifestyle of most Portuguese. By the year 2000, the population of Portugal is expected to reach 11.1 million, with the largest rates of growth occurring in the west and coastal areas. Half of the population falls into the 25-64-year age group, suggesting potential for economic growth and spending. A low rate of urbanization (30%) has complicated attempts to raise the level of technology in industry. Strong adherence to Catholicism is largely responsible for the exceptionally high marriage rate and low divorce rate in Portugal. The average birth rate was 14.5/1000 in 1987 and the average total fertility rate was 2.1. 34% of all births are to women 20-24 years old. The annual mortality rate is 9.6/1000, while infant mortality stands at 17.8/1000. A significant change occurring in Portugal in the current period is the rise of a new middle class. PMID:12268922

  15. Implementation of the Cross-border Care Directive in EU Member States: Luxembourg.

    PubMed

    Schwebag, Mike

    2014-03-01

    The Cross-border Care Directive sets up basic patient rights in case of cross-border healthcare. These rights concern both the country of affiliation and the country of treatment of the patient. The article briefly describes the state of the transposition in Luxembourg, with a focus on the draft act on patients' rights and obligations. This new act on patient rights and obligations will apply without distinction to domestic and cross-border patients, thus transposing most of Luxembourg's obligations as a country of treatment of a cross-border patient. PMID:24665671

  16. State Special Education Advisory Panels under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Public Information Guide [and] An Overview for State Special Education Advisory Panel Members [and] Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copenhaver, John

    The purpose of this document is to provide an orientation and overview for new state special education advisory panel members regarding their role and functions. This information is a compilation of material and best practices from state special education advisory panels throughout the United States. The manual is intended to assist members of…

  17. An Overview of IAEA Activities to Support Pre-disposal Management of Radioactive Wastes in Member States - 12334

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar Samanta, Susanta; Drace, Zoran; Ojovan, Michael

    2012-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) promotes safe and effective management of radioactive waste and has suitable programmes in place to serve the needs of Member States in this area. These programmes cover the development and use of safety standards, planning, technologies and approaches needed for the management of different types of radioactive waste, resulting both from the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications. In the pre-disposal area, the assistance to Members States covers a wide range of topics, including policy and strategy, inventory assessment, technologies and approaches for waste minimization, selection of technical options for waste processing and storage, improvement in operating practices at nuclear facilities, optimization of waste management capacity, etc. and is delivered through the publication of technical guidance documents, coordinated research projects, networks, technical cooperation projects and organization of training and technical review services. This report presents an overview of recent IAEA accomplishments aiming to support activities in pre-disposal management of radioactive waste with focus on technological aspects. (authors)

  18. Governance within the World Health Assembly: a 13-year analysis of WHO Member States' contribution to global health governance.

    PubMed

    van der Rijt, Tess; Pang Pangestu, Tikki

    2015-03-01

    There is a widespread perception that developed countries in the Western world dictate the shaping and governance of global health. While there are many bodies that engage in global health governance, the World Health Organisation (WHO) is the only entity whereby 194 countries are invited to congregate together and engage in global health governance on an equal playing field. This paper examines the diversity of governance within the World Health Assembly (WHA), the supreme decision-making body of the WHO. It explores the degree and balance of policy influence between high, middle and low-income countries and the relevance of the WHO as a platform to exercise global governance. It finds that governance within the WHA is indeed diverse: relative to the number of Member States within the regions, all regions are well represented. While developed countries still dominate WHA governance, Western world countries do not overshadow decision-making, but rather there is evidence of strong engagement from the emerging economies. It is apparent that the WHO is still a relevant platform whereby all Member States can and do participate in the shaping of global health governance.

  19. Early Childhood Education in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasconcelos, Teresa

    This booklet provides an overview of the policy and status of early childhood education in Portugal and includes the text of Law 5/97, the Framework Law for Pre-School Education, as well as the Curriculum Guidelines for Pre-School Education adopted by Portugal's government. Two of Law 5/97's nine main goals are: (1) to promote the child's personal…

  20. Tuition And/Or Required Fees, Room Rates, and Board Rates at Member Institutions of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities By States: 1971-72 and Tuition, Required Fees, Room and Board Charges at Member Institutions of the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges: 1971-72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC. Office of Institutional Research.

    These are tables documenting tuition and required fees, room rates, and board rates at member institutions of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities and the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, by state for 1971-72. The figures given are for typical full-time undergraduate students for 2…

  1. European Sitting Championship: Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Reported Sitting Time in the 28 European Union Member States

    PubMed Central

    Loyen, Anne; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Bauman, Adrian; Brug, Johannes; Lakerveld, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behaviour is increasingly recognized as an important health risk, but comparable data across Europe are scarce. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sitting time in adults across and within the 28 European Union Member States. Methods This study reports data from the Special Eurobarometer 412. In 2013, 27,919 randomly selected Europeans (approximately 1000 per Member State) were interviewed face-to-face. Sitting time on a usual day was self-reported and dichotomised into sitting less- and more than 7.5 hours per day. Uni- and multivariate odds ratios of sitting more than 7.5 hours per day were assessed by country and socio-demographic variables using binary logistic regression analyses. The analyses were stratified by country to study the socio-demographic correlates of sitting time within the different countries. Results A total of 26,617 respondents were included in the analyses. Median sitting time was five hours per day. Across Europe, 18.5 percent of the respondents reported to sit more than 7.5 hours per day, with substantial variation between countries (ranging from 8.9 to 32.1 percent). In general, northern European countries reported more sitting than countries in the south of Europe. ‘Current occupation’ and ‘age when stopped education’ were found to be the strongest correlates of sitting time, both across Europe and within most Member States. Compared to manual workers, the odds ratio of sitting more than 7.5 hours per day was 5.00 for people with white collar occupations, 3.84 for students, and 3.65 for managers. Conclusions There is substantial variation in self-reported sitting time among European adults across countries as well as socio-demographic groups. While regular surveillance of (objectively measured) sedentary behaviour is needed, the results of this study provide entry points for developing targeted interventions aimed at highly sedentary populations, such as

  2. N-H-Type Excited-State Proton Transfer in Compounds Possessing a Seven-Membered-Ring Intramolecular Hydrogen Bond.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-An; Meng, Fan-Yi; Hsu, Yen-Hao; Hung, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Chi-Lin; Chung, Kun-You; Tang, Wei-Feng; Hung, Wen-Yi; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2016-10-01

    A series of compounds containing 5-(2-aminobenzylidene)-2,3-dimethyl-3,5-dihydro-4H-imidazol-4-one (o-ABDI) as the core chromophore with a seven-membered-ring N-H-type intramolecular hydrogen bond have been synthesized and characterized. The acidity of the N-H proton and thus the hydrogen-bond strength can be fine-tuned by replacing one of the amino hydrogen atoms by a substituent R, the acidity increasing with increasing electron-withdrawing strength of R, that is, in the order Hstate intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) that results in proton-transfer emission solely in the red region. Reversible ESIPT, and hence dual emission, involving the normal and proton-transfer tautomers was resolved for the acetyl- and benzyl-substituted counterparts. For o-ABDI, which has the weakest acidity, ESIPT is prohibited due to its highly endergonic reaction. The results clearly demonstrate the harnessing of ESIPT by modifying the proton acidity and hydrogen-bonding strength in a seven-membered-ring intramolecular hydrogen-bonding system. For all the compounds studied, the emission quantum yields are weak (ca. 10(-3) ) in dichloromethane, but strong in the solid form, ranging from 3.2 to 47.4 %. PMID:27539818

  3. Procurement of State-of-the-Art Research Equipment to Support Faculty Members Within the RNAi Therapeutics Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Terence Flotte, MD; Patricia McNulty

    2010-06-29

    This project funded the procurement of state-of-the-art research equipment to support world class faculty members within the RNAi Therapeutics Institute, a central program of the Advanced Therapeutics Cluster (ATC) project. The equipment purchased under this grant supports the RNA Therapeutics Institute (RTI) at the University of Massachusetts Medical School which seeks to build a community of scientists passionate about RNA. By uniting researchers studying the fundamental biology and mechanisms of cellular RNAs with those working to devise human therapies using or targeting nucleic acids, the RTI represents a new model for scientific exploration. By interweaving basic and applied nucleic acid scientists with clinicians dedicated to finding new cures, our goal is to create a new paradigm for organizing molecular research that enables the rapid application of new biological discoveries to solutions for unmet challenges in human health.

  4. [Health protection of workers occupationally exposed to effects of electromagnetic fields in Poland and in the European Union member states].

    PubMed

    Wagrowska-Koski, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields, one of potentially harmful physical agents present in the work environment in Poland, are under a constant surveillance regulated by the law. Among others, the surveillance involves periodical measurements of electromagnetic field (EMF) intensities in the work environment and medical prophylactic examination of workers at the employers' expense. The introduction of new MAC values imposes extra responsibilities on occupational health services, resulting from the need to verify the number of workers exposed to EMF at frequency bands corresponding with protection zones, and the need to set an appropriate range of prophylactic examinations, taking account of the current body of knowledge of biological effects of EMF and their hazards to workers' health. The suggestions how to change the range and frequency of medical prophylactic examinations are presented. The differences in occupational health care between Poland and the European Union members states, as well as changes in legal regulations on occupational diseases are discussed.

  5. Supplemental report of the United States members of the International Board of Inquiry for the Great Lakes fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallagher, Hubert R.; Van Oosten, John

    1943-01-01

    This is a supplement to the report of the International Board of Inquiry relative to the preservation and development of the Great Lakes fisheries as provided by an exchange of notes between Canada and the United States on February 29, 1940. The report aimed to present in a very brief manner the background of the establishment of the Board, its program, and the fishery problems that confronted it with particular reference to the international point of view. (See Contribution #100.) The Board, however, recognized the significance and import of those problems and data more or less peculiar or applicable largely to each country. It was, therefore, agreed that the representatives of each country should, if they deem it desirable, submit to their respective governments a supplementary report to cover the basis of action in greater detail than it was possible in a joint report. The United States members believed it advisable not only to publish detailed statistics of catch, but also other information deemed pertinent for a full understanding of the Great Lakes fishery problems from the United States point of view.

  6. Union Members Are Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

  7. Business oriented EU human cell and tissue product legislation will adversely impact Member States' health care systems.

    PubMed

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Vanderkelen, Alain; De Vos, Daniel; Draye, Jean-Pierre; Rose, Thomas; Ceulemans, Carl; Ectors, Nadine; Huys, Isabelle; Jennes, Serge; Verbeken, Gilbert

    2013-12-01

    The transplantation of conventional human cell and tissue grafts, such as heart valve replacements and skin for severely burnt patients, has saved many lives over the last decades. The late eighties saw the emergence of tissue engineering with the focus on the development of biological substitutes that restore or improve tissue function. In the nineties, at the height of the tissue engineering hype, industry incited policymakers to create a European regulatory environment, which would facilitate the emergence of a strong single market for tissue engineered products and their starting materials (human cells and tissues). In this paper we analyze the elaboration process of this new European Union (EU) human cell and tissue product regulatory regime-i.e. the EU Cell and Tissue Directives (EUCTDs) and the Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product (ATMP) Regulation and evaluate its impact on Member States' health care systems. We demonstrate that the successful lobbying on key areas of regulatory and policy processes by industry, in congruence with Europe's risk aversion and urge to promote growth and jobs, led to excessively business oriented legislation. Expensive industry oriented requirements were introduced and contentious social and ethical issues were excluded. We found indications that this new EU safety and health legislation will adversely impact Member States' health care systems; since 30 December 2012 (the end of the ATMP transitional period) there is a clear threat to the sustainability of some lifesaving and established ATMPs that were provided by public health institutions and small and medium-sized enterprises under the frame of the EUCTDs. In the light of the current economic crisis it is not clear how social security systems will cope with the inflation of costs associated with this new regulatory regime and how priorities will be set with regard to reimbursement decisions. We argue that the ATMP Regulation should urgently be revised to focus on delivering

  8. Business oriented EU human cell and tissue product legislation will adversely impact Member States' health care systems.

    PubMed

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Vanderkelen, Alain; De Vos, Daniel; Draye, Jean-Pierre; Rose, Thomas; Ceulemans, Carl; Ectors, Nadine; Huys, Isabelle; Jennes, Serge; Verbeken, Gilbert

    2013-12-01

    The transplantation of conventional human cell and tissue grafts, such as heart valve replacements and skin for severely burnt patients, has saved many lives over the last decades. The late eighties saw the emergence of tissue engineering with the focus on the development of biological substitutes that restore or improve tissue function. In the nineties, at the height of the tissue engineering hype, industry incited policymakers to create a European regulatory environment, which would facilitate the emergence of a strong single market for tissue engineered products and their starting materials (human cells and tissues). In this paper we analyze the elaboration process of this new European Union (EU) human cell and tissue product regulatory regime-i.e. the EU Cell and Tissue Directives (EUCTDs) and the Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product (ATMP) Regulation and evaluate its impact on Member States' health care systems. We demonstrate that the successful lobbying on key areas of regulatory and policy processes by industry, in congruence with Europe's risk aversion and urge to promote growth and jobs, led to excessively business oriented legislation. Expensive industry oriented requirements were introduced and contentious social and ethical issues were excluded. We found indications that this new EU safety and health legislation will adversely impact Member States' health care systems; since 30 December 2012 (the end of the ATMP transitional period) there is a clear threat to the sustainability of some lifesaving and established ATMPs that were provided by public health institutions and small and medium-sized enterprises under the frame of the EUCTDs. In the light of the current economic crisis it is not clear how social security systems will cope with the inflation of costs associated with this new regulatory regime and how priorities will be set with regard to reimbursement decisions. We argue that the ATMP Regulation should urgently be revised to focus on delivering

  9. Interpersonal violence among immigrants in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Dias, Sónia; Fraga, Sílvia; Barros, Henrique

    2013-02-01

    To assess prevalence of interpersonal violence among a mixed gender sample of immigrants in Portugal, describing the type of violence and associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2008 and May 2009, evaluating a sample of 702 immigrants residing in the Lisbon region. Information was obtained by trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire. Overall, 15.1 % (15.5 % females and 14.7 % males; p = 0.844) of the immigrants reported to be victims of at least one episode of violence during the last year, regardless of which type of violence was involved. The prevalence of intimate-partner violence was 4.1 %, and it was significantly higher among women than men (7.1 % vs. 0.9 %, respectively, p < 0.001). Women who reported being victims of violence during the previous year stated that the episodes occurred more often at home (54.4 %) with the partner as the perpetrator (43.9 %). On the other hand, male victims stated that the violent episodes occurred mostly in public spaces (40.8 %); men indicated that the perpetrator was frequently a stranger (28.6 %) or a co-worker (18.4 %). Violence is a frequent problem among both female and male immigrants living in Portugal, with different gender patterns regarding the perpetrators and settings of abuse.

  10. Comparative study of microfacies variation in two samples from the Chittenango member, Marcellus shale subgroup, western New York state, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Balulla, Shama Padmanabhan, E.; Over, Jeffrey

    2015-07-22

    This study demonstrates the significant lithologic variations that occur within the two shale samples from the Chittenango member of the Marcellus shale formation from western New York State in terms of mineralogical composition, type of lamination, pyrite occurrences and fossil content using thin section detailed description and field emission Scanning electron microscope (FESEM) with energy dispersive X-Ray Spectrum (EDX). This study is classified samples as laminated clayshale and fossiliferous carbonaceous shale. The most important detrital constituents of these shales are the clay mineral illite and chlorite, quartz, organic matter, carbonate mineral, and pyrite. The laminated clayshale has a lower amount of quartz and carbonate minerals than fossiliferous carbonaceous shale while it has a higher amount of clay minerals (chlorite and illite) and organic matter. FESEM analysis confirms the presence of chlorite and illite. The fossil content in the laminated clayshale is much lower than the fossiliferous carbonaceous shale. This can provide greater insights about variations in the depositional and environmental factors that influenced its deposition. This result can be compiled with the sufficient data to be helpful for designing the horizontal wells and placement of hydraulic fracturing in shale gas exploration and production.

  11. Plant food supplement (PFS) market structure in EC Member States, methods and techniques for the assessment of individual PFS intake.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Murga, Liliana; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Roman-Viñas, Blanca; Ngo, Joy; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; van den Berg, Suzanne J P L; Williamson, Gary; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2011-12-01

    The popularity of herbal products, especially plant food supplements (PFS) and herbal medicine is on the rise in Europe and other parts of the world, with increased use in the general population as well as among specific subgroups encompassing children, women or those suffering from diseases such as cancer. The aim of this paper is to examine the PFS market structures in European Community (EC) Member States as well as to examine issues addressing methodologies and consumption data relating to PFS use in Europe. A revision of recent reports on market data, trends and main distribution channels, in addition an example of the consumption of PFS in Spain, is presented. An overview of the methods and administration techniques used to assess individual food consumption as a starting point, including their uses and limitations, as well as some examples of studies that collect Food Supplement (FS) information, including herbal/botanical/plant-derived products are also discussed. Additionally, the intake estimation process of food nutrients is described and used to propose the PFS ingredients intake estimation process. Nationally representative PFS consumption data is scarce in Europe. The majority of studies have been conducted in Scandinavia and the UK. However the heterogeneity of definitions, study design and objectives make it difficult to compare results and extrapolate conclusions. PMID:21879100

  12. Measuring performance in off-patent drug markets: a methodological framework and empirical evidence from twelve EU Member States.

    PubMed

    Kanavos, Panos

    2014-11-01

    This paper develops a methodological framework to help evaluate the performance of generic pharmaceutical policies post-patent expiry or after loss of exclusivity in non-tendering settings, comprising five indicators (generic availability, time delay to and speed of generic entry, number of generic competitors, price developments, and generic volume share evolution) and proposes a series of metrics to evaluate performance. The paper subsequently tests this framework across twelve EU Member States (MS) by using IMS data on 101 patent expired molecules over the 1998-2010 period. Results indicate that significant variation exists in generic market entry, price competition and generic penetration across the study countries. Size of a geographical market is not a predictor of generic market entry intensity or price decline. Regardless of geographic or product market size, many off patent molecules lack generic competitors two years after loss of exclusivity. The ranges in each of the five proposed indicators suggest, first, that there are numerous factors--including institutional ones--contributing to the success of generic entry, price decline and market penetration and, second, MS should seek a combination of supply and demand-side policies in order to maximise cost-savings from generics. Overall, there seems to be considerable potential for faster generic entry, uptake and greater generic competition, particularly for molecules at the lower end of the market. PMID:25201433

  13. Sex education in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Frade, A; Vilar, D

    1991-05-01

    The article on sex education in Portugal covers background, the educational system, the clashes of the 1960's over sex education, the Committee for the Study of Sexuality and Education (CSSE), the policies, politics and social movements during the period 1974 - 1984, the discussions in Parliament, the 1988 Reform of the Educational System, the Family Planning Association (FPA) and sex education, and the future role of the FPA. It was not until the institution of the multiparity parliamentary system in 1974 that discussing social and political changes was possible, culminating in 1984 with new legislation on abortion, family planning, and sex education. School reform came in 1987/8 with the Ministry of Education primarily responsible for curricula. The 1960's brought with it the influence of the Catholic Church. Change came in the form of progressivism among Catholics who replaced dogma with dialogue and listening. Sex education was considered as preparation for marriage, but masturbation, contraception, and prostitution were also discussed. In addition, the founder of FPA chaired the CSSE in 1971 and opened up debate on sex issues and drafted a bill to establish co-education in Portuguese schools. The revolution of 1974 brought an end to censorship and brought forth a policy of developing family planning. Changed in the Family Code gave women greater equality. UNFPA supported teacher training in non-sexist education. With human reproduction included in the natural sciences, there was still no school sex education policy and contraception was only sometimes represented in the biology curriculum. The focus of FPA was on contraception and abortion. Finally in the 1980's, the first sex education programs were developed for out-of-school youth. Even though in the 1970's there were leftists groups promoting sex education, it took leftist parliamentary power to get legislation on sex education in the schools adopted. The Ministry of Education however was pressured by the

  14. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights the…

  15. Space Radar Image of Lisbon, Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of Lisbon, Portugal illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in coastal Portugal. Lisbon, the national capital, lies on the north bank of the Rio Tejo where the river enters the Atlantic Ocean. The city center appears as the bright area in the center of the image. The green area west of the city center is a large city park called the Parque Florestal de Monsanto. The Lisbon Airport is visible east of the city. The Rio Tejo forms a large bay just east of the city. Many agricultural fields are visible as a patchwork pattern east of the bay. Suburban housing can be seen on the southern bank of the river. Spanning the river is the Ponte 25 de Abril, a large suspension bridge similar in architecture to San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge. The image was acquired on April 19, 1994 and is centered at 38.8 degrees north latitude, 9.2 degrees west longitude. North is towards the upper right. The image is 50 kilometers by 30 kilometers (31 miles by 19 miles). The colors in this image represent the following radar channels and polarizations: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  16. Sports and exercise cardiology in the United States: cardiovascular specialists as members of the athlete healthcare team.

    PubMed

    Lawless, Christine E; Olshansky, Brian; Washington, Reginald L; Baggish, Aaron L; Daniels, Curt J; Lawrence, Silvana M; Sullivan, Renee M; Kovacs, Richard J; Bove, Alfred A

    2014-04-22

    In recent years, athletic participation has more than doubled in all major demographic groups, while simultaneously, children and adults with established heart disease desire participation in sports and exercise. Despite conferring favorable long-term effects on well-being and survival, exercise can be associated with risk of adverse events in the short term. Complex individual cardiovascular (CV) demands and adaptations imposed by exercise present distinct challenges to the cardiologist asked to evaluate athletes. Here, we describe the evolution of sports and exercise cardiology as a unique discipline within the continuum of CV specialties, provide the rationale for tailoring of CV care to athletes and exercising individuals, define the role of the CV specialist within the athlete care team, and lay the foundation for the development of Sports and Exercise Cardiology in the United States. In 2011, the American College of Cardiology launched the Section of Sports and Exercise Cardiology. Membership has grown from 150 to over 4,000 members in just 2 short years, indicating marked interest from the CV community to advance the integration of sports and exercise cardiology into mainstream CV care. Although the current athlete CV care model has distinct limitations, here, we have outlined a new paradigm of care for the American athlete and exercising individual. By practicing and promoting this new paradigm, we believe we will enhance the CV care of athletes of all ages, and serve the greater athletic community and our nation as a whole, by allowing safest participation in sports and physical activity for all individuals who seek this lifestyle.

  17. The prioritization preferences of pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review members and the Canadian public: a stated-preferences comparison

    PubMed Central

    Skedgel, C.

    2016-01-01

    The pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pcodr) is responsible for making coverage recommendations to provincial and territorial drug plans about cancer drugs. Within the pcodr process, small groups of experts (including public representatives) consider the characteristics of each drug and make a funding recommendation. It is important to understand how the values and preferences of those decision-makers compare with the values and preferences of the citizens on whose behalf they are acting. In the present study, stated preference methods were used to elicit prioritization preferences from a representative sample of the Canadian public and a small convenience sample of pcodr committee members. The results suggested that neither group sought strictly to maximize quality-adjusted life year (qaly) gains and that they were willing to sacrifice some efficiency to prioritize particular patient characteristics. Both groups had a significant aversion to prioritizing older patients, patients in good pre-treatment health, and patients in poor post-treatment health. Those results are reassuring, in that they suggest that pcodr decision-maker preferences are consistent with those of the Canadian public, but they also imply that, like the larger public, decision-makers might value health gains to some patients more or less highly than the same gains to others. The implicit nature of pcodr decision criteria means that the acceptability or limits of such differential valuations are unclear. Likewise, there is no guidance as to which potential equity factors—for example, age, initial severity, and so on—are legitimate and which are not. More explicit guidance could improve the consistency and transparency of pcodr recommendations. PMID:27803596

  18. 32 CFR 884.13 - Denials of a request for return of a member to the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... member's return would have an adverse impact on operational readiness or mission requirements. (2) An... denial, TJAG promptly sends a recommendation and supporting documentation, through SAF/GC and SAF/MI,...

  19. 77 FR 30508 - Open Meeting To Obtain Input for 2013 DoD 10 Key State Issues Impacting Service Members and Their...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Open Meeting To Obtain Input for 2013 DoD 10 Key State Issues Impacting Service Members and Their Families AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The public is...

  20. Measures Taken in the Member States of the European Union To Assist Young People Who Have Left the Education System without Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    European Union Member States gather information on students who drop out without qualification so that they may know how to help this population. This report presents the broad range of measures, arrangements, and systems that exist for supervising, monitoring, training, and providing for dropouts. The text defines the categories used for the…

  1. Anticipation of Occupation and Qualification Trends in the European Union: Innovations for Effective Anticipation of Qualification and Competence Trends and the Adaptation of VET Provision in Member States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellin, Burkart, Ed.

    The approaches being taken and innovations being adopted at the national and European levels to anticipate occupation and qualification trends in the European Union (EU) were examined in a survey of the 15 EU member states. The survey findings were presented by country and in a synthesis. In addition, the findings for Belgium were broken down by…

  2. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in Health Ministers' Council/Gulf Cooperation Council Member States, 2001-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mulla, Ahmad Moh'd; Helmy, Sahar Abdou; Al-Lawati, Jawad; Nasser, Sami Al; Rahman, Salah Ali Abdel; Almutawa, Ayesha; Saab, Bassam Abi; Al-Bedah, Abdullah Mohammed; Al-Rabeah, Abdullah Mohamed; Bahaj, Ahmed Ali; El-Awa, Fatimah; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Background: This article examines differences and similarities in adolescent tobacco use among Member States of the Health Ministers' Council for the Gulf Cooperation Council (HMC/GCC) using Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data. Methods: Nationally representative samples of students in grades associated with ages 13-15 in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman,…

  3. The Social Dialogue in the Member States of the European Community in the Field of Vocational Training and Continuing Training--Synthesis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellin, B.; And Others

    This document describes the current links between the world of work (employees, employers, industrial sectors, and companies) and the world of vocational training (in-company, inter-company, and school-based training bodies) in member states of the European Community; and the degree and nature of the involvement of the social partners in the…

  4. Attitudes to Agricultural Policy and Farming Futures in the Context of the 2003 CAP Reform: A Comparison of Farmers in Selected Established and New Member States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorton, Matthew; Douarin, Elodie; Davidova, Sophia; Latruffe, Laure

    2008-01-01

    Farmers' attitudes, to agricultural production, diversification and policy support, and behavioural intentions in five Member States of the EU (France, Lithuania, Slovakia, Sweden, England) are analysed comparatively. Groups of farmers with similarly held attitudes are identified using cluster analysis to investigate whether differences in…

  5. Third Annual Desegregation Status Report for Public Postsecondary Education Institutions in the State of Maryland. Volume IV: Employees and Board Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Board for Higher Education, Annapolis.

    The data in this volume were collected in accordance with the 1974 Maryland plan for the desegregation of public post secondary education institutions. Presented are employee related data for Maryland colleges, universities and state agencies, and data on members of boards associated with higher education. The statistics for institutions include…

  6. Competence and Human Resource Development in Multinational Companies in Three European Union Member States: A Comparative Analysis between Austria, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Kollinger, Iris; Warmerdam, John; Moerel, Hans; Konrad, John; Burell, Catherine; Guile, David

    A comparative analysis of human resources development and management in the subsidiaries of three multinational companies (Xerox, Glaxo Wellcome, and AXA Nordstern Colonia) was conducted in these three European Union (EU) member states: Austria, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. Case studies were used, focusing on competence needs and…

  7. Urinary BPA measurements in children and mothers from six European member states: Overall results and determinants of exposure.

    PubMed

    Covaci, Adrian; Den Hond, Elly; Geens, Tinne; Govarts, Eva; Koppen, Gudrun; Frederiksen, Hanne; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Mørck, Thit A; Gutleb, Arno C; Guignard, Cedric; Cocco, Emanuelle; Horvat, Milena; Heath, Ester; Kosjek, Tina; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Castaño, Argelia; Esteban, Marta; Cutanda, Francisco; Ramos, Juan José; Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Jönsson, Bo A G; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Bloemen, Louis; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Schoeters, Greet; Angerer, Jürgen; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Aerts, Dominique; Koch, Holger M

    2015-08-01

    For the first time in Europe, both European-wide and country-specific levels of urinary Bisphenol A (BPA) were obtained through a harmonized protocol for participant recruitment, sampling and quality controlled biomarker analysis in the frame of the twin projects COPHES and DEMOCOPHES. 674 child-mother pairs were recruited through schools or population registers from six European member states (Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden). Children (5-12 y) and mothers donated a urine sample. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, life style, dietary habits, and educational level of the parents was provided by mothers. After exclusion of urine samples with creatinine values below 300 mg/L or above 3000 mg/L, 653 children and 639 mothers remained for which BPA was measured. The geometric mean (with 95% confidence intervals) and 90th percentile were calculated for BPA separately in children and in mothers and were named "European reference values". After adjustment for confounders (age and creatinine), average exposure values in each country were compared with the mean of the "European reference values" by means of a weighted analysis of variance. Overall geometric means of all countries (95% CI) adjusted for urinary creatinine, age and gender were 2.04 (1.87-2.24) µg/L and 1.88 (1.71-2.07) µg/L for children (n=653) and mothers (n=639), respectively. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify significant environmental, geographical, personal or life style related determinants. Consumption of canned food and social class (represented by the highest educational level of the family) were the most important predictors for the urinary levels of BPA in mothers and children. The individual BPA levels in children were significantly correlated with the levels in their mothers (r=0.265, p<0.001), which may suggest a possible common environmental/dietary factor that influences the biomarker level in each pair. Exposure of the general European

  8. Collapsable seal member

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrell, D.L.

    1983-12-08

    A hollow, collapsable seal member normally disposed in a natural expanded state offering fail-safe pressure sealing against a seating surface and adapted to be evacuated by a vacuum force for collapsing the seal member to disengage the same from said seating surface.

  9. Collapsable seal member

    DOEpatents

    Sherrell, Dennis L.

    1990-01-01

    A hollow, collapsable seal member normally disposed in a natural expanded state offering fail-safe pressure sealing against a seating surface and adapted to be evacuated by a vacuum force for collapsing the seal member to disengage the same from said seating surface.

  10. Metallic three-coordinated carbon networks with eight-membered rings showing high density of states at the Fermi level.

    PubMed

    Noda, Yusuke; Ono, Shota; Ohno, Kaoru

    2014-04-21

    Using a density functional method to study the electronic structure of various three-coordinated sp(2) carbon nanostructures, we find that the presence of an eight-membered ring adjoined to two five-membered rings in a unit cell brings about the simultaneous occurrence of flat and dispersive bands, quite similar to the band structure of precious metals. These bands are parts of an anisotropic Dirac cone tilted from an isotropic one. We reveal that in-phase and out-of-phase oscillations in the sign of the phase of the Kohn-Sham orbital contribute to the appearance of the unique band structures. PMID:24618855

  11. Viticultural zoning in Portugal: current conditions and future scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, H.; Santos, J. A.; Malheiro, A. C.; Moutinho-Pereira, J.

    2012-04-01

    Viticulture and wine production represent a main economic activity of the agro-production sector in Portugal, particularly over some world famous winemaking regions, such as the Port Wine / Douro Valley, Minho and Alentejo. As viticultural zoning provides valuable information regarding the suitability of a given grapevine variety to local climatic conditions, it is thus of great interest to the Portuguese winemaking sector. Furthermore, projected future climates are also likely to have important impacts on this zoning. Therefore, in the current study we aim at 1) discussing the current viticultural zoning in Portugal, and 2) assessing its future changes under anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing (A1B SRES scenario) in the 2011-2070 time period. A set of appropriate bioclimatic indices, computed using temperatures and precipitations defined on a daily basis, is used for viticultural zoning. For the assessment of the recent-past conditions an observational gridded dataset (E-OBS) is used, while for future climate change projections, a 16-member ensemble of model experiments (ENSEMBLES project dataset), is considered. Overall, statistically significant increases (decreases) in the thermally-based (humidity-based) indices are projected to occur in the future throughout the country, particularly over its southern and innermost regions. All these changes are in agreement with the widely accepted projections for warmer and dryer Southern European climates. High impacts are found in the most important winemaking regions in Portugal, highlighting the urgent need for developing suitable adaptation and mitigation measures so as to cope with a changing climate. A reshaping of the viticultural regions is thereby expected to occur within the next decades over Portugal.

  12. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 208 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State Member Banks: Tier 1 Leverage Measure

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Member Banks: Tier 1 Leverage Measure Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 62284, Oct. 11, 2013. I... be treated as a sale under generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and, second, the bank must... qualifying if it meets the criteria set forth in the Board's prompt corrective action regulation (12 CFR...

  13. Views of United States Physicians and Members of the American Medical Association House of Delegates on Physician-assisted Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Simon N.; Brown, Byron W.; Brody, Howard; Alcser, Kirsten H.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Greely, Henry T.

    2001-01-01

    Ascertained the views of physicians and physician leaders toward legalization of physician-assisted suicide. Results indicated members of AMA House of Delegates strongly oppose physician-assisted suicide, but rank-and-file physicians show no consensus either for or against its legalization. Although the debate is adversarial, most physicians are…

  14. Child Labour and Educational Success in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulart, Pedro; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2008-01-01

    The current debate on child labour focuses on developing countries. However, Portugal is an example of a relatively developed country where child labour is still a matter of concern as between 8% and 12% of Portuguese children may be classified as workers. This paper studies the patterns of child labour in Portugal and assesses the consequences of…

  15. Geology and religion in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Ana; Simoes, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Mota, Teresa Salomé

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between geology and religion in Portugal by focusing on three case studies of naturalists who produced original research and lived in different historical periods, from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. Whereas in non-peripheral European countries religious themes and even controversies between science and religion were dealt with by scientists and discussed in scientific communities, in Portugal the absence of a debate between science and religion within scientific and intellectual circles is particularly striking. From the historiographic point of view, in a country such as Portugal, where Roman Catholicism is part of the religious and cultural tradition, the influence of religion in all aspects of life has been either taken for granted by those less familiar with the national context or dismissed by local intellectuals, who do not see it as relevant to science. The situation is more complex than these dichotomies, rendering the study of this question particularly appealing from the historiographic point of view, geology being by its very nature a well-suited point from which to approach the theme. We argue that there is a long tradition of independence between science and religion, agnosticism and even atheism among local elites. Especially from the eighteenth century onwards, they are usually portrayed as enlightened minds who struggled against religious and political obscurantism. Religion—or, to be more precise, the Roman Catholic Church and its institutions—was usually identified with backwardness, whereas science was seen as the path to progress; consequently men of science usually dissociated their scientific production from religious belief.

  16. Geoconservation education: the leading role of the University of Minho (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilha, J.; Pereira, D.; Pereira, P.

    2012-04-01

    The University of Minho (with two campuses in Braga and Guimarães, northern Portugal) is a middle-size university created in 1973 and today with around 18,000 students and 1,100 academic staff members. The first works concerning geoconservation were developed in 1996 in the Earth Sciences Department. The research was related with the inventory of geological heritage in Alvão Natural Park, under the scope of a master thesis on Environmental Sciences. But it was only in 2005 that a major step was taken by this university with the creation of the master course on Geological Heritage and Geoconservation. Since that time, around 70 students were enrolled with an average of 10 new students each year. This 2-years course (120 ECTS) is the only post-graduation degree totally dedicated to this domain. During the first year, students have to complete several multidisciplinary modules like: Geodiversity; GIS and computers applied to geoconservation; Inventorying, conservation and interpretation of geological heritage; Environmental legislation; Geotourism; Education for sustainable development; and Mining heritage. The second year is dedicated to the preparation of a dissertation or project. This experience on geoconservation education has been motivating internationalisation with other universities with the support of different grant programmes like Erasmus and AlBan (both from the European Union) and Gulbenkian (Portugal): Students exchange (to Brazil and Greece; from Argentina, Brazil, Cape Verde, Chile, Mozambique, and Thailand) and staff exchange (to/from Greece, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and United States of America). After finishing their master degree, students are finding jobs as geoconservationist experts in geoparks, protected areas, natural history museums, and also as teachers in secondary schools and universities. The University of Minho is also engaged with geoconservation at the PhD level. Several theses have been produced focused of themes

  17. [The African Charter on the Rights of the Child. The member states of the Organization of African Unity must ratify without further delay].

    PubMed

    Diongue, A

    1994-12-01

    In July 1990, the Organization of African Unity (OUA) adopted the African Charter of the Rights and Welfare of the Child. It includes a Preamble, two relative parts on the Rights and Respects of the Child, and 47 articles. It defines "child" as a complete human being less than 18 years old. It recognizes the child's unique and privileged place in African society and that African children need protection and special care. It also recognizes that the child has freedom of expression, association, peaceful assembly, thought, religion, and conscience. It aims to protect the private life of the child and safeguard the child against all forms of economic exploitation and against work that is hazardous, interferes with the child's education, or compromises his/her health or physical, social, mental, spiritual, and moral development. It also calls for protection against abuse and bad treatment, negative social and cultural practices, all forms of exploitation or sexual abuse, and illegal drug use. It also aims to prevent the sale, trading, kidnapping, and begging of children. It calls for the creation of an African expert committee on the rights and well-being of the child. Its mission is to promote and protect the rights consecrated by the Charter, to practice applying these rights, and to interpret the disposition of the Charter as required of party states, OUA institutions, or all other institutions recognized by OUA or by a member state. The Charter goes into effect 30 days after OUA or 15 member states ratify it. As of August 24, 1994, only four states had ratified it. Member states have taken it upon themselves to take all necessary measures to adopt the Charter. The delay of African states in this affair is incomprehensible. Eleven years separate the adoption of the Declaration on the Rights and Welfare of the African Child and this Charter. Must the African child wait as long to see the Charter become law? PMID:12288686

  18. Volumetric and shape analyses of subcortical structures in United States service members with mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Tate, David F; Wade, Benjamin S C; Velez, Carmen S; Drennon, Ann Marie; Bolzenius, Jacob; Gutman, Boris A; Thompson, Paul M; Lewis, Jeffrey D; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Bigler, Erin D; Shenton, Martha E; Ritter, John L; York, Gerald E

    2016-10-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a significant health concern. The majority who sustain mTBI recover, although ~20 % continue to experience symptoms that can interfere with quality of life. Accordingly, there is a critical need to improve diagnosis, prognostic accuracy, and monitoring (recovery trajectory over time) of mTBI. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been successfully utilized to examine TBI. One promising improvement over standard volumetric approaches is to analyze high-dimensional shape characteristics of brain structures. In this study, subcortical shape and volume in 76 Service Members with mTBI was compared to 59 Service Members with orthopedic injury (OI) and 17 with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) only. FreeSurfer was used to quantify structures from T1-weighted 3 T MRI data. Radial distance (RD) and Jacobian determinant (JD) were defined vertex-wise on parametric mesh-representations of subcortical structures. Linear regression was used to model associations between morphometry (volume and shape), TBI status, and time since injury (TSI) correcting for age, sex, intracranial volume, and level of education. Volumetric data was not significantly different between the groups. JD was significantly increased in the accumbens and caudate and significantly reduced in the thalamus of mTBI participants. Additional significant associations were noted between RD of the amygdala and TSI. Positive trend-level associations between TSI and the amygdala and accumbens were observed, while a negative association was observed for third ventricle. Our findings may aid in the initial diagnosis of mTBI, provide biological targets for functional examination, and elucidate regions that may continue remodeling after injury.

  19. Supporting members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Life Supporting Members L. Thomas Aldrich Thomas D. Barrow Hugh J . A. Chivers Allan V. Cox Samuel S. Goldich Pembroke J. Hart A. Ivan Johnson Helmut E. Landsberg Paolo Lanzano Murli H. Manghnani L. L. Nettleton Charles B. Officer Hyman Orlin Ned A. Ostenso Erick O. Schonstedt Waldo E. Smith Athelstan Spilhaus A. F. Spilhaus, Jr. John W. Townsend, Jr. James A. Van Allen Leonard W. Weis Charles A. Whitten J. Tuzo Wilson

  20. Summary of Citywide Results on New York State Competency Tests. Memorandum to the Members of the Board of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macchiarola, Frank J.

    This document provides a brief review of the New York State Basic Competency Tests (BCT), Preliminary Competency Tests (PCT) and Regents Competency Tests (RCT), together with a summary of the results of the tests administered in New York City in Spring, 1979. Test requirements for 1979, 1980, and 1981 are outlined, as well as administrative…

  1. 20 CFR 404.1019 - Work as a member of a uniformed service of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the United States. 404.1019 Section 404.1019 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Social Security (unless creditable under the Railroad Retirement Act), if— (1) On or after January 1... the military or naval service and you are ordered or directed to a place for final acceptance or...

  2. University Restructuring and the Reconfiguration of Faculty Members' Work Context in a Public State University in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montero-Hernandez, Virginia; Levin, John S.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the effects of neo-liberal restructuring for universities upon the reconfiguration of academics' work context in a public state university in Mexico. Findings show that implementation of the federal program titled Faculty Enhancement Program during the late 1990s created a separation between traditional and new academic…

  3. Astronomy Week in Madeira, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augusto, P.; Sobrinho, J. L.

    2012-05-01

    The outreach programme Semanas da Astronomia (Astronomy Weeks) is held in late spring or summer on the island of Madeira, Portugal. This programme has been attracting enough interest to be mentioned in the regional press/TV/radio every year and is now, without doubt, the astronomical highlight of the year on Madeira. We believe that this programme is a good case study for showing how to attract the general public to astronomy in a small (population 250 000, area 900 km2) and fairly isolated place such as Madeira. Our Astronomy Weeks have been different each year and have so far included exhibitions, courses, talks, a forum, documentaries, observing sessions (some with blackouts), music and an astro party. These efforts may contribute towards putting Madeira on the map with respect to observational astronomy, and have also contributed to the planned installation of two observatories in the island.

  4. Optometry in Portugal: a historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Eduardo; Baptista, António M. G.; Sousa, Raul A. R. C.

    2011-05-01

    The establishment and development of optometry in Portugal resulted from the committed work of many individuals and institutions. These efforts have had good results in terms of raising the public's awareness of the major role played by optometrists in primary eye care. Back in the late 80's higher education in optometry was started. Ten years ago the results of scientific research on the topic first became available and are now also contributing to the success of optometry in Portugal. In regard to the optometry profession, specific regulations are to be discussed in the national parliament. The Associação de Profissionais Licenciados de Optometria (APLO), as the professional organization representing optometrists in Portugal, has been critically important in this process. This article will present an overview of the history of optometry in Portugal, of change in the foreseeable future and of the APLO's experience and activities.

  5. Basic Needs and Education in Portugal. The Portugal Project. Document No. XIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erasmie, Thord

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare the socio-economic factors that can be expected to influence the education system in Portugal, where urbanization has been very slow. The report examines basic needs in Portugal's 18 districts and makes recommendations about resource allocation to planners of adult education programs. Extensive…

  6. Risk factors for severe outcomes among members of the United States military hospitalized with pneumonia and influenza, 2000–2012

    PubMed Central

    Van Kerkhove, Maria D; Cooper, Michael J.; Eick-Cost, Angelia A.; Sanchez, Jose L.; Riley, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Background The progression from hospitalization for a respiratory infection to requiring substantial supportive therapy is a key stage of the influenza severity pyramid. Respiratory infections are responsible for 300,000 to 400,000 medical encounters each year among US military personnel, some of which progress to severe acute respiratory infections. Methods We obtained data on 11,086 hospitalizations for pneumonia and influenza (P&I) among non-recruit US military service members during the period of 1 January 2000 through 31 December 2012. From these, we identified 512 P&I hospitalizations that progressed to severe episodes using standard case definitions. We evaluated the effect of demographic and occupational characteristics, comorbid conditions, and history of influenza vaccination on the risk of a hospitalized P&I case becoming a severe case. We also evaluated the risk of a severe outcome and the length of time since influenza vaccination (within 180, 60 and 30 days). Results The median age of subjects at the time of the P&I episode was 32 years (range, 28–40) and subjects were predominantly male (89.5%). In a univariate analysis, demographic risk factors for a severe episode included service in the US Air Force (RR=1.6 relative to US Army, 95%CI 1.3-2.1), US Coast Guard (RR=2.1, 1.2-3.7) or US Navy (RR=1.4, 1.1-1.8). Being born in the US and recent influenza vaccination (within 180 days of episode) were protective against developing severe disease. Among comorbid conditions, univariate risk factors for severe disease included chronic renal or liver disease (RR=4.98, 95%CI 4.1-6.1), diseases of the circulatory system (RR=3.1, 95%CI 2.6-3.7), diabetes mellitus (RR=2.3, 95%CI 1.5-3.6), obesity (RR=1.6, 95%CI 1.2-2.1), cancer (RR=1.6, 95%CI 1.3-2.0) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (RR=1.4, 95%CI 1.1-1.7). Although many of the risk factors found to be significant in univariate analysis were no longer significant under a multivariate analysis, receipt

  7. Atmospheric circulation classification comparison based on wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric circulation classifications are not a simple description of atmospheric states but a tool to understand and interpret the atmospheric processes and to model the relation between atmospheric circulation and surface climate and other related variables (Radan Huth et al., 2008). Classifications were initially developed with weather forecasting purposes, however with the progress in computer processing capability, new and more robust objective methods were developed and applied to large datasets prompting atmospheric circulation classification methods to one of the most important fields in synoptic and statistical climatology. Classification studies have been extensively used in climate change studies (e.g. reconstructed past climates, recent observed changes and future climates), in bioclimatological research (e.g. relating human mortality to climatic factors) and in a wide variety of synoptic climatological applications (e.g. comparison between datasets, air pollution, snow avalanches, wine quality, fish captures and forest fires). Likewise, atmospheric circulation classifications are important for the study of the role of weather in wildfire occurrence in Portugal because the daily synoptic variability is the most important driver of local weather conditions (Pereira et al., 2005). In particular, the objective classification scheme developed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000) to classify the atmospheric circulation affecting Portugal have proved to be quite useful in discriminating the occurrence and development of wildfires as well as the distribution over Portugal of surface climatic variables with impact in wildfire activity such as maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. This work aims to present: (i) an overview the existing circulation classification for the Iberian Peninsula, and (ii) the results of a comparison study between these atmospheric circulation classifications based on its relation with wildfires and relevant meteorological

  8. Organizational Member Involvement in Physical Activity Coalitions across the United States: Development and Testing of a Novel Survey Instrument for Assessing Coalition Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Daniel B.; Pate, Russell R.; Beets, Michael W.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Coalitions are often composed of member organizations. Member involvement is thought to be associated with coalition success. No instrument currently exists for evaluating organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions. This study aimed to develop a survey instrument for evaluating organizational member involvement…

  9. Outbreak of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus in Portugal, 2015.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, J R; Hakze-van der Honing, R; Almeida, A; Lourenço, M; van der Poel, W H M; Nascimento, M S J

    2015-12-01

    An outbreak of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in the South of Portugal in January 2015 and the spread of PEDV northwards in the territory are described. Comparative analysis of the amplified sequences showed a very high (99.0%) identity with the PEDV variant most recently reported in the United States and also show complete (100%) identity to the strains recently reported in Germany, supporting the hypothesis that a unique strain is currently circulating in Europe. The origin of this PEDV variant still needs to be elucidated and further studies in the remaining European countries may contribute to the knowledge.

  10. Ecole et communaute au Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Alberto

    1980-09-01

    Since 1974 Portugal has experienced some dramatic changes in educational practices at the local level. The school has been opened to the community and the community to the school. Teacher education now includes community studies, designed to prepare teachers for an active role in this process and for the better understanding of the social background of pupils. One new practice is the publication of local newspapers or news-sheets to enhance the understanding of the community by teachers and pupils. The development of a school garden for the cultivation of flowers and vegetables serves as another bridge between school and community. Other examples of community action are adult literacy classes, the creation of voluntary organisations for women, the running of youth clubs, the formation of co-operatives, and local projects like the purchase of an old tram-car to be converted into a library. The introduction of `Civic and Polytechnic Education' for 13-16 year olds was an important innovation. One half-day a week was to be devoted to the integration of the school with the locality, young people's participation in society as agents of change, the linking of study and productive work, and the involvement of young people in the solution of national problems, working from a concrete knowledge of local and regional life. However, since 1976 there has been a more conservative approach, and only in places with a strong consensus amongst teachers has the new relationship between school and community been maintained.

  11. The Voices of Non-Adopters: Members of the Virginia and Nebraska State Boards of Education on Why Their States Did Not Adopt the Common Core Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Education Standard, 2012

    2012-01-01

    On June 24, 2010, the Virginia Board of Education unanimously adopted a statement expressing its continuing commitment to Virginia's Standards of Learning (SOL) and opposition to making participation in federal grant and entitlement programs contingent on word-for-word adoption of the newly developed Common Core State Standards in reading and…

  12. Complete and draft genome sequences of six members of the Aquificales.

    PubMed

    Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; Hamamura, N; Podar, M; Griffiths, E; Ferreira, S; Hochstein, R; Heidelberg, J; Johnson, J; Mead, D; Pohorille, A; Sarmiento, M; Schweighofer, K; Seshadri, R; Voytek, M A

    2009-03-01

    The Aquificales are widespread in marine and terrestrial hydrothermal environments. Here, we report the complete and draft genome sequences of six new members of the Aquificales: two marine species, Persephonella marina strain EX-H1 and Hydrogenivirga strain 128-5-R1 (from the East Pacific Rise, 9 degrees 50.3'N, 104 degrees 17.5'W, and the Eastern Lau Spreading Center, 176 degrees 11.5'W, 20 degrees 45.8'S, respectively), and four terrestrial isolates, Sulfurihydrogenibium azorense strain Az-Fu1, Sulfurihydrogenibium yellowstonense strain SS-5, and Sulfurihydrogenibium strain Y03AOP1 (from Furnas, Azores, Portugal, and Calcite Springs and Obsidian Pool in Yellowstone National Park, United States, respectively), and the only thermoacidophilic isolate, Hydrogenobaculum strain Y04AAS1 (from a stream adjacent to Obsidian Pool). Significant differences among the different species exist that include nitrogen metabolism, hydrogen utilization, chemotaxis, and signal transduction, providing insights into their ecological niche adaptations.

  13. Czech Republic to Become Member of ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Today, an agreement was signed in Prague between ESO and the Czech Republic, aiming to make the latter become a full member of ESO as of 1 January 2007. "The future membership of the Czech Republic in ESO opens for the Czech astronomers completely new opportunities and possibilities. It will foster this discipline on the highest quality level and open new opportunities for Czech industry to actively cooperate in research and development of high-tech instruments for astronomical research," said Miroslava Kopicová, Minister of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic. ESO PR Photo 52/06 ESO PR Photo 52/06 Signing Ceremony "We warmly welcome the Czech Republic as the thirteenth member of ESO," said Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General. "The timing couldn't be better chosen: with the Very Large Telescope, Europe is now at the forefront of ground-based astronomy, and with the construction of ALMA and the final studies for the European Extremely Large Telescope, we will ensure that this will remain so for several decades. We look forward to working together with our Czech colleagues towards these successes." The signing event took place at the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports in Prague. Following ratification by the Czech Parliament, the Czech Republic with thus join the twelve present member states of ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere: Belgium, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The Czech Republic is the first country from Central and Eastern Europe to join ESO. Astronomy in the Czech Republic has a very long tradition that dates from as far back as 3500 BC. Four centuries ago, Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler established themselves in Prague at the invitation of the emperor Rudolph II, laying the ground for the first golden age in astronomy. Later, eminent scientists such as Christian Doppler, Ernst Mach and

  14. 7 CFR 1205.328 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.328 Alternate members. An alternate member of the... member from the same cotton-producing state or region to serve in such member's place and stead of...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.328 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.328 Alternate members. An alternate member of the... member from the same cotton-producing state or region to serve in such member's place and stead of...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.328 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.328 Alternate members. An alternate member of the... member from the same cotton-producing state or region to serve in such member's place and stead of...

  17. Taking New Paths: Experiential Education in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Katia

    2008-01-01

    Pressley Ridge is a non-profit organization that provides an array of treatment services to at-risk and developmentally delayed children that allow them to remain close to their families and communities. In 2007 Pressley Ridge Portugal started an experiential education and adventure therapy center. This pilot project aims to help participants…

  18. Child Poverty in Portugal: Dimensions and Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastos, Amelia; Nunes, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the extent and persistence of child poverty in Portugal between 1995 and 2001. Data from the Portuguese component of the European Community Household Panel Survey (ECHP) are used to estimate child poverty rates and children's flows in and out of poverty. The article focuses upon an analysis based on family income and on a set…

  19. Rickettsia slovaca infection in humans, Portugal.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Rita; Pereira, Branca Isabel; Nazareth, Claúdia; Cabral, Susana; Ventura, Conceição; Crespo, Pedro; Marques, Nuno; da Cunha, Saraiva

    2013-10-01

    Fifteen years after the initial detection of Rickettsia slovaca in ticks in Portugal, 3 autochthonous cases of R. slovaca infection were diagnosed in humans. All patients had an eschar on the scalp and lymphadenopathy; 2 patients had facial edema. R. slovaca infection was confirmed by serologic testing, culture, and PCR.

  20. Chemical ligation of S-scylated cysteine peptides to form native peptides via 5-, 11-, and 14-membered cyclic transition states.

    PubMed

    Katritzky, Alan R; Tala, Srinivasa R; Abo-Dya, Nader E; Ibrahim, Tarek S; El-Feky, Said A; Gyanda, Kapil; Pandya, Keyur M

    2011-01-01

    Cysteine-containing dipeptides 3a-l, (3b+3b') (compound numbers in parentheses are used to indicate racemic mixtures; thus (3b+3b') is the racemate of 3b and 3b'), and tripeptide 13 were synthesized in 68-96% yields by acylation of cysteine with N-(Pg-α-aminoacyl)- and N-(Pg-α-dipeptidoyl)benzotriazoles (where Pg stands for protecting group in the nomenclature for peptides throughout the paper) in the presence of Et(3)N. Cysteine-containing peptides 3a-l and 13 were S-acylated to give S-(Pg-α-aminoacyl)dipeptides 5a-l and S-(Pg-α-aminoacyl)tripeptide 14 without racemization in 47-90% yields using N-(Pg-α-aminoacyl)benzotriazoles 2 in CH(3)CN-H(2)O (7:3) in the presence of KHCO(3). (In our peptide nomenclature, the prefixes di-, tri-, etc. refer to the number of amino acid residues in the main peptide chain; amino acid residues attached to sulfur are designated as S-acyl peptides. Thus we avoid use of the prefix "iso".) Selective S-acylations of serine peptide 3k and threonine peptide 3l containing free OH groups were thus achieved in 58% and 72% yield, respectively. S-(Pg-α-aminoacyl)cysteines 4a,b underwent native chemical ligations to form native dipeptides 3f,i via 5-membered cyclic transition states. Microwave irradiation of S-(Pg-α-aminoacyl)tripeptide 15 and S-(Pg-α-aminoacyl)tetrapeptide 17 in the presence of NaH(2)PO(4)/Na(2)HPO(4) buffer solution at pH 7.8 achieved chemical ligations, involving intramolecular migrations of acyl groups, via 11- and 14-membered cyclic transition states from the S-atom of a cysteine residue to a peptide terminal amino group to form native peptides 19 and 20 in isolated yields of 26% and 23%, respectively. PMID:21158395

  1. Availability and Use of HIV Monitoring and Early Infant Diagnosis Technologies in WHO Member States in 2011–2013: Analysis of Annual Surveys at the Facility Level

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Nathan; Low-Beer, Daniel; Nkengasong, John; Sands, Anita; Pérez González, Mercedes; Fernandes, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Background The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 targets have reinforced the importance of functioning laboratory services to ensure prompt diagnosis and to assess treatment efficacy. We surveyed the availability and utilization of technologies for HIV treatment monitoring and early infant diagnosis (EID) in World Health Organization (WHO) Member States. Methods and Findings The survey questionnaire included 14 structured questions focusing on HIV testing, cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) testing, HIV viral load (VL) testing, and EID and was administered annually from 2012 to 2014 through WHO country offices, with each survey covering the previous 12-mo period. Across 127 targeted countries, survey response rates were 60% in 2012, 67% in 2013, and 78% in 2014. There were encouraging trends towards increased procurement of CD4 and VL/EID instruments in reporting countries. Globally, the capacity of available CD4 instruments was sufficient to meet the demand of all people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), irrespective of treatment status (4.62 theoretical tests per PLWHA in 2013 [median 7.33; interquartile range (IQR) 3.44–17.75; median absolute deviation (MAD) 4.35]). The capacity of VL instruments was inadequate to cover all PLWHA in many reporting countries (0.44 tests per PLWHA in 2013 [median 0.90; IQR 0.30–2.40; MAD 0.74]). Of concern, only 13.7% of existing CD4 capacity (median 4.3%; IQR 1.1%–12.1%; MAD 3.8%) and only 36.5% of existing VL capacity (median 9.4%; IQR 2.3%–28.9%; MAD 8.2%) was being utilized across reporting countries in 2013. By the end of 2013, 7.4% of all CD4 instruments (5.8% CD4 conventional instruments and 11.0% of CD4 point of care [POC]) and 10% of VL/EID instruments were reportedly not in use because of lack of reagents, the equipment not being installed or deployed, maintenance, and staff training requirements. Major limitations of this survey included under-reporting and/or incomplete reporting in

  2. Water resource management: a comparative evaluation of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, the European Union, and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Ronaldo S; da Gloria Alves, Maria; Condesso de Melo, M Teresa; Chrispim, Zélia M P; Mendes, M Paula; Silva Júnior, Gerson C

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of water resource management in Brazil, in particular the state of Rio de Janeiro, and in the European Union, with an emphasis on member country Portugal. The study examines the primary laws, governing bodies and water resource plans. The paper describes the concerns and interests of the scientific community and other sectors of society with regard to water resource management. The paper also draws attention to challenges and opportunities concerning the main objective of water resource management, which is to ensure the availability of water of high quality and sustainable quantity. Additionally, it also mentions good and poor management practices. Among the concerns highlighted are integrated water resource management and water resource monitoring. The objective of this study was to contribute to water resource management processes. The primary reasons for this study are the growing scarcity of freshwater in the world, recurrent problems in managing this resource and a desire to contribute to the improvement of the current situation. The study of water management in different contexts allows for a greater understanding of the subject, thereby assisting the decision-making of managers and society in general with regard to environmental quality and ecological and human health. There is an increasing interest in efficient water resource management, which creates a demand for information on the subject. Both Brazil and the European Union are facing problems related to quantity and quality of water. Problems like scarcity of freshwater, contamination, salinization, and floods. This makes the realities of them quite close, despite the physical distance between them. In general, Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, the European Union and Portugal have similar water resource management requirements. If these regions are to supply a consistent quantity of high-quality water to present and future generations, then they need effective laws and plans

  3. Water resource management: a comparative evaluation of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, the European Union, and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Ronaldo S; da Gloria Alves, Maria; Condesso de Melo, M Teresa; Chrispim, Zélia M P; Mendes, M Paula; Silva Júnior, Gerson C

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of water resource management in Brazil, in particular the state of Rio de Janeiro, and in the European Union, with an emphasis on member country Portugal. The study examines the primary laws, governing bodies and water resource plans. The paper describes the concerns and interests of the scientific community and other sectors of society with regard to water resource management. The paper also draws attention to challenges and opportunities concerning the main objective of water resource management, which is to ensure the availability of water of high quality and sustainable quantity. Additionally, it also mentions good and poor management practices. Among the concerns highlighted are integrated water resource management and water resource monitoring. The objective of this study was to contribute to water resource management processes. The primary reasons for this study are the growing scarcity of freshwater in the world, recurrent problems in managing this resource and a desire to contribute to the improvement of the current situation. The study of water management in different contexts allows for a greater understanding of the subject, thereby assisting the decision-making of managers and society in general with regard to environmental quality and ecological and human health. There is an increasing interest in efficient water resource management, which creates a demand for information on the subject. Both Brazil and the European Union are facing problems related to quantity and quality of water. Problems like scarcity of freshwater, contamination, salinization, and floods. This makes the realities of them quite close, despite the physical distance between them. In general, Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, the European Union and Portugal have similar water resource management requirements. If these regions are to supply a consistent quantity of high-quality water to present and future generations, then they need effective laws and plans

  4. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Carolina M; Bio, Ana; Amat, Francisco; Vieira, Natividade

    2011-01-01

    Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend.It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others. Furthermore, with an adequate management, biodiversity can be restored to abandoned salinas, which constitute important feeding and breeding grounds for resident and migratory aquatic birds, many of which are protected by European Community Directives.The aims of this manuscript are to present a brief overview on the current state of sea salt exploitation in Portugal and to stress the importance of recovering these salinas for the conservation of this particular environment, for the regional economy, the scientific community and the general public. The Aveiro salina complex is presented in detail, to exemplify salina structure and functioning, as well as current problems and potential solutions for artisanal salinas. PMID:22053788

  5. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend. It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others. Furthermore, with an adequate management, biodiversity can be restored to abandoned salinas, which constitute important feeding and breeding grounds for resident and migratory aquatic birds, many of which are protected by European Community Directives. The aims of this manuscript are to present a brief overview on the current state of sea salt exploitation in Portugal and to stress the importance of recovering these salinas for the conservation of this particular environment, for the regional economy, the scientific community and the general public. The Aveiro salina complex is presented in detail, to exemplify salina structure and functioning, as well as current problems and potential solutions for artisanal salinas. PMID:22053788

  6. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Carolina M; Bio, Ana; Amat, Francisco; Vieira, Natividade

    2011-11-04

    Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend.It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others. Furthermore, with an adequate management, biodiversity can be restored to abandoned salinas, which constitute important feeding and breeding grounds for resident and migratory aquatic birds, many of which are protected by European Community Directives.The aims of this manuscript are to present a brief overview on the current state of sea salt exploitation in Portugal and to stress the importance of recovering these salinas for the conservation of this particular environment, for the regional economy, the scientific community and the general public. The Aveiro salina complex is presented in detail, to exemplify salina structure and functioning, as well as current problems and potential solutions for artisanal salinas.

  7. Hepatitis B and C surveillance and screening programmes in the non-EU/EEA Member States of the WHO European Region: survey findings from 10 countries, 2012.

    PubMed

    Mozalevskis, Antons; Eramova, Irina; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2016-06-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemics warrant a comprehensive response based on reliable population-level information about transmission, disease progression and disease burden, with national surveillance systems playing a major role. In order to shed light on the status of surveillance in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region outside of the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA), we surveyed 18 countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Among the 10 countries that responded, the common features of many surveillance systems included mandatory surveillance, passive case-finding and the reporting of both acute and chronic HBV and HCV. Only some countries had surveillance systems that incorporated the tracking of associated conditions and outcomes such as cirrhosis and liver transplantation. Screening programmes for some key populations appeared to be in place in many countries, but there may be gaps in relation to screening programmes for people who inject drugs, prisoners, sex workers and men who have sex with men. Nonetheless, important components of a surveillance structure are in place in the responding study countries. It is advisable to build on this structure to develop harmonised HBV and HCV surveillance for all 53 Member States of the WHO European Region following the example of the system recently instituted in EU/EEA countries. PMID:27277421

  8. Fishes and tetrapods in the upper pennsylvanian (kasimovian) cohn coal member of the mattoon formation of illinois, United States: Systematics, paleoecology, and paleoenvironments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, D.; Falcon-Lang, H. J.; Benton, M.J.; Nelson, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    A newly discovered vertebrate assemblage is reported from the Upper Pennsylvanian (mid-to upper Kasimovian) Cohn Coal Member of the Mattoon Formation of southeast Illinois, United States. Teeth, scales, and spines of xenacanth (Dicentrodus, Orthacanthus, Triodus, Xenacanthus) and euselachian (Sphenacanthus) sharks dominate the assemblage. Less common are the teeth, scales, and centra of holocephalan (Helodus) and actinopterygian fishes, together with rare tetrapod (mainly pelycosaur) phalanges and centra. The assemblage occurs within a broad, shallow channel incised into a prominent Vertisol. The channel is interpreted as having been cut during a seasonally dry glacial phase when sea level was low, but filled during a subsequent transgression triggered by deglaciation. We interpret this as a brackish water (estuarine) assemblage, based on the co-occurrence of the vertebrate material with spirorbids (putative microconchids) and paleoecological inferences gleaned from a critical analysis of the literature dealing with Pennsylvanian fish ecology. This interpretation is broadly consistent with taphonomic data and the results of 87Sr/86Sr isotope analysis of shark material. The pelycosaur material may have been reworked from the lowstand Vertisol, however, and these animals occupied dryland niches that developed during glacial phases. ?? 2011 SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  9. First steps in the design of a system to monitor vaccine effectiveness during seasonal and pandemic influenza in EU/EEA Member States.

    PubMed

    Valenciano, M; Ciancio, Bc; Moren, A

    2008-10-23

    Estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) early in the season helps measuring the consequences of a mismatch between the vaccine and the circulating strain and guiding alternative or complementary interventions. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control is funding a project to develop pilot studies to monitor IVE in the Member States (MS) of the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) during seasonal and pandemic influenza. To identify key methodological and practical issues in developing protocols for pilot studies, we conducted a survey among EU/EEA MS, a literature review on IVE methods, and consultations of experts. The survey and literature review highlighted the variety of the data sources used to estimate IVE and the difficulty to interpret data on IVE, which varies with age, risk group, outcome specificity and virus-vaccine mismatch. We also found that negative and positive confounding can bias IVE. The experts consultations lead to the following recommendations: to measure IVE in the same population in various seasons; to control for positive/negative confounding (including pre- and post-influenza season IVE estimates); and to include laboratory confirmation as outcome in various study designs. In the 2008-9 influenza season, two cohort studies using general practitioners' databases and six case control studies will be piloted in EU/EEA MS and will adhere to the above recommendations. The pilot studies will be the basis for the development of robust methods to monitor IVE in EU/EEA MS. PMID:18947520

  10. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(1)-1 - Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3401(a)(1)-1 Remuneration of... as a result of such service. Remuneration paid for active service as a member of the Armed Forces...

  11. [Comment on] BOSP members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The new Board on Ocean Science and Policy (BOSP) (Eos, June 7, 1983, p. 402) met for the first time on May 4. John B. Slaughter, former director of the National Science Foundation and now chancellor of the University of Maryland in College Park, is the board's chairman. Other board members are D. James Baker, Jr. (University of Washington, Seattle); Kirk Bryan (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton University); John P. Craven (University of Hawaii); Charles L. Drake (Dartmouth College); Paul M. Fye (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Edward D. Goldberg (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); G. Ross Heath (Oregon State University); Judith T. Kildow (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); John A. Knauss (University of Rhode Island); James J. McCarthy (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University); H. William Menard (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); C. Barry Raleigh (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory); Roger Revelle (University of California, San Diego); David A. Ross (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Brian J. Rothschild (University of Maryland); William M. Sackett (University of South Florida); John H. Steele (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); and Carl Wunsch (MIT). Wallace Broecker (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory), an original board member, resigned after the first meeting. Broecker told Eos that combining the science and policy boards resulted in a new board whose mission is too broad. A new board member will be appointed in Broecker's place

  12. A pilot validation in 10 European Union Member States of a point prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial use in acute hospitals in Europe, 2011.

    PubMed

    Reilly, J S; Price, L; Godwin, J; Cairns, S; Hopkins, S; Cookson, B; Malcolm, W; Hughes, G; Lyytikainen, O; Coignard, B; Hansen, S; Suetens, C

    2015-02-26

    We present a pilot validation study performed on 10 European Union (EU) Member States, of a point prevalence survey (PPS) of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial use in Europe in 2011 involving 29 EU/European Economic Area (EEA) countries and Croatia. A total of 20 acute hospitals and 1,950 patient records were included in the pilot study, which consisted of validation and inter-rater reliability (IRR) testing using an in-hospital observation approach. In the validation, a sensitivity of 83% (95% confidence interval (CI): 79–87%) and a specificity of 98% (95% CI: 98–99%) were found for HAIs. The level of agreement between the primary PPS and validation results were very good for HAIs overall (Cohen’s κappa (κ):0.81) and across all the types of HAIs (range: 0.83 for bloodstream infections to 1.00 for lower respiratory tract infections). Antimicrobial use had a sensitivity of 94% (95% CI: 93–95%) and specificity of 97% (95% CI: 96–98%) with a very good level of agreement (κ:0.91). Agreement on other demographic items ranged from moderate to very good (κ: 0.57–0.95): age (κ:0.95), sex (κ: 0.93), specialty of physician (κ: 0.87) and McCabe score (κ: 0.57). IRR showed a very good level of agreement (κ: 0.92) for both the presence of HAIs and antimicrobial use. This pilot study suggested valid and reliable reporting of HAIs and antimicrobial use in the PPS dataset. The lower level of sensitivity with respect to reporting of HAIs reinforces the importance of training data collectors and including validation studies as part of a PPS in order for the burden of HAIs to be better estimated.

  13. Establishment of heart teams in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Sousa Uva, M; Leite Moreira, A; Gavina, C; Pereira, H; Lopes, M G

    2014-01-01

    Whenever several therapeutic options exist, multidisciplinary decision-making is beneficial for the patient and for society at large. The main obstacles to the establishment of heart teams in Portugal are organizational and logistical. Implementing a heart team approach entails definition of the situations requiring multidisciplinary discussion, creation of clear lines of communication, written protocols and obtaining patient informed consent. The European Society of Cardiology guidelines define the clinical scenarios where intervention of the heart team is recommended.

  14. Poverty, social exclusion and health in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santana, Paula

    2002-07-01

    People in Portugal have never been so healthy. Nevertheless, there are great differences in health status between social groups and regions. In 1994, Portugal was the country with the second worst level of inequality in terms of income distribution and with the highest level of poverty in the European Union (EU). Poverty in Portugal affects mainly the elderly and women (especially in single parent families). Beyond these groups, there are the children, the ethnic minorities and the homeless. Substance abusers, the unemployed, and ex-prisoners are also strongly affected by situations of social exclusion and poverty. Although poverty has been an important issue on the political agenda in Portugal, it shows a worrying tendency to resist traditional Social Security interventions. In the late 1990s, however, welfare coverage rates appear to have risen. To what extent can poverty cause a worsening of health status? Is there any sustainable positive association between welfare and improved health status? How, to whom and when should actions to improve the health status of the disadvantaged be addressed, without subverting the health status of the rest of the population. It is also necessary to reveal the consequences of poor health to individuals, families and communities in terms of income, social empowerment and the ability to fulfil other needs. Finally, reflection on the role and effectiveness of traditional social security models is necessary, in order to improve the impact and adequacy of its interventions. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the knowledge about disadvantage, the current health situation of the most vulnerable groups in Portuguese society-those affected by poverty, deprivation and social exclusion-and to detect the constraints on access to health and health care. PMID:12137187

  15. [Portugal in the face of immigration].

    PubMed

    Guibentif, P

    1996-01-01

    The relatively recent phenomenon of migration into Portugal is broken down into three components: foreign immigrants, return of emigrants, and repatriation of those from the old African colonies in Angola and Mozambique. Changes in the flow of migrants since 1960 are noted, and the economic and social situation of the various groups of immigrants is examined. Changes in public policies aimed at addressing migration-related issues are also discussed. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  16. Multivariate statistical analysis of wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Ricardo; Caramelo, Liliana; Pereira, Mário

    2013-04-01

    Several studies demonstrate that wildfires in Portugal present high temporal and spatial variability as well as cluster behavior (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). This study aims to contribute to the characterization of the fire regime in Portugal with the multivariate statistical analysis of the time series of number of fires and area burned in Portugal during the 1980 - 2009 period. The data used in the analysis is an extended version of the Rural Fire Portuguese Database (PRFD) (Pereira et al, 2011), provided by the National Forest Authority (Autoridade Florestal Nacional, AFN), the Portuguese Forest Service, which includes information for more than 500,000 fire records. There are many multiple advanced techniques for examining the relationships among multiple time series at the same time (e.g., canonical correlation analysis, principal components analysis, factor analysis, path analysis, multiple analyses of variance, clustering systems). This study compares and discusses the results obtained with these different techniques. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005: "Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal". Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 This work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692, the project FLAIR (PTDC/AAC-AMB/104702/2008) and the EU 7th Framework Program through FUME (contract number 243888).

  17. Population diversity of Theileria annulata in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Jacinto; Salgueiro, Patrícia; Inácio, João; Amaro, Ana; Pinto, João; Tait, Andy; Shiels, Brian; Pereira da Fonseca, Isabel; Santos-Gomes, Gabriela; Weir, William

    2016-08-01

    The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria annulata causes tropical theileriosis, a severe disease of cattle that occurs across the Mediterranean littoral, the Middle East and Southern Asia. In the Mediterranean region, the disease has long been perceived as being a constraint to livestock production in North Africa and Turkey but was believed to have minimal impact in Southern European countries. It has recently been demonstrated that in Southern Portugal the prevalence of T. annulata is approximately 30%. While the population genetics of the parasite and the multiplicity of infection in the bovine host have been studied in a number of countries, no information is currently available on the composition of the parasite population in Southern Europe or its relationship to populations in bordering regions. A parasite genotyping system, based on micro- and mini-satellite amplification, was used to perform genetic analysis of T. annulata populations from T. annulata infected cattle in twelve farms in Southern Portugal. A diversity of genotypes and a high multiplicity of infection were found, suggesting that the parasite possesses a panmictic population in this region. In comparison with genotypes found in Tunisia and Turkey, parasites from Portugal form a genetically distinct group and show lower genetic diversity. PMID:27109468

  18. Population diversity of Theileria annulata in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Jacinto; Salgueiro, Patrícia; Inácio, João; Amaro, Ana; Pinto, João; Tait, Andy; Shiels, Brian; Pereira da Fonseca, Isabel; Santos-Gomes, Gabriela; Weir, William

    2016-08-01

    The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria annulata causes tropical theileriosis, a severe disease of cattle that occurs across the Mediterranean littoral, the Middle East and Southern Asia. In the Mediterranean region, the disease has long been perceived as being a constraint to livestock production in North Africa and Turkey but was believed to have minimal impact in Southern European countries. It has recently been demonstrated that in Southern Portugal the prevalence of T. annulata is approximately 30%. While the population genetics of the parasite and the multiplicity of infection in the bovine host have been studied in a number of countries, no information is currently available on the composition of the parasite population in Southern Europe or its relationship to populations in bordering regions. A parasite genotyping system, based on micro- and mini-satellite amplification, was used to perform genetic analysis of T. annulata populations from T. annulata infected cattle in twelve farms in Southern Portugal. A diversity of genotypes and a high multiplicity of infection were found, suggesting that the parasite possesses a panmictic population in this region. In comparison with genotypes found in Tunisia and Turkey, parasites from Portugal form a genetically distinct group and show lower genetic diversity.

  19. Health professionals moving to... and from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Joana Sousa; Conceição, Claudia; Pereira, Joel; Leone, Cláudia; Mendonça, Pedro; Temido, Marta; Vieira, Carlota Pacheco; Dussault, Gilles

    2014-02-01

    The mobility of health professionals in the European Union is a phenomenon which policy-makers must take into account to provide the conditions to adjust for demand and supply of health services. This paper presents the case of Portugal, a country which at the same time imports and exports health workers. Since the early 1990s Portugal became a destination country receiving foreign health care professionals. This situation is now changing with the current economic situation as fewer immigrants come and more Portuguese emigrate. Foreigners coming to Portugal do so in part for similar reasons that bring Portuguese to want to emigrate, mainly the search for better work conditions and professional development opportunities. The emigration of Portuguese health professionals is also stimulated by the difficulty for recently graduated nurses, dentists and diagnostic and therapeutic technicians to find employment, low salaries in the public and private sectors, heavy workloads, remuneration not related to performance and poor career prospects. The paradoxes described in this study illustrate the consequences of the absence of a policy for the health professions. Strategies based on evidence, and on an integrated information system that captures the dynamic evolution of the workforce in health are not only necessary but also a good investment.

  20. 32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Returning members, employees, and family members... THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas. The Air Force expects...

  1. 32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Returning members, employees, and family members... THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas. The Air Force expects...

  2. Survey of Organizational Structures and Allocation Procedures for Instructional, Research, and Faculty Office Space in Member Institutions of the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Alton L.

    A survey of member institutions in the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges pertaining to organizational structures and allocation procedures for instructional, research, and faculty office space has revealed that the organizational structure for allocating space was placed at the planning office, registrar office,…

  3. Initial Special Reports Submitted by Member States on the Action Taken by Them Upon the Recommendation Concerning the International Standardization of Library Statistics, Adopted by the General Conference During its Sixteenth Session. Item 21 of the Provisional Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Reports, some only partial, from the member states regarding their action on the topic of international standards for library statistics are presented. The 22 countries represented in this report are: Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Cuba, Dahomey, Denmark, Finland, France, Federal Republic of Germany, India, Israel, Japan, Libya, Nepal,…

  4. Tsunami flooding along Tagus estuary, Portugal, the 1531 event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.; Batlo, J.; Ferreira, H.

    2012-04-01

    TSUNAMI FLOODING ALONG TAGUS ESTUARY (PORTUGAL), THE 1531 EVENT The city of Lisbon one of the main towns in Europe between the XVI and XVIII centuries was severely damaged by two strong earthquakes: 1531-01-26 and 1755-11-01 and the companion tsunamis. In this study we present a re-evaluation of the data available for this event. The 26 January 1531 earthquake occurred between 4 and 5 am and was felt mainly in Lisbon and surroundings dwellings along the Tagus river estuary. The shock heavily destroyed Lisbon downtown causing approximately 1000 casualties Two foreshocks preceded the event: on the 2nd and the 7th January 1531, respectively. The maximum MSK intensity is IX, making it one of the most disastrous earthquakes in the recent history of Portugal. The historical descriptions clearly describe the observation of high waves and the ships touching the riverbed. Although, the difference between tsunamis and storms is sometimes unclear in some historical documents, in this case, the occurrence of the of the earthquake definitively states clearly excludes the hypothesis of a storm. Moreover, the king's chronicle clearly states the observation of high waves and the lack of wind. Other reports consistent with the occurrence of a tsunami are the observation of strong fluxes and refluxes in the river the division of islands into smaller ones and the observation of the riverbed. In this study we present a re-appraisal of the historical information available, a new isoseismal map and the relocation of the epicentre. Finally, we present a tsunami simulation and propagation along a section of 70 km along Tagus estuary compatible with the earthquake data and the historical accounts.

  5. Policy responses to viral hepatitis B and C among people who inject drugs in Member States of the WHO European region: a sub-analysis of the WHO 2013 global hepatitis policy survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Unsafe injections, through infectious bodily fluids, are a major route of transmission for hepatitis B and C. Viral hepatitis burden among people who inject drugs is particularly high in many Member States of central and Eastern Europe while national capacity and willingness to address it varies greatly. In 2013, the World Health Organization conducted a survey assessing national viral hepatitis efforts of 194 national governments. Here, we present a sub-analysis of this global survey focusing on questions relating to people who inject drugs in the WHO European Region. Methods The initial survey included 43 questions covering awareness, data, prevention, and screening and treatment. It was sent in five languages to identified national focal points. This sub-analysis included 11 questions and 53 Member States in the WHO European Region. Descriptive analyses of national activities are presented. As a secondary outcome bivariate analyses of differences between Member States of the European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) compared to those not in said grouping are presented. Results Forty-four of the 53 Member States responded to the survey (response rate of 83%). More than three-quarters reported offering publicly-funded treatment for HBV or HCV (82% and 80%, respectively), with a significantly higher proportion of EU/EFTA Member States (P=0.004 and P=0.010, respectively). Half of Member States (53%) reported the existence of a national policy for hepatitis prevention and control; however less than one-third (27%) reported having written national strategies. Under half of the responding Member States reported holding events for World Hepatitis Day 2012. One-fifth reported offering hepatitis B and C testing free of charge, with less than one-third reportedly conducting regular serosurveys among people who inject drugs. Conclusions Findings highlight key gaps requiring attention in order to improve national policies and programmes in the

  6. Understanding and Limiting School Board Member Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Terry; Jones, Stephanie; Purvis, Mary L.; Rubin, David B.; Thrasher, Doralee; Underwood, Julie; Watkins, W. David

    This book is a primer on board-member liability issues and is intended for both board members and school attorneys. The first chapter, "The Legal System," examines federal sources of legal authority, state and local sources of legal authority, and federal and state judicial structures. Liability under state tort law is the subject of chapter 2,…

  7. Natural background groundwater composition in the Azores archipelago (Portugal): a hydrogeochemical study and threshold value determination.

    PubMed

    Cruz, J V; Andrade, C

    2015-07-01

    Groundwater discharges were sampled in selected springs from São Miguel (Furnas and Fogo trachytic central volcanoes) and Santa Maria islands (Azores, Portugal), in order to characterize natural background levels (NBLs) and proceed to the determination of threshold values (TVs). Besides being a key issue in order to fully assess the anthropogenic pressures, NBLs are also instrumental to derive TVs, therefore complying with requirements from the European Union Groundwater Directive. The composition of groundwater corresponds mainly to low mineralized Na-HCO3 to Na-Cl water types, the latter dominant in Santa Maria island, with a decreasing order of Na>Ca>Mg>K and Cl>HCO3>SO4>NO3 for cations and anion respectively. The majority of the samples are slightly acid to slightly alkaline (pH range of 5.45-7.43), and the electrical conductivity range between 180 and 1458 μS/cm. Groundwater composition is controlled by two major drivers, addition of sea salts and dissolution of silicate minerals. Results shown that TVs established along the present study are in general in the lower rank when compared to the range of values proposed by the several EU member states, with the main exception of NO3, reflecting the impact of agriculture activities over water quality in the Azores, and lower than the national ones. The comparison between the estimated NBL and TV with values derived with another dataset from the Azores, usually higher, depicts the effect of a larger and diverse number of groundwater sources over calculations. On the other hand, all samples which show a contribution from volcanic/hydrothermal systems were excluded from the dataset, which explains why the derived NBLs and TVs are lower comparing to other active volcanic areas, which is also a conservative approach on a subject that has regulatory implications. PMID:25813965

  8. International Focus: Highlighting APPA Members Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazner, Steve, Comp.

    2011-01-01

    While most APPA member institutions are located in the United States and Canada, there are also 45 of member institutions located internationally--from Australia and New Zealand to Southeast Asia to the Middle East to Europe. This article focuses on four of its international members: (1) American University of Kuwait (AUK); (2) American University…

  9. Immigration and Supplementary Ethnic Schooling: Ukrainian Students in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tereshchenko, Antonina; Grau Cárdenas, Valeska Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Immigration from Eastern European countries to Portugal is a recent phenomenon. Within the last decade, economic migrants from Ukraine, Russia, Romania and Moldova set up a number of supplementary schools across the country. No academic attention has been given to the phenomenon of supplementary ethnic schools in Portugal, whilst there is a…

  10. First autochthone case of sporotrichosis by Sporothrix globosa in Portugal.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Veríssimo, Cristina; Sabino, Raquel; Aranha, João; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Sampaio, Paula; Pais, Célia

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we characterize the first autochthone case of human sporotrichosis reported in Lisbon, Portugal. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization revealed that the infection was caused by Sporothrix globosa. We conclude that sporotrichosis may be underdiagnosed particularly in Southern Europe and suggest Portugal as an emerging area for this fungal infection.

  11. OECD Review of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    On 26 February in Lisbon a team from the OECD's Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) presented its first review of a national school building programme. The school building renovation programme in Portugal, which began in March 2007, involves the renovation of 332 schools by 2015. However, Portugal plans to complete 205 by the end of…

  12. The Quest for Continuous Improvement: A Qualitative Study on Diffusion of Outcomes Assessment among Career and Technical Education Faculty Members at Rocky Mountain States Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The following qualitative multicase study presents an examination of outcomes assessment adoption as it relates to Career and Technical Education faculty at community colleges and outlines recommendations for postsecondary education administration as they introduce innovations to faculty members. The purpose of this investigation was to explore…

  13. A Descriptive Study of Superintendents' and School Board Members' Perceptions of the Superintendent's Leadership in Rural Districts in Three Mid-Atlantic States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Janet S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain if perceptual differences exist between superintendents and board members regarding superintendents' leadership behaviors in rural school districts. Transformational leadership is considered necessary for organizations to move forward in the 21st century. This research sought to determine if…

  14. 46 CFR 11.213 - Sea service as a member of the Armed Forces of the United States and on vessels owned by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... endorsement was obtained on surface vessels (e.g. If four years' total service were submitted for an original... service to be eligible for evaluation). (e) Service gained in a civilian capacity as commanding officer... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sea service as a member of the Armed Forces of...

  15. 46 CFR 11.213 - Sea service as a member of the Armed Forces of the United States and on vessels owned by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... endorsement was obtained on surface vessels (e.g. If four years' total service were submitted for an original... service to be eligible for evaluation). (e) Service gained in a civilian capacity as commanding officer... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sea service as a member of the Armed Forces of...

  16. 46 CFR 11.213 - Sea service as a member of the Armed Forces of the United States and on vessels owned by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... endorsement was obtained on surface vessels (e.g. If four years' total service were submitted for an original... service to be eligible for evaluation). (e) Service gained in a civilian capacity as commanding officer... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sea service as a member of the Armed Forces of...

  17. HIGH PREVALENCE OF Blastocystis spp. INFECTION IN CHILDREN AND STAFF MEMBERS ATTENDING PUBLIC URBAN SCHOOLS IN SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Rebolla, Mayra Frozoni; Silva, Eliete Maria; Gomes, Jancarlo Ferreira; Falcão, Alexandre Xavier; Rebolla, Maria Vicentina Frozoni; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-01-01

    After a gastroenteritis outbreak of unknown etiology in the municipality of Sebastião da Grama, São Paulo, Brazil, we conducted a parasitological survey to establish the epidemiological profile of enteroparasitosis in children and staff members attending the public urban schools in operation in town. The cross-sectional study evaluated 172 children aged 11 months to 6 years old and 33 staff members aged 19 to 58 years old. Overall, 96 (55.81%) children and 20 (60.61%) staff members were mono-parasitized, while 58 (33.72%) children and 4 (12.12%) workers were poly-parasitized. Protozoa (88.37%; 72.73%) was more prevalent than helminthes (3.48%; 0%) in children and staff members respectively.Blastocystis spp. was the most prevalent parasite in children (86.63%) and staff members (66.67%). The age of 1 year old or less was found to be associated with increased prevalence of giardiasis [OR = 13.04; 95%CI 2.89-58.91; p = 0.00] and public garbage collection was identified as a protective factor against intestinal helminth infections [OR = 0.06; 95%CI 0.00-0.79; p = 0.03]. Although most of the children tested positive for Blastocystis spp. and also presented clinical signs/symptoms (62.2%), this association was not statistically significant [OR = 1.35; 95%CI 0.53-3.44; p = 0.51]. Intestinal parasites still represent a public health concern and this study underscores the importance of further investigations to better understand the pathogenic role of Blastocystis spp. PMID:27074325

  18. HIGH PREVALENCE OF Blastocystis spp. INFECTION IN CHILDREN AND STAFF MEMBERS ATTENDING PUBLIC URBAN SCHOOLS IN SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    REBOLLA, Mayra Frozoni; SILVA, Eliete Maria; GOMES, Jancarlo Ferreira; FALCÃO, Alexandre Xavier; REBOLLA, Maria Vicentina Frozoni; FRANCO, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-01-01

    After a gastroenteritis outbreak of unknown etiology in the municipality of Sebastião da Grama, SãoPaulo, Brazil, we conducted a parasitological survey to establish the epidemiological profile of enteroparasitosis in children and staff members attending the public urban schools in operation in town. The cross-sectional study evaluated 172 children aged 11 months to 6 years old and 33 staff members aged 19 to 58 years old. Overall, 96 (55.81%) children and 20 (60.61%) staff members were mono-parasitized, while 58 (33.72%) children and 4 (12.12%) workers were poly-parasitized. Protozoa (88.37%; 72.73%) was more prevalent than helminthes (3.48%; 0%) in children and staff members respectively.Blastocystis spp. was the most prevalent parasite in children (86.63%) and staff members (66.67%). The age of 1 year old or less was found to be associated with increased prevalence of giardiasis [OR = 13.04; 95%CI 2.89-58.91; p = 0.00] and public garbage collection was identified as a protective factor against intestinal helminth infections [OR = 0.06; 95%CI 0.00-0.79; p = 0.03]. Although most of the children tested positive for Blastocystis spp. and also presented clinical signs/symptoms (62.2%), this association was not statistically significant [OR = 1.35; 95%CI 0.53-3.44; p = 0.51]. Intestinal parasites still represent a public health concern and this study underscores the importance of further investigations to better understand the pathogenic role of Blastocystis spp. PMID:27074325

  19. [Forensic telepsychiatry in Portugal: a few reflections].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Bruno; Cintra, Pedro; Vieira, Fernando; Santos, Jorge Costa

    2011-01-01

    Forensic Telepsychiatry has had growing usage in countries such as the USA and England in the last decade, due to ongoing development of technologies which allow a better access to mental health care in needed populations, and improve the outcome of technicians' work, while facing a more demanding performance of Mental Health facilities. In this article we make a revision of literature concerning applications of Forensic Telepsychiatry, analyzing its potencialities and limits in Portugal. The literature shows positive evidence about efficiency, cost and acceptance, to both patients and doctors. On the other hand, several authors rise issues related to technical, ethical and legal aspects, such as restrictions to its application in forensics; privacy, confidentiality, safety, consent, diagnostic skills and professional responsibility. Forensic Telepsychiatry has shown special utility in remote rural populations with poor access to mental health care, victims of domestic violence, victims of sexual abuse, minor inpatients in correctional facilities and convicts in prisons. It may improve exchange of information with courts and penitentiaries, and production of evidence through quick and efficacious auditing. It has also been used in court to communicate forensic reports concerning mental health patients, to clarify issues related to psychiatric evaluations and testify in criminal and civil courts. Besides the literature revision, three areas of applicability for Forensic Telepsychiatry in Portugal are discussed in this article: teleconference for experts - psychiatrists and psychologists - testifying in court sessions; psychiatric and psychological evaluations through teleconference; expert auditions through a hotline, designed to provide specialized support to courts - both for urgent guidance and clarification. The reflections and proposals included in this article aim to make way to empirical studies which could evaluate the applicability of a more widespread

  20. Characterization of Heterodera zeae Populations from Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Correia, F. J. S.; de O. Abrantes, I. M.

    2005-01-01

    Three populations of the corn cyst nematode Heterodera zeae, one found in the rhizosphere of a fig tree and two infecting corn, were studied using the morphology and morphometry of cysts and second-stage juveniles, and compared with other populations. The intrapopulation and intraspecific variability are discussed. A simple and improved technique to prepare vulval cones for SEM is described. The non-specific esterase patterns of females, isolated from infected corn, were analyzed by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. Two bands of esterase activity were detected. The occurrence of H. zeae is reported for the first time in Portugal and Europe. PMID:19262881

  1. The determinants of lottery sales in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Kaizeler, Maria João; Faustino, Horácio C; Marques, Rafael

    2014-09-01

    In sum, this paper examines the core determinants of lottery sales in Portugal. With panel data analysis covering 18 Portuguese districts and 5 years, this study explains the variations in a district's per-capita lottery sales in terms of key theoretical hypotheses such as per capita district income, age, education index, gender and religion. This paper concludes that the richer Portuguese districts spend more than the poorer districts and there is an inverted-U relationship between lottery sales and per capita income. The paper also concludes that married Catholic citizens spend more on lottery products than others and that the level of education returns a negative effect on lottery spending.

  2. A case of imported neurocysticercosis in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Valadas, Emilia; Badura, Robert; Marques, Tiago; Neno, Miguel; Boura, Márcia; Sutre, Ana Filipa; Beato, Sílvia; Grácio, Maria Amélia; Neves, José Cordeiro

    2015-01-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common cause of acquired epilepsy in resource-poor countries. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman born and residing in Guinea-Bissau, who was transferred to Portugal two months after the onset of a possible meningitis (fever, headache, seizures, and coma) that did not respond to antibiotic treatment. The diagnosis of NCC was confirmed by MR imaging, which showed multiple lesions compatible with cysticercus, and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the cerebrospinal fluid. After 28 days on albendazole and dexamethasone without improvement, she was started on praziquantel, which she completed in six weeks with progressive recovery.

  3. 46 CFR 11.213 - Sea service as a member of the Armed Forces of the United States and on vessels owned by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... United States and on vessels owned by the United States as qualifying experience. 11.213 Section 11.213... Armed Forces of the United States and on vessels owned by the United States as qualifying experience. (a... experience for an original, raise of grade, or increase in scope of all officer endorsements. In most...

  4. Status/update on activities of the Northeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission, a two-state Compact developing two sites, and its member states (Connecticut and New Jersey)

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, T.M.

    1996-10-01

    This paper provides a brief history and update of recent activities of the Northeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact and its member states. Both Connecticut and New Jersey have developed voluntary siting plans and are now engaged in extensive public outreach activities. The voluntary process has as one of its objectives {open_quotes}to help attain new levels of citizen responsibility for learning about public problems and participating in their solution,{close_quotes} to borrow from the 1994 annual report of the New Jersey Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Siting Board. This goal has implications beyond the siting of a LLRW disposal facility; i.e., how can government, working hand-in-hand with community residents and leaders build a public facility that meets stringent health, safety, and environmental standards, and has the endorsement of the host community? Throughout 1996, New Jersey and Connecticut will continue their outreach efforts, speaking to interested individuals, organizations and communities. In New Jersey, although two towns voted not to consider the possibility of volunteering, even after interest was initially expressed, people in a score of other municipalities have indicated that the disposal facility might, indeed, be an asset to their communities and that they would explore the issues with their friends and neighbors. Connecticut postponed active discussion with three towns based on the reopening of the disposal facility in Barnwell, South Carolina and the associated uncertainties this presented on the national scene. Connecticut does, however, plan on resuming public discussions in the near future. Those charged with implementing the voluntary siting process in both states believe that it can work; moreover, they are convinced that it might well be the type of process that American communities and governments embrace in the future to resolve complex, controversial public policy issues.

  5. School Law Primer for New Board Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullaly, Paula A.

    School board members from 50 states have in common the United States Constitution and the legal principles announced by the federal courts in response to that Constitution. New board members are usually concerned with the rights of teachers, parents, and students. Starting with student rights, student conduct that involves freedom of expression…

  6. Post-fire vegetation dynamics in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    The number of fires and the extent of the burned surface in Mediterranean Europe have increased significantly during the last three decades. This may be due either to modifications in land-use (e.g. land abandonment and fuel accumulation) or to climatic changes (e.g. reduction of fuel humidity), both factors leading to an increase of fire risk and fire spread. As in the Mediterranean ecosystems, fires in Portugal have an intricate effect on vegetation regeneration due to the complexity of landscape structures as well as to the different responses of vegetation to the variety of fire regimes. A thorough evaluation of vegetation recovery after fire events becomes therefore crucial in land management. In the above mentioned context remote sensing plays an important role because of its ability to monitor and characterise post-fire vegetation dynamics. A number of fire recovery studies, based on remote sensing, have been conducted in regions characterised by Mediterranean climates and the use of NDVI to monitor plant regeneration after fire events was successfully tested (Díaz-Delgado et al., 1998). In particular, several studies have shown that rapid regeneration occurs within the first 2 years after the fire occurrences, with distinct recovery rates according to the geographical facing of the slopes (Pausas and Vallejo, 1999). In 2003 Portugal was hit by the most devastating sequence of large fires, responsible by a total burnt area of 450 000 ha (including 280 000 ha of forest), representing about 5% of the Portuguese mainland (Trigo et al., 2006). The aim of the present work is to assess and monitor the vegetation behaviour over Portugal following the 2003 fire episodes. For this purpose we have used the regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument, from 1999 to 2008. We developed a methodology to identify large burnt scars in Portugal for the 2003 fire season. The vegetation dynamics was then

  7. Experiences of a Community-Based Lymphedema Management Program for Lymphatic Filariasis in Odisha State, India: An Analysis of Focus Group Discussions with Patients, Families, Community Members and Program Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Tali; Worrell, Caitlin M.; Little, Kristen; Prakash, Aishya; Patra, Inakhi; Rout, Jonathan; Fox, LeAnne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally 68 million people are infected with lymphatic filariasis (LF), 17 million of whom have lymphedema. This study explores the effects of a lymphedema management program in Odisha State, India on morbidity and psychosocial effects associated with lymphedema. Methodology/Principal Findings Focus groups were held with patients (eight groups, separated by gender), their family members (eight groups), community members (four groups) and program volunteers (four groups) who had participated in a lymphedema management program for the past three years. Significant social, physical, and economic difficulties were described by patients and family members, including marriageability, social stigma, and lost workdays. However, the positive impact of the lymphedema management program was also emphasized, and many family and community members indicated that community members were accepting of patients and had some improved understanding of the etiology of the disease. Program volunteers and community members stressed the role that the program had played in educating people, though interestingly, local explanations and treatments appear to coexist with knowledge of biomedical treatments and the mosquito vector. Conclusions/Significance Local and biomedical understandings of disease can co-exist and do not preclude individuals from participating in biomedical interventions, specifically lymphedema management for those with lymphatic filariasis. There is a continued need for gender-specific psychosocial support groups to address issues particular to men and women as well as a continued need for improved economic opportunities for LF-affected patients. There is an urgent need to scale up LF-related morbidity management programs to reduce the suffering of people affected by LF. PMID:26849126

  8. Constructing a strategic, national resource: European policies and the up-scaling of water services in the Algarve, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Water management has been significantly reshaped throughout recent decades in Europe and worldwide. Vivid examples of this restructuring include Southern European coastal zones which have been transformed into the European "pleasure periphery" over the last 40 years, requiring significant changes in water service provision. Taking it as an illustrative case of the Southern European coastal freshwater crisis and the way different European Member States have dealt with it, the article provides an account of the Algarve, indicative of typical Portuguese dynamics, and compares it with developments in other European countries. Expanding demands on water services in this region led to a crisis situation throughout the nineties, which was resolved by shifting physical infrastructures and competencies to the supra-local level. The re-scaling of water management was instrumental to expanding national control over the sector at the expense of local authorities and privatization. The national level used European funds and regulations to re-configure the institutional and infrastructure set-up in order to provide for tourism and agricultural expansion. Quality tourism was constructed as a decentral, hegemonic state spatial project, with the Algarvian's entire water resource base being put at its disposal. The solution found illustrates a modified version of the supply side and surface water oriented "hydraulic paradigm" in Portugal: geared towards tourism and urban areas and the maintenance of irrigation agriculture. Delays in infrastructures, ideological preferences, maintaining national control over strategic water services and territoriality contributed towards the construction of water services as part of this hegemonic state spatial strategy for tourism expansion.

  9. 7 CFR 7.15 - Eligibility requirements of county committee members, community committee members, and delegates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., community committee members, and delegates. 7.15 Section 7.15 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.15 Eligibility requirements of county committee members, community committee members,...

  10. Occupational exposure in Portugal in 1999.

    PubMed

    Alves, J G; Martins, M B; Amaral, E M

    2001-01-01

    This study reports the occupational radiation doses for external exposure received in 1999 by the radiation workers monitored by the Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety Department (DPRSN) in Portugal. Occupational exposures arise from conventional industry, research laboratories, the health or medical sector, and mining. There are no nuclear power plants in the country. There are two dosimetry systems running simultaneously at DPRSN, one based on film dosimetry and the other on thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). In 1999, 8400 persons were monitored, 3100 with film and 5300 with TLD and the data presented in this report were obtained by using both technologies. The annual mean effective doses received from external radiation in the different fields of activity and the distribution of the annual effective dose by dose intervals are presented. The collective annual dose by field of activity is estimated and the contribution to the total annual collective dose is determined. PMID:11586752

  11. Synthesis of a 35-Member Stereoisomer Library of Bistramide A: Evaluation of Effects on Actin State, Cell Cycle and Tumor Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Wrona, Iwona E.; Lowe, Jason T.; Turbyville, Thomas J.; Johnson, Tanya R.; Beignet, Julien; Beutler, John A.; Panek, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of a 35-member library of bistramide A stereoisomers are reported. All eight stereoisomers of the C1-C13 tetrahydropyran fragment of the molecule were prepared utilizing crotylsilane reagents 9 and 10 in our [4+2]-annulation methodology. In addition, the four isomers of the C14-C18 γ-amino acid unit were accessed via a Lewis acid mediated crotylation reaction using both enantiomers of organosilane 11. The spiroketal subunit of bistramide A was modified at the C39-alcohol to give another point of stereochemical diversification. The fragments were coupled using standard peptide coupling protocol to provide 35 stereoisomers of the natural product. These stereochemical analogs were screened for their effects on cellular actin and cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines (UO-31 renal and SF-295 CNS). The results of these assays identified one analog, 1.21, with enhanced potency relative to the natural product, bistramide A. PMID:19191575

  12. [Long-distance migration and its contexts: Portugal and Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rowland, R

    1992-08-01

    The author reviews migratory flows from Portugal to Brazil from the sixteenth century to the present. The focus is on the effect on each country's economic development, social characteristics, and demographic profile. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  13. Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India).

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2011-01-01

    We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses. PMID:21235790

  14. Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India).

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2011-01-14

    We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses.

  15. Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses. PMID:21235790

  16. Genetic Counseling in Portugal: Education, Practice and a Developing Profession.

    PubMed

    Paneque, Milena; Mendes, Álvaro; Saraiva, Jorge; Sequeiros, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    Portugal is one of the European countries where genetic counseling is emerging as an independent clinical and scientific field, paralleling the international expansion of this profession. Important steps have been consistently made towards establishing safe and ethical genetic counseling, delivered by adequately trained professionals. In 1998, Clinical Genetics was recognized in Portugal as a medical specialty. Eleven years later, the first generation of Portuguese (non MD) genetic counselors started a master level training programme at the University of Porto.

  17. PSI Member Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Professional Secretaries International, Kansas City, MO.

    A survey of 2,700 of the 27,000 members of Professional Secretaries International received 755 responses yielding the following profile of secretarial workers: (1) the average member is female, about 45 years old, married with no dependents living at home, and owns a single-family home in the suburbs; (2) most respondents have worked in office or…

  18. The Emergence of Community, State, and National Colleges in the OECS Member Countries: An Institutional Analysis. ISER (EC) Monograph Series No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Bevis F.

    This monograph describes and analyzes recent developments in national tertiary education institutions in the seven countries of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS): Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Monserrat, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Following prefatory materials, chapter 1 asks if…

  19. 32 CFR 1630.12 - Class 1-C: Member of the Armed Forces of the United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the Public Health Service. 1630.12... Marine Corps, the Coast Guard, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the Public Health... Department of Justice, Environmental Protection Agency, or the National Oceanic and...

  20. 32 CFR 1630.12 - Class 1-C: Member of the Armed Forces of the United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the Public Health Service. 1630.12... Marine Corps, the Coast Guard, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the Public Health... Department of Justice, Environmental Protection Agency, or the National Oceanic and...

  1. 32 CFR 1630.12 - Class 1-C: Member of the Armed Forces of the United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the Public Health Service. 1630.12... Marine Corps, the Coast Guard, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the Public Health... Department of Justice, Environmental Protection Agency, or the National Oceanic and...

  2. 32 CFR 1630.12 - Class 1-C: Member of the Armed Forces of the United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the Public Health Service. 1630.12... Marine Corps, the Coast Guard, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the Public Health... Department of Justice, Environmental Protection Agency, or the National Oceanic and...

  3. 32 CFR 1630.12 - Class 1-C: Member of the Armed Forces of the United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the Public Health Service. 1630.12... Marine Corps, the Coast Guard, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the Public Health... Department of Justice, Environmental Protection Agency, or the National Oceanic and...

  4. Burkholderia pseudomallei: First case of melioidosis in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pelerito, Ana; Nunes, Alexandra; Coelho, Susana; Piedade, Cátia; Paixão, Paulo; Cordeiro, Rita; Sampaio, Daniel; Vieira, Luís; Gomes, João Paulo; Núncio, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacillus and the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious infection associated with high mortality rate in humans. It can be naturally found as an environmental saprophyte in soil or stagnant water, and rice paddies that predominate in regions of endemicity such as Northeast Thailand. B. pseudomallei is a Biosafety Level 3 organism due to risks of aerosolization and severe disease and is now included in formal emergency preparedness plans and guidelines issued by various authorities in the United States and Europe. Here, we report the first case of imported melioidosis in Portugal. B. pseudomallei was isolated from the patient's blood as well as from a left gluteal abscess pus. The isolate strain showed the unusual resistance profile to first-line eradication therapy trimethroprim/sulfamethoxazole. Whole genome sequencing revealed its similarity with isolates from Southeast Asia, suggesting the Thai origin of this Portuguese isolate, which is in agreement with a recent patient's travel to Thailand. PMID:26962474

  5. Perspectives on contemporary history of science in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Simões, Ana; Carneiro, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula

    2008-01-01

    The task of writing about historiography of science in a European periphery such as Portugal is particularly difficult due to the unavailability of a systematic inventory of sources for the history of science. In this paper we select a group of 20th-century sources, having in view the extended timeline available to the sorts of questions which can be posed to the historical material. We opted to analyze representative probes for four different categories of sources: a journal (1937-1951); the proceedings of a congress organized in the context of a commemorative event (1940); the works of two historians of science (1950s onward); and finally commemorative volumes celebrating the anniversary of the Academy of Sciences of Lisbon (1986, 1992). Besides briefly describing authors' profiles, professional backgrounds, historical periods and scientific areas covered, we discuss the type of historical account produced. We conclude with a brief overview of the state of the discipline in the past fifteen years bearing in mind historiographical orientations.

  6. Burkholderia pseudomallei: First case of melioidosis in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Pelerito, Ana; Nunes, Alexandra; Coelho, Susana; Piedade, Cátia; Paixão, Paulo; Cordeiro, Rita; Sampaio, Daniel; Vieira, Luís; Gomes, João Paulo; Núncio, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacillus and the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious infection associated with high mortality rate in humans. It can be naturally found as an environmental saprophyte in soil or stagnant water, and rice paddies that predominate in regions of endemicity such as Northeast Thailand. B. pseudomallei is a Biosafety Level 3 organism due to risks of aerosolization and severe disease and is now included in formal emergency preparedness plans and guidelines issued by various authorities in the United States and Europe. Here, we report the first case of imported melioidosis in Portugal. B. pseudomallei was isolated from the patient's blood as well as from a left gluteal abscess pus. The isolate strain showed the unusual resistance profile to first-line eradication therapy trimethroprim/sulfamethoxazole. Whole genome sequencing revealed its similarity with isolates from Southeast Asia, suggesting the Thai origin of this Portuguese isolate, which is in agreement with a recent patient's travel to Thailand. PMID:26962474

  7. Ruminations of a Former School Board Member

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    The author describes his initial introduction to school board service. The historical context in which the author became a school board member is described as a means of highlighting the challenges that he faced as a new board member as well as the challenges that public education faced in the early and mid 1980s in a southern state. Stories and…

  8. Selection of homogeneous populations for genetic study: the Portugal genetics of psychosis project.

    PubMed

    Pato, C N; Azevedo, M H; Pato, M T; Kennedy, J L; Coelho, I; Dourado, A; Macedo, A; Valente, J; Ferreira, C P; Madeira, J; Gago da Camara, J; Moniz, M; Correia, C

    1997-05-31

    Molecular genetic studies of psychiatric disorders must face the possibility that despite the significant contribution of genetic factors to the expression of syndromes like schizophrenia, these syndromes may be a heterogeneous collection of genetic and non-genetic illnesses. These illnesses may be etiologically distinct from each other and still share many clinical features in common. Linkage studies of families with multiple affected members tend to favor the selection of genetic forms of a syndrome but can still represent a heterogeneous set of different genetic illnesses. To limit the potential genetic heterogeneity of a study sample, we selected a population that was geographically isolated and was historically relatively genetically homogeneous. We then assessed the relative level of homogeneity utilizing a surname analysis of the population of the Azores, mainland Portugal, rural USA, and urban USA. The average number of families with the same last name corrected for population size in the Azores is 30.88, in Coimbra it is 21.42, compared to 1.13 in a rural American population and 0.38 in an urban American population. The results of this analysis indicate that the Azores have the highest degree of homogeneity, and mainland Portugal has a high degree of homogeneity.

  9. 20. MEMBER 'A' SHOWS TENON AS USED IN POST 'A' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. MEMBER 'A' SHOWS TENON AS USED IN POST 'A' (TN-159A-19), MEMBER 'B' IS BEAM 'B' IN TN-159A-19 AND SHOWS METHOD OF JOINING THESE MEMBERS. MEMBER 'C' SHOWS MORTISE IN BEAM 'B'. - Caleb Crosby Threshing Barn, Noeton (moved to Norris Dam State Park, Lake City), Morristown, Hamblen County, TN

  10. 42 CFR 435.119 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that the State makes Medicaid available to any individual who meets the definition of “qualified family... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified family members. 435.119 Section 435.119... Family Members § 435.119 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is...

  11. [Career Satisfaction of Medical Residents in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Martins, Maria João; Laíns, Inês; Brochado, Bruno; Oliveira-Santos, Manuel; Teixeira, Pedro Pinto; Brandão, Mariana; Cerqueira, Rui João; Castro-Ferreira, Ricardo; Bernardes, Carlos; Menezes, Miguel Nobre; Baptista, Bernardo Soares; Ladeiras-Lopes, Ricardo; Rei, Mariana Cruz; Rosa, Gilberto Pires da; Martins, José Luís; Mendonça Sanches, Maria; Ferreira-Pinto, Manuel J; Rato, Margarida; Costa e Silva, Miguel; Policiano, Catarina; Beato, João; Barbosa-Breda, João; Torres, João Pimentel; Leal, Inês; Rosa, Sílvia Aguiar; Ribeiro, Bárbara Carvalho; Costa, Francisco Rego; Palmela, Carolina; Gonçalves, Tiago Cúrdia; Morais, Luis; Marques, Tiago Reis

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A satisfação com a profissão médica tem sido apontada como um fator essencial para a qualidade assistencial, o bemestar dos doentes e a estabilidade dos sistemas de saúde. Estudos recentes têm vindo a enfatizar um crescente descontentamento dos médicos, principalmente como consequência das alterações das relações laborais.Objetivos: Avaliar a perceção dos médicos de formação específica em Portugal, sobre as expectativas e grau de satisfação com a profissão, especialidade e local de formação; razões da insatisfação e intenção de emigrar.Material e Métodos: Estudo transversal. A colheita de dados foi efetuada entre Maio e Agosto de 2014 através de um Inquérito online sobre a âÄúSatisfação com a EspecialidadeâÄù.Resultados: De uma população total de 5788 médicos, foram obtidas 804 respostas (12,25% do total de médicos internos). Desta amostra, 77% das respostas correspondem a internos dos três primeiros anos de formação. Verificou-se que 90% dos médicos se encontram satisfeitos com a especialidade, tendo-se encontrado também níveis elevados de satisfação com a profissão (85%) e local de formação (86%). Por outro lado, constatou-se que estes diminuíam com a progressão ao longo dos anos de internato. A avaliação global sobre o panorama da prática médica foi negativa e 65% dos médicos responderam que consideram emigrar após conclusão do internato.Conclusão: Os médicos internos em Portugal apresentam níveis positivos de satisfação com a sua profissão. No entanto, a sua opinião sobre o panorama da Medicina e os resultados relativos à intenção de emigrar alertam para a necessidade de tomada de medidas para inverter este cenário.

  12. Real-Time Seismology in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, S.; Marreiros, C.; Carvalho, S.; Vales, D.; Lima, V.; Carrilho, F.

    2012-12-01

    Portugal is located next to the plate boundary between Eurasia (Iberia) and Africa (Nubia). The country has been repeatedly affected by some of the largest earthquakes, both onshore and offshore, in the historical European record, including the largest historical European earthquake, the great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 (~M8.5). The Portuguese territory has suffered directly the consequences of strong ground shaking (collapse of buildings, etc) and also some of the most destructive consequences of earthquakes (e.g. tsunamis, fires, etc). However, the rate of tectonic deformation in the Portuguese territory is low (the Eurasian-African plates converge at a rate of ~ 5 mm/yr), which results in long recurrence intervals between earthquakes. This low to moderate rate of seismic activity has two major negative effects: 1) it is difficult to study the regional seismo-tectonics with traditional passive methods; 2) the population is little aware of earthquake risk and unprepared to react in case of disaster. In this scenario, real-time seismology is key to monitoring earthquake crisis in real-time, providing early warnings about potentially destructive events, and assisting in the channeling of recovery efforts in case of disaster. In this paper we will present the real-time algorithms implemented at Instituto de Meteorologia (IM), the institution responsible for seismic monitoring in Portugal. In particular, we will focus on the following aspects: 1) Data collection and real-time transmission to the headquarters. Broadband seismological stations are owned and operated by five different institutions. The last years have witnessed an effort for integration, and presently most data arrives at IM lab in real-time. 2) Earthquake location and local magnitude determination. Data is automatically analyzed in order to obtain a first earthquake hypocenter and ML. While this process is mostly automatic, it still requires the revision by an operator, who is available 24h. 3

  13. Catalogue of the Krantz Brachiopod Collection at the Science Museum of the University of Coimbra (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Schemm-Gregory, Mena; Henriques, Maria Helena

    2013-01-01

    The specimens of the Krantz Brachiopod Collection of the Science Museum of the University of Coimbra (Portugal) are revised according to modern taxonomy and presented in systematic order according to inventory number, type species, figured representative and, as far as possible, detailed information regarding stratigraphy and collecting localities. The collection itself contains 170 lots yielding 474 specimens and representing 15 of the 27 brachiopod orders. The material comes from Europe, Russia, and the United States and represents all Palaeozoic and Mesozoic periods; the majority of the brachiopods are from the Devonian of Germany, mostly collected in classical outcrops from the Rhenish Slate Mountains, many of which are no longer accessible.

  14. User Working Group Members

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-29

    ... Charles Ichoku Member NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) charles.ichoku@nasa.gov Brian Kahn ... Hal Maring SMD Representative NASA Headquarters Program Scientist hal.maring@nasa.gov   ASDC ...

  15. Aflatoxins in spices marketed in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Martins, H M; Bernardo, F

    2001-04-01

    Seventy-nine prepackaged samples of 12 different types of spice powders (five cardamom, five cayenne pepper, eight chilli, five cloves, seven cumin, five curry) powder, five ginger, five mustard, 10 nutmeg, 12 paprika, five saffron and seven white pepper) were selected from supermarkets and ethnic shops in Lisbon (Portugal) for estimation of aflatoxins by immunoaffinity column clean-up followed by HPLC. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was detected in 34 samples of prepackaged spices (43.0%). All of the cayenne pepper samples were contaminated with levels ranging from 2 to 32 microg AFB1/kg. Three nutmeg samples contained levels ranging from 1 to 5 microg/kg, three samples had levels ranging from 6 to 20 microg/kg, and there were two with 54 microg/kg and 58 microg/ kg. Paprika contained levels of aflatoxin B1 ranging from 1 to 20 microg/kg. Chilli, cumin, curry powder, saffron and white pepper samples had levels ranging from 1 to 5 microg/kg. Aflotoxins were not detected in cardamon, cloves, ginger and mustard. None of the samples analysed contained aflatoxins B2, G1 and G2. PMID:11339266

  16. Structure of 1,5-benzodiazepinones in the solid state and in solution: Effect of the fluorination in the six-membered ring

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Torralba, Marta; Ángeles García, M; López, Concepción; Torralba, M Carmen; Rosario Torres, M; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José

    2013-01-01

    Summary Two novel tetrafluorinated 1,5-benzodiazepinones were synthesized and their X-ray structures determined. 6,7,8,9-Tetrafluoro-4-methyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,5-benzodiazepin-2-one crystallizes in the monoclinic P21/c space group and 6,7,8,9-tetrafluoro-1,4-dimethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,5-benzodiazepin-2-one in the triclinic P−1 space group. Density functional theory studies at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level were carried out on these compounds and on four non-fluorinated derivatives, allowing to calculate geometries, tautomeric energies and ring-inversion barriers, that were compared with the experimental results obtained by static and dynamic NMR in solution and in solid state. PMID:24204428

  17. Exposure assessment and initial intervention regarding fish consumption of tribal members of the Upper Great Lakes Region in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dellinger, John A

    2004-07-01

    The Ojibwe Health Study (OHS) has concluded 10 years of data collection and exposure assessment. Eight hundred and twenty-two participants from tribes in the states of Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota (USA) completed fish consumption and environmental risk perception questionnaires. Many participants provided hair and blood samples for mercury and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residue analyses as body burden indicators of these persistent environmental pollutants. Fish were collected by the tribal organizations and contaminants were analyzed for numerous tribal reports and professional environmental journal articles, these data were used by the Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission to produce tribal-specific geographic information systems maps as part of a public health intervention strategy. These maps are currently available at for six Wisconsin tribes that regularly harvest walleye. To determine the health impacts (if any) of pollutants on cancer, diabetes, and reproduction, it was necessary to know the recent trends in key indicators such as cancer mortality ratios and birth gender ratios. The Great Lakes Inter-Tribal Council provided the OHS and each participating tribe in Wisconsin and Michigan with a health profile. Total fish consumption (estimated by recall) for 720 tribal participants was self-reported as 60 g/day, but the highest actual consumption was measured as 11.2 g/day in one of the tribal groups. The highest blood concentrations in tribal participants were 18.6 ppb total serum PCBs and 11.8 ppb total blood mercury. Ninety percent of the participants had less than 3.8 ppb total serum PCBs and 2.6 ppb total blood mercury. Compared to other studies of subsistence fishing populations, these exposures were only moderately elevated and not high enough to warrant widespread restrictions on diets. Furthermore, the benefits of eating a fish diet must be continually emphasized. However, sport fishermen and their families who consume larger and

  18. Spatial and temporal variability of droughts in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, JoãO. Filipe; Pulido-Calvo, Inmaculada; Portela, Maria Manuela

    2010-03-01

    An analysis of droughts in mainland Portugal based on monthly precipitation data, from September 1910 to October 2004, in 144 rain gages distributed uniformly over the country is presented. The drought events were characterized by means of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) applied to different time scales (1, 6, and 12 consecutive months and 6 months from April to September and 12 months from October to September). To assess spatial and temporal patterns of droughts, a principal component analysis (PCA) and K-means clustering (KMC) were applied to the SPI series. In this way, three different and spatially well-defined regions with different temporal evolution of droughts were identified (north, central, and south regions of Portugal). A spectral analysis of the SPI patterns obtained with principal component analysis and clusters analysis, using the fast Fourier transform algorithm (FFT), showed that there is a manifest 3.6-year cycle in the SPI pattern in the south of Portugal and evident 2.4-year and 13.4-year cycles in the north of Portugal. The observation of the drought periods supports the occurrence of more frequent cycles of dry events in the south (droughts from moderate to extreme approximately every 3.6 years) than in the north (droughts from severe to extreme approximately every 13.4 years). These results suggest a much stronger immediate influence of the NAO in the south than in the north of Portugal, although these relations remain a challenging task.

  19. Complete and draft genome sequences of six members of the Aquificales.

    PubMed

    Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; Hamamura, N; Podar, M; Griffiths, E; Ferreira, S; Hochstein, R; Heidelberg, J; Johnson, J; Mead, D; Pohorille, A; Sarmiento, M; Schweighofer, K; Seshadri, R; Voytek, M A

    2009-03-01

    The Aquificales are widespread in marine and terrestrial hydrothermal environments. Here, we report the complete and draft genome sequences of six new members of the Aquificales: two marine species, Persephonella marina strain EX-H1 and Hydrogenivirga strain 128-5-R1 (from the East Pacific Rise, 9 degrees 50.3'N, 104 degrees 17.5'W, and the Eastern Lau Spreading Center, 176 degrees 11.5'W, 20 degrees 45.8'S, respectively), and four terrestrial isolates, Sulfurihydrogenibium azorense strain Az-Fu1, Sulfurihydrogenibium yellowstonense strain SS-5, and Sulfurihydrogenibium strain Y03AOP1 (from Furnas, Azores, Portugal, and Calcite Springs and Obsidian Pool in Yellowstone National Park, United States, respectively), and the only thermoacidophilic isolate, Hydrogenobaculum strain Y04AAS1 (from a stream adjacent to Obsidian Pool). Significant differences among the different species exist that include nitrogen metabolism, hydrogen utilization, chemotaxis, and signal transduction, providing insights into their ecological niche adaptations. PMID:19136599

  20. Complete and draft genome sequences of six members of the aquificales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reysenbach, A.-L.; Hamamura, N.; Podar, M.; Griffiths, E.; Ferreira, S.; Hochstein, R.; Heidelberg, J.; Johnson, J.; Mead, D.; Pohorille, A.; Sarmiento, M.; Sehweighofer, K.; Seshadri, R.; Voytek, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The Aquificales are widespread in marine and terrestrial hydrothermal environments. Here, we report the complete and draft genome sequences of six new members of the Aquificales: two marine species, Persephonella marina strain EX-H1 and Hydrogenivirga strain 128-5-R1 (from the East Pacific Rise, 9??50.3???N, 104??17.5???W, and the Eastern Lau Spreading Center, 176??11.5???W, 20??45.8???S, respectively), and four terrestrial isolates, Sulfuri-hydrogenibium azorense strain Az-Ful, Sulfurihydrogenibium yellowstonense strain SS-5, and Sulfurihydro-genibium strain Y03AOP1 (from Furnas, Azores, Portugal, and Calcite Springs and Obsidian Pool in Yellowstone National Park, United States, respectively), and the only thermoacidophilic isolate, Hydrogenobaculum strain Y04AAS1 (from a stream adjacent to Obsidian Pool). Significant differences among the different species exist that include nitrogen metabolism, hydrogen utilization, Chemotaxis, and signal transduction, providing insights into their ecological niche adaptations. Copyright ?? 2009, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Lifelong Education and Learning, Societal Project and Competitive Advantage: Tensions and Ambivalences in Policy and Planning of Educational Change in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Fátima; Guimarães, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Both the Portuguese appropriation of the lifelong learning policy proposed by the European Union since the mid-1990s and the definition of adult education policy in Portugal were based on a discourse that emphasised an "unacceptable educational deficit" for democracy. The role of the State in the "governance" of the public…

  2. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Theileria spp. parasites in autochthonous bovines (Mirandesa breed) in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Brígido, Clarisse; da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira; Parreira, Ricardo; Fazendeiro, Isabel; do Rosário, Virgílio E; Centeno-Lima, Sónia

    2004-08-13

    A survey was conducted during the months of April-June 2003 in the northeast Portugal (Bragança district) in order to characterize the hemoparasite population of an autochthonous Mirandesa breed of Bos taurus. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the bovine blood revealed that 3 out of 116 animals were infected with Theileria and/or Babesia parasites, while reverse line blot hybridisation (RLB) analysis showed that these animals were infected with Theileria buffeli/orientalis. Cloning and sequencing confirmed the RLB results. Database sequence searches combined with phylogenetic analysis of the partial 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences obtained enabled us to place the parasites in question as members of the T. buffeli/orientalis group, confirming the PCR/RLB diagnosis.

  3. New evidence of shared dinosaur across Upper Jurassic Proto-North Atlantic: Stegosaurus from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Escaso, Fernando; Ortega, Francisco; Dantas, Pedro; Malafaia, Elisabete; Pimentel, Nuno L; Pereda-Suberbiola, Xabier; Sanz, José Luis; Kullberg, José Carlos; Kullberg, María Carla; Barriga, Fernando

    2007-05-01

    More than one century after its original description by Marsh in 1877, we report in this paper the first uncontroversial evidence of a member of the genus Stegosaurus out of North America. The specimen consists of a partial skeleton from the Upper Jurassic of Portugal, herein considered as Stegosaurus cf. ungulatus. The presence of this plated dinosaur in the upper Kimmeridgian-lower Tithonian Portuguese record and synchronic levels of the Morrison Formation of North America reinforces previous hypothesis of a close relationship between these two areas during the Late Jurassic. This relationship is also supported by geotectonic evidences indicating high probability of an episodic corridor between the Newfoundland and Iberian landmasses. Together, Portuguese Stegosaurus discovery and geotectonic inferences could provide a scenario with episodical faunal contact among North Atlantic landmasses during the uppermost Kimmeridgian-lowermost Tithonian (ca. 148-153 Ma ago).

  4. New evidence of shared dinosaur across Upper Jurassic Proto-North Atlantic: Stegosaurus from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escaso, Fernando; Ortega, Francisco; Dantas, Pedro; Malafaia, Elisabete; Pimentel, Nuno L.; Pereda-Suberbiola, Xabier; Sanz, José Luis; Kullberg, José Carlos; Kullberg, María Carla; Barriga, Fernando

    2007-05-01

    More than one century after its original description by Marsh in 1877, we report in this paper the first uncontroversial evidence of a member of the genus Stegosaurus out of North America. The specimen consists of a partial skeleton from the Upper Jurassic of Portugal, herein considered as Stegosaurus cf. ungulatus. The presence of this plated dinosaur in the upper Kimmeridgian-lower Tithonian Portuguese record and synchronic levels of the Morrison Formation of North America reinforces previous hypothesis of a close relationship between these two areas during the Late Jurassic. This relationship is also supported by geotectonic evidences indicating high probability of an episodic corridor between the Newfoundland and Iberian landmasses. Together, Portuguese Stegosaurus discovery and geotectonic inferences could provide a scenario with episodical faunal contact among North Atlantic landmasses during the uppermost Kimmeridgian-lowermost Tithonian (ca. 148-153 Ma ago).

  5. Feline thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Soares, Carla; Ramalho Sousa, Sérgio; Anastácio, Sofia; Goreti Matias, Maria; Marquês, Inês; Mascarenhas, Salvador; João Vieira, Maria; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-09-23

    Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) is a nematode that lives in the conjunctival sac of domestic and wild carnivores, rabbits and humans causing mild to severe symptoms (e.g., conjunctivitis, lacrimation, epiphora, blepharospasm, keratitis and even corneal ulceration) in infected animals. This report describes an autochthonous case of thelaziosis in a cat from the central region of Portugal, representing the most occidental record of thelaziosis in Europe. Adult nematodes recovered from alive animal were morphological identified as T. callipaeda. A portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox 1) from nematode specimens was amplified by PCR. Cox1 sequences of all specimens were identical to T. callipaeda haplotype 1. Additionally to these findings, a recent description of thelaziosis in the northern region of Portugal suggests that T. callipaeda has successfully established in Portugal.

  6. Detail showing lower chord tension members, concrete piers, vertical and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail showing lower chord tension members, concrete piers, vertical and diagonal members at the eastern end of the main truss - William B. Crumpton Bridge, Spanning Tombigbee River on Alabama State Highway 10, Nanafalia, Marengo County, AL

  7. Incidence of Norovirus and Other Viral Pathogens That Cause Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE) among Kaiser Permanente Member Populations in the United States, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Grytdal, Scott P; DeBess, Emilio; Lee, Lore E; Blythe, David; Ryan, Patricia; Biggs, Christianne; Cameron, Miriam; Schmidt, Mark; Parashar, Umesh D; Hall, Aron J

    2016-01-01

    ,000 person-years). Outpatient incidence rates of rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus were 2.0, 1.6, 0.6 per 1,000 person-years, respectively; community incidence rates for these viruses were 23.4, 22.5, and 8.5 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. This study provides the first age-group specific laboratory-based community and outpatient incidence rates for norovirus AGE in the U.S. Norovirus was the most frequently detected viral enteropathogen across the age spectrum with the highest rates of norovirus disease observed among young children and, to a lesser extent, the elderly. These data provide a better understanding of the norovirus disease burden in the United States, including variations within different age groups, which can help inform the development, targeting, and future impacts of interventions, including vaccines.

  8. Identification of H-type BSE in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Orge, Leonor; Machado, Carla Guedes; Ramalho, Luísa; Carvalho, Renata; Silva, João; Almeida, Paula; Tavares, Paula; Ochoa, Cristina; Lima, Carla; Pinto, Maria J Marques; Simas, J Pedro

    2015-01-01

    During the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic, Portugal was the third most affected country. As a result of a successful national eradication plan, the number of BSE affected animals has been progressively declining in Portugal with no cases identified in 2013. However, within the scope of this active surveillance scheme, we have identified the first H-type BSE case born after the introduction of the reinforced ban in fallen stock. Here, we report the phenotypic features of this case and the analysis of the protein coding sequence of prnp as well as the prnp promoter and intron 1 insertion-deletions.

  9. Mistakes Board Members Make.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Nicholas D., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Board members should avoid 10 common errors: losing patience, behaving badly, challenging the board after a vote, acting like inspectors, micromanaging school administrators, springing surprise questions at meetings, putting politics before children, representing special interests, violating executive session, and putting the board before family…

  10. CAM within a field force of countervailing powers: The case of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Joana; Gabe, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines the extent to which the position of the medical profession and the state towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners has changed since the late 1990s, taking Portugal as a case study. Using Light's concept of countervailing powers, we consider the alliances, interests, rhetoric and degrees of control between these three actors over time, focussing particularly on the extent to which CAM practitioners have acted as a countervailing force in their relationship with the medical profession and the state. It also brings to the fore the position of supra-state agencies concerning CAM regulation. A critical discourse analysis was conducted on data derived from a systematic search of information dating from the late 1990s up to 2015. Our analysis suggests that CAM has emerged as an active player and a countervailing power in that it has had significant influence on the process of state policy-making. The medical profession, in turn, has moved from rejecting to 'incorporating' CAM, while the state has acted as a 'broker', trying to accommodate the demands and preferences of both actors while simultaneously demonstrating its power and autonomy in shaping health policy. In sum, the history of countermoves of CAM, the medical profession and the state in recasting power relations regarding CAM regulation in Portugal has highlighted the explanatory value of Light's countervailing power theory and the need to move away from a professional dominance and corporatist approach, in which CAM has simply been seen as subjugated to the power of the medical profession and the state.

  11. CAM within a field force of countervailing powers: The case of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Joana; Gabe, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines the extent to which the position of the medical profession and the state towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners has changed since the late 1990s, taking Portugal as a case study. Using Light's concept of countervailing powers, we consider the alliances, interests, rhetoric and degrees of control between these three actors over time, focussing particularly on the extent to which CAM practitioners have acted as a countervailing force in their relationship with the medical profession and the state. It also brings to the fore the position of supra-state agencies concerning CAM regulation. A critical discourse analysis was conducted on data derived from a systematic search of information dating from the late 1990s up to 2015. Our analysis suggests that CAM has emerged as an active player and a countervailing power in that it has had significant influence on the process of state policy-making. The medical profession, in turn, has moved from rejecting to 'incorporating' CAM, while the state has acted as a 'broker', trying to accommodate the demands and preferences of both actors while simultaneously demonstrating its power and autonomy in shaping health policy. In sum, the history of countermoves of CAM, the medical profession and the state in recasting power relations regarding CAM regulation in Portugal has highlighted the explanatory value of Light's countervailing power theory and the need to move away from a professional dominance and corporatist approach, in which CAM has simply been seen as subjugated to the power of the medical profession and the state. PMID:26990177

  12. Forest Intervention Areas (ZIF): a new approach for forest management in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, S.; Coelho, C.; Soares, J.

    2012-04-01

    management and protection. Each ZIF of private forest has to include at least a contiguous area of 750 ha, 50 landowners and 100 forest plots, and has to be managed by a single body, defined by ZIF members. This approach aims to increase forest management, reducing fire occurrence, and to improve productivity in forest areas, contributing to rural development. From 2005 till now, 143 ZIF were published, representing more than 735,000 ha organized in ZIF and corresponding to 8% of national territory and to 21% of the total forest in Portugal. However there is still a giant step to be given towards implementation. A survey (2) implemented to national and local stakeholders and also to a sample of the local community demonstrated the consensus around problems that affect forest sector at Mação, where forest fires were the most mentioned issue. Until now, five ZIF were published by law for Mação municipality. ZIF approach was recognized by all the stakeholders, included in the survey, and by half of the respondents from the community. The initial enthusiasm about this approach and its potential is fading due to the absence of effective implementation of measures and actions within a ZIF area. (1) DESIRE Project (037046): Desertification Mitigation and Remediation of land - a global approach for local solutions, EU-funded project (2007-2012; http://www.desire-project.eu/). (2) This survey was developed under the framework of a PhD. research (SFRH/BD/47056/2008) funded by FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e para a Tecnologia.

  13. The New Member States: Austria, Finland, Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetschy, Janine; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Difficult Metamorphosis of the Social 'Models' of the Nordic Countries" (Goetschy); "Swedish Training System" (Ottersten); "Features of Vocational Education in Finland" (Kyro); "Boom in Apprenticeship Training in Finland" (Vartiainen); "Vocational Training in Austria" (Riemer); "Reforms in the Vocational Education and Training Systems of…

  14. Emerging Models of Teacher Training: The Case of Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandre, Fernando; Ferreira, Manuela; Miranda, Branca

    2004-01-01

    The structural reforms of geography teacher training in Portugal have been justified by the global evolution of the educational system and took into account: (1) the political will to extend the period of compulsory schooling, which now covers the whole of lower secondary education, but will soon cover upper secondary education as well; (2) the…

  15. Iridovirus-like viruses in erythrocytes of lacertids from Portugal.

    PubMed

    de Matos, António P Alves; Caeiro, M Filomena; Vale, Filipa F; Crespo, Eduardo; Paperna, Ilan

    2013-10-01

    Icosahedral nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV)-like viruses, which forminclusions in the erythrocyte cytoplasm of reptiles, were previously presented as candidates for a new genus of the Iridoviridae family. The present work describes the distribution of infected lizard hosts and ultrastructural characteristics of the viral inclusions of NCLDV-like viruses from Portugal and adjacent locations in Spain. Giemsa-stained blood smears of 235 Lacerta schreiberi from Portugal and Spain, 571 Lacerta monticola from the mountain Serra da Estrela (Portugal), 794 Podarcis hispanica from several localities in Portugal and Spain, and 25 Lacerta dugesii from Madeira Island, were studied. Infection in L. schreiberi was only found in mountain populations, up to 30% in Serra da Estrela and 9-11% elsewhere. It was absent in lizards from lowlands. Prevalence of infection among L. monticola in Serra da Estrela was 10%; infected lizards were found during March to July and October but not in August and September. Infection in P. hispanica was below 3.3%. Only one infected specimen of L. dugesii was identified by light microscopy. Ultrastructural examination of infected samples revealed that the inclusions are virus assembly sites of icosahedral cytoplasmic iridovirus-like virions. Virions from different host species have different ultrastructural features and probably represent different related viruses.

  16. LIS Education in Portugal between Academia and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Fernanda

    2008-01-01

    There is a brief exposition, in a historical perspective, about the evolution of the professional education in Portugal, in the area of Library and Information Science, since the creation of the Curso de Bibliotecario-Arquivista, in 1887, until its closure in 1982, when it was replaced by the Curso de Especializacao em Ciencias Documentais (CECD).…

  17. Research Management in Portugal: A Quest for Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trindade, Margarida; Agostinho, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Research managers at science-intensive institutions appear as a continuously evolving group of professionals whose identity is somewhat fragmented, even to themselves. In Portugal, specialized research manager roles have rapidly emerged over the last years alongside the development of a small but consolidated scientific system. In order to get an…

  18. Making Sense of TV for Children: The Case of Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Sara; Pinto, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Empowering children for a critical and judicious use and consumption of media is a main objective of media literacy. This paper aims to examine the range of television programs available for children in Portugal through a comparative analysis of the programming for children broadcast by the four Portuguese terrestrial channels (RTP1, RTP2, SIC and…

  19. Predicting Child Outcomes from Preschool Quality in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abreu-Lima, Isabel M. P.; Leal, Teresa B.; Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana Madalena

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze whether quality of preschool classrooms relates to 4- and 5-year-old children developmental outcomes. The study was conducted in 60 classrooms in Porto Metropolitan Area, Portugal. Children (N = 215) were evaluated in the literacy, math, and behavior domains. Preschool quality was assessed through…

  20. Technological Specialisation Courses in Portugal: Description and Suggested Improvements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Costa, Nilza Maria Vilhena Nunes; Simoes, Ana Raquel; Pereira, Giselia Antunes; Pombo, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    This study is a part of the "Post-secondary Vocational Training in Portugal Project: from a description through to suggestions to improve training quality", which ran from 2003 to 2006. This article, which makes use of data obtained from interviews with Directors of Schools which offer technological specialisation courses (CETs) and from…

  1. Early Intervention in Portugal: Family Support and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia Leite, Carina Sofia; Da Silva Pereira, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the support and benefits of early intervention (EI) in families with children with special needs. Data were gathered through a written questionnaire, "Family Benefits Inventory," completed by 126 families with children with special needs supported by EI teams, with ages from six months to six years in Portugal.…

  2. Pests of Blueberries on Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In February and March 2006, two plots of 154 plants of two southern high bush blueberries cultivars, Vaccinium corymbosum cv. ‘Emerald’ and ‘Jewel,’ a rabbiteye cultivar, V. virgatum cv. ‘Spring High,’ were planted in two locations on São Miguel Island, Açores, Portugal. One plot was planted near t...

  3. School-Based Sexuality Education in Portugal: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Ana Cristina; Leal, Cláudia; Duarte, Cidália

    2016-01-01

    Portugal, like many other countries, faces obstacles regarding school-based sexuality education. This paper explores Portuguese schools' approaches to implementing sexuality education at a local level, and provides a critical analysis of potential strengths and weaknesses. Documents related to sexuality education in a convenience sample of 89…

  4. Science Policy and the Internationalisation of Research in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patricio, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    This article will examine Portuguese and European science and higher education policies and their impact on international collaborations. It will do so by looking at two key indicators: international academic mobility and the coauthored international scientific publications. The data show Portugal as an attractive country for foreign students and…

  5. Syphilis hospitalisations in Portugal over the last decade.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Pinto, B; Freitas, A; Lisboa, C

    2016-02-01

    Although several studies have reported an increase of syphilis incidence over the last decade in Western Europe, information concerning syphilis epidemiology in Portugal remains scarce. Therefore, we sought to characterise acquired syphilis-associated hospitalisations in Portugal according to demographic and clinical data. We used a database containing all hospitalisations that occurred in mainland Portugal public hospitals with discharges between 2000 and 2014. We analysed all hospitalisations associated with ICD-9-CM codes 091-097.x (corresponding to acquired syphilis diagnosis) concerning inpatients' gender, age and comorbidities. The median length of stay and in-hospital mortality rates were also studied. Between 2000 and 2014, there were a total of 8974 syphilis-related hospitalisations in mainland Portugal. The rate of acquired syphilis hospitalisations per 100,000 inhabitants increased by 33 % during the studied period. Syphilis hospitalisation rates increased by 70 % in males and 139 % among patients aged over 55 years. On the other hand, they declined by 10 % in females and 20 % among patients younger than 55 years old. The percentage of syphilis episodes presenting cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric comorbidities increased, while the percentage of syphilis episodes presenting HIV co-infection decreased by 69 %. A fatal outcome was reported in 5 % of episodes; 4.6 % of them had acquired syphilis as the main reason for hospitalisation. This study illustrates that, despite being a preventable infection, syphilis remains a public health problem. The analysis of hospitalisation and administrative data helps to understand syphilis epidemiology and provides a supplement to traditional case notifications.

  6. Factors Affecting Students' Choice of Science and Engineering in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Almeida, Maria Jose B. M.; Leite, Maria Salete S. C. P.; Woolnough, Brian E.

    This paper presents the results of a study undertaken in Portugal to determine the influence of different factors on students' (n=499) decisions to study or refuse to study in one of the physical sciences or engineering. Some influencing factors are related to what goes on in school and during science lessons, and other factors are related to the…

  7. School Psychology in Portugal: Practitioners' Characteristics and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, Sofia A.; Abreu-Lima, Isabel; Almeida, Leandro S.; Simeonsson, Rune J.

    2014-01-01

    Little empirical evidence is available on the professional characteristics and practices of school psychologists in Portugal. This study surveyed a total of 477 Portuguese school psychologists employed in public (80%) and private schools (20%). Portuguese school psychologists are described with regard to demographic, professional, and educational…

  8. Quality of Life in Ageing Societies: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arun, Ozgur; Cevik, Aylin Cakiroglu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the quality of life of the elderly in three aging countries: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. This was done by using data provided by the European Quality of Life Survey completed in 2004. By doing so, we could then operationalize the conditions of the elderly in Turkey who have a rapid aging process…

  9. Supporting Members and Friends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    Thank you! Over the past year, AGU has received 12,104 gifts, both large and small, from members and friends. The Union has also received corporate contributions, National Science Foundation grants, and support from the National Oceanographic Partnership Program and National Association of Geoscience Teachers. Together their generosity has benefited AGU non revenue producing programs that are critical to our science and the future health of the Union. The following list gratefully acknowledges annual gifts of $100 or more and cumulative giving of $5,000 or more. The 1919 Society ($100,000 or more) and Benefactors ($5,000-$99,999) recognize single major gifts and cumulative contributions. Three circles acknowledge annual giving: President's Circle ($1,000 or more), Leadership Circle ($200-$999), and Supporters Circle ($100-$199). Supporting Life Members, who contribute a one-time gift of $1,200 in addition to lifetime dues, are among our most loyal Supporters.

  10. Supporting Members and Friends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    Thank you! Over the past 20 months AGU has received a record 22,159 gifts, both large and small, from members and friends. The Union has also received corporate contributions, National Science Foundation grants, and support from four federal agencies (NASA, NOAA, EPA, and USGS). Together their generosity has benefited AGU non-revenue producing programs that are critical to our science and the future health of the Union. The following list gratefully acknowledges annual gifts of $100 or more and cumulative giving of $5000 or more. The 1919 Society ($100,000+) and Benefactors ($5,000-$99,999) recognize single major and cumulative contributions. Three circles acknowledge annual giving: President's Circle ($1,000 or more), Leadership Circle ($250-$999), and Supporters Circle ($100-$249). Supporting Life Members, who contribute a one-time gift of $1,200 in addition to lifetime dues, are recognized as our most loyal Supporters.

  11. 42 CFR 435.119 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Family Members § 435.119 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any... that the State makes Medicaid available to any individual who meets the definition of “qualified family... Coverage for individuals age 19 or older and under age 65 at or below 133 percent FPL. (a) Basis....

  12. Cryogenic support member

    DOEpatents

    Niemann, Ralph C.; Gonczy, John D.; Nicol, Thomas H.

    1987-01-01

    A cryogenic support member is comprised of a non-metallic rod having a depression in at least one end and a metallic end connection assembled to the rod. The metallic end connection comprises a metallic plug which conforms to the shape and is disposed in the depression and a metallic sleeve is disposed over the rod and plug. The plug and the sleeve are shrink-fitted to the depression in the rod to form a connection good in compression, tension and bending.

  13. 19 CFR 122.75b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... issued by the TSA to an air carrier subject to the provisions of 49 CFR part 1544, 1546, or 1550. The... and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft departing from the United States. 122.75b Section 122...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  14. 19 CFR 122.75b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... issued by the TSA to an air carrier subject to the provisions of 49 CFR part 1544, 1546, or 1550. The... and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft departing from the United States. 122.75b Section 122...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  15. 19 CFR 122.75b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... issued by the TSA to an air carrier subject to the provisions of 49 CFR part 1544, 1546, or 1550. The... and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft departing from the United States. 122.75b Section 122...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  16. 19 CFR 122.75b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... issued by the TSA to an air carrier subject to the provisions of 49 CFR part 1544, 1546, or 1550. The... and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft departing from the United States. 122.75b Section 122...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  17. 19 CFR 122.75b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... issued by the TSA to an air carrier subject to the provisions of 49 CFR part 1544, 1546, or 1550. The... and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft departing from the United States. 122.75b Section 122...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  18. Denmark14-230 clone as an increasing cause of pneumococcal infection in Portugal within a background of diverse serotype 19A lineages.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Sandra I; Pinto, Francisco R; Nunes, Sónia; Serrano, Isa; Melo-Cristino, José; Sá-Leão, Raquel; Ramirez, Mário; de Lencastre, Hermínia

    2010-01-01

    Pneumococci of serotype 19A are increasingly found to be the cause of infection in various geographic regions. We have characterized the serotype 19A isolates (n = 288) found among pneumococci responsible for infections (n = 1,925) and pneumococci recovered from asymptomatic carriers (n = 1,973) in Portugal between 2001 and 2006. We show that despite the existence of serotype 19A clones that have a greater potential to cause invasive disease or an enhanced colonization capacity, the lineage that is increasing as a cause of infection in Portugal is a multiresistant clone that is competent at both. The expanding Denmark(14)-230 clone found in Portugal is disseminated in other Mediterranean countries, where it is also increasingly responsible for invasive infections in both children and adults. The lineages driving the rise of serotype 19A infections in Asia and the United States (sequence type 320 [ST320] and ST199) are either absent or account for only a small proportion of isolates in Portugal. These data highlight the importance of locally circulating clones with the ability to compete in the nasopharyngeal niche in the emergence of the serotype 19A lineages which are an increasing cause of infection in various geographic regions.

  19. Denmark14-230 Clone as an Increasing Cause of Pneumococcal Infection in Portugal within a Background of Diverse Serotype 19A Lineages▿

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Sandra I.; Pinto, Francisco R.; Nunes, Sónia; Serrano, Isa; Melo-Cristino, José; Sá-Leão, Raquel; Ramirez, Mário; de Lencastre, Hermínia

    2010-01-01

    Pneumococci of serotype 19A are increasingly found to be the cause of infection in various geographic regions. We have characterized the serotype 19A isolates (n = 288) found among pneumococci responsible for infections (n = 1,925) and pneumococci recovered from asymptomatic carriers (n = 1,973) in Portugal between 2001 and 2006. We show that despite the existence of serotype 19A clones that have a greater potential to cause invasive disease or an enhanced colonization capacity, the lineage that is increasing as a cause of infection in Portugal is a multiresistant clone that is competent at both. The expanding Denmark14-230 clone found in Portugal is disseminated in other Mediterranean countries, where it is also increasingly responsible for invasive infections in both children and adults. The lineages driving the rise of serotype 19A infections in Asia and the United States (sequence type 320 [ST320] and ST199) are either absent or account for only a small proportion of isolates in Portugal. These data highlight the importance of locally circulating clones with the ability to compete in the nasopharyngeal niche in the emergence of the serotype 19A lineages which are an increasing cause of infection in various geographic regions. PMID:19864476

  20. Elastomeric member for energy storage device

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O.; Chute, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An energy storage device (10) is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member (16), disposed within a tubular housing (14), which elastomeric member (16) is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member (16) is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section, transition end sections, and is attached to rigid end piece assemblies (22, 24) of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections (76, 78) are such that upon stretching of the member, a substantially uniform diameter assembly results to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing (14). During manufacture, woven wire mesh sleeves (26, 28) are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section (76, 78) to provide the correct profile and helix angle. Each sleeve (26, 28) contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond therebetween.

  1. 21. Typical lower chord tension member and diagonal tension member ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Typical lower chord tension member and diagonal tension member pinning. View is of north side of 3rd span looking west. - Cleves Bridge, Spanning Great Miami River on U.S. Highway 50, Cleves, Hamilton County, OH

  2. Melt containment member

    SciTech Connect

    Rieken, Joel R.; Heidloff, Andrew J.

    2014-09-09

    A tubular melt containment member for transient containment of molten metals and alloys, especially reactive metals and alloys, includes a melt-contacting layer or region that comprises an oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide material that is less reactive as compared to the counterpart stoichiometric rare earth oxide. The oxygen-deficient (sub-stoichiometric) rare earth oxide can comprise oxygen-deficient yttria represented by Y.sub.2O.sub.3-x wherein x is from 0.01 to 0.1. Use of the oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide as the melt-contacting layer or region material reduces reaction with the melt for a given melt temperature and melt contact time.

  3. The time for cost-effectiveness in the new European Union member states: the development and role of health economics and technology assessment in the mirror of the Hungarian experience.

    PubMed

    Gulácsi, László

    2007-06-01

    Sophisticated methodology and research centres of health economics and health technology assessment were established in the developed countries over the past 30 years, releasing more and more studies of better and better quality every year. A crucial factor in health policy and reimbursement decisions in these countries is cost-effectiveness results. Due to methodological diversification, results of locally performed health economics studies are constrained in international utility. This fact encourages us to set the current goal of greatest importance, i.e. to standardise country-specific methods, thereby promoting transferability and adaptability of results, being backed by each important health care organisation all over Europe. The situation in the new member states [European Union (EU)12] is profoundly different compared with EU15. In these countries, neither the necessary research institutions nor professionals are in place in sufficient numbers; even in most EU12 countries, the importance of cost-effectiveness has not yet been realised. The present study focuses mainly on the EU12. These countries are absolutely dependent on cost-effectiveness results from abroad, and this seems to persist in the long-term. Transferability and adaptability of the results of health economics studies carried out elsewhere through European collaboration is vital for these countries.

  4. Human case of West Nile neuroinvasive disease in Portugal, summer 2015.

    PubMed

    Zé-Zé, Líbia; Proença, Paula; Osório, Hugo C; Gomes, Salomé; Luz, Teresa; Parreira, Paulo; Fevereiro, Miguel; Alves, Maria João

    2015-01-01

    A case of West Nile virus (WNV) infection was reported in the Algarve region, Portugal, in the first week of September 2015. WNV is known to circulate in Portugal, with occasional reports in horses and birds (2004 to 2011) and very sporadically human cases (in 2004 and in 2010). Here we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first human case of West Nile neuroinvasive disease reported in Portugal.

  5. Human case of West Nile neuroinvasive disease in Portugal, summer 2015.

    PubMed

    Zé-Zé, Líbia; Proença, Paula; Osório, Hugo C; Gomes, Salomé; Luz, Teresa; Parreira, Paulo; Fevereiro, Miguel; Alves, Maria João

    2015-01-01

    A case of West Nile virus (WNV) infection was reported in the Algarve region, Portugal, in the first week of September 2015. WNV is known to circulate in Portugal, with occasional reports in horses and birds (2004 to 2011) and very sporadically human cases (in 2004 and in 2010). Here we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first human case of West Nile neuroinvasive disease reported in Portugal. PMID:26535915

  6. Zika virus infections imported from Brazil to Portugal, 2015.

    PubMed

    Zé-Zé, L; Prata, M B; Teixeira, T; Marques, N; Mondragão, A; Fernandes, R; Saraiva da Cunha, J; Alves, M J

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus transmitted by Aedes sp. mosquitoes like the Dengue and Chikungunya viruses. Zika virus was until recently considered a mild pathogenic mosquito-borne flavivirus with very few reported benign human infections. In 2007, an epidemic in Micronesia initiated the turnover in the epidemiological history of Zika virus and more recently, the potential association with congenital microcephaly cases in Brazil 2015, still under investigation, led the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. Here, we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first four imported human cases of Zika virus in Portugal from Brazil, and alert, regarding the high level of traveling between Portugal and Brazil, and the ongoing expansion of this virus in the Americas, for the threat for Zika virus introduction in Europe and the possible introduction to Madeira Island where Aedes aegypti is present. PMID:27134823

  7. Cutaneous leishmaniosis in a horse from northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gama, Adelina; Elias, Joana; Ribeiro, Ana J; Alegria, Nuno; Schallig, Henk D F H; Silva, Filipe; Santarém, Nuno; Cardoso, Luís; Cotovio, Mário

    2014-02-24

    The first case of cutaneous leishmaniosis in a horse from the north of Portugal, with a 1.5 cm in diameter ulcerated nodular lesion on the left face, is reported. The skin nodule was surgically excised and assessed by histopathology, including an immunohistochemistry method applied for the first time to equine tissues which clearly demonstrated leishmanial amastigote forms. Two serological determinations with the direct agglutination test performed 13 months apart showed seroconversion specific for Leishmania from a <25 to a 200 antibody titre. Polymerase chain reaction followed by kinetoplast DNA sequencing provided a 116-bp sequence with 98% identity to Leishmania infantum closest sequence deposited in GenBank. No recurrence was observed after complete surgical excision. Leishmaniosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous nodular or papular lesions in the equine species in Portugal. PMID:24388338

  8. Detection of Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in a dog from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, Carla; Lorentz, Susanne; Cardoso, Luís; Otranto, Domenico; Naucke, Torsten J

    2016-01-01

    Dirofilaria repens causes subcutaneous infection in dogs and cats, and is the main agent of human dirofilariosis in Europe. Detection of D. repens is described in a dog from Portugal, a finding that simultaneously represents the first presumable case of autochthonous infection with the parasite in any animal host species in the country. A mixed D. repens/Dirofilaria immitis infection (20:1 ratio) was found, with an overall density of 1267 microfilariae per millilitre of blood. Morphological features, including morphometry, and acid phosphatase histochemical staining confirmed identity of the two filarioids. Distribution of D. repens in Portugal should be further assessed at the population level both in vertebrate hosts and in vectors. Due to the zoonotic potential of the parasite, preventive measures such as the administration of microfilaricides and insect repellents should be put into practice to protect animals and public health.

  9. Cutaneous leishmaniosis in a horse from northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gama, Adelina; Elias, Joana; Ribeiro, Ana J; Alegria, Nuno; Schallig, Henk D F H; Silva, Filipe; Santarém, Nuno; Cardoso, Luís; Cotovio, Mário

    2014-02-24

    The first case of cutaneous leishmaniosis in a horse from the north of Portugal, with a 1.5 cm in diameter ulcerated nodular lesion on the left face, is reported. The skin nodule was surgically excised and assessed by histopathology, including an immunohistochemistry method applied for the first time to equine tissues which clearly demonstrated leishmanial amastigote forms. Two serological determinations with the direct agglutination test performed 13 months apart showed seroconversion specific for Leishmania from a <25 to a 200 antibody titre. Polymerase chain reaction followed by kinetoplast DNA sequencing provided a 116-bp sequence with 98% identity to Leishmania infantum closest sequence deposited in GenBank. No recurrence was observed after complete surgical excision. Leishmaniosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous nodular or papular lesions in the equine species in Portugal.

  10. Detection of Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in a dog from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, Carla; Lorentz, Susanne; Cardoso, Luís; Otranto, Domenico; Naucke, Torsten J

    2016-01-01

    Dirofilaria repens causes subcutaneous infection in dogs and cats, and is the main agent of human dirofilariosis in Europe. Detection of D. repens is described in a dog from Portugal, a finding that simultaneously represents the first presumable case of autochthonous infection with the parasite in any animal host species in the country. A mixed D. repens/Dirofilaria immitis infection (20:1 ratio) was found, with an overall density of 1267 microfilariae per millilitre of blood. Morphological features, including morphometry, and acid phosphatase histochemical staining confirmed identity of the two filarioids. Distribution of D. repens in Portugal should be further assessed at the population level both in vertebrate hosts and in vectors. Due to the zoonotic potential of the parasite, preventive measures such as the administration of microfilaricides and insect repellents should be put into practice to protect animals and public health. PMID:26486944

  11. Zika virus infections imported from Brazil to Portugal, 2015.

    PubMed

    Zé-Zé, L; Prata, M B; Teixeira, T; Marques, N; Mondragão, A; Fernandes, R; Saraiva da Cunha, J; Alves, M J

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus transmitted by Aedes sp. mosquitoes like the Dengue and Chikungunya viruses. Zika virus was until recently considered a mild pathogenic mosquito-borne flavivirus with very few reported benign human infections. In 2007, an epidemic in Micronesia initiated the turnover in the epidemiological history of Zika virus and more recently, the potential association with congenital microcephaly cases in Brazil 2015, still under investigation, led the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. Here, we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first four imported human cases of Zika virus in Portugal from Brazil, and alert, regarding the high level of traveling between Portugal and Brazil, and the ongoing expansion of this virus in the Americas, for the threat for Zika virus introduction in Europe and the possible introduction to Madeira Island where Aedes aegypti is present.

  12. [Patterns and specific features of immigration in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Machado, F L

    1997-06-01

    "With...present international migration trends as its scenario, this article analyses the growth of immigration in Portugal, emphasising four main aspects: the balance between immigration and the recent resumption of emigration; the factors which have favoured the entry of immigrants; the composition of these immigrants in terms of country of origin; and the specific characteristics of Portuguese immigration in the context of the European Union." (EXCERPT)

  13. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, A P; Dubey, J P; Dardé, M-L; Cardoso, L

    2014-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. However, data from Portugal are limited and a considerable part of the literature is in Portuguese. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Portugal is unknown, and almost nothing is known of sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. There is no recent general population-based serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in humans in Portugal. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii in animals and humans. In the present paper, we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Portugal. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, physicians and veterinarians.

  14. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from wild birds in southern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Tomás, André; Palma, Ricardo L; Rebelo, Maria Teresa; da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out to determine chewing louse species of wild birds in the Ria Formosa Natural Park, located in southern Portugal. In addition, the hypothesis that bird age, avian migration and social behaviour have an impact on the louse prevalence was tested. Between September and December of 2013, 122 birds (belonging to 10 orders, 19 families, 31 genera and 35 species) captured in scientific ringing sessions and admitted to the Wildlife Rehabilitation and Investigation Centre of Ria Formosa were examined for lice. Twenty-six (21.3%) birds were found to be infested with at least one chewing louse species. The chewing lice identified include 18 species. Colonial birds (34.9%) and migratory birds (29.5%) had statistically significant higher prevalence than territorial birds (6.8%) and resident birds (13.1%), respectively. This paper records 17 louse species for the first time in southern Portugal: Laemobothrion maximum, Laemobothrion vulturis, Actornithophilus piceus lari, Actornithophilus umbrinus, Austromenopon lutescens, Colpocephalum heterosoma, Colpocephalum turbinatum, Eidmanniella pustulosa, Nosopon casteli, Pectinopygus bassani, Pseudomenopon pilosum, Trinoton femoratum, Trinoton querquedulae, Craspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva, Falcolipeurus quadripustulatus, Lunaceps schismatus. Also a nymph of the genus Strigiphilus was collected from a Eurasian eagle-owl. These findings contribute to the knowledge of avian chewing lice from important birds areas in Portugal. PMID:26899014

  15. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from wild birds in southern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Tomás, André; Palma, Ricardo L; Rebelo, Maria Teresa; da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out to determine chewing louse species of wild birds in the Ria Formosa Natural Park, located in southern Portugal. In addition, the hypothesis that bird age, avian migration and social behaviour have an impact on the louse prevalence was tested. Between September and December of 2013, 122 birds (belonging to 10 orders, 19 families, 31 genera and 35 species) captured in scientific ringing sessions and admitted to the Wildlife Rehabilitation and Investigation Centre of Ria Formosa were examined for lice. Twenty-six (21.3%) birds were found to be infested with at least one chewing louse species. The chewing lice identified include 18 species. Colonial birds (34.9%) and migratory birds (29.5%) had statistically significant higher prevalence than territorial birds (6.8%) and resident birds (13.1%), respectively. This paper records 17 louse species for the first time in southern Portugal: Laemobothrion maximum, Laemobothrion vulturis, Actornithophilus piceus lari, Actornithophilus umbrinus, Austromenopon lutescens, Colpocephalum heterosoma, Colpocephalum turbinatum, Eidmanniella pustulosa, Nosopon casteli, Pectinopygus bassani, Pseudomenopon pilosum, Trinoton femoratum, Trinoton querquedulae, Craspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva, Falcolipeurus quadripustulatus, Lunaceps schismatus. Also a nymph of the genus Strigiphilus was collected from a Eurasian eagle-owl. These findings contribute to the knowledge of avian chewing lice from important birds areas in Portugal.

  16. 7 CFR 7.4 - Selection of committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection of committee members. 7.4 Section 7.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.4 Selection of committee members. State...

  17. Paying Faculty Members What They Are Worth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Richard D.; Klagholz, Leo F.

    1980-01-01

    Faculty members at New Jersey's state colleges have begun working under a plan that provides salary increases for meritorious performance. Such merit compensation does not conflict with faculty promotion, nor is it intended to replace cost-of-living increases. However, it does replace government-style guaranteed automatic raises that encourage…

  18. 7 CFR 930.28 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternate members. 930.28 Section 930.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  19. 7 CFR 930.28 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternate members. 930.28 Section 930.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  20. Fort Lewis Exceptional Family Member Program (EFMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebdon, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Located in the shadow of Mt. Rainier, Fort Lewis is the home of the highest per capita exceptional family member population in the Army. Ideally located on the Northwest coast of Washington State, Fort Lewis is home to the Strykers and First Brigade. Combined with its close proximity to McChord Air Force Base, the installation is ideally suited to…

  1. 7 CFR 929.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternate members. 929.27 Section 929.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  2. 7 CFR 929.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternate members. 929.27 Section 929.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  3. 7 CFR 929.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternate members. 929.27 Section 929.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  4. 7 CFR 929.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternate members. 929.27 Section 929.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  5. 7 CFR 929.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate members. 929.27 Section 929.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  6. Communicating the new chemistry in 18th-century Portugal: Seabra's Elementos de Chimica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carneiro, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Simões, Ana

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, we analyse the aims, contents and impact of Seabra’s two-volume textbook - Elementos de Chimica ( Elements of Chemistry) - published in 1788 and 1790. Seabra’s Elements of Chemistry does not conform to the characteristics usually ascribed to textbooks by traditional historiography, and in particular to textbooks published in the peripheries. Marking the arrival of the new chemistry in Portugal, in a period in which many still resisted Lavoisier’s chemistry, this textbook was a state of the art account written in Portuguese, interspersed with critical evaluations, original comments and novel contributions. Despite being the only Portuguese chemistry textbook written during this period, it had hardly any readers, even among its natural audience at the University of Coimbra.

  7. The International Polar Year in Portugal: A New National Polar Programme and a Major Education and Outreach project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes-Victor, L.; Vieira, G.; Xavier, J.; Canario, A.

    2008-12-01

    Before the International Polar Year, in Portugal polar research was conducted by a very small group of scientists integrated in foreign projects or research institutions. Portugal was not member of the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR), the European Polar Board (EPB), neither a subscriber of the Antarctic Treaty. In 2004 Portuguese Polar researchers considered the IPY as an opportunity to change this situation and organized the national Committee for the IPY. The objectives were ambitious: to answer the aforementioned issues in defining and proposing a National Polar Programme. In late 2008, close to the end of the IPY, the objectives were attained, except the Antarctic Treaty signature that is, however, in an advanced stage, having been approved by consensus at the National Parliament in early 2007. Portugal joined SCAR in July 2006, the EPB in 2007 and a set of 5 Antarctic research projects forming the roots of the National Polar Programme (ProPolar) have been approved by the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT-MCTES). Scientifically, the IPY can already be considered a major success in Portugal with an improvement in polar scientific research, in the number of scientists performing field work in the Antarctic, organizing polar science meetings and producing an expected increase in the number of polar science peer- reviewed papers. The Portuguese IPY scientific activities were accompanied by a major education and outreach project funded by the Agencia Ciência Viva (MCTES): LATITUDE60! Education for the Planet in the IPY. This project lead by the universities of Algarve, Lisbon and by the Portuguese Association of Geography Teachers is heavily interdisciplinary, programmed for all ages, from kindergarten to adults, and hoped to bring together scientists and society. LATITUDE60! was a major success and focussed on showing the importance of the polar regions for Earth's environment, emphasising on the implications of polar change for

  8. Assessing risk profiles for Salmonella serotypes in breeding pig operations in Portugal using a Bayesian hierarchical model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The EU Regulation No 2160/2003 imposes a reduction in the prevalence of Salmonella in pigs. The efficiency of control programmes for Salmonella in pigs, reported among the EU Member States, varies and definitive eradication seems very difficult. Control measures currently recommended for Salmonella are not serotype-specific. Is it possible that the risk factors for different Salmonella serotypes are different? The aim of this study was to investigate potential risk factors for two groups of Salmonella sp serotypes using pen faecal samples from breeding pig holdings representative of the Portuguese pig sector. Methods The data used come from the Baseline Survey for the Prevalence of Salmonella in breeding pigs in Portugal. A total of 1670 pen faecal samples from 167 herds were tested, and 170 samples were positive for Salmonella. The presence of Salmonella in each sample (outcome variable) was classified in three categories: i) no Salmonella, ii) Salmonella Typhimurium or S. Typhimurium-like strains with the antigenic formula: 1,4,5,12:i:-, , and iii) other serotypes. Along with the sample collection, a questionnaire concerning herd management and potential risk factors was utilised. The data have a “natural” hierarchical structure so a categorical multilevel analysis of the dataset was carried out using a Bayesian hierarchical model. The model was estimated using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, implemented in the software WinBUGS. Results The significant associations found (when compared to category “no Salmonella”), for category “serotype Typhimurium or S. Typhimurium-like strains with the antigenic formula: 1,4,5,12:i:-” were: age of breeding sows, size of the herd, number of pigs/pen and source of semen. For the category “other serotypes” the significant associations found were: control of rodents, region of the country, source of semen, breeding sector room and source of feed. Conclusions The risk factors significantly associated

  9. A new look on anomalous thermal gradient values obtained in South Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duque, M. R.; Malico, I.

    2012-04-01

    A NEW LOOK ON THE ANOMALOUS THERMAL GRADIENT VALUES OBTAINED IN SOUTH PORTUGAL Duque, M. R. and Malico, I. M. Physics Department, University of Évora, Rua Romão Ramalho, 59,7000-671, Évora, Portugal It is well known that soil temperatures can be altered by water circulation. In this paper, we study numerically this effect by simulating some aquifers occurring in South Portugal. At this location, the thermal gradient values obtained in boreholes with depths less than 200 m, range between 22 and 30 °C km-1. However, there, it is easy to find places where temperatures are around 30 °C, at depths of 100 m. The obtained thermal gradient values show an increase one day after raining and a decrease during the dry season. Additionally, the curve of temperature as function of depth showed no hot water inlet in the hole. The region studied shows a smooth topography due to intensive erosion, but it was affected by alpine and hercinian orogenies. As a result, a high topography in depth, with folds and wrinkles is present. The space between adjacent folds is now filled by small sedimentary basins. Aquifers existing in this region can reach considerable depths and return to depths near the surface, but hot springs in the area are scarce. Water temperature rises in depth, and when the speed is high enough high temperatures near the surface, due to water circulation, can be found. The ability of the fluid to flow through the system depends on topography relief, rock permeability and basal heat flow. In this study, the steady-state fluid flow and heat transfer by conduction and advection are modeled. Fractures in the medium are simulated by an equivalent porous medium saturated with liquid. Thermal conductivity values for the water and the rocks can vary in space .Porosities used have high values in the region of the aquifer, low values in the lower region of the model and intermediate values in the upper regions. The results obtained show that temperature anomaly values

  10. Prevalence and pattern of cognitive impairment in rural and urban populations from Northern Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite worldwide recognition of the burden of dementia, no epidemiological data is yet available in Portugal. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence and describe the pattern of cognitive impairment with dementia or no dementia (CIND) in rural and urban populations from Northern Portugal. Methods Two random samples of residents aged 55 to 79 years in rural and urban communities were drawn from the health centres registries to be screened for cognitive impairment. The screening criteria for dementia were an abnormal Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score or a Blessed Dementia Scale score. After excluding those who tested positive for dementia, cut-off points for CIND were set at 1 standard deviation below the mean of the MMSE according to educational level. All those who screened positive either for dementia or CIND were examined by a neurologist for establishing a definitive diagnosis. Results The prevalence of cognitive impairment was higher in rural than in urban populations, 16.8% (95% CI: 14.3-19.8%) vs. 12.0% (95%CI: 9.3-15.4%), with a rural/urban prevalence ratio (PR) of 2.16 (95% CI: 1.04-4.50) in the eldest and 2.19 (95% CI: 1.01-4.76) in persons with vascular risk factors. The prevalence of dementia was 2.7% (95% CI: 1.9-3.8%) with a rural/urban PR = 2.1 and the prevalence of CIND was 12.3% (95% CI: 10.4-14.4%) and PR = 1.3. The prevalence of dementia increases exponentially with age and in those with cerebrovascular disease or other comorbid conditions while the prevalence of CIND, besides these factors, is also higher in persons with low levels of education or vascular risk factors. Alzheimer's and vascular disease were equally likely aetiologies of dementia (38.7%), the later more common in men PR(F:M = 0.3) as opposed to the former PR(F:M = 2.0). Vascular CIND, associated either with cerebrovascular disease or vascular risk factors was more frequent (39.7%) then depression (18.4%) or any other aetiology. Conclusions

  11. The Financing of Vocational Education and Training in Portugal. Financing Portrait. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centeno, Luis Gomes; Sarmento, Ana Leonor

    The financing of vocational education and training (VET) in Portugal was examined. The examination focused on the following topics: (1) the economic, political, legal, and administrative contexts of funding; (2) the funding framework for VET in Portugal; (3) initial vocational training (IVT); (4) continuing vocational training (CVT); and (5)…

  12. Training in the Retail Trade in Portugal. Report for the FORCE Programme. Retail Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerdeira, Maria Conceicao; And Others

    A study examined training in the retail trade in Portugal. Employment, work, and training patterns in Portugal's retail sector were researched, and case studies of two firms in the supermarket/hypermarket group, one firm in the stationary/cigarette shop sector, and one clothing manufacturer/retailer were conducted. Teams of researchers interviewed…

  13. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. However, data from Portugal are limited and a considerable part of the literature is in Portuguese. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Portugal is unknown, and almost nothing is known of sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. There is no general popu...

  14. Developmental Dyslexia: Perspectives on Teacher Training and Learning Disabilities in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalhais, Lenia; da Silva, Carlos Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was to explore primary teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward their training experiences, instructional practices, and supports received in their schools toward working with students with dyslexia in Portugal. Primary school teachers from the centre of Portugal, working with children between the first and fourth grades,…

  15. Assessing International Product Design and Development Graduate Courses: The MIT-Portugal Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Silva, Arlindo

    2010-01-01

    The Product Design and Development (PDD) course is part of the graduate curriculum in the Engineering Design and Advanced Manufacturing (EDAM) study in the MIT-Portugal Program. The research participants included about 110 students from MIT, EDAM, and two universities in Portugal, Instituto Superior Técnico-Universidade Técnica de Lisboa (IST) and…

  16. Autosomal SNPs study of a population sample from north of Portugal and a sample of immigrants from the Eastern Europe living in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lurdes Pontes, M; Pinheiro, M F

    2014-03-01

    The use of autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for forensic research has been widely discussed in recent years, mainly because SNPs have important advantages compared to short tandem repeats (STRs). In this study a total of 131 non related individuals from the North of Portugal and 85 immigrant individuals from the Eastern Europe, mainly Ukrainians, equally non related and residing in Portugal, were typed for 52 loci included in the in the SNP for ID 52plex with the SNaPshot™ assay.

  17. Determinants of birth weight in Portugal: 1988 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Fuster, Vicente; Santos, Carlota

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse temporal birth weight variation, its relationship to the frequency of premature births in Portugal, and the influence of native and immigrant mothers' characteristics as well as to determine the possible existence of a pattern of temporal change in birth weight in the Iberian Peninsula as a whole. Individual mother-child data from the Portuguese National Institute of Statistics regarding live births (N = 2,661,542) permitted an analysis, for the first time, of weight at birth in Portugal from a bio-demographic perspective. The results obtained show that from 1988 to 2011 there was a gradual decline in the average weight at birth in Portugal that may be related to shifts in the duration of gestation. An initial rapid decline in the relative frequency of post-term births took place, followed by small variations from 1995 on. Logistic regressions indicated a pattern unaffected by maternal origin or the sex of the newborn. With regard to weeks of gestation, the odds values obtained were < 1 when the reference category was < 28 weeks. For this factor, no significant differences were found in relation to the mother's origin. Portuguese mothers over 35 years were associated with a higher incidence of low birth weight. Regardless of maternal origin, being a newborn of parity 1, and with the mother not in a couple, resulted in unfavourable outcomes with regard to low birth weight. On the other hand, long gestation periods and having secondary or university education constituted a protective factor.

  18. Weather types and the regime of wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2009-04-01

    An objective classification scheme, as developed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000), was applied to classify the daily atmospheric circulation affecting Portugal between 1980 and 2007 into a set of 10 basic weather types (WTs). The classification scheme relies on a set of atmospheric circulation indices, namely southerly flow (SF), westerly flow (WF), total flow (F), southerly shear vorticity (ZS), westerly shear vorticity (ZW) and total vorticity (Z). The weather-typing approach, together with surfacemeteorological variables (e.g. intensity and direction of geostrophic wind, maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation) were then associated to wildfire events as recorded in the official Portuguese fire database consisting of information on each fire occurred in the 18 districts of Continental Portugal within the same period (>450.000 events). The objective of this study is to explore the dependence of wildfire activity on weather and climate and then evaluate the potential of WTs to discriminate among recorded wildfires on what respects to their occurrence and development. Results show that days characterised by surface flow with an eastern component (i.e. NE, E and SE) account for a high percentage of daily burnt area, as opposed to surface westerly flow (NW, W and SW), which represents about a quarter of the total number of days but only accounts for a very low percentage of active fires and of burnt area. Meteorological variables such as minimum and maximum temperatures, that are closely associated to surface wind intensity and direction, also present a good ability to discriminate between the different types of fire events.. Trigo R.M., DaCamara C. (2000) "Circulation Weather Types and their impact on the precipitation regime in Portugal". Int J of Climatology, 20, 1559-1581.

  19. Prevalence and seasonal variations of canine dirofilariosis in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Landum, Miguel; Ferreira, Cátia; Meireles, José; Gonçalves, Luzia; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira; Belo, Silvana

    2014-11-15

    Dirofilariosis is a severe vector-borne emergent disease that is spreading worldwide and becoming a serious threat to human and veterinary public health. Portugal, a Mediterranean country, has favorable climate conditions for mosquito development and survival. At present, accurate data on the prevalence and epidemiological pattern of dirofilariosis in Portugal is scarce and outdated. To study these trends, a project was developed to assess the current prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in shelter dogs as well as the prevalence of Dirofilaria species present in three coastal regions in central Portugal: Coimbra, Santarém, and Setúbal. Blood samples were collected from 696 shelter dogs during three consecutive years: 2011, 2012, and 2013. A rapid immunomigration technique was performed to detect female D. immitis antigens. Concurrently, to detect and identify circulating microfilariae, a modified Knott's technique and acid phosphatase histochemical staining were also performed. Of the 696 dogs sampled, 105 were positive for D. immitis, with an overall prevalence of 15.1%. Forty of the 105 dogs were antigen negative but were positive for D. immitis microfilariae. Three animals were co-infected with D. immitis and Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides, and there was also one dog infected only with A. dracunculoides, all confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. The highest prevalence of canine heartworm during the 3-y period was in Setúbal (24.8%), followed by Coimbra (13.8%), and Santarém (13.2%), with significant inter-district differences. Our results demonstrate a higher prevalence of dirofilariosis compared with findings of previous studies and show an increasing rate of infection in the southern areas of Portugal attributed, at least in part, to bioclimatic and ecological factors. The present study updates the epidemiological situation and correlates the risk of dirofilariosis transmission within each region. These findings are highly relevant to both human

  20. Ochratoxin A in Portugal: A Review to Assess Human Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Sofia C.; Pena, Angelina; Lino, Celeste M.

    2010-01-01

    In Portugal, the climate, dietary habits, and food contamination levels present the characteristics for higher population susceptibility to ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the known mycotoxins with the greatest public health and agro-economic importance. In this review, following a brief historical insight on OTA research, a summary of the available data on OTA occurrence in food (cereals, bread, wine, meat) and biological fluids (blood, urine) is made. With this data, an estimation of intake is made to ascertain and update the risk exposure estimation of the Portuguese population, in comparison to previous studies and other populations. PMID:22069635

  1. Past analogs of recent climate anomalies and impacts in Portugal. Droughts, storms and heat waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcoforado, M. J.; Nunes, M. F.

    2009-09-01

    were vast in both occasions including loss of life. Two poems and other documentary sources supply detailed and credible information on the 1739 flood that hit Portugal from North to South. A heat wave in June-July 1842 has been selected. There are already instrumental data available for the former (Franzini station), retrieved from medical journals as well as descriptions of impacts on several regions in the country. The 1842 heat wave will be compared with more recent heat waves like the June 1981 that had very serious impact on public health and on the country's economy. We will also analyse the heat waves of July 1991 and August 2003. The latter was particularly long-lasting with serious consequences ranging from extensive forest fires to losses in agriculture and impact on the population health, although the registered mortality was lower than in 1981 probably due to improved alert systems and Public Health Welfare State.

  2. Cooperation between public administration and scientific research in raising awareness on the role of urban planning in responding to climate change in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcoforado, M. J.; Campos, V.; Oliveira, S.; Andrade, H.; Festas, M. J.

    2009-09-01

    Following the IPCC predictions of climate change, even considering one of the "best” scenarios (B1), temperature will rise circa 2°C by 2100. In southern Europe, predictions also indicate a greater precipitation variability, that is the increase in drought frequency, together with an increment of flood risk, with detrimental impacts on water availability and quality, summer tourism and crop productivity, among others. Urban areas create their own local climate, resulting in higher temperatures (UHI), modified wind patterns and lower air quality, among several other consequences. Therefore, as a result of both global and urban induced changes, the climate of cities has suffered several modifications over time, particularly in sprawling urban areas. In November 2007, the ministers responsible for spatial planning and territorial cohesion of the European Union, gathered at the Azores Informal Ministerial on Territorial Cohesion during the Portuguese Presidency, considered climate change to be one of the most important territorial challenges Europe is facing and stated that "our cities and regions need to become more resilient in the context of climate change”. They also agreed that spatial and urban planning is a suitable tool to define cost-effective adaptation measures. Furthermore, the Ministers committed themselves to put mitigation and adaptation issues of climate change into the mainstream of spatial and urban development policy at national, regional and local level. These decisions have lead to different actions in the Member States. In Portugal, the new Policy for the Cities POLIS XXI has selected the relationship between climate change and urban development as one of the key issues to be addressed by projects initiated by local authorities and submitted for co-financing through the OP "Territorial Enhancement” of the NSRF. This paper presents one of the actions taken by the Portuguese Directorate General for Spatial Planning and Urban Development

  3. Latch ring for connecting tubular member

    SciTech Connect

    Milberger, L.J.

    1991-06-04

    This patent describes a device for releasably locking an inner member well bore of a tubular outer member, comprising a combination of a grooved inner member profile formed on the exterior of the inner member; a grooved outer member profile formed in the bore of the outer member; a split ring carried by the inner member the ring having a grooved outer profile on its exterior mates with the outer member profile; and the inner member being axially movable.

  4. Profile Report: ASHA Member Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Armin D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The American School Health Association (ASHA) surveyed its members who were nurses to identify their needs for improved member programs and services. Recommendations include that the needs of both school-based nurses and those with administrative roles be considered independently for annual meeting programs. (JN)

  5. Who Are Extension Council Members?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Wayne H.

    1970-01-01

    Many Extension Council members were recommended by associates or friends, a procedure that contributed to homogeneity in council membership. Such homogeneity may make it difficult for council members to perceive problems of clientele with characteristics or attitudes different from their own. (DM)

  6. Trichinella britovi in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João; Coutinho, Teresa; Cardoso, Luís; Gottstein, Bruno; Müller, Norbert; Cortes, Helder C E

    2015-06-15

    Trichinellosis is one of the most important foodborne parasitic zoonoses, caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Pigs and other domestic and wild animals, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), are sources of Trichinella infection for human beings. Trichinella britovi is the major agent of infection in sylvatic animals and the most important species circulating in the European wildlife. The present study aimed at assessing Trichinella spp. infection in red foxes from the North of Portugal. Forty-seven carcasses of wild red foxes shot during the official hunting season or killed in road accidents were obtained between November 2008 and March 2010. In order to identify the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae in red foxes, an individual artificial digestion was performed using approximately 30 g of muscle samples. Larvae of Trichinella spp. were detected in one (2.1%) out of the 47 assessed foxes. After a multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis, T. britovi was molecularly identified as the infecting species. The recognition of T. britovi in a red fox confirms that a sylvatic cycle is present in the North of Portugal and that the local prevalence of Trichinella infection in wildlife must not be ignored due to its underlying zoonotic risks. PMID:25934252

  7. Trichinella britovi in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João; Coutinho, Teresa; Cardoso, Luís; Gottstein, Bruno; Müller, Norbert; Cortes, Helder C E

    2015-06-15

    Trichinellosis is one of the most important foodborne parasitic zoonoses, caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Pigs and other domestic and wild animals, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), are sources of Trichinella infection for human beings. Trichinella britovi is the major agent of infection in sylvatic animals and the most important species circulating in the European wildlife. The present study aimed at assessing Trichinella spp. infection in red foxes from the North of Portugal. Forty-seven carcasses of wild red foxes shot during the official hunting season or killed in road accidents were obtained between November 2008 and March 2010. In order to identify the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae in red foxes, an individual artificial digestion was performed using approximately 30 g of muscle samples. Larvae of Trichinella spp. were detected in one (2.1%) out of the 47 assessed foxes. After a multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis, T. britovi was molecularly identified as the infecting species. The recognition of T. britovi in a red fox confirms that a sylvatic cycle is present in the North of Portugal and that the local prevalence of Trichinella infection in wildlife must not be ignored due to its underlying zoonotic risks.

  8. Toscana virus meningitis in Portugal, 2002-2005.

    PubMed

    Santos, L; Simões, J; Costa, R; Martins, S; Lecour, H

    2007-06-01

    Toscana virus infection is endemic in Italy, but has also been documented in other Mediterranean countries. Our aim was to investigate the occurrence of Toscana virus (TOSV) meningitis in children and young adults in a metropolitan area in the north of Portugal. Cerebrospinal fluid samples from 308 patients with the diagnosis of meningitis and with negative bacterial culture were tested for enteroviruses and herpesviruseses by reverse transcription PCR. Those samples that proved negative for enterovirus and herpesvirus were tested for Toscana virus with a commercial reverse transcription nested PCR assay. In total, we investigated 106 samples, collected between May and September during the four-year period between 2002 and 2005 from patients younger than 30 years old. Toscana virus was the cause of meningitis in six (5.6%) of the cases, three children and three young adults. All had a benign course and self-limited disease. Since a first case report of TOSV infection 1985 and another in 1996, both in foreign tourists, these six cases of Toscana virus meningitis are, to our knowledge, the first diagnosed in Portuguese inhabitants, and they underline the need for more studies on the prevalence of this virus in Portugal.

  9. Upper-air balloon-borne observations in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Luis F.; Henriques, Diamantino; Carvalho, Renato; Prior, Vitor

    2001-08-01

    The Portuguese Meteorological Institute (IM), operates regular and non-regular programmes of upper-air observations using balloons and radiosondes for measuring meteorological variables and atmospheric ozone concentration. The regular programmes consists in daily observations of upper-air pressure, temperature, humidity and wind using balloons and electronic radiosondes, carried out at 3 fixed stations in Portugal, which reach more than 30 km of altitude. IM has also 2 portable systems that are occasionally used for temporary observations during field campaigns, which have been taken several times in different regions of Portugal. The radiosondes used include electrical sensors for the PTU measurements and GPS-module for balloon tracking, which signals are used for wind computation at the ground station. Except for the Azores station, where helium is used, the balloons at all other sites are filled with hydrogen. There are also non-regular programmes that have been carried out weekly for the observation of the vertical profile of ozone up to about 35 km of altitude, using 1200 grams balloons and "Brewer-Mast" ozonesondes.

  10. Ditched enclosures in Southern Portugal: an Archaeoastronomical view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejuto, A J.; Valera, A. Carlos; Castaño, J. Gómez; Rodríguez-Caderot, G.; Becker, Helmut

    2015-05-01

    Since the very first ages, human beings have attempted to understand and manage their environment in order to survive. This is the case regarding wildlife, weather cycles and gathering periods. This is also reflected in the areas surrounding sites where individuals live; they changed the landscape with different aims. This type of archaeology has risen very recently - in the last few years - and is usually called Landscape Archaeology. Traditional landscape archaeology has dealt with earth and location related studies; the relationship of ancient peoples with the sky has been disregarded. The archaeoastronomical studies have mitigated this fact. Archaeoastronomy has revealed an important number of archaeological sites; many of them reveal a clear intention of astronomically designed buildings or structures. This implies a planned detailed design and obviously a deep understanding of astronomical knowledge. As examples of these sites a number of megalithic ditched enclosures sited in Portugal will be shown which were studied inside the project "Ditched enclosures plants and Neolithic cosmologies: A landscape, archaeoastronomical and geophysical perspective". The ideological and astronomical aspects inside the architecture of these types of sites will be explained. In this paper we present a new methodology applied in the archaeoastronomical calculations for southern Portugal sites. It includes GIS techniques and the development of an archaeoastronomical layer that can be used to display the computations over cartographic information from the archaeological sites. A Spatial Data Infrastructure is also created in order to expose the results.

  11. Psychiatry training towards a global future: trainees' perspective in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pinto da Costa, Mariana; Guerra, Cátia; Malta, Rui; Moura, Manuela; Carvalho, Serafim; Mendonça, Denisa

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A psiquiatria é influenciada pelas mudanças que ocorrem na sociedade, devendo estar em constante renovação, antevendo futuros comportamentos e doenças. Este estudo pretende descrever a opinião dos internos de psiquiatria em Portugal relativamente ao seu internato e às modificações que nele gostariam de assistir no futuro próximo.Material e Métodos: Um questionário estruturado de 26 perguntas foi desenvolvido pela Associação Portuguesa de Internos de Psiquiatria e enviado por email.Resultados: A percentagem de respostas obtidas foi de 41,5%. A maioria dos internos estava satisfeita com a sua formação. Contudo, algumas mudanças foram sugeridas no que diz respeitos aos estágios obrigatórios e opcionais. A maior parte dos internos requer que as psicoterapias sejam incluídas no âmbito do internato, solicitando também um acesso mais fácil à investigação e a oportunidades de estágio no estrangeiro.Discussão e Conclusão: Esta perspectiva detalhada pode facilitar a transformação dos currículos do internato em Portugal e naEuropa, permitindo a melhoria do internato de psiquiatria, bem como dos cuidados de saúde mental.

  12. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential wood combustion in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, Mário; Gomes, Luís; Tarelho, Luís; Pio, Casimiro

    2013-06-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to characterize formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential combustion of common wood species growing in Portugal. Five types of wood were investigated: maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), cork oak (Quercus suber), holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) and pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica). Laboratory experiments were performed with a typical wood stove used for domestic heating in Portugal and operating under realistic home conditions. Aldehydes were sampled from diluted combustion flue gas using silica cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The average formaldehyde to acetaldehyde concentration ratio (molar basis) in the stove flue gas was in the range of 2.1-2.9. Among the tested wood types, pyrenean oak produced the highest emissions for both formaldehyde and acetaldehyde: 1772 ± 649 and 1110 ± 454 mg kg-1 biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. By contrast, maritime pine produced the lowest emissions: 653 ± 151 and 371 ± 162 mg kg-1 biomass (dry basis) burned, respectively. Aldehydes were sampled separately during distinct periods of the holm oak wood combustion cycles. Significant variations in the flue gas concentrations were found, with higher values measured during the devolatilization stage than in the flaming and smoldering stages.

  13. African horse sickness in Portugal: a successful eradication programme.

    PubMed Central

    Portas, M.; Boinas, F. S.; Oliveira E Sousa, J.; Rawlings, P.

    1999-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) was diagnosed for the first time in southern Portugal in autumn 1989, following outbreaks in Spain. AHS virus presence was confirmed by virus isolation and serotyping. An eradication campaign with four sanitary zones was set up by Central Veterinary Services in close collaboration with private organizations. Vaccination began on 6 October. In February 1990, vaccination was extended to all Portuguese equines (170000 animals). There were 137 outbreaks on 104 farms: 206 of the equidae present died (16%) or were slaughtered (14%); 81.5% were horses, 10.7% were donkeys and 7.8% were mules. Clinical AHS occurred more frequently in horses than donkeys and mules. In the vaccinated population, 82 animals (62.2% horses and 37.8% mules and donkeys), died or were slaughtered due to suspected or confirmed AHS. One year after ending vaccination, December 1991, Portugal was declared free of AHS. Cost of eradication was US$1955513 (US$11.5/Portuguese equine). PMID:10579455

  14. Phase II - Procurement of State of the Art Research Equipment to Support Faculty Members with the RNA Therapeutics Institute, a component of the Advanced Therapeutics Cluster at the University of Massachusetts Medical School

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Melissa

    2011-10-14

    This project supported the continued development of the RNA Therapeutics Institute at the UMass Medical School. This funding allows for the purchase of critical equipment that will enable faculty members to develop RNA technology in order to better understand the complexity that separates genome sequence from biological function, as well as to reduce the hyperactivity of harmful genes.

  15. Understanding the Everyday Practice of Individualized Education Program Team Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Elizabeth S.

    2016-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 states that individualized education program (IEP) teams are composed of members with distinct identities, roles, expertise, and histories. Although team members must work together to implement educational and related services for learners with special needs, little is known about…

  16. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER CHORD MEMBER, SHOWING MAKER'S PLATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER CHORD MEMBER, SHOWING MAKER'S PLATE STATING 'KING IRON BRIDGE & MFG. CO., K & F & Z KING PATENT, CLEVELAND, O.' - Smith Road Bowstring Arch Bridge, Spanning Sycamore Creek at Smith Road (TR 62), Lykens, Crawford County, OH

  17. Elastomeric member and method of manufacture therefor

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, L.O.

    1985-12-10

    An energy storage device is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member disposed within a tubular housing, which elastomeric member is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section, and transition end sections, attached to rigid end piece assemblies of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member, a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing. Each of the transition sections are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond therebetween. During manufacture, the sleeves are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section to provide the correct profile and helix angle. 12 figs.

  18. Elastomeric member and method of manufacture therefor

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O.

    1985-01-01

    An energy storage device (10) is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member (16) disposed within a tubular housing (14), which elastomeric member (16) is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member (16) is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section (74), and transition end sections (76, 78), attached to rigid end piece assemblies (22, 24) of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections (76, 78) are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member (16), a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing (14). Each of the transition sections (76, 78) are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve (26, 28) having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve (26, 28) also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond therebetween. During manufacture, the sleeves (26, 28) are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section (76, 78) to provide the correct profile and helix angle.

  19. Serological Evidence for Schmallenberg Virus Infection in Sheep of Portugal, 2014.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Fernando; Mesquita, João R; Vala, Helena; Abreu-Silva, Joana; van der Poel, Wim H M; Nascimento, Maria S J

    2016-01-01

    Between November and December of 2014, a serosurvey was set up to evaluate the presence of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) antibodies in sheep of Portugal. Sera (n = 1068) were tested using an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ID Screen(®) Schmallenberg virus indirect, IDvet Innovative Diagnostics, Montpellier, France). The estimated occurrence of immunogobulin G (IgG) antibodies against SBV in sheep of Portugal was 12.8% (95% confidence interval 11.0-15.0%). This is the first study reporting the presence of SBV antibodies in sheep of Portugal.

  20. [Legal regulations to protect under-aged donors issued by E.U. Member Countries. Analysis of the present situation and proposals].

    PubMed

    Massimo, L; Manfredini, L

    2001-02-01

    Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in the E.U. is a routine treatment which requires specific legal procedures to protect under-aged donors. The European Council (5/29/1978) decreed the guidelines concerning organ transplantation for the Member Countries. These guidelines included obtaining written consent from the donor or his/her guardian. The International Convention on children s rights (New York 11/20/1989, art. 12) stated that the minor has the right to give his/her opinion, which must be taken into consideration. Currently, though legal guidelines vary among Member Countries, all require the parents or guardian s written consent. In France, an ethics committee (L. 76-1181/1976) must inform the minor about the consequences of the procedure, respect his/her will and obtain consent. In Luxembourg, the Department of Health requires written consent as well as authorization by three experts, including two physicians. In Spain an ethics committee must obtain the minor s consent which is then approved by a government authority and counter-signed by a physician. In UK an N.H.S. directive (1st Aug. 1993) states that as of 16 years of age donors must give consent. In Germany minors over 14 are allowed to give consent. A legal guarantee is required when the recipient is a parent to avoid conflict of interest. In Belgium minors between 15 and 18 require witnessed written consent, counter-signed by the guardian and approved by a physician. Married donors below 21 need the consenting adult s approval. In Portugal verbal consent by the minor and the guardian is sufficient. In Denmark the guardian s written consent is needed. In Italy a law is being prepared to best protect minors. In conclusion it would be useful for the European Council to decree the detailed legal guidelines and require greater uniformity among the E.U. Countries.

  1. Biological variables and health status affecting inorganic element concentrations in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from Portugal (western Iberian Peninsula).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marisa; Monteiro, Silvia S; Torres, Jordi; Oliveira, Isabel; Sequeira, Marina; López, Alfredo; Vingada, José; Eira, Catarina

    2016-03-01

    The coastal preferences of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) intensify their exposure to human activities. The harbour porpoise Iberian population is presently very small and information about the threats it endures is vital for the conservation efforts that are being implemented to avoid local extinction. The present study explored the possible relation between the accumulation of trace elements by porpoises and their sex, body length, nutritional state, presence of parasites and gross pathologies. The concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) were evaluated in 42 porpoises stranded in Portugal between 2005 and 2013. Considering European waters, porpoises stranded in Portugal present the highest Hg concentrations and the lowest Cd concentrations, which may reflect dietary preferences and the geographic availability of these pollutants. While no effect of sex on trace element concentrations was detected, there was a positive relationship between porpoise body length and the concentration of Cd, Hg and Pb. Animals in worse nutritional condition showed higher levels of Zn. Harbour porpoises with high parasite burdens showed lower levels of Zn and As in all analysed tissues and also lower levels of renal Ni, while those showing gross pathologies presented higher Zn and Hg levels. This is the first data on the relationship between trace elements and health-related variables in porpoises from southern European Atlantic waters, providing valuable baseline information about the contamination status of this vulnerable population. PMID:26803785

  2. [Shaken Baby Syndrome: fact or fiction in Portugal?].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sandra; Magalhães, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) is an unquestionable and current worldwide problem, as it is considered one of the most severe forms of child abuse, with significant morbidity and mortality among children under one year of age. In Portugal the actual incidence of SBS is still unknown and probably undervalued and underdiagnosed, but international literature reports incidences between 14 and 40.5 per 100.000 children a year in several different countries. It is classically considered SBS to consist of shaking a child repeatedly and violently, inducing a cervical whiplash like movement. Due to the child's development stage, this external force of acceleration/deceleration acting on the head and cervical musculature may cause several lesions, specially subdural, subarachnoid and retinal hemorrhage, and sometimes even bone fractures. However, there is no unanimity concerning this trauma mechanism, especially on the requirement of direct trauma to the head leading to intracranial lesions, since a satisfactory biomechanical model to test it is still lacking. Its diagnosis is controversial, difficult and has important legal and family implications, always adding an emotional element to it, susceptible of withholding the necessary objectivity. In order to substantiate a strong suspicion it is thus mandatory to correlate the clinical history, the physical examination and all the diagnostic auxiliary exams. Consequences may range from mild to fatal, encompassing the child's psychological, cognitive, physical and sensory-motor development, on a short or long term basis. Nevertheless, from a global perspective, its prognosis is almost always poor. So, education and prevention assume primary importance in order to reduce incidence, morbidity and mortality of the SBS. Countries like the U.S.A, Scotland, France, Germany, Switzerland, Canada, Estonia and Japan have long been interested in studying this syndrome's trauma mechanism and incidence, as well as in the development of

  3. Integration of care systems in Portugal: anatomy of recent reforms

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Silvina; Szczygiel, Nina; Redondo, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    Background Integrated care is increasingly present in the agenda of policy-makers, health professionals and researchers as a way to improve care services in relation to access, quality, user satisfaction and efficiency. These are overarching objectives of most sectoral reforms. However, health care and social care services and systems are more and more dependent on the performance of each other, imposing the logic of network. Demographic, epidemiologic and cultural changes result in pressure to increase efficiency and efficacy of services and organisations in both sectors and that is why integrated care has become so relevant in the last years. Methods We first used concept maps to organise and systematise information that we had gathered through deep literature review in order to set a framework where to base the subsequent work. Then, we interviewed informants at several levels of the health and social care systems and we built a list of major recent reforms addressing integrated care in Portugal. In a third step, we conducted two independent focus groups where those reforms were discussed and evaluated within the context of the concepts and frameworks identified from the literature. Results were confronted and reconciled, giving place to a list of requisites and guidelines that oriented further search for documentation on those reforms. Results Several important health reforms are in course in primary and hospital care in Portugal, while a so-called third level of care has been introduced with the launch of the National Network of Long-Term Integrated Care (RNCCI – Rede Nacional de Cuidados Continuados Integrados). The social care sector has itself been a subject of alternative models springing from opposite political orientations. All these changes are having repercussions on the way the systems work with each other as they are leading to ongoing and ill-evaluated reformulations on the way they are governed, financed, structured and operated. Conclusions Care

  4. Prevalence of Late Preterm and Early Term Birth in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Barros, Joana G; Clode, Nuno; Graça, Luís M

    2016-04-01

    Introdução: Nos últimos anos, vários autores evidenciaram a morbilidade associada aos partos ocorridos entre as 34 e 36 semanas (pré-termo tardio) e entre as 37 e 38 semanas de gestação (termo precoce). Neste sentido, pretendemos realizar um estudo epide-miológico dos partos que ocorrem nestas idades gestacionais, em Portugal. Material e Métodos: Realizámos um inquérito, que foi aplicado a todos os hospitais públicos de Portugal, acerca da prevalência e via de parto nos partos pré-termo tardios e de termo precoce, e morbilidade e mortalidade neonatal associada. As questões referiam-se apenas a gestações de feto único e a partos ocorridos em 2013. Resultados: Incluímos 14 hospitais, correspondendo a 33,5% dos partos ocorridos em Portugal, em 2013. Verificámos que 5,4% dos partos ocorreram no período pré-termo tardio e 27% no termo precoce. Aproximadamente dois terços dos partos pré-termo tardio e três quartos dos partos de termo precoce foram espontâneos. A taxa de cesariana foi mais elevada entre as 34 e 36 semanas de gestação (39,1%) do que entre as 37 e 38 semanas (26,4%). As complicações neonatais foram mais frequentes após um parto pré-termo tardio (34,2%), quando comparadas com os de termo precoce (14,2%). Discussão: Na nossa amostra, a prevalência de parto pré-termo tardio e de termo precoce, ainda que ligeiramente inferior, é comparável à publicada em estudos anteriores. Conclusão: Á importante que a comunidade obstétrica nacional adote atitudes no sentido de limitar os partos antes das 39 semanas de gestação. Assim, nestas idades gestacionais os partos devem possuir uma indicação médica válida.

  5. The Ançã limestones, Coimbra, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinta-Ferreira, Mário; Gil Catarino, Lídia; Delgado Rodrigues, José

    2016-04-01

    Ançã is located in the Lusitanian Basin (western Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary basin), in the municipality of Cantanhede, close to Coimbra, Portugal. This constitutes the northernmost Dogger (Bajocian) limestone sequence in Portugal. The use of the Ançã limestones is documented since the Roman occupation of the Iberian Peninsula. It was used for the construction of houses, palaces, churches, fine sculptures, carving, paving and for the production of lime. These limestones vary from white and very soft varieties, with very high porosity used for sculpture and carving to white and hard varieties used for masonry and as aggregates and to white to bluish with low porosity and high strength varieties, mainly used for paving. The softer and whiter variety is worldwide known as Ançã Stone (Pedra de Ançã) exhibiting a porosity of 26-29 %. It became famous after being largely used by Coimbra most famous Renaissance sculptors like João de Ruão and Nicolau de Chanterenne. The Pedra de Ançã was used mainly in the region of Coimbra, but also in several other places in Portugal, in Santiago de Compostela, Spain, and Brazil. Some examples of heritage in Coimbra using the Pedra de Ançã are the renaissance portal of the Saint Cross Church, the tombs of the first two Portuguese kings located in this church, the altar of the Saint Cross Church or of the Old Cathedral, or in sculptures at the University of Coimbra. It is quite prone to deteriorate when exposed to atmospheric agents and to soluble salts, mainly due to its high porosity. Deteriorated surfaces needing treatment constitute difficult conservation problems, especially when consolidation and protection treatments are required. The less porous varieties of the Ançã limestones (< 20 % porosity) were mainly used for masonry, paving and production of lime. The royal Palace of Buçaco is a remarkable masonry building constructed at the end of the XIX century with the less porous varieties of the Ançã limestones

  6. Anisotropic Tomography of Portugal (West Iberia) from ambient seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, Graça; Stutzmann, Éléonore; Schimmel, Martin; Dias, Nuno; Kiselev, Sergey; Custódio, Susana; Dundar, Suleyman

    2016-04-01

    Located on the western Iberian Peninsula, Portugal constitutes a key area for accretionary terrane and basin research, providing the best opportunity to probe a crustal formation shaped by the Paleozoic Variscan orogeny followed by the Mesozoic-Cenozoic extensions. The geology of Portugal documents a protracted history from Paleozoic basement formation to the Mesozoic opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. The inheritance of such complex geologic history is yet to be fully determined, playing an important role in the current geodynamic framework influencing, for example, the observed regional seismicity. The physical properties of its crust have largely remained undetermined so far, with unevenly distributed knowledge on the spatial distributions of a detailed crustal structure. Also, the deep seismic reflection/refraction surveys conducted in Western Iberia do not provide a clear picture of the regional characteristics of the crust. Using Seismic Broad Band observations from a dense temporary deployment, conducted between 2010 and 2012 in the scope of the WILAS project and covering the entire Portuguese mainland, we computed a 3D anisotropic model from ambient seismic noise. The dispersion measurements were computed for each station pair using empirical Green's functions generated by cross-correlating one-day-length seismic ambient-noise records. After dispersion analysis, group velocity measurements were regionalized to obtain 2D anisotropic tomographic images. Afterwards, the dispersion curves, extracted from each cell of the 2D group velocity maps, were inverted as a function of depth to obtain a 3D shear wave anisotropic model, using a bayesian approach. A simulated annealing method, in which the number of splines that describes the model, is adapted within the inversion. The models are jointly interpreted with the models gathered from Ps receiver functions as well as with the regional seismicity, enabling to obtain a more detailed picture of the crustal

  7. [Shaken Baby Syndrome: fact or fiction in Portugal?].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sandra; Magalhães, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) is an unquestionable and current worldwide problem, as it is considered one of the most severe forms of child abuse, with significant morbidity and mortality among children under one year of age. In Portugal the actual incidence of SBS is still unknown and probably undervalued and underdiagnosed, but international literature reports incidences between 14 and 40.5 per 100.000 children a year in several different countries. It is classically considered SBS to consist of shaking a child repeatedly and violently, inducing a cervical whiplash like movement. Due to the child's development stage, this external force of acceleration/deceleration acting on the head and cervical musculature may cause several lesions, specially subdural, subarachnoid and retinal hemorrhage, and sometimes even bone fractures. However, there is no unanimity concerning this trauma mechanism, especially on the requirement of direct trauma to the head leading to intracranial lesions, since a satisfactory biomechanical model to test it is still lacking. Its diagnosis is controversial, difficult and has important legal and family implications, always adding an emotional element to it, susceptible of withholding the necessary objectivity. In order to substantiate a strong suspicion it is thus mandatory to correlate the clinical history, the physical examination and all the diagnostic auxiliary exams. Consequences may range from mild to fatal, encompassing the child's psychological, cognitive, physical and sensory-motor development, on a short or long term basis. Nevertheless, from a global perspective, its prognosis is almost always poor. So, education and prevention assume primary importance in order to reduce incidence, morbidity and mortality of the SBS. Countries like the U.S.A, Scotland, France, Germany, Switzerland, Canada, Estonia and Japan have long been interested in studying this syndrome's trauma mechanism and incidence, as well as in the development of

  8. Multivariate cluster analysis of forest fire events in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, Marj; Pereira, Mario; Vega Orozco, Carmen; Parente, Joana

    2015-04-01

    Portugal is one of the major fire-prone European countries, mainly due to its favourable climatic, topographic and vegetation conditions. Compared to the other Mediterranean countries, the number of events registered here from 1980 up to nowadays is the highest one; likewise, with respect to the burnt area, Portugal is the third most affected country. Portuguese mapped burnt areas are available from the website of the Institute for the Conservation of Nature and Forests (ICNF). This official geodatabase is the result of satellite measurements starting from the year 1990. The spatial information, delivered in shapefile format, provides a detailed description of the shape and the size of area burnt by each fire, while the date/time information relate to the ignition fire is restricted to the year of occurrence. In terms of a statistical formalism wildfires can be associated to a stochastic point process, where events are analysed as a set of geographical coordinates corresponding, for example, to the centroid of each burnt area. The spatio/temporal pattern of stochastic point processes, including the cluster analysis, is a basic procedure to discover predisposing factorsas well as for prevention and forecasting purposes. These kinds of studies are primarily focused on investigating the spatial cluster behaviour of environmental data sequences and/or mapping their distribution at different times. To include both the two dimensions (space and time) a comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis is needful. In the present study authors attempt to verify if, in the case of wildfires in Portugal, space and time act independently or if, conversely, neighbouring events are also closer in time. We present an application of the spatio-temporal K-function to a long dataset (1990-2012) of mapped burnt areas. Moreover, the multivariate K-function allowed checking for an eventual different distribution between small and large fires. The final objective is to elaborate a 3D

  9. Study of organic honey from the Northeast Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Teresa; Feás, Xesús; Iglesias, Antonio; Estevinho, Leticia M

    2011-06-27

    Concerns about traces of numerous toxic substances and authenticity have prompted consumer demand for honey that is certified as organic, based on strict ecological, natural principles and traceability. The present study aims to characterize organic honey samples (n = 73) from Northeast Portugal, with respect to floral nectar origin, physicochemical parameters and microbial safety. The phenols and flavonoids contents, often referred to as responsible for honey's bioactive properties, were also assessed. All organic honey samples were classified as monofloral lavender (Lavandula sp.), exceeded in quality the international physicochemical standards and showed low microbiological counts (yeast, moulds and aerobic mesophiles), with negative results in respect to fecal coliforms, Salmonella and sulphite-reducing Clostridium spp. Correlation of the palynological, physicochemical and microbiological results is necessary to check the authenticity, quality and sanitation of honey. Although not required by international legislation, results of those assessments provide a complete outlook and elucidation of the organic honey's properties, which could promote its valorisation.

  10. Conservation and sustainability in freshwater ecosystems in Tavira (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Esmeralda; Fonseca, José; Lopes, Luís; João Costa, Maria; Cunha, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    This interdisciplinary project carried out with 8th and 9th grade students involved five teachers from three different subjects (Physics and Chemistry, Natural Science and Geography). Framed in the Water Framework Directive, it aimed at verifying the ecological quality of water in two rivers in the municipality of Tavira (South Portugal). The development of this project has been structured in accordance with the following objectives: evaluate the quality of freshwater ecosystems through the existence of certain living organisms; present proposals on ways to preserve water resources in a sustainable perspective; sensitize students to the importance of their participation in collective action by volunteering for ecological protection. This is an innovative educational experience that allowed students an integrated approach to content and procedures applied to real problems in their local environment.

  11. Comparing Consumer Resistance to Mobile Banking in Finland and Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laukkanen, Tommi; Cruz, Pedro

    This study compares two distinct European countries namely Finland and Portugal in terms of consumer resistance to mobile banking services. We explored how the five adoption barriers namely usage, value, risk, tradition and image, derived from the earlier literature, differ between these two countries. Using an Internet questionnaire a total of 3.597 usable responses was collected. A confirmatory factor analysis was implemented with SEM to build the constructs’ latent score levels. Using non-parametric difference tests we concluded that the resistance is significantly lower among the Portuguese online bank customers in terms of four out of the five barriers. The results can be used for a better understanding and enhancement of adoption of this specific case of mobile communication.

  12. Will new gender policies stop the decrease of women physicists in Portugal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Carla Carmelo; Peña, Maria Teresa; Saavedra, Luisa; Providência, Constança

    2013-03-01

    The present context of women physicists in Portugal is discussed, updating our report for the 2002 IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, in which the 30 years prior to 2000 were analyzed.

  13. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lusitanian Basin Province, Portugal, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Paxton, Stanley T.

    2016-11-04

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 121 million barrels of oil and 212 billion cubic feet of gas in the Lusitanian Basin Province, Portugal.

  14. Influence of meteorological conditions on RSV infection in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira-Santos, M.; Santos, J. A.; Soares, J.; Dias, A.; Quaresma, M.

    2016-04-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis is a common cause for infant hospital admissions. Of all etiological agents, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is commonly the most frequent. The present study assesses relationships between atmospheric factors and RSV infections in under 3-year-old patients admitted to the Inpatient Paediatric Service of Vila Real (North of Portugal). For this purpose, (1) clinical files of children admitted with a diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis from September 2005 to December 2015 (>10 years) were scrutinised and (2) local daily temperature/precipitation series, as well as six weather types controlling meteorological conditions in Portugal, were used. Fifty-five percent of all 770 admitted children were effectively infected with a given virus, whilst 48 % (367) were RSV+, i.e. 87 % of virus-infected children were RSV+. The bulk of incidence is verified in the first year of age (82 %, 302), slightly higher in males. RSV outbreaks are typically from December to March, but important inter-annual variability is found in both magnitude and shape. Although no clear connections were found between monthly temperatures/precipitation and RSV outbreaks apart from seasonality, a linkage to wintertime cold spells is apparent on a daily basis. Anomalously low minimum temperatures from the day of admittance back to 10 days before are observed. This relationship is supported by anomalously high occurrences of the E and AA weather types over the same period, which usually trigger dry and cold weather. These findings highlight some predictability in the RSV occurrences, revealing potential for modelling and risk assessments.

  15. Linguistic isolates in Portugal: insights from the mitochondrial DNA pattern.

    PubMed

    Mairal, Quim; Santos, Cristina; Silva, Marina; Marques, Sofia L; Ramos, Amanda; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Amorim, Antonio; Prata, Maria João; Alvarez, Luis

    2013-12-01

    Miranda do Douro, located in the northeastern region of Portugal, has notable characteristics not only from a geographic or naturalistic point of view, but also from a cultural perspective. A remarkable one is the coexistence of two different languages: Portuguese and Mirandese, the second being an Astur-Leonese dialect. The current persistence of the Astur-Leonese dialect in this population falls on the singularity of the region: relative isolation, implying difficulties to communicate with other Portuguese regions, while the same location facilitated the establishment of social and commercial relationships with adjacent Spanish territories, origin of the Astur-Leonese language. The objective of this study was to characterize the population from Miranda through the analysis of maternal lineages in order to evaluate whether its mitochondrial DNA diversity fitted the patterns previously reported for other populations from the Iberian Peninsula. Viewing that, the entire control region of mitochondrial DNA from 121 individuals was examined. Miranda showed a haplogroup composition usual for a Western European population, in the sense that as high as 63.6% of sequences belonged to macro-haplogroup R0. Lineages ascribed to have an African (L2a and L1b) origin, were detected, but reaching an amount commonly found in Portugal. Miranda also presented a few haplogroups typically found in Jewish populations, while rarely observed in other Iberian populations. The finding can be explained by gene flow with crypto-Jew communities that since long are known to be established in the region where Miranda is located. In Miranda, both genetic and nucleotide diversities presented low values (0.9292 ± 0.0180 and 0.01101 ± 0.00614 respectively) when compared to populations from its micro-geographical framework, which constitute a sign of population isolation that certainly provided conditions for the survival of the Astur-Leonese dialect in the region. PMID:24041913

  16. Spatio-temporal clustering of wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, R.; Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Vega Orozco, C.; Kanevski, M.

    2012-04-01

    Several studies have shown that wildfires in Portugal presenthigh temporal as well as high spatial variability (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). The identification and characterization of spatio-temporal clusters contributes to a comprehensivecharacterization of the fire regime and to improve the efficiency of fire prevention and combat activities. The main goalsin this studyare: (i) to detect the spatio-temporal clusters of burned area; and, (ii) to characterize these clusters along with the role of human and environmental factors. The data were supplied by the National Forest Authority(AFN, 2011) and comprises: (a)the Portuguese Rural Fire Database, PRFD, (Pereira et al., 2011) for the 1980-2007period; and, (b) the national mapping burned areas between 1990 and 2009. In this work, in order to complement the more common cluster analysis algorithms, an alternative approach based onscan statistics and on the permutation modelwas used. This statistical methodallows the detection of local excess events and to test if such an excess can reasonably have occurred by chance.Results obtained for different simulations performed for different spatial and temporal windows are presented, compared and interpreted.The influence of several fire factors such as (climate, vegetation type, etc.) is also assessed. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005:"Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal".Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 AFN, 2011: AutoridadeFlorestalNacional (National Forest Authority). Available at http://www.afn.min-agricultura.pt/portal.

  17. Parasite communities in stray cat populations from Lisbon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Waap, H; Gomes, J; Nunes, T

    2014-12-01

    Stray cats live in high-density colonies in urban areas and pose a health hazard to household cats and humans. In Portugal, information on the parasitic fauna of stray cats is limited and relies mostly on results from faecal analysis. The present survey aimed to determine the prevalence, diversity and intensity of parasites in stray cats from the urban area of Lisbon by means of parasitological necropsy. Internal organs were collected from 162 cats captured in different areas of the city and systematically subjected to parasitological dissection. Helminths were identified by macro- and microscopic examination and protozoa by faecal floatation and sedimentation techniques. The overall prevalence of parasites was 90.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85.3-94.6%). A total of 12 parasite species was recorded: Cystoisospora felis (14.2%), Cystoisospora rivolta (46.3%), Sarcocystis sp. (1.2%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (19.1%), Toxocara cati (38.3%), Ollulanus tricuspis (30.9%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (12.4%), Eucoleus aerophilus (0.6%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3.1%), Dipylidium caninum (53.1%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei (15.4%) and Diplopylidium nölleri (3.7%). Overall mean species richness was 2.36 ±  1.52. Helminth mean intensity was highest for O. tricuspis (285.8), followed by D. caninum (42.4), J. pasqualei (14.4), A. tubaeforme (8.1) and T. cati (5.9). The prevalence and variety of parasites found in our sampling are substantially higher than the numbers previously reported in Portugal. Some of the parasites, including T. cati and A. tubaeforme, are zoonotic, which emphasizes the need for parasite control strategies based on demographic containment of stray cat populations in urban areas to promote public health protection.

  18. Seasonal drought predictability in Portugal using statistical-dynamical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, A. F. S.; Pires, C. A. L.

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric forecasting and predictability are important to promote adaption and mitigation measures in order to minimize drought impacts. This study estimates hybrid (statistical-dynamical) long-range forecasts of the regional drought index SPI (3-months) over homogeneous regions from mainland Portugal, based on forecasts from the UKMO operational forecasting system, with lead-times up to 6 months. ERA-Interim reanalysis data is used for the purpose of building a set of SPI predictors integrating recent past information prior to the forecast launching. Then, the advantage of combining predictors with both dynamical and statistical background in the prediction of drought conditions at different lags is evaluated. A two-step hybridization procedure is performed, in which both forecasted and observed 500 hPa geopotential height fields are subjected to a PCA in order to use forecasted PCs and persistent PCs as predictors. A second hybridization step consists on a statistical/hybrid downscaling to the regional SPI, based on regression techniques, after the pre-selection of the statistically significant predictors. The SPI forecasts and the added value of combining dynamical and statistical methods are evaluated in cross-validation mode, using the R2 and binary event scores. Results are obtained for the four seasons and it was found that winter is the most predictable season, and that most of the predictive power is on the large-scale fields from past observations. The hybridization improves the downscaling based on the forecasted PCs, since they provide complementary information (though modest) beyond that of persistent PCs. These findings provide clues about the predictability of the SPI, particularly in Portugal, and may contribute to the predictability of crops yields and to some guidance on users (such as farmers) decision making process.

  19. Thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children in Spain and Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Nñnez, A. Rodríguez; Fonte, M.; Faustino, E.V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although critically ill children may be at risk from developing deep venous thrombosis (DVT), data on its incidence and effectiveness of thromboprophylaxis are lacking. Objective To describe the use of thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children in Spain and Portugal, and to compare the results with international data. Material and methods Secondary analysis of the multinational study PROTRACT, carried out in 59 PICUs from 7 developed countries (4 from Portugal and 6 in Spain). Data were collected from patients less than 18 years old, who did not receive therapeutic thromboprophylaxis. Results A total of 308 patients in Spanish and Portuguese (Iberian) PICUS were compared with 2176 admitted to international PICUs. Risk factors such as femoral vein (P = .01), jugular vein central catheter (P < .001), cancer (P = .03), and sepsis (P < .001), were more frequent in Iberian PICUs. The percentage of patients with pharmacological thromboprophylaxis was similar in both groups (15.3% vs. 12.0%). Low molecular weight heparin was used more frequently in Iberian patients (P < .001). In treated children, prior history of thrombosis (P = .02), femoral vein catheter (P < .001), cancer (P = .02) and cranial trauma or craniectomy (P = .006), were more frequent in Iberian PICUs. Mechanical thromboprophylaxis was used in only 6.8% of candidates in Iberian PICUs, compared with 23.8% in the international PICUs (P < .001). Conclusions Despite the presence of risk factors for DVT in many patients, thromboprophylaxis is rarely prescribed, with low molecular weight heparin being the most used drug. Passive thromboprophylaxis use is anecdotal. There should be a consensus on guidelines of thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children. PMID:24907863

  20. Sequence analysis of the replicase gene of 'sweet potato caulimo-like virus' suggests that this virus is a distinct member of the genus Cavemovirus.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Joao; Cuellar, Wilmer J

    2011-03-01

    Virion purification from indicator plants and partial sequencing of the replicase region of a 'sweet potato caulimo-like virus' (SPCV) isolate from Madeira, Portugal, are described. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that SPCV is a distinct member of the genus Cavemovirus (family Caulimoviridae). These results explain previous failed attempts to characterize SPCV based on antibodies or primers designed for other members of the Caulimoviridae. Using a quick DNA extraction protocol and PCR primers flanking the RT motif region, we were able to detect SPCV directly in sweet potato, thus saving considerable time during routine virus indexing. PMID:21184242

  1. State and Local Governments: Fiscal Pressures Could Have Implications for Future Delivery of Intergovernmental Programs. Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on the Budget, House of Representatives. GAO-10-899

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerwinski, Stanley J.

    2010-01-01

    State and local governments work in partnership with the federal government to implement numerous intergovernmental programs. Fiscal pressures for state and local governments may exist when spending is expected to outpace revenues for the long term. GAO (Government Accountability Office) was asked to examine (1) the long-term fiscal pressures…

  2. 17 CFR 190.09 - Member property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Member property. 190.09... Member property. (a) Member property. “Member property” means, in connection with a clearing organization bankruptcy, the property which may be used to pay that portion of the net equity claim of a member which...

  3. AGU member running to fill congressional seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Emily

    John F Mink, an AGU member (Hydrology) for 50 years, and husband of the late Representative Patsy T. Mink (D-Hawaii), will run in a special election on 30 November to fill the remainder of his wife's unexpired congressional term. Patsy Mink, who represented the 2nd Congressional District of Hawaii, passed away on 28 September after battling pneumonia.Her name will appear on the 5 November election ballot as a candidate for Hawaii's 2nd District in the 108th Congress. If she is elected posthumously, the state of Hawaii will hold a special election in January to select an official to serve the full two-year term.

  4. Member Takes Action Against Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertholf, Deedrick

    1999-01-01

    An ASBO member and chair of New York's School Emergency Response to Violent Events (SERVE) explains how this program tackles violence and teen suicide. SERVE teaches the basic principles of hostage situations, uses a confidential reporting system, and advocates safety audits and risk-reduction strategies. (MLH)

  5. Family member interventions: research challenges.

    PubMed

    Leske, J S

    1991-07-01

    Numerous descriptive studies have provided a base for developing and testing interventions for family members after a critical illness event. The challenges of designing, conducting, and using research-based interventions for families are invitation for the researcher. Critical care nurses have much to offer and do make a difference with families. Accept the challenges! PMID:2071430

  6. Ethics: views from IACUC members.

    PubMed

    Houde, Lisa; Dumas, Claude; Leroux, Thérèse

    2009-07-01

    Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) members were interviewed on various ethical matters, including ethics, animal ethics, science and ethics, and the use of animals in research, in order to explore their implicit ethical framework. The results revealed that IACUC members entertain rich and diverse beliefs about ethics, that are part of an implicit ethical framework which relates to different domains of knowledge, such as biology (differences between human and animals), psychology (e.g. affective relationships with pets), and so on. The results also revealed that IACUC members hold quite a restrictive view on both animal ethics and animal use in research, and that they apply implicit ethical notions, such as respect and justice, to some elements (e.g. ethical rules) of the explicit ethical framework they are provided with when performing ethical evaluations of animal use. The study suggests that IACUC members should be provided with more up-to-date information on topics such as animal ethics and animal use in research.

  7. Kentucky Hispanic School Board Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballestero, Victor; Wright, Sam

    2009-01-01

    The study was designed to provide information on Kentucky Hispanic school board members. The data was obtained from Kentucky school superintendents or their designees in the 174 public school districts through a survey mailed in the spring, 2009. The survey was mailed to Kentucky Superintendents on March 12, 2009. The follow-up survey was mailed…

  8. A School Board Member's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millett, Emily

    1991-01-01

    A veteran school board member and survivor of numerous restructuring efforts recounts the Leon County (Florida) School District's experience with strategic planning. Although the process was at time chaotic, Roger Kaufman's planning model helped the board create a climate for change and develop a definitive vision and realistic action plan. (MLH)

  9. A Numerical Study of Local Variations in Tidal Regime of Tagus Estuary, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Dias, João Miguel; Valentim, Juliana Marques; Sousa, Magda Catarina

    2013-01-01

    Tidal dynamics of shallow estuaries and lagoons is a complex matter that has attracted the attention of a large number of researchers over the last few decades. The main purpose of the present work is to study the intricate tidal dynamics of the Tagus estuary, which states as the largest estuary of the Iberian Peninsula and one of the most important wetlands in Portugal and Europe. Tagus has large areas of low depth and a remarkable geomorphology, both determining the complex propagation of tidal waves along the estuary of unknown manner. A non-linear two-dimensional vertically integrated hydrodynamic model was considered to be adequate to simulate its hydrodynamics and an application developed from the SIMSYS2D model was applied to study the tidal propagation along the estuary. The implementation and calibration of this model revealed its accuracy to predict tidal properties along the entire system. Several model runs enabled the analysis of the local variations in tidal dynamics, through the interpretation of amplitude and phase patterns of the main tidal constituents, tidal asymmetry, tidal ellipses, form factor and tidal dissipation. Results show that Tagus estuary tidal dynamics is extremely dependent on an estuarine resonance mode for the semi-diurnal constituents that induce important tidal characteristics. Besides, the estuarine coastline features and topography determines the changes in tidal propagation along the estuary, which therefore result essentially from a balance between convergence/divergence and friction and advection effects, besides the resonance effects. PMID:24312474

  10. A numerical study of local variations in tidal regime of Tagus estuary, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Dias, João Miguel; Valentim, Juliana Marques; Sousa, Magda Catarina

    2013-01-01

    Tidal dynamics of shallow estuaries and lagoons is a complex matter that has attracted the attention of a large number of researchers over the last few decades. The main purpose of the present work is to study the intricate tidal dynamics of the Tagus estuary, which states as the largest estuary of the Iberian Peninsula and one of the most important wetlands in Portugal and Europe. Tagus has large areas of low depth and a remarkable geomorphology, both determining the complex propagation of tidal waves along the estuary of unknown manner. A non-linear two-dimensional vertically integrated hydrodynamic model was considered to be adequate to simulate its hydrodynamics and an application developed from the SIMSYS2D model was applied to study the tidal propagation along the estuary. The implementation and calibration of this model revealed its accuracy to predict tidal properties along the entire system. Several model runs enabled the analysis of the local variations in tidal dynamics, through the interpretation of amplitude and phase patterns of the main tidal constituents, tidal asymmetry, tidal ellipses, form factor and tidal dissipation. Results show that Tagus estuary tidal dynamics is extremely dependent on an estuarine resonance mode for the semi-diurnal constituents that induce important tidal characteristics. Besides, the estuarine coastline features and topography determines the changes in tidal propagation along the estuary, which therefore result essentially from a balance between convergence/divergence and friction and advection effects, besides the resonance effects. PMID:24312474

  11. A new forensic collection housed at the University of Coimbra, Portugal: The 21st century identified skeletal collection.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Vicente, Ricardo; Navega, David; Gonçalves, David; Curate, Francisco; Cunha, Eugénia

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize and contextualize the new collection of identified skeletons housed in the Department of Life Sciences at the University of Coimbra, Portugal. The 21st Century Identified Skeletal Collection, which is still being enlarged, is currently composed of 159 complete adult skeletons (age at death range: 29-99 years) of both sexes. The skeletons consist almost exclusively of Portuguese nationals who died between 1995 and 2008. The state of preservation is good and more detailed antemortem information is presently being collected. This collection constitutes a fundamental tool for forensic anthropology research, including development and validation studies of skeletal aging and sexing methods that target elderly adults. Moreover, this collection can also be used in conjunction with the other reference collections housed in the University of Coimbra to investigate secular trends in skeletal development and aging, among others.

  12. Early Childhood Education and Care Policy in Portugal = A Educacao Pre-Escolar e os Cuidados para a Infancia em Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Lisbon (Portugal).

    Based on the view that the rapid expansion and development of preschool education requires careful scrutiny of both educational policy and practices, this book presents information on current early childhood education and care policy in Portugal. Section 1 of the book provides a historical framework for the development of early childhood education…

  13. ASCLS members perceptions regarding research.

    PubMed

    Mundt, Lillian; Shanahan, Kristy

    2009-01-01

    One of the benchmarks of a profession is performing, publishing, and presenting research. However, in the Clinical Laboratory Science (CLS) profession, few manuscripts are submitted to the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science (ASCLS) journal, Clinical Laboratory Science, on a regular basis. The problem is that perceptions regarding research, and the role of laboratory professional as researchers, held by ASCLS members may be contributing to the low number of manuscript submissions. To assess these perceptions, an anonymous Likert-scale survey was developed and delivered online using Survey Monkey. Members of ASCLS, with email addresses, were chosen to participate in this survey because they may be most likely to contribute manuscripts for a journal by their own society. About 10% of the 7,000 members who were invited by email chose to participate in this study. Most participants agreed that 1) there is important information to be gathered from research on clinical laboratory specimen results (99.6%), 2) research contributes valuable information to the body of CLS knowledge (99.2%), and 3) conducting research is one of the benchmarks of a profession (92.4%). The majority of participants felt that there are inadequate resources (68.8%) and not enough time (83%) available to conduct research in the clinical laboratory setting. Most participants recognize that many laboratory activities constitute research (86.2%), but only a few are willing to publish research findings on their own (29.2%). Those who are the most likely to publish research findings include men, university faculty, and members who are over 60 years old. University faculty are the most likely to assist others in the writing process. These results show an opportunity exists for ASCLS to foster collaborations between bench technologists and educators willing to assist with the publication process.

  14. Vocational Training and Innovative Practices in the Environmental Sector: A Comparison of Ten EU [European Union] Member States with Specimen Cases. Synthesis Report in the Context of the "Observing Innovations in Vocational Training" Project. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loos, Roland

    This report provides specialist information and application-oriented recommendations to implement innovative environmental vocational education and training (VET) measures and practices. Chapter 1 explains study method and structure. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the current state of environmental VET in Austria, Denmark, Finland, Germany,…

  15. Salt Fluxes in a Complex River Mouth System of Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Nuno; Lencart e Silva, João D.; Dias, João Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of velocity and salinity near the mouth and head of the Espinheiro channel (Ria de Aveiro lagoon, Portugal) are used to study the local variation of physical water properties and to assess the balance, under steady conditions, between the seaward salt transport induced by river discharge and the landward dispersion induced by various mixing mechanisms. This assessment is made using data sampled during complete tidal cycles. Under the assumption that the estuarine tidal channel is laterally homogeneous and during moderate tidal periods (except for one survey), currents and salinity data were decomposed into various spatial and temporal means and their deviations. Near the channel's mouth, the main contributions to the salt transport are the terms due to freshwater discharge and the tidal correlation. Near the channel's head, this last term is less important than the density driven circulation, which is enhanced by the increase in freshwater discharge. The remaining terms, which are dependent on the deviations from the mean depth have a smaller role in the results of salt transport. The computed salt transport per unit width of a section perpendicular to the mean flow is in close agreement to the sum of the advective and dispersive terms (within or very close to 12%). An imbalance of the salt budget across the sections is observed for all the surveys. Considerations are made on how this approach can inform the management of hazardous contamination and how to use these results to best time the release of environmental flows during dry months. PMID:23071793

  16. The Great Recession in Portugal: impact on hospital care use.

    PubMed

    Perelman, Julian; Felix, Sónia; Santana, Rui

    2015-03-01

    The Great Recession started in Portugal in 2009, coupled with severe austerity. This study examines its impact on hospital care utilization, interpreted as caused by demand-side effects (related to variations in population income and health) and supply-side effects (related to hospitals' tighter budgets and reduced capacity). The database included all in-patient stays at all Portuguese NHS hospitals over the 2001-2012 period (n=17.7 millions). We analyzed changes in discharge rates, casemix index, and length of stay (LOS), using a before-after methodology. We additionally measured the association of health care indicators to unemployment. A 3.2% higher rate of discharges was observed after 2009. Urgent stays increased by 2.5%, while elective in-patient stays decreased by 1.4% after 2011. The LOS was 2.8% shorter after the crisis onset, essentially driven by the 4.5% decrease among non-elective stays. A one percentage point increase in unemployment rate was associated to a 0.4% increase in total volume, a 2.3% decrease in day cases, and a 0.1% decrease in LOS. The increase in total and urgent cases may reflect delayed out-patient care and health deterioration; the reduced volume of elective stays possibly signal a reduced capacity; finally, the shorter stays may indicate either efficiency-enhancing measures or reduced quality.

  17. Exploratory study of air quality in elementary schools, Coimbra, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana Maria Conceição; Cardoso, Salvador Massano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the air quality in elementary schools and their structural and functional conditions. METHODS Air quality in 51 elementary schools (81 classrooms) in the city of Coimbra, Portugal, both inside and outside of the rooms was evaluated during the four seasons, from 2010 to 2011. Temperature (T°), relative humidity (Hr), concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), compounds were evaluated, as were volatile organics (VOC), formaldehyde and particulate matter (PM10), from November 2010 to February 2011 (autumn/winter) and March 2011 to June 2011 (spring/summer). A grid characterizing the structural and functional conditions of the schools was created. The statistical Student t test for paired samples and the Wilcoxon t test were applied. RESULTS In 47 schools, the average CO2concentrations were above the maximum reference concentration (984 ppm) mentioned in Portuguese legislation. The maximum concentration values found inside the rooms were critical, especially in the fall/winter (5,320 ppm). In some schools the average concentrations of VOC and PM10within the maximum concentration exceeded the reference legislated. The values (risk) of CO, formaldehyde, NO2, SO2and O3detected were not relevant. CONCLUSIONS There was a higher concentration of pollutants inside the rooms compared with outside. Inadequate ventilation is associated with high CO2concentration in the classroom. PMID:24626544

  18. [A sociography of elderly victims of family violence in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Gil, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana João; Kislaya, Irina; Santos, César; Mascoli, Luísa; Ferreira, Alexandra Inácio; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2015-06-01

    This article presents data on violence against persons aged 60 years or older and living in Portugal for at least 12 months. The cross-sectional descriptive study collected data with a face-to-face questionnaire applied to victims that had sought assistance at three government institutions and one non-governmental support service for victims. The non-probabilistic sample included 510 victims of violence in family settings. Physical and psychological violence were the most common (87.8% and 69.6%, respectively). Financial violence was reported by 47.5% of the victims, followed by sexual assault (7.5%) and neglect (6.5%). The majority of victims (74.1%) reported more than one type of violence. Victims were mostly women, and mean age was 70.7 years. Most of the perpetrators belonged to the nuclear family, namely spouses or partners, sons/sons-in-law, and daughters/daughters-in-law. However, differences were observed according to victim's gender. The results indicate that violence is not a uniform phenomenon, presenting different configurations. PMID:26200371

  19. Anaplasma marginale and Theileria annulata in questing ticks from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Antunes, S; Ferrolho, J; Domingues, N; Santos, A S; Santos-Silva, M M; Domingos, A

    2016-09-01

    Ticks are ubiquitous arthropods and vectors of several pathogenic agents in animals and humans. Monitoring questing ticks is of great importance to ascertain the occurrence of pathogens and the potential vector species, offering an insight into the risk of disease transmission in a given area. In this study 428 host-seeking ticks, belonging to nine species of Ixodidae and collected from 17 of the 23 Portuguese mainland subregions, were screened for several tick-borne agents with veterinary relevance: Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma ovis, Anaplasma centrale, Babesia spp., Coxiella burnetii and Theileria spp. Prevalence was assessed by PCR and amplified amplicons sequenced for validation of results. Twenty ticks, in a total of 428, were found positive: one Ixodes ventalloi for Theileria annulata and four Dermacentor marginatus, one Haemaphysalis punctata, five Ixodes ricinus, five I. ventalloi, and four Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato for A. marginale. According to the reviewed literature, this is the first report of A. marginale and T. annulata detection in I. ventalloi. Furthermore, the amplification of A. marginale DNA in several tick species suggests a broad range for this agent in Portugal that might include other uncommon species as R. sanguineus s.l. This work provides new data towards a better understanding of tick-pathogen associations and also contributes to the surveillance of tick-borne agents in geographic areas with limited information. PMID:27394441

  20. The Great Recession in Portugal: impact on hospital care use.

    PubMed

    Perelman, Julian; Felix, Sónia; Santana, Rui

    2015-03-01

    The Great Recession started in Portugal in 2009, coupled with severe austerity. This study examines its impact on hospital care utilization, interpreted as caused by demand-side effects (related to variations in population income and health) and supply-side effects (related to hospitals' tighter budgets and reduced capacity). The database included all in-patient stays at all Portuguese NHS hospitals over the 2001-2012 period (n=17.7 millions). We analyzed changes in discharge rates, casemix index, and length of stay (LOS), using a before-after methodology. We additionally measured the association of health care indicators to unemployment. A 3.2% higher rate of discharges was observed after 2009. Urgent stays increased by 2.5%, while elective in-patient stays decreased by 1.4% after 2011. The LOS was 2.8% shorter after the crisis onset, essentially driven by the 4.5% decrease among non-elective stays. A one percentage point increase in unemployment rate was associated to a 0.4% increase in total volume, a 2.3% decrease in day cases, and a 0.1% decrease in LOS. The increase in total and urgent cases may reflect delayed out-patient care and health deterioration; the reduced volume of elective stays possibly signal a reduced capacity; finally, the shorter stays may indicate either efficiency-enhancing measures or reduced quality. PMID:25583679

  1. Distribution of materials in construction and demolition waste in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge

    2011-08-01

    It may not be enough simply to know the global volume of construction and demolition waste (CDW) generated in a certain region or country if one wants to estimate, for instance, the revenue accruing from separating several types of materials from the input entering a given CDW recycling plant. A more detailed determination of the distribution of the materials within the generated CDW is needed and the present paper addresses this issue, distinguishing different buildings and types of operation (new construction, retrofitting and demolition). This has been achieved by measuring the materials from buildings of different ages within the Portuguese building stock, and by using direct data from demolition/retrofitting sites and new construction average values reported in the literature. An attempt to establish a benchmark with other countries is also presented. This knowledge may also benefit industry management, especially that related to CDW recycling, helping to optimize procedures, equipment size and operation and even industrial plant spatial distribution. In an extremely competitive market, where as in Portugal low-tech and high environmental impact procedures remain the norm in the construction industry (in particular, the construction waste industry), the introduction of a successful recycling industry is only possible with highly optimized processes and based on a knowledge-based approach to problems. PMID:20498131

  2. Marine macrostomorpha (platyhelminthes, rhabditophora) from the algarve (southern portugal).

    PubMed

    Schockaert, Ernest R

    2014-10-13

    Ten species of Macrostomorpha were found in marine environments of the Algarve (Portugal). Six of them were found in the Ria Formosa, a vast intertidal euryhaline lagoon system that dominates the most Eastern coast of the Algarve: two unidentified species of Microstomum Schmidt, 1848, Macrostomum cf. rubrocinctum Ax, 1951 and two unidentified species of Macrostomum Schmidt, 1848, Paromalostomum dubium (de Beauchamps, 1927), Paromalostomum minutum Rieger, 1971 and Cylindromacrostomum faroensis n.sp.. Comparison of this species with C. mediterraneum (Ax, 1955) and the species from Venice, considered to be C. mediterraneum by Rieger (1977), leads to the conclusion that the individuals studied by Rieger are in fact representatives of a separate species, C. riegeri n.sp.. Acanthomacrostomum spiculiferum Papi & Swedmark, 1959 was found in the Atlantic, 10-15 m deep, near the western coast of the Algarve. Haplopharynx papii n. sp. occurs on the beach exposed to the Atlantic as well as in the Ria Formosa. All identified and previously known (marine) species found in the Algarve had been found before, either in the Atlantic or in the Mediterranean basin. 

  3. Litter in submarine canyons off the west coast of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordecai, Gideon; Tyler, Paul A.; Masson, Douglas G.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

    2011-12-01

    Marine litter is of global concern and is present in all the world's oceans, including deep benthic habitats where the extent of the problem is still largely unknown. Litter abundance and composition were investigated using video footage and still images from 16 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives in Lisbon, Setúbal, Cascais and Nazaré Canyons located west of Portugal. Litter was most abundant at sites closest to the coastline and population centres, suggesting the majority of the litter was land sourced. Plastic was the dominant type of debris, followed by fishing gear. Standardised mean abundance was 1100 litter items km -2, but was as high as 6600 litter items km -2 in canyons close to Lisbon. Although all anthropogenic material may be harmful to biota, debris was also used as a habitat by some macro-invertebrates. Litter composition and abundance observed in the canyons of the Portuguese margin were comparable to those seen in other deep sea areas around the world. Accumulation of litter in the deep sea is a consequence of human activities both on land and at sea. This needs to be taken into account in future policy decisions regarding marine pollution.

  4. A strategic approach for Water Safety Plans implementation in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Jose M P

    2011-03-01

    Effective risk assessment and risk management approaches in public drinking water systems can benefit from a systematic process for hazards identification and effective management control based on the Water Safety Plan (WSP) concept. Good results from WSP development and implementation in a small number of Portuguese water utilities have shown that a more ambitious nationwide strategic approach to disseminate this methodology is needed. However, the establishment of strategic frameworks for systematic and organic scaling-up of WSP implementation at a national level requires major constraints to be overcome: lack of legislation and policies and the need for appropriate monitoring tools. This study presents a framework to inform future policy making by understanding the key constraints and needs related to institutional, organizational and research issues for WSP development and implementation in Portugal. This methodological contribution for WSP implementation can be replicated at a global scale. National health authorities and the Regulator may promote changes in legislation and policies. Independent global monitoring and benchmarking are adequate tools for measuring the progress over time and for comparing the performance of water utilities. Water utilities self-assessment must include performance improvement, operational monitoring and verification. Research and education and resources dissemination ensure knowledge acquisition and transfer.

  5. Distribution of materials in construction and demolition waste in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge

    2011-08-01

    It may not be enough simply to know the global volume of construction and demolition waste (CDW) generated in a certain region or country if one wants to estimate, for instance, the revenue accruing from separating several types of materials from the input entering a given CDW recycling plant. A more detailed determination of the distribution of the materials within the generated CDW is needed and the present paper addresses this issue, distinguishing different buildings and types of operation (new construction, retrofitting and demolition). This has been achieved by measuring the materials from buildings of different ages within the Portuguese building stock, and by using direct data from demolition/retrofitting sites and new construction average values reported in the literature. An attempt to establish a benchmark with other countries is also presented. This knowledge may also benefit industry management, especially that related to CDW recycling, helping to optimize procedures, equipment size and operation and even industrial plant spatial distribution. In an extremely competitive market, where as in Portugal low-tech and high environmental impact procedures remain the norm in the construction industry (in particular, the construction waste industry), the introduction of a successful recycling industry is only possible with highly optimized processes and based on a knowledge-based approach to problems.

  6. Hereditary anaemias in Portugal: epidemiology, public health significance, and control.

    PubMed Central

    Martins, M C; Olim, G; Melo, J; Magalhães, H A; Rodrigues, M O

    1993-01-01

    A countrywide prospective study aimed at establishing the prevalence of the haemoglobinopathy genes in the Portuguese population was carried out by screening 15,208 randomly selected blood samples from young males. This male based survey provided the opportunity of assessing simultaneously the prevalence of the red cell enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, thus giving a picture of these important hereditary anaemias in Portugal. The results showed a low average frequency of beta thalassaemia (0.45%) and haemoglobin S (0.32%) carriers as well as G6PD deficiency (0.51%). However, these disorders are unevenly distributed throughout the country with a higher prevalence in some areas, mainly in the south. The relationship of this pattern of haemoglobinopathies to the known haplotypes linked to beta thalassaemia and sickle cell disease, relevant historical events, and local selective pressure was investigated. Hb D and Hb J are the commonest other structural variants. The implemented programme for control of these hereditary anaemias is described. PMID:8474108

  7. The emergence of psychiatry in Portugal: from its roots to now.

    PubMed

    Palha, António; Marques-Teixeira, João

    2012-08-01

    The authors describe the panorama of psychiatry in Portugal. Starting with the emergence of psychiatry with a humanizing stamp, in 1848, cover the six major periods of development of this speciality in Portugal, proposed by Barahona Fernandes, and add a seventh period that corresponds to the last quarter of the 20th century. They highlight the figures with greater emphasis during these periods, as well as their contributions to the speciality, not forgetting the essential role of Ordens Hospitaleiras (Hospitallers Orders). The transition period for mental health is examined in the light of the socio-political conditions of that time. The authors then describe both the teaching of psychiatry, and the actual training program of that medical speciality in Portugal. In this regard, the authors address the on-going mental health policies and their consequences on the current situation on the ground. Aspects such as the prevalence of mental disorders in Portugal, the current status of training in psychiatry, the sub-specialities of psychiatry and allied professions, the main areas of research, workforce issues and human rights issues are also analysed. Finally, the authors end with a few words about the future and the challenges of psychiatry in Portugal.

  8. New insights into the reconstructed temperature in Portugal over the last 400 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. A.; Carneiro, M. F.; Correia, A.; Alcoforado, M. J.; Zorita, E.; Gómez-Navarro, J. J.

    2015-06-01

    The consistency of an existing reconstructed annual (December-November) temperature series for the Lisbon region (Portugal) from 1600 onwards, based on a European-wide reconstruction, with (1) five local borehole temperature-depth profiles; (2) synthetic temperature-depth profiles, generated from both reconstructed temperatures and two regional paleoclimate simulations in Portugal; (3) instrumental data sources over the twentieth century; and (4) temperature indices from documentary sources during the late Maunder Minimum (1675-1715) is assessed. The low-frequency variability in the reconstructed temperature in Portugal is not entirely consistent with local borehole temperature-depth profiles and with the simulated response of temperature in two regional paleoclimate simulations driven by reconstructions of various climate forcings. Therefore, the existing reconstructed series is calibrated by adjusting its low-frequency variability to the simulations (first-stage adjustment). The annual reconstructed series is then calibrated in its location and scale parameters, using the instrumental series and a linear regression between them (second-stage adjustment). This calibrated series shows clear footprints of the Maunder and Dalton minima, commonly related to changes in solar activity and explosive volcanic eruptions, and a strong recent-past warming, commonly related to human-driven forcing. Lastly, it is also in overall agreement with annual temperature indices over the late Maunder Minimum in Portugal. The series resulting from this post-reconstruction adjustment can be of foremost relevance to improve the current understanding of the driving mechanisms of climate variability in Portugal.

  9. Distribution of Cryptosporidium subtypes in humans and domestic and wild ruminants in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Alves, Margarida; Xiao, Lihua; Antunes, Francisco; Matos, Olga

    2006-08-01

    To investigate the transmission of cryptosporidiosis in Portugal, Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum from HIV-infected patients, cattle, and wild ruminants were characterized by sequence analysis of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60) gene. Fourteen subtypes within nine subtype families were identified, and three of the subtype families (If, IIb, and IId) were restricted or largely limited to Portugal. Parasites from cattle from various regions in Portugal and wild ruminants in Lisbon showed limited genetic heterogeneity (only two subtype families). All wild ruminants had the same subtype, which was also the predominant subtype in cattle all over Portugal and was found in nine HIV-infected patients in Lisbon. Two other C. parvum subtypes were only restricted to limited locations. In contrast, human parasites displayed 13 subtypes in nine subtype families, with most of the infections caused by parasites in Ib, IIa, IIc, and IId families. Two of the C. parvum subtype families (IIc and IIb) had only been found in humans. The high overall parasite diversity and high percentage of C. hominis infections attributable to Ib and C. parvum infections to IId represent unique characteristics of Cryptosporidium transmission in humans in Portugal.

  10. 7 CFR 930.28 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... alternate member may not act in the place and stead of such member. In the event a member and his or her... group (grower or handler) as the member. In the event of the death, removal, resignation...

  11. 7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Family members. 1400.208 Section 1400.208 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.208 Family members. (a) Notwithstanding... persons, a majority of whom are family members, an adult family member who makes a...

  12. Top Ten Workplace Issues for Faculty Members and Higher Education Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Greta

    2011-01-01

    A faculty member may be surprised to hear that the AAUP-affiliated United University Professions--one of the largest academic unions in the nation, with more than 33,000 members across New York State--includes a growing number of academic professionals who are not faculty members. Professionals at a public college or university range from the…

  13. 10 CFR 7.18 - Appointment, compensation, and expense reimbursement of advisory committee members, staffs, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appointment, compensation, and expense reimbursement of advisory committee members, staffs, and consultants. 7.18 Section 7.18 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... United States Office of Personnel Management (see 5 CFR part 304). (f) A member or staff member of an...

  14. 10 CFR 7.18 - Appointment, compensation, and expense reimbursement of advisory committee members, staffs, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appointment, compensation, and expense reimbursement of advisory committee members, staffs, and consultants. 7.18 Section 7.18 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... United States Office of Personnel Management (see 5 CFR part 304). (f) A member or staff member of an...

  15. 10 CFR 7.18 - Appointment, compensation, and expense reimbursement of advisory committee members, staffs, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appointment, compensation, and expense reimbursement of advisory committee members, staffs, and consultants. 7.18 Section 7.18 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... United States Office of Personnel Management (see 5 CFR part 304). (f) A member or staff member of an...

  16. 10 CFR 7.18 - Appointment, compensation, and expense reimbursement of advisory committee members, staffs, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appointment, compensation, and expense reimbursement of advisory committee members, staffs, and consultants. 7.18 Section 7.18 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... United States Office of Personnel Management (see 5 CFR part 304). (f) A member or staff member of an...

  17. 10 CFR 7.18 - Appointment, compensation, and expense reimbursement of advisory committee members, staffs, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appointment, compensation, and expense reimbursement of advisory committee members, staffs, and consultants. 7.18 Section 7.18 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... United States Office of Personnel Management (see 5 CFR part 304). (f) A member or staff member of an...

  18. How Community College Faculty Members May Improve Student Learning Productivity in Their Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Katrina A.

    2014-01-01

    Eleven experienced community college faculty members were interviewed to elicit examples of how they improved student learning productivity in their online courses. The 11 faculty members represented eight different states, nine different fields or disciplines, and all were permanent or full-time faculty members at community colleges in the…

  19. 7 CFR 7.18 - Terms of office of county and community members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms of office of county and community members. 7.18... STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.18 Terms of office of county and community members. The term of office of county and community committee members and alternates to...

  20. Presentation of the Multimédia Game "Geolover" Concept, to Educational Enchancement of the Geolocical Heritage of the Following Regions: "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal (Portugal) and Açores (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana; Alfama, Vera; Oliveira, Sirlene; Pinharandas, Carlos; Fonseca, Pedro; Campos, José; Nobre, José

    2013-04-01

    "Geolover" - Presentation of the multimédia game concept, to educational enchancement of the geolocical heritage of the following regions: : "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal and Açores (Portugal). "Geolover" is a multitouch game, played by four players simultaneously, identified by 4 mascots and using as sceneries, the four regions landscapes, aimed to the young people with ages between 8 and 12 years old. The main objective is value the geological heritage of the Ilha do Fogo (Cabo Verde), Seridó in State of Rio Grande do Norte (Brasil) , Sabugal in Beira Alta province (Portugal) and Arquipélago dos Açores (Portuguese autonomous region). These regions have a great geological heritage like volcanology, plutonic rocks, sedimentar formations, metamorphic, paleontologic, mineralogic, geomorphologic, hydric and mining resources. Such heritage is being used in the different regions has base of studies to senior scientists and were used to great scientific researches. The diversified and distinguished cultural heritage of these four regions is referenced and it's a value to the union of the students from these three continents, with the Portuguese language as communication tool. The variety of the geological wealth and cultural of these regions, results in the common objective of their valuing like Geoparks. His creation on these three regions is a strategy with a great relevance to the socio-economic development. With the creation of this game, we promote the union of these 3 countries from these three continents, the universal values of the heritage richness that are offered by our planet.

  1. The Eclipse, the Astronomer and His Audience: Frederico Oom and the Total Solar Eclipse of 28 May 1900 in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolino, Luis Miguel; Simoes, Ana

    2012-01-01

    This study offers a detailed analysis of an episode of the popularization of astronomy which took place in Portugal, a peripheral country of Europe, and occurring in the early twentieth century. The episode was driven by the 28 May 1900 total solar eclipse which was seen on the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain). Instead of focusing on one of…

  2. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria, and Israel reveals higher genetic variability within the type II lineage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel. For this, we genotyped 90 T. gondii isolates (16 from Portugal, 67 from Austria and 7 from Israel) using 10 nested PCR-restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers and 15 microsatellite (...

  3. Landslide susceptibility assessment and validation in the framework of municipal planning in Portugal: the case of Loures Municipality.

    PubMed

    Guillard, Clemence; Zezere, Jose

    2012-10-01

    The legislation that demands the evaluation of landslide susceptibility in Portugal at the municipal level is the National Ecological Reserve (NER). A methodology for the evaluation of landslide susceptibility to be used in municipal planning is applied in Loures Municipality (169.3 km²) located north of Lisbon (Portugal). A landslide inventory was made for the whole area interpreting orthophoto maps and aerial photographs and using standard geomorphologic techniques in field work. It consists of 686 polygons, each polygon representing a rotational, a deep translational or a shallow translational slide, and is integrated into a GIS database. Landslide susceptibility is evaluated using algorithms based on statistical/probabilistic analysis (Information Value Method) over unique-condition terrain units in a raster basis. Three susceptibility models are elaborated independently according to the type of slide (rotational, deep translational, shallow translational). The landslide susceptibility maps are prepared by sorting all pixels according to the pixel susceptibility value in descending order. The robustness and accuracy of the landslide susceptibility models are evaluated by prediction-rate curves, which are used for the quantitative interpretation of the landslide susceptibility maps. Unstable slopes that have to be included into the National Ecological Reserve are extracted from the three susceptibility maps following the general rules to draw the NER that state that the area to be included in the NER should guarantee the inclusion of at least 70 % of the landslides identified in the landslide inventory. The obtained results allow us to conclude that 70 % of the future landslides should occur in these areas, classified as most susceptible to landslides corresponding to 20.3 % of the total area of Municipality. Thus, the consideration of these 20.3 % as regards prevention and protection of landslide risk could potentially reduce damage resulting from 70

  4. From the Past to the Future: Natural Sound Recordings and the Preservation of the Bioacoustics Legacy in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Paulo A. M.; Magalhães, Daniel M.; Pereira, Susana F.; Jorge, Paulo E.

    2014-01-01

    The preservation of historical and contemporary data safeguards our scientific legacy. Bioacoustic recordings can have historical as well as scientific value and should be assessed for their conservation requirements. Unpreserved bioacoustics recordings are generally not referenced and are frequently at high risk of loss by material degradation and/or by misplacement. In this study we investigated the preservation status of sets of natural sound recordings made in Portugal from 1983 until 2010 inclusive. We evaluated the recordings on the basis of their rate of loss, the degree to which unpreserved recordings could be preserved, and their risk of loss. Recordists of animal sounds were surveyed (by questionnaire or interview) to identify sets of recordings and to collect information on their quality and state of preservation. Of the 78 recordists identified, we found that 32% of the recordings have an unclear status and that only 9% of the recordings are lost. Of the c. 6 terabytes of unpreserved sound recordings discovered, an estimated 49% were recoverable. Moreover, 95% of the recoverable sets of recordings were at high risk of loss by their being misplaced. These risks can be minimized if recordists are persuaded to deposit their material in an institution committed to long-term curation of such data (e.g. sound archives). Overall, the study identified a considerable body of unpreserved animal sound recordings that could contribute to our scientific heritage and knowledge of the biodiversity found in Portugal. It highlights the need to implement effective policies to promote the deposit of recordings for preservation and to reverse the present scenario so that scientific material can be preserved for future generations. PMID:25473829

  5. From the past to the future: natural sound recordings and the preservation of the bioacoustics legacy in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Marques, Paulo A M; Magalhães, Daniel M; Pereira, Susana F; Jorge, Paulo E

    2014-01-01

    The preservation of historical and contemporary data safeguards our scientific legacy. Bioacoustic recordings can have historical as well as scientific value and should be assessed for their conservation requirements. Unpreserved bioacoustics recordings are generally not referenced and are frequently at high risk of loss by material degradation and/or by misplacement. In this study we investigated the preservation status of sets of natural sound recordings made in Portugal from 1983 until 2010 inclusive. We evaluated the recordings on the basis of their rate of loss, the degree to which unpreserved recordings could be preserved, and their risk of loss. Recordists of animal sounds were surveyed (by questionnaire or interview) to identify sets of recordings and to collect information on their quality and state of preservation. Of the 78 recordists identified, we found that 32% of the recordings have an unclear status and that only 9% of the recordings are lost. Of the c. 6 terabytes of unpreserved sound recordings discovered, an estimated 49% were recoverable. Moreover, 95% of the recoverable sets of recordings were at high risk of loss by their being misplaced. These risks can be minimized if recordists are persuaded to deposit their material in an institution committed to long-term curation of such data (e.g. sound archives). Overall, the study identified a considerable body of unpreserved animal sound recordings that could contribute to our scientific heritage and knowledge of the biodiversity found in Portugal. It highlights the need to implement effective policies to promote the deposit of recordings for preservation and to reverse the present scenario so that scientific material can be preserved for future generations. PMID:25473829

  6. Surveillance of norovirus in Portugal and the emergence of the Sydney variant, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Costa, I; Mesquita, J R; Veiga, E; Oleastro, M; Nascimento, M J S

    2015-09-01

    This report presents the results of the national surveillance system of diarrhea etiology of the National Institute of Health of Portugal concerning norovirus (NoV) during a two-year period, May 2011-2013. Of the total 580 stool samples collected from patients hospitalized for acute diarrhea in 13 Hospitals of Portugal, 67 (11.6%) tested positive for NoV. From May 2011 to March 2012 the GII.4 variant New Orleans 2009 was the most predominant strain having been replaced by the new GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 since then till the end of the survey. To our knowledge this is the first study showing the circulation of GII.4 as the norovirus strain most commonly associated to gastroenteritis and the first to report the replacement of GII.4 New Orleans by GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant in Portugal.

  7. The impact of winter cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, João; Freire, Elisabete; Almendra, Ricardo; Silva, Giovani L; Santana, Paula

    2013-12-01

    Mortality due to cardiovascular diseases shows a seasonal trend that can be associated with cold weather. Portugal is the European country with the highest excess winter mortality, but nevertheless, the relationship between cold weather and health is yet to be assessed. The main aim of this study is to identify the contribution of cold weather to cardiovascular diseases within Portugal. Poisson regression analysis based on generalized additive models was applied to estimate the influence of a human-biometeorological index (PET) on daily hospitalizations for myocardial infarction. The main results revealed a negative effect of cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal. For every degree fall in PET during winter, there was an increase of up to 2.2% (95% CI = 0.9%; 3.3%) in daily hospital admissions. This paper shows the need for public policies that will help minimize or, indeed, prevent exposure to cold.

  8. Surveillance of norovirus in Portugal and the emergence of the Sydney variant, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Costa, I; Mesquita, J R; Veiga, E; Oleastro, M; Nascimento, M J S

    2015-09-01

    This report presents the results of the national surveillance system of diarrhea etiology of the National Institute of Health of Portugal concerning norovirus (NoV) during a two-year period, May 2011-2013. Of the total 580 stool samples collected from patients hospitalized for acute diarrhea in 13 Hospitals of Portugal, 67 (11.6%) tested positive for NoV. From May 2011 to March 2012 the GII.4 variant New Orleans 2009 was the most predominant strain having been replaced by the new GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 since then till the end of the survey. To our knowledge this is the first study showing the circulation of GII.4 as the norovirus strain most commonly associated to gastroenteritis and the first to report the replacement of GII.4 New Orleans by GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant in Portugal. PMID:26305815

  9. Mathematics diagnostic testing in engineering: an international comparison between Ireland and Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, M.; Fidalgo, C.; Bigotte de Almeida, M. E.; Branco, J. R.; Santos, V.; Murphy, E.; Fhloinn, E. Ní

    2015-09-01

    Concern has been expressed throughout Europe about the significant deficiencies in the basic mathematical skills of many engineering undergraduates. Mathematics diagnostic tests in the UK, Ireland and Portugal have shown these shortcomings, which provide a challenge to those striving to introduce more innovative educational practices into engineering education, such as projects or real-world problems. Every year, in the Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland) and the Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Coimbra (Portugal), a diagnostic test is given to incoming first-year students. A comparison showed some potentially interesting differences between these students. In September 2013, a project was undertaken to compare mathematical competencies of incoming engineering students in both countries. A modified diagnostic test was devised and the results were then compared to ascertain if there are common areas of difficulty between students in Ireland and Portugal, or evidence of one group significantly outperforming the other in a particular area.

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 recombinant B/G subtypes circulating in Coimbra, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Duque, V; Holguín, A; Silvestre, M; González-Lahoz, J; Soriano, V

    2003-05-01

    An increasing prevalence of HIV-1 non-B variants is being noticed in several European regions, particularly in countries such as Portugal, which have closer contacts with African endemic areas, where multiple HIV subtypes cocirculate. HIV-1 subtyping by phylogenetic analyses of reverse transcriptase, protease and env (C2-V3) genomic regions was carried out in plasma collected from 18 HIV-1-infected subjects living in Coimbra, Portugal, and suspected to be infected with non-B variants. Three (16.7%) subjects carried recombinant B/G viruses (BV3/BRT/Gpro; GV3/URT/Bpro; AV3/GRT/Bpro), whereas all the remaining individuals were infected with HIV-1 subtype B. This is the first report of recombinant B/G subtypes in Portugal. PMID:12848757

  11. Optical fiber sensors: a route from University of Kent to Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, José L.; Lobo Ribeiro, António B.

    2011-06-01

    In this work the authors first summarily describe the main topics that were the subject of their post-graduate activity in fiber sensing at the Applied Optics Group of University of Kent in the late 1980s and early 1990s. After their return to Porto, Portugal, the know-how acquired during their stay at Kent and the collaboration paths that followed between the University of Porto and University of Kent were instrumental in the start-up and progress of optical fiber sensing activity in Portugal. The main topics addressed in this field, the description of some of the relevant developments achieved in recent years, the present situation and the guidelines for the future research and development activity in Portugal in fiber sensing will be the core of this work.

  12. The impact of winter cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, João; Freire, Elisabete; Almendra, Ricardo; Silva, Giovani L; Santana, Paula

    2013-12-01

    Mortality due to cardiovascular diseases shows a seasonal trend that can be associated with cold weather. Portugal is the European country with the highest excess winter mortality, but nevertheless, the relationship between cold weather and health is yet to be assessed. The main aim of this study is to identify the contribution of cold weather to cardiovascular diseases within Portugal. Poisson regression analysis based on generalized additive models was applied to estimate the influence of a human-biometeorological index (PET) on daily hospitalizations for myocardial infarction. The main results revealed a negative effect of cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal. For every degree fall in PET during winter, there was an increase of up to 2.2% (95% CI = 0.9%; 3.3%) in daily hospital admissions. This paper shows the need for public policies that will help minimize or, indeed, prevent exposure to cold. PMID:23410618

  13. Economics of End-of-Life Materials Recovery: A Study of Small Appliances and Computer Devices in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ford, Patrick; Santos, Eduardo; Ferrão, Paulo; Margarido, Fernanda; Van Vliet, Krystyn J; Olivetti, Elsa

    2016-05-01

    The challenges brought on by the increasing complexity of electronic products, and the criticality of the materials these devices contain, present an opportunity for maximizing the economic and societal benefits derived from recovery and recycling. Small appliances and computer devices (SACD), including mobile phones, contain significant amounts of precious metals including gold and platinum, the present value of which should serve as a key economic driver for many recycling decisions. However, a detailed analysis is required to estimate the economic value that is unrealized by incomplete recovery of these and other materials, and to ascertain how such value could be reinvested to improve recovery processes. We present a dynamic product flow analysis for SACD throughout Portugal, a European Union member, including annual data detailing product sales and industrial-scale preprocessing data for recovery of specific materials from devices. We employ preprocessing facility and metals pricing data to identify losses, and develop an economic framework around the value of recycling including uncertainty. We show that significant economic losses occur during preprocessing (over $70 M USD unrecovered in computers and mobile phones, 2006-2014) due to operations that fail to target high value materials, and characterize preprocessing operations according to material recovery and total costs.

  14. Application of temperature gradient gel electrophoresis to the study of yeast diversity in the estuary of the Tagus river, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gadanho, Mário; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2004-12-01

    Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) was employed for the assessment of yeast diversity in the estuary of the Tagus river (Portugal). The molecular detection of yeasts was carried out directly from water samples and, in parallel, a cultivation approach by means of an enrichment step was employed. A nested PCR was employed to obtain a fungal amplicon containing the D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. For identification the TGGE bands were extracted, re-amplified, and sequenced. Fourteen fungal taxa were detected and all except one were yeasts. Most yeast sequences corresponded to members of the Ascomycota and only three belonged to the Basidiomycota. Five yeasts (four ascomycetes and one basidiomycete) could not be identified to the species level due to the uniqueness of their sequences. The number of species detected after enrichment was higher than the number of taxa found using the direct detection method. This suggests that some yeast populations are present in densities that are below the detection threshold of the method. With respect to the analysis of the yeast community structure, our results indicate that the dominant populations belong to Debaryomyces hansenii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Cryptococcus longus, and to an uncultured basidiomycetous yeast phylogenetically close to Cr. longus. The combined analysis of direct detection and cultivation approaches indicates a similar community structure at the two sampled sites since nine species were present at both localities. PMID:15556087

  15. Economics of End-of-Life Materials Recovery: A Study of Small Appliances and Computer Devices in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ford, Patrick; Santos, Eduardo; Ferrão, Paulo; Margarido, Fernanda; Van Vliet, Krystyn J; Olivetti, Elsa

    2016-05-01

    The challenges brought on by the increasing complexity of electronic products, and the criticality of the materials these devices contain, present an opportunity for maximizing the economic and societal benefits derived from recovery and recycling. Small appliances and computer devices (SACD), including mobile phones, contain significant amounts of precious metals including gold and platinum, the present value of which should serve as a key economic driver for many recycling decisions. However, a detailed analysis is required to estimate the economic value that is unrealized by incomplete recovery of these and other materials, and to ascertain how such value could be reinvested to improve recovery processes. We present a dynamic product flow analysis for SACD throughout Portugal, a European Union member, including annual data detailing product sales and industrial-scale preprocessing data for recovery of specific materials from devices. We employ preprocessing facility and metals pricing data to identify losses, and develop an economic framework around the value of recycling including uncertainty. We show that significant economic losses occur during preprocessing (over $70 M USD unrecovered in computers and mobile phones, 2006-2014) due to operations that fail to target high value materials, and characterize preprocessing operations according to material recovery and total costs. PMID:27019006

  16. Eucisia schist a natural stone from Northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aires, Silvia; Carvalho, Cristina; Noronha, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    : CS 53 Mpa, FS 16.3 MPa, AD 25220 kg/m3 , OP 9.3%, WA 1,2 % AR 26.0mm and RTS resistant. For settling the recommended applications, European standards for natural stone products were considered. Considering the technical specifications that exist in some European countries, "Eucisia schist" can be applied on rustic masonary units, on colums, on paving (low traffic, mainly indoors) and on cladding (mainly indoors). This work was performed under the project PTDC/CTE-GIN/70704/2006, "SCHISTRESOURCE funded by FCT (Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation). SFRH/BD/86641/2012 a FCT grant financially supports Silvia Aires. [1] A.Ribeiro, E. Pereira and R. Dias, in Pre-Mesozoic Geology of Iberia edited by R.D. Dallmeyer and E. Martinez-Garcia, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. (1990). [2] E. Pereira, in: E. Pereira, coord. Carta Geológica de Portugal. Notícia Explicativa da Folha 2. (2006) [3] E. Pereira, A. Ribeiro, in: E. Pereira, coord. Carta Geológica de Portugal. Notícia Explicativa da Folha 2. (2006).

  17. Contribution of spoligotyping to the characterization of the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Portugal.

    PubMed

    David, Suzana; Ribeiro, Diana Raposo; Antunes, Abílio; Portugal, Clara; Sancho, Luísa; de Sousa, José Germano

    2007-09-01

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in Portugal. To begin characterizing the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, spoligotyping was used for the systematic typing, through consecutive sampling, of patient isolates from the Amadora-Sintra area of Greater Lisbon. Distribution amongst major spoligotype families, including the Latin American Mediterranean (LAM), T, Haarlem and Beijing, was compared to that of the international spoligotype database SpolDB4 and to the European countries of traditional Portuguese immigration represented in SpolDB4. Spoligotypes from 665 isolates were analyzed and 97 shared international types (SITs) identified. In SpolDB4 Portugal is represented by part of the spoligotypes from this study explaining the reduced number of unidentified patterns. The importance of the LAM family, and especially of LAM1 and LAM9 sub-families that alone represented 38% of all the isolates in this study as compared to 8% relative to the European sub group, led us to believe that at least in this respect the population structure was closer to that of Africa and South America than to Europe. Spoligotypes characteristic of Portugal or Portuguese related settings were identified. These included SIT244 a T1 sub-family predominant in Portugal and Bangladesh, SIT64 a LAM 6 sub-family common to Portugal and Brazil, and SIT1106 a LAM 9 sub-family. These studies were the first in Portugal stressing the importance of monitoring the population structure of M. tuberculosis isolates, an important step towards gaining an understanding of tuberculosis and the dynamics of this disease.

  18. Rehabilitation of adobe buildings. Understanding different materials from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Cristiana; Rocha, Fernando; Velosa, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Earth construction is the oldest building material known, with documented cases of the use of earth bricks since Mesopotamia around 10 000 BC (Heathcote, 1995). The earth construction exists throughout the majority of the world in different cultures, and for some countries, nowadays it continues to be the main process of construction (Vega et al, 2011). Around 30% of the world's population lives in buildings made of earth materials. Earthen construction is an environmentally friendly technique with a social and cultural contribution; this advantage is increased when this type of construction is applied in developing countries where the material costs counterbalance with labour costs, and where other materials and techniques cannot be available (Ciancio et al, 2013). Studies of materials characterization are required in order to understand the composition and specific properties of the earth buildings, their heterogeneity and their degradation mechanisms. Some adobes from different buildings, ages and regions of Portugal were collected in order to characterize them (mineralogically, chemically and physically). It was possible to understand the composition of these materials and their differences. Main minerals are quartz, feldspars, calcite and phyllosilicates (mica and kaolinite). The mechanical behaviour of these materials isn't the best, but it is possible to improve it with some simple and cheap natural additives (kaolinitic soils). The characterization of these materials allows us to understand the differences between the materials from the different regions (controlled by locally available raw materials). Understanding these materials, and their properties, it is possible to formulate new ones for repair, conservation and rehabilitation works. The adobe bricks are an alternative of kiln baked bricks which has several advantages and one of the most important is that these materials are recyclable. Adobes are an excellent option for building rehabilitation, if

  19. The integrated management for renal replacement therapy in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Anabela P; Sá, Helena O; Diniz, José A; Dussault, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Portugal was the first European country to introduce an integrated management of end-stage renal disease (IM ESRD). This new program integrates various dialysis services and products, which are reimbursed at a fixed rate/patient/week called "comprehensive price payment." This initiative restructured the delivery of dialysis services, the monitoring of outcomes, and the funding of renal replacement therapy. This article described the implementation of a new model of comprehensive provision of hemodialysis (HD) services and aimed to assess its impact on dialysis care. Quality assessments and reports of patient satisfaction, produced by the Ministry of Health since 2008, as well as national registries and reports, provided the data for this review. Indicators of HD services in all continental facilities show positive results that have successively improved along the period of 2009-2011, in spite of an average annual growth of 3% of the population under HD treatment. Mortality rates for HD patients were 12.7%, 12%, and 11%, respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011; annual hospitalization rates were 4.9%, 3.8%, and 4.4% for the same years; key performance indicators showed averages above the reference values such as hemoglobin, serum phosphorus, eKt/V, water quality, number of days of hospitalization per patient per year, and number of weekly dialysis sessions. The financing analysis of IM ESRD demonstrates a sustained control of global costs, without compromising quality. The IM ERSD program is an innovative and quality-driven approach that benefits both dialysis patients and providers, contributing toward the rationalization of service provision and the efficient use of resources.

  20. Modeling fecal contamination in the Aljezur coastal stream (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Marta; Oliveira, Anabela; Guerreiro, Martha; Fortunato, André Bustorff; Menaia, José; David, Luís Mesquita; Cravo, Alexandra

    2011-06-01

    This study aims at understanding the fecal contamination behavior in a small coastal stream (Aljezur, Portugal), which has significant economic and ecological values. Like in most small coastal systems, circulation and water renewal in the Aljezur stream exhibit a strong variability due to their dependence on tides, waves, intermittent river flows, and a highly variable morphology. Hence, the problem was approached through a combination of field surveys and the development and application of a hard-coupled three-dimensional hydrodynamic and fecal contamination model. Salinity and temperature results have shown that mixing and transport in the stream are very sensitive to the river flow and wind forcing. The model is able to represent the main patterns and trends observed in Escherichia coli and fecal enterococcus concentrations along the stream, for different environmental and contamination conditions, suggesting die-off rates on the order of 0.50-0.55 day-1. Die-off rate and the representation of the sediment-associated processes were identified as the major remaining sources of uncertainty in the model. Results show that, owing to the processes that occur along the stream, fecal bacteria reach the beaches water in numbers that comply with the European Bathing Waters Directive, even during the summer periods when the upstream concentrations are larger. In particular, results suggest a direct relation between the tidal propagation upstream and the reduction of the fecal bacteria concentrations along the stream that can be relevant for the development of a strategy for the management of the system's water safety.

  1. Late Pleistocene raised beaches of coastal Estremadura, central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Michael M.; Haws, Jonathan A.; Funk, Caroline L.; Daniels, J. Michael; Hesp, Patrick A.; Bicho, Nuno F.; Minckley, Thomas A.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Forman, Steven L.

    2009-12-01

    We present new stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronological data for a suite of tectonically raised beaches dating to Marine Isotope Stages 5, 4, and 3 along the Estremadura coast of west-central Portugal. The beach deposits are found in association with ancient tidal channels and coastal dunes, pollen bearing mud and peat, and Middle Paleolithic archaeological sites that confirm occupation of the coastal zone by Neanderthal populations. The significance of these deposits is discussed in terms of the archaeological record, the tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the coast, and correlation with reconstructions of global climate and eustatic sea-level change. Direct correlation between the Estremadura beach sections is complicated by the tectonic complexity of the area and the age of the beach deposits (which are near or beyond the limit of radiocarbon dating). Evidence from multiple sites dated by AMS radiocarbon and optical luminescence methods suggests broad synchroneity in relative sea-level changes along this coast during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Two beach complexes with luminescence and radiocarbon age control date to about 35 ka and 42 ka, recording a rise in relative sea level around the time of Heinrich Event 4 at 39 ka. Depending on assumptions about eustatic sea level at the time they were deposited, we estimate that these beaches have been uplifted at rates of 0.4-4.3 mm yr -1 by the combined effects of tectonic, halokinetic, and isostatic processes. Uplift rates of 1-2 mm yr -1 are likely if the beaches represent sea level stands at roughly 40 m below modern, as suggested by recent eustatic sea level reconstructions. Evidence from coastal bluffs and the interior of the study area indicates extensive colluvial, fluvial, and aeolian sedimentation beginning around 31 ka and continuing into the Holocene. These geomorphic adjustments are related to concomitant changes in climate and sea level, providing context that improves our understanding of Late

  2. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions from a Eucalyptus plantation in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Street, Rachel A.; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Mennicken, Stefan

    1997-07-01

    Measurements of isoprene and monoterpene emission rates were made from a mature and an immature Eucalyptus globulus tree in a commercial monoculture plantation in central Portugal in 1994 using a branch enclosure sampling system with analysis by gas chromatography/flame ionization and gas chromatography/mass selective methods. Isoprene was the dominant compound emitted and represented over 90% of the total assigned volatile organic compound plant emissions during the day. Other identified species were α-pinene, sabinene, β-pinene, myrcene, limonene, cineole, linalool, α-terpineol, and, tentatatively, cis- and trans-ocimine and an unidentified octatriene. When they were adjusted to standard conditions of temperature (30°C) and light (1000 μmol-2 ms-1) VOC emissions from a 1 year old sapling were 5 times higher (49 and 5.2 μg Cg-1 dry wt h-1 for isoprene and total monoterpenes, respectively) than those from a 7-year-old tree (15 and 0.7 μg C g-1 dry wt h-1 respectively). On a projected leaf area basis these differences were not so apparent (isoprene; 5 and 4 mg m-2 h-1, young and old trees, respectively; monoterpenes, 0.6 and 0.2 mg m-2 h-1, respectively). Emission rates from both trees were closely correlated with incident light flux and temperature, with daytime maxima, and with nighttime minima. Existing models describing emissions in terms of light, temperature, and empirical coefficients were found to adequately predict emissions from the young tree but to grossly overestimate emission rates from the mature tree. This finding has implications for the extrapolation of emission data obtained in the laboratory with immature trees to the canopy, regional, or global scales, although additional measurements are required to determine whether the results presented here can be generalized.

  3. Occurrence of springs in massifs of crystalline rocks, northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Fernando António Leal; Alencoão, Ana Maria Pires

    2002-02-01

    An inventory of artesian springs emerging from fractures (fracture springs) was conducted in the Pinhão River Basin and Morais Massif, northern Portugal, comprising an area of approximately 650 km2. Over 1,500 springs were identified and associated with geological domains and fracture sets. Using cross-tabulation analysis, spring distributions by fracture sets were compared among geological environments, and the deviations related to differences in rock structure and, presumably, to differences in deformational histories. The relation between spring frequencies and rock structures was further investigated by spectral determination, the model introduced in this study. Input data are the spring frequencies and fracture lengths in each geological domain, in addition to the angles between fracture strikes and present-day stress-field orientation (θ). The model's output includes the so-called intrinsic densities, a parameter indexing spring occurrence to factors such as fracture type and associated deformational regime and age. The highest densities (12.2 springs/km of lineament) were associated with young shear fractures produced by brittle deformation, and the lowest (0.1) with old tensional and ductile fractures. Spectral determination also relates each orientation class to a dominant structural parameter: where spring occurrence is controlled by θ, the class is parallel to the present-day stress-field orientation; where the control is attributed to the length of fractures, the spring occurrence follows the strike of large-scale normal faults crossing the region. Résumé. Un inventaire des sources artésiennes émergeant de fractures (sources de fractures) a été réalisé dans le bassin de la rivière Pinhão et dans le massif de Morais, dans le nord du Portugal, dans une région couvrant environ 650 km2. Plus de 1,500 sources ont été identifiées et associées à des domaines géologiques et à des ensembles de fractures. Grâce à une analyse de tableaux

  4. Surveillance of imported hospital requiring malaria in Portugal: can it be improved?

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ana Glória; Simões Dias, Sara; Baptista, João Luís; Torgal, Jorge

    2016-06-01

    Although eradicated in Portugal, malaria keeps taking its toll on travellers and migrants from endemic countries. Completeness of hospital requiring malaria notification in Portugal 2000-11 was estimated, using two-source capture-recapture method. Data sources were: national surveillance database of notifiable diseases and the national database of the Diagnosis-Related Groups resulting from National Health Service (NHS) hospital episodes. The completeness of notification was 21,2% for all malaria cases and 26,5% for malaria deaths, indicating significant underreporting and urging for complementary data source in surveillance, for disease burden estimates and retrospective monitoring, namely hospital episodes statistics.

  5. Summary of results of a comparative study of alcohol problems and solutions: Spain and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Nunes-Dinis, M C; Lowe, L

    1992-06-01

    This study explores through a mail questionnaire alcohol problems and solutions in Spain and Portugal including: drunk-driving, treatment services and prevention, economic issues, alcohol consumption, cultural aspects, and supply of alcoholic beverages. Consumption of alcohol in both countries is lower for men and women with college educations. Marital status has minimal effects on the consumption level of men and women in Spain and of men in Portugal. For Portuguese married women, consumption is higher. Too many bars and feasts are primary cultural adjuncts contributing to alcohol problems. PMID:1612818

  6. Parasites of marine, freshwater and farmed fishes of Portugal: a review.

    PubMed

    Eiras, Jorge da Costa

    2016-01-01

    An extensive literature review is made of the parasites in marine and freshwater fish in mainland Portugal, the Portuguese archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, as well as in farmed fish. The host(s) of each parasite species, its location in the host, site of capture of the host, whenever possible, and all the available bibliographic references are described. The economic importance of some parasites and the zoonotic relevance of some parasitic forms are discussed. A general overview of the data is provided, and some research lines are suggested in order to increase and complement the current body of knowledge about the parasites of fish from Portugal. PMID:27683841

  7. Device for inserting tubular members together

    SciTech Connect

    Milberger, L.J.

    1992-03-17

    This patent describes a well, a lower tubular member with a sealing surface located in the well, an upper tubular member which inserts into engagement with the lower tubular member during running in, the upper and lower tubular members being exposed to well fluid pressure, an improved means for sliding the upper tubular member into engagement with the lower tubular member. It comprises the upper tubular member having a first side and a second side, the second side having a sealing section which mates with the sealing surface of the lower tubular sidewall; axially spaced apart seal means located on the running tool sidewall for sealingly engaging the first side of the upper tubular member above and below the sealing section during running in, for defining a low pressure area between the running tool and the first side which is isolated from the well fluid pressure; the sealing section of the upper tubular member being exposed to well fluid pressure during running in, resulting in a pressure difference across the upper tubular member between the first side of the tubular member and the sealing section, means for eliminating the pressure difference across the upper tubular member between the first side and the sealing section after the upper tubular member has reached its engaged position with the lower tubular member, allowing the sealing section to move radially into engagement with the sealing surface. This patent also describes a method for sliding an upper tubular member into engagement with a sealing surface of a lower tubular member in a well having well fluid pressure, comprising in combination: providing the upper tubular member with a first side and a second side and providing the second side with a sealing section for mating with the sealing surface of the lower tubular member.

  8. Trace-element enrichment in epiphytic lichens and tree bark at Pico Island, Azores, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Adriano M G; Freitas, Maria do Carmo

    2009-04-01

    The Azores archipelago (nine islands) stretches across a sizable longitude span and sits directly on the pathway of long-range transport for airborne species over the North Atlantic Ocean. These airborne species include dusts from Africa's Sahara and Sahel and non-natural contaminants from the United States' eastern seaboard. Therefore, it is an ideal platform for watching significant deposition episodes in the area and/or simply keeping track of regular downward fluxes at ground level, either through conventional or unconventional (biological) air-monitoring approaches. For this purpose, thalli of the epiphytic lichens Parmotrema bangii (Vain.) Hale, and Parmotrema robustum (Degel) Hale; and outer bark from trunks of Cryptomeria japonica (Thunb. ex L.f.) D. Don--Japanese cedar--were collected in early 2003 at three sampling locations of Pico Island, Azores, Portugal. Lichens' phorophyte was the cedar, and local soils were sampled as well. Following suitable handling and preparation procedures, all field samples were put through instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA; kappa O-variant) for elemental assessment. Reference data on airborne particulates were provided by a seven-wavelength aethalometer that continuously collects aerosols near the summit of Pico Mountain (observatory: 2225 m above mean sea level [AMSL]; peak: 2351 m AMSL) in quartz filter tapes. The overall results indicate that (1) the patterns of significant elemental enrichment (enrichment factor >10, relative to scandium) in lichen and bark samples are quite dissimilar, with lichen data reflecting more of the local inputs from some characteristic human activities, whereas bark appears predominantly enriched with far-ranged elements arriving in Pico's atmosphere after long-distance transport; (2) regardless of prospective elemental sources--local or global, anthropogenic or natural--bark displays a more conservative (consistent) pattern through the sampling locations; and (3) not unlike

  9. Finding the proper methodology for geodiversity assessment: a recent approach in Brazil and Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D.; Santos, L.; Silva, J.; Pereira, P.; Brilha, J.; França, J.; Rodrigues, C.

    2012-04-01

    Quantification of geodiversity is a quite new topic. A first set of assessment methodologies was developed during the last years, although with no fully satisfactory results. This is mainly because the whole concept of geodiversity does not tend to be considered, but also because the results are difficult to apply practically. Several major key-points remain unsolved, including the criteria to be used, the scale-factor to be dealt with, the influence of the size of the area under analysis in the type of criteria and indicators, and the graphic presentation of the results. A methodology for the quantitative assessment of geodiversity was defined and tested at various scales. It was applied to the Xingu River Basin, Amazon, Brazil (about 510,000 km2), Paraná state, Brazil (about 200,000 km2), and Portugal mainland (about 89,000 km2). This method is intended to assess all geodiversity components and to avoid overrating any particular component, such as lithology or relief, a common weakness of other methods. The method is based on the overlay of a grid over different maps at scales that range according to the areas under analysis, with the final Geodiversity Index being the sum of five partial indexes calculated on the grid. The partial indexes represent the main components of geodiversity, namely geology (stratigraphy and lithology), geomorphology, palaeontology and soils. Another partial index covers singular occurrences of geodiversity, such precious stones and metals, energy and industrial minerals, mineral waters and springs. Partial indexes were calculated using GIS software by counting all the occurrences present in the selected maps for each grid square. The Geodiversity Index can take the form of a GIS automatically generated isoline map, allowing an easy interpretation by those without or with little geological background. The map can be used as a tool in land-use planning, particularly in identifying priority areas for conservation, management and use of

  10. 7 CFR 1208.44 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Processed Raspberry Council § 1208.44 Alternate members. An alternate member of the Council, during...

  11. 7 CFR 1208.44 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Processed Raspberry Council § 1208.44 Alternate members. An alternate member of the Council, during...

  12. 7 CFR 985.25 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE... member's absence, (b) in the event of the member's death, removal, resignation, or...

  13. Chapter VIII: New Members and Deceased Members at the General Assemby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montmerle, Thierry

    2015-08-01

    The following lists give the names of the 1008 new Individual Members admitted at the XVIIIth General Assembly, ordered by National Member. New National Members are indicated by an asterisk (Ethiopia, Kazakhstan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea).

  14. With deck removed and critical members severed, the bridge begins ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    With deck removed and critical members severed, the bridge begins to succumb to tractors, pulling cables attached to its downstream side. View is to the southeast from confluence of Trinity and South Fork Trinity Rivers - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  15. Legal Liability of School Board Members. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leverett, E. Freeman

    This booklet reviews a broad array of factors affecting the immunity of school board members from personal liability for the results of their official acts. Among the factors examined are the federal doctrine of limited immunity as it applies to state officials; the possible extension of absolute immunity to school boards; the conditions under…

  16. Demographic and Behavioral Characteristics of Osher Lifelong Learning Institute Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Robert Jack; Brady, E. Michael; Thaxton, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    The number of lifelong learning institutes (LLIs) is growing across the United States and it is important for educational planners and administrators to know about current demographic and behavioral characteristics of program participants. A 14-question survey was administered via SurveyMonkey to members who use computers in eight Osher Lifelong…

  17. Dismissal of Tenured Faculty Members Based on Financial Exigency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha M.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews court decisions related to the limited constitutional rights of tenured faculty members in State-supported institutions of higher education who face dismissal based on institutional necessity. Considers court opinions on what qualifies as "financial exigency" and "bona fide dismissal," and describes actions taken by the American…

  18. Occurrence of springs in massifs of crystalline rocks, northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Fernando António Leal; Alencoão, Ana Maria Pires

    2002-02-01

    An inventory of artesian springs emerging from fractures (fracture springs) was conducted in the Pinhão River Basin and Morais Massif, northern Portugal, comprising an area of approximately 650 km2. Over 1,500 springs were identified and associated with geological domains and fracture sets. Using cross-tabulation analysis, spring distributions by fracture sets were compared among geological environments, and the deviations related to differences in rock structure and, presumably, to differences in deformational histories. The relation between spring frequencies and rock structures was further investigated by spectral determination, the model introduced in this study. Input data are the spring frequencies and fracture lengths in each geological domain, in addition to the angles between fracture strikes and present-day stress-field orientation (θ). The model's output includes the so-called intrinsic densities, a parameter indexing spring occurrence to factors such as fracture type and associated deformational regime and age. The highest densities (12.2 springs/km of lineament) were associated with young shear fractures produced by brittle deformation, and the lowest (0.1) with old tensional and ductile fractures. Spectral determination also relates each orientation class to a dominant structural parameter: where spring occurrence is controlled by θ, the class is parallel to the present-day stress-field orientation; where the control is attributed to the length of fractures, the spring occurrence follows the strike of large-scale normal faults crossing the region. Résumé. Un inventaire des sources artésiennes émergeant de fractures (sources de fractures) a été réalisé dans le bassin de la rivière Pinhão et dans le massif de Morais, dans le nord du Portugal, dans une région couvrant environ 650 km2. Plus de 1,500 sources ont été identifiées et associées à des domaines géologiques et à des ensembles de fractures. Grâce à une analyse de tableaux

  19. 7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate member of the Board, during the absence of the member for the primary...

  20. 7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate member of the Board, during the absence of the member for the primary...

  1. 7 CFR 795.4 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Family members. 795.4 Section 795.4 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.4 Family members. Effective for... was a “person” solely on the basis that: (a) A family member cosigns for, or makes a loan to,...

  2. 7 CFR 795.4 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Family members. 795.4 Section 795.4 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.4 Family members. Effective for... was a “person” solely on the basis that: (a) A family member cosigns for, or makes a loan to,...

  3. 7 CFR 795.4 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Family members. 795.4 Section 795.4 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.4 Family members. Effective for... was a “person” solely on the basis that: (a) A family member cosigns for, or makes a loan to,...

  4. 7 CFR 795.4 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Family members. 795.4 Section 795.4 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.4 Family members. Effective for... was a “person” solely on the basis that: (a) A family member cosigns for, or makes a loan to,...

  5. 7 CFR 946.23 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... such member's absence. In the event of the death, removal, resignation, or disqualification of a member... the event that both a member and his or her alternate are unable to attend a Committee meeting,...

  6. 7 CFR 923.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... event of the death, removal, resignation, or disqualification of a member, his alternate shall act for him until a successor for such member is selected and has qualified. In the event both a member of...

  7. 7 CFR 959.31 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... designated to do so by the member for whom he is an alternate. In the event both a member of the committee... or grower) to serve in such member's place and stead. In the event of the death, removal,...

  8. 7 CFR 953.23 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate members. 953.23 Section 953.23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... member's absence. In the event of death, removal, resignation, or disqualification of a member,...

  9. 7 CFR 1220.207 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... attend meetings of the Board as a voting member upon the following circumstances: (1) A member of the... meetings in an official capacity, shall have the rights, duties and obligations of a Board member. ... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.207 Alternate...

  10. 7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate member of the Board, during the absence of the member for the primary...

  11. 7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate member of the Board, during the absence of the member for the primary...

  12. 7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate member of the Board, during the absence of the member for the primary...

  13. Ground Penetrating Radar technique for railway track characterization in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Chiara, Francesca; Fontul, Simona; Fortunato, Eduardo; D'Andrea, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Maintenance actions are significant for transport infrastructures but, today, costs have to be necessary limited. A proper quality control since the construction phase is a key factor for a long life cycle and for a good economy policy. For this reason, suitable techniques have to be chosen and non-destructive tests represent an efficient solution, as they allow to evaluate infrastructure characteristics in a continuous or quasi-continuous way, saving time and costs, enabling to make changes if tests results do not comply with the project requirements. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a quick and effective technique to evaluate infrastructure condition in a continuous manner, replacing or reducing the use of traditional drilling method. GPR application to railways infrastructures, during construction and monitoring phase, is relatively recent. It is based on the measuring of layers thicknesses and detection of structural changes. It also enables the assessment of materials properties that constitute the infrastructure and the evaluation of the different types of defects such as ballast pockets, fouled ballast, poor drainage, subgrade settlement and transitions problems. These deteriorations are generally the causes of vertical deviations in track geometry and they cannot be detected by the common monitoring procedures, namely the measurements of track geometry. Moreover, the development of new GPR systems with higher antenna frequencies, better data acquisition systems, more user friendly software and new algorithms for calculation of materials properties can lead to a regular use of GPR. Therefore, it represents a reliable technique to assess track geometry problems and consequently to improve maintenance planning. In Portugal, rail inspection is performed with Plasser & Theurer EM120 equipment and recently 400 MHz IDS antennas were installed on it. GPR tests were performed on the Portuguese rail network and, as case study in this paper, a renewed track was

  14. Assessment of post forest fire reclamation in Algarve, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Rita; Panagopoulos, Thomas; Guerrero, Carlos; Martins, Fernando; Zdruli, Pandi; Ladisa, Gaetano

    2014-05-01

    Fire is a common phenomenon in Mediterranean landscapes and it plays a crucial role in its transformations, making the determination of its impact on the ecosystem essential for land management. During summer of 2012, a wildfire took place in Algarve, Portugal, on an area mainly covered by sclerophyllous vegetation (39.44%, 10080ha), broad-leaved forest (20.80%, 5300ha), agriculture land with significant areas of natural vegetation (17.40%, 4400ha) and transitional woodlands-shrubs (16.17%, 4100ha). The objective of the study was to determine fire severity in order to plan post-fire treatments and to aid vegetation recovery and land reclamation. Satellite imagery was used to estimate burn severity by detecting physical and ecological changes in the landscape caused by fire. Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (DNBR) was used to measure burn severity with pre and post fire data of four Landsat images acquired in October 2011, February and August 2012 and April 2013. The initial and extended differenced normalized burn ratio (DiNBR and DeNBR) were calculated. The calculated burned area of 24291 ha was 552ha lower than the map data determined with field reports. The 19.5% of that area was burned with high severity, 45% with moderate severity and 28.3% with low severity. Comparing fire severity and regrowth with land use, it is shown in DiNBR that the most severely burned areas were predominantly sclerophyllous vegetation (37.6%) and broad-leaved forests (31.1%). From the DeNRB it was found that the reestablishment of vegetation was slower in mixed forests and higher in sclerophyllous vegetation and in land with significant areas of natural vegetation. Faster recovery was calculated for the land uses of sclerophyllous vegetation (46.7%) and significant regrowth in areas of natural vegetation and lands occupied by agriculture (25.4%). Next steps of the study are field validation and crossing with erosion risk maps before to take land reclamation decisions.

  15. Homogenisation of minimum and maximum air temperature in northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, L.; Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Mendes, L.; Amorim, L.; Nunes, L.

    2012-04-01

    Homogenization of minimum and maximum air temperature has been carried out for northern Portugal for the period 1941-2010. The database corresponds to the values of the monthly arithmetic averages calculated from daily values observed at stations within the network of stations managed by the national Institute of Meteorology (IM). Some of the weather stations of IM's network are collecting data for more than a century; however, during the entire observing period, some factors have affected the climate series and have to be considered such as, changes in the station surroundings and changes related to replacement of manually operated instruments. Besides these typical changes, it is of particular interest the station relocation to rural areas or to the urban-rural interface and the installation of automatic weather stations in the vicinity of the principal or synoptic stations with the aim of replacing them. The information from these relocated and new stations was merged to produce just one but representative time series of that site. This process starts at the end 90's and the information of the time series fusion process constitutes the set of metadata used. Two basic procedures were performed: (i) preliminary statistical and quality control analysis; and, (ii) detection and correction of problems of homogeneity. In the first case, was developed and used software for quality control, specifically dedicated for the detection of outliers, based on the quartile values of the time series itself. The analysis of homogeneity was performed using the MASH (Multiple Analysis of Series for Homogenisation) and HOMER, which is a software application developed and recently made available within the COST Action ES0601 (COST-ES0601, 2012). Both methods provide a fast quality control of the original data and were developed for automatic processing, analyzing, homogeneity testing and adjusting of climatological data, but manual usage is also possible. Obtained results with both

  16. Physically-Based Shallow Landslide Susceptibility Mapping, NW of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Manuel; Bateira, Carlos; Soares, Laura

    2013-04-01

    Two physically-based models - Shallow Landslide Stability Analysis (SHALSTAB) and Safety Factor (SF) - are applied in Serra da Peneda (northwest of Portugal) to evaluate shallow landslide susceptibility in Tibo drainage basin. This small basin is located in an area of granitic and metasedimentary substrate, covered by different types of surficial formations (weathering mantles and slope deposits). The application of the selected models requires the determination of a set of mechanical and hydrological parameters, and the use of high resolution topographic information to create an accurate DTM. To fulfill this goal we have applied the Shallow Landslide Stability Analysis (SHALSTAB) and the SF (Safety Factor) models. The shallow landslide area was inventoried on the field. The cohesion was assessed by back analysis and the other mechanical and hydrological soil parameters were assessed on the field survey. Several susceptibility scenarios were tested with SHALSTAB model. The best SHALSTAB scenario used to assess the susceptibility is achieved using the following parameters: cohesion (c) = 2000 N/m2, soil thickness (z) = 1,2 m, internal friction (?)=32o and soil weight (?s)=14,7 KN/m3. Shallow landslide susceptibility mapping using the SF model, was based on the cartography of the factors registered on the field survey and used the following parameters: cohesion (c) = 2000 - 6000 N/m2, soil thickness (z) =1,2 m, internal friction (?)=30 - 40o; soil volumic weight (?m) = 13,7 - 15,7 KN/m3 and Hydraulic conductivity = 0 - 3,9-03 kfs. SHALSTAB scenarios were validated by overlaying the shallow landslide area (scar concentration) and selected the better susceptibility modeling. The parameters used on the SF model applied spatially variable values registered in the field survey (using the superficial formation cartography). To validate the SF model we used the AUC (Area Under the Curve) method. The two models were compared by the scar concentration and landslide potential

  17. Teaching Writing to Middle School Students in Portugal and in Brazil: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga Simão, Ana Margarida; Malpique, Anabela Abreu; Frison, Lourdes Maria Bragagnolo; Marques, André

    2016-01-01

    Learning how to write is a challenging process, typically developed in schools. Teachers' practices in teaching writing, however, have been under researched. The aim of this study was to survey a sample of teachers from Portugal (n = 96) and Brazil (n = 99) about their practices for and perceptions about writing instruction. Teachers reported on…

  18. Research in Foreign Language Education in Portugal (2006-2011): Its Transformative Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Flávia; Moreira, Maria Alfredo; Peralta, Helena

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews a selective corpus of empirical and theoretical texts on foreign language pedagogy and teacher education, produced in Portugal between 2006 and 2011. A descriptive and interpretative approach is adopted to inquire into the transformative potential of research, with a focus on its scope, purposes, conceptual and methodological…

  19. Echinococcus granulosus in Portugal: the first report of the G7 genotype in cattle.

    PubMed

    Beato, Sílvia; Parreira, Ricardo; Roque, Cláudio; Gonçalves, Matilde; Silva, Liliana; Maurelli, Maria Paola; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Grácio, Maria Amélia

    2013-11-15

    Although cystic echinococcosis (CE) has been a recognized public health problem in Portugal, molecular data regarding the types and prevalence of infecting strains of its etiological agent (Echinococcus granulosus) are still scarce. Over the last years we have been evaluating the prevalence of CE in the country, and in this report we determined the parasite genotypes infecting sheep, goats, cattle and human in Portugal, based on 209 hydatid cysts recovered from liver (n=96), lung (n=95), pancreas (n=17) and kidney (n=1) samples obtained between 2008 and 2011. Protoscoleces or germinal layers were collected from individual cysts, DNA was extracted, and a part of the mitochondrial DNA encoding the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 was amplified by PCR. Overall, the results confirm the overall dominance of the G1-G3 cluster of strains, which are particularly prevalent in southern Portugal in livestock ruminants. Unexpectedly, one parasite sequence with cattle origin was found to correspond to E. granulosus G7 genotype (also known as E. intermedius), here reported for the first time in bovine, in Portugal.

  20. SNP typing reveals similarity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic diversity between Portugal and Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Joao S; Marques, Isabel; Soares, Patricia; Nebenzahl-Guimaraes, Hanna; Costa, Joao; Miranda, Anabela; Duarte, Raquel; Alves, Adriana; Macedo, Rita; Duarte, Tonya A; Barbosa, Theolis; Oliveira, Martha; Nery, Joilda S; Boechat, Neio; Pereira, Susan M; Barreto, Mauricio L; Pereira-Leal, Jose; Gomes, Maria Gabriela Miranda; Penha-Goncalves, Carlos

    2013-08-01

    Human tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Although spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR are standard methodologies in MTBC genetic epidemiology, recent studies suggest that Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) are advantageous in phylogenetics and strain group/lineages identification. In this work we use a set of 79 SNPs to characterize 1987 MTBC isolates from Portugal and 141 from Northeast Brazil. All Brazilian samples were further characterized using spolygotyping. Phylogenetic analysis against a reference set revealed that about 95% of the isolates in both populations are singly attributed to bacterial lineage 4. Within this lineage, the most frequent strain groups in both Portugal and Brazil are LAM, followed by Haarlem and X. Contrary to these groups, strain group T showed a very different prevalence between Portugal (10%) and Brazil (1.5%). Spoligotype identification shows about 10% of mis-matches compared to the use of SNPs and a little more than 1% of strains unidentifiability. The mis-matches are observed in the most represented groups of our sample set (i.e., LAM and Haarlem) in almost the same proportion. Besides being more accurate in identifying strain groups/lineages, SNP-typing can also provide phylogenetic relationships between strain groups/lineages and, thus, indicate cases showing phylogenetic incongruence. Overall, the use of SNP-typing revealed striking similarities between MTBC populations from Portugal and Brazil.

  1. Stomach cancer incidence in Southern Portugal 1998-2006: a spatio-temporal analysis.

    PubMed

    Papoila, Ana L; Riebler, Andrea; Amaral-Turkman, Antónia; São-João, Ricardo; Ribeiro, Conceição; Geraldes, Carlos; Miranda, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Stomach cancer belongs to the most common malignant tumors in Portugal. Main causal factors are age, dietary habits, smoking, and Helicobacter pylori infections. As these factors do not only operate on different time dimensions, such as age, period, or birth cohort, but may also vary along space, it is of utmost interest to model temporal and spatial trends jointly. In this paper, we analyze incidence of stomach cancer in Southern Portugal between 1998 and 2006 for females and males jointly using a spatial multivariate age-period-cohort model. Thus, we avoid age aggregation and allow the exploration of heterogeneous time trends between males and females across age, period, birth cohort, and space. Model estimation is performed within a Bayesian setting assuming (gender specific) smoothing priors. Our results show that the posterior expected rate of stomach cancer is decreasing for all counties in Southern Portugal and that males around 70 have a two times higher risk of getting stomach cancer compared with their female counterparts. We further found that, except for some few counties, the spatial influence is almost constant over time and negligible in the southern counties of Southern Portugal.

  2. Genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among Legionella pneumophila clinical isolates, Portugal, 1987 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Chasqueira, M J; Rodrigues, L; Nascimento, M; Ramos, M; Marques, T

    2014-11-20

    The genetic diversity of 89 clinical Legionella isolates, collected between 1987 and 2012, in 22 hospitals from the five regions of Portugal, was analysed in this study using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) of the Dresden panel and the sequence-based typing (SBT) protocol. The eBURST algorithm was used to infer levels of relatedness between isolates. All isolates collected were Legionella pneumophila, which were further characterised into four subgroups by MAbs, and 30 sequence types (STs) by SBT. Twelve of the STs were unique to Portugal; one of them (ST100) was represented by 32 epidemiologically related isolates. The ST44 was the profile with the highest number of epidemiologically unrelated isolates. The eBURST analyses indicate that, within the group formed by the 30 STs identified in this study, 17 STs were genetically close to at least another ST in the group. The comparison between the eBURST diagrams obtained with the STs from this study and the entire SBT database of the European Working Group for Legionella, showed that 24 (seven of them unique to Portugal) of our 30 STs were related with STs identified in others countries. These results suggest that the population of L. pneumophila clinical strains in Portugal includes both worldwide and local strains.

  3. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Portugal Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Employment Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, M. Eduarda; Soares, M. C.; Fraga, S.; Rafael, M.; Lima, M. R.; Paredes, I.; Agostinho, R.; Djalo, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Career-Adaptabilities Scale (CAAS)--Portugal Form consists of four scales, each with seven items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to…

  4. Situation Report - Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland. Information is provided in the following areas where appropriate and if it is available: (1) statistics…

  5. Associations between Early Family Risk, Children's Behavioral Regulation, and Academic Achievement in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana M.; McClelland, Megan; Peixoto, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined concurrent associations between family sociodemographic risk, self-regulation, and early literacy and mathematics in young children from Azores, Portugal (N = 186). Family sociodemographic risk was indexed by low maternal education, low family income, and low occupational status. Behavioral aspects of…

  6. Education and Gender Wage Differentials in Portugal: What Can We Learn from an Age Cohort Analysis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Pilar; Santos, Luis Delfim; Santos, Maria Clementina

    2009-01-01

    Important changes characterize the recent evolution of the schooling of workers in Portugal. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the consequences of those changes in the gender wage gap. In particular, we analyze and compare the way that this process has evolved in the groups of young workers and older workers. Our findings suggest that…

  7. Waves of (Dis)Satisfaction: Effects of the "Numerus Clausus" System in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Madalena; Dias, Diana; Sá, Carla; Amaral, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Access to higher education in Portugal is governed by a quota system (numerus clausus). The purpose of this article is to answer two questions: First, how does the "numerus clausus" system shape the demand for medical studies? Second, how do non-enrolled medical candidates influence the global allocation system and generate waves of…

  8. 62 FR 61036 - Changes in Disease Status of Belgium, France, Greece, Luxembourg, Portugal, and Spain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-11-14

    ... specified conditions, based on the regions' disease status (see 62 FR 56000-56033, October 28, 1997, Dockets..., Greece, Luxembourg, Portugal, and Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...-mouth disease; Greece free of rinderpest; France, Greece, Luxembourg, and Spain free of exotic...

  9. European Gender Lessons: Girls and Boys at Scout Camps in Denmark, Portugal, Russia and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Harriet Bjerrum

    2004-01-01

    The article investigates the tensions between and within models of gender equality and gender complementarity by studying children who are in the midst of learning to apply these gender models in practice. Children (aged 11-15 years) were observed and interviewed while they participated in scout camps in Denmark, Portugal, Slovakia and Russia.…

  10. Early Childhood Intervention in Portugal: An Overview Based on the Developmental Systems Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Ana Isabel; Grande, Catarina; Aguiar, Cecilia; de Almeida, Isabel Chaves; Felgueiras, Isabel; Pimentel, Julia Serpa; Serrano, Ana Maria; Carvalho, Leonor; Brandao, Maria Teresa; Boavida, Tania; Santos, Paula; Lopes-dos-Santos, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Research studies on early childhood intervention (ECI) in Portugal are diffuse regarding both program components and the geographical area under scrutiny. Since the 1990s, a growing body of knowledge and evidence in ECI is being gathered, based on postgraduate teaching, in-service training, and research. This article draws on the systems theory…

  11. Mathematics Diagnostic Testing in Engineering: An International Comparison between Ireland and Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, M.; Fidalgo, C.; Bigotte de Almeida, M. E.; Branco, J. R.; Santos, V.; Murphy, E.; Ní Fhloinn, E.

    2015-01-01

    Concern has been expressed throughout Europe about the significant deficiencies in the basic mathematical skills of many engineering undergraduates. Mathematics diagnostic tests in the UK, Ireland and Portugal have shown these shortcomings, which provide a challenge to those striving to introduce more innovative educational practices into…

  12. Internal Quality Assurance Systems in Portugal: What Their Strengths and Weaknesses Reveal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavares, Orlanda; Sin, Cristina; Amaral, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In Portugal, the agency for assessment and accreditation of higher education has recently included in its remit, beyond programme accreditation, the certification of internal quality assurance systems. This implies lighter touch accreditation and aims to direct institutions towards improvement, in addition to accountability. Twelve institutions…

  13. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in women from the North of Portugal in their childbearing years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and associated risk factors were investigated in 401 women of childbearing age from the North of Portugal. Among the 98 (24.4%) seropositive women, 92 (93.9%) were detected as positive only for imunoglobulin (Ig) G, two women (2.0%) were positive only fo...

  14. The Induction and Mentoring of New Teachers in Portugal: Contradictions, Needs and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Maria Assuncao; Ferreira, Fernando Ilidio

    2009-01-01

    In this article, policy and research on teacher induction in Portugal are examined. The lack of a formal induction system (despite recognition of its relevance in legal policy documents) and the mismatch between national regulations and practice are also discussed. The authors argue the need for a coherent and sustained induction and support…

  15. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in dogs from northeastern Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in 673 domestic dogs from northeastern Portugal, by using the modified agglutination test (MAT) with 1:20 as cut-off for seropositivity; antibodies were found in 256 dogs (38.0%). Differences between seroprevalence levels in males (36.7%...

  16. Student Perceptions of the Employability of the First Degree in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina; Tavares, Orlanda; Amaral, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The paper presents and analyses quantitative data on student perceptions about the employability of the first degree, and their trajectory choices on graduation. The purpose of this paper is to assess the value of the first degree as a positional good in Portugal, further to the degree's reduced duration after the implementation of the…

  17. Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from the north of Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoa with zoonotic and economic importance. Prevalences of antibodies to these agents were assessed in 173 horses from the north of Portugal. Findings Antibodies to L. infantum were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT); seven (...

  18. Construction and Modification of the Autonomy of School Mathematical Knowledge in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matos, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    During the second half of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century the discipline of secondary mathematics was gradually built in Portugal and certified teachers, textbooks, programs, special teaching techniques emerge. This consolidation process ends with the emergency of school subjects that develop some kind of autonomy as Chervel…

  19. Changing Patterns in the Middle Management of Higher Education Institutions: The Case of Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Rui; Carvalho, Teresa; Amaral, Alberto; Meek, V. Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Much of the writing on higher education in recent years has tended to assume that the new management push in higher education is both universal and irreversible. This paper, however, presents evidence from Portugal to challenge that assumption. While elements of the new managerialism are clearly evident in the perceptions and attitudes of…

  20. Emergy analysis of a silvo-pastoral system, a case study in southern Portugal

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mediterranean silvo-pastoral system known as Montado, in Portugal, is a complex land use system composed of an open tree stratum in various densities and an herbaceous layer, used for livestock grazing. Livestock also profit from the acorns, and the grazing contributes to avo...

  1. Educational Journals and Worldwide Circulation of Pedagogical Knowledge: Brazil and Portugal (1921?1935)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francisco, Jaime; Cordeiro, Parreira; Carvalho, Luis Miguel

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the circulation of educational models between Portugal and Brazil (from 1920 to 1935), within a broader context of an intensive international transfer of "ways of thinking" about education. It describes and analyses the results from research on two educational journals, one Portuguese (Revista Escolar) the other from the…

  2. First Impressions of the Reorganisation of the School Network in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Jorge Miguel Fonseca Pinto

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide a retrospective on the reorganisation of the school network in Portugal between 2005 and 2007. Underlying measures predicted the closure of approximately 2000 primary schools, mainly situated in rural areas. This is a current topic of considerable controversy considering the reform which is being implemented and…

  3. Translating University-Industry Relations: The Development of a Knowledge Link in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graca, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    INESC was created in 1980 in Portugal to link universities with industry. Starting within a university as the initiative of three young academics, the organization soon became a pivotal player in the modernization of the country through the development of applied research in science and technology to enhance the competitiveness of Portuguese…

  4. The Democratisation of Access and Success in Higher Education: The Case of Portugal and Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Diana; Marinho-Araujo, Claisy; Almeida, Leandro; Amaral, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Given that higher education systems everywhere have opened to the masses, this paper analyses to what extent this phenomenon has really been accompanied by an effective democratisation of access and success in Portugal and Brazil. It looks at the expansion of higher education and discusses how the political system and higher education institutions…

  5. Continuing Vocational Training in Local Government in Portugal, 2000-05--What Has Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrito, Belmiro Gil; Simao, Ana Margarida Veiga; Alves, Mariana Gaio; Almeida, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Local government in Portugal had a good opportunity to modernise through the Programa de Formacao para as Autarquias Locais (Foral) [Training programme for local authorities], implemented between 2000 and 2005. Substantial financial resources were made available through the programme to retrain local government human resources in order to improve…

  6. Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Portugal: Prevalence, Clinical Characterization, and Medical Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Guiomar; Ataide, Assuncao; Marques, Carla; Miguel, Teresa S.; Coutinho, Ana Margarida; Mota-Vieira, Luisa; Goncalves, Esmeralda; Lopes, Nazare Mendes; Rodrigues, Vitor; Carmona da Mota, Henrique; Vicente, Astrid Moura

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and identify its clinical characterization, and medical conditions in a paediatric population in Portugal. A school survey was conducted in elementary schools, targeting 332 808 school-aged children in the mainland and 10 910 in the Azores islands.…

  7. European Social Fund in Portugal: A Complex Question for Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tome, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to review the application of the funds awarded by the European Social Fund (ESF) to Portugal, since 1986, from a human resource development (HRD) perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Several variables are analyzed: investment, absorption, people, impact of investment, evolution of skills, main programs, supply and…

  8. School Effectiveness Research Findings in the Portuguese Speaking Countries: Brazil and Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrão, Maria Eugénia

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides findings of research on school effectiveness and discusses implications for evaluation in Brazil and Portugal. Most findings reported over the last decade have been published in Brazilian or Portuguese refereed journals. Thus, a brief literature review of such studies enables that knowledge to reach international scholars and…

  9. Epistemological Awareness and Geographical Education in Portugal: The Practice of Newly Qualified Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandre, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Geographical education in Portugal has undergone many reforms since the late 1970s. Reforms have affected mainly the content and the goals of the discipline's national curriculum, in a process designed to reflect the evolution of geography at academic level. However, the reforms seem to have had little effect on what teachers believe geography and…

  10. Learning Transfer--Validation of the Learning Transfer System Inventory in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velada, Raquel; Caetano, Antonio; Bates, Reid; Holton, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the construct validity of learning transfer system inventory (LTSI) for use in Portugal. Furthermore, it also aims to analyze whether LTSI dimensions differ across individual variables such as gender, age, educational level and job tenure. Design/methodology/approach: After a rigorous translation…

  11. Reinterpreting Lifelong Learning: Meanings of Adult Education Policy in Portugal, 1999-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimaraes, Paula

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses Portugal's adult education policy between 1999 and 2010. Our empirical material consists of Portuguese as well as supranational policy documents. We use a theoretical framework which distinguishes three models of public policy, with different views on the roles of public policy and of education: (1) participative…

  12. Lessons Learnt from a Secondary School Sex Education Program in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Ana Paula; Soares, Isabel; Vilar, Duarte

    2007-01-01

    Based on a developmental framework, a study was conducted in Portugal in two groups of youth in terms of relevant aspects related to adolescent psychosexual development: one group participated in an Experimental Project of Sex Education and Health Promotion during high school, whereas the other did not receive any formal sex education in school.…

  13. SEALING MEANS FOR RELATIVELY ROTATABLE MEMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Skarstrom, C.S.

    1960-10-25

    A sealing means is offered for maintaining a seal between a pair of relatively rotatable members, panticularly between a rotating shaft and a stationary member surrounding the shaft. The sealing is accomplished by means of a flange extending outward radially on each of a plurality of sealing rings mounted on the rotating member which fit into annular grooves in the stationary member and are held in sealing relation therewith by means of spring rings. In addition, means are provided for passing a sealing gas through the seal sunfaces to prevent accumulation of lubricant and for scavenging any gas which may have leaked from the internal member into the seal area.

  14. Post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal based on spot/vegetation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2010-04-01

    A procedure is presented that allows identifying large burned scars and the monitoring of vegetation recovery in the years following major fire episodes. The procedure relies on 10-day fields of Maximum Value Composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MVC-NDVI), with a 1 km×1 km spatial resolution obtained from the VEGETATION instrument. The identification of fire scars during the extremely severe 2003 fire season is performed based on cluster analysis of NDVI anomalies that persist during the vegetative cycle of the year following the fire event. Two regions containing very large burned scars were selected, located in Central and Southwestern Portugal, respectively, and time series of MVC-NDVI analysed before the fire events took place and throughout the post-fire period. It is shown that post-fire vegetation dynamics in the two selected regions may be characterised based on maps of recovery rates as estimated by fitting a monoparametric model of vegetation recovery to MVC-NDVI data over each burned scar. Results indicated that the recovery process in the region located in Central Portugal is mostly related to fire damage rather than to vegetation density before 2003, whereas the latter seems to have a more prominent role than vegetation conditions after the fire episode, e.g. in the case of the region in Southwestern Portugal. These differences are consistent with the respective predominant types of vegetation. The burned area located in Central Portugal is dominated by Pinus Pinaster whose natural regeneration crucially depends on the destruction of seeds present on the soil surface during the fire, whereas the burned scar in Southwestern Portugal was populated by Eucalyptus that may quickly re-sprout from buds after fire. Besides its simplicity, the monoparametric model of vegetation recovery has the advantage of being easily adapted to other low-resolution satellite data, as well as to other types of vegetation indices.

  15. Trends in gastric cancer mortality and in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Morais, Samantha; Ferro, Ana; Bastos, Ana; Castro, Clara; Lunet, Nuno; Peleteiro, Bárbara

    2016-07-01

    Portugal has the highest gastric cancer mortality rates in Western Europe, along with high prevalences of Helicobacter pylori infection. Monitoring their trends is essential to predict the burden of this cancer. We aimed to quantify time trends in gastric cancer mortality in Portugal and in each administrative region, and to compute short-term predictions, as well as to describe the prevalence of H. pylori infection, through a systematic review. Joinpoint analyses were used to identify significant changes in sex-specific trends in gastric cancer age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) and to estimate annual percent changes (APC). The most recent trends were considered to compute estimates up to 2020 by adjusting Poisson regression models. We searched PubMed and IndexRMP to identify studies carried out in Portugal reporting the prevalence of H. pylori. Gastric cancer mortality has been decreasing in Portugal since 1971 in men (from ASMR=55.3/100 000; APC=-2.4, 95% confidence interval: -2.5 to -2.3) and since 1970 in women (from ASMR=28.0/100 000; APC=-2.8, 95% confidence interval: -2.9 to -2.7), although large regional differences were observed. Predicted ASMR for 2015 and 2020 were 18.8/100 000 and 16.7/100 000 for men and 8.5/100 000 and 7.4/100 000 for women, respectively. The prevalence of H. pylori varied from almost 5% at 0.5-2 years to just over 90% at 70 years or more. No consistent variation was observed since the 1990s. The downward trends in mortality rates are expected to remain in the next decades. The high prevalence of H. pylori infection across age groups and studies from different periods shows a large potential for decrease in the burden of gastric cancer in Portugal. PMID:26186469

  16. Trends in gastric cancer mortality and in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Morais, Samantha; Ferro, Ana; Bastos, Ana; Castro, Clara; Lunet, Nuno; Peleteiro, Bárbara

    2016-07-01

    Portugal has the highest gastric cancer mortality rates in Western Europe, along with high prevalences of Helicobacter pylori infection. Monitoring their trends is essential to predict the burden of this cancer. We aimed to quantify time trends in gastric cancer mortality in Portugal and in each administrative region, and to compute short-term predictions, as well as to describe the prevalence of H. pylori infection, through a systematic review. Joinpoint analyses were used to identify significant changes in sex-specific trends in gastric cancer age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) and to estimate annual percent changes (APC). The most recent trends were considered to compute estimates up to 2020 by adjusting Poisson regression models. We searched PubMed and IndexRMP to identify studies carried out in Portugal reporting the prevalence of H. pylori. Gastric cancer mortality has been decreasing in Portugal since 1971 in men (from ASMR=55.3/100 000; APC=-2.4, 95% confidence interval: -2.5 to -2.3) and since 1970 in women (from ASMR=28.0/100 000; APC=-2.8, 95% confidence interval: -2.9 to -2.7), although large regional differences were observed. Predicted ASMR for 2015 and 2020 were 18.8/100 000 and 16.7/100 000 for men and 8.5/100 000 and 7.4/100 000 for women, respectively. The prevalence of H. pylori varied from almost 5% at 0.5-2 years to just over 90% at 70 years or more. No consistent variation was observed since the 1990s. The downward trends in mortality rates are expected to remain in the next decades. The high prevalence of H. pylori infection across age groups and studies from different periods shows a large potential for decrease in the burden of gastric cancer in Portugal.

  17. Member end releases in framed structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stallings, J. M.

    1993-02-01

    Discontinuities such as internal hinges are commonly encountered in framed structures. A general method of including discontinuities in stiffness method analyses of planar frames by the release of member end forces is developed. Modifications are made to the member stiffness matrix and equivalent joint load vector to account for the released end forces. A FORTRAN algorithm is given that makes the necessary modifications to the member stiffness matrix and equivalent joint load vector for the standard planar frame member. The algorithm allows combinations of up to three member end forces to be released (specified at zero or nonzero values). An algorithm is also given that calculates the unknown member end displacements at the released member end forces. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the uses and capabilities of the algorithms.

  18. Female children with incarcerated adult family members at risk for lifelong neurological decline.

    PubMed

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Pohlig, Ryan T; Bucurescu, Gabriel

    2016-07-01

    A secondary analysis of data from adult female prison inmates in the mid-Atlantic United States defined relationships between having incarcerated adult family members during childhood and neurological outcomes. Of 135 inmates, 99 (60%) had one or more incarcerated adult family members during childhood. Regression analyses revealed that having incarcerated adult family members was related to greater frequency and severity of childhood abuse and higher incidence of neurological deficits in adulthood, especially related to traumatic brain injuries, compared to those without incarcerated adult family members. Along with being role models, adult family members impact the neurological health of children throughout their life-span. PMID:26788781

  19. Comment on "Quantum oblivious set-member decision protocol"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Xiao, Di; Huang, Wei; Song, Ting-Ting

    2016-03-01

    In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. A 92, 022309 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.022309], the authors proposed a quantum oblivious set-member decision protocol, which is designed to allow a server to check whether a private secret of a user is a member of his private set in an oblivious manner. Such protocols should protect the privacies of both the server and the user. However, we find that the user in their protocol can steal l -1 bits of information about the server's private set by sending the false decoy states.

  20. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Disaggregation Analysis for the South of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, I.; Sousa, M.; Teves-Costa, P.

    2010-12-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard disaggregation analysis was performed and seismic scenarios were identified for Southern Mainland Portugal. This region’s seismicity is characterized by small and moderate magnitude events and by the sporadic occurrence of large earthquakes (e.g. the 1755 Lisbon earthquake). Thus, the Portuguese Civil Protection Agency (ANPC) sponsored a collaborative research project for the study of the seismic and tsunami risks in the Algarve (project ERSTA). In the framework of this project, a series of new developments were obtained, namely the revision of the seismic catalogue (IM, 2008), the delineation of new seismogenic zones affecting the Algarve region, which reflects the growing knowledge of this region's seismotectonic context, the derivation of new spectral attenuation laws (Carvalho and Campos Costa, 2008) and the revision of the probabilistic seismic hazard (Sousa et al. 2008). Seismic hazard was disaggregated considering different spaces of random variables, namely, bivariate conditional hazard distributions of X-Y (seismic source latitude and longitude) and multivariate 4D conditional hazard distributions of M-(X-Y)-ɛ (ɛ - deviation of ground motion to the median value predicted by an attenuation model). These procedures were performed for the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and for the 5% damped 1.0 and 2.5 Hz spectral acceleration levels of three return periods: 95, 475 and 975 years. The seismic scenarios controlling the hazard of a given ground motion level, were identified as the modal values of the 4D disaggregation analysis for each of the 84 parishes of the Algarve region. Those scenarios, based on a probabilistic analysis, are meant to be used in the emergency planning as a complement to the historical scenarios that severely affected this region. Seismic scenarios share a few number of geographical locations for all return periods. Moreover, seismic hazard of most Algarve’s parishes is dominated by the seismicity located