Science.gov

Sample records for member states portugal

  1. Portugal.

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    Portugal's 1983 population of 10.04 million was growing at .7%/year. 97% were Roman Catholic, 80% were literate, and 4.1 million were in the labor force in 1984. Portugal is mountainous north of the Tagus River and consists of rolling plains in the central south. The Azores and Madeira islands belong to Portugal but enjoy considerable autonomy. Portugal's dependency of Macau on the Chinese coast is an autonomous entity under Portuguese administration. The former teritories of Goa and Portuguese Timor were annexed by India and Indonesia respectively in 1961 and 1976, and the former territories in Africa achieved independence in 1974 and 1975. Portugal, 1 of the oldest states in Europe, traces its modern history to A.D. 1140 when the 1st king was crowned. The approximate present day boundaries were secured in 1249. Portugal eventually became a massive colonial empire with territories in Africa and Latin America and outposts in the Far East. The Portuguese Republic replaced the monarchy in 1910. After some years of instability, Antonio Salazar became prime minister, and with his successor, ruled Portugal as an authoritarian "corporate" state for 42 years. An almost bloodless coup in 1974 led to establishment of a parliamentary democracy. The 4 main organs of national government are the presidency, the prime minister and council of ministers, the assembly of the republic, and the courts. Portugal's gross domestic product (GDP) in 1984 was $19.4 billion, and per capita income was $1930. After almost a decade of rapid growth, the economy declined in the mid 1970s due to disruption after the 1974 revolution and the large influx of refugees from Portugal's former colonies in Africa. Growth resumed in the late 1970s, but structural problems and an often adverse international economic climate have slowed progress. The proportion of the labor force in agriculture has dropped from 42% to 24.4% since 1960. Agricultural production now contributes only 8.8% to the GDP, and a

  2. Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckles, David; Toro, Leonor, Ed.

    Brief information is provided on the region, climate, agriculture and industry of 10 provinces in Portugal: Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, located in Portugal's northeastern region; Beira Alta, the province with Portugal's highest elevation point; Beira Baixa, one of Portugal's poorest regions; Beira Litoral, located in central Portugal along the…

  3. Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckles, David; Toro, Leonor, Ed.

    Brief information is provided on the region, climate, agriculture and industry of 10 provinces in Portugal: Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, located in Portugal's northeastern region; Beira Alta, the province with Portugal's highest elevation point; Beira Baixa, one of Portugal's poorest regions; Beira Litoral, located in central Portugal along the…

  4. Suicidal ideation and distress in family members bereaved by suicide in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sara; Campos, Rui C; Tavares, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the impact of suicide and distress on suicidal ideation in a sample of 93 Portuguese family members bereaved by suicide. A control community sample of 102 adults also participated. After controlling for educational level, those bereaved by the suicide of a family member were found to have higher levels of suicidal ideation. Forty-two percent of family members had Suicide Ideation Questionnaire scores at or above the cutoff point. General distress, depression, anxiety, and hostility related to suicidal ideation, whereas time since suicide also interacted with general distress and depression in predicting suicidal ideation.

  5. Portugal and United States Cooperative Energy Assessment reference reports. Vol. 3, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    During fiscal years 1980 and 1981, the United States in cooperation with the Government of Portugal conducted a comprehensive assessment of Portugal's energy resources, needs, and uses and developed several alternative energy strategies for meeting projected energy requirements. This assessment was a collaborative effort by a team of US and Portuguese experts in energy resources and technologies, development economics, and energy systems planning and analysis. The US Department of Energy managed the United States' component of the assessment with the overall policy guidance of the US Department of State and with primary technical management by Argonne National Laboratory. The reports in this part of Volume III of the Portugal/United States Cooperative Energy Assessment report were prepared by corporations under contract to the Office of International Energy Development Programs (IEP) of Argonne National Laboratory. These contractors provided IEP with a pool of qualified individuals with experience in specified disciplines and backgrounds to supplement its ability to meet program and schedule requirements set forth by the US Department of Energy. The contractors gathered information in Portugal and prepared the reports to support the resou

  6. ESO Welcomes Finland as Eleventh Member State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesarsky, C.

    2004-09-01

    In early July, Finland joined ESO as the eleventh member state, following the completion of the formal accession procedure. Before this event, however, Finland and ESO had been in contact for a long time. Under an agreement with Sweden, Finnish astronomers had for quite a while enjoyed access to the SEST at La Silla. Finland had also been a very active participant in ESO's educational activities since they began in 1993. It became clear, that science and technology, as well as education, were priority areas for the Finnish government.

  7. Finland Becomes Eleventh ESO Member State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    Finland has become the eleventh member state of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) [1]. The formal accession procedure was carried through as planned and has now been completed. Following the signing of the corresponding Agreement earlier this year (ESO PR 02/04), acceptance by the Finnish Parliament and ratification by the Finnish President of the Agreement as well as the ESO Convention and the associated protocols in June [2] and the deposit of the instruments of accession today, Finland has now officially joined ESO. ESO warmly welcomes the new member country and its scientific community that is renowned for their expertise in many frontline areas. The related opportunities will contribute to strenghtening of pioneering research with the powerful facilities at ESO's observatories, to the benefit of Astronomy and Astrophysics as well as European science in general. ESO also looks forward to collaboration with the Finnish high-tech industry. For Finland, the membership in ESO is motivated by scientific and technological objectives as well as by the objective of improving the public understanding of science. The Finnish Government is committed to increasing the public research funding in order to improve the quality, impact and internationalisation of research. Membership in ESO offers unique facilities for astronomical research which would not otherwise be available for Finnish astronomers. Finland is also very interested in taking part in technological development projects in fields like ICT, optics and instrumentation. For young scientists and engineers, ESO is a challenging, international working and learning environment. Finland has already taken part in the educational programmes of ESO, and as a member this activity will be broadened and intensified. In Finland there are also several science journalists and a large community of amateur astronomers who will be very happy to take part in ESO's outreach activities.

  8. A transnational perspective on psychosurgery: beyond Portugal and the United States.

    PubMed

    Collins, Brianne M; Stam, Henderikus J

    2014-01-01

    The history of psychosurgery is most often recounted as a narrative wherein Portuguese and American physicians play the leading role. It is a traditional narrative in which the United States and, at times, Portugal are central in the development and spread of psychosurgery. Here we largely abandon the archetypal narrative and provide one of the first transnational accounts of psychosurgery to demonstrate the existence of a global psychosurgical community in which more than 40 countries participated, bolstered, critiqued, modified and heralded the treatment. From its inception in 1935 until its decline in the mid-1960s, psychosurgery was performed on almost all continents. Rather than being a phenomenon isolated to the United States and Portugal, it became a truly transnational movement.

  9. Medicinal Product Regulation: Portugal׳s Framework.

    PubMed

    Herdeiro, Maria Teresa; Bastos, Paulo D; Teixeira-Rodrigues, António; Roque, Fátima

    2016-09-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is one of the most tightly regulated sectors, and it is essential to know each country׳s legal framework to understand the regulation, approval, and marketing of medicinal products for human use. This article describes the main statutes and procedures governing medicinal products for human use in Portugal and the role of the country׳s National Medicines and Health Products Authority (Autoridade Nacional do Medicamento e Produtos de Saúde, I.P.; INFARMED). From the most recently available data, an update of requests and approvals concerning marketing authorizations, variations, pricing, and reimbursements is provided. Data were sourced from the INFARMED website, Infomed (database of medicinal products for human use), and periodic reports issued by national authorities. Organic laws, acts, and law decrees published in the government gazette (Diário da República) are cited and reproduced as required. In 2015 Portugal ranked fifth in the European System of Medicines Evaluation in terms of the number of completed procedures as a reference member state. Approximately 80% of all approved drug applications in Portugal in 2015 were for generic drugs, mostly pertaining to the nervous system. In Portugal, INFARMED monitors drug quality, safety profile, and efficacy in all stages of the drug life cycle, ensuring patients' safety. The Portuguese market for medicinal products for human use has been appreciably changed by the advent of generic drugs. There is an increased trend for new request applications for biological and biotechnological substances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 76 FR 62893 - Department of State Performance Review Board Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Department of State Performance Review Board Members In accordance with section 4314(c)(4) of 5 United States... Performance Review Board for Senior Executive Service members: James L. Millette, Chairperson,...

  11. 78 FR 65030 - Department of State Performance Review Board Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Performance Review Board for Senior Executive Service members: Robert Goldberg, Chairperson, Director, Office..., Bureau of Population, Refugees and Migration, Department of State; and Teddy Taylor, Diplomat in...

  12. The state of the fishery, conservation and management of the stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Teresa; Jacinto, David; Sousa, Alina; Penteado, Nélia; Pereira, Diana; Fernandes, Joana N; Silva, Teresa; Castro, João J

    2015-12-01

    The stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes is the most important intertidal economical resource in Portugal. The assessment of the state of the fishery, conservation and management of P. pollicipes in Portugal was made for the first time in three regions with different regulations regarding this fishery: two marine protected areas ("Reserva Natural das Berlengas", RNB; and "Parque Natural do Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina", PNSACV); and the Center coast. Different approaches (independent observations, inquiries, logbooks) and sources of data (past and recent) were used. An overall negative tendency of the state of the fishery and conservation of this resource was observed in all regions, with the exception of the stable tendency detected in PNSACV when using the inquiries approach. A weak management was considered to be in practice at Center and at PNSACV, while an acceptable management was inferred for RNB. We recommend a change into a co-management system that should be tested in pilot regions as RNB and/or PNSACV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relations between Catholic Schools Funded by the State and the National Educational Inspectorate in Portugal-Freedom of Education with State Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melo, Rodrigo Queiroz E.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the balance found in Portugal between faith-based schools' freedom of educating with a religious perspective and the State's supervisory role of schools that receive state funding (government oversight of religious State funded schools). The research is a case study of four Catholic schools entirely funded by the State.…

  14. Relations between Catholic Schools Funded by the State and the National Educational Inspectorate in Portugal-Freedom of Education with State Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melo, Rodrigo Queiroz E.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the balance found in Portugal between faith-based schools' freedom of educating with a religious perspective and the State's supervisory role of schools that receive state funding (government oversight of religious State funded schools). The research is a case study of four Catholic schools entirely funded by the State.…

  15. 75 FR 62176 - Department of State Performance Review Board Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Department of State Performance Review Board Members In accordance with section 4314(c)(4) of 5 United States Code, the Department of State has appointed the following individuals to the Department of...

  16. 78 FR 14151 - Department of State Performance Review Board Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Department of State Performance Review Board Members In accordance with section 4314(c)(4) of 5 United States Code, the Department of State has appointed the following individuals to the Department of...

  17. 76 FR 7623 - Department of State Performance Review Board Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Department of State Performance Review Board Members In accordance with section 4314(c)(4) of 5 United States Code, the Department of State has appointed the following individuals to the Department of...

  18. 77 FR 70875 - Department of State Performance Review Board Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Department of State Performance Review Board Members In accordance with section 4314(c)(4) of 5 United States Code, the Department of State has appointed the following individuals to the Department of...

  19. Portugal and United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 3. Reference reports, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Statistical data on energy production and consumption and supporting information were obtained from US Bureau of Mines records supplemented by additional data obtained in Portugal. Geologic descriptions and analysis of known areas and of areas having possible future potential have been prepared by the US Geological Survey. Portugal lacks sufficient indigenous supplies of organic fuels to meet its energy demands, and so must import large quantities of petroleum and coal. Approximately 80% of Portugal's electric energy is produced by hydroelectric stations; thermal stations produce the other 20%. Portugal has produced no crude oil, natural gas, or condensate; no resources or reserves in these categories are listed for Portugal in the 1976 World Energy Conference report. Until the last year or so (1980), no significant onshore petroleum exploration had been done in Portugal since 1963. Production of coal in Portugal has declined steadily to the present annual yield of about 200,000 metric tons. On the basis of estimates in only three coal fields, resources of coal of all ranks in Portugal total at least 76 million (10/sup 6/) metric tons. Uranium is mined near Viseu and Guarda in the northern part of Portugal; the Nisa mine in east-central Portugal will begin producing uranium ore in 1985 after installation of a processing plant. Portugal produced 95 metric tons of uranium oxide (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/) from ore stocks in each year from 1972 through 1974; production is assumed to have continued at the same rate since then. Geothermal energy has not been developed in mainland Portugal; however, hot springs that may have geothermal energy potential are known in the Minho district in the northwest. Geothermal energy resources exist in the Azores and a program of evaluation and exploration with technical assistance from the USGS is presently in progress there.

  20. A Comparison of Calculator Use in Eighth-Grade Mathematics Classrooms in the United States, Japan, and Portugal: Results from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarr, James E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage; Uekawa, Kazuaki; Lennex, Lesia

    This study used data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) to determine trends in calculator use among Population 2 (13-year-olds) students in Japan, the United States, and Portugal. While relatively high levels of calculator use were observed for the U.S. and Portugal, virtually no calculator use was found in the…

  1. A Comparison of Calculator Use in Eighth-Grade Mathematics Classrooms in the United States, Japan, and Portugal: Results From the Third International Mathematics and Science Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarr, James E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage; Uekawa, Kazuaki; Lennex, Lesia

    2000-01-01

    Uses data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study to determine trends in calculator use among 13-year-olds in Japan, the United States, and Portugal. Indicates relatively high levels of calculator use for U.S. and Portugal, and no calculator use for Japan. Reports a statistically significant negative relationship between…

  2. Demographic challenges across the European Union Member States.

    PubMed

    Megyesiová, Silvia; Hajduová, Zuzana

    2012-07-01

    The Member States of the European Union are undergoing major demographic changes; these changes are slow but significant. The demographic picture in the EU-27 is clearer: population growth is mainly the result of immigration, fertility is far below the replacement ratio, and the population is growing older, which will be a key demographic challenge in many Member States. All the actual demographic trends will have consequences for health care systems. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Patient rights in EU Member States after the ratification of the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Nys, Herman; Stultiëns, Loes; Borry, Pascal; Goffin, Tom; Dierickx, Kris

    2007-10-01

    The European Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine was adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on 19 November 1996 and opened for signature in Oviedo, Spain, on 4 April 1997. As of the moment of writing 11 Member States of the EU have ratified the Convention: Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Lithuania, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain. The overall purpose of this article is to analyze whether these ratifying EU Member States have fulfilled their obligation provided for in article 1 of Section 2 of the Convention ("each Party shall take in its internal law the necessary measures to give effect to the provisions of this Convention"). We further explored the legal consequences of ratification of the Convention. We analysed for each ratifying Member State whether and how the ratification of the Convention has influenced patient rights legislation and policies. Finally, we concluded by dividing the 11 Member States into 4 categories depending upon the already existing patient rights legislation at the moment of ratification and the constitutional provisions related to the ratification of an international treaty in general in a given Member State.

  4. Nurse faculty members' ego states: transactional analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Keçeci, Ayla; Taşocak, Gülsün

    2009-10-01

    This study uses a Transactional Analysis Approach (TA) to investigate communication between faculty and students in nursing education. The research population was comprised of nurse faculty members (N=33) employed at a school of nursing and students (N=482) registered at the same school. The research sample was comprised of 26 faculty members and 325 students. Data collection was performed via questionnaires, focus group interviews and observation. Qualitative data were analyzed using descriptive analysis methods, and quantitative data were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Pearson moment correlation coefficients technique. Using the Transactional Analysis Approach (TA), faculty members viewed themselves as an Adult and felt they used the Critical Parent ego state the least. Students also perceived that faculty members used the Adult ego state the most and used the Free Child ego state the least.

  5. The Southern Regional Education Board and Member States, January 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services and how each member state participated in them from July 2012 through December 2013. The nation's first regional interstate compact for education, SREB is today the most comprehensive, bringing together states to enable them to achieve…

  6. The Southern Regional Education Board and Member States, December 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services and how each member state participated in them from December 2013 through November 2014. SREB serves a wide range of education policy leaders, including governors, state legislators, executive and legislative staff, and K-12 and postsecondary agency…

  7. The Southern Regional Education Board and Member States, December 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services and how each member state participated in them from December 2013 through November 2014. SREB serves a wide range of education policy leaders, including governors, state legislators, executive and legislative staff, and K-12 and postsecondary agency…

  8. EU member state government contribution to alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Katy

    2014-01-01

    Article 47 of the new EU Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes requires national governments to contribute to the development and promotion of alternative methods. A recent survey of EU member states found that reported funding of alternative (3Rs) methods totalled € 18.7 million in 2013, provided by only seven countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Sweden, and the UK). There were indications that the contributions of some of these countries have increased since the implementation of the new Directive. However, funding of alternatives is between 0 and 0.036% of national science R&D expenditure and nearly half of the countries that responded reported that they do not specifically contribute. Data (and, by assumption, financial contribution) remains unavailable from half of the member states across the EU, regardless of the method of collection.

  9. Higher Education Distance Learning in Portugal--State of the Art and Current Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Abrar; Laaser, Wolfram

    2010-01-01

    The paper is based on a recent report given to the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education on "Reforming Higher Education Distance Learning in Portugal" (Hasan et. al. 2009). The report was grounded on on-site visits of leading Portuguese Universities, Polytechnics and Business Schools as well as on written…

  10. Portugal to Accede to ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    The Republic of Portugal will become the ninth member state of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) [1]. Today, during a ceremony at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), a corresponding Agreement was signed by the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago and the ESO Director General, Catherine Cesarsky , in the presence of other high officials from Portugal and the ESO member states (see Video Clip 05/00 below). Following subsequent ratification by the Portuguese Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols [2], it is foreseen that Portugal will formally join this organisation on January 1, 2001. Uniting European Astronomy ESO PR Photo 16/00 ESO PR Photo 16/00 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 405 pix - 160k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 809 pix - 408k] Caption : Signing of the Portugal-ESO Agreement on June 27, 2000, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). At the table, the ESO Director General, Catherine Cesarsky , and the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago . In his speech, the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago , stated that "the accession of Portugal to ESO is the result of a joint effort by ESO and Portugal during the last ten years. It was made possible by the rapid Portuguese scientific development and by the growth and internationalisation of its scientific community." He continued: "Portugal is fully committed to European scientific and technological development. We will devote our best efforts to the success of ESO". Catherine Cesarsky , ESO Director General since 1999, warmly welcomed the Portuguese intention to join ESO. "With the accession of their country to ESO, Portuguese astronomers will have great opportunities for working on research programmes at the frontiers of modern astrophysics." "This is indeed a good time to join ESO", she added. "The four 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes with their many first-class instruments are nearly ready, and the VLT

  11. Population needs identified for assistance in some ECA member states.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    The U.N. Fund for Population Activities (UNPFA) has conducted Needs Assessment Missions in many developing countries as a means of identifying population and related areas in which individual countries would need assistance to achieve self-reliance in formulating and implementing population policies and programs. This exercise is still going on in some of the countries. In ECA member States these needs missions have been conducted in the following countries: Burundi, Cameroon, Comoros, Ethiopia, the Gambia, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The areas identified for assistance vary from country to country, however, in some cases the needs are similar. Data collection and analysis is still 1 of population needs for which many countries require assistance. This includes conducting of national population censuses and demographic surveys and establishing or improving the civil registration systems on vital events. Training of nationals in data collection and analysis is another area in which ECA member States need assistance. It was identified that there is lack of integration of population variables in socioeconomic development planning. The various missions recommended assistance to help ECA member States to integrate population variables in development planning. Creation of Population units in ministries of planning and/or other departments was recommended as a means to help this integration. The various missions also identified the need to create or to enhance the awareness of the interrelationship between population and sociodevelopment and their implications. To this end the missions on needs assessment recommended assistance in population information and communication activities, including the introduction of population education in formal and nonformal education, conducting of seminars and workshops on population and development

  12. Influence of Brettanomyces ethylphenols on red wine aroma evaluated by consumers in the United States and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Schumaker, Megan R; Chandra, Mahesh; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Ross, Carolyn F

    2017-10-01

    Brettanomyces may add complexity to wine at low concentrations but at high concentrations, can result in objectionable wines. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations at which consumers from two different locations were able to detect Brettanomyces volatile compounds present in a red wine. A red wine blend, used in both countries, was spiked to create five treatments containing different concentrations of 4-ethylphenol (4-EP), 4-ethylguiacol (4-EG), and 4-ethylcatechol (4-EC) in a 5:1:1 ratio, respectively. These treatments were evaluated by consumers in the United States and Portugal (n=121) using a difference from control test. Consumers were also classified as having low, medium, or high wine knowledge. Among the spiked samples, the greatest degree of difference was found between the second and third treatments, corresponding to reported detection and recognition threshold ranges of 4-EP and 4-EG. For some treatments, consumers from Portugal classified in the medium or high knowledge level reported significantly higher mean differences from the control than those in the low knowledge group (p<0.05). Results demonstrated consumers' ability to detect differences in red wines due to Brettanomyces volatile compounds. Results provide useful context on how wine knowledge and cultural variants may affect the detection of Brettanomyces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The status of blood safety in ECO member states

    PubMed Central

    Seighali, Fariba; Hosseini Divkolaye, Nasim S.; Koohi, Ebrahim; Pourfathollah, Ali A.; Rahmani, Ahmad M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Access to the information concerning blood safety is essential for managing problems and overcoming the challenges that are faced in any given region. Information on the availability and safety of blood in countries of the Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO) is largely lacking. To address this problem, the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organisation, in collaboration with other ECO member states, initiated a research project in 2009 to collect, analyse and compare statistics on blood safety in the region. Materials and methods A modified and summarised version of the Global Database on Blood Safety (GDBS) questionnaire was used to collect data. The questionnaire was sent to all ten countries in the ECO region. The heads of the national transfusion services or focal points were requested to complete the form. Related literature and websites were also reviewed. Results Only three countries (Afghanistan, Iran and Turkey) completed the questionnaire, while other countries provided their available data on some parts of the questionnaire. The number of donations per year varied from 5 to 27/1,000 population. The rate of donors positive for human immunodeficiency virus ranged from 0.003% to 0.2%. The rate of donors positive for hepatitis C virus antibody varied from 0.05% to 3.9% while that of hepatitis B virus surface antigen ranged from 0.15% to 3.91% respectively. Discussion There is very clear diversity in blood transfusion services among ECO member states. Most countries in the region do not have a data-recording system. It is generally estimated that the need for blood is much higher than the supply in this region. Deficiencies in donor screening and a high prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections are other important challenges. PMID:26192779

  14. Breastfeeding practices and policies in WHO European Region Member States.

    PubMed

    Bagci Bosi, Ayse Tulay; Eriksen, Kamilla Gehrt; Sobko, Tanja; Wijnhoven, Trudy M A; Breda, João

    2016-03-01

    To provide an update on current practices and policy development status concerning breastfeeding in the WHO European Region. National surveys and studies conducted by national health institutions were prioritized. Sub-national data were included where no national data or studies existed. Information on national breastfeeding policies was collected mainly from the WHO Seventh Meeting of Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative Coordinators and European Union projects. Owing to the different data sources and methods, any comparisons between countries must be made with caution. WHO European Member States. Data from fifty-three WHO European Member States were investigated; however, a large proportion had not reported any data. Rates of early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding and continued breastfeeding to 1 year all varied considerably within the WHO European Region. Exclusive breastfeeding rates declined considerably after 4 months, and were low in infants under 6 months and at 6 months of age. The majority of the countries with existing data reported having a national infant and young child feeding policy and the establishment of a national committee on breastfeeding or infant and young child feeding. The majority of the countries with existing data reported having baby-friendly hospitals, although the proportion of baby-friendly hospitals to the total number of national hospitals with maternity units was low in most countries. Breastfeeding practices within the WHO European Region, especially exclusive breastfeeding rates, are far from complying with the WHO recommendations. There are marked differences between countries in breastfeeding practices, infant and young child feeding policy adoption and proportion of baby-friendly hospitals.

  15. 32 CFR 884.8 - Request for delivery by state authorities when the member is located in a different state.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the member is located in a different state. 884.8 Section 884.8 National Defense Department of Defense... AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.8 Request for delivery by state authorities when the member is located in a different state. (a) This part applies to members who are located in the United States. With respect to...

  16. 32 CFR 884.8 - Request for delivery by state authorities when the member is located in a different state.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the member is located in a different state. 884.8 Section 884.8 National Defense Department of Defense... AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.8 Request for delivery by state authorities when the member is located in a different state. (a) This part applies to members who are located in the United States. With respect to...

  17. Health care of people in homelessness: a comparative study of mobile units in Portugal, United States and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Borysow, Igor da Costa; Conill, Eleonor Minho; Furtado, Juarez Pereira

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the legal and normative framework guiding the use of mobile units in Portugal, United States and Brazil, which seek to improve access and continuity of care for people in homelessness. We used a comparative analysis through literature and documentary review relating three categories: context (demographic, socio-economic and epidemiological), services system (access, coverage, organization, management and financing) and, specifically, mobile units (design, care and financing model). The analysis was based on the theory of convergence/divergence between health systems from the perspective of equity in health. Improving access, addressing psychoactive substances abuse, outreach and multidisciplinary work proved to be common to all three countries, with the potential to reduce inequities. Relationships with primary healthcare, use of vehicles and the type of financing are considered differently in the three countries, influencing the greater or lesser extent of equity in the analyzed proposals.

  18. Geographic Data as Personal Data in Four EU Member States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, A. J.; van Loenen, B.; Zevenbergen, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    The EU Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data aims at harmonising data protection legislation in the European Union. This should promote the free flow of products and services within the EU. This research found a wide variety of interpretations of the application of data protection legislation to geographic data. The variety was found among the different EU Member States, the different stakeholders and the different types of geographic data. In the Netherlands, the Data Protection Authority (DPA) states that panoramic images of streets are considered personal data. While Dutch case law judges that the data protection legislation does not apply if certain features are blurred and no link to an address is provided. The topographic datasets studied in the case studies do not contain personal data, according to the Dutch DPA, while the German DPA and the Belgian DPA judge that topographic maps of a large scale can contain personal data, and impose conditions on the processing of topographic maps. The UK DPA does consider this data outside of the scope of legal definition of personal data. The patchwork of differences in data protection legislation can be harmonised by using a traffic light model. This model focuses on the context in which the processing of the data takes place and has four categories of data: (1) sensitive personal data, (2) personal data, (3), data that can possibly lead to identification, and (4) non-personal data. For some geographic data, for example factual data that does not reveal sensitive information about a person, can be categorised in the third category giving room to opening up data under the INSPIRE Directive.

  19. Training Needs of School Board Members in the State of Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Melody F.; Rossmiller, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This project examined the training needs of school board members in the state of Missouri. Of the 520 school districts in Missouri, 382 are members of the Missouri School Boards Association (MSBA). The school board members of the MSBA schools were surveyed in this project. Data was gathered relating to the training needs of board members with 1 to…

  20. Training Needs of School Board Members in the State of Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossmiller, Susan; O'Brien, Melody F.

    2013-01-01

    This project examined the training needs of school board members in the state of Missouri. Of the 520 school districts in Missouri, 382 are members of the Missouri School Boards Association (MSBA). The school board members of the MSBA schools were surveyed in this project. Data was gathered relating to the training needs of board members with 1 to…

  1. Intramolecular fluorine migration via four-member cyclic transition states

    PubMed

    Nguyen; Mayer; Morton

    2000-11-17

    Gaseous CF(3)(+) interchanges F(+) for O with simple carbonyl compounds. CF(3)(+) reacts with propionaldehyde in the gas phase to produce (CH(3))(2)CF(+) via two competing pathways. Starting with 1-(13)C-propionaldehyde, the major pathway (80%) produces (CH(3))(2)CF(+) with the carbon label in one of the methyl groups. The minor pathway (20%) produces (CH(3))(2)CF(+) with the carbon label in the central position. The relative proportions of these two pathways are measured by (19)F NMR analysis of the neutral CH(3)CF=CH(2) produced by deprotonation of (CH(3))(2)CF(+) at <10(-)(3) Torr in an electron bombardment flow (EBFlow) reactor. Formation of alkene in which carbon is directly bonded to fluorine means that (in the minor product, at least) an F(+) for O transposition occurs via adduct formation followed by 1,3-atom transfer and then isomerization of CH(3)CH(2)CHF(+) to the more stable (CH(3))(2)CF(+). Use of CF(4) as a chemical ionization (CI) reagent gas leads to CF(3)(+) adduct ions for a variety of ketones, in addition to isoelectronic transposition of F(+) for O. Metastable ion decompositions of the adduct ions yield the metathesis products. Decompositions of fluorocycloalkyl cations formed in this manner give evidence for the same kinds of rearrangements as take place in CH(3)CH(2)CHF(+). Density functional calculations confirm that F(+) for O metathesis takes place via addition of CF(3)(+) to the carbonyl oxygen followed by transposition via a four-member cyclic transition state. A computational survey of the effects of different substituents in a series of aldehydes and acyclic ketones reveals no systematic variation of the energy of the transition state as a function of thermochemistry, but the Hammond postulate does appear to be obeyed in terms of progress along the reaction coordinate. Bond lengths corresponding to the central barrier correlate with overall thermochemistry of the F(+) for O interchange, but in a sense opposite to what might have been

  2. 14 CFR 375.10 - Certain foreign civil aircraft registered in ICAO member states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in ICAO member states. 375.10 Section 375.10 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorization § 375.10 Certain foreign civil aircraft registered in ICAO member... of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), and registered in a State that at the...

  3. 32 CFR 884.7 - Requests by state and local authorities when the requested member is located in that state.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requests by state and local authorities when the requested member is located in that state. 884.7 Section 884.7 National Defense Department of Defense... AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.7 Requests by state and local authorities when the requested member is located...

  4. EU Rural Development Policy in the New Member States: Promoting Multifunctionality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramniceanu, Irina; Ackrill, Robert

    2007-01-01

    European Union (EU) enlargement has seen 10 new member states (NMS) adopt the full range of EU policies. Within this, the rural development arm of the Common Agricultural Policy offers particular points of interest. Member states chose from an extensive list of policy measures developed within the EU15 and intended, in particular, to…

  5. EU Rural Development Policy in the New Member States: Promoting Multifunctionality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramniceanu, Irina; Ackrill, Robert

    2007-01-01

    European Union (EU) enlargement has seen 10 new member states (NMS) adopt the full range of EU policies. Within this, the rural development arm of the Common Agricultural Policy offers particular points of interest. Member states chose from an extensive list of policy measures developed within the EU15 and intended, in particular, to…

  6. Child Health in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Teresa; Ferreira, Ricardo; Azevedo, Inês

    2016-10-01

    Portugal has experienced rapid decline of neonatal and infant mortality in the last century, similar to that of other western European states. The joint venture of pediatricians and obstetricians with adequate top-down government commissions for maternal and child health for the decision making by health administrators and a well-defined schedule of preventive and managerial measures in the community and in hospitals are the most likely explanations for this success. Another achievement of child health care services is the registry for special diseases. Education of health care workers plays a fundamental role in improving health statistics. Portugal has a reasonable number of doctors, nurses, and health technicians per capita. Quality assurance monitoring systems and implementation of evidence-based clinical guidelines with digital records, including international coding, are essential steps to improve health care systems.

  7. 77 FR 9723 - Department of State Performance Review Board Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    .... Waxman, Senior Advisor, Office of the Under Secretary for Civilian Security, Democracy, and Human Rights... Service and Director of Human Resources, Department of State. BILLING CODE 4710-15-P ...

  8. Method of producing ceramic distribution members for solid state electrolyte cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Douglas J. (Inventor); Galica, Leo M. (Inventor); Losey, Robert W. (Inventor); Suitor, Jerry W. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A solid state electrolyte cells apparatus and method of producing is disclosed. The apparatus can be used for separating oxygen from an oxygen-containing feedstock or as a fuel cell for reacting fluids. Cells can be stacked so that fluids can be introduced and removed from the apparatus through ceramic distribution members having ports designed for distributing the fluids in parallel flow to and from each cell. The distribution members can also serve as electrodes to membranes or as membrane members between electrodes, The distribution member design does not contain any horizontal internal ports which allows the member to be thin. A method of tape casting in combination with an embossing method allows intricate radial ribs and bosses to be formed on each distribution member. The bosses serve as seals for the ports and allow the distribution members to be made without any horizontal internal ports.

  9. Ceramic distribution members for solid state electrolyte cells and method of producing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Douglas J. (Inventor); Galica, Leo M. (Inventor); Losey, Robert W. (Inventor); Suitor, Jerry W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A solid state electrolyte cells apparatus and method of producing is disclosed. The apparatus can be used for separating oxygen from an oxygen-containing feedstock or as a fuel cell for reacting fluids. Cells can be stacked so that fluids can be introduced and removed from the apparatus through ceramic distribution members having ports designed for distributing the fluids in parallel flow to and from each cell. The distribution members can also serve as electrodes to membranes or as membrane members between electrodes. The distribution member design does not contain any horizontal internal ports which allows the member to be thin. A method of tape casting in combination with an embossing method allows intricate radial ribs and bosses to be formed on each distribution member. The bosses serve as seals for the ports and allow the distribution members to be made without any horizontal internal ports.

  10. Policies of Adult Education in Portugal and France: The European Agenda of Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaco, C.; Lafont, P.; Pariat, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the influence of the European Union's educational policies on the implementation of devices for the recognition and the validation of informal and non-formal learning within public policies on education and training for adults in European Union Member States. Portugal and France are taken as examples. The European Union's…

  11. Policies of Adult Education in Portugal and France: The European Agenda of Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaco, C.; Lafont, P.; Pariat, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the influence of the European Union's educational policies on the implementation of devices for the recognition and the validation of informal and non-formal learning within public policies on education and training for adults in European Union Member States. Portugal and France are taken as examples. The European Union's…

  12. Multilevel Governance and Shared Sovereignty: European Union, Member States, and the FCTC

    PubMed Central

    MAMUDU, HADII M.; STUDLAR, DONLEY T.

    2010-01-01

    The Westphalian idea of sovereignty in international relations has undergone recent transformation. “Shared sovereignty” through multilevel governance describes the responsibility of the European Union (EU) and its Member States in tobacco control policy. We examine how this has occurred on the EU level through directives and recommendations, accession rules for new members, tobacco control campaigns, and financial support for antitobacco nongovernmental organizations. In particular, the negotiation and ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and the participation in the FCTC Conference of the Parties illustrates shared sovereignty. The EU Commission was the lead negotiator for Member States on issues over which it had jurisdiction, while individual Member States, through the EU presidency, could negotiate on issues on which authority was divided or remained with them. Shared sovereignty through multilevel governance has become the norm in the tobacco control policy area for EU members, including having one international organization negotiate within the context of another. PMID:20622934

  13. 32 CFR 884.7 - Requests by state and local authorities when the requested member is located in that state.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN... that state. (a) The Air Force normally will turn over to the civilian authorities of the state, upon their request. Air Force members charged with an offense against state or local law. Each request...

  14. 32 CFR 884.7 - Requests by state and local authorities when the requested member is located in that state.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN... that state. (a) The Air Force normally will turn over to the civilian authorities of the state, upon their request. Air Force members charged with an offense against state or local law. Each request...

  15. 34 CFR 403.205 - What are the State's responsibilities for members of special populations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... special populations? 403.205 Section 403.205 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... responsibilities for members of special populations? The State board shall— (a) Establish effective procedures, including an expedited appeals procedure, by which students who are members of special populations and their...

  16. 34 CFR 403.205 - What are the State's responsibilities for members of special populations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... special populations? 403.205 Section 403.205 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... responsibilities for members of special populations? The State board shall— (a) Establish effective procedures, including an expedited appeals procedure, by which students who are members of special populations and their...

  17. 34 CFR 403.205 - What are the State's responsibilities for members of special populations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... special populations? 403.205 Section 403.205 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... responsibilities for members of special populations? The State board shall— (a) Establish effective procedures, including an expedited appeals procedure, by which students who are members of special populations and their...

  18. 34 CFR 403.205 - What are the State's responsibilities for members of special populations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... special populations? 403.205 Section 403.205 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... responsibilities for members of special populations? The State board shall— (a) Establish effective procedures, including an expedited appeals procedure, by which students who are members of special populations and their...

  19. 34 CFR 403.205 - What are the State's responsibilities for members of special populations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... special populations? 403.205 Section 403.205 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... responsibilities for members of special populations? The State board shall— (a) Establish effective procedures, including an expedited appeals procedure, by which students who are members of special populations and their...

  20. Priorities in national space strategies and governance of the member states of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriaensen, Maarten; Giannopapa, Christina; Sagath, Daniel; Papastefanou, Anastasia

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty Member States with a variety of strategic priorities and governance structures regarding their space activities. A number of countries engage in space activities exclusively though ESA, while others have also their own national space programme. Some consider ESA as their prime space agency and others have additionally their own national agency with respective programmes. The main objective of this paper is to provide an up-to date overview and a holistic assessment of strategic priorities and the national space governance structures in 20 ESA Member States. This analysis and assessment has been conducted by analysing the Member States public documents, information provided at ESA workshop on this topic and though unstructured interviews. The paper is structured to include two main elements: priorities and trends in national space strategies and space governance in ESA Member States. The first part of this paper focuses on the content and analysis of the national space strategies and indicates the main priorities and trends in Member States. The priorities are categorised with regards to technology domains, the role of space in the areas of sustainability and the motivators that boost engagement in space. These vary from one Member State to another and include with different levels of engagement in technology domains amongst others: science and exploration, navigation, Earth observation, human space flight, launchers, telecommunications, and integrated applications. Member States allocate a different role of space as enabling tool adding to the advancement of sustainability areas including: security, resources, environment and climate change, transport and communication, energy, and knowledge and education. The motivators motivating reasoning which enhances or hinders space engagement also differs. The motivators identified are industrial competitiveness, job creation, technology development and transfer, social benefits

  1. 32 CFR 884.7 - Requests by state and local authorities when the requested member is located in that state.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.7 Requests by state and local authorities when the requested member is located in... delivered and to the Air Force unit, activity, or recruiting office nearest to the place of trial designated...

  2. Contrails over Lisbon, Portugal

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-09-05

    This image from NASA EarthKAM shows Lisbon, the capital of Portugal. The superb natural harbor at Lisbon is a commercially important European port handling much of the import-export traffic for Portugal and Spain.

  3. Scientific collaboration between 'old' and 'new' member states: Did joining the European Union make a difference?

    PubMed

    Makkonen, Teemu; Mitze, Timo

    This paper provides new insights on the effects of the enlargement of the European Union (EU) and European integration by investigating the issue of scientific collaboration within the new EU member states vis-à-vis the old EU member states. The question addressed is whether the EU membership following the two enlargement waves 2004 and 2007 has significantly increased the co-publication intensity of the new member states with other member countries. The empirical results based on data collected from the Web of Science database and Difference-in-Difference estimations point towards a conclusion that joining the EU indeed has had an additional positive impact on the co-publication intensity between the new and old member states and, in particular, within the new member states themselves. These results give tentative support for the successfulness of the EU's science policies in achieving a common 'internal market' in research. We also find evidence for early anticipation effects of the consecutive EU accession.

  4. Vocational Training in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Artur; And Others

    This report on vocational training in Portugal contains 8 chapters, a 26-item bibliography, and 2 appendices. Chapter 1 describes the geography, political system, population, and employment situation of Portugal. Chapter 2 describes the economic framework of Portugal. Chapter 3 describes the education system, the apprenticeship system, other…

  5. An overview of Compassionate Use Programs in the European Union member states.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Gayathri; Morampudi, Suman; Chhabra, Pankdeep; Gowda, Arun; Zomorodi, Behsad

    2016-11-01

    The past decade witnessed rapid development of novel drugs and therapeutic biological agents. The marketing authorization for novel therapies is often time consuming and distressing for patients. Earlier clinical trials were the only way to access new drugs under development. However, not every patient meets the enrolment criteria, and participation is difficult for patients with life-threatening, long-lasting or seriously debilitating diseases like rare diseases. Early access programs like "Compassionate Use Program (CUP)" have generated alternative channels for such patients. The European Medical Agency provides regulations and recommendations for compassionate use, upon which every European Union (EU) member state has developed its own rules and regulations. Despite previous reviews and studies, the available information is limited and gaps exist. This literature review explores CUP in 28 EU member states. Data was collected through literature review and use of country-specific search terms from the healthcare domain. Data sources were not limited to databases and articles published in journals, but also included grey literature. The results implied that CUP was present in 20 EU member states (71%). Of 28 EU states, 18 (∼64%) had nationalized regulations and processes were well-defined. Overall, this review identified CUP and its current status and legislation in 28 EU member states. The established legislation for CUP in the EU member states suggest their willingness to adopt processes that facilitate earlier and better access to new medicines. Further research and periodic reviews are warranted to understand the contemporary and future regulatory trends in early access programs.

  6. 12 CFR 208.73 - What additional provisions are applicable to state member banks with financial subsidiaries?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... state member banks with financial subsidiaries? 208.73 Section 208.73 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Financial Subsidiaries of State Member Banks § 208.73 What additional provisions are applicable to state member banks with financial subsidiaries? (a) Capital...

  7. 12 CFR 208.73 - What additional provisions are applicable to state member banks with financial subsidiaries?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... state member banks with financial subsidiaries? 208.73 Section 208.73 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Financial Subsidiaries of State Member Banks § 208.73 What additional provisions are applicable to state member banks with financial subsidiaries? (a) Capital...

  8. 12 CFR 250.166 - Treatment of mandatory convertible debt and subordinated notes of state member banks and bank...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... subordinated notes of state member banks and bank holding companies as âcapitalâ. 250.166 Section 250.166 Banks... notes of state member banks and bank holding companies as “capital”. (a) General. Under the Board's risk-based capital guidelines, state member banks and bank holding companies may include in Tier 2...

  9. 32 CFR 884.9 - Requests for custody of members stationed outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Discharge Procedures, and AFI 36-3208, Administrative Separation of Airmen. (c) Air Force officials will...) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES.... (b) The Air Force expects members to comply with orders issued by Federal or state court of competent...

  10. 32 CFR 884.9 - Requests for custody of members stationed outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Discharge Procedures, and AFI 36-3208, Administrative Separation of Airmen. (c) Air Force officials will...) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES.... (b) The Air Force expects members to comply with orders issued by Federal or state court of competent...

  11. 32 CFR 884.12 - Delays in returning members to the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Delays in returning members to the United States. 884.12 Section 884.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.12 Delays in...

  12. 32 CFR 884.12 - Delays in returning members to the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Delays in returning members to the United States. 884.12 Section 884.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.12 Delays in...

  13. 32 CFR 884.12 - Delays in returning members to the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delays in returning members to the United States. 884.12 Section 884.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.12 Delays in...

  14. Comparing pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in Croatia to the European Union Member States

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, Sabine; Habl, Claudia; Bogut, Martina; Vončina, Luka

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform a comparative analysis of the pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement systems in Croatia and the 27 European Union (EU) Member States. Methods Knowledge about the pharmaceutical systems in Croatia and the 27 EU Member States was acquired by literature review and primary research with stakeholders. Results Pharmaceutical prices are controlled at all levels in Croatia, which is also the case in 21 EU Member States. Like many EU countries, Croatia also applies external price referencing, ie, compares prices with other countries. While the wholesale remuneration by a statutorily regulated linear mark-up is applied in Croatia and in several EU countries, the pharmacy compensation for dispensing reimbursable medicines in the form of a flat rate service fee in Croatia is rare among EU countries, which usually apply a linear or regressive pharmacy mark-up scheme. Like in most EU countries, the Croatian Social Insurance reimburses specific medicines at 100%, whereas patients are charged co-payments for other reimbursable medicines. Criteria for reimbursement include the medicine’s importance from the public health perspective, its therapeutic value, and relative effectiveness. In Croatia and in many EU Member States, reimbursement is based on a reference price system. Conclusion The Croatian pharmaceutical system is similar to those in the EU Member States. Key policies, like external price referencing and reference price systems, which have increasingly been introduced in EU countries are also applied in Croatia and serve the same purpose: to ensure access to medicines while containing public pharmaceutical expenditure. PMID:21495202

  15. Impact of multi-tiered pharmacy benefits on attitudes of plan members with chronic disease states.

    PubMed

    Nair, Kavita V; Ganther, Julie M; Valuck, Robert J; McCollum, Marianne M; Lewis, Sonya J

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of 2- and 3-tiered pharmacy benefit plans on member attitudes regarding their pharmacy benefits. We performed a mail survey and cross-sectional comparison of the outcome variables in a large managed care population in the western United States. Participants were persons with chronic disease states who were in 2- or 3-tier copay drug plans. A random sample of 10,662 was selected from a total of 25,008 members who had received 2 or more prescriptions for a drug commonly used to treat one of 5 conditions: hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), or arthritis. Statistical analysis included bivariate comparisons and regression analysis of the factors affecting member attitudes, including satisfaction, loyalty, health plan choices, and willingness to pay a higher out-of-pocket cost for medications. A response rate of 35.8% was obtained from continuously enrolled plan members. Respondents were older, sicker, and consumed more prescriptions than nonrespondents. There were significant differences in age and health plan characteristics between 2- and 3-tier plan members: respondents aged 65 or older represented 11.7% of 2-tier plan members and 54.7% of 3-tier plan members, and 10.0% of 2-tier plan members were in Medicare+Choice plans versus 61.4% in Medicare+Choice plans for 3-tier plan members (P<0.05). Controlling for demographic characteristics, number of comorbidities, and the cost of health care, 2-tier plan members were more satisfied with their plan, more likely to recommend their plan to others, and less likely to switch their current plans to obtain better prescription drug coverage than 3-tier plan members. While members were willing to purchase higher cost nonformulary and brand-name medications, in general, they were not willing to pay more than 10 dollars (in addition to their copayment amount) for these medications. Older respondents and sicker individuals (those with higher scores on the Chronic

  16. 12 CFR 723.20 - How can a state supervisory authority develop and enforce a member business loan regulation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... state regulation minimizes the risk and accomplishes the overall objectives of NCUA's member business... and enforce a member business loan regulation? 723.20 Section 723.20 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MEMBER BUSINESS LOANS § 723.20 How can a state...

  17. 45 CFR 506.19 - Members of the Armed Forces of the United States precluded from receiving award of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Members of the Armed Forces of the United States... AMENDED ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPENSATION Prisoners of War § 506.19 Members of the Armed Forces of the United States precluded from receiving award of compensation. Any member of the Armed Forces...

  18. 45 CFR 506.19 - Members of the Armed Forces of the United States precluded from receiving award of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Members of the Armed Forces of the United States... AMENDED ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPENSATION Prisoners of War § 506.19 Members of the Armed Forces of the United States precluded from receiving award of compensation. Any member of the Armed Forces...

  19. 45 CFR 506.19 - Members of the Armed Forces of the United States precluded from receiving award of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Members of the Armed Forces of the United States... AMENDED ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPENSATION Prisoners of War § 506.19 Members of the Armed Forces of the United States precluded from receiving award of compensation. Any member of the Armed Forces...

  20. 45 CFR 506.19 - Members of the Armed Forces of the United States precluded from receiving award of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Members of the Armed Forces of the United States... AMENDED ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPENSATION Prisoners of War § 506.19 Members of the Armed Forces of the United States precluded from receiving award of compensation. Any member of the Armed Forces...

  1. 45 CFR 506.19 - Members of the Armed Forces of the United States precluded from receiving award of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Members of the Armed Forces of the United States... AMENDED ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPENSATION Prisoners of War § 506.19 Members of the Armed Forces of the United States precluded from receiving award of compensation. Any member of the Armed Forces...

  2. Measuring the Heavens to Rule the Territory: Filipe Folque and the Teaching of Astronomy at the Lisbon Polytechnic School and the Modernization of the State Apparatus in Nineteenth Century Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolino, Luis Miguel

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the astronomy teaching at the Lisbon Polytechnic School and its role in building a modern technoscientific state in Portugal during the nineteenth century. It examines particularly the case of Filipe Folque, who taught astronomy and geodesy at the Lisbon Polytechnic from 1837 to 1856, and played a pivotal role in the geodetic…

  3. Measuring the Heavens to Rule the Territory: Filipe Folque and the Teaching of Astronomy at the Lisbon Polytechnic School and the Modernization of the State Apparatus in Nineteenth Century Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolino, Luis Miguel

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the astronomy teaching at the Lisbon Polytechnic School and its role in building a modern technoscientific state in Portugal during the nineteenth century. It examines particularly the case of Filipe Folque, who taught astronomy and geodesy at the Lisbon Polytechnic from 1837 to 1856, and played a pivotal role in the geodetic…

  4. An overview of Compassionate Use Programs in the European Union member states

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Gayathri; Morampudi, Suman; Chhabra, Pankdeep; Gowda, Arun; Zomorodi, Behsad

    2016-01-01

    Summary The past decade witnessed rapid development of novel drugs and therapeutic biological agents. The marketing authorization for novel therapies is often time consuming and distressing for patients. Earlier clinical trials were the only way to access new drugs under development. However, not every patient meets the enrolment criteria, and participation is difficult for patients with life-threatening, long-lasting or seriously debilitating diseases like rare diseases. Early access programs like “Compassionate Use Program (CUP)” have generated alternative channels for such patients. The European Medical Agency provides regulations and recommendations for compassionate use, upon which every European Union (EU) member state has developed its own rules and regulations. Despite previous reviews and studies, the available information is limited and gaps exist. This literature review explores CUP in 28 EU member states. Data was collected through literature review and use of country-specific search terms from the healthcare domain. Data sources were not limited to databases and articles published in journals, but also included grey literature. The results implied that CUP was present in 20 EU member states (71%). Of 28 EU states, 18 (∼64%) had nationalized regulations and processes were well-defined. Overall, this review identified CUP and its current status and legislation in 28 EU member states. The established legislation for CUP in the EU member states suggest their willingness to adopt processes that facilitate earlier and better access to new medicines. Further research and periodic reviews are warranted to understand the contemporary and future regulatory trends in early access programs. PMID:27904819

  5. Social Contract Among the Members of the Community of the Evergreen State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evergreen State Coll., Olympia, Washington.

    In its life as a community, the Evergreen State College requires a social contract rather than a list of specific prohibitions and essentially negative rules. The contract, open to modifications over time and responsive to the changing circumstances sure to attend the institution's future, represents a commitment by each member of the college…

  6. 45 CFR 2550.100 - Do State entities or their members incur any risk of liability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Do State entities or their members incur any risk of liability? 2550.100 Section 2550.100 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE REQUIREMENTS AND GENERAL PROVISIONS FOR...

  7. 45 CFR 2550.100 - Do State entities or their members incur any risk of liability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Do State entities or their members incur any risk of liability? 2550.100 Section 2550.100 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE REQUIREMENTS AND GENERAL PROVISIONS FOR...

  8. 45 CFR 2550.100 - Do State entities or their members incur any risk of liability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Do State entities or their members incur any risk of liability? 2550.100 Section 2550.100 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE REQUIREMENTS AND GENERAL PROVISIONS FOR...

  9. 45 CFR 2550.100 - Do State entities or their members incur any risk of liability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Do State entities or their members incur any risk of liability? 2550.100 Section 2550.100 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE REQUIREMENTS AND GENERAL PROVISIONS FOR...

  10. Main bibliographic database in European ethics for EU New Member States.

    PubMed

    Leskosek, Branimir L; Dimec, Jure

    2007-10-11

    The paper presents Eureth.net network's web-based database information system (IS) used by project partners from EU New Member States (NMS) to collect bibliographic records from bioethics domains. The IS development was focused mainly on: records compatibility with other Eureth.net databases; support for all European character sets; minimalisation of network traffic; security issues and low establishment and maintenance costs.

  11. National Security Mission, Members and Budgeting in the United States and Australia: A Comparative Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT National Security Mission, Members and Budgeting in the...blank) 2. REPORT DATE June 2011 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA Professional Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE National Security Mission...on whether another country could influence, perhaps take away, the ability for the United States to make its own decisions.6 In particular, the

  12. Family Members' Views on Seeking Placement in State-Supported Living Centers in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Alex D.; Larke, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the factors that influence family members' decisions to seek placement for relatives with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (ID/DD) into state-supported living centers in Texas. The sample included 51 family caregivers between the ages of 26 and 95. Using descriptive statistics, correlation, and inferential…

  13. Support Systems for Poor Readers: Empirical Data from Six EU Member States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ise, Elena; Blomert, Leo; Bertrand, Daisy; Faisca, Luis; Puolakanaho, Anne; Saine, Nina L.; Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Vaessen, Anniek; Csepe, Valeria; Lyytinen, Heikki; Reis, Alexandra; Ziegler, Johannes C.; Schulte-Korne, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    This study surveyed and compared support systems for poor readers in six member states of the European Union (EU). The goal was to identify features of effective support systems. A large-scale questionnaire survey was conducted among mainstream teachers (n = 4,210) and remedial teachers (n = 2,395). Results indicate that the six support systems…

  14. Faculty Member Perceptions of Department Head Leadership Effectiveness at a State University in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbulut, Meltem; Nevra Seggie, Fatma; Börkan, Bengü

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the leadership effectiveness of department heads at a state university in Turkey using a model of leadership effectiveness that includes the use of multiple leadership roles to manage situations arising from internal and external university environments. Leadership effectiveness was measured by surveying 70 faculty members in…

  15. Faculty Member Perceptions of Department Head Leadership Effectiveness at a State University in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbulut, Meltem; Nevra Seggie, Fatma; Börkan, Bengü

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the leadership effectiveness of department heads at a state university in Turkey using a model of leadership effectiveness that includes the use of multiple leadership roles to manage situations arising from internal and external university environments. Leadership effectiveness was measured by surveying 70 faculty members in…

  16. Medical research in emergency research in the European Union member states: tensions between theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Kompanje, Erwin J O; Maas, Andrew I R; Menon, David K; Kesecioglu, Jozef

    2014-04-01

    In almost all of the European Union member states, prior consent by a legal representative is used as a substitute for informed patient consent for non-urgent medical research. Deferred (patient and/or proxy) consent is accepted as a substitute in acute emergency research in approximately half of the member states. In 12 European Union member states emergency research is not mentioned in national law. Medical research in the European Union is covered by the Clinical Trial Directive 2001/20/EC. A proposal for a regulation by the European Commission is currently being examined by the European Parliament and the Council and will replace Directive 2001/20/EC. Deferred patient and/or proxy consent is allowed in the proposed regulation, but does not fit completely in the practice of emergency research. For example, deferred consent is only possible when legal representatives are not available. This criterion will delay inclusion of patients in acute life-threatening conditions in short time frames. As the regulation shall be binding in its entirety in all member states, emergency research in acute situations is still not possible as it should be.

  17. Family Members' Views on Seeking Placement in State-Supported Living Centers in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Alex D.; Larke, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the factors that influence family members' decisions to seek placement for relatives with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (ID/DD) into state-supported living centers in Texas. The sample included 51 family caregivers between the ages of 26 and 95. Using descriptive statistics, correlation, and inferential…

  18. A Farm Transmission Model for Salmonella in Pigs, Applicable to E.U. Member States.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew A; Simons, Robin R L; Kelly, Louise; Snary, Emma L

    2016-03-01

    The burden of Salmonella entering pig slaughterhouses across the European Union is considered a primary food safety concern. To assist E.U. member states with the development of national control plans, we have developed a farm transmission model applicable to all member states. It is an individual-based stochastic susceptible-infected model that takes into account four different sources of infection of pigs (sows, feed, external contaminants such as rodents, and new stock) and various management practices linked to Salmonella transmission/protection (housing, flooring, feed, all-in-all-out production). A novel development within the model is the assessment of dynamic shedding rates. The results of the model, parameterized for two case study member states (one high and one low prevalence) suggest that breeding herd prevalence is a strong indicator of slaughter pig prevalence. Until a member state's' breeding herd prevalence is brought below 10%, the sow will be the dominant source of infection to pigs raised for meat production; below this level of breeding herd prevalence, feed becomes the dominant force of infection. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. 32 CFR 884.12 - Delays in returning members to the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.12 Delays in...) Additional time is required to permit the member to provide satisfactory evidence of legal efforts to resist the request or to show legitimate cause for noncompliance. (3) Additional time is required to permit...

  20. 12 CFR 208.75 - What happens if the state member bank or any of its insured depository institution affiliates...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MEMBERSHIP OF STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS IN THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Financial Subsidiaries... financial subsidiaries and expansion of existing financial subsidiaries. If a state member bank, or any... (12 U.S.C. 2901 et seq.): (1) The state member bank may not, directly or indirectly, acquire control...

  1. Mobbing in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the member states of the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    Mobbing as a specific form of discrimination which applies only to the labor law, is a very young branch of labor law. It began to develop during the eighties of last century. This kind of psychoterror that appears in the workplace, was first spotted, formulated and diagnosed by the Swedish psychologist of German origin prof. Dr. Heinz Lejman (Heinz Leymann July 17, 1932.; Wolfenbuttel, Germany - 1999 Stockholm, Sweden). Today, the legal regulation of mobbing in terms of prevention, rules of behavior and sanctions is indispensable to every modern democratic state. I'll make a comparison of the legislative regulation provided by BiH with several European Union member states. I will compare the results of a survey conducted by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Condition, during the year 2000. In the European Union Member States, with the results of the questionnaire for employees, which I conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The conclusion I came to in this paper is: Bosnia and Herzegovina is lagging behind a lot of European Union member states, both in terms of prevention of mobbing, as well as legislation, that is insufficient to regulate this complex issue. Results of the questionnaire for the employees that I conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina are devastating and alarming.

  2. Tertiary Education in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Portugal's tertiary education sector has expanded significantly over the last 20 years, but participation and overall educational attainment levels remain below European standards and enrolment rates have begun to decline. The OECD review recommends that Portugal's national government should focus on strategic direction and leave higher education…

  3. Lessons from Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Vickie; Mechling, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Portugal has long been touted as a popular destination for savvy travelers, but now educators are touting it as something else--a professional development (PD) powerhouse for inquiry-based science! This article describes Portugal's ongoing efforts to reform its country's elementary science education program through a project known as the…

  4. Lessons from Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Vickie; Mechling, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Portugal has long been touted as a popular destination for savvy travelers, but now educators are touting it as something else--a professional development (PD) powerhouse for inquiry-based science! This article describes Portugal's ongoing efforts to reform its country's elementary science education program through a project known as the…

  5. Tertiary Education in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Portugal's tertiary education sector has expanded significantly over the last 20 years, but participation and overall educational attainment levels remain below European standards and enrolment rates have begun to decline. The OECD review recommends that Portugal's national government should focus on strategic direction and leave higher education…

  6. Hospital Exemption for Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products: Issue in Application in the European Union Member States.

    PubMed

    Ivaskiene, Tatjana; Mauricas, Mykolas; Ivaska, Justinas

    2017-01-01

    Regulation (EC) 1394/2007 of the European Parliament and the Council on advanced therapy medicinal products and amending Directive 2001/83/EC and Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 allowed the use of non - authorized advanced therapy medicinal products under the certain circumstances. This socalled hospital exemption rule needs to be applied in the each Member State of the European Union individually and for this purpose Member States should provide national procedures and control measures. The aim of this article is to clear up the criteria for hospital exemption listed in Regulation (EC) 1394/2007 and to contrast the difference in implementing hospital exemption rule into national legal regimes on examples of the United Kingdom, Lithuania and Poland.

  7. An overview of the current plant biostimulant legislations in different European Member States.

    PubMed

    La Torre, Anna; Battaglia, Valerio; Caradonia, Federica

    2016-02-01

    Plant biostimulants are borderline substances that play an intermediate role between plant protection products and fertilisers. At present, such substances are regulated by national laws and have different names in the various European Member States. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on the activity of these substances and on the national laws that regulate them, as they vary considerably from one Member State to another. The greatest difficulty in terms of the correct regulatory framework for these substances is related to their heterogeneity. This situation creates uncertainties for operators, control authorities and bodies that certify and control the organic production, and strongly limits the growth of these substances. This problem will be overcome with the amendment of Regulation EC No 2003/2003 which will shortly extend its scope to the category of plant biostimulants included within the fertilising additives.

  8. Support systems for poor readers: empirical data from six EU member states.

    PubMed

    Ise, Elena; Blomert, Leo; Bertrand, Daisy; Faísca, Luís; Puolakanaho, Anne; Saine, Nina L; Surányi, Zsuzsanna; Vaessen, Anniek; Csépe, Valeria; Lyytinen, Heikki; Reis, Alexandra; Ziegler, Johannes C; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    This study surveyed and compared support systems for poor readers in six member states of the European Union (EU). The goal was to identify features of effective support systems. A large-scale questionnaire survey was conducted among mainstream teachers (n = 4,210) and remedial teachers (n = 2,395). Results indicate that the six support systems differed substantially, with effective support systems showing high performance on all variables measured. More specifically, effective support systems were characterized by (a) high levels of both teacher and student support and (b) frequent interactions between teachers and remedial teachers as well as between remedial teachers and diagnosticians. The high prevalence of poor reading ability in the current EU member states demonstrates that educational reforms are critically needed. The results of this study provide concrete starting points for improving support systems for poor readers.

  9. Regarding the Charmed-Strange Member of the 23S1 Meson State

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xue-Chao; Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    By employing the mass relations derived from the mass matrix and Regge trajectory, we investigate the masses of charmed and charmed-strange members of the 23S1 meson. The masses are compared with the values predicted by other theoretical approaches and experimental data. The results may be useful for the discovery of the unobserved meson and the determination of the quantum number of the newly discovered states. PMID:24250272

  10. Regarding the charmed-strange member of the 2³S₁ meson state.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xue-Chao; Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    By employing the mass relations derived from the mass matrix and Regge trajectory, we investigate the masses of charmed and charmed-strange members of the 2³S₁ meson. The masses are compared with the values predicted by other theoretical approaches and experimental data. The results may be useful for the discovery of the unobserved meson and the determination of the quantum number of the newly discovered states.

  11. Classification of the European Union member states according to the relative level of sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Anna, Bluszcz

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays methods of measurement and assessment of the level of sustained development at the international, national and regional level are a current research problem, which requires multi-dimensional analysis. The relative assessment of the sustainability level of the European Union member states and the comparative analysis of the position of Poland relative to other countries was the aim of the conducted studies in the article. EU member states were treated as objects in the multi-dimensional space. Dimensions of space were specified by ten diagnostic variables describing the sustainability level of UE countries in three dimensions, i.e., social, economic and environmental. Because the compiled statistical data were expressed in different units of measure, taxonomic methods were used for building an aggregated measure to assess the level of sustainable development of EU member states, which through normalisation of variables enabled the comparative analysis between countries. Methodology of studies consisted of eight stages, which included, among others: defining data matrices, calculating the variability coefficient for all variables, which variability coefficient was under 10 %, division of variables into stimulants and destimulants, selection of the method of variable normalisation, developing matrices of normalised data, selection of the formula and calculating the aggregated indicator of the relative level of sustainable development of the EU countries, calculating partial development indicators for three studies dimensions: social, economic and environmental and the classification of the EU countries according to the relative level of sustainable development. Statistical date were collected based on the Polish Central Statistical Office publication.

  12. Recommendation No R (95) 16 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on Young People and Sport. Recommendation No R (95) 17 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the Significance of Sport for Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    This publication consists of the text and appendix of two recommendations adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe. Recommendation No. R (95) 16, presented by the Committee of Ministers to Member States on Young People and Sport, recommends that the governments of members states draw inspiration from the principles and ideas…

  13. Recommendation No R (95) 16 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on Young People and Sport. Recommendation No R (95) 17 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the Significance of Sport for Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    This publication consists of the text and appendix of two recommendations adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe. Recommendation No. R (95) 16, presented by the Committee of Ministers to Member States on Young People and Sport, recommends that the governments of members states draw inspiration from the principles and ideas…

  14. 12 CFR 225.121 - Acquisition of Edge corporation affiliate by State member banks of registered bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Acquisition of Edge corporation affiliate by State member banks of registered bank holding company. (a) The... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acquisition of Edge corporation affiliate by State member banks of registered bank holding company. 225.121 Section 225.121 Banks and Banking FEDERAL...

  15. 32 CFR 884.11 - Procedures for return of an Air Force member to the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedures for return of an Air Force member to... OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.11 Procedures for return of an Air Force member to the United States. (a) Include...

  16. 12 CFR 263.203 - Procedures for reclassifying a state member bank based on criteria other than capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures for reclassifying a state member bank based on criteria other than capital. 263.203 Section 263.203 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE... Insurance Act § 263.203 Procedures for reclassifying a state member bank based on criteria other than...

  17. 32 CFR 884.11 - Procedures for return of an Air Force member to the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procedures for return of an Air Force member to... OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.11 Procedures for return of an Air Force member to the United States. (a) Include the...

  18. 32 CFR 884.11 - Procedures for return of an Air Force member to the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for return of an Air Force member to... OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.11 Procedures for return of an Air Force member to the United States. (a) Include the...

  19. 32 CFR 884.11 - Procedures for return of an Air Force member to the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Procedures for return of an Air Force member to... OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.11 Procedures for return of an Air Force member to the United States. (a) Include the...

  20. What factors influence smoking prevalence and smoke free policy enactment across the European Union Member States.

    PubMed

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; McNeill, Ann; Murray, Rachael; Britton, John

    2011-01-01

    Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU) Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and the extent to which key tobacco control policies have been

  1. What Factors Influence Smoking Prevalence and Smoke Free Policy Enactment across the European Union Member States

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; McNeill, Ann; Murray, Rachael; Britton, John

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU) Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. Methods Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. Results In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. Conclusions Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and the extent to which key

  2. Harmonisation of product notification to Poisons Centres in EU Member States.

    PubMed

    Brekelmans, P; de Groot, R; Desel, H; Mostin, M; Feychting, K; Meulenbelt, J

    2013-02-01

    In the European Union (EU), notification of product information by industry to poisons centres and/or competent authorities is a legal obligation for mixtures classified as hazardous. However, EU legislation does not specify the precise information needed for this product notification. As a consequence, varying requirements have been developed in different EU Member States. The European Commission (EC) carried out an assessment of whether harmonisation of product notification can be achieved. This manuscript provides an overview of the most important (discussion) points to reach harmonisation. Discussions have focused mainly on whether non-classified ingredients should be notified only above a concentration threshold and on the use of defined, narrow concentration ranges instead of exact concentrations for hazardous ingredients. All stakeholders agree to the development of an electronic data exchange format for product notification and identify the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) as the most appropriate format. Instead of multiple notifications to national databases, the EC will analyse the benefits, feasibility and costs of a European product database to provide a centralised portal for companies to upload their product information. Poisons centres and competent authorities need to have access to this information. A Unique Product Identifier (UPI) on the product label can unambiguously identify the product and its formula and links it to the corresponding notified product information. A procedure for the creation of a UPI by companies has already been proposed. There is broad support for the development of a hierarchical product category system to facilitate statistical analyses and comparability of poisoning incidents in EU Member States. Following a 3-year assessment period, the EC concluded that harmonisation of product notification is an achievable goal. In order to draft an Annex to the CLP Regulation concerning this topic, a new working group with

  3. Building co-operative bibliographic databases in European bioethics: a contribution from EU New Member States.

    PubMed

    Dimec, Jure; Leskosek, Branimir

    2007-08-01

    The paper presents a web-based application, developed as a part of the Eurethnet database network, which is being used by project partners from EU New Member States to collect bibliographic records from bioethics domains. The application development was focused mainly on records compatibility with other Eurethnet databases, support for all European character sets, minimalisation of network traffic, and security issues. The time window available for the system development was very small and this problem was solved with our own software for automatic application generation.

  4. [Regulation of food supplements in the European Union and its member states. Part 2].

    PubMed

    Petrenko, A S; Ponomareva, M N; Sukhanov, B P

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses various aspects of the regional (the European Union) and national (European countries) regulation related to food supplements. The use of botanicals and minor bioactive substances in food supplements, and their labelling are studied. The EU principle of mutual recognition is described in the context of current challenges that exist in the regulatory harmonisation between the EU member states. The concept of novel foods and novel ingredients is also presented, and the procedure of their pre-market approval is described in detail. Basic principles of using claims for food supplements are also outlined.

  5. Death of family members as an overlooked source of racial disadvantage in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Julie Skalamera; Crosnoe, Robert; Liu, Hui; Pudrovska, Tetyana; Donnelly, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Long-standing racial differences in US life expectancy suggest that black Americans would be exposed to significantly more family member deaths than white Americans from childhood through adulthood, which, given the health risks posed by grief and bereavement, would add to the disadvantages that they face. We analyze nationally representative US data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (n = 7,617) and the Health and Retirement Study (n = 34,757) to estimate racial differences in exposure to the death of family members at different ages, beginning in childhood. Results indicate that blacks are significantly more likely than whites to have experienced the death of a mother, a father, and a sibling from childhood through midlife. From young adulthood through later life, blacks are also more likely than whites to have experienced the death of a child and of a spouse. These results reveal an underappreciated layer of racial inequality in the United States, one that could contribute to the intergenerational transmission of health disadvantage. By calling attention to this heightened vulnerability of black Americans, our findings underscore the need to address the potential impact of more frequent and earlier exposure to family member deaths in the process of cumulative disadvantage. PMID:28115712

  6. An analysis of European shale gas policies: Why EU member states are pursuing divergent 'fracking' strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, Ben

    The recent progression in hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking' has enabled energy companies to extract once-considered, inaccessible hydrocarbons. The United States has been at the forefront of this controversial industry, revolutionizing the energy market by becoming the world's largest oil and natural gas producer as a result of its vast shale deposits. Shale oil and gas deposits are not unique to North America, however. EU member states are faced with the dilemma of whether to permit fracking domestically or suspend operations. The United Kingdom and Romania have issued concessions for exploring their reserves, while France and Bulgaria have halted all drilling efforts, citing environmental concerns. This paper evaluates why these four European countries pursued divergent fracking policies, arguing that energy security and Russian-relations are more relevant and powerful explanatory factors than a country's commitment to protecting the environment.

  7. HIV testing policies for migrants and ethnic minorities in EU/EFTA Member States

    PubMed Central

    Monge, Susana; Caro-Murillo, Ana M.; Ramírez-Rubio, Oriana; Azcoaga-Lorenzo, Amaya; Belza, Maria J.; Rivero-Montesdeoca, Yaiza; Noori, Teymur; Del Amo, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the context of an European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) research project, our objective was to describe current recommendations regarding HIV testing and counselling targeting migrants and ethnic minorities in the European Union/European Economic Area/European Free Trade Association (EU/EEA/EFTA) Member States. Methods: An on-line survey was conducted among 31 EU/EEA/EFTA Member States. The survey inquired on the existence of specific HIV testing and counselling recommendations or policies for migrants and/or ethnic minorities and the year of their publication. Additionally, we performed a review of national recommendations, guidelines or any other policy documents retrieved from an Internet search through the different countries’ competent bodies. Results: Twenty-nine (94%) country representatives responded the survey, and 28 documents from 27 countries were identified. National guidelines on HIV testing are heterogeneous and tailored, according to the epidemiological situation. Twenty-two countries identify migrants and four countries identify ethnic minorities as particularly vulnerable to HIV. Sixteen countries explicitly recommend offering an HIV test to migrants/ethnic minorities. Guidelines especially target people originating from HIV endemic countries, and benefits of HIV early detection are highlighted. HIV testing is not mandatory in any country, but some countries overtly facilitate this practice. Conclusion: Benefits of HIV testing in migrants and ethnic minorities, at both individual and community levels are recognized by many countries. In spite of this, not all countries identify the need to test these groups. PMID:23921295

  8. 20 CFR 404.1019 - Work as a member of a uniformed service of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... inducted into (or a retired member of)— (i) One of the armed services (Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps..., Coast Guard, or Air Force Academy, or a midshipman at the United States Naval Academy; (5) You are a member of the Reserve Officers Training Corps, the Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps, or the...

  9. 32 CFR 884.11 - Procedures for return of an Air Force member to the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TRIAL § 884.11 Procedures for return of an Air Force member to the United States. (a) Include the... time of arrival. Except during unusual circumstances, HQ AFLSA/JAJM notifies requesting authorities at...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 208 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State Member Banks: Tier 1 Leverage Measure

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Banks: Tier 1 Leverage Measure B Appendix B to Part 208 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD... RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Pt. 208, App. B Appendix B to Part 208—Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State... state member banks are outlined in Appendix A to this part. b. The guidelines apply to all state...

  11. Evaluation of the implementation of radiation protection measures for aircrew in EU member states.

    PubMed

    Thierfeldt, S; Haider, C; Hans, P; Kaleve, M; Neuenfeldt, F

    2009-10-01

    An evaluation of the implementation of radiation protection measures for aircrew in EU Member States has recently been performed in a study sponsored by the European Commission. A comprehensive database has been gathered using questionnaires for civil aviation authorities, aircraft operators and radiation protection authorities in each country. The study has revealed the following results: all countries within the scope of this study where aircrew might receive annual doses >1 mSv have implemented appropriate legislation. The treatment of limits or constraints (action levels) for annual doses of 1, 6, 20 mSv could be an area where clear guidance by the European Commission might be needed. The way in which doses are determined might also be treated in a more harmonized way in the EU, including the transfer of dose data of freelancers or crew members working for other airlines. The establishment of the European Aviation Safety Agency leads to a gradual shift in responsibilities from the national civil aviation authorities towards this centralised European agency. Currently, however, tracking of doses for aircrew still lies with national bodies.

  12. Governance in Educational Institutions in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García Redondo, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The present study addresses the governance processes governing the organization and management of educational institutions in Portugal, in a context of analysis in which the educational reforms carried out in this country, from the early nineteenth century (when school responsibility is assumed exclusively by the State) to the present, play what…

  13. Measuring the Heavens to Rule the Territory: Filipe Folque and the Teaching of Astronomy at the Lisbon Polytechnic School and the Modernization of the State Apparatus in Nineteenth Century Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carolino, Luís Miguel

    2010-11-01

    This paper focuses on the astronomy teaching at the Lisbon Polytechnic School and its role in building a modern technoscientific state in Portugal during the nineteenth century. It examines particularly the case of Filipe Folque, who taught astronomy and geodesy at the Lisbon Polytechnic from 1837 to 1856, and played a pivotal role in the geodetic survey carried out in the second half of the nineteenth century. As director of the Portuguese Geodetic and Topographical Office, Folque delineated in detail the plan to proceed with the geodetic survey, a plan which involved a significant number of his former students at the Lisbon Polytechnic. Yet, Folque's influence went beyond the geodetic achievement. Folque contributed decisively for shaping the character of astronomy and of the astronomical community in Portugal. In a period in which spherical astronomy raised to the status of an autonomous discipline, Folque became one of the most outstanding proponents of this discipline in Portugal. He conceived a course on spherical astronomy at the Lisbon Polytechnic and published an influential textbook to be adopted as a didactic tool in astronomical classes. By doing so, Folque took active part in a nineteenth century culture of textbooks production, and positively influenced the consolidation and shaping of astronomy as a discipline.

  14. The healthcare system and provision of oral healthcare in European Union member states. Part 4: Greece.

    PubMed

    Damaskinos, P; Koletsi-Kounari, H; Economou, C; Eaton, K A; Widström, E

    2016-03-11

    This paper presents a description of the healthcare system and how oral healthcare is organised and provided in Greece, a country in a deep economic and social crisis. The national health system is underfunded, with severe gaps in staffing levels and the country has a large private healthcare sector. Oral healthcare has been largely provided in the private sector. Most people are struggling to survive and have no money to spend on general and oral healthcare. Unemployment is rising and access to healthcare services is more difficult than ever. Additionally, there has been an overproduction of dentists and no development of team dentistry. This has led to under or unemployment of dentists in Greece and their migration to other European Union member states, such as the United Kingdom, where over 600 Greek dentists are currently working.

  15. Civil aviation rules on crew flight time, flight duty, and rest: comparison of 10 ICAO member states.

    PubMed

    Missoni, Eduard; Nikolić, Nebojsa; Missoni, Ivan

    2009-02-01

    Members of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) use various criteria to control flight crew scheduling and rest periods with the intention of reducing fatigue and thus improving airline safety. Comparison of these rules across nations may allow future harmonization of the criteria. The regulations of 10 ICAO member states were compiled to determine the factors used by each to control scheduling. We identified 12 factors that are used by member states in their regulations; specific nations use 4-7 of these factors. The most frequently used criteria and the number of states using them include Duty Time (N = 8), Crew Augmentation (N = 8), Night Flight (N = 7), Number of Flight Segments (pairs of takeoffs and landings--T/L) (N = 6), Flight Range (N = 6), Flight Time (N = 5), and Number of Crew (N = 5). All 10 states have established limits on Flight Time and/or Duty Time, and 6 have requirements related to Previous Rest and/or Night Sleep. Seven member states undertake regulation of Night Flying, but they vary in defining "night" and the maximum permissible duration of night duty. All states limit flying hours on a monthly and yearly basis, but the specified limits vary. Although the 10 states in this study have common aims and premises for regulating crew duty, their regulations diverge with respect to details, using different tools in an effort to prevent the occurrence of excessive fatigue in aircrew members.

  16. Hip fracture patients' cognitive state affects family members' experiences - a diary study of the hip fracture recovery.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Ann-Marie Rydholm; Strömberg, Lars; Grafström, Margareta; Heikkilä, Kristiina

    2011-09-01

    Many patients with hip fractures suffer from dementia disease, which has shown to affect the outcome of recovery strongly, as well as care and treatment. As most hip fracture patients are discharged home early after surgery, caregiving often falls on family members - spouses, daughters, sons, or even neighbours become informal carers. To explore how hip fracture patients' cognitive state affect family members' experiences during the recovery period. Eleven diaries written by family members' of hip fracture patients were analysed by means of qualitative content analysis. The analysis generated two main categories with four categories. The first main category was; 'Being a family member of a cognitively impaired patient' with the categories 'Dissatisfaction with lack of support' and 'Emotional distress due to the patient's suffering'. The second main category was 'Being a family member of a cognitively intact patient' with the categories 'Satisfaction with a relative's successful recovery' and 'Strain due to their caring responsibilities'. Being a family member of a patient with cognitive impairment and a hip fracture meant being solely responsible for protecting the interests of the patient; in regard to care, rehabilitation and resources. The family members were also burdened with feelings of powerlessness and sadness due to the patients' suffering. On the contrary, family members of cognitively intact hip fracture patients had positive experiences. The family members expressed pleasure from seeing their close ones make progress. However, when the healing process was delayed this led to strain on the family members. The findings suggest the hip fracture patient's cognitive state is more decisive than the hip fracture itself for the family members' experiences. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2010 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  17. Evaluation of retention protocols among members of the American Association of Orthodontists in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Michael C.; Kluemper, George Thomas; Hartsfield, James K.; Fardo, David; Nash, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Little research has been conducted to evaluate protocols and trends in orthodontic retention. The purpose of this study was to identify the general retention protocols used by orthodontists in the United States. Additionally, our goal was to identify trends in these orthodontic retention protocols by evaluating how they have changed over the past 5 years and how they might continue to change in the next 5 years. Methods The study was conducted via a 36-question electronic survey (REDCap, Nashville, Tenn) with branching logic on certain questions. The survey was sent to all 9143 practicing members of the American Association of Orthodontists in the United States, and 1632 (18%) responded. Results and Conclusions Mean retention protocols of the surveyed population showed predominant use of Hawley or vacuum-formed retainers in the maxillary arch and fixed retention in the mandibular arch. For both arches, there is a current shift away from Hawley retainers and toward vacuum-formed retainers and fixed retention. Respondents who extract fewer teeth reported increased use of fixed retention in the maxillary (P = 0.041) and mandibular (P = 0.003) arches. Respondents who extract fewer teeth and use removable retainers were more likely to tell their patients to wear their retainers at night for the rest of their lives (P = 1.63 × 10−6). PMID:21967939

  18. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 208 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State Member Banks: Risk-Based Measure

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State Member Banks: Risk-Based Measure A Appendix A to Part 208 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MEMBERSHIP OF STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS IN THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Pt. 208, App. A Appendix...

  19. Trophic state of Foz de Almargem coastal lagoon (Algarve, South Portugal) based on the water quality and the phytoplankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Susana; Gamito, Sofia; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal variation of water quality and phytoplankton community was studied in Foz de Almargem coastal lagoon in order to evaluate the trophic state of the wetland. This small coastal lagoon has temporary connections to the sea, when the sand barrier is naturally or artificially opened, but for most of the year is isolated receiving just the freshwater input from small rivers. Sampling took place in three stations along a gradient of marine influence from June 2001 to July 2002. During summer and autumn, the water in the lagoon was low, influencing positively water temperature, salinity, total solids in suspension (TSS), orthophosphates, total phosphorus (TP) and pH. In winter and spring, there was an increase of nitrates, nitrites, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and N:P ratio with the raise of water level in the lagoon. Chlorophyll a and phaeo-pigments concentrations were positively related to the previous parameters. Phytoplankton density was low and switching in dominant taxa was observed along time but the community was mainly dominated by Dinophyceae and Bacillariophyceae. Chlorophyceae and Euglenophyceae were related to higher TSS and lower DIN, salinity and TP; Cyanophyceae were stimulated by the opposite conditions. The decrease of water level jointly with the raise of salinity and TP influenced positively pico-nano flagellate algae. Cryptophyceae were positively correlated with the same factors and also TSS. Several trophic state indexes and water quality indicators have been applied and an overall analysis pointed out to a coastal lagoon with mesotrophic characteristics. During the studied period no serious eutrophication events occurred, however there were some situations of nutrient enrichment due to human activities, such as agriculture and non-treated sewage discharges, which might have favoured the development of potentially toxic phytoplankton species, namely Prorocentrum minimum.

  20. Modernising Portugal's Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.

    2008-01-01

    Portugal has a total of 477 public secondary schools. Some date from the end of the 19th century but the majority were built after 1970, reflecting the period of expansion in the school network and the extension of compulsory schooling. The schools are heterogeneous in terms of building types, architectural features and quality. An assessment of…

  1. Modernising Portugal's Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.

    2008-01-01

    Portugal has a total of 477 public secondary schools. Some date from the end of the 19th century but the majority were built after 1970, reflecting the period of expansion in the school network and the extension of compulsory schooling. The schools are heterogeneous in terms of building types, architectural features and quality. An assessment of…

  2. Developing and testing of search filters for the new European Union Member States' research.

    PubMed

    Radut, Dan Silviu; Sanz-Valero, Javier

    2010-09-01

    To develop and apply search filters retrieving the scientific output (SO) after 2000 focusing on Public Health (PH) of the new European Union (EU) Member States after the 2004 and 2007 enlargements. Twelve geographical filters (GFs) were designed and applied to retrieve references added since 2001 in Medline (accessed through PubMed) and originated in the new EU countries. The PH area was accessed using Medical Subject Heading terms. The filters were evaluated through a manual check and the agreement/non-agreement percentages were calculated. A number of 99 912 articles revealing the total SO and 6502 articles focusing on PH were retrieved. More than 66% were published abroad and more than 80% in English. The evaluation revealed an average agreement percentage of 98.97%. The results were compared with those obtained by using simple search strategies. Twelve GFs applied to medline retrieved references belonging to twelve countries for a specific period of time. The evaluation of the GFs through the manual check demonstrated effectiveness of these filters. Complementary studies would be advisable to focus on the development of search filters to retrieve complete and accurate information.

  3. Implementing SDG 15.3 on Land Degradation Neutrality in the EU and EU Member States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunder, Stephanie; Starke, Sue Martina; Frelih-Larsen, Ana; Kaphengst, Timo

    2017-04-01

    The continuing degradation of land and soils is a severe threat to the provision of ecosystem services and economic development. Sustainable use of land and soils are therefore an integral part of the "Agenda 2030" with its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets adopted by the UNGeneral Assembly in September 2015. The SDGs provide new opportunities for an ambitious and integrated environmental policy worldwide and in the EU. Among the many relevant targets that directly or indirectly address soils (such as goals on zero hunger, well being, clean energy, climate change, water and sustainable cities), target 15.3 that aims to achieve "a land degradation-neutral world" by 2030 is the most relevant. The concept of "Land Degradation Neutrality" (LDN) is not only about halting the loss of healthy and fertile land, but also actively reversing degradation by restoring land in order to counterbal-ance losses that cannot be avoided. It is a very ambitious target but due to a lack of balancing mechanisms for degradation and restoration in most countries also a new concept. Land Degra-dation Neutrality therefore both needs a scientific conceptual framework as well as a political debate about its implementation and development of instruments. In the EU and its Member States, this debate can also serve as a catalyst to revive the discussion on a common soil policy in Europe after the withdrawal of the proposal for a soil framework directive in 2014. To analyze options for the implementation of target 15.3 in Germany and Europe the research project "Implementing the Sustainable Development Goals on Soils in Germany" (http://ecologic.eu/12876) is currently carried out by the Ecologic Institute on behalf of the Ger-man Environment Agency (UBA) and the German Federal Environment Ministry (BMUB). The project will run until spring 2017 and the session "European Environmental Policies and Sustainability" at the EGU will be an ideal opportunity to present the final

  4. Active animal health surveillance in European Union Member States: gaps and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Bisdorff, B; Schauer, B; Taylor, N; Rodríguez-Prieto, V; Comin, A; Brouwer, A; Dórea, F; Drewe, J; Hoinville, L; Lindberg, A; Martinez Avilés, M; Martínez-López, B; Peyre, M; Pinto Ferreira, J; Rushton, J; VAN Schaik, G; Stärk, K D C; Staubach, C; Vicente-Rubiano, M; Witteveen, G; Pfeiffer, D; Häsler, B

    2017-03-01

    Animal health surveillance enables the detection and control of animal diseases including zoonoses. Under the EU-FP7 project RISKSUR, a survey was conducted in 11 EU Member States and Switzerland to describe active surveillance components in 2011 managed by the public or private sector and identify gaps and opportunities. Information was collected about hazard, target population, geographical focus, legal obligation, management, surveillance design, risk-based sampling, and multi-hazard surveillance. Two countries were excluded due to incompleteness of data. Most of the 664 components targeted cattle (26·7%), pigs (17·5%) or poultry (16·0%). The most common surveillance objectives were demonstrating freedom from disease (43·8%) and case detection (26·8%). Over half of components applied risk-based sampling (57·1%), but mainly focused on a single population stratum (targeted risk-based) rather than differentiating between risk levels of different strata (stratified risk-based). About a third of components were multi-hazard (37·3%). Both risk-based sampling and multi-hazard surveillance were used more frequently in privately funded components. The study identified several gaps (e.g. lack of systematic documentation, inconsistent application of terminology) and opportunities (e.g. stratified risk-based sampling). The greater flexibility provided by the new EU Animal Health Law means that systematic evaluation of surveillance alternatives will be required to optimize cost-effectiveness.

  5. Why eight EU Member States signed, but not yet ratified the Convention for Human Rights and Biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Goffin, Tom; Borry, Pascal; Dierickx, Kris; Nys, Herman

    2008-05-01

    The European Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine was adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on 19 November 1996 and opened for signature on 4 April 1997. At the moment 21 of the 33 countries that signed the Convention are EU Member States. Signing the Convention implies the obligation to put the Convention before the national Parliament within a reasonable period of time with a view to ratification. Eight of the 21 EU Member States--namely Finland, France, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Poland and Sweden - still have to complete the ratification. In this article the reasons why eight Member States have not yet ratified the Convention, but only signed it, are mapped and analyzed. Because of the concrete list of patient rights provided for in the Convention, we focus on the question whether the reasons for not ratifying are related to these patient rights provisions.

  6. Flora-On: Occurrence data of the vascular flora of mainland Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Júlia; Francisco, Ana; Porto, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The Flora-On dataset currently includes 253,310 occurrence records for the class Embryopsidae (vascular plants), comprising data collated via the platform http://flora-on.pt/ relating to observation records of vascular plants across mainland Portugal. Observations are uploaded directly to the database primarily by experienced botanists and naturalists, typically on a weekly basis, and consist of geo-referenced data points for species (or infraspecific taxa) along with their date of observation and phenological state. The Flora-On project aims to compile and make publicly accessible chorological, ecological, morphological and photographic information for the entire vascular flora of Portugal. The project's website offers powerful query and visualization capabilities, of which we highlight the probabilistic bioclimatic and phenological queries which operate based on the empirical density distributions of species in those variables. Flora-On was created and continues to be maintained by volunteers who are Associate members of Sociedade Portuguesa de Botânica (Botanical Society of Portugal). Given its focus on research-grade and current data, the Flora-On project represents a significant contribution to the knowledge of the present distribution and status of the Portuguese flora.

  7. Flora-On: Occurrence data of the vascular flora of mainland Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ana Júlia; Francisco, Ana; Porto, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Flora-On dataset currently includes 253,310 occurrence records for the class Embryopsidae (vascular plants), comprising data collated via the platform http://flora-on.pt/ relating to observation records of vascular plants across mainland Portugal. Observations are uploaded directly to the database primarily by experienced botanists and naturalists, typically on a weekly basis, and consist of geo-referenced data points for species (or infraspecific taxa) along with their date of observation and phenological state. The Flora-On project aims to compile and make publicly accessible chorological, ecological, morphological and photographic information for the entire vascular flora of Portugal. The project’s website offers powerful query and visualization capabilities, of which we highlight the probabilistic bioclimatic and phenological queries which operate based on the empirical density distributions of species in those variables. Flora-On was created and continues to be maintained by volunteers who are Associate members of Sociedade Portuguesa de Botânica (Botanical Society of Portugal). Given its focus on research-grade and current data, the Flora-On project represents a significant contribution to the knowledge of the present distribution and status of the Portuguese flora. PMID:27698587

  8. HNS-MS : Improving Member States preparedness to face an HNS pollution of the Marine System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Sébastien; Le Floch, Stéphane; Aprin, Laurent; Partenay, Valérie; Donnay, Eric; Parmentier, Koen; Ovidio, Fabrice; Schallier, Ronny; Poncet, Florence; Chataing, Sophie; Poupon, Emmanuelle; Hellouvry, Yann-Hervé

    2017-04-01

    When dealing with a HNS pollution incident, one of the priority requirements is the identification of the hazard and an assessment of the risk posed to the public and responder safety, the environment and socioeconomic assets upon which a state or coastal community depend. The primary factors which determine the safety, environmental and socioeconomic impact of the released substance(s) relate to their physico-chemical properties and fate in the environment. Until now, preparedness actions at various levels have primarily aimed at classifying the general environmental or public health hazard of an HNS, or at performing a risk analysis of HNS transported in European marine regions. Operational datasheets have been (MIDSIS-TROCS) or are being (MAR-CIS) developed collating detailed, substance-specific information for responders and covering information needs at the first stage of an incident. However, contrary to oil pollution preparedness and response tools, only few decision-support tools used by Member State authorities (Coastguard agencies or other) integrate 3D models that are able to simulate the drift, fate and behaviour of HNS spills in the marine environment. When they do, they usually consider simplified or steady-state environmental conditions. As a significant step forward, a 'one-stop shop' integrated HNS decision-support system has been developed in the framework of the HNS-MS project. Focussing on the Bonn Agreement area, the system integrates 1. A database containing the physico-chemical parameters needed to compute the behaviour in the marine environment of 120 relevant HNS; 2. A digital atlas of the HNS environmental and socioeconomic vulnerability maps ; 3. A three dimensional HNS spill drift and fate model able to simulate HNS behaviour in the marine environment (including floaters, sinkers, evaporators and dissolvers). 4. A user-friendly web-based interface allowing Coastguard stations to launch a HNS drift simulation and visualize post

  9. KLIMHIST: A Project on Historical Climatology in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Santos, João A.

    2013-04-01

    Climatic variability from the beginning of regular meteorological observations is now acknowledged. However, climate change prior to 1900 is far from being well known in Portugal, except for the 1675-1800 period in Southern Portugal. An interdisciplinary team is working in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", since May 2012. The main objectives of the project are: (i) to contribute to the creation of a long-term history of climate in Portugal by producing databases of documentary evidence and of instrumental data since 1645, a period of natural climate variability that includes the Maunder Minimum and the Dalton Minimum; (ii) to search systematically for the first simultaneous documentary and instrumental data in order to calibrate the series; (iii) to analyse simulated multi-decadal trends over Portugal generated by climate models; (iv) to compare results with those obtained from dendroclimatology and from geothermal studies regarding Portugal and (v) to study extreme events of the past, their impacts and the vulnerability of societies to weather during the last 350 years, and compare them with current analogues. With these tasks, we expect to help completing the spatial coverage of past European climate, as the data gap over SW Europe is often mentioned. As the team members come from four different Universities in Portugal (Évora, Lisbon, Oporto and UTAD), we expect to obtain a good spatial representation of documentary evidence. Teams are now progressing in data search activities in archives. An Access database frame was constructed. Some 18th century extreme events have been and are being studied (Barbara storm, Dec.1739, among others). The first workshop took place in Lisbon (October 2012): Prof Brázdil and Dr. Domínguez-Castro (two of our consultants) were keynote speakers. Key-words: Climate reconstruction, Documentary

  10. Pre-School Education in Portugal = Educacao Pre-Escolar em Portugal. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Lisbon (Portugal).

    This report, containing both English and Portuguese text, describes the historical background and current state of preschool education systems in Portugal, and presents recommendations on guideline consolidation in the implementation of a common preschool education policy. Part 1 of the report, "Historical Background," discusses the…

  11. New legal requirements for submission of product information to poisons centres in EU member states.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Ronald; Brekelmans, Pieter; Desel, Herbert; de Vries, Irma

    2017-06-23

    In the past eight years, the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT) has been intensively involved in a European Commission led process to develop EU legislation on the information of hazardous products that companies have to notify to EU Poisons Centres (or equivalent "appointed bodies"). As a result of this process, the Commission adopted Regulation (EU) No 2017/542, amending the CLP Regulation by adding an Annex on harmonised product submission requirements. Harmonised mixture information requirements: Detailed and consistent information on the composition of the hazardous product will become available to EU Poisons Centres (PC). The information will be submitted by companies to PCs (or equivalent "appointed bodies") using a web-based software application or in-house software. Two new important features are introduced. Firstly, to be able to rapidly identify the product formula, a Unique Formula Identifier (UFI) on the product label links to the submitted information. Secondly, for better comparability of reports on poisonings between EU member states, a harmonised Product Categorisation System will specify the intended use of a product. Rapid product identification and availability of detailed composition information will lead to timely and adequate medical intervention. This may lead to considerable reduction in healthcare costs. Additionally, for companies trading across the EU, costs of submission of this information will be reduced significantly. Next steps: From 2017, an implementation period has started, consisting of a three-year period for stakeholders to implement the new requirements, followed by a gradual applicability for consumer products (2020), professional products (2021) and industrial use-only products (2024). Technical tools to generate the electronic format and the UFI together with guidance documents are expected to be made available by the end of 2017 by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). Guidance on

  12. A Transport and Lairage Model for Salmonella Transmission Between Pigs Applicable to EU Member States.

    PubMed

    Simons, R R L; Hill, A A; Swart, A; Kelly, L; Snary, E L

    2016-03-01

    A model for the transmission of Salmonella between finisher pigs during transport to the abattoir and subsequent lairage has been developed, including novel factors such as environmental contamination and the effect of stress, and is designed to be adaptable for any EU Member State (MS). The model forms part of a generic farm-to-consumption model for Salmonella in pigs, designed to model potentially important risk factors and assess the effectiveness of interventions. In this article, we discuss the parameterization of the model for two case study MSs. For both MSs, the model predicted an increase in the average MS-level prevalence of Salmonella-positive pigs during both transport and lairage, accounting for a large amount of the variation between reported on-farm prevalence and reported lymph-node prevalence at the slaughterhouse. Sensitivity analysis suggested that stress is the most important factor during transport, while a number of factors, including environmental contamination and the dose-response parameters, are important during lairage. There was wide variation in the model-predicted change in prevalence in individual batches; while the majority of batches (80-90%) had no increase, in some batches the increase in prevalence was over 70% and in some cases infection was introduced into previously uninfected batches of pigs. Thus, the model suggests that while the transport and lairage stages of the farm-to-consumption exposure pathway are unlikely to be responsible for a large increase in average prevalence at the MS level, they can have a large effect on prevalence at an individual-batch level. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Inhalant Allergens in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes Câmara Camacho, Irene

    2017-02-23

    This review aims to present in a simple manner the work performed in Portugal regarding the identification of the most prevalent aeroallergens in the country and the sensitization levels in Portuguese patients. Much of the data was summarized in tables and illustrated on maps, enabling the community of clinicians, researchers, and patient organizations to access the knowledge about the research performed. This study provides an overview about the distribution of aeroallergens in Portugal, signaling regions and critical periods of exposure of the sensitized population. The illustrated data can help the community of allergy specialists to view the temporal and spatial distribution of aeroallergens across the country. In addition, this information can guide clinicians to select the most appropriate allergens for allergy diagnostic testing, treatment, and allergen avoidance.

  14. 32 CFR 884.9 - Requests for custody of members stationed outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... This section implements Pub. L. 100-456, section 721(a), and DoD Directive 5525.9, December 27, 1988... laws of the requesting jurisdiction. (2) Delivery of the member is not required if the controversy...

  15. 32 CFR 720.13 - Request for delivery of members serving sentence of a State court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... military jurisdiction, to try the member by court-martial. The Navy may obtain temporary custody of...-martial. (1) Detainer. If a command requests temporary custody under the Act, the commanding officer of...

  16. 32 CFR 720.13 - Request for delivery of members serving sentence of a State court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... military jurisdiction, to try the member by court-martial. The Navy may obtain temporary custody of...-martial. (1) Detainer. If a command requests temporary custody under the Act, the commanding officer of...

  17. 32 CFR 720.13 - Request for delivery of members serving sentence of a State court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... military jurisdiction, to try the member by court-martial. The Navy may obtain temporary custody of...-martial. (1) Detainer. If a command requests temporary custody under the Act, the commanding officer of...

  18. 32 CFR 720.13 - Request for delivery of members serving sentence of a State court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... military jurisdiction, to try the member by court-martial. The Navy may obtain temporary custody of...-martial. (1) Detainer. If a command requests temporary custody under the Act, the commanding officer of...

  19. Tornadoes in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, Paula

    In Portugal, research on tornadoes is very recent and has shown that they are not as rare as it is believed by public and even by scientific opinion. As tornadoes only affect a small area, the probability of their being observed at a meteorological station is very small. Thus, most of the existing records are people's recollections, some description in newspapers and some photos. It was possible to find data on 30 tornadoes that occurred from 1936 to 2002. This number is undoubtedly underestimated because the database is always under construction. Those tornadoes were moderate to strongly devastating, some of them causing great damage. The strongest tornado in Portugal, a T7 event, happened in November 1954. The less intense tornadoes are, for sure, underestimated. After the year 2000, a more careful look for reports reveals the existence of some weak tornadoes. Tornadoes occur mainly from October to January in association with strong cold fronts or line squalls. Most cases were in association with deep extratropical cyclones west of Portugal, when there was a moist and warm south-west strong to gale-force flow and a generalised severe weather over the country. Some cases happened in a very unstable westerly flow. There are also records on summer tornadoes, developing from strong thunderstorm cells. Often, such thunderstorms are mesoscale convective systems resulting from strong heating of the centre of the Iberian Peninsula.

  20. [State of the art of the French Society for Hand Surgery Internet Websites Members].

    PubMed

    Pereira, A; Hidalgo Diaz, J J; Ichihara, S; Facca, S; Bodin, F; Liverneaux, P

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the websites of the members of the French Society for Hand Surgery, examine the container and the content, and propose a common code of ethics. The census of Websites of the French Society for Hand Surgery Internet members was obtained through a survey questionnaire with 17 items online on the mode of exercise of the surgeon and the website itself. Forty-six out of 568 members of the SFCM responded to the questionnaire: 9 junior members, 6 associate members and 31 full members. A total of 12.5 % had the HONcode certification. They included educational materials for patients in 80.95 % of non-urgent conditions, and 68.42 % of emergency. Answers to questions about attendance and the cost of maintenance of websites were unusable. It would be interesting to create a specific code of ethics for hand surgery, free, certified by the SFCM, in partnership with the High Authority in Health (HAS, in French).

  1. 45 CFR 2550.90 - Are there any restrictions on the activities of the members of State Commissions or Alternative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Are there any restrictions on the activities of the members of State Commissions or Alternative Administrative Entities? 2550.90 Section 2550.90 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND...

  2. 45 CFR 2550.90 - Are there any restrictions on the activities of the members of State Commissions or Alternative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Are there any restrictions on the activities of the members of State Commissions or Alternative Administrative Entities? 2550.90 Section 2550.90 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND...

  3. 45 CFR 2550.90 - Are there any restrictions on the activities of the members of State Commissions or Alternative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Are there any restrictions on the activities of the members of State Commissions or Alternative Administrative Entities? 2550.90 Section 2550.90 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND...

  4. Status and Developments of eLearning in the EU10 Member States: The Cases of Estonia, Hungary and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ala-Mutka, Kirsti; Gaspar, Pal; Kismihok, Gabor; Suurna, Margit; Vehovar, Vasja

    2010-01-01

    This article summarises research carried out between 2006 and 2008 by IPTS (Institution for Prospective Technological Studies) in collaboration with a consortium of experts from 10 member states, led by ICEGEC. The project gathered information on eLearning developments to assess drivers and barriers and to suggest implications for policy and…

  5. State Library Agencies and Member Libraries of the Association of Research Libraries. Final Report of Two Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chobot, Mary C.

    State Library Agencies (SLAs) and library members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) were surveyed to collect data from potential audiences for American Memory products to assist the planners for this Library of Congress (LC) project. This summary report briefly explains the purpose of the surveys; describes the survey methodology and…

  6. 12 CFR 225.121 - Acquisition of Edge corporation affiliate by State member banks of registered bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acquisition of Edge corporation affiliate by... Acquisition of Edge corporation affiliate by State member banks of registered bank holding company. (a) The... of the holding company's Edge corporation subsidiary organized under section 25(a) of the Federal...

  7. 12 CFR 225.121 - Acquisition of Edge corporation affiliate by State member banks of registered bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acquisition of Edge corporation affiliate by... § 225.121 Acquisition of Edge corporation affiliate by State member banks of registered bank holding... hold the shares of the holding company's Edge corporation subsidiary organized under section 25(a) of...

  8. 12 CFR 225.121 - Acquisition of Edge corporation affiliate by State member banks of registered bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acquisition of Edge corporation affiliate by... § 225.121 Acquisition of Edge corporation affiliate by State member banks of registered bank holding... hold the shares of the holding company's Edge corporation subsidiary organized under section 25(a) of...

  9. Opportunities to Learn about Europe at School. A Comparative Analysis among European Adolescents in 21 European Member States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhaegen, Soetkin; Hooghe, Marc; Meeusen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the relationship between different learning methods and the formation of European identity among adolescents. The analysis is based on the European module of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (2009), with 70,502 respondents in 21 European member states. The results show that offering…

  10. Sport for All? Insight into Stratification and Compensation Mechanisms of Sporting Activity in the 27 European Union Member States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Tuyckom, Charlotte; Scheerder, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is an important public health issue and the benefits of an active lifestyle in relation to well-being and health have been strongly emphasised in recent years in Europe, as well as in most parts of the world. However, previous research has shown that physical activity within Europe and its member states is stratified. The present…

  11. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 208 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State Member Banks: Tier 1 Leverage Measure

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... critically undercapitalized under prompt corrective action (12 CFR 208.43(b)(1)); and (ii) Reclassifying a... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State Member Banks: Tier 1 Leverage Measure B Appendix B to Part 208 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...

  12. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 225 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Bank Holding Companies and State Member Banks: Leverage Measure

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of Mandatory Convertible Securities a. The securities must mature in 12 years or less. b. The issuer... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Bank Holding Companies and State Member Banks: Leverage Measure B Appendix B to Part 225 Banks and Banking...

  13. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 208 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State Member Banks: Tier 1 Leverage Measure

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... critically undercapitalized under prompt corrective action (12 CFR 208.43(b)(1)); and (ii) Reclassifying a... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State Member Banks: Tier 1 Leverage Measure B Appendix B to Part 208 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...

  14. 12 CFR 208.34 - Recordkeeping and confirmation of certain securities transactions effected by State member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... three calendar year period, exclusive of transactions in government securities; (ii) Government... effecting fewer than 500 government securities brokerage transactions per year; provided that this exception shall not apply to government securities transactions by a State member bank that has filed a written...

  15. Sport for All? Insight into Stratification and Compensation Mechanisms of Sporting Activity in the 27 European Union Member States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Tuyckom, Charlotte; Scheerder, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is an important public health issue and the benefits of an active lifestyle in relation to well-being and health have been strongly emphasised in recent years in Europe, as well as in most parts of the world. However, previous research has shown that physical activity within Europe and its member states is stratified. The present…

  16. School District Cabinet Member Task and Relationship Conflict Behavior during Budget Development in a State Fiscal Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, John

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. The first purpose of this study was to determine to what extent task and relationship conflict occurred in school district cabinets during budget development in a state budget crisis. The second purpose was to determine which cabinet member task and relationship conflict behaviors were demonstrated during budget development in a state…

  17. 12 CFR 225.121 - Acquisition of Edge corporation affiliate by State member banks of registered bank holding company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acquisition of Edge corporation affiliate by State member banks of registered bank holding company. 225.121 Section 225.121 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND...

  18. The In-Service Training of Teachers in the Twelve Member States of the European Community. Education Policy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, V.; Moisan, C.

    Improvement in the quality of education is a concern shared by all the Member States of the European Community. The in-service training of teachers is a critical factor in the pursuit of this objective. Increasingly rapid changes in society (economic, technological, social, and cultural) mean that teachers are constantly faced with new syllabuses…

  19. CFL Labeling Harmonization in the United States, China, Brazil andELI Member Countries: Specifications, Testing, and MutualRecognition

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Denver, Andrea; Biermayer, Peter; Dillavou, Tyler

    2005-07-20

    This report examines critical differences among energy-efficient labeling programs for CFLs in Brazil, China, the United States, and the seven members of the international Efficient Lighting Initiative (ELI) in terms of technical specifications and test procedures, and review issues related to international harmonization of these standards.

  20. 12 CFR 250.166 - Treatment of mandatory convertible debt and subordinated notes of state member banks and bank...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 5 While such terms may be acceptable in perpetual preferred stock qualifying as Tier 2 capital, it... may qualify as Tier 2 capital so long as these terms: (1) have been commonly used by banking... notes of state member banks and bank holding companies as “capital”. (a) General. Under the Board's...

  1. Current state of genomic policies in healthcare among EU member states: results of a survey of chief medical officers.

    PubMed

    Mazzucco, W; Pastorino, R; Lagerberg, T; Colotto, M; d'Andrea, E; Marotta, C; Marzuillo, C; Villari, P; Federici, A; Ricciardi, W; Boccia, S

    2017-10-01

    A need for a governance of genomics in healthcare among European Union (EU) countries arose during an international meeting of experts on public health genomics (PHG). We have conducted a survey on existing national genomic policies in healthcare among Chief Medical Officers (CMOs) of the 28 EU member states, plus Norway. A questionnaire was sent to CMOs after a meeting on the policy implications of PHG held during the Italian presidency of the Council of EU in 2014. The survey was closed in November 2015. CMOs response rate was 65.5% (19/29). Twelve (63.2%) reported that their countries had a policy for genomics in healthcare in place, and 15 (78.9%) reported that public funding existed. Public research facilities for the development of such policies were documented in 13 (68.4%) countries, and 15 (83.3%) had working groups devoted to policy development. National agencies carrying out Health Technology Assessment of genomic-based technologies were present in nine countries (50%). Sixteen (88.9%) countries reported having agencies dealing with ethical issues related to genomic technologies. About 55% of countries disclosed the lack of information campaigns aimed at citizens, and 44.4% reported they had a legal framework for direct-to-consumer genetic tests. Belgium, France, Italy, Spain and UK documented the presence of a policy on genomics in healthcare. While many caveats are necessary because of the methodology, results suggest a need for a co-ordinated effort to foster development and harmonization of dedicated policies across EU to responsibly integrate genomics policies into existing health systems.

  2. HNS-MS : Improving Member States preparedness to face an HNS pollution of the Marine System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Sebastien; Le Floch, Stéphane; Aprin, Laurent; Parthenay, Valérie; Donnay, Eric; Parmentier, Koen; Ovidio, Fabrice; Schallier, Ronny; Poncet, Florence; Chataing, Sophie; Poupon, Emmanuelle; Hellouvry, Yann-Hervé

    2016-04-01

    When dealing with a HNS pollution incident, one of the priority requirements is the identification of the hazard and an assessment of the risk posed to the public and responder safety, the environment and socioeconomic assets upon which a state or coastal community depend. The primary factors which determine the safety, environmental and socioeconomic impact of the released substance(s) relate to their physico-chemical properties and fate in the environment. Until now, preparedness actions at various levels have primarily aimed at classifying the general environmental or public health hazard of an HNS, or at performing a risk analysis of HNS transported in European marine regions. Operational datasheets have been (MIDSIS-TROCS) or are being (MAR-CIS) developed collating detailed, substance-specific information for responders and covering information needs at the first stage of an incident. However, contrary to oil pollution preparedness and response tools, only few decision-support tools used by Member State authorities (Coastguard agencies or other) integrate 3D models that are able to simulate the drift, fate and behaviour of HNS spills in the marine environment. When they do, they usually consider simplified or steady-state environmental conditions. Moreover, the above-mentioned available HNS information is currently not sufficiently detailed or not suitably classified to be used as an input for an advanced HNS support decision tool. HNS-MS aims at developing a 'one-stop shop' integrated HNS decision-support tool that is able to predict the drift, behaviour and Fate of HNS spills under realistic environmental conditions and at providing key product information - drawing upon and in complement to existing studies and databases - to improve the understanding and evaluation of a HNS spill situation in the field and the environmental and safety-related issues at stake. The 3D HNS drift and fate model and decision-support tool will also be useful at the preparedness

  3. Deciding when physicians are unfit to practise: an analysis of responsibilities, policy and practice in 11 European Union member states.

    PubMed

    Struckmann, Verena; Panteli, Dimitra; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Risso-Gill, Isabelle; McKee, Martin; Busse, Reinhard

    2015-08-01

    In 1974, the European Economic Community established mutual recognition of medical qualifications obtained in any of its member states. Subsequently, a series of directives has elaborated on the initial provisions, with the most recent enacted in 2013. However, greater movement of physicians across borders and some high-profile scandals have raised questions about how to prevent a physician sanctioned in one country from simply moving to another, without undermining the principle of free movement. A survey of key informants in 11 European Union (EU) member states was supplemented by a review of peer-reviewed and grey literature, with the results validated by independent reviewers. It examined processes, adjudicative and disciplinary measures that are in place to evaluate physicians about whom concerns arise, and related sanctions, along with other aspects of professional standards and regulation. Overall, responses varied greatly between participating countries, with respect to the institutions responsible for the regulation of medical professions, the investigation processes in place, and the terminology used in each member state. While the types of sanction (removal from the register of medical professionals and/or licence revocation, suspension, dismissal, reprimand, warnings, fines, as well as additional education and training) applied are similar, both the roles of the individuals involved and the level of public disclosure of information vary considerably. However, some key features, such as the involvement of professional peers in disciplinary panels and the involvement of courts in criminal cases, are similar in most member states studied. Given the variation in the regulatory context, individuals and processes involved that is illustrated by our findings, a common understanding of definitions of what constitutes competence to practise, its impairment and its potential impact on patient safety becomes particularly important. Public disclosure of

  4. Cross-border healthcare directive: Assessing stakeholders' perspectives in Poland and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Helena, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    Within the context of the EU, a succession of rulings from the European Court of Justice addressed the gap of specific healthcare legislation. These rulings shook the member states assumption of health provision autonomy and led the European Commission to produce a specific directive concerning cross-border healthcare. In spite of different viewpoints of member states, including Poland and Portugal, the directive was approved and expected to be implemented by October 2013. The objective of this study was to analyse stakeholders' perspective towards the directive, unveiling the factors that supported a different viewpoint, and to identify challenges and assess the expected impact associated with the directive implementation on Poland and Portugal, using the WHO health systems conceptual framework. Information was collected through a literature review, identifying potential stakeholders. Primary qualitative analysis was conducted through the dissemination of open-ended questionnaires. Content and critical analysis was performed considering the available literature intertwined with the WHO health systems conceptual framework. The directive appears to be positive regarding patient rights, increased transparency, and potential to set new information technologies and healthcare networks. However, it also seems to potentially generate access inequalities between home and foreign patients, and increase healthcare costs due to the short-term investments needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 32 CFR 720.21 - Members or civilian employees subpoenaed as witnesses in State courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL; SERVICE OF PROCESS AND SUBPOENAS; PRODUCTION OF OFFICIAL RECORDS Service of Process and Subpoenas Upon Personnel § 720.21 Members or civilian employees... should immediately contact the Judge Advocate General, or the Associate General Counsel (Litigation), as...

  6. State-of-the-Art of Fast Pyrolysis in IEA Bioenergy Member Countries

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Dietrich; van de Beld, Bert; Bridgwater, Anthony V.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Oasmaa, Anja; Preto, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass is becoming increasingly important in some member countries of the International Energy Agency(IEA). Six countries have joined the IEA Task 34 of the Bioenergy Activity: Canada, Finland, Germany, Netherlands, UK, and USA. The National Task Leaders give an overview of the current activities in their countries both on research, pilot and demonstration level.

  7. Hairdresser and Beautician Training in the EU Member States. European Report. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni Cheallaigh, Martina

    This document contains information on the vocational education and training available in each of 11 European Community (EC) member countries to individuals preparing for employment as hairdressers and beauticians. The information presented was gathered from relevant national bodies in 11 EC countries (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece,…

  8. 77 FR 23539 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding European Communities and Certain Member States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... the meaning of Articles 1 and 2 of the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (``SCM... obligations under the SCM Agreement. On December 1, 2011, the EU transmitted a document (``EU Notification... resolve the dispute. Article 7.8 of the SCM Agreement provides that a Member found to maintain...

  9. Phytoplankton Bloom Off Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Turquoise and greenish swirls marked the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom off the coast of Portugal on April 23, 2002. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. There are also several fires burning in northwest Spain, near the port city of A Coruna. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of this scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapidfire site.

  10. Phytoplankton Bloom Off Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Turquoise and greenish swirls marked the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom off the coast of Portugal on April 23, 2002. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. There are also several fires burning in northwest Spain, near the port city of A Coruna. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of this scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapidfire site.

  11. 34 CFR 403.188 - What is a State's responsibility for the cost of services and activities for members of special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... services and activities for members of special populations? 403.188 Section 403.188 Education Regulations... activities for members of special populations? A State is not required to use non-Federal funds to pay the cost of services and activities that it provides to members of special populations pursuant to § 403.32...

  12. 34 CFR 403.188 - What is a State's responsibility for the cost of services and activities for members of special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... services and activities for members of special populations? 403.188 Section 403.188 Education Regulations... activities for members of special populations? A State is not required to use non-Federal funds to pay the cost of services and activities that it provides to members of special populations pursuant to § 403.32...

  13. 34 CFR 403.188 - What is a State's responsibility for the cost of services and activities for members of special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... services and activities for members of special populations? 403.188 Section 403.188 Education Regulations... activities for members of special populations? A State is not required to use non-Federal funds to pay the cost of services and activities that it provides to members of special populations pursuant to § 403.32...

  14. 34 CFR 403.188 - What is a State's responsibility for the cost of services and activities for members of special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... services and activities for members of special populations? 403.188 Section 403.188 Education Regulations... activities for members of special populations? A State is not required to use non-Federal funds to pay the cost of services and activities that it provides to members of special populations pursuant to § 403.32...

  15. 34 CFR 403.188 - What is a State's responsibility for the cost of services and activities for members of special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... services and activities for members of special populations? 403.188 Section 403.188 Education Regulations... activities for members of special populations? A State is not required to use non-Federal funds to pay the cost of services and activities that it provides to members of special populations pursuant to § 403.32...

  16. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(1)-1 - Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of... members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat zone or while hospitalized as a result of such service. Remuneration paid for active service as a member of the Armed Forces...

  17. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(1)-1 - Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of... members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat zone or while hospitalized as a result of such service. Remuneration paid for active service as a member of the Armed Forces...

  18. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(1)-1 - Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of... members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat zone or while hospitalized as a result of such service. Remuneration paid for active service as a member of the Armed Forces...

  19. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(1)-1 - Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of... members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat zone or while hospitalized as a result of such service. Remuneration paid for active service as a member of the Armed Forces...

  20. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(1)-1 - Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of... members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat zone or while hospitalized as a result of such service. Remuneration paid for active service as a member of the Armed Forces...

  1. 32 CFR 1630.12 - Class 1-C: Member of the Armed Forces of the United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... States Navy, the United States Marine Corps, the Air Force of the United States, or the United States... United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the Public Health Service. 1630.12... CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.12 Class 1-C: Member of the Armed Forces of the United States, the National Oceanic...

  2. 32 CFR 1630.12 - Class 1-C: Member of the Armed Forces of the United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... States Navy, the United States Marine Corps, the Air Force of the United States, or the United States... United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the Public Health Service. 1630.12... CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.12 Class 1-C: Member of the Armed Forces of the United States, the National Oceanic...

  3. Assessment of collection schemes for packaging and other recyclable waste in European Union-28 Member States and capital cities.

    PubMed

    Seyring, Nicole; Dollhofer, Marie; Weißenbacher, Jakob; Bakas, Ioannis; McKinnon, David

    2016-09-01

    The Waste Framework Directive obliged European Union Member States to set up separate collection systems to promote high quality recycling for at least paper, metal, plastic and glass by 2015. As implementation of the requirement varies across European Union Member States, the European Commission contracted BiPRO GmbH/Copenhagen Resource Institute to assess the separate collection schemes in the 28 European Union Member States, focusing on capital cities and on metal, plastic, glass (with packaging as the main source), paper/cardboard and bio-waste. The study includes an assessment of the legal framework for, and the practical implementation of, collection systems in the European Union-28 Member States and an in depth-analysis of systems applied in all capital cities. It covers collection systems that collect one or more of the five waste streams separately from residual waste/mixed municipal waste at source (including strict separation, co-mingled systems, door-to-door, bring-point collection and civic amenity sites). A scoreboard including 13 indicators is elaborated in order to measure the performance of the systems with the capture rates as key indicators to identify best performers. Best performance are by the cities of Ljubljana, Helsinki and Tallinn, leading to the key conclusion that door-to-door collection, at least for paper and bio-waste, and the implementation of pay-as-you-throw schemes results in high capture and thus high recycling rates of packaging and other municipal waste. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Familial hypercholesterolaemia in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Bourbon, M; Alves, A C; Medeiros, A M; Silva, S; Soutar, A K

    2008-02-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is characterised clinically by an increased level of circulating LDL cholesterol that leads to lipid accumulation in tendons and arteries, premature atherosclerosis and increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Although Portugal should have about 20,000 cases, this disease is severely under-diagnosed in our country, this being the first presentation of Portuguese data on FH. A total of 602 blood samples were collected from 184 index patients and 418 relatives from several centres throughout Portugal. Fifty-three different mutations were found in 83 index patients, 79 heterozygous and 4 with two defective LDLR alleles. Additionally, 4 putative alterations were found in 8 patients but were not considered mutations causing disease, mainly because they did not co-segregate with hypercholesterolaemia in the families. Three unrelated patients were found to be heterozygous for the APOB(3500) mutation and two unrelated patients were found to be heterozygous for a novel mutation in PCSK9, predicted to cause a single amino acid substitution, D374H. Cascade screening increased the number of FH patients identified genetically to 204. The newly identified FH patients are now receiving counselling and treatment based on the genetic diagnosis. The early identification of FH patients can increase their life expectancy and quality of life by preventing the development of premature CHD if patients receive appropriate pharmacological treatment.

  5. The healthcare system and the provision of oral healthcare in European Union member states: Part 5: Romania.

    PubMed

    Oancea, R; Amariei, C; Eaton, K A; Widström, E

    2016-04-01

    Romania is one of the newest member states of the European Union (EU). It has 13 dental schools, 14,841 dentists and 2,935 dental technicians providing oral health care for a population, at 31 December 2014, of 21.3 million. The shift from a communist system to a democratic or capitalist society has contributed to an enormous change in the proportion of public and private sector oral health services. The lack of public funds during the post-communist years has contributed to a dependency on private oral healthcare rather than the government financed public provision. Affordability and social awareness have together established a mixed economy for oral health care costs and oral healthcare is growing slowly compared with other developed EU member states. At the same time, there has been overproduction of new dentists (currently 1500 graduate annually). This has led to un and under-employment and emigration of dentists to other EU member states. This paper explains the current oral healthcare system in Romania and changes in recent years.

  6. Building Public Governing Board Capacity through State-Level Education Programs for College and University Board Members. State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2013

    2013-01-01

    State policymakers and the public at large have a vested interest in the successful governance of their higher education system. The citizens who are appointed or elected to serve as trustees and regents of the state's colleges and universities oversee valuable public assets that they hold in trust for the state and current and future…

  7. Building Public Governing Board Capacity through State-Level Education Programs for College and University Board Members. State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2013

    2013-01-01

    State policymakers and the public at large have a vested interest in the successful governance of their higher education system. The citizens who are appointed or elected to serve as trustees and regents of the state's colleges and universities oversee valuable public assets that they hold in trust for the state and current and future…

  8. Men and family planning in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vicente, A

    1993-10-01

    Although family planning services in Portugal are open to everybody, male and female, and they are free of charge, it is mostly women who are using the services, since family planning services have integrated maternal health care. Between 1978 and 1981, the Commission for the Portuguese Commission for Equality and Women's Rights implemented a family planning information, education, and communication project under technical and financial aid by the United Nations Population Fund. During a training course for a group of 12 women, which took place in the small town Vialonga near Lisbon in 1992, all women said that their husbands did not play any role in family planning. The choice of the method was their sole responsibility. In 1988, data were gathered by the General Direction of Primary Health Care from the local health services. 17.6% of women used the pill, and 28% practiced coitus interruptus. Condom use amounted to 5.7%. Other methods were the IUD (7.3%), natural methods (3.6%), spermicides (2.6%), the diaphragm (0.3%), and sterilization (female 3.6%; male 0.3%). In 1992, the Commission published a study on family planning, involving 638 men and 882 women, which concluded that the responsibility for family planning was no longer exclusively with women and that young, single people were in favor of family planning information sessions. The Portuguese Constitution states that the state shall promote a wider knowledge of family planning methods and responsible parenthood. The Health Secretary of State ordered the integration of family planning into the National Health Service in 1976. A 1984 law, Sex Education and Family Planning, and a 1985 Government Order constitute the legal framework for the practice of family planning. The Commission for Equality and Women's Rights has been implementing information, education, and communication activities since 1976. One of the members of the Consultative Council is the Association for Family Planning, which has also been

  9. Mutatis Mutandis? The Court of Justice of the European Union Rules that Member States May Be Allowed to Impose Non-Resident Student Quotas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this month, the Court of Justice of the European Union (the Court), ruled that European Union (EU) member states can impose non-resident student quotas in certain circumstances. The Court, whose job is to ensure that all EU member states interpret and apply EU legislation in the same way, recently made the ruling in response to a…

  10. Mutatis Mutandis? The Court of Justice of the European Union Rules that Member States May Be Allowed to Impose Non-Resident Student Quotas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this month, the Court of Justice of the European Union (the Court), ruled that European Union (EU) member states can impose non-resident student quotas in certain circumstances. The Court, whose job is to ensure that all EU member states interpret and apply EU legislation in the same way, recently made the ruling in response to a…

  11. School Board Member Practices in Governance, Teamwork and Board Development, and Their Sense of Effectiveness in High and Low Math Academic Achievement Districts of New York State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Kyrie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among New York State school board member attitudes toward components of school board governance and their sense of effectiveness in high and low math academic achievement districts in New York State. The study examined board members' perceptions of their actual practices in policy…

  12. School Board Member Practices in Governance, Teamwork and Board Development, and Their Sense of Effectiveness in High and Low Math Academic Achievement Districts of New York State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Kyrie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among New York State school board member attitudes toward components of school board governance and their sense of effectiveness in high and low math academic achievement districts in New York State. The study examined board members' perceptions of their actual practices in policy…

  13. 26 CFR 1.692-1 - Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces of the United States upon death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the Armed Forces of the United States upon death. 1.692-1 Section 1.692-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Income in Respect of Decedents § 1.692-1 Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces... active service as a member of the Armed Forces of the United States, and (ii) His death occurs while...

  14. 26 CFR 1.692-1 - Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces of the United States upon death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the Armed Forces of the United States upon death. 1.692-1 Section 1.692-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Income in Respect of Decedents § 1.692-1 Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces... active service as a member of the Armed Forces of the United States, and (ii) His death occurs while...

  15. 26 CFR 1.692-1 - Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces of the United States upon death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Armed Forces of the United States upon death. 1.692-1 Section 1.692-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Respect of Decedents § 1.692-1 Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces of the... as a member of the Armed Forces of the United States, and (ii) His death occurs while he is...

  16. 26 CFR 1.692-1 - Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces of the United States upon death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the Armed Forces of the United States upon death. 1.692-1 Section 1.692-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Income in Respect of Decedents § 1.692-1 Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces... active service as a member of the Armed Forces of the United States, and (ii) His death occurs while...

  17. 26 CFR 1.692-1 - Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces of the United States upon death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the Armed Forces of the United States upon death. 1.692-1 Section 1.692-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Income in Respect of Decedents § 1.692-1 Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces... active service as a member of the Armed Forces of the United States, and (ii) His death occurs while...

  18. Policy challenges and reforms in small EU member state health systems: a narrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Azzopardi-Muscat, Natasha; Funk, Tjede; Buttigieg, Sandra C; Grech, Kenneth E; Brand, Helmut

    2016-12-01

    The EU directive on patients' rights and cross-border care is of particular interest to small states as it reinforces the concept of health system cooperation. An analysis of the challenges faced by small states, as well as a deep evaluation of their health system reform characteristics is timely and justified. This paper identifies areas in which EU level cooperation may bring added value to these countries' health systems. Literature search is based primarily on PUBMED and is limited to English-language papers published between January 2000 and September 2014. Results of 76 original research papers appearing in peer-reviewed journals are summarised in a literature map and narrative review. Primary care, health workforce and medicines emerge as the salient themes in the review. Lack of capacity and small market size are found to be the frequently encountered challenges in governance and delivery of services. These constraints appear to also impinge on the ability of small states to effectively implement health system reforms. The EU appears to play a marginal role in supporting small state health systems, albeit the stimulus for reform associated with EU accession. Small states face common health system challenges which could potentially be addressed through enhanced health system cooperation at EU level. The lessons learned from research on small states may be of relevance to health systems organized at regional level in larger European states. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing the quality of corporate social responsibility reports: the case of reporting practices in selected European Union member states.

    PubMed

    Hąbek, Patrycja; Wolniak, Radosław

    The organization may communicate its engagement in sustainability and may presents results achieved in this field by creating and publishing corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports. Today, we can observe a growing number of companies issuing such reports as a part of their annual reports or as stand-alone CSR reports. Despite the increase in the number of such reports their quality is different. CSR reports do not always provide complete data that readers desire, which in turn intensifies the problem with the evaluation and comparison of the organization's results achieved in this scope. Differences also occur between reporting models used in different EU countries caused by, inter alia, differently applied EU legislation on the disclosure of non-financial information in different Member States. This paper is one of the first attempts to perform a quantitative and qualitative analysis of corporate sustainability reporting practices in several European Union countries. The purpose of this article is to present the current state of CSR reporting practices in selected EU Member States and identify the differences in the quality and level of this kind of practices, taking into account the mandatory and voluntary model of disclosure. The study included separate CSR reports as well as annual reports with CSR sections and integrated reports published in 2012 in six selected EU Member States. The authors have used a specific evaluation tool in the examination of the individual reports. The assessment questionnaire consists of seventeen criteria grouped into two categories (relevance and credibility of information). In order to assess the quality of examined reports, the authors aggregated the indicators related with the reporting practices. The findings show that the quality level of the studied reports is generally low. Referring to its components, the relevance of the information provided in the assessed reports is at the higher level than its credibility. The

  20. Early Childhood Education in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasconcelos, Teresa

    This booklet provides an overview of the policy and status of early childhood education in Portugal and includes the text of Law 5/97, the Framework Law for Pre-School Education, as well as the Curriculum Guidelines for Pre-School Education adopted by Portugal's government. Two of Law 5/97's nine main goals are: (1) to promote the child's personal…

  1. Injuries and injury risk factors among members of the United States Army Band.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J; Jones, Sarah B; Darakjy, Salima; Hauret, Keith G; Nevin, Remington; Grier, Tyson; Jones, Bruce H

    2007-12-01

    This project documented injuries in the professional musical performers of the US Army Band and used a multivariate approach to determine injury risk factors. Injuries were obtained from a medical surveillance database. Administrative records from the Band provided fitness test scores, physical characteristics, performing unit (Blues, Ceremonial, Chorale, Chorus, Concert, Strings), and functional group (strings, winds, keyboard, vocal, percussion, brass). A questionnaire completed by 95% of the Band (n=205) included queries on practice time, physical activity, tobacco use, and medical care. One or more injuries were diagnosed in 44 and 53% of Band members in the years 2004 and 2005, respectively. In univariate analysis, higher injury risk was associated with higher body mass index (BMI), less physical activity, prior injury, unit, functional group, and practice duration. In multivariate analysis, less self-rated physical activity, a prior injury, and functional group were independent risk factors. In the US Army Band, about half the performers had a medical visit for an injury in a 1-year period and injury risk was associated with identifiable factors.

  2. Ladies & Gentlemen, Girls & Boys, Grandparents & Community Members: Welcome to the Wowan State Primary School Theatre Restaurant!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exley, Beryl

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the teaching staff from the Central Queensland school of Wowan State Primary School have been responding to recently released Education Queensland initiatives or whole school literacy planning, "Literate Futures: Reading" (Education Queensland, 2002), and a framework for pedagogical reform, "Productive…

  3. Associate "Members of the Club" Speak Out: Individual Response to a State or Regional Association Presidency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Joy

    1997-01-01

    People who were president of a state or regional library association from 1985 through 1994 were surveyed. Issues of gender and ethnicity are explored as well as the forms of support available from associations, employers, and families. Recommendations focus on the ways in which individuals can better prepare themselves for a presidential role,…

  4. Ladies & Gentlemen, Girls & Boys, Grandparents & Community Members: Welcome to the Wowan State Primary School Theatre Restaurant!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exley, Beryl

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the teaching staff from the Central Queensland school of Wowan State Primary School have been responding to recently released Education Queensland initiatives or whole school literacy planning, "Literate Futures: Reading" (Education Queensland, 2002), and a framework for pedagogical reform, "Productive…

  5. 32 CFR 720.13 - Request for delivery of members serving sentence of a State court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... request before the request is to be honored. Within that period of time, the governor of the State may... receiving jurisdiction: (i) Commence the prisoner's trial within 120 days of the prisoner's arrival, unless... prisoner to the sending jurisdiction at the earliest practical time, but not before the charges that...

  6. Discrepancies in cancer incidence and mortality and its relationship to health expenditure in the 27 European Union member states.

    PubMed

    Ades, F; Senterre, C; de Azambuja, E; Sullivan, R; Popescu, R; Parent, F; Piccart, M

    2013-11-01

    The European Union (EU) is a confederation of 27 member states, the institutions of which work according to negotiated decisions. The EU has implemented similar legislation and a common market, and has adopted the same currency in most of its member states. Although financing health systems is a responsibility of the national governments, the EU has enacted the Charter of Fundamental Rights to standardize public health policies. However, for historical reasons, health policy and health expenditure is not uniform across the 27 EU member states (EU-27). We hypothesized that increased health expenditure would be associated with better cancer outcome and that this would be most apparent in breast cancer, because of the availability of effective screening methods and treatments. Using publically available data from the World Health Organization, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank, we assessed associations between cancer indicators and wealth and health indicators. To do so, we constructed scatter plots and used the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. A marked difference in wealth and health expenditure indicators was observed between Eastern and Western European countries, with Western European being the higher. Higher wealth and higher health expenditures were associated both with increased cancer incidence and decreased cancer mortality. In breast cancer, the association with incidence was stronger. We created mortality/incidence ratios and observed that the more spent on health, the fewer the deaths after a cancer diagnosis. Despite the initiatives to standardize public health policies of the EU-27, health expenditure continues to be higher in Western European countries and this is associated with better cancer outcome in these countries.

  7. Communication about family members' risk of melanoma: self-reported practices of dermatologists in the United States.

    PubMed

    Oliveria, Susan A; Heneghan, Maureen K; Halpern, Allan C; Hay, Jennifer L; Geller, Alan C

    2012-05-01

    To assess current self-reported communication and screening practices of dermatologists to their patients with melanoma about family members' risk of melanoma at the time of diagnosis and to understand the barriers that dermatologists encounter in communicating risk to patients. Descriptive survey study. Office-based practicing physicians in the United States. One thousand dermatologists. Melanoma risk communication practices. Of 974 eligible dermatologists, 406 completed the survey (response rate, 41.7%). Almost 85% of dermatologists reported that they often or always communicate risk to patients with melanoma about their first-degree relatives, and almost 80% reported that they often or always advise their patients with melanoma that their older children (18 years) may be at greater risk of skin cancer. However, less than 50% of dermatologists routinely offered to screen first-degree relatives who live nearby, while only 19.7% used medical record reminders to note communication of melanoma risk to family members. Most dermatologists reported no major barriers to melanoma risk communication. However, the presence of "any risk communication barrier" (time constraints, absence of guidelines, or lack of written material) was associated with reduced melanoma risk communication practices by dermatologists. The observed high rates of self-reported risk communication by dermatologists to patients with melanoma about their first-degree family members are encouraging. However, the reported low rates of actual screening of first-degree relatives warrant easy-to-administer office-based medical record reminders to facilitate and optimize screening of at-risk relatives.

  8. Racial differences in the incidence of acute low back pain in United States military service members.

    PubMed

    Knox, Jeffrey B; Orchowski, Joseph R; Owens, Brett

    2012-09-01

    An epidemiological study. To determine the effect of race on the incidence of acute low back pain, resulting in a health care encounter in active duty military service members. Although racial differences in the incidence of low back pain have been documented in previous studies, currently no consensus exists on the relative risk between these groups. A query was performed using the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center database for the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code for low back pain (724.20). A total of 12,399,276 person-years of data were analyzed and stratified by age, race, and sex. Incidence rates were calculated and compared using the multivariate Poisson regression analysis. A total of 467,950 cases of low back pain resulted in a visit to a health care provider in our population, with an overall incidence rate of 37.74 per 1000 person-years. Asians/Pacific Islanders had the lowest incidence rate of 30.7 and blacks had the highest with 43.7. Female sex and older age were also significant risk factors but with significantly different effect sizes between racial groups. Native Americans/Alaskan Natives demonstrated the greatest effect of age on low back pain incidence rates, with a 126% increase between the youngest and oldest age groups compared with a 36% difference in whites. Race, sex, and age were all found to be significant risk factors for acute low back pain. The highest rates were identified in blacks followed by whites, Hispanics, and American Indian/Alaskan Native, and the lowest rates were identified in Asians/Pacific Islanders. Significant differences in the effect of sex and age were identified between the different racial groups.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus colonization of healthy military service members in the United States and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus [methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible (MRSA/MSSA)] is a leading cause of infections in military personnel, but there are limited data regarding baseline colonization of individuals while deployed. We conducted a pilot study to screen non-deployed and deployed healthy military service members for MRSA/MSSA colonization at various anatomic sites and assessed isolates for molecular differences. Methods Colonization point-prevalence of 101 military personnel in the US and 100 in Afghanistan was determined by swabbing 7 anatomic sites. US-based individuals had received no antibiotics within 30 days, and Afghanistan-deployed personnel were taking doxycycline for malaria prophylaxis. Isolates underwent identification and testing for antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, and pulsed-field type (PFT). Results 4 individuals in the US (4 isolates- 3 oropharynx, 1 perirectal) and 4 in Afghanistan (6 isolates- 2 oropharynx, 2 nare, 1 hand, 1 foot) were colonized with MRSA. Among US-based personnel, 3 had USA300 (1 PVL+) and 1 USA700. Among Afghanistan-based personnel, 1 had USA300 (PVL+), 1 USA800 and 2 USA1000. MSSA was present in 40 (71 isolates-25 oropharynx, 15 nare) of the US-based and 32 (65 isolates- 16 oropharynx, 24 nare) of the Afghanistan-based individuals. 56 (79%) US and 41(63%) Afghanistan-based individuals had MSSA isolates recovered from extra-nare sites. The most common MSSA PFTs were USA200 (9 isolates) in the US and USA800 (7 isolates) in Afghanistan. MRSA/MSSA isolates were susceptible to doxycycline in all but 3 personnel (1 US, 2 Afghanistan; all were MSSA isolates that carried tetM). Conclusion MRSA and MSSA colonization of military personnel was not associated with deployment status or doxycycline exposure. Higher S. aureus oropharynx colonization rates were observed and may warrant changes in decolonization practices. PMID:24060181

  10. State Special Education Advisory Panels under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Public Information Guide [and] An Overview for State Special Education Advisory Panel Members [and] Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copenhaver, John

    The purpose of this document is to provide an orientation and overview for new state special education advisory panel members regarding their role and functions. This information is a compilation of material and best practices from state special education advisory panels throughout the United States. The manual is intended to assist members of…

  11. Elastomeric member

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, L.O.

    1985-07-30

    An energy storage device is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member disposed within a tubular housing, which elastomeric member is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section, and transition end sections, attached to rigid end piece assemblies of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member, a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing. Each of the transition sections are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond there between. During manufacture, the sleeves are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section to provide the correct profile and helix angle. 12 figs.

  12. Elastomeric member

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O.

    1985-01-01

    An energy storage device (10) is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member (16) disposed within a tubular housing (14), which elastomeric member (16) is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member (16) is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section (74), and transition end sections (76, 78), attached to rigid end piece assemblies (22, 24) of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections (76, 78) are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member (16), a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing (14). Each of the transition sections (76, 78) are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve (26, 28) having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve (26, 28) also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond therebetween. During manufacture, the sleeves (26, 28) are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section (76, 78) to provide the correct profile and helix angle.

  13. [Mushroom poisoning in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Brandão, José Luís; Pinheiro, J; Pinho, D; Correia da Silva, D; Fernandes, E; Fragoso, G; Costa, M I; Silva, A

    2011-12-01

    The renewed interest in mycology has been reflected in growing use of wild mushrooms in culinary, driven by its nutritional, organoleptic and commercial value. However, the international scientific literature describes several syndromes of poisoning by mushrooms. We live, therefore, a paradigm conducive to an increase of mycetism, whose diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and knowledge of clinical profiles. In Portugal, the real dimension of this problem is unknown. Although some mycetisms, such as the hepatotoxic syndrome, have high morbidity and mortality, their relative incidences are unknown. Add up to the shortage of international scientific literature, often outdated and inappropriate to clinical practice. In this context, this article provides an updated epidemiological and clinical perspective emphasizing a narrative and descriptive information on the forms of presentation, differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach, with the ultimate goal of the elaboration of a national diagram-oriented approach to decision-making diagnosis. We analyzed all the clinical records of patients admitted into ten hospitals between 1990 and 2008, notified with the code 988.1 of GDH (acute poisoning by mushrooms). There were registered demographic data, way of presentation, time between ingestion and onset of symptoms, the annual distribution, clinical profile, clinical and analytical treatment performed and complications. We identified 93 cases of acute poisoning by mushrooms, with equal gender distribution and inclusion of individuals of all age groups (from 1 to 85 years), but with greater representation from 21 to 50 years. There was a bimodal seasonal pattern, with a higher peak between September and December and a second in the spring. The hepatotoxic profile presentation corresponded to 63.4% and 31.7% of the cases to gastroenteritis syndrome. The mortality in cases of hepatotoxicity was 11.8%. The developmental profile of the rate of prothrombin time (PT

  14. Portugal: Health System Review.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Simoes, Jorge; Figueiredo Augusto, Goncalo; Fronteira, Ines; Hernandez-Quevedo, Cristina

    2017-03-01

    This analysis of the Portuguese health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Overall health indicators such as life expectancy at birth and at age 65 years have shown a notable improvement over the last decades. However, these improvements have not been followed at the same pace by other important dimensions of health: child poverty and its consequences, mental health and quality of life after 65. Health inequalities remain a general problem in the country. All residents in Portugal have access to health care provided by the National Health Service (NHS), financed mainly through taxation. Out-of-pocket payments have been increasing over time, not only co-payments, but particularly direct payments for private outpatient consultations, examinations and pharmaceuticals. The level of cost-sharing is highest for pharmaceutical products. Between one-fifth and one-quarter of the population has a second (or more) layer of health insurance coverage through health subsystems (for specific sectors or occupations) and voluntary health insurance (VHI). VHI coverage varies between schemes, with basic schemes covering a basic package of services, whereas more expensive schemes cover a broader set of services, including higher ceilings of health care expenses. Health care delivery is by both public and private providers. Public provision is predominant in primary care and hospital care, with a gate-keeping system in place for access to hospital care. Pharmaceutical products, diagnostic technologies and private practice by physicians constitute the bulk of private health care provision. In May 2011, the economic crisis led Portugal to sign a Memorandum of Understanding with the International Monetary Fund, the European Commission and the European Central Bank, in exchange for a loan of 78 billion euros. The agreed Economic and Financial Adjustment Programme included

  15. Outstanding ethical-legal issues on biobanks. An overview on the regulations of the Member States of the Eurobiobank project.

    PubMed

    Martín Uranga, Amelia; Martín Arribas, M Concepción; Jaeger, Cécile; Posadas, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    EuroBiobank (EBB) was created in 2001. This is a network of European biological banks made up by 7 member States. The purpose of the network is to ease the access to the biological resources of the human being in patients who suffer uncommon diseases. This study deals mainly with the ethical-legal debate that has arisen in those States, as well as the existing legal regulation and the proposed recommendations for its possible solution. Likewise, there is a special mention about the informed consent, the possible use in the future of the samples in relation to its commercial use as industrial property rights and to Directive 2004/03 that was adopted by the European Parliament 31 March, 2004.

  16. Governance within the World Health Assembly: a 13-year analysis of WHO Member States' contribution to global health governance.

    PubMed

    van der Rijt, Tess; Pang Pangestu, Tikki

    2015-03-01

    There is a widespread perception that developed countries in the Western world dictate the shaping and governance of global health. While there are many bodies that engage in global health governance, the World Health Organisation (WHO) is the only entity whereby 194 countries are invited to congregate together and engage in global health governance on an equal playing field. This paper examines the diversity of governance within the World Health Assembly (WHA), the supreme decision-making body of the WHO. It explores the degree and balance of policy influence between high, middle and low-income countries and the relevance of the WHO as a platform to exercise global governance. It finds that governance within the WHA is indeed diverse: relative to the number of Member States within the regions, all regions are well represented. While developed countries still dominate WHA governance, Western world countries do not overshadow decision-making, but rather there is evidence of strong engagement from the emerging economies. It is apparent that the WHO is still a relevant platform whereby all Member States can and do participate in the shaping of global health governance.

  17. Space Radar Image of Lisbon, Portugal

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This radar image of Lisbon, Portugal illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in coastal Portugal. Lisbon, the national capital, lies on the north bank of the Rio Tejo where the river enters the Atlantic Ocean.

  18. SN2 regioselectivity in the esterification of 5- and 7-membered azacycloalkane quaternary salts: a DFT study to reveal the transition state ring conformation prevailing over the ground state ring strain.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Akihiro; Kawauchi, Susumu; Yamamoto, Takuya; Tezuka, Yasuyuki

    2014-09-14

    The nucleophilic esterification of 5- and 7-membered N-phenylcyclic ammonium salts resulted in distinctive regioselectivity, despite their comparable ring strain in the ground states relative to the corresponding cyclopentane and cycloheptane (both 25.9 kJ mol(-1)). The former underwent a selective ring-opening reaction, while the latter predominantly underwent ring-emitting with concurrent ring-opening reactions. A DFT study of the model compounds revealed that the regioselection in the 5- and 7-membered azacycloalkane quaternary salts is plausibly directed by the transition state ring conformation, and not by the ground state ring strain. Remarkably, at the ring-opening transition state, the 5-membered cyclic skeletal structure expands toward the unstrained and thus less frustrated 6-membered cyclohexane conformation. On the other hand, the 7-membered counterpart expands at the ring-opening transition state toward the more frustrated 8-membered cyclooctane conformation to promote the alternative ring-emitting process.

  19. Body sodium/blood volume state in normotensive members of normotensive and hypertensive families.

    PubMed

    Beretta-Piccoli, C; Fischbacher, A; Rothenbühler, A; Gerber, A; Weidmann, P

    1986-04-01

    Exchangeable sodium is lower than normal in young male patients with essential hypertension. This may reflect a primary abnormality of sodium metabolism, or natriuresis caused by sodium-independent elevation of arterial pressure. To investigate this question, 31 normotensive men with positive and 31 normotensive men with negative family history of essential hypertension were studied. Blood pressure tended to be higher in the former (121/78 +/- 9/8 (s.d.) versus 113/74 +/- 11/9 mmHg; P less than 0.005); mean age, urinary sodium or potassium excretion, plasma sodium, potassium, renin activity or aldosterone levels and creatinine clearance were comparable. Exchangeable sodium and blood volume were also similar in the two groups, when expressed in absolute values (3113 +/- 306 versus 3044 +/- 242 mmol and 4902 +/- 581 versus 4769 +/- 579 ml, respectively) or in relation to body surface area (100.8 +/- 7.1 versus 100.2 +/- 6% and 103.8 +/- 12.2 versus 102 +/- 11.3%). In both groups, exchangeable sodium and blood volume were unrelated to arterial pressure. The body sodium/blood volume state is normal in normotensive subjects with positive family history. The low exchangeable sodium of young patients with essential hypertension does not appear to reflect a primary familial abnormality of body sodium metabolism.

  20. 32 CFR 1630.12 - Class 1-C: Member of the Armed Forces of the United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (c) Every registrant who by induction becomes a member of the Army of the United States, the United... Service on active duty and assigned to staff the various offices and bureaus of the Public Health Service...

  1. Views of United States physicians and members of the American Medical Association House of Delegates on physician-assisted suicide.

    PubMed

    Whitney, S N; Brown, B W; Brody, H; Alcser, K H; Bachman, J G; Greely, H T

    2001-05-01

    To ascertain the views of physicians and physician leaders toward the legalization of physician-assisted suicide. Confidential mail questionnaire. A nationwide random sample of physicians of all ages and specialties, and all members of the American Medical Association (AMA) House of Delegates as of April 1996. Demographic and practice characteristics and attitude toward legalization of physician-assisted suicide. Usable questionnaires were returned by 658 of 930 eligible physicians in the nationwide random sample (71%) and 315 of 390 eligible physicians in the House of Delegates (81%). In the nationwide random sample, 44.5% favored legalization (16.4% definitely and 28.1% probably), 33.9% opposed legalization (20.4% definitely and 13.5% probably), and 22% were unsure. Opposition to legalization was strongly associated with self-defined politically conservative beliefs, religious affiliation, and the importance of religion to the respondent (P <.001). Among members of the AMA House of Delegates, 23.5% favored legalization (7.3% definitely and 16.2% probably), 61.6% opposed legalization (43.5% definitely and 18.1% probably), and 15% were unsure; their views differed significantly from those of the nationwide random sample (P <.001). Given the choice, a majority of both groups would prefer no law at all, with physician-assisted suicide being neither legal nor illegal. Members of the AMA House of Delegates strongly oppose physician-assisted suicide, but rank-and-file physicians show no consensus either for or against its legalization. Although the debate is sometimes adversarial, most physicians in the United States are uncertain or endorse moderate views on assisted suicide.

  2. Views of United States Physicians and Members of the American Medical Association House of Delegates on Physician-assisted Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Simon N; Brown, Byron W; Brody, Howard; Alcser, Kirsten H; Bachman, Jerald G; Greely, Henry T

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To ascertain the views of physicians and physician leaders toward the legalization of physician-assisted suicide. DESIGN Confidential mail questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS A nationwide random sample of physicians of all ages and specialties, and all members of the American Medical Association (AMA) House of Delegates as of April 1996. MEASUREMENTS Demographic and practice characteristics and attitude toward legalization of physician-assisted suicide. MAIN RESULTS Usable questionnaires were returned by 658 of 930 eligible physicians in the nationwide random sample (71%) and 315 of 390 eligible physicians in the House of Delegates (81%). In the nationwide random sample, 44.5% favored legalization (16.4% definitely and 28.1% probably), 33.9% opposed legalization (20.4% definitely and 13.5% probably), and 22% were unsure. Opposition to legalization was strongly associated with self-defined politically conservative beliefs, religious affiliation, and the importance of religion to the respondent (P < .001). Among members of the AMA House of Delegates, 23.5% favored legalization (7.3% definitely and 16.2% probably), 61.6% opposed legalization (43.5% definitely and 18.1% probably), and 15% were unsure; their views differed significantly from those of the nationwide random sample (P < .001). Given the choice, a majority of both groups would prefer no law at all, with physician-assisted suicide being neither legal nor illegal. CONCLUSIONS Members of the AMA House of Delegates strongly oppose physician-assisted suicide, but rank-and-file physicians show no consensus either for or against its legalization. Although the debate is sometimes adversarial, most physicians in the United States are uncertain or endorse moderate views on assisted suicide. PMID:11359546

  3. European Sitting Championship: Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Reported Sitting Time in the 28 European Union Member States

    PubMed Central

    Loyen, Anne; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Bauman, Adrian; Brug, Johannes; Lakerveld, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behaviour is increasingly recognized as an important health risk, but comparable data across Europe are scarce. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sitting time in adults across and within the 28 European Union Member States. Methods This study reports data from the Special Eurobarometer 412. In 2013, 27,919 randomly selected Europeans (approximately 1000 per Member State) were interviewed face-to-face. Sitting time on a usual day was self-reported and dichotomised into sitting less- and more than 7.5 hours per day. Uni- and multivariate odds ratios of sitting more than 7.5 hours per day were assessed by country and socio-demographic variables using binary logistic regression analyses. The analyses were stratified by country to study the socio-demographic correlates of sitting time within the different countries. Results A total of 26,617 respondents were included in the analyses. Median sitting time was five hours per day. Across Europe, 18.5 percent of the respondents reported to sit more than 7.5 hours per day, with substantial variation between countries (ranging from 8.9 to 32.1 percent). In general, northern European countries reported more sitting than countries in the south of Europe. ‘Current occupation’ and ‘age when stopped education’ were found to be the strongest correlates of sitting time, both across Europe and within most Member States. Compared to manual workers, the odds ratio of sitting more than 7.5 hours per day was 5.00 for people with white collar occupations, 3.84 for students, and 3.65 for managers. Conclusions There is substantial variation in self-reported sitting time among European adults across countries as well as socio-demographic groups. While regular surveillance of (objectively measured) sedentary behaviour is needed, the results of this study provide entry points for developing targeted interventions aimed at highly sedentary populations, such as

  4. Procurement of State-of-the-Art Research Equipment to Support Faculty Members Within the RNAi Therapeutics Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Terence Flotte, MD; Patricia McNulty

    2010-06-29

    This project funded the procurement of state-of-the-art research equipment to support world class faculty members within the RNAi Therapeutics Institute, a central program of the Advanced Therapeutics Cluster (ATC) project. The equipment purchased under this grant supports the RNA Therapeutics Institute (RTI) at the University of Massachusetts Medical School which seeks to build a community of scientists passionate about RNA. By uniting researchers studying the fundamental biology and mechanisms of cellular RNAs with those working to devise human therapies using or targeting nucleic acids, the RTI represents a new model for scientific exploration. By interweaving basic and applied nucleic acid scientists with clinicians dedicated to finding new cures, our goal is to create a new paradigm for organizing molecular research that enables the rapid application of new biological discoveries to solutions for unmet challenges in human health.

  5. Good laboratory practice in the European Community. Role of the commission and the member states: external aspects.

    PubMed

    Berend, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    The paper recalls the history of the development of the OECD principles of good laboratory practice (GLP) and explains why the European Community has a role to play in the area of GLP. It presents briefly the current legal framework in the European Community (Directives 87/18/EEC and 88/320/EEC) and describes the role of the Commission and the member states in the practical implementation of the GLP principles within the European Community. Impacts of GLP on the relations of the European Community with third countries, both within the framework of the OECD and through bilateral trade agreements (mutual recognition agreements, MRA) based on article 133 of the treaty establishing the European Community, are then examined in greater detail.

  6. Supplemental report of the United States members of the International Board of Inquiry for the Great Lakes fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallagher, Hubert R.; Van Oosten, John

    1943-01-01

    This is a supplement to the report of the International Board of Inquiry relative to the preservation and development of the Great Lakes fisheries as provided by an exchange of notes between Canada and the United States on February 29, 1940. The report aimed to present in a very brief manner the background of the establishment of the Board, its program, and the fishery problems that confronted it with particular reference to the international point of view. (See Contribution #100.) The Board, however, recognized the significance and import of those problems and data more or less peculiar or applicable largely to each country. It was, therefore, agreed that the representatives of each country should, if they deem it desirable, submit to their respective governments a supplementary report to cover the basis of action in greater detail than it was possible in a joint report. The United States members believed it advisable not only to publish detailed statistics of catch, but also other information deemed pertinent for a full understanding of the Great Lakes fishery problems from the United States point of view.

  7. Interpersonal violence among immigrants in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Dias, Sónia; Fraga, Sílvia; Barros, Henrique

    2013-02-01

    To assess prevalence of interpersonal violence among a mixed gender sample of immigrants in Portugal, describing the type of violence and associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2008 and May 2009, evaluating a sample of 702 immigrants residing in the Lisbon region. Information was obtained by trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire. Overall, 15.1 % (15.5 % females and 14.7 % males; p = 0.844) of the immigrants reported to be victims of at least one episode of violence during the last year, regardless of which type of violence was involved. The prevalence of intimate-partner violence was 4.1 %, and it was significantly higher among women than men (7.1 % vs. 0.9 %, respectively, p < 0.001). Women who reported being victims of violence during the previous year stated that the episodes occurred more often at home (54.4 %) with the partner as the perpetrator (43.9 %). On the other hand, male victims stated that the violent episodes occurred mostly in public spaces (40.8 %); men indicated that the perpetrator was frequently a stranger (28.6 %) or a co-worker (18.4 %). Violence is a frequent problem among both female and male immigrants living in Portugal, with different gender patterns regarding the perpetrators and settings of abuse.

  8. Uncertainties in climate change projections for viticulture in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Helder; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Santos, João A.

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of climate change impacts on viticulture is often carried out using regional climate model (RCM) outputs. These studies rely on either multi-model ensembles or on single-model approaches. The RCM-ensembles account for uncertainties inherent to the different models. In this study, using a 16-RCM ensemble under the IPCC A1B scenario, the climate change signal (future minus recent-past, 2041-2070 - 1961-2000) of 4 bioclimatic indices (Huglin Index - HI, Dryness Index - DI, Hydrothermal Index - HyI and CompI - Composite Index) over mainland Portugal is analysed. A normalized interquartile range (NIQR) of the 16-member ensemble for each bioclimatic index is assessed in order to quantify the ensemble uncertainty. The results show significant increases in the HI index over most of Portugal, with higher values in Alentejo, Trás-os-Montes and Douro/Porto wine regions, also depicting very low uncertainty. Conversely, the decreases in the DI pattern throughout the country show large uncertainties, except in Minho (northwestern Portugal), where precipitation reaches the highest amounts in Portugal. The HyI shows significant decreases in northwestern Portugal, with relatively low uncertainty all across the country. The CompI depicts significant decreases over Alentejo and increases over Minho, though decreases over Alentejo reveal high uncertainty, while increases over Minho show low uncertainty. The assessment of the uncertainty in climate change projections is of great relevance for the wine industry. Quantifying this uncertainty is crucial, since different models may lead to quite different outcomes and may thereby be as crucial as climate change itself to the winemaking sector. This work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692.

  9. Sex education in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Frade, A; Vilar, D

    1991-05-01

    The article on sex education in Portugal covers background, the educational system, the clashes of the 1960's over sex education, the Committee for the Study of Sexuality and Education (CSSE), the policies, politics and social movements during the period 1974 - 1984, the discussions in Parliament, the 1988 Reform of the Educational System, the Family Planning Association (FPA) and sex education, and the future role of the FPA. It was not until the institution of the multiparity parliamentary system in 1974 that discussing social and political changes was possible, culminating in 1984 with new legislation on abortion, family planning, and sex education. School reform came in 1987/8 with the Ministry of Education primarily responsible for curricula. The 1960's brought with it the influence of the Catholic Church. Change came in the form of progressivism among Catholics who replaced dogma with dialogue and listening. Sex education was considered as preparation for marriage, but masturbation, contraception, and prostitution were also discussed. In addition, the founder of FPA chaired the CSSE in 1971 and opened up debate on sex issues and drafted a bill to establish co-education in Portuguese schools. The revolution of 1974 brought an end to censorship and brought forth a policy of developing family planning. Changed in the Family Code gave women greater equality. UNFPA supported teacher training in non-sexist education. With human reproduction included in the natural sciences, there was still no school sex education policy and contraception was only sometimes represented in the biology curriculum. The focus of FPA was on contraception and abortion. Finally in the 1980's, the first sex education programs were developed for out-of-school youth. Even though in the 1970's there were leftists groups promoting sex education, it took leftist parliamentary power to get legislation on sex education in the schools adopted. The Ministry of Education however was pressured by the

  10. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights…

  11. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights…

  12. Textiles and Training in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrez, Jaime Serrao; Dias, Mario Caldeira

    Analyzing the role of vocational training in an economic sector that is declining in Portugal, this document consists of five chapters, a bibliography, and a list of training organizations. An introduction tells why the study is important and explains that the major obstacles to development of the Portuguese textile and clothing sector are the…

  13. Correlates of self-reported exposure to advertising of tobacco products and electronic cigarettes across 28 European Union member states.

    PubMed

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Laverty, Anthony A; Fernandez, Esteve; Mons, Ute; Tigova, Olena; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2017-06-12

    Despite advertising bans in most European Union (EU) member states, outlets for promotion of tobacco products and especially e-cigarettes still exist. This study aimed to assess the correlates of self-reported exposure to tobacco products and e-cigarettee advertising in the EU. We analysed data from wave 82.4 of the Eurobarometer survey (November-December 2014), collected through interviews in 28 EU member states (n=27 801 aged ≥15 years) and data on bans of tobacco advertising extracted from the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS, 2013). We used multilevel logistic regression to assess sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to any tobacco and e-cigarette advertisements. 40% and 41.5% of the respondents reported having seen any e-cigarette and tobacco product advertisement respectively within the past year. Current smokers, males, younger respondents, those with financial difficulties, people who had tried e-cigarettes and daily internet users were more likely to report having seen an e-cigarette and a tobacco product advertisement. Respondents in countries with more comprehensive advertising bans were less likely to self-report exposure to any tobacco advertisements (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.79 to 0.96 for one-unit increase in TCS advertising score), but not e-cigarette advertisements (OR 1.08; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.22). Ten years after ratification of the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, self-reported exposure to tobacco and e-cigarette advertising in the EU is higher in e-cigarette and tobacco users, as well as those with internet access. The implementation of the Tobacco Products Directive may result in significant changes in e-cigarette advertising, therefore improved monitoring of advertising exposure is required in the coming years. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Food contamination control in European new Member States and associated candidate countries: data collected within the SAFEFOODNET project.

    PubMed

    Maggioni, Silvia; Benfenati, Emilio; Colosio, Claudio; Moretto, Angelo; Roots, Ott; Tasiopoulou, Stavroula; Visentin, Sara

    2009-05-01

    This paper reports the results obtained from the data collected within the European Commission funded project SAFEFOODNET regarding the state of the art in the control of chemical food contaminants in twelve European New Member States and one Associated Candidate Country (Turkey). Information has been gathered on institutions involved in food chemical contamination control, types of contaminants and matrices analyzed, procedures for data quality assurance, purposes of the analyses and accessibility of data in the participant countries. The resulting picture points out the general availability of adequate capabilities for the analysis of food contaminants in the laboratories in charge of control and the performance of the analysis of a large variety of chemicals (persistent organic pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, mycotoxins, heavy metals, radionuclides) in almost each country with few exceptions (dioxins in Bulgaria, Turkey, Latvia, persistent organic pollutants in Lithuania and Malta, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Malta). The application of validated analytical methods and the process of laboratory accreditation are partially fulfilled within the investigated countries, but still forthcoming for some countries, as in Romania, Turkey and Malta. Information collected on food controls is only partially available online and the language used is prevalently local and English to a lesser extent.

  15. Tobacco control and the World Trade Organization: mapping member states' positions after the framework convention on tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris; Callard, Cynthia D

    2016-11-01

    To note the frequency of discussions and disputes about tobacco control measures at the World Trade Organization (WTO) before and after the coming into force of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). To review trends or patterns in the positions taken by members of the WTO with respect to tobacco control measures. To discuss possible explanations for these observed trends/patterns. We gathered data on tobacco-related disputes in the WTO since its establishment in 1995 and its forerunner, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), prior-FCTC and post-FCTC. We also looked at debates on tobacco control measures within the WTO more broadly. To this end, we classified and coded the positions of WTO member states during discussions on tobacco control and the FCTC, from 1995 until 2013, within the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee and the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Council. There is a growing interest within the WTO for tobacco-related issues and opposition to tobacco control measures is moving away from high-income countries towards low(er) income countries. The growing prominence of tobacco issues in the WTO can be attributed at least in part to the fact that during the past decade tobacco firms have been marginalised from the domestic policy-making process in many countries, which has forced them to look for other ways and forums to influence decision-making. Furthermore, the finding that almost all recent opposition within the WTO to stronger tobacco regulations came from developing countries is consistent with a relative shift of transnational tobacco companies' lobbying efforts from developed to developing countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Serious fungal infections in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Sabino, R; Verissímo, C; Brandão, J; Martins, C; Alves, D; Pais, C; Denning, D W

    2017-02-10

    There is a lack of knowledge on the epidemiology of fungal infections worldwide because there are no reporting obligations. The aim of this study was to estimate the burden of fungal disease in Portugal as part of a global fungal burden project. Most published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Portugal were identified. Where no data existed, specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations were used in order to estimate national incidence or prevalence, depending on the condition. An estimated 1,510,391 persons develop a skin or nail fungal infection each year. The second most common fungal infection in Portugal is recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, with an estimated 150,700 women (15-50 years of age) suffering from it every year. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people, oral or oesophageal candidiasis rates were estimated to be 19.5 and 16.8/100,000, respectively. Candidaemia affects 2.19/100,000 patients, in a total of 231 cases nationally. Invasive aspergillosis is less common than in other countries as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is uncommon in Portugal, a total of 240 cases annually. The estimated prevalence of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis after tuberculosis (TB) is 194 cases, whereas its prevalence for all underlying pulmonary conditions was 776 patients. Asthma is common (10% in adults) and we estimate 16,614 and 12,600 people with severe asthma with fungal sensitisation and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, respectively. Sixty-five patients develop Pneumocystis pneumonia in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and 13 develop cryptococcosis. Overall, we estimate a total number of 1,695,514 fungal infections starting each year in Portugal.

  17. Space Radar Image of Lisbon, Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of Lisbon, Portugal illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in coastal Portugal. Lisbon, the national capital, lies on the north bank of the Rio Tejo where the river enters the Atlantic Ocean. The city center appears as the bright area in the center of the image. The green area west of the city center is a large city park called the Parque Florestal de Monsanto. The Lisbon Airport is visible east of the city. The Rio Tejo forms a large bay just east of the city. Many agricultural fields are visible as a patchwork pattern east of the bay. Suburban housing can be seen on the southern bank of the river. Spanning the river is the Ponte 25 de Abril, a large suspension bridge similar in architecture to San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge. The image was acquired on April 19, 1994 and is centered at 38.8 degrees north latitude, 9.2 degrees west longitude. North is towards the upper right. The image is 50 kilometers by 30 kilometers (31 miles by 19 miles). The colors in this image represent the following radar channels and polarizations: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  18. Space Radar Image of Lisbon, Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of Lisbon, Portugal illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in coastal Portugal. Lisbon, the national capital, lies on the north bank of the Rio Tejo where the river enters the Atlantic Ocean. The city center appears as the bright area in the center of the image. The green area west of the city center is a large city park called the Parque Florestal de Monsanto. The Lisbon Airport is visible east of the city. The Rio Tejo forms a large bay just east of the city. Many agricultural fields are visible as a patchwork pattern east of the bay. Suburban housing can be seen on the southern bank of the river. Spanning the river is the Ponte 25 de Abril, a large suspension bridge similar in architecture to San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge. The image was acquired on April 19, 1994 and is centered at 38.8 degrees north latitude, 9.2 degrees west longitude. North is towards the upper right. The image is 50 kilometers by 30 kilometers (31 miles by 19 miles). The colors in this image represent the following radar channels and polarizations: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  19. Prevalence of financial conflicts of interest among panel members producing clinical practice guidelines in Canada and United States: cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Jennifer; Korenstein, Deborah; Ross, Joseph S; Keyhani, Salomeh

    2011-10-11

    To determine the prevalence of financial conflicts of interest among members of panels producing clinical practice guidelines on screening, treatment, or both for hyperlipidaemia or diabetes. Cross sectional study. Relevant guidelines published by national organisations in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2010. Members of guideline panels. Prevalence of financial conflicts of interest among members of guideline panels and chairs of panels. Fourteen guidelines met our search criteria, of which five had no accompanying declaration of conflicts of interest by panel members. 288 panel members had participated in the guideline development process. Among the 288 panel members, 138 (48%) reported conflicts of interest at the time of the publication of the guideline and 150 (52%) either stated that they had no such conflicts or did not have an opportunity to declare any. Among 73 panellists who formally declared no conflicts, 8 (11%) were found to have one or more. Twelve of the 14 guideline panels evaluated identified chairs, among whom six had financial conflicts of interest. Overall, 150 (52%) panel members had conflicts, of which 138 were declared and 12 were undeclared. Panel members from government sponsored guidelines were less likely to have conflicts of interest compared with guidelines sponsored by non-government sources (15/92 (16%) v 135/196 (69%); P<0.001). The prevalence of financial conflicts of interest and their under-reporting by members of panels producing clinical practice guidelines on hyperlipidaemia or diabetes was high, and a relatively high proportion of guidelines did not have public disclosure of conflicts of interest. Organisations that produce guidelines should minimise conflicts of interest among panel members to ensure the credibility and evidence based nature of the guidelines' content.

  20. Business oriented EU human cell and tissue product legislation will adversely impact Member States' health care systems.

    PubMed

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Vanderkelen, Alain; De Vos, Daniel; Draye, Jean-Pierre; Rose, Thomas; Ceulemans, Carl; Ectors, Nadine; Huys, Isabelle; Jennes, Serge; Verbeken, Gilbert

    2013-12-01

    The transplantation of conventional human cell and tissue grafts, such as heart valve replacements and skin for severely burnt patients, has saved many lives over the last decades. The late eighties saw the emergence of tissue engineering with the focus on the development of biological substitutes that restore or improve tissue function. In the nineties, at the height of the tissue engineering hype, industry incited policymakers to create a European regulatory environment, which would facilitate the emergence of a strong single market for tissue engineered products and their starting materials (human cells and tissues). In this paper we analyze the elaboration process of this new European Union (EU) human cell and tissue product regulatory regime-i.e. the EU Cell and Tissue Directives (EUCTDs) and the Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product (ATMP) Regulation and evaluate its impact on Member States' health care systems. We demonstrate that the successful lobbying on key areas of regulatory and policy processes by industry, in congruence with Europe's risk aversion and urge to promote growth and jobs, led to excessively business oriented legislation. Expensive industry oriented requirements were introduced and contentious social and ethical issues were excluded. We found indications that this new EU safety and health legislation will adversely impact Member States' health care systems; since 30 December 2012 (the end of the ATMP transitional period) there is a clear threat to the sustainability of some lifesaving and established ATMPs that were provided by public health institutions and small and medium-sized enterprises under the frame of the EUCTDs. In the light of the current economic crisis it is not clear how social security systems will cope with the inflation of costs associated with this new regulatory regime and how priorities will be set with regard to reimbursement decisions. We argue that the ATMP Regulation should urgently be revised to focus on delivering

  1. Union Members Are Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

  2. Comparative study of microfacies variation in two samples from the Chittenango member, Marcellus shale subgroup, western New York state, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balulla, Shama; Padmanabhan, E.; Over, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    This study demonstrates the significant lithologic variations that occur within the two shale samples from the Chittenango member of the Marcellus shale formation from western New York State in terms of mineralogical composition, type of lamination, pyrite occurrences and fossil content using thin section detailed description and field emission Scanning electron microscope (FESEM) with energy dispersive X-Ray Spectrum (EDX). This study is classified samples as laminated clayshale and fossiliferous carbonaceous shale. The most important detrital constituents of these shales are the clay mineral illite and chlorite, quartz, organic matter, carbonate mineral, and pyrite. The laminated clayshale has a lower amount of quartz and carbonate minerals than fossiliferous carbonaceous shale while it has a higher amount of clay minerals (chlorite and illite) and organic matter. FESEM analysis confirms the presence of chlorite and illite. The fossil content in the laminated clayshale is much lower than the fossiliferous carbonaceous shale. This can provide greater insights about variations in the depositional and environmental factors that influenced its deposition. This result can be compiled with the sufficient data to be helpful for designing the horizontal wells and placement of hydraulic fracturing in shale gas exploration and production.

  3. Plant food supplement (PFS) market structure in EC Member States, methods and techniques for the assessment of individual PFS intake.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Murga, Liliana; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Roman-Viñas, Blanca; Ngo, Joy; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; van den Berg, Suzanne J P L; Williamson, Gary; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2011-12-01

    The popularity of herbal products, especially plant food supplements (PFS) and herbal medicine is on the rise in Europe and other parts of the world, with increased use in the general population as well as among specific subgroups encompassing children, women or those suffering from diseases such as cancer. The aim of this paper is to examine the PFS market structures in European Community (EC) Member States as well as to examine issues addressing methodologies and consumption data relating to PFS use in Europe. A revision of recent reports on market data, trends and main distribution channels, in addition an example of the consumption of PFS in Spain, is presented. An overview of the methods and administration techniques used to assess individual food consumption as a starting point, including their uses and limitations, as well as some examples of studies that collect Food Supplement (FS) information, including herbal/botanical/plant-derived products are also discussed. Additionally, the intake estimation process of food nutrients is described and used to propose the PFS ingredients intake estimation process. Nationally representative PFS consumption data is scarce in Europe. The majority of studies have been conducted in Scandinavia and the UK. However the heterogeneity of definitions, study design and objectives make it difficult to compare results and extrapolate conclusions.

  4. Measuring performance in off-patent drug markets: a methodological framework and empirical evidence from twelve EU Member States.

    PubMed

    Kanavos, Panos

    2014-11-01

    This paper develops a methodological framework to help evaluate the performance of generic pharmaceutical policies post-patent expiry or after loss of exclusivity in non-tendering settings, comprising five indicators (generic availability, time delay to and speed of generic entry, number of generic competitors, price developments, and generic volume share evolution) and proposes a series of metrics to evaluate performance. The paper subsequently tests this framework across twelve EU Member States (MS) by using IMS data on 101 patent expired molecules over the 1998-2010 period. Results indicate that significant variation exists in generic market entry, price competition and generic penetration across the study countries. Size of a geographical market is not a predictor of generic market entry intensity or price decline. Regardless of geographic or product market size, many off patent molecules lack generic competitors two years after loss of exclusivity. The ranges in each of the five proposed indicators suggest, first, that there are numerous factors--including institutional ones--contributing to the success of generic entry, price decline and market penetration and, second, MS should seek a combination of supply and demand-side policies in order to maximise cost-savings from generics. Overall, there seems to be considerable potential for faster generic entry, uptake and greater generic competition, particularly for molecules at the lower end of the market.

  5. Comparative study of microfacies variation in two samples from the Chittenango member, Marcellus shale subgroup, western New York state, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Balulla, Shama Padmanabhan, E.; Over, Jeffrey

    2015-07-22

    This study demonstrates the significant lithologic variations that occur within the two shale samples from the Chittenango member of the Marcellus shale formation from western New York State in terms of mineralogical composition, type of lamination, pyrite occurrences and fossil content using thin section detailed description and field emission Scanning electron microscope (FESEM) with energy dispersive X-Ray Spectrum (EDX). This study is classified samples as laminated clayshale and fossiliferous carbonaceous shale. The most important detrital constituents of these shales are the clay mineral illite and chlorite, quartz, organic matter, carbonate mineral, and pyrite. The laminated clayshale has a lower amount of quartz and carbonate minerals than fossiliferous carbonaceous shale while it has a higher amount of clay minerals (chlorite and illite) and organic matter. FESEM analysis confirms the presence of chlorite and illite. The fossil content in the laminated clayshale is much lower than the fossiliferous carbonaceous shale. This can provide greater insights about variations in the depositional and environmental factors that influenced its deposition. This result can be compiled with the sufficient data to be helpful for designing the horizontal wells and placement of hydraulic fracturing in shale gas exploration and production.

  6. Effect of geometric nonlinearity of the stress-strain state of compensating members operating in the elastoplastic range

    SciTech Connect

    Gokun, M.V.; Kantor, B.Ya.

    1987-03-01

    In some branches of modern engineering, such as in power and nuclear instrument construction, compensating members (CM) operating under cyclic loading are widely used. This article deals with an algorithm for calculating the state of stress and strain (SSS) with geometric nonlinearity taken into account and concerning CM operating in tension-compression in the elastroplastic range. The magnitudes of the obtained deformations are compared with the results of the geometrically linear problem. The SSS of a CM made in the form of a sectional thin shell of revolution is described by a system of nonlinear differential equations of first order. For the numerical realization of the described algorithm, a program in ALGOL was worked out, and with its aid the authors investigated the SSS of standard variants of CM. As an example, the single-lens CM Du1200 mm made of steel 1Kh18N9T was examined. An analysis of the results showed that in the elestoplastic range geometric nonlinearity has a slight effect on the SSS in the operation of CM in the case of tension, and that in the case of compression it has a considerable effect on its SSS.

  7. Renewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sectors of European Union member states: a panel data analysis.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Hélde Araujo; De Melo Faria, Alexandre Magno; Fuinhas, José Alberto; Marques, António Cardoso

    2017-06-15

    In the last two decades, there has been a rich debate about the environmental degradation that results from exposure to solid urban waste. Growing public concern with environmental issues has led to the implementation of various strategic plans for waste management in several developed countries, especially in the European Union. In this paper, the relationships were assessed between economic growth, renewable energy extraction and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the waste sector. The Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis was analysed for the member states of the European Union, in the presence of electricity generation, landfill and GHG emissions for the period 1995 to 2012. The results revealed that there is no inverted-U-shaped relationship between income and GHG emissions in European Union countries. The renewable fuel extracted from waste contributes to a reduction in GHG, and although the electricity produced also increases emissions somewhat, they would be far greater if the waste-based generation of renewable energy did not take place. The waste sector needs to strengthen its political, economic, institutional and social communication instruments to meet its aims for mitigating the levels of pollutants generated by European economies. To achieve the objectives of the Horizon 2020 programme, currently in force in the countries of the European Union, it will be necessary to increase the share of renewable energy in the energy mix.

  8. Social Movements in Renewable Energy Development in Portugal and California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Nathan William

    Changes in the climatic stasis of the planet have been observed for many years and these changes are at last having an impact on the perceived security of the planet as a whole. The causes of these changes are linked generally to the emission of gasses emitted by the burning of hydrocarbons for the production of energy. The shift toward less intensive hydrocarbon use and more non-emitting sources of energy appear to be driven by a popular desire for action from populations. Among the many examples of renewable energy development Portugal stands out as a shining example of great development in a short period of time. Whether that development has been caused by popular demand within the state or due to political processes within the state or political influences external to the state is important to understand so that similar results can be replicated throughout the world. KEYWORDS: Social Movement Theory, Collective Action, Renewable Energy development, Portugal, California.

  9. 'CATT' A project on Co-operation and Technology Transfer on Long-Term Radioactive Waste Management for EU Member States with Small Nuclear Programmes

    SciTech Connect

    Mathieson, J.; Lindberg, C.

    2006-07-01

    Many of the European Union's (EU) 25 countries have considerable inventories of long-lived radioactive waste that will remain potentially hazardous for many thousands of years. Of these, several have advanced concepts and programmes for the treatment and disposal (and other long - term management options) for spent fuel and long-lived radioactive waste. Collectively, these Member States have spent the equivalent of many billions of euros in developing such concepts and some have further developed the concepts into proposed operational facilities. Member States with small nuclear programmes, face the expensive and daunting prospect o f developing their own concepts for dealing with their spent fuel and high level waste. One answer would be to seek solutions which could take advantage of the investment costs in the technology and underpinning science already incurred in the more established programmes. Thus technology transfer between Member States in areas of high level waste and spent fuel encapsulation, repository development etc. would allow the establishment of disposal facilities within any Member State for it to deal with its own wastes. The national waste management organisations of the UK (Mirex), Sweden (SKB), German y (DBE), Lithuania (RATA), Bulgaria (DPRAO) and Slovenia (ARAO), together with JRC of the Netherlands, are to undertake a project under the auspices of the EU's 6. R and D Framework Programme (FP6). The 18 month project will examine the technical, intellectual property, legal, financial and societal implications of the idea. It goes by the acronym 'CATT' - 'Cooperation and technology transfer on long term radioactive waste management for Member States with small nuclear programmes'. This paper describes the CATT project which will look at technology transfer methodologies by which Member States could co-operate. It covers the potential issues which may arise and ho w these may be addressed. (authors)

  10. Assessing the Effectiveness of On-Farm and Abattoir Interventions in Reducing Pig Meat-Borne Salmonellosis within E.U. Member States.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew A; Simons, Robin L; Swart, Arno N; Kelly, Louise; Hald, Tine; Snary, Emma L

    2016-03-01

    As part of the evidence base for the development of national control plans for Salmonella spp. in pigs for E.U. Member States, a quantitative microbiological risk assessment was funded to support the scientific opinion required by the EC from the European Food Safety Authority. The main aim of the risk assessment was to assess the effectiveness of interventions implemented on-farm and at the abattoir in reducing human cases of pig meat-borne salmonellosis, and how the effects of these interventions may vary across E.U. Member States. Two case study Member States have been chosen to assess the effect of the interventions investigated. Reducing both breeding herd and slaughter pig prevalence were effective in achieving reductions in the number of expected human illnesses in both case study Member States. However, there is scarce evidence to suggest which specific on-farm interventions could achieve consistent reductions in either breeding herd or slaughter pig prevalence. Hypothetical reductions in feed contamination rates were important in reducing slaughter pig prevalence for the case study Member State where prevalence of infection was already low, but not for the high-prevalence case study. The most significant reductions were achieved by a 1- or 2-log decrease of Salmonella contamination of the carcass post-evisceration; a 1-log decrease in average contamination produced a 90% reduction in human illness. The intervention analyses suggest that abattoir intervention may be the most effective way to reduce human exposure to Salmonella spp. However, a combined farm/abattoir approach would likely have cumulative benefits. On-farm intervention is probably most effective at the breeding-herd level for high-prevalence Member States; once infection in the breeding herd has been reduced to a low enough level, then feed and biosecurity measures would become increasingly more effective.

  11. THE NEED FOR CONTENT IN HOME DEMONSTRATION PROGRAMS AS INDICATED BY CLUB MEMBERS IN THE STATE OF OKLAHOMA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SPIVEY, GRACE L.

    THE NEED FOR SUBJECT MATTER CONTENT IN HOME AND FAMILY LIVING, AND ITS RELATION TO CERTAIN SOCIOECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CLUB MEMBERS WERE STUDIED. DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM 253 RESPONDENTS BY MAILED QUESTIONNAIRE. FINDINGS INDICATED A WIDE RANGE EXISTED AMONG MEMBERS IN AGE, EDUCATION, INCOME, AND PLACE OF RESIDENCE. THERE WAS A NEED FOR ALL…

  12. [Features of the regulation of legal relations in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare in the Eurasian Economic Community member-states].

    PubMed

    Eremin, G B; Iakubova, I Sh; Mel'tser, A V; Cherniakina, T S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was identification of both general trends and approaches, and the differences in the regulation of relations in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population, determination of the necessary measures to harmonize legislation states in the countries - members of the Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC) in the noted sphere. As a result of the present research recommendations about unification and harmonization of legislations in member states of EurAsEC are developed for formation of uniform economic policy in noted sphere.

  13. The prioritization preferences of pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review members and the Canadian public: a stated-preferences comparison

    PubMed Central

    Skedgel, C.

    2016-01-01

    The pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pcodr) is responsible for making coverage recommendations to provincial and territorial drug plans about cancer drugs. Within the pcodr process, small groups of experts (including public representatives) consider the characteristics of each drug and make a funding recommendation. It is important to understand how the values and preferences of those decision-makers compare with the values and preferences of the citizens on whose behalf they are acting. In the present study, stated preference methods were used to elicit prioritization preferences from a representative sample of the Canadian public and a small convenience sample of pcodr committee members. The results suggested that neither group sought strictly to maximize quality-adjusted life year (qaly) gains and that they were willing to sacrifice some efficiency to prioritize particular patient characteristics. Both groups had a significant aversion to prioritizing older patients, patients in good pre-treatment health, and patients in poor post-treatment health. Those results are reassuring, in that they suggest that pcodr decision-maker preferences are consistent with those of the Canadian public, but they also imply that, like the larger public, decision-makers might value health gains to some patients more or less highly than the same gains to others. The implicit nature of pcodr decision criteria means that the acceptability or limits of such differential valuations are unclear. Likewise, there is no guidance as to which potential equity factors—for example, age, initial severity, and so on—are legitimate and which are not. More explicit guidance could improve the consistency and transparency of pcodr recommendations. PMID:27803596

  14. Sports and exercise cardiology in the United States: cardiovascular specialists as members of the athlete healthcare team.

    PubMed

    Lawless, Christine E; Olshansky, Brian; Washington, Reginald L; Baggish, Aaron L; Daniels, Curt J; Lawrence, Silvana M; Sullivan, Renee M; Kovacs, Richard J; Bove, Alfred A

    2014-04-22

    In recent years, athletic participation has more than doubled in all major demographic groups, while simultaneously, children and adults with established heart disease desire participation in sports and exercise. Despite conferring favorable long-term effects on well-being and survival, exercise can be associated with risk of adverse events in the short term. Complex individual cardiovascular (CV) demands and adaptations imposed by exercise present distinct challenges to the cardiologist asked to evaluate athletes. Here, we describe the evolution of sports and exercise cardiology as a unique discipline within the continuum of CV specialties, provide the rationale for tailoring of CV care to athletes and exercising individuals, define the role of the CV specialist within the athlete care team, and lay the foundation for the development of Sports and Exercise Cardiology in the United States. In 2011, the American College of Cardiology launched the Section of Sports and Exercise Cardiology. Membership has grown from 150 to over 4,000 members in just 2 short years, indicating marked interest from the CV community to advance the integration of sports and exercise cardiology into mainstream CV care. Although the current athlete CV care model has distinct limitations, here, we have outlined a new paradigm of care for the American athlete and exercising individual. By practicing and promoting this new paradigm, we believe we will enhance the CV care of athletes of all ages, and serve the greater athletic community and our nation as a whole, by allowing safest participation in sports and physical activity for all individuals who seek this lifestyle.

  15. [Politicized sexualities: AIDS activism and sexual orientation in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Santos, Ana Cristina

    2002-01-01

    This article analyzes how both the Portuguese state and civil society have addressed the AIDS issue, focusing on participation by the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transsexual community (LGBT) in the struggle against AIDS. The article begins by describing the situation of LGBT individuals in Portugal during the 1990s, when the Portuguese LGBT movement emerged and grew, and then characterizes the evolution of HIV/AIDS in Portugal, analyzing the relationship between civil society and sexuality in general and the situation of the epidemic in the country in particular, considering key facts, nongovernmental organizations, and state initiatives. Special attention is given to the role played by LGBT organizations in the struggle against HIV. Finally, the article reflects on the future of the struggle against both AIDS and discrimination in the 21st century, considering recent events in the country and the guidelines recommended by international policies.

  16. 20 CFR 404.1019 - Work as a member of a uniformed service of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1019 Work as a member of a uniformed service of the...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1019 - Work as a member of a uniformed service of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1019 Work as a member of a uniformed service of the...

  18. Assessment of DoD-Provided Healthcare for Members of the United States Armed Forces Reserve Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-08

    deployments or temporary duty with missing or incomplete medical histories and line of duty documentation. As a result, deactivated RC service members had...to reconstruct medical histories and line of duty documentation in order to receive DoD-provided medical care for wounds, illnesses, and injuries...medical authorities to manage medical histories and line of duty docmentation for deployed or temporary duty RC service members in a standardized

  19. Competence and Human Resource Development in Multinational Companies in Three European Union Member States: A Comparative Analysis between Austria, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Kollinger, Iris; Warmerdam, John; Moerel, Hans; Konrad, John; Burell, Catherine; Guile, David

    A comparative analysis of human resources development and management in the subsidiaries of three multinational companies (Xerox, Glaxo Wellcome, and AXA Nordstern Colonia) was conducted in these three European Union (EU) member states: Austria, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. Case studies were used, focusing on competence needs and…

  20. Anticipation of Occupation and Qualification Trends in the European Union: Innovations for Effective Anticipation of Qualification and Competence Trends and the Adaptation of VET Provision in Member States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellin, Burkart, Ed.

    The approaches being taken and innovations being adopted at the national and European levels to anticipate occupation and qualification trends in the European Union (EU) were examined in a survey of the 15 EU member states. The survey findings were presented by country and in a synthesis. In addition, the findings for Belgium were broken down by…

  1. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in Health Ministers' Council/Gulf Cooperation Council Member States, 2001-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mulla, Ahmad Moh'd; Helmy, Sahar Abdou; Al-Lawati, Jawad; Nasser, Sami Al; Rahman, Salah Ali Abdel; Almutawa, Ayesha; Saab, Bassam Abi; Al-Bedah, Abdullah Mohammed; Al-Rabeah, Abdullah Mohamed; Bahaj, Ahmed Ali; El-Awa, Fatimah; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Background: This article examines differences and similarities in adolescent tobacco use among Member States of the Health Ministers' Council for the Gulf Cooperation Council (HMC/GCC) using Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data. Methods: Nationally representative samples of students in grades associated with ages 13-15 in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman,…

  2. Attitudes to Agricultural Policy and Farming Futures in the Context of the 2003 CAP Reform: A Comparison of Farmers in Selected Established and New Member States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorton, Matthew; Douarin, Elodie; Davidova, Sophia; Latruffe, Laure

    2008-01-01

    Farmers' attitudes, to agricultural production, diversification and policy support, and behavioural intentions in five Member States of the EU (France, Lithuania, Slovakia, Sweden, England) are analysed comparatively. Groups of farmers with similarly held attitudes are identified using cluster analysis to investigate whether differences in…

  3. Licensure and Credentialing. Proceedings ANA Conference for Members and Professional Employees of State Boards of Nursing and ANA Advisory Council (Detroit, Michigan, April 27-28, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Nurses' Association, Kansas City, MO.

    Proceedings are presented from the American Nursing Association (ANA) conference for members and professional employees of state boards of nursing and the ANA advisory council. In addition to opening remarks and discussion comments, the following papers are presented: "The DHEW Secretary's Report on Licensure: A Summary," by Ronald J.…

  4. Measures Taken in the Member States of the European Union To Assist Young People Who Have Left the Education System without Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    European Union Member States gather information on students who drop out without qualification so that they may know how to help this population. This report presents the broad range of measures, arrangements, and systems that exist for supervising, monitoring, training, and providing for dropouts. The text defines the categories used for the…

  5. 12 CFR 250.142 - Meaning of “obligor or maker” in determining limitation on securities investments by member State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... one college may not be used to service bonds issued for another. (e) Accordingly, the Board has... RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS.... The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System has been asked whether a member State bank...

  6. 12 CFR 250.142 - Meaning of “obligor or maker” in determining limitation on securities investments by member State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... one college may not be used to service bonds issued for another. (e) Accordingly, the Board has... RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS.... The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System has been asked whether a member State bank...

  7. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in Health Ministers' Council/Gulf Cooperation Council Member States, 2001-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mulla, Ahmad Moh'd; Helmy, Sahar Abdou; Al-Lawati, Jawad; Nasser, Sami Al; Rahman, Salah Ali Abdel; Almutawa, Ayesha; Saab, Bassam Abi; Al-Bedah, Abdullah Mohammed; Al-Rabeah, Abdullah Mohamed; Bahaj, Ahmed Ali; El-Awa, Fatimah; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Background: This article examines differences and similarities in adolescent tobacco use among Member States of the Health Ministers' Council for the Gulf Cooperation Council (HMC/GCC) using Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data. Methods: Nationally representative samples of students in grades associated with ages 13-15 in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman,…

  8. [Development of recommendations for legislation's harmonization of Eurasec member states in the field of children's healthcare rights in educational institutions of various types].

    PubMed

    Yakubova, I Sh; Yeremin, G B; Suvorova, A V; Blinova, L T

    2014-01-01

    In the paper there are presented the main results of the performed study on comparative legal analysis of national legislative acts in the field of providing of children's rights for health care in institutions of various types for the delivery of recommendations for harmonization of legislation of States--members of the Eurasian Economic Community.

  9. The valuation of the EQ-5D in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lara N; Ferreira, Pedro L; Pereira, Luis N; Oppe, Mark

    2014-03-01

    The EQ-5D is a preference-based measure widely used in cost-utility analysis (CUA). Several countries have conducted surveys to derive value sets, but this was not the case for Portugal. The purpose of this study was to estimate a value set for the EQ-5D for Portugal using the time trade-off (TTO). A representative sample of the Portuguese general population (n = 450) stratified by age and gender valued 24 health states. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained interviewers. Each respondent ranked and valued seven health states using the TTO. Several models were estimated at both the individual and aggregated levels to predict health state valuations. Alternative functional forms were considered to account for the skewed distribution of these valuations. The models were analyzed in terms of their coefficients, overall fit and the ability for predicting the TTO values. Random effects models were estimated using generalized least squares and were robust across model specification. The results are generally consistent with other value sets. This research provides the Portuguese EQ-5D value set based on the preferences of the Portuguese general population as measured by the TTO. This value set is recommended for use in CUA conducted in Portugal.

  10. Student Mobility in Portugal: Grappling with Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina; Tavares, Orlanda; Neave, Guy

    2017-01-01

    The article examines how far the key Bologna objective of student mobility has been achieved in Portuguese higher education institutions and the main factors shaping it. It analyzes credit mobility, outgoing and incoming, between Portugal and Europe. Although mobility overall has risen, incoming mobility has grown faster, making Portugal an…

  11. Child Labour and Educational Success in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulart, Pedro; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2008-01-01

    The current debate on child labour focuses on developing countries. However, Portugal is an example of a relatively developed country where child labour is still a matter of concern as between 8% and 12% of Portuguese children may be classified as workers. This paper studies the patterns of child labour in Portugal and assesses the consequences of…

  12. Child Labour and Educational Success in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulart, Pedro; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2008-01-01

    The current debate on child labour focuses on developing countries. However, Portugal is an example of a relatively developed country where child labour is still a matter of concern as between 8% and 12% of Portuguese children may be classified as workers. This paper studies the patterns of child labour in Portugal and assesses the consequences of…

  13. Status of implementation and organization of cancer screening in the European Union Member States - summary results from the second European screening report.

    PubMed

    Basu, Partha; Ponti, Antonio; Anttila, Ahti; Ronco, Guglielmo; Senore, Carlo; Vale, Diama Bhadra; Segnan, Nereo; Tomatis, Mariano; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Primic Žakelj, Maja; Dillner, Joakim; Elfström, Klara Miriam; Lönnberg, Stefan; Sankaranaryanan, Rengaswamy

    2017-09-23

    The second report on the implementation status of cancer screening in European Union (EU) was published in 2017. The report described the implementation status, protocols and organization (updated till 2016) and invitation coverage (for index year 2013) of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening in the EU. Experts in screening programme monitoring (N=80) from the EU Member States having access to requisite information in their respective countries provided data on breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening through online questionnaires. Data was collected for screening performed in the framework of publicly mandated programmes only. Filled in questionnaires were received from 26 Member States for all three sites and from one Member State for breast cancer only. Substantial improvement in screening implementation using population-based approach was documented. Among the age-eligible women, 94.7% were residents of Member States implementing or planning population-based breast cancer screening in 2016, compared to 91.6% in 2007. The corresponding figures for cervical cancer screening were 72.3% and 51.3% in 2016 and 2007 respectively. Most significant improvement was documented for colorectal cancer screening with roll-out ongoing or completed in 17 Member States in 2016, compared to only five in 2007. So the access to population-based screening increased to 72.4% of the age-eligible populations in 2016 as opposed to only 42.6% in 2007. The invitation coverage was highly variable, ranging from 0.2%-111% for breast cancer, 7.6%-105% for cervical cancer and 1.8%-127% for colorectal cancer in the target populations. In spite of the considerable progress, much work remains to be done to achieve optimal effectiveness. Continued monitoring, regular feedbacks and periodic reporting are needed to ensure the desired impacts of the programmes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 UICC.

  14. Two-year trends and predictors of e-cigarette use in 27 European Union member states.

    PubMed

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Laverty, Anthony A; Gerovasili, Vasiliki; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed changes in levels of ever use, perceptions of harm from e-cigarettes and sociodemographic correlates of use among European Union (EU) adults during 2012-2014, as well as determinants of current use in 2014. We analysed data from the 2012 (n=26 751) and 2014 (n=26 792) waves of the adult Special Eurobarometer for Tobacco survey. Point prevalence of current and ever use was calculated and logistic regression assessed correlates of current use and changes in ever use, and perception of harm. Correlates examined included age, gender, tobacco smoking, education, area of residence, difficulties in paying bills and reasons for trying an e-cigarette. The prevalence of ever use of e-cigarettes increased from 7.2% in 2012 to 11.6% in 2014 (adjusted OR (aOR)=1.91). EU-wide coefficient of variation in ever e-cigarette use was 42.1% in 2012 and 33.4% in 2014. The perception that e-cigarettes are harmful increased from 27.1% in 2012 to 51.6% in 2014 (aOR=2.99), but there were major differences in prevalence and trends between member states. Among those who reported that they had ever tried an e-cigarette in the 2014 survey, 15.3% defined themselves as current users. Those who tried an e-cigarette to quit smoking were more likely to be current users (aOR=2.82). Ever use of e-cigarettes increased during 2012-2014. People who started using e-cigarettes to quit smoking tobacco were more likely to be current users, but the trends vary by country. These findings underscore the need for more research into factors influencing e-cigarette use and its potential benefits and harms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Urinary BPA measurements in children and mothers from six European member states: Overall results and determinants of exposure.

    PubMed

    Covaci, Adrian; Den Hond, Elly; Geens, Tinne; Govarts, Eva; Koppen, Gudrun; Frederiksen, Hanne; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Mørck, Thit A; Gutleb, Arno C; Guignard, Cedric; Cocco, Emanuelle; Horvat, Milena; Heath, Ester; Kosjek, Tina; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Castaño, Argelia; Esteban, Marta; Cutanda, Francisco; Ramos, Juan José; Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Jönsson, Bo A G; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Bloemen, Louis; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Schoeters, Greet; Angerer, Jürgen; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Aerts, Dominique; Koch, Holger M

    2015-08-01

    For the first time in Europe, both European-wide and country-specific levels of urinary Bisphenol A (BPA) were obtained through a harmonized protocol for participant recruitment, sampling and quality controlled biomarker analysis in the frame of the twin projects COPHES and DEMOCOPHES. 674 child-mother pairs were recruited through schools or population registers from six European member states (Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden). Children (5-12 y) and mothers donated a urine sample. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, life style, dietary habits, and educational level of the parents was provided by mothers. After exclusion of urine samples with creatinine values below 300 mg/L or above 3000 mg/L, 653 children and 639 mothers remained for which BPA was measured. The geometric mean (with 95% confidence intervals) and 90th percentile were calculated for BPA separately in children and in mothers and were named "European reference values". After adjustment for confounders (age and creatinine), average exposure values in each country were compared with the mean of the "European reference values" by means of a weighted analysis of variance. Overall geometric means of all countries (95% CI) adjusted for urinary creatinine, age and gender were 2.04 (1.87-2.24) µg/L and 1.88 (1.71-2.07) µg/L for children (n=653) and mothers (n=639), respectively. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify significant environmental, geographical, personal or life style related determinants. Consumption of canned food and social class (represented by the highest educational level of the family) were the most important predictors for the urinary levels of BPA in mothers and children. The individual BPA levels in children were significantly correlated with the levels in their mothers (r=0.265, p<0.001), which may suggest a possible common environmental/dietary factor that influences the biomarker level in each pair. Exposure of the general European

  16. Demographic factors associated with dietary supplement prescriptions filled by United States Military Service Members 2005-2013.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J; Jean, Rosenie T; Austin, Krista G; Steelman, Ryan A; Farina, Emily K; Lieberman, Harris R

    2017-01-31

    Dietary supplements (DSs) can be purchased over-the-counter but may also be prescribed by medical personnel for specific therapeutic reasons. Few studies have examined this latter source of DSs despite the fact that 79% of physicians and 82% of nurses have recommended DSs to their patients. This investigation examined demographic factors associated with temporal trends in oral DS prescriptions filled by all United States (US) service members (SMs) from 2005 to 2013 (n = 1,427,080 ± 22,139, mean ± standard deviation per year). The Food and Drug Administration National Drug Code database and the formularies of the US Defense Health Agency's Pharmacoeconomic Center were queried to identify DSs available to SMs. The number of these DS prescriptions filled by all SMs from 2005 through 2013 was then obtained from the US Department of Defense Pharmacy Data Transaction System. Data were grouped by American Hospital Formulary System (AHFS) pharmacologic-therapeutic classifications and examined over time. Denominators (number of SMs each year) were obtained from the Defense Health Agency. Major findings included 1) generally greater prevalence of prescriptions filled by women and older SMs for most AHFS categories; 2) a temporal decline in total prescriptions filled by Marine Corps personnel accounted for by a decline in the prevalence of zinc preparations filled by younger male Marines; 3) a temporal decline in the prevalence of iron preparations filled by women; 4) a temporal increase in the prevalence of prescriptions for replacement preparations filled by women accounted for largely by more prescriptions for calcium compounds; and 5) a temporal decline in the prevalence of prescriptions filled for cathartics/laxatives in older SMs accounted for largely by a decline in prescriptions for sodium/potassium compounds. These temporal trends may be associated with the greater health care utilization of women and older SMs as well as the perceptions of prescribers

  17. Longitudinal Changes in Psychological States in Online Health Community Members: Understanding the Long-Term Effects of Participating in an Online Depression Community.

    PubMed

    Park, Albert; Conway, Mike

    2017-03-20

    Major depression is a serious challenge at both the individual and population levels. Although online health communities have shown the potential to reduce the symptoms of depression, emotional contagion theory suggests that negative emotion can spread within a community, and prolonged interactions with other depressed individuals has potential to worsen the symptoms of depression. The goals of our study were to investigate longitudinal changes in psychological states that are manifested through linguistic changes in depression community members who are interacting with other depressed individuals. We examined emotion-related language usages using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program for each member of a depression community from Reddit. To measure the changes, we applied linear least-squares regression to the LIWC scores against the interaction sequence for each member. We measured the differences in linguistic changes against three online health communities focusing on positive emotion, diabetes, and irritable bowel syndrome. On average, members of an online depression community showed improvement in 9 of 10 prespecified linguistic dimensions: "positive emotion," "negative emotion," "anxiety," "anger," "sadness," "first person singular," "negation," "swear words," and "death." Moreover, these members improved either significantly or at least as much as members of other online health communities. We provide new insights into the impact of prolonged participation in an online depression community and highlight the positive emotion change in members. The findings of this study should be interpreted with caution, because participating in an online depression community is not the sole factor for improvement or worsening of depressive symptoms. Still, the consistent statistical results including comparative analyses with different communities could indicate that the emotion-related language usage of depression community members are improving either

  18. Longitudinal Changes in Psychological States in Online Health Community Members: Understanding the Long-Term Effects of Participating in an Online Depression Community

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Background Major depression is a serious challenge at both the individual and population levels. Although online health communities have shown the potential to reduce the symptoms of depression, emotional contagion theory suggests that negative emotion can spread within a community, and prolonged interactions with other depressed individuals has potential to worsen the symptoms of depression. Objective The goals of our study were to investigate longitudinal changes in psychological states that are manifested through linguistic changes in depression community members who are interacting with other depressed individuals. Methods We examined emotion-related language usages using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program for each member of a depression community from Reddit. To measure the changes, we applied linear least-squares regression to the LIWC scores against the interaction sequence for each member. We measured the differences in linguistic changes against three online health communities focusing on positive emotion, diabetes, and irritable bowel syndrome. Results On average, members of an online depression community showed improvement in 9 of 10 prespecified linguistic dimensions: “positive emotion,” “negative emotion,” “anxiety,” “anger,” “sadness,” “first person singular,” “negation,” “swear words,” and “death.” Moreover, these members improved either significantly or at least as much as members of other online health communities. Conclusions We provide new insights into the impact of prolonged participation in an online depression community and highlight the positive emotion change in members. The findings of this study should be interpreted with caution, because participating in an online depression community is not the sole factor for improvement or worsening of depressive symptoms. Still, the consistent statistical results including comparative analyses with different communities could indicate that the

  19. Geology and religion in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Ana; Simoes, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Mota, Teresa Salomé

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between geology and religion in Portugal by focusing on three case studies of naturalists who produced original research and lived in different historical periods, from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. Whereas in non-peripheral European countries religious themes and even controversies between science and religion were dealt with by scientists and discussed in scientific communities, in Portugal the absence of a debate between science and religion within scientific and intellectual circles is particularly striking. From the historiographic point of view, in a country such as Portugal, where Roman Catholicism is part of the religious and cultural tradition, the influence of religion in all aspects of life has been either taken for granted by those less familiar with the national context or dismissed by local intellectuals, who do not see it as relevant to science. The situation is more complex than these dichotomies, rendering the study of this question particularly appealing from the historiographic point of view, geology being by its very nature a well-suited point from which to approach the theme. We argue that there is a long tradition of independence between science and religion, agnosticism and even atheism among local elites. Especially from the eighteenth century onwards, they are usually portrayed as enlightened minds who struggled against religious and political obscurantism. Religion—or, to be more precise, the Roman Catholic Church and its institutions—was usually identified with backwardness, whereas science was seen as the path to progress; consequently men of science usually dissociated their scientific production from religious belief.

  20. Structural fire risk of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parente, Joana; Pereira, Mário

    2017-04-01

    Portugal is on the top of the European countries most affected by vegetation fires which underlines the importance of the existence of an updated and coherent fire risk map. This map represent a valuable supporting tool for forest and fire management decisions, focus prevention activities, improve the efficiency of fire detection systems, manage resources and actions of fire fighting with greater effectiveness. Therefore this study proposed a structural fire risk map of the vegetated area of Portugal using a deterministic approach based on the concept of fire risk currently accepted by the scientific community which consists in the combination of the fire hazard and the potential economic damage. The existing fire susceptibility map for Portugal based on the slope, land cover and fire probability, was adopted and updated by the use of a higher resolution digital terrain model, longer burnt area perimeter dataset (1975 - 2013) and the entire set of Corine land cover inventories. Five susceptibility classes were mapped to be in accordance with the Portuguese law and the results confirms the good performance of this model not only in terms of the favourability scores but also in the predictive values. Considering three different scenarios of (maximum, mean, and minimum annual) burnt area, fire hazard were estimate. The vulnerability scores and monetary values of species defined in the literature and by law were used to calculate the potential economic damage. The result was a fire risk map that identifies the areas more prone to be affected by fires in the future and provides an estimate of the economic damage of the fire which will be a valuable tool for forest and fire managers and to minimize the economic and environmental consequences of vegetation fires in Portugal. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by: (i) the project Interact - Integrative Research in Environment,Agro-Chain and Technology, NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000017, research line BEST, cofinanced by

  1. Metallic three-coordinated carbon networks with eight-membered rings showing high density of states at the Fermi level.

    PubMed

    Noda, Yusuke; Ono, Shota; Ohno, Kaoru

    2014-04-21

    Using a density functional method to study the electronic structure of various three-coordinated sp(2) carbon nanostructures, we find that the presence of an eight-membered ring adjoined to two five-membered rings in a unit cell brings about the simultaneous occurrence of flat and dispersive bands, quite similar to the band structure of precious metals. These bands are parts of an anisotropic Dirac cone tilted from an isotropic one. We reveal that in-phase and out-of-phase oscillations in the sign of the phase of the Kohn-Sham orbital contribute to the appearance of the unique band structures.

  2. Collapsable seal member

    DOEpatents

    Sherrell, Dennis L.

    1990-01-01

    A hollow, collapsable seal member normally disposed in a natural expanded state offering fail-safe pressure sealing against a seating surface and adapted to be evacuated by a vacuum force for collapsing the seal member to disengage the same from said seating surface.

  3. Geoconservation education: the leading role of the University of Minho (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilha, J.; Pereira, D.; Pereira, P.

    2012-04-01

    The University of Minho (with two campuses in Braga and Guimarães, northern Portugal) is a middle-size university created in 1973 and today with around 18,000 students and 1,100 academic staff members. The first works concerning geoconservation were developed in 1996 in the Earth Sciences Department. The research was related with the inventory of geological heritage in Alvão Natural Park, under the scope of a master thesis on Environmental Sciences. But it was only in 2005 that a major step was taken by this university with the creation of the master course on Geological Heritage and Geoconservation. Since that time, around 70 students were enrolled with an average of 10 new students each year. This 2-years course (120 ECTS) is the only post-graduation degree totally dedicated to this domain. During the first year, students have to complete several multidisciplinary modules like: Geodiversity; GIS and computers applied to geoconservation; Inventorying, conservation and interpretation of geological heritage; Environmental legislation; Geotourism; Education for sustainable development; and Mining heritage. The second year is dedicated to the preparation of a dissertation or project. This experience on geoconservation education has been motivating internationalisation with other universities with the support of different grant programmes like Erasmus and AlBan (both from the European Union) and Gulbenkian (Portugal): Students exchange (to Brazil and Greece; from Argentina, Brazil, Cape Verde, Chile, Mozambique, and Thailand) and staff exchange (to/from Greece, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and United States of America). After finishing their master degree, students are finding jobs as geoconservationist experts in geoparks, protected areas, natural history museums, and also as teachers in secondary schools and universities. The University of Minho is also engaged with geoconservation at the PhD level. Several theses have been produced focused of themes

  4. Views of United States Physicians and Members of the American Medical Association House of Delegates on Physician-assisted Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Simon N.; Brown, Byron W.; Brody, Howard; Alcser, Kirsten H.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Greely, Henry T.

    2001-01-01

    Ascertained the views of physicians and physician leaders toward legalization of physician-assisted suicide. Results indicated members of AMA House of Delegates strongly oppose physician-assisted suicide, but rank-and-file physicians show no consensus either for or against its legalization. Although the debate is adversarial, most physicians are…

  5. Views of United States Physicians and Members of the American Medical Association House of Delegates on Physician-assisted Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Simon N.; Brown, Byron W.; Brody, Howard; Alcser, Kirsten H.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Greely, Henry T.

    2001-01-01

    Ascertained the views of physicians and physician leaders toward legalization of physician-assisted suicide. Results indicated members of AMA House of Delegates strongly oppose physician-assisted suicide, but rank-and-file physicians show no consensus either for or against its legalization. Although the debate is adversarial, most physicians are…

  6. Is there a need for clinical guidelines in the United States for the diagnosis of hereditary angioedema and the screening of family members of affected patients?

    PubMed

    Lunn, Michael L; Santos, Carah B; Craig, Timothy J

    2010-03-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a deficiency of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH) protein or function. Guidelines do not exist regarding diagnostic criteria or routine testing of family members of patients with HAE. Laboratory data for diagnosis include complement factor 4 level; C1 INH antigenic protein level, which is reduced in approximately 85% of patients with HAE; and C1 INH functional assay, which is considered an unreliable test in the United States secondary to inconsistent standardization of assays. To assess the shortcomings of diagnosing HAE and to determine whether family members of patients with HAE are being adequately screened. The top physician prescribers of danazol in the United States were screened via an Internet questionnaire focusing on the diagnosis and current management of HAE. To assess the patient perspective on HAE, affected individuals in the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and The Netherlands participated in the Web-based International Survey of Patient Experience of Hereditary Angioedema. All 80 physicians who completed the survey were allergist or immunologists with a mean of 7 patients with C1 INH deficiency in their practices. Almost 84% of physician respondents used C1 INH level and function for diagnosis, and 63.8% used complement factor 4 levels. A total of 313 patients with HAE completed the survey. Respondents noted that only 48% of immediate family members and 26% of extended family members had been tested. Guidelines could potentially alleviate delays in diagnosis and incorrect diagnoses and could lead to adequate screening of family members.

  7. Incidence of Ankle Sprains Among Active-Duty Members of the United States Armed Services From 1998 Through 2006

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Kenneth L.; Owens, Brett D.; DeBerardino, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Ankle sprains have been reported as one of the most common injuries sustained by members of the US Armed Services. However, little is known about the incidence rate and injury patterns associated with ankle sprains in this population. Objective: To examine the incidence of ankle sprains among active-duty members of the US Armed Services from 1998 through 2006. A secondary objective was to describe the sex, age, and service-specific injury patterns in this young, physically active population. Design: Cohort study. Patients or Other Participants: All active-duty service members from the day they enter military service until the day they leave military service and US Army Reserve and National Guard service members during periods of active duty and mobilization. Main Outcome Measure(s): Injury data were extracted from the Defense Medical Epidemiological Database from 1998 through 2006. All data for ankle sprains, coded according to the International Classification of Diseases (9th revision), were included. Cases were limited to those injuries reported as first occurrences. Incidence rates (IRs) were calculated per 1000 person-years by sex, age, and service. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to assess the strength of association between the incidence of ankle sprain and the independent variables of sex, age, and service. Results: From 1998 through 2006, 423 581 service members sustained ankle sprains and 12 118 863 person-years at risk to injury were documented in this population. The incidence rate was 34.95 (95% CI  =  34.85, 35.06) per 1000 person-years at risk. Females were 21% more likely (IRR  =  1.21, 95% CI  =  1.21, 1.23) to sustain an ankle sprain than males. Sex-specific IR varied by age and service. Differences in the rate of ankle sprains were also noted by age and service. Conclusions: The incidence of ankle sprains among US service members was 5 times greater than that

  8. State of the Science Review: Advances in Pain Management in Wounded Service Members over a Decade at War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    impressive greater than 90% survival rate.4 Of the injuries incurred on the battlefield to date, approximately 52,022 ser- vice members have been wounded...in action, while 5,346 have sustained fatal injuries .5 While this is a major improvement in survival, this substantially increases the number of...disorder (PTSD), traumatic brain injury , insomnia, and depression, further complicate the painmanagement regimen. In a cohort of 340 OIF/OEF veterans, 82

  9. Is there a decline in bovine spongiform encephalopathy cases born after reinforced feed bans? A modelling study in EU member states.

    PubMed

    Arnold, M E; Simons, R R L; Hope, J; Gibbens, N; Adkin, A L

    2017-08-01

    Occasional cases of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) still continue to occur within the European Union (EU) for animals born after reinforced feed bans (BARBs), which should in theory have eliminated all risk of infection. The study aimed to determine (i) whether a common rate of decline of BSE infection was evident across EU member states, i.e. to determine whether control measures have been equally effective in all member states, (ii) whether there was any evidence of spontaneous occurrence of BSE in the data and (iii) the expected date for the last BSE case in UK. It was found that there was no significant difference in the rate of decline of BSE prevalence between member states, with a common rate of decline of 33·9% per annum (95% CI 30·9-37%) in successive annual birth cohorts. Trend analysis indicated an ultimate decline to 0 prevalence, suggesting that spontaneous occurrence does not explain the majority of cases. Projecting forward the trends from the back-calculation model indicated that there was approximately a 50% probability of further cases in the UK, and should the current rate of decline continue, there remains the possibility of further occasional cases up until 2026.

  10. [Carbon monoxide intoxications in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Sá, Márcia Christel; Rodrigues, Rui Paulo; Moura, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of carbon monoxide intoxication in the World shows that this is a common situation. In Portugal, there are no concrete data available in literature and its incidence remains unknown. Currently, the use of hyperbaric oxygen is a valid therapeutic for carbon monoxide poisoning management. However, its effectiveness and its proper handling are still controversial. The first aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of carbon monoxide intoxication in Portugal and to analyze its demographic characteristics. The second objective of this work was to evaluate the possible change in the type of treatment applied in areas near de hyperbaric chamber of Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, since its opening in June 2006. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a survey on admissions data for carbon monoxide intoxication occured between January first, 2000 and December 31, 2007. These data was collected in seven hospitals and in the Administração Central do Sistema de Saúde, I.P. Nationally, 621 hospitalizations were recorded, which represents an incidence of 5,86/100000 in 8 years. In the seven hospitals, there were 93 hospitalizations due to carbon monoxide intoxication during the same period of time. There was a peak of incidence during winter, between November and March and there was a similar distribution in men (47,3%) and women (52,7%). Since June 2006, date of opening of the hyperbaric chamber, the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. recorded a sharp increase in the number of hospitalization for carbon monoxide intoxication. The number of admissions in the 19 months after the chamber opening was double the number of all cases occurred in that institution in the 65 months prior. We concluded that, in Portugal, carbon monoxide intoxication is an uncommon situation but it´s still an important cause of hospitalization. The referral of cases to the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. since the opening of hyperbaric chamber

  11. [The African Charter on the Rights of the Child. The member states of the Organization of African Unity must ratify without further delay].

    PubMed

    Diongue, A

    1994-12-01

    In July 1990, the Organization of African Unity (OUA) adopted the African Charter of the Rights and Welfare of the Child. It includes a Preamble, two relative parts on the Rights and Respects of the Child, and 47 articles. It defines "child" as a complete human being less than 18 years old. It recognizes the child's unique and privileged place in African society and that African children need protection and special care. It also recognizes that the child has freedom of expression, association, peaceful assembly, thought, religion, and conscience. It aims to protect the private life of the child and safeguard the child against all forms of economic exploitation and against work that is hazardous, interferes with the child's education, or compromises his/her health or physical, social, mental, spiritual, and moral development. It also calls for protection against abuse and bad treatment, negative social and cultural practices, all forms of exploitation or sexual abuse, and illegal drug use. It also aims to prevent the sale, trading, kidnapping, and begging of children. It calls for the creation of an African expert committee on the rights and well-being of the child. Its mission is to promote and protect the rights consecrated by the Charter, to practice applying these rights, and to interpret the disposition of the Charter as required of party states, OUA institutions, or all other institutions recognized by OUA or by a member state. The Charter goes into effect 30 days after OUA or 15 member states ratify it. As of August 24, 1994, only four states had ratified it. Member states have taken it upon themselves to take all necessary measures to adopt the Charter. The delay of African states in this affair is incomprehensible. Eleven years separate the adoption of the Declaration on the Rights and Welfare of the African Child and this Charter. Must the African child wait as long to see the Charter become law?

  12. Astronomy Week in Madeira, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augusto, P.; Sobrinho, J. L.

    2012-05-01

    The outreach programme Semanas da Astronomia (Astronomy Weeks) is held in late spring or summer on the island of Madeira, Portugal. This programme has been attracting enough interest to be mentioned in the regional press/TV/radio every year and is now, without doubt, the astronomical highlight of the year on Madeira. We believe that this programme is a good case study for showing how to attract the general public to astronomy in a small (population 250 000, area 900 km2) and fairly isolated place such as Madeira. Our Astronomy Weeks have been different each year and have so far included exhibitions, courses, talks, a forum, documentaries, observing sessions (some with blackouts), music and an astro party. These efforts may contribute towards putting Madeira on the map with respect to observational astronomy, and have also contributed to the planned installation of two observatories in the island.

  13. Optometry in Portugal: a historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Eduardo; Baptista, António M. G.; Sousa, Raul A. R. C.

    2011-05-01

    The establishment and development of optometry in Portugal resulted from the committed work of many individuals and institutions. These efforts have had good results in terms of raising the public's awareness of the major role played by optometrists in primary eye care. Back in the late 80's higher education in optometry was started. Ten years ago the results of scientific research on the topic first became available and are now also contributing to the success of optometry in Portugal. In regard to the optometry profession, specific regulations are to be discussed in the national parliament. The Associação de Profissionais Licenciados de Optometria (APLO), as the professional organization representing optometrists in Portugal, has been critically important in this process. This article will present an overview of the history of optometry in Portugal, of change in the foreseeable future and of the APLO's experience and activities.

  14. Phytoplankton off the Coast of Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A large phytoplankton bloom off of the coast of Portugal can be seen in this true-color image taken on April 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The bloom is roughly half the size of Portugal and forms a bluish-green cloud in the water. The red spots in northwest Spain denote what are likely small agricultural fires. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  15. Measures To Fight School Failure in the Member States of the European Community. Summary Report Prepared by the EURYDICE European Unit for the Meeting of Senior Officials in June 1992 under the Portuguese Presidency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    In addition to personal and social consequences, school failure among Member States of the European Community is a major economic liability. Member States have used a variety of measures to counter school failure. It is generally agreed that socioeconomic, cultural, and personal factors all contribute to school failure. Indicators of school…

  16. Digital breast tomosynthesis utilization in the United States: a survey of physician members of the Society of Breast Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hardesty, Lara A; Kreidler, Sarah M; Glueck, Deborah H

    2014-06-01

    To assess utilization of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and examine criteria for offering DBT to patients. We created an online survey for physician members of the Society of Breast Imaging to assess their use of DBT. The questions covered availability of DBT at the participant's practice, whether DBT was used for clinical care or research, clinical decision rules guiding patient selection for DBT, costs associated with DBT, plans to obtain DBT, and breast imaging practice characteristics. Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression were used to compare DBT users and nonusers. In all, 670 members responded (response rate = 37%). Of these, 200 (30.0%) respondents reported using DBT, with 89% of these using DBT clinically. Participants were more likely to report DBT use if they worked at an academic practice (odds ratio [OR], 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41 to 3.03; P < .001), a practice with more than 3 breast imagers (OR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.62 to 3.43; P < .001), or a practice with 7 or more mammography units (OR, 3.05; 95% CI, 2.11 to 4.39; P < .001). Criteria used to select patients to undergo DBT varied, with 107 (68.2%) using exam type (screening versus diagnostic), 25 (15.9%) using mammographic density, and 25 (15.9%) using breast cancer risk. Fees for DBT ranged from $25 to $250. In addition, 62.3% of nonusers planned to obtain DBT. DBT is becoming more common but remains a limited resource. Clinical guidelines would assist practices in deciding whether to adopt DBT and in standardizing which patients should receive DBT. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions across the United States: development and testing of a novel survey instrument for assessing coalition functioning.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Daniel B; Pate, Russell R; Beets, Michael W; Saunders, Ruth P; Blair, Steven N

    2015-06-01

    Coalitions are often composed of member organizations. Member involvement is thought to be associated with coalition success. No instrument currently exists for evaluating organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions. This study aimed to develop a survey instrument for evaluating organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions. The study was carried out in three phases: (a) developing a draft survey, (b) assessing the content validity of the draft survey, and (c) assessing the underlying factor structure, reliability, and validity of the survey. A cross-sectional design was employed. In Phase 1, a team of experts in survey development produced a draft survey. In Phase 2, the content validity of the draft survey was evaluated by a panel of individuals with expertise in physical activity coalitions. In Phase 3, the survey was administered to 120 individuals on local-, state-, and national-level physical activity coalitions. Responses were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis in order to determine the survey's underlying factor structure, reliability, and validity. Phases 1 and 2yielded a survey instrument with demonstrated content validity. Phase 3 yielded a three-factor model with three subscales: Strategic Alignment, Organizational Alignment, and Providing Input. Each subscale demonstrated high internal consistency reliability and construct validity. The survey instrument developed here demonstrated sound psychometric properties and provides new insight into organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions. This instrument may be an important tool in developing a more complete picture of coalition functioning in physical activity coalitions specifically and health-based coalitions overall. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  18. Basic Needs and Education in Portugal. The Portugal Project. Document No. XIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erasmie, Thord

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare the socio-economic factors that can be expected to influence the education system in Portugal, where urbanization has been very slow. The report examines basic needs in Portugal's 18 districts and makes recommendations about resource allocation to planners of adult education programs. Extensive…

  19. Atmospheric circulation classification comparison based on wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric circulation classifications are not a simple description of atmospheric states but a tool to understand and interpret the atmospheric processes and to model the relation between atmospheric circulation and surface climate and other related variables (Radan Huth et al., 2008). Classifications were initially developed with weather forecasting purposes, however with the progress in computer processing capability, new and more robust objective methods were developed and applied to large datasets prompting atmospheric circulation classification methods to one of the most important fields in synoptic and statistical climatology. Classification studies have been extensively used in climate change studies (e.g. reconstructed past climates, recent observed changes and future climates), in bioclimatological research (e.g. relating human mortality to climatic factors) and in a wide variety of synoptic climatological applications (e.g. comparison between datasets, air pollution, snow avalanches, wine quality, fish captures and forest fires). Likewise, atmospheric circulation classifications are important for the study of the role of weather in wildfire occurrence in Portugal because the daily synoptic variability is the most important driver of local weather conditions (Pereira et al., 2005). In particular, the objective classification scheme developed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000) to classify the atmospheric circulation affecting Portugal have proved to be quite useful in discriminating the occurrence and development of wildfires as well as the distribution over Portugal of surface climatic variables with impact in wildfire activity such as maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. This work aims to present: (i) an overview the existing circulation classification for the Iberian Peninsula, and (ii) the results of a comparison study between these atmospheric circulation classifications based on its relation with wildfires and relevant meteorological

  20. Supporting members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Life Supporting Members L. Thomas Aldrich Thomas D. Barrow Hugh J . A. Chivers Allan V. Cox Samuel S. Goldich Pembroke J. Hart A. Ivan Johnson Helmut E. Landsberg Paolo Lanzano Murli H. Manghnani L. L. Nettleton Charles B. Officer Hyman Orlin Ned A. Ostenso Erick O. Schonstedt Waldo E. Smith Athelstan Spilhaus A. F. Spilhaus, Jr. John W. Townsend, Jr. James A. Van Allen Leonard W. Weis Charles A. Whitten J. Tuzo Wilson

  1. An Atlas of State Profiles Which Estimate Number of Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers and Members of Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    This atlas is designed to facilitate planning for health services for migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFWs) and for evaluating the extent to which existing programs are reaching the target population. The document estimates how many MSFWs are present in counties of each state, and shows where they work or reside. Chapter 1 introduces the reader…

  2. University Restructuring and the Reconfiguration of Faculty Members' Work Context in a Public State University in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montero-Hernandez, Virginia; Levin, John S.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the effects of neo-liberal restructuring for universities upon the reconfiguration of academics' work context in a public state university in Mexico. Findings show that implementation of the federal program titled Faculty Enhancement Program during the late 1990s created a separation between traditional and new academic…

  3. CEC Member Receives Award for Innovative Teaching: Meet the First State Farm Good Neighbor Award Winner Theresa Santiago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichmann, Sharon

    1998-01-01

    Describes the work and educational approach of Theresa Santiago, a special education teacher and winner of the State Farm Good Neighbor Award in Brooklyn, New York. Emphasis is on ecologically-themed lessons in math, science, and language arts and field trips to enrich the learning of her disadvantaged students with a variety of disabilities. (DB)

  4. Experimentation with e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid: a cross-sectional study in 28 European Union member states

    PubMed Central

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Laverty, Anthony A; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe patterns of experimentation with electronic cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid, their self-reported impact on smoking cessation and to identify factors associated with self-reported successful quit attempts within the European Union (EU). Design A cross-sectional study. Setting 28 European Union member states. Methods We analysed data from wave 82.4 of the Special Eurobarometer survey, collected in December 2014 from all 28 EU member states. The total sample size was n=27 801 individuals aged ≥15 years; however, our analyses were conducted in different subgroups with sample sizes ranging from n=470 to n=9363. Data on e-cigarette experimentation and its self-reported impact on smoking cessation were collected. Logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with experimentation of e-cigarettes as cessation aids and with successful quitting. Logistic regression was also used to assess changes in the use of e-cigarettes as cessation aids between 2012 (using data from wave 77.1 of the Eurobarometer) and 2014 in each member state. Results E-cigarettes were often experimented with as a cessation aid, especially among younger smokers (OR=5.29) and those who reported financial difficulties (OR=1.33). In total, 10.6% of those who had ever attempted to quit smoking and 27.4% of those who did so using a cessation aid had experimented with e-cigarettes as a cessation aid. Among those who had used e-cigarettes as a cessation aid, those with higher education were more likely to have been successful in quitting (OR=2.23). There was great variation in trends of use of e-cigarette as a cessation aid between member states. Conclusions Experimentation with e-cigarettes as a potential cessation aid at a population level has increased throughout the EU in recent years, and certain population groups are more likely to experiment with them as cessation aids. Research on the potential population impact of these trends is imperatively

  5. Ecole et communaute au Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Alberto

    1980-09-01

    Since 1974 Portugal has experienced some dramatic changes in educational practices at the local level. The school has been opened to the community and the community to the school. Teacher education now includes community studies, designed to prepare teachers for an active role in this process and for the better understanding of the social background of pupils. One new practice is the publication of local newspapers or news-sheets to enhance the understanding of the community by teachers and pupils. The development of a school garden for the cultivation of flowers and vegetables serves as another bridge between school and community. Other examples of community action are adult literacy classes, the creation of voluntary organisations for women, the running of youth clubs, the formation of co-operatives, and local projects like the purchase of an old tram-car to be converted into a library. The introduction of `Civic and Polytechnic Education' for 13-16 year olds was an important innovation. One half-day a week was to be devoted to the integration of the school with the locality, young people's participation in society as agents of change, the linking of study and productive work, and the involvement of young people in the solution of national problems, working from a concrete knowledge of local and regional life. However, since 1976 there has been a more conservative approach, and only in places with a strong consensus amongst teachers has the new relationship between school and community been maintained.

  6. Criminalization of stalking in Italy: one of the last among the current European member states' anti-stalking laws.

    PubMed

    De Fazio, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates the state of knowledge on stalking in Italy from the first scientific review published in 2001 to the recent anti-stalking law, which became effective in February 2009, introducing a new article in the existing Italian Penal Code. In recent years the interest in stalking has increased progressively, such that it is now possible to find official data on the prevalence of the phenomenon in Italy. At the same time, European research activity has moved from the recognition of the phenomenon to analysis of pathways for a victim's assessment of stalking risk and enactment of legal regulation. The new law is described and analyzed.

  7. Suicidal ideation and associated factors among students aged 13-15 years in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states, 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess suicidal ideation and associated factors in school-going adolescents in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13-15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the cross-sectional global school-based student health survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The overall prevalence of suicidal ideation in the past 12 months across seven ASEAN countries was 12.3%, significantly higher in girls (15.1%) than boys (9.3%). Among seven ASEAN countries with the highest prevalence of suicidal ideation was in the Philippines (17.0%) and Vietnam (16.9%) and the lowest in Myanmar (1.1%) and Indonesia (4.2%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, female gender, older age (14 or 15 years), living in a lower middle income country, having no friends, loneliness, bullying victimisation, having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months, lack of parental or guardian support, tobacco use and having a history of ever got drunk were associated with suicidal ideation. Different rates of suicidal ideation were observed in ASEAN member states. Several risk factors for suicidal ideation were identified which can help guide preventive efforts.

  8. Prevalence of tobacco use among students aged 13-15 years in Health Ministers' Council/Gulf Cooperation Council Member States, 2001-2004.

    PubMed

    Moh'd Al-Mulla, Ahmad; Abdou Helmy, Sahar; Al-Lawati, Jawad; Al Nasser, Sami; Ali Abdel Rahman, Salah; Almutawa, Ayesha; Abi Saab, Bassam; Al-Bedah, Abdullah Mohammed; Al-Rabeah, Abdullah Mohamed; Ali Bahaj, Ahmed; El-Awa, Fatimah; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira

    2008-06-01

    This article examines differences and similarities in adolescent tobacco use among Member States of the Health Ministers' Council for the Gulf Cooperation Council (HMC/GCC) using Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data. Nationally representative samples of students in grades associated with ages 13-15 in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Schools were selected proportional to enrollment size, classes were randomly selected within participating schools, and all students in selected classes were eligible to participate. GYTS results confirmed that boys are significantly more likely than girls to smoke cigarettes or use shisha (water pipe). Students had higher rates of tobacco use than adults in Bahrain, Oman, and United Arab Emirates. For boys and girls, shisha use was higher than cigarette smoking in almost all countries. Susceptibility to initiate smoking among never smokers was higher than current cigarette smoking in all countries. Exposure to secondhand smoke in public places was greater than 30%, direct protobacco advertising exposure was greater than 70% on billboards and in newspapers, and more than 10% of students were influenced by indirect advertising. Finally, less than half of the students were taught in school about the dangers of tobacco use in the past year. For boys and girls, high prevalence of cigarette smoking, high prevalence of shisha use, and high susceptibility of never smokers to initiate smoking in the next year are troubling indicators for the future of chronic disease and tobacco-related mortality in the Member States of the HMC/GCC.

  9. Risk factors for severe outcomes among members of the United States military hospitalized with pneumonia and influenza, 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    Van Kerkhove, Maria D; Cooper, Michael J; Cost, Angelia A; Sanchez, Jose L; Riley, Steven

    2015-12-08

    The progression from hospitalization for a respiratory infection to requiring substantial supportive therapy is a key stage of the influenza severity pyramid. Respiratory infections are responsible for 300,000-400,000 medical encounters each year among US military personnel, some of which progress to severe acute respiratory infections. We obtained data on 11,086 hospitalizations for pneumonia and influenza (P&I) among non-recruit US military service members during the period of 1 January 2000 through 31 December 2012. From these, we identified 512 P&I hospitalizations that progressed to severe episodes using standard case definitions. We evaluated the effect of demographic and occupational characteristics, co-morbid conditions, and history of influenza vaccination on the risk of a hospitalized P&I case becoming a severe case. We also evaluated the risk of a severe outcome and the length of time since influenza vaccination (within 180, 60, and 30 days). The median age of subjects at the time of the P&I episode was 32 years (range, 28-40) and subjects were predominantly male (89.5%). In a univariate analysis, demographic risk factors for a severe episode included service in the US Air Force (RR=1.6 relative to US Army, 95%CI 1.3-2.1), US Coast Guard (RR=2.1, 1.2-3.7) or US Navy (RR=1.4, 1.1-1.8). Being born in the US and recent influenza vaccination (within 180 days of episode) were protective against developing severe disease. Among co-morbid conditions, univariate risk factors for severe disease included chronic renal or liver disease (RR=4.98, 95%CI 4.1-6.1), diseases of the circulatory system (RR=3.1, 95%CI 2.6-3.7), diabetes mellitus (RR=2.3, 95%CI 1.5-3.6), obesity (RR=1.6, 95%CI 1.2-2.1), cancer (RR=1.6, 95%CI 1.3-2.0), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (RR=1.4, 95%CI 1.1-1.7). Although many of the risk factors found to be significant in univariate analysis were no longer significant under a multivariate analysis, receipt of any influenza vaccine

  10. Risk factors for severe outcomes among members of the United States military hospitalized with pneumonia and influenza, 2000–2012

    PubMed Central

    Van Kerkhove, Maria D; Cooper, Michael J.; Eick-Cost, Angelia A.; Sanchez, Jose L.; Riley, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Background The progression from hospitalization for a respiratory infection to requiring substantial supportive therapy is a key stage of the influenza severity pyramid. Respiratory infections are responsible for 300,000 to 400,000 medical encounters each year among US military personnel, some of which progress to severe acute respiratory infections. Methods We obtained data on 11,086 hospitalizations for pneumonia and influenza (P&I) among non-recruit US military service members during the period of 1 January 2000 through 31 December 2012. From these, we identified 512 P&I hospitalizations that progressed to severe episodes using standard case definitions. We evaluated the effect of demographic and occupational characteristics, comorbid conditions, and history of influenza vaccination on the risk of a hospitalized P&I case becoming a severe case. We also evaluated the risk of a severe outcome and the length of time since influenza vaccination (within 180, 60 and 30 days). Results The median age of subjects at the time of the P&I episode was 32 years (range, 28–40) and subjects were predominantly male (89.5%). In a univariate analysis, demographic risk factors for a severe episode included service in the US Air Force (RR=1.6 relative to US Army, 95%CI 1.3-2.1), US Coast Guard (RR=2.1, 1.2-3.7) or US Navy (RR=1.4, 1.1-1.8). Being born in the US and recent influenza vaccination (within 180 days of episode) were protective against developing severe disease. Among comorbid conditions, univariate risk factors for severe disease included chronic renal or liver disease (RR=4.98, 95%CI 4.1-6.1), diseases of the circulatory system (RR=3.1, 95%CI 2.6-3.7), diabetes mellitus (RR=2.3, 95%CI 1.5-3.6), obesity (RR=1.6, 95%CI 1.2-2.1), cancer (RR=1.6, 95%CI 1.3-2.0) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (RR=1.4, 95%CI 1.1-1.7). Although many of the risk factors found to be significant in univariate analysis were no longer significant under a multivariate analysis, receipt

  11. Epidemiology of hepatitis B in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mário J; Valente, João; Capela, Tiago; Russo, Pedro; Calinas, Filipe

    2017-03-01

    The epidemiology of hepatitis B in Portugal is insufficiently characterized. We aimed to review the epidemiology of hepatitis B in Portugal since 1980. A literature review was performed in MEDLINE, Scielo, Web of Science, and the Portuguese Scientific Repository for studies containing 'Hepatitis B' and 'Portugal' published from 1980 to June 2016. The initial search was complemented by abstract books from national gastroenterology and hepatology meetings and reports from the Service for Intervention on Addictive Behaviours and Dependences, the Portuguese Blood Institute, and Directorate-General of Health. Further studies were identified in references of retrieved papers and https://www.google.pt. Ninety references were included. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence was up to 2% in the general population and decreased in the last decades: 1.13-2.0% in studies carried out in 1980-1989 and 0.02-1.45% in studies carried out in 1990-2014. Among pregnant women, HBsAg prevalence was 1.35% in those on primary care, but 6.2% among risk parturients. Among drug abusers, HBsAg prevalence decreased from 10-19.6% in the decades of 1980-1990 to 4.8% in 2014. Higher HBsAg prevalence rates were observed among populations of African or Asian origin. Individuals with hepatitis B were mostly men, mean age 36.9-49 years. The most frequent viral genotype was D. Genotype E is more prevalent in patient cohorts from Central-Southern Portugal (10-62%) than those from Northern Portugal (1-4.1%). The proportion of inactive carriers varied from 24.2 to 73%. The prevalence of cirrhosis varied from 5.8 to 23.7%. Portugal is a low-endemicity country for hepatitis B. Nevertheless, prevalence is high among specific subgroups that may benefit from specifically designed healthcare programs.

  12. Organizational Member Involvement in Physical Activity Coalitions across the United States: Development and Testing of a Novel Survey Instrument for Assessing Coalition Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Daniel B.; Pate, Russell R.; Beets, Michael W.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Coalitions are often composed of member organizations. Member involvement is thought to be associated with coalition success. No instrument currently exists for evaluating organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions. This study aimed to develop a survey instrument for evaluating organizational member involvement…

  13. Organizational Member Involvement in Physical Activity Coalitions across the United States: Development and Testing of a Novel Survey Instrument for Assessing Coalition Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Daniel B.; Pate, Russell R.; Beets, Michael W.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Coalitions are often composed of member organizations. Member involvement is thought to be associated with coalition success. No instrument currently exists for evaluating organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions. This study aimed to develop a survey instrument for evaluating organizational member involvement…

  14. Homicide of Family Members, Acquaintances, and Strangers, and State-To-State Differences in Social Stress, Social Control and Social Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman-Prehn, Ronet; And Others

    This study examined three theories which might account for the large differences between states in the incidence of homicide, and particularly the theory that stress causes homicide. The other theories are those which hold that homicide is a function of cultural norms which support violence and of a weak system of social control. The regression…

  15. The Voices of Non-Adopters: Members of the Virginia and Nebraska State Boards of Education on Why Their States Did Not Adopt the Common Core Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Education Standard, 2012

    2012-01-01

    On June 24, 2010, the Virginia Board of Education unanimously adopted a statement expressing its continuing commitment to Virginia's Standards of Learning (SOL) and opposition to making participation in federal grant and entitlement programs contingent on word-for-word adoption of the newly developed Common Core State Standards in reading and…

  16. The Voices of Non-Adopters: Members of the Virginia and Nebraska State Boards of Education on Why Their States Did Not Adopt the Common Core Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Education Standard, 2012

    2012-01-01

    On June 24, 2010, the Virginia Board of Education unanimously adopted a statement expressing its continuing commitment to Virginia's Standards of Learning (SOL) and opposition to making participation in federal grant and entitlement programs contingent on word-for-word adoption of the newly developed Common Core State Standards in reading and…

  17. Complete and draft genome sequences of six members of the Aquificales.

    PubMed

    Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; Hamamura, N; Podar, M; Griffiths, E; Ferreira, S; Hochstein, R; Heidelberg, J; Johnson, J; Mead, D; Pohorille, A; Sarmiento, M; Schweighofer, K; Seshadri, R; Voytek, M A

    2009-03-01

    The Aquificales are widespread in marine and terrestrial hydrothermal environments. Here, we report the complete and draft genome sequences of six new members of the Aquificales: two marine species, Persephonella marina strain EX-H1 and Hydrogenivirga strain 128-5-R1 (from the East Pacific Rise, 9 degrees 50.3'N, 104 degrees 17.5'W, and the Eastern Lau Spreading Center, 176 degrees 11.5'W, 20 degrees 45.8'S, respectively), and four terrestrial isolates, Sulfurihydrogenibium azorense strain Az-Fu1, Sulfurihydrogenibium yellowstonense strain SS-5, and Sulfurihydrogenibium strain Y03AOP1 (from Furnas, Azores, Portugal, and Calcite Springs and Obsidian Pool in Yellowstone National Park, United States, respectively), and the only thermoacidophilic isolate, Hydrogenobaculum strain Y04AAS1 (from a stream adjacent to Obsidian Pool). Significant differences among the different species exist that include nitrogen metabolism, hydrogen utilization, chemotaxis, and signal transduction, providing insights into their ecological niche adaptations.

  18. Child Poverty in Portugal: Dimensions and Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastos, Amelia; Nunes, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the extent and persistence of child poverty in Portugal between 1995 and 2001. Data from the Portuguese component of the European Community Household Panel Survey (ECHP) are used to estimate child poverty rates and children's flows in and out of poverty. The article focuses upon an analysis based on family income and on a set…

  19. Child Poverty in Portugal: Dimensions and Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastos, Amelia; Nunes, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the extent and persistence of child poverty in Portugal between 1995 and 2001. Data from the Portuguese component of the European Community Household Panel Survey (ECHP) are used to estimate child poverty rates and children's flows in and out of poverty. The article focuses upon an analysis based on family income and on a set…

  20. Taking New Paths: Experiential Education in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Katia

    2008-01-01

    Pressley Ridge is a non-profit organization that provides an array of treatment services to at-risk and developmentally delayed children that allow them to remain close to their families and communities. In 2007 Pressley Ridge Portugal started an experiential education and adventure therapy center. This pilot project aims to help participants…

  1. Annual effective dose of ionizing radiation from natural sources received by airline aircrew members compared with that received by non-flying residents of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedberg, W.; Copeland, K.; O'Brien, K., III

    In evaluating health aspects of the ionizing radiation exposure of aircrews, risk estimates are normally based on the amount of cosmic radiation received in flight. Not considered is that aircrews spend most of their time on the ground. In this report, annual total effective doses of ionizing radiation from natural sources received by aircrews on and off the job, flying between Los Angeles and Tokyo or Chicago and London, are compared with doses to non-flying residents of the United States and non-flying residents of Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 (Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado --- the region in the United States with the highest dose rates of natural ionizing radiation at ground level). Occupational exposure of aircrews to ionizing radiation is thought to increase their risk of fatal cancer. It may not be a significant concern if one considers: (a) the annual dose of ionizing radiation to the crewmembers in our study is only 7-41% higher than that received by non-flying residents of Region 8 (terrestrial gamma and cosmic radiation in the Denver, Colorado, area of Region 8); (b) the dose to non-flying residents of Region 8 is 87% higher than the average dose to non-flying residents of the United States; and (c) the estimated death rate from cancer in the six states in Region 8 is 3-26% lower than the average for the United States. When considering health concerns of aircrew members, one should recognize that the standard risk coefficient for radiation-induced fatal cancer is derived primarily from studies on individuals exposed to radiation at higher doses and dose rates and of generally lower energy, than the galactic cosmic radiation to which aircrews are exposed. These differences are a major reason that epidemiology studies are important in evaluating health aspects of the occupational radiation exposure of aircrews.

  2. Air quality management in Portugal: example of needs and available tools.

    PubMed

    Borrego, C; Miranda, A I; Coutinho, M; Ferreira, J; Carvalho, A C

    2002-01-01

    The Framework Directive (FWD) and the proposed Daughter Directives are the newest legislative instruments concerning a new political strategy and air quality management approach for Europe. Additionally, the member countries of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe have included the concepts of critical load and level for planning air pollution abatement strategies and as a base of international agreements concerning limitation of the emissions of air pollutants. These concepts imply an accurate knowledge about pollutants deposition fluxes. The paper describes the main needs and the tools available to define a strategy of air quality management in Portugal. Two study cases are presented: (1) extensive monitoring plan to assess the impact of an urban incinerator plant; and (2) contribution to a methodology to estimate critical levels for a coastal region in Portugal. These different approaches allowed illustrating the complexity of the implementation of an air pollution management strategy.

  3. Water resource management: a comparative evaluation of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, the European Union, and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Ronaldo S; da Gloria Alves, Maria; Condesso de Melo, M Teresa; Chrispim, Zélia M P; Mendes, M Paula; Silva Júnior, Gerson C

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of water resource management in Brazil, in particular the state of Rio de Janeiro, and in the European Union, with an emphasis on member country Portugal. The study examines the primary laws, governing bodies and water resource plans. The paper describes the concerns and interests of the scientific community and other sectors of society with regard to water resource management. The paper also draws attention to challenges and opportunities concerning the main objective of water resource management, which is to ensure the availability of water of high quality and sustainable quantity. Additionally, it also mentions good and poor management practices. Among the concerns highlighted are integrated water resource management and water resource monitoring. The objective of this study was to contribute to water resource management processes. The primary reasons for this study are the growing scarcity of freshwater in the world, recurrent problems in managing this resource and a desire to contribute to the improvement of the current situation. The study of water management in different contexts allows for a greater understanding of the subject, thereby assisting the decision-making of managers and society in general with regard to environmental quality and ecological and human health. There is an increasing interest in efficient water resource management, which creates a demand for information on the subject. Both Brazil and the European Union are facing problems related to quantity and quality of water. Problems like scarcity of freshwater, contamination, salinization, and floods. This makes the realities of them quite close, despite the physical distance between them. In general, Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, the European Union and Portugal have similar water resource management requirements. If these regions are to supply a consistent quantity of high-quality water to present and future generations, then they need effective laws and plans

  4. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend. It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others. Furthermore, with an adequate management, biodiversity can be restored to abandoned salinas, which constitute important feeding and breeding grounds for resident and migratory aquatic birds, many of which are protected by European Community Directives. The aims of this manuscript are to present a brief overview on the current state of sea salt exploitation in Portugal and to stress the importance of recovering these salinas for the conservation of this particular environment, for the regional economy, the scientific community and the general public. The Aveiro salina complex is presented in detail, to exemplify salina structure and functioning, as well as current problems and potential solutions for artisanal salinas. PMID:22053788

  5. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Carolina M; Bio, Ana; Amat, Francisco; Vieira, Natividade

    2011-11-04

    Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend.It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others. Furthermore, with an adequate management, biodiversity can be restored to abandoned salinas, which constitute important feeding and breeding grounds for resident and migratory aquatic birds, many of which are protected by European Community Directives.The aims of this manuscript are to present a brief overview on the current state of sea salt exploitation in Portugal and to stress the importance of recovering these salinas for the conservation of this particular environment, for the regional economy, the scientific community and the general public. The Aveiro salina complex is presented in detail, to exemplify salina structure and functioning, as well as current problems and potential solutions for artisanal salinas.

  6. Large-scale forcing on lightning in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. A.; Sousa, J.; Reis, M. A.; Leite, S. M.; Correia, S.; Fraga, H.; Fragoso, M.

    2012-04-01

    An overview of the large-scale atmospheric forcing on the occurrence of cloud-to-ground lightning activity over Portugal is presented here. A dataset generated by a network of nine sensors, maintained by the Portuguese Meteorological Institute (four sensors) and by Spanish Meteorological Agency (five sensors), with available data over the 2003-2009 time period (7 years) is used for this purpose. For the same time period, a state-of-the-art high-resolution reanalysis dataset in a 1.0° latitude × 1.0° longitude grid (Modern Era Retrospective - Analysis for Research and Applications; MERRA300) is also considered in order to assess the atmospheric large-scale features over the target region. Three lightning regimes of the atmospheric general circulation within the Euro-Atlantic sector can be clearly detected. These regimes are characterized according to their underlying dynamical conditions (sea surface pressure, 500 hPa geopotential height and air temperature, streamlines of the 10 m wind vectors, and best 4-layer lifted index at 500 hPa). The spatial distribution of lighting activity in Portugal (patterns of the density of the atmospheric electrical discharges) is also analyzed for each regime separately. Considerations regarding seasonality, flash polarity and daily cycles in the lighting activity are also given for each lightning regime.

  7. Czech Republic to Become Member of ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Today, an agreement was signed in Prague between ESO and the Czech Republic, aiming to make the latter become a full member of ESO as of 1 January 2007. "The future membership of the Czech Republic in ESO opens for the Czech astronomers completely new opportunities and possibilities. It will foster this discipline on the highest quality level and open new opportunities for Czech industry to actively cooperate in research and development of high-tech instruments for astronomical research," said Miroslava Kopicová, Minister of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic. ESO PR Photo 52/06 ESO PR Photo 52/06 Signing Ceremony "We warmly welcome the Czech Republic as the thirteenth member of ESO," said Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General. "The timing couldn't be better chosen: with the Very Large Telescope, Europe is now at the forefront of ground-based astronomy, and with the construction of ALMA and the final studies for the European Extremely Large Telescope, we will ensure that this will remain so for several decades. We look forward to working together with our Czech colleagues towards these successes." The signing event took place at the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports in Prague. Following ratification by the Czech Parliament, the Czech Republic with thus join the twelve present member states of ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere: Belgium, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The Czech Republic is the first country from Central and Eastern Europe to join ESO. Astronomy in the Czech Republic has a very long tradition that dates from as far back as 3500 BC. Four centuries ago, Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler established themselves in Prague at the invitation of the emperor Rudolph II, laying the ground for the first golden age in astronomy. Later, eminent scientists such as Christian Doppler, Ernst Mach and

  8. An Approach to Cluster EU Member States into Groups According to Pathways of Salmonella in the Farm-to-Consumption Chain for Pork Products.

    PubMed

    Vigre, Håkan; Domingues, Ana Rita Coutinho Calado; Pedersen, Ulrik Bo; Hald, Tine

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the project as the cluster analysis was to in part to develop a generic structured quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) model of human salmonellosis due to pork consumption in EU member states (MSs), and the objective of the cluster analysis was to group the EU MSs according to the relative contribution of different pathways of Salmonella in the farm-to-consumption chain of pork products. In the development of the model, by selecting a case study MS from each cluster the model was developed to represent different aspects of pig production, pork production, and consumption of pork products across EU states. The objective of the cluster analysis was to aggregate MSs into groups of countries with similar importance of different pathways of Salmonella in the farm-to-consumption chain using available, and where possible, universal register data related to the pork production and consumption in each country. Based on MS-specific information about distribution of (i) small and large farms, (ii) small and large slaughterhouses, (iii) amount of pork meat consumed, and (iv) amount of sausages consumed we used nonhierarchical and hierarchical cluster analysis to group the MSs. The cluster solutions were validated internally using statistic measures and externally by comparing the clustered MSs with an estimated human incidence of salmonellosis due to pork products in the MSs. Finally, each cluster was characterized qualitatively using the centroids of the clusters.

  9. ZFHX4 interacts with the NuRD core member CHD4 and regulates the glioblastoma tumor-initiating cell state.

    PubMed

    Chudnovsky, Yakov; Kim, Dohoon; Zheng, Siyuan; Whyte, Warren A; Bansal, Mukesh; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Gopal, Shuba; Theisen, Matthew A; Bilodeau, Steve; Thiru, Prathapan; Muffat, Julien; Yilmaz, Omer H; Mitalipova, Maya; Woolard, Kevin; Lee, Jeongwu; Nishimura, Riko; Sakata, Nobuo; Fine, Howard A; Carpenter, Anne E; Silver, Serena J; Verhaak, Roel G W; Califano, Andrea; Young, Richard A; Ligon, Keith L; Mellinghoff, Ingo K; Root, David E; Sabatini, David M; Hahn, William C; Chheda, Milan G

    2014-01-30

    Glioblastoma (GBM) harbors subpopulations of therapy-resistant tumor-initiating cells (TICs) that are self-renewing and multipotent. To understand the regulation of the TIC state, we performed an image-based screen for genes regulating GBM TIC maintenance and identified ZFHX4, a 397 kDa transcription factor. ZFHX4 is required to maintain TIC-associated and normal human neural precursor cell phenotypes in vitro, suggesting that ZFHX4 regulates differentiation, and its suppression increases glioma-free survival in intracranial xenografts. ZFHX4 interacts with CHD4, a core member of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex. ZFHX4 and CHD4 bind to overlapping sets of genomic loci and control similar gene expression programs. Using expression data derived from GBM patients, we found that ZFHX4 significantly affects CHD4-mediated gene expression perturbations, which defines ZFHX4 as a master regulator of CHD4. These observations define ZFHX4 as a regulatory factor that links the chromatin-remodeling NuRD complex and the GBM TIC state.

  10. Empirical rainfall thresholds for landslide occurrence in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zêzere, José Luis; Vaz, Teresa; Pereira, Susana; Oliveira, Sérgio C.; Marques, Rui; Garcia, Ricardo A. C.

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall is the most important physical process responsible for the landslide triggering in Portugal. Following the work of Zêzere et al. (2014), we present the state of the art concerning the proposition of empirical rainfall thresholds in Portugal for different types of landslides observed in different zones of the country: the Lisbon region, the Douro Valley and the NW Mountains, and the Povoação Municipality in São Miguel Island (Azores). The empirical thresholds applied in Portugal are based on the identification of 120 landslide events and include (i) the computation of antecedent rainfall threshold defined by linear regression, (ii) the normalization of rainfall by the mean annual precipitation, (iii) the definition of combined rainfall thresholds, which integrates the rainfall event and the antecedent rainfall for different time periods, and (iv) the definition of lower limit and upper limit rainfall thresholds. The intensity-duration (ID) threshold is the empirical rainfall threshold more used worldwide. In mainland Portugal, the highest ID rainfall threshold is registered in the NW Mountains, which is the rainiest zone of the country. The Lisbon Region typically receives less rain per year and the corresponding ID threshold is lower than that obtained in the north part of the country. The Povoação study area evidence a contrasting situation, which is associated to the highest value of the negative exponential of the threshold (-0.66). As a consequence, for short duration (< 10 h) this threshold is only exceeded in the NW Mountains, while for long durations (>1,000 h) it is below the remaining thresholds. The normalization of the ID threshold by the mean annual precipitation (MAP) has showed that, in relative terms: (i) the ID threshold is highest in Lisbon Region for duration less than 50 h; (ii) in the north of the country, the ID threshold is more exigent in the Douro Valley than in the NW Mountains and (iii) the ID threshold in Povoa

  11. Voxel-wise resting-state MEG source magnitude imaging study reveals neurocircuitry abnormality in active-duty service members and veterans with PTSD.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming-Xiong; Yurgil, Kate A; Robb, Ashley; Angeles, Annemarie; Diwakar, Mithun; Risbrough, Victoria B; Nichols, Sharon L; McLay, Robert; Theilmann, Rebecca J; Song, Tao; Huang, Charles W; Lee, Roland R; Baker, Dewleen G

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a leading cause of sustained impairment, distress, and poor quality of life in military personnel, veterans, and civilians. Indirect functional neuroimaging studies using PET or fMRI with fear-related stimuli support a PTSD neurocircuitry model that includes amygdala, hippocampus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). However, it is not clear if this model can fully account for PTSD abnormalities detected directly by electromagnetic-based source imaging techniques in resting-state. The present study examined resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in 25 active-duty service members and veterans with PTSD and 30 healthy volunteers. In contrast to the healthy volunteers, individuals with PTSD showed: (1) hyperactivity from amygdala, hippocampus, posterolateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), and insular cortex in high-frequency (i.e., beta, gamma, and high-gamma) bands; (2) hypoactivity from vmPFC, Frontal Pole (FP), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in high-frequency bands; (3) extensive hypoactivity from dlPFC, FP, anterior temporal lobes, precuneous cortex, and sensorimotor cortex in alpha and low-frequency bands; and (4) in individuals with PTSD, MEG activity in the left amygdala and posterolateral OFC correlated positively with PTSD symptom scores, whereas MEG activity in vmPFC and precuneous correlated negatively with symptom score. The present study showed that MEG source imaging technique revealed new abnormalities in the resting-state electromagnetic signals from the PTSD neurocircuitry. Particularly, posterolateral OFC and precuneous may play important roles in the PTSD neurocircuitry model.

  12. Balance of academic responsibilities of clinical track pharmacy faculty in the United States: a survey of select American College of Clinical Pharmacy Practice and Research Network Members.

    PubMed

    Nutescu, Edith A; Engle, Janet P; Bathija, Sacheeta; Grim, Shellee A; Chan, Juliana; Mucksavage, Jeffrey J; Ohler, Kirsten H; Tesoro, Eljim P; Thielke, James J; Shapiro, Nancy L; Donnelly, Andrew J; Garofalo, John; DiDomenico, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    To characterize the balance of clinical and academic responsibilities of clinical track pharmacy faculty in the United States and evaluate organizational structures that promote satisfactory balance between these responsibilities. Prospective cross-sectional survey. A 22-item online survey was developed and distributed via Qualtrics software. Clinical faculty members of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy Adult Medicine, Ambulatory Care, Cardiology, Critical Care, Gastrointestinal/Liver/Nutrition, Immunology/Transplantation, Infectious Disease, and Pediatrics Practice and Research Networks (PRNs) were invited to participate via the PRN electronic mailing list. The survey comprised questions related to demographics, organizational structure, and balance of clinical and academic responsibilities. A total of 344 participants responded to some or all of the survey questions. The demographics were relatively equally balanced between faculty at state and private academic institutions, academic rank, and practice setting. Expected and actual effort allocations were similar for each of the clinical and academic responsibilities, with direct patient care and clinical teaching representing more than 50% effort allocation cumulatively. Clinical faculty at state institutions devoted a larger proportion of time to clinical service, whereas clinical faculty at private institutions devoted a greater proportion of time to didactic teaching. When asked about time constraints, 157 (69.8%) of the 225 survey participants responding to this question did not believe they had sufficient time to fulfill their nonclinical academic needs. Clinical faculty who were provided "protected time" away from clinical service had a significantly more favorable opinion of this question. Most of the clinical track pharmacy faculty indicated that they have insufficient time to fulfill their nonclinical academic responsibilities. Provision of protected time may alleviate some of these time

  13. Voxel-wise resting-state MEG source magnitude imaging study reveals neurocircuitry abnormality in active-duty service members and veterans with PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ming-Xiong; Yurgil, Kate A.; Robb, Ashley; Angeles, Annemarie; Diwakar, Mithun; Risbrough, Victoria B.; Nichols, Sharon L.; McLay, Robert; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Song, Tao; Huang, Charles W.; Lee, Roland R.; Baker, Dewleen G.

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a leading cause of sustained impairment, distress, and poor quality of life in military personnel, veterans, and civilians. Indirect functional neuroimaging studies using PET or fMRI with fear-related stimuli support a PTSD neurocircuitry model that includes amygdala, hippocampus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). However, it is not clear if this model can fully account for PTSD abnormalities detected directly by electromagnetic-based source imaging techniques in resting-state. The present study examined resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in 25 active-duty service members and veterans with PTSD and 30 healthy volunteers. In contrast to the healthy volunteers, individuals with PTSD showed: 1) hyperactivity from amygdala, hippocampus, posterolateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), and insular cortex in high-frequency (i.e., beta, gamma, and high-gamma) bands; 2) hypoactivity from vmPFC, Frontal Pole (FP), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in high-frequency bands; 3) extensive hypoactivity from dlPFC, FP, anterior temporal lobes, precuneous cortex, and sensorimotor cortex in alpha and low-frequency bands; and 4) in individuals with PTSD, MEG activity in the left amygdala and posterolateral OFC correlated positively with PTSD symptom scores, whereas MEG activity in vmPFC and precuneous correlated negatively with symptom score. The present study showed that MEG source imaging technique revealed new abnormalities in the resting-state electromagnetic signals from the PTSD neurocircuitry. Particularly, posterolateral OFC and precuneous may play important roles in the PTSD neurocircuitry model. PMID:25180160

  14. 7 CFR 1205.328 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.328 Alternate members. An alternate member of the... member from the same cotton-producing state or region to serve in such member's place and stead of...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.328 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.328 Alternate members. An alternate member of the... member from the same cotton-producing state or region to serve in such member's place and stead of...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.328 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.328 Alternate members. An alternate member of the... member from the same cotton-producing state or region to serve in such member's place and stead of...

  17. Availability and Use of HIV Monitoring and Early Infant Diagnosis Technologies in WHO Member States in 2011-2013: Analysis of Annual Surveys at the Facility Level.

    PubMed

    Habiyambere, Vincent; Ford, Nathan; Low-Beer, Daniel; Nkengasong, John; Sands, Anita; Pérez González, Mercedes; Fernandes, Paula; Milgotina, Ekaterina

    2016-08-01

    The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 targets have reinforced the importance of functioning laboratory services to ensure prompt diagnosis and to assess treatment efficacy. We surveyed the availability and utilization of technologies for HIV treatment monitoring and early infant diagnosis (EID) in World Health Organization (WHO) Member States. The survey questionnaire included 14 structured questions focusing on HIV testing, cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) testing, HIV viral load (VL) testing, and EID and was administered annually from 2012 to 2014 through WHO country offices, with each survey covering the previous 12-mo period. Across 127 targeted countries, survey response rates were 60% in 2012, 67% in 2013, and 78% in 2014. There were encouraging trends towards increased procurement of CD4 and VL/EID instruments in reporting countries. Globally, the capacity of available CD4 instruments was sufficient to meet the demand of all people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), irrespective of treatment status (4.62 theoretical tests per PLWHA in 2013 [median 7.33; interquartile range (IQR) 3.44-17.75; median absolute deviation (MAD) 4.35]). The capacity of VL instruments was inadequate to cover all PLWHA in many reporting countries (0.44 tests per PLWHA in 2013 [median 0.90; IQR 0.30-2.40; MAD 0.74]). Of concern, only 13.7% of existing CD4 capacity (median 4.3%; IQR 1.1%-12.1%; MAD 3.8%) and only 36.5% of existing VL capacity (median 9.4%; IQR 2.3%-28.9%; MAD 8.2%) was being utilized across reporting countries in 2013. By the end of 2013, 7.4% of all CD4 instruments (5.8% CD4 conventional instruments and 11.0% of CD4 point of care [POC]) and 10% of VL/EID instruments were reportedly not in use because of lack of reagents, the equipment not being installed or deployed, maintenance, and staff training requirements. Major limitations of this survey included under-reporting and/or incomplete reporting in some national programmes and noncoverage

  18. Chemical ligation of S-scylated cysteine peptides to form native peptides via 5-, 11-, and 14-membered cyclic transition states.

    PubMed

    Katritzky, Alan R; Tala, Srinivasa R; Abo-Dya, Nader E; Ibrahim, Tarek S; El-Feky, Said A; Gyanda, Kapil; Pandya, Keyur M

    2011-01-07

    Cysteine-containing dipeptides 3a-l, (3b+3b') (compound numbers in parentheses are used to indicate racemic mixtures; thus (3b+3b') is the racemate of 3b and 3b'), and tripeptide 13 were synthesized in 68-96% yields by acylation of cysteine with N-(Pg-α-aminoacyl)- and N-(Pg-α-dipeptidoyl)benzotriazoles (where Pg stands for protecting group in the nomenclature for peptides throughout the paper) in the presence of Et(3)N. Cysteine-containing peptides 3a-l and 13 were S-acylated to give S-(Pg-α-aminoacyl)dipeptides 5a-l and S-(Pg-α-aminoacyl)tripeptide 14 without racemization in 47-90% yields using N-(Pg-α-aminoacyl)benzotriazoles 2 in CH(3)CN-H(2)O (7:3) in the presence of KHCO(3). (In our peptide nomenclature, the prefixes di-, tri-, etc. refer to the number of amino acid residues in the main peptide chain; amino acid residues attached to sulfur are designated as S-acyl peptides. Thus we avoid use of the prefix "iso".) Selective S-acylations of serine peptide 3k and threonine peptide 3l containing free OH groups were thus achieved in 58% and 72% yield, respectively. S-(Pg-α-aminoacyl)cysteines 4a,b underwent native chemical ligations to form native dipeptides 3f,i via 5-membered cyclic transition states. Microwave irradiation of S-(Pg-α-aminoacyl)tripeptide 15 and S-(Pg-α-aminoacyl)tetrapeptide 17 in the presence of NaH(2)PO(4)/Na(2)HPO(4) buffer solution at pH 7.8 achieved chemical ligations, involving intramolecular migrations of acyl groups, via 11- and 14-membered cyclic transition states from the S-atom of a cysteine residue to a peptide terminal amino group to form native peptides 19 and 20 in isolated yields of 26% and 23%, respectively.

  19. Availability and Use of HIV Monitoring and Early Infant Diagnosis Technologies in WHO Member States in 2011–2013: Analysis of Annual Surveys at the Facility Level

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Nathan; Low-Beer, Daniel; Nkengasong, John; Sands, Anita; Pérez González, Mercedes; Fernandes, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Background The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 targets have reinforced the importance of functioning laboratory services to ensure prompt diagnosis and to assess treatment efficacy. We surveyed the availability and utilization of technologies for HIV treatment monitoring and early infant diagnosis (EID) in World Health Organization (WHO) Member States. Methods and Findings The survey questionnaire included 14 structured questions focusing on HIV testing, cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) testing, HIV viral load (VL) testing, and EID and was administered annually from 2012 to 2014 through WHO country offices, with each survey covering the previous 12-mo period. Across 127 targeted countries, survey response rates were 60% in 2012, 67% in 2013, and 78% in 2014. There were encouraging trends towards increased procurement of CD4 and VL/EID instruments in reporting countries. Globally, the capacity of available CD4 instruments was sufficient to meet the demand of all people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), irrespective of treatment status (4.62 theoretical tests per PLWHA in 2013 [median 7.33; interquartile range (IQR) 3.44–17.75; median absolute deviation (MAD) 4.35]). The capacity of VL instruments was inadequate to cover all PLWHA in many reporting countries (0.44 tests per PLWHA in 2013 [median 0.90; IQR 0.30–2.40; MAD 0.74]). Of concern, only 13.7% of existing CD4 capacity (median 4.3%; IQR 1.1%–12.1%; MAD 3.8%) and only 36.5% of existing VL capacity (median 9.4%; IQR 2.3%–28.9%; MAD 8.2%) was being utilized across reporting countries in 2013. By the end of 2013, 7.4% of all CD4 instruments (5.8% CD4 conventional instruments and 11.0% of CD4 point of care [POC]) and 10% of VL/EID instruments were reportedly not in use because of lack of reagents, the equipment not being installed or deployed, maintenance, and staff training requirements. Major limitations of this survey included under-reporting and/or incomplete reporting in

  20. Nursing in Portugal: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    This global perspectives column on nursing in Portugal is based primarily on an edited transcript of an interview by the author with Nuno Miguel Dias Pereira, who has a master's degree in nursing management and is a doctoral nursing student at Lisbon University. The interview took place on June 7, 2013. In additional to being a doctoral student, Mr. Periera has a position at the Portuguese Institute of Oncology in Lisbon.

  1. Multivariate statistical analysis of wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Ricardo; Caramelo, Liliana; Pereira, Mário

    2013-04-01

    Several studies demonstrate that wildfires in Portugal present high temporal and spatial variability as well as cluster behavior (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). This study aims to contribute to the characterization of the fire regime in Portugal with the multivariate statistical analysis of the time series of number of fires and area burned in Portugal during the 1980 - 2009 period. The data used in the analysis is an extended version of the Rural Fire Portuguese Database (PRFD) (Pereira et al, 2011), provided by the National Forest Authority (Autoridade Florestal Nacional, AFN), the Portuguese Forest Service, which includes information for more than 500,000 fire records. There are many multiple advanced techniques for examining the relationships among multiple time series at the same time (e.g., canonical correlation analysis, principal components analysis, factor analysis, path analysis, multiple analyses of variance, clustering systems). This study compares and discusses the results obtained with these different techniques. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005: "Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal". Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 This work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692, the project FLAIR (PTDC/AAC-AMB/104702/2008) and the EU 7th Framework Program through FUME (contract number 243888).

  2. Using cellular automata to simulate forest fire propagation in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Joana; daCamara, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Wildfires in the Mediterranean region have severe damaging effects mainly due to large fire events [1, 2]. When restricting to Portugal, wildfires have burned over 1:4 million ha in the last decade. Considering the increasing tendency in the extent and severity of wildfires [1, 2], the availability of modeling tools of fire episodes is of crucial importance. Two main types of mathematical models are generally available, namely deterministic and stochastic models. Deterministic models attempt a description of fires, fuel and atmosphere as multiphase continua prescribing mass, momentum and energy conservation, which typically leads to systems of coupled PDEs to be solved numerically on a grid. Simpler descriptions, such as FARSITE, neglect the interaction with atmosphere and propagate the fire front using wave techniques. One of the most important stochastic models are Cellular Automata (CA), in which space is discretized into cells, and physical quantities take on a finite set of values at each cell. The cells evolve in discrete time according to a set of transition rules, and the states of the neighboring cells. In the present work, we implement and then improve a simple and fast CA model designed to operationally simulate wildfires in Portugal. The reference CA model chosen [3] has the advantage of having been applied successfully in other Mediterranean ecosystems, namely to historical fires in Greece. The model is defined on a square grid with propagation to 8 nearest and next-nearest neighbors, where each cell is characterized by 4 possible discrete states, corresponding to burning, not-yet burned, fuel-free and completely burned cells, with 4 possible rules of evolution which take into account fuel properties, meteorological conditions, and topography. As a CA model, it offers the possibility to run a very high number of simulations in order to verify and apply the model, and is easily modified by implementing additional variables and different rules for the

  3. Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Magrinho, Alexandre; Didelet, Filipe; Semiao, Viriato . E-mail: ViriatoSemiao@ist.utl.pt

    2006-07-01

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day.

  4. Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Magrinho, Alexandre; Didelet, Filipe; Semiao, Viriato

    2006-01-01

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day.

  5. Health professionals moving to... and from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Joana Sousa; Conceição, Claudia; Pereira, Joel; Leone, Cláudia; Mendonça, Pedro; Temido, Marta; Vieira, Carlota Pacheco; Dussault, Gilles

    2014-02-01

    The mobility of health professionals in the European Union is a phenomenon which policy-makers must take into account to provide the conditions to adjust for demand and supply of health services. This paper presents the case of Portugal, a country which at the same time imports and exports health workers. Since the early 1990s Portugal became a destination country receiving foreign health care professionals. This situation is now changing with the current economic situation as fewer immigrants come and more Portuguese emigrate. Foreigners coming to Portugal do so in part for similar reasons that bring Portuguese to want to emigrate, mainly the search for better work conditions and professional development opportunities. The emigration of Portuguese health professionals is also stimulated by the difficulty for recently graduated nurses, dentists and diagnostic and therapeutic technicians to find employment, low salaries in the public and private sectors, heavy workloads, remuneration not related to performance and poor career prospects. The paradoxes described in this study illustrate the consequences of the absence of a policy for the health professions. Strategies based on evidence, and on an integrated information system that captures the dynamic evolution of the workforce in health are not only necessary but also a good investment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Population diversity of Theileria annulata in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Jacinto; Salgueiro, Patrícia; Inácio, João; Amaro, Ana; Pinto, João; Tait, Andy; Shiels, Brian; Pereira da Fonseca, Isabel; Santos-Gomes, Gabriela; Weir, William

    2016-08-01

    The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria annulata causes tropical theileriosis, a severe disease of cattle that occurs across the Mediterranean littoral, the Middle East and Southern Asia. In the Mediterranean region, the disease has long been perceived as being a constraint to livestock production in North Africa and Turkey but was believed to have minimal impact in Southern European countries. It has recently been demonstrated that in Southern Portugal the prevalence of T. annulata is approximately 30%. While the population genetics of the parasite and the multiplicity of infection in the bovine host have been studied in a number of countries, no information is currently available on the composition of the parasite population in Southern Europe or its relationship to populations in bordering regions. A parasite genotyping system, based on micro- and mini-satellite amplification, was used to perform genetic analysis of T. annulata populations from T. annulata infected cattle in twelve farms in Southern Portugal. A diversity of genotypes and a high multiplicity of infection were found, suggesting that the parasite possesses a panmictic population in this region. In comparison with genotypes found in Tunisia and Turkey, parasites from Portugal form a genetically distinct group and show lower genetic diversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fishes and tetrapods in the upper pennsylvanian (kasimovian) cohn coal member of the mattoon formation of illinois, United States: Systematics, paleoecology, and paleoenvironments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, D.; Falcon-Lang, H. J.; Benton, M.J.; Nelson, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    A newly discovered vertebrate assemblage is reported from the Upper Pennsylvanian (mid-to upper Kasimovian) Cohn Coal Member of the Mattoon Formation of southeast Illinois, United States. Teeth, scales, and spines of xenacanth (Dicentrodus, Orthacanthus, Triodus, Xenacanthus) and euselachian (Sphenacanthus) sharks dominate the assemblage. Less common are the teeth, scales, and centra of holocephalan (Helodus) and actinopterygian fishes, together with rare tetrapod (mainly pelycosaur) phalanges and centra. The assemblage occurs within a broad, shallow channel incised into a prominent Vertisol. The channel is interpreted as having been cut during a seasonally dry glacial phase when sea level was low, but filled during a subsequent transgression triggered by deglaciation. We interpret this as a brackish water (estuarine) assemblage, based on the co-occurrence of the vertebrate material with spirorbids (putative microconchids) and paleoecological inferences gleaned from a critical analysis of the literature dealing with Pennsylvanian fish ecology. This interpretation is broadly consistent with taphonomic data and the results of 87Sr/86Sr isotope analysis of shark material. The pelycosaur material may have been reworked from the lowstand Vertisol, however, and these animals occupied dryland niches that developed during glacial phases. ?? 2011 SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  8. Hepatitis B and C surveillance and screening programmes in the non-EU/EEA Member States of the WHO European Region: survey findings from 10 countries, 2012.

    PubMed

    Mozalevskis, Antons; Eramova, Irina; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2016-06-02

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemics warrant a comprehensive response based on reliable population-level information about transmission, disease progression and disease burden, with national surveillance systems playing a major role. In order to shed light on the status of surveillance in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region outside of the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA), we surveyed 18 countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Among the 10 countries that responded, the common features of many surveillance systems included mandatory surveillance, passive case-finding and the reporting of both acute and chronic HBV and HCV. Only some countries had surveillance systems that incorporated the tracking of associated conditions and outcomes such as cirrhosis and liver transplantation. Screening programmes for some key populations appeared to be in place in many countries, but there may be gaps in relation to screening programmes for people who inject drugs, prisoners, sex workers and men who have sex with men. Nonetheless, important components of a surveillance structure are in place in the responding study countries. It is advisable to build on this structure to develop harmonised HBV and HCV surveillance for all 53 Member States of the WHO European Region following the example of the system recently instituted in EU/EEA countries.

  9. Tsunami flooding along Tagus estuary, Portugal, the 1531 event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.; Batlo, J.; Ferreira, H.

    2012-04-01

    TSUNAMI FLOODING ALONG TAGUS ESTUARY (PORTUGAL), THE 1531 EVENT The city of Lisbon one of the main towns in Europe between the XVI and XVIII centuries was severely damaged by two strong earthquakes: 1531-01-26 and 1755-11-01 and the companion tsunamis. In this study we present a re-evaluation of the data available for this event. The 26 January 1531 earthquake occurred between 4 and 5 am and was felt mainly in Lisbon and surroundings dwellings along the Tagus river estuary. The shock heavily destroyed Lisbon downtown causing approximately 1000 casualties Two foreshocks preceded the event: on the 2nd and the 7th January 1531, respectively. The maximum MSK intensity is IX, making it one of the most disastrous earthquakes in the recent history of Portugal. The historical descriptions clearly describe the observation of high waves and the ships touching the riverbed. Although, the difference between tsunamis and storms is sometimes unclear in some historical documents, in this case, the occurrence of the of the earthquake definitively states clearly excludes the hypothesis of a storm. Moreover, the king's chronicle clearly states the observation of high waves and the lack of wind. Other reports consistent with the occurrence of a tsunami are the observation of strong fluxes and refluxes in the river the division of islands into smaller ones and the observation of the riverbed. In this study we present a re-appraisal of the historical information available, a new isoseismal map and the relocation of the epicentre. Finally, we present a tsunami simulation and propagation along a section of 70 km along Tagus estuary compatible with the earthquake data and the historical accounts.

  10. 77 FR 30508 - Open Meeting To Obtain Input for 2013 DoD 10 Key State Issues Impacting Service Members and Their...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Members and Their Families AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The public is invited to attend an open session to consider issues impacting Service members and their families that can... improve school transition for children in active duty military families to overcome problems with records...

  11. 32 CFR 1630.12 - Class 1-C: Member of the Armed Forces of the United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Coast Guard. (d) Exclusive of periods for training only, every registrant who is a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces and is on active duty, and every member of the reserve of the Public Health Service on active duty and assigned to staff the various offices and bureaus of the Public Health Service...

  12. 32 CFR 1630.12 - Class 1-C: Member of the Armed Forces of the United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Coast Guard. (d) Exclusive of periods for training only, every registrant who is a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces and is on active duty, and every member of the reserve of the Public Health Service on active duty and assigned to staff the various offices and bureaus of the Public Health Service...

  13. Bovine tuberculosis surveillance in cattle and free-ranging wildlife in EU Member States in 2013: a survey-based review.

    PubMed

    Rivière, J; Carabin, K; Le Strat, Y; Hendrikx, P; Dufour, B

    2014-10-10

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a common disease in cattle and wildlife, with animal health, zoonotic and economic impacts. Most of the TB data for the European Union (EU) concern the epidemiological situation, but comprehensive descriptions of the way in which surveillance is conducted in each country are rare, despite being essential for cross-Europe comparisons. A European survey was conducted in the 28 Member States and in three other neighboring countries (Norway, Macedonia and Switzerland), to review TB surveillance in cattle and wildlife. EU legislation currently requires TB surveillance solely in cattle. Considerable differences between the surveillance systems of the 26 responding countries were observed, according to the official TB-freedom status of the country and the local prevalence of TB. These differences related principally to the combination of surveillance components (routine screening test in herd and/or movement testing and/or slaughterhouse surveillance), the tests used and their interpretation, and the definition of an infected herd or animal. For wildlife TB surveillance, only 8 on 21 respondent countries have declared to have implemented passive and/or active surveillance, with marked differences concerning the species and the geographical scale of the surveillance. The choice of the combination of surveillance components depends on the national or regional epidemiological situation, the species involved in TB epidemiology and epidemiological risk factors, although various surveillance systems have been recorded for countries with similar epidemiological status. Assessments of the cost-effectiveness of each surveillance system would be useful, to confirm the advantages of implementing one or more components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Geographic variation and socio-demographic determinants of the co-occurrence of risky health behaviours in 27 European Union member states.

    PubMed

    Filippidis, F T; Agaku, I T; Vardavas, C I

    2016-06-01

    Risky health behaviours such as tobacco and alcohol abuse, physical inactivity and poor diet may play an important role in disease development. The aim of the present study was to assess the geographical distribution and socio-demographic determinants of risky health-related behaviours in 27 member states (MSs) of the European Union (EU). Data from the 2009 Eurobarometer survey (wave 72.3; n = 26 788) were analysed. Tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity and fruit consumption were assessed through a self-reported questionnaire provided to participants from 27 EU MSs. Within the analyses, participants with three or more lifestyle risk factors were classified as individuals with co-occurrence of risk factors. Among respondents aged 15 or older, 28.2% had none of the aforementioned behavioural risk factors, whereas 9.9% had three or more lifestyle risk factors. Males [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.50; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.17-2.88] and respondents of middle (aOR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.36-1.89) or lower income (aOR = 2.63; 95% CI: 2.12-3.26) were more likely to report co-occurrence of behavioural risk factors, as well as respondents in Northern (aOR = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.14-1.78), Western (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.06-1.56) and Eastern Europe (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.06-1.55), when compared with Southern European respondents. The above analyses indicate significant geographical and social variation in the distribution of the co-occurrence of behavioural risk factors for disease development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. OECD Review of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    On 26 February in Lisbon a team from the OECD's Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) presented its first review of a national school building programme. The school building renovation programme in Portugal, which began in March 2007, involves the renovation of 332 schools by 2015. However, Portugal plans to complete 205 by the end of…

  16. Immigration and Supplementary Ethnic Schooling: Ukrainian Students in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tereshchenko, Antonina; Grau Cárdenas, Valeska Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Immigration from Eastern European countries to Portugal is a recent phenomenon. Within the last decade, economic migrants from Ukraine, Russia, Romania and Moldova set up a number of supplementary schools across the country. No academic attention has been given to the phenomenon of supplementary ethnic schools in Portugal, whilst there is a…

  17. OECD Review of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    On 26 February in Lisbon a team from the OECD's Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) presented its first review of a national school building programme. The school building renovation programme in Portugal, which began in March 2007, involves the renovation of 332 schools by 2015. However, Portugal plans to complete 205 by the end of…

  18. Immigration and Supplementary Ethnic Schooling: Ukrainian Students in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tereshchenko, Antonina; Grau Cárdenas, Valeska Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Immigration from Eastern European countries to Portugal is a recent phenomenon. Within the last decade, economic migrants from Ukraine, Russia, Romania and Moldova set up a number of supplementary schools across the country. No academic attention has been given to the phenomenon of supplementary ethnic schools in Portugal, whilst there is a…

  19. First autochthone case of sporotrichosis by Sporothrix globosa in Portugal.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Veríssimo, Cristina; Sabino, Raquel; Aranha, João; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Sampaio, Paula; Pais, Célia

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we characterize the first autochthone case of human sporotrichosis reported in Lisbon, Portugal. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization revealed that the infection was caused by Sporothrix globosa. We conclude that sporotrichosis may be underdiagnosed particularly in Southern Europe and suggest Portugal as an emerging area for this fungal infection.

  20. Grandparents in multigenerational households: the case of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Paula C

    2011-09-01

    Population ageing has paved the way for important and lasting multigenerational bonds, particularly between grandparents and grandchildren. Proximity is a powerful enhancer of relations, and co-residence, by involving continual proximity and long-term commitment, is particularly facilitative of significant linkages between generations. Although co-residence has generally been decreasing in Western societies, in the last decades of the millennium, a trend reversal was identified in the proportion of multigenerational households in the USA. Using data drawn from the European Community Household Panel, 1994-2001, some descriptive insights are provided that were considered to be missing in regard to the socio-demographic composition of extended households with grandparents in Portugal. Additionally, this study finds a rising trend in the proportion of multigenerational households, specifically those that include both grandparents and grandchildren. Portugal is possibly the European country that has the highest probability of exhibiting this pattern of evolution, because of the combination of its being a welfare state with limited resources, its historical reliance on family solidarity and its high level of participation of women in the labor market. Co-residence is a type of intergenerational transfer that can benefit any of the generations involved, but the direction of its net flow is still open to debate. A breakdown is made of its trend into age, period and cohort effects, in order to contribute to the discussion of the relative importance of the different generations in the shared living arrangement. Our findings suggest a mixture of interests, as well as a predominant influence of contemporary circumstances in the observed trend. These contemporary circumstances may be persistent or transient, but co-residence with grandparents is certainly an enduring mechanism, which households use in order to meet their needs.

  1. [Comment on] BOSP members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The new Board on Ocean Science and Policy (BOSP) (Eos, June 7, 1983, p. 402) met for the first time on May 4. John B. Slaughter, former director of the National Science Foundation and now chancellor of the University of Maryland in College Park, is the board's chairman. Other board members are D. James Baker, Jr. (University of Washington, Seattle); Kirk Bryan (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton University); John P. Craven (University of Hawaii); Charles L. Drake (Dartmouth College); Paul M. Fye (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Edward D. Goldberg (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); G. Ross Heath (Oregon State University); Judith T. Kildow (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); John A. Knauss (University of Rhode Island); James J. McCarthy (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University); H. William Menard (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); C. Barry Raleigh (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory); Roger Revelle (University of California, San Diego); David A. Ross (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Brian J. Rothschild (University of Maryland); William M. Sackett (University of South Florida); John H. Steele (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); and Carl Wunsch (MIT). Wallace Broecker (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory), an original board member, resigned after the first meeting. Broecker told Eos that combining the science and policy boards resulted in a new board whose mission is too broad. A new board member will be appointed in Broecker's place

  2. Nurses in advanced roles: a review of acceptability in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Buchan, James; Temido, Marta; Fronteira, Ines; Lapão, Luis; Dussault, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the policy context for the deployment of nurses in advanced roles, with particular reference to Portugal. The health sector in Portugal, as in all countries, is labour intensive, and the scope to utilise nurses in more advanced roles is currently being debated. Mixed methods were used: an analysis of international data on the nursing workforce; an analysis of documents and media articles; interviews with key-informants; an online survey of managers, and a technical workshop with key-informants. The limited evidence base on nurses in advanced roles in Portugal is a constraint on progress, but it is not an excuse for inaction. Further research in Portugal on health professionals in innovative roles would assist in informing policy direction. There is the need to move forward with a fully informed policy dialogue, taking account of the current political, economic and health service realities of Portugal.

  3. Initial Special Reports Submitted by Member States on the Action Taken by Them Upon the Recommendation Concerning the International Standardization of Library Statistics, Adopted by the General Conference During its Sixteenth Session. Item 21 of the Provisional Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Reports, some only partial, from the member states regarding their action on the topic of international standards for library statistics are presented. The 22 countries represented in this report are: Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Cuba, Dahomey, Denmark, Finland, France, Federal Republic of Germany, India, Israel, Japan, Libya, Nepal,…

  4. Portugal takes step back on abortion legalization.

    PubMed

    1998-07-01

    According to international press reports, a law that would have allowed Portuguese women abortions through the 10th week of pregnancy and into the 16th week if their physical or mental health was at risk has been rescinded after a referendum to determine the statute's future was voided because of low voter turnout. Passed in February, the law was a liberalization of Portugal's strict anti-abortion laws, which ban all abortions except for narrowly defined medical reasons or in the case of rape (and those are permitted only until the 12th week of pregnancy). Because the issue is such a controversial one, politicians had turned to a national referendum asking Portuguese voters to overturn or ratify the new law. The referendum was the first in the country since the end of its right-wing dictatorship in 1974, and 50% participation was required. Only 31.5% of the country's 8.5 million eligible voters went to the polls on June 28. Of those voting, 50.9% voted against the liberalized new legislation. Sunny weather and World Cup soccer matches were both pointed to as reasons for the low turnout. Officials estimate there are some 20,000 illegal abortions annually in Portugal. Abortion-rights activists in the mostly Roman-Catholic country say hospitals see roughly 10,000 women a year suffering from complications from illegal abortions, and that at least 800 women die each year from the procedure. In the next day's Diario de Noticias, a daily paper in Portugal, the entire front page was filled with a giant question mark. "What now, lawmakers?" the headline read. full text

  5. Molecular characterization of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Rúben; Amador, Paula; Oliveira, Carla; Prudêncio, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) prevalence was studied in the north of Portugal, among 193 clinical isolates belonging to citizens in a district in the boundaries between this country and Spain from a total of 7529 clinical strains. In the present study we recovered some members of Enterobacteriaceae family, producing ESBL enzymes, including Escherichia coli (67.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (30.6%), Klebsiella oxytoca (0.5%), Enterobacter aerogenes (0.5%), and Citrobacter freundii (0.5%). β -lactamases genes blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing approaches. TEM enzymes were among the most prevalent types (40.9%) followed by CTX-M (37.3%) and SHV (23.3%). Among our sample of 193 ESBL-producing strains 99.0% were resistant to the fourth-generation cephalosporin cefepime. Of the 193 isolates 81.3% presented transferable plasmids harboring bla ESBL genes. Clonal studies were performed by PCR for the enterobacterial repetitive intragenic consensus (ERIC) sequences. This study reports a high diversity of genetic patterns. Ten clusters were found for E. coli isolates and five clusters for K. pneumoniae strains by means of ERIC analysis. In conclusion, in this country, the most prevalent type is still the TEM-type, but CTX-M is growing rapidly.

  6. Molecular Characterization of ESBL-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Northern Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Amador, Paula; Oliveira, Carla; Prudêncio, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) prevalence was studied in the north of Portugal, among 193 clinical isolates belonging to citizens in a district in the boundaries between this country and Spain from a total of 7529 clinical strains. In the present study we recovered some members of Enterobacteriaceae family, producing ESBL enzymes, including Escherichia coli (67.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (30.6%), Klebsiella oxytoca (0.5%), Enterobacter aerogenes (0.5%), and Citrobacter freundii (0.5%). β-lactamases genes blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing approaches. TEM enzymes were among the most prevalent types (40.9%) followed by CTX-M (37.3%) and SHV (23.3%). Among our sample of 193 ESBL-producing strains 99.0% were resistant to the fourth-generation cephalosporin cefepime. Of the 193 isolates 81.3% presented transferable plasmids harboring bla ESBL genes. Clonal studies were performed by PCR for the enterobacterial repetitive intragenic consensus (ERIC) sequences. This study reports a high diversity of genetic patterns. Ten clusters were found for E. coli isolates and five clusters for K. pneumoniae strains by means of ERIC analysis. In conclusion, in this country, the most prevalent type is still the TEM-type, but CTX-M is growing rapidly. PMID:24701189

  7. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Rosário; Costa, Gracinda

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear medicine in Portugal has been an autonomous speciality since 1984. In order to obtain the title of Nuclear Medicine Specialist, 5 years of training are necessary. The curriculum is very similar to the one approved under the auspices of the European Union of Medical Specialists, namely concerning the minimum recommended number of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. There is a final assessment, and during the training the resident is in an approved continuing education programme. Departments are accredited by the Medical College in order to verify their capacity to host nuclear medicine residencies.

  8. Establishment of heart teams in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Sousa Uva, M; Leite Moreira, A; Gavina, C; Pereira, H; Lopes, M G

    2014-01-01

    Whenever several therapeutic options exist, multidisciplinary decision-making is beneficial for the patient and for society at large. The main obstacles to the establishment of heart teams in Portugal are organizational and logistical. Implementing a heart team approach entails definition of the situations requiring multidisciplinary discussion, creation of clear lines of communication, written protocols and obtaining patient informed consent. The European Society of Cardiology guidelines define the clinical scenarios where intervention of the heart team is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. The determinants of lottery sales in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Kaizeler, Maria João; Faustino, Horácio C; Marques, Rafael

    2014-09-01

    In sum, this paper examines the core determinants of lottery sales in Portugal. With panel data analysis covering 18 Portuguese districts and 5 years, this study explains the variations in a district's per-capita lottery sales in terms of key theoretical hypotheses such as per capita district income, age, education index, gender and religion. This paper concludes that the richer Portuguese districts spend more than the poorer districts and there is an inverted-U relationship between lottery sales and per capita income. The paper also concludes that married Catholic citizens spend more on lottery products than others and that the level of education returns a negative effect on lottery spending.

  10. Policy responses to viral hepatitis B and C among people who inject drugs in Member States of the WHO European region: a sub-analysis of the WHO 2013 global hepatitis policy survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Unsafe injections, through infectious bodily fluids, are a major route of transmission for hepatitis B and C. Viral hepatitis burden among people who inject drugs is particularly high in many Member States of central and Eastern Europe while national capacity and willingness to address it varies greatly. In 2013, the World Health Organization conducted a survey assessing national viral hepatitis efforts of 194 national governments. Here, we present a sub-analysis of this global survey focusing on questions relating to people who inject drugs in the WHO European Region. Methods The initial survey included 43 questions covering awareness, data, prevention, and screening and treatment. It was sent in five languages to identified national focal points. This sub-analysis included 11 questions and 53 Member States in the WHO European Region. Descriptive analyses of national activities are presented. As a secondary outcome bivariate analyses of differences between Member States of the European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) compared to those not in said grouping are presented. Results Forty-four of the 53 Member States responded to the survey (response rate of 83%). More than three-quarters reported offering publicly-funded treatment for HBV or HCV (82% and 80%, respectively), with a significantly higher proportion of EU/EFTA Member States (P=0.004 and P=0.010, respectively). Half of Member States (53%) reported the existence of a national policy for hepatitis prevention and control; however less than one-third (27%) reported having written national strategies. Under half of the responding Member States reported holding events for World Hepatitis Day 2012. One-fifth reported offering hepatitis B and C testing free of charge, with less than one-third reportedly conducting regular serosurveys among people who inject drugs. Conclusions Findings highlight key gaps requiring attention in order to improve national policies and programmes in the

  11. 32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Returning members, employees, and family members... THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas. The Air Force expects...

  12. 32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Returning members, employees, and family members... THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas. The Air Force expects...

  13. Experiences of a Community-Based Lymphedema Management Program for Lymphatic Filariasis in Odisha State, India: An Analysis of Focus Group Discussions with Patients, Families, Community Members and Program Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Tali; Worrell, Caitlin M; Little, Kristen; Prakash, Aishya; Patra, Inakhi; Rout, Jonathan; Fox, LeAnne M

    2016-02-01

    Globally 68 million people are infected with lymphatic filariasis (LF), 17 million of whom have lymphedema. This study explores the effects of a lymphedema management program in Odisha State, India on morbidity and psychosocial effects associated with lymphedema. Focus groups were held with patients (eight groups, separated by gender), their family members (eight groups), community members (four groups) and program volunteers (four groups) who had participated in a lymphedema management program for the past three years. Significant social, physical, and economic difficulties were described by patients and family members, including marriageability, social stigma, and lost workdays. However, the positive impact of the lymphedema management program was also emphasized, and many family and community members indicated that community members were accepting of patients and had some improved understanding of the etiology of the disease. Program volunteers and community members stressed the role that the program had played in educating people, though interestingly, local explanations and treatments appear to coexist with knowledge of biomedical treatments and the mosquito vector. Local and biomedical understandings of disease can co-exist and do not preclude individuals from participating in biomedical interventions, specifically lymphedema management for those with lymphatic filariasis. There is a continued need for gender-specific psychosocial support groups to address issues particular to men and women as well as a continued need for improved economic opportunities for LF-affected patients. There is an urgent need to scale up LF-related morbidity management programs to reduce the suffering of people affected by LF.

  14. Understanding and Limiting School Board Member Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Terry; Jones, Stephanie; Purvis, Mary L.; Rubin, David B.; Thrasher, Doralee; Underwood, Julie; Watkins, W. David

    This book is a primer on board-member liability issues and is intended for both board members and school attorneys. The first chapter, "The Legal System," examines federal sources of legal authority, state and local sources of legal authority, and federal and state judicial structures. Liability under state tort law is the subject of chapter 2,…

  15. Understanding and Limiting School Board Member Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Terry; Jones, Stephanie; Purvis, Mary L.; Rubin, David B.; Thrasher, Doralee; Underwood, Julie; Watkins, W. David

    This book is a primer on board-member liability issues and is intended for both board members and school attorneys. The first chapter, "The Legal System," examines federal sources of legal authority, state and local sources of legal authority, and federal and state judicial structures. Liability under state tort law is the subject of chapter 2,…

  16. Community support and disclosure of HIV serostatus to family members by public-sector antiretroviral treatment patients in the Free State Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Edwin; van Loon, Francis; van Rensburg, Dingie; Meulemans, Herman

    2009-05-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the support of close relatives is fundamental in coping with HIV/AIDS and in accessing the emotional and material support necessary for sustained adherence to treatment. Because disclosure to family members is imperative to ensure their support, identifying tools or resources that can minimize the possible risks and maximize the potential benefits of disclosure should be useful in improving the lives of people living with HIV/AIDS. Where health systems require strengthening, engaging the community in HIV/AIDS care could potentially create an environment that encourages disclosure to family members. This study investigated the impact of community support initiatives (community health workers and treatment support groups), patient characteristics (age, gender, and education), and time since first diagnosis on the disclosure of serostatus to family members by a sample of 268 public-sector antiretroviral treatment patients in a province of South Africa between August 2004 and July 2007. Whereas gender, age, and education only weakly influenced disclosure, there was a strong and stable positive association between community support and disclosure to family members. The immediate and long-term impact of community support on the disclosure by seropositive patients to family members indicates that initiatives such as community health workers and HIV support groups run by people living with HIV/AIDS should be strengthened, especially for those patients who cannot disclose their status to immediate family and close friends.

  17. QuickStats: Distribution of Long-Term Care Staffing* Hours,(†) by Staff Member Type and Sector - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-04-29

    In 2014, aides provided more hours of care in the major sectors of long-term care than the other staffing types shown. Aides accounted for 60% of all staffing hours in nursing homes, compared with licensed practical or vocational nurses (21%), registered nurses (13%), activities staff members (5%), and social workers (2%). Aides accounted for 75% of all staffing hours in residential care communities, in contrast to activities staff members (11%), registered nurses (7%), licensed practical or vocational nurses (6%), and social workers (1%). In adult day services centers, aides provided 41% of all staffing hours, followed by activities staff members (32%), registered nurses (12%), licensed practical or vocational nurses (9%), and social workers (6%).

  18. [Portugal and Europe are poliomyelitis free].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Guilherme; Santos, Luís Almeida; Sarmento, António; Rocha, Graça; Valente, Paula

    2003-01-01

    On the 21st of June 2002, in Copenhagen, the Regional Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication, declared the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) as polio-free. The last case (not imported) of poliomyelitis in Europe had occurred in November 1998. The health impact is enormous. In Portugal, the last case of poliomyelitis caused by the wild poliovirus, had occurred in December 1986. The path to eradication in Portugal had begun with a vaccination campaign in 1965/1966, with the oral polio vaccine (Sabin). High vaccination coverage has been maintained since then. The Portuguese program to eliminate poliomyelitis follows the strategic recommendations of WHO, with three components: vaccination; surveillance of acute placid paralysis (AFP); laboratory containment of wild polioviruses. Global eradication has not yet been achieved but is likely to happen till 2005. Keeping the high levels of motivation among Portuguese health workers is essential, in order not to loose what has been achieved. High vaccination coverage has to be maintained. Surveillance of AFP has to be improved and the prompt notification of cases by hospital clinicians, sending stool samples to the reference laboratory, is essential for the success of this activity. The laboratory containment programme is important to prevent the accidental reintroduction of poliomyelitis from laboratories.

  19. Sexology in Portugal: Narratives by Portuguese Sexologists.

    PubMed

    Alarcão, Violeta; Beato, Ana; Almeida, Joana; Machado, Fernando Luís; Giami, Alain

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the emergence and development of modern sexology in Portugal through the analysis of Portuguese sexologists' narratives, to explore how they commit to a professional identity as sexologists, and to discuss how they integrate their professional role into the vast multidisciplinary field of sexology. In-depth interviews were conducted with 44 key professionals, purposefully recruited to guarantee heterogeneity concerning generation, gender, training, and practice. Content analysis focused on highlighting differences and articulations among the main professionals making up the field. The findings indicate that sexology is not seen as a full-fledged profession but rather as a specialization or a secondary field of action. The sexual medicine perspective is prevalent and more visible among physicians, thus reflecting the gap between psychosocial and biomedical approaches. A close link between clinical work and research and a gap between clinical work and health promotion were found. Despite the multidisciplinary nature of sexology being acknowledged, it is not fully implemented by the experts in the field. However, it is this characteristic that permitted sexology to institutionalize and to legitimate itself as a discourse of truth about sex, in Portugal as in other countries.

  20. Eimeria infections in goats in Southern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Silva, Liliana Machado Ribeiro da; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João Martins; Nunes, Telmo; Taubert, Anja; Hermosilla, Carlos; Cortes, Helder Carola Espiguinha

    2014-01-01

    Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species is a major form of intestinal infection affecting intensively and semi-intensively reared goats. The province of Alentejo is the main goat-producing area in Portugal. Therefore, all 15 Serpentina goat farms in Alentejo were analyzed regarding the occurrence and diversity of Eimeria species. Fecal samples obtained from 144 animals (52.1% dairy goats, 47.9% pre-pubertal goats) were examined using the modified McMaster technique to determine the number of oocysts per gram of feces. Eimeria spp. oocysts were present in 98.61% of the fecal samples and, overall, nine different Eimeria species were identified. The most prevalent species were E. ninakohlyakimovae (88%) and E. arloingi (85%), followed by E. alijevi (63%) and E. caprovina (63%). The average number of oocysts shed was significantly lower in dairy goats than in pre-adult animals. Astonishingly, no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed in any of the animals examined, even though they were shedding high numbers of oocysts and were infected with highly pathogenic species. Thus, implementation of routine diagnostic investigation of the occurrence and diversity of caprine Eimeria species may be a useful tool for determination and better understanding of their potential economic impact on goat herds in southern Portugal.

  1. Post-fire vegetation dynamics in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    The number of fires and the extent of the burned surface in Mediterranean Europe have increased significantly during the last three decades. This may be due either to modifications in land-use (e.g. land abandonment and fuel accumulation) or to climatic changes (e.g. reduction of fuel humidity), both factors leading to an increase of fire risk and fire spread. As in the Mediterranean ecosystems, fires in Portugal have an intricate effect on vegetation regeneration due to the complexity of landscape structures as well as to the different responses of vegetation to the variety of fire regimes. A thorough evaluation of vegetation recovery after fire events becomes therefore crucial in land management. In the above mentioned context remote sensing plays an important role because of its ability to monitor and characterise post-fire vegetation dynamics. A number of fire recovery studies, based on remote sensing, have been conducted in regions characterised by Mediterranean climates and the use of NDVI to monitor plant regeneration after fire events was successfully tested (Díaz-Delgado et al., 1998). In particular, several studies have shown that rapid regeneration occurs within the first 2 years after the fire occurrences, with distinct recovery rates according to the geographical facing of the slopes (Pausas and Vallejo, 1999). In 2003 Portugal was hit by the most devastating sequence of large fires, responsible by a total burnt area of 450 000 ha (including 280 000 ha of forest), representing about 5% of the Portuguese mainland (Trigo et al., 2006). The aim of the present work is to assess and monitor the vegetation behaviour over Portugal following the 2003 fire episodes. For this purpose we have used the regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument, from 1999 to 2008. We developed a methodology to identify large burnt scars in Portugal for the 2003 fire season. The vegetation dynamics was then

  2. International Focus: Highlighting APPA Members Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazner, Steve, Comp.

    2011-01-01

    While most APPA member institutions are located in the United States and Canada, there are also 45 of member institutions located internationally--from Australia and New Zealand to Southeast Asia to the Middle East to Europe. This article focuses on four of its international members: (1) American University of Kuwait (AUK); (2) American University…

  3. Frequent isolation of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 among healthy pigs in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Teresa; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Aires-de-Sousa, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Although livestock-associated ST398 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been widely reported in different geographic regions, MRSA carriage studies among healthy pigs in Portugal are very limited. In total, 101 swine nasal samples from two Portuguese farms were screened for MRSA. In addition five swine workers (including one veterinary and one engineer) and four household members were nasally screened. The isolates were characterized by spa typing, SCCmec typing and MLST. All isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, presence of mecA and mecC genes, and virulence determinants. MRSA prevalence in swine was 99% (100/101), 80% (4/5) in swine workers and 25% (1/4) in household members. All isolates belonged to ST398 distributed over two spa types-t011 (57%) and t108 (42%). SCCmec type V was present in most of the isolates (n = 95; 82%) while 21 isolates amplified the mecA gene only and were classified as nontypeable. The majority of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline (100%), clindamycin (97%), erythromycin (96%), chloramphenicol (84%) and gentamycin (69%). Notably, 12% showed resistance to quinupristin-dalfopristin (MICs 3-8 μg/mL). Beta-hemolysin (81%) and gamma-hemolysin (74%) were the unique virulence determinants detected. None of the isolates harboured PVL or mecC gene. This study showed a massive occurrence of ST398-MRSA in two independent swine farms, highlighting its establishment among healthy pigs in Portugal.

  4. The Quest for Continuous Improvement: A Qualitative Study on Diffusion of Outcomes Assessment among Career and Technical Education Faculty Members at Rocky Mountain States Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The following qualitative multicase study presents an examination of outcomes assessment adoption as it relates to Career and Technical Education faculty at community colleges and outlines recommendations for postsecondary education administration as they introduce innovations to faculty members. The purpose of this investigation was to explore…

  5. A Descriptive Study of Superintendents' and School Board Members' Perceptions of the Superintendent's Leadership in Rural Districts in Three Mid-Atlantic States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Janet S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain if perceptual differences exist between superintendents and board members regarding superintendents' leadership behaviors in rural school districts. Transformational leadership is considered necessary for organizations to move forward in the 21st century. This research sought to determine if…

  6. First Annual Report of the Commission on Indian Services. Submitted to Members of the Fifty-Ninth Legislative Assembly and the Governor of the State of Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Indian Services, Salem, OR.

    Highlighted in this report is the 1976-77 work of the ten member Commission on Indian Services which was established in 1976 to compile information on services available to Indians, to develop programs to inform Indians of services available to them, to develop programs to make Indian wants and needs known to public and private agencies, and to…

  7. The Quest for Continuous Improvement: A Qualitative Study on Diffusion of Outcomes Assessment among Career and Technical Education Faculty Members at Rocky Mountain States Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The following qualitative multicase study presents an examination of outcomes assessment adoption as it relates to Career and Technical Education faculty at community colleges and outlines recommendations for postsecondary education administration as they introduce innovations to faculty members. The purpose of this investigation was to explore…

  8. A Descriptive Study of Superintendents' and School Board Members' Perceptions of the Superintendent's Leadership in Rural Districts in Three Mid-Atlantic States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Janet S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain if perceptual differences exist between superintendents and board members regarding superintendents' leadership behaviors in rural school districts. Transformational leadership is considered necessary for organizations to move forward in the 21st century. This research sought to determine if…

  9. HIGH PREVALENCE OF Blastocystis spp. INFECTION IN CHILDREN AND STAFF MEMBERS ATTENDING PUBLIC URBAN SCHOOLS IN SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    REBOLLA, Mayra Frozoni; SILVA, Eliete Maria; GOMES, Jancarlo Ferreira; FALCÃO, Alexandre Xavier; REBOLLA, Maria Vicentina Frozoni; FRANCO, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-01-01

    After a gastroenteritis outbreak of unknown etiology in the municipality of Sebastião da Grama, SãoPaulo, Brazil, we conducted a parasitological survey to establish the epidemiological profile of enteroparasitosis in children and staff members attending the public urban schools in operation in town. The cross-sectional study evaluated 172 children aged 11 months to 6 years old and 33 staff members aged 19 to 58 years old. Overall, 96 (55.81%) children and 20 (60.61%) staff members were mono-parasitized, while 58 (33.72%) children and 4 (12.12%) workers were poly-parasitized. Protozoa (88.37%; 72.73%) was more prevalent than helminthes (3.48%; 0%) in children and staff members respectively.Blastocystis spp. was the most prevalent parasite in children (86.63%) and staff members (66.67%). The age of 1 year old or less was found to be associated with increased prevalence of giardiasis [OR = 13.04; 95%CI 2.89-58.91; p = 0.00] and public garbage collection was identified as a protective factor against intestinal helminth infections [OR = 0.06; 95%CI 0.00-0.79; p = 0.03]. Although most of the children tested positive for Blastocystis spp. and also presented clinical signs/symptoms (62.2%), this association was not statistically significant [OR = 1.35; 95%CI 0.53-3.44; p = 0.51]. Intestinal parasites still represent a public health concern and this study underscores the importance of further investigations to better understand the pathogenic role of Blastocystis spp. PMID:27074325

  10. Constructing a strategic, national resource: European policies and the up-scaling of water services in the Algarve, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Water management has been significantly reshaped throughout recent decades in Europe and worldwide. Vivid examples of this restructuring include Southern European coastal zones which have been transformed into the European "pleasure periphery" over the last 40 years, requiring significant changes in water service provision. Taking it as an illustrative case of the Southern European coastal freshwater crisis and the way different European Member States have dealt with it, the article provides an account of the Algarve, indicative of typical Portuguese dynamics, and compares it with developments in other European countries. Expanding demands on water services in this region led to a crisis situation throughout the nineties, which was resolved by shifting physical infrastructures and competencies to the supra-local level. The re-scaling of water management was instrumental to expanding national control over the sector at the expense of local authorities and privatization. The national level used European funds and regulations to re-configure the institutional and infrastructure set-up in order to provide for tourism and agricultural expansion. Quality tourism was constructed as a decentral, hegemonic state spatial project, with the Algarvian's entire water resource base being put at its disposal. The solution found illustrates a modified version of the supply side and surface water oriented "hydraulic paradigm" in Portugal: geared towards tourism and urban areas and the maintenance of irrigation agriculture. Delays in infrastructures, ideological preferences, maintaining national control over strategic water services and territoriality contributed towards the construction of water services as part of this hegemonic state spatial strategy for tourism expansion.

  11. Constructing a Strategic, National Resource: European Policies and the Up-Scaling of Water Services in the Algarve, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Water management has been significantly reshaped throughout recent decades in Europe and worldwide. Vivid examples of this restructuring include Southern European coastal zones which have been transformed into the European “pleasure periphery” over the last 40 years, requiring significant changes in water service provision. Taking it as an illustrative case of the Southern European coastal freshwater crisis and the way different European Member States have dealt with it, the article provides an account of the Algarve, indicative of typical Portuguese dynamics, and compares it with developments in other European countries. Expanding demands on water services in this region led to a crisis situation throughout the nineties, which was resolved by shifting physical infrastructures and competencies to the supra-local level. The re-scaling of water management was instrumental to expanding national control over the sector at the expense of local authorities and privatization. The national level used European funds and regulations to re-configure the institutional and infrastructure set-up in order to provide for tourism and agricultural expansion. Quality tourism was constructed as a decentral, hegemonic state spatial project, with the Algarvian’s entire water resource base being put at its disposal. The solution found illustrates a modified version of the supply side and surface water oriented “hydraulic paradigm” in Portugal: geared towards tourism and urban areas and the maintenance of irrigation agriculture. Delays in infrastructures, ideological preferences, maintaining national control over strategic water services and territoriality contributed towards the construction of water services as part of this hegemonic state spatial strategy for tourism expansion.

  12. Psychosocial concomitants of loneliness among students of Cape Verde and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Neto, F; Barros, J

    2000-09-01

    This research is an examination of the relationship between loneliness and a number of psychosocial variables (e.g., affective state, cultural issues, gender, age) among adolescents and young adults from Cape Verde and Portugal. Two studies are presented. The participants in the first study were 285 adolescents from Cape Verde and 202 from Portugal, and in the second study there were 134 college students from Cape Verde and 112 from Portugal. The following instruments were administered to all the participants in both studies: The Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (D. Russell, L. Peplau, & C. Cutrona, 1980), the Neuroticism Scale (J. Barros, 1999), the Optimism Scale (J. Barros, 1998), the Social Anxiety subscale (A. Fenigstein, M. Scheier, & A. Buss, 1975), and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. Emmons, R. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985). No ethnic or gender differences were found for loneliness between the two groups. For both groups, the most prominent predictors of loneliness were neuroticism and dissatisfaction with life. However, as expected, the adolescent group recorded higher scores for loneliness than did the college students.

  13. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 743 - Wassenaar Arrangement Participating States

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Participating States Argentina Australia Austria Belgium Bulgaria Canada Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia... New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia Slovakia Slovenia South Africa South Korea...

  14. Status/update on activities of the Northeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission, a two-state Compact developing two sites, and its member states (Connecticut and New Jersey)

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, T.M.

    1996-10-01

    This paper provides a brief history and update of recent activities of the Northeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact and its member states. Both Connecticut and New Jersey have developed voluntary siting plans and are now engaged in extensive public outreach activities. The voluntary process has as one of its objectives {open_quotes}to help attain new levels of citizen responsibility for learning about public problems and participating in their solution,{close_quotes} to borrow from the 1994 annual report of the New Jersey Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Siting Board. This goal has implications beyond the siting of a LLRW disposal facility; i.e., how can government, working hand-in-hand with community residents and leaders build a public facility that meets stringent health, safety, and environmental standards, and has the endorsement of the host community? Throughout 1996, New Jersey and Connecticut will continue their outreach efforts, speaking to interested individuals, organizations and communities. In New Jersey, although two towns voted not to consider the possibility of volunteering, even after interest was initially expressed, people in a score of other municipalities have indicated that the disposal facility might, indeed, be an asset to their communities and that they would explore the issues with their friends and neighbors. Connecticut postponed active discussion with three towns based on the reopening of the disposal facility in Barnwell, South Carolina and the associated uncertainties this presented on the national scene. Connecticut does, however, plan on resuming public discussions in the near future. Those charged with implementing the voluntary siting process in both states believe that it can work; moreover, they are convinced that it might well be the type of process that American communities and governments embrace in the future to resolve complex, controversial public policy issues.

  15. Occupational exposure in Portugal in 1999.

    PubMed

    Alves, J G; Martins, M B; Amaral, E M

    2001-01-01

    This study reports the occupational radiation doses for external exposure received in 1999 by the radiation workers monitored by the Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety Department (DPRSN) in Portugal. Occupational exposures arise from conventional industry, research laboratories, the health or medical sector, and mining. There are no nuclear power plants in the country. There are two dosimetry systems running simultaneously at DPRSN, one based on film dosimetry and the other on thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). In 1999, 8400 persons were monitored, 3100 with film and 5300 with TLD and the data presented in this report were obtained by using both technologies. The annual mean effective doses received from external radiation in the different fields of activity and the distribution of the annual effective dose by dose intervals are presented. The collective annual dose by field of activity is estimated and the contribution to the total annual collective dose is determined.

  16. Structural fire risk: The case of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Parente, Joana; Pereira, Mário G

    2016-12-15

    This study is focused in mapping the structural fire risk in the vegetated area of Portugal using a deterministic approach based on the concept of fire risk currently accepted by the scientific community which consists in the combination of the fire hazard and the potential economic damage. The fire susceptibility map of Verde and Zêzere (2010) was adopted and updated by the use of a higher resolution digital terrain model, longer burnt area perimeter dataset (1975-2013) and the entire set of Corine land cover inventories. The susceptibility was mapped with five classes to be in accordance with the Portuguese law and the results confirms the good performance of this model not only in the favourability scores but also in the predictive values. Three different scenarios of (maximum, mean, and minimum annual) burnt area were consider to estimate the fire hazard which allow to estimate the likelihood of a pixel to burn (ranging between 0% and 20%) depending on the class to which it belongs and on the future burnt area scenario. The potential economic damage was estimated with the vulnerability scores and monetary values of species defined in the literature and by law. The obtained fire risk map identifies the areas more prone to be affected by fires in the future and provides an estimate of the economic damage of the fire which will be a valuable tool for forest and fire managers and to minimize the economic and environmental consequences of vegetation fires in Portugal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Neonatal parenteral nutrition prescription practices in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Neves, A; Pereira-da-Silva, L; Fernandez-Llimos, F

    2014-02-01

    The use of guidelines for neonatal parenteral nutrition (PN) improves its clinical efficiency and the safety of prescription. To evaluate the practices of neonatal parenteral nutrition prescription in Portugal, and the adherence to the National Consensus on neonatal PN (2008). A questionnaire based on a multiple choice response on parenteral nutrition prescription was conducted, and sent to the coordinators of the 50 public and private Portuguese neonatal special care units, 25 being level III and 25 level II. Parenteral nutrition was prescribed in 32 neonatal units, 23 of which (71.9%) responded to the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 19 (82.6%) refer to follow the National Consensus, the remaining following local guidelines; 17 (73.9%) of units referred to using an electronic based system for prescription. In preterm neonates, most mentioned: administering judiciously the fluid intake during the first post-natal week; starting amino acids from the first post-natal day with 1.5-3g/kg/d, increasing up to 3-4g/kg/d; starting lipids from the first three post-natal days with 1g/kg/d, increasing up to 3g/kg/d; administering 40-70mg/kg/d of calcium and of phosphorus with the fixed calcium:phosphorus ratio of 1.7: 1 (mg:mg); and estimating the osmolality of the solutions, and weekly monitoring of serum triglycerides, blood urea, serum phosphorus and liver function. The high response rate is probably representative of the practice of PN prescription in Portugal. Most of the units used the National Consensus on neonatal PN as a reference, thus contributing to better nutritional support for neonates. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. DoubleSun® Performance Across Mainland Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, F.; Silva, J.; Leandro, R.; Botelho, D.; Wemans, J.; Sorasio, G.; Brito, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology has been gaining a significant share in Portugal's renewable energy mix. In this paper we focus on the analysis of 29 PV systems (mounted and connected to the grid under the micro-generation incentive scheme in Portugal), from which 59% are DoubleSun® technology, the remaining being flat-plate systems. The period in analysis is July 2009-June 2010. A preliminary analysis of the PV systems has confirmed their high potential in Portugal and highlighted the relevance of such analysis to identify: (1) the geographical characterization of PV performance across mainland Portugal; (2) improvement of a tool [1] that predicts the potential of different PV technologies; and (3) the challenges of PV systems when installed on-field and connected to the grid.

  19. School Law Primer for New Board Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullaly, Paula A.

    School board members from 50 states have in common the United States Constitution and the legal principles announced by the federal courts in response to that Constitution. New board members are usually concerned with the rights of teachers, parents, and students. Starting with student rights, student conduct that involves freedom of expression…

  20. Experiences of a Community-Based Lymphedema Management Program for Lymphatic Filariasis in Odisha State, India: An Analysis of Focus Group Discussions with Patients, Families, Community Members and Program Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Tali; Worrell, Caitlin M.; Little, Kristen; Prakash, Aishya; Patra, Inakhi; Rout, Jonathan; Fox, LeAnne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally 68 million people are infected with lymphatic filariasis (LF), 17 million of whom have lymphedema. This study explores the effects of a lymphedema management program in Odisha State, India on morbidity and psychosocial effects associated with lymphedema. Methodology/Principal Findings Focus groups were held with patients (eight groups, separated by gender), their family members (eight groups), community members (four groups) and program volunteers (four groups) who had participated in a lymphedema management program for the past three years. Significant social, physical, and economic difficulties were described by patients and family members, including marriageability, social stigma, and lost workdays. However, the positive impact of the lymphedema management program was also emphasized, and many family and community members indicated that community members were accepting of patients and had some improved understanding of the etiology of the disease. Program volunteers and community members stressed the role that the program had played in educating people, though interestingly, local explanations and treatments appear to coexist with knowledge of biomedical treatments and the mosquito vector. Conclusions/Significance Local and biomedical understandings of disease can co-exist and do not preclude individuals from participating in biomedical interventions, specifically lymphedema management for those with lymphatic filariasis. There is a continued need for gender-specific psychosocial support groups to address issues particular to men and women as well as a continued need for improved economic opportunities for LF-affected patients. There is an urgent need to scale up LF-related morbidity management programs to reduce the suffering of people affected by LF. PMID:26849126

  1. Burkholderia pseudomallei: First case of melioidosis in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Pelerito, Ana; Nunes, Alexandra; Coelho, Susana; Piedade, Cátia; Paixão, Paulo; Cordeiro, Rita; Sampaio, Daniel; Vieira, Luís; Gomes, João Paulo; Núncio, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacillus and the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious infection associated with high mortality rate in humans. It can be naturally found as an environmental saprophyte in soil or stagnant water, and rice paddies that predominate in regions of endemicity such as Northeast Thailand. B. pseudomallei is a Biosafety Level 3 organism due to risks of aerosolization and severe disease and is now included in formal emergency preparedness plans and guidelines issued by various authorities in the United States and Europe. Here, we report the first case of imported melioidosis in Portugal. B. pseudomallei was isolated from the patient's blood as well as from a left gluteal abscess pus. The isolate strain showed the unusual resistance profile to first-line eradication therapy trimethroprim/sulfamethoxazole. Whole genome sequencing revealed its similarity with isolates from Southeast Asia, suggesting the Thai origin of this Portuguese isolate, which is in agreement with a recent patient's travel to Thailand. PMID:26962474

  2. Monitoring exposure to airborne ultrafine particles in Lisbon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes, João Fernando Pereira; Bordado, João Carlos Moura; Albuquerque, Paula Cristina Silva

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the assessment of exposure levels of ultrafine particles (UFP) in the urban environment of Lisbon, Portugal, due to automobile traffic, by monitoring lung-deposited alveolar surface area (resulting from exposure to UFP) in a major avenue leading to the town centre during late Spring, as well as in indoor buildings facing it. This study revealed differentiated patterns for week days and weekends, consistent with PM(2.5) and PM(10) patterns currently monitored by air quality stations in Lisbon. The observed ultrafine particulate levels could be directly related with the fluxes of automobile traffic. During a typical week, UFP alveolar deposited surface area varied between 35.0 and 89.2 µm(2)/cm(3), which is comparable with levels reported for other towns such in Germany and United States. The measured values allowed the determination of the number of UFP per cm(3), which are comparable to levels reported for Madrid and Brisbane. In what concerns outdoor/indoor levels, we observed higher levels (32-63%) outdoor, which is somewhat lower than levels observed in houses in Ontario.

  3. [Attitudes and beliefs regarding opioid maintenance treatment in Portugal: a survey to physicians, patients and opioid users].

    PubMed

    Goulão, João

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of pan-European research on the state of medication-assisted treatment (MAT) from the perspective of the physicians who provide it, the patients who receive it and the opioid users who remain outside of the treatment system. Project ACCESS, a Europe-wide survey involving 11 countries, explored physicians', patients' and users' attitudes and beliefs regarding the quality of and access to medication-assisted treatment. This report presents key findings from Portugal. Physicians who treat opioid-dependent patients with medication-assisted treatment were interviewed faceto- face; patients in medication-assisted treatment, patients not in medication-assisted treatment (in therapy without medication), and users (opioid-dependent persons not currently in therapy) received self-completion questionnaires. The survey found that treatment for opioid-dependent individuals in Portugal is currently judged to be good by patients and physicians. Access to treatment was reported to be easy by the majority of patients and physicians and there was a high level of satisfaction among patients. However, patient awareness of medication-assisted treatment options is currently sub-optimal in Portugal and doses of medication-assisted treatment were frequently low. The results of the ACCESS project, as far as medication-assisted treatment is concerned, are encouraging and highlight both the success areas and those that need to be improved in the future within the system of treatment for opioid-dependent individuals in Portugal. Project ACCESS provides a valuable assessment of attitudes and beliefs regarding medication-assisted treatment in Portugal. These data should help inform future decision-making to optimize responses to treatment at the patient and public health level.

  4. [Family Healthcare Units in Portugal and Family Clinics in Rio de Janeiro - their essence and similarities].

    PubMed

    Carrapiço, Eunice Isabel do Nacimento; Ramires, João Henrique Vaz; Ramos, Victor Manuel Borges

    2017-03-01

    The authors address parallel developments in Family Healthcare Units (USF) in Portugal (since 2006) and in primary care Family Clinics (CF) in Rio de Janeiro (since 2009). In this essay, they highlight the meeting that took place in Portugal with Brazilian Health Ministry and Rio de Janeiro Department of Health members in October 2009. Being directly involved (since May 2016) in the development of USF in the Lisbon Region, and having visited, in November 2016, several CF in Rio de Janeiro, they analyze aspects such as: organization in permanent structural multi-professional teams; main common characteristics of the teams; teambuilding processes; organization and technical autonomy; instruments to regulate autonomy; responsibility and accountability - contracting processes; monitoring and evaluation; leadership system; motivational factors for professionals and for the team as a whole; learning organizations. All these aspects converge to a "3P" framework: "purposes" - organizing and orienting multi-professional teams towards health gains and the wellbeing of the individuals and the population; "people" - both those who are beneficiaries of health care services, as well as the health care professionals; "processes" - that must be permanently questioned, evaluated and enhanced.

  5. Synthesis of a 35-Member Stereoisomer Library of Bistramide A: Evaluation of Effects on Actin State, Cell Cycle and Tumor Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Wrona, Iwona E.; Lowe, Jason T.; Turbyville, Thomas J.; Johnson, Tanya R.; Beignet, Julien; Beutler, John A.; Panek, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of a 35-member library of bistramide A stereoisomers are reported. All eight stereoisomers of the C1-C13 tetrahydropyran fragment of the molecule were prepared utilizing crotylsilane reagents 9 and 10 in our [4+2]-annulation methodology. In addition, the four isomers of the C14-C18 γ-amino acid unit were accessed via a Lewis acid mediated crotylation reaction using both enantiomers of organosilane 11. The spiroketal subunit of bistramide A was modified at the C39-alcohol to give another point of stereochemical diversification. The fragments were coupled using standard peptide coupling protocol to provide 35 stereoisomers of the natural product. These stereochemical analogs were screened for their effects on cellular actin and cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines (UO-31 renal and SF-295 CNS). The results of these assays identified one analog, 1.21, with enhanced potency relative to the natural product, bistramide A. PMID:19191575

  6. Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses. PMID:21235790

  7. Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India).

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2011-01-14

    We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses.

  8. [Career Satisfaction of Medical Residents in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Martins, Maria João; Laíns, Inês; Brochado, Bruno; Oliveira-Santos, Manuel; Teixeira, Pedro Pinto; Brandão, Mariana; Cerqueira, Rui João; Castro-Ferreira, Ricardo; Bernardes, Carlos; Menezes, Miguel Nobre; Baptista, Bernardo Soares; Ladeiras-Lopes, Ricardo; Rei, Mariana Cruz; Rosa, Gilberto Pires da; Martins, José Luís; Mendonça Sanches, Maria; Ferreira-Pinto, Manuel J; Rato, Margarida; Costa e Silva, Miguel; Policiano, Catarina; Beato, João; Barbosa-Breda, João; Torres, João Pimentel; Leal, Inês; Rosa, Sílvia Aguiar; Ribeiro, Bárbara Carvalho; Costa, Francisco Rego; Palmela, Carolina; Gonçalves, Tiago Cúrdia; Morais, Luis; Marques, Tiago Reis

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A satisfação com a profissão médica tem sido apontada como um fator essencial para a qualidade assistencial, o bemestar dos doentes e a estabilidade dos sistemas de saúde. Estudos recentes têm vindo a enfatizar um crescente descontentamento dos médicos, principalmente como consequência das alterações das relações laborais.Objetivos: Avaliar a perceção dos médicos de formação específica em Portugal, sobre as expectativas e grau de satisfação com a profissão, especialidade e local de formação; razões da insatisfação e intenção de emigrar.Material e Métodos: Estudo transversal. A colheita de dados foi efetuada entre Maio e Agosto de 2014 através de um Inquérito online sobre a âÄúSatisfação com a EspecialidadeâÄù.Resultados: De uma população total de 5788 médicos, foram obtidas 804 respostas (12,25% do total de médicos internos). Desta amostra, 77% das respostas correspondem a internos dos três primeiros anos de formação. Verificou-se que 90% dos médicos se encontram satisfeitos com a especialidade, tendo-se encontrado também níveis elevados de satisfação com a profissão (85%) e local de formação (86%). Por outro lado, constatou-se que estes diminuíam com a progressão ao longo dos anos de internato. A avaliação global sobre o panorama da prática médica foi negativa e 65% dos médicos responderam que consideram emigrar após conclusão do internato.Conclusão: Os médicos internos em Portugal apresentam níveis positivos de satisfação com a sua profissão. No entanto, a sua opinião sobre o panorama da Medicina e os resultados relativos à intenção de emigrar alertam para a necessidade de tomada de medidas para inverter este cenário.

  9. Real-Time Seismology in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, S.; Marreiros, C.; Carvalho, S.; Vales, D.; Lima, V.; Carrilho, F.

    2012-12-01

    Portugal is located next to the plate boundary between Eurasia (Iberia) and Africa (Nubia). The country has been repeatedly affected by some of the largest earthquakes, both onshore and offshore, in the historical European record, including the largest historical European earthquake, the great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 (~M8.5). The Portuguese territory has suffered directly the consequences of strong ground shaking (collapse of buildings, etc) and also some of the most destructive consequences of earthquakes (e.g. tsunamis, fires, etc). However, the rate of tectonic deformation in the Portuguese territory is low (the Eurasian-African plates converge at a rate of ~ 5 mm/yr), which results in long recurrence intervals between earthquakes. This low to moderate rate of seismic activity has two major negative effects: 1) it is difficult to study the regional seismo-tectonics with traditional passive methods; 2) the population is little aware of earthquake risk and unprepared to react in case of disaster. In this scenario, real-time seismology is key to monitoring earthquake crisis in real-time, providing early warnings about potentially destructive events, and assisting in the channeling of recovery efforts in case of disaster. In this paper we will present the real-time algorithms implemented at Instituto de Meteorologia (IM), the institution responsible for seismic monitoring in Portugal. In particular, we will focus on the following aspects: 1) Data collection and real-time transmission to the headquarters. Broadband seismological stations are owned and operated by five different institutions. The last years have witnessed an effort for integration, and presently most data arrives at IM lab in real-time. 2) Earthquake location and local magnitude determination. Data is automatically analyzed in order to obtain a first earthquake hypocenter and ML. While this process is mostly automatic, it still requires the revision by an operator, who is available 24h. 3

  10. [Approach and Registry of Anaphylaxis in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Mota, Inês; Pereira, Ana Margarida; Pereira, Celso; Tomaz, Elza; Ferreira, Manuel Branco; Sabino, Filipa; Coelho, Anabela; Santos, Anabela; Martins, Henrique; Morais-Almeida, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Anaphylaxis has a growing incidence, especially in children. It represents a medical emergency and its successful therapy depends on early and proper intervention. Intramuscular epinephrine, with dose adjustment according to weight and age, is the drug of choice for anaphylaxis treatment. After resolution of the acute reaction, the patient should be kept under clinical surveillance for 6 to 24 hours, due to possible biphasic reactions. Prescription of an epinephrine auto injectable device should be considered in all patients with diagnosed or suspected anaphylaxis; additionally these patients should always be referred to an Immunoallergy consultation, to perform adequate investigation and management in order to reduce future risk. All anaphylaxis episodes must be recorded in The Portuguese Catalogue of Allergies and other Adverse Reactions (Catálogo Português de Alergias e outras Reações Adversas, CPARA), which represents a fundamental tool to share clinical information within the Health System. The present manuscript intends to disclose the most recent Portuguese guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of anaphylaxis, making its clinical approach more effective and homogeneous, and to promote the use of The Portuguese Catalogue of Allergies and other Adverse Reactions as an essential tool to register and share information on anaphylaxis in Portugal.

  11. Borrelia mayonii sp. nov., a member of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, detected in patients and ticks in the upper midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Pritt, Bobbi S; Respicio-Kingry, Laurel B; Sloan, Lynne M; Schriefer, Martin E; Replogle, Adam J; Bjork, Jenna; Liu, Gongping; Kingry, Luke C; Mead, Paul S; Neitzel, David F; Schiffman, Elizabeth; Hoang Johnson, Diep K; Davis, Jeffrey P; Paskewitz, Susan M; Boxrud, David; Deedon, Alecia; Lee, Xia; Miller, Tracy K; Feist, Michelle A; Steward, Christopher R; Theel, Elitza S; Patel, Robin; Irish, Cole L; Petersen, Jeannine M

    2016-11-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a multisystem disease caused by spirochetes in the Borrelia burgdorferisensu lato (Bbsl) genospecies complex. We previously described a novel Bbsl genospecies (type strain MN14-1420T) that causes LB among patients with exposures to ticks in the upper midwestern USA. Patients infected with the novel Bbsl genospecies demonstrated higher levels of spirochetemia and somewhat differing clinical symptoms as compared with those infected with other Bbsl genospecies. The organism was detected from human specimens using PCR, microscopy, serology and culture. The taxonomic status was determined using an eight-housekeeping-gene (uvrA, rplB, recG, pyrG, pepX, clpX, clpA and nifS) multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) and comparison of 16S rRNA gene, flaB, rrf-rrl, ospC and oppA2 nucleotide sequences. Using a system threshold of 98.3 % similarity for delineation of Bbsl genospecies by MLSA, we demonstrated that the novel species is a member of the Bbsl genospecies complex, most closely related to B. burgdorferisensu stricto (94.7-94.9 % similarity). This same species was identified in Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in Minnesota and Wisconsin. This novel species, Borrelia mayonii sp. nov, is formally described here. The type strain, MN14-1420, is available through the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zelkulturen GmbH (DSM 102811) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC BAA-2743).

  12. Lifelong Education and Learning, Societal Project and Competitive Advantage: Tensions and Ambivalences in Policy and Planning of Educational Change in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Fátima; Guimarães, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Both the Portuguese appropriation of the lifelong learning policy proposed by the European Union since the mid-1990s and the definition of adult education policy in Portugal were based on a discourse that emphasised an "unacceptable educational deficit" for democracy. The role of the State in the "governance" of the public…

  13. Lifelong Education and Learning, Societal Project and Competitive Advantage: Tensions and Ambivalences in Policy and Planning of Educational Change in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Fátima; Guimarães, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Both the Portuguese appropriation of the lifelong learning policy proposed by the European Union since the mid-1990s and the definition of adult education policy in Portugal were based on a discourse that emphasised an "unacceptable educational deficit" for democracy. The role of the State in the "governance" of the public…

  14. The Official Knowledge and Adult Education Agents: An Ethnographic Study of the Adult Education Team of a Local Development-Oriented Nongovernmental Organization in the North of Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loureiro, Armando Paulo Ferreira; Cristovao, Artur Fernando Arede Correia

    2010-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations, particularly those related to development work (local development-oriented nongovernmental organizations; LDNGO), and their agents have been assuming, in Portugal, an important role in the field of adult education. These organizations develop with the State, at the national level, and with supranational institutions…

  15. Welfare Eligibility: Deficit Reduction Act Income Verification Issues. Fact Sheet for the Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This income and eligibility verification system (IEVS) database was created to aid the implementation of data exchanges among federal and state agencies. These exchanges are important for income and eligibility verification of persons who receive benefits from welfare and unemployment programs. Attempts are being made to match the computer…

  16. The Emergence of Community, State, and National Colleges in the OECS Member Countries: An Institutional Analysis. ISER (EC) Monograph Series No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Bevis F.

    This monograph describes and analyzes recent developments in national tertiary education institutions in the seven countries of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS): Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Monserrat, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Following prefatory materials, chapter 1 asks if…

  17. New evidence of shared dinosaur across Upper Jurassic Proto-North Atlantic: Stegosaurus from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Escaso, Fernando; Ortega, Francisco; Dantas, Pedro; Malafaia, Elisabete; Pimentel, Nuno L; Pereda-Suberbiola, Xabier; Sanz, José Luis; Kullberg, José Carlos; Kullberg, María Carla; Barriga, Fernando

    2007-05-01

    More than one century after its original description by Marsh in 1877, we report in this paper the first uncontroversial evidence of a member of the genus Stegosaurus out of North America. The specimen consists of a partial skeleton from the Upper Jurassic of Portugal, herein considered as Stegosaurus cf. ungulatus. The presence of this plated dinosaur in the upper Kimmeridgian-lower Tithonian Portuguese record and synchronic levels of the Morrison Formation of North America reinforces previous hypothesis of a close relationship between these two areas during the Late Jurassic. This relationship is also supported by geotectonic evidences indicating high probability of an episodic corridor between the Newfoundland and Iberian landmasses. Together, Portuguese Stegosaurus discovery and geotectonic inferences could provide a scenario with episodical faunal contact among North Atlantic landmasses during the uppermost Kimmeridgian-lowermost Tithonian (ca. 148-153 Ma ago).

  18. New evidence of shared dinosaur across Upper Jurassic Proto-North Atlantic: Stegosaurus from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escaso, Fernando; Ortega, Francisco; Dantas, Pedro; Malafaia, Elisabete; Pimentel, Nuno L.; Pereda-Suberbiola, Xabier; Sanz, José Luis; Kullberg, José Carlos; Kullberg, María Carla; Barriga, Fernando

    2007-05-01

    More than one century after its original description by Marsh in 1877, we report in this paper the first uncontroversial evidence of a member of the genus Stegosaurus out of North America. The specimen consists of a partial skeleton from the Upper Jurassic of Portugal, herein considered as Stegosaurus cf. ungulatus. The presence of this plated dinosaur in the upper Kimmeridgian-lower Tithonian Portuguese record and synchronic levels of the Morrison Formation of North America reinforces previous hypothesis of a close relationship between these two areas during the Late Jurassic. This relationship is also supported by geotectonic evidences indicating high probability of an episodic corridor between the Newfoundland and Iberian landmasses. Together, Portuguese Stegosaurus discovery and geotectonic inferences could provide a scenario with episodical faunal contact among North Atlantic landmasses during the uppermost Kimmeridgian-lowermost Tithonian (ca. 148-153 Ma ago).

  19. PSI Member Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Professional Secretaries International, Kansas City, MO.

    A survey of 2,700 of the 27,000 members of Professional Secretaries International received 755 responses yielding the following profile of secretarial workers: (1) the average member is female, about 45 years old, married with no dependents living at home, and owns a single-family home in the suburbs; (2) most respondents have worked in office or…

  20. User Working Group Members

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-29

    User Working Group Members   Mail for the entire group may be directed to:  larc-asdc-uwg@lists.nasa.gov   Member Status Affiliation E-mail Contact Bob Holz (Co-Chair in 2010) Co-Chair University of ...

  1. Advisory Council Member.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Vocational Education and Rehabilitation, Springfield. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    The pamphlet is directed toward the new member of a career education advisory council. It explains why advisory councils are needed and why an individual should join one. An advisory council is defined as a group of persons selected to collectively advise regarding career education efforts within the community, whose members are predominantly from…

  2. Ruminations of a Former School Board Member

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    The author describes his initial introduction to school board service. The historical context in which the author became a school board member is described as a means of highlighting the challenges that he faced as a new board member as well as the challenges that public education faced in the early and mid 1980s in a southern state. Stories and…

  3. How patients with heart failure are managed in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Cândida; Ceia, Fátima; Brito, Dulce; Madeira, Hugo

    2002-08-01

    The prevalence of heart failure is increasing all over the world. It is a common and growing public health problem in Portugal as in many other European countries. This article provides a review of health service organization and current heart failure management in Portugal, discusses primary care and ward practices in different hospitals and reports on the use of proven standard therapies for the treatment of heart failure in the community. Despite major advances in diagnosis and treatment, heart failure is only satisfactorily managed. Furthermore efforts are necessary before the beneficial effects observed in trials have a real impact in clinical practice. A broader view and priority for the management of this syndrome on a national level are needed to improve the quality of heart failure care in Portugal.

  4. Feline thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Soares, Carla; Ramalho Sousa, Sérgio; Anastácio, Sofia; Goreti Matias, Maria; Marquês, Inês; Mascarenhas, Salvador; João Vieira, Maria; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-09-23

    Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) is a nematode that lives in the conjunctival sac of domestic and wild carnivores, rabbits and humans causing mild to severe symptoms (e.g., conjunctivitis, lacrimation, epiphora, blepharospasm, keratitis and even corneal ulceration) in infected animals. This report describes an autochthonous case of thelaziosis in a cat from the central region of Portugal, representing the most occidental record of thelaziosis in Europe. Adult nematodes recovered from alive animal were morphological identified as T. callipaeda. A portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox 1) from nematode specimens was amplified by PCR. Cox1 sequences of all specimens were identical to T. callipaeda haplotype 1. Additionally to these findings, a recent description of thelaziosis in the northern region of Portugal suggests that T. callipaeda has successfully established in Portugal.

  5. Estimating the prevalence of female genital mutilation in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, A L; Lisboa, M

    2016-10-01

    Due to globalized migratory processes, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) has spread to other countries, including countries in Europe, where, with a few exceptions, it remains a concealed problem. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first national extensive study to estimate the prevalence of FGM/C in Portugal. Prevalence estimation. Using extrapolation of country-of-origin prevalence data and the 2011 Census data, this study estimated: the prevalence of FGM/C in Portugal among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) and among all women aged ≥15 years; and the number of girls aged <15 years living in Portugal who have undergone or will probably undergo FGM/C. It is estimated that 6576 women aged ≥15 years living in Portugal have undergone FGM/C, with cases distributed unevenly throughout the national territory. In addition, it is estimated that 1830 girls aged <15 years living in Portugal have undergone or are likely to undergo FGM/C. This study estimated that more than 6000 women living in Portugal have undergone FGM/C, and many girls remain at risk. These two groups need different types of interventions. Awareness of the number and geographical dispersion of cases of FGM/C will enable more informed and targeted definition of public health policies for protection of females who have undergone or are at risk of undergoing FGM/C. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Crustal structure beneath Portugal from teleseismic Rayleigh Wave Ellipticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attanayake, Januka; Ferreira, Ana M. G.; Berbellini, Andrea; Morelli, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Up until now, Portugal lacked a countrywide shear velocity model sampling short length-scale crustal structure, which limits interpretations of seismicity and tectonics, and predictions of strong ground motion. In turn, such interpretations and predictions are important to help mitigate risk of destruction from future large on- and offshore earthquakes similar to those that Portugal has experienced in the past (e.g. the Mw 8.5-8.7 tsunamigenic event in 1755). In this study, we measured teleseismic Rayleigh Wave Ellipticity (RWE) from 33 permanent and temporary seismic stations in Portugal with wave periods between 15 s and 60 s, and inverted it for 1-D models of shear wave velocity (Vs) structure beneath each station using a fully non-linear Monte Carlo method. Because RWE is strongly sensitive to the uppermost few kilometres of the crust, both RWE measurements and Vs models are spatially correlated with surface geology in Portugal. For instance, we find that sedimentary basins produced by rifting that had begun in the Mesozoic such as the Lusitanian Basin (LB) and the Lower Tagus-Sado Basin (LTSB) are characterised by higher RWE (lower Vs). Interestingly, we observe similar RWE (and Vs) values in the interior of the Central Iberian Zone (CIZ), which is a metamorphic belt of Paleozoic age. Together with reduced crustal thickness previously estimated for the same parts of the CIZ, this suggests that the CIZ might have experienced an episode of extension possibly simultaneous to Mesozoic rifting. The Galicia-Tras-os-Montes-Zone (GTMZ) that has undergone polyphased deformation since the Paleozoic is characterised by the lowest RWE (highest Vs) in Portugal. Ossa Morena Zone and the South Portuguese Zone exhibit intermediate Vs values when compared to that of basins and the GTMZ. Our crustal Vs model can be used to provide new insights into the tectonics, seismicity and strong ground motion in Portugal.

  7. Pediatric and neonatal transport in Spain, Portugal and Latin America.

    PubMed

    de la Mata, S; Escobar, M; Cabrerizo, M; Gómez, M; González, R; López-Herce Cid, J

    2017-04-01

    To study the organization of inter-hospital transport of pediatric and neonatal patients in Spain, Portugal and Latin America. An observational study was performed. An on-line survey was sent by email including questions about characteristics of national, regional and local health transport systems, vehicles, material, and composition of the transport team and their training. Hospital pediatric healthcare professionals treating children in Spain, Portugal and Latin America RESULTS: A total of 117 surveys from 15 countries were analyzed. Of them, 55 (47%) come from 15 regions of Spain and the rest from Portugal and 13 Latin American countries. The inter-hospital transport of pediatric patients is unified only in the Spanish regions of Baleares and Cataluña and in Portugal. Chile has a mixed unified transport system for pediatric and adult patients. Only 51.4% of responders have an educational program for the transport personnel, and only in 36.4% of them the educational program is specific for pediatric patients. In Spain and Portugal the transport is executed mostly by public entities, while in Latin America public and private systems coexist. Specific pediatric equipment is more frequent in the transport teams in the Iberian Peninsula than in Latin American teams. The specific pediatric transport training is less frequent for teams in Latin America than on Spain and Portugal. There is a great variation in the organization of children transport in each country and region. Most of countries and cities do not have unified and specific teams of pediatric transport, with pediatric qualified personnel and specific material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  8. 20. MEMBER 'A' SHOWS TENON AS USED IN POST 'A' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. MEMBER 'A' SHOWS TENON AS USED IN POST 'A' (TN-159A-19), MEMBER 'B' IS BEAM 'B' IN TN-159A-19 AND SHOWS METHOD OF JOINING THESE MEMBERS. MEMBER 'C' SHOWS MORTISE IN BEAM 'B'. - Caleb Crosby Threshing Barn, Noeton (moved to Norris Dam State Park, Lake City), Morristown, Hamblen County, TN

  9. Identification of H-type BSE in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Orge, Leonor; Machado, Carla Guedes; Ramalho, Luísa; Carvalho, Renata; Silva, João; Almeida, Paula; Tavares, Paula; Ochoa, Cristina; Lima, Carla; Pinto, Maria J Marques; Simas, J Pedro

    2015-01-01

    During the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic, Portugal was the third most affected country. As a result of a successful national eradication plan, the number of BSE affected animals has been progressively declining in Portugal with no cases identified in 2013. However, within the scope of this active surveillance scheme, we have identified the first H-type BSE case born after the introduction of the reinforced ban in fallen stock. Here, we report the phenotypic features of this case and the analysis of the protein coding sequence of prnp as well as the prnp promoter and intron 1 insertion-deletions.

  10. Mutual Recognition of the Food and Drug Administration and European Community Member State Conformity Assessment Procedures; pharmaceutical GMP inspection reports, medical device quality system evaluation reports, and certain medical device premarket evaluation reports--FDA. Proposed rule.

    PubMed

    1998-04-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is proposing to amend its regulations pursuant to an international agreement that is expected to be concluded between the United States and the European Community (EC) (Ref. 1). Under the terms of that agreement, FDA may normally endorse good manufacturing practice (GMP) inspection reports for pharmaceuticals provided by equivalent EC Member State regulatory authorities and medical device quality system evaluation reports and certain medical device premarket evaluation reports provided by equivalent conformity assessment bodies. FDA is taking this action to enhance its ability to ensure the safety and efficacy of pharmaceuticals and medical devices through more efficient and effective utilization of its regulatory resources. The agency is requesting comments on the proposed rule.

  11. Complete and draft genome sequences of six members of the aquificales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reysenbach, A.-L.; Hamamura, N.; Podar, M.; Griffiths, E.; Ferreira, S.; Hochstein, R.; Heidelberg, J.; Johnson, J.; Mead, D.; Pohorille, A.; Sarmiento, M.; Sehweighofer, K.; Seshadri, R.; Voytek, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The Aquificales are widespread in marine and terrestrial hydrothermal environments. Here, we report the complete and draft genome sequences of six new members of the Aquificales: two marine species, Persephonella marina strain EX-H1 and Hydrogenivirga strain 128-5-R1 (from the East Pacific Rise, 9??50.3???N, 104??17.5???W, and the Eastern Lau Spreading Center, 176??11.5???W, 20??45.8???S, respectively), and four terrestrial isolates, Sulfuri-hydrogenibium azorense strain Az-Ful, Sulfurihydrogenibium yellowstonense strain SS-5, and Sulfurihydro-genibium strain Y03AOP1 (from Furnas, Azores, Portugal, and Calcite Springs and Obsidian Pool in Yellowstone National Park, United States, respectively), and the only thermoacidophilic isolate, Hydrogenobaculum strain Y04AAS1 (from a stream adjacent to Obsidian Pool). Significant differences among the different species exist that include nitrogen metabolism, hydrogen utilization, Chemotaxis, and signal transduction, providing insights into their ecological niche adaptations. Copyright ?? 2009, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. 19 CFR 122.75b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft departing from the United States. 122.75b Section 122...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial...

  13. CAM within a field force of countervailing powers: The case of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Joana; Gabe, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines the extent to which the position of the medical profession and the state towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners has changed since the late 1990s, taking Portugal as a case study. Using Light's concept of countervailing powers, we consider the alliances, interests, rhetoric and degrees of control between these three actors over time, focussing particularly on the extent to which CAM practitioners have acted as a countervailing force in their relationship with the medical profession and the state. It also brings to the fore the position of supra-state agencies concerning CAM regulation. A critical discourse analysis was conducted on data derived from a systematic search of information dating from the late 1990s up to 2015. Our analysis suggests that CAM has emerged as an active player and a countervailing power in that it has had significant influence on the process of state policy-making. The medical profession, in turn, has moved from rejecting to 'incorporating' CAM, while the state has acted as a 'broker', trying to accommodate the demands and preferences of both actors while simultaneously demonstrating its power and autonomy in shaping health policy. In sum, the history of countermoves of CAM, the medical profession and the state in recasting power relations regarding CAM regulation in Portugal has highlighted the explanatory value of Light's countervailing power theory and the need to move away from a professional dominance and corporatist approach, in which CAM has simply been seen as subjugated to the power of the medical profession and the state.

  14. Structure of 1,5-benzodiazepinones in the solid state and in solution: Effect of the fluorination in the six-membered ring

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Torralba, Marta; Ángeles García, M; López, Concepción; Torralba, M Carmen; Rosario Torres, M; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José

    2013-01-01

    Summary Two novel tetrafluorinated 1,5-benzodiazepinones were synthesized and their X-ray structures determined. 6,7,8,9-Tetrafluoro-4-methyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,5-benzodiazepin-2-one crystallizes in the monoclinic P21/c space group and 6,7,8,9-tetrafluoro-1,4-dimethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,5-benzodiazepin-2-one in the triclinic P−1 space group. Density functional theory studies at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level were carried out on these compounds and on four non-fluorinated derivatives, allowing to calculate geometries, tautomeric energies and ring-inversion barriers, that were compared with the experimental results obtained by static and dynamic NMR in solution and in solid state. PMID:24204428

  15. Determinants of health care utilization by immigrants in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Dias, Sónia F; Severo, Milton; Barros, Henrique

    2008-10-07

    The increasing diversity of population in European Countries poses new challenges to national health systems. There is a lack of data on accessibility and use of health care services by migrants, appropriateness of the care provided, client satisfaction and problems experienced when confronting the health care system. This limits knowledge about the multiple determinants of the utilization of health services. The aim of this study was to describe the access of migrants to health care and its determinants in Portugal. The study sample included 1513 immigrants (53% men), interviewed at the National Immigrant Support Centre, in Lisbon. Data were collected using questionnaires. The magnitude of associations between use of National Health Service and socio-demographic variables was estimated by means of odds ratios (OR) at 95% confidence intervals, calculated using logistic regression. Among participants, 3.6% stated not knowing where to go if facing a health problem. Approximately 20% of the respondents reported that they had never used the National Health Service, men more than women. Among National Health Service users, 35.6% attended Health Centres, 12% used Hospital services, and 54.4% used both. Among the participants that ever used the health services, 22.4% reported to be unsatisfied or very unsatisfied. After adjusting for all variables, utilization of health services, among immigrant men, remained significantly associated with length of stay, legal status, and country of origin. Among immigrant women, the use of health services was significantly associated with length of stay and country of origin. There is a clear need to better understand how to ensure access to health care services and to deliver appropriate care to immigrants, and that special consideration must be given to recent and undocumented migrants. To increase health services use, and the uptake of prevention programs, barriers must be identified and approaches to remove them developed, through

  16. Risk assessment in submarine outfall projects: the case of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Ana; Losada, Miguel Ángel; Reis, Maria Teresa; Neves, Maria Graça

    2013-02-15

    Submarine outfalls need to be evaluated as part of an integrated environmental protection system for coastal areas. Although outfalls are tight with the diversity of economic activities along a densely populated coastline being effluent treatment and effluent reuse a sign of economic prosperity, precautions must be taken in the construction of these structures. They must be designed so as to have the least possible impact on the environment and at the same time be economically viable. This paper outlines the initial phases of a risk assessment procedure for submarine outfall projects. This approach includes a cost-benefit analysis in which risks are systematically minimized or eliminated. The methods used in this study also allow for randomness and uncertainty. The input for the analysis is a wide range of information and data concerning the failure probability of outfalls and the consequences of an operational stoppage or failure. As part of this risk assessment, target design levels of reliability, functionality, and operationality were defined for the outfalls. These levels were based on an inventory of risks associated with such construction projects, and thus afforded the possibility of identifying possible failure modes. This assessment procedure was then applied to four case studies in Portugal. The results obtained were the values concerning the useful life of the outfalls at the four sites and their joint probability of failure against the principal failure modes assigned to ultimate and serviceability limit states. Also defined were the minimum operationality of these outfalls, the average number of admissible technical breakdowns, and the maximum allowed duration of a stoppage mode. It was found that these values were in consonance with the nature of the effluent (tourist-related, industrial, or mixed) as well as its importance for the local economy. Even more important, this risk assessment procedure was able to measure the impact of the outfalls on

  17. 7 CFR 7.4 - Selection of committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection of committee members. 7.4 Section 7.4... CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.4 Selection of committee members. State committee... community committee members shall be elected in accordance with § 7.9 of this part....

  18. Predicting Episodic Stream Acidification in the Southeastern United States: Combining a Long-Term Acidification Model and the End-Member Mixing Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, Richard P.; Christophersen, Nils

    1992-07-01

    The model of acidification of groundwater in catchments (MAGIC) was applied to data from the Panola Mountain Research Watershed located near Atlanta, Georgia, in the southern Piedmont physiographic province of the United States. In contrast to past applications, MAGIC was calibrated directly to two soil environments using information gained from an independent mixing model rather than to the stream water. A third soil environment, the deeper soil horizons which provide base flow, was identified from the mixing model, but its chemistry was assumed to be invariant during the forecast period, and hence it was not included in MAGIC. This mixing model identified soil environments that appear to be important in determining present stream water chemistry, determined the hydrologic routing parameters necessary for the model, and permitted predictions of stream water chemistry during future storm events. Annual average stream water acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) was predicted to decrease during the next 50 years in a manner largely consistent with a regional analysis of the nearby southern Blue Ridge province performed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The two upper soil layers, however, were predicted to acidify substantially within the next 20 years so that the stream water may become unsuitable for sensitive aquatic biota for much of the year, despite a positive annual average ANC. This approach, which combines a predictive model and a mixing model, provides testable hypotheses because actual soil environments are modeled; field experiments to test the processes contained in the model are suggested.

  19. School-Based Sexuality Education in Portugal: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Ana Cristina; Leal, Cláudia; Duarte, Cidália

    2016-01-01

    Portugal, like many other countries, faces obstacles regarding school-based sexuality education. This paper explores Portuguese schools' approaches to implementing sexuality education at a local level, and provides a critical analysis of potential strengths and weaknesses. Documents related to sexuality education in a convenience sample of 89…

  20. Research Management in Portugal: A Quest for Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trindade, Margarida; Agostinho, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Research managers at science-intensive institutions appear as a continuously evolving group of professionals whose identity is somewhat fragmented, even to themselves. In Portugal, specialized research manager roles have rapidly emerged over the last years alongside the development of a small but consolidated scientific system. In order to get an…

  1. Iridovirus-like viruses in erythrocytes of lacertids from Portugal.

    PubMed

    de Matos, António P Alves; Caeiro, M Filomena; Vale, Filipa F; Crespo, Eduardo; Paperna, Ilan

    2013-10-01

    Icosahedral nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV)-like viruses, which forminclusions in the erythrocyte cytoplasm of reptiles, were previously presented as candidates for a new genus of the Iridoviridae family. The present work describes the distribution of infected lizard hosts and ultrastructural characteristics of the viral inclusions of NCLDV-like viruses from Portugal and adjacent locations in Spain. Giemsa-stained blood smears of 235 Lacerta schreiberi from Portugal and Spain, 571 Lacerta monticola from the mountain Serra da Estrela (Portugal), 794 Podarcis hispanica from several localities in Portugal and Spain, and 25 Lacerta dugesii from Madeira Island, were studied. Infection in L. schreiberi was only found in mountain populations, up to 30% in Serra da Estrela and 9-11% elsewhere. It was absent in lizards from lowlands. Prevalence of infection among L. monticola in Serra da Estrela was 10%; infected lizards were found during March to July and October but not in August and September. Infection in P. hispanica was below 3.3%. Only one infected specimen of L. dugesii was identified by light microscopy. Ultrastructural examination of infected samples revealed that the inclusions are virus assembly sites of icosahedral cytoplasmic iridovirus-like virions. Virions from different host species have different ultrastructural features and probably represent different related viruses.

  2. Science Policy and the Internationalisation of Research in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patricio, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    This article will examine Portuguese and European science and higher education policies and their impact on international collaborations. It will do so by looking at two key indicators: international academic mobility and the coauthored international scientific publications. The data show Portugal as an attractive country for foreign students and…

  3. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-10 - EARTH - SKY - MOROCCO, SPAIN, PORTUGAL

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-18

    S66-46044 (18-21 July 1966) --- Straits of Gibraltar and Spain ? Portugal (left), Morocco (right), Atlantic Ocean (foreground), and unique vortex, as seen from the Gemini-10 spacecraft. Taken with J.A. Maurer 70mm camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome, MS (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  4. Quality of Life in Ageing Societies: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arun, Ozgur; Cevik, Aylin Cakiroglu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the quality of life of the elderly in three aging countries: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. This was done by using data provided by the European Quality of Life Survey completed in 2004. By doing so, we could then operationalize the conditions of the elderly in Turkey who have a rapid aging process…

  5. Quality of Life in Ageing Societies: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arun, Ozgur; Cevik, Aylin Cakiroglu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the quality of life of the elderly in three aging countries: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. This was done by using data provided by the European Quality of Life Survey completed in 2004. By doing so, we could then operationalize the conditions of the elderly in Turkey who have a rapid aging process…

  6. Making Sense of TV for Children: The Case of Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Sara; Pinto, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Empowering children for a critical and judicious use and consumption of media is a main objective of media literacy. This paper aims to examine the range of television programs available for children in Portugal through a comparative analysis of the programming for children broadcast by the four Portuguese terrestrial channels (RTP1, RTP2, SIC and…

  7. LIS Education in Portugal between Academia and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Fernanda

    2008-01-01

    There is a brief exposition, in a historical perspective, about the evolution of the professional education in Portugal, in the area of Library and Information Science, since the creation of the Curso de Bibliotecario-Arquivista, in 1887, until its closure in 1982, when it was replaced by the Curso de Especializacao em Ciencias Documentais (CECD).…

  8. Science Policy and the Internationalisation of Research in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patricio, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    This article will examine Portuguese and European science and higher education policies and their impact on international collaborations. It will do so by looking at two key indicators: international academic mobility and the coauthored international scientific publications. The data show Portugal as an attractive country for foreign students and…

  9. Syphilis hospitalisations in Portugal over the last decade.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Pinto, B; Freitas, A; Lisboa, C

    2016-02-01

    Although several studies have reported an increase of syphilis incidence over the last decade in Western Europe, information concerning syphilis epidemiology in Portugal remains scarce. Therefore, we sought to characterise acquired syphilis-associated hospitalisations in Portugal according to demographic and clinical data. We used a database containing all hospitalisations that occurred in mainland Portugal public hospitals with discharges between 2000 and 2014. We analysed all hospitalisations associated with ICD-9-CM codes 091-097.x (corresponding to acquired syphilis diagnosis) concerning inpatients' gender, age and comorbidities. The median length of stay and in-hospital mortality rates were also studied. Between 2000 and 2014, there were a total of 8974 syphilis-related hospitalisations in mainland Portugal. The rate of acquired syphilis hospitalisations per 100,000 inhabitants increased by 33 % during the studied period. Syphilis hospitalisation rates increased by 70 % in males and 139 % among patients aged over 55 years. On the other hand, they declined by 10 % in females and 20 % among patients younger than 55 years old. The percentage of syphilis episodes presenting cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric comorbidities increased, while the percentage of syphilis episodes presenting HIV co-infection decreased by 69 %. A fatal outcome was reported in 5 % of episodes; 4.6 % of them had acquired syphilis as the main reason for hospitalisation. This study illustrates that, despite being a preventable infection, syphilis remains a public health problem. The analysis of hospitalisation and administrative data helps to understand syphilis epidemiology and provides a supplement to traditional case notifications.

  10. Open Plan Schools in Portugal: Failure or Innovation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinho, Miguel; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2008-01-01

    Open plan schools have been largely contested in Portugal; many teachers, administrators and even parents consider this model of schooling inappropriate and therefore a failure. Recently however the Escola da Ponte, one of the open plan schools that has survived, was recognised as one of the country's most innovative educational facilities.…

  11. Pests of Blueberries on Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In February and March 2006, two plots of 154 plants of two southern high bush blueberries cultivars, Vaccinium corymbosum cv. ‘Emerald’ and ‘Jewel,’ a rabbiteye cultivar, V. virgatum cv. ‘Spring High,’ were planted in two locations on São Miguel Island, Açores, Portugal. One plot was planted near t...

  12. Early Intervention in Portugal: Family Support and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia Leite, Carina Sofia; Da Silva Pereira, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the support and benefits of early intervention (EI) in families with children with special needs. Data were gathered through a written questionnaire, "Family Benefits Inventory," completed by 126 families with children with special needs supported by EI teams, with ages from six months to six years in Portugal.…

  13. School Psychology in Portugal: Practitioners' Characteristics and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, Sofia A.; Abreu-Lima, Isabel; Almeida, Leandro S.; Simeonsson, Rune J.

    2014-01-01

    Little empirical evidence is available on the professional characteristics and practices of school psychologists in Portugal. This study surveyed a total of 477 Portuguese school psychologists employed in public (80%) and private schools (20%). Portuguese school psychologists are described with regard to demographic, professional, and educational…

  14. Predicting Child Outcomes from Preschool Quality in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abreu-Lima, Isabel M. P.; Leal, Teresa B.; Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana Madalena

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze whether quality of preschool classrooms relates to 4- and 5-year-old children developmental outcomes. The study was conducted in 60 classrooms in Porto Metropolitan Area, Portugal. Children (N = 215) were evaluated in the literacy, math, and behavior domains. Preschool quality was assessed through…

  15. Technological Specialisation Courses in Portugal: Description and Suggested Improvements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Costa, Nilza Maria Vilhena Nunes; Simoes, Ana Raquel; Pereira, Giselia Antunes; Pombo, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    This study is a part of the "Post-secondary Vocational Training in Portugal Project: from a description through to suggestions to improve training quality", which ran from 2003 to 2006. This article, which makes use of data obtained from interviews with Directors of Schools which offer technological specialisation courses (CETs) and from…

  16. School Closures and Community Revitalisation: The Case of Obidos, Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godinho, Ana Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Rural communities in many countries are faced with the need to restructure their school networks and close some smaller facilities. Obidos, a town in western Portugal, provides a case study of how to meet these challenges by creating new school complexes that offer improved educational opportunities to the teaching staff, students and local…

  17. Corporate Blended Learning in Portugal: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcal, Julia; Caetano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the current status of blended learning in Portugal, given that b-learning has grown exponentially in the Portuguese market over recent years. 38 organizations (representing 68% of all institutions certified to provide distance training by the Government Labour Office--DGERT-) participated in this study. The…

  18. Christmas, Natal, Navidad in Cuba, Mexico, and Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Maria Joao, Ed.; Fontes, Manuel da Costa, Ed.

    This material is a compilation of junior high school student-developed stories and games about the way Christmas is celebrated in Portugal, Mexico, and Cuba. The material was developed in the classroom by Portuguese, Mexican, and Cuban immigrant students and by American students who do not have a recent immigrant background, all of whom were…

  19. Participation in Lifelong Learning in Portugal and the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Hilary; Ingham, Mike; Afonso, José Adelino

    2017-01-01

    Lifelong learning is a long-standing European Union priority, with an emphasis on the need for it to be pursued by all, but particularly those at the risk of exclusion. This study explores participation in Portugal and the UK, countries at opposite ends of the European adult learning spectrum with markedly different contexts. Analysis reveals that…

  20. Christmas, Natal, Navidad in Cuba, Mexico, and Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Maria Joao, Ed.; Fontes, Manuel da Costa, Ed.

    This material is a compilation of junior high school student-developed stories and games about the way Christmas is celebrated in Portugal, Mexico, and Cuba. The material was developed in the classroom by Portuguese, Mexican, and Cuban immigrant students and by American students who do not have a recent immigrant background, all of whom were…

  1. School Psychology in Portugal: Practitioners' Characteristics and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, Sofia A.; Abreu-Lima, Isabel; Almeida, Leandro S.; Simeonsson, Rune J.

    2014-01-01

    Little empirical evidence is available on the professional characteristics and practices of school psychologists in Portugal. This study surveyed a total of 477 Portuguese school psychologists employed in public (80%) and private schools (20%). Portuguese school psychologists are described with regard to demographic, professional, and educational…

  2. School-Based Sexuality Education in Portugal: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Ana Cristina; Leal, Cláudia; Duarte, Cidália

    2016-01-01

    Portugal, like many other countries, faces obstacles regarding school-based sexuality education. This paper explores Portuguese schools' approaches to implementing sexuality education at a local level, and provides a critical analysis of potential strengths and weaknesses. Documents related to sexuality education in a convenience sample of 89…

  3. Predicting Child Outcomes from Preschool Quality in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abreu-Lima, Isabel M. P.; Leal, Teresa B.; Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana Madalena

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze whether quality of preschool classrooms relates to 4- and 5-year-old children developmental outcomes. The study was conducted in 60 classrooms in Porto Metropolitan Area, Portugal. Children (N = 215) were evaluated in the literacy, math, and behavior domains. Preschool quality was assessed through…

  4. Factors Affecting Students' Choice of Science and Engineering in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Almeida, Maria Jose B. M.; Leite, Maria Salete S. C. P.; Woolnough, Brian E.

    This paper presents the results of a study undertaken in Portugal to determine the influence of different factors on students' (n=499) decisions to study or refuse to study in one of the physical sciences or engineering. Some influencing factors are related to what goes on in school and during science lessons, and other factors are related to the…

  5. Early Intervention in Portugal: Family Support and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia Leite, Carina Sofia; Da Silva Pereira, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the support and benefits of early intervention (EI) in families with children with special needs. Data were gathered through a written questionnaire, "Family Benefits Inventory," completed by 126 families with children with special needs supported by EI teams, with ages from six months to six years in Portugal.…

  6. LIS Education in Portugal between Academia and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Fernanda

    2008-01-01

    There is a brief exposition, in a historical perspective, about the evolution of the professional education in Portugal, in the area of Library and Information Science, since the creation of the Curso de Bibliotecario-Arquivista, in 1887, until its closure in 1982, when it was replaced by the Curso de Especializacao em Ciencias Documentais (CECD).…

  7. School Closures and Community Revitalisation: The Case of Obidos, Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godinho, Ana Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Rural communities in many countries are faced with the need to restructure their school networks and close some smaller facilities. Obidos, a town in western Portugal, provides a case study of how to meet these challenges by creating new school complexes that offer improved educational opportunities to the teaching staff, students and local…

  8. Diversity of Cercopithifilaria species in dogs from Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Filarioids belonging to the genus Cercopithifilaria (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) have been described in dogs in association with Rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks, which act as their biological vectors. This study represents the first investigation on Cercopithifilaria spp. in dogs from Portugal. Findings Dogs (n = 102) from the Algarve region (south of Portugal) were sampled by skin snip collection and tissues were left to soak overnight in saline solution. Sediments were observed under a light microscope and the detected microfilariae identified according to their morphology. Twenty-four dogs (23.5%) were found infected with at least one species of Cercopithifilaria, namely C. bainae (9.8%), C. grassii (3.9%) and Cercopithifilaria sp. II sensu Otranto et al., 2013 (13.7%). Results were confirmed by molecular amplification of partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 12S rRNA genes and sequence analysis. Co-infections with more than one Cercopithifilaria species were detected in 3.9% of the animals. Conclusions This is the first report of Cercopithifilaria spp. in dogs from Portugal. The estimated level of infection with C. bainae, C. grassii and Cercopithifilaria sp. II suggests that these filarioids are prevalent in the canine population of southern Portugal. PMID:24898125

  9. [Hepatitis B genotype distribution in Portugal and worldwide].

    PubMed

    Mota, Ana; Areias, Jorge; Cardoso, Margarida Fonseca

    2011-01-01

    Infection with Hepatitis B is a public health problem worldwide. In Portugal, around 1% of the population is chronically infected. Some genotypes are only predominant in some geographical regions; however migration around the world can lead to the dissemination of the different genotypes. The heterogeneity of hepatitis B genotypes seems to be related to differences in clinical evolution of the infection and response to antiviral treatment. The present study was designed to review the worldwide geographical distribution of Hepatitis B genotypes, and to analyze the possible relationships with the distribution of genotypes in Portugal. Studies of interest were identified by search on indexed journals. Search of Portuguese information was extended to conference proceedings in the areas of Virology and Hepatology. In Asia genotypes B and C were prevalent; in the North of Africa the genotype D was prevalent, and in the East Coast genotype E was predominant. In the American continent the most predominant genotypes were A, D, F, G and H. In South America, Venezuela and Argentina showed a high prevalence of genotype F, in Brazil genotype A was prevalent. In Europe, including Portugal, genotypes A and D were predominant. In Portugal genotypes C, E and F were observed in Portuguese patients and in immigrant patients. The pattern of global migration affects the pattern of genotype distribution, introducing genotypes in regions where the clinical outcome can differ from the population of origin. The genotypic distribution found in Portugal seems to be associated not just with being a European country, but also with immigration from Africa, Brazil, Eastern Europe, and Asian countries like China. The study of the hepatitis B genotypic distribution should be extended to all regions in Portugal, namely Lisbon where the immigration levels are higher, as well as to the autonomous regions of Portugal, the Azores and Madeira islands. The relationship between hepatitis B genotypes and

  10. State medical board members' attitudes about the legality of chronic prescribing to patients with noncancer pain: the influence of knowledge and beliefs about pain management, addiction, and opioid prescribing.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Aaron M

    2010-10-01

    In the United States, physicians' practice is regulated at the state level, with medical board members distinguishing legitimate medical practice from unprofessional conduct. For this process to be effective, regulators should have knowledge and beliefs that conform to current standards of practice and medical understanding. Past research has demonstrated that some board members continue to view the prolonged prescribing of opioid analgesics to treat noncancer pain as being unlawful or unacceptable medical practice, especially when the patient with pain has a history of substance abuse. This study was designed to determine whether relevant clinical or policy issues can adequately explain regulators' attitudes about the legality of opioid prescribing for patients with noncancer pain. A total of 277 questionnaires were obtained from a national sample of medical board members. Using binomial logistic regression procedures, the predictive significance of 12 factors related to four variable domains was explored: 1) beliefs about opioid addiction and diversion, 2) beliefs and knowledge about federal and state policy, 3) clinical beliefs about opioid prescribing, and 4) demographic characteristics. Separate logistic regression models were computed to determine the extent that knowledge and beliefs contribute to attitudes about the legality of chronic opioid therapy for noncancer pain and for noncancer pain with a history of substance abuse. Three variables demonstrated statistical significance in both regression models: 1) characterizing addiction in terms of physiological phenomena, 2) believing regulatory policy is useful to improve pain relief, and 3) incorrectly believing that federal law limits the amount of Schedule II medication that can be prescribed at one time. When considering the legality of prescribing opioids for patients with noncancer pain, the following additional factors had a notable influence: viewing addiction as common when treating pain with opioids

  11. Incidence of Norovirus and Other Viral Pathogens That Cause Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE) among Kaiser Permanente Member Populations in the United States, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Grytdal, Scott P; DeBess, Emilio; Lee, Lore E; Blythe, David; Ryan, Patricia; Biggs, Christianne; Cameron, Miriam; Schmidt, Mark; Parashar, Umesh D; Hall, Aron J

    2016-01-01

    ,000 person-years). Outpatient incidence rates of rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus were 2.0, 1.6, 0.6 per 1,000 person-years, respectively; community incidence rates for these viruses were 23.4, 22.5, and 8.5 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. This study provides the first age-group specific laboratory-based community and outpatient incidence rates for norovirus AGE in the U.S. Norovirus was the most frequently detected viral enteropathogen across the age spectrum with the highest rates of norovirus disease observed among young children and, to a lesser extent, the elderly. These data provide a better understanding of the norovirus disease burden in the United States, including variations within different age groups, which can help inform the development, targeting, and future impacts of interventions, including vaccines.

  12. Incidence of Norovirus and Other Viral Pathogens That Cause Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE) among Kaiser Permanente Member Populations in the United States, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Grytdal, Scott P.; Biggs, Christianne; Cameron, Miriam; Schmidt, Mark; Parashar, Umesh D.; Hall, Aron J.

    2016-01-01

    1,000 person-years). Outpatient incidence rates of rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus were 2.0, 1.6, 0.6 per 1,000 person-years, respectively; community incidence rates for these viruses were 23.4, 22.5, and 8.5 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. This study provides the first age-group specific laboratory-based community and outpatient incidence rates for norovirus AGE in the U.S. Norovirus was the most frequently detected viral enteropathogen across the age spectrum with the highest rates of norovirus disease observed among young children and, to a lesser extent, the elderly. These data provide a better understanding of the norovirus disease burden in the United States, including variations within different age groups, which can help inform the development, targeting, and future impacts of interventions, including vaccines. PMID:27115485

  13. Employment and basic needs: lessons of a mission to Portugal.

    PubMed

    Van Rijckeghem, W

    1978-01-01

    The task of the International Labour Organization (ILO) mission that visited Portugal in 1977 differed in several respects from that of earlier missions undertaken in the framework of the World Employment Programme: 1) with a per capita consumption of U.S. $1000 a year, Portugal is far better off than the other countries to which ILO missions were sent; 2) following the Revolution of April 25, 1974, Portugal had already adopted many of the recommendations such as those concerning income redistribution and land reform contained in the reports of earlier ILO missions; and 3) as a consequence of the above, the ILO mission to Portugal was not asked to produce a report and make recommendations, but to participate directly in the drafting of the 1977-80 Plan through a joint Portuguese-ILO Working Group. The present article draws both on the report of the Working Group and on subsequent research. Open unemployment is a recent phenomenon in Portugal, and the objective of the Medium-Term Plan is to improve basic-needs satisfaction and reduce unemployment. It can be reasonably assumed that the increased activity of the agricultural sector, together with continued north-south migration, will absorb much of the existing underemployment. Concerning industry, the reorientation of industrial growth towards the requirements of a basic-needs strategy and more employment-intensive production represents a considerable change from past strategies and policies. Concerning the basic-needs approach as a development strategy, it is useful to show that such a strategy remains compatible with the pursuit of more traditional objectives, such as sustained growth, full employment, balance-of-payments equilibrium, equitable income distribution, and harmonious regional development.

  14. Periconceptional CMV infection prevention in Portugal: population subgroup study in a tertiary perinatal care center.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Patrícia; Madureira, Gabriel; Moucho, Marina; Rouxinol-Dias, Ana Lídia; Montenegro, Nuno

    2017-06-06

    Currently in Portugal, universal screening of pregnant women for Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is not performed. However, it is recommended to screen all women attending preconception care. We aimed to assess women's attendance to preconception care and if their serologic status regarding CMV was known and/or investigated in that consultation. In this cross-sectional study, we interviewed 240 women admitted to the obstetrical ward of a hospital in the Metropolitan Area of Porto (Portugal) about their adherence to preconception care and collected data regarding their CMV serologic status and its investigation. We found that 71.3% of the women who attended preconception care were not screened for CMV infection. Among primigravida, the screening rate was only of 30.4% (upper limit of CI 95%: 44.8%). There were no statistically significant differences between the private and public sectors of healthcare. We observed attendance to preconception care is high (73.1%). For the population subgroup of the metropolitan area of Porto, attendance to preconception care is at least 66%, with a 95% confidence level. Portuguese guidelines stating a woman's serologic status regarding CMV should be investigated in preconception care are not properly implemented. This suggests guidelines should assure the screening of previously non-screened women during pregnancy.

  15. Low Adherence to Mediterranean Diet in Portugal: Pregnant Women Nutrition in Portugal and its Repercussions.

    PubMed

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luis; Pinto, Elisabete

    2016-10-01

    Introdução: Tem havido baixa adesão ao padrão da dieta mediterrânica na população portuguesa. Nesta perspectiva, procedemos à revisão crítica do estado de nutrição das mulheres em idade fértil, grávidas e recém-nascidos, em Portugal. Material e Métodos: Realizámos uma revisão narrativa crítica de estudos recentes com qualidade e inquéritos nacionais oficiais, que tivessem avaliado a dieta e estado de nutrição de mulheres em idade fértil e de grávidas portuguesas e sua influência no estado de nutrição dos respetivos fetos e recém-nascidos. Resultados: Foram selecionados e analisados cinco estudos ecológicos multinacionais que incluíram Portugal, dois inquéritos oficiais nacionais sobre disponibilidade de alimentos, sete estudos nacionais sobre dieta e estado de nutrição de mulheres em idade fértil e grávidas e cinco estudos nacionais sobre a influência de fatores nutricionais maternos no crescimento dos fetos. A prevalência de excesso de peso/obesidade em mulheres em idade fértil e grávidas aumentou substancialmente associada à diminuição da adesão à dieta mediterrânica. As variações no consumo de energia e macronutrientes na gravidez parecem não ter impacto significativo no estado de nutrição dos fetos. Pelo contrário, o excesso de peso/obesidade pré-concecional associa-se a aumento de adiposidade ao nascer e o excessivo aumento de peso na gravidez associa-se ao excesso ponderal na infância. Os fatores potencialmente relacionados com a baixa adesão à dieta mediterrânica, merecendo futura investigação, incluem políticas agrícolas da União Europeia que promoveram a produção de grupos alimentares não tipicamente mediterrânicos a baixo preço e a pouca capacidade financeira referida pela população portuguesa para aquisição de alimentos de qualidade. Conclusão: A recuperação dos hábitos dietéticos mediterrânicos tradicionais deve ser incluída em estratégias de prevenção e tratamento do

  16. Evidence for a catalytic six-membered cyclic transition state in aminolysis of 4-nitrophenyl 3,5-dinitrobenzoate in acetonitrile: comparative brønsted-type plot, entropy of activation, and deuterium kinetic isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Um, Ik-Hwan; Kim, Min-Young; Bae, Ae-Ri; Dust, Julian M; Buncel, Erwin

    2015-01-02

    A kinetic study for reactions of 4-nitrophenyl 3,5-dinitrobenzoate (1a) with a series of cyclic secondary amines in acetonitrile is reported. Plots of the pseudo-first-order rate constant (kobsd) vs [amine] curve upward, while those of kobsd /[amine] vs [amine] exhibit excellent linear correlations with positive intercepts, indicating that the reaction proceeds through both uncatalyzed and catalyzed routes. Brønsted-type plots for uncatalyzed and catalyzed reactions are linear with βnuc = 1.03 and 0.69, respectively. The ΔH(⧧) and ΔS(⧧) values measured for the catalytic reaction with morpholine are -0.80 kcal/mol and -61.7 cal/(mol K), respectively. The negative ΔH(⧧) with a large negative ΔS(⧧) suggests that the reaction proceeds through a highly ordered transition state (i.e., a six-membered cyclic transition state, which includes a second amine molecule that accepts a proton from the aminium moiety of the zwitterionic tetrahedral intermediate and simultaneously donates a proton to the aryloxyl oxygen of the nucleofuge with concomitant C-OAr bond scission). This proposal is consistent with the smaller βnuc value for the catalyzed reaction as compared to the uncatalyzed reaction. An inverse deuterium kinetic isotope effect (DKIE) value of 0.93 and a contrasting normal primary DKIE value of 3.23 for the uncatalyzed and catalyzed routes, respectively, also support the proposed cyclic transition state.

  17. [Diabetes Knowledge Test Feasibility in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Constança; Santiago, Luiz

    2016-09-01

    Introdução: Dada a crescente incidência da diabetes tipo 2 e considerando que parte do seu controlo se deve à atitude do pacienteface à doença, torna-se importante munir os profissionais de saúde com ferramentas capazes de determinar as carências educacionais dos utentes, permitindo uma intervenção mais personalizada na correção de hábitos nocivos. Objetivos: Verificação da fiabilidade da Escala de Conhecimentos da Diabetes em Portugal. Análise e correlação das diferentes variáveis sociodemográficas e patológicas com o número de respostas corretas. Material e Métodos: Aplicação da escala a uma amostra de conveniência de diabéticos tipo 2 do Centro de Saúde da Covilhã.Resultados: Na generalidade, as questões obtiveram um valor de alfa de Cronbach > 0,800. Diabéticos com melhores resultados demonstraram maior controlo, estabelecendo uma relação positiva entre o conhecimento e o controlo da diabetes. Apenas 9,2% dos diabéticos apresentou bom conhecimento sobre a doença, sendo que a maioria (65,8%) demonstrou um conhecimento mediano. Os insulinotratados exibiram os piores resultados (77,6% com baixo conhecimento). As variáveis ‘via de tratamento’ e ‘complicações’ demonstraram ter impacto no desempenho obtido no questionário (valores p iguais a 0,00 e 0,048, respetivamente). Os diabéticos rurais, os sem complicações e os não insulinotratados revelaram-se os mais cumpridores e conhecedores. Discussão: Contrariando estudos anteriores, variáveis como a idade e o grau de escolaridade não demonstraram influenciar o conhecimentodo diabético. Habitantes do meio rural e diabéticos tratados oralmente obtiveram melhores resultados do que o que havia sido defendido previamente. Conclusão: Demonstrou-se a fidelidade psicométrica moderada a elevada do teste, assim como uma correlação positiva entre o controloda diabetes e o desempenho no inquérito. Espera-se que a sua futura aplicação possibilite identificar as

  18. Carrion flies of forensic interest: a study of seasonal community composition and succession in Lisbon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Prado e Castro, C; Serrano, A; Martins Da Silva, P; García, M D

    2012-12-01

    Information on Diptera community, seasonality and successional patterns in every geographical region is fundamental for the use of flies as forensic indicators of time of death. In order to obtain these data from the Lisbon area (Portugal), experiments were conducted during the four seasons of the year, using piglet carcasses as animal models. Five stages were recognized during the decomposition process. The stages, besides visually defined, could be separated taking into account the occurrence and abundance of the specific groups of Diptera collected. In general, the bloated stage recorded higher abundance and species-richness values. Seventy-one species were identified, belonging to 39 families, in a total of 20 144 adult Diptera collected. Autumn yielded the highest values of species richness, whereas winter had the lowest. In all seasons of the year, Calliphoridae was the dominant family; Muscidae and Fanniidae were very abundant as well. Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Lucilia ampullacea Villeneuve, Lucilia caesar (Linnaeus), Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Calliphoridae), Hydrotaea ignava (Harris), Muscina prolapsa (Harris), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (van der Wulp) (Muscidae), Piophila megastigmata McAlpine, Stearibia nigriceps (Meigen) (Piophilidae) and Nemopoda nitidula (Fallén) (Sepsidae) were revealed to be very important members of the Diptera community collected. The necrophagous behaviour, demonstrated by their immatures, using carrion as a food source makes them useful forensic indicator species. Also of relevance is the presence of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), S. nudiseta and P. megastigmata, foreign species established in the local carrion communities. This study also marks the first record of S. nudiseta in Portugal.

  19. Ethics Commission Member's Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Sue Spayth

    1988-01-01

    Presents a National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) Ethics Commission member's comments and suggestions about how early childhood educators can best make sound decisions about the ethical dilemma of the welfare of the child and the confidentiality of its divorced parents. (BB)

  20. CERN welcomes new members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-08-01

    Lithuania is on course to become an associate member of CERN, pending final approval by the Lithuanian parliament. Associate membership will allow representatives of the Baltic nation to take part in meetings of the CERN Council, which oversees the Geneva-based physics lab.