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  1. Organ-Specific Membrane Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Sell, K. W.; Mori, W.; Rack, J. H.; Gurner, B. W.; Coombs, R. R. A.

    1969-01-01

    A satisfactory system for testing the reaction of rabbit antisera with membrane antigens of human tissue cells is described. This method allows the differentiation between IgG and IgM antibodies and provides an extremely sensitive method for the detection of antigens on all cells including non-viable fixed cells. Anti-organ serum before selective absorption showed very little organ specificity in their reactions, but may be made specific by extensive absorption although often the resulting specific titre was very low. Organ-specific membrane antigens were also identified and shown to be represented on tumour cells, although in some cases such as the colon the reactions were weaker with tumour cells than with normal parenchymal cells of an organ. On the other hand, in one case of carcinoma of the kidney the organ-specific antigens were detectably stronger on tumour cells than on normal kidney cells. Preliminary studies on human ascitic tumour cells from 4 different cancer patients show that species-specific membrane antigens can be demonstrated. Unfortunately none of the cases were derived from organs whose origin could be identified with the antisera which had been prepared for this series of experiments. ImagesFigs. 2-3 PMID:5806432

  2. Hierarchical phosphorylation of apical membrane antigen 1 is required for efficient red blood cell invasion by malaria parasites

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, Boris; Harvey, Katherine L.; Wilcke, Louisa; Ruch, Ulrike; Engelberg, Klemens; Biller, Laura; Lucet, Isabelle; Erkelenz, Steffen; Heincke, Dorothee; Spielmann, Tobias; Doerig, Christian; Kunick, Conrad; Crabb, Brendan S.; Gilson, Paul R.; Gilberger, Tim W.

    2016-01-01

    Central to the pathogenesis of malaria is the proliferation of Plasmodium falciparum parasites within human erythrocytes. Parasites invade erythrocytes via a coordinated sequence of receptor-ligand interactions between the parasite and host cell. One key ligand, Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1), is a leading blood-stage vaccine and previous work indicates that phosphorylation of its cytoplasmic domain (CPD) is important to its function during invasion. Here we investigate the significance of each of the six available phospho-sites in the CPD. We confirm that the cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signalling pathway elicits a phospho-priming step upon serine 610 (S610), which enables subsequent phosphorylation in vitro of a conserved, downstream threonine residue (T613) by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Both phosphorylation steps are required for AMA1 to function efficiently during invasion. This provides the first evidence that the functions of key invasion ligands of the malaria parasite are regulated by sequential phosphorylation steps. PMID:27698395

  3. Molecular mapping of signals in the Qa-2 antigen required for attachment of the phosphatidylinositol membrane anchor.

    PubMed Central

    Waneck, G L; Sherman, D H; Kincade, P W; Low, M G; Flavell, R A

    1988-01-01

    Proteins anchored in the membrane by covalent linkage to phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) can be released by treatment with purified PtdIns-specific phospholipase C (Ptd-Ins-PLC). A recent survey of leukocyte antigens using flow cytometry has shown that staining of certain Qa antigens was diminished after PtdIns-PLC treatment, but staining of structurally related H-2 antigens was not affected. Therefore, in this study, the sensitivity of cell-surface Qa-2, H-2Kb, and H-2Db to hydrolysis by PtdIns-PLC was investigated biochemically by immunoprecipitation of radioiodinated molecules from cell lysates or supernatants. Qa-2, but not H-2Kb, was released from the surface of PtdIns-PLC-treated C57BL/10 mouse spleen cells and recovered in the cell supernatants. Similar analysis of thymoma cells transfected with cloned C57BL/10 genes showed that cell-surface Qa-2 molecules encoded by a Q7b cDNA and the Q7b or Q9b gene were sensitive to hydrolysis by PtdIns-PLC, whereas the H-2Kb and H-2Db gene products were resistant. Using thymoma cells transfected with hybrid genes constructed by exchanging exons between Q7b and H-2Db, the signals for PtdIns modification were localized to a defined region of Qa-2. This region differs from H-2Db most significantly by the presence of a central aspartate residue in the transmembrane segment and in the length of the cytoplasmic portion. Images PMID:3422441

  4. Conditional expression of apical membrane antigen 1 in Plasmodium falciparum shows it is required for erythrocyte invasion by merozoites

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Alan; Azevedo, Mauro F; Gilson, Paul R; Weiss, Greta E; O’Neill, Matthew T; Wilson, Danny W; Crabb, Brendan S; Cowman, Alan F

    2014-01-01

    Summary Malaria is caused by obligate intracellular parasites, of which Plasmodium falciparum is the most lethal species. In humans, P. falciparum merozoites (invasive forms of the parasite) employ a host of parasite proteins to rapidly invade erythrocytes. One of these is the P. falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (PfAMA1) which forms a complex with rhoptry neck proteins at the tight junction. Here, we have placed the Pfama1 gene under conditional control using dimerizable Cre recombinase (DiCre) in P. falciparum. DiCre-mediated excision of the loxP-flanked Pfama1 gene results in approximately 80% decreased expression of the protein within one intraerythrocytic growth cycle. This reduces growth by 40%, due to decreased invasion efficiency characterized by a post-invasion defect in sealing of the parasitophorous vacuole. These results show that PfAMA1 is an essential protein for merozoite invasion in P. falciparum and either directly or indirectly plays a role in resealing of the red blood cell at the posterior end of the invasion event. PMID:24571085

  5. Plasma membrane associated, virus-specific polypeptides required for the formation of target antigen complexes recognized by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Domber, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to define some of the poxvirus-specific target antigens which are synthesized in infected cells and recognized by vaccinia virus-specific CTLs (VV-CTLs). Since vaccinia virus infected, unmanipulated target cells express numerous virus-specific antigens on the plasma membrane, attempts were made to manipulate expression of the poxvirus genome after infection so that one or a few defined virus-specified antigens were expressed on the surface of infected cells. In vitro (/sup 51/Cr)-release assays determined that viral DNA synthesis and expression of late viral proteins were not necessary to form a target cell which was fully competent for lysis by VV-CTLs. Under the conditions employed in these experiments, 90-120 minutes of viral protein synthesis were necessary to produce a competent cell for lysis by VV-CTLs. In order to further inhibit the expression of early viral proteins in infected cells, partially UV-inactivated vaccinia virus was employed to infect target cells. It was determined that L-cells infected with virus preparations which had been UV-irradiated for 90 seconds were fully competent for lysis by VV-CTLs. Cells infected with 90 second UV-irr virus expressed 3 predominant, plasma membrane associated antigens of 36-37K, 27-28K, and 19-17K. These 3 viral antigens represent the predominant membrane-associated viral antigens available for interaction with class I, major histocompatibility antigens and hence are potential target antigens for VV-CTLs.

  6. Immunochemical studies of streptococcal cell membrane antigens immunologically related to glomerular basement membrane.

    PubMed

    Zelman, M E; Lange, C F

    1995-12-01

    Pursuing an autoimmune model for the etiology of poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, protein antigens isolated from the cytoplasmic membrane of nephritogenic group A Type 12 Streptococcus pyogenes were immunochemically characterized using antistreptococcal cell membrane (SCM) monoclonal antibody (MAb) cross-reactive with glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Low molecular weight (9.2, 7.0, 4.7, 2.3 kDa) HPLC-purified SCM polypeptide antigens were characterized by competitive inhibition and equilibrium dialysis. Competitive inhibition of the MAb, by different sized SCM polypeptide antigens showed an inverse relationship between the size of these antigens and the molar amount required to obtain 50% inhibition of the MAb, confirming previous observations that suggested that these SCM antigens exhibit increasing epitope concentration with increasing size, that is constant epitope density. The observed changes in epitope concentration correlated with differences in the valence and affinity of the MAb as determined by equilibrium dialysis. The Kds of the MAb for 9.2-, 7.0-, 4.7-, and 2.3-kDa SCM antigens ranged from 7.42 x 10(-7) to 1.15 x 10(-5). The experimentally determined MAb valence for these antigens was 2 for the 9.2-kDa antigen and approached 10 for the smaller antigens. Finally, the similarity of these SCM antigens was reflected in similar amino acid compositions; of note, these data agreed with the compositions previously reported for sized GBM antigens. Concentrations of Asp, Thr, Ser, Glu, Gly, Ala, Val, Ile, and Leu paralleled increasing epitope concentration. Apparent N-terminal blocking prevented sequencing of these peptides, but these immunochemical data suggest that intact SCM antigen recognized by the anti-SCM MAb consists of repeating epitopes, an observation consistent with the cytoplasmic membrane source of the antigen.

  7. Persistence of Antigen in Rabbit Synovial Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Webb, F. W. S.; Ford, P. M.; Glynn, L. E.

    1971-01-01

    It is already known that rabbits which show delayed-type hypersensitivity to an antigen will, after a single injection of the same antigen into a knee joint develop a chronic proliferative synovitis. It is also known that almost all of a foreign protein injected into a normal knee joint is rapidly cleared in a few days. It has now been shown that if an animal is given foreign protein into a knee joint, and delayed-type hypersensitivity is produced later, that a chronic proliferative synovitis can also develop. This suggests that minute amounts of foreign protein can persist in an antigenic form in normal rabbit synovial membrane. It is possible that the persistence of this small amount of antigen may account in part for the chronicity of this form of experimental synovitis, and the fact that unlike human rheumatoid arthritis this type of experimental synovitis is confined to the joint injected with antigen. ImagesFigs. 3-4Figs. 1-2 PMID:5547654

  8. The Disulfide Bond Cys255-Cys279 in the Immunoglobulin-Like Domain of Anthrax Toxin Receptor 2 Is Required for Membrane Insertion of Anthrax Protective Antigen Pore

    PubMed Central

    Boone, Kyle; Altiyev, Agamyrat; Puschhof, Jens; Sauter, Roland; Arigi, Emma; Ruiz, Blanca; Peng, Xiuli; Almeida, Igor; Sherman, Michael; Xiao, Chuan; Sun, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax toxin receptors act as molecular clamps or switches that control anthrax toxin entry, pH-dependent pore formation, and translocation of enzymatic moieties across the endosomal membranes. We previously reported that reduction of the disulfide bonds in the immunoglobulin-like (Ig) domain of the anthrax toxin receptor 2 (ANTXR2) inhibited the function of the protective antigen (PA) pore. In the present study, the disulfide linkage in the Ig domain was identified as Cys255-Cys279 and Cys230-Cys315. Specific disulfide bond deletion mutants were achieved by replacing Cys residues with Ala residues. Deletion of the disulfide bond C255-C279, but not C230-C315, inhibited the PA pore-induced release of the fluorescence dyes from the liposomes, suggesting that C255-C279 is essential for PA pore function. Furthermore, we found that deletion of C255-C279 did not affect PA prepore-to-pore conversion, but inhibited PA pore membrane insertion by trapping the PA membrane-inserting loops in proteinaceous hydrophobic pockets. Fluorescence spectra of Trp59, a residue adjacent to the PA-binding motif in von Willebrand factor A (VWA) domain of ANTXR2, showed that deletion of C255-C279 resulted in a significant conformational change on the receptor ectodomain. The disulfide deletion-induced conformational change on the VWA domain was further confirmed by single-particle 3D reconstruction of the negatively stained PA-receptor heptameric complexes. Together, the biochemical and structural data obtained in this study provides a mechanistic insight into the role of the receptor disulfide bond C255-C279 in anthrax toxin action. Manipulation of the redox states of the receptor, specifically targeting to C255-C279, may become a novel strategy to treat anthrax. PMID:26107617

  9. Properties of glycolipid-enriched membrane rafts in antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, William; Smith, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    Presentation of antigen to T cells represents one of the central events in the engagement of the immune system toward the defense of the host against pathogens. Accordingly, understanding the mechanisms by which antigen presentation occurs is critical toward our understanding the properties of host defense against foreign antigen, as well as insight into other features of the immune system, such as autoimmune disease. The entire antigen-presentation event is complex, and many features of it remain poorly understood. However, recent studies have provided evidence showing that glycolipid-enriched membrane rafts are important for efficient antigen presentation; the studies suggest that one such function of rafts is trafficking of antigen-MHC II complexes to the presentation site on the surface of the antigen-presenting cell. Here, we present a critical discussion of rafts and their proposed functions in antigen presentation. Emerging topics of rafts and antigen presentation that warrant further investigation are also highlighted.

  10. PROSTATE SPECIFIC MEMBRANE ANTIGEN-BASED IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Joseph R.; Akhtar, Naveed H.; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Anand, Alok; Deh, Kofi; Tagawa, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy affecting men in North America. Despite significant efforts, conventional imaging of PC does not contribute to patient management as much as imaging performed for other common cancers. Given the lack of specificity in conventional imaging techniques, one possible solution is to screen for PC specific antigenic targets and generate agents able to specifically bind. Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is over-expressed in PC tissue, with low levels of expression in the small intestine, renal tubular cells and salivary gland. The first clinical agent for targeting PSMA was 111In-capromab, involving an antibody recognizing the internal domain of PSMA. The second- and third-generation humanized PSMA binding antibodies have the potential to overcome some of the limitations inherent to capromab pendetide i.e. inability to bind to live PC cells. One example is the humanized monoclonal antibody J591 (Hu mAb J591) that was developed primarily for therapeutic purposes but also has interesting imaging characteristics including the identification of bone metastases in PC. The major disadvantage of use of mAb for imaging is slow target recognition and background clearance in an appropriate timeframe for diagnostic imaging. Urea-based compounds such as small molecule inhibitors may also present promising agents for PC imaging with SPECT and PET. Two such small-molecule inhibitors targeting PSMA, MIP-1072 and MIP-1095, have exhibited high affinity for PSMA. The uptake of 123I-MIP-1072 and 123I-MIP-1095 in PC xenografts have imaged successfully with favorable properties amenable to human trials. While advances in conventional imaging will continue, Ab and small molecule imaging exemplified by PSMA targeting have the greatest potential to improve diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. PMID:22658884

  11. Analysis of antigen presentation by metabolically inactive accessory cells and their isolated membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Falo, L D; Sullivan, K; Benacerraf, B; Mescher, M F; Rock, K L

    1985-01-01

    Several amino acid copolymers are potent immunogens under the control of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-encoded Ir genes. We have further characterized their accessory-cell-dependent, MHC-restricted presentation to T lymphocytes. We initially characterized their processing requirements by investigating the ability of paraformaldehyde-fixed antigen-presenting cells (APC) to present these copolymers. Fixed APC can present poly(Glu56Lys35Phe9) and poly(Glu60Ala30Tyr10) provided that they have been incubated with antigen prior to fixation. The inability of these same fixed preparations to present soluble antigen indicates a fixation-sensitive antigen-processing step. In contrast, the antigens poly(Glu55Lys35Leu10) and poly(Glu55Lys35Tyr10) can be presented by APC fixed before antigen exposure. This differential requirement for antigen processing was exploited to analyze the events of antigen presentation in two related systems. First, the ability of isolated APC membranes to process and present antigen was assessed. APC membranes can present the antigens poly(GluLysLeu) and poly(GluLysTyr) in a specific and MHC-restricted manner. However, the isolated membranes fail to present either poly(GluLysPhe) or poly(GluAlaTyr), suggesting that such preparations can present but not process antigen. Second, the distinct properties of the various copolymers were used with fixed APC to test the effects of antigen processing on the phenomenon of antigen competition. APC that had processed poly(GluLysPhe) or poly(GluAlaTyr) were subsequently fixed and used to present antigen in the presence or absence of various antagonists. Under these conditions, poly(GluLysLeu) and poly(Glu50Tyr50) could effect specific inhibition, clearly indicating that antigen competition occurs distal to and does not require antigen processing. In contrast, native antigen with an absolute processing requirement is not capable of competing with preprocessed antigen on fixed APC. Taken together, these

  12. Subdominant Outer Membrane Antigens in Anaplasma marginale: Conservation, Antigenicity, and Protective Capacity Using Recombinant Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ducken, Deirdre R.; Brown, Wendy C.; Alperin, Debra C.; Brayton, Kelly A.; Reif, Kathryn E.; Turse, Joshua E.; Palmer, Guy H.; Noh, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP) extracts or a defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are several knowledge gaps limiting progress in vaccine development. First, are these OMPs conserved among the diversity of A. marginale strains circulating in endemic regions? Second, are the most highly conserved outer membrane proteins in the immunogens recognized by immunized and protected animals? Lastly, can this subset of OMPs recognized by antibody from protected vaccinates and conserved among strains recapitulate the protection of outer membrane vaccines? To address the first goal, genes encoding OMPs AM202, AM368, AM854, AM936, AM1041, and AM1096, major subdominant components of the outer membrane, were cloned and sequenced from geographically diverse strains and isolates. AM202, AM936, AM854, and AM1096 share 99.9 to 100% amino acid identity. AM1041 has 97.1 to 100% and AM368 has 98.3 to 99.9% amino acid identity. While all four of the most highly conserved OMPs were recognized by IgG from animals immunized with outer membranes, linked surface protein complexes, or unlinked surface protein complexes and shown to be protected from challenge, the highest titers and consistent recognition among vaccinates were to AM854 and AM936. Consequently, animals were immunized with recombinant AM854 and AM936 and challenged. Recombinant vaccinates and purified outer membrane vaccinates had similar IgG and IgG2 responses to both proteins. However, the recombinant vaccinates developed higher bacteremia after challenge as compared to adjuvant-only controls and outer membrane vaccinates. These results provide the first evidence that vaccination with specific antigens may exacerbate disease. Progressing from the protective capacity of outer membrane formulations to recombinant vaccines

  13. Antigen presentation by liposomes bearing class II MHC and membrane IL-1.

    PubMed Central

    Bakouche, O.; Lachman, L. B.

    1990-01-01

    Liposomes containing membrane IL-1, Iak, and the antigen conalbumin were evaluated as "synthetic antigen presenting cells." The role of these three molecules in macrophage-T cell interaction was studied by testing their ability to induce the proliferation of a T-cell clone specific to conalbumin (the D10 cell line) or immune spleen cells sensitized three times in vivo with conalbumin. In the latter case, splenic macrophages were eliminated by adherence and a lysomotropic agent. The antigen conalbumin was presented on the surface of the liposomes as native undigested protein. When the liposomes presented native conalbumin, Iak, and membrane IL-1, significant proliferation occurred, but if the liposomes lacked membrane IL-1, the proliferation of the T-cell clone and the spleen cells reached only about 60 percent of the previous signal. Native conalbumin and class II antigen alone were required for T-cell activation, while membrane IL-1 only amplified the response. When the liposomes were made with only Iak and membrane IL-1, lacking conalbumin, there was no proliferation of antigen-specific target cells. These results indicated that in this synthetic system, membrane IL-1 increases the magnitude of the response but is not essential for the proliferative response of antigen-specific T cells. PMID:2399741

  14. Antigen conformation determines processing requirements for T-cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    Streicher, H Z; Berkower, I J; Busch, M; Gurd, F R; Berzofsky, J A

    1984-01-01

    We studied the difference in requirements for processing and presentation to a single T-cell clone of four different forms of the same epitope of sperm whale myoglobin--namely, on the native protein, on two conformationally altered forms of the protein, or as a 22-residue antigenic peptide fragment. The T-cell clone was I-Ed-restricted and specific for an epitope on the CNBr fragment 132-153 involving Lys-140. As inhibitors of macrophage processing of antigen, we used several agents that inhibit lysosomal function: the weak bases chloroquine and NH4Cl, the cationic ionophore monensin, and the competitive protease inhibitor leupeptin. When these agents were used to inhibit processing of antigen by presenting cells and then washed out before T cells were added to culture, they inhibited the presentation of native antigen but not of fragment 132-153. To our surprise, the intact but denatured form, S-methylmyoglobin, behaved like the fragment not like the native protein. Apomyoglobin was intermediate in susceptibility to inhibition. Thus, native myoglobin requires a processing step that appears to involve lysosomal proteolysis, which is not required by fragment 132-153 or the denatured unfolded forms. For an antigen the size of myoglobin (Mr 17,800), it appears that unfolding of the native conformation, rather than further reduction in size, is the critical parameter determining the need for processing. Since a major difference between native myoglobin and the other forms is the greater accessibility in the latter of sites, such as hydrophobic residues, buried in the native protein, we propose that processing may be necessary to expose these sites, perhaps for interaction with the cell membrane or the Ia of the antigen-presenting cell. PMID:6333686

  15. Protein Stains to Detect Antigen on Membranes.

    PubMed

    Dsouza, Anil; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    Western blotting (protein blotting/electroblotting) is the gold standard in the analysis of complex protein mixtures. Electroblotting drives protein molecules from a polyacrylamide (or less commonly, of an agarose) gel to the surface of a binding membrane, thereby facilitating an increased availability of the sites with affinity for both general and specific protein reagents. The analysis of these complex protein mixtures is achieved by the detection of specific protein bands on a membrane, which in turn is made possible by the visualization of protein bands either by chemical staining or by reaction with an antibody of a conjugated ligand. Chemical methods employ staining with organic dyes, metal chelates, autoradiography, fluorescent dyes, complexing with silver, or prelabeling with fluorophores. All of these methods have differing sensitivities and quantitative determinations vary significantly. This review will describe the various protein staining methods applied to membranes after western blotting. "Detection" precedes and is a prerequisite to obtaining qualitative and quantitative data on the proteins in a sample, as much as to comparing the protein composition of different samples. "Detection" is often synonymous to staining, i.e., the reversible or irreversible binding by the proteins of a colored organic or inorganic chemical.

  16. Protein stains to detect antigen on membranes.

    PubMed

    D'souza, Anil; Scofield, R Hal

    2009-01-01

    Western blotting (protein blotting/electroblotting) is the gold standard in the analysis of complex protein mixtures. Electroblotting drives protein molecules from a polyacrylamide (or less commonly, of an agarose) gel to the surface of a binding membrane, thereby facilitating an increased availability of the sites with affinity for both general and specific protein reagents. The analysis of these complex protein mixtures is achieved by the detection of specific protein bands on a membrane, which in turn is made possible by the visualization of protein bands either by chemical staining or by reaction with an antibody of a conjugated ligand. Chemical methods employ staining with organic dyes, metal chelates, autoradiography, fluorescent dyes, complexing with silver, or prelabeling with fluorophores. All of these methods have differing sensitivities and quantitative determinations vary significantly. This review will describe the various protein staining methods applied to membranes after electrophoresis. "Detection" precedes and is a prerequisite to obtaining qualitative and quantitative data on the proteins in a sample, as much as to comparing the protein composition of different samples. Detection is often synonymous to staining, i.e., the reversible or irreversible binding by the proteins of a colored organic or inorganic chemical. PMID:19378080

  17. Intravacuolar Membranes Regulate CD8 T Cell Recognition of Membrane-Bound Toxoplasma gondii Protective Antigen.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Jodie; Bittame, Amina; Massera, Céline; Vasseur, Virginie; Effantin, Grégory; Valat, Anne; Buaillon, Célia; Allart, Sophie; Fox, Barbara A; Rommereim, Leah M; Bzik, David J; Schoehn, Guy; Weissenhorn, Winfried; Dubremetz, Jean-François; Gagnon, Jean; Mercier, Corinne; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Blanchard, Nicolas

    2015-12-15

    Apicomplexa parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii target effectors to and across the boundary of their parasitophorous vacuole (PV), resulting in host cell subversion and potential presentation by MHC class I molecules for CD8 T cell recognition. The host-parasite interface comprises the PV limiting membrane and a highly curved, membranous intravacuolar network (IVN) of uncertain function. Here, using a cell-free minimal system, we dissect how membrane tubules are shaped by the parasite effectors GRA2 and GRA6. We show that membrane association regulates access of the GRA6 protective antigen to the MHC I pathway in infected cells. Although insertion of GRA6 in the PV membrane is key for immunogenicity, association of GRA6 with the IVN limits presentation and curtails GRA6-specific CD8 responses in mice. Thus, membrane deformations of the PV regulate access of antigens to the MHC class I pathway, and the IVN may play a role in immune modulation.

  18. Identification of Goodpasture antigens in human alveolar basement membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, K; Iseki, T; Okada, M; Morimoto, Y; Eryu, N; Maki, S

    1988-01-01

    Goodpasture (GP) antigens, protein components reactive with human autoantibodies against glomerular basement membrane (GBM), were identified in human alveolar basement membrane (ABM) using an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), Western blotting and immunoprecipitation. All six anti-GBM antisera studied, three obtained from patients with glomerulonephritis and pulmonary haemorrhages (i.e. GP syndrome), and three from patients with glomerulonephritis alone, distinctively reacted with collagenase-digested (CD) ABM. Very cationic 22-28 kD and 40-48 kD components were detected by blot analysis combined with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. These proteins showed some similarities to GP antigens in human GBM with respect to the monomer-dimer composition and charge distribution. Inhibition ELISA revealed that the binding of anti-GBM antisera to CDGBM decreased when they were pre-incubated with CDABM, suggesting that the anti-GBM antisera recognized the same epitope(s) on the GBM and ABM. Heterogeneity of the GP antigens in human ABM was demonstrated by blotting; monomeric antigens were absent or at low levels in the CDABM of three out of 10 normal individuals. In immunoprecipitation, anti-GBM antisera from patients with and without pulmonary haemorrhage showed different reactivities with CDABM. The former antisera precipitated both monomeric and dimeric components, but the latter did not. The observations of variation in monomer-dimer composition of ABM, and the different binding of anti-GBM antisera to it may explain why only some patients with anti-GBM nephritis have lung involvement. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:2466590

  19. Antigen Processing and Remodeling of the Endosomal Pathway: Requirements for Antigen Cross-Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Compeer, Ewoud Bernardus; Flinsenberg, Thijs Willem Hendrik; van der Grein, Susanna Geertje; Boes, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen as peptide/class I major histocompatibility complex complexes plays a central role in the elicitation of CD8+ T cell clones that mediate anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses. While it has been clear that there are specific subsets of professional antigen presenting cells capable of antigen cross-presentation, identification of mechanisms involved is still ongoing. Especially amongst dendritic cells (DC), there are specialized subsets that are highly proficient at antigen cross-presentation. We here present a focused survey on the cell biological processes in the endosomal pathway that support antigen cross-presentation. This review highlights DC-intrinsic mechanisms that facilitate the cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen, including receptor-mediated uptake, maturation-induced endosomal sorting of membrane proteins, dynamic remodeling of endosomal structures and cell surface-directed endosomal trafficking. We will conclude with the description of pathogen-induced deviation of endosomal processing, and discuss how immune evasion strategies pertaining endosomal trafficking may preclude antigen cross-presentation. PMID:22566920

  20. Antigen-specific suppression of anti-influenza antibody production in man. Possible role of a membrane-antigen complex.

    PubMed

    McCaughan, G W; Brown, M H; Basten, A

    1985-03-01

    E rosette-forming (E+) cells from human secondary lymphoid tissue were incubated with high dose influenza A virus (Mem-Bel) in an attempt to generate suppressor T cells. Suppression was assayed by transferring the antigen-pulsed E+ cells into effector cultures consisting of E+ and E- cells stimulated with immunogenic amounts of either the inducing virus Mem-Bel) or the non-cross-reacting influenza B virus (B/HK). The transfer resulted in marked inhibition of IgG, IgA and IgM antibody production to Mem-Bel but not to the control antigen, B/HK virus. The suppressive effect was specific at the level of induction as well as expression since E+ cells exposed to high dose Mem-Bel could provide help to an effector culture containing E- cells and optimal dose of B/HK virus. However, metabolically active cells did not appear to be required for suppression. Thus, it could be elicited (a) after only 15 min incubation of E+ cells with high-dose virus and (b) by E+ cells exposed to irradiation, incubated in the presence of metabolic inhibitors, or disrupted by repeated freeze thawing. In contrast, treatment of E+ cells with pronase reversed the suppressive effect. Interestingly, virus heated to 70 degree C failed to induced suppression, while retailing the ability to elicit a normal helper response. Suppression induced by exposure to standard amounts of high-dose antigen was mediated by T cells of both helper/inducer (Leu-3a+) and suppressor/cytotoxic subsets (Leu-2a+), but not by B cells. Two groups of observations pointed to the B cell as the target of suppression. First, suppression could still be transferred to effector cultures in which helper T cells had been replaced by T cell-replacing factor or suppressor T cells removed by irradiation. Second, significant inhibition of antibody production was obtained when the transfer of antigen-pulsed E+ cells was delayed for up to 120 h after initiation of the effector culture. Taken together the results suggest that suppression in

  1. Delivery of foreign antigens by engineered outer membrane vesicle vaccines.

    PubMed

    Chen, David J; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Metzger, Stephan M; Buckles, Elizabeth; Doody, Anne M; DeLisa, Matthew P; Putnam, David

    2010-02-16

    As new disease threats arise and existing pathogens grow resistant to conventional interventions, attention increasingly focuses on the development of vaccines to induce protective immune responses. Given their admirable safety records, protein subunit vaccines are attractive for widespread immunization, but their disadvantages include poor immunogenicity and expensive manufacture. We show here that engineered Escherichia coli outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are an easily purified vaccine-delivery system capable of greatly enhancing the immunogenicity of a low-immunogenicity protein antigen without added adjuvants. Using green-fluorescent protein (GFP) as the model subunit antigen, genetic fusion of GFP with the bacterial hemolysin ClyA resulted in a chimeric protein that elicited strong anti-GFP antibody titers in immunized mice, whereas immunization with GFP alone did not elicit such titers. Harnessing the specific secretion of ClyA to OMVs, the ClyA-GFP fusion was found localized in OMVs, resulting in engineered recombinant OMVs. The anti-GFP humoral response in mice immunized with the engineered OMV formulations was indistinguishable from the response to the purified ClyA-GFP fusion protein alone and equal to purified proteins absorbed to aluminum hydroxide, a standard adjuvant. In a major improvement over current practice, engineered OMVs containing ClyA-GFP were easily isolated by ultracentrifugation, effectively eliminating the need for laborious antigen purification from cell-culture expression systems. With the diverse collection of heterologous proteins that can be functionally localized with OMVs when fused with ClyA, this work signals the possibility of OMVs as a robust and tunable technology platform for a new generation of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:20133740

  2. Prostate-specific membrane antigen-based imaging.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Joseph R; Akhtar, Naveed H; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Anand, Alok; Deh, Kofi; Tagawa, Scott T

    2013-02-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common noncutaneous malignancy affecting men in North America. Despite significant efforts, conventional imaging of CaP does not contribute to patient management as much as imaging performed for other common cancers. Given the lack of specificity in conventional imaging techniques, one possible solution is to screen for CaP-specific antigenic targets and generate agents able to specifically bind. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed in CaP tissue, with low levels of expression in the small intestine, renal tubular cells, and salivary gland. The first clinical agent for targeting PSMA was (111)In-capromab, involving an antibody recognizing the internal domain of PSMA. The second- and third-generation humanized PSMA binding antibodies have the potential to overcome some of the limitations inherent to capromab penditide (i.e., inability to bind to live CaP cells). One example is the humanized monoclonal antibody J591 (Hu mAb J591) that was developed primarily for therapeutic purposes but also has interesting imaging characteristics, including the identification of bone metastases in CaP. The major disadvantage of use of mAb for imaging is slow target recognition and background clearance in an appropriate time frame for diagnostic imaging. Urea-based compounds, such as small molecule inhibitors may also present promising agents for CaP imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). Two such small-molecule inhibitors targeting PSMA, MIP-1072, and MIP-1095 have exhibited high affinity for PSMA. The uptake of (123)I-MIP-1072 and (123)I-MIP-1095 in CaP xenografts have imaged successfully with favorable properties amenable to human trials. While advances in conventional imaging will continue, Ab and small molecule imaging exemplified by PSMA targeting have the greatest potential to improve diagnostic sensitivity and specificity.

  3. Membrane-associated antigens of blood stages of Plasmodium, brasilianum, a quartan malaria parasite.

    PubMed Central

    Cochrane, A H; Matsumoto, Y; Kamboj, K K; Maracic, M; Nussenzweig, R S; Aikawa, M

    1988-01-01

    The localization of Plasmodium brasilianum-derived antigens in short and long clefts within the cytoplasm of infected erythrocytes and in association with knobs of the host cell membrane was demonstrated by immunoelectron microscopy with monoclonal antibodies. Our results document that malaria-induced short and long clefts, previously distinguishable only by morphology, differ also in antigenic composition. Another parasite-derived antigen was found to be associated with the parasitophorous vacuole space in schizonts. In segmenters, this antigen was present in large amounts between merozoites and in the cytoplasm of infected cells. These antigens were characterized by biosynthetic labeling and gel electrophoresis. Images PMID:3397184

  4. Auger Radiopharmaceutical Therapy Targeting Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Kiess, Ana P.; Hobbs, Robert; Sgouros, George; Mease, Ronnie C.; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Shen, Colette J.; Foss, Catherine A.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2015-01-01

    Auger electron emitters such as 125I have a high linear energy transfer and short range of emission (<10 μm), making them suitable for treating micrometastases while sparing normal tissues. We used a highly specific small molecule targeting the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) to deliver 125I to prostate cancer cells. Methods The PSMA-targeting Auger emitter 2-[3-[1-carboxy-5-(4-125I-iodo-benzoylamino)-pentyl]-ureido]-pentanedioic acid (125I-DCIBzL) was synthesized. DNA damage (via phosphorylated H2A histone family member X staining) and clonogenic survival were tested in PSMA-positive (PSMA+) PC3 PIP and PSMA-negative (PSMA−) PC3 flu human prostate cancer cells after treatment with 125I-DCIBzL. Subcellular drug distribution was assessed with confocal microscopy using a related fluorescent PSMA-targeting compound YC-36. In vivo antitumor efficacy was tested in nude mice bearing PSMA+ PC3 PIP or PSMA− PC3 flu flank xenografts. Animals were administered (intravenously) 111 MBq (3 mCi) of 125I-DCIBzL, 111 MBq (3 mCi) of 125I-NaI, an equivalent amount of nonradiolabeled DCIBzL, or saline. Results After treatment with 125I-DCIBzL, PSMA+ PC3 PIP cells exhibited increased DNA damage and decreased clonogenic survival when compared with PSMA− PC3 flu cells. Confocal microscopy of YC-36 showed drug distribution in the perinuclear area and plasma membrane. Animals bearing PSMA+ PC3 PIP tumors had significant tumor growth delay after treatment with 125I-DCIBzL, with only 1 mouse reaching 5 times the initial tumor volume by 60 d after treatment, compared with a median time to 5 times volume of less than 15 d for PSMA− PC3 flu tumors and all other treatment groups (P = 0.002 by log-rank test). Conclusion PSMA-targeted radiopharmaceutical therapy with the Auger emitter 125I-DCIBzL yielded highly specific antitumor efficacy in vivo, suggesting promise for treatment of prostate cancer micrometastases. PMID:26182968

  5. Production of a Shigella sonnei Vaccine Based on Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA), 1790GAHB

    PubMed Central

    Gerke, Christiane; Colucci, Anna Maria; Giannelli, Carlo; Sanzone, Silvia; Vitali, Claudia Giorgina; Sollai, Luigi; Rossi, Omar; Martin, Laura B.; Auerbach, Jochen; Di Cioccio, Vito; Saul, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we developed a high yield production process for outer membrane particles from genetically modified bacteria, called Generalized Modules of Membrane Antigens (GMMA), and the corresponding simple two step filtration purification, enabling economic manufacture of these particles for use as vaccines. Using a Shigella sonnei strain that was genetically modified to produce penta-acylated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with reduced endotoxicity and to maintain the virulence plasmid encoding for the immunodominant O antigen component of the LPS, scale up of the process to GMP pilot scale was straightforward and gave high yields of GMMA with required purity and consistent results. GMMA were formulated with Alhydrogel and were highly immunogenic in mice and rabbits. In mice, a single immunization containing 29 ng protein and 1.75 ng of O antigen elicited substantial anti-LPS antibody levels. As GMMA contain LPS and lipoproteins, assessing potential reactogenicity was a key aspect of vaccine development. In an in vitro monocyte activation test, GMMA from the production strain showed a 600-fold lower stimulatory activity than GMMA with unmodified LPS. Two in vivo tests confirmed the low potential for reactogenicity. We established a modified rabbit pyrogenicity test based on the European Pharmacopoeia pyrogens method but using intramuscular administration of the full human dose (100 μg of protein). The vaccine elicited an average temperature rise of 0.5°C within four hours after administration, which was considered acceptable and showed that the test is able to detect a pyrogenic response. Furthermore, a repeat dose toxicology study in rabbits using intramuscular (100 μg/dose), intranasal (80 μg/dose), and intradermal (10 μg/dose) administration routes showed good tolerability of the vaccine by all routes and supported its suitability for use in humans. The S. sonnei GMMA vaccine is now in Phase 1 dose-escalation clinical trials. PMID:26248044

  6. Accumulation of chlamydial lipopolysaccharide antigen in the plasma membranes of infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, S. T.; Schloemer, R. H.; Wilde, C. E.

    1989-01-01

    The presence of a chlamydia-specified antigen associated with the plasma membrane of infected cell lines was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence staining with a monoclonal antibody, designated 47A2, specific for the chlamydial genus-specific lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen. Staining of HeLa, L-929, and McCoy cells infected with the L2 or F serovar of Chlamydia trachomatis was observed either without fixation or following aldehyde fixation and brief drying. The 47A2-reactive antigen appeared to be present on the plasma membrane, on bleb-like structures on the host cell surface, and on proximal processes of neighboring uninfected cells. Antibodies to chlamydial protein antigens such as the major outer membrane protein produced no surface staining under similar conditions. Membrane vesicles elaborated from infected cells were enriched for the 47A2-reactive antigen. Superinfection of chlamydia-infected cells with vesicular stomatitis virus, an enveloped virus which buds from the plasma membrane, allowed purification of progeny virions that were enriched with chlamydial LPS. These results are consistent with the presence of chlamydial LPS in the plasma membranes of infected host cells. Images PMID:2470679

  7. Uncommon structural motifs dominate the antigen binding site in human autoantibodies reactive with basement membrane collagen.

    PubMed

    Foster, Mary H; Buckley, Elizabeth S; Chen, Benny J; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Clark, Amy G

    2016-08-01

    Autoantibodies mediate organ destruction in multiple autoimmune diseases, yet their origins in patients remain poorly understood. To probe the genetic origins and structure of disease-associated autoantibodies, we engrafted immunodeficient mice with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and immunized with the non-collagenous-1 (NC1) domain of the alpha3 chain of type IV collagen. This antigen is expressed in lungs and kidneys and is targeted by autoantibodies in anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis and Goodpasture syndrome (GPS), prototypic human organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Using Epstein Barr virus transformation and cell fusion, six human anti-alpha3(IV)NC1 collagen monoclonal autoantibodies (mAb) were recovered, including subsets reactive with human kidney and with epitopes recognized by patients' IgG. Sequence analysis reveals a long to exceptionally long heavy chain complementarity determining region3 (HCDR3), the major site of antigen binding, in all six mAb. Mean HCDR3 length is 25.5 amino acids (range 20-36), generated from inherently long DH and JH genes and extended regions of non-templated N-nucleotides. Long HCDR3 are suited to forming noncontiguous antigen contacts and to binding recessed, immunologically silent epitopes hidden from conventional antibodies, as seen with self-antigen crossreactive broadly neutralizing anti-HIV Ig (bnAb). The anti-alpha3(IV)NC1 collagen mAb also show preferential use of unmutated variable region genes that are enriched among human chronic lymphocytic leukemia antibodies that share features with natural polyreactive Ig. Our findings suggest unexpected relationships between pathogenic anti-collagen Ig, bnAb, and autoreactive Ig associated with malignancy, all of which arise from B cells expressing unconventional structural elements that may require transient escape from tolerance for successful expansion. PMID:27450516

  8. Intracellular targeting of antigens internalized by membrane immunoglobulin in B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, R N; Barnes, K A; Grupp, S A; Sanchez, M; Misulovin, Z; Nussenzweig, M C; Abbas, A K

    1995-05-01

    An important function of membrane immunoglobulin (mIg), the B cell antigen receptor, is to endocytose limiting quantities of antigen for efficient presentation to class II-restricted T cells. We have used a panel of mIg mutants to analyze the mechanism of mIg-mediated antigen presentation, and specifically to explore the ability of mIg to target internalized antigen to intracellular processing compartments. Transfected mIgs carrying substitutions for the transmembrane Tyr587 residue fail to efficiently present specifically bound antigen. However, these mutants internalize antigen normally, and their defect cannot be attributed to a lack of mIg-associated Ig alpha/Ig beta molecules. A novel functional assay for detecting antigenic peptides in subcellular fractions shows that wild-type mIg transfectants generate class II-peptide complexes intracellularly, whereas only free antigenic peptides are detectable in the mutant mIg transfectants. Furthermore, an antigen competition assay reveals that antigen internalized by the mutant mIgs fails to enter the intracellular processing compartment accessed by wild-type mIg. Therefore, mIg specifically targets bound and endocytosed antigen to the intracellular compartment where processed peptides associate with class II molecules, and the transmembrane Tyr587 residue plays an obligatory role in this process. Targeting of internalized antigen may be mediated by receptor-associated chaperones, and may be a general mechanism for optimizing the presentation of specifically bound and endocytosed antigens in b lymphocytes and other antigen-presenting cells.

  9. Expression of S-100 protein, epithelial membrane antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen and alpha fetoprotein in normal salivary glands and primary salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Günhan, O; Evren, G; Demiriz, M; Can, C; Celasun, B; Finci, R

    1992-12-01

    The distribution of S-100 protein, epithelial membrane antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen and alpha fetoprotein was studied in 38 primary salivary gland tumors. S-100 protein, a useful marker of myoepithelial cells, was demonstrated in some benign tumors. Carcinoembryonic antigen expression was consistently positive in adenoid cystic carcinoma. Demonstration of epithelial membrane antigen helped to confirm the epithelial nature of some neoplastic cells. Alpha fetoprotein was not expressed in any of the cases examined. No correlation was found between immunopositivity and tumor behavior in the present series.

  10. Definition of a physiologic aging autoantigen by using synthetic peptides of membrane protein band 3: localization of the active antigenic sites.

    PubMed

    Kay, M M; Marchalonis, J J; Hughes, J; Watanabe, K; Schluter, S F

    1990-08-01

    Senescent cell antigen (SCA), an aging antigen, is a protein that appears on old cells and marks them for removal by the immune system in mammals. It is derived from band 3, a ubiquitous membrane transport protein found in diverse cell types and tissues. We have used synthetic peptides to identify aging antigenic sites on band 3, using a competitive inhibition assay and immunoblotting with IgG directed against the aging antigen on old cells. Results indicate that: (i) the active antigenic sites of the aging antigen reside on membrane protein band 3 residues that are extracellular regions implicated in anion transport (residues 538-554 and 788-827); (ii) a putative ankyrin-binding-region peptide is not involved in SCA activity; and (iii) carbohydrate moieties are not required for the antigenicity or recognition of SCA because synthetic peptides alone abolish binding of senescent cell IgG to erythrocytes. One of the putative transport sites that contributes to the aging antigen is located toward the carboxyl terminus. A model of band 3 is presented. Localization of the active antigenic site on the band 3 molecule facilitates definition of the molecular changes occurring during aging that initiate molecular as well as cellular degeneration. PMID:1696010

  11. Parallel optical read-out of micromechanical pillars applied to prostate specific membrane antigen detection.

    PubMed

    Tardivo, Martina; Toffoli, Valeria; Fracasso, Giulio; Borin, Daniele; Dal Zilio, Simone; Colusso, Andrea; Carrato, Sergio; Scoles, Giacinto; Meneghetti, Moreno; Colombatti, Marco; Lazzarino, Marco

    2015-10-15

    Micro and nanomechanical resonators represent a promising platform for proteins label-free detection because of their extreme sensitivity, fast response and low cost. Micro-pillars are columnar resonators that can be easily arranged in dense arrays of several thousand sensors in a squared mm. To exploit such a large density, however, a method for tracking independently micropillars resonance frequency is required. Here we present a detection method based on CCD imaging and software image analysis, which can measure the resonance frequency of tens of pillars in parallel. Acquiring simultaneously the frequency shift of up to 40 sensors and applying a proper statistical analysis, we were able to overcome the variability of the single measures improving the device sensitivity at low analyte concentration range. As a proof of concept, this method has been tested for the detection of a tumor marker, the Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA). Pillars have been functionalized with an antibody against PSMA. The tumor marker (PSMA) has been detected in a range of concentrations between 300 pM and 100 nM, in buffer and in diluted bovine serum. The sensitivity of our method was limited only by the affinity constant of the antigen-antibody recognition. Moreover, this detection technique demonstrated to be effective in the 1-6 nM range, which is the window of PSMA concentration of clinical interest.

  12. Purification of a native membrane-associated adenovirus tumor antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Persson, H; Katze, M G; Philipson, L

    1982-01-01

    A 15,000-dalton protein was purified from HeLa cells infected with adenovirus type 2. Proteins solubilized from a membrane fraction of lytically infected cells was used as the starting material for purification. Subsequent purification steps involved lentil-lectin, phosphocellulose, hydroxyapatite, DEAE-cellulose, and aminohexyl-Sepharose chromatographies. A monospecific antiserum, raised against the purified protein, immunoprecipitated a 15,000-dalton protein encoded in early-region E1B (E1B/15K protein) of the adenovirus type 2 DNA. Tryptic finger print analysis revealed that the purified protein was identical to the E1B/15K protein encoded in the transforming part of the viral genome. The antiserum immunoprecipitated the E1B/15K protein from a variety of viral transformed cell lines isolated from humans, rats, or hamsters. The E1B/15K protein was associated with the membrane fraction of both lytically and virus-transformed cell lines and could only be released by detergent treatment. Furthermore, a 11,000- to 12,000-dalton protein that could be precipitated with the anti-E1B/15K serum was recovered from membranes treated with trypsin or proteinase K, suggesting that a major part of the E1B/15K protein is protected in membrane vesicles. Translation of early viral mRNA in a cell-free system, supplemented with rough microsomes, showed that this protein was associated with the membrane fraction also in vitro. Images PMID:7097863

  13. Decoration of outer membrane vesicles with multiple antigens by using an autotransporter approach.

    PubMed

    Daleke-Schermerhorn, Maria H; Felix, Tristan; Soprova, Zora; Ten Hagen-Jongman, Corinne M; Vikström, David; Majlessi, Laleh; Beskers, Joep; Follmann, Frank; de Punder, Karin; van der Wel, Nicole N; Baumgarten, Thomas; Pham, Thang V; Piersma, Sander R; Jiménez, Connie R; van Ulsen, Peter; de Gier, Jan-Willem; Leclerc, Claude; Jong, Wouter S P; Luirink, Joen

    2014-09-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are spherical nanoparticles that naturally shed from Gram-negative bacteria. They are rich in immunostimulatory proteins and lipopolysaccharide but do not replicate, which increases their safety profile and renders them attractive vaccine vectors. By packaging foreign polypeptides in OMVs, specific immune responses can be raised toward heterologous antigens in the context of an intrinsic adjuvant. Antigens exposed at the vesicle surface have been suggested to elicit protection superior to that from antigens concealed inside OMVs, but hitherto robust methods for targeting heterologous proteins to the OMV surface have been lacking. We have exploited our previously developed hemoglobin protease (Hbp) autotransporter platform for display of heterologous polypeptides at the OMV surface. One, two, or three of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens ESAT6, Ag85B, and Rv2660c were targeted to the surface of Escherichia coli OMVs upon fusion to Hbp. Furthermore, a hypervesiculating ΔtolR ΔtolA derivative of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261 was generated, enabling efficient release and purification of OMVs decorated with multiple heterologous antigens, exemplified by the M. tuberculosis antigens and epitopes from Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP). Also, we showed that delivery of Salmonella OMVs displaying Ag85B to antigen-presenting cells in vitro results in processing and presentation of an epitope that is functionally recognized by Ag85B-specific T cell hybridomas. In conclusion, the Hbp platform mediates efficient display of (multiple) heterologous antigens, individually or combined within one molecule, at the surface of OMVs. Detection of antigen-specific immune responses upon vesicle-mediated delivery demonstrated the potential of our system for vaccine development. PMID:25038093

  14. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Avid Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor.

    PubMed

    Vamadevan, Shankar; Shetty, Deepa; Le, Ken; Bui, Chuong; Mansberg, Robert; Loh, Han

    2016-10-01

    Ga-PSMA PET/CT is increasingly used to evaluate recurrent prostatic malignancy due to its high specificity. A 75-year-old man with a previous history of treated prostate cancer 3 years earlier presented with rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and underwent Ga-PSMA PET/CT which demonstrated a PSMA-avid focus in the neck of the pancreas. Triple-phase abdominal CT demonstrated enhancement in the arterial phase and to a lesser extent the venous phase of a soft tissue mass in the neck of the pancreas. Cytological and histopathological examination of the soft tissue mass confirmed a low-grade pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor.

  15. Correlated analysis of cellular DNA, membrane antigens and light scatter of human lymphoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Braylan, R.C.; Benson, N.A.; Nourse, V.; Kruth, H.S.

    1982-03-01

    Flow cytometric correlated analysis of membrane antigens, DNA, and light scatter was performed on human lymphoid cells using fluorescein (FITC)-conjugated antibodies to label B- and T-cell antigens and propidium iodide (PI) to stain DNA after ethanol fixation and RNase treatment. A FACS II flow cytometer was modified to obtain digitized measurements of two color fluorescence and light scatter emissions, simultaneously. Software was written to allow single parameter analysis or correlated analysis of any two of the three parameters acquired. Ethanol fixation preserved FITC surface labeling for at least 15 weeks, but produced marked changes in light scatter. No changes in FITC distributions were observed after RNase treatment and PI staining, and the presence of FITC labeling did not affect DNA distributions. Within heterogeneous cell populations, the DNA distribution of cell subpopulations identified by a membrane antigen was clearly demonstrated.

  16. M-Type Phospholipase A2 Receptor as Target Antigen in Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Laurence H.; Bonegio, Ramon G.B.; Lambeau, Gérard; Beck, David M.; Powell, David W.; Cummins, Timothy D.; Klein, Jon B.; Salant, David J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Idiopathic membranous nephropathy, a common form of the nephrotic syndrome, is an antibody-mediated autoimmune glomerular disease. Serologic diagnosis has been elusive because the target antigen is unknown. METHODS We performed Western blotting of protein extracts from normal human glomeruli with serum samples from patients with idiopathic or secondary membranous nephropathy or other proteinuric or autoimmune diseases and from normal controls. We used mass spectrometry to analyze the reactive protein bands and confirmed the identity and location of the target antigen with a monospecific antibody. RESULTS Serum samples from 26 of 37 patients (70%) with idiopathic but not secondary membranous nephropathy specifically identified a 185-kD glycoprotein in non-reduced glomerular extract. Mass spectrometry of the reactive protein band detected the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R). Reactive serum specimens recognized recombinant PLA2R and bound the same 185-kD glomerular protein as did the monospecific anti-PLA2R antibody. Anti-PLA2R autoantibodies in serum samples from patients with membranous nephropathy were mainly IgG4, the predominant immunoglobulin subclass in glomerular deposits. PLA2R was expressed in podocytes in normal human glomeruli and colocalized with IgG4 in immune deposits in glomeruli of patients with membranous nephropathy. IgG eluted from such deposits in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy, but not in those with lupus membranous or IgA nephropathy, recognized PLA2R. CONCLUSIONS A majority of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy have antibodies against a conformation-dependent epitope in PLA2R. PLA2R is present in normal podocytes and in immune deposits in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy, indicating that PLA2R is a major antigen in this disease. PMID:19571279

  17. Subdominant outer membrane antigens in anaplasma marginale: conservation, antigenicity, and protective capacity using recombinant protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP) extracts or a well- defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are seve...

  18. Induction of the Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 2 antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes using human leukocyte antigen tetramer-based artificial antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Ling; Liang, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Cai-E; Lu, Sheng-Jun; Weng, Xiu-Fang; Wu, Xiong-Wen

    2006-03-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specific for the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2) antigen are important reagents for the treatment of some EBV-associated malignancies, such as EBV-positive Hodgkin's disease and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. However, the therapeutic amount of CTLs is often hampered by the limited supply of antigen-presenting cells. To address this issue, an artificial antigen-presenting cell (aAPC) was made by coating a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-pLMP2 tetrameric complex, anti-CD28 antibody and CD54 molecule to a cell-sized latex bead, which provided the dual signals required for T cell activation. By co-culture of the HLA-A2-LMP2 bearing aAPC and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HLA-A2 positive healthy donors, LMP2 antigen-specific CTLs were induced and expanded in vitro. The specificity of the aAPC-induced CTLs was demonstrated by both HLA-A2-LMP2 tetramer staining and cytotoxicity against HLA-A2-LMP2 bearing T2 cell, the cytotoxicity was inhibited by the anti-HLA class I antibody (W6/32). These results showed that LMP2 antigen-specific CTLs could be induced and expanded in vitro by the HLA-A2-LMP2-bearing aAPC. Thus, aAPCs coated with an HLA-pLMP2 complex, anti-CD28 and CD54 might be promising tools for the enrichment of LMP2-specific CTLs for adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:16518539

  19. Identification of soluble and membrane antigenic markers of acquired toxoplasmosis by immunoblot.

    PubMed

    Khammari, I; Saghrouni, F; Lakhal, S; Bougmiza, I; Bouratbine, A; Ben Said, M; Boukadida, J

    2014-12-01

    The overall performance of quantitative assays in the detection of anti-Toxoplasma IgG is satisfactory, but discrepancies between assays are not uncommon especially when IgG concentrations are close to the limit of detection of the tests. The purpose of our study was to identify soluble and membrane antigens extracted from Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites by immunoblot to select the most relevant antigenic bands to be used for qualitative serodiagnosis of acquired toxoplasmosis. We selected five relevant bands (98, 36, 33, 32 and 21 kDa) with soluble antigens and four relevant bands (42, 35, 32 and 30 kDa) with membrane antigens which gave high sensitivity and/or specificity in immunodiagnosis. The association on the same blot of at least three of the five relevant bands in the soluble antigen immunoblot showed the highest sensitivity/specificity (97.4%/99.0%, respectively). Our results indicate that immunoblot using soluble tachyzoite extract with simultaneous detection of at least three of the five bands (98, 36, 33, 32 and 21 kDa) represents a valuable test for serodiagnosis of acquired toxoplasmosis and should be further evaluated as a confirmatory test for sera which give discrepant results in quantitative assays.

  20. Antigen-specific serotyping of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: characterization based upon principal outer membrane protein.

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, T M; Hildebrandt, J F

    1981-01-01

    Principal outer membrane protein (protein I) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was prepared nearly free of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and substantially purified from other membrane proteins by chromatography of partially purified gonococcal outer membranes over Sepharose 6B in the presence of deoxycholate at pH 9.0. This protein I of nine separate antigenic types was coated to polystyrene tubes and used in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure antibody to protein I or in inhibition tests to quantitate protein I antigen. No significant inhibition of the ELISA test was produced by purified LPS from the strain used to prepare each of the protein I types or by whole gonococci bearing the same LPS but different protein I antigens as the strain used to produce a given protein I antigen. Of 125 strains of gonococci used as whole organisms to inhibit the protein I ELISA, 124 (99%) typed with one or more of the nine protein I types, and 35% of these typed with a single protein I serotype. Sixty-one of 65 (94%) strains from Seattle and Atlanta patients with disseminated gonococcal infection contained protein I serotype 1, and 16 of 24 (64%) strains from Seattle patients with salpingitis bore one or both of protein I serotypes 1 and 2. Images PMID:6166568

  1. Diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis by enzyme immunoassay using membrane antigens of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    PubMed

    Skraba, Cissiara Manetti; Pedroso, Raíssa Bocchi; Fiorini, Adriana; Rosado, Fábio Rogério; Aristides, Sandra Mara Alessi; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated the reactivity of membrane antigens of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis for the diagnosis of ACL by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Promastigotes of L. (V.) braziliensis were grown in medium 199 and lysed in a sonicator. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting showed that specific proteins of L. (V.) braziliensis (apparent molecular weights 36 kDa and 48-56 kDa) were recognized by sera from ACL patients. These proteins were eluted from the SDS-PAGE and tested in EIA-IgG with sera from ACL patients, healthy individuals, patients with toxoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, syphilis, tuberculosis, leprosy, and Chagas disease. The EIA-IgG with membrane antigens allowed us to distinguish patients with ACL from healthy individuals and patients with other diseases (P < 0.0001), and showed a sensitivity of 93.3% and specificity of 90.8%, not including Chagas disease patients. 2D-SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting was performed to improve the characterization of the antigens, and showed a component with isoelectric points near the acid pH side and apparent molecular weights of 48-56 kDa. The results showed good sensitivity and specificity of EIA-IgG with membrane antigens, indicating their potential use for diagnosis of ACL, as well as seroepidemiological surveys and follow-up of clinically cured patients. PMID:24485589

  2. Characterisation of a Babesia orientalis apical membrane antigen, and comparison of its orthologues among selected apicomplexans.

    PubMed

    He, Lan; Fan, Lizhe; Hu, Jinfang; Miao, Xiaoyan; Huang, Yuan; Zhou, Yanqin; Hu, Min; Zhao, Junlong

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we identified and characterised the complete coding sequence of Babesia orientalis apical membrane antigen 1 (designated Bo-ama1); it is 1803bp in length and encodes a polypeptide of 601 amino acids (aa). The Bo-ama-1 gene product (Bo-AMA1) is predicted to be 67kDa in size and contains a signal peptide. Mature Bo-AMA1 is predicted to have one transmembrane region and a short cytoplasmic tail (C-terminal domain). The extracellular part of Bo-AMA1 has three functional domains (DI, DII and DIII) with 14 conserved cysteine residues. A Bo-AMA1 fragment containing all three of these domains (designated Bo-AMA1-DI/II/III) was cloned into the plasmid vector pET-28a and expressed as a recombinant (His-fusion) protein of 53kDa. Antibodies in the serum from a B. orientalis-infected water buffalo specifically recognised this protein in immunoblotting analysis. Rabbit antibodies raised against the recombinant protein were able to detect native Bo-AMA1 (67kDa) from erythrocytes of B. orientalis-infected water buffalo. Bo-AMA1 is a new member of the AMA1 family and might be a good antigen for the specific detection of antibodies produced in B. orientalis infected cattle. This protein is likely to play critical roles during host cell adherence and invasion by B. orientalis, as the AMA1s reported in other organisms such as Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. Further research is required to explore the biological functions of this protein and to determine whether its immunisation can induce protective effects in water buffalo against B. orientalis infection.

  3. Non-Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen-Avid Metastatic Lung Nodule From Primary Prostatic Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Deepa; Loh, Han; Bui, Chuong; Mansberg, Robert; Hadjashrafi, Amirazin; Do, Viet

    2016-10-01

    Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT is increasingly used to evaluate recurrent prostatic malignancy due to its high specificity. A 56-year-old man with previous history of treated prostate cancer 4 years earlier presented with rising prostate-specific antigen level and underwent Ga-PSMA PET/CT, which demonstrated an enlarging pulmonary nodule without PSMA avidity. The pulmonary nodule, however, showed moderate uptake on a corresponding FDG PET/CT study, suspicious of primary lung malignancy. Cytological and histopathological examination of the pulmonary nodule confirmed a metastatic deposit from ductal prostatic adenocarcinoma, an uncommon variant of prostatic malignancy.

  4. CM2 antigen, a potential novel molecule participating in glucuronide transport on rat hepatocyte canalicular membrane.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Wang, J; Zhou, X; Li, J; Shi, Y; Han, Z; Wang, X; Li, S; Yang, Z; Wang, R; Fan, D; Han, Y

    2012-06-29

    The polarized molecules predominately distributing at hepatocyte canalicular surface play a vital role in disclosing the process of bile formation and etiopathogenisis of cholestatic live diseases. Therefore, it is important to find novel polarized molecules on hepatocyte canalicular membrane. In the present study, canalicular membrane vesicles (CMVs) isolated from rat hepatocyte by density gradient centrifugation were used as immunogens to produce hybridoma and 46 strains of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against CMVs were obtained. With a series of morphological assay methods, including immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and immuno-electron microscope, the antigens recognized by canalicular mAb1 (CM1) and canalicular mAb2 (CM2) were confirmed to predominately distribute at hepatocyte canalicular membrane. Transport activity assay revealed that CM2 could inhibit ATP-dependent E217βG uptake of rat hepatocyte CMVs. Meanwhile, Western blotting analysis showed that the molecular mass of CM2 antigen was approximately 110kDa, which was much less than Mr 180kDa of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) involved in glucuronide transport. These data indicated that CM2 antigen might be a potential novel molecule participating in glucuronide transport on the hepatocyte canalicular membrane.

  5. Lipid-Free Antigen B Subunits from Echinococcus granulosus: Oligomerization, Ligand Binding, and Membrane Interaction Properties

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Álvarez, Valeria; Franchini, Gisela R.; Pórfido, Jorge L.; Kennedy, Malcolm W.; Ferreira, Ana M.; Córsico, Betina

    2015-01-01

    Background The hydatid disease parasite Echinococcus granulosus has a restricted lipid metabolism, and needs to harvest essential lipids from the host. Antigen B (EgAgB), an abundant lipoprotein of the larval stage (hydatid cyst), is thought to be important in lipid storage and transport. It contains a wide variety of lipid classes, from highly hydrophobic compounds to phospholipids. Its protein component belongs to the cestode-specific Hydrophobic Ligand Binding Protein family, which includes five 8-kDa isoforms encoded by a multigene family (EgAgB1-EgAgB5). How lipid and protein components are assembled into EgAgB particles remains unknown. EgAgB apolipoproteins self-associate into large oligomers, but the functional contribution of lipids to oligomerization is uncertain. Furthermore, binding of fatty acids to some EgAgB subunits has been reported, but their ability to bind other lipids and transfer them to acceptor membranes has not been studied. Methodology/Principal Findings Lipid-free EgAgB subunits obtained by reverse-phase HPLC were used to analyse their oligomerization, ligand binding and membrane interaction properties. Size exclusion chromatography and cross-linking experiments showed that EgAgB8/2 and EgAgB8/3 can self-associate, suggesting that lipids are not required for oligomerization. Furthermore, using fluorescent probes, both subunits were found to bind fatty acids, but not cholesterol analogues. Analysis of fatty acid transfer to phospholipid vesicles demonstrated that EgAgB8/2 and EgAgB8/3 are potentially capable of transferring fatty acids to membranes, and that the efficiency of transfer is dependent on the surface charge of the vesicles. Conclusions/Significance We show that EgAgB apolipoproteins can oligomerize in the absence of lipids, and can bind and transfer fatty acids to phospholipid membranes. Since imported fatty acids are essential for Echinococcus granulosus, these findings provide a mechanism whereby EgAgB could engage in lipid

  6. Plasmodium vivax: genetic diversity of the apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) in isolates from India.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, Vidya; Elamaran, M; Vidya, S; Gowrishankar, M; Kochar, Dhanpat; Das, Ashis

    2007-07-01

    Malaria parasites exhibit sequence diversity for a number of stage specific antigens. Several studies have proved that apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) is an effective target for eliciting a protective immune response in humans and other experimental animals. We have investigated the sequence variation in Plasmodium vivax AMA-1 (Pv AMA-1) from different Indian isolates. This is the first study of its kind for the nearly full length Pv AMA-1 from India. Our analysis reveals greater degree of genetic diversity in Pv AMA-1 than reported so far and identifies five novel haplotypes. This is significant to establish the antigenic repertoire of isolates in a malaria endemic country like India. PMID:17336299

  7. Membrane antigens shared by renal proximal tubules and other epithelia associated with absorption and excretion.

    PubMed Central

    Miettinen, A; Linder, E

    1976-01-01

    The distribution of shared antigens in specialized surface membranes of epithelia associated with absorption and excretion was studied using antisera against isolated epithelial brush borders of renal proximal tubules. Rabbits were immunized with a membrane fraction isolated from rat kidneys and the reactions of the resulting heterologous antisera with different rat organs were studied by immunofluorescence. The antisera reacted with the following structures: epithelial brush border of renal proximal tubules, bile canaliculi and bile duct epithelium of the liver, epithelial brush border of the intestinal villi, luminal parts of some epididymal tubules, allantochorionic epithelium, and apical parts of the exocrine epithelium of the pancreatic, salivary and lacrimal glands. Both quantitative and qualitative differences in antigen contents were suggested by absorption experiments. Images Fig. 2 PMID:780015

  8. Cholesterol masks membrane glycosphingolipid tumor-associated antigens to reduce their immunodetection in human cancer biopsies.

    PubMed

    Novak, Anton; Binnington, Beth; Ngan, Bo; Chadwick, Karen; Fleshner, Neil; Lingwood, Clifford A

    2013-11-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are neoplastic and normal/cancer stem cell markers and GSL/cholesterol-containing membrane rafts are increased in cancer cell plasma membranes. We define a novel means by which cancer cells can restrict tumor-associated GSL immunoreactivity. The GSL-cholesterol complex reorients GSL carbohydrate to a membrane parallel, rather than perpendicular conformation, largely unavailable for antibody recognition. Methyl-β-cyclodextrin cholesterol extraction of all primary human tumor frozen sections tested (ovarian, testicular, neuroblastoma, prostate, breast, colon, pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma), unmasked previously "invisible" membrane GSLs for immunodetection. In ovarian carcinoma, globotriaosyl ceramide (Gb3), the GSL receptor for the antineoplastic Escherichia coli-derived verotoxin, was increased throughout the tumor. In colon carcinoma, Gb3 detection was vastly increased within the neovasculature and perivascular stroma. In tumors considered Gb3 negative (neuroblastoma, Leydig testicular tumor and pheochromocytoma), neovascular Gb3 was unmasked. Tumor-associated GSL stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4 and globoH were unmasked according to tumor: SSEA-1 in prostate/colon; SSEA-3 in prostate; SSEA-4 in pheochromocytoma/some colon tumors; globoH in prostate/some colon tumors. In colon, anti-SSEA-1 was tumor cell specific. Within the GSL-cholesterol complex, filipin-cholesterol binding was also reduced. These results may relate to the ill-defined benefit of statins on cancer prognosis, for example, prostate carcinoma. We found novel anti-tumor GSL antibodies circulating in 3/5 statin-treated, but not untreated, prostate cancer patients. Lowering tumor membrane cholesterol may permit immune recognition of otherwise unavailable tumor-associated GSL carbohydrate, for more effective immunosurveillance and active/passive immunotherapy. Our results show standard immunodetection of tumor GSLs significantly under assesses

  9. Detection of Goodpasture antigen in fractions prepared from collagenase digests of human glomerular basement membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Fish, A J; Lockwood, M C; Wong, M; Price, R G

    1984-01-01

    Preparations of human glomerular basement membrane (GBM) were digested with collagenase, and a Goodpasture (GP) antigen rich pool from gel filtration column runs was identified by antibody inhibition radioimmunoassay. The components of the GP antigen pool were separated on polyacrylamide gels, and transferred to nitrocellulose sheets by the 'western' blotting technique. The blots were separately reacted with thirteen GP sera as primary antibody, followed by peroxidase labelled goat anti-human IgG and revealed 45-50K (two bands) and 25-28K (one-three bands) components. No corresponding reactivity was observed using convalescent GP sera or other control sera (normal human serum, rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis with or without pulmonary haemorrhage, and lupus erythematosus) as primary antibody. Images Fig. 3 PMID:6319059

  10. Anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen-based radioimmunotherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Scott T; Beltran, Himisha; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Osborne, Joseph; Matulich, Dan; Petrillo, Kristen; Parmar, Sarojben; Nanus, David M; Bander, Neil H

    2010-02-15

    Despite recent advances, advanced prostate cancer is suboptimally responsive to current chemotherapeutic agents. Radiolabeled monoclonal antibody therapy that targets prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) shows promise and is an area of active investigation. J591 is a deimmunized IgG monoclonal antibody developed to target the extracellular domain of PSMA. Preclinical and early phase clinical studies using radiolabeled J591 have demonstrated efficacy in targeting tumor cells and decreasing levels of prostate-specific antigen. Radiolabeled J591 is well-tolerated, nonimmunogenic, and can be administered in multiple doses. The dose-limiting toxicity is reversible myelosuppression with little nonhematologic toxicity. Future studies will include approaches to optimize patient selection and incorporate novel strategies to improve the success of anti-PSMA radioimmunotherapy.

  11. Klebsiella pneumoniae O antigen loss alters the outer membrane protein composition and the selective packaging of proteins into secreted outer membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Bethaney K; Seeley, Kent W; Gutel, Dedra; Ellis, Terri N

    2015-11-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a nosocomial pathogen which naturally secretes lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cell envelope associated proteins into the environment through the production of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). The loss of the LPS O antigen has been demonstrated in other bacterial species to significantly alter the composition of OMVs. Therefore, this study aimed to comprehensively analyze the impact of O antigen loss on the sub-proteomes of both the outer membrane and secreted OMVs from K. pneumoniae. As determined by LC-MS/MS, OMVs were highly enriched with outer membrane proteins involved in cell wall, membrane, and envelope biogenesis as compared to the source cellular outer membrane. Deletion of wbbO, the enzyme responsible for O antigen attachment to LPS, decreased but did not eliminate this enrichment effect. Additionally, loss of O antigen resulted in OMVs with increased numbers of proteins involved in post-translational modification, protein turnover, and chaperones as compared to secreted vesicles from the wild type. This alteration of OMV composition may be a compensatory mechanism to deal with envelope stress. This comprehensive analysis confirms the highly distinct protein composition of OMVs as compared to their source membrane, and provides evidence for a selective sorting mechanism that involves LPS polysaccharides. These data support the hypothesis that modifications to LPS alters both the mechanics of protein sorting and the contents of secreted OMVs and significantly impacts the protein composition of the outer membrane.

  12. Antibody-Functionalized Peptidic Membranes for Neutralization of Allogeneic Skin Antigen-Presenting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yi; Liu, Wen; Bagia, Christina; Zhang, Shaojuan; Bai, Mingfeng; Janjic, Jelena M.; Giannoukakis, Nick; Gawalt, Ellen S.; Meng, Wilson S.

    2014-01-01

    We report herein application of an in situ material strategy to attenuate allograft T cell responses in a skin transplant mouse model. Functionalized peptidic membranes were used to impede trafficking of donor antigen-presenting cells (dAPCs) from skin allografts in recipient mice. Membranes formed by self-assembling peptides (SAPs) presenting antibodies were found to remain underneath grafted skins for up to 6 days. At the host-graft interface, dAPCs were targeted by using a monoclonal antibody that binds to a class II MHC molecule (IAd) expressed exclusively by donor cells. Using a novel cell labeling near-infrared nanoemulsion, we found more dAPCs remained in allografts treated with membranes loaded with aI-Ad than without. In vitro, dAPCs released from skin explants were found adsorbed preferentially on aI-Ad membranes. Recipient T cells from these mice produced lower concentrations of interferon-gamma cultured ex vivo with donor cells. Taken together, the data indicate that the strategy has the potential to alter the natural course of rejection immune mechanisms in stringent allogeneic models. PMID:25117952

  13. T-cell-specific membrane antigens in the Mexican axolotl (urodele amphibian).

    PubMed

    Kerfourn, F; Guillet, F; Charlemagne, J; Tournefier, A

    1992-01-01

    Comparative analysis of SDS-PAGE patterns of axolotl spleen cells membrane detergent lysates showed important discrepancies between control and thymectomized animals. Among these, a 38-kD protein band, which appeared as a major protein in controls, was not or poorly expressed after thymectomy. A rabbit antiserum (L12) raised against the 38-kD eluted band labeled in indirect immunofluorescence 80-86% of thymocytes and 40-46% of mIg- lymphoid cells in the spleen. The anti-38-kD antibodies stained in Western blotting two antigenically related polypeptides of 38- and 36-kD on splenocyte membrane lysates. Two-dimensional NEPHGE-PAGE analysis indicated that the anti-38-kD antibodies reacted in the spleen with several gathered spots in the 7.8-8.2 pI range, corresponding to 38-36-kD microheterogeneous polypeptides. Most of these spots are not further expressed in thymectomized animals. These results support evidence that the 38-kD surface antigens can be considered as specific surface markers of the axolotl thymus-derived lymphocytes. PMID:1627952

  14. A Phase 1 Study of a Vaccine Targeting Preferentially Expressed Antigen in Melanoma and Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Jeffrey S.; Vogelzang, Nicholas J.; Ernstoff, Marc S.; Goodman, Oscar B.; Cranmer, Lee D.; Marshall, John L.; Miles, Sabrina; Rosario, Dar; Diamond, David C.; Qiu, Zhiyong; Obrocea, Mihail; Bot, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Summary Preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) are tumor-associated antigens implicated in cellular differentiation, genetic stability, and angiogenesis. MKC1106-PP is an immunotherapeutic regimen cotargeting PRAME and PSMA, comprised of a recombinant plasmid (pPRA-PSM encoding fragments derived from both antigens) and 2 peptides (E-PRA and E-PSM derived from PRAME and PSMA, respectively). This multicenter study evaluated MKC1106-PP with a fixed plasmid dose and 2 different peptide doses, administered by intralymph node injection in a prime-boost sequence in human leukocyte antigen-A*0201 and tumor-antigen-positive patients with progressing metastatic solid tumors who had failed standard therapy. Immune monitoring was done by tetramer and enzymatic-linked immune spot analysis. The treatment was well tolerated, with no significant differences in safety, immune response, and clinical outcome relative to peptide doses. Fifteen of 24 evaluable patients showed an immune response, as defined by the expansion of PRAME-specific or PSMA-specific T cells in the blood. There were no partial or complete responses by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Seven patients showed stable disease (SD) for 6 months or longer, or prostate specific antigen decline: 4 of 10 with prostate carcinoma, 2 of 2 with renal clear cell carcinoma, and 1 of 10 with metastatic melanoma. In addition, there was an association between the induction and persistence of antigen-specific T cells in blood above baseline levels and disease control, defined as SD for 6 months or longer. These results support further development of MKC1106-PP in specific clinical indications. PMID:21760528

  15. Native surface association of a recombinant 38-kilodalton Treponema pallidum antigen isolated from the Escherichia coli outer membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Fehniger, T E; Radolf, J D; Walfield, A M; Cunningham, T M; Miller, J N; Lovett, M A

    1986-01-01

    A recombinant plasmid designated pAW305, containing a 6-kilobase insert of Treponema pallidum DNA, directed the expression of a 38-kilodalton (kDa) treponemal antigen in Escherichia coli. The 38-kDa antigen copurified with the outer membrane fraction of the E. coli cell envelope after treatment with nonionic detergents or sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Rabbits immunized with the recombinant 38-kDa antigen developed antibodies which reacted specifically with a 38-kDa T. pallidum antigen on immunoblots, and 38-kDa antisera specifically immobilized T. pallidum in a complement-dependent manner in the T. pallidum immobilization test. Antisera to the 38-kDa recombinant antigen were also used to demonstrate its native surface association on T. pallidum by immunoelectron microscopy. Images PMID:3516880

  16. Mixed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MELISA) for HLA class I antigen: a plasma membrane marker.

    PubMed

    Bjerrum, O W; Borregaard, N

    1990-03-01

    This study introduces a simple, reproducible assay for HLA class I antigen using antibodies against beta 2-microglobulin and the heavy chain on HLA. The sandwich technique was named mixed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MELISA), and was designed for identification of plasma membranes in neutrophil subcellular fractions. The subcellular localization of HLA was identical to that of other plasma membrane markers, [3H]concanavalin A and detergent-independent alkaline phosphatase, and was unchanged by stimulation of cells by weak and strong secretagogues. In addition to the presence as part of the HLA complex in the plasma membrane uncomplexed beta 2-microglobulin is present in the specific granules of neutrophils. However, the release of beta 2-microglobulin from intact neutrophils stimulated with formyl-methionylleucylphenylalanine was much higher than could be explained by exocytosis of specific granules. Subcellular fractionation studies demonstrated that beta 2-microglobulin is localized in fractions characterized by latent alkaline phosphatase and released from this novel secretory compartment in response to stimulation with formyl-methionylleucylphenylalanine. PMID:2181625

  17. Antigen heterogeneity among isolates of Mycoplasma bovis is generated by high-frequency variation of diverse membrane surface proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Rosengarten, R; Behrens, A; Stetefeld, A; Heller, M; Ahrens, M; Sachse, K; Yogev, D; Kirchhoff, H

    1994-01-01

    The protein and antigen profiles of 11 isolates of Mycoplasma bovis were compared by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis of whole organisms. The isolates examined included the type strain PG45 and 10 other filter-cloned strains or purified isolates both from animals without clinical signs and from clinical cases of bovine mastitis, arthritis, or pneumonia. While the overall protein patterns visualized by silver staining were very similar, marked differences in the antigen banding profiles were detected by rabbit antiserum prepared against whole organisms from one of the strains analyzed. This antigenic heterogeneity was shown to be independent of the geographical origin, the type of clinical disease, and the site of isolation and was also observed among serial isolates from a single animal. Antigen profiles were further monitored throughout sequentially subcloned populations of the PG45 strain. This clonal analysis revealed a high-frequency variation in the expression levels of several prominent antigens. All of these variable antigens were defined by detergent-phase fractionation with Triton X-114 as amphiphilic integral membrane proteins. A subset of different-sized membrane proteins was identified by a monoclonal antibody raised against a PG45 subclone expressing a 63- and a 46-kDa variant antigen within that set. The selective susceptibility of these proteins to trypsin treatment of intact organisms and their ability to bind the monoclonal antibody in colony immunoblots demonstrated that they were exposed on the cell surface. In addition, their preferential recognition by serum antibodies from individual cattle with naturally induced M. bovis mastitis or arthritis confirmed that they were major immunogens of this organism. These studies establish that the apparent antigenic heterogeneity among M. bovis isolates reported here does not represent stable phenotypic strain differences generated from accumulated

  18. Membrane Association and Destabilization by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Leukotoxin Requires Changes in Secondary Structures

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Michael J.; Brown, Angela C.; Edrington, Thomas C.; Baranwal, Somesh; Du, Yurong; Lally, Edward T.; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a common inhabitant of the upper aerodigestive tract of humans and non-human primates and is associated with disseminated infections, including lung and brain abscesses, pediatric infective endocarditis in children, and localized aggressive periodontitis. A. actinomycetemcomitans secretes a repeats-in-toxin protein, leukotoxin, which exclusively kills lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1-bearing cells. The toxin's pathological mechanism is not fully understood; however, experimental evidence indicates that it involves the association with and subsequent destabilization of the target cell's plasma membrane. We have long hypothesized that leukotoxin secondary structure is strongly correlated with membrane association and/or destabilization. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by analyzing lipid-induced changes in leukotoxin conformation. Upon incubation of leukotoxin with lipids that favor leukotoxin-membrane association, we observed an increase in leukotoxin α-helical content that was not observed with lipids that favor membrane destabilization. The change in leukotoxin conformation after incubation with these lipids suggests that membrane binding and membrane destabilization have distinct secondary structural requirements, suggesting that they are independent events. These studies thus provide insight into the mechanism of cell damage that leads to disease progression by A. actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:23678967

  19. Characteristics of antisera against periodate-resistant membrane antigens from Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Røe, S F; Eggset, G; Iversen, O J; Maeland, J A

    1980-12-01

    Crude outer membrane (OM) was prepared by extraction of bacteria of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains 8551. V, and VII, with an EDTA-containing buffer. The preparations contained the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and at least 10 proteins as shown by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunization of rabbits with untreated OM resulted in production of antibodies against several antigens, including LPS. Antisera raised against periodate-treated OM did not contain antibodies against LPS. These latter antisera agglutinated heat-treated (100 degrees C, 60 min) gonoccal cells by means of antibodies to one or more common agglutinogens and against a strain-specific agglutinogen that was susceptible to digestion with proteolytic enzymes. Both side agglutination and a plate agglutination test could be used to detect antibodies against these agglutinogens. PMID:6261525

  20. Anti-Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen-based Radioimmunotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tagawa, Scott T.; Beltran, Himisha; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Goldsmith, Stanley J.; Osborne, Joseph; Matulich, Dan; Petrillo, Kristen; Parmar, Sarojben; Nanus, David M.; Bander, Neil H.

    2009-01-01

    Despite recent advances, advanced prostate cancer is suboptimally responsive to current chemotherapeutic agents. Radiolabeled monoclonal antibody therapy that targets prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) shows promise and is an area of active investigation. J591 is a deimmunized IgG monoclonal antibody developed to target the extracellular domain of PSMA. Preclinical and early phase clinical studies utilizing radiolabeled J591 have demonstrated efficacy in targeting tumor cells and decreasing levels of PSA. Radiolabeled J591 is well-tolerated, non-immunogenic, and can be administered in multiple doses. The dose limiting toxicity is reversible myelosuppression with little non-hematologic toxicity. Future studies will include approaches to optimize patient selection and incorporate novel strategies to improve the success of anti-PSMA radioimmunotherapy. PMID:20127956

  1. Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen-Targeted Photodynamic Therapy Induces Rapid Cytoskeletal Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tiancheng; Wu, Lisa Y.; Berkman, Clifford E.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), an established enzyme-biomarker for prostate cancer, has attracted considerable attention as a target for imaging and therapeutic applications. We aimed to determine the effects of PSMA-targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT) on cytoskeletal networks in prostate cancer cells. PSMA-targeted PDT resulted in rapid disruption of microtubules (α-/β-tubulin), microfilaments (actin), and intermediate filaments (cytokeratin 8/18) in the cytoplasm of LNCaP cells. The collapse of cytoplasmic microtubules and the later nuclear translocation of α-/β-tubulin were the most dramatic alternation. It is likely that these early changes of cytoskeletal networks are partly involved in the initiation of cell death. PMID:20452720

  2. Naturally-Acquired Immune Response against Plasmodium vivax Rhoptry-Associated Membrane Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Changrob, Siriruk; Wang, Bo; Han, Jin-Hee; Lee, Seong-Kyun; Nyunt, Myat Htut; Lim, Chae Seung; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Chootong, Patchanee; Han, Eun-Taek

    2016-01-01

    Rhoptry-associated membrane antigen (RAMA) is an abundant glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein that is embedded within the lipid bilayer and is implicated in parasite invasion. Antibody responses against rhoptry proteins are produced by individuals living in a malaria-endemic area, suggesting the immunogenicity of Plasmodium vivax RAMA (PvRAMA) for induction of immune responses during P. vivax infection. To determine whether PvRAMA contributes to the acquisition of immunity to malaria and could be a rational candidate for a vaccine, the presence of memory T cells and the stability of the antibody response against PvRAMA were evaluated in P. vivax-exposed individuals. The immunogenicity of PvRAMA for the induction of T cell responses was evaluated by in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). High levels of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-10 cytokines were detected in the culture supernatant of PBMCs, and the CD4+ T cells predominantly produced IL-10 cytokine. The levels of total anti-PvRAMA immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody were significantly elevated, and these antibodies persisted over the 12 months of the study. Interestingly, IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 were the major antibody subtypes in the response to PvRAMA. The frequency of IgG3 in specific to PvRAMA antigen maintained over 12 months. These data could explain the immunogenicity of PvRAMA antigen in induction of both cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity in natural P. vivax infection, in which IFN-γ helps antibody class switching toward the IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 isotypes and IL-10 supports PvRAMA-specific antibody production. PMID:26886867

  3. Plasmodium falciparum: genetic polymorphism in apical membrane antigen-1 gene from Indian isolates.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, Vidya; Singamsetti, Vijay Kumar; Vidya, S; Gowrishankar, M; Elamaran, M; Tripathi, Jyotsna; Radhika, N B; Kochar, Dhanpat; Ranjan, Akash; Roy, S K; Das, Ashis

    2008-05-01

    A number of stage-specific antigens have been characterized for vaccine development against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. This study presents a comprehensive analysis of the sequence polymorphism in Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen-1 (PfAMA-1) in population samples from the eastern and western parts of India. This is the first study of its kind for the nearly full length PfAMA-1 gene from these regions in India. Our observations confirmed that sequence diversity of PfAMA-1 confines only to point mutations and shows 4-8% variation as compared to the prototypes. As opposed to the previous studies on PfAMA-1, our study revealed a greater degree of polymorphism in the Domain II region of PfAMA-1 protein, though signature for diversifying selection is seen throughout the gene. Our present investigation also indicates a very high degree of variation in the reported T- and B-cell epitopes of PfAMA-1. Few noteworthy and unique observations made in this study are the substitution of Cysteine residues responsible for the disulfide bond structure of the protein and the presence of premature termination after 595 amino acids in 3 of the 13 isolates under consideration. These crucial findings add new perspectives to the future of AMA-1 research and could have major implications in establishing AMA-1 as a vaccine candidate. PMID:18343371

  4. Preclinical evaluation of a monoclonal antibody (3C6) specific for prostate-specific membrane antigen

    PubMed Central

    Regino, C.A.S.; Wong, K.J.; Milenic, D.E.; Holmes, E.H.; Garmestani, K.; Choyke, P.L.; Brechbiel, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    Better tumor markers are needed for early diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer, and for monitoring therapeutic response than the currently used prostate specific antigen (PSA). Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is highly expressed on the surface of prostatic epithelial cells making it a good target for prostate cancer. In this study, mAb 3C6, specific for the extracellular epitope of PSMA, was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo for PSMA-targeting. Immunoreactivity and specificity of mAb 3C6 was evaluated by flow cytometry using prostate cell lines expressing PSMA such as LNCaP and 22Rv1 and a cell line, DU145, that expresses very little PSMA. 3C6 was conjugated with the acyclic CHX-A” DTPA chelate, radiolabeled with 111In, and its in vitro and in vivo properties were assessed. The biodistribution of the radioimmunoconjugate evaluated in athymic mice bearing xenografts of three human prostate carcinoma cell lines shows high uptake after 72 hr in LNCaP tumors (%ID/g 22.93 ± 6.32) and 22Rv1 (%ID/g 10.44 ± 2.32) in contrast to low uptake by the DU145 tumors (%ID/g 4.27 ± 0.37). Planar γ-scintigraphic images obtained for xenografted tumor bearing mice demonstrated targeting for PSMA positive tumors suggesting possible applications in imaging and for targeted radiation therapy. PMID:20047017

  5. Comparison of colorimetric assays with quantitative amino acid analysis for protein quantification of Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA).

    PubMed

    Rossi, Omar; Maggiore, Luana; Necchi, Francesca; Koeberling, Oliver; MacLennan, Calman A; Saul, Allan; Gerke, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Genetically induced outer membrane particles from Gram-negative bacteria, called Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA), are being investigated as vaccines. Rapid methods are required for estimating the protein content for in-process assays during production. Since GMMA are complex biological structures containing lipid and polysaccharide as well as protein, protein determinations are not necessarily straightforward. We compared protein quantification by Bradford, Lowry, and Non-Interfering assays using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as standard with quantitative amino acid (AA) analysis, the most accurate currently available method for protein quantification. The Lowry assay has the lowest inter- and intra-assay variation and gives the best linearity between protein amount and absorbance. In all three assays, the color yield (optical density per mass of protein) of GMMA was markedly different from that of BSA with a ratio of approximately 4 for the Bradford assay, and highly variable between different GMMA; and approximately 0.7 for the Lowry and Non-Interfering assays, highlighting the need for calibrating the standard used in the colorimetric assay against GMMA quantified by AA analysis. In terms of a combination of ease, reproducibility, and proportionality of protein measurement, and comparability between samples, the Lowry assay was superior to Bradford and Non-Interfering assays for GMMA quantification.

  6. Marked Response to 177Lu Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Treatment in Patient With Metastatic Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Soydal, Cigdem; Ozkan, Elgin; Akyurek, Serap; Kucuk, Nuriye Ozlem

    2016-02-01

    We present pretreatment Ga prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT and posttreatment Lu-PSMA whole-body scintigraphy images of a 60-year-old patient with metastatic prostate cancer who is dramatically responding to Lu-PSMA treatment. PMID:26505861

  7. Marked Response to 177Lu Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Treatment in Patient With Metastatic Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Soydal, Cigdem; Ozkan, Elgin; Akyurek, Serap; Kucuk, Nuriye Ozlem

    2016-02-01

    We present pretreatment Ga prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT and posttreatment Lu-PSMA whole-body scintigraphy images of a 60-year-old patient with metastatic prostate cancer who is dramatically responding to Lu-PSMA treatment.

  8. Crystal structure of an antigenic outer-membrane protein from Salmonella Typhi suggests a potential antigenic loop and an efflux mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Yoshimura, Masato; Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Lin, Chien-Chih; Chen, Nai-Chi; Yang, Ming-Chi; Ismail, Asma; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2015-01-01

    ST50, an outer-membrane component of the multi-drug efflux system from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, is an obligatory diagnostic antigen for typhoid fever. ST50 is an excellent and unique diagnostic antigen with 95% specificity and 90% sensitivity and is used in the commercial diagnosis test kit (TYPHIDOTTM). The crystal structure of ST50 at a resolution of 2.98 Å reveals a trimer that forms an α-helical tunnel and a β-barrel transmembrane channel traversing the periplasmic space and outer membrane. Structural investigations suggest significant conformational variations in the extracellular loop regions, especially extracellular loop 2. This is the location of the most plausible antibody-binding domain that could be used to target the design of new antigenic epitopes for the development of better diagnostics or drugs for the treatment of typhoid fever. A molecule of the detergent n-octyl-β-D-glucoside is observed in the D-cage, which comprises three sets of Asp361 and Asp371 residues at the periplasmic entrance. These structural insights suggest a possible substrate transport mechanism in which the substrate first binds at the periplasmic entrance of ST50 and subsequently, via iris-like structural movements to open the periplasmic end, penetrates the periplasmic domain for efflux pumping of molecules, including poisonous metabolites or xenobiotics, for excretion outside the pathogen. PMID:26563565

  9. Crystal structure of an antigenic outer-membrane protein from Salmonella Typhi suggests a potential antigenic loop and an efflux mechanism.

    PubMed

    Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Yoshimura, Masato; Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Lin, Chien-Chih; Chen, Nai-Chi; Yang, Ming-Chi; Ismail, Asma; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2015-11-13

    ST50, an outer-membrane component of the multi-drug efflux system from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, is an obligatory diagnostic antigen for typhoid fever. ST50 is an excellent and unique diagnostic antigen with 95% specificity and 90% sensitivity and is used in the commercial diagnosis test kit (TYPHIDOT(TM)). The crystal structure of ST50 at a resolution of 2.98 Å reveals a trimer that forms an α-helical tunnel and a β-barrel transmembrane channel traversing the periplasmic space and outer membrane. Structural investigations suggest significant conformational variations in the extracellular loop regions, especially extracellular loop 2. This is the location of the most plausible antibody-binding domain that could be used to target the design of new antigenic epitopes for the development of better diagnostics or drugs for the treatment of typhoid fever. A molecule of the detergent n-octyl-β-D-glucoside is observed in the D-cage, which comprises three sets of Asp361 and Asp371 residues at the periplasmic entrance. These structural insights suggest a possible substrate transport mechanism in which the substrate first binds at the periplasmic entrance of ST50 and subsequently, via iris-like structural movements to open the periplasmic end, penetrates the periplasmic domain for efflux pumping of molecules, including poisonous metabolites or xenobiotics, for excretion outside the pathogen.

  10. Crystal structure of an antigenic outer-membrane protein from Salmonella Typhi suggests a potential antigenic loop and an efflux mechanism.

    PubMed

    Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Yoshimura, Masato; Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Lin, Chien-Chih; Chen, Nai-Chi; Yang, Ming-Chi; Ismail, Asma; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2015-01-01

    ST50, an outer-membrane component of the multi-drug efflux system from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, is an obligatory diagnostic antigen for typhoid fever. ST50 is an excellent and unique diagnostic antigen with 95% specificity and 90% sensitivity and is used in the commercial diagnosis test kit (TYPHIDOT(TM)). The crystal structure of ST50 at a resolution of 2.98 Å reveals a trimer that forms an α-helical tunnel and a β-barrel transmembrane channel traversing the periplasmic space and outer membrane. Structural investigations suggest significant conformational variations in the extracellular loop regions, especially extracellular loop 2. This is the location of the most plausible antibody-binding domain that could be used to target the design of new antigenic epitopes for the development of better diagnostics or drugs for the treatment of typhoid fever. A molecule of the detergent n-octyl-β-D-glucoside is observed in the D-cage, which comprises three sets of Asp361 and Asp371 residues at the periplasmic entrance. These structural insights suggest a possible substrate transport mechanism in which the substrate first binds at the periplasmic entrance of ST50 and subsequently, via iris-like structural movements to open the periplasmic end, penetrates the periplasmic domain for efflux pumping of molecules, including poisonous metabolites or xenobiotics, for excretion outside the pathogen. PMID:26563565

  11. The kinetics of antibody binding to Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA PfEMP1 antigen and modelling of PfEMP1 antigen packing on the membrane knobs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Infected humans make protective antibody responses to the PfEMP1 adhesion antigens exported by Plasmodium falciparum parasites to the erythrocyte membrane, but little is known about the kinetics of this antibody-receptor binding reaction or how the topology of PfEMP1 on the parasitized erythrocyte membrane influences antibody association with, and dissociation from, its antigenic target. Methods A Quartz Crystal Microbalance biosensor was used to measure the association and dissociation kinetics of VAR2CSA PfEMP1 binding to human monoclonal antibodies. Immuno-fluorescence microscopy was used to visualize antibody-mediated adhesion between the surfaces of live infected erythrocytes and atomic force microscopy was used to obtain higher resolution images of the membrane knobs on the infected erythrocyte to estimate knob surface areas and model VAR2CSA packing density on the knob. Results Kinetic analysis indicates that antibody dissociation from the VAR2CSA PfEMP1 antigen is extremely slow when there is a high avidity interaction. High avidity binding to PfEMP1 antigens on the surface of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes in turn requires bivalent cross-linking of epitopes positioned within the distance that can be bridged by antibody. Calculations of the surface area of the knobs and the possible densities of PfEMP1 packing on the knobs indicate that high-avidity cross-linking antibody reactions are constrained by the architecture of the knobs and the large size of PfEMP1 molecules. Conclusions High avidity is required to achieve the strongest binding to VAR2CSA PfEMP1, but the structures that display PfEMP1 also tend to inhibit cross-linking between PfEMP1 antigens, by holding many binding epitopes at distances beyond the 15-18 nm sweep radius of an antibody. The large size of PfEMP1 will also constrain intra-knob cross-linking interactions. This analysis indicates that effective vaccines targeting the parasite's vulnerable adhesion receptors should

  12. Lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1 is a chronic lymphocytic leukemia membrane-associated antigen critical to niche homing

    PubMed Central

    Dubovsky, Jason A.; Chappell, Danielle L.; Harrington, Bonnie K.; Agrawal, Kitty; Andritsos, Leslie A.; Flynn, Joseph M.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Paulaitis, Michael E.; Bolon, Brad; Johnson, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    Membrane antigens are critical to the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) as they facilitate microenvironment homing, proliferation, and survival. Targeting the CLL membrane and associated signaling patterns is a current focus of therapeutic development. Many tumor membrane targets are simultaneously targeted by humoral immunity, thus forming recognizable immunoglobulin responses. We sought to use this immune response to identify novel membrane-associated targets for CLL. Using a novel strategy, we interrogated CLL membrane-specific autologous immunoglobulin G reactivity. Our analysis unveiled lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1 (LCP1), a lymphocyte-specific target that is highly expressed in CLL. LCP1 plays a critical role in B-cell biology by crosslinking F-actin filaments, thereby solidifying cytoskeletal structures and providing a scaffold for critical signaling pathways. Small interfering RNA knockdown of LCP1 blocked migration toward CXCL12 in transwell assays and to bone marrow in an in vivo xenotransplant model, confirming a role for LCP1 in leukemia migration. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib or the PI3K inhibitor idelalisib block B-cell receptor induced activation of LCP1. Our data demonstrate a novel strategy to identify cancer membrane target antigens using humoral anti-tumor immunity. In addition, we identify LCP1 as a membrane-associated target in CLL with confirmed pathogenic significance. This clinical trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov; study ID number: OSU-0025 OSU-0156. PMID:24009233

  13. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET/CT: False-Positive Results due to Sarcoidosis?

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Robert M.; Djannatian, Manoutschehr; Czech, Norbert; Nitsche, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    We report on a 72-year-old male patient who developed sarcoidosis of the mediastinal lymph nodes, the liver, and the prostate 11 years ago. Seven years later, he underwent transurethral resection of the prostate by laser due to hematuria. Pathology of the resected chips showed a ‘granulomatous prostatitis with epitheloid cells’. Malignancy was histologically excluded at that time. Four years later, he was diagnosed with an undifferentiated prostate carcinoma, with a Gleason score of 5 + 4 = 9. After initiation of antihormonal therapy, he underwent radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, which revealed a pT3b pN1 carcinoma with infiltrated resection margins. Three months later, the prostate-specific antigen level was 1.4 ng/ml, and a local recurrence was suspected by ultrasound; consequently, a 68Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT was performed. This examination seemed to confirm the local recurrence, a right pelvic lymph node metastasis, and a hepatic metastasis. However, ultrasound with contrast medium could not confirm the metastatic spread to the liver. In palliative intention, radiotherapy of the pelvis was done. After 50 Gy, the supposed recurrence had markedly shrunk, and an additional boost dose with 16.2 Gy was applied. Two years later, the patient is still free of disease. Due to this clinical development, we doubt the diagnosis of a fulminant progression of the prostate cancer as suspected by PSMA-PET/CT. Instead, we suspect a recurrence of the previously proven sarcoidosis leading to false-positive results. Our focus in this report is on the interaction between PSMA-PET/CT and sarcoidosis. Another report on a case of sarcoidosis of the spleen seems to confirm this possibility [Kobe et al: Clin Nucl Med 2015;40: 897–898]. PMID:27721768

  14. Membrane water permeability related to antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, G F; Dong, C L; Tang, G S; Shen, Q; Bai, C X

    2008-01-01

    Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) is one of the water channel proteins which participate in a wide array of physiological processes and are primary determinants of membrane osmotic water permeability. The AQP5 gene is located in human chromosome 12q, the same region as the location of the major asthma susceptibility loci. In this study we try to determine whether the AQP5 knock-out has some effect on allergen-induced asthma. With a mouse asthma model induced by ovalbumin (OVA), we found that deletion of AQP5 reduced some major characteristic features of asthma, such as less inflammation cell infiltration in lung tissues, lower cytokine expression and fewer inflammation cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids compared with those from wild-type (WT) mice. Because it was found that mice injected intratracheally with OVA-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs), the AQP5 gene knock-out (AQP5−/−) ones presented fewer inflammation cells. Because DCs are major antigen-presenting cells that play an important role in antigen-induced asthma, we also probed into the possible effect of gene knock-out on DCs. Surprisingly, reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence activated cell sorter analysis showed high levels of AQP5 on the surface of DCs from in vivo or bone marrow monocyte-derived DCs (mDC) in vitro. Immature mDC from AQP5 knock-out mice (AQP5−/−) showed decreased expression of CD80 and CD86 and endocytosis ability compared with that from WT, but the difference disappeared after mDCs matured with lipopolysaccharide. AQP5-mediated water transmembrane may play some role in the function of DCs. However, the mechanism of the effect of AQP5 on the DCs' function needs to be investigated further. PMID:18647319

  15. Intracellular transport of membrane glycoproteins: two closely related histocompatibility antigens differ in their rates of transit to the cell surface

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    The intracellular transport of two closely related membrane glycoproteins was studied in the murine B cell lymphoma line, AKTB-1b. Using pulse-chase radiolabeling, the kinetics of appearance of the class I histocompatibility antigens, H-2Kk and H-2Dk, at the cell surface were compared and found to be remarkably different. Newly synthesized H-2Kk is transported rapidly such that all radiolabeled molecules reach the surface within 1 h. In contrast, the H-2Dk antigen is transported slowly with a half-time of 4-5 h. The rates of surface appearance for the two antigens closely resemble the rates at which their Asn-linked oligosaccharides mature from endoglucosaminidase H (endo H)-sensitive to endo H-resistant forms, a process that occurs in the Golgi apparatus. This suggests that the rate-limiting step in the transport of H-2Dk to the cell surface occurs before the formation of endo H-resistant oligosaccharides in the Golgi apparatus. Subcellular fractionation experiments confirmed this conclusion by identifying the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as the site where the H-2Dk antigen accumulates. The retention of this glycoprotein in the ER does not appear to be due to a lack of solubility or an inability of the H-2Dk heavy chain to associate with beta 2-microglobulin. Our data is inconsistent with a passive membrane flow mechanism for the intracellular transport of membrane glycoproteins. Rather, it suggests that one or more receptors localized to the ER membrane may mediate the selective transport of membrane glycoproteins out of the ER to the Golgi apparatus. The fact that H-2Kk and H-2Dk are highly homologous (greater than or equal to 80%) indicates that this process can be strongly influenced by limited alterations in protein structure. PMID:3928633

  16. Intracellular transport of membrane glycoproteins: two closely related histocompatibility antigens differ in their rates of transit to the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Williams, D B; Swiedler, S J; Hart, G W

    1985-09-01

    The intracellular transport of two closely related membrane glycoproteins was studied in the murine B cell lymphoma line, AKTB-1b. Using pulse-chase radiolabeling, the kinetics of appearance of the class I histocompatibility antigens, H-2Kk and H-2Dk, at the cell surface were compared and found to be remarkably different. Newly synthesized H-2Kk is transported rapidly such that all radiolabeled molecules reach the surface within 1 h. In contrast, the H-2Dk antigen is transported slowly with a half-time of 4-5 h. The rates of surface appearance for the two antigens closely resemble the rates at which their Asn-linked oligosaccharides mature from endoglucosaminidase H (endo H)-sensitive to endo H-resistant forms, a process that occurs in the Golgi apparatus. This suggests that the rate-limiting step in the transport of H-2Dk to the cell surface occurs before the formation of endo H-resistant oligosaccharides in the Golgi apparatus. Subcellular fractionation experiments confirmed this conclusion by identifying the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as the site where the H-2Dk antigen accumulates. The retention of this glycoprotein in the ER does not appear to be due to a lack of solubility or an inability of the H-2Dk heavy chain to associate with beta 2-microglobulin. Our data is inconsistent with a passive membrane flow mechanism for the intracellular transport of membrane glycoproteins. Rather, it suggests that one or more receptors localized to the ER membrane may mediate the selective transport of membrane glycoproteins out of the ER to the Golgi apparatus. The fact that H-2Kk and H-2Dk are highly homologous (greater than or equal to 80%) indicates that this process can be strongly influenced by limited alterations in protein structure. PMID:3928633

  17. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-mediated laminin proteolysis generates a pro-angiogenic peptide.

    PubMed

    Conway, Rebecca E; Rojas, Camilo; Alt, Jesse; Nováková, Zora; Richardson, Spencer M; Rodrick, Tori C; Fuentes, Julio L; Richardson, Noah H; Attalla, Jonathan; Stewart, Samantha; Fahmy, Beshoy; Barinka, Cyril; Ghosh, Mallika; Shapiro, Linda H; Slusher, Barbara S

    2016-10-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a membrane-bound glutamate carboxypeptidase expressed in a number of tissues. PSMA participates in various biological functions depending on the substrate available in the particular tissue; in the brain, PSMA cleaves the abundant neuropeptide N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate to regulate release of key neurotransmitters, while intestinal PSMA cleaves polyglutamated peptides to supply dietary folate. PSMA expression is also progressively upregulated in prostate cancer where it correlates with tumor progression as well as in tumor vasculature, where it regulates angiogenesis. The previous research determined that PSMA cleavage of small peptides generated via matrix metalloprotease-mediated proteolysis of the extracellular matrix protein laminin potently activated endothelial cells, integrin signaling and angiogenesis, although the specific peptide substrates were not identified. Herein, using enzymatic analyses and LC/MS, we unequivocally demonstrate that several laminin-derived peptides containing carboxy-terminal glutamate moieties (LQE, IEE, LNE) are bona fide substrates for PSMA. Subsequently, the peptide products were tested for their effects on angiogenesis in various models. We report that LQ, the dipeptide product of PSMA cleavage of LQE, efficiently activates endothelial cells in vitro and enhances angiogenesis in vivo. Importantly, LQE is not cleaved by an inactive PSMA enzyme containing an active site mutation (E424S). Endothelial cell activation by LQ was dependent on integrin beta-1-induced activation of focal adhesion kinase. These results characterize a novel PSMA substrate, provide a functional rationale for the upregulation of PSMA in cancer cells and tumor vasculature and suggest that inhibition of PSMA could lead to the development of new angiogenic therapies. PMID:27387982

  18. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-mediated laminin proteolysis generates a pro-angiogenic peptide.

    PubMed

    Conway, Rebecca E; Rojas, Camilo; Alt, Jesse; Nováková, Zora; Richardson, Spencer M; Rodrick, Tori C; Fuentes, Julio L; Richardson, Noah H; Attalla, Jonathan; Stewart, Samantha; Fahmy, Beshoy; Barinka, Cyril; Ghosh, Mallika; Shapiro, Linda H; Slusher, Barbara S

    2016-10-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a membrane-bound glutamate carboxypeptidase expressed in a number of tissues. PSMA participates in various biological functions depending on the substrate available in the particular tissue; in the brain, PSMA cleaves the abundant neuropeptide N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate to regulate release of key neurotransmitters, while intestinal PSMA cleaves polyglutamated peptides to supply dietary folate. PSMA expression is also progressively upregulated in prostate cancer where it correlates with tumor progression as well as in tumor vasculature, where it regulates angiogenesis. The previous research determined that PSMA cleavage of small peptides generated via matrix metalloprotease-mediated proteolysis of the extracellular matrix protein laminin potently activated endothelial cells, integrin signaling and angiogenesis, although the specific peptide substrates were not identified. Herein, using enzymatic analyses and LC/MS, we unequivocally demonstrate that several laminin-derived peptides containing carboxy-terminal glutamate moieties (LQE, IEE, LNE) are bona fide substrates for PSMA. Subsequently, the peptide products were tested for their effects on angiogenesis in various models. We report that LQ, the dipeptide product of PSMA cleavage of LQE, efficiently activates endothelial cells in vitro and enhances angiogenesis in vivo. Importantly, LQE is not cleaved by an inactive PSMA enzyme containing an active site mutation (E424S). Endothelial cell activation by LQ was dependent on integrin beta-1-induced activation of focal adhesion kinase. These results characterize a novel PSMA substrate, provide a functional rationale for the upregulation of PSMA in cancer cells and tumor vasculature and suggest that inhibition of PSMA could lead to the development of new angiogenic therapies.

  19. Bacterial histo-blood group antigens contributing to genotype-dependent removal of human noroviruses with a microfiltration membrane.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Miura, Takayuki; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu; Ishii, Satoshi; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrated the genotype-dependent removal of human norovirus particles with a microfiltration (MF) membrane in the presence of bacteria bearing histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). Three genotypes (GII.3, GII.4, and GII.6) of norovirus-like particles (NoVLPs) were mixed with three bacterial strains (Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, Escherichia coli O86:K61:B7, and Staphylococcus epidermidis), respectively, and the mixture was filtered with an MF membrane having a nominal pore size of 0.45 μm. All NoVLP genotypes were rejected by the MF membrane in the presence of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, which excreted HBGAs as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). This MF membrane removal of NoVLPs was not significant when EPS was removed from cells of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6. GII.6 NoVLP was not rejected with the MF membrane in the presence of E. coli O86:K61:B7, but the removal of EPS of E. coli O86:K61:B7 increased the removal efficiency due to the interaction of NoVLPs with the exposed B-antigen in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of E. coli O86:K61:B7. No MF membrane removal of all three genotypes was observed when S. epidermidis, an HBGA-negative strain, was mixed with NoVLPs. These results demonstrate that the location of HBGAs on bacterial cells is an important factor in determining the genotype-dependent removal efficiency of norovirus particles with the MF membrane. The presence of HBGAs in mixed liquor suspended solids from a membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot plant was confirmed by immune-transmission electron microscopy, which implies that bacterial HBGAs can contribute to the genotype-dependent removal of human noroviruses with MBR using MF membrane. PMID:27095709

  20. PET Imaging in Prostate Cancer: Focus on Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Mease, Ronnie C.; Foss, Catherine A.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in American men. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with emerging radiopharmaceuticals promises accurate staging of primary disease, restaging of recurrent disease, detection of metastatic lesions and, ultimately, for predicting the aggressiveness of disease. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a well-characterized imaging biomarker of PCa. Because PSMA levels are directly related to androgen independence, metastasis and progression, PSMA could prove an important target for the development of new radiopharmaceuticals for PET. Preclinical data for new PSMA-based radiotracers are discussed and include new 89Zr- and 64Cu-labeled anti-PSMA antibodies and antibody fragments, 64Cu-labeled aptamers, and 11C-, 18F-, 68Ga-, 64Cu-, and 86Y-labeled low molecular weight inhibitors of PSMA. Several of these agents, namely 68Ga-HBED-CC conjugate 15, 18F-DCFBC 8, and BAY1075553 are particularly promising, each having detected sites of PCa in initial clinical studies. These early clinical results suggest that PET/CT using PSMA-targeted agents, especially with compounds of low molecular weight, will make valuable contributions to the management of PCa. PMID:23590171

  1. [Expression of Epstein-Barr virus membrane antigen in CHO cell].

    PubMed

    Ye, P; Li, Y; Gu, S

    1998-12-01

    A recombinant plasmid, pCMV/MA, was generated by isolating the Epstein-Barr Virus(EBV) membrane antigen(MA) gene with anchor sequence removed from pSV40/MA and cloning it into pcDNA3, with MA gene and Neomycin gene under the control of CMV promoter and SV40 promoter respectively. CHO cells were transfected with pCMV/MA using liposome and then grown in DMEM medium in the presence of G418. Two clones highly expressing MA were obtained. EBV-MA was purified from the medium of CHO cells by ammonium sulfate precipitation. Western-blot showed that the molecular weight of proteins expressed were about 340 kD and 220 kD. It could specifically react with anti-MA monoclonal antibody in indirect immunofluorescent and immunodot assay. The yield of MA was estimated to be 1.9 micrograms/ml per day by SDS-PAGE scanning and Lowry methods. The optimal culture condition of the CHO cells was to use medium supplemented with 10% serum until 80% cell confluence, then with 2%-5% serum and collected medium continually. The genetic stability of the cells was confirmed by freeze--revival and culture without G418. The purified MA was used to immunize mice and the geometric mean titer of the specific antibody was 1:180, while the positive rate of antibody was 100%.

  2. Immunoscintigraphy of colorectal cancer with an antibody to epithelial membrane antigen (EMA)

    SciTech Connect

    Yiu, C.Y.; Baker, L.A.; Davidson, B.R.; Ward, M.; Roberts, K.; Clarke, G.; Ward, C.; Westwood, J.; Boulos, P.B.; Clark, C.G. )

    1990-02-01

    Immunoperoxidase staining of LICR-LON M8, a mouse monoclonal antibody reactive with epithelial membrane antigen, showed a strong reaction with colorectal cancer. This finding prompted an immunoscintigraphic study of colorectal cancer patients using this antibody. Sixteen patients had external gamma scintigraphy after intravenous injection of indium 111-labeled M8. Positive scans were obtained in 11 of the 13 patients with primary colorectal cancers, and 2 of the 3 patients with recurrent tumors. The high indium 111 background in the liver prevented the detection of hepatic metastases in 5 patients. Twelve patients had samples taken of tumor, normal colon, and venous blood at the time of surgery. The ratio of labeled antibody uptake in tumor to that of blood was 5.1 (+/- 3.6 S.D.), which was significantly different (P = 0.001) to that of the similar ratio for normal colon (2.0 +/- 1.6 S.D.). The tumor to normal colon uptake ratio was 2.6 (+/- 1.3 S.D.). These results suggest a specific uptake of indium 111-labeled M8 by colorectal cancer.

  3. Prostate-specific membrane antigen as a target for cancer imaging and therapy

    PubMed Central

    KIESS, A. P.; BANERJEE, S. R.; MEASE, R. C.; ROWE, S. P.; RAO, A.; FOSS, C. A.; CHEN, Y.; YANG, X.; CHO, S. Y.; NIMMAGADDA, S.; POMPER, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a molecular target whose use has resulted in some of the most productive work toward imaging and treating prostate cancer over the past two decades. A wide variety of imaging agents extending from intact antibodies to low-molecular-weight compounds permeate the literature. In parallel there is a rapidly expanding pool of antibody-drug conjugates, radiopharmaceutical therapeutics, small-molecule drug conjugates, theranostics and nanomedicines targeting PSMA. Such productivity is motivated by the abundant expression of PSMA on the surface of prostate cancer cells and within the neovasculature of other solid tumors, with limited expression in most normal tissues. Animating the field is a variety of small-molecule scaffolds upon which the radionuclides, drugs, MR-detectable species and nanoparticles can be placed with relative ease. Among those, the urea-based agents have been most extensively leveraged, with expanding clinical use for detection and more recently for radiopharmaceutical therapy of prostate cancer, with surprisingly little toxicity. PSMA imaging of other cancers is also appearing in the clinical literature, and may overtake FDG for certain indications. Targeting PSMA may provide a viable alternative or first-line approach to managing prostate and other cancers. PMID:26213140

  4. Characterization of rat prothymocyte with monoclonal antibodies recognizing rat lymphocyte membrane antigenic determinants

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, M.L.; Greiner, D.L.; McCarthy, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    Utilizing the technique of fluorescence-activated cell sorting and monoclonal antibodies directed at rat membrane antigens, various subpopulations of Lewis bone marrow cells were isolated and subsequently transfused into sublethally irradiated, histocompatible NBr recipient rats by either intravenous of intrathymic inoculation. Recipient rats were sacrificed and cell suspensions from thymus and other lymphoid tissue were examined for the presence of the RT7.1 marker on Lewis thymus-derived lymphocytes by fluorescence-activated cell analysis. From these studies, the population of Lewis bone-marrow cells that could resonstitute T cells in the NBr rats was found to be Ox-22 negative, Ox-7 positive, W3/13 positive, and Ox-18 positive. Further analysis characterized the prothymocyte as being Ox-7 upper 20% positive and W3/13 weakly positive. In addition, this marrow-cell population was able to protect lethally irradiated Lewis rats (9.5 GY) in 30-day survival tests. These studies have indicated that the prothymocyte either has been derived from the Ox-22 negative, Ox-7 upper 20% positive, and W3/13 positive marrow cells or, like the hematopoietic stem cell, this cell has also been characterized by this phenotype.

  5. Creatinine clearance, urinary excretion of glomerular basement membrane antigens and renal histology in congenital nephrotic syndrome of Finnish type.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, N P

    1977-04-01

    The endogenous creatinine clearance and urinary excretion rate of glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antigens were followed from 2 to 19 months in fifteen patients with congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNF). The quantitative examination of renal morphology was made on fourteen of these patients. Creatinine clearance increased during the first few months of life and thereafter gradually decreased. The urinary excretion rate of GBM antigens rose during the course of the disease. The creatinine clearance did not correlate significantly with glomerular fibrosis but it did correlate with tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. The urinary excretion of GBM antigens correlated significantly with glomerular and interstitial fibrosis and with tubular atrophy. It is concluded that there is a clear progress in the disease and the renal histological changes probably are caused by accumulation of GBM material in glomeruli.

  6. No facilitator required for membrane transport of hydrogen sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Mathai, John C.; Missner, Andreas; Kügler, Philipp; Saparov, Sapar M.; Zeidel, Mark L.; Lee, John K.; Pohl, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as a new and important member in the group of gaseous signaling molecules. However, the molecular transport mechanism has not yet been identified. Because of structural similarities with H2O, it was hypothesized that aquaporins may facilitate H2S transport across cell membranes. We tested this hypothesis by reconstituting the archeal aquaporin AfAQP from sulfide reducing bacteria Archaeoglobus fulgidus into planar membranes and by monitoring the resulting facilitation of osmotic water flow and H2S flux. To measure H2O and H2S fluxes, respectively, sodium ion dilution and buffer acidification by proton release (H2S ⇆ H+ + HS−) were recorded in the immediate membrane vicinity. Both sodium ion concentration and pH were measured by scanning ion-selective microelectrodes. A lower limit of lipid bilayer permeability to H2S, PM,H2S ≥ 0.5 ± 0.4 cm/s was calculated by numerically solving the complete system of differential reaction diffusion equations and fitting the theoretical pH distribution to experimental pH profiles. Even though reconstitution of AfAQP significantly increased water permeability through planar lipid bilayers, PM,H2S remained unchanged. These results indicate that lipid membranes may well act as a barrier to water transport although they do not oppose a significant resistance to H2S diffusion. The fact that cholesterol and sphingomyelin reconstitution did not turn these membranes into an H2S barrier indicates that H2S transport through epithelial barriers, endothelial barriers, and membrane rafts also occurs by simple diffusion and does not require facilitation by membrane channels. PMID:19805349

  7. Antibody response to a T-dependent antigen requires B cell expression of complement receptors

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that antibody responses to T- dependent antigens require complement receptors expressed on either B lymphocytes or follicular dendritic cells. We have used RAG-2 deficient blastocyst complementation to create mice specifically lacking B cell complement receptors. Despite normal expression of complement receptor 1 (CR1[CD35]) and CR2 (CD21) on follicular dendritic cells, these mice have a profound defect in their capacity to mount a T-dependent antibody response. This is the first direct demonstration in vivo that B cell expression of complement receptors is required for a humoral immune response. This is the first direct demonstration in vivo that B cell expression of complement receptors is required for a humoral immune response. This suggests that CD21 and/or CD35 on B lymphocytes may be required for cellular activation, adsorptive endocytosis of antigen, recruitment to germinal centers, and/or protection from apoptosis during the humoral response to T-dependent antigens. PMID:8666942

  8. Requirement for Coenzyme Q in Plasma Membrane Electron Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, I. L.; Sun, E. E.; Crane, F. L.; Morre, D. J.; Lindgren, A.; Low, H.

    1992-12-01

    Coenzyme Q is required in the electron transport system of rat hepatocyte and human erythrocyte plasma membranes. Extraction of coenzyme Q from the membrane decreases NADH dehydrogenase and NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase activity. Addition of coenzyme Q to the extracted membrane restores the activity. Partial restoration of activity is also found with α-tocopherylquinone, but not with vitamin K_1. Analogs of coenzyme Q inhibit NADH dehydrogenase and oxidase activity and the inhibition is reversed by added coenzyme Q. Ferricyanide reduction by transmembrane electron transport from HeLa cells is inhibited by coenzyme Q analogs and restored with added coenzyme Q10. Reduction of external ferricyanide and diferric transferrin by HeLa cells is accompanied by proton release from the cells. Inhibition of the reduction by coenzyme Q analogs also inhibits the proton release, and coenzyme Q10 restores the proton release activity. Trans-plasma membrane electron transport stimulates growth of serum-deficient cells, and added coenzyme Q10 increases growth of HeLa (human adenocarcinoma) and BALB/3T3 (mouse fibroblast) cells. The evidence is consistent with a function for coenzyme Q in a trans-plasma membrane electron transport system which influences cell growth.

  9. Calcium-regulated exocytosis is required for cell membrane resealing

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Using confocal microscopy, we visualized exocytosis during membrane resealing in sea urchin eggs and embryos. Upon wounding by a laser beam, both eggs and embryos showed a rapid burst of localized Ca(2+)- regulated exocytosis. The rate of exocytosis was correlated quantitatively with successfully resealing. In embryos, whose activated surfaces must first dock vesicles before fusion, exocytosis and membrane resealing were inhibited by neurotoxins that selectively cleave the SNARE complex proteins, synaptobrevin, SNAP-25, and syntaxin. In eggs, whose cortical vesicles are already docked, vesicles could be reversibly undocked with externally applied stachyose. If cortical vesicles were undocked both exocytosis and plasma membrane resealing were completely inhibited. When cortical vesicles were transiently undocked, exposure to tetanus toxin and botulinum neurotoxin type C1 rendered them no longer competent for resealing, although botulinum neurotoxin type A was still ineffective. Cortical vesicles transiently undocked in the presence of tetanus toxin were subsequently fusion incompetent although to a large extent they retained their ability to redock when stachyose was diluted. We conclude that addition of internal membranes by exocytosis is required and that a SNARE-like complex plays differential roles in vesicle docking and fusion for the repair of disrupted plasma membrane. PMID:8557742

  10. Bacterial membranes enhance the immunogenicity and protective capacity of the surface exposed tick Subolesin-Anaplasma marginale MSP1a chimeric antigen.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Marinela; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Domingos, Ana; Canales, Mario; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Pérez de la Lastra, José M; Sánchez, Emilio; Merino, Octávio; Zavala, Rigoberto López; Ayllón, Nieves; Boadella, Mariana; Villar, Margarita; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2015-09-01

    Ticks are vectors of diseases that affect humans and animals worldwide. Tick vaccines have been proposed as a cost-effective and environmentally sound alternative for tick control. Recently, the Rhipicephalus microplus Subolesin (SUB)-Anaplasma marginale MSP1a chimeric antigen was produced in Escherichia coli as membrane-bound and exposed protein and used to protect vaccinated cattle against tick infestations. In this research, lipidomics and proteomics characterization of the E. coli membrane-bound SUB-MSP1a antigen showed the presence of components with potential adjuvant effect. Furthermore, vaccination with membrane-free SUB-MSP1a and bacterial membranes containing SUB-MSP1a showed that bacterial membranes enhance the immunogenicity of the SUB-MSP1a antigen in animal models. R. microplus female ticks were capillary-fed with sera from pigs orally immunized with membrane-free SUB, membrane bound SUB-MSP1a and saline control. Ticks ingested antibodies added to the blood meal and the effect of these antibodies on reduction of tick weight was shown for membrane bound SUB-MSP1a but not SUB when compared to control. Using the simple and cost-effective process developed for the purification of membrane-bound SUB-MSP1a, endotoxin levels were within limits accepted for recombinant vaccines. These results provide further support for the development of tick vaccines using E. coli membranes exposing chimeric antigens such as SUB-MSP1a. PMID:26219233

  11. Isolation, purification, characterization and antigenic evaluation of GPI-anchored membrane proteins from Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Agustina; García-Lugo, Pablo; Crisante, Gladys; Añez-Rojas, Néstor; Añez, Néstor

    2008-02-01

    GPI-anchored proteins from the plasma membrane of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes were isolated, characterized and their migration pattern compared with those from other Leishmania species. In all cases the SDS-PAGE migration patterns were obtained under reducing and non-reducing conditions, using DL-dithiothreitol (DTT) as a reducer agent. Our results reveal that under reducing conditions the SDS-PAGE migration pattern is modified as a consequence of the disruption of disulphur-bonds and protein transformation. This is demonstrated when in non-reducing conditions the L. (V.) braziliensis-GPI-anchored proteins pattern showed a group of bands over the 100kDa, and two more bands of 52kDa and 50kDa in four different isolates, whereas under reducing conditions the major GPI-anchored protein fractions were detected as bands of 63kDa, 50kDa and an increase of peptides between 34kDa and 22kDa. Similar modifications were detected in the SDS-PAGE migration patterns of GPI-anchored protein fractions from L. (Leishmania) donovani, L. (L.) mexicana and L. (L.) amazonensis run under the same reducing conditions. Antigenic evaluation carried out by Western blot revealed the presence of two very specific L. (V.) braziliensis-GPI-anchored protein bands of 50kDa and 28kDa. These bands were specifically recognized by anti-L. (V.) braziliensis-GPI-anchored protein serum from experimentally immunized animals. These two peptides were not detected when GPI-anchored protein fractions from L. (L.) donovani, L. (L.) mexicana and L. (L.) amazonensis, were challenged with the same anti-serum. The present results lead us to suggest the use of these two peptides as biochemical markers to identify and differentiate leishmaniasis caused by L. (V.) braziliensis. The lack of immunogenicity observed here with the peptide gp63, a very common protein detected in Leishmania species, is considered.

  12. Plasma membrane-associated antigens on tumor cells derived from transitional-cell carcinoma of the human urinary bladder. II. Identification at the molecular level of plasma membrane-associated antigens.

    PubMed

    Schneider, M U; Paulie, S; Troye, M; Perlmann, P

    1980-08-01

    The surface proteins of seven human cell lines (three bladder carcinomas (TCC), two normal urothelial lines, one colon carcinoma, and one malignant melanoma) were labelled with 125I by the glucose oxidase-lactoperoxidase technique. Plasma membranes of the cells were isolated and analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). When analysed under reducing conditions by staining with protein stain, approximately 45 distinct membrane polypeptides were detected in all membrane preparations. Although the banding patterns for all cell lines were very similar, a 23 K and a 110 K band were only seen in the five unrothelial lines. When the same gels were analysed by autoradiography, between 13 and 17 bands were detected for each of the cell lines. However, in this case, analysis revealed individual and stable banding profiles for each. One 180 K band and one 100 K band were only seen in the autoradiographs of the two normal lines but not in those of the tumor membranes. Analysis under non-reducing conditions gave similar results. The antigenicity of these surface components was analysed by incubating detergent extracts of surface-iodinated cells with IgG from a rabbit anti-TCC serum, absorbed with fetal bovine serum and bound to protein A (from Staphylococcus aureus) on a matrix of Sepharose 4B. Analysis of the eluates by autoradiography after SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions showed that many of the labelled polypeptides were antigenic and shared by all seven cell lines. Analysis of eluates from IgG preparations, exhaustively absorbed with human spleen, revealed the presence of at least one antigenic 110 K polypeptide confined to the membrane of the urothelial cells. Preparation of a rabbit antiserum to this 110 K component, isolated from one of the TCC-lines and tested by ADCC, indicated that this polypeptide constitutes an important surface antigen, present on urothelial cells of both TCC- and normal origin but absent from the colon carcinoma and

  13. Exposure of the Rh0(D) antigen on the surface and cytoplasmic domains of the red cell membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Kleeman, J E; Masouredis, S P; Victoria, E J

    1982-01-01

    Inside-out (IO) and right-side-out (RO) vesicles derived form human red blood cells were tested for their ability to bind 125I-labelled IgG anti-RHO(D). The binding of anti-RHO(D) to RO vesicles from RHO(D)-positive cells was quantitatively similar to that exhibited by intact cells when compared on a membrane surface area basis. There was no significant binding of labelled antibody to IO vesicles from RhO(D)-positive cells or to either RO or IO vesicles derived from RhO(D)-negative cells. The RhO(D) antigen was immunologically accessible on only the plasma side of the membrane in RhO(D)-positive red cells, as has been shown for blood group antigens defined by carbohydrate determinants. No immunologically reactive RhO(D) antigen was present on either RO or IO vesicles derived from RHO(D)-negative red cells. PMID:6799392

  14. Functional Recombinant Extra Membrane Loop of Human CD20, an Alternative of the Full Length CD20 Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Anbouhi, Mahdi Habibi; Baraz, Aida Feiz; Bouzari, Saeid; Abolhassani, Mohsen; Khanahmad, Hossein; Golkar, Majid; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Behdani, Mahdi; Najafabadi, Ali Jahanian; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background: Targeting of CD20 antigen with monoclonal antibodies has become the mainstay in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and immunotherapeutic depletion of malignant B cells. Accessibility of antigen is one of the crucial factors in development of monoclonal antibodies against this antigen. One major problem in expression of full length CD20 is aggregation and misfolding. Therefore, production of an alternative polypeptide is easer and favorable comparing to that of a full length transmembrane protein CD20. Methods: In this study, we expressed the extra membrane loop of hCD20 (exCD20) consisting of a non-glycosylated 47-amino acids region. The exCD20 coding sequence was amplified by PCR and cloned in pET32a(+) expression vector. The desired protein was expressed in fusion with thioredoxin and 6× His tag in E. coli Origami strain. ELISA and Western-blotting data were performed to indicate the functionality of this protein. Results: We have obtained the exCD20 recombinant protein which can be detected in ELISA and Western-blot experiments. This recombinant fusion protein was soluble and stable without aggregation and misfolding problems. Conclusion: The recombinant extra membrane loop of human CD20 protein in fusion with thioredoxin (exCD20) can be used in function assays and some applications such as ELISA, immuneblotting, affinity purification, immunization, screening, and development of anti-CD20 antibodies. PMID:23023212

  15. Human Leukocyte Antigen Class II Alleles Influence Levels of Antibodies to the Plasmodium falciparum Asexual-Stage Apical Membrane Antigen 1 but Not to Merozoite Surface Antigen 2 and Merozoite Surface Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Armead H.; Leke, Rose G. F.; Mendell, Nancy R.; Shon, Dewon; Suh, Young Ju; Bomba-Nkolo, Dennis; Tchinda, Viviane; Kouontchou, Samuel; Thuita, Lucy W.; van der Wel, Anne Marie; Thomas, Alan; Stowers, Anthony; Saul, Allan; Zhou, Ainong; Taylor, Diane W.; Quakyi, Isabella A.

    2004-01-01

    The apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1), merozoite surface antigen 2 (MSA2), and merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) are asexual-stage proteins currently being evaluated for inclusion in a vaccine for Plasmodium falciparum. Accordingly, it is important to understand factors that control antibody responses to these antigens. Antibody levels in plasma from residents of Etoa, Cameroon, between the ages of 5 and 70 years, were determined using recombinant AMA1, MSA2, and the N-terminal region of MSP1 (MSP1-190L). In addition, antibody responses to four variants of the C-terminal region of MSP1 (MSP119) were assessed. Results showed that all individuals produced antibodies to AMA1, MSA2, and MSP1-190L; however, a proportion of individuals never produced antibodies to the MSP119 variants, although the percentage of nonresponders decreased with age. The influence of age and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1/DQB1 alleles on antibody levels was evaluated using two-way analysis of variance. Age was correlated with levels of antibodies to AMA1 and MSP119 but not with levels of antibodies to MSA2 and MSP1-190L. No association was found between a single HLA allele and levels of antibodies to MSA2, MSP1-190L, or any of the MSP119 variants. However, individuals positive for DRB1*1201 had higher levels of antibodies to the variant of recombinant AMA1 tested than did individuals of all other HLA types. Since the effect was seen across all age groups, HLA influenced the level but not the rate of antibody acquisition. This association for AMA1, combined with the previously reported association between HLA class II alleles and levels of antibodies to rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP1) and RAP2, indicates that HLA influences the levels of antibodies to three of the five vaccine candidate antigens that we have evaluated. PMID:15102786

  16. Lipid Membranes Facilitate Conformational Changes Required for Reovirus Cell Entry

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cellular entry of nonenveloped and enveloped viruses is often accompanied by dramatic conformational changes within viral structural proteins. These rearrangements are triggered by a variety of mechanisms, such as low pH, virus-receptor interactions, and virus-host chaperone interactions. Reoviruses, a model system for entry of nonenveloped viruses, undergo a series of disassembly steps within the host endosome. One of these steps, infectious subviral particle (ISVP)-to-ISVP* conversion, is necessary for delivering the genome-containing viral core into host cells, but the physiological trigger that mediates ISVP-to-ISVP* conversion during cell entry is unknown. Structural studies of the reovirus membrane penetration protein, μ1, predict that interactions between μ1 and negatively charged lipid head groups may promote ISVP* formation; however, experimental evidence for this idea is lacking. Here, we show that the presence of polyanions (SO42− and HPO42−) or lipids in the form of liposomes facilitates ISVP-to-ISVP* conversion. The requirement for charged lipids appears to be selective, since phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine promoted ISVP* formation, whereas other lipids, such as sphingomyelin and sulfatide, either did not affect ISVP* formation or prevented ISVP* formation. Thus, our work provides evidence that interactions with membranes can function as a trigger for a nonenveloped virus to gain entry into host cells. IMPORTANCE Cell entry, a critical stage in the virus life cycle, concludes with the delivery of the viral genetic material across host membranes. Regulated structural transitions within nonenveloped and enveloped viruses are necessary for accomplishing this step; these conformational changes are predominantly triggered by low pH and/or interactions with host proteins. In this work, we describe a previously unknown trigger, interactions with lipid membranes, which can induce the structural rearrangements required for cell

  17. PET imaging of prostate-specific membrane antigen in prostate cancer: current state of the art and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, SP; Gorin, MA; Allaf, ME; Pienta, KJ; Tran, PT; Pomper, MG; Ross, AE; Cho, SY

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a cell surface enzyme that is highly expressed in prostate cancer (PCa) and is currently being extensively explored as a promising target for molecular imaging in a variety of clinical contexts. Novel antibody and small-molecule PSMA radiotracers labeled with a variety of radionuclides for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging applications have been developed and explored in recent studies. METHODS A great deal of progress has been made in defining the clinical utility of this class of PET agents through predominantly small and retrospective clinical studies. The most compelling data to date has been in the setting of biochemically recurrent PCa, where PSMA-targeted radiotracers have been found to be superior to conventional imaging and other molecular imaging agents for the detection of locally recurrent and metastatic PCa. RESULTS Early data, however, suggest that initial lymph node staging before definitive therapy in high-risk primary PCa patients may be limited, although intraoperative guidance may still hold promise. Other examples of potential promising applications for PSMA PET imaging include non-invasive characterization of primary PCa, staging and treatment planning for PSMA-targeted radiotherapeutics, and guidance of focal therapy for oligometastatic disease. CONCLUSIONS However, all of these indications and applications for PCa PSMA PET imaging are still lacking and require large, prospective, systematic clinical trials for validation. Such validation trials are needed and hopefully will be forthcoming as the fields of molecular imaging, urology, radiation oncology and medical oncology continue to define and refine the utility of PSMA-targeted PET imaging to improve the management of PCa patients. PMID:27136743

  18. Characterization of membrane antigens on human cytomegalovirus-infected fibroblasts recognized by human antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    van der Voort, L.H.M.; de Leij, L.F.M.H.; The T.H.

    1989-03-01

    The antigens on the surface of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-infected fibroblasts which are recognized by human HCMV antibody-positive sera were characterized. Three HCMV-induced polypeptides, with apparent molecular masses of 53 to 63, 94, and 94 to 120 kilodaltons, were precipitated from /sup 125/I-surface-labeled cell extracts with different sera obtained from healthy individuals. Renal transplant recipients who were suffering from active HCMV infections recognized the same set of antigens. By the use of monoclonal antibodies, these antigens were identified as polypeptides belonging to the gcI and gcIII families of HCMV glycoproteins.

  19. Membrane-bound heat shock proteins facilitate the uptake of dying cells and cross-presentation of cellular antigen.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haiyan; Fang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Dongmei; Wu, Weicheng; Shao, Miaomiao; Wang, Lan; Gu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) were originally identified as stress-responsive proteins and serve as molecular chaperones in different intracellular compartments. Translocation of HSPs to the cell surface and release of HSPs into the extracellular space have been observed during the apoptotic process and in response to a variety of cellular stress. Here, we report that UV irradiation and cisplatin treatment rapidly induce the expression of membrane-bound Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90 upstream the phosphatidylserine exposure. Membrane-bound Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90 could promote the release of IL-6 and IL-1β as well as DC maturation by the evaluation of CD80 and CD86 expression. On the other hand, Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90 on cells could facilitate the uptake of dying cells by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), as a common receptor for Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90, is response for their recognition and mediates the uptake of dying cells. Furthermore, membrane-bound Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90 could promote the cross-presentation of OVA antigen from E.G7 cells and inhibition of the uptake of dying cells by LOX-1 decreases the cross-presentation of cellular antigen. Therefore, the rapid exposure of HSPs on dying cells at the early stage allows for the recognition by and confers an activation signal to the immune system. PMID:26481477

  20. A newly identified immunodominant membrane protein (pMB67) involved in Mycoplasma bovis surface antigenic variation.

    PubMed

    Behrens, A; Poumarat, F; Le Grand, D; Heller, M; Rosengarten, R

    1996-09-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a bovine pathogen able to cause systemic disease. It possesses a series of prominent, structurally related yet clearly distinguishable membrane lipoproteins on the cell surface. These variable surface proteins (Vsps) undergo highly dynamic and spontaneous changes in size and expression and are key immunogenic components. They may play a critical role as mediators of adherence to host cells and in escaping immune destruction. In this report, we define a novel, Vsp-unrelated membrane protein also associated with M. bovis surface antigenic variation. This protein has an apparent molecular mass of 67,000 Da in the type strain PG45 and was designated pMB67. Immunological and biochemical characterization of pMB67 demonstrated that it: (i) contains a specific epitope, (ii) is not modified by lipid but does contain cysteine, (iii) does not contain a Vsp-like repetitive periodic protein structure, (iv) is a predominant antigen recognized during M. bovis infections, (v) undergoes a high rate of phase variation in vitro and (vi) is size-variable. These results showed that M. bovis employs two types of specialized membrane proteins for surface diversification. The pMB67 protein may be useful in diagnostic assays and as a vaccine component.

  1. Analyses of Conformational States of the Transporter Associated with Antigen Processing (TAP) Protein in a Native Cellular Membrane Environment*

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Jie; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj; Raghavan, Malini

    2013-01-01

    The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) plays a critical role in the MHC class I antigen presentation pathway. TAP translocates cellular peptides across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane in an ATP hydrolysis-dependent manner. We used FRET spectroscopy in permeabilized cells to delineate different conformational states of TAP in a native subcellular membrane environment. For these studies, we tagged the TAP1 and TAP2 subunits with enhanced cyan fluorescent protein and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein, respectively, C-terminally to their nucleotide binding domains (NBDs), and measured FRET efficiencies under different conditions. Our data indicate that both ATP and ADP enhance the FRET efficiencies but that neither induces a maximally closed NBD conformation. Additionally, peptide binding induces a large and significant increase in NBD proximity with a concentration dependence that is reflective of individual peptide affinities for TAP, revealing the underlying mechanism of peptide-stimulated ATPase activity of TAP. Maximal NBD closure is induced by the combination of peptide and non-hydrolysable ATP analogs. Thus, TAP1-TAP2 NBD dimers are not fully stabilized by nucleotides alone, and substrate binding plays a key role in inducing the transition state conformations of the NBD. Taken together, these findings show that at least three steps are involved in the transport of peptides across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane for antigen presentation, corresponding to three dynamically and structurally distinct conformational states of TAP. Our studies elucidate structural changes in the TAP NBD in response to nucleotides and substrate, providing new insights into the mechanism of ATP-binding cassette transporter function. PMID:24196954

  2. Erythrocyte Membrane Antigen Frequencies in Patients with Type II Congenital Smell Loss

    PubMed Central

    Stateman, William A.; Henkin, Robert I.; Knöppel, Alexandra; Flegel, Willy A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine whether there are genetic factors associated with Type II congenital smell loss. STUDY DESIGN The expression frequencies of 16 erythrocyte antigens among patients with Type II congenital smell loss were determined and compared to those of a large control group. METHODS Blood samples were obtained from 99 patients with Type II congenital smell loss. Presence of the erythrocyte surface antigens A, B, M, N, S, s, Fya, Fyb, D, C, c, E, e, K, Jka, and Jkb was analyzed by blood group serology. Comparisons of expression frequencies of these antigens were made between the patients and a large control group. RESULTS Patients tested for the Duffy b antigen (Fyb haplotype) exhibited a statistically significant 11% decrease in expression frequency compared to the controls. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in the expression frequencies for all other erythrocyte antigens (A, B, M, N, S, s, Fya, D, C, c, E, e, K, Jka, or Jkb). CONCLUSIONS These findings describe the presence of a previously unrevealed genetic tendency among patients with Type II congenital smell loss related to erythrocyte surface antigen expression. The deviation in expression rate of Duffy b suggests a target gene and chromosome region in which future research into this form of congenital smell loss may reveal a more specific genetic basis for Type II congenital smell loss. PMID:25456515

  3. Metastatic superscan in prostate carcinoma on gallium-68-prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Krishan Kant; Tripathi, Madhavi; Kumar, Rajeev; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2016-01-01

    We describe the imaging features of a metastatic superscan on gallium-68 Glu-NH-CO-NH-Lys-(Ahx)-[Ga-68(HBED-CC)], abbreviated as gallium-68-prostate-specific membrane antigen (68Ga-PSMA) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging. 68Ga-PSMA is novel radiotracer undergoing evaluation for PET/CT imaging of prostate carcinoma. This patient had a superscan of metastases on conventional bone scintigraphy and was referred for 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT to evaluate the feasibility of 177Lu-PSMA therapy. PMID:27095868

  4. Polymorphism at the apical membrane antigen 1 gene (AMA1) of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in a Vietnamese population.

    PubMed

    Quang, Nguyen Duc; Hoa, Phan Thi Phuong; Tuan, Mai Sy; Viet, Nguyen Xuan; Jalloh, Amadu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2009-06-01

    The patterns of molecular evolution of the most diverse region of the apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) gene in Plasmodium falciparum from a Vietnamese subpopulation (Bao Loc) were investigated. Within the Bao Loc population, the sequenced gene region showed relatively high allelic and nucleotide diversity (0.985 and 0.02694, respectively). Further, the level of population recombination was substantial, resulting in a significant decay of linkage disequilibrium along the gene region. The results suggest that AMA1 is a useful genetic marker for studying the relationships between adaptation of parasite populations (to the human host immune system) and malaria epidemiology.

  5. Modulation of endotoxicity of Shigella generalized modules for membrane antigens (GMMA) by genetic lipid A modifications: relative activation of TLR4 and TLR2 pathways in different mutants.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Omar; Pesce, Isabella; Giannelli, Carlo; Aprea, Susanna; Caboni, Mariaelena; Citiulo, Francesco; Valentini, Sara; Ferlenghi, Ilaria; MacLennan, Calman Alexander; D'Oro, Ugo; Saul, Allan; Gerke, Christiane

    2014-09-01

    Outer membrane particles from Gram-negative bacteria are attractive vaccine candidates as they present surface antigens in their natural context. We previously developed a high yield production process for genetically derived particles, called generalized modules for membrane antigens (GMMA), from Shigella. As GMMA are derived from the outer membrane, they contain immunostimulatory components, especially lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We examined ways of reducing their reactogenicity by modifying lipid A, the endotoxic part of LPS, through deletion of late acyltransferase genes, msbB or htrB, in GMMA-producing Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri strains. GMMA with resulting penta-acylated lipid A from the msbB mutants showed a 600-fold reduced ability, and GMMA from the S. sonnei ΔhtrB mutant showed a 60,000-fold reduced ability compared with GMMA with wild-type lipid A to stimulate human Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in a reporter cell line. In human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, GMMA with penta-acylated lipid A showed a marked reduction in induction of inflammatory cytokines (S. sonnei ΔhtrB, 800-fold; ΔmsbB mutants, 300-fold). We found that the residual activity of these GMMA is largely due to non-lipid A-related TLR2 activation. In contrast, in the S. flexneri ΔhtrB mutant, a compensatory lipid A palmitoleoylation resulted in GMMA with hexa-acylated lipid A with ∼10-fold higher activity to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells than GMMA with penta-acylated lipid A, mostly due to retained TLR4 activity. Thus, for use as vaccines, GMMA will likely require lipid A penta-acylation. The results identify the relative contributions of TLR4 and TLR2 activation by GMMA, which need to be taken into consideration for GMMA vaccine development.

  6. In vitro induction of non-responsiveness in cloned normal inducer T cells by antigen and purified Ia incorporated into planar membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Quill, H.; Fox, B.; Carlson, L.; Pardoll, D.; Schwartz, R.H.

    1986-03-05

    Incubation of cytochrome c-specific E/sub ..beta..//sup k/E/sub ..cap alpha..//sup k/-containing planar membranes and an antigenic peptide analogue of moth cytochrome c resulted in a specific increase in cell volume of 40-50% as measured by Coulter Counter analysis. No change in cell volume was seen in the absence of antigen, or when A/sub ..beta..//sup k/A/sub ..cap alpha..//sup k/-planar membranes were used. T cell proliferation was never detected at any time from one to eight days after incubation with E/sub ..beta..//sup k/E/sub ..cap alpha..//sup k/-membranes at a wide range of antigen concentrations. Furthermore, only trace amounts of IL-2 were detected and no increase in IL-2 receptor expression was seen. IL-3 production, however, could be detected. T cells pre-incubated for one day with E/sub ..beta..//sup k/E/sub ..cap alpha..//sup k/-membranes plus antigen became non-responsive to subsequent normal stimulation with antigen and APC. Incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine was reduced by more than 90% and the production of both IL-2 and IL-3 was inhibited. Non-responsiveness persisted for at least eight days after exposure to E/sub ..beta..///sup k/E/sub ..cap alpha..//sup k/-membranes plus antigen. In contrast, T cells pre-incubated under control conditions remained fully responsive. These results demonstrate the specific induction of non-responsiveness in inducer T cells by antigen and purified E/sub ..beta..//sup k/E/sub ..cap alpha..//sup k/ in planar membranes.

  7. Comparison of Intranasal Outer Membrane Vesicles with Cholera Toxin and Injected MF59C.1 as Adjuvants for Malaria Transmission Blocking Antigens AnAPN1 and Pfs48/45

    PubMed Central

    Pritsch, Michael; Ben-Khaled, Najib; Chaloupka, Michael; Kobold, Sebastian; Berens-Riha, Nicole; Peter, Annabell; Liegl, Gabriele; Schubert, Sören; Hoelscher, Michael; Löscher, Thomas; Wieser, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Purified protein vaccines often require adjuvants for efficient stimulation of immune responses. There is no licensed mucosal adjuvant on the market to adequately boost the immune response to purified antigens for intranasal applications in humans. Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are attractive candidates potentially combining antigenic and adjuvant properties in one substance. To more precisely characterize the potential of Escherichia coli OMV for intranasal vaccination with heterologous antigens, immune responses for AnAPN1 and Pfs48/45 as well as ovalbumin as a reference antigen were assessed in mice. The intranasal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT) and parenteral adjuvant MF59C.1 were used in comparison. Vaccinations were administered intranasally or subcutaneously. Antibodies (total IgG and IgM as well as subclasses IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3) were measured by ELISA. T cell responses (cytotoxic T cells, Th1, Th17, and regulatory T cells) were determined by flow cytometry. When OMV were used as adjuvant for intranasal immunization, antibody and cellular responses against all three antigens could be induced, comparable to cholera toxin and MF59C.1. Antigen-specific IgG titres above 1 : 105 could be detected in all groups. This study provides the rationale for further development of OMV as a vaccination strategy in malaria and other diseases. PMID:27239480

  8. Prostate-specific membrane antigen expression in tumor-associated vasculature of breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Wernicke, Alla Gabriella; Varma, Sonal; Greenwood, Eleni A; Christos, Paul J; Chao, K S Clifford; Liu, He; Bander, Neil H; Shin, Sandra J

    2014-06-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has been found to be expressed in the tumor-associated neovasculature of multiple solid tumor types including breast cancers. However, thus far, the number of cases studied from some tumor types has been limited. In this study, we set out to assess PSMA expression in the tumor-associated vasculature associated with invasive breast carcinomas in a sizable cohort of patients. One hundred and six patients with AJCC stage 0-IV breast cancer were identified. Ninety-two of these patients had primary breast cancer [invasive breast carcinoma with or without co-existing ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (74) or DCIS alone (18)]. In addition, 14 patients with breast cancer metastases to the brain were identified. Immunohistochemical staining for PSMA and CD31 was performed on parallel representative tumor sections in each case. Tumor-associated vascular endothelial cell PSMA immunoreactivity was semi-quantitatively assessed based on two parameters: overall percent of endothelial positivity and staining intensity. PSMA expression for tumor-associated vascular endothelial cells was scored 0 if there was no detectable PSMA expression, 1 if PSMA staining was detectable in 5-50%, and 2 if PSMA expression was positive in >50% of microvessels. CD 31 staining was concurrently reviewed to confirm the presence of vasculature in each case. Tumor-associated vasculature was PSMA-positive in 68/92 (74%) of primary breast cancers and in 14/14 (100%) of breast cancers metastatic to brain. PSMA was not detected in normal breast tissue or carcinoma cells. All but 2 cases (98%) showed absence of PSMA expression in normal breast tissue-associated vasculature. The 10-year overall survival was 88.7% (95% CI = 80.0%, 93.8%) in patients without brain metastases. When overall survival (OS) was stratified based on PSMA score group, patients with PSMA scores of 0, 1, and 2 had 10-year OS of 95.8%, 96.0%, and 79.7%, respectively (p = 0.12). When PSMA scores

  9. Contained indirect viable-cell membrane immunofluorescence microassay for surface antigen analysis of cells infected with hazardous viruses.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, M W; Bigner, D D

    1977-01-01

    A microtechnique for an indirect viable-cell membrane immunofluorescence titration assay was developed using Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV)-producing cells and monospecific rabbit antisera to F-MuLV structural antigens. The assay was sensitive and displayed little variation within or between assays. Since moderate-risk tumor viruses, such as recently discovered primate oncornaviruses or feline leukemia virus (FeLV), may be hazardous to laboratory personnel, the assay was adapted for containment of cells infected with such viruses. Cells producing gibbon ape lymphoma virus or FeLV were grown in class III containment cabinets and transferred in sealed flasks to a class II laminar-flow cabinet, where the assay was performed. This micromethod not only conserved reagents but also minimized the numbers of moderate-risk tumor virus-infected cells handled at one time. Centrifugation was contained using custom-made devices shown to form a gas-tight seal over microtiter plates. Interspecies reactivity of monospecific rabbit antisera against F-MuLV structural antigen gp71, but not against p12, was demonstrated for surface antigens on FeLV-producing cells.

  10. Measurement of antibodies to varicella-zoster virus using a virus-free fluorescent-antibody-to-membrane-antigen (FAMA) test.

    PubMed

    Park, Rackhyun; Hwang, Ji Young; Lee, Kang Il; Namkoong, Sim; Choi, Seuk-Keun; Park, Songyong; Park, Hosun; Park, Junsoo

    2015-02-01

    The fluorescent-antibody-to-membrane-antigen (FAMA) test is regarded as the "gold standard" to detect protective antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) because of its high sensitivity and specificity. Because the classic FAMA test uses an infectious virus for detection of antibodies to VZV, it is labor-intensive, and also requires special equipment for handling the virus. For this reason, we attempted to develop a simple and safe FAMA assay. Because VZV glycoprotein E (gE) is one of the major VZV glycoproteins, we used the gE protein for the FAMA test (gE FAMA). Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of gE in HEK293T cells can be used to measure antibodies in human serum, and that gE FAMA titers are closely correlated with gpEIA ELISA data. These results indicate that our gE FAMA test has the potential to measure antibodies to VZV.

  11. Ultraviolet-irradiated vaccinia virus recombinants, exposing HIV-envelope on their outer membrane, induce antibodies against this antigen in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Loewinger, M; Katz, E

    2002-01-01

    The construction and isolation of recombinants of vaccinia virus (IHD-J strain), bearing on their outer membrane a chimeric protein consisting of the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of vaccinia B5R protein and the external domain of HIV envelope, has been previously described by us. The present study aimed to investigate the potential use of such recombinants as a vaccine, following inactivation of their infectivity by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The minimal dose of UV irradiation, required for the complete inactivation of the infectivity of these recombinants, was determined. Injections of rabbits with the irradiated noninfectious recombinant viruses successfully induced specific antibodies against the HIV envelope antigen, in addition to those against the poxvirus. PMID:12479396

  12. Nano-clustering of ligands on surrogate antigen presenting cells modulates T cell membrane adhesion and organization.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Pierre; Pi, Fuwei; Lellouch, Annemarie C; Limozin, Laurent; Sengupta, Kheya

    2016-03-14

    We investigate the adhesion and molecular organization of the plasma membrane of T lymphocytes interacting with a surrogate antigen presenting cell comprising glass supported ordered arrays of antibody (α-CD3) nano-dots dispersed in a non-adhesive matrix of polyethylene glycol (PEG). The local membrane adhesion and topography, as well as the distribution of the T cell receptors (TCRs) and the kinase ZAP-70, are influenced by dot-geometry, whereas the cell spreading area is determined by the overall average density of the ligands rather than specific characteristics of the dots. TCR clusters are recruited preferentially to the nano-dots and the TCR cluster size distribution has a weak dot-size dependence. On the patterns, the clusters are larger, more numerous, and more enriched in TCRs, as compared to the homogeneously distributed ligands at comparable concentrations. These observations support the idea that non-ligated TCRs residing in the non-adhered parts of the proximal membrane are able to diffuse and enrich the existing clusters at the ligand dots. However, long distance transport is impaired and cluster centralization in the form of a central supramolecular cluster (cSMAC) is not observed. Time-lapse imaging of early cell-surface contacts indicates that the ZAP-70 microclusters are directly recruited to the site of the antibody dots and this process is concomitant with membrane adhesion. These results together point to a complex interplay of adhesion, molecular organization and activation in response to spatially modulated stimulation.

  13. Activation of the antigen presentation function of mononuclear phagocyte populations associated with the basilar membrane of the cochlea after acoustic overstimulation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weiping; Vethanayagam, R. Robert; Dong, Youyi; Cai, Qunfeng; Hu, Bo Hua

    2015-01-01

    The immune response is an important component of the cochlear response to stress. As an important player in the cochlear immune system, the basilar membrane immune cells reside on the surface of the scala tympani side of the basilar membrane. At present, the immune cell properties in this region and their responses to stress are not well understood. Here, we investigated the functional role of these immune cells in the immune response to acoustic overstimulation. This study reveals that tissue macrophages are present in the entire length of the basilar membrane under steady-state conditions. Notably, these cells in the apical and the basal sections of the basilar membrane display distinct morphologies and immune protein expression patterns. Following acoustic trauma, monocytes infiltrate into the region of the basilar membrane, and the infiltrated cells transform into macrophages. While monocyte infiltration and transformation occur in both the apical and the basal sections of the basilar membrane, only the basal monocytes and macrophages display a marked increase in the expression of MHC II and CIITA, a MHC II production cofactor, suggesting the site-dependent activation of antigen-presenting function. Consistent with the increased expression of the antigen-presenting proteins, CD4+ T cells, the antigen-presenting partner, infiltrate into the region of the basilar membrane where antigen-presenting proteins are upregulated. Further pathological analyses revealed that the basal section of the cochlea displays a greater level of sensory cell damage, which is spatially correlated with the region of antigen-presenting activity. Together, these results suggest that the antigen-presenting function of the mononuclear phagocyte population is activated in response to acoustic trauma, which could bridge the innate immune response to adaptive immunity. PMID:26102003

  14. Genetic Locus Required for Antigenic Maturation of Rhizobium etli CE3 Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Duelli, Dominik M.; Tobin, Andrea; Box, Jodie M.; Kolli, V. S. Kumar; Carlson, Russell W.; Noel, K. Dale

    2001-01-01

    Rhizobium etli modifies lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure in response to environmental signals, such as low pH and anthocyanins. These LPS modifications result in the loss of reactivity with certain monoclonal antibodies. The same antibodies fail to recognize previously isolated R. etli mutant strain CE367, even in the absence of such environmental cues. Chemical analysis of the LPS in strain CE367 demonstrated that it lacked the terminal sugar of the wild-type O antigen, 2,3,4-tri-O-methylfucose. A 3-kb stretch of DNA, designated as lpe3, restored wild-type antigenicity when transferred into CE367. From the sequence of this DNA, five open reading frames were postulated. Site-directed mutagenesis and complementation analysis suggested that the genes were organized in at least two transcriptional units, both of which were required for the production of LPS reactive with the diagnostic antibodies. Growth in anthocyanins or at low pH did not alter the specific expression of gusA from the transposon insertion of mutant CE367, nor did the presence of multiple copies of lpe3 situated behind a strong, constitutive promoter prevent epitope changes induced by these environmental cues. Mutations of the lpe genes did not prevent normal nodule development on Phaseolus vulgaris and had very little effect on the occupation of nodules in competition with the wild-type strain. PMID:11567006

  15. Purification, pore-forming ability, and antigenic relatedness of the major outer membrane protein of Shigella dysenteriae type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Roy, S; Das, A B; Ghosh, A N; Biswas, T

    1994-01-01

    The major outer membrane protein (MOMP), the most abundant outer membrane protein, was purified to homogeneity from Shigella dysenteriae type 1. The purification method involved selective extraction of MOMP with sodium dodecyl sulfate in the presence of 0.4 M sodium chloride followed by size exclusion chromatography with Sephacryl S-200 HR. MOMP was found to form hydrophilic diffusion pores by incorporation into artificial liposome vesicles composed of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine and dicetylphosphate, indicating that MOMP of S. dysenteriae type 1 exhibited significant porin activity. However, the liposomes containing heat-denatured MOMP were barely active. The molecular weight of MOMP found by size exclusion chromatography was 130,000, and in sodium dodecyl sulfate-10% polyacrylamide gel it moved as an oligomer of 78,000 molecular weight. Upon boiling, fully dissociated monomers of 38,000 molecular weight were seen for S. dysenteriae type 1. However, among the four Shigella spp., the monomeric MOMP generated upon boiling ranged from 38,000 to 35,000 in molecular weight. Antibody raised in BALB/c mice immunized with MOMP of S. dysenteriae type 1 reacted strongly with purified MOMP of S. dysenteriae type 1 in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The antibody reacted with whole-cell preparations of S. dysenteriae type 1 in an ELISA, suggesting that MOMP possessed surface components. Moreover, MOMP could be visualized on the bacterial surface by immunoelectron microscopy with anti-MOMP antibody. S. dysenteriae type 1 MOMP-specific immunoglobulin eluted from MOMP bound to a nitrocellulose membrane was found to cross-react with MOMP preparations of S. flexneri, S. boydii, and S. sonnei, indicating that MOMPs were antigenically related among Shigella species. The strong immunogenicity, surface exposure, and antigenic relatedness make MOMP of Shigella species an immunologically significant macromolecule for study. Images PMID:7927692

  16. Quantitative proteomic analysis of Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) reveals highly pure preparations

    PubMed Central

    Maggiore, Luana; Yu, Lu; Omasits, Ulrich; Rossi, Omar; Dougan, Gordon; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Saul, Allan; Choudhary, Jyoti S.; Gerke, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Outer membrane blebs are naturally shed by Gram-negative bacteria and are candidates of interest for vaccines development. Genetic modification of bacteria to induce hyperblebbing greatly increases the yield of blebs, called Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA). The composition of the GMMA from hyperblebbing mutants of Shigella flexneri 2a and Shigella sonnei were quantitatively analyzed using high-sensitivity mass spectrometry with the label-free iBAQ procedure and compared to the composition of the solubilized cells of the GMMA-producing strains. There were 2306 proteins identified, 659 in GMMA and 2239 in bacteria, of which 290 (GMMA) and 1696 (bacteria) were common to both S. flexneri 2a and S. sonnei. Predicted outer membrane and periplasmic proteins constituted 95.7% and 98.7% of the protein mass of S. flexneri 2a and S. sonnei GMMA, respectively. Among the remaining proteins, small quantities of ribosomal proteins collectively accounted for more than half of the predicted cytoplasmic protein impurities in the GMMA. In GMMA, the outer membrane and periplasmic proteins were enriched 13.3-fold (S. flexneri 2a) and 8.3-fold (S. sonnei) compared to their abundance in the parent bacteria. Both periplasmic and outer membrane proteins were enriched similarly, suggesting that GMMA have a similar surface to volume ratio as the surface to periplasmic volume ratio in these mutant bacteria. Results in S. flexneri 2a and S. sonnei showed high reproducibility indicating a robust GMMA-producing process and the low contamination by cytoplasmic proteins support the use of GMMA for vaccines. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002517. PMID:26746581

  17. Activation requirements of circulating antigen-specific human CD8(+) memory T cells probed with insect cell-based artificial antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Guelly, Christian; Küpcü, Zaruhi; Zalusky, Doris; Karner, Margarete; Zehetner, Margit; Schweighoffer, Tamás

    2002-01-01

    We sought to define the molecular setup of an antigen-presenting cell that elicits antigen-specific T cell responses in vitro using insect cells that were infected with recombinant baculoviruses. Expression of single-chain HLA was complemented step-by-step with costimulatory molecules, including CD54 and CD80, by co-infection with the relevant viruses. Role of CD8 was assessed by introducing hybrid class I molecules where the alpha-3 domain of the HLA heavy chain molecule was replaced by its murine K(b) counterpart. Circulating T cells that respond to the EBV-derived HLA-A2-restricted peptide GLGCTLVAML were previously shown to bear hallmarks of memory cells. We found that the HLA+peptide complex alone displayed on the surface of insect cells was sufficient to elicit IFN-gamma secretion from these freshly isolated CD8(+) T cells in ELISpot assays. Binding of CD8 was absolutely required, but coexpression of costimulatory molecules resulted only in minimal increase in the number of spots. Tumor antigen-specific CTL clones also reacted in a strictly antigen-specific manner, but required CD54 for quantitative responses. The amount of IFN-gamma produced by the individual reactive T cells was evaluated as spot size, and was also influenced by the costimulatory molecules: CD54 increased also the response magnitude of cultured CTL lines, while CD80 enhanced cytokine release from freshly isolated CD8(+) T cells. Understanding the stimulatory requirements of functionally competent effector/memory T cells and their exact enumeration will be helpful for increasing the efficacy of vaccines.

  18. Activation requirements of circulating antigen-specific human CD8(+) memory T cells probed with insect cell-based artificial antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Guelly, Christian; Küpcü, Zaruhi; Zalusky, Doris; Karner, Margarete; Zehetner, Margit; Schweighoffer, Tamás

    2002-01-01

    We sought to define the molecular setup of an antigen-presenting cell that elicits antigen-specific T cell responses in vitro using insect cells that were infected with recombinant baculoviruses. Expression of single-chain HLA was complemented step-by-step with costimulatory molecules, including CD54 and CD80, by co-infection with the relevant viruses. Role of CD8 was assessed by introducing hybrid class I molecules where the alpha-3 domain of the HLA heavy chain molecule was replaced by its murine K(b) counterpart. Circulating T cells that respond to the EBV-derived HLA-A2-restricted peptide GLGCTLVAML were previously shown to bear hallmarks of memory cells. We found that the HLA+peptide complex alone displayed on the surface of insect cells was sufficient to elicit IFN-gamma secretion from these freshly isolated CD8(+) T cells in ELISpot assays. Binding of CD8 was absolutely required, but coexpression of costimulatory molecules resulted only in minimal increase in the number of spots. Tumor antigen-specific CTL clones also reacted in a strictly antigen-specific manner, but required CD54 for quantitative responses. The amount of IFN-gamma produced by the individual reactive T cells was evaluated as spot size, and was also influenced by the costimulatory molecules: CD54 increased also the response magnitude of cultured CTL lines, while CD80 enhanced cytokine release from freshly isolated CD8(+) T cells. Understanding the stimulatory requirements of functionally competent effector/memory T cells and their exact enumeration will be helpful for increasing the efficacy of vaccines. PMID:11754359

  19. Mycoplasma synoviae has two distinct phase-variable major membrane antigens, one of which is a putative hemagglutinin.

    PubMed Central

    Noormohammadi, A H; Markham, P F; Whithear, K G; Walker, I D; Gurevich, V A; Ley, D H; Browning, G F

    1997-01-01

    Mycoplasma synoviae is a major pathogen of poultry, causing synovitis and respiratory infection. A cluster of 45- to 50-kDa membrane proteins is immunodominant in strain WVU-1853. Four distinct proteins were identified in this cluster by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Monoclonal antibodies and monospecific antisera against each established that they fell into two groups, MSPA and MSPB, each containing two members distinguishable by a difference in hydrophobicity. A 25- to 30-kDa membrane protein (MSPC) was shown to be antigenically related to the MSPB proteins. Considerable variation in the size and expression of MSPA and MSPB was observed among different strains of M. synoviae. Examination of expression in colonies of strain WVU-1853 established that both MSPA and MSPB (and MSPC) were phase variable. Immunostaining of MSPB (and MSPC) with monoclonal antibodies exhibited quantal variation, with three distinct levels observed between and within colonies. Hemadsorption by M. synoviae colonies was also found to be phase variable, with some colonies exhibiting sectorial expression of hemadsorption. Monospecific antisera against MSPA inhibited hemagglutination, but neither monoclonal antibodies nor monospecific antisera against MSPB could inhibit hemagglutination. However, loss of the capacity to hemadsorb by individual clones was associated with loss of expression of both MSPA and MSPB. These findings have elucidated the complexity of structure, function, and expression of the 45- to 50-kDa membrane protein cluster of M. synoviae, and they suggest that all members of the cluster may be involved in adhesion. PMID:9199417

  20. Evaluation of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) membrane test assays for the forensic identification of seminal fluid.

    PubMed

    Hochmeister, M N; Budowle, B; Rudin, O; Gehrig, C; Borer, U; Thali, M; Dirnhofer, R

    1999-09-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA, also known as p30), a glycoprotein produced by the prostatic gland and secreted into seminal plasma, is a marker used for demonstrating the presence of seminal fluid. Methods for the detection of PSA include Ouchterlony double diffusion, crossover electrophoresis, rocket immuno-electrophoresis, radial immunodiffusion, and ELISA. The extremely sensitive ELISA technique can detect PSA in concentrations as low as approximately 4 ng/mL. However, all these techniques are cumbersome and time consuming to perform in forensic laboratories, especially when only a few samples per week are processed. Various membrane tests are currently used in clinical settings to screen a patient's serum for the presence of PSA at levels greater than 4 ng/mL. In this study we evaluated three immunochromatographic PSA membrane tests by analyzing semen stains stored at room temperature for up to 30 years, post-coital vaginal swabs taken at different time after intercourse, semen-free vaginal swabs, and various female and male body fluids, including urine. The data demonstrate that PSA membrane test assays offer the same sensitivity as ELISA-based tests and provide a rapid approach for the forensic identification of seminal fluid. Furthermore, when the supernatant from a DNA extraction is used for the assay, there is essentially no DNA consumption for determining the presence of PSA in a forensic sample.

  1. Ultrastructural demonstration of spirochetal antigens in synovial fluid and synovial membrane in chronic Lyme disease: possible factors contributing to persistence of organisms.

    PubMed

    Nanagara, R; Duray, P H; Schumacher, H R

    1996-10-01

    To perform the first systematic electronmicroscopic (EM) and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) study of the pathological changes and the evidence of spirochete presence in synovial membranes and synovial fluid (SF) cells of patients with chronic Lyme arthritis. EM examination was performed on four synovial membrane and eight SF cell samples from eight patients with chronic Lyme disease. Spirochetal antigens in the samples were sought by IEM using monoclonal antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein A (OspA) as the immunoprobe. Prominent ultrastructural findings were surface fibrin-like material, thickened synovial lining cell layer and signs of vascular injury. Borrelia-like structures were identified in all four synovial membranes and in two of eight SF cell samples. The presence of spirochetal antigens was confirmed by IEM in all four samples studied (one synovial membrane and three SF cell samples). OspA labelling was in perivascular areas, deep synovial stroma among collagen bundles, and in vacuoles of fibroblasts in synovial membranes; and in cytophagosomes of mononuclear cells in SF cell samples. Electron microscopy adds further evidence for persistence of spirochetal antigens in the joint in chronic Lyme disease. Locations of spirochetes or spirochetal antigens both intracellulary and extracellulary in deep synovial connective tissue as reported here suggest sites at which spirochaetes may elude host immune response and antibiotic treatment.

  2. A Single Talent Immunogenic Membrane Antigen and Novel Prognostic Predictor: voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weibin; Zhang, Taiping; Zhao, Wenjing; Xu, Lai; Yang, Yu; Liao, Quan; Zhao, Yupei

    2016-01-01

    Immunogenic membrane antigens associated with multiple biological functions of human cancer cells, have significant value in molecule diagnosis and targeted therapy. Here we screened immunogenic membrane antigens in pancreatic cancer by immunobloting IgG purified from sera of 66 pancreatic cancer patients with membrane proteins separated from two-dimensional PAGE of human pancreatic cancer cell line SWl990, and identified voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) as one of the potential immunogenic membrane antigens. Further studies focusing on VDAC1 demonstrated that VDAC1 mRNA and protein were significantly expressed in the tested pancreatic cancer cell lines. VDAC1 silencing with RNAi significantly decreased cell growth, invasion and migration in the pancreatic cancer cell line Capan-1. Additionally, VDAC1 expression was upregulated in pancreatic cancer tissue compared with normal pancreas samples and patients with low VDAC1 expression had a significantly greater median survival compared to those with high expression (27.0 months vs. 17.8 months, P = 0.039). In multivariable analysis, VDAC1 staining was an independent prognostic factor for survival [(Hazard-Ratio) HR = 1.544, 95% CI = 0.794–3.0, P = 0.021]. These results demonstrated that VDAC1 may be a candidate immunogenic membrane antigen for pancreatic cancer, a potential independent prognostic marker, and an ideal drug target. PMID:27659305

  3. Localization of blood-group A and I antigenic sites on inside-out and rightside-out human erythrocyte membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Schenkel-Brunner, H; Cartron, J P; Doinel, C

    1979-01-01

    Investigations of the fixation of 125I-labelled anti-A and anti-I antibodies onto rightside-out and inside-out membrane vesicles prepared from human A1 and OI erythrocytes, respectively, showed that both antibodies were bound to the rightside-out vesicles, giving clear evidence that blood group A and I antigenic sites are exclusively localized on the external surface of the membrane. PMID:84784

  4. Invasion-inhibitory antibodies elicited by immunization with Plasmodium vivax apical membrane antigen-1 expressed in Pichia pastoris yeast.

    PubMed

    Vicentin, Elaine C; Françoso, Kátia S; Rocha, Mariana V; Iourtov, Dmitri; Dos Santos, Fernanda L; Kubrusly, Flávia S; Sakauchi, Maria A; Raw, Isaias; Nosten, Francois; Rénia, Laurent; Rodrigues, Mauricio M; Russell, Bruce; Soares, Irene S

    2014-03-01

    In a recent vaccine trial performed with African children, immunization with a recombinant protein based on Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) conferred a significant degree of strain-specific resistance against malaria. To contribute to the efforts of generating a vaccine against Plasmodium vivax malaria, we expressed the ectodomain of P. vivax AMA-1 (PvAMA-1) as a secreted soluble protein in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Recognized by a high percentage of sera from individuals infected by P. vivax, this recombinant protein was found to have maintained its antigenicity. The immunogenicity of this protein was evaluated in mice using immunization protocols that included homologous and heterologous prime-boost strategies with plasmid DNA and recombinant protein. We used the following formulations containing different adjuvants: aluminum salts (Alum), Bordetella pertussis monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), flagellin FliC from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, saponin Quil A, or incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). The formulations containing the adjuvants Quil A or IFA elicited the highest IgG antibody titers. Significant antibody titers were also obtained using a formulation developed for human use containing MPLA or Alum plus MPLA. Recombinant PvAMA-1 produced under "conditions of good laboratory practice" provided a good yield, high purity, low endotoxin levels, and no microbial contaminants and reproduced the experimental immunizations. Most relevant for vaccine development was the fact that immunization with PvAMA-1 elicited invasion-inhibitory antibodies against different Asian isolates of P. vivax. Our results show that AMA-1 expressed in P. pastoris is a promising antigen for use in future preclinical and clinical studies.

  5. A promising new ELISA diagnostic test for cattle babesiosis based on Babesia bigemina Apical Membrane Antigen-1.

    PubMed

    Torina, Alessandra; Cordaro, Antonio; Blanda, Valeria; D'Agostino, Rosalia; Scimeca, Salvatore; Scariano, Maria E; Sireci, Guido; Lelli, Rossella

    2016-01-01

    Babesiosis due to Babesia bigemina is a relevant tick-borne disease, affecting cattle worldwide. Many surface proteins of the pathogen including the Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA-1) - have been analysed for vaccine and diagnostic purposes. This study focused on B. bigemina AMA-1 and on its use for the assessment of diagnostic tests. After bioinformatic analyses, AMA-1 codifying region was amplified and cloned into an expression vector used to induce protein synthesis in Escherichia coli cells. AMA-1 was purified by affinity chromatography and used to set up the best condition for an ELISA protocol. Bovine field sera positive to B. bigemina were used to evaluate the presence of anti-AMA-1 antibodies. In order to verify the assay specificity, sera positive to Babesia bovis or to the piroplasm Theileria annulata were also included. Significant differences were obtained between sera negative to both B. bigemina and B. bovis and samples positive to B. bigemina, to B. bovis or to both pathogens. No significant reaction was observed with T. annulata positive sera. The results showed that AMA-1 protein is suitable to be used as antigen in diagnostic assays for babesiosis diagnosis in cattle, as it does not show any cross reaction with anti-T. annulata antibodies. PMID:27033532

  6. Limiting the Amount and Duration of Antigen Exposure During Priming Increases Memory T Cell Requirement for Costimulation During Recall

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Tamara L.; Koehn, Brent H.; Kitchens, William H.; Robertson, Jennifer M.; Cheeseman, Jennifer A.; Stempora, Linda; Larsen, Christian P.; Ford, Mandy L.

    2011-01-01

    Donor-reactive memory T cells can play an important role in mediating graft rejection following transplantation. Transplant recipients acquire donor-reactive memory T cells not only through prior sensitization with alloantigens, but also through previous exposure to environmental pathogens that are cross-reactive with allogeneic peptide:MHC complexes. Current dogma suggests that most, if not all, memory T cell responses are independent of the requirement for CD28 and/ or CD154/CD40-mediated costimulation in order to mount a recall response. However, heterogeneity among memory T cells is increasingly being appreciated, and one important factor known to impact the function and phenotype of antigen-specific T cell responses is the amount/duration of antigen exposure. Importantly, the impact of antigen exposure on development of costimulation independence is currently unknown. Here, we interrogated the effect of decreased antigen amount/duration during priming on the ability of donor-reactive memory T cells to mediate costimulation blockade-resistant rejection during a recall response following transplantation in a murine model. Recipients possessing donor-reactive memory T cell responses that were generated under conditions of reduced antigen exposure exhibited similar frequencies of antigen-specific T cells at day 30 post infection, but, strikingly, failed to mediate costimulation blockade-resistant rejection following challenge with an OVA-expressing skin graft. Thus, these data demonstrate the amount/ duration of antigen exposure is a critical factor in determining memory T cells' relative requirement for costimulation during the recall response following transplantation. PMID:21257960

  7. Brucella outer membrane lipoprotein shares antigenic determinants with Escherichia coli Braun lipoprotein and is exposed on the cell surface.

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Miguel, M J; Moriyón, I; López, J

    1987-01-01

    In an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), purified Brucella abortus and Escherichia coli peptidoglycan-linked lipoproteins gave a strong cross-reaction with sera from rabbits hyperimmunized with the heterologous lipoprotein. When smooth E. coli cells were used as ELISA antigens, the immunological cross-reaction was not observed unless the cells were treated to remove lipopolysaccharide and other outer membrane components. In contrast, intact cells from smooth strains of B. abortus and Brucella melitensis bound anti-lipoprotein immunoglobulin G, and the controls performed by ELISA showed that this reaction was not due to antibodies to the lipopolysaccharide, group 3 outer membrane proteins, or porins. Electron microscopy of cells labeled with antilipoprotein serum and protein A-colloidal gold showed specific labeling of smooth cells from both B. abortus and B. melitensis, even though unspecific labeling by nonimmune serum was observed with rough B. abortus. These results confirm the close similarity between E. coli and Brucella peptidoglycan-linked lipoproteins and show that, in contrast to E. coli, the lipoprotein of B. abortus and B. melitensis is partially exposed on the surface of smooth cells. Images PMID:2432014

  8. A Remote Arene-Binding Site on Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen Revealed by Antibody-Recruiting Small Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Andrew X.; Murelli, Ryan P.; Barinka, Cyril; Michel, Julien; Cocleaza, Alexandra; Jorgensen, William L.; Lubkowski, Jacek; Spiegel, David A.

    2010-09-27

    Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a membrane-bound glutamate carboxypeptidase overexpressed in many forms of prostate cancer. Our laboratory has recently disclosed a class of small molecules, called ARM-Ps (antibody-recruiting molecule targeting prostate cancer) that are capable of enhancing antibody-mediated immune recognition of prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, during the course of these studies, we found ARM-Ps to exhibit extraordinarily high potencies toward PSMA, compared to previously reported inhibitors. Here, we report in-depth biochemical, crystallographic, and computational investigations which elucidate the origin of the observed affinity enhancement. These studies reveal a previously unreported arene-binding site on PSMA, which we believe participates in an aromatic stacking interaction with ARMs. Although this site is composed of only a few amino acid residues, it drastically enhances small molecule binding affinity. These results provide critical insights into the design of PSMA-targeted small molecules for prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment; more broadly, the presence of similar arene-binding sites throughout the proteome could prove widely enabling in the optimization of small molecule-protein interactions.

  9. Protective effect of intranasal immunization with Neospora caninum membrane antigens against murine neosporosis established through the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Ferreirinha, Pedro; Dias, Joana; Correia, Alexandra; Pérez-Cabezas, Begoña; Santos, Carlos; Teixeira, Luzia; Ribeiro, Adília; Rocha, António; Vilanova, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Neospora caninum is an Apicomplexa parasite that in the last two decades was acknowledged as the main pathogenic agent responsible for economic losses in the cattle industry. In the present study, the effectiveness of intranasal immunization with N. caninum membrane antigens plus CpG adjuvant was assessed in a murine model of intragastrically established neosporosis. Immunized mice presented a lower parasitic burden in the brain on infection with 5 × 107 tachyzoites, showing that significant protection was achieved by this immunization strategy. Intestinal IgA antibodies raised by immunization markedly agglutinated live N. caninum tachyzoites whereas previous opsonization with IgG antibodies purified from immunized mice sera reduced parasite survival within macrophage cells. Although an IgG1 : IgG2a ratio < 1 was detected in the immunized mice before and after infection, indicative of a predominant T helper type 1 immune response, no increased production of interferon-γ was detected in the spleen or mesenteric lymph nodes of the immunized mice. Altogether, these results show that mucosal immunization with N. caninum membrane proteins plus CpG adjuvant protect against intragastrically established neosporosis and indicate that parasite-specific mucosal and circulating antibodies have a protective role against this parasitic infection. PMID:24128071

  10. Identification of immunoreactive antigens in membrane proteins enriched fraction from Francisella tularensis LVS.

    PubMed

    Janovská, Sylva; Pávková, Ivona; Hubálek, Martin; Lenco, Juraj; Macela, Ales; Stulík, Jirí

    2007-02-15

    Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacterium causing disease in many mammalian species. The low infectious dose of F. tularensis and the ease of air-borne transmission are the main features responsible for the classification of this bacterium as a potential biological weapon. The live attenuated strain of F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) is currently only effective vaccine against tularemia, however, this type of vaccine has not been approved for human use. In the presented study, sub-immunoproteome analysis was performed to search for new immunogenic proteins of Francisella tularensis LVS grown under different conditions. By this approach 35 immunoreactive antigens were identified, 19 of them showed to be novel immunogens. In conclusion, sub-immunoproteome analysis resulted in successful identification of novel immunoreactive proteins. PMID:17241671

  11. Classical dendritic cells are required for dietary antigen-mediated peripheral regulatory T cell and tolerance induction

    PubMed Central

    Esterházy, Daria; Loschko, Jakob; London, Mariya; Jove, Veronica; Oliveira, Thiago Y.; Mucida, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Oral tolerance prevents pathological inflammatory responses towards innocuous foreign antigens via peripheral regulatory T cells (pTreg cells). However, whether a particular subset of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is required during dietary antigen exposure to instruct naïve CD4+ T cells to differentiate into pTreg cells has not been defined. Using myeloid lineage-specific APC depletion in mice, we found that monocyte-derived APCs are dispensable, while classical dendritic cells (cDCs) are critical for pTreg cell induction and oral tolerance. CD11b− cDCs from the gut-draining lymph nodes efficiently induced pTreg cells, and conversely, loss of IRF8-dependent CD11b− cDCs impaired their polarization, although oral tolerance remained intact. These data reveal the hierarchy of cDC subsets in pTreg cell induction and their redundancy during oral tolerance development. PMID:27019226

  12. Targeting LSCs through membrane antigens selectively or preferentially expressed on these cells.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Elvira; Castelli, Germana; Testa, Ugo

    2015-12-01

    Studies of xenotransplantation of bone marrow and blood cells of AML patients have supported the existence of rare leukemic stem cells, able to initiate and maintain the leukemic process and bearing the typical leukemic abnormalities. LSCs possess self-renewal capacity and are responsible for the growth of the more differentiated leukemic progeny in the bone marrow and in the blood. These cells are more resistant than bulk leukemic cells to anti-leukemic drugs, thus survive to treatment and are, at a large extent, responsible for leukemia relapse. During the last two decades, considerable progresses have been made in the understanding of the peculiar cellular and molecular properties of LSCs. In this context, particularly relevant was the discovery of several membrane markers, selectively or preferentially expressed on LSCs. These membrane markers offer now unique opportunities to identify LSCs and to distinguish them from normal HSCs, to monitor the response of the various anti-leukemic treatments at the level of the LSC compartment, to identify relevant therapeutic targets. Concerning this last point, the most promising therapeutic targets are CD33 and CD123.

  13. Vaccinia virus virion membrane biogenesis protein A11 associates with viral membranes in a manner that requires the expression of another membrane biogenesis protein, A6.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiang; Meng, Xiangzhi; Yan, Bo; Rose, Lloyd; Deng, Junpeng; Xiang, Yan

    2012-10-01

    A group of vaccinia virus (VACV) proteins, including A11, L2, and A6, are required for biogenesis of the primary envelope of VACV, specifically, for the acquisition of viral membrane precursors. However, the interconnection among these proteins is unknown and, with the exception of L2, the connection of these proteins with membranes is also unknown. In this study, prompted by the findings that A6 coprecipitated A11 and that the cellular distribution of A11 was dramatically altered by repression of A6 expression, we studied the localization of A11 in cells by using immunofluorescence and cell fractionation analysis. A11 was found to associate with membranes and colocalize with virion membrane proteins in viral replication factories during normal VACV replication. A11 partitioned almost equally between the detergent and aqueous phases upon Triton X-114 phase separation, demonstrating an intrinsic affinity with lipids. However, in the absence of infection or VACV late protein synthesis, A11 did not associate with cellular membranes. Furthermore, when A6 expression was repressed, A11 did not colocalize with any viral membrane proteins or associate with membranes. In contrast, when virion envelope formation was blocked at a later step by repression of A14 expression or by rifampin treatment, A11 colocalized with virion membrane proteins in the factories. Altogether, our data showed that A11 associates with viral membranes during VACV replication, and this association requires A6 expression. This study provides a physical connection between A11 and viral membranes and suggests that A6 regulates A11 membrane association.

  14. SLP-65: A New Signaling Component in B Lymphocytes which Requires Expression of the Antigen Receptor for Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Wienands, Jürgen; Schweikert, Jutta; Wollscheid, Bernd; Jumaa, Hassan; Nielsen, Peter J.; Reth, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The B cell antigen receptor (BCR) consists of the membrane-bound immunoglobulin (Ig) molecule as antigen-binding subunit and the Ig-α/Ig-β heterodimer as signaling subunit. BCR signal transduction involves activation of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and phosphorylation of several proteins, only some of which have been identified. The phosphorylation of these proteins can be induced by exposure of B cells either to antigen or to the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor pervanadate/H2O2. One of the earliest substrates in B cells is a 65-kD protein, which we identify here as a B cell adaptor protein. This protein, named SLP-65, is part of a signaling complex involving Grb-2 and Vav and shows homology to SLP-76, a signaling element of the T cell receptor. In pervanadate/H2O2-stimulated cells, SLP-65 becomes phosphorylated only upon expression of the BCR. These data suggest that SLP-65 is part of a BCR transducer complex. PMID:9705962

  15. [Virion precipitation reaction based on determination of reverse transcriptase activity: Method of study of membrane antigens of oncornaviruses].

    PubMed

    Zakharova, L G; Al'tshtein, A D

    1978-01-01

    A method for the study of the envelope antigens of oncornaviruses of C, B, and D types by the virion precipitation test (VPT) based on the measurement of the amount of precipitated virus by its reverse transcriptase activity is described. The method is immunologically specific for titration of antibody to the envelope antigens of oncornaviruses. By means of the VPT it is possible to identify oncornaviruses, to study antigenic relationships between them and to detect some or other antigens in virion coat.

  16. Expression of nestin, mesothelin and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) in developing and adult human meninges and meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Petricevic, Josko; Forempoher, Gea; Ostojic, Ljerka; Mardesic-Brakus, Snjezana; Andjelinovic, Simun; Vukojevic, Katarina; Saraga-Babic, Mirna

    2011-11-01

    The spatial and temporal pattern of appearance of nestin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and mesothelin proteins was immunohistochemically determined in the cells of normal developing and adult human meninges and meningiomas. Human meninges developed as two mesenchymal condensations in the head region. The simple squamous epithelium on the surface of leptomeninges developed during mesenchymal to epithelial transformation. Nestin appeared for the first time in week 7, EMA in week 8, while mesothelin appeared in week 22 of development. In the late fetal period and after birth, nestin expression decreased, whereas expression of EMA and mesothelin increased. EMA appeared in all surface epithelial cells and nodules, while mesothelin was found only in some of them. In adult meninges, all three proteins were predominantly localized in the surface epithelium and meningeal nodules. In meningothelial meningiomas (WHO grade I), EMA was detected in all tumor cells except in the endothelial cells, mesothelin characterized nests of tumor cells, while nestin was found predominantly in the walls of blood vessels. The distribution pattern of those proteins in normal meningeal and tumor cells indicates that nestin might characterize immature cells, while EMA and mesothelin appeared in maturing epithelial cells. Neoplastic transformation of these specific cell lineages contributes to the cell population in meningiomas.

  17. Integrin-associated protein: a 50-kD plasma membrane antigen physically and functionally associated with integrins

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Phagocytosis by monocytes or neutrophils can be enhanced by interaction with several proteins or synthetic peptides containing the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence. Recently we showed that an mAb, B6H12, specifically inhibited this enhancement of neutrophil phagocytosis by inhibiting Arg-Gly-Asp binding to the leukocyte response integrin (Gresham, H. D., J. L. Goodwin, P. M. Allen, D. C. Anderson, and E. J. Brown. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 108:1935-1943). Now, we have purified the antigen recognized by B6H12 to homogeneity. Surprisingly, it is a 50-kD molecule that is expressed on the plasma membranes of all hematopoietic cells, including erythrocytes, which express no known integrins. On platelets and placenta, but not on erythrocytes, this protein is associated with an integrin that can be recognized by an anti-beta 3 antibody. In addition, both the anti-beta 3 and several mAbs recognizing the 50-kD protein inhibit Arg-Gly-Asp stimulation of phagocytosis. These data demonstrate an association between integrins and the 50-kD protein on several cell types. For this reason, we call it Integrin-associated Protein (IAP). We hypothesize that IAP may play a role in signal transduction for enhanced phagocytosis by Arg-Gly-Asp ligands. PMID:2277087

  18. ⁶⁴Cu-labeled inhibitors of prostate-specific membrane antigen for PET imaging of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sangeeta Ray; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Foss, Catherine A; Nimmagadda, Sridhar; Ferdani, Riccardo; Anderson, Carolyn J; Mease, Ronnie C; Pomper, Martin G

    2014-03-27

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a well-recognized target for identification and therapy of a variety of cancers. Here we report five (64)Cu-labeled inhibitors of PSMA, [(64)Cu]3-7, which are based on the lysine-glutamate urea scaffold and utilize a variety of macrocyclic chelators, namely NOTA(3), PCTA(4), Oxo-DO3A(5), CB-TE2A(6), and DOTA(7), in an effort to determine which provides the most suitable pharmacokinetics for in vivo PET imaging. [(64)Cu]3-7 were prepared in high radiochemical yield (60-90%) and purity (>95%). Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies of [(64)Cu]3-7 revealed specific accumulation in PSMA-expressing xenografts (PSMA+ PC3 PIP) relative to isogenic control tumor (PSMA- PC3 flu) and background tissue. The favorable kinetics and high image contrast provided by CB-TE2A chelated [(64)Cu]6 suggest it as the most promising among the candidates tested. That could be due to the higher stability of [(64)Cu]CB-TE2A as compared with [(64)Cu]NOTA, [(64)Cu]PCTA, [(64)Cu]Oxo-DO3A, and [(64)Cu]DOTA chelates in vivo.

  19. Genetic polymorphism in domain I of the apical membrane antigen-1 among Plasmodium knowlesi clinical isolates from Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Fong, Mun Yik; Wong, Shen Siang; Silva, Jeremy Ryan De; Lau, Yee Ling

    2015-12-01

    The simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is now recognized as a species that can cause human malaria. The first report of large scale human knowlesi malaria was in 2004 in Malaysia Borneo. Since then, hundreds of human knowlesi malaria cases have been reported in Southeast Asia. The present study investigates the genetic polymorphism of P. knowlesi DI domain of the apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1), a protein considered as a promising vaccine candidate for malaria. The DI domain of AMA-1 gene of P. knowlesi clinical isolates from Peninsular Malaysia was amplified by PCR, cloned into Escherichia coli, then sequenced and analysed. Ninety-seven DI domain sequences were obtained. Comparison at the nucleotide level against P. knowlesi strain H as reference sequence showed 21 synonymous and 25 nonsynonymous mutations. Nonetheless, nucleotide sequence analysis revealed low genetic diversity of the DI domain, and it was under purifying (negative) selection. At the amino acid level, 26 different haplotypes were identified and 2 were predominant haplotypes (H1, H2) with high frequencies. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 26 haplotypes could be clustered into 2 distinct groups (I and II). Members of the groups were basically derived from haplotypes H1 and H2, respectively.

  20. Biodistribution and Radiation Dosimetry for a Probe Targeting Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen for Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Ken; Bluemel, Christina; Weineisen, Martina; Schottelius, Margret; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Czernin, Johannes; Eberlein, Uta; Beykan, Seval; Lapa, Constantin; Riedmiller, Hubertus; Krebs, Markus; Kropf, Saskia; Schirbel, Andreas; Buck, Andreas K.; Lassmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a promising target for diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. EuK-Subkff-68Ga-DOTAGA (68Ga-PSMA Imaging & Therapy [PSMA I&T]) is a recently introduced PET tracer for imaging PSMA expression in vivo. Whole-body distribution and radiation dosimetry of this new probe were evaluated. Methods Five patients with a history of prostate cancer were injected intravenously with 91–148 MBq of 68Ga-PSMA I&T (mean ± SD, 128 ± 23 MBq). After an initial series of rapid whole-body scans, 3 static whole-body scans were acquired at 1, 2, and 4 h after tracer injection. Time-dependent changes of the injected activity per organ were determined. Mean organ-absorbed doses and effective doses were calculated using OLINDA/EXM. Results Injection of 150 MBq of 68Ga-PSMA I&T resulted in an effective dose of 3.0 mSv. The kidneys were the critical organ (33 mGy), followed by the urinary bladder wall and spleen (10 mGy each), salivary glands (9 mGy each), and liver (7 mGy). Conclusion 68Ga-PSMA I&T exhibits a favorable dosimetry, delivering organ doses that are comparable to (kidneys) or lower than those delivered by 18F-FDG. PMID:25883128

  1. Seroepidemiology of varicella-zoster virus in Korean adolescents and adults using fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen test.

    PubMed

    Han, S B; Kang, K R; Huh, D H; Lee, H C; Kim, J H; Kang, J H; Ma, S H

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional seroepidemiological study in 2012-2013 to determine the seroprevalence of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in adolescents and adults living in Korea, where varicella vaccination has been recommended universally at age 12-15 months since 2005. Residual serum samples were collected from 1196 healthy adults and adolescents aged ⩾10 years between November 2012 and March 2013. The fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen (FAMA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed to determine the seroprevalence of VZV. The seroprevalences of VZV were compared between six age groups: 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and ⩾60 years. The seroprevalence of VZV in the entire study cohort was 99·1% according to the FAMA test and 93·1% as determined by ELISA. The seroprevalences of the six age groups were as follows: 96·0%, 99·5%, 99·5%, 99·5%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, by the FAMA test, and 83·3%, 93·0%, 93·0%, 97·5%, 94·5%, and 97·5%, respectively, by ELISA. Seroprevalence increased significantly with age (P < 0·001); moreover, the seroprevalence in subjects aged 10-19 years was significantly lower than in other age groups (P < 0·001), as measured by both the FAMA test and ELISA. Thus, strategies to increase protective immunity against VZV in teenagers are necessary.

  2. Comparative sequence analysis of domain I of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 from Saudi Arabia and worldwide isolates.

    PubMed

    Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Abdel-Muhsin, Abdel-Muhsin A; Bin Dajem, Saad M; AlSheikh, Adel Ali H; Bohol, Marie Fe F; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N; Putaporntip, Chaturong; Jongwutiwes, Somchai

    2016-04-01

    The apical membrane antigen 1 of Plasmodium falciparum (PfAMA1) plays a crucial role in erythrocyte invasion and is a target of protective antibodies. Although domain I of PfAMA1 has been considered a promising vaccine component, extensive sequence diversity in this domain could compromise an effective vaccine design. To explore the extent of sequence diversity in domain I of PfAMA1, P. falciparum-infected blood samples from Saudi Arabia collected between 2007 and 2009 were analyzed and compared with those from worldwide parasite populations. Forty-six haplotypes and a novel codon change (M190V) were found among Saudi Arabian isolates. The haplotype diversity (0.948±0.004) and nucleotide diversity (0.0191±0.0008) were comparable to those from African hyperendemic countries. Positive selection in domain I of PfAMA1 among Saudi Arabian parasite population was observed because nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions per nonsynonymous site (dN) significantly exceeded synonymous nucleotide substitutions per synonymous site (dS) and Tajima's D and its related statistics significantly deviated from neutrality in the positive direction. Despite a relatively low prevalence of malaria in Saudi Arabia, a minimum of 17 recombination events occurred in domain I. Genetic differentiation was significant between P. falciparum in Saudi Arabia and parasites from other geographic origins. Several shared or closely related haplotypes were found among parasites from different geographic areas, suggesting that vaccine derived from multiple shared epitopes could be effective across endemic countries.

  3. The presence of HLA-DR antigens on lactating human breast epithelium and milk fat globule membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, R A; Ormerod, M G; Greaves, M F

    1980-01-01

    HLA-DR antigens have been demonstrated on the secretory epithelia of lactating breast using rabbit anti-p28,33 ('Ia-like') and mouse monoclonal anti-HLA-DR 'framework'. Normal non-lactating breast, benign or malignant tumours, epithelial cells from normal breast or isolated from milk and a presumptive breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7) were all HLA-DR-negative. HLA-DR, HLA (ABC 'framework') and beta 2-microglobulin determinants were also demonstrated on the surface of milk fat globules (MFG) which were unreactive with monoclonal antibodies to thymus cells or leucocytes. A monoclonal antibody detecting allelic HLA-DR determinants (HLA-DRw 1,2,6) was positive on 40% of MFG samples tested, positive reactions being concordant, when tested, with blood B lymphocytes. Antisera raised against MFG membranes also contain anti-HLA-DR activity. Whether the breast epithelial cells synthesize HLA-DR molecules or acquire these passively from mononuclear cells which infiltrate during lactation is not yet resolved. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7002399

  4. Subdominant antigens in bacterial vaccines: AM779 is subdominant in the Anaplasma marginale outer membrane vaccine but does not associate with protective immunity.

    PubMed

    Albarrak, Saleh M; Brown, Wendy C; Noh, Susan M; Reif, Kathryn E; Scoles, Glen A; Turse, Joshua E; Norimine, Junzo; Ueti, Massaro W; Palmer, Guy H

    2012-01-01

    Identification of specific antigens responsible for the ability of complex immunogens to induce protection is a major goal in development of bacterial vaccines. Much of the investigation has focused on highly abundant and highly immunodominant outer membrane proteins. Recently however, genomic and proteomic approaches have facilitated identification of minor components of the bacterial outer membrane that have previously been missed or ignored in immunological analyses. Immunization with Anaplasma marginale outer membranes or a cross-linked surface complex induces protection against bacteremia, however the components responsible for protection within these complex immunogens are unknown. Using outer membrane protein AM779 as a model, we demonstrated that this highly conserved but minor component of the A. marginale surface was immunologically sub-dominant in the context of the outer membrane or surface complex vaccines. Immunologic sub-dominance could be overcome by targeted vaccination with AM779 for T lymphocyte responses but not for antibody responses, suggesting that both abundance and intrinsic immunogenicity determine relative dominance. Importantly, immunization with AM779 supports that once priming is achieved by specific targeting, recall upon infectious challenge is achieved. While immunization with AM779 alone was not sufficient to induce protection, the ability of targeted immunization to prime the immune response to highly conserved but low abundance proteins supports continued investigation into the role of sub-dominant antigens, individually and collectively, in vaccine development for A. marginale and related bacterial pathogens.

  5. N-terminally myristoylated Ras proteins require palmitoylation or a polybasic domain for plasma membrane localization.

    PubMed

    Cadwallader, K A; Paterson, H; Macdonald, S G; Hancock, J F

    1994-07-01

    Plasma membrane targeting of Ras requires CAAX motif modifications together with a second signal from an adjacent polybasic domain or nearby cysteine palmitoylation sites. N-terminal myristoylation is known to restore membrane binding to H-ras C186S (C-186 is changed to S), a mutant protein in which all CAAX processing is abolished. We show here that myristoylated H-ras C186S is a substrate for palmitoyltransferase, despite the absence of C-terminal farnesylation, and that palmitoylation is absolutely required for plasma membrane targeting of myristoylated H-ras. Similarly, the polybasic domain is required for specific plasma membrane targeting of myristoylated K-ras. In contrast, the combination of myristoylation plus farnesylation results in the mislocalization of Ras to numerous intracellular membranes. Ras that is only myristoylated does not bind with a high affinity to any membrane. The specific targeting of Ras to the plasma membrane is therefore critically dependent on signals that are contained in the hypervariable domain but can be supported by N-terminal myristoylation or C-terminal prenylation. Interestingly, oncogenic Ras G12V that is localized correctly to the plasma membrane leads to mitogen-activated protein kinase activation irrespective of the combination of targeting signals used for localization, whereas Ras G12V that is mislocalized to the cytosol or to other membranes activates mitogen-activated protein kinase only if the Ras protein is farnesylated.

  6. Prostate cancer nodal oligometastasis accurately assessed using prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography and confirmed histologically following robotic-assisted lymph node dissection

    PubMed Central

    O’Kane, Dermot B.; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Bolton, Damien M.

    2016-01-01

    We herein present a case of a 76-year-old gentleman, where prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PSMA PET-CT) was used to accurately detect prostate cancer (PCa), pelvic lymph node (LN) metastasis in the setting of biochemical recurrence following definitive treatment for PCa. The positive PSMA PET-CT result was confirmed with histological examination of the involved pelvic LNs following pelvic LN dissection. PMID:27141207

  7. MYADM regulates Rac1 targeting to ordered membranes required for cell spreading and migration.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Juan F; Reglero-Real, Natalia; Kremer, Leonor; Marcos-Ramiro, Beatriz; Ruiz-Sáenz, Ana; Calvo, María; Enrich, Carlos; Correas, Isabel; Millán, Jaime; Alonso, Miguel A

    2011-04-15

    Membrane organization into condensed domains or rafts provides molecular platforms for selective recruitment of proteins. Cell migration is a general process that requires spatiotemporal targeting of Rac1 to membrane rafts. The protein machinery responsible for making rafts competent to recruit Rac1 remains elusive. Some members of the MAL family of proteins are involved in specialized processes dependent on this type of membrane. Because condensed membrane domains are a general feature of the plasma membrane of all mammalian cells, we hypothesized that MAL family members with ubiquitous expression and plasma membrane distribution could be involved in the organization of membranes for cell migration. We show that myeloid-associated differentiation marker (MYADM), a protein with unique features within the MAL family, colocalizes with Rac1 in membrane protrusions at the cell surface and distributes in condensed membranes. MYADM knockdown (KD) cells had altered membrane condensation and showed deficient incorporation of Rac1 to membrane raft fractions and, similar to Rac1 KD cells, exhibited reduced cell spreading and migration. Results of rescue-of-function experiments by expression of MYADM or active Rac1L61 in cells knocked down for Rac1 or MYADM, respectively, are consistent with the idea that MYADM and Rac1 act on parallel pathways that lead to similar functional outcomes. PMID:21325632

  8. Current Status of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Targeting in Nuclear Medicine: Clinical Translation of Chelator Containing Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Ligands Into Diagnostics and Therapy for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kratochwil, Clemens; Afshar-Oromieh, Ali; Kopka, Klaus; Haberkorn, Uwe; Giesel, Frederik L

    2016-09-01

    The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is expressed by approximately 90% of prostate carcinomas. The expression correlates with unfavorable prognostic factors, such as a high Gleason score, infiltrative growth, metastasis, and hormone-independence. The high specificity, especially in the undifferentiated stage, makes it an excellent target for diagnosis and therapy. Therefore, antibodies and small molecule inhibitors have been developed for imaging and therapy. In 2011 PSMA-11, a ligand that consists of the Glu-urea-motif and the chelator HBED-CC, which can be exclusively radiolabeled with (68)Ga for PET imaging, presented the clinical breakthrough for prostate cancer diagnostics. In two large diagnostic studies (n = 319 and n = 248) PET/CT with PSMA-11 successfully localized the recurrent tumor in approximately 90% of patients with biochemical relapse. Integrating PSMA-PET/CT into the planning phase of radiotherapy, the treatment concept is changed in 30%-50% of the patients. The combination of the Glu-urea-motif with DOTA, which can be labeled with several diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides, opened new avenues for therapeutic usage of the small-molecule PSMA ligands. In the beginning of 2016, there are four confirmative reports (n = 19, n = 24, n = 30, and n = 56) from four different centers reporting a PSA response in approximately 70% of patients treated with (177)Lu-labeled PSMA ligands. In conclusion, the data available up to now indicate a widespread use of PSMA ligands for diagnostic applications with respect to staging, detection of recurrence, or metastases in patients with rising tumor markers and for therapy in case of failure of guideline-compliant treatment. PMID:27553466

  9. In vivo maintenance of T-lymphocyte unresponsiveness induced by thymic medullary epithelium requires antigen presentation by radioresistant cells

    PubMed Central

    Hudrisier, Denis; Feau, Sonia; Bonnet, Véronique; Romagnoli, Paola; Van Meerwijk, Joost P M

    2003-01-01

    The T-cell repertoire developing in the thymus is rid of autospecific cells by the process of thymic negative selection. Recognition of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)/self-peptide complexes expressed by thymic antigen-presenting cells (APC) of bone marrow origin leads to induction of apoptotic death of autospecific thymocytes. Induction of tolerance to self-antigens not presented by thymic APC is mediated by medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTEC) which express a very wide range of proteins, e.g. inducible and tissue-specific proteins. The main type of tolerance induced by mTEC is non-deletional and the issue of how it is maintained outside the thymus is therefore of crucial interest. We have previously shown that the non-T-cell receptor (TCR) -transgenic T-cell repertoire developing in conditions in which tolerance to self-MHC/peptide ligands is exclusively induced by mTEC is tolerant to syngeneic targets in vivo but lyses such targets in vitro. Here we report that this non-deletional in vivo self-tolerance is not due to active tolerance assured by known naturally occurring regulatory or immune-modulating T lymphocytes. Importantly, we show that in vivo maintenance of this therefore probably anergic state requires continued interaction of autospecific T cells with self-MHC/peptide ligands expressed by radioresistant cells while APC are incapable of maintaining the tolerant state. Therefore, maintenance of non-deletional T-lymphocyte tolerance to the wide range of self-antigens expressed by mTEC depends on continued interaction with radioresistant cells that very probably express a much more limited repertoire of antigens. Our data may therefore have important consequences for tolerance to tissue-specific and inducible self-antigens. PMID:12519299

  10. In vitro characterization of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies specific for the extracellular domain of prostate-specific membrane antigen.

    PubMed

    Smith-Jones, P M; Vallabahajosula, S; Goldsmith, S J; Navarro, V; Hunter, C J; Bastidas, D; Bander, N H

    2000-09-15

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a well-characterized cell surface antigen expressed by virtually all prostate cancers (PCas). PSMA has been successfully targeted in vivo with (111)In-labeled 7E11 monoclonal antibody (mAb; ProstaScint; Cytogen, Princeton, NJ), which binds to an intracellular epitope of PSMA. This work reports the in vitro characterization of three recently developed mAbs that bind the extracellular domain of PSMA (PSMAext). Murine mAbs J415, J533, J591, and 7E11 were radiolabeled with 131I and evaluated in competitive and saturation binding studies with substrates derived from LNCaP cells. J415 and J591 were conjugated to 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid labeled with (111)In. The uptake and cellular processing of these antibodies were evaluated in viable LNCaP cells. All four mAbs could be labeled with 131I up to a specific activity of 350 MBq/mg with no or little apparent loss of immunoreactivity. Competition assays revealed that J415 and J591 compete for binding to PSMAext antigen. J533 bound to a region close to the J591 binding epitope, but J533 did not interfere with J415 binding to PSMA. mAb 7E11 did not inhibit the binding of J415, J533, or J591 (or vice versa), consistent with earlier work that these latter mAbs bind PSMAext whereas 7E11 binds the intracellular domain of PSMA. Saturation binding studies demonstrated that J415 and J591 bound with a similar affinity (Kds 1.76 and 1.83 nM), whereas J533 had a lower affinity (Kd, 18 nM). In parallel studies, all four mAbs bound to a similar number of PSMA sites expressed by permeabilized cells (1,000,000-1,300,000 sites/cell). In parallel studies performed with viable LNCaP cells, J415, J533, and J591 bound to a similar number of PSMA sites (i.e., 600,000-800,000 sites/cell), whereas 7E11 bound only to a subpopulation of the available PSMA sites (95,000 sites/cell). This apparent binding of 7E11 to viable cells can be accounted for by a 5

  11. Crystal Structure of Plasmodium knowlesi Apical Membrane Antigen 1 and Its Complex with an Invasion-Inhibitory Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    van der Eijk, Marjolein; Thomas, Alan W.; Singh, Balbir; Kocken, Clemens H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi, previously associated only with infection of macaques, is now known to infect humans as well and has become a significant public health problem in Southeast Asia. This species should therefore be targeted in vaccine and therapeutic strategies against human malaria. Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1), which plays a role in Plasmodium merozoite invasion of the erythrocyte, is currently being pursued in human vaccine trials against P. falciparum. Recent vaccine trials in macaques using the P. knowlesi orthologue PkAMA1 have shown that it protects against infection by this parasite species and thus should be developed for human vaccination as well. Here, we present the crystal structure of Domains 1 and 2 of the PkAMA1 ectodomain, and of its complex with the invasion-inhibitory monoclonal antibody R31C2. The Domain 2 (D2) loop, which is displaced upon binding the Rhoptry Neck Protein 2 (RON2) receptor, makes significant contacts with the antibody. R31C2 inhibits binding of the Rhoptry Neck Protein 2 (RON2) receptor by steric blocking of the hydrophobic groove and by preventing the displacement of the D2 loop which is essential for exposing the complete binding site on AMA1. R31C2 recognizes a non-polymorphic epitope and should thus be cross-strain reactive. PkAMA1 is much less polymorphic than the P. falciparum and P. vivax orthologues. Unlike these two latter species, there are no polymorphic sites close to the RON2-binding site of PkAMA1, suggesting that P. knowlesi has not developed a mechanism of immune escape from the host’s humoral response to AMA1. PMID:25886591

  12. Immunogenicity and protective role of antigenic regions from five outer membrane proteins of Flavobacterium columnare in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhang; Liu, Zhixin; Fu, Jianping; Zhang, Qiusheng; Huang, Bei; Nie, Pin

    2016-11-01

    Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease in freshwater fish. In the present study, the antigenic regions of five outer membrane proteins (OMPs), including zinc metalloprotease, prolyl oligopeptidase, thermolysin, collagenase and chondroitin AC lyase, were bioinformatically analyzed, fused together, and then expressed as a recombinant fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein of 95.6 kDa, as estimated by 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was consistent with the molecular weight deduced from the amino acid sequence. The purified recombinant protein was used to vaccinate the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Following vaccination of the fish their IgM antibody levels were examined, as was the expression of IgM, IgD and IgZ immunoglobulin genes and other genes such as MHC Iα and MHC IIβ, which are also involved in adaptive immunity. Interleukin genes ( IL), including IL-1β, IL-8 and IL-10, and type I and type II interferon ( IFN) genes were also examined. At 3 and 4 weeks post-vaccination (wpv), significant increases in IgM antibody levels were observed in the fish vaccinated with the recombinant fusion protein, and an increase in the expression levels of IgM, IgD and IgZ genes was also detected following the vaccinations, thus indicating that an adaptive immune response was induced by the vaccinations. Early increases in the expression levels of IL and IFN genes were also observed in the vaccinated fish. At four wpv, the fish were challenged with F. columnare, and the vaccinated fish showed a good level of protection against this pathogen, with 39% relative percent survival (RPS) compared with the control group. It can be concluded, therefore, that the five OMPs, in the form of a recombinant fusion protein vaccine, induced an immune response in fish and protection against F. columnare.

  13. Immunogenicity and protective role of antigenic regions from five outer membrane proteins of Flavobacterium columnare in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhang; Liu, Zhixin; Fu, Jianping; Zhang, Qiusheng; Huang, Bei; Nie, Pin

    2016-02-01

    Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease in freshwater fish. In the present study, the antigenic regions of five outer membrane proteins (OMPs), including zinc metalloprotease, prolyl oligopeptidase, thermolysin, collagenase and chondroitin AC lyase, were bioinformatically analyzed, fused together, and then expressed as a recombinant fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein of 95.6 kDa, as estimated by 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was consistent with the molecular weight deduced from the amino acid sequence. The purified recombinant protein was used to vaccinate the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Following vaccination of the fish their IgM antibody levels were examined, as was the expression of IgM, IgD and IgZ immunoglobulin genes and other genes such as MHC Iα and MHC IIβ, which are also involved in adaptive immunity. Interleukin genes (IL), including IL-1β, IL-8 and IL-10, and type I and type II interferon (IFN) genes were also examined. At 3 and 4 weeks post-vaccination (wpv), significant increases in IgM antibody levels were observed in the fish vaccinated with the recombinant fusion protein, and an increase in the expression levels of IgM, IgD and IgZ genes was also detected following the vaccinations, thus indicating that an adaptive immune response was induced by the vaccinations. Early increases in the expression levels of IL and IFN genes were also observed in the vaccinated fish. At four wpv, the fish were challenged with F. columnare, and the vaccinated fish showed a good level of protection against this pathogen, with 39% relative percent survival (RPS) compared with the control group. It can be concluded, therefore, that the five OMPs, in the form of a recombinant fusion protein vaccine, induced an immune response in fish and protection against F. columnare.

  14. Human La antigen is required for the hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation.

    PubMed

    Ali, N; Pruijn, G J; Kenan, D J; Keene, J D; Siddiqui, A

    2000-09-01

    The 5'-noncoding region (5'-NCR) of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA genome serves as an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and mediates translation initiation in a cap-independent manner. Previously, we reported the interaction between La antigen and the HCV IRES, which appeared to occur in the context of initiator AUG. It was further shown that HCV IRES-mediated translation was stimulated in the presence of human La antigen. In this study, we have defined the cis- and trans-acting elements responsible for La-5'-NCR interactions and established the dependence of the HCV IRES efficiency on cellular La antigen. During the La-IRES interaction, initiator AUG but not the neighboring codons was found to be the direct target of La binding. The C terminus effector domain-dependent modulation of La binding to the HCV IRES is demonstrated by deletion and substitution mutagenesis of the protein. An RNA systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), generated against La protein that selectively binds La in HeLa lysates and competes for the protein binding to the 5'-NCR, was used to demonstrate the requirement of La for the HCV IRES function in the context of mono- and dicistronic mRNAs. Sequestration of La antigen by the RNA SELEX in HeLa translation lysates blocked the HCV and poliovirus IRES-mediated translation in vitro. The functional requirement of La protein for the HCV IRES activity was further established in a liver-derived cell line and in an add-back experiment in which the inhibited IRES was rescued by recombinant human La. These results strongly argue for the novel role of La protein during selection of the initiator AUG and its participation during internal initiation of translation of the HCV RNA genome. PMID:10856291

  15. Tyrosine motifs are required for prestin basolateral membrane targeting

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yifan; Moeini-Naghani, Iman; Bai, JunPing; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph; Navaratnam, Dhasakumar S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prestin is targeted to the lateral wall of outer hair cells (OHCs) where its electromotility is critical for cochlear amplification. Using MDCK cells as a model system for polarized epithelial sorting, we demonstrate that prestin uses tyrosine residues, in a YXXΦ motif, to target the basolateral surface. Both Y520 and Y667 are important for basolateral targeting of prestin. Mutation of these residues to glutamine or alanine resulted in retention within the Golgi and delayed egress from the Golgi in Y667Q. Basolateral targeting is restored upon mutation to phenylalanine suggesting the importance of a phenol ring in the tyrosine side chain. We also demonstrate that prestin targeting to the basolateral surface is dependent on AP1B (μ1B), and that prestin uses transferrin containing early endosomes in its passage from the Golgi to the basolateral plasma membrane. The presence of AP1B (μ1B) in OHCs, and parallels between prestin targeting to the basolateral surface of OHCs and polarized epithelial cells suggest that outer hair cells resemble polarized epithelia rather than neurons in this important phenotypic measure. PMID:25596279

  16. The membrane IgM-associated proteins MB-1 and Ig-beta are sufficient to promote surface expression of a partially functional B-cell antigen receptor in a nonlymphoid cell line.

    PubMed

    Matsuuchi, L; Gold, M R; Travis, A; Grosschedl, R; DeFranco, A L; Kelly, R B

    1992-04-15

    The B-cell antigen receptors consist of membrane immunoglobulins (mIgs) noncovalently associated with two accessory proteins, MB-1 and Ig-beta. We used transfection into a nonlymphoid cell line to test whether MB-1 and Ig-beta were sufficient to promote cell surface expression of mIgM capable of signal transduction. Expression of MB-1 and Ig-beta, but not MB-1 alone, allowed high-level surface expression of mIgM in the AtT20 endocrine cell line, which presumably lacks other B-cell-specific components. The reconstituted antigen receptor was capable of mediating some of the signaling reactions characteristic of mIgM in B lymphocytes. Crosslinking mIgM on transfected AtT20 cells stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of MB-1 and Ig-beta and also increased the amount of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity that could be precipitated with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies. When total cell lysates were analyzed by anti-phosphotyrosine immunoblotting, however, no induced phosphorylation of more abundant proteins was detected. Moreover, crosslinking of the receptor in AtT20 cells did not stimulate inositol phospholipid breakdown. Thus, the transfected B-cell antigen receptor could initiate some signal transduction events but AtT20 cells may lack components required for other signaling events associated with mIgM.

  17. Single cell wound generates electric current circuit and cell membrane potential variations that requires calcium influx.

    PubMed

    Luxardi, Guillaume; Reid, Brian; Maillard, Pauline; Zhao, Min

    2014-07-24

    Breaching of the cell membrane is one of the earliest and most common causes of cell injury, tissue damage, and disease. If the compromise in cell membrane is not repaired quickly, irreversible cell damage, cell death and defective organ functions will result. It is therefore fundamentally important to efficiently repair damage to the cell membrane. While the molecular aspects of single cell wound healing are starting to be deciphered, its bio-physical counterpart has been poorly investigated. Using Xenopus laevis oocytes as a model for single cell wound healing, we describe the temporal and spatial dynamics of the wound electric current circuitry and the temporal dynamics of cell membrane potential variation. In addition, we show the role of calcium influx in controlling electric current circuitry and cell membrane potential variations. (i) Upon wounding a single cell: an inward electric current appears at the wound center while an outward electric current is observed at its sides, illustrating the wound electric current circuitry; the cell membrane is depolarized; calcium flows into the cell. (ii) During cell membrane re-sealing: the wound center current density is maintained for a few minutes before decreasing; the cell membrane gradually re-polarizes; calcium flow into the cell drops. (iii) In conclusion, calcium influx is required for the formation and maintenance of the wound electric current circuitry, for cell membrane re-polarization and for wound healing.

  18. Sterilizing immunity to influenza virus infection requires local antigen-specific T cell response in the lungs.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Avijit; Huang, Ching-Tai; Lin, Chun-Yen; Chen, Tse-Ching; Lin, Yung-Chang; Chang, Chia-Shiang; He, Yueh-Chia

    2016-01-01

    Sterilizing immunity is a unique immune status, which prevents effective virus infection into the host. It is different from the immunity that allows infection but with subsequent successful eradication of the virus. Pre-infection induces sterilizing immunity to homologous influenza virus challenge in ferret. In our antigen-specific experimental system, mice pre-infected with PR8 influenza virus through nasal route are likewise resistant to reinfection of the same strain of virus. The virus is cleared before establishment of effective infection. Intramuscular influenza virus injection confers protection against re-infection with facilitated virus clearance but not sterilizing immunity. Pre-infection and intramuscular injection generates comparable innate immunity and antibody response, but only pre-infection induces virus receptor reduction and efficient antigen-specific T cell response in the lungs. Pre-infection with nH1N1 influenza virus induces virus receptor reduction but not PR8-specific T cell immune response in the lungs and cannot prevent infection of PR8 influenza virus. Pre-infection with PR8 virus induced PR8-specific T cell response in the lungs but cannot prevent infection of nH1N1 virus either. These results reveal that antigen-specific T cell immunity is required for sterilizing immunity. PMID:27596047

  19. Classical dendritic cells are required for dietary antigen-mediated induction of peripheral T(reg) cells and tolerance.

    PubMed

    Esterházy, Daria; Loschko, Jakob; London, Mariya; Jove, Veronica; Oliveira, Thiago Y; Mucida, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Oral tolerance prevents pathological inflammatory responses to innocuous foreign antigens by peripheral regulatory T cells (pT(reg) cells). However, whether a particular subset of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is required during dietary antigen exposure for the 'instruction' of naive CD4(+) T cells to differentiate into pT(reg) cells has not been defined. Using myeloid lineage-specific APC depletion in mice, we found that monocyte-derived APCs were dispensable, while classical dendritic cells (cDCs) were critical, for pT(reg) cell induction and oral tolerance. CD11b(-) cDCs from the gut-draining lymph nodes efficiently induced pT(reg) cells and, conversely, loss of transcription factor IRF8-dependent CD11b(-) cDCs impaired their polarization, although oral tolerance remained intact. These data reveal the hierarchy of cDC subsets in the induction of pT(reg) cells and their redundancy during the development of oral tolerance.

  20. Sterilizing immunity to influenza virus infection requires local antigen-specific T cell response in the lungs

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Avijit; Huang, Ching-Tai; Lin, Chun-Yen; Chen, Tse-Ching; Lin, Yung-Chang; Chang, Chia-Shiang; He, Yueh-Chia

    2016-01-01

    Sterilizing immunity is a unique immune status, which prevents effective virus infection into the host. It is different from the immunity that allows infection but with subsequent successful eradication of the virus. Pre-infection induces sterilizing immunity to homologous influenza virus challenge in ferret. In our antigen-specific experimental system, mice pre-infected with PR8 influenza virus through nasal route are likewise resistant to reinfection of the same strain of virus. The virus is cleared before establishment of effective infection. Intramuscular influenza virus injection confers protection against re-infection with facilitated virus clearance but not sterilizing immunity. Pre-infection and intramuscular injection generates comparable innate immunity and antibody response, but only pre-infection induces virus receptor reduction and efficient antigen-specific T cell response in the lungs. Pre-infection with nH1N1 influenza virus induces virus receptor reduction but not PR8-specific T cell immune response in the lungs and cannot prevent infection of PR8 influenza virus. Pre-infection with PR8 virus induced PR8-specific T cell response in the lungs but cannot prevent infection of nH1N1 virus either. These results reveal that antigen-specific T cell immunity is required for sterilizing immunity. PMID:27596047

  1. Sterilizing immunity to influenza virus infection requires local antigen-specific T cell response in the lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Avijit; Huang, Ching-Tai; Lin, Chun-Yen; Chen, Tse-Ching; Lin, Yung-Chang; Chang, Chia-Shiang; He, Yueh-Chia

    2016-09-01

    Sterilizing immunity is a unique immune status, which prevents effective virus infection into the host. It is different from the immunity that allows infection but with subsequent successful eradication of the virus. Pre-infection induces sterilizing immunity to homologous influenza virus challenge in ferret. In our antigen-specific experimental system, mice pre-infected with PR8 influenza virus through nasal route are likewise resistant to reinfection of the same strain of virus. The virus is cleared before establishment of effective infection. Intramuscular influenza virus injection confers protection against re-infection with facilitated virus clearance but not sterilizing immunity. Pre-infection and intramuscular injection generates comparable innate immunity and antibody response, but only pre-infection induces virus receptor reduction and efficient antigen-specific T cell response in the lungs. Pre-infection with nH1N1 influenza virus induces virus receptor reduction but not PR8-specific T cell immune response in the lungs and cannot prevent infection of PR8 influenza virus. Pre-infection with PR8 virus induced PR8-specific T cell response in the lungs but cannot prevent infection of nH1N1 virus either. These results reveal that antigen-specific T cell immunity is required for sterilizing immunity.

  2. A fragment of anthrax lethal factor delivers proteins to the cytosol without requiring protective antigen

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, Nicholas; Zhang, Dong; Touzjian, Neal; Essex, Max; Lieberman, Judy; Lu, Yichen

    2003-01-01

    Anthrax protective antigen (PA) is a 735-aa polypeptide that facilitates the exit of anthrax lethal factor (LF) from the endosome to the cytosol where the toxin acts. We recently found, however, that a fusion protein of the detoxified N-terminal domain of lethal factor (LFn) with a foreign peptide could induce CD8 T cell immune responses in the absence of PA. Because CD8 T cells recognize peptides derived from proteins degraded in the cytosol, this result suggests that lethal factor may be capable of entering the cytosol independently of PA. To investigate this further, the intracellular trafficking of an LFn-enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion protein (LFn-GFP) in the presence or absence of PA was examined by using confocal microscopy. LFn-GFP is able to enter the cytosol without PA. Moreover, it efficiently colocalizes with the proteosome 20s subunit, which degrades proteins into peptides for presentation to CD8 T cells by the MHC class I pathway. We further demonstrate that in the presence of an immune adjuvant LFn fusion protein without PA is able to effectively elicit anti-HIV cytotoxic T lymphocyte in inbred mice. These results indicate that LFn may be used without PA in a protein vaccine as a carrier to deliver antigens into the cytosol for efficient induction of T lymphocyte responses. Furthermore, these results enable us to propose a modified molecular mechanism of anthrax lethal toxin. PMID:12740437

  3. Generation of antigen-specific Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells in vivo following administration of diabetes-reversing tolerogenic microspheres does not require provision of antigen in the formulation.

    PubMed

    Engman, Carl; Wen, Yi; Meng, Wilson S; Bottino, Rita; Trucco, Massimo; Giannoukakis, Nick

    2015-09-01

    We have developed novel antisense oligonucleotide-formulated microspheres that can reverse hyperglycemia in newly-onset diabetic mice. Dendritic cells taking up the microspheres adopt a restrained co-stimulation ability and migrate to the pancreatic lymph nodes when injected into an abdominal region that is drained by those lymph nodes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the absolute numbers of antigen-specific Foxp3+ T regulatory cells are increased only in the lymph nodes draining the site of administration and that these T-cells proliferate independently of antigen supply in the microspheres. Taken together, our data add to the emerging model where antigen supply may not be a requirement in "vaccines" for autoimmune disease, but the site of administration - subserved by lymph nodes draining the target organ - is in fact critical to foster the generation of antigen-specific regulatory cells. The implications of these observations on "vaccine" design for autoimmunity are discussed and summarized.

  4. Synthesis and SAR of ⁹⁹mTc/Re-labeled small molecule prostate specific membrane antigen inhibitors with novel polar chelates.

    PubMed

    Lu, Genliang; Maresca, Kevin P; Hillier, Shawn M; Zimmerman, Craig N; Eckelman, William C; Joyal, John L; Babich, John W

    2013-03-01

    Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is recognized as an attractive molecular target for the development of radiopharmaceuticals to image and potentially treat metastatic prostate cancer. A series of novel (99m)Tc/Re-tricarbonyl radiolabeled PSMA inhibitors were therefore synthesized by the attachment of glutamate-urea-lysine (Glu-urea-Lys) and glutamate-urea-glutamate (Glu-urea-Glu) pharmacophore to single amino acid chelate (SAAC) where the SAAC ligand was either bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino (DPA), bis((1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl)amino (NMI), bis((1-(carboxymethyl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl)amino (CIM) or bis((1-(2-(bis(carboxymethyl)amino)-2-oxoethyl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl)amino (TIM). The in vitro binding affinity of the rhenium complexes was evaluated using PSMA-expressing human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. IC(50) values ranged from 3.8 ± 2 to >2000 nM. A linker between the SAAC chelate and pharmacophore was required for high affinity binding. However, extending the length of the linker did not substantially improve binding. PSMA binding was also influenced by the nature of the SAAC chelate. One of the most potent compounds, 23b (IC(50)=4.8 ± 2.7 nM), was radiolabeled with technetium tricarbonyl ({(99m)Tc(CO)(3)}(+)) to afford the {(99m)Tc(CO)(3)}(+) complex in excellent yield and high purity. This effort has led to the identification of a diverse series of promising high affinity {(99m)Tc(CO)(3)}(+) radiolabeled PSMA inhibitors. PMID:23333070

  5. Preclinical Evaluation of 86Y-Labeled Inhibitors of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen for Dosimetry Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sangeeta Ray; Foss, Catherine A.; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Wang, Yuchuan; Srinivasan, Senthamizhchelvan; Hobbs, Robert F.; Baidoo, Kwamena E.; Brechbiel, Martin W.; Nimmagadda, Sridhar; Mease, Ronnie C.; Sgouros, George; Pomper, Martin G.

    2016-01-01

    86Y (half-life = 14.74 h, 33% β+) is within an emerging class of positron-emitting isotopes with relatively long physical half-lives that enables extended imaging of biologic processes. We report the synthesis and evaluation of 3 low-molecular-weight compounds labeled with 86Y for imaging the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) using PET. Impetus for the study derives from the need to perform dosimetry estimates for the corresponding 90Y-labeled radiotherapeutics. Methods Multistep syntheses were used in preparing 86Y-4–6. PSMA inhibition constants were evaluated by competitive binding assay. In vivo characterization using tumor-bearing male mice was performed by PET/CT for 86Y-4–6 and by biodistribution studies of 86Y-4 and 86Y-6 out to 24 h after injection. Quantitative whole-body PET scans were recorded to measure the kinetics for 14 organs in a male baboon using 86Y-6. Results Compounds 86Y-4–6 were obtained in high radiochemical yield and purity, with specific radioactivities of more than 83.92 GBq/µmol. PET imaging and biodistribution studies using PSMA-positive PC-3 PIP and PSMA-negative PC-3 flu tumor-bearing mice revealed that 86Y-4–6 had high site-specific uptake in PSMA-positive PC-3 PIP tumor starting at 20 min after injection and remained high at 24 h. Compound 86Y-6 demonstrated the highest tumor uptake and retention, with 32.17 ± 7.99 and 15.79 ± 6.44 percentage injected dose per gram (%ID/g) at 5 and 24 h, respectively. Low activity concentrations were associated with blood and normal organs, except for the kidneys, a PSMA-expressing tissue. PET imaging in baboons reveals that all organs have a 2-phase (rapid and slow) clearance, with the highest uptake (8 %ID/g) in the kidneys at 25 min. The individual absolute uptake kinetics were used to calculate radiation doses using the OLINDA/EXM software. The highest mean absorbed dose was received by the renal cortex, with 1.9 mGy per MBq of 86Y-6. Conclusion Compound 86Y-6 is a promising

  6. Membrane protein SMP-1 is required for normal flagellum function in Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Tull, Dedreia; Naderer, Thomas; Spurck, Timothy; Mertens, Haydyn D T; Heng, Joanne; McFadden, Geoffrey I; Gooley, Paul R; McConville, Malcolm J

    2010-02-15

    Eukaryotic flagella and cilia are surrounded by a membrane that is continuous with, but distinct from, the rest of the plasma membrane. In Leishmania parasites, the inner leaflet of the flagellar membrane is coated with the acylated membrane protein, SMP-1. Here, we provide evidence that SMP-1 stabilizes the flagellar membrane and is required for flagella elongation and function. The expression and flagella targeting of SMP-1 is tightly associated with flagella elongation during amastigote to promastigote differentiation. Deletion of the genes encoding SMP-1 and the flagellar pocket protein SMP-2, led to the production of short flagella and defects in motility. Alterations in the physical properties of the smp-1/smp-2(-/-) flagellar membrane were suggested by: (1) the accumulation of membrane vesicles in the flagellar matrix, and (2) further retraction of flagella following partial inhibition of sterol and sphingolipid biosynthesis. The flagella phenotype of the smp-1/smp-2(-/-) null mutant was reversed by re-expression of SMP-1, but not SMP-2. SMP-1 contains a jelly-roll beta-sheet structure that is probably conserved in all SMP proteins, and forms stable homo-oligomers in vivo. We propose that the SMP-1 coat generates and/or stabilizes sterol- and sphingolipid-rich domains in the flagellar membrane. PMID:20086045

  7. MRC OX-2 antigen: a lymphoid/neuronal membrane glycoprotein with a structure like a single immunoglobulin light chain.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, M J; Gagnon, J; Williams, A F; Barclay, A N

    1985-01-01

    The MRC OX-2 antigen is a rat cell surface glycoprotein of mol. wt. 41 000-47 000 found on neurones, thymocytes, B cells, follicular dendritic cells and endothelium. We now report the amino sequence for this antigen as deduced from the nucleotide sequence of cDNA clones detected by use of an oligonucleotide probe. The sequence contains 248 amino acid residues of which 202 residues are likely to be outside the cell with two domains that show homology with immunoglobulins. The N-terminal domain fits best with Ig V domains and Thy-1 antigen while the C-terminal part is like an Ig C domain. Thus the structure overall is similar to an Ig light chain or the T cell receptor beta chain. Three glycosylation sites are identified on each of the MRC OX-2 antigen domains. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:2862025

  8. Prostate-specific membrane antigen targeted protein contrast agents for molecular imaging of prostate cancer by MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Fan; Salarian, Mani; Xue, Shenghui; Qiao, Jingjuan; Feng, Jie; Tan, Shanshan; Patel, Anvi; Li, Xin; Mamouni, Kenza; Hekmatyar, Khan; Zou, Juan; Wu, Daqing; Yang, Jenny J.

    2016-06-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is one of the most specific cell surface markers for prostate cancer diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, achieving molecular imaging using non-invasive MRI with high resolution has yet to be achieved due to the lack of contrast agents with significantly improved relaxivity for sensitivity, targeting capabilities and metal selectivity. We have previously reported our creation of a novel class of protein Gd3+ contrast agents, ProCA32, which displayed significantly improved relaxivity while exhibiting strong Gd3+ binding selectivity over physiological metal ions. In this study, we report our effort in further developing biomarker-targeted protein MRI contrast agents for molecular imaging of PSMA. Among three PSMA targeted contrast agents engineered with addition of different molecular recognition sequences, ProCA32.PSMA exhibits a binding affinity of 1.1 +/- 0.1 μM for PSMA while the metal binding affinity is maintained at 0.9 +/- 0.1 × 10-22 M. In addition, ProCA32.PSMA exhibits r1 of 27.6 mM-1 s-1 and r2 of 37.9 mM-1 s-1 per Gd (55.2 and 75.8 mM-1 s-1 per molecule r1 and r2, respectively) at 1.4 T. At 7 T, ProCA32.PSMA also has r2 of 94.0 mM-1 s-1 per Gd (188.0 mM-1 s-1 per molecule) and r1 of 18.6 mM-1 s-1 per Gd (37.2 mM-1 s-1 per molecule). This contrast capability enables the first MRI enhancement dependent on PSMA expression levels in tumor bearing mice using both T1 and T2-weighted MRI at 7 T. Further development of these PSMA-targeted contrast agents are expected to be used for the precision imaging of prostate cancer at an early stage and to monitor disease progression and staging, as well as determine the effect of therapeutic treatment by non-invasive evaluation of the PSMA level using MRI.Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is one of the most specific cell surface markers for prostate cancer diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, achieving molecular imaging using non-invasive MRI with high

  9. Development of Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Inhibitors Coupled to 99mTc(CO)3+ with Enhanced Specific Activity for SPECT Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Paul; D.; Benny,; Clifford; Berkman,; Jeffery; Bryan

    2011-12-20

    The overall objectives of the project were two fold: 1) the development of new facile reactions for coupling radioactive complexes with biomolecules and 2) the development of a novel molecular imaging targeting vector for Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) for prostate cancer. The didactic approach allowed the synergistic exploration of new technologies for coupling reactions of radioactive complexes that can be applied to a novel targeting moiety. As part of the project, a number of students (undergraduate, graduate and post-doctoral) were trained in radiochemical techniques for preparing and characterizing radiometal complexes. Results from the experiments within the project have generated several presentations and publications.

  10. Antibodies to membrane antigens of herpes simplex virus type-2 infected cells and HSV-2 specific antibodies in patients with cervical cancer in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Chiphangwi, J D

    1984-01-01

    In a geographical study involving the United Kingdom, Sudan, Sri Lanka and Malawi, sera were taken from 27 Malawian patients with cervical cancer and 18 controls matched for age, ethnic origin and socioeconomic status. The sera were tested by indirect immunofluorescence for IgG and IgA antibodies to membrane antigens of herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2). The results showed that there was no significant difference at titres 1:4 between Malawian patients and controls, but at titres 1:16 the difference was significant. It was found that 73% of patients had HSV-2 specific antibodies (measured by ELISA) as compared with 30.7% of controls.

  11. Proteomic study via a non-gel based approach of meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine obtained from strain CU385: a road map for discovering new antigens.

    PubMed

    Gil, Jeovanis; Betancourt, L Zaro H; Sardiñas, Gretel; Yero, Daniel; Niebla, Olivia; Delgado, Maité; García, Darien; Pajón, Rolando; Sánchez, Aniel; González, Luis J; Padrón, Gabriel; Campa, Concepción; Sotolongo, Franklin; Barberó, Ramón; Guillén, Gerardo; Herrera, Luis; Besada, Vladimir

    2009-05-01

    This work presents the results from a study of the protein composition of outer membrane vesicles from VA-MENGOC-BC (Finlay Institute, Cuba), an available vaccine against serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis. Proteins were identified by means of SCAPE, a 2DE-free method for proteome studies. More than one hundred proteins were detected by tandem liquid chromatographymass spectrometry analysis of fractions enriched in peptides devoid of histidine or arginine residues, providing a detailed description of the vaccine. A bioinformatic analysis of the identified components resulted in the identification of 31 outer membrane proteins and three conserved hypothetical proteins, allowing the cloning, expression, purification and immunological study of two of them (NMB0088 and NMB1796) as new antigens.

  12. Identification of a palmitoyl acyltransferase required for protein sorting to the flagellar membrane.

    PubMed

    Emmer, Brian T; Souther, Christina; Toriello, Krista M; Olson, Cheryl L; Epting, Conrad L; Engman, David M

    2009-03-15

    Protein palmitoylation has diverse effects in regulating protein membrane affinity, localization, binding partner interactions, turnover and function. Here, we show that palmitoylation also contributes to the sorting of proteins to the eukaryotic flagellum. African trypanosomes are protozoan pathogens that express a family of unique Ca(2+)-binding proteins, the calflagins, which undergo N-terminal myristoylation and palmitoylation. The localization of calflagins depends on their acylation status. Myristoylation alone is sufficient for membrane association, but, in the absence of palmitoylation, the calflagins localize to the pellicular (cell body) membrane. Palmitoylation, which is mediated by a specific palmitoyl acyltransferase, is then required for subsequent trafficking of calflagin to the flagellar membrane. Coincident with the redistribution of calflagin from the pellicular to the flagellar membrane is their association with lipid rafts, which are highly enriched in the flagellar membrane. Screening of candidate palmitoyl acyltranferases identified a single enzyme, TbPAT7, that is necessary for calflagin palmitoylation and flagellar membrane targeting. Our results implicate protein palmitoylation in flagellar trafficking, and demonstrate the conservation and specificity of palmitoyl acyltransferase activity by DHHC-CRD proteins across kingdoms. PMID:19240115

  13. Methane to syngas conversion. Part I. Equilibrium conditions and stability requirements of membrane materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frade, J. R.; Kharton, V. V.; Yaremchenko, A.; Naumovich, E.

    Thermodynamic data have been used to predict the dependence of methane conversion on temperature and oxygen partial pressure in mixed conducting membrane reactors, and the corresponding fractions of water vapor, H 2, CO and CO 2. The relations between methane conversion, gas composition and oxygen partial pressure were also used to formulate the oxygen balance in mixed conducting membrane reactors, with tubular reactor and continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) configurations. A single dimensionless parameter accounts for the combined effects of geometric parameters of the membrane reactor, the permeability of the membrane material, and flow rate at the entry of the reactor. Selected examples were calculated to illustrate the effects of steam to methane and inert to methane ratios in the gas entering the reactor. The values of oxygen partial pressure required to attain the highest yield of CO and H 2 were also used to estimate the stability requirements to be met by mixed conducting membrane materials. Suitable membrane designs might be needed to bridge the difference between the conditions inside the reactors and the stability limits of known mixed conductors.

  14. VEX1 controls the allelic exclusion required for antigenic variation in trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Lucy; Hutchinson, Sebastian; Horn, David

    2016-01-01

    Allelic exclusion underpins antigenic variation and immune evasion in African trypanosomes. These bloodstream parasites use RNA polymerase-I (pol-I) to transcribe just one telomeric variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) gene at a time, producing superabundant and switchable VSG coats. We identified trypanosome VSG exclusion-1 (VEX1) using a genetic screen for defects in telomere-exclusive expression. VEX1 was sequestered by the active VSG and silencing of other VSGs failed when VEX1 was either ectopically expressed or depleted, indicating positive and negative regulation, respectively. Positive regulation affected VSGs and nontelomeric pol-I–transcribed genes, whereas negative regulation primarily affected VSGs. Negative regulation by VEX1 also affected telomeric pol-I–transcribed reporter constructs, but only when they contained blocks of sequence sharing homology with a pol-I–transcribed locus. We conclude that restricted positive regulation due to VEX1 sequestration, combined with VEX1-dependent, possibly homology-dependent silencing, drives a “winner-takes-all” mechanism of allelic exclusion. PMID:27226299

  15. Genetic diversity and natural selection at the domain I of apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) of Plasmodium falciparum in isolates from Iran.

    PubMed

    Mardani, Ahmad; Keshavarz, Hossein; Heidari, Aliehsan; Hajjaran, Homa; Raeisi, Ahmad; Khorramizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2012-04-01

    The apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) of Plasmodium falciparum is a prime malaria asexual blood-stage vaccine candidate. Antigenic variation is one of the main obstacles in the development of a universal effective malaria vaccine. The extracellular region of P. falciparum AMA-1 (PfAMA-1) consists of three domains (I-III), of which the domain I is the most diverse region of this antigen. The objective of our study was to investigate and analyze the extent of genetic diversity and the effectiveness of natural selection at the AMA-1 domain I of P. falciparum in isolates from Iran. A fragment of ama-1 gene spanning domain I was amplified by nested PCR from 48 P. falciparum isolates collected from two major malaria endemic areas of Iran during 2009 to August 2010 and sequenced. Genetic polymorphism and statistical analyses were performed using DnaSP and MEGA software packages. Analysis of intrapopulation diversity revealed relatively high nucleotide and haplotype diversity at the PfAMA-1 domain I of Iranian isolates. Neutrality tests provided strong evidence of positive natural selection acting on the sequenced gene region. The findings also demonstrated that, in addition to natural selection, intragenic recombination may contribute to the diversity observed at the domain I. The results obtained will have significant implications in the design and the development of an AMA-1-based vaccine against falciparum malaria.

  16. The two neutrophil plasma membrane markers alkaline phosphatase and HLA class I antigen localize differently in granule-deficient cytoplasts. An ideal plasma membrane marker in human neutrophils is still lacking.

    PubMed

    Pellmé, Sara; Dahlgren, Claes; Karlsson, Anna

    2007-08-31

    Neutrophil function relies largely on the ability of the cell to mobilize its different granules and vesicles to the cell surface and thereby expose and/or release effector molecules to the surrounding tissue. To properly identify these subcellular compartments is thus a prerequisite for studies of neutrophil physiology. A range of specific markers for the classical granules is available, but finding optimal markers for the secretory vesicles and plasma membrane has historically been more challenging. Latent and non-latent alkaline phosphatase activities are often used to distinguish these two light membrane structures, but the outcome using this technique depends on the level of cellular activation. Therefore, HLA-I was introduced some years ago as a specific, stimulation-independent marker for the plasma membrane. In this study we however report that detailed fractionation studies of neutrophil cytoplasts, lacking secretory vesicles, granules and other dense organelles, reveal that the HLA-I antigen is not only co-localizing with the plasma membrane marker ALP, but is also present in other, more dense organelles. Further, we found the mixed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MELISA), detecting the beta(2)-microglobulin/HLA-I complex, to be negatively influenced by uncomplexed beta(2)-microglobulin present in the specific granules and secretory vesicles, making it difficult to use HLA-I as a plasma membrane marker during maturation of for example phagolysosomes. PMID:17673253

  17. Identification of the critical attribute(s) of EBV gp350 antigen required for elicitation of a neutralizing antibody response in vivo.

    PubMed

    Servat, Esteban; Ro, Bodrey W; Cayatte, Corinne; Gemmell, Lorraine; Barton, Chris; Rao, Eileen; Lin, Rui; Zuo, Fengrong; Woo, Jennifer C; Hayes, Gregory M

    2015-11-27

    Vaccine prophylaxis with EBV glycoprotein 350 (gp350) subunit plus adjuvant has been demonstrated clinically to protect individuals against infectious mononucleosis (IM), but the specifications of the antigen required to elicit this protection has remained largely theoretical. Previous studies have shown that antibodies to gp350 comprise the principle component of EBV-neutralizing sera. Further, a murine monoclonal antibody against gp350 (clone 72A1) is able to prevent infection by the virus both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we identify the 72A1 epitope on recombinant gp350 antigen as the site required for binding to CD21 on human B cells. We also identify the need for conformational-dependence of the antigen to generate EBV-neutralizing antibodies in vivo. Further, we have characterized the glycosylation status and antigenicity profiles of both native and denatured CHO-produced soluble gp350 as well as non-glycosylated protein produced in Escherichia coli. Collectively our in vitro and in vivo data demonstrate the requirement for a conformationally accessible 72A1 epitope on gp350 to elicit EBV-neutralizing responses, and establish this as a critical attribute of this vaccine antigen. These data provide direction for commercial vaccine development, as the absence of this epitope on either E. coli-expressed or denatured gp350, may limit production and purification options for the antigen. PMID:26485517

  18. Delivery of Large Heterologous Polypeptides across the Cytoplasmic Membrane of Antigen-Presenting Cells by the Bordetella RTX Hemolysin Moiety Lacking the Adenylyl Cyclase Domain

    PubMed Central

    Holubova, Jana; Jelinek, Jiri; Tomala, Jakub; Masin, Jiri; Kosova, Martina; Stanek, Ondrej; Bumba, Ladislav; Michalek, Jaroslav; Kovar, Marek; Sebo, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA; also called ACT or AC-Hly) targets CD11b-expressing phagocytes and translocates into their cytosol an adenylyl cyclase (AC) that hijacks cellular signaling by conversion of ATP to cyclic AMP (cAMP). Intriguingly, insertion of large passenger peptides removes the enzymatic activity but not the cell-invasive capacity of the AC domain. This has repeatedly been exploited for delivery of heterologous antigens into the cytosolic pathway of CD11b-expressing dendritic cells by CyaA/AC− toxoids, thus enabling their processing and presentation on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules to cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTLs). We produced a set of toxoids with overlapping deletions within the first 371 residues of CyaA and showed that the structure of the AC enzyme does not contain any sequences indispensable for its translocation across target cell membrane. Moreover, replacement of the AC domain (residues 1 to 371) with heterologous polypeptides of 40, 146, or 203 residues yielded CyaAΔAC constructs that delivered passenger CTL epitopes into antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and induced strong antigen-specific CD8+ CTL responses in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. This shows that the RTX (repeats in toxin) hemolysin moiety, consisting of residues 374 to 1706 of CyaA, harbors all structural information involved in translocation of the N-terminal AC domain across target cell membranes. These results decipher the extraordinary capacity of the AC domain of CyaA to transport large heterologous cargo polypeptides into the cytosol of CD11b+ target cells and pave the way for the construction of CyaAΔAC-based polyvalent immunotherapeutic T cell vaccines. PMID:22215742

  19. Potential Impact of Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention on the Acquisition of Antibodies against Glutamate-Rich Protein and Apical Membrane Antigen 1 in Children Living in Southern Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Ndiaye, Magatte; Sylla, Khadime; Sow, Doudou; Tine, Roger; Faye, Babacar; Ndiaye, Jean Louis; Dieng, Yemou; Lo, Aminata Collé; Abiola, Annie; Cisse, Badara; Ndiaye, Daouda; Theisen, Michael; Gaye, Oumar; Alifrangis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is defined as the intermittent administration of full treatment courses of an antimalarial drug to children during the peak of malaria transmission season with the aim of preventing malaria-associated mortality and morbidity. SMC using sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (SP) combined with amodiaquine (AQ) is a promising strategy to control malaria morbidity in areas of highly seasonal malaria transmission. However, a concern is whether SMC can delay the natural acquisition of immunity toward malaria parasites in areas with intense SMC delivery. To investigate this, total IgG antibody (Ab) responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens glutamate-rich protein R0 (GLURP-R0) and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in Senegalese children under the age of 10 years in 2010 living in Saraya and Velingara districts (with SMC using SP+AQ [SMC+] since 2007) and Tambacounda district (without SMC (SMC−)). For both P. falciparum antigens, total IgG response were significantly higher in the SMC− compared with the SMC+ group (for GLURP-R0, P < 0.001 and for AMA-1, P = 0.001). There was as well a nonsignificant tendency for higher percentage of positive responders in the SMC− compared with the SMC+ group (for GLURP-R0: 22.2% versus 14.4%, respectively [P = 0.06]; for AMA-1: 45.6% versus 40.0%, respectively [P = 0.24]). Results suggest that long-term malaria chemoprevention by SMC/SP+AQ have limited impact on the development of acquired immunity, as tested using the P. falciparum antigens GLURP-R0 and AMA-1. However, other factors, not measured in this study, may interfere as well. PMID:26283746

  20. Membrane repair of human skeletal muscle cells requires Annexin-A5.

    PubMed

    Carmeille, Romain; Bouvet, Flora; Tan, Sisareuth; Croissant, Coralie; Gounou, Céline; Mamchaoui, Kamel; Mouly, Vincent; Brisson, Alain R; Bouter, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    Defect in membrane repair contributes to the development of limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B) and Miyoshi myopathy. In healthy skeletal muscle, unraveling membrane repair mechanisms requires to establish an exhaustive list of the components of the resealing machinery. Here we show that human myotubes rendered deficient for Annexin-A5 (AnxA5) suffer from a severe defect in membrane resealing. This defect is rescued by the addition of recombinant AnxA5 while an AnxA5 mutant, which is unable to form 2D protein arrays, has no effect. Using correlative light and electron microscopy, we show that AnxA5 binds to the edges of the torn membrane, as early as a few seconds after sarcolemma injury, where it probably self-assembles into 2D arrays. In addition, we observed that membrane resealing is associated with the presence of a cluster of lipid vesicles at the wounded site. AnxA5 is present at the surface of these vesicles and may thus participate in plugging the cell membrane disruption. Finally, we show that AnxA5 behaves similarly in myotubes from a muscle cell line established from a patient suffering from LGMD2B, a myopathy due to dysferlin mutations, which indicates that trafficking of AnxA5 during sarcolemma damage is independent of the presence of dysferlin. PMID:27286750

  1. A conserved amphipathic helix is required for membrane tubule formation by Yop1p

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Jacob P.; Claridge, Jolyon K.; Smith, Peter G.; Schnell, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    The integral membrane proteins of the DP1 (deleted in polyposis) and reticulon families are responsible for maintaining the high membrane curvature required for both smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) tubules and the edges of ER sheets, and mutations in these proteins lead to motor neuron diseases, such as hereditary spastic paraplegia. Reticulon/DP1 proteins contain reticulon homology domains (RHDs) that have unusually long hydrophobic segments and are proposed to adopt intramembrane helical hairpins that stabilize membrane curvature. We have characterized the secondary structure and dynamics of the DP1 family protein produced from the YOP1 gene (Yop1p) and identified a C-terminal conserved amphipathic helix (APH) that, on its own, interacts strongly with negatively charged membranes and is necessary for membrane tubule formation. Analyses of DP1 and reticulon family members indicate that most, if not all, contain C-terminal sequences capable of forming APHs. Together, these results indicate that APHs play a previously unrecognized role in RHD membrane curvature stabilization. PMID:25646439

  2. HIV-1 requires Arf6-mediated membrane dynamics to efficiently enter and infect T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    García-Expósito, Laura; Barroso-González, Jonathan; Puigdomènech, Isabel; Machado, José-David; Blanco, Julià; Valenzuela-Fernández, Agustín

    2011-01-01

    As the initial barrier to viral entry, the plasma membrane along with the membrane trafficking machinery and cytoskeleton are of fundamental importance in the viral cycle. However, little is known about the contribution of plasma membrane dynamics during early human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Considering that ADP ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) regulates cellular invasion via several microorganisms by coordinating membrane trafficking, our aim was to study the function of Arf6-mediated membrane dynamics on HIV-1 entry and infection of T lymphocytes. We observed that an alteration of the Arf6–guanosine 5′-diphosphate/guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP/GDP) cycle, by GDP-bound or GTP-bound inactive mutants or by specific Arf6 silencing, inhibited HIV-1 envelope–induced membrane fusion, entry, and infection of T lymphocytes and permissive cells, regardless of viral tropism. Furthermore, cell-to-cell HIV-1 transmission of primary human CD4+ T lymphocytes was inhibited by Arf6 knockdown. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy showed that Arf6 mutants provoked the accumulation of phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-biphosphate–associated structures on the plasma membrane of permissive cells, without affecting CD4-viral attachment but impeding CD4-dependent HIV-1 entry. Arf6 silencing or its mutants did not affect fusion, entry, and infection of vesicular stomatitis virus G–pseudotyped viruses or ligand-induced CXCR4 or CCR5 endocytosis, both clathrin-dependent processes. Therefore we propose that efficient early HIV-1 infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes requires Arf6-coordinated plasma membrane dynamics that promote viral fusion and entry. PMID:21346189

  3. Design and preclinical evaluation of a 99mTc-labelled diabody of mAb J591 for SPECT imaging of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensitive and specific detection of nodal status, sites of metastases and low-volume recurrent disease could greatly improve management of patients with advanced prostate cancer. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a well-established marker for prostate carcinoma with increased levels of expression in high-grade, hormone-refractory and metastatic disease. The monoclonal antibody (mAb) J591 is directed against an extracellular epitope of PSMA and has been shown to efficiently target disseminated disease including metastases in lymph nodes and bone. Its use as a diagnostic imaging agent however is limited due to its slow pharmacokinetics. In this study a diabody derived from mAb J591 was developed as a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracer with improved pharmacokinetics for the detection of PSMA expression in prostate cancer. Methods A diabody in VH-VL orientation and with a C-terminal cysteine was expressed in HEK293T cells and purified by a combination of metal ion affinity and size exclusion chromatography. Specificity and affinity were determined in cell binding studies. For SPECT imaging, the diabody was site-specifically labelled with [99mTc(CO)3]+ via the C-terminal His tag and evaluated in a subcutaneous DU145/DU145-PSMA prostate carcinoma xenograft model. Results J591C diabody binds to PSMA-expressing cells with low nanomolar affinity (3.3 ± 0.2 nM). SPECT studies allowed imaging of tumour xenografts with high contrast from 4 h post injection (p.i.). Ex vivo biodistribution studies showed peak tumour uptake of the tracer of 12.1% ± 1.7% injected dose (ID)/g at 8 h p.i. with a tumour to blood ratio of 8.0. Uptake in PSMA-negative tumours was significantly lower with 6.3% ± 0.5% at 8 h p.i. (p < 0.001). Conclusion The presented diabody has favourable properties required to warrant its further development for antibody-based imaging of PSMA expression in prostate cancer, including PSMA-specific uptake

  4. Effect of human leukocyte antigen class II genes on Hashimoto's thyroiditis requiring replacement therapy with levothyroxine in the Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Katahira, Masahito; Hanakita, Mizuki; Ito, Tatsuo; Suzuki, Mari

    2013-05-01

    Contribution of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) subtype to Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) that requires replacement therapy with levothyroxine remains unclear in the Japanese population. The frequencies of HLA DR-DQ haplotypes were compared between patients with HT requiring levothyroxine replacement therapy and the control individuals. We studied 82 patients with HT requiring levothyroxine replacement therapy. The frequencies of DRB1*08:03-DQB1*06:01 and DRB1*09:01-DQB1*03:03 haplotypes were significantly higher in HT patients, whereas those of DRB1*13:02-DQB1*06:04 and DRB1*15:01-DQB1*06:02 haplotypes were significantly lower in these patients than in the controls. Deduced from known linkage disequilibria, DRB1*13:02-DQB1*06:04 and DRB1*15:01-DQB1*06:02 haplotypes share the same DQA1*01:02 allele. Since DQB1*06:02 and DQB1*06:04 molecules differ in the beta chain by 7 residues, these DQB1 genes are very similar. The DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06 (DQB1*06:02 or DQB1*06:04) haplotype might play a pivotal role in the resistance to HT.

  5. Codon optimisation to improve expression of a Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis-specific membrane-associated antigen by Lactobacillus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Christopher; Douarre, Pierre E; Soulimane, Tewfik; Pletzer, Daniel; Weingart, Helge; MacSharry, John; Coffey, Aidan; Sleator, Roy D; O'Mahony, Jim

    2013-06-01

    Subunit and DNA-based vaccines against Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) attempt to overcome inherent issues associated with whole-cell formulations. However, these vaccines can be hampered by poor expression of recombinant antigens from a number of disparate hosts. The high G+C content of MAP invariably leads to a codon bias throughout gene expression. To investigate if the codon bias affects recombinant MAP antigen expression, the open reading frame of a MAP-specific antigen MptD (MAP3733c) was codon optimised for expression against a Lactobacillus salivarius host. Of the total 209 codons which constitute MAP3733c, 172 were modified resulting in a reduced G+C content from 61% for the native gene to 32.7% for the modified form. Both genes were placed under the transcriptional control of the PnisA promoter; allowing controlled heterologous expression in L. salivarius. Expression was monitored using fluorescence microscopy and microplate fluorometry via GFP tags translationally fused to the C-termini of the two MptD genes. A > 37-fold increase in expression was observed for the codon-optimised MAP3733synth variant over the native gene. Due to the low cost and improved expression achieved, codon optimisation significantly improves the potential of L. salivarius as an oral vaccine stratagem against Johne's disease. PMID:23620276

  6. Phospholipase treatment of accessory cells that have been exposed to antigen selectively inhibits antigen-specific Ia-restricted, but not allospecific, stimulation of T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Falo, L D; Benacerraf, B; Rock, K L

    1986-01-01

    The corecognition of antigen and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules (Ia molecules) by the T-cell receptor is a cell surface event. Before antigen is recognized, it must be taken up, processed, and displayed on the surface of an Ia-bearing accessory cell (antigen-presenting cell, APC). The exact nature of antigen processing and the subsequent associations of antigen with the APC plasma membrane, Ia molecules, and/or the T-cell receptor are not well defined. To further analyze these events, we have characterized the processing and presentation of the soluble polypeptide antigen bovine insulin. We found that this antigen requires APC-dependent processing, as evidenced by the inability of metabolically inactivated APCs to present native antigen to antigen plus Ia-specific T-T hybridomas. The ability of the same APCs to present antigen after uptake and processing showed that this antigen subsequently becomes stably associated with the APC plasma membrane. To characterize the basis for this association, we analyzed its sensitivity to enzymatic digestion. APCs exposed to antigen, treated with phospholipase A2, and then immediately fixed lost the ability to stimulate bovine insulin plus I-Ad-specific hybridomas. In contrast, the ability of these same APCs to stimulate I-Ad allospecific hybridomas was unaffected. This effect of phospholipase is not mimicked by the broadly active protease Pronase, nor is there evidence for contaminating proteases in the phospholipase preparation. These results suggest that one consequence of antigen processing may be an antigen-lipid association that contributes to the anchoring of antigen to the APC membrane. The implications of this model are discussed. PMID:3529095

  7. Palisade is required in the Drosophila ovary for assembly and function of the protective vitelline membrane.

    PubMed

    Elalayli, Maggie; Hall, Jacklyn D; Fakhouri, Mazen; Neiswender, Hannah; Ellison, Tambrea T; Han, Zhe; Roon, Penny; LeMosy, Ellen K

    2008-07-15

    The innermost layer of the Drosophila eggshell, the vitelline membrane, provides structural support and positional information to the embryo. It is assembled in an incompletely understood manner from four major proteins to form a homogeneous, transparent extracellular matrix. Here we show that RNAi knockdown or genetic deletion of a minor constituent of this matrix, Palisade, results in structural disruptions during the initial synthesis of the vitelline membrane by somatic follicle cells surrounding the oocyte, including wide size variation among the precursor vitelline bodies and disorganization of follicle cell microvilli. Loss of Palisade or the microvillar protein Cad99C results in abnormal uptake into the oocyte of sV17, a major vitelline membrane protein, and defects in non-disulfide cross-linking of sV17 and sV23, while loss of Palisade has additional effects on processing and disulfide cross-linking of these proteins. Embryos surrounded by the abnormal vitelline membranes synthesized when Palisade is reduced are fertilized but undergo developmental arrest, usually during the first 13 nuclear divisions, with a nuclear phenotype of chromatin margination similar to that described for wild-type embryos subjected to anoxia. Our results demonstrate that Palisade is involved in coordinating assembly of the vitelline membrane and is required for functional properties of the eggshell.

  8. Triggered Ca2+ influx is required for extended synaptotagmin 1-induced ER-plasma membrane tethering.

    PubMed

    Idevall-Hagren, Olof; Lü, Alice; Xie, Beichen; De Camilli, Pietro

    2015-09-01

    The extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts) are ER proteins that act as Ca(2+)-regulated tethers between the ER and the plasma membrane (PM) and have a putative role in lipid transport between the two membranes. Ca(2+) regulation of their tethering function, as well as the interplay of their different domains in such function, remains poorly understood. By exposing semi-intact cells to buffers of variable Ca(2+) concentrations, we found that binding of E-Syt1 to the PI(4,5)P2-rich PM critically requires its C2C and C2E domains and that the EC50 of such binding is in the low micromolar Ca(2+) range. Accordingly, E-Syt1 accumulation at ER-PM contact sites occurred only upon experimental manipulations known to achieve these levels of Ca(2+) via its influx from the extracellular medium, such as store-operated Ca(2+) entry in fibroblasts and membrane depolarization in β-cells. We also show that in spite of their very different physiological functions, membrane tethering by E-Syt1 (ER to PM) and by synaptotagmin (secretory vesicles to PM) undergo a similar regulation by plasma membrane lipids and cytosolic Ca(2+).

  9. Triggered Ca2+ influx is required for extended synaptotagmin 1-induced ER-plasma membrane tethering

    PubMed Central

    Idevall-Hagren, Olof; Lü, Alice; Xie, Beichen; De Camilli, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    The extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts) are ER proteins that act as Ca2+-regulated tethers between the ER and the plasma membrane (PM) and have a putative role in lipid transport between the two membranes. Ca2+ regulation of their tethering function, as well as the interplay of their different domains in such function, remains poorly understood. By exposing semi-intact cells to buffers of variable Ca2+ concentrations, we found that binding of E-Syt1 to the PI(4,5)P2-rich PM critically requires its C2C and C2E domains and that the EC50 of such binding is in the low micromolar Ca2+ range. Accordingly, E-Syt1 accumulation at ER-PM contact sites occurred only upon experimental manipulations known to achieve these levels of Ca2+ via its influx from the extracellular medium, such as store-operated Ca2+ entry in fibroblasts and membrane depolarization in β-cells. We also show that in spite of their very different physiological functions, membrane tethering by E-Syt1 (ER to PM) and by synaptotagmin (secretory vesicles to PM) undergo a similar regulation by plasma membrane lipids and cytosolic Ca2+. PMID:26202220

  10. Crystal Structure of TDP-Fucosamine Acetyl Transferase (WECD) from Escherichia Coli, an Enzyme Required for Enterobacterial Common Antigen Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hung,M.; Rangarajan, E.; Munger, C.; Nadeau, G.; Sulea, T.; Matte, A.

    2006-01-01

    Enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) is a polysaccharide found on the outer membrane of virtually all gram-negative enteric bacteria and consists of three sugars, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-mannosaminuronic acid, and 4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-D-galactose, organized into trisaccharide repeating units having the sequence {yields}(3)-{alpha}-D-Fuc4NAc-(1{yields}4)-{beta}-D-ManNAcA-(1{yields}4)-{alpha}-D-GlcNAc-(1{yields}). While the precise function of ECA is unknown, it has been linked to the resistance of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 to organic acids and the resistance of Salmonella enterica to bile salts. The final step in the synthesis of 4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-D-galactose, the acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent acetylation of the 4-amino group, is carried out by TDP-fucosamine acetyltransferase (WecD). We have determined the crystal structure of WecD in apo form at a 1.95-Angstroms resolution and bound to acetyl-CoA at a 1.66-Angstroms resolution. WecD is a dimeric enzyme, with each monomer adopting the GNAT N-acetyltransferase fold, common to a number of enzymes involved in acetylation of histones, aminoglycoside antibiotics, serotonin, and sugars. The crystal structure of WecD, however, represents the first structure of a GNAT family member that acts on nucleotide sugars. Based on this cocrystal structure, we have used flexible docking to generate a WecD-bound model of the acetyl-CoA-TDP-fucosamine tetrahedral intermediate, representing the structure during acetyl transfer. Our structural data show that WecD does not possess a residue that directly functions as a catalytic base, although Tyr208 is well positioned to function as a general acid by protonating the thiolate anion of coenzyme A.

  11. Deletion of antigen-specific immature thymocytes by dendritic cells requires LFA-1/ICAM interactions.

    PubMed

    Carlow, D A; van Oers, N S; Teh, S J; Teh, H S

    1992-03-15

    An in vitro assay was used for assessing the participation of various cell surface molecules and the efficacy of various cell types in the deletion of Ag-specific immature thymocytes. Thymocytes from mice expressing a transgenic TCR specific for the male Ag presented by the H-2Db class I MHC molecule were used as a target for deletion. In H-2d transgenic mice, cells bearing the transgenic TCR are not subjected to thymic selection as a consequence of the absence of the restricting H-2Db molecule but, nevertheless, express this TCR on the vast majority of immature CD4+8+ thymocytes. In this report we show that CD4+8+ thymocytes from H-2d TCR-transgenic mice are preferentially killed upon in vitro culture with male APC; DC were particularly effective in mediating in vitro deletion when compared with either B cells or T cells. Deletion of CD4+8+ thymocytes by DC was H-2b restricted and could be inhibited by mAb to either LFA-1 alpha or CD8. Partial inhibition was observed with mAb to ICAM-1, whereas mAb to CD4 and LFA-1 beta were without effect. These results are the first direct evidence of LFA-1 involvement in negative selection and provide further direct support for the participation of CD8/class I MHC interactions in this process. Like the requirements for deletion, activation of mature male-specific CD4-8+ T cells from female H-2b TCR-transgenic mice was also largely dependent on Ag presentation by DC and required both LFA-1/ICAM and CD8/class I MHC interactions; these results support the view that activation and deletion may represent maturation stage-dependent consequences of T cells encountering the same APC. Finally, our results also support the hypothesis that negative selection (deletion) does not require previous positive selection because deletion was observed under conditions where positive selection had not occurred.

  12. The significance of erythrocyte antigen site density

    PubMed Central

    Hoyer, Leon W.; Trabold, Norma C.

    1971-01-01

    The importance of antigen site density has been studied by means of a model passive hemolysis system using red cells coupled with sulfanilic acid groups. Relative site numbers were estimated from the covalent linkage of sulfanilic acid-35S to red cell membrane protein, and the effective antigen site number was determined with 125I-labeled rabbit IgG anti-sulfanilic acid (anti-S). Immune hemolysis was demonstrated for red cells which had greater than a threshold number of antigen sites, the value of which was different for normal human cells (80,000 sites/cell), cells from a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) (40,000 sites/cell), and sheep red blood cells (RBC) (15,000 sites/cell). Cells with antigen site densities below these values did not hemolyze when tested with 1 mg/ml purified rabbit IgM anti-S. 2-8 times greater antigen site densities were required to obtain hemolysis with IgG anti-S. Above the threshold value, hemolysis titers were proportional to the antigen site number until maximal values were obtained. The greater hemolytic efficiency of IgM antibody was demonstrated in this system, and it was established that the magnitude of the difference was related to the test cell antigen site density. These data, taken with previously reported hemagglutination studies, have been used to develop a general classification of immune hemolysis and hemagglutination based on antigen site density and antibody class. It is suggested that the heterogeneity of blood group systems is caused by differences in the site separation of erythrocyte membrane antigens. PMID:5105661

  13. A trypsin-sensitive receptor on membrane vesicles is required for nuclear envelope formation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The reformation of functioning organelles at the end of mitosis presents a problem in vesicle targeting. Using extracts made from Xenopus laevis frog eggs, we have studied in vitro the vesicles that reform the nuclear envelope. In the in vitro assay, nuclear envelope growth is linear with time. Furthermore, the final surface area of the nuclear envelopes formed is directly dependent upon the amount of membrane vesicles added to the assay. Egg membrane vesicles could be fractionated into two populations, only one of which was competent for nuclear envelope assembly. We found that vesicles active in nuclear envelope assembly contained markers (BiP and alpha-glucosidase II) characteristic of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but that the majority of ER-derived vesicles do not contribute to nuclear envelope size. This functional distinction between nuclear vesicles and ER-derived vesicles implies that nuclear vesicles are unique and possess at least one factor required for envelope assembly that is lacking in other vesicles. Consistent with this, treatment of vesicles with trypsin destroyed their ability to form a nuclear envelope; electron microscopic studies indicate that the trypsin-sensitive proteins is required for vesicles to bind to chromatin. However, the protease- sensitive component(s) is resistant to treatments that disrupt protein- protein interactions, such as high salt, EDTA, or low ionic strength solutions. We propose that an integral membrane protein, or protein tightly associated with the membrane, is critical for nuclear vesicle targeting or function. PMID:3392106

  14. Polarized granzyme release is required for antigen-driven transendothelial migration of human effector memory CD4 T cells

    PubMed Central

    Manes, Thomas D.; Pober, Jordan S.

    2014-01-01

    Human effector memory (EM) CD4 T cells may transmigrate across endothelial cell (EC) monolayers either in response to inflammatory chemokines or in response to TCR recognition of antigen presented on the surface of the EC. The kinetics, morphologic manifestations, and molecular requirements of chemokine- and TCR-driven transendothelial migration (TEM) differ significantly. Here we report that while the MTOC and cytosolic granules follow the nucleus across the endothelium in a uropod during chemokine-driven TEM, MTOC reorientation to the contact region between the T cell and the EC, accompanied by dynein-driven transport of granzyme-containing granules to and exocytosis at the contact region, are early events in TCR-driven but not chemokine-driven TEM. Inhibitors of either granule function or of granzyme proteolytic activity can arrest TCR-driven TEM, implying a requirement for granule discharge in the process. In the final stages of TCR-driven TEM, the MTOC precedes, rather than follows, the nucleus across the endothelium. Thus TCR-driven TEM of EM CD4 T cells appears to be a novel process that more closely resembles immune synapse formation than it does conventional chemotaxis. PMID:25367116

  15. Babesia divergens apical membrane antigen-1 (BdAMA-1): A poorly polymorphic protein that induces a weak and late immune response.

    PubMed

    Moreau, E; Bonsergent, C; Al Dybiat, I; Gonzalez, L M; Lobo, C A; Montero, E; Malandrin, L

    2015-08-01

    Babesiosis is an important veterinary and zoonotic tick borne disease caused by the hemoprotozoan Babesia spp. which infects red blood cell of its vertebrate host. In order to control the infection, vaccination that targets molecules involved in the invasion process of red blood cells could provide a good alternative to chemotherapy. Among these molecules, Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1) has been described as an excellent vaccine candidate in Plasmodium spp. In this paper, we have investigated AMA-1 of Babesia divergens (BdAMA-1) as vaccine candidate by evaluating its polymorphism and by studying the humoral response against BdAMA-1 of sheep experimentally infected with B. divergens. Polymorphism of BdAMA-1 was investigated by sequencing the corresponding gene of 9 B. divergens isolates from different geographical areas in France. Two Bdama-1 haplotypes (A and B) could be defined based on 2 non-synonymous point mutations. In silico prediction of linear epitopes revealed that the antigenicity of the 2 haplotypes is very similar. Antibody production against the extracellular domain of BdAMA-1 is weak and late, between 1 and 5 months after the inoculation of parasites. Both IgG1 and IgG2 are components of the anti-BdAMA-1 response. These results indicate that while BdAMA-1 may not be an immuno-dominant antigen, it could induce a mixed type 1 and type 2 immune response. In light of these results, the potential of BdAMA-1 as vaccine candidate is discussed.

  16. Immunogenicity of Mannheimia haemolytica Recombinant Outer Membrane Proteins Serotype 1-Specific Antigen, OmpA, OmpP2, and OmpD15▿

    PubMed Central

    Ayalew, Sahlu; Shrestha, Binu; Montelongo, Marie; Wilson, Amanda E.; Confer, Anthony W.

    2011-01-01

    We previously identified Mannheimia haemolytica outer membrane proteins (OMPs) that may be important immunogens by using immunoproteomic analyses. Genes for serotype 1-specific antigen (SSA-1), OmpA, OmpP2, and OmpD15 were cloned and expressed, and recombinant proteins were purified. Objective 1 of this study was to demonstrate immunogenicity of the four recombinant OMPs in mice and cattle. Objective 2 was to determine if the addition of individual recombinant OMPs or combinations of them would modify immune responsiveness of mice to the recombinant chimeric protein SAC89, containing the main epitope from M. haemolytica outer membrane lipoprotein PlpE and the neutralizing epitope of M. haemolytica leukotoxin. Mice vaccinated with recombinant OmpA (rOmpA), rSSA-1, rOmpD15, and rOmpP2 developed significant antibody responses to M. haemolytica outer membranes and to the homologous recombinant OMP. Cattle vaccinated with rOmpA and rSSA-1 developed significant antibodies to M. haemolytica outer membranes by day 28, whereas cattle vaccinated with rOmpD15 and rOmpP2 developed only minimal responses. Sera from cattle vaccinated with each of the recombinant proteins stimulated complement-mediated killing of the bacterium. Concurrent vaccination with SAC89 plus any of the four rOMPs singly resulted in increased endpoint anti-SAC89 titers, and for the SAC89/rSSA-1 vaccinees, the response was increased significantly. In contrast, the SAC89/P2/SSA-1 and SAC89/OmpA/P2/D15/SSA-1 combination vaccines resulted in significant decreases in anti-SAC89 antibodies compared to SAC89 vaccination alone. In conclusion, under the conditions of these experiments, vaccination of mice and cattle with rOmpA and rSSA-1 stimulated high antibody responses and may have protective vaccine potential. PMID:21976226

  17. The Major Antigenic Membrane Protein of “Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris” Selectively Interacts with ATP Synthase and Actin of Leafhopper Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Galetto, Luciana; Bosco, Domenico; Balestrini, Raffaella; Genre, Andrea; Fletcher, Jacqueline; Marzachì, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplasmas, uncultivable phloem-limited phytopathogenic wall-less bacteria, represent a major threat to agriculture worldwide. They are transmitted in a persistent, propagative manner by phloem-sucking Hemipteran insects. Phytoplasma membrane proteins are in direct contact with hosts and are presumably involved in determining vector specificity. Such a role has been proposed for phytoplasma transmembrane proteins encoded by circular extrachromosomal elements, at least one of which is a plasmid. Little is known about the interactions between major phytoplasma antigenic membrane protein (Amp) and insect vector proteins. The aims of our work were to identify vector proteins interacting with Amp and to investigate their role in transmission specificity. In controlled transmission experiments, four Hemipteran species were identified as vectors of “Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris”, the chrysanthemum yellows phytoplasmas (CYP) strain, and three others as non-vectors. Interactions between a labelled (recombinant) CYP Amp and insect proteins were analysed by far Western blots and affinity chromatography. Amp interacted specifically with a few proteins from vector species only. Among Amp-binding vector proteins, actin and both the α and β subunits of ATP synthase were identified by mass spectrometry and Western blots. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and Western blots of plasma membrane and mitochondrial fractions confirmed the localisation of ATP synthase, generally known as a mitochondrial protein, in plasma membranes of midgut and salivary gland cells in the vector Euscelidius variegatus. The vector-specific interaction between phytoplasma Amp and insect ATP synthase is demonstrated for the first time, and this work also supports the hypothesis that host actin is involved in the internalization and intracellular motility of phytoplasmas within their vectors. Phytoplasma Amp is hypothesized to play a crucial role in insect transmission specificity. PMID

  18. [Influence of different products of platelet membrane glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies used internationally on tests for monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of platelet antigens].

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiu-Min; Shen, Wei-Dong; Zhong, Zhou-Lin; Zhou, Yan; Wu, Guo-Guang

    2009-08-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the influence of different platelet membrane glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies (McAb) which are common used in laboratories on the monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of platelet antigens (MAIPA) technique according to the request of 14th International Society of Blood Transfusion Platelet Immunology Workshop. 30 participant laboratories were provided with 10 known human platelet antigen (HPA) antibodies, 1 normal serum, 9 different McAbs (against GPIIb/IIIa, GPIa/IIa, GPIb/IX and GPIV respectively), and the same protocol. Each participant laboratory carried out the test as the protocol to compare the results of different McAbs against the same glycoprotein and submitted the data to organizer. The results indicated that in McAbs against GPIIb/IIIa, AP2, Gi-5 and PL2-73 showed higher mean S/CO than that of others; in GPIa/IIa, MBC202.2 and 143.1 showed higher mean S/CO than that of others; in GPIb/IX, 142.11 and CLB-MB45 (CD42b) showed higher mean S/CO than that of others; as to GPIV, 131.4 showed higher mean S/CO. In conclusion, capture effects of various McAbs are different, so that different products of McAbs exert influences on the sensitivity of MAIPA. To use a panel of McAbs against the same glycoprotein may avoid the false negative results. PMID:19698264

  19. Metastasis in urothelial carcinoma mimicking prostate cancer metastasis in Ga-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography in a case of synchronous malignancy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manoj; Choudhury, Partha Sarathi; Gupta, Gurudutt; Gandhi, Jatin

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in man. It commonly presents with urinary symptoms, bone pain, or diagnosed with elevated prostate-specific antigen.(PSA) levels. Correct staging and early diagnosis of recurrence by a precise imaging tool are the keys for optimum management. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer with Ga-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen.(PSMA), positron emission tomography-computed tomography.(PET-CT) has recently received significant attention and frequently used with a signature to prostate cancer-specific remark. However, this case will highlight the more cautious use of it. A-72-year-old male treated earlier for synchronous double malignancy.(invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma right ureter and carcinoma prostate) presented with rising PSA.(0.51.ng/ml) and referred for Ga-68 PSMA PET-CT, which showed a positive enlarged left supraclavicular lymph node. Lymph node biopsy microscopic and immunohistochemistry examination revealed metastatic carcinoma favoring urothelial origin. Specificity of PSMA scan to prostate cancer has been seen to be compromised in a certain situation mostly due to neoangiogenesis, and false positives emerged in renal cell cancer, differentiated thyroid cancer, glioblastoma, breast cancer brain metastasis, and paravertebral schwannomas. Understanding the causes of false positive will further enhance the confidence of interpretating PSMA scans. PMID:27385897

  20. Bone Marrow Recovery and Subsequent Chemotherapy Following Radiolabeled Anti-Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Monoclonal Antibody J591 in Men with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tagawa, Scott T.; Akhtar, Naveed H.; Nikolopoulou, Anastasia; Kaur, Gurveen; Robinson, Brian; Kahn, Renee; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Goldsmith, Stanley J.; Nanus, David M.; Bander, Neil H.

    2013-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has demonstrated efficacy with acceptable toxicity leading to approval in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, but has been slower to develop for the treatment of advanced solid tumors. Prostate cancer (PC) represents a good candidate for RIT based upon high exposure to circulating antibodies at common disease sites with a specific, highly expressed cell-surface antigen of prostate-specific membrane antigen. Four phase I and II trials utilizing 177Lu- or 90Y-J591 have been reported. Long-term toxicity and chemotherapy administration was analyzed. As expected, the only serious toxicity observed was myelosuppression. Grade 4 thrombocytopenia occurred in 33.3% without significant hemorrhage and grade 4 neutropenia occurred in 17.3% with 0.07% febrile neutropenia. Nearly all subjects (97.3%) recovered to grade 0 or 1 platelets and all had complete neutrophil recovery. The majority (81.3%) received chemotherapy at any time, with 61.3% receiving chemotherapy following RIT. Ten subjects underwent bone marrow biopsies at some point in their disease course following RIT for low counts; all had diffuse PC infiltration without evidence of myelodysplasia or leukemia. As expected, myelosuppression occurs following therapeutic doses of RIT for men with metastatic castration-resistant PC. However, toxicity is predictable and self-limited, with the majority of patients who do not refuse able to receive cytotoxic chemotherapy following RIT. PMID:23986881

  1. Bone marrow recovery and subsequent chemotherapy following radiolabeled anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen monoclonal antibody j591 in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Scott T; Akhtar, Naveed H; Nikolopoulou, Anastasia; Kaur, Gurveen; Robinson, Brian; Kahn, Renee; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Nanus, David M; Bander, Neil H

    2013-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has demonstrated efficacy with acceptable toxicity leading to approval in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, but has been slower to develop for the treatment of advanced solid tumors. Prostate cancer (PC) represents a good candidate for RIT based upon high exposure to circulating antibodies at common disease sites with a specific, highly expressed cell-surface antigen of prostate-specific membrane antigen. Four phase I and II trials utilizing (177)Lu- or (90)Y-J591 have been reported. Long-term toxicity and chemotherapy administration was analyzed. As expected, the only serious toxicity observed was myelosuppression. Grade 4 thrombocytopenia occurred in 33.3% without significant hemorrhage and grade 4 neutropenia occurred in 17.3% with 0.07% febrile neutropenia. Nearly all subjects (97.3%) recovered to grade 0 or 1 platelets and all had complete neutrophil recovery. The majority (81.3%) received chemotherapy at any time, with 61.3% receiving chemotherapy following RIT. Ten subjects underwent bone marrow biopsies at some point in their disease course following RIT for low counts; all had diffuse PC infiltration without evidence of myelodysplasia or leukemia. As expected, myelosuppression occurs following therapeutic doses of RIT for men with metastatic castration-resistant PC. However, toxicity is predictable and self-limited, with the majority of patients who do not refuse able to receive cytotoxic chemotherapy following RIT.

  2. Metastasis in urothelial carcinoma mimicking prostate cancer metastasis in Ga-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography in a case of synchronous malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Manoj; Choudhury, Partha Sarathi; Gupta, Gurudutt; Gandhi, Jatin

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in man. It commonly presents with urinary symptoms, bone pain, or diagnosed with elevated prostate-specific antigen.(PSA) levels. Correct staging and early diagnosis of recurrence by a precise imaging tool are the keys for optimum management. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer with Ga-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen.(PSMA), positron emission tomography-computed tomography.(PET-CT) has recently received significant attention and frequently used with a signature to prostate cancer-specific remark. However, this case will highlight the more cautious use of it. A-72-year-old male treated earlier for synchronous double malignancy.(invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma right ureter and carcinoma prostate) presented with rising PSA.(0.51.ng/ml) and referred for Ga-68 PSMA PET-CT, which showed a positive enlarged left supraclavicular lymph node. Lymph node biopsy microscopic and immunohistochemistry examination revealed metastatic carcinoma favoring urothelial origin. Specificity of PSMA scan to prostate cancer has been seen to be compromised in a certain situation mostly due to neoangiogenesis, and false positives emerged in renal cell cancer, differentiated thyroid cancer, glioblastoma, breast cancer brain metastasis, and paravertebral schwannomas. Understanding the causes of false positive will further enhance the confidence of interpretating PSMA scans. PMID:27385897

  3. Targeting of Nasal Mucosa-Associated Antigen-Presenting Cells In Vivo with an Outer Membrane Protein A Derived from Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Goetsch, Liliane; Gonzalez, Alexandra; Plotnicky-Gilquin, Hélène; Haeuw, Jean François; Aubry, Jean Pierre; Beck, Alain; Bonnefoy, Jean Yves; Corvaïa, Nathalie

    2001-01-01

    Administration of vaccines by the nasal route has recently proven to be one of the most efficient ways for inducing both mucosal and systemic antibody responses in experimental animals. Our results demonstrate that P40, a well-defined outer membrane protein A from Klebsiella pneumoniae, is indeed a carrier molecule suitable for nasal immunization. Using fragments from the respiratory syncytial virus subgroup A (RSV-A) G protein as antigen models, it has been shown that P40 is able to induce both systemic and mucosal immunity when fused or coupled to a protein or a peptide and administered intranasally (i.n.) to naive or K. pneumoniae-primed mice. Confocal analyses of nasal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue after i.n. instillation of P40 showed that this molecule is able to cross the nasal epithelium and target CD11c-positive cells likely to be murine dendritic cells or macrophages. More importantly, this targeting of antigen-presenting cells following i.n. immunization with a subunit of the RSV-A molecule in the absence of any mucosal adjuvant results in both upper and lower respiratory tract protection against RSV-A infection. PMID:11553588

  4. Radioimmunotherapy of Metastatic Prostate Cancer with ¹⁷⁷Lu-DOTAhuJ591 Anti Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen Specific Monoclonal Antibody.

    PubMed

    Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Nikolopoulou, Anastasia; Jhanwar, Yuliya S; Kaur, Gurveen; Tagawa, Scott T; Nanus, David M; Bander, Neil H; Goldsmith, Stanley J

    2016-01-01

    Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is the single most well-validated prostate cancer (PCa)-specific cell membrane antigen known. It is present in high levels in 95% of PCa, and is an ideal target to develop radiopharmaceuticals for imaging studies and radionuclide therapy. Humanized J591 monoclonal antibody (mAb) binds specifically with nanomolar affinity to the extracellular domain of PSMA. After binding, the PSMA-antibody complex is rapidly internalized, increasing the potential utility of PSMA as a target for the delivery of mAb-conjugated radionuclides or cytotoxins. J591 mAb was labeled with 177Lu at a high specific activity (10-30 mCi/mg) using DOTA as the bifunctional chelate. The preclinical data in PSMA positive xenografts, strongly suggested that 177;Lu-J591 mAb is an ideal radiopharmaceutical for RIT of metastatic PCa. Since October 2000, five clinical studies (phase I and II) were performed in subjects with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) using 177Lu-J591. The methodology and the results of these clinical studies are briefly reviewed in this article. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) as a single dose was 70 mCi2. Based on dose fractionation (DF), MTD was 90 mCi/m2(2 doses of 45 mCi/m2, 2 wks apart). Phase II study in patients with progressive metastatic CRPC, at a dose of 65- 70 mCi/m2 resulted in significant PSA declines in 60% of the patients. While myelosuppression was the dose limiting toxicity, DF alone or in combination with docetaxel also resulted in significant PSA declines with much less toxicity. 177Lu imaging studies demonstrated accurate targeting of known metastatic sites in >90% of patients and those with stronger PSMA expression by semi-quantitative imaging had more PSA declines. These clinical studies clearly documented the potential therapeutic value of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) in metastatic PCa.

  5. Evaluation of protective potential of Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein antigens as possible candidates for a new-generation recombinant plague vaccine.

    PubMed

    Erova, Tatiana E; Rosenzweig, Jason A; Sha, Jian; Suarez, Giovanni; Sierra, Johanna C; Kirtley, Michelle L; van Lier, Christina J; Telepnev, Maxim V; Motin, Vladimir L; Chopra, Ashok K

    2013-02-01

    Plague caused by Yersinia pestis manifests itself in bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic forms. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved levofloxacin, there is no approved human vaccine against plague. The capsular antigen F1 and the low-calcium-response V antigen (LcrV) of Y. pestis represent excellent vaccine candidates; however, the inability of the immune responses to F1 and LcrV to provide protection against Y. pestis F1(-) strains or those which harbor variants of LcrV is a significant concern. Here, we show that the passive transfer of hyperimmune sera from rats infected with the plague bacterium and rescued by levofloxacin protected naive animals against pneumonic plague. Furthermore, 10 to 12 protein bands from wild-type (WT) Y. pestis CO92 reacted with the aforementioned hyperimmune sera upon Western blot analysis. Based on mass spectrometric analysis, four of these proteins were identified as attachment invasion locus (Ail/OmpX), plasminogen-activating protease (Pla), outer membrane protein A (OmpA), and F1. The genes encoding these proteins were cloned, and the recombinant proteins purified from Escherichia coli for immunization purposes before challenging mice and rats with either the F1(-) mutant or WT CO92 in bubonic and pneumonic plague models. Although antibodies to Ail and OmpA protected mice against bubonic plague when challenged with the F1(-) CO92 strain, Pla antibodies were protective against pneumonic plague. In the rat model, antibodies to Ail provided protection only against pneumonic plague after WT CO92 challenge. Together, the addition of Y. pestis outer membrane proteins to a new-generation recombinant vaccine could provide protection against a wide variety of Y. pestis strains.

  6. Sertoliform endometrioid carcinoma of the endometrium with dual immunophenotypes for epithelial membrane antigen and inhibin alpha: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sharon X; Patel, Kausha; Pearl, Michael; Liu, Jingxuan; Zheng, Wenxin; Tornos, Carmen

    2007-07-01

    We report a rare case of sertoliform endometrioid carcinoma of the endometrium in a 71-year-old African American woman who presented with postmenopausal bleeding. Her medical condition was remarkable for hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. She underwent total hysterectomy, right salpingo-oophorectomy and lymph node sampling. The endometrium was occupied by a 4.5-cm solid polypoid tumor, which grossly invaded into the myometrium. Microscopically, the tumor consisted of small hollow tubules, anastomosing cords and trabeculae, and tightly packed nests. Microglandular areas mimicking adult granulosa cell tumors were also present. But true Call-Exner bodies were absent. Component of typical endometrioid carcinoma was noted only focally. The uninvolved endometrium demonstrated atypical complex hyperplasia. The tumor cells were diffusely immunoreactive for epithelial membrane antigen, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor (PR), and focally for vimentin. The tumor cells were also diffusely positive for inhibin alpha and CD99. Immunostains for other sex cord markers (calretinin, WT-1, and Melan-A) were also positive in approximately 30% to 40% of the tumor cells. Immunostains for CD10, smooth muscle actin, desmin, or HHF35 were negative. Two ovarian sertoliform endometrioid carcinomas from our archived tissue were, however, immunoreactive for epithelial membrane antigen but negative for inhibin alpha. Despite the prominent sertoliform features, both histologically and immunohistochemically, the tumor was of a high-grade endometrial carcinoma and will likely behave as such. As of today, dual differentiation of epithelium and sex cord by immunohistochemical staining has not been demonstrated in sertoliform endometrioid carcinomas of either endometrial or ovarian origin. Our case is the first documentation of such example and suggests that endometrial carcinoma can undergo true sex cord differentiation.

  7. Tuning of Hemes b Equilibrium Redox Potential Is Not Required for Cross-Membrane Electron Transfer*

    PubMed Central

    Pintscher, Sebastian; Kuleta, Patryk; Cieluch, Ewelina; Borek, Arkadiusz; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur

    2016-01-01

    In biological energy conversion, cross-membrane electron transfer often involves an assembly of two hemes b. The hemes display a large difference in redox midpoint potentials (ΔEm_b), which in several proteins is assumed to facilitate cross-membrane electron transfer and overcome a barrier of membrane potential. Here we challenge this assumption reporting on heme b ligand mutants of cytochrome bc1 in which, for the first time in transmembrane cytochrome, one natural histidine has been replaced by lysine without loss of the native low spin type of heme iron. With these mutants we show that ΔEm_b can be markedly increased, and the redox potential of one of the hemes can stay above the level of quinone pool, or ΔEm_b can be markedly decreased to the point that two hemes are almost isopotential, yet the enzyme retains catalytically competent electron transfer between quinone binding sites and remains functional in vivo. This reveals that cytochrome bc1 can accommodate large changes in ΔEm_b without hampering catalysis, as long as these changes do not impose overly endergonic steps on downhill electron transfer from substrate to product. We propose that hemes b in this cytochrome and in other membranous cytochromes b act as electronic connectors for the catalytic sites with no fine tuning in ΔEm_b required for efficient cross-membrane electron transfer. We link this concept with a natural flexibility in occurrence of several thermodynamic configurations of the direction of electron flow and the direction of the gradient of potential in relation to the vector of the electric membrane potential. PMID:26858251

  8. Tuning of Hemes b Equilibrium Redox Potential Is Not Required for Cross-Membrane Electron Transfer.

    PubMed

    Pintscher, Sebastian; Kuleta, Patryk; Cieluch, Ewelina; Borek, Arkadiusz; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur

    2016-03-25

    In biological energy conversion, cross-membrane electron transfer often involves an assembly of two hemesb The hemes display a large difference in redox midpoint potentials (ΔEm_b), which in several proteins is assumed to facilitate cross-membrane electron transfer and overcome a barrier of membrane potential. Here we challenge this assumption reporting on hemebligand mutants of cytochromebc1in which, for the first time in transmembrane cytochrome, one natural histidine has been replaced by lysine without loss of the native low spin type of heme iron. With these mutants we show that ΔEm_b can be markedly increased, and the redox potential of one of the hemes can stay above the level of quinone pool, or ΔEm_b can be markedly decreased to the point that two hemes are almost isopotential, yet the enzyme retains catalytically competent electron transfer between quinone binding sites and remains functionalin vivo This reveals that cytochromebc1can accommodate large changes in ΔEm_b without hampering catalysis, as long as these changes do not impose overly endergonic steps on downhill electron transfer from substrate to product. We propose that hemesbin this cytochrome and in other membranous cytochromesbact as electronic connectors for the catalytic sites with no fine tuning in ΔEm_b required for efficient cross-membrane electron transfer. We link this concept with a natural flexibility in occurrence of several thermodynamic configurations of the direction of electron flow and the direction of the gradient of potential in relation to the vector of the electric membrane potential.

  9. Tuning of Hemes b Equilibrium Redox Potential Is Not Required for Cross-Membrane Electron Transfer.

    PubMed

    Pintscher, Sebastian; Kuleta, Patryk; Cieluch, Ewelina; Borek, Arkadiusz; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur

    2016-03-25

    In biological energy conversion, cross-membrane electron transfer often involves an assembly of two hemesb The hemes display a large difference in redox midpoint potentials (ΔEm_b), which in several proteins is assumed to facilitate cross-membrane electron transfer and overcome a barrier of membrane potential. Here we challenge this assumption reporting on hemebligand mutants of cytochromebc1in which, for the first time in transmembrane cytochrome, one natural histidine has been replaced by lysine without loss of the native low spin type of heme iron. With these mutants we show that ΔEm_b can be markedly increased, and the redox potential of one of the hemes can stay above the level of quinone pool, or ΔEm_b can be markedly decreased to the point that two hemes are almost isopotential, yet the enzyme retains catalytically competent electron transfer between quinone binding sites and remains functionalin vivo This reveals that cytochromebc1can accommodate large changes in ΔEm_b without hampering catalysis, as long as these changes do not impose overly endergonic steps on downhill electron transfer from substrate to product. We propose that hemesbin this cytochrome and in other membranous cytochromesbact as electronic connectors for the catalytic sites with no fine tuning in ΔEm_b required for efficient cross-membrane electron transfer. We link this concept with a natural flexibility in occurrence of several thermodynamic configurations of the direction of electron flow and the direction of the gradient of potential in relation to the vector of the electric membrane potential. PMID:26858251

  10. Phosphatidylserine flipping enhances membrane curvature and negative charge required for vesicular transport

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peng; Baldridge, Ryan D.; Chi, Richard J.; Burd, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Vesicle-mediated protein transport between organelles of the secretory and endocytic pathways is strongly influenced by the composition and organization of membrane lipids. In budding yeast, protein transport between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and early endosome (EE) requires Drs2, a phospholipid translocase in the type IV P-type ATPase family. However, downstream effectors of Drs2 and specific phospholipid substrate requirements for protein transport in this pathway are unknown. Here, we show that the Arf GTPase-activating protein (ArfGAP) Gcs1 is a Drs2 effector that requires a variant of the ArfGAP lipid packing sensor (+ALPS) motif for localization to TGN/EE membranes. Drs2 increases membrane curvature and anionic phospholipid composition of the cytosolic leaflet, both of which are sensed by the +ALPS motif. Using mutant forms of Drs2 and the related protein Dnf1, which alter their ability to recognize phosphatidylserine, we show that translocation of this substrate to the cytosolic leaflet is essential for +ALPS binding and vesicular transport between the EE and the TGN. PMID:24019533

  11. Major histocompatibility complex class II antigens are required for both cytokine production and proliferation induced by mercuric chloride in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hu, H; Möller, G; Abedi-Valugerdi, M

    1997-10-01

    Autoimmune diseases induced by mercuric chloride are genetically determined, at least one gene being major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-linked. Previously, we showed that in vitro mercury stimulation induced a high proliferative response in lymphocytes from susceptible mice (high-responders) and that the proliferative response could be restored in lymphocytes from low-responders by pretreating the cells with mercury. We also found that the continuous presence of mercury induced IL-2 and IFN-gamma production, while pretreatment with mercury induced IL-4 production. In this study, we showed that anti-MHC class II monoclonal antibodies blocked both the mercury-induced proliferative responses in lymphocytes from high-responders and the restored proliferative responses in low-responders. In addition, anti-MHC class II antibodies also inhibited the mercury-induced IL-2, IFN-gamma and IL-4 cytokine production in vitro. The results demonstrate that MHC class II antigens directly participate in mercury-induced cytokine production and cell activation, and are required at the onset of the initiation.

  12. A bioinformatics prediction approach towards analyzing the glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA/MUC1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalra, Rajkumar S.; Wadhwa, Renu

    2015-02-01

    Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA or MUC1) is a heavily glycosylated, type I transmembrane glycoprotein commonly expressed by epithelial cells of duct organs. It has been shown to be aberrantly glycosylated in several diseases including cancer. Protein sequence based annotation and analysis of glycosylation profile of glycoproteins by robust computational and comprehensive algorithms provides possible insights to the mechanism(s) of anomalous glycosylation. In present report, by using a number of bioinformatics applications we studied EMA/MUC1 and explored its trans-membrane structural domain sequence that is widely subjected to glycosylation. Exploration of different extracellular motifs led to prediction of N and O-linked glycosylation target sites. Based on the putative O-linked target sites, glycosylated moieties and pathways were envisaged. Furthermore, Protein network analysis demonstrated physical interaction of EMA with a number of proteins and confirmed its functional involvement in cell growth and proliferation pathways. Gene Ontology analysis suggested an involvement of EMA in a number of functions including signal transduction, protein binding, processing & transport along with glycosylation. Thus, present study explored potential of bioinformatics prediction approach in analyzing glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of EMA/MUC1 glycoprotein.

  13. Increased Goodpasture Antigen-Binding Protein Expression Induces Type IV Collagen Disorganization and Deposit of Immunoglobulin A in Glomerular Basement Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Revert, Fernando; Merino, Ramón; Monteagudo, Carlos; Macias, Jesús; Peydró, Amando; Alcácer, Javier; Muniesa, Pedro; Marquina, Regina; Blanco, Mario; Iglesias, Marcos; Revert-Ros, Francisco; Merino, Jesús; Saus, Juan

    2007-01-01

    Increased expression of Goodpasture antigen-binding protein (GPBP), a protein that binds and phosphorylates basement membrane collagen, has been associated with immune complex-mediated pathogenesis. However, recent reports have questioned this biological function and proposed that GPBP serves as a cytosolic ceramide transporter (CERTL). Thus, the role of GPBP in vivo remains unknown. New Zealand White (NZW) mice are considered healthy animals although they convey a genetic predisposition for immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis. Here we show that NZW mice developed age-dependent lupus-prone autoimmune response and immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis characterized by elevated GPBP, glomerular basement membrane (GBM) collagen disorganization and expansion, and deposits of IgA on disrupted GBM. Transgenic overexpression of human GPBP (hGPBP) in non-lupus-prone mice triggered similar glomerular abnormalities including deposits of IgA on a capillary GBM that underwent dissociation, in the absence of an evident autoimmune response. We provide in vivo evidence that GPBP regulates GBM collagen organization and its elevated expression causes dissociation and subsequent accumulation of IgA on the GBM. Finally, we describe a previously unrecognized pathogenic mechanism that may be relevant in human primary immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis. PMID:17916599

  14. A bioinformatics prediction approach towards analyzing the glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA/MUC1)

    SciTech Connect

    Kalra, Rajkumar S. Wadhwa, Renu

    2015-02-27

    Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA or MUC1) is a heavily glycosylated, type I transmembrane glycoprotein commonly expressed by epithelial cells of duct organs. It has been shown to be aberrantly glycosylated in several diseases including cancer. Protein sequence based annotation and analysis of glycosylation profile of glycoproteins by robust computational and comprehensive algorithms provides possible insights to the mechanism(s) of anomalous glycosylation. In present report, by using a number of bioinformatics applications we studied EMA/MUC1 and explored its trans-membrane structural domain sequence that is widely subjected to glycosylation. Exploration of different extracellular motifs led to prediction of N and O-linked glycosylation target sites. Based on the putative O-linked target sites, glycosylated moieties and pathways were envisaged. Furthermore, Protein network analysis demonstrated physical interaction of EMA with a number of proteins and confirmed its functional involvement in cell growth and proliferation pathways. Gene Ontology analysis suggested an involvement of EMA in a number of functions including signal transduction, protein binding, processing and transport along with glycosylation. Thus, present study explored potential of bioinformatics prediction approach in analyzing glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of EMA/MUC1 glycoprotein.

  15. Phosphorylation at tyrosine 114 of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is required for adipogenesis in response to high fat diet

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Yuan-Hung; Ho, Po-Chun; Chen, Min-Shan; Hugo, Eric; Ben-Jonathan, Nira; Wang, Shao-Chun

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is phosphorylated at Y114. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phospho-Y114 of PCNA is not required for cell proliferation for normal growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MCE during adipogenesis is abolished in the lack of the phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homozygous Y114F mice are resistant to high fat diet induced obesity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results shed light on the interface between proliferation and differentiation. -- Abstract: Clonal proliferation is an obligatory component of adipogenesis. Although several cell cycle regulators are known to participate in the transition between pre-adipocyte proliferation and terminal adipocyte differentiation, how the core DNA synthesis machinery is coordinately regulated in adipogenesis remains elusive. PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen) is an indispensable component for DNA synthesis during proliferation. Here we show that PCNA is subject to phosphorylation at the highly conserved tyrosine residue 114 (Y114). Replacing the Y114 residue with phenylalanine (Y114F), which is structurally similar to tyrosine but cannot be phosphorylated, does not affect normal animal development. However, when challenged with high fat diet, mice carrying homozygous Y114F alleles (PCNA{sup F/F}) are resistant to adipose tissue enlargement in comparison to wild-type (WT) mice. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) harboring WT or Y114F mutant PCNA proliferate at similar rates. However, when subjected to adipogenesis induction in culture, PCNA{sup F/F} MEFs are not able to re-enter the cell cycle and fail to form mature adipocytes, while WT MEFs undergo mitotic clonal expansion in response to the adipogenic stimulation, accompanied by enhanced Y114 phosphorylation of PCNA, and differentiate to mature adipocytes. Consistent with the function of Y114 phosphorylation in clonal proliferation in adipogenesis, fat tissues isolated from WT

  16. Species-specific functional interactions of DNA polymerase alpha-primase with simian virus 40 (SV40) T antigen require SV40 origin DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, C; Weisshart, K; Guarino, L A; Dornreiter, I; Fanning, E

    1994-01-01

    Physical and functional interactions of simian virus 40 (SV40) and polyomavirus large-T antigens with DNA polymerase alpha-primase were analyzed to elucidate the molecular basis for the species specificity of polymerase alpha-primase in viral DNA replication. SV40 T antigen associated more efficiently with polymerase alpha-primase in crude human extracts than in mouse extracts, while polyomavirus T antigen interacted preferentially with polymerase alpha-primase in mouse extracts. The apparent species specificity of complex formation was not observed when purified polymerase alpha-primases were substituted for the crude extracts. Several functional interactions between T antigen and purified polymerase alpha-primase, including stimulation of primer synthesis and primer elongation on M13 DNA in the presence or absence of the single-stranded DNA binding protein RP-A, also proved to be independent of the species from which polymerase alpha-primase had been purified. However, the human DNA polymerase alpha-primase was specifically required for primosome assembly and primer synthesis on SV40 origin DNA in the presence of T antigen and RP-A. Images PMID:8164673

  17. Host defense against Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires ceramide-rich membrane rafts.

    PubMed

    Grassmé, H; Jendrossek, V; Riehle, A; von Kürthy, G; Berger, J; Schwarz, H; Weller, M; Kolesnick, R; Gulbins, E

    2003-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is a serious complication in patients with cystic fibrosis and in immunocompromised individuals. Here we show that P. aeruginosa infection triggers activation of the acid sphingomyelinase and the release of ceramide in sphingolipid-rich rafts. Ceramide reorganizes these rafts into larger signaling platforms that are required to internalize P. aeruginosa, induce apoptosis and regulate the cytokine response in infected cells. Failure to generate ceramide-enriched membrane platforms in infected cells results in an unabated inflammatory response, massive release of interleukin (IL)-1 and septic death of mice. Our findings show that ceramide-enriched membrane platforms are central to the host defense against this potentially lethal pathogen. PMID:12563314

  18. Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein (LAMP) – preliminary study on a hidden antigen target for vaccination against schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Nawaratna, Sujeevi S. K.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Willis, Charlene; Mulvenna, Jason; Hofmann, Andreas; McManus, Donald P.; Jones, Malcolm K.

    2015-01-01

    Our previously reported gene atlasing of schistosome tissues revealed transcripts that were highly enriched in the digestive tract of Schistosoma mansoni. From these, we selected two candidates, Sm-LAMP and Sm-NPC2 for testing as vaccine targets. The two molecules were selected on the basis of relatively high expression in the gastrodermis, their potentially important biological function, divergence from homologous molecules of the host and possible apical membrane expression in the gastrodermis. Bacterially expressed recombinant peptides corresponding to regions excluding trans-membrane domains of the selected vaccine targets were used in blinded vaccine trials in CBA mice using alum-CpG as adjuvant. Vaccine trials using the recombinant insoluble Sm-LAMP protein showed 16–25% significant reduction in total worm burden. Faecal egg count reduction was 52% and 60% in two trials, respectively, with similar results for the solubly expressed protein. Liver egg burden was reduced significantly (20% and 38%) with an insoluble recombinant Sm-LAMP in two trials, but not with the soluble recombinant form. Parasite fecundity was not affected by either Sm-LAMP protein preparations in the trials. It is concluded that Sm-LAMP may provide limited protection towards S. mansoni infections but could be used in combination with other vaccine candidates, to provide more comprehensive protection. PMID:26472258

  19. Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein (LAMP)--preliminary study on a hidden antigen target for vaccination against schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Nawaratna, Sujeevi S K; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Willis, Charlene; Mulvenna, Jason; Hofmann, Andreas; McManus, Donald P; Jones, Malcolm K

    2015-01-01

    Our previously reported gene atlasing of schistosome tissues revealed transcripts that were highly enriched in the digestive tract of Schistosoma mansoni. From these, we selected two candidates, Sm-LAMP and Sm-NPC2 for testing as vaccine targets. The two molecules were selected on the basis of relatively high expression in the gastrodermis, their potentially important biological function, divergence from homologous molecules of the host and possible apical membrane expression in the gastrodermis. Bacterially expressed recombinant peptides corresponding to regions excluding trans-membrane domains of the selected vaccine targets were used in blinded vaccine trials in CBA mice using alum-CpG as adjuvant. Vaccine trials using the recombinant insoluble Sm-LAMP protein showed 16-25% significant reduction in total worm burden. Faecal egg count reduction was 52% and 60% in two trials, respectively, with similar results for the solubly expressed protein. Liver egg burden was reduced significantly (20% and 38%) with an insoluble recombinant Sm-LAMP in two trials, but not with the soluble recombinant form. Parasite fecundity was not affected by either Sm-LAMP protein preparations in the trials. It is concluded that Sm-LAMP may provide limited protection towards S. mansoni infections but could be used in combination with other vaccine candidates, to provide more comprehensive protection. PMID:26472258

  20. Comparison of clinical performance of antigen based-enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP)-PCR for detection of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    PubMed Central

    Nateghi Rostami, Mahmoud; Hossein Rashidi, Batool; Aghsaghloo, Fatemeh; Nazari, Razieh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen worldwide. Early detection and treatment of C.trachomatis genital infection prevent serious reproductive complications. Objective: Performances of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of genital C.trachomatis infection in women were compared. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study a total of 518 women volunteers were included (33.67±8.3 yrs) who had been referred to Gynecology clinics of Qom province, Iran, were included. Endocervical swab specimens were collected to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen in EIA and to amplify MOMP gene of C.trachomatis in PCR. Results were confirmed using ompI nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated for performance of the tests. Odds ratios were determined using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: In total, 37 (7.14%) cases were positive by EIA and/or MOMP-PCR. All discrepant results were confirmed by nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV values of EIA were 59.46%, 100%, 100% and 96.98%, and those of MOMP-PCR were 97.30%, 100%, 100%, 99.79%, respectively. Reproductive complications including 2.7% ectopic pregnancy, 5.4% stillbirth, 5.4% infertility, and 10.8% PROM were recorded. The risk of developing chlamydiosis was increased 4.8-fold in volunteers with cervicitis (p<0.05; OR 4.80; 95% CI 1.25-18.48). Conclusion: C.trachomatis infection should be regarded in women of reproductive ages especially those with cervicitis. Primary screening of women by using the low cost antigen-EIA is recommended; however, due to the low sensitivity of Ag-EIA, verification of the negative results by a DNA amplification method is needed. PMID:27525325

  1. Genetic polymorphism and effect of natural selection at domain I of apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) in Plasmodium vivax isolates from Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sung-Ung; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Kang, Jung-Mi; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Park, Yun-Kyu; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Lin, Khin; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2010-05-01

    Malaria is endemic or hypoendemic in Myanmar and the country still contributes to the high level of malaria deaths in South-East Asia. Although information on the nature and extent of population diversity within malaria parasites in the country is essential not only for understanding the epidemic situation but also to establish a proper control strategy, very little data is currently available on the extent of genetic polymorphisms of the malaria parasites in Myanmar. In this study, we analyzed the genetic polymorphism and natural selection at domain I of the apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) among Plasmodium vivax Myanmar isolates. A total of 34 distinguishable haplotypes were identified among the 76 isolates sequenced. Comparison with the previously available PvAMA-1 sequences in the GenBank database revealed that 21 of them were new haplotypes that have never been reported till date. The difference between the rate of nonsynonymous (dN) and synonymous (dS) mutations was positive (dN-dS, 0.013+/-0.005), suggesting the domain I is under positive natural selection. The Tajima's D statistics was found to be -0.74652, suggesting that the gene has evolved under population size expansion and/or positive selection. The minimum recombination events were also high, indicating that recombination may occur within the domain I resulting in allelic diversity of PvAMA-1. Our results collectively suggest that PvAMA-1 displays high genetic polymorphism among Myanmar P. vivax isolates with highly diversifying selection at domain I. These results have significant implications in understanding the nature of P. vivax population circulating in Myanmar as well as providing useful information for malaria vaccine development based on this antigen.

  2. Regulated delayed expression of rfaH in an attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium vaccine enhances immunogenicity of outer membrane proteins and a heterologous antigen.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qingke; Liu, Qing; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy

    2009-12-01

    RfaH is a transcriptional antiterminator that reduces the polarity of long operons encoding secreted and surface-associated cell components of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, including O antigen and lipopolysaccharide core sugars. A DeltarfaH mutant strain is attenuated in mice (50% lethal dose [LD(50)], >10(8) CFU). To examine the potential for using rfaH in conjunction with other attenuating mutations, we designed a series of strains in which we replaced the native rfaH promoter with the tightly regulated arabinose-dependent araC P(BAD) promoter so that rfaH expression was dependent on exogenously supplied arabinose provided during in vitro growth. Following colonization of host lymphoid tissues, where arabinose was not available, the P(BAD) promoter was no longer active and rfaH was not expressed. In the absence of RfaH, O antigen and core sugars were not synthesized. We constructed three mutant strains that expressed different levels of RfaH by altering the ribosome-binding sequence and start codon. One mutation, DeltaP(rfaH178), was introduced into the attenuated vaccine strain chi9241 (DeltapabA DeltapabB DeltaasdA) expressing the pneumococcal surface protein PspA from an Asd(+) balanced-lethal plasmid. Mice immunized with this strain and boosted 4 weeks later induced higher levels of serum immunoglobulin G specific for PspA and for outer membrane proteins from other enteric bacteria than either an isogenic DeltarfaH derivative or the isogenic RfaH(+) parent. Eight weeks after primary oral immunization, mice were challenged with 200 LD(50) of virulent Streptococcus pneumoniae WU2. Immunization with DeltaP(rfaH178) mutant strains led to increased levels of protection compared to that of the parent chi9241 and of a DeltarfaH derivative of chi9241.

  3. Improved immunogenicity of a H44/76 group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine with over-expressed genome-derived Neisserial antigen 1870.

    PubMed

    Koeberling, Oliver; Welsch, Jo Anne; Granoff, Dan M

    2007-02-26

    A broadly protective vaccine against meningococcal group B disease is not available. We previously reported that an outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine containing over-expressed genome-derived antigen (GNA) 1870 elicited broader protective antibody responses than recombinant GNA1870 or conventional OMV vaccines prepared from a strain that naturally expresses low amounts of GNA1870. Certain wildtype strains such as H44/76 naturally express larger amounts of GNA1870 and, potentially, could be used to prepare an improved OMV vaccine without genetic over-expression of the antigen. We transformed H44/76 with a shuttle vector to over-express variant 1 (v.1) GNA1870 and compared the immunogenicity in mice of OMV vaccines prepared from wildtype H44/76 (v.1), the mutant, and a recombinant v.1 GNA1870 vaccine. Mice immunized with OMV with over-expressed GNA1870 developed broader serum bactericidal and/or greater C3 deposition activity on the surface of encapsulated strains of N. meningitidis than control mice immunized with the OMV vaccine prepared from the wildtype strain, or the rGNA1870 vaccine. When a panel of group B strains from patients in California was tested, sera from mice immunized with the OMV vaccine containing over-expressed GNA1870 were bactericidal against 100% of the v.1 strains. In contrast, only 20% of isolates that expressed subvariants of the v.1 GNA1870 protein were susceptible to bactericidal activity of antibodies elicited by the rGNA1870 or conventional OMV vaccines. Thus, even a modest increase in GNA1870 expression in a strain that naturally is a high producer of GNA1870 results in an OMV vaccine that elicits broader protection against meningococcal disease.

  4. Antigen Presentation by MHC-Dressed Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as conventional dendritic cells (DCs) process protein antigens to MHC-bound peptides and then present the peptide–MHC complexes to T cells. In addition to this canonical antigen presentation pathway, recent studies have revealed that DCs and non-APCs can acquire MHC class I (MHCI) and/or MHC class II (MHCII) from neighboring cells through a process of cell–cell contact-dependent membrane transfer called trogocytosis. These MHC-dressed cells subsequently activate or regulate T cells via the preformed antigen peptide–MHC complexes without requiring any further processing. In addition to trogocytosis, intercellular transfer of MHCI and MHCII can be mediated by secretion of membrane vesicles such as exosomes from APCs, generating MHC-dressed cells. This review focuses on the physiological role of antigen presentation by MHCI- or MHCII-dressed cells, and also discusses differences and similarities between trogocytosis and exosome-mediated transfer of MHC. PMID:25601867

  5. The translational regulatory function of SecM requires the precise timing of membrane targeting

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Mee-Ngan; Bernstein, Harris D.

    2011-01-01

    In E. coli, secA expression is regulated at the translational level by an upstream gene (secM) that encodes a presecretory protein. SecM contains a C-terminal sequence motif that induces a transient translation arrest. Inhibition of SecM membrane targeting prolongs the translation arrest and increases SecA synthesis by concomitantly altering the structure of the secM-secA mRNA. Here we show that the SecM signal peptide plays an essential role in this regulatory process by acting as a molecular timer that coordinates membrane targeting with the synthesis of the arrest motif. We found that signal peptide mutations that alter targeting kinetics and insertions or deletions that change the distance between the SecM signal peptide and the arrest motif perturb the balance between the onset and release of arrest that is required to regulate SecA synthesis. Furthermore, we found that the strength of the interaction between the ribosome and the SecM arrest motif is calibrated to ensure the release of arrest upon membrane targeting. Our results strongly suggest that several distinctive features of the SecM protein evolved as a consequence of constraints imposed by the ribosome and the Sec machinery. PMID:21635582

  6. Analysis of the structural requirements for lysosomal membrane targeting using transferrin receptor chimeras.

    PubMed

    White, S; Hatton, S R; Siddiqui, M A; Parker, C D; Trowbridge, I S; Collawn, J F

    1998-06-01

    The sorting of membrane proteins to the lysosome requires tyrosine- or dileucine-based targeting signals. Recycling receptors have similar signals, yet these proteins seldom enter the latter stages of the endocytic pathway. To determine how lysosomal and internalization signals differ, we prepared chimeric molecules consisting of the cytoplasmic tails of CD3 gamma-chain, lysosomal acid phosphatase, and lysosomal-associated membrane glycoprotein-1, each fused to the transmembrane and extracellular domains of the transferrin receptor (TR). Each chimera was expressed on the cell surface and rapidly internalized. Metabolic pulse-chase experiments showed that the CD3 gamma-chain and lysosomal acid phosphatase chimeras, unlike the lysosomal-associated membrane glycoprotein chimera, were rapidly degraded in a post-Golgi compartment following normal glycosylation. Transplantation of signals from CD3 gamma-chain and lysosomal acid phosphatase into the TR cytoplasmic tail in place of the native signal, Y20TRF23, indicated that each signal was sufficient to promote endocytosis but not lysosomal targeting of the resulting mutant. Transplantation of two CD3 signals at specific sites in the TR cytoplasmic tail or a single tyrosine-based signal in a truncated TR tail, however, was sufficient to promote lysosomal targeting. Our results therefore suggest that the relative position of the signal within the cytoplasmic tail is a critical feature that distinguishes lysosomal targeting signals from internalization signals.

  7. Native bivalvular endocarditis by Gemella haemolysans requiring venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Ando, Akika; Kagihara, Jaclyn; Chung, Heath; Bolger, Dennis Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A 24-year-old otherwise healthy man presented with a 3-week history of malaise, headache, fever and rigors after he was treated with oral clindamycin for left parotitis and Gemella haemolysans bacteraemia. He developed G. haemolysans infective endocarditis, septic emboli and heart failure due to progressive bivalvular disease. He underwent urgent mechanical aortic valve replacement and mitral valve repair, which required venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, to support severe respiratory failure. This is the first documented case of G. haemolysans infective endocarditis affecting native aortic and mitral valves in a healthy adult. PMID:27539135

  8. The Dysferlin Domain-Only Protein, Spo73, Is Required for Prospore Membrane Extension in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Yuuya; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi S; Tanaka, Takayuki; Inoue, Ichiro; Suda, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Nakanishi, Hideki; Nakamura, Shugo; Gao, Xiao-Dong; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sporulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a developmental process in which an ascus containing four haploid spores forms from a diploid cell. During this process, newly formed membrane structures called prospore membranes extend along the nuclear envelope and engulf and package daughter nuclei along with cytosol and organelles to form precursors of spores. Proteins involved in prospore membrane extension, Vps13 and Spo71, have recently been reported; however, the overall mechanism of membrane extension remains unclear. Here, we identified Spo73 as an additional factor involved in prospore membrane extension. Analysis of a spo73∆ mutant revealed that it shows defects similar to those of a spo71∆ mutant during prospore membrane formation. Spo73 localizes to the prospore membrane, and this localization is independent of Spo71 and Vps13. In contrast, a Spo73 protein carrying mutations in a surface basic patch mislocalizes to the cytoplasm and overexpression of Spo71 can partially rescue localization to the prospore membrane. Similar to spo71∆ mutants, spo73∆ mutants display genetic interactions with the mutations in the SMA2 and SPO1 genes involved in prospore membrane bending. Further, our bioinformatic analysis revealed that Spo73 is a dysferlin domain-only protein. Thus, these results suggest that a dysferlin domain-only protein, Spo73, functions with a dual pleckstrin homology domain protein, Spo71, in prospore membrane extension. Analysis of Spo73 will provide insights into the conserved function of dysferlin domains, which is related to dysferlinopathy. IMPORTANCE Prospore membrane formation consists of de novo double-membrane formation, which occurs during the developmental process of sporulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Membranes are formed into their proper size and shape, and thus, prospore membrane formation has been studied as a general model of membrane formation. We identified SPO73, previously shown to be required for spore wall formation

  9. The Dysferlin Domain-Only Protein, Spo73, Is Required for Prospore Membrane Extension in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Yuuya; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi S; Tanaka, Takayuki; Inoue, Ichiro; Suda, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Nakanishi, Hideki; Nakamura, Shugo; Gao, Xiao-Dong; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sporulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a developmental process in which an ascus containing four haploid spores forms from a diploid cell. During this process, newly formed membrane structures called prospore membranes extend along the nuclear envelope and engulf and package daughter nuclei along with cytosol and organelles to form precursors of spores. Proteins involved in prospore membrane extension, Vps13 and Spo71, have recently been reported; however, the overall mechanism of membrane extension remains unclear. Here, we identified Spo73 as an additional factor involved in prospore membrane extension. Analysis of a spo73∆ mutant revealed that it shows defects similar to those of a spo71∆ mutant during prospore membrane formation. Spo73 localizes to the prospore membrane, and this localization is independent of Spo71 and Vps13. In contrast, a Spo73 protein carrying mutations in a surface basic patch mislocalizes to the cytoplasm and overexpression of Spo71 can partially rescue localization to the prospore membrane. Similar to spo71∆ mutants, spo73∆ mutants display genetic interactions with the mutations in the SMA2 and SPO1 genes involved in prospore membrane bending. Further, our bioinformatic analysis revealed that Spo73 is a dysferlin domain-only protein. Thus, these results suggest that a dysferlin domain-only protein, Spo73, functions with a dual pleckstrin homology domain protein, Spo71, in prospore membrane extension. Analysis of Spo73 will provide insights into the conserved function of dysferlin domains, which is related to dysferlinopathy. IMPORTANCE Prospore membrane formation consists of de novo double-membrane formation, which occurs during the developmental process of sporulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Membranes are formed into their proper size and shape, and thus, prospore membrane formation has been studied as a general model of membrane formation. We identified SPO73, previously shown to be required for spore wall formation

  10. Effect of sialylation of lipopolysaccharide of Neisseria gonorrhoeae on recognition and complement-mediated killing by monoclonal antibodies directed against different outer-membrane antigens.

    PubMed

    de la Paz, H; Cooke, S J; Heckels, J E

    1995-04-01

    Growth of gonococci in the presence of CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-NANA) has previously been shown to induce resistance to the bactericidal effect of normal human serum and is accompanied by sialylation of the gonococcal lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We have used monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to compare the effect of LPS sialylation on recognition of gonococci and complement-mediated killing by antibodies directed either against LPS or against defined epitopes on outer-membrane protein PI. Despite differences in binding to sialylated LPS on Western blots, all three mAbs directed against LPS showed considerably reduced binding to gonococci grown in the presence of CMP-NANA and a concomitant reduction in ability to promote complement-mediated killing. In contrast, mAbs directed against previously defined epitopes on a surface exposed loop of PI showed little difference in binding between sialylated and non-sialylated gonococci and promoted killing of the sialylated gonococci. Similarly a mAb directed against an epitope on a loop of the outer-membrane Rmp protein, which had previously been shown to block killing by antibodies directed against other surface antigens, also exerted a blocking effect with sialylated gonococci. Thus in the present study the continued biological effect of mAbs was correlated with the ability of the antibody to recognize surface-exposed epitopes on sialylated gonococci. Despite the presence of the sialylation which is likely to occur in vivo, it should be possible to induce complement-mediated killing by focusing the immune response to those surface-exposed epitopes which are least susceptible to the potential inhibitory effect of LPS sialylation.

  11. Antibody and delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to Ochrobactrum anthropi cytosolic and outer membrane antigens in infections by smooth and rough Brucella spp.

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, J; Díaz, R; Grilló, M J; Barberán, M; Marín, C; Blasco, J M; Moriyón, I

    1997-01-01

    Immunological cross-reactions between Brucella spp. and Ochrobactrum anthropi were investigated in animals and humans naturally infected by Brucella spp. and in experimentally infected rams (Brucella ovis infected), rabbits (Brucella melitensis infected), and mice (B. melitensis and Brucella abortus infected). In the animals tested, O. anthropi cytosolic proteins evoked a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction of a frequency and intensity similar to that observed with B. melitensis brucellin. O. anthropi cytosolic proteins also reacted in gel precipitation tests with antibodies in sera from Brucella natural hosts with a frequency similar to that observed with B. melitensis proteins, and absorption experiments and immunoblotting showed antibodies to both Brucella-specific proteins and proteins common to Brucella and O. anthropi. No antibodies to O. anthropi cytosolic proteins were detected in the sera of Brucella-free hosts. Immunoblotting with sera of Brucella-infected sheep and goats showed immunoglobulin G (IgG) to Brucella group 3 outer membrane proteins and to O. anthropi proteins of similar molecular weight. No IgG to the O-specific polysaccharide of O. anthropi lipopolysaccharide was detected in the sera of Brucella-infected hosts. The sera of sheep, goats, and rabbits infected with B. melitensis contained IgG to O. anthropi rough lipopolysaccharide and lipid A, and B. ovis and O. anthropi rough lipopolysaccharides showed equal reactivities with IgG in the sera of B. ovis-infected rams. The findings show that the immunoresponse of Brucella-infected hosts to protein antigens is not necessarily specific for brucellae and suggest that the presence of O. anthropi or some related bacteria explains the previously described reactivities to Brucella rough lipopolysaccharide and outer membrane proteins in healthy animals. PMID:9144364

  12. Live imaging and modeling of inner nuclear membrane targeting reveals its molecular requirements in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Boni, Andrea; Politi, Antonio Z.; Strnad, Petr; Xiang, Wanqing; Hossain, M. Julius

    2015-01-01

    Targeting of inner nuclear membrane (INM) proteins is essential for nuclear architecture and function, yet its mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we established a new reporter that allows real-time imaging of membrane protein transport from the ER to the INM using Lamin B receptor and Lap2β as model INM proteins. These reporters allowed us to characterize the kinetics of INM targeting and establish a mathematical model of this process and enabled us to probe its molecular requirements in an RNA interference screen of 96 candidate genes. Modeling of the phenotypes of genes involved in transport of these INM proteins predicted that it critically depended on the number and permeability of nuclear pores and the availability of nuclear binding sites, but was unaffected by depletion of most transport receptors. These predictions were confirmed with targeted validation experiments on the functional requirements of nucleoporins and nuclear lamins. Collectively, our data support a diffusion retention model of INM protein transport in mammalian cells. PMID:26056140

  13. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus entry mechanism requires late endosome formation and resists cell membrane cholesterol depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Kolokoltsov, Andrey A.; Fleming, Elisa H.; Davey, Robert A. . E-mail: radavey@utmb.edu

    2006-04-10

    Virus envelope proteins determine receptor utilization and host range. The choice of receptor not only permits specific targeting of cells that express it, but also directs the virus into specific endosomal trafficking pathways. Disrupting trafficking can result in loss of virus infectivity due to redirection of virions to non-productive pathways. Identification of the pathway or pathways used by a virus is, thus, important in understanding virus pathogenesis mechanisms and for developing new treatment strategies. Most of our understanding of alphavirus entry has focused on the Old World alphaviruses, such as Sindbis and Semliki Forest virus. In comparison, very little is known about the entry route taken by more pathogenic New World alphaviruses. Here, we use a novel contents mixing assay to identify the cellular requirements for entry of a New World alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). Expression of dominant negative forms of key endosomal trafficking genes shows that VEEV must access clathrin-dependent endocytic vesicles for membrane fusion to occur. Unexpectedly, the exit point is different from Old World alphaviruses that leave from early endosomes. Instead, VEEV also requires functional late endosomes. Furthermore, unlike the Old World viruses, VEEV entry is insensitive to cholesterol sequestration from cell membranes and may reflect a need to access an endocytic compartment that lacks cholesterol. This indicates fundamental differences in the entry route taken by VEEV compared to Old World alphaviruses.

  14. Homotypic vacuole fusion in yeast requires organelle acidification and not the V-ATPase membrane domain.

    PubMed

    Coonrod, Emily M; Graham, Laurie A; Carpp, Lindsay N; Carr, Tom M; Stirrat, Laura; Bowers, Katherine; Bryant, Nia J; Stevens, Tom H

    2013-11-25

    Studies of homotypic vacuole-vacuole fusion in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been instrumental in determining the cellular machinery required for eukaryotic membrane fusion and have implicated the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase). The V-ATPase is a multisubunit, rotary proton pump whose precise role in homotypic fusion is controversial. Models formulated from in vitro studies suggest that it is the proteolipid proton-translocating pore of the V-ATPase that functions in fusion, with further studies in worms, flies, zebrafish, and mice appearing to support this model. We present two in vivo assays and use a mutant V-ATPase subunit to establish that it is the H(+)-translocation/vacuole acidification function, rather than the physical presence of the V-ATPase, that promotes homotypic vacuole fusion in yeast. Furthermore, we show that acidification of the yeast vacuole in the absence of the V-ATPase rescues vacuole-fusion defects. Our results clarify the in vivo requirements of acidification for membrane fusion.

  15. Biochemical requirements for the targeting and fusion of ER-derived transport vesicles with purified yeast Golgi membranes

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    In order for secretion to progress, ER-derived transport vesicles must target to, and fuse with the cis-Golgi compartment. These processes have been reconstituted using highly enriched membrane fractions and partially purified soluble components. The functionally active yeast Golgi membranes that have been purified are highly enriched in the cis- Golgi marker enzymes alpha 1,6 mannosyltransferase and GDPase. Fusion of transport vesicles with these membranes requires both GTP and ATP hydrolysis, and depends on cytosolic and peripheral membrane proteins. At least two protein fractions from yeast cytosol are required for the reconstitution of ER-derived vesicle fusion. Soluble fractions prepared from temperature-sensitive mutants revealed requirements for the Ypt1p, Sec19p, Sly1p, Sec7p, and Uso1 proteins. A model for the sequential involvement of these components in the targeting and fusion reaction is proposed. PMID:8636207

  16. Structure-Activity Relationship of (18)F-Labeled Phosphoramidate Peptidomimetic Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA)-Targeted Inhibitor Analogues for PET Imaging of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dannoon, Shorouk; Ganguly, Tanushree; Cahaya, Hendry; Geruntho, Jonathan J; Galliher, Matthew S; Beyer, Sophia K; Choy, Cindy J; Hopkins, Mark R; Regan, Melanie; Blecha, Joseph E; Skultetyova, Lubica; Drake, Christopher R; Jivan, Salma; Barinka, Cyril; Jones, Ella F; Berkman, Clifford E; VanBrocklin, Henry F

    2016-06-23

    A series of phosphoramidate-based prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) inhibitors of increasing lipophilicity were synthesized (4, 5, and 6), and their fluorine-18 analogs were evaluated for use as positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents for prostate cancer. To gain insight into their modes of binding, they were also cocrystallized with the extracellular domain of PSMA. All analogs exhibited irreversible binding to PSMA with IC50 values ranging from 0.4 to 1.3 nM. In vitro assays showed binding and rapid internalization (80-95%, 2 h) of the radiolabeled ligands in PSMA(+) cells. In vivo distribution demonstrated significant uptake in CWR22Rv1 (PSMA(+)) tumor, with tumor to blood ratios of 25.6:1, 63.6:1, and 69.6:1 for [(18)F]4, [(18)F]5, and [(18)F]6, respectively, at 2 h postinjection. Installation of aminohexanoic acid (AH) linkers in the phosphoramidate scaffold improved their PSMA binding and inhibition and was critical for achieving suitable in vivo imaging properties, positioning [(18)F]5 and [(18)F]6 as favorable candidates for future prostate cancer imaging clinical trials. PMID:27228467

  17. Comparison of the Raji cell line fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen test and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of immunity to varicella-zoster virus.

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, J P; Castellano, G A; Gerber, P; Le, C; Vujcic, L K; Quinnan, G V

    1982-01-01

    A prospective study was performed comparing the fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen (FAMA) test and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for identifying susceptibility and seroconversion to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection. A total of 75 sera were collected from index cases and from sibling and parent contacts in 10 families. Varicella-zoster virus-infected human diploid embryonic fibroblasts and continuous lymphoblastoid cells (Raji cells) were compared as indicator cells in the FAMA test. Equivalent results were obtained with both types of cell. Results of the FAMA test and the ELISA were identical in two ways. (i) The same 11 individuals were initally defined as susceptible (seronegative), and 9 of them (82%) developed fourfold rises in antibody titers, clinical varicella, or both. (ii) Of 21 immune (seropositive) individuals, 4 developed fourfold antibody rises by FAMA tests, and 3 of these 4 responded by ELISA. Infection was asymptomatic in these individuals. The geometric mean titer by ELISA was significantly higher than by the FAMA test. The results indicated that the ELISA and the FAMA test have similar capacities to define susceptibility to varicella-zoster virus and that subclinical infection with varicella-zoster virus may be common. PMID:6759530

  18. Multilevel Precision-Based Rational Design of Chemical Inhibitors Targeting the Hydrophobic Cleft of Toxoplasma gondii Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1)

    PubMed Central

    Muralikumar, Shalini; Mahalakshmi, B; Lily Therese, K; Madhavan, HN; Alameen, Mohamed; Thirumudi, Indhuja

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular Apicomplexan parasite and a causative agent of toxoplasmosis in human. It causes encephalitis, uveitis, chorioretinitis, and congenital infection. T. gondii invades the host cell by forming a moving junction (MJ) complex. This complex formation is initiated by intermolecular interactions between the two secretory parasitic proteins—namely, apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and rhoptry neck protein 2 (RON2) and is critically essential for the host invasion process. By this study, we propose two potential leads, NSC95522 and NSC179676 that can efficiently target the AMA1 hydrophobic cleft, which is a hotspot for targeting MJ complex formation. The proposed leads are the result of an exhaustive conformational search-based virtual screen with multilevel precision scoring of the docking affinities. These two compounds surpassed all the precision levels of docking and also the stringent post docking and cumulative molecular dynamics evaluations. Moreover, the backbone flexibility of hotspot residues in the hydrophobic cleft, which has been previously reported to be essential for accommodative binding of RON2 to AMA1, was also highly perturbed by these compounds. Furthermore, binding free energy calculations of these two compounds also revealed a significant affinity to AMA1. Machine learning approaches also predicted these two compounds to possess more relevant activities. Hence, these two leads, NSC95522 and NSC179676, may prove to be potential inhibitors targeting AMA1-RON2 complex formation towards combating toxoplasmosis. PMID:27445648

  19. Multilevel Precision-Based Rational Design of Chemical Inhibitors Targeting the Hydrophobic Cleft of Toxoplasma gondii Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1).

    PubMed

    Vetrivel, Umashankar; Muralikumar, Shalini; Mahalakshmi, B; Lily Therese, K; Madhavan, H N; Alameen, Mohamed; Thirumudi, Indhuja

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular Apicomplexan parasite and a causative agent of toxoplasmosis in human. It causes encephalitis, uveitis, chorioretinitis, and congenital infection. T. gondii invades the host cell by forming a moving junction (MJ) complex. This complex formation is initiated by intermolecular interactions between the two secretory parasitic proteins-namely, apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and rhoptry neck protein 2 (RON2) and is critically essential for the host invasion process. By this study, we propose two potential leads, NSC95522 and NSC179676 that can efficiently target the AMA1 hydrophobic cleft, which is a hotspot for targeting MJ complex formation. The proposed leads are the result of an exhaustive conformational search-based virtual screen with multilevel precision scoring of the docking affinities. These two compounds surpassed all the precision levels of docking and also the stringent post docking and cumulative molecular dynamics evaluations. Moreover, the backbone flexibility of hotspot residues in the hydrophobic cleft, which has been previously reported to be essential for accommodative binding of RON2 to AMA1, was also highly perturbed by these compounds. Furthermore, binding free energy calculations of these two compounds also revealed a significant affinity to AMA1. Machine learning approaches also predicted these two compounds to possess more relevant activities. Hence, these two leads, NSC95522 and NSC179676, may prove to be potential inhibitors targeting AMA1-RON2 complex formation towards combating toxoplasmosis.

  20. [(18)F]Fluorobenzoyllysinepentanedioic Acid Carbamates: New Scaffolds for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Imaging of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA).

    PubMed

    Yang, Xing; Mease, Ronnie C; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Lisok, Ala; Chen, Ying; Foss, Catherine A; Wang, Yuchuan; Shallal, Hassan; Edelman, Hannah; Hoye, Adam T; Attardo, Giorgio; Nimmagadda, Sridhar; Pomper, Martin G

    2016-01-14

    Radiolabeled urea-based low-molecular weight inhibitors of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) are under intense investigation as imaging and therapeutic agents for prostate and other cancers. In an effort to provide agents with less nontarget organ uptake than the ureas, we synthesized four (18)F-labeled inhibitors of PSMA based on carbamate scaffolds. 4-Bromo-2-[(18)F]fluorobenzoyllysineoxypentanedioic acid (OPA) carbamate [(18)F]23 and 4-iodo-2-[(18)F]fluorobenzoyllysine OPA carbamate [(18)F]24 in particular exhibited high target-selective uptake in PSMA+ PC3 PIP tumor xenografts, with tumor-to-kidney ratios of >1 by 4 h postinjection, an important benchmark. Because of its high tumor uptake (90% injected dose per gram of tissue at 2 h postinjection) and high tumor-to-organ ratios, [(18)F]23 is promising for clinical translation. Prolonged tumor-specific uptake demonstrated by [(18)F]24, which did not reach equilibrium during the 4 h study period, suggests carbamates as alternative scaffolds for mitigating dose to nontarget tissues. PMID:26629713

  1. Multilevel Precision-Based Rational Design of Chemical Inhibitors Targeting the Hydrophobic Cleft of Toxoplasma gondii Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1).

    PubMed

    Vetrivel, Umashankar; Muralikumar, Shalini; Mahalakshmi, B; Lily Therese, K; Madhavan, H N; Alameen, Mohamed; Thirumudi, Indhuja

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular Apicomplexan parasite and a causative agent of toxoplasmosis in human. It causes encephalitis, uveitis, chorioretinitis, and congenital infection. T. gondii invades the host cell by forming a moving junction (MJ) complex. This complex formation is initiated by intermolecular interactions between the two secretory parasitic proteins-namely, apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and rhoptry neck protein 2 (RON2) and is critically essential for the host invasion process. By this study, we propose two potential leads, NSC95522 and NSC179676 that can efficiently target the AMA1 hydrophobic cleft, which is a hotspot for targeting MJ complex formation. The proposed leads are the result of an exhaustive conformational search-based virtual screen with multilevel precision scoring of the docking affinities. These two compounds surpassed all the precision levels of docking and also the stringent post docking and cumulative molecular dynamics evaluations. Moreover, the backbone flexibility of hotspot residues in the hydrophobic cleft, which has been previously reported to be essential for accommodative binding of RON2 to AMA1, was also highly perturbed by these compounds. Furthermore, binding free energy calculations of these two compounds also revealed a significant affinity to AMA1. Machine learning approaches also predicted these two compounds to possess more relevant activities. Hence, these two leads, NSC95522 and NSC179676, may prove to be potential inhibitors targeting AMA1-RON2 complex formation towards combating toxoplasmosis. PMID:27445648

  2. High-throughput chemiluminometric determination of prostate-specific membrane antigen mRNA in peripheral blood by RT-PCR using a synthetic RNA internal standard.

    PubMed

    Emmanouilidou, Evaggelia; Ioannou, Penelope C; Christopoulos, Theodore K

    2004-09-01

    A quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method, employing internal standard (IS) RNA and a simplified chemiluminometric hybridization assay, is described for the determination of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) mRNA. The recombinant RNA IS has the same binding sites and size as the amplified PSMA mRNA. Biotinylated PCR products (263 bp) from PSMA mRNA and RNA IS are captured in microtiter wells coated with streptavidin, and hybridized with alkaline phosphatase-conjugated probes. The bound alkaline phosphatase (AP) is measured by using a chemiluminogenic substrate. The ratio of the luminescence values obtained for PSMA mRNA and the RNA IS is a linear function of the initial amount of PSMA mRNA present in the sample before RT-PCR. The linear range extends from 500 to 5,000,000 PSMA mRNA copies and the overall reproducibility of the assay, including RT-PCR and hybridization, ranges from 7.4 to 16.6%. Samples containing total RNA from PSMA-expressing LNCaP cells give luminescence ratios linearly related to the number of cells in the range 0.5-5,000 cells.

  3. Seroreactivity to a Large Panel of Field-Derived Plasmodium falciparum Apical Membrane Antigen 1 and Merozoite Surface Protein 1 Variants Reflects Seasonal and Lifetime Acquired Responses to Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Jason A.; Pablo, Jozelyn; Niangaly, Amadou; Travassos, Mark A.; Ouattara, Amed; Coulibaly, Drissa; Laurens, Matthew B.; Takala-Harrison, Shannon L.; Lyke, Kirsten E.; Skinner, Jeff; Berry, Andrea A.; Jasinskas, Algis; Nakajima-Sasaki, Rie; Kouriba, Bourema; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Felgner, Philip L.; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Plowe, Christopher V.

    2015-01-01

    Parasite antigen diversity poses an obstacle to developing an effective malaria vaccine. A protein microarray containing Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1, n = 57) and merozoite surface protein 1 19-kD (MSP119, n = 10) variants prevalent at a malaria vaccine testing site in Bandiagara, Mali, was used to assess changes in seroreactivity caused by seasonal and lifetime exposure to malaria. Malian adults had significantly higher magnitude and breadth of seroreactivity to variants of both antigens than did Malian children. Seroreactivity increased over the course of the malaria season in children and adults, but the difference was more dramatic in children. These results help to validate diversity-covering protein microarrays as a promising tool for measuring the breadth of antibody responses to highly variant proteins, and demonstrate the potential of this new tool to help guide the development of malaria vaccines with strain-transcending efficacy. PMID:25294612

  4. Seroreactivity to a large panel of field-derived Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 and merozoite surface protein 1 variants reflects seasonal and lifetime acquired responses to malaria.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jason A; Pablo, Jozelyn; Niangaly, Amadou; Travassos, Mark A; Ouattara, Amed; Coulibaly, Drissa; Laurens, Matthew B; Takala-Harrison, Shannon L; Lyke, Kirsten E; Skinner, Jeff; Berry, Andrea A; Jasinskas, Algis; Nakajima-Sasaki, Rie; Kouriba, Bourema; Thera, Mahamadou A; Felgner, Philip L; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Plowe, Christopher V

    2015-01-01

    Parasite antigen diversity poses an obstacle to developing an effective malaria vaccine. A protein microarray containing Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1, n = 57) and merozoite surface protein 1 19-kD (MSP119, n = 10) variants prevalent at a malaria vaccine testing site in Bandiagara, Mali, was used to assess changes in seroreactivity caused by seasonal and lifetime exposure to malaria. Malian adults had significantly higher magnitude and breadth of seroreactivity to variants of both antigens than did Malian children. Seroreactivity increased over the course of the malaria season in children and adults, but the difference was more dramatic in children. These results help to validate diversity-covering protein microarrays as a promising tool for measuring the breadth of antibody responses to highly variant proteins, and demonstrate the potential of this new tool to help guide the development of malaria vaccines with strain-transcending efficacy.

  5. Immunomodulatory Glycan Lacto-N-Fucopentaose III Requires Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis To Induce Alternative Activation of Antigen-Presenting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Leena; Tundup, Smanla; Choi, Beak-San; Norberg, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of alternative activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is largely unknown. Lacto-N-fucopentaose III (LNFPIII) is a biologically conserved pentasaccharide that contains the Lewisx trisaccharide. LNFPIII conjugates and schistosome egg antigens, which contain the Lewisx trisaccharide, drive alternative activation of APCs and induce anti-inflammatory responses in vivo, preventing inflammation-based diseases, including psoriasis, transplant organ rejection, and metabolic disease. In this study, we show that LNFPIII conjugates and schistosome egg antigens interact with APCs via a receptor-mediated process, requiring internalization of these molecules through a clathrin/dynamin-dependent but caveolus-independent endocytic pathway. Using inhibitors/small interfering RNA (siRNA) against dynamin and clathrin, we show for the first time that endocytosis of Lewisx-containing glycans is required to drive alternative maturation of antigen-presenting cells and Th2 immune responses. We identified mouse SIGNR-1 as a cell surface receptor for LNFPIII conjugates. Elimination of SIGNR-1 showed no effect on uptake of LNFPIII conjugates, suggesting that other receptors bind to and facilitate uptake of LNFPIII conjugates. We demonstrate that disruption of actin filaments partially prevented the entry of LNFPIII conjugates into APCs and that LNFPIII colocalizes with both early and late endosomal markers and follows the classical endosomal pathway leading to lysosome maturation. The results of this study show that the ability of LNFPIII to induce alternative activation utilizes a receptor-mediated process that requires a dynamin-dependent endocytosis. Thus, key steps have been defined in the previously unknown mechanism of alternative activation that ultimately leads to induction of anti-inflammatory responses. PMID:24566617

  6. Management of Patients with Gastroschisis Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Concurrent Respiratory Failure.

    PubMed

    Lalani, Alykhan; Benson Ham, P; Wise, Linda J; Daniel, John M; Walters, K Christian; Pipkin, Walter L; Stansfield, Brian; Hatley, Robyn M; Bhatia, Jatinder

    2016-09-01

    Treatment of gastroschisis often requires multiple surgical procedures to re-establish abdominal domain, reduce abdominal contents, and eventually close the abdominal wall. In patients who have concomitant respiratory failure requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), this process becomes further complicated. This situation is rare and only five such cases have been reported in the ECMO registry database. Management of three of the five patients along with results and implications for future care of similar patients is discussed here. Two patients had respiratory failure due to meconium aspiration syndrome and one patient had persistent acidosis as well as worsening pulmonary hypertension leading to the decision of ECMO. The abdominal contents were placed in a spring-loaded silastic silo while on ECMO and primary closure was performed three to six days after the decannulation. All three patients survived and are developmentally appropriate. We recommend avoiding aggressively reducing the abdominal contents and using a silo to conservatively reducing the gastroschisis while the patient is on ECMO therapy. Keeping the intra-abdominal pressure below 20 mm Hg can possibly reduce ECMO days and ventilator time and has been shown to decrease morbidity and mortality. Patients with gastroschisis and respiratory failure requiring ECMO can have good outcomes despite the complexity of required care. PMID:27670556

  7. Ankyrin and band 3 differentially affect expression of membrane glycoproteins but are not required for erythroblast enucleation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Peng; Lodish, Harvey F

    2012-01-27

    During late stages of mammalian erythropoiesis the nucleus undergoes chromatin condensation, migration to the plasma membrane, and extrusion from the cytoplasm surrounded by a segment of plasma membrane. Since nuclear condensation occurs in all vertebrates, mammalian erythroid membrane and cytoskeleton proteins were implicated as playing important roles in mediating the movement and extrusion of the nucleus. Here we use erythroid ankyrin deficient and band 3 knockout mouse models to show that band 3, but not ankyrin, plays an important role in regulating the level of erythroid cell membrane proteins, as evidenced by decreased cell surface expression of glycophorin A in band 3 knockout mice. However, neither band 3 nor ankyrin are required for enucleation. These results demonstrate that mammalian erythroblast enucleation does not depend on the membrane integrity generated by the ankyrin-band 3 complex.

  8. BIM-Mediated Membrane Insertion of the BAK Pore Domain Is an Essential Requirement for Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Kathrin; Harper, Nicholas; Schwabe, John; Cohen, Gerald M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary BAK activation represents a key step during apoptosis, but how it converts into a mitochondria-permeabilizing pore remains unclear. By further delineating the structural rearrangements involved, we reveal that BAK activation progresses through a series of independent steps: BH3-domain exposure, N-terminal change, oligomerization, and membrane insertion. Employing a “BCL-XL-addiction” model, we show that neutralization of BCL-XL by the BH3 mimetic ABT-737 resulted in death only when cells were reconstituted with BCL-XL:BAK, but not BCL-2/ BCL-XL:BIM complexes. Although this resembles the indirect model, release of BAK from BCL-XL did not result in spontaneous adoption of the pore conformation. Commitment to apoptosis required association of the direct activator BIM with oligomeric BAK promoting its conversion to a membrane-inserted pore. The sequential nature of this cascade provides multiple opportunities for other BCL-2 proteins to interfere with or promote BAK activation and unites aspects of the indirect and direct activation models. PMID:24120870

  9. Properties required by extractants and diluents for the decontamination of liquid wastes using supported liquid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Dozol, J.F.; Rouquette, H.; Eymard, S.; Tournois, B.

    1993-12-31

    Macrocyclic extractants are now being studied more and more often for the decontamination of radioactive liquid wastes: coronands (crown ethers, azacrown...) and cryptands. As these very sophisticated compounds are expensive, the best technique is supported liquid membranes which need a very low extractant inventory. This paper deals with the properties required by the extractant and the diluent in order to be used in an SLM device and to ensure a stable and efficient SLM: solubility of the extractant in organic compounds and in aqueous solutions; size of crown ether cavities; influence of the substituent groups on the selectivity of the crown ether; and influence of the properties of the diluent (polarity, transport of acidity) on the efficiency of the process and on the stability of the membrane (interfacial tension between the organic and aqueous phases, solubility in the aqueous phase). The influence of these parameters is illustrated by experiments performed in order to remove strontium and cesium from high sodium content liquid waste. The studies described in this paper are focused on the decategorization of evaporator concentrates arising from the reprocessing of spent fuel.

  10. Physical Property Requirements of Ion-exchange Polymer Membranes for Acid-base Flow Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roddecha, Supacharee; Thayer, Peter; Jorne', Jacob; Anthamatten, Mitchell

    2013-03-01

    Flow batteries offer feasible solutions to grid-scale storage of intermittent power. We are developing a new type of flow battery that reversibly controls an acid-base neutralization reaction. The battery consists of two highly reversible hydrogen gas electrodes that are exposed to low and high pH process streams. A brine solution runs between the acid and base streams and is separated by cationic and anionic exchange membranes. For both charge and discharge phases, hydrogen gas is produced at one electrode and consumed at the other. During charging, an external potential is applied across the two electrodes to electrochemically produce acid and base from the fed brine solution. Discharge involves electrochemical neutralization of acid and base streams, resulting in current flow through an external load. Several charge and discharge cycles were performed to demonstrate proof of concept. Experiments were conducted to determine the physical property requirements of the ionic exchange polymer layers. Properties including ion conductivity, permselectivity, and membrane stability will be discussed.

  11. Bioinformatic Analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis Polymorphic Membrane Proteins PmpE, PmpF, PmpG and PmpH as Potential Vaccine Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Alexandra; Gomes, João P.; Karunakaran, Karuna P.; Brunham, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most important infectious cause of infertility in women with important implications in public health and for which a vaccine is urgently needed. Recent immunoproteomic vaccine studies found that four polymorphic membrane proteins (PmpE, PmpF, PmpG and PmpH) are immunodominant, recognized by various MHC class II haplotypes and protective in mouse models. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate genetic and protein features of Pmps (focusing on the N-terminal 600 amino acids where MHC class II epitopes were mapped) in order to understand antigen variation that may emerge following vaccine induced immune selection. We used several bioinformatics platforms to study: i) Pmps’ phylogeny and genetic polymorphism; ii) the location and distribution of protein features (GGA(I, L)/FxxN motifs and cysteine residues) that may impact pathogen-host interactions and protein conformation; and iii) the existence of phase variation mechanisms that may impact Pmps’ expression. We used a well-characterized collection of 53 fully-sequenced strains that represent the C. trachomatis serovars associated with the three disease groups: ocular (N=8), epithelial-genital (N=25) and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) (N=20). We observed that PmpF and PmpE are highly polymorphic between LGV and epithelial-genital strains, and also within populations of the latter. We also found heterogeneous representation among strains for GGA(I, L)/FxxN motifs and cysteine residues, suggesting possible alterations in adhesion properties, tissue specificity and immunogenicity. PmpG and, to a lesser extent, PmpH revealed low polymorphism and high conservation of protein features among the genital strains (including the LGV group). Uniquely among the four Pmps, pmpG has regulatory sequences suggestive of phase variation. In aggregate, the results suggest that PmpG may be the lead vaccine candidate because of sequence conservation but may need to be paired with another protective

  12. Neutrophil elastase enhances antigen presentation by upregulating human leukocyte antigen class I expression on tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Akhil; Alatrash, Gheath; Philips, Anne V; Qiao, Na; Sukhumalchandra, Pariya; Kerros, Celine; Diaconu, Iulia; Gall, Victor; Neal, Samantha; Peters, Haley L; Clise-Dwyer, Karen; Molldrem, Jeffrey J; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    Neutrophil elastase (NE) is an innate immune cell-derived inflammatory mediator that we have shown increases the presentation of tumor-associated peptide antigens in breast cancer. In this study, we extend these observations to show that NE uptake has a broad effect on enhancing antigen presentation by breast cancer cells. We show that NE increases human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I expression on the surface of breast cancer cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner. HLA class I upregulation requires internalization of enzymatically active NE. Western blots of NE-treated breast cancer cells confirm that the expression of total HLA class I as well as the antigen-processing machinery proteins TAP1, LMP2, and calnexin does not change following NE treatment. This suggests that NE does not increase the efficiency of antigen processing; rather, it mediates the upregulation of HLA class I by stabilizing and reducing membrane recycling of HLA class I molecules. Furthermore, the effects of NE extend beyond breast cancer since the uptake of NE by EBV-LCL increases the presentation of HLA class I-restricted viral peptides, as shown by their increased sensitivity to lysis by EBV-specific CD8+ T cells. Together, our results show that NE uptake increases the responsiveness of breast cancer cells to adaptive immunity by broad upregulation of membrane HLA class I and support the conclusion that the innate inflammatory mediator NE enhances tumor cell recognition and increases tumor sensitivity to the host adaptive immune response.

  13. Ankyrin and band 3 differentially affect expression of membrane glycoproteins but are not required for erythroblast enucleation

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Peng; Lodish, Harvey F.

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ankyrin and band 3 are not required for erythroblasts enucleation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Loss of ankyrin does not affect erythroid membrane glycoprotein expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Loss of band 3 influences erythroid membrane glycoprotein expression. -- Abstract: During late stages of mammalian erythropoiesis the nucleus undergoes chromatin condensation, migration to the plasma membrane, and extrusion from the cytoplasm surrounded by a segment of plasma membrane. Since nuclear condensation occurs in all vertebrates, mammalian erythroid membrane and cytoskeleton proteins were implicated as playing important roles in mediating the movement and extrusion of the nucleus. Here we use erythroid ankyrin deficient and band 3 knockout mouse models to show that band 3, but not ankyrin, plays an important role in regulating the level of erythroid cell membrane proteins, as evidenced by decreased cell surface expression of glycophorin A in band 3 knockout mice. However, neither band 3 nor ankyrin are required for enucleation. These results demonstrate that mammalian erythroblast enucleation does not depend on the membrane integrity generated by the ankyrin-band 3 complex.

  14. T suppressor cells are required for the maintenance of the antigen-induced B-cell unresponsive state in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Benveniste, E.; Stevens, R.H.

    1983-04-01

    Tetanus toxoid immunization of humans generates circulating B cells which secrete IgG anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies (IgG-Tet) when stimulated in vitro with T cells and pokeweed mitogen (PWM). A unique property of these cells is the inhibition of maturation into antibody-secreting plasma cells following a 1-hr in vitro pulse with tetanus toxoid. Studies were undertaken to determine if different T-cell subsets could modulate the in vitro generated B-cell unresponsive state. The addition of OKT4+/OKT8- cells to antigen-treated B cells resulted in a partial reversal of the antigen-induced inhibition of IgG-Tet synthesis. The addition of OKT4-/OKT8+ cells to the treated B cells caused a suppression of IgG-Tet synthesis comparable to that seen in cultures containing unfractionated T cells. These results indicate that (1) the B-cell unresponsive state generated by antigen treatment is not absolute, (2) the degree of B-cell unresponsiveness results from a balance of suppressor and helper signals, and (3) T-suppressor cells need to be present to induce and maintain the B-cell unresponsive state.

  15. The MAL protein is crucial for proper membrane condensation at the ciliary base, which is required for primary cilium elongation.

    PubMed

    Reales, Elena; Bernabé-Rubio, Miguel; Casares-Arias, Javier; Rentero, Carles; Fernández-Barrera, Jaime; Rangel, Laura; Correas, Isabel; Enrich, Carlos; Andrés, Germán; Alonso, Miguel A

    2015-06-15

    The base of the primary cilium contains a zone of condensed membranes whose importance is not known. Here, we have studied the involvement of MAL, a tetraspanning protein that exclusively partitions into condensed membrane fractions, in the condensation of membranes at the ciliary base and investigated the importance of these membranes in primary cilium formation. We show that MAL accumulates at the ciliary base of epithelial MDCK cells. Knockdown of MAL expression resulted in a drastic reduction in the condensation of membranes at the ciliary base, the percentage of ciliated cells and the length of the cilia, but did not affect the docking of the centrosome to the plasma membrane or produce missorting of proteins to the pericentriolar zone or to the membrane of the remaining cilia. Rab8 (for which there are two isoforms, Rab8A and Rab8b), IFT88 and IFT20, which are important components of the machinery of ciliary growth, were recruited normally to the ciliary base of MAL-knockdown cells but were unable to elongate the primary cilium correctly. MAL, therefore, is crucial for the proper condensation of membranes at the ciliary base, which is required for efficient primary cilium extension.

  16. Neo-epitopes are required for immunogenicity of the La/SS-B nuclear antigen in the context of late apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Z-J; Davis, K; Maier, S; Bachmann, M P; Kim-Howard, X R; Keech, C; Gordon, T P; McCluskey, J; Farris, A D

    2006-01-01

    Mechanisms responsible for the induction of anti-nuclear autoantibodies (ANA) following exposure of the immune system to an excess of apoptotic cells are incompletely understood. In this study, the immunogenicity of late apoptotic cells expressing heterologous or syngeneic forms of La/SS-B was investigated following subcutaneous administration to A/J mice, a non-autoimmune strain in which the La antigenic system is well understood. Immunization of A/J mice with late apoptotic thymocytes taken from mice transgenic (Tg) for the human La (hLa) nuclear antigen resulted in the production of IgG ANA specific for human and mouse forms of La in the absence of foreign adjuvants. Preparations of phenotypically healthy cells expressing heterologous hLa were also immunogenic. However, hLa Tg late apoptotic cells accelerated and enhanced the apparent heterologous healthy cell-induced anti-La humoral response, while non-Tg late apoptotic cells did not. Subcutaneous administration of late apoptotic cells was insufficient to break existing tolerance to the hLa antigen in hLa Tg mice or to the endogenous mouse La (mLa) antigen in A/J mice immunized with syngeneic thymocytes, indicating a requirement for the presence of heterologous epitopes for anti-La ANA production. Lymph node dendritic cells (DC) but not B cells isolated from non-Tg mice injected with hLa Tg late apoptotic cells presented immunodominant T helper cell epitopes of hLa. These studies support a model in which the generation of neo-T cell epitopes is required for loss of tolerance to nuclear proteins after exposure of the healthy immune system to an excess of cells in late stages of apoptosis. PMID:16412047

  17. A dimerized urea-based inhibitor of the prostate-specific membrane antigen for 68Ga-PET imaging of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Alternative positron-emission tomography (PET) probes like labeled inhibitors of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) are of emerging clinical impact as they show the ability to image small lesions of recurrent prostate cancer. Here, the dimerization of the pharmacophore Glu‐ureido‐Lys via the 68Ga chelator N,N′-bis[2-hydroxy-5-(carboxyethyl)benzyl]ethylenediamine-N,N′-diacetic acid (HBED-CC) was investigated to further improve the binding characteristics and pharmacokinetics. Methods The peptidomimetic structures were synthesized by solid-phase chemistry, and the resulting products were coupled with the respective 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenol esters of HBED-CC to form the monomeric reference and the dimeric Glu‐ureido‐Lys derivative. The binding properties were analyzed in competitive binding, internalization, and cell surface retention experiments. PET images and biodistribution data were obtained 1 h after injection in BALB/c nu/nu mice bearing LNCaP tumor xenografts. Results Cell binding data revealed significant better binding properties of the dimer (IC50 = 3.9 ± 1.8 nM; IC50 (monomer) = 12.1 ± 2.1 nM). The inhibition potency investigated by the enzyme-based NAALADase assay confirmed these results. Specific internalization in LNCaP cells was demonstrated for both, the monomer and dimer. As shown by efflux measurements, the dimeric compound was more effectively retained on the cell surface, resulting in advanced in vivo properties (T/BMonomer = 9.2; T/BDimer = 26.5). Conclusions The dimeric [68Ga]7 is a promising imaging agent for PSMA-expressing tumors as it shows higher tumor uptake while observing more favorable background clearance. As compared to the respective monomer, the higher affinity and prolonged tumor retention additionally represent promising features and warrant further evaluation regarding 68Ga-PET imaging of PSMA expression. PMID:22673157

  18. A novel recombinant bivalent outer membrane protein of Vibrio vulnificus and Aeromonas hydrophila as a vaccine antigen of American eel (Anguilla rostrata).

    PubMed

    SongLin, Guo; PanPan, Lu; JianJun, Feng; JinPing, Zhao; Peng, Lin; LiHua, Duan

    2015-04-01

    The immogenicity of a novel vaccine antigen was evaluated after immunized American eels (Anguilla rostrata) with a recombinant bivalent expressed outer membrane protein (OMP) of Vibrio vulnificus and Aeromonas hydrophila. Three groups of eels were intraperitoneal (i.p) injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS group), formaline-killed-whole-cell (FKC) of A. hydrophila and V. vulnificus (FKC group) or the bivalent OMP (OMP group). On 14, 21, 28 and 42 days post-vaccination respectively, proliferation of the whole blood cells, titers of specific antibody and lysozyme activities of experimental eels were detected. On 28 day post-vaccination, eels from three groups were challenged by i.p injection of live A. hydrophila or V. vulnificus. The results showed that, compared with the PBS group, proliferation of whole blood cells in OMP group was significant enhanced on 28 days, and the serum titers of anti-A.hydrophila and anti-V. vulnificus antibody in eels of FKC and OMP group were significant increased on 14, 21 and 28d. Lysozyme Activities in serum, skin mucus, liver and kidney were significant changed between the three groups. Relative Percent Survival (RPS) after challenged A. hydrophila in KFC vs. PBS group and OMP vs. PBS group were 62.5% and 50% respectively, and the RPS challenged V. vulnificus in FKC and OMP vs. PBS group were 37.5% and 50% respectively. These results suggest that American eels immunized with the bivalent OMP would positively affect specific as well as non-specific immune parameters and protect against infection by the two pathogens in fresh water farming.

  19. The Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen Regulates the Expression of IL-6 and CCL5 in Prostate Tumour Cells by Activating the MAPK Pathways1

    PubMed Central

    Colombatti, Marco; Fracasso, Giulio; Scupoli, Maria Teresa; Cingarlini, Sara; Poffe, Ornella; Naim, Hassan Y.; Heine, Martin; Tridente, Giuseppe; Mainiero, Fabrizio; Ramarli, Dunia

    2009-01-01

    The interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the chemokine CCL5 are implicated in the development and progression of several forms of tumours including that of the prostate. The expression of the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is augmented in high-grade and metastatic tumors. Observations of the clinical behaviour of prostate tumors suggest that the increased secretion of IL-6 and CCL5 and the higher expression of PSMA may be correlated. We hypothesized that PSMA could be endowed with signalling properties and that its stimulation might impact on the regulation of the gene expression of IL-6 and CCL5. We herein demonstrate that the cross-linking of cell surface PSMA with specific antibodies activates the small GTPases RAS and RAC1 and the MAPKs p38 and ERK1/2 in prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells. As downstream effects of the PSMA-fostered RAS-RAC1-MAPK pathway activation we observed a strong induction of NF-κB activation associated with an increased expression of IL-6 and CCL5 genes. Pharmacological blockade with specific inhibitors revealed that both p38 and ERK1/2 participate in the phenomenon, although a major role exerted by p38 was evident. Finally we demonstrate that IL-6 and CCL5 enhanced the proliferative potential of LNCaP cells synergistically and in a dose-dependent manner and that CCL5 functioned by receptor-mediated activation of the STAT5-Cyclin D1 pro-proliferative pathway. The novel functions attributable to PSMA which are described in the present report may have profound influence on the survival and proliferation of prostate tumor cells, accounting for the observation that PSMA overexpression in prostate cancer patients is related to a worse prognosis. PMID:19242540

  20. Phase II study of lutetium-177 labeled anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) monoclonal antibody J591 for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tagawa, Scott T.; Milowsky, Matthew I.; Morris, Michael; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Christos, Paul; Akhtar, Naveed H.; Osborne, Joseph; Goldsmith, Stanley J.; Larson, Steve; Taskar, Neeta Pandit; Scher, Howard I.; Bander, Neil H.; Nanus, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the efficacy of a single infusion of radiolabeled anti-prostate specific membrane antigen monoclonal antibody J591 (177Lu-J591) by PSA decline, measurable disease response, and survival. Experimental Design In this dual-center phase II study, 2 cohorts with progressive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer received one dose of 177Lu-J591 (15 patients at 65 mCi/m2, 17 at 70 mCi/m2) with radionuclide imaging. Expansion cohort (n=15) received 70 mCi/m2 to verify response rate and examine biomarkers. Results 47 patients who progressed after hormonal therapies (55.3% also received prior chemotherapy) received 177Lu-J591. 10.6% experienced ≥ 50% decline in PSA, 36.2% experienced ≥ 30% decline, and 59.6% experienced any PSA decline following their single treatment. One of 12 with measurable disease experienced a partial radiographic response (8 with stable disease). Sites of prostate cancer metastases were targeted in 44 of 47 (93.6%) as determined by planar imaging. All experienced reversible hematologic toxicity with grade 4 thrombocytopenia occurring in 46.8% (29.8% received platelet transfusions) without significant hemorrhage. 25.5% experienced grade 4 neutropenia with 1 episode of febrile neutropenia. The phase I maximum tolerated dose (70 mCi/m2) resulted in more 30% PSA declines (46.9% vs 13.3%, p=0.048) and longer survival (21.8 vs 11.9 months, p=0.03), but also more grade 4 hematologic toxicity and platelet transfusions. No serious non-hematologic toxicity occurred. Those with poor PSMA imaging were less likely to respond. Conclusion A single dose of 177Lu-J591 was well-tolerated with reversible myelosuppression. Accurate tumor targeting and PSA responses were seen with evidence of dose-response. Imaging biomarkers appear promising. PMID:23714732

  1. A Novel Prostate-Specific Membrane-Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Micelle-Encapsulating Wogonin Inhibits Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation via Inducing Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hailong; Liu, Xiaogang; Wu, Fengbo; Qin, Feifei; Feng, Ping; Xu, Ting; Li, Xiang; Yang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a malignant tumor for which there are no effective treatment strategies. In this study, we developed a targeted strategy for prostate-specific membrane-antigen (PSMA)-positive PCa in vitro based on 2-(3-((S)-5-amino-1-carboxypentyl)ureido) pentanedioic acid (ACUPA) modified polyethylene glycol (PEG)-Cholesterol micelles containing wogonin (WOG), which was named ACUPA-M-WOG. ACUPA-M-WOG was conventionally prepared using a self-assembling method, which produced stable particle size and ζ potential. Moreover, ACUPA-M-WOG showed good drug encapsulating capacity and drug release profiles. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) results suggested that ACUPA modified PEG-Cholesterol micelles could effectively enhance the drug uptake on PSMA(+) PCa cells, and the cytotoxicity of ACUPA-M-WOG was stronger than other controls according to in vitro cellular proliferation and apoptosis assays, separately through methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and Annexin V/Propidium Iodide (PI) staining. Finally, the molecular mechanisms of ACUPA-M-WOG’s effects on human PSMA(+) PCa were investigated, and were mainly the intrinsic or extrinsic apoptosis signaling pathways. The Western blot results suggested that ACUPA-M-WOG could enhance the WOG-induced apoptosis, which was mainly via the intrinsic signaling pathway rather than the extrinsic signaling pathway. In conclusion, ACUPA-M-WOG was successfully developed for WOG-selective delivery to PSMA(+) PCa cells and had stronger inhibition than free drugs, which might make it an effective strategy for PSMA(+) PCa. PMID:27196894

  2. Synthesis and positron emission tomography evaluation of 18F-Glu-Urea-Lys, a prostate-specific membrane antigen-based imaging agent for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    FAN, WEIWEI; ZHANG, ZHIWEI; ZHU, ZHENG; YANG, DEYONG; CHEN, XIAOCHI; WANG, JIANBO; CHEN, FENG; SONG, XISHUANG

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, single-photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography (PET) have also been used, in addition to computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, in targeting the diagnosis of prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to synthesize the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-based imaging agent 2-{3-[1-Carboxy-5-(4-[18F] fluoro-benzoylamino)-pentyl]-ureido}-pentanedioic acid (18F-Glu-Urea-Lys, [18F]3) and to detect its PET imaging efficiency for high PSMA expression in prostate cancer. In this study, 18F-Glu-Urea-Lys was synthesized in two steps from the p-methoxybenzyl-protected Glu-Urea-Lys precursor using N-Hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-[18F] fluorobenzoate ([18F]SFB). PET imaging evaluation was conducted in nude mice using LNCaP (PSMA+), and PC-3, 231 and A549 (all PSMA−) xenograft models. The results indicated that 18F-Glu-Urea-Lys was produced in radiochemical yields of 28.7%. The radiochemical purity was 99.1% and the mean total synthesis time was 168 min. In nude mice models 18F-Glu-Urea-Lys clearly delineated PSMA+ LNCaP prostate tumor xenografts on PET imaging. At 4 h post-injection, the contrast agents were only observed in renal, liver, bladder and PSMA+ LNCaP tumors. The PSMA− tumor (PC-3, 231 and A549) was clear. In conclusion, 18F-Glu-Urea-Lys was found to be easily synthesized. This radiotracer demonstrated high tumor and low-to-normal tissue uptake, fast clearance from non-target tissues and retention in PSMA+ prostate tumor xenografts. PMID:26622838

  3. A novel recombinant bivalent outer membrane protein of Vibrio vulnificus and Aeromonas hydrophila as a vaccine antigen of American eel (Anguilla rostrata).

    PubMed

    SongLin, Guo; PanPan, Lu; JianJun, Feng; JinPing, Zhao; Peng, Lin; LiHua, Duan

    2015-04-01

    The immogenicity of a novel vaccine antigen was evaluated after immunized American eels (Anguilla rostrata) with a recombinant bivalent expressed outer membrane protein (OMP) of Vibrio vulnificus and Aeromonas hydrophila. Three groups of eels were intraperitoneal (i.p) injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS group), formaline-killed-whole-cell (FKC) of A. hydrophila and V. vulnificus (FKC group) or the bivalent OMP (OMP group). On 14, 21, 28 and 42 days post-vaccination respectively, proliferation of the whole blood cells, titers of specific antibody and lysozyme activities of experimental eels were detected. On 28 day post-vaccination, eels from three groups were challenged by i.p injection of live A. hydrophila or V. vulnificus. The results showed that, compared with the PBS group, proliferation of whole blood cells in OMP group was significant enhanced on 28 days, and the serum titers of anti-A.hydrophila and anti-V. vulnificus antibody in eels of FKC and OMP group were significant increased on 14, 21 and 28d. Lysozyme Activities in serum, skin mucus, liver and kidney were significant changed between the three groups. Relative Percent Survival (RPS) after challenged A. hydrophila in KFC vs. PBS group and OMP vs. PBS group were 62.5% and 50% respectively, and the RPS challenged V. vulnificus in FKC and OMP vs. PBS group were 37.5% and 50% respectively. These results suggest that American eels immunized with the bivalent OMP would positively affect specific as well as non-specific immune parameters and protect against infection by the two pathogens in fresh water farming. PMID:25655329

  4. A Novel Prostate-Specific Membrane-Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Micelle-Encapsulating Wogonin Inhibits Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation via Inducing Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hailong; Liu, Xiaogang; Wu, Fengbo; Qin, Feifei; Feng, Ping; Xu, Ting; Li, Xiang; Yang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a malignant tumor for which there are no effective treatment strategies. In this study, we developed a targeted strategy for prostate-specific membrane-antigen (PSMA)-positive PCa in vitro based on 2-(3-((S)-5-amino-1-carboxypentyl)ureido) pentanedioic acid (ACUPA) modified polyethylene glycol (PEG)-Cholesterol micelles containing wogonin (WOG), which was named ACUPA-M-WOG. ACUPA-M-WOG was conventionally prepared using a self-assembling method, which produced stable particle size and ζ potential. Moreover, ACUPA-M-WOG showed good drug encapsulating capacity and drug release profiles. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) results suggested that ACUPA modified PEG-Cholesterol micelles could effectively enhance the drug uptake on PSMA(+) PCa cells, and the cytotoxicity of ACUPA-M-WOG was stronger than other controls according to in vitro cellular proliferation and apoptosis assays, separately through methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and Annexin V/Propidium Iodide (PI) staining. Finally, the molecular mechanisms of ACUPA-M-WOG's effects on human PSMA(+) PCa were investigated, and were mainly the intrinsic or extrinsic apoptosis signaling pathways. The Western blot results suggested that ACUPA-M-WOG could enhance the WOG-induced apoptosis, which was mainly via the intrinsic signaling pathway rather than the extrinsic signaling pathway. In conclusion, ACUPA-M-WOG was successfully developed for WOG-selective delivery to PSMA(+) PCa cells and had stronger inhibition than free drugs, which might make it an effective strategy for PSMA(+) PCa. PMID:27196894

  5. Towards Personalized Treatment of Prostate Cancer: PSMA I&T, a Promising Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen-Targeted Theranostic Agent

    PubMed Central

    Chatalic, Kristell L.S.; Heskamp, Sandra; Konijnenberg, Mark; Molkenboer-Kuenen, Janneke D.M.; Franssen, Gerben M.; Clahsen-van Groningen, Marian C.; Schottelius, Margret; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; van Weerden, Wytske M.; Boerman, Otto C.; de Jong, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a well-established target for nuclear imaging and therapy of prostate cancer (PCa). Radiolabeled small-molecule PSMA inhibitors are excellent candidates for PCa theranostics—they rapidly and efficiently localize in tumor lesions. However, high tracer uptake in kidneys and salivary glands are major concerns for therapeutic applications. Here, we present the preclinical application of PSMA I&T, a DOTAGA-chelated urea-based PSMA inhibitor, for SPECT/CT imaging and radionuclide therapy of PCa. 111In-PSMA I&T showed dose-dependent uptake in PSMA-expressing tumors, kidneys, spleen, adrenals, lungs and salivary glands. Coadministration of 2-(phosphonomethyl)pentane-1,5-dioic acid (2-PMPA) efficiently reduced PSMA-mediated renal uptake of 111In-PSMA I&T, with the highest tumor/kidney radioactivity ratios being obtained using a dose of 50 nmol 2-PMPA. SPECT/CT clearly visualized subcutaneous tumors and sub-millimeter intraperitoneal metastases; however, high renal and spleen uptake in control mice (no 2-PMPA) interfered with visualization of metastases in the vicinity of those organs. Coadministration of 2-PMPA increased the tumor-to-kidney absorbed dose ratio during 177Lu-PSMA I&T radionuclide therapy. Hence, at equivalent absorbed dose to the tumor (36 Gy), coinjection of 2-PMPA decreased absorbed dose to the kidneys from 30 Gy to 12 Gy. Mice injected with 177Lu-PSMA I&T only, showed signs of nephrotoxicity at 3 months after therapy, whereas mice injected with 177Lu-PSMA I&T + 2-PMPA did not. These data indicate that PSMA I&T is a promising theranostic tool for PCa. PSMA-specific uptake in kidneys can be successfully tackled using blocking agents such as 2-PMPA. PMID:27162555

  6. Genetic diversity of the Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen I gene in parasite population from the China-Myanmar border area

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaotong; Zhao, Zhenjun; Feng, Yonghui; Li, Peipei; Liu, Fei; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhaoqing; Yan, Guiyun; Fan, Qi; Cao, Yaming; Cui, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the genetic diversity of the Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (PfAMA1) gene in Southeast Asia, we determined PfAMA1 sequences from 135 field isolates collected from the China-Myanmar border area and compared them with 956 publically available PfAMA1 sequences from seven global P. falciparum populations. This analysis revealed high genetic diversity of PfAMA1 in global P. falciparum populations with a total of 229 haplotypes identified. The genetic diversity of PfAMA1 gene from the China-Myanmar border is not evenly distributed in the different domains of this gene. Sequence diversity in PfAMA1 from the China-Myanmar border is lower than that observed in Thai, African and Oceanian populations, but higher than that in the South American population. This appeared to correlate well with the levels of endemicity of different malaria-endemic regions, where hyperendemic regions favor genetic cross of the parasite isolates and generation of higher genetic diversity. Neutrality tests show significant departure from neutrality in the entire ectodomain and Domain I of PfAMA1 in the China-Myanmar border parasite population. We found evidence supporting a substantial continent-wise genetic structure among P. falciparum populations, with the highest genetic differentiation detected between the China-Myanmar border and the South American populations. Whereas no alleles were unique to a specific region, there were considerable geographical differences in major alleles and their frequencies, highlighting further necessity to include more PfAMA1 alleles in vaccine designs. PMID:26825252

  7. Genetic diversity of the Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen I gene in parasite population from the China-Myanmar border area.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaotong; Zhao, Zhenjun; Feng, Yonghui; Li, Peipei; Liu, Fei; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhaoqing; Yan, Guiyun; Fan, Qi; Cao, Yaming; Cui, Liwang

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the genetic diversity of the Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (PfAMA1) gene in Southeast Asia, we determined PfAMA1 sequences from 135 field isolates collected from the China-Myanmar border area and compared them with 956 publically available PfAMA1 sequences from seven global P. falciparum populations. This analysis revealed high genetic diversity of PfAMA1 in global P. falciparum populations with a total of 229 haplotypes identified. The genetic diversity of PfAMA1 gene from the China-Myanmar border is not evenly distributed in the different domains of this gene. Sequence diversity in PfAMA1 from the China-Myanmar border is lower than that observed in Thai, African and Oceanian populations, but higher than that in the South American population. This appeared to correlate well with the levels of endemicity of different malaria-endemic regions, where hyperendemic regions favor genetic cross of the parasite isolates and generation of higher genetic diversity. Neutrality tests show significant departure from neutrality in the entire ectodomain and Domain I of PfAMA1 in the China-Myanmar border parasite population. We found evidence supporting a substantial continent-wise genetic structure among P. falciparum populations, with the highest genetic differentiation detected between the China-Myanmar border and the South American populations. Whereas no alleles were unique to a specific region, there were considerable geographical differences in major alleles and their frequencies, highlighting further necessity to include more PfAMA1 alleles in vaccine designs.

  8. Phagocytosis of IgG-coated polystyrene beads by macrophages induces and requires high membrane order.

    PubMed

    Magenau, Astrid; Benzing, Carola; Proschogo, Nicholas; Don, Anthony S; Hejazi, Leila; Karunakaran, Denuja; Jessup, Wendy; Gaus, Katharina

    2011-12-01

    The biochemical composition and biophysical properties of cell membranes are hypothesized to affect cellular processes such as phagocytosis. Here, we examined the plasma membranes of murine macrophage cell lines during the early stages of uptake of immunoglobulin G (IgG)-coated polystyrene particles. We found that the plasma membrane undergoes rapid actin-independent condensation to form highly ordered phagosomal membranes, the biophysical hallmark of lipid rafts. Surprisingly, these membranes are depleted of cholesterol and enriched in sphingomyelin and ceramide. Inhibition of sphingomyelinase activity impairs membrane condensation, F-actin accumulation at phagocytic cups and particle uptake. Switching phagosomal membranes to a cholesterol-rich environment had no effect on membrane condensation and the rate of phagocytosis. In contrast, preventing membrane condensation with the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol, even in the presence of ceramide, blocked F-actin dissociation from nascent phagosomes and particle uptake. In conclusion, our results suggest that ordered membranes function to co-ordinate F-actin remodelling and that the biophysical properties of phagosomal membranes are essential for phagocytosis.

  9. Requirement of CD4-positive T cells for cellular recruitment to the lungs of mice in response to a particulate intratracheal antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, J L; Byrd, P K; Warnock, M L; Kaltreider, H B

    1991-01-01

    To determine whether CD4+ T cells participate in the recruitment of other lymphocyte subsets to the lungs, we examined pulmonary immune responses in C57BL/6 mice treated in vivo with the MAb GK1.5, either intact (which depletes CD4+ cells) or as F(ab')2 fragments (which block CD4 molecules). After intratracheal challenge with sheep erythrocytes, antigen-primed mice treated with intact GK1.5 had marked decreases in lymphocytes and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and minimal parenchymal inflammation, compared to primed mice treated with an isotype-matched irrelevant antibody or with no antibody. At 7 d after challenge, flow cytometric analysis showed that numbers of Thy 1.2+ and B220+ cells, but not of CD8+ cells, were markedly decreased in lavage fluid of CD4-depleted mice. Similar suppression of the pulmonary immune response to intratracheal challenge was found in primed mice injected repeatedly with F(ab')2 fragments of GK1.5, which did not deplete CD4+ T cells, and in athymic mice. These findings indicate that, in response to a single intratracheal antigen challenge, recruitment to the lungs of leukocytes other than CD8+ T cells depends largely on CD4+ T cells, possibly because of signals requiring T cell activation via interactions with antigen-presenting cells. Images PMID:1680880

  10. The Drosophila centrosomal protein Nuf is required for recruiting Dah, a membrane associated protein, to furrows in the early embryo.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, W F; Zhang, C X; Zelano, C; Hsieh, T S; Sullivan, W

    1999-09-01

    During mitosis of the Drosophila cortical syncytial divisions, actin-based membrane furrows separate adjacent spindles. Our genetic analysis indicates that the centrosomal protein Nuf is specifically required for recruitment of components to the furrows and the membrane-associated protein Dah is primarily required for the inward invagination of the furrow membrane. Recruitment of actin, anillin and peanut to the furrows occurs normally in dah-derived embryos. However, subsequent invagination of the furrows fails in dah-derived embryos and the septins become dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. This indicates that stable septin localization requires Dah-mediated furrow invagination. Close examination of actin and Dah localization in wild-type embryos reveals that they associate in adjacent particles during interphase and co-localize in the invaginating furrows during prophase and metaphase. We show that the Nuf centrosomal protein is required for recruiting the membrane-associated protein Dah to the furrows. In nuf-mutant embryos, much of the Dah does not reach the furrows and remains in a punctate distribution. This suggests that Dah is recruited to the furrows in vesicles and that the recruiting step is disrupted in nuf mutants. These studies lead to a model in which the centrosomes play an important role in the transport of membrane-associated proteins and other components to the developing furrows.

  11. Non-responsiveness of antigen-experienced CD4 T cells reflects more stringent co-stimulatory requirements.

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, M E; Noteboom, E; Kruisbeek, A M

    1998-01-01

    We recently reported that previously activated T cells, irrespective of the nature of the first stimulus they encountered, are unable to respond to Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), nor to soluble anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) presented by splenic antigen-presenting cells (APC). Such previously activated T cells are, however, fully capable of responding to plate-bound anti-CD3 plus splenic APC. These data suggest differential integration of the T-cell receptor (TCR) and co-stimulatory signalling pathways in naive versus antigen-experienced T cells. Consistent with this hypothesis, anti-CD28 mAb restores the proliferative capacity of resting ex vivo CD45RBlo CD4+ T cells (representing previously activated T cells) to both soluble anti-CD3 mAb and SEB. Interestingly, mAb-mediated engagement of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) completely negates the rescue effects mediated by anti-CD28 mAb in CD45RBlo cells. Nevertheless, the non-responsiveness of CD45RBlo CD4+ T cells cannot be reversed by anti-CTLA-4 Fab fragments, indicating that it is not related to negative regulatory effects of CTLA-4 engagement itself. Interestingly, the addition of interleukin-2 (IL-2) restores the proliferative capacity of CD45RBlo CD4+ T cells to SEB and soluble anti-CD3 mAb. Moreover, when rescued by IL-2, the cells are less susceptible to the negative regulatory effects of CTLA-4 engagement. Together, these findings suggest that the non-responsiveness of CD45RBlo CD4+ T cells to certain stimuli may be related to inadequate TCR signalling, primarily affecting IL-2 production. Images Figure 1 PMID:9640247

  12. The golgin GMAP-210 is required for efficient membrane trafficking in the early secretory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Roboti, Peristera; Sato, Keisuke; Lowe, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Golgins are coiled-coil proteins that participate in membrane-tethering events at the Golgi complex. Golgin-mediated tethering is thought to be important for vesicular trafficking and Golgi organization. However, the degree to which individual golgins contribute to these processes is poorly defined, and it has been proposed that golgins act in a largely redundant manner. Previous studies on the golgin GMAP-210 (also known as TRIP11), which is mutated in the rare skeletal disorder achondrogenesis type 1A, have yielded conflicting results regarding its involvement in trafficking. Here, we re-investigated the trafficking role of GMAP-210, and found that it is indeed required for efficient trafficking in the secretory pathway. GMAP-210 acts at both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and Golgi complex during anterograde trafficking, and is also required for retrograde trafficking to the ER. Using co-depletion experiments, we also found that GMAP-210 acts in a partially redundant manner with the golgin GM130 to ensure efficient anterograde cargo delivery to the cis-Golgi. In summary, our results indicate a role for GMAP-210 in several trafficking steps at the ER–Golgi interface, some of which are partially redundant with another golgin, namely GM130 (also known as GOLGA2). PMID:25717001

  13. The golgin GMAP-210 is required for efficient membrane trafficking in the early secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Roboti, Peristera; Sato, Keisuke; Lowe, Martin

    2015-04-15

    Golgins are coiled-coil proteins that participate in membrane-tethering events at the Golgi complex. Golgin-mediated tethering is thought to be important for vesicular trafficking and Golgi organization. However, the degree to which individual golgins contribute to these processes is poorly defined, and it has been proposed that golgins act in a largely redundant manner. Previous studies on the golgin GMAP-210 (also known as TRIP11), which is mutated in the rare skeletal disorder achondrogenesis type 1A, have yielded conflicting results regarding its involvement in trafficking. Here, we re-investigated the trafficking role of GMAP-210, and found that it is indeed required for efficient trafficking in the secretory pathway. GMAP-210 acts at both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and Golgi complex during anterograde trafficking, and is also required for retrograde trafficking to the ER. Using co-depletion experiments, we also found that GMAP-210 acts in a partially redundant manner with the golgin GM130 to ensure efficient anterograde cargo delivery to the cis-Golgi. In summary, our results indicate a role for GMAP-210 in several trafficking steps at the ER-Golgi interface, some of which are partially redundant with another golgin, namely GM130 (also known as GOLGA2). PMID:25717001

  14. Acetylation of trehalose mycolates is required for efficient MmpL-mediated membrane transport in Corynebacterineae.

    PubMed

    Yamaryo-Botte, Yoshiki; Rainczuk, Arek K; Lea-Smith, David J; Brammananth, Rajini; van der Peet, Phillip L; Meikle, Peter; Ralton, Julie E; Rupasinghe, Thusita W T; Williams, Spencer J; Coppel, Ross L; Crellin, Paul K; McConville, Malcolm J

    2015-03-20

    Pathogenic species of Mycobacteria and Corynebacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Corynebacterium diphtheriae, synthesize complex cell walls that are rich in very long-chain mycolic acids. These fatty acids are synthesized on the inner leaflet of the cell membrane and are subsequently transported to the periplasmic space as trehalose monomycolates (TMM), where they are conjugated to other cell wall components and to TMM to form trehalose dimycolates (TDM). Mycobacterial TMM, and the equivalent Corynebacterium glutamicum trehalose corynomycolates (TMCM), are transported across the inner membrane by MmpL3, or NCgl0228 and NCgl2769, respectively, although little is known about how this process is regulated. Here, we show that transient acetylation of the mycolyl moiety of TMCM is required for periplasmic export. A bioinformatic search identified a gene in a cell wall biosynthesis locus encoding a putative acetyltransferase (M. tuberculosis Rv0228/C. glutamicum NCgl2759) that was highly conserved in all sequenced Corynebacterineae. Deletion of C. glutamicum NCgl2759 resulted in the accumulation of TMCM, with a concomitant reduction in surface transport of this glycolipid and syntheses of cell wall trehalose dicorynomycolates. Strikingly, loss of NCgl2759 was associated with a defect in the synthesis of a minor, and previously uncharacterized, glycolipid species. This lipid was identified as trehalose monoacetylcorynomycolate (AcTMCM) by mass spectrometry and chemical synthesis of the authentic standard. The in vitro synthesis of AcTMCM was dependent on acetyl-CoA, whereas in vivo [(14)C]-acetate pulse-chase labeling showed that this lipid was rapidly synthesized and turned over in wild-type and genetically complemented bacterial strains. Significantly, the biochemical and TMCM/TDCM transport phenotype observed in the ΔNCgl2759 mutant was phenocopied by inhibition of the activities of the two C. glutamicum MmpL3 homologues. Collectively, these data

  15. S100A11 is required for efficient plasma membrane repair and survival of invasive cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Jyoti K.; Lauritzen, Stine P.; Scheffer, Luana; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Simon, Sanford M.; Kallunki, Tuula; Jäättelä, Marja; Nylandsted, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Cell migration and invasion require increased plasma membrane dynamics and ability to navigate through dense stroma, thereby exposing plasma membrane to tremendous physical stress. Yet, it is largely unknown how metastatic cancer cells acquire an ability to cope with such stress. Here we show that S100A11, a calcium-binding protein up-regulated in a variety of metastatic cancers, is essential for efficient plasma membrane repair and survival of highly motile cancer cells. Plasma membrane injury-induced entry of calcium into the cell triggers recruitment of S100A11 and Annexin A2 to the site of injury. We show that S100A11 in a complex with Annexin A2 helps reseal the plasma membrane by facilitating polymerization of cortical F-actin and excision of the damaged part of the plasma membrane. These data reveal plasma membrane repair in general and S100A11 and Annexin A2 in particular, as new targets for the therapy of metastatic cancers. PMID:24806074

  16. The Membrane-Associated Sec1/Munc18 KEULE is Required for Phragmoplast Microtubule Reorganization During Cytokinesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Alexander; Müller, Lin; Rybak, Katarzyna; Vodermaier, Vera; Facher, Eva; Thellmann, Martha; Ravikumar, Raksha; Wanner, Gerhard; Hauser, Marie-Theres; Assaad, Farhah F

    2016-04-01

    Cytokinesis, the partitioning of the cytoplasm following nuclear division, requires extensive coordination between membrane trafficking and cytoskeletal dynamics. In plants, the onset of cytokinesis is characterized by the assembly of a bipolar microtubule array, the phragmoplast, and of a transient membrane compartment, the cell plate. Little is known about the coordination between membrane deposition at the cell plate and the dynamics of phragmoplast microtubules. In this study, we monitor the localization dynamics of microtubule and membrane markers throughout cytokinesis. Our spatiotemporal resolution is consistent with the general view that microtubule dynamics drive membrane movements. Nonetheless, we provide evidence for active sorting at the cell plate and show that this is, at least in part, mediated by the TRAPPII tethering complex. We also characterize phragmoplast microtubule organization and cell plate formation in a suite of cytokinesis-defective mutants. Of four mutant lines with defects in phragmoplast microtubule organization, only mor1 microtubule-associated mutants exhibited aberrant cell plates. Conversely, the mutants with the strongest impairment in phragmoplast microtubule reorganization are keule alleles, which have a primary defect in membrane fusion. Our findings identify the SEC1/Munc18 protein KEULE as a central regulatory node in the coordination of membrane and microtubule dynamics during plant cytokinesis. PMID:26700031

  17. Interactions between HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies and Model Lipid Membranes imaged with AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zauscher, Stefan; Hardy, Gregory; Alam, Munir; Shapter, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Lipid membrane interactions with rare, broadly neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), 2F5 and 4E10, play a critical role in HIV-1 neutralization. Our research is motivated by recent immunization studies that have shown that induction of antibodies that avidly bind the gp41-MPER antigen is not sufficient for neutralization. Rather, it is required that antigen designs induce polyreactive antibodies that recognize MPER antigens as well as the viral lipid membrane. However, the mechanistic details of how membrane properties influence NAb-lipid and NAb-antigen interactions remain unknown. Furthermore, it is well established that the native viral membrane is heterogeneous, representing a mosaic of lipid rafts and protein clustering. However, the size, physical properties, and dynamics of these regions are poorly characterized and their potential roles in HIV-1 neutralization are also unknown. To understand how membrane properties contribute to 2F5/4E10 membrane interactions, we have engineered biomimetic supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) and use atomic force microscopy to visualize membrane domains, antigen clustering, and antibody-membrane interactions at sub-nanometer z-resolution. Our results show that localized binding of HIV-1 antigens and NAbs occur preferentially with the most fluid membrane domain. This supports the theory that NAbs may interact with regions of low lateral lipid forces that allow antibody insertion into the bilayer.

  18. Preprotein transport machineries of yeast mitochondrial outer membrane are not required for Bax-induced release of intermembrane space proteins.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán Szklarz, Luiza K; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Vögtle, F-Nora; Chacinska, Agnieszka; Milenkovic, Dusanka; Vogel, Sandra; Dürr, Mark; Westermann, Benedikt; Guiard, Bernard; Martinou, Jean-Claude; Borner, Christoph; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris

    2007-04-20

    The mitochondrial outer membrane contains protein import machineries, the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) and the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM). It has been speculated that TOM or SAM are required for Bax-induced release of intermembrane space (IMS) proteins; however, experimental evidence has been scarce. We used isolated yeast mitochondria as a model system and report that Bax promoted an efficient release of soluble IMS proteins while preproteins were still imported, excluding an unspecific damage of mitochondria. Removal of import receptors by protease treatment did not inhibit the release of IMS proteins by Bax. Yeast mutants of each Tom receptor and the Tom40 channel were not impaired in Bax-induced protein release. We analyzed a large collection of mutants of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins, including SAM, fusion and fission components, but none of these components was required for Bax-induced protein release. The released proteins included complexes up to a size of 230 kDa. We conclude that Bax promotes efficient release of IMS proteins through the outer membrane of yeast mitochondria while the inner membrane remains intact. Inactivation of the known protein import and sorting machineries of the outer membrane does not impair the function of Bax at the mitochondria.

  19. A Role For Mitochondria In Antigen Processing And Presentation.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Lc; Cervantes-Silva, Mp; Ontiveros-Dotor, E; López-Villegas, Eo; Sánchez-García, Fj

    2014-09-23

    Immune synapse formation is critical for T lymphocyte activation, and mitochondria have a role in this process, by localizing close to the immune synapse, regulating intracellular calcium concentration, and providing locally required ATP. The interaction between antigen presenting cells (APCs) and T lymphocytes is a two-way signaling process. However, the role of mitochondria in antigen presenting cells during this process remains unknown. For APCs to be able to activate T lymphocytes, they must first engage in an antigen-uptake, -processing, and -presentation process. Here we show that HEL-loaded B lymphocytes, as a type of APCs, undergo a small but significant mitochondrial depolarization by 1-2 h following antigen exposure thus suggesting an increase in their metabolic demands. Inhibition of ATP synthase (oligomycin) or mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) (Ruthenium red) had no effect on antigen uptake. Therefore, antigen processing and antigen presentation were further analyzed. Oligomycin treatment reduced the amount of specific MHC-peptide complexes but not total MHC II on the cell membrane of B lymphocytes which correlated with a decrease in antigen presentation. However, oligomycin also reduced antigen presentation by B lymphocytes that endogenously express HEL and by B lymphocytes loaded with the HEL48-62 peptide, although to a lesser extent. ATP synthase inhibition and MCU inhibition had a clear inhibitory effect on antigen processing (DQ-OVA). Taking together these results suggest that ATP synthase and MCU are relevant for antigen processing and presentation. Finally, APCs mitochondria were found to re-organize towards the APC-T immune synapse. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. RNA Replication and Membrane Modification Require the Same Functions of Alphavirus Nonstructural Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kallio, Katri; Hellström, Kirsi; Jokitalo, Eija

    2015-01-01

    The alphaviruses induce membrane invaginations known as spherules as their RNA replication sites. Here, we show that inactivation of any function (polymerase, helicase, protease, or membrane association) essential for RNA synthesis also prevents the generation of spherule structures in a Semliki Forest virus trans-replication system. Mutants capable of negative-strand synthesis, including those defective in RNA capping, gave rise to spherules. Recruitment of RNA to membranes in the absence of spherule formation was not detected. PMID:26581991

  1. Late-phase expression of a murine cytomegalovirus immediate-early antigen recognized by cytolytic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Reddehase, M J; Fibi, M R; Keil, G M; Koszinowski, U H

    1986-01-01

    The cloned murine cytolytic T-lymphocyte line IE1-IL and several sublines detect a murine cytomegalovirus immediate-early (IE) membrane determinant in conjunction with Ld class I major histocompatibility glycoprotein. The lines retained cytolytic activity, strict antigen specificity, and self-restriction even when adapted to long-term, antigen-independent growth in the presence of interleukin-2 only (M. J. Reddehase, H.-J. Bühring, and U. H. Koszinowski, J. Virol. 57:408-412). These attributes allowed us to use IE1-IL as a stable, monospecific probe for tracing the expression of the IE membrane antigen throughout the viral replication cycle. Presentation of the antigen at the cell membrane proved to be most effective when expression of IE genes in infected mouse embryo fibroblasts was selectively enhanced by consecutive cycloheximide-actinomycin D treatment, whereas without enhancement high numbers of IE1-IL cytolytic T lymphocytes were required to demonstrate the antigen in the IE phase. In the early phase of infection when IE genes were no longer transcribed, cytolysis was not observed, although IE proteins were detectable in the nuclei of the infected cells. Without application of inhibitors IE membrane antigen expression was most prominent during the late phase of infection. Reinitiation of transcription from the genomic region encoding the major IE protein (pp89) and de novo synthesis of pp89 correlated with this reexpression of the IE membrane antigen. Images PMID:2431160

  2. Serum Concentrations of Antibodies against Outer Membrane Protein P6, Protein D, and T- and B-Cell Combined Antigenic Epitopes of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in Children and Adults of Different Ages

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Chun-Zhen; Hu, Wei-Lin; Li, Jian-Ping; Hong, Li-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is one of the most common etiologies of acute otitis media, rhinosinusitis, and pneumonia. Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are the main focus in new vaccine development against NTHi, as the H. influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine does not cover noncapsulated NTHi. The OMPs P6 and protein D are the most promising candidate antigens for an NTHi vaccine, and low antibody levels against them in serum may be correlated with infection caused by NTHi. In the current study, we measured the antibody titers against P6, protein D, and their T- and B-cell combined peptide epitopes in healthy individuals of different ages. We found that children <1 month old had the lowest antibody levels against NTHi P6, protein D, and their T- and B-cell combined antigenic epitopes. Antibody titers increased at ages 1 to 6 months, peaked at 7 months to 3 years, and remained high at 4 to 6 years. The antibody titers started to decrease after 6 years and were the lowest in the 21- to 30-year group. The geometric mean titers (GMTs) of T- and B-cell combined antigenic epitopes in P6 and protein D were positively correlated with those of the protein antigens. Among 12 peptides tested, P6-61, P6-123, and protein D-167 epitopes were better recognized than others in human serum. These findings might contribute to the development of an effective serotype-independent vaccine for H. influenzae. PMID:26677200

  3. Distinct requirements for intra-ER sorting and budding of peroxisomal membrane proteins from the ER.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Gaurav; Fassas, Scott N; Xia, Zhi-Jie; Subramani, Suresh

    2016-02-01

    During de novo peroxisome biogenesis, importomer complex proteins sort via two preperoxisomal vesicles (ppVs). However, the sorting mechanisms segregating peroxisomal membrane proteins to the preperoxisomal endoplasmic reticulum (pER) and into ppVs are unknown. We report novel roles for Pex3 and Pex19 in intra-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) sorting and budding of the RING-domain peroxins (Pex2, Pex10, and Pex12). Pex19 bridged the interaction at the ER between Pex3 and RING-domain proteins, resulting in a ternary complex that was critical for the intra-ER sorting and subsequent budding of the RING-domain peroxins. Although the docking subcomplex proteins (Pex13, Pex14, and Pex17) also required Pex19 for budding from the ER, they sorted to the pER independently of Pex3 and Pex19 and were spatially segregated from the RING-domain proteins. We also discovered a unique role for Pex3 in sorting Pex10 and Pex12, but with the docking subcomplex. Our study describes an intra-ER sorting process that regulates segregation, packaging, and budding of peroxisomal importomer subcomplexes, thereby preventing their premature assembly at the ER. PMID:26833788

  4. Plasma membrane H⁺ -ATPase regulation is required for auxin gradient formation preceding phototropic growth.

    PubMed

    Hohm, Tim; Demarsy, Emilie; Quan, Clément; Allenbach Petrolati, Laure; Preuten, Tobias; Vernoux, Teva; Bergmann, Sven; Fankhauser, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Phototropism is a growth response allowing plants to align their photosynthetic organs toward incoming light and thereby to optimize photosynthetic activity. Formation of a lateral gradient of the phytohormone auxin is a key step to trigger asymmetric growth of the shoot leading to phototropic reorientation. To identify important regulators of auxin gradient formation, we developed an auxin flux model that enabled us to test in silico the impact of different morphological and biophysical parameters on gradient formation, including the contribution of the extracellular space (cell wall) or apoplast. Our model indicates that cell size, cell distributions, and apoplast thickness are all important factors affecting gradient formation. Among all tested variables, regulation of apoplastic pH was the most important to enable the formation of a lateral auxin gradient. To test this prediction, we interfered with the activity of plasma membrane H⁺ -ATPases that are required to control apoplastic pH. Our results show that H⁺ -ATPases are indeed important for the establishment of a lateral auxin gradient and phototropism. Moreover, we show that during phototropism, H⁺ -ATPase activity is regulated by the phototropin photoreceptors, providing a mechanism by which light influences apoplastic pH. PMID:25261457

  5. A new cruzipain-mediated pathway of human cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi requires trypomastigote membranes.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Isabela M; Scharfstein, Julio; Lima, Ana Paula C A

    2004-10-01

    The intracellular protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas' disease, a chronic illness associated with cardiomyopathy and digestive disorders. This pathogen invades mammalian cells by signaling them through multiple transduction pathways. We previously showed that cruzipain, the main cysteine protease of T. cruzi, promotes host cell invasion by activating kinin receptors. Here, we report a cruzipain-mediated invasion route that is not blocked by kinin receptor antagonists. By testing different strains of T. cruzi, we observed a correlation between the level of cruzipain secreted by trypomastigotes and the capacity of the pathogen to invade host cells. Consistent with a role for cruzipain, the cysteine protease inhibitor N-methylpiperazine-urea-Phe-homophenylalanine-vinylsulfone-benzene impaired the invasion of human smooth muscle cells by strains Dm28c and X10/6 but not by the G isolate. Cruzipain-rich supernatants of Dm28c trypomastigotes enhanced the infectivity of isolate G parasites twofold, an effect which was abolished by the cysteine protease inhibitor l-trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucylamido-(4-guanidino)butane and by thapsigargin, a drug that induces depletion of the intracellular Ca(2+) stores. The enhancement due to Dm28 supernatants was abolished upon cruzipain immunodepletion, and the activity was restored by purified cruzipain. In contrast, supernatants from isolate G trypomastigotes (with low levels of cruzipain) or supernatants from Dm28c epimastigotes or purified cruzipain alone did not enhance parasite invasion, indicating that the protease is required but not sufficient to engage this invasion pathway. We provide evidence that activation of this pathway requires cruzipain-mediated processing of a trypomastigote molecule associated with parasite-shed membranes. Our results couple cruzipain to host cell invasion through a kinin-independent route and further suggest that high-level cruzipain expression may contribute to parasite infectivity.

  6. Exocyst-Dependent Membrane Addition Is Required for Anaphase Cell Elongation and Cytokinesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Giansanti, Maria Grazia; Vanderleest, Timothy E.; Jewett, Cayla E.; Sechi, Stefano; Frappaolo, Anna; Fabian, Lacramioara; Robinett, Carmen C.; Brill, Julie A.; Loerke, Dinah; Fuller, Margaret T.; Blankenship, J. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Mitotic and cytokinetic processes harness cell machinery to drive chromosomal segregation and the physical separation of dividing cells. Here, we investigate the functional requirements for exocyst complex function during cell division in vivo, and demonstrate a common mechanism that directs anaphase cell elongation and cleavage furrow progression during cell division. We show that onion rings (onr) and funnel cakes (fun) encode the Drosophila homologs of the Exo84 and Sec8 exocyst subunits, respectively. In onr and fun mutant cells, contractile ring proteins are recruited to the equatorial region of dividing spermatocytes. However, cytokinesis is disrupted early in furrow ingression, leading to cytokinesis failure. We use high temporal and spatial resolution confocal imaging with automated computational analysis to quantitatively compare wild-type versus onr and fun mutant cells. These results demonstrate that anaphase cell elongation is grossly disrupted in cells that are compromised in exocyst complex function. Additionally, we observe that the increase in cell surface area in wild type peaks a few minutes into cytokinesis, and that onr and fun mutant cells have a greatly reduced rate of surface area growth specifically during cell division. Analysis by transmission electron microscopy reveals a massive build-up of cytoplasmic astral membrane and loss of normal Golgi architecture in onr and fun spermatocytes, suggesting that exocyst complex is required for proper vesicular trafficking through these compartments. Moreover, recruitment of the small GTPase Rab11 and the PITP Giotto to the cleavage site depends on wild-type function of the exocyst subunits Exo84 and Sec8. Finally, we show that the exocyst subunit Sec5 coimmunoprecipitates with Rab11. Our results are consistent with the exocyst complex mediating an essential, coordinated increase in cell surface area that potentiates anaphase cell elongation and cleavage furrow ingression. PMID:26528720

  7. Exocyst-Dependent Membrane Addition Is Required for Anaphase Cell Elongation and Cytokinesis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Giansanti, Maria Grazia; Vanderleest, Timothy E; Jewett, Cayla E; Sechi, Stefano; Frappaolo, Anna; Fabian, Lacramioara; Robinett, Carmen C; Brill, Julie A; Loerke, Dinah; Fuller, Margaret T; Blankenship, J Todd

    2015-11-01

    Mitotic and cytokinetic processes harness cell machinery to drive chromosomal segregation and the physical separation of dividing cells. Here, we investigate the functional requirements for exocyst complex function during cell division in vivo, and demonstrate a common mechanism that directs anaphase cell elongation and cleavage furrow progression during cell division. We show that onion rings (onr) and funnel cakes (fun) encode the Drosophila homologs of the Exo84 and Sec8 exocyst subunits, respectively. In onr and fun mutant cells, contractile ring proteins are recruited to the equatorial region of dividing spermatocytes. However, cytokinesis is disrupted early in furrow ingression, leading to cytokinesis failure. We use high temporal and spatial resolution confocal imaging with automated computational analysis to quantitatively compare wild-type versus onr and fun mutant cells. These results demonstrate that anaphase cell elongation is grossly disrupted in cells that are compromised in exocyst complex function. Additionally, we observe that the increase in cell surface area in wild type peaks a few minutes into cytokinesis, and that onr and fun mutant cells have a greatly reduced rate of surface area growth specifically during cell division. Analysis by transmission electron microscopy reveals a massive build-up of cytoplasmic astral membrane and loss of normal Golgi architecture in onr and fun spermatocytes, suggesting that exocyst complex is required for proper vesicular trafficking through these compartments. Moreover, recruitment of the small GTPase Rab11 and the PITP Giotto to the cleavage site depends on wild-type function of the exocyst subunits Exo84 and Sec8. Finally, we show that the exocyst subunit Sec5 coimmunoprecipitates with Rab11. Our results are consistent with the exocyst complex mediating an essential, coordinated increase in cell surface area that potentiates anaphase cell elongation and cleavage furrow ingression. PMID:26528720

  8. Sec35p, a Novel Peripheral Membrane Protein, Is Required for ER to Golgi Vesicle Docking

    PubMed Central

    VanRheenen, Susan M.; Cao, Xiaochun; Lupashin, Vladimir V.; Barlowe, Charles; Gerard Waters, M.

    1998-01-01

    SEC35 was identified in a novel screen for temperature-sensitive mutants in the secretory pathway of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Wuestehube et al., 1996. Genetics. 142:393–406). At the restrictive temperature, the sec35-1 strain exhibits a transport block between the ER and the Golgi apparatus and accumulates numerous vesicles. SEC35 encodes a novel cytosolic protein of 32 kD, peripherally associated with membranes. The temperature-sensitive phenotype of sec35-1 is efficiently suppressed by YPT1, which encodes the rab-like GTPase required early in the secretory pathway, or by SLY1-20, which encodes a dominant form of the ER to Golgi target -SNARE–associated protein Sly1p. Weaker suppression is evident upon overexpression of genes encoding the vesicle-SNAREs SEC22, BET1, or YKT6. The cold-sensitive lethality that results from deleting SEC35 is suppressed by YPT1 or SLY1-20. These genetic relationships suggest that Sec35p acts upstream of, or in conjunction with, Ypt1p and Sly1p as was previously found for Uso1p. Using a cell-free assay that measures distinct steps in vesicle transport from the ER to the Golgi, we find Sec35p is required for a vesicle docking stage catalyzed by Uso1p. These genetic and biochemical results suggest Sec35p acts with Uso1p to dock ER-derived vesicles to the Golgi complex. PMID:9606204

  9. Dystrophin is required for normal thin filament-membrane associations at myotendinous junctions.

    PubMed Central

    Tidball, J. G.; Law, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Dystrophin, the deficient gene product in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, is located subjacent to the muscle cell membrane at myotendinous junctions, as well as along the entire muscle cell. Myotendinous junctions are sites at which thin filaments normally are linked to one another and to the cell membrane, by both lateral and end-on associations between the thin filaments and membrane. The cell membrane at these sites in normal muscle is folded extensively. Dystrophic junctions display normal contacts between the ends of thin filaments and subsarcolemmal densities. However dystrophic junctions are deficient in lateral associations between thin filaments and the membrane and display less membrane folding than controls. These structural defects would result in stress concentrations at sites of thin filament attachment to the membrane, which can cause membrane tearing during muscle activation, especially in large-diameter and mature muscle cells. This deficiency in dystrophic myotendinous junction structure may contribute to our understanding of previously unaccountable aspects of the etiology of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Images Figure 1 PMID:1987762

  10. Cell Migration and Invadopodia Formation Require a Membrane-binding Domain of CARMIL2.

    PubMed

    Lanier, M Hunter; McConnell, Patrick; Cooper, John A

    2016-01-15

    CARMILs regulate capping protein (CP), a critical determinant of actin assembly and actin-based cell motility. Vertebrates have three conserved CARMIL genes with distinct functions. In migrating cells, CARMIL2 is important for cell polarity, lamellipodial assembly, ruffling, and macropinocytosis. In cells, CARMIL2 localizes with a distinctive dual pattern to vimentin intermediate filaments and to membranes at leading edges and macropinosomes. The mechanism by which CARMIL2 localizes to membranes has not been defined. Here, we report that CARMIL2 has a conserved membrane-binding domain composed of basic and hydrophobic residues, which is necessary and sufficient for membrane localization, based on expression studies in cells and on direct binding of purified protein to lipids. Most important, we find that the membrane-binding domain is necessary for CARMIL2 to function in cells, based on rescue expression with a set of biochemically defined mutants. CARMIL1 and CARMIL3 contain similar membrane-binding domains, based on sequence analysis and on experiments, but other CPI motif proteins, such as CD2AP, do not. Based on these results, we propose a model in which the membrane-binding domain of CARMIL2 tethers this multidomain protein to the membrane, where it links dynamic vimentin filaments with regulation of actin assembly via CP.

  11. IgE-mediated enhancement of CD4+ T cell responses requires antigen presentation by CD8α− conventional dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zhoujie; Dahlin, Joakim S.; Xu, Hui; Heyman, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    IgE, forming an immune complex with small proteins, can enhance the specific antibody and CD4+ T cell responses in vivo. The effects require the presence of CD23 (Fcε-receptor II)+ B cells, which capture IgE-complexed antigens (Ag) in the circulation and transport them to splenic B cell follicles. In addition, also CD11c+ cells, which do not express CD23, are required for IgE-mediated enhancement of T cell responses. This suggests that some type of dendritic cell obtains IgE-Ag complexes from B cells and presents antigenic peptides to T cells. To elucidate the nature of this dendritic cell, mice were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgE and OVA, and different populations of CD11c+ cells, obtained from the spleens four hours after immunization, were tested for their ability to present OVA. CD8α− conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) were much more efficient in inducing specific CD4+ T cell proliferation ex vivo than were CD8α+ cDCs or plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Thus, IgE-Ag complexes administered intravenously are rapidly transported to the spleen by recirculating B cells where they are delivered to CD8α− cDCs which induce proliferation of CD4+ T cells. PMID:27306570

  12. A geographical study of antibodies to membrane antigens of HSV-2-infected cells and HSV-2-specific antibodies in patients with cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Mendis, L N; Best, J M; Senarath, L; Chiphangwi, J; Vestergaard, B F; Banatvala, J E

    1981-11-15

    Sera was obtained from patients with squamous carcinoma of the cervix from Great Britain (29), Sri Lanka (32), Malawi (27), and Sudan (27), and from controls from all countries except Sudan. Controls were matched for ethnic origin, age and social class. Sera were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) for IgG and IgA antibodies to membrane antigens (MA) and IgA antibodies to VCA of HSV-2 infected cells. Compared with controls, IgA antibodies to MA (IgA anti-MA) were detected more frequently and at higher titres in all groups of patients. However, there was no significant difference in prevalence of these antibodies at titres greater than or equal to 1:4 between Malawian patients and controls, although a significantly higher proportion of patients had IgA anti-MA titres of greater than or equal to 1:16. In contrast, IgA anti-VCA did not distinguish patients from controls. More than 90% of both patients and controls from all countries had IgG antibodies to MA (IgA anti-MA). Malawian patients had a significantly higher geometric mean titre (GMT) of IgG anti-MA than controls and both patients and controls had significantly higher GMTs than their counterparts from other countries. The variation between herpes IgG anti-MA titres in subjects from different countries did not reflect differences in serum immunoglobulin levels and similar variations in titre were not seen in rubella and measles HAI titres. Among the patients there was a geographical variation in the prevalence of HSV-2 specific antibodies detected by ELISA, which varied from 52% among British and Sudanese patients to 73% among Malawian patients. Even when adjustment was made for possible false negative results, there were between 10 and 31% patients without HSV-2-specific antibodies, although only 2 of 103 (1.9%) patients had neither HSV-1 nor HSV-2 antibodies. The association of HSV-2 with cervical carcinoma appeared to vary with age.

  13. Heat shock protein 27 is required for sex steroid receptor trafficking to and functioning at the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Razandi, Mahnaz; Pedram, Ali; Levin, Ellis R

    2010-07-01

    Classical sex steroid receptors (SRs) localize at the plasma membranes (PMs) of cells, initiating signal transduction through kinase cascades that contribute to steroid hormone action. Palmitoylation of the SRs is required for membrane localization and function, but the proteins that facilitate this modification and subsequent receptor trafficking are unknown. Initially using a proteomic approach, we identified that heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) binds to a motif in estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and promotes palmitoylation of the SR. Hsp27-induced acylation occurred on the ERalpha monomer and augmented caveolin-1 interactions with ERalpha, resulting in membrane localization, kinase activation, and DNA synthesis in breast cancer cells. Oligomerization of Hsp27 was required, and similar results were found for the trafficking of endogenous progesterone and androgen receptors to the PMs of breast and prostate cancer cells, respectively. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of Hsp27 prevented sex SR trafficking to and signaling from the membrane. These results identify a conserved and novel function for Hsp27 with potential as a target for interrupting signaling from membrane sex SRs to tumor biology in hormone-responsive cancers. PMID:20439495

  14. EXO70I Is Required for Development of a Sub-domain of the Periarbuscular Membrane during Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinchun; Pumplin, Nathan; Ivanov, Sergey; Harrison, Maria J

    2015-08-17

    In eukaryotic cells, polarized secretion mediated by exocytotic fusion of membrane vesicles with the plasma membrane is essential for spatially restricted expansion of the plasma membrane and for the delivery of molecules to specific locations at the membrane and/or cell surface. The EXOCYST complex is central to this process, and in yeast, regulation of the EXO70 subunit influences exocytosis and cargo specificity. In contrast to yeast and mammalian cells, plants have upwards of 23 EXO70 genes with largely unknown roles. During arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, deposition of the plant periarbuscular membrane (PAM) around the fungal arbuscule creates an intracellular membrane interface between the symbionts. The PAM has two major membrane sub-domains, and symbiosis-specific transporter proteins are localized in the branch domain. Currently, the mechanisms and cellular machinery involved in biogenesis of the PAM are largely unknown. Here, we identify an EXO70I protein present exclusively in plants forming AM symbiosis. Medicago truncatula exo70i mutants are unable to support normal arbuscule development, and incorporation of two PAM-resident ABC transporters, STR and STR2, is limited. During arbuscule branching, EXO70I is located in spatially restricted zones adjacent to the PAM around the arbuscule hyphal tips where it interacts with Vapyrin, a plant-specific protein required for arbuscule development. We conclude that EXO70I provides a specific exocytotic capacity necessary for development of the main functional sub-domain of the PAM. Furthermore, in contrast to other eukaryotes, plant EXO70s have evolved distinct specificities and interaction partners to fulfill their specialized secretory requirements.

  15. Intranasal Immunization with Influenza Virus-Like Particles Containing Membrane-Anchored Cholera Toxin B or Ricin Toxin B Enhances Adaptive Immune Responses and Protection against an Antigenically Distinct Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xianliang; Ren, Zhiguang; Xu, Na; Meng, Lingnan; Yu, Zhijun; Feng, Na; Sang, Xiaoyu; Li, Shengnan; Li, Yuanguo; Wang, Tiecheng; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; Zheng, Xuexing; Jin, Hongli; Li, Nan; Yang, Songtao; Cao, Jinshan; Liu, Wensen; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective means to prevent influenza virus infection, although current approaches are associated with suboptimal efficacy. Here, we generated virus-like particles (VLPs) composed of the hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) and matrix protein (M1) of A/Changchun/01/2009 (H1N1) with or without either membrane-anchored cholera toxin B (CTB) or ricin toxin B (RTB) as molecular adjuvants. The intranasal immunization of mice with VLPs containing membrane-anchored CTB or RTB elicited stronger humoral and cellular immune responses when compared to mice immunized with VLPs alone. Administration of VLPs containing CTB or RTB significantly enhanced virus-specific systemic and mucosal antibody responses, hemagglutination inhibiting antibody titers, virus neutralizing antibody titers, and the frequency of virus-specific IFN-γ and IL-4 secreting splenocytes. VLPs with and without CTB or RTB conferred complete protection against lethal challenge with a mouse-adapted homologous virus. When challenged with an antigenically distinct H1N1 virus, all mice immunized with VLPs containing CTB or RTB survived whereas mice immunized with VLPs alone showed only partial protection (80% survival). Our results suggest that membrane-anchored CTB and RTB possess strong adjuvant properties when incorporated into an intranasally-delivered influenza VLP vaccine. Chimeric influenza VLPs containing CTB or RTB may represent promising vaccine candidates for improved immunological protection against homologous and antigenically distinct influenza viruses. PMID:27110810

  16. Discrete nascent chain lengths are required for the insertion of presecretory proteins into microsomal membranes

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Ribosomes synthesizing nascent secretory proteins are targeted to the membrane by the signal recognition particle (SRP), a small ribonucleoprotein that binds to the signal peptide as it emerges from the ribosome. SRP arrests further elongation, causing ribosomes to stack behind the arrested ribosome. Upon interaction of SRP with its receptor on the ER membrane, the translation arrest is released and the ribosome becomes bound to the ER membrane. We have examined the distribution of unattached and membrane-bound ribosomes during the translation of mRNAs encoding two secretory proteins, bovine preprolactin and rat preproinsulin I. We find that the enhancement of ribosome stacking that occurs when SRP arrests translation of these proteins is relaxed in the presence of microsomal membranes. We also demonstrate that two previously described populations of membrane- associated ribosomes, distinguished by their sensitivity to high salt or EDTA extraction, correspond to ribosomes that have synthesized differing lengths of the nascent polypeptide. This analysis has revealed that nascent chain insertion into the membrane begins at distinct points for different presecretory proteins. PMID:8389768

  17. Periaxin is required for hexagonal geometry and membrane organization of mature lens fibers

    PubMed Central

    Maddala, Rupalatha; Skiba, Nikolai P.; Lalane, Robert; Sherman, Diane L.; Brophy, Peter J.; Rao, Ponugoti V.

    2011-01-01

    Transparency of the ocular lens depends on symmetric packing and membrane organization of highly elongated hexagonal fiber cells. These cells possess an extensive, well-ordered cortical cytoskeleton to maintain cell shape and to anchor membrane components. Periaxin (Prx), a PDZ domain protein involved in myelin sheath stabilization, is also a component of adhaerens plaques in lens fiber cells. Here we show that Prx is expressed in lens fibers and exhibits maturation dependent redistribution, clustering discretely at the tricellular junctions in mature fiber cells. Prx exists in a macromolecular complex with proteins involved in membrane organization including ankyrin-B, spectrin, NrCAM, filensin, ezrin and desmoyokin. Importantly, Prx knockout mouse lenses were found to be softer and more easily deformed than normal lenses, revealing disruptions in fiber cell hexagonal packing, membrane skeleton and membrane stability. These observations suggest a key role for Prx in maturation, packing, and membrane organization of lens fiber cells. Hence, there may be functional parallels between the roles of Prx in membrane stabilization of the myelin sheath and the lens fiber cell. PMID:21745462

  18. Evidence that membrane transduction of oligoarginine does not require vesicle formation

    SciTech Connect

    Zaro, Jennica L.; Shen Weichiang . E-mail: weishen@usc.edu

    2005-07-01

    The involvement of vesicular formation processes in the membrane transduction and nuclear transport of oligoarginine is currently a subject of controversy. In this report, a novel quantitative method which allows for the selective measurement of membrane transduction excluding concurrent endocytosis was used to determine the effects of temperature, endosomal acidification, endosomolysis, and several known inhibitors of endocytic pathways on the internalization of oligoarginine. The results show that, unlike endocytosis, transduction of oligoarginine was not affected by incubation at 16 deg. C as compared to the 37 deg. C control, and was only partially inhibited at 4 deg. C incubation. Additionally, membrane transduction was not inhibited to the same extent as endocytosis following treatment with ammonium chloride, hypertonic medium, amiloride, or filipin. The endosomolytic activity of oligoarginine was investigated by examining the leakage of FITC-dextran into the cytosolic compartment, which was not higher in the presence of oligoarginine. Furthermore, ammonium chloride showed no effect on the nuclear transport of oligoarginine. The data presented in this report indicate that membrane transduction is likely to occur at the plasma membrane without the formation of membrane vesicles, and the nuclear localization involves membrane transduction, rather than endocytosis of oligoarginine.

  19. Reduction of low potential electron acceptors requires the CbcL inner membrane cytochrome of Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    PubMed

    Zacharoff, Lori; Chan, Chi Ho; Bond, Daniel R

    2016-02-01

    The respiration of metals by the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens requires electrons generated by metabolism to pass from the interior of the cell to electron acceptors beyond the cell membranes. The G. sulfurreducens inner membrane multiheme c-type cytochrome ImcH is required for respiration to extracellular electron acceptors with redox potentials greater than -0.1 V vs. SHE, but ImcH is not essential for electron transfer to lower potential acceptors. In contrast, deletion of cbcL, encoding an inner membrane protein consisting of b-type and multiheme c-type cytochrome domains, severely affected reduction of low potential electron acceptors such as Fe(III)-oxides and electrodes poised at -0.1 V vs. SHE. Catalytic cyclic voltammetry of a ΔcbcL strain growing on poised electrodes revealed a 50 mV positive shift in driving force required for electron transfer out of the cell. In non-catalytic conditions, low-potential peaks present in wild type biofilms were absent in ∆cbcL mutants. Expression of cbcL in trans increased growth at low redox potential and restored features to cyclic voltammetry. This evidence supports a model where CbcL is a component of a second electron transfer pathway out of the G. sulfurreducens inner membrane that dominates when redox potential is at or below -0.1 V vs. SHE.

  20. Reduction of low potential electron acceptors requires the CbcL inner membrane cytochrome of Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    PubMed

    Zacharoff, Lori; Chan, Chi Ho; Bond, Daniel R

    2016-02-01

    The respiration of metals by the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens requires electrons generated by metabolism to pass from the interior of the cell to electron acceptors beyond the cell membranes. The G. sulfurreducens inner membrane multiheme c-type cytochrome ImcH is required for respiration to extracellular electron acceptors with redox potentials greater than -0.1 V vs. SHE, but ImcH is not essential for electron transfer to lower potential acceptors. In contrast, deletion of cbcL, encoding an inner membrane protein consisting of b-type and multiheme c-type cytochrome domains, severely affected reduction of low potential electron acceptors such as Fe(III)-oxides and electrodes poised at -0.1 V vs. SHE. Catalytic cyclic voltammetry of a ΔcbcL strain growing on poised electrodes revealed a 50 mV positive shift in driving force required for electron transfer out of the cell. In non-catalytic conditions, low-potential peaks present in wild type biofilms were absent in ∆cbcL mutants. Expression of cbcL in trans increased growth at low redox potential and restored features to cyclic voltammetry. This evidence supports a model where CbcL is a component of a second electron transfer pathway out of the G. sulfurreducens inner membrane that dominates when redox potential is at or below -0.1 V vs. SHE. PMID:26407054

  1. A role for mitochondria in antigen processing and presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bonifaz, Laura C; Cervantes-Silva, Mariana P; Ontiveros-Dotor, Elizabeth; López-Villegas, Edgar O; Sánchez-García, F Javier

    2015-01-01

    Immune synapse formation is critical for T-lymphocyte activation, and mitochondria have a role in this process, by localizing close to the immune synapse, regulating intracellular calcium concentration, and providing locally required ATP. The interaction between antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T lymphocytes is a two-way signalling process. However, the role of mitochondria in APCs during this process remains unknown. For APCs to be able to activate T lymphocytes, they must first engage in an antigen-uptake, -processing and -presentation process. Here we show that hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) -loaded B lymphocytes, as a type of APC, undergo a small but significant mitochondrial depolarization by 1–2 hr following antigen exposure, suggesting an increase in their metabolic demands. Inhibition of ATP synthase (oligomycin) or mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) (Ruthenium red) had no effect on antigen uptake. Therefore, antigen processing and antigen presentation were further analysed. Oligomycin treatment reduced the amount of specific MHC–peptide complexes but not total MHC II on the cell membrane of B lymphocytes, which correlated with a decrease in antigen presentation. However, oligomycin also reduced antigen presentation by B lymphocytes, which endogenously express HEL and by B lymphocytes loaded with the HEL48–62 peptide, although to a lesser extent. ATP synthase inhibition and MCU inhibition had a clear inhibitory effect on antigen processing (DQ-OVA). Taken together these results suggest that ATP synthase and MCU are relevant for antigen processing and presentation. Finally, APC mitochondria were found to re-organize towards the APC–T immune synapse. PMID:25251370

  2. Vaccination of sheep against haemonchosis with H11, a gut membrane-derived protective antigen from the adult parasite: prevention of the periparturient rise and colostral transfer of protective immunity.

    PubMed

    Andrews, S J; Hole, N J; Munn, E A; Rolph, T P

    1995-07-01

    Pregnant ewes were immunised with a fraction highly enriched in the membrane glycoprotein antigen H11, isolated from the intestinal brush border of adult Haemonchus contortus. Immunity induced by immunisation was able to abolish almost completely (98-99%) the worm egg output from pregnant ewes challenged with ca. 10,000 infective larvae of H. contortus during the last trimester. Furthermore, lambs born and reared on vaccinated ewes had substantial antibody levels to H11 derived from maternal transfer. This antibody conferred moderate protection against a bolus challenge of ca. 3000 infective larvae of H. contortus in 5-week-old lambs.

  3. Screening for lipid requirements of membrane proteins by combining cell-free expression with nanodiscs.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Erik; Dötsch, Volker; Bernhard, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Cell-free (CF) protein expression has emerged as one of the most efficient production platforms for membrane proteins. Central bottlenecks prevalent in conventional cell-based expression systems such as mistargeting, inclusion body formation, degradation as well as product toxicity can be addressed by taking advantage of the reduced complexity of CF expression systems. However, the open accessibility of CF reactions offers the possibility to design customized artificial expression environments by supplying synthetic hydrophobic compounds such as micelles or membranes of defined composition. The open nature of CF systems therefore generally allows systematic screening approaches for the identification of efficient cotranslational solubilization environments of membrane proteins. Synergies exist in particular with the recently developed nanodisc (ND) technology enabling the synthesis of stable and highly soluble particles containing membrane discs of defined composition. Specific types of lipids frequently modulate folding, stability, and activity of integrated membrane proteins. One recently reported example are phospho-MurNAc-pentapeptide (MraY) translocases that catalyze a crucial step in bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis making them interesting as future drug targets. Production of functionally active MraY homologues from most human pathogens in conventional cellular production systems was so far not successful due to their obviously strict lipid dependency for functionally folding. We demonstrate that the combination of CF expression with ND technologies is an efficient strategy for the production of folded MraY translocases, and we present a general protocol for the rapid screening of lipid specificities of membrane proteins. PMID:25857790

  4. Phosphorylation at tyrosine 114 of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is required for adipogenesis in response to high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yuan-Hung; Ho, Po-Chun; Chen, Min-Shan; Hugo, Eric; Ben-Jonathan, Nira; Wang, Shao-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Clonal proliferation is an obligatory component of adipogenesis. Although several cell cycle regulators are known to participate in the transition between pre-adipocyte proliferation and terminal adipocyte differentiation, how the core DNA synthesis machinery is coordinately regulated in adipogenesis remains elusive. PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) is an indispensable component for DNA synthesis during proliferation. Here we show that PCNA is subject to phosphorylation at the highly conserved tyrosine residue 114 (Y114). Replacing the Y114 residue with phenylalanine (Y114F), which is structurally similar to tyrosine but cannot be phosphorylated, does not affect normal animal development. However, when challenged with high fat diet, mice carrying homozygous Y114F alleles (PCNAF/F) are resistant to adipose tissue enlargement in comparison to wild-type (WT) mice. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) harboring WT or Y114F mutant PCNA proliferate at similar rates. However, when subjected to adipogenesis induction in culture, PCNAF/F MEFs are not able to re-enter the cell cycle and fail to form mature adipocytes, while WT MEFs undergo mitotic clonal expansion in response to the adipogenic stimulation, accompanied by enhanced Y114 phosphorylation of PCNA, and differentiate to mature adipocytes. Consistent with the function of Y114 phosphorylation in clonal proliferation in adipogenesis, fat tissues isolated from WT mice contain significantly more adipocytes than those isolated from PCNAF/F mice. This study identifies a critical role for PCNA in adipose tissue development, and for the first time identifies a role of the core DNA replication machinery at the interface between proliferation and differentiation. PMID:23201573

  5. European Sero-Epidemiology Network 2: standardisation of immunoassay results for pertussis requires homogeneity in the antigenic preparations.

    PubMed

    Giammanco, Anna; Nardone, Antony; Pebody, Richard; Kafatos, George; Andrews, Nick; Chiarini, Alfredo; Taormina, Susanna; de Ory, Fernando; Prosenc, Katarina; Krize, Bohumir; Hallander, Hans; Ljungman, Margaretha; Marva, Esther; Tsakris, Athanassios; O'Flanagan, Darina; Schneider, François; Griskevicius, Algirdas; Vranckx, Robert; Karacs, Ildiko

    2008-08-18

    A standardisation process, already developed during the earlier European Sero-Epidemiology Network (ESEN) project, was employed with a more robust algorithm to harmonise results of pertussis serological assays performed in 12 European and non-European countries. Initially, results from each country's own assay were compared with those obtained at the reference laboratory by means of an in-house pertussis toxin (PT)-based ELISA: seven countries used in-house or commercial PT-ELISAs; the other countries used assays based on Bordetella pertussis whole cell extracts (WCE) (three countries) or on combined PT-FHA (filamentous haemagglutinin) antigenic preparations (two countries). The WCE assays, although admitted for diagnostic purposes, confirmed their low correlation with the PT-ELISAs and their results could not be used for standardisation; the PT-FHA ELISAs gave results that were suitable for standardisation in one country but unsatisfactory in the other; the use of purified PT in serological assays confirmed its better reliability than other preparations and all PT-ELISAs results could be calibrated against those of the reference centre. In the standardisation process two high-titre cut-offs indicative of likelihood of recent infection (from within 4 weeks of disease onset up to 1 year after) were included for evaluations as they are suggested to be more useful, for the sero-epidemiological assays of immunity to pertussis, than the cut-off of protection, commonly employed, but still not defined for pertussis. Providing PT-ELISAs are used, standardisation of pertussis assay results is always possible and, when standardisation is performed, evaluation and comparison of the impact of different interventions can be also allowed, by measuring at the distribution of high antibody titres in the populations. PMID:18602434

  6. Circulating IgM Requires Plasma Membrane Disruption to Bind Apoptotic and Non-Apoptotic Nucleated Cells and Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, Emily E.; Dransfield, Ian; Kluth, David C.; Hughes, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmunity is associated with defective phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells. IgM deficient mice exhibit an autoimmune phenotype consistent with a role for circulating IgM antibodies in apoptotic cell clearance. We have extensively characterised IgM binding to non-apoptotic and apoptotic mouse thymocytes and human Jurkat cells using flow cytometry, confocal imaging and electron microscopy. We demonstrate strong specific IgM binding to a subset of Annexin-V (AnnV)+PI (Propidium Iodide)+ apoptotic cells with disrupted cell membranes. Electron microscopy studies indicated that IgM+AnnV+PI+ apoptotic cells exhibited morphologically advanced apoptosis with marked plasma membrane disruption compared to IgM-AnnV+PI+ apoptotic cells, suggesting that access to intracellular epitopes is required for IgM to bind. Strong and comparable binding of IgM to permeabilised non-apoptotic and apoptotic cells suggests that IgM bound epitopes are 'apoptosis independent' such that IgM may bind any cell with profound disruption of cell plasma membrane integrity. In addition, permeabilised erythrocytes exhibited significant IgM binding thus supporting the importance of cell membrane epitopes. These data suggest that IgM may recognize and tag damaged nucleated cells or erythrocytes that exhibit significant cell membrane disruption. The role of IgM in vivo in conditions characterized by severe cell damage such as ischemic injury, sepsis and thrombotic microangiopathies merits further exploration. PMID:26121639

  7. Circulating IgM Requires Plasma Membrane Disruption to Bind Apoptotic and Non-Apoptotic Nucleated Cells and Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Hesketh, Emily E; Dransfield, Ian; Kluth, David C; Hughes, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmunity is associated with defective phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells. IgM deficient mice exhibit an autoimmune phenotype consistent with a role for circulating IgM antibodies in apoptotic cell clearance. We have extensively characterised IgM binding to non-apoptotic and apoptotic mouse thymocytes and human Jurkat cells using flow cytometry, confocal imaging and electron microscopy. We demonstrate strong specific IgM binding to a subset of Annexin-V (AnnV)+PI (Propidium Iodide)+ apoptotic cells with disrupted cell membranes. Electron microscopy studies indicated that IgM+AnnV+PI+ apoptotic cells exhibited morphologically advanced apoptosis with marked plasma membrane disruption compared to IgM-AnnV+PI+ apoptotic cells, suggesting that access to intracellular epitopes is required for IgM to bind. Strong and comparable binding of IgM to permeabilised non-apoptotic and apoptotic cells suggests that IgM bound epitopes are 'apoptosis independent' such that IgM may bind any cell with profound disruption of cell plasma membrane integrity. In addition, permeabilised erythrocytes exhibited significant IgM binding thus supporting the importance of cell membrane epitopes. These data suggest that IgM may recognize and tag damaged nucleated cells or erythrocytes that exhibit significant cell membrane disruption. The role of IgM in vivo in conditions characterized by severe cell damage such as ischemic injury, sepsis and thrombotic microangiopathies merits further exploration.

  8. tBid Undergoes Multiple Conformational Changes at the Membrane Required for Bax Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Shamas-Din, Aisha; Bindner, Scott; Zhu, Weijia; Zaltsman, Yehudit; Campbell, Clinton; Gross, Atan; Leber, Brian; Andrews, David W.; Fradin, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    Bid is a Bcl-2 family protein that promotes apoptosis by activating Bax and eliciting mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Full-length Bid is cleaved in response to apoptotic stimuli into two fragments, p7 and tBid (p15), that are held together by strong hydrophobic interactions until the complex binds to membranes. The detailed mechanism(s) of fragment separation including tBid binding to membranes and release of the p7 fragment to the cytoplasm remain unclear. Using liposomes or isolated mitochondria with fluorescently labeled proteins at physiological concentrations as in vitro models, we report that the two components of the complex quickly separate upon interaction with a membrane. Once tBid binds to the membrane, it undergoes slow structural rearrangements that result in an equilibrium between two major tBid conformations on the membrane. The conformational change of tBid is a prerequisite for interaction with Bax and is, therefore, a novel step that can be modulated to promote or inhibit MOMP. Using automated high-throughput image analysis in cells, we show that down-regulation of Mtch2 causes a significant delay between tBid and Bax relocalization in cells. We propose that by promoting insertion of tBid via a conformational change at the mitochondrial outer membrane, Mtch2 accelerates tBid-mediated Bax activation and MOMP. Thus the interaction of Mtch2 and tBid is a potential target for therapeutic control of Bid initiated cell death. PMID:23744079

  9. A novel simian virus 40 early-region domain mediates transactivation of the cyclin A promoter by small-t antigen and is required for transformation in small-t antigen-dependent assays.

    PubMed Central

    Porrás, A; Bennett, J; Howe, A; Tokos, K; Bouck, N; Henglein, B; Sathyamangalam, S; Thimmapaya, B; Rundell, K

    1996-01-01

    At least three regions of the simian virus 40 small-t antigen (small-t) contribute to the protein's ability to enhance cellular transformation. As we showed previously for rat F111 cells, one region includes sequences from residues 97 to 103 that are involved in the binding and inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A. In the present study, the role of the protein phosphatase 2A binding region was confirmed in two additional small-t-dependent transformation systems. Second, small-t was found to provide a function previously identified as a large-T transformation domain. Mutations in residues 19 to 28 of large-T affected its transforming ability, but these mutations were complemented by a wild-type small-t. A third region of small-t was also required for efficient transformation. This region, the 42-47 region, is shared by large-T and small-t and contains a conserved HPDKGG hexapeptide. The 42-47 region function could be provided by either small-t or large-T in small-t-dependent systems. Mutations in the 42-47 region reduced the ability of small-t to transactivate the cyclin A promoter, of interest because small-t increased endogenous cyclin A mRNA levels in both human and monkey cells, as well as transactivating the promoter in transient assays. PMID:8794333

  10. Cholesterol and F-actin are required for clustering of recycling synaptic vesicle proteins in the presynaptic plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Dason, Jeffrey S; Smith, Alex J; Marin, Leo; Charlton, Milton P

    2014-02-15

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) and their proteins must be recycled for sustained synaptic transmission. We tested the hypothesis that SV cholesterol is required for proper sorting of SV proteins during recycling in live presynaptic terminals. We used the reversible block of endocytosis in the Drosophila temperature-sensitive dynamin mutant shibire-ts1 to trap exocytosed SV proteins, and then examined the effect of experimental treatments on the distribution of these proteins within the presynaptic plasma membrane by confocal microscopy. SV proteins synaptotagmin, vglut and csp were clustered following SV trapping in control experiments but dispersed in samples treated with the cholesterol chelator methyl-β-cyclodextrin to extract SV cholesterol. There was accumulation of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2) in presynaptic terminals following SV trapping and this was reduced following SV cholesterol extraction. Reduced PIP2 accumulation was associated with disrupted accumulation of actin in presynaptic terminals. Similar to vesicular cholesterol extraction, disruption of actin by latrunculin A after SV proteins had been trapped on the plasma membrane resulted in the dispersal of SV proteins and prevented recovery of synaptic transmission due to impaired endocytosis following relief of the endocytic block. Our results demonstrate that vesicular cholesterol is required for aggregation of exocytosed SV proteins in the presynaptic plasma membrane and are consistent with a mechanism involving regulation of PIP2 accumulation and local actin polymerization by cholesterol. Thus, alteration of membrane or SV lipids may affect the ability of synapses to undergo sustained synaptic transmission by compromising the recycling of SV proteins.

  11. Sec59 encodes a membrane protein required for core glycosylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, M; Kepes, F; Schekman, R

    1989-01-01

    When incubated at a restrictive temperature, Saccharomyces cerevisiae sec59 mutant cells accumulate inactive and incompletely glycosylated forms of secretory proteins. Three different secretory polypeptides (invertase, pro-alpha-factor, and pro-carboxypeptidase Y) accumulated within a membrane-bounded organelle, presumably the endoplasmic reticulum, and resisted proteolytic degradation unless the membrane was permeabilized with detergent. Molecular cloning and DNA sequence analysis of the SEC59 gene predicted an extremely hydrophobic protein product of 59 kilodaltons. This prediction was confirmed by reconstitution of the sec59 defect in vitro. The alpha-factor precursor, which was translated in a soluble fraction from wild-type cells, was translocated into, but inefficiently glycosylated within, membranes from sec59 mutant cells. Residual glycosylation activity of membranes of sec59 cells was thermolabile compared with the activity of wild-type membranes. Partial restoration of glycosylation was obtained in reactions that were supplemented with mannose or GDP-mannose, but not those supplemented with other sugar nucleotides. These results were consistent with a role for the Sec59 protein in the transfer of mannose to dolichol-linked oligosaccharide. Images PMID:2657387

  12. FAM65B is a membrane-associated protein of hair cell stereocilia required for hearing.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Horta, Oscar; Subasioglu-Uzak, Asli; Grati, M'hamed; DeSmidt, Alexandra; Foster, Joseph; Cao, Lei; Bademci, Guney; Tokgoz-Yilmaz, Suna; Duman, Duygu; Cengiz, F Basak; Abad, Clemer; Mittal, Rahul; Blanton, Susan; Liu, Xue Z; Farooq, Amjad; Walz, Katherina; Lu, Zhongmin; Tekin, Mustafa

    2014-07-01

    In a large consanguineous Turkish kindred with recessive nonsyndromic, prelingual, profound hearing loss, we identified in the gene FAM65B (MIM611410) a splice site mutation (c.102-1G>A) that perfectly cosegregates with the phenotype in the family. The mutation leads to exon skipping and deletion of 52-amino acid residues of a PX membrane localization domain. FAM65B is known to be involved in myotube formation and in regulation of cell adhesion, polarization, and migration. We show that wild-type Fam65b is expressed during embryonic and postnatal development stages in murine cochlea, and that the protein localizes to the plasma membranes of the stereocilia of inner and outer hair cells of the inner ear. The wild-type protein targets the plasma membrane, whereas the mutant protein accumulates in cytoplasmic inclusion bodies and does not reach the membrane. In zebrafish, knockdown of fam65b leads to significant reduction of numbers of saccular hair cells and neuromasts and to hearing loss. We conclude that FAM65B is a plasma membrane-associated protein of hair cell stereocilia that is essential for hearing.

  13. 89Zr-DFO-J591 for immunoPET imaging of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Jason P.; Divilov, Vadim; Bander, Neil H.; Smith-Jones, Peter M.; Larson, Steven M.; Lewis, Jason S.

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium-89 (t1/2 = 3.27 days) is a positron emitting radionuclide which displays excellent potential for use in the design and synthesis of radioimmunoconjugates for immunoPET. In these studies we report the preparation of 89Zr-DFO-J591, a novel 89Zr -labeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) construct for targeted immunoPET imaging and quantification of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression in vivo. Methods The in vivo behavior of [89Zr]Zr-chloride, [89Zr]Zr-oxalate and [89Zr]Zr-DFO was investigated by using PET imaging. High level computational studies using density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to investigate the electronic structure of [89Zr]Zr-DFO and probe the nature of the complex in aqueous conditions. J591 was functionalized with the hexadentate, tris-hydroxamate ligand desferrioxamine B (DFO) and radiolabeled with [89Zr]Zr-oxalate at room temperature. ImmunoPET imaging experiments in male, athymic nu/nu mice bearing sub-cutaneous LNCaP (PSMA positive) or PC-3 (PSMA negative) tumors were conducted. The change in 89Zr-DFO-J591 tissue uptake in response to high- and low-specific-activity formulations in the two tumor models was measured by using acute biodistribution studies and immunoPET. Results Basic characterization of three important reagents, [89Zr]Zr-chloride and [89Zr]Zr-oxalate, as well as the complex, [89Zr]Zr-DFO, demonstrated that the nature of the 89Zr species has a dramatic effect on the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics. DFT calculations provide a rationale for the observed high in vivo stability of 89Zr-DFO-labeled mAbs and suggest that in aqueous conditions, [89Zr]Zr-DFO forms a thermodynamically stable, 8-coordinate complex by coordination of two water molecules. 89Zr-DFO-J591 was produced in high radiochemical yield (>77%) with radiochemical purity >99% and a specific-activity of 181.7±1.1 MBq/mg (4.91±0.03 mCi/mg). In vitro assays demonstrated that 89Zr-DFO-J591 had an initial immunoreactive fraction of

  14. Identification of an 11-residue portion of CTP-phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase that is required for enzyme-membrane interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J; Wang, J; Tseu, I; Kuliszewski, M; Lee, W; Post, M

    1997-01-01

    CTP-phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CT) is a key regulatory enzyme in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in many cells. Enzyme-membrane interactions appear to play an important role in CT activation. A putative membrane-binding domain appears to be located between residues 236 and 293 from the N-terminus. To map the membrane-binding domain more precisely, glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins were prepared that contained deletions of various domains in this putative lipid-binding region. The fusion proteins were assessed for their binding of [3H]PC/oleic acid vesicles. Fusion proteins encompassing residues 267-277 bound to PC/oleic acid vesicles, whereas fragments lacking this region exhibited no specific binding to the lipid vesicles. The membrane-binding characteristics of the CT fusion proteins were also examined using intact lung microsomes. Only fragments encompassing residues 267-277 competed with full-length 125I-labelled CT, expressed in recombinant Sf9 insect cells, for microsomal membrane binding. To investigate the role of this region in PC biosynthesis, A549 and L2 cells were transfected with cDNA for CT mutants under the control of a glucocorticoid-inducible long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter. Induction of CT mutants containing residues 267-277 in transfectants resulted in reduced PC synthesis. The decrease in PC synthesis was accompanied by a shift in endogenous CT activity from the particulate to the soluble fraction. Expression of CT mutants lacking this region in A549 and L2 cells did not affect PC formation and subcellular distribution of CT activity. These results suggest that the CT region located between residues 267 and 277 from the N-terminus is required for the interaction of CT with membranes. PMID:9224626

  15. Chronic mould exposure as a risk factor for severe community acquired pneumonia in a patient requiring extra corporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Stephanie; Hassan, Ibrahim; Barker, Julian; Ashworth, Alan; Barnes, Anita; Fedor, Igor; Feddy, Lee; Hayes, Tim; Malagon, Ignacio; Stirling, Sarah; Szentgyorgyi, Lajos; Mutton, Ken; Richardson, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    A previously fit and well man developed acute respiratory failure due to environmental mould exposure from living in damp rental accommodation. Despite aggressive intensive care management he rapidly deteriorated and required respiratory and cardiac Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. We hypothesize that poor domiciliary conditions may make an underestimated contribution to community respiratory disease. These conditions may present as acute and severe illness with non-typical pathogens identified. PMID:26236598

  16. Chronic mould exposure as a risk factor for severe community acquired pneumonia in a patient requiring extra corporeal membrane oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Stephanie; Hassan, Ibrahim; Barker, Julian; Ashworth, Alan; Barnes, Anita; Fedor, Igor; Feddy, Lee; Hayes, Tim; Malagon, Ignacio; Stirling, Sarah; Szentgyorgyi, Lajos; Mutton, Ken; Richardson, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    A previously fit and well man developed acute respiratory failure due to environmental mould exposure from living in damp rental accommodation. Despite aggressive intensive care management he rapidly deteriorated and required respiratory and cardiac Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. We hypothesize that poor domiciliary conditions may make an underestimated contribution to community respiratory disease. These conditions may present as acute and severe illness with non-typical pathogens identified. PMID:26236598

  17. Dynamic caveolae exclude bulk membrane proteins and are required for sorting of excess glycosphingolipids

    PubMed Central

    Shvets, Elena; Bitsikas, Vassilis; Howard, Gillian; Hansen, Carsten Gram; Nichols, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    Caveolae have long been implicated in endocytosis. Recent data question this link, and in the absence of specific cargoes the potential cellular function of caveolar endocytosis remains unclear. Here we develop new tools, including doubly genome-edited cell lines, to assay the subcellular dynamics of caveolae using tagged proteins expressed at endogenous levels. We find that around 5% of the cellular pool of caveolae is present on dynamic endosomes, and is delivered to endosomes in a clathrin-independent manner. Furthermore, we show that caveolae are indeed likely to bud directly from the plasma membrane. Using a genetically encoded tag for electron microscopy and ratiometric light microscopy, we go on to show that bulk membrane proteins are depleted within caveolae. Although caveolae are likely to account for only a small proportion of total endocytosis, cells lacking caveolae show fundamentally altered patterns of membrane traffic when loaded with excess glycosphingolipid. Altogether, these observations support the hypothesis that caveolar endocytosis is specialized for transport of membrane lipid. PMID:25897946

  18. B-cell epitopes recognized by Chinese water buffaloes (Bos buffelus) on the 22 kDa tegumental membrane-associated antigen (Sj-22) of the Asiatic bloodfluke, Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Waine, G J; Zeng, Q; Zeng, X; Yi, X; McManus, D P

    1999-01-01

    The 22.6 kDa tegumental membrane-associated antigen of schistosomes is of recognized importance in immunity to schistosomiasis. In China, bovines are known to play an important role in the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum. Ten buffaloes (Bos buffelus) were vaccinated with a recombinant form (reSj-22) of the S. japonicum 22.6 kDa tegumental antigen (Sj-22) and the sera were used to identify and map possible linear B-cell epitopes on this molecule using a series of 18 overlapping synthetic peptides (P1-P18). Sera from all of the ten vaccinated buffaloes reacted strongly with Sj-22 in western blots and in ELISA, while sera from a further ten adjuvant (Quil A) control buffaloes did not. Four peptides (P3, P8, P9 and P10) were predominantly recognized by at least 90% of the buffalo sera. This pattern of recognition is similar to that obtained in a previous study we undertook in mice immunized with the same antigen whereby peptides 3, 8, 9 and 10 were recognized by over 80% of CBA strain mice. The peptide most frequently recognized by mice (peptide 6), and mapping to an EF-hand calcium binding domain, was recognized by six of the ten vaccinated buffaloes. The major difference between buffaloes and mice occurred with peptide 1 which was recognized very frequently by all three strains of mice tested but was only weakly recognized by three of the ten buffaloes. This study provides a valuable reference for further study on the immunity stimulated by the 22.6 kDa tegumental antigen in the murine model and a natural bovine host of Schistosomiasis japonica.

  19. (Na+ + K+)-ATPase and plasma membrane polarity of intestinal epithelial cells: presence of a brush border antigen in the distal large intestine that is immunologically related to beta subunit

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The previously produced monoclonal antibody IEC 1/48 against cultured rat intestinal crypt cells (Quaroni, A., and K. J. Isselbacher. 1981. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 67:1353-1362) was extensively characterized and found to be directed against the beta subunit of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase as assessed by immunological and enzymatic criteria. Under nondenaturing conditions the antibody precipitated the alpha-beta enzyme complex (98,000 and 48,000 Mr). This probe, together with the monoclonal antibody C 62.4 against the alpha subunit (Kashgarian, M., D. Biemesderfer, M. Caplan, and B. Forbush. 1985. Kidney Int. 28:899-913), was used to localize (Na+ + K+)-ATPase in epithelial cells along the rat intestinal tract by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. Both antibodies exclusively labeled the basolateral membrane of small intestine and proximal colon epithelial cells. However, in the distal colon, IEC 1/48, but not C 62.4, also labeled the brush border membrane. The cross-reacting beta-subunit-like antigen on the apical cell pole was tightly associated with isolated brush borders but was apparently devoid of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity. Subcellular fractionation of colonocytes in conjunction with limited proteolysis and surface radioiodination of intestinal segments suggested that the cross-reacting antigen in the brush border may be very similar to the beta subunit. The results support the notion that in the small intestine and proximal colon the enzyme subunits are exclusively targeted to the basolateral membrane while in the distal colon nonassembled beta subunit or a beta-subunit-like protein is also transported to the apical cell pole. PMID:2549076

  20. Requirements on paramagnetic relaxation enhancement data for membrane protein structure determination by NMR.

    PubMed

    Gottstein, Daniel; Reckel, Sina; Dötsch, Volker; Güntert, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure calculations of the α-helical integral membrane proteins DsbB, GlpG, and halorhodopsin show that distance restraints from paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) can provide sufficient structural information to determine their structure with an accuracy of about 1.5 Å in the absence of other long-range conformational restraints. Our systematic study with simulated NMR data shows that about one spin label per transmembrane helix is necessary for obtaining enough PRE distance restraints to exclude wrong topologies, such as pseudo mirror images, if only limited other NMR restraints are available. Consequently, an experimentally realistic amount of PRE data enables α-helical membrane protein structure determinations that would not be feasible with the very limited amount of conventional NOESY data normally available for these systems. These findings are in line with our recent first de novo NMR structure determination of a heptahelical integral membrane protein, proteorhodopsin, that relied extensively on PRE data.

  1. The Yeast Cell Fusion Protein Prm1p Requires Covalent Dimerization to Promote Membrane Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Alex; Aguilar, Pablo S.; Walter, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Prm1p is a multipass membrane protein that promotes plasma membrane fusion during yeast mating. The mechanism by which Prm1p and other putative regulators of developmentally controlled cell-cell fusion events facilitate membrane fusion has remained largely elusive. Here, we report that Prm1p forms covalently linked homodimers. Covalent Prm1p dimer formation occurs via intermolecular disulfide bonds of two cysteines, Cys-120 and Cys-545. PRM1 mutants in which these cysteines have been substituted are fusion defective. These PRM1 mutants are normally expressed, retain homotypic interaction and can traffic to the fusion zone. Because prm1-C120S and prm1-C545S mutants can form covalent dimers when coexpressed with wild-type PRM1, an intermolecular C120-C545 disulfide linkage is inferred. Cys-120 is adjacent to a highly conserved hydrophobic domain. Mutation of a charged residue within this hydrophobic domain abrogates formation of covalent dimers, trafficking to the fusion zone, and fusion-promoting activity. The importance of intermolecular disulfide bonding informs models regarding the mechanism of Prm1-mediated cell-cell fusion. PMID:20485669

  2. N-terminal palmitoylation is required for Toxoplasma gondii HSP20 inner membrane complex localization.

    PubMed

    De Napoli, M G; de Miguel, N; Lebrun, M; Moreno, S N J; Angel, S O; Corvi, M M

    2013-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite and the causative agent of toxoplasmosis. Protein palmitoylation is known to play roles in signal transduction and in enhancing the hydrophobicity of proteins thus contributing to their membrane association. Global inhibition of protein palmitoylation has been shown to affect T. gondii physiology and invasion of the host cell. However, the proteins affected by this modification have been understudied. This paper shows that the small heat shock protein 20 from T. gondii (TgHSP20) is synthesized as a mature protein in the cytosol and is palmitoylated in three cysteine residues. However, its localization at the inner membrane complex (IMC) is dependent only on N-terminal palmitoylation. Absence or incomplete N-terminal palmitoylation causes TgHSP20 to partially accumulate in a membranous structure. Interestingly, TgHSP20 palmitoylation is not responsible for its interaction with the daughter cells IMCs. Together, our data describe the importance of palmitoylation in protein targeting to the IMC in T. gondii. PMID:23485398

  3. N-terminal palmitoylation is required for Toxoplasma gondii HSP20 inner membrane complex localization

    PubMed Central

    De Napoli, MG; de Miguel, N; Lebrun, M; Moreno, SNJ; Angel, SO; Corvi, MM

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite and the causative agent of toxoplasmosis. Protein palmitoylation is known to play roles in signal transduction and in enhancing the hydrophobicity of proteins thus contributing to their membrane association. Global inhibition of protein palmitoylation has been shown to affect T. gondii physiology and invasion of the host cell. However, the proteins affected by this modification have been understudied. This paper shows that the small heat shock protein 20 from T. gondii (TgHSP20) is synthesized as a mature protein in the cytosol and is palmitoylated in three cysteine residues. However, its localization at the inner membrane complex (IMC) is dependent only on N-terminal palmitoylation. Absence or incomplete N-terminal palmitoylation causes TgHSP20 to partially accumulate in a membranous structure. Interestingly, TgHSP20 palmitoylation is not responsible for its interaction with the daughter cells IMCs. Together, our data describe the importance of palmitoylation in protein targeting to the IMC in T. gondii. PMID:23485398

  4. N-terminal palmitoylation is required for Toxoplasma gondii HSP20 inner membrane complex localization.

    PubMed

    De Napoli, M G; de Miguel, N; Lebrun, M; Moreno, S N J; Angel, S O; Corvi, M M

    2013-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite and the causative agent of toxoplasmosis. Protein palmitoylation is known to play roles in signal transduction and in enhancing the hydrophobicity of proteins thus contributing to their membrane association. Global inhibition of protein palmitoylation has been shown to affect T. gondii physiology and invasion of the host cell. However, the proteins affected by this modification have been understudied. This paper shows that the small heat shock protein 20 from T. gondii (TgHSP20) is synthesized as a mature protein in the cytosol and is palmitoylated in three cysteine residues. However, its localization at the inner membrane complex (IMC) is dependent only on N-terminal palmitoylation. Absence or incomplete N-terminal palmitoylation causes TgHSP20 to partially accumulate in a membranous structure. Interestingly, TgHSP20 palmitoylation is not responsible for its interaction with the daughter cells IMCs. Together, our data describe the importance of palmitoylation in protein targeting to the IMC in T. gondii.

  5. Golgi membrane fission requires the CtBP1-S/BARS-induced activation of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase δ.

    PubMed

    Pagliuso, Alessandro; Valente, Carmen; Giordano, Lucia Laura; Filograna, Angela; Li, Guiling; Circolo, Diego; Turacchio, Gabriele; Marzullo, Vincenzo Manuel; Mandrich, Luigi; Zhukovsky, Mikhail A; Formiggini, Fabio; Polishchuk, Roman S; Corda, Daniela; Luini, Alberto

    2016-07-12

    Membrane fission is an essential cellular process by which continuous membranes split into separate parts. We have previously identified CtBP1-S/BARS (BARS) as a key component of a protein complex that is required for fission of several endomembranes, including basolateral post-Golgi transport carriers. Assembly of this complex occurs at the Golgi apparatus, where BARS binds to the phosphoinositide kinase PI4KIIIβ through a 14-3-3γ dimer, as well as to ARF and the PKD and PAK kinases. We now report that, when incorporated into this complex, BARS binds to and activates a trans-Golgi lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) acyltransferase type δ (LPAATδ) that converts LPA into phosphatidic acid (PA); and that this reaction is essential for fission of the carriers. LPA and PA have unique biophysical properties, and their interconversion might facilitate the fission process either directly or indirectly (via recruitment of proteins that bind to PA, including BARS itself).

  6. Golgi membrane fission requires the CtBP1-S/BARS-induced activation of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase δ

    PubMed Central

    Pagliuso, Alessandro; Valente, Carmen; Giordano, Lucia Laura; Filograna, Angela; Li, Guiling; Circolo, Diego; Turacchio, Gabriele; Marzullo, Vincenzo Manuel; Mandrich, Luigi; Zhukovsky, Mikhail A.; Formiggini, Fabio; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Corda, Daniela; Luini, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Membrane fission is an essential cellular process by which continuous membranes split into separate parts. We have previously identified CtBP1-S/BARS (BARS) as a key component of a protein complex that is required for fission of several endomembranes, including basolateral post-Golgi transport carriers. Assembly of this complex occurs at the Golgi apparatus, where BARS binds to the phosphoinositide kinase PI4KIIIβ through a 14-3-3γ dimer, as well as to ARF and the PKD and PAK kinases. We now report that, when incorporated into this complex, BARS binds to and activates a trans-Golgi lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) acyltransferase type δ (LPAATδ) that converts LPA into phosphatidic acid (PA); and that this reaction is essential for fission of the carriers. LPA and PA have unique biophysical properties, and their interconversion might facilitate the fission process either directly or indirectly (via recruitment of proteins that bind to PA, including BARS itself). PMID:27401954

  7. Lipid requirement and kinetic studies of solubilized UDP-galactose:diacylglycerol galactosyltransferase activity from spinach chloroplast envelope membranes

    PubMed Central

    Covés, Jacques; Joyard, Jacques; Douce, Roland

    1988-01-01

    We have demonstrated a lipid requirement for the UDPgalactose:1,2-diacylglycerol 3-β-D-galactosyl-transferase (or monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase; EC 2.4.1.46), an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, solubilized from chloroplast envelope membranes and partially purified by hydroxyapatite chromatography. The enzyme fraction was highly delipidated (<0.1 mg of lipid per mg of protein), and addition of lipids extracted from chloroplast membranes was necessary to reveal the activity. Acidic glycerolipids, and especially phosphatidylglycerol, were the best activators of the enzyme. The preparation of a delipidated enzyme fraction and the development of optimal assay conditions were prerequisites for the determination of the kinetic parameters for the hydrophobic substrate of the enzyme, diacylglycerol. In addition, we have demonstrated the existence of two substrate-binding sites: a hydrophobic one for diacylglycerol and a hydrophilic one for UDP-galactose. PMID:16593955

  8. Golgi membrane fission requires the CtBP1-S/BARS-induced activation of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase δ.

    PubMed

    Pagliuso, Alessandro; Valente, Carmen; Giordano, Lucia Laura; Filograna, Angela; Li, Guiling; Circolo, Diego; Turacchio, Gabriele; Marzullo, Vincenzo Manuel; Mandrich, Luigi; Zhukovsky, Mikhail A; Formiggini, Fabio; Polishchuk, Roman S; Corda, Daniela; Luini, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Membrane fission is an essential cellular process by which continuous membranes split into separate parts. We have previously identified CtBP1-S/BARS (BARS) as a key component of a protein complex that is required for fission of several endomembranes, including basolateral post-Golgi transport carriers. Assembly of this complex occurs at the Golgi apparatus, where BARS binds to the phosphoinositide kinase PI4KIIIβ through a 14-3-3γ dimer, as well as to ARF and the PKD and PAK kinases. We now report that, when incorporated into this complex, BARS binds to and activates a trans-Golgi lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) acyltransferase type δ (LPAATδ) that converts LPA into phosphatidic acid (PA); and that this reaction is essential for fission of the carriers. LPA and PA have unique biophysical properties, and their interconversion might facilitate the fission process either directly or indirectly (via recruitment of proteins that bind to PA, including BARS itself). PMID:27401954

  9. Recruitment of Slp-76 to the Membrane and Glycolipid-Enriched Membrane Microdomains Replaces the Requirement for Linker for Activation of T Cells in T Cell Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Boerth, Nancy J.; Sadler, Jeffrey J.; Bauer, Daniel E.; Clements, James L.; Gheith, Shereen M.; Koretzky, Gary A.

    2000-01-01

    Two hematopoietic-specific adapters, src homology 2 domain–containing leukocyte phosphoprotein of 76 kD (SLP-76) and linker for activation of T cells (LAT), are critical for T cell development and T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Several studies have suggested that SLP-76 and LAT function coordinately to promote downstream signaling. In support of this hypothesis, we find that a fraction of SLP-76 localizes to glycolipid-enriched membrane microdomains (GEMs) after TCR stimulation. This recruitment of SLP-76 requires amino acids 224–244. The functional consequences of targeting SLP-76 to GEMs for TCR signaling are demonstrated using a LAT/SLP-76 chimeric protein. Expression of this construct reconstitutes TCR-inducted phospholipase Cγ1 phosphorylation, extracellular signal–regulated kinase activation, and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) promoter activity in LAT-deficient Jurkat T cells (J.CaM2). Mutation of the chimeric construct precluding its recruitment to GEMs diminishes but does not eliminate its ability to support TCR signaling. Expression of a chimera that lacks SLP-76 amino acids 224–244 restores NFAT promoter activity, suggesting that if localized, SLP-76 does not require an association with Gads to promote T cell activation. In contrast, mutation of the protein tyrosine kinase phosphorylation sites of SLP-76 in the context of the LAT/SLP-76 chimera abolishes reconstitution of TCR function. Collectively, these experiments show that optimal TCR signaling relies on the compartmentalization of SLP-76 and that one critical function of LAT is to bring SLP-76 and its associated proteins to the membrane. PMID:11015445

  10. An HLA-A2-restricted tyrosinase antigen on melanoma cells results from posttranslational modification and suggests a novel pathway for processing of membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    T lymphocytes recognize antigens consisting of peptides presented by class I and II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. The peptides identified so far have been predictable from the amino acid sequences of proteins. We have identified the natural peptide target of a CTL clone that recognizes the tyrosinase gene product on melanoma cells. The peptide results from posttranslational conversion of asparagine to aspartic acid. This change is of central importance for peptide recognition by melanoma-specific T cells, but has no impact on peptide binding to the MHC molecule. This posttranslational modification has not been previously described for any MHC-associated peptide and represents the first demonstration of posttranslational modification of a naturally processed class I-associated peptide. This observation is relevant to the identification and prediction of potential peptide antigens. The most likely mechanism for production of this peptide leads to the suggestion that antigenic peptides can be derived from proteins that are translated into the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:8627164

  11. Virus-mimetic nanovesicles as a versatile antigen-delivery system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengfei; Chen, Yixin; Zeng, Yun; Shen, Chenguang; Li, Rui; Guo, Zhide; Li, Shaowei; Zheng, Qingbing; Chu, Chengchao; Wang, Zhantong; Zheng, Zizheng; Tian, Rui; Ge, Shengxiang; Zhang, Xianzhong; Xia, Ning-Shao; Liu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-11-10

    It is a critically important challenge to rapidly design effective vaccines to reduce the morbidity and mortality of unexpected pandemics. Inspired from the way that most enveloped viruses hijack a host cell membrane and subsequently release by a budding process that requires cell membrane scission, we genetically engineered viral antigen to harbor into cell membrane, then form uniform spherical virus-mimetic nanovesicles (VMVs) that resemble natural virus in size, shape, and specific immunogenicity with the help of surfactants. Incubation of major cell membrane vesicles with surfactants generates a large amount of nano-sized uniform VMVs displaying the native conformational epitopes. With the diverse display of epitopes and viral envelope glycoproteins that can be functionally anchored onto VMVs, we demonstrate VMVs to be straightforward, robust and tunable nanobiotechnology platforms for fabricating antigen delivery systems against a wide range of enveloped viruses. PMID:26504197

  12. Virus-mimetic nanovesicles as a versatile antigen-delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengfei; Chen, Yixin; Zeng, Yun; Shen, Chenguang; Li, Rui; Guo, Zhide; Li, Shaowei; Zheng, Qingbing; Chu, Chengchao; Wang, Zhantong; Zheng, Zizheng; Tian, Rui; Ge, Shengxiang; Zhang, Xianzhong; Xia, Ning-Shao; Liu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    It is a critically important challenge to rapidly design effective vaccines to reduce the morbidity and mortality of unexpected pandemics. Inspired from the way that most enveloped viruses hijack a host cell membrane and subsequently release by a budding process that requires cell membrane scission, we genetically engineered viral antigen to harbor into cell membrane, then form uniform spherical virus-mimetic nanovesicles (VMVs) that resemble natural virus in size, shape, and specific immunogenicity with the help of surfactants. Incubation of major cell membrane vesicles with surfactants generates a large amount of nano-sized uniform VMVs displaying the native conformational epitopes. With the diverse display of epitopes and viral envelope glycoproteins that can be functionally anchored onto VMVs, we demonstrate VMVs to be straightforward, robust and tunable nanobiotechnology platforms for fabricating antigen delivery systems against a wide range of enveloped viruses. PMID:26504197

  13. Sialic Acid Is Required for Neuronal Inhibition by Soluble MAG but not for Membrane Bound MAG

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bashir, Najat; Mellado, Wilfredo; Filbin, Marie T.

    2016-01-01

    Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein (MAG), a major inhibitor of axonal growth, is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) super-family. Importantly, MAG (also known as Siglec-4) is a member of the Siglec family of proteins (sialic acid-binding, immunoglobulin-like lectins), MAG binds to complex gangliosides, specifically GD1a and/or GT1b. Therefore, it has been proposed as neuronal receptors for MAG inhibitory effect of axonal growth. Previously, we showed that MAG binds sialic acid through domain 1 at Arg118 and is able to inhibit axonal growth through domain 5. We developed a neurite outgrowth (NOG) assay, in which both wild type MAG and mutated MAG (MAG Arg118) are expressed on cells. In addition we also developed a soluble form NOG in which we utilized soluble MAG-Fc and mutated MAG (Arg118-Fc). Only MAG-Fc is able to inhibit NOG, but not mutated MAG (Arg118)-Fc that has been mutated at its sialic acid binding site. However, both forms of membrane bound MAG- and MAG (Arg118)- expressing cells still inhibit NOG. Here, we review various results from different groups regarding MAG’s inhibition of axonal growth. Also, we propose a model in which the sialic acid binding is not necessary for the inhibition induced by the membrane form of MAG, but it is necessary for the soluble form of MAG. This finding highlights the importance of understanding the different mechanisms by which MAG inhibits NOG in both the soluble fragmented form and the membrane-bound form in myelin debris following CNS damage. PMID:27065798

  14. Cytomegalovirus Myocarditis Required Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support Followed by Ganciclovir Treatment in Infant

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bong Jun; Jung, Jo Won; Shin, Yu Rim; Park, Han Ki; Park, Young Hwan; Shin, Hong Ju

    2016-01-01

    A 7-month-old girl with no medical history was treated with mechanical circulatory support due to myocarditis. Her cardiac contractility did not improve despite more than one week of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment. Thus, we planned a heart transplant. However, a high level of cytomegalovirus was found in blood laboratory results by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The patient’s heart contractility recovered to normal range four days after ganciclovir treatment. She was discharged with slightly decreased cardiac contractility with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 45%. PMID:27298799

  15. PERP, a host tetraspanning membrane protein, is required for S almonella‐induced inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hallstrom, Kelly N.; Srikanth, C. V.; Agbor, Terence A.; Dumont, Christopher M.; Peters, Kristen N.; Paraoan, Luminita; Casanova, James E.; Boll, Erik J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary S almonella enterica  Typhimurium induces intestinal inflammation through the activity of type III secreted effector (T3SE) proteins. Our prior results indicate that the secretion of the T3SE SipA and the ability of SipA to induce epithelial cell responses that lead to induction of polymorphonuclear transepithelial migration are not coupled to its direct delivery into epithelial cells from S almonella. We therefore tested the hypothesis that SipA interacts with a membrane protein located at the apical surface of intestinal epithelial cells. Employing a split ubiquitin yeast‐two‐hybrid screen, we identified the tetraspanning membrane protein, p53 effector related to PMP‐22 (PERP), as a SipA binding partner. SipA and PERP appear to have intersecting activities as we found PERP to be involved in proinflammatory pathways shown to be regulated by SipA. In sum, our studies reveal a critical role for PERP in the pathogenesis of S. Typhimurium, and for the first time demonstrate that SipA, a T3SE protein, can engage a host protein at the epithelial surface. PMID:25486861

  16. Membrane palmitoylated protein 2 is a synaptic scaffold protein required for synaptic SK2-containing channel function

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gukhan; Luján, Rafael; Schwenk, Jochen; Kelley, Melissa H; Aguado, Carolina; Watanabe, Masahiko; Fakler, Bernd; Maylie, James; Adelman, John P

    2016-01-01

    Mouse CA1 pyramidal neurons express apamin-sensitive SK2-containing channels in the post-synaptic membrane, positioned close to NMDA-type (N-methyl-D-aspartate) glutamate receptors. Activated by synaptically evoked NMDAR-dependent Ca2+ influx, the synaptic SK2-containing channels modulate excitatory post-synaptic responses and the induction of synaptic plasticity. In addition, their activity- and protein kinase A-dependent trafficking contributes to expression of long-term potentiation (LTP). We have identified a novel synaptic scaffold, MPP2 (membrane palmitoylated protein 2; p55), a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family that interacts with SK2-containing channels. MPP2 and SK2 co-immunopurified from mouse brain, and co-immunoprecipitated when they were co-expressed in HEK293 cells. MPP2 is highly expressed in the post-synaptic density of dendritic spines on CA1 pyramidal neurons. Knocking down MPP2 expression selectively abolished the SK2-containing channel contribution to synaptic responses and decreased LTP. Thus, MPP2 is a novel synaptic scaffold that is required for proper synaptic localization and function of SK2-containing channels. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12637.001 PMID:26880549

  17. The Drosophila MAST kinase Drop out is required to initiate membrane compartmentalisation during cellularisation and regulates dynein-based transport.

    PubMed

    Hain, Daniel; Langlands, Alistair; Sonnenberg, Hannah C; Bailey, Charlotte; Bullock, Simon L; Müller, H-Arno J

    2014-05-01

    Cellularisation of the Drosophila syncytial blastoderm embryo into the polarised blastoderm epithelium provides an excellent model with which to determine how cortical plasma membrane asymmetry is generated during development. Many components of the molecular machinery driving cellularisation have been identified, but cell signalling events acting at the onset of membrane asymmetry are poorly understood. Here we show that mutations in drop out (dop) disturb the segregation of membrane cortical compartments and the clustering of E-cadherin into basal adherens junctions in early cellularisation. dop is required for normal furrow formation and controls the tight localisation of furrow canal proteins and the formation of F-actin foci at the incipient furrows. We show that dop encodes the single Drosophila homologue of microtubule-associated Ser/Thr (MAST) kinases. dop interacts genetically with components of the dynein/dynactin complex and promotes dynein-dependent transport in the embryo. Loss of dop function reduces phosphorylation of Dynein intermediate chain, suggesting that dop is involved in regulating cytoplasmic dynein activity through direct or indirect mechanisms. These data suggest that Dop impinges upon the initiation of furrow formation through developmental regulation of cytoplasmic dynein.

  18. The Drosophila MAST kinase Drop out is required to initiate membrane compartmentalisation during cellularisation and regulates dynein-based transport

    PubMed Central

    Hain, Daniel; Langlands, Alistair; Sonnenberg, Hannah C.; Bailey, Charlotte; Bullock, Simon L.; Müller, H.-Arno J.

    2014-01-01

    Cellularisation of the Drosophila syncytial blastoderm embryo into the polarised blastoderm epithelium provides an excellent model with which to determine how cortical plasma membrane asymmetry is generated during development. Many components of the molecular machinery driving cellularisation have been identified, but cell signalling events acting at the onset of membrane asymmetry are poorly understood. Here we show that mutations in drop out (dop) disturb the segregation of membrane cortical compartments and the clustering of E-cadherin into basal adherens junctions in early cellularisation. dop is required for normal furrow formation and controls the tight localisation of furrow canal proteins and the formation of F-actin foci at the incipient furrows. We show that dop encodes the single Drosophila homologue of microtubule-associated Ser/Thr (MAST) kinases. dop interacts genetically with components of the dynein/dynactin complex and promotes dynein-dependent transport in the embryo. Loss of dop function reduces phosphorylation of Dynein intermediate chain, suggesting that dop is involved in regulating cytoplasmic dynein activity through direct or indirect mechanisms. These data suggest that Dop impinges upon the initiation of furrow formation through developmental regulation of cytoplasmic dynein. PMID:24803657

  19. Severe Tumor Lysis Syndrome and Acute Pulmonary Edema Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Following Initiation of Chemotherapy for Metastatic Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Ethan; Wolbrink, Traci; Mack, Jennifer; Rowe, R Grant

    2016-05-01

    We present an 8-year-old male with metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) who developed precipitous cardiopulmonary collapse with severe tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) 48 hr after initiation of chemotherapy. Despite no detectable pulmonary metastases, acute hypoxemic respiratory failure developed, requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Although TLS has been reported in disseminated ARMS, this singular case of life-threatening respiratory deterioration developing after initiation of chemotherapy presented unique therapeutic dilemmas. We review the clinical aspects of this case, including possible mechanisms of respiratory failure, and discuss the role of ECMO utilization in pediatric oncology. PMID:26713672

  20. The Role of Positron Emission Tomography With (68)Gallium (Ga)-Labeled Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) in the Management of Patients With Organ-confined and Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer Prior to Radical Treatment and After Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Baum, Richard Paul; Patel, Amit; Hughes, Robert; Alonzi, Roberto; Lane, Tim; Adshead, Jim; Vasdev, Nikhil

    2016-09-01

    The role of positron emission tomography (PET) with (68)Gallium (Ga)-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) imaging for prostate cancer is gaining prominence. Current imaging strategies, despite having progressed significantly, have limitations, in particular their ability to diagnose metastatic lymph node involvement. Preliminary results of PET with (68)Ga-labeled PSMA have shown encouraging results, particularly in the recurrent prostate cancer setting. Furthermore, the ability of PET with (68)Ga-labeled PSMA of playing a dual diagnostic and therapeutic setting (theranostics) is currently being investigated as well. PET with (68)Ga-labeled PSMA certainly has a role to play in bridging some of the voids in contemporary prostate cancer imaging tools. PMID:26790588

  1. FadD Is Required for Utilization of Endogenous Fatty Acids Released from Membrane Lipids ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Pech-Canul, Ángel; Nogales, Joaquina; Miranda-Molina, Alfonso; Álvarez, Laura; Geiger, Otto; Soto, María José; López-Lara, Isabel M.

    2011-01-01

    FadD is an acyl coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase responsible for the activation of exogenous long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) into acyl-CoAs. Mutation of fadD in the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti promotes swarming motility and leads to defects in nodulation of alfalfa plants. In this study, we found that S. meliloti fadD mutants accumulated a mixture of free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. The composition of the free fatty acid pool and the results obtained after specific labeling of esterified fatty acids with a Δ5-desaturase (Δ5-Des) were in agreement with membrane phospholipids being the origin of the released fatty acids. Escherichia coli fadD mutants also accumulated free fatty acids released from membrane lipids in the stationary phase. This phenomenon did not occur in a mutant of E. coli with a deficient FadL fatty acid transporter, suggesting that the accumulation of fatty acids in fadD mutants occurs inside the cell. Our results indicate that, besides the activation of exogenous LCFA, in bacteria FadD plays a major role in the activation of endogenous fatty acids released from membrane lipids. Furthermore, expression analysis performed with S. meliloti revealed that a functional FadD is required for the upregulation of genes involved in fatty acid degradation and suggested that in the wild-type strain, the fatty acids released from membrane lipids are degraded by β-oxidation in the stationary phase of growth. PMID:21926226

  2. Pro-recombination Role of Srs2 Protein Requires SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier) but Is Independent of PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen) Interaction.

    PubMed

    Kolesar, Peter; Altmannova, Veronika; Silva, Sonia; Lisby, Michael; Krejci, Lumir

    2016-04-01

    Srs2 plays many roles in DNA repair, the proper regulation and coordination of which is essential. Post-translational modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is one such possible mechanism. Here, we investigate the role of SUMO in Srs2 regulation and show that the SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) of Srs2 is important for the interaction with several recombination factors. Lack of SIM, but not proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-interacting motif (PIM), leads to increased cell death under circumstances requiring homologous recombination for DNA repair. Simultaneous mutation of SIM in asrs2ΔPIMstrain leads to a decrease in recombination, indicating a pro-recombination role of SUMO. Thus SIM has an ambivalent function in Srs2 regulation; it not only mediates interaction with SUMO-PCNA to promote the anti-recombination function but it also plays a PCNA-independent pro-recombination role, probably by stimulating the formation of recombination complexes. The fact that deletion of PIM suppresses the phenotypes of Srs2 lacking SIM suggests that proper balance between the anti-recombination PCNA-bound and pro-recombination pools of Srs2 is crucial. Notably, sumoylation of Srs2 itself specifically stimulates recombination at the rDNA locus.

  3. Major cytoplasmic membrane protein of Legionella pneumophila, a genus common antigen and member of the hsp 60 family of heat shock proteins, induces protective immunity in a guinea pig model of Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Blander, S J; Horwitz, M A

    1993-01-01

    We have examined the capacity of the major cytoplasmic membrane protein (MCMP) of Legionella pneumophila, a genus common antigen and member of the hsp 60 family of heat shock proteins, to induce protective immunity in a guinea pig model of Legionnaires' disease. We purified MCMP to homogeneity from L. pneumophila by buffer extraction, ion-exchange chromatography, and molecular sieve chromatography. Guinea pigs immunized with MCMP developed a strong cell-mediated immune response to the immunogen manifest by marked cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity. Guinea pigs immunized with MCMP and then challenged with a lethal aerosol dose of L. pneumophila exhibited a high level of protective immunity. Altogether, in four independent experiments, 55 of 64 (86%) animals immunized three times with 0.6-40 micrograms MCMP including 11 of 11 (100%) animals immunized three times with 40 micrograms MCMP survived aerosol challenge with L. pneumophila compared with 1 of 29 (3%) sham-immunized control animals (P < 0.0001, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel X2 statistic for pooled data). To our knowledge, MCMP is the first member of the hsp 60 family of proteins shown to induce protective immunity to a microbial pathogen. MCMP has potential as a vaccine against Legionnaires' disease. Since MCMP is a genus common antigen, vaccination with a combination of MCMPs derived from different Legionella species has the potential of inducing protective immunity against all the major Legionella species causing human disease. Images PMID:8432872

  4. Evaluation of the humidification requirements of new proton exchange membranes for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Grot, S.A.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

    1995-05-01

    Measurements of PEM fuel cell device performance were made with different gas inlet temperatures and relative humidity using a newly-designed test fixture. Significant improvement in device performance was observed when the fuel inlet temperature was increased above the operating temperature of the cell. These measurements were then correlated to a model to describe energy and mass transport processes. Proton exchange membrane (PEM), fuel cells--the focus of this study--use an ion conducting polymer, especially polyperfluorosulfonic acid materials. These polymer materials, when imbibed with water, exhibit solution-like properties, but because the anions are chemically bound to the polymeric structure, the electrolyte is contained. Importantly, product water removal is simplified, as electrolyte dilution is not a concern. However, the proton transport rate is a function of the polymer geometry, which is set, in part, by the polymer water content. Consequently, dynamics of water flow are essential to understand the design of efficient conversion devices.

  5. Zipper encodes a putative integral membrane protein required for normal axon patterning during Drosophila neurogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, D B; Côté, S; Jähnig, F; Haller, J; Jäckle, H

    1988-01-01

    During the development of the central nervous system, Drosophila embryo axons become organized in a stereo-typed fasciculation pattern. We have found that the zipper (zip) gene, initially identified on the basis of a defective larval cuticle in zip mutant embryos, is possibly involved in the establishment or maintenance of the axon pattern during the late stages of neurogenesis. The zip wild-type gene is expressed in the developing nervous system. It codes for a putative integral membrane protein. Both the molecular features of zipper and its biological effect in the nervous system of mutants suggest that zipper is an essential component for cell surface interactions involved in axon patterning, and that the cuticle phenotype of zip mutants is dependent on the primary defects observed in the nervous system. Images PMID:3402433

  6. An inner membrane cytochrome required only for reduction of high redox potential extracellular electron acceptors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Levar, Caleb E.; Chan, Chi Ho; Mehta-Kolte, Misha G.; Bond, Daniel R.

    2014-10-28

    Dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria, such as Geobacter sulfurreducens, transfer electrons beyond their outer membranes to Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides, heavy metals, and electrodes in electrochemical devices. In the environment, metal acceptors exist in multiple chelated and insoluble forms that span a range of redox potentials and offer different amounts of available energy. Despite this, metal-reducing bacteria have not been shown to alter their electron transfer strategies to take advantage of these energy differences. Disruption of imcH, encoding an inner membrane c-type cytochrome, eliminated the ability of G. sulfurreducens to reduce Fe(III) citrate, Fe(III)-EDTA, and insoluble Mn(IV) oxides, electron acceptors with potentialsmore » greater than 0.1 V versus the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), but the imcH mutant retained the ability to reduce Fe(III) oxides with potentials of ≤–0.1 V versus SHE. The imcH mutant failed to grow on electrodes poised at +0.24 V versus SHE, but switching electrodes to –0.1 V versus SHE triggered exponential growth. At potentials of ≤–0.1 V versus SHE, both the wild type and the imcH mutant doubled 60% slower than at higher potentials. Electrodes poised even 100 mV higher (0.0 V versus SHE) could not trigger imcH mutant growth. These results demonstrate that G. sulfurreducens possesses multiple respiratory pathways, that some of these pathways are in operation only after exposure to low redox potentials, and that electron flow can be coupled to generation of different amounts of energy for growth. Redox potentials that trigger these behaviors mirror those of metal acceptors common in subsurface environments where Geobacter is found.« less

  7. An inner membrane cytochrome required only for reduction of high redox potential extracellular electron acceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Levar, Caleb E.; Chan, Chi Ho; Mehta-Kolte, Misha G.; Bond, Daniel R.

    2014-10-28

    Dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria, such as Geobacter sulfurreducens, transfer electrons beyond their outer membranes to Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides, heavy metals, and electrodes in electrochemical devices. In the environment, metal acceptors exist in multiple chelated and insoluble forms that span a range of redox potentials and offer different amounts of available energy. Despite this, metal-reducing bacteria have not been shown to alter their electron transfer strategies to take advantage of these energy differences. Disruption of imcH, encoding an inner membrane c-type cytochrome, eliminated the ability of G. sulfurreducens to reduce Fe(III) citrate, Fe(III)-EDTA, and insoluble Mn(IV) oxides, electron acceptors with potentials greater than 0.1 V versus the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), but the imcH mutant retained the ability to reduce Fe(III) oxides with potentials of ≤–0.1 V versus SHE. The imcH mutant failed to grow on electrodes poised at +0.24 V versus SHE, but switching electrodes to –0.1 V versus SHE triggered exponential growth. At potentials of ≤–0.1 V versus SHE, both the wild type and the imcH mutant doubled 60% slower than at higher potentials. Electrodes poised even 100 mV higher (0.0 V versus SHE) could not trigger imcH mutant growth. These results demonstrate that G. sulfurreducens possesses multiple respiratory pathways, that some of these pathways are in operation only after exposure to low redox potentials, and that electron flow can be coupled to generation of different amounts of energy for growth. Redox potentials that trigger these behaviors mirror those of metal acceptors common in subsurface environments where Geobacter is found.

  8. Poly-methyl pentene oxygenators have improved gas exchange capability and reduced transfusion requirements in adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Khoshbin, Espeed; Roberts, Neil; Harvey, Chris; Machin, David; Killer, Hilliary; Peek, Giles J; Sosnowski, Andrzej W; Firmin, Richard K

    2005-01-01

    The performance of poly-methyl pentene (PMP) oxygenators (Medos Hilite 7000LT) was compared with that of silicone membrane (SM) oxygenators (Medtronic 1-4500-2A) for adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Forty consecutive patients were selected retrospectively pre- and post-introduction of PMP oxygenators. They were selected according to the dates they received ECMO and were separated into two equal groups with similar backgrounds. The flow path resistance, gas and heat exchange efficiency, consumption of coagulation factors and platelets, blood transfusion requirements, and incidence of clots for each oxygenator type was assessed. Adult PMP oxygenators showed lower blood path resistance than SM oxygenators. However, lower consumption of blood products in these oxygenators was a direct result of their smaller surface area and heparin coated design, reducing contact activation of coagulation factors. These oxygenators are noticeably smaller, require lower priming volumes, and have better gas exchange capability than SM oxygenators. They showed greater stability and preservation of coagulation factors and platelets compared with SM oxygenators. They also had the advantage of a functioning integrated heat exchanger. Using a single PMP oxygenator in the first instance may be adequate for the majority of patients and would significantly reduce red blood cell consumption during ECMO.

  9. Beta 2-microglobulin is not required for cell surface expression of the murine class I histocompatibility antigen H-2Db or of a truncated H-2Db.

    PubMed

    Allen, H; Fraser, J; Flyer, D; Calvin, S; Flavell, R

    1986-10-01

    beta 2-Microglobulin (beta 2m) has been thought essential for transport of all major histocompatibility complex class I antigens to the cell surface. Here, we show that the mouse class I antigen H-2Db is expressed at the cell surface even when there is no beta 2m present within the cell. This was established by transfecting the H-2Db gene into the R1E cell line, which lacks beta 2m. The conformation of the Db antigen expressed by the R1E transfectant is very different from that of the native molecule. This Db antigen is not recognized by Db-allospecific and Db-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes or by most monoclonal antibodies to the native Db. We show further that a deletion construct of the Db gene, which consists of exon 1 linked to exons 4-8, expresses a truncated Db antigen lacking domains 1 and 2 [Db-(1 + 2)] at the cell surface after transfection into the R1E line. Previous biochemical and crystallographic data have indicated that domain 3 is associated with beta 2m; unexpectedly, Db-(1 + 2) does not associate with beta 2m when the mouse beta 2mb gene is transfected into the R1E transfectant expressing the truncated Db. This suggests that interactions with domains 1 and 2 are important for the paired association of domain 3 and beta 2m in the native Db antigen.

  10. An ABC transporter in the mitochondrial inner membrane is required for normal growth of yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Leighton, J; Schatz, G

    1995-01-01

    In an attempt to identify a mitochondrial ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter, we have used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify 10 DNA fragments homologous to members of the ABC family from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We disrupted five of the corresponding genes and found that one of the resulting null mutants barely grew on rich medium and failed to grow on minimal medium. This gene, termed ATM1, encodes a putative 'half-transporter' of 694 amino acids. Atm1p is synthesized with an N-terminal mitochondrial matrix-targeting signal and is located in the mitochondrial inner membrane, with its C-terminal ATPase domain exposed to the matrix. Cells lacking a functional ATM1 gene have an unstable mitochondrial genome and have white mitochondria that completely lack cytochromes. Atm1p is the first mitochondrial member of the ABC family to be identified and the only eukaryotic ABC transporter that has been shown to be necessary for normal cellular growth. Images PMID:7828591

  11. SOM 1, a small new gene required for mitochondrial inner membrane peptidase function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Esser, K; Pratje, E; Michaelis, G

    1996-09-25

    IMP1 encodes a subunit of the mitochondrial inner membrane peptidase responsible for the proteolytic processing of cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 (Cox2) and cytochrome b2 (Cytb2). The molecular defect in an imp1 mutation and the characterisation of a high-copy-number suppressor is described. A deletion of the suppressor region causes respiration deficiency. The DNA sequence revealed three very small overlapping ORFs. Constructs which carried termination codons within the ORFs or lacked ATG initiation codons still retained complementing activity on a high-copy-number plasmid. Nevertheless, the possibility that the suppressor acts at DNA or RNA level could be excluded. Subcloning of the ORFs, complementation analysis in low-copy-number plasmids and transcript mapping identified the 222 bp ORF as the suppressor gene designated SOM1. The SOM1 gene is transcribed into a 375 bp polyadenylated RNA and the deduced amino acid sequence predicts a small protein of 8.4 kDa with no significant sequence similarity to known proteins. In the som1 deletion mutant, proteolytic processing of the Cox2 precursor is prevented and Cytb2 is strongly reduced. SOM1 represents a new small gene which encodes a novel factor that is essential for the correct function of the Imp1 peptidase and/or the protein sorting machinery. PMID:8879245

  12. The lysine residue in the membrane-spanning domain of the beta chain is necessary for cell surface expression of the T cell antigen receptor

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The TCR is a complex receptor composed of seven polypeptide chains consisting of a ligand-binding subunit, Ti, and a putative signal- transducing subunit, CD3. Phylogenetically conserved charged amino acid residues within the membrane-spanning domains present in all seven chains of the TCR have been proposed to be important in the association between Ti and CD3. Using a Ti beta chain-deficient mutant of the cell line Jurkat, site-directed mutagenesis and transfection of Ti beta chain cDNA was performed to assess the importance of the lysine residue at position 290 within the membrane-spanning domain of the Ti beta chain to expression of the TCR complex. These studies demonstrated that the lysine residue, and not simply conservation of either basic charge or secondary structure, is important at this position. PMID:2974063

  13. Modulatory Effect of Taurine on 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)Anthracene-Induced Alterations in Detoxification Enzyme System, Membrane Bound Enzymes, Glycoprotein Profile and Proliferative Cell Nuclear Antigen in Rat Breast Tissue.

    PubMed

    Vanitha, Manickam Kalappan; Baskaran, Kuppusamy; Periyasamy, Kuppusamy; Selvaraj, Sundaramoorthy; Ilakkia, Aruldoss; Saravanan, Dhiravidamani; Venkateswari, Ramachandran; Revathi Mani, Balasundaram; Anandakumar, Pandi; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal

    2016-08-01

    The modulatory effect of taurine on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer in rats was studied. DMBA (25 mg/kg body weight) was administered to induce breast cancer in rats. Protein carbonyl levels, activities of membrane bound enzymes (Na(+) /K(+) ATPase, Ca(2+) ATPase, and Mg(2+) ATPase), phase I drug metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, NADPH cytochrome c reductase), phase II drug metabolizing enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase and UDP-glucuronyl transferase), glycoprotein levels, and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were studied. DMBA-induced breast tumor bearing rats showed abnormal alterations in the levels of protein carbonyls, activities of membrane bound enzymes, drug metabolizing enzymes, glycoprotein levels, and PCNA protein expression levels. Taurine treatment (100 mg/kg body weight) appreciably counteracted all the above changes induced by DMBA. Histological examination of breast tissue further supported our biochemical findings. The results of the present study clearly demonstrated the chemotherapeutic effect of taurine in DMBA-induced breast cancer. PMID:27091720

  14. Modulatory Effect of Taurine on 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)Anthracene-Induced Alterations in Detoxification Enzyme System, Membrane Bound Enzymes, Glycoprotein Profile and Proliferative Cell Nuclear Antigen in Rat Breast Tissue.

    PubMed

    Vanitha, Manickam Kalappan; Baskaran, Kuppusamy; Periyasamy, Kuppusamy; Selvaraj, Sundaramoorthy; Ilakkia, Aruldoss; Saravanan, Dhiravidamani; Venkateswari, Ramachandran; Revathi Mani, Balasundaram; Anandakumar, Pandi; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal

    2016-08-01

    The modulatory effect of taurine on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer in rats was studied. DMBA (25 mg/kg body weight) was administered to induce breast cancer in rats. Protein carbonyl levels, activities of membrane bound enzymes (Na(+) /K(+) ATPase, Ca(2+) ATPase, and Mg(2+) ATPase), phase I drug metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, NADPH cytochrome c reductase), phase II drug metabolizing enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase and UDP-glucuronyl transferase), glycoprotein levels, and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were studied. DMBA-induced breast tumor bearing rats showed abnormal alterations in the levels of protein carbonyls, activities of membrane bound enzymes, drug metabolizing enzymes, glycoprotein levels, and PCNA protein expression levels. Taurine treatment (100 mg/kg body weight) appreciably counteracted all the above changes induced by DMBA. Histological examination of breast tissue further supported our biochemical findings. The results of the present study clearly demonstrated the chemotherapeutic effect of taurine in DMBA-induced breast cancer.

  15. Membrane Anchoring by a C-terminal Tryptophan Enables HIV-1 Vpu to Displace Bone Marrow Stromal Antigen 2 (BST2) from Sites of Viral Assembly*

    PubMed Central

    Lewinski, Mary K.; Jafari, Moein; Zhang, Hua; Opella, Stanley J.; Guatelli, John

    2015-01-01

    The restriction factor BST2 (tetherin) prevents the release of enveloped viruses from the host cell and is counteracted by HIV-1 Vpu. Vpu and BST2 interact directly via their transmembrane domains. This interaction enables Vpu to induce the surface down-regulation and the degradation of BST2, but neither of these activities fully accounts for the ability of Vpu to enhance virion release. During a study of naturally occurring Vpu proteins, we found that a tryptophan residue near the Vpu C terminus is particularly important for enhancing virion release. Vpu proteins with a W76G polymorphism degraded and down-regulated BST2 from the cell surface, yet they inefficiently stimulated virion release. Here we explore the mechanism of this anomaly. We find that Trp-76 is critical for the ability of Vpu to displace BST2 from sites of viral assembly in the plane of the plasma membrane. This effect does not appear to involve a general reorganization of the membrane microdomains associated with virion assembly, but rather is a specific effect of Vpu on BST2. Using NMR spectroscopy, we find that the cytoplasmic domain of Vpu and Trp-76 specifically interact with lipids. Moreover, paramagnetic relaxation enhancement studies show that Trp-76 inserts into the lipid. These data are consistent with a model whereby Trp-76 anchors the C terminus of the cytoplasmic tail of Vpu to the plasma membrane, enabling the movement of Vpu-bound BST2 away from viral assembly sites. PMID:25759385

  16. Outer membrane protein OmpQ of Bordetella bronchiseptica is required for mature biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Cattelan, Natalia; Villalba, María Inés; Parisi, Gustavo; Arnal, Laura; Serra, Diego Omar; Aguilar, Mario; Yantorno, Osvaldo

    2016-02-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica, an aerobic Gram-negative bacterium, is capable of colonizing the respiratory tract of diverse animals and chronically persists inside the hosts by forming biofilm. Most known virulence factors in Bordetella species are regulated by the BvgAS two-component transduction system. The Bvg-activated proteins play a critical role during host infection. OmpQ is an outer membrane porin protein which is expressed under BvgAS control. Here, we studied the contribution of OmpQ to the biofilm formation process by B. bronchiseptica. We found that the lack of expression of OmpQ did not affect the growth kinetics and final biomass of B. bronchiseptica under planktonic growth conditions. The ΔompQ mutant strain displayed no differences in attachment level and in early steps of biofilm formation. However, deletion of the ompQ gene attenuated the ability of B. bronchiseptica to form a mature biofilm. Analysis of ompQ gene expression during the biofilm formation process by B. bronchiseptica showed a dynamic expression pattern, with an increase of biofilm culture at 48 h. Moreover, we demonstrated that the addition of serum anti-OmpQ had the potential to reduce the biofilm biomass formation in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, we showed for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, evidence of the contribution of OmpQ to a process of importance for B. bronchiseptica pathobiology. Our results indicate that OmpQ plays a role during the biofilm development process, particularly at later stages of development, and that this porin could be a potential target for strategies of biofilm formation inhibition. PMID:26673448

  17. Outer membrane protein OmpQ of Bordetella bronchiseptica is required for mature biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Cattelan, Natalia; Villalba, María Inés; Parisi, Gustavo; Arnal, Laura; Serra, Diego Omar; Aguilar, Mario; Yantorno, Osvaldo

    2016-02-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica, an aerobic Gram-negative bacterium, is capable of colonizing the respiratory tract of diverse animals and chronically persists inside the hosts by forming biofilm. Most known virulence factors in Bordetella species are regulated by the BvgAS two-component transduction system. The Bvg-activated proteins play a critical role during host infection. OmpQ is an outer membrane porin protein which is expressed under BvgAS control. Here, we studied the contribution of OmpQ to the biofilm formation process by B. bronchiseptica. We found that the lack of expression of OmpQ did not affect the growth kinetics and final biomass of B. bronchiseptica under planktonic growth conditions. The ΔompQ mutant strain displayed no differences in attachment level and in early steps of biofilm formation. However, deletion of the ompQ gene attenuated the ability of B. bronchiseptica to form a mature biofilm. Analysis of ompQ gene expression during the biofilm formation process by B. bronchiseptica showed a dynamic expression pattern, with an increase of biofilm culture at 48 h. Moreover, we demonstrated that the addition of serum anti-OmpQ had the potential to reduce the biofilm biomass formation in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, we showed for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, evidence of the contribution of OmpQ to a process of importance for B. bronchiseptica pathobiology. Our results indicate that OmpQ plays a role during the biofilm development process, particularly at later stages of development, and that this porin could be a potential target for strategies of biofilm formation inhibition.

  18. Membrane tension and membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Michael M; Chernomordik, Leonid V

    2015-08-01

    Diverse cell biological processes that involve shaping and remodeling of cell membranes are regulated by membrane lateral tension. Here we focus on the role of tension in driving membrane fusion. We discuss the physics of membrane tension, forces that can generate the tension in plasma membrane of a cell, and the hypothesis that tension powers expansion of membrane fusion pores in late stages of cell-to-cell and exocytotic fusion. We propose that fusion pore expansion can require unusually large membrane tensions or, alternatively, low line tensions of the pore resulting from accumulation in the pore rim of membrane-bending proteins. Increase of the inter-membrane distance facilitates the reaction. PMID:26282924

  19. Nonclassical antigen-processing pathways are required for MHC class II-restricted direct tumor recognition by NY-ESO-1-specific CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Junko; Tsuji, Takemasa; Luescher, Immanuel; Old, Lloyd J; Shrikant, Protul; Gnjatic, Sacha; Odunsi, Kunle

    2014-04-01

    Tumor antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells that directly recognize cancer cells are important for orchestrating antitumor immune responses at the local tumor sites. However, the mechanisms of direct MHC class II (MHC-II) presentation of intracellular tumor antigen by cancer cells are poorly understood. We found that two functionally distinct subsets of CD4(+) T cells were expanded after HLA-DPB1*04 (DP04)-binding NY-ESO-1157-170 peptide vaccination in patients with ovarian cancer. Although both subsets recognized exogenous NY-ESO-1 protein pulsed on DP04(+) target cells, only one type recognized target cells with intracellular expression of NY-ESO-1. The tumor-recognizing CD4(+) T cells more efficiently recognized the short 8-9-mer peptides than the non-tumor-recognizing CD4(+) T cells. In addition to endosomal/lysosomal proteases that are typically involved in MHC-II antigen presentation, several pathways in the MHC class I presentation pathways, such as the proteasomal degradation and transporter-associated with antigen-processing-mediated peptide transport, were also involved in the presentation of intracellular NY-ESO-1 on MHC-II. The presentation was inhibited significantly by primaquine, a small molecule that inhibits endosomal recycling, consistent with findings that pharmacologic inhibition of new protein synthesis enhances antigen presentation. Together, our data demonstrate that cancer cells selectively present peptides from intracellular tumor antigens on MHC-II by multiple nonclassical antigen-processing pathways. Harnessing the direct tumor-recognizing ability of CD4(+) T cells could be a promising strategy to enhance antitumor immune responses in the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

  20. Antigen Export Reduces Antigen Presentation and Limits T Cell Control of M. tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Smita; Grace, Patricia S; Ernst, Joel D

    2016-01-13

    Persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis results from bacterial strategies that manipulate host adaptive immune responses. Infected dendritic cells (DCs) transport M. tuberculosis to local lymph nodes but activate CD4 T cells poorly, suggesting bacterial manipulation of antigen presentation. However, M. tuberculosis antigens are also exported from infected DCs and taken up and presented by uninfected DCs, possibly overcoming this blockade of antigen presentation by infected cells. Here we show that the first stage of this antigen transfer, antigen export, benefits M. tuberculosis by diverting bacterial proteins from the antigen presentation pathway. Kinesin-2 is required for antigen export and depletion of this microtubule-based motor increases activation of antigen-specific CD4 T cells by infected cells and improves control of intracellular infection. Thus, although antigen transfer enables presentation by bystander cells, it does not compensate for reduced antigen presentation by infected cells and represents a bacterial strategy for CD4 T cell evasion.

  1. Antigen Export Reduces Antigen Presentation and Limits T Cell Control of M. tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Smita; Grace, Patricia S; Ernst, Joel D

    2016-01-13

    Persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis results from bacterial strategies that manipulate host adaptive immune responses. Infected dendritic cells (DCs) transport M. tuberculosis to local lymph nodes but activate CD4 T cells poorly, suggesting bacterial manipulation of antigen presentation. However, M. tuberculosis antigens are also exported from infected DCs and taken up and presented by uninfected DCs, possibly overcoming this blockade of antigen presentation by infected cells. Here we show that the first stage of this antigen transfer, antigen export, benefits M. tuberculosis by diverting bacterial proteins from the antigen presentation pathway. Kinesin-2 is required for antigen export and depletion of this microtubule-based motor increases activation of antigen-specific CD4 T cells by infected cells and improves control of intracellular infection. Thus, although antigen transfer enables presentation by bystander cells, it does not compensate for reduced antigen presentation by infected cells and represents a bacterial strategy for CD4 T cell evasion. PMID:26764596

  2. A novel fixed fibre biofilm membrane process for on-site greywater reclamation requiring no fouling control.

    PubMed

    Jabornig, Simon; Podmirseg, Sabine Marie

    2015-03-01

    On-site greywater treatment and reuse in urban areas bears the potential to reduce huge quantities of wastewater and lower freshwater shortages. Until now dissemination of small, single household applications has been rather limited as simple and high quality water producing, but also cost-effective treatment units have not been developed so far. This paper proposes a new process, based on a concurrently working hollow-fibre membrane as fixed biofilm support and filtration device. Bioreactor characteristics, influence of different aeration rates, membrane flux development, as well as structure and composition of biofilm were monitored to evaluate the performance of the tested pilot unit. The introduced process achieved international water reuse guidelines, worked soundly and could, compared to conventional micro MBR, significantly reduce energy demand (<1.4 kWh m(-3)). Fouling control by air scouring and chemical cleaning was not required once flux had stabilized. The biofilm analysis showed a porous, spongy-like structure. Microbiological investigation revealed a community of sheathed bacteria and nematodes that could play an important role in the flux stabilisation effect. In general, the study confirmed the suitability of the presented process for greywater treatment and provides valuable design data for future optimization and systematic analysis. PMID:25220525

  3. Rack1 is required for Vangl2 membrane localization and planar cell polarity signaling while attenuating canonical Wnt activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuangding; Esterberg, Robert; Lachance, Veronik; Ren, Dongdong; Radde-Gallwitz, Kristen; Chi, Fanglu; Parent, Jean-Luc; Fritz, Andreas; Chen, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The vertebrate planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway shares molecular components with the β-catenin–mediated canonical Wnt pathway but acts through membrane complexes containing Vang or Frizzled to orient neighboring cells coordinately. The molecular interactions underlying the action of Vang in PCP signaling and specification, however, are yet to be delineated. Here, we report the identification of Rack1 as an interacting protein of a vertebrate Vang protein, Vangl2. We demonstrate that Rack1 is required in zebrafish for PCP-regulated processes, including oriented cell division, cellular polarization, and convergent extension during gastrulation. We further show that the knockdown of Rack1 affects membrane localization of Vangl2 and that the Vangl2-interacting domain of Rack1 has a dominant-negative effect on Vangl2 localization and gastrulation. Moreover, Rack1 antagonizes canonical Wnt signaling. Together, our data suggest that Rack1 regulates the localization of an essential PCP protein and acts as a molecular switch to promote PCP signaling. PMID:21262816

  4. A novel fixed fibre biofilm membrane process for on-site greywater reclamation requiring no fouling control.

    PubMed

    Jabornig, Simon; Podmirseg, Sabine Marie

    2015-03-01

    On-site greywater treatment and reuse in urban areas bears the potential to reduce huge quantities of wastewater and lower freshwater shortages. Until now dissemination of small, single household applications has been rather limited as simple and high quality water producing, but also cost-effective treatment units have not been developed so far. This paper proposes a new process, based on a concurrently working hollow-fibre membrane as fixed biofilm support and filtration device. Bioreactor characteristics, influence of different aeration rates, membrane flux development, as well as structure and composition of biofilm were monitored to evaluate the performance of the tested pilot unit. The introduced process achieved international water reuse guidelines, worked soundly and could, compared to conventional micro MBR, significantly reduce energy demand (<1.4 kWh m(-3)). Fouling control by air scouring and chemical cleaning was not required once flux had stabilized. The biofilm analysis showed a porous, spongy-like structure. Microbiological investigation revealed a community of sheathed bacteria and nematodes that could play an important role in the flux stabilisation effect. In general, the study confirmed the suitability of the presented process for greywater treatment and provides valuable design data for future optimization and systematic analysis.

  5. Stable solid-phase Rh antigen.

    PubMed

    Yared, M A; Moise, K J; Rodkey, L S

    1997-12-01

    Numerous investigators have attempted to isolate the Rh antigens in a stable, immunologically reactive form since the discovery of the Rh system over 56 years ago. We report here a successful and reproducible approach to solubilizing and adsorbing the human Rh antigen(s) to a solid-phase matrix in an antigenically active form. Similar results were obtained with rabbit A/D/F red blood cell antigens. The antigen preparation was made by dissolution of the red blood cell membrane lipid followed by fragmentation of the residual cytoskeleton in an EDTA solution at low ionic strength. The antigenic activity of the soluble preparations was labile in standard buffers but was stable in zwitterionic buffers for extended periods of time. Further studies showed that the antigenic activity of these preparations was enhanced, as was their affinity for plastic surfaces, in the presence of acidic zwitterionic buffers. Adherence to plastic surfaces at low pH maintained antigenic reactivity and specificity for antibody was retained. The data show that this approach yields a stable form of antigenically active human Rh D antigen that could be used in a red blood cell-free assay for quantitative analysis of Rh D antibody and for Rh D antibody immunoadsorption and purification.

  6. Three wall-associated kinases required for rice basal immunity form protein complexes in the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Cayrol, Bastien; Delteil, Amandine; Gobbato, Enrico; Kroj, Thomas; Morel, Jean-Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) play key roles in disease resistance, in particular basal immunity. They recognize patterns produced by the pathogen invasion and often work as complexes in the plasma membrane. Among these RLKs, there is increasing evidence in several plant species of the key role of Wall-associated kinases (WAKs) in disease resistance. We recently showed using rice (Oryza sativa) loss-of-function mutants of three transcriptionally co-regulated OsWAK genes that individual OsWAKs are positively required for quantitative resistance to the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. This finding was unexpected since WAK genes belong to large gene families where functional redundancy is expected. Here we provide evidence that this may be due to complex physical interaction between OsWAK proteins. PMID:26853099

  7. Male meiotic cytokinesis requires ceramide synthase 3-dependent sphingolipids with unique membrane anchors.

    PubMed

    Rabionet, Mariona; Bayerle, Aline; Jennemann, Richard; Heid, Hans; Fuchser, Jens; Marsching, Christian; Porubsky, Stefan; Bolenz, Christian; Guillou, Florian; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Gorgas, Karin; Sandhoff, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Somatic cell cytokinesis was shown to involve the insertion of sphingolipids (SLs) to midbodies prior to abscission. Spermatogenic midbodies transform into stable intercellular bridges (ICBs) connecting clonal daughter cells in a syncytium. This process requires specialized SL structures. (1) Using high resolution-mass spectrometric imaging, we show in situ a biphasic pattern of SL synthesis with testis-specific anchors. This pattern correlates with and depends on ceramide synthase 3 (CerS3) localization in both, pachytene spermatocytes until completion of meiosis and elongating spermatids. (2) Blocking the pathways to germ cell-specific ceramides (CerS3-KO) and further to glycosphingolipids (glucosylceramide synthase-KO) in mice highlights the need for special SLs for spermatid ICB stability. In contrast to somatic mitosis these SLs require ultra-long polyunsaturated anchors with unique physico-chemical properties, which can only be provided by CerS3. Loss of these anchors causes enhanced apoptosis during meiosis, formation of multinuclear giant cells and spermatogenic arrest. Hence, testis-specific SLs, which we also link to CerS3 in human testis, are quintessential for male fertility. PMID:26045466

  8. Mechanisms of integration of de novo-synthesized polypeptides into membranes: signal-recognition particle is required for integration into microsomal membranes of calcium ATPase and of lens MP26 but not of cytochrome b5.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D J; Mostov, K E; Blobel, G

    1983-12-01

    We have investigated the in vitro integration into dog pancreas microsomal membranes of three integral membrane proteins that were synthesized de novo in a wheat germ cell-free translation system: calcium ATPase of rabbit sarcoplasmic reticulum, MP26 of bovine lens fiber plasma membrane, and rat liver cytochrome b5. Biosynthetically these proteins show a common feature in that they are synthesized without a transient NH2-terminal signal sequence. Two of these proteins, ATPase and MP26, were shown to require the recently discovered signal-recognition particle (SRP) [Walter, P. & Blobel, G. (1982) Nature (London) 299, 691-698] for integration. By this criterion, therefore, they each contain at least one uncleaved signal sequence. Surprisingly, however, the uncleaved signal sequence(s) of these two proteins did not induce the characteristic SRP-mediated translation arrest that was previously shown for a cleaved signal sequence. Unlike ATPase and MP26, cytochrome b5 did not require SRP for integration into microsomal membrane. Thus, the distinction between an "insertion" sequence (specifying unassisted and opportunistic integration into any exposed membrane) and a "signal" sequence (directing integration into a specific membrane by a receptor-mediated mechanism) is a valid one. By assaying for SRP dependence, the two mechanisms of integration can now be experimentally distinguished.

  9. Endocytosis of the class I major histocompatibility antigen via a phorbol myristate acetate-inducible pathway is a cell-specific phenomenon and requires the cytoplasmic domain [published erratum appears in J Cell Biol 1989 Sep;109(3):1381

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Class I major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens are expressed by virtually all mammalian cells, yet their levels of expression and behavior on the cell surface vary in a cell-specific fashion. A panel of lymphoid (both B and T) and nonlymphoid cell lines was used to study the kinetics of internalization of the H-2Ld class I MHC in different cell types. These studies revealed that endocytosis of H-2Ld occurs by both constitutive and PMA-regulated pathways in lymphoid cells, but only by a PMA-refractory pathway in the nonlymphoid cells tested. Transfectant derivatives of the T lymphoma, EL4, which express wild- type or mutant H-2Ld class I MHC antigens, were used to investigate the requirement for the cytoplasmic domain of the class I MHC antigen for its endocytosis in T lymphocytes. These studies showed that modification or deletion of the cytoplasmic domain of H-2Ld abrogates endocytosis via a PMA-regulated pathway. The role of cytoplasmic domain phosphorylation in PMA-inducible endocytosis was examined. The wild- type H-2Ld antigen is phosphorylated in all cell types examined, and this phosphorylation is up-regulated by PMA treatment. In contrast, cytoplasmic domain mutants of H-2Ld fail to be phosphorylated in vivo, in the presence or absence of PMA. The universality of PMA-inducible hyperphosphorylation of the class I MHC antigen among diverse cell types leads us to conclude that phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domain, while perhaps necessary, is not sufficient for triggering endocytosis via a PMA-inducible pathway. Furthermore, the results with the cytoplasmic domain mutants of H-2Ld suggest that a structural conformation of the class I MHC cytoplasmic domain is required for endocytosis via this route. PMID:2925787

  10. Structural analysis of the human interferon gamma receptor: a small segment of the intracellular domain is specifically required for class I major histocompatibility complex antigen induction and antiviral activity.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, J R; Jung, V; Schwartz, B; Wang, P; Pestka, S

    1992-01-01

    Mutations of the human interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) receptor intracellular domain have permitted us to define a restricted region of that domain as necessary for both induction of class I major histocompatibility complex antigen by IFN-gamma and protection against encephalomyocarditis virus. This region consists of five amino acids (YDKPH), all of which are conserved in the human and murine receptors. Tyr-457 and His-461 are essential for activity. Approximately 80% of the amino acids of the intracellular domain of the receptor is not required for major histocompatibility complex class I antigen induction or for antiviral protection against encephalomyocarditis virus. The observation that there was no protection by IFN-gamma against vesiculostomatitis virus indicates that other factors, in addition to chromosome 21 accessory factor(s), are required to generate the full complement of transduction signals from the human IFN-gamma receptor. Images PMID:1454813

  11. Cross-reactivity of anti-PLA2R1 autoantibodies to rabbit and mouse PLA2R1 antigens and development of two novel ELISAs with different diagnostic performances in idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Seitz-Polski, Barbara; Dolla, Guillaume; Payré, Christine; Tomas, Nicola M; Lochouarn, Marine; Jeammet, Louise; Mariat, Christophe; Krummel, Thierry; Burtey, Stéphane; Courivaud, Cécile; Schlumberger, Wolfgang; Zorzi, Kévin; Benzaken, Sylvia; Bernard, Ghislaine; Esnault, Vincent L M; Lambeau, Gérard

    2015-11-01

    About 70% of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN) have autoantibodies to the phospholipase A2 receptor PLA2R1. We screened sera from iMN patients for their cross-reactivity to human (h), rabbit (rb) and mouse (m) PLA2R1 by western blot (WB) and antigen-specific ELISAs. All iMN patients recognized hPLA2R1 and rbPLA2R1 by WB, and a rbPLA2R1 ELISA was as sensitive as the standardized hPLA2R1 ELISA to monitor anti-PLA2R1 in patients with active disease or in drug-induced remission. In contrast, only 51% of patients were reactive to mPLA2R1 by WB, and a maximum of 78% were weakly to highly positive in the mPLA2R1 ELISA, suggesting that iMN patients exhibit different subsets of anti-PLA2R1 autoantibodies against epitopes that are shared or not among PLA2R1 orthologs. In a cohort of 41 patients with a mean follow-up of 42 months from anti-PLA2R1 assay, the detection of anti-mPLA2R1 autoantibodies was an independent predictor of clinical outcome in multivariate analysis (p = 0.009), and a ROC curve analysis identified a threshold of 605 RU/mL above which 100% of patients (12 patients) had a poor renal outcome (p < 0.001). A similar threshold could not be defined in hPLA2R1 and rbPLA2R1 ELISAs. We conclude that rbPLA2R1 is an alternative antigen to hPLA2R1 to measure anti-PLA2R1 in active disease while mPLA2R1 is a unique antigen that can detect a subset of anti-PLA2R1 autoantibodies present at high levels (>605 RU/mL) only in iMN patients at risk of poor prognosis, and is thus useful to predict iMN outcome. PMID:26296473

  12. Outer membrane protein D15 is conserved among Haemophilus influenzae species and may represent a universal protective antigen against invasive disease.

    PubMed Central

    Loosmore, S M; Yang, Y P; Coleman, D C; Shortreed, J M; England, D M; Klein, M H

    1997-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced the d15 gene from two strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and two strains of nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHI). The nucleotide and deduced protein sequences of d15 are highly conserved, with only a small variable region identified near the carboxyl terminus of the protein. Analysis of upstream sequences revealed that the H. influenzae d15 gene may be part of a large potential operon of closely spaced open reading frames, including one with significant homology to the Escherichia coli cds gene encoding CDP-diglyceride synthetase. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the d15 gene is also present in H. influenzae types a, c, d, e, and f and in Haemophilus parainfluenzae. A recombinant D15 (rD15) protein was expressed in good quantity in E. coli from the inducible T7 promoter, and monospecific anti-rD15 antibodies were raised. Immunoblot analysis of H. influenzae serotypes a, b, c, d, e, and f, NTHI, and H. parainfluenzae lysates revealed that they all expressed a cross-reactive D15-like protein. Purified rD15 was found to be highly immunogenic in mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits, and passive transfer of anti-rD15 antibodies protected infant rats from challenge with H. influenzae type b or type a in infant rat models of bacteremia. Thus, D15 is a highly conserved antigen that is protective in animal models and it may be a useful component of a universal subunit vaccine against Haemophilus infection and disease. PMID:9284140

  13. Identification of viral membrane proteins required for cell fusion and viral dissemination that are modified during vaccinia virus persistence.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, M A; Paez, E

    1994-01-01

    position of the additional mutation coincided with a small deletion occurring in the HindIII F fragment. This deletion affected the 5'-end and promoter sequences of the 37 kDa envelope protein gene and produced a lack of expression of this protein, shown by others to be involved in the formation of extracellular enveloped virus in infected cells. These results shown that viruses with mutations of viral membrane proteins required for cell fusion and viral dissemination are selected during vaccinia virus persistence in cell culture.

  14. Slam is an outer membrane protein that is required for the surface display of lipidated virulence factors in Neisseria.

    PubMed

    Hooda, Yogesh; Lai, Christine Chieh-Lin; Judd, Andrew; Buckwalter, Carolyn M; Shin, Hyejin Esther; Gray-Owen, Scott D; Moraes, Trevor F

    2016-01-01

    Lipoproteins decorate the surface of many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, playing essential roles in immune evasion and nutrient acquisition. In Neisseria spp., the causative agents of gonorrhoea and meningococcal meningitis, surface lipoproteins (SLPs) are required for virulence and have been extensively studied as prime candidates for vaccine development. However, the machinery and mechanism that allow for the surface display of SLPs are not known. Here, we describe a transposon (Tn5)-based search for the proteins required to deliver SLPs to the surface of Neisseria meningitidis, revealing a family of proteins that we have named the surface lipoprotein assembly modulator (Slam). N. meningitidis contains two Slam proteins, each exhibiting distinct substrate preferences. The Slam proteins are sufficient to reconstitute SLP transport in laboratory strains of Escherichia coli, which are otherwise unable to efficiently display these lipoproteins on their cell surface. Immunoprecipitation and domain probing experiments suggest that the SLP, TbpB, interacts with Slam during the transit process; furthermore, the membrane domain of Slam is sufficient for selectivity and proper surface display of SLPs. Rather than being a Neisseria-specific factor, our bioinformatic analysis shows that Slam can be found throughout proteobacterial genomes, indicating a conserved but until now unrecognized virulence mechanism. PMID:27572441

  15. The small GTPase MoYpt7 is required for membrane fusion in autophagy and pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Si-Miao; Gao, Hui-Min; Ning, Guo-Ao; Shi, Huan-Bin; Wang, Yao; Dong, Bo; Qi, Yao-Yao; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Lu, Guo-Dong; Wang, Zong-Hua; Zhou, Jie; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Rab GTPases are required for vesicle-vacuolar fusion during vacuolar biogenesis in fungi. To date, little is known about the biological functions of the Rab small GTPase components in Magnaporthe oryzae. In this study, we investigated MoYpt7 of M. oryzae, a homologue of the small Ras-like GTPase Ypt7 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cellular localization assays showed that MoYpt7 was predominantly localized to vacuolar membranes. Using a targeted gene disruption strategy, a ΔMoYPT7 mutant was generated that exhibited defects in mycelial growth and production of conidia. The conidia of the ΔMoYPT7 mutant were malformed and defective in the formation of appressoria. Consequently, the ΔMoYPT7 mutant failed to cause disease in rice and barley. Furthermore, the ΔMoYPT7 mutant showed impairment in autophagy, breached cell wall integrity, and higher sensitivity to both calcium and heavy metal stress. Transformants constitutively expressing an active MoYPT7 allele (MoYPT7-CA, Gln67Leu) exhibited distinct phenotypes from the ΔMoYPT7 mutant. Expression of MoYPT7-CA in MoYpt7 reduced pathogenicity and produced more appressoria-forming single-septum conidia. These results indicate that MoYPT7 is required for fungal morphogenesis, vacuole fusion, autophagy, stress resistance and pathogenicity in M. oryzae.

  16. Topology and functional domains of Sec63p, an endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein required for secretory protein translocation.

    PubMed Central

    Feldheim, D; Rothblatt, J; Schekman, R

    1992-01-01

    SEC63 encodes a protein required for secretory protein translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (J. A. Rothblatt, R. J. Deshaies, S. L. Sanders, G. Daum, and R. Schekman, J. Cell Biol. 109:2641-2652, 1989). Antibody directed against a recombinant form of the protein detects a 73-kDa polypeptide which, by immunofluorescence microscopy, is localized to the nuclear envelope-ER network. Cell fractionation and protease protection experiments confirm the prediction that Sec63p is an integral membrane protein. A series of SEC63-SUC2 fusion genes was created to assess the topology of Sec63p within the ER membrane. The largest hybrid proteins are unglycosylated, suggesting that the carboxyl terminus of Sec63p faces the cytosol. Invertase fusion to a loop in Sec63p that is flanked by two putative transmembrane domains produces an extensively glycosylated hybrid protein. This loop, which is homologous to the amino terminus of the Escherichia coli heat shock protein, DnaJ, is likely to face the ER lumen. By analogy to the interaction of the DnaJ and Hsp70-like DnaK proteins in E. coli, the DnaJ loop of Sec63p may recruit luminal Hsp70 (BiP/GRP78/Kar2p) to the translocation apparatus. Mutations in two highly conserved positions of the DnaJ loop and short deletions of the carboxyl terminus inactivate Sec63p activity. Sec63p associates with several other proteins, including Sec61p, a 31.5-kDa glycoprotein, and a 23-kDa protein, and together with these proteins may constitute part of the polypeptide translocation apparatus. A nonfunctional DnaJ domain mutant allele does not interfere with the formation of the Sec63p/Sec61p/gp31.5/p23 complex. Images PMID:1620130

  17. Molecular characterization and expression of dipeptidase 3, a testis-specific membrane-bound dipeptidase: complex formation with TEX101, a germ-cell-specific antigen in the mouse testis.

    PubMed

    Yoshitake, Hiroshi; Yanagida, Mitsuaki; Maruyama, Mayuko; Takamori, Kenji; Hasegawa, Akiko; Araki, Yoshihiko

    2011-08-01

    We previously established an anti-sperm head auto-monoclonal antibody designated Ts4. The immunoreactivity of this antibody was also observed in other reproduction-related cells, such as testicular germ cells and early embryos, suggesting that the Ts4-recognized molecules might play a role in the reproductive process. However, the molecular characteristics and functions of the antigens warrant further clarification. In this study, we primarily attempted identification of the mAb-recognized molecules within the mouse testis. An immunoprecipitation method, together with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, revealed that the testicular immunoprecipitants with Ts4 contained dipeptidase 3 (DPEP3), a member of the membrane-bound dipeptidase family. A Western blot analysis using an anti-DPEP3 polyclonal antibody established in this study showed that this molecule was glycosylated and formed a disulfide-linked homodimer within the testis. Expression of DPEP3 protein was observed in the testicular germ cells, but not in the Sertoli or interstitial cells, or in any other major organs. Although Western blot analysis of testicular proteins separated by two-dimensional SDS-PAGE failed to demonstrate binding of Ts4 to DPEP3, we found that DPEP3 forms complexes with Ts4-immunoreactive molecules, such as TEX101, on the surfaces of spermatocytes, spermatids, and testicular spermatozoa. Based on data showing in the present study, further studies concerning DPEP3 on the testicular germ cells may help to clarify the molecular mechanisms of testicular germ-cell development.

  18. Myosins 1 and 6, myosin light chain kinase, actin and microtubules cooperate during antibody-mediated internalisation and trafficking of membrane-expressed viral antigens in feline infectious peritonitis virus infected monocytes.

    PubMed

    Dewerchin, Hannah L; Desmarets, Lowiese M; Noppe, Ytse; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-02-12

    Monocytes infected with feline infectious peritonitis virus, a coronavirus, express viral proteins in their plasma membranes. Upon binding of antibodies, these proteins are quickly internalised through a new clathrin- and caveolae-independent internalisation pathway. By doing so, the infected monocytes can escape antibody-dependent cell lysis. In the present study, we investigated which kinases and cytoskeletal proteins are of importance during internalisation and subsequent intracellular transport. The experiments showed that myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin 1 are crucial for the initiation of the internalisation. With co-localisation stainings, it was found that MLCK and myosin 1 co-localise with antigens even before internalisation started. Myosin 6 co-localised with the internalising complexes during passage through the cortical actin, were it might play a role in moving or disintegrating actin filaments, to overcome the actin barrier. One minute after internalisation started, vesicles had passed the cortical actin, co-localised with microtubules and association with myosin 6 was lost. The vesicles were further transported over the microtubules and accumulated at the microtubule organising centre after 10 to 30 min. Intracellular trafficking over microtubules was mediated by MLCK, myosin 1 and a small actin tail. Since inhibiting MLCK with ML-7 was so efficient in blocking the internalisation pathway, this target can be used for the development of a new treatment for FIPV.

  19. An anti-phospholipase A2 receptor quantitative immunoassay and epitope analysis in membranous nephropathy reveals different antigenic domains of the receptor.

    PubMed

    Behnert, Astrid; Fritzler, Marvin J; Teng, Beina; Zhang, Meifeng; Bollig, Frank; Haller, Hermann; Skoberne, Andrej; Mahler, Michael; Schiffer, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) was recently discovered as a target autoantigen in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). Published evidence suggests that the autoantibodies directed towards a conformation dependent epitope are currently effectively detected by a cell based assay (CBA) utilizing indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on tissue culture cells transfected with the PLA2R cDNA. Limitations of such IIF-CBA assays include observer dependent subjective evaluation of semi-quantitative test results and the protocols are not amenable to high throughput diagnostic testing. We developed a quantitative, observer independent, high throughput capture immunoassay for detecting PLA2R autoantibodies on an addressable laser bead immunoassay (ALBIA) platform. Since reactive domains of PLA2R (i.e. epitopes) could be used to improve diagnostic tests by using small peptides in various high throughput diagnostic platforms, we identified PLA2R epitopes that bound autoantibodies of IMN patients. These studies confirmed that inter-molecular epitope spreading occurs in IMN but use of the cognate synthetic peptides in immunoassays was unable to conclusively distinguish between IMN patients and normal controls. However, combinations of these peptides were able to effectively absorb anti-PLA2R reactivity in IIF-CBA and an immunoassay that employed a lysate derived from HEK cells tranfected with and overexpressing PLA2R. While we provide evidence of intermolecular epitope spreading, our data indicates that in addition to conformational epitopes, human anti-PLA2R reactivity in a commercially available CBA and an addressable laser bead immunoassay is significantly absorbed by peptides representing epitopes of PLA2R.

  20. Determination by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA to Brucella melitensis major outer membrane proteins and whole-cell heat-killed antigens in sera of patients with brucellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Araj, G F; Kaufmann, A F

    1989-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to compare Brucella melitensis major outer membrane proteins (MOMP) and whole-cell heat-killed antigens (HK) in measuring antibrucella immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA in sera of brucellosis patients and controls. Antibodies to MOMP were generally similar to those against HK, and the correlation coefficients between the two antigens and IgG, IgM, and IgA in patients varied between 0.73 and 0.94. Both antigens are comparably suitable in detecting antibrucella immunoglobulin isotypes for the serologic diagnosis of patients with brucellosis, with high (greater than or equal to 95%) sensitivity and specificity. PMID:2768476

  1. Arabidopsis Synaptotagmin 1 Is Required for the Maintenance of Plasma Membrane Integrity and Cell Viability[W

    PubMed Central

    Schapire, Arnaldo L.; Voigt, Boris; Jasik, Jan; Rosado, Abel; Lopez-Cobollo, Rosa; Menzel, Diedrik; Salinas, Julio; Mancuso, Stefano; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Baluska, Frantisek; Botella, Miguel A.

    2008-01-01

    Plasma membrane repair in animal cells uses synaptotagmin 7, a Ca2+-activated membrane fusion protein that mediates delivery of intracellular membranes to wound sites by a mechanism resembling neuronal Ca2+-regulated exocytosis. Here, we show that loss of function of the homologous Arabidopsis thaliana Synaptotagmin 1 protein (SYT1) reduces the viability of cells as a consequence of a decrease in the integrity of the plasma membrane. This reduced integrity is enhanced in the syt1-2 null mutant in conditions of osmotic stress likely caused by a defective plasma membrane repair. Consistent with a role in plasma membrane repair, SYT1 is ubiquitously expressed, is located at the plasma membrane, and shares all domains characteristic of animal synaptotagmins (i.e., an N terminus-transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic region containing two C2 domains with phospholipid binding activities). Our analyses support that membrane trafficking mediated by SYT1 is important for plasma membrane integrity and plant fitness. PMID:19088329

  2. Clones of T cells discriminate between native and deglycosylated forms of MHC class II antigen in allostimulation.

    PubMed

    Culley, D; Waldron-Edward, D; Manjunath, P; Mamer, O A; Abikar, K; Rode, H; Gordon, J

    1993-07-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the role of the oligosaccharide side chains of MHC Class II antigens in allostimulation. The approach was to cleave the oligosaccharides from protein by subjecting plasma membranes (PM) of the Daudi cell line to chemical deglycosylation yielding deglycosylated (dgl) proteins and a supernatant fraction containing plasma membrane oligosaccharides (dgl sup). MHC Class II antigens affinity purified from the native and the dgl PM were inserted into the plasma membrane of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) used as stimulators in a mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). Cells used as stimulators and as responders were from the same donor. Both native and to a lesser extent the dgl antigen could elicit a proliferative as well as a cytolytic (CML) response. A comparable reduction in the CML reaction was also obtained when native antigen was used to elicit effector cells, but the target was stripped of N-linked oligosaccharides by pretreatment with tunicamycin (TM). Five clones of responding cells raised against the native antigen were studied. Two gave proliferative reactions of equal magnitude to native and to dgl antigen alike, while three responded only to the native form. These three clones did not lyse TM-treated target cells. Inhibition experiments of CML were performed with either the dgl sup containing Daudi PM oligosaccharides or with an anti MHC-Class II MoAb. CML reactivity of the three clones which responded to native antigen was blocked by the dgl sup but not by the anti-MHC antibody. Conversely, the reaction of the two clones reactive to both forms of antigen was only inhibited by the anti-MHC antibody using intact or TM-treated targets. Accordingly, in terms of the latter set of clones oligosaccharide side chains of MHC may not be required for allostimulation. Data obtained with the set of three clones suggest that oligosaccharides could act as target of cytotoxic T cells.

  3. Peritoneal Dialysis: An Alternative Modality of Fluid Removal in Neonates Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sasser, William C.; Robert, Stephen M.; Askenazi, David J.; O’Meara, L. Carlisle; Borasino, Santiago; Alten, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a lifesaving therapy for patients with cardiopulmonary failure after cardiac surgery. Fluid overload (FO) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in this population. We present our experience using peritoneal dialysis (PD) as an adjunct for fluid removal in eight consecutive neonates requiring ECMO after cardiac surgery between 2010 and 2012. PD was added to FO management when fluid removal goals were not being met by hemofiltration (HF) or hemodialysis (HD). Percent FO was 36% at ECMO initiation; 88% (seven of eight) achieved negative fluid balance before discontinuation of ECMO. PD removed median 119 mL/kg/day (interquartile range [IQR], 70–166) compared with median 132 mL/kg/day (IQR, 47–231) removed by HF/HD. PD and HF/HD fluid removal were performed concurrently 38% of the time. Unlike HF/HD, PD was never stopped secondary to hemodynamic compromise. Median duration of ECMO was 155 hours (IQR, 118–215). Six of eight patients were successfully decannulated. These results suggest PD safely and effectively removes fluid in neonates on ECMO after cardiac surgery. PD may increase total fluid removal potential when combined with other modalities. PMID:25208433

  4. Myosin Ia is required for CFTR brush border membrane trafficking and ion transport in the mouse small intestine.

    PubMed

    Kravtsov, Dmitri V; Caputo, Christina; Collaco, Anne; Hoekstra, Nadia; Egan, Marie E; Mooseker, Mark S; Ameen, Nadia A

    2012-08-01

    In enterocytes of the small intestine, endocytic trafficking of CFTR channels from the brush border membrane (BBM) to the subapical endosomes requires the minus-end motor, myosin VI (Myo6). The subapical localization of Myo6 is dependent on myosin Ia (Myo1a) the major plus-end motor associated with the BBM, suggestive of functional synergy between these two motors. In villus enterocytes of the Myo1a KO mouse small intestine, CFTR accumulated in syntaxin-3 positive subapical endosomes, redistributed to the basolateral domain and was absent from the BBM. In colon, where villi are absent and Myo1a expression is low, CFTR exhibited normal localization to the BBM in the Myo1a KO similar to WT. cAMP-stimulated CFTR anion transport in the small intestine was reduced by 58% in the KO, while anion transport in the colon was comparable to WT. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the association of CFTR with Myo1a. These data indicate that Myo1a is an important regulator of CFTR traffic and anion transport in the BBM of villus enterocytes and suggest that Myo1a may power apical CFTR movement into the BBM from subapical endosomes. Alternatively, it may anchor CFTR channels in the BBM of villus enterocytes as was proposed for Myo1a's role in BBM localization of sucrase-isomaltase. PMID:22510086

  5. Phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid transport between the ER and plasma membrane during PLC activation requires the Nir2 protein.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeun Ju; Guzman-Hernandez, Maria Luisa; Wisniewski, Eva; Echeverria, Nicolas; Balla, Tamas

    2016-02-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated hydrolysis of the limited pool of plasma membrane (PM) phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] requires replenishment from a larger pool of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) via sequential phosphorylation by PtdIns 4-kinases and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) 5-kinases. Since PtdIns is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and PtdIns(4,5)P2 is generated in the PM, it has been postulated that PtdIns transfer proteins (PITPs) provide the means for this lipid transfer function. Recent studies identified the large PITP protein, Nir2 as important for PtdIns transfer from the ER to the PM. It was also found that Nir2 was required for the transfer of phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) from the PM to the ER. In Nir2-depleted cells, activation of PLC leads to PtdOH accumulation in the PM and PtdIns synthesis becomes severely impaired. In quiescent cells, Nir2 is localized to the ER via interaction of its FFAT domain with ER-bound VAMP-associated proteins VAP-A and-B. After PLC activation, Nir2 also binds to the PM via interaction of its C-terminal domains with diacylglycerol (DAG) and PtdOH. Through these interactions, Nir2 functions in ER-PM contact zones. Mutations in VAP-B that have been identified in familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou-Gehrig's disease) cause aggregation of the VAP-B protein, which then impairs its binding to several proteins, including Nir2. These findings have shed new lights on the importance of non-vesicular lipid transfer of PtdIns and PtdOH in ER-PM contact zones with a possible link to a devastating human disease.

  6. Ia-antigen-T-cell interactions for a thymus-independent antigen composed of D amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Zisman, E; Dayan, M; Sela, M; Mozes, E

    1993-01-01

    Synthetic polypeptide antigens of L amino acids, although bearing repeating sequences, are thymus-dependent (L-TD), whereas the same polymers composed of D amino acids are thymus-independent (D-TI), probably due to a slower rate of metabolism. Yet we found that lymph-node cells of BALB/c mice immunized with D-TI proliferate in response to it in vitro. To follow T-cell activation by D-TI, we established T-cell hybridomas to D-TI and to its analog composed of L isomers, L-TD, for comparison. The T-cell hybridomas express membrane alpha/beta T-cell receptors and secrete interleukin 2 upon stimulation with the respective antigen. In addition, D-TI-specific hybridomas are stimulated, to a lesser extent, by the L-TD antigen, whereas only some L-TD-specific hybridomas recognize D-TI. Moreover, biotinylated analogs of D-TI and L-TD bind to splenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from BALB/c mice. Binding is inhibited by an excess of nonbiotinylated L-TD, and by an excess of a peptide comprising residues 259-271 of the human acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit, which binds to I-Ad and I-Ed molecules without prior processing. Analysis of APC lysates following incubation of the APCs with biotinylated D-TI and L-TD reveals that the biotinylated antigen moiety is associated with Ia molecules. D-TI and L-TD bind to Ia molecules on intact APCs with similar KD values, 5 x 10(-8) M and 3 x 10(-8) M, respectively. However, D-TI has faster kinetics of binding than L-TD, probably due to different processing requirements. Hence, we have demonstrated a major histocompatibility complex class II-mediated T-cell response to a thymus-independent antigen. Images PMID:8381541

  7. Membrane association of Wuhan nodavirus protein A is required for its ability to accumulate genomic RNA1 template.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yang; Wang, Zhaowei; Liu, Yongxiang; Qi, Nan; Miao, Meng; Si, Jie; Xiang, Xue; Cai, Dawei; Hu, Yuanyang; Zhou, Xi

    2013-05-10

    One common feature of positive-strand RNA viruses is the association of viral RNA and viral RNA replicase proteins with specific intracellular membranes to form RNA replication complexes. Wuhan nodavirus (WhNV) encodes protein A, which is the sole viral RNA replicase. Here, we showed that WhNV protein A closely associates with mitochondrial outer membranes and colocalizes with viral RNA replication sites. We further identified the transmembrane domains (N-terminal aa 33-64 and aa 212-254) of protein A for membrane association and mitochondrial localization. Moreover, we found that protein A accumulates genomic RNA by stabilizing the RNA. And our further investigation revealed that the ability of WhNV protein A to associate with membranes is closely linked with its ability for membrane recruitment and stabilization of viral genomic RNA templates. This study represents an advance toward understanding the mechanism of the RNA replication of WhNV and probably other nodaviruses. PMID:23490047

  8. [Target antigens for therapeutic antibodies in oncology: many candidates, few successes].

    PubMed

    Ceze, Nicolas; Probst, Alicia; Lecomte, Thierry; Ohresser, Marc; Paintaud, Gilles; Watier, Hervé

    2007-01-01

    Targeted therapies, especially monoclonal antibodies, have reached an increasing importance in oncology. High-throughput techniques have allowed the identification of numerous transcripts, proteins, or non-protein antigens, which have generated the concept of immunome. This epitope library constitutes a huge reservoir of candidate antigens susceptible to become some say the target of an antibody for passive immunotherapy. However, the conception and development of a therapeutic antibody represent a very important investment, both in terms of human power and finance, such that there is a requirement for an early identification of the best candidates among the potential target antigens. Among multiple criteria, the function of the antigen is crucial when it has been identified. A receptor antigen can be targeted by an agonistic or an antagonistic antibody, according to what is sought. When the antigen function is unknown, a therapeutic antibody can be useful, for instance through induction of apoptosis or through accrual of immuno-competent cells, via its Fc portion (complement-dependent cytotoxicity or antibody-dependent cytotoxicity). Other antibody features, unrelated to its function, can also be exploited, such as its internalisation or its translocation in membrane lipid rafts. The expression of the target antigen may also be crucial, in terms of localisation and levels, as is its tumour specificity, which can influence the efficacy and toxicity of the targeting antibody. The multiplicity of the factors to be taken into account and the complexity of the mechanism of action of therapeutic antibodies renders the choice of a target antigen a hazardous bet. Very often, this is only when the clinical efficacy of a targeting antibody is demonstrated that the antigen can be considered as a good target. PMID:17964990

  9. Identification of T-cell stimulatory antigens of Chlamydia trachomatis using synovial fluid-derived T-cell clones.

    PubMed Central

    Hassell, A B; Reynolds, D J; Deacon, M; Gaston, J S; Pearce, J H

    1993-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a major cause of sexually transmitted disease, infertility and reactive arthritis in the Western world, and of trachoma in the developing world. There is evidence that the chronic inflammatory reaction seen in diseases associated with chlamydiae represents a delayed-type hypersensitivity response to chlamydial antigens. Little is known about which chlamydial antigens elicit T-cell responses yet such information could have important implications in terms of both immunopathological understanding of these diseases and immunoprophylaxis design. In this study, 61 chlamydia-specific T-cell clones have been produced from the synovial fluid of an individual with sexually acquired reactive arthritis (SARA). Ten clones have been characterized in detail and used to identify T-cell stimulatory antigens of chlamydiae by means of T-cell immunoblotting. Two distinct antigenic fractions have been identified, one recognized by three of the clones (molecular weight 18,000), the other recognized by six of the clones (molecular weight 30,000). The fractions are distinct from the major outer membrane protein, the 57,000 MW stress protein and the 60,000 MW cysteine-rich membrane protein of chlamydiae. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction of the response to these antigens differed: clones recognizing the 18,000 MW antigen required antigen-presenting cells expressing DR1 subtype DRB1*0101 or DRB1*0102 which only differ at amino acids 85 and 86 on the DR beta-chain; by contrast clones recognizing the 30,000 MW antigen were presented to only by antigen-presenting cells from DRB1*0101 individuals, reflecting extreme sensitivity of these clones to the polymorphism at positions 85 and 86 on the DR beta-chain. Images Figure 4 PMID:7691730

  10. Stabilization of Transfected Cells Expressing Low-Incidence Blood Group Antigens: Novel Methods Facilitating Their Use as Reagent-Cells

    PubMed Central

    González, Cecilia; Esteban, Rosa; Canals, Carme; Muñiz-Díaz, Eduardo; Nogués, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Background The identification of erythrocyte antibodies in the serum of patients rely on panels of human red blood cells (RBCs), which coexpress many antigens and are not easily available for low-incidence blood group phenotypes. These problems have been addressed by generating cell lines expressing unique blood group antigens, which may be used as an alternative to human RBCs. However, the use of cell lines implies several drawbacks, like the requirement of cell culture facilities and the high cost of cryopreservation. The application of cell stabilization methods could facilitate their use as reagent cells in clinical laboratories. Methods We generated stably-transfected cells expressing low-incidence blood group antigens (Dia and Lua). High-expresser clones were used to assess the effect of TransFix® treatment and lyophilization as cell preservation methods. Cells were kept at 4°C and cell morphology, membrane permeability and antigenic properties were evaluated at several time-points after treatment. Results TransFix® addition to cell suspensions allows cell stabilization and proper antigen detection for at least 120 days, despite an increase in membrane permeability and a reduction in antigen expression levels. Lyophilized cells showed minor morphological changes and antigen expression levels were rather conserved at days 1, 15 and 120, indicating a high stability of the freeze-dried product. These stabilized cells have been proved to react specifically with human sera containing alloantibodies. Conclusions Both stabilization methods allow long-term preservation of the transfected cells antigenic properties and may facilitate their distribution and use as reagent-cells expressing low-incidence antigens, overcoming the limited availability of such rare RBCs. PMID:27603310

  11. Vaccines and viral antigenic diversity.

    PubMed

    Mumford, J A

    2007-04-01

    Antigenic diversity among ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses occurs as a result of rapid mutation during replication and recombination/reassortment between genetic material of related strains during co-infections. Variants which have a selective advantage in terms of ability to spread or to avoid host immunity become established within populations. Examples of antigenically diverse viruses include influenza, foot and mouth disease (FMD) and bluetongue (BT). Effective vaccination against such viruses requires surveillance programmes to monitor circulating serotypes and their evolution to ensure that vaccine strains match field viruses. A formal vaccine strain selection scheme for equine influenza has been established under the auspices of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) based on an international surveillance programme. A regulatory framework has been put in place to allow rapid updating of vaccine strains withoutthe need to provide full registration data for licensing the updated vaccine. While there is extensive surveillance of FMD worldwide and antigenic and genetic characterisation of isolates, there is no formal vaccine strain selection system. A coordinated international effort has been initiated to agree harmonised approaches to virus characterisation which is aimed at providing the basis for an internationally agreed vaccine matching system for FMD supported by the OIE. The emergence and spread of BT in Europe have resulted in an intensification of vaccine evaluation in terms of safety and efficacy, particularly cross-protection within and between serotypes. The most important requirement for producing vaccines against viruses displaying antigenic diversity is a method of measuring antigenic distances between strains and developing an understanding of how these distances relate to cross-protection. Antigenic cartography, a new computational method of quantifying antigenic distances between strains has been applied to human and equine influenza to

  12. Determination of the membrane topology of Arv1 and the requirement of the ER luminal region for Arv1 function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Villasmil, Michelle L; Nickels, Joseph T

    2011-09-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ARV1 encodes a 321 amino acid transmembrane protein localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi. It has been shown previously that arv1 cells harbor defects in sphingolipid and glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosyntheses, and may harbor sterol trafficking defects. Using C-terminal fusion to Suc2-His4, we determined the orientation of full-length Arv1 in the ER membrane. Once membrane topology was determined, we used this information and truncation analysis to establish the minimum protein length required for Arv1 function and phenotypic suppression. By understanding the topology of Arv1 we can now further analyze its putative lipid and glycosylphosphatidylinositol intermediate transport activities.

  13. Geometry of membrane fission.

    PubMed

    Frolov, Vadim A; Escalada, Artur; Akimov, Sergey A; Shnyrova, Anna V

    2015-01-01

    Cellular membranes define the functional geometry of intracellular space. Formation of new membrane compartments and maintenance of complex organelles require division and disconnection of cellular membranes, a process termed membrane fission. Peripheral membrane proteins generally control membrane remodeling during fission. Local membrane stresses, reflecting molecular geometry of membrane-interacting parts of these proteins, sum up to produce the key membrane geometries of fission: the saddle-shaped neck and hour-glass hemifission intermediate. Here, we review the fundamental principles behind the translation of molecular geometry into membrane shape and topology during fission. We emphasize the central role the membrane insertion of specialized protein domains plays in orchestrating fission in vitro and in cells. We further compare individual to synergistic action of the membrane insertion during fission mediated by individual protein species, proteins complexes or membrane domains. Finally, we describe how local geometry of fission intermediates defines the functional design of the protein complexes catalyzing fission of cellular membranes. PMID:25062896

  14. NSF- and SNARE-mediated membrane fusion is required for nuclear envelope formation and completion of nuclear pore complex assembly in Xenopus laevis egg extracts.

    PubMed

    Baur, Tina; Ramadan, Kristijan; Schlundt, Andreas; Kartenbeck, Jürgen; Meyer, Hemmo H

    2007-08-15

    Despite the progress in understanding nuclear envelope (NE) reformation after mitosis, it has remained unclear what drives the required membrane fusion and how exactly this is coordinated with nuclear pore complex (NPC) assembly. Here, we show that, like other intracellular fusion reactions, NE fusion in Xenopus laevis egg extracts is mediated by SNARE proteins that require activation by NSF. Antibodies against Xenopus NSF, depletion of NSF or the dominant-negative NSF(E329Q) variant specifically inhibited NE formation. Staging experiments further revealed that NSF was required until sealing of the envelope was completed. Moreover, excess exogenous alpha-SNAP that blocks SNARE function prevented membrane fusion and caused accumulation of non-flattened vesicles on the chromatin surface. Under these conditions, the nucleoporins Nup107 and gp210 were fully recruited, whereas assembly of FxFG-repeat-containing nucleoporins was blocked. Together, we define NSF- and SNARE-mediated membrane fusion events as essential steps during NE formation downstream of Nup107 recruitment, and upstream of membrane flattening and completion of NPC assembly.

  15. Compartmented coupling of chicken heart mitochondrial creatine kinase to the nucleotide translocase requires the outer mitochondrial membrane.

    PubMed

    Brooks, S P; Suelter, C H

    1987-08-15

    The kinetic coupling of mitochondrial creatine kinase (MiMi-CK) to ADP/ATP translocase in chicken heart mitochondrial preparations is demonstrated. Measuring the MiMi-CK apparent Km value for MgATP2- (at saturating creatine) gives a value of 36 microM when MiMi-CK is coupled to oxidative phosphorylation. This Km value is threefold lower than the Km for enzyme bound to mitoplasts or free in solution. The nucleotide translocase Km value for ADP decreases from 20 to 10 microM in the presence of 50 mM creatine only with intact mitochondria. Similar experiments with mitoplasts do not give decreased Km values. The observed Km differences can be used to calculate the concentration of ATP and ADP under steady-state conditions showing that the observed differences in the kinetic constants accurately reflect the enzyme activities of MiMi-CK under the different conditions. The behavior of the Km values provides evidence for what we term compartmented coupling. Therefore, like the rabbit heart system (S. Erickson-Viitanen, P. Viitanen, P. J. Geiger, W. C. T. Yang, and S. P. Bessman (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 14395-14404) compartmented coupling requires an intact outer mitochondrial membrane. The apparent Km values for normal or compartmentally coupled systems can be used to calculate steady-state values of ATP and ADP by coupling enzyme theory. Hence, the overall kinetic parameters accurately reflect the behavior of the enzymes whether free in solution or in the intermembrane space.

  16. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the elderly: a review of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry.

    PubMed

    Mendiratta, Priya; Wei, Jeanne Y; Gomez, Alberto; Podrazik, Paula; Riggs, Ann T; Rycus, Peter; Gossett, Jeffrey; Prodhan, Parthak

    2013-01-01

    The role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) among the elderly is not clearly defined. We sought to query the international Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry database to investigate the use of ECMO support among the elderly. The objective of this study was to investigate survival to hospital discharge among the elderly supported on ECMO. The ELSO registry database was queried, identifying all elderly patients (>65 years of age) supported on ECMO for ECPR from 1998 to 2009. The primary outcome variable was survival to hospital discharge. Clinical characteristics between survivors and nonsurvivors were compared using univariate analysis. Ninety-nine elderly patients requiring ECPR were identified from the ELSO registry for the study period. The median age of the cohort was 70 years (range 65-86 years). The median admission to time on ECMO was 32 hours (range 1-998 hours), median time on ECMO was 69 hours (range 1-459 hours), and median time off to discharge for survivors was 587 hours (range 3-2,166 hours). Overall, survival at hospital discharge was 22.2% (22/99). No significant differences were noted between survivors and nonsurvivors for demographics, secondary diagnoses, pre-ECMO variables, complications on ECMO, as well as the type and duration of ECMO support. Among listed comorbidities, only the presence of pre-ECMO acute renal failure was significantly more frequent in nonsurvivors compared with survivors (14 vs. 0; p = 0.04). Survival to hospital discharge among the elderly supported on ECMO is lower than that for younger adult patients (28.7% vs. 40.0%). However, it is higher than that after conventional CPR (17%), suggesting that age should not be a bar against consideration for the use of ECMO in older patients but should be considered on a case-by-case basis.

  17. The SH integral membrane protein of the paramyxovirus simian virus 5 is required to block apoptosis in MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    He, B; Lin, G Y; Durbin, J E; Durbin, R K; Lamb, R A

    2001-05-01

    In some cell types the paramyxovirus simian virus 5 (SV5) causes little cytopathic effect (CPE) and infection continues productively for long periods of time; e.g., SV5 can be produced from MDBK cells for up to 40 days with little CPE. SV5 differs from most paramyxoviruses in that it encodes a small (44-amino-acid) hydrophobic integral membrane protein (SH). When MDBK cells were infected with a recombinant SV5 containing a deletion of the SH gene (rSV5DeltaSH), the MDBK cells exhibited an increase in CPE compared to cells infected with wild-type SV5 (recovered from cDNA; rSV5). The increased CPE correlated with an increase in apoptosis in rSV5DeltaSH-infected cells over mock-infected and rSV5-infected cells when assayed for annexin V binding, DNA content (propidium iodide staining), and DNA fragmentation (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay). In rSV5DeltaSH-infected MDBK cells an increase in caspase-2 and caspase-3 activities was observed. By using peptide inhibitors of individual caspases it was found that caspase-2 and caspase-3 were activated separately in rSV5DeltaSH-infected cells. Expression of caspase-2 and -3 in rSV5DeltaSH-infected MDBK cells appeared not to require STAT1 protein, as STAT1 protein could not be detected in SV5-infected MDBK cells. When mutant mice homologous for a targeted disruption of STAT1 were used as a model animal system and infected with the viruses it was found that rSV5DeltaSH caused less mortality than wild-type rSV5, consistent with the notion of clearance of apoptotic cells in a host species.

  18. Common antigenic structures of HL-A antigens

    PubMed Central

    Nakamuro, K.; Tanigaki, N.; Kreiter, V. P.; Pressman, D.

    1974-01-01

    Spent culture media of all the human cell lines tested have been found to contain the antigenic activity present on the 11,000-Dalton HL-A common portion fragment of the HL-A antigen molecule that appears to be a characteristic, invariant portion of HL-A antigen molecules. From the culture medium of one of these lines, RPMI 1788, a lymphoid cell line, the substance carrying HL-A common activity was isolated, which was shown to be identical to the HL-A common portion fragment with respect to molecular size, electrophoretic mobility, isoelectric focusing patterns, and certain antigenic characteristics. By an isolation procedure involving differential ultrafiltration, gel filtration, and column electrophoresis, 8 litres of the culture medium yielded 1.5–2.0 A280 units of the substance representing 15–20 per cent of the HL-A common antigenic activity originally present. A single protein band with a Rf of 0.47 was obtained by disc electrophoresis. The molecular size was shown to be about 11,000 Daltons by gel filtration and by sodium dodecyl sulphate—acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Upon isoelectric focusing two bands were obtained which corresponded exactly to those obtained with HL-A common portion fragment prepared from papain-solubilized HL-A antigen preparations by acid dissociation. The isoelectric point of the major band was 5.0. The reactions of this substance with rabbit antisera against human lymphoid cell membrane and against the substance were essentially identical to the reactions of HL-A common portion fragment with these same antisera. ImagesFIG. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:4476726

  19. Cancer vaccine--Antigenics.

    PubMed

    2002-01-01

    purified complexes of tumour-derived HSPs linked to tumour antigen peptides. When these HSPPC are readministered to a patient following surgery or biopsy of the tumour, the antigenic tumour peptides are expressed on the surface of potent antigen-presenting cells of the immune system, such as macrophages and dendritic cells. This stimulates a much more powerful anti-tumour immune response than that generated by expression of the same antigens by the tumour cell. Thus, Antigenics autologous HSP technology is attractive because it is highly specific for individual patients and circumvents the need for identification of specific antigens for individual cancers (i.e. it does not require definition of the antigenic epitopes on cancer cells) and it overcomes the immune tolerance associated with various tumours. Oncophage is manufactured in a 10-hour process from surgically resected autologous tumour. A minimum of 1-3g of tumour tissue is required to produce enough Oncophage for a course of treatment. The major limiting factor for producing Oncophage from a particular cancer is the ability to purify HSP from that cancer. From clinical studies to date, Antigenics has been able to produce HSP from 100, 98, 90, 71 and 30% of colorectal carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, melanoma, gastric cancer and pancreatic cancer tumours, respectively. The low success rate with pancreatic cancers is because of the high concentration of proteases in that tissue type. HSPs are a family of highly conserved proteins present in the cells of all organisms. They function as molecular chaperones, assisting the correct folding of polypeptides and aiding intracellular protein transport. In addition, HSPs associate with a broad range of peptides derived from intracellular protein degradation, including antigenic peptides produced in tumour cells. Antigenics has exclusively licensed worldwide rights to its HSP immunotherapeutic complexes from Mount Sinai School of Medicine and Fordham University in the USA. On

  20. Linkage between anaplasma marginale outer membrane proteins enhances immunogenicity, but is not required for protection from challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prevention of bacterial infections via immunization presents particular challenges. While outer membrane extracts are often protective; they are difficult and expensive to isolate and standardize, and thus often impractical for development and implementation in vaccination programs. In contrast, ind...

  1. A mitochondrial-focused genetic interaction map reveals a scaffold-like complex required for inner membrane organization in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Hoppins, Suzanne; Collins, Sean R; Cassidy-Stone, Ann; Hummel, Eric; Devay, Rachel M; Lackner, Laura L; Westermann, Benedikt; Schuldiner, Maya; Weissman, Jonathan S; Nunnari, Jodi

    2011-10-17

    To broadly explore mitochondrial structure and function as well as the communication of mitochondria with other cellular pathways, we constructed a quantitative, high-density genetic interaction map (the MITO-MAP) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The MITO-MAP provides a comprehensive view of mitochondrial function including insights into the activity of uncharacterized mitochondrial proteins and the functional connection between mitochondria and the ER. The MITO-MAP also reveals a large inner membrane-associated complex, which we term MitOS for mitochondrial organizing structure, comprised of Fcj1/Mitofilin, a conserved inner membrane protein, and five additional components. MitOS physically and functionally interacts with both outer and inner membrane components and localizes to extended structures that wrap around the inner membrane. We show that MitOS acts in concert with ATP synthase dimers to organize the inner membrane and promote normal mitochondrial morphology. We propose that MitOS acts as a conserved mitochondrial skeletal structure that differentiates regions of the inner membrane to establish the normal internal architecture of mitochondria.

  2. The intracellular pathway for the presentation of vitamin B-related antigens by the antigen-presenting molecule MR1.

    PubMed

    McWilliam, Hamish E G; Eckle, Sidonia B G; Theodossis, Alex; Liu, Ligong; Chen, Zhenjun; Wubben, Jacinta M; Fairlie, David P; Strugnell, Richard A; Mintern, Justine D; McCluskey, James; Rossjohn, Jamie; Villadangos, Jose A

    2016-05-01

    The antigen-presenting molecule MR1 presents vitamin B-related antigens (VitB antigens) to mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells through an uncharacterized pathway. We show that MR1, unlike other antigen-presenting molecules, does not constitutively present self-ligands. In the steady state it accumulates in a ligand-receptive conformation within the endoplasmic reticulum. VitB antigens reach this location and form a Schiff base with MR1, triggering a 'molecular switch' that allows MR1-VitB antigen complexes to traffic to the plasma membrane. These complexes are endocytosed with kinetics independent of the affinity of the MR1-ligand interaction and are degraded intracellularly, although some MR1 molecules acquire new ligands during passage through endosomes and recycle back to the surface. MR1 antigen presentation is characterized by a rapid 'off-on-off' mechanism that is strictly dependent on antigen availability. PMID:27043408

  3. Limited Density of an Antigen Presented by RMA-S Cells Requires B7-1/CD28 Signaling to Enhance T-Cell Immunity at the Effector Phase

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Lin; Sluijter, Marjolein; Doorduijn, Elien M.; Kale, Shubha P.; McFerrin, Harris; Liu, Yong-Yu; Li, Yan; Mottamal, Madhusoodanan; Yao, Xin; Du, Fengkun; Gu, Baihan; Hoang, Kim; Nguyen, Yen H.; Taylor, Nichelle; Stephens, Chelsea R.; van Hall, Thorbald; Zhang, Qian-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The association of B7-1/CD28 between antigen presenting cells (APCs) and T-cells provides a second signal to proliferate and activate T-cell immunity at the induction phase. Many reports indicate that tumor cells transfected with B7-1 induced augmented antitumor immunity at the induction phase by mimicking APC function; however, the function of B7-1 on antitumor immunity at the effector phase is unknown. Here, we report direct evidence of enhanced T-cell antitumor immunity at the effector phase by the B7-1 molecule. Our experiments in vivo and in vitro indicated that reactivity of antigen-specific monoclonal and polyclonal T-cell effectors against a Lass5 epitope presented by RMA-S cells is increased when the cells expressed B7-1. Use of either anti-B7-1 or anti-CD28 antibodies to block the B7-1/CD28 association reduced reactivity of the T effectors against B7-1 positive RMA-S cells. Transfection of Lass5 cDNA into or pulse of Lass5 peptide onto B7-1 positive RMA-S cells overcomes the requirement of the B7-1/CD28 signal for T effector response. To our knowledge, the data offers, for the first time, strong evidence that supports the requirement of B7-1/CD28 secondary signal at the effector phase of antitumor T-cell immunity being dependent on the density of an antigenic peptide. PMID:25383875

  4. The bacteriocin AS-48 requires dimer dissociation followed by hydrophobic interactions with the membrane for antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Cebrián, Rubén; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Albert, Armando; Maqueda, Mercedes; Sánchez-Barrena, María José

    2015-05-01

    The molecular mechanism underlining the antibacterial activity of the bacteriocin AS-48 is not known, and two different and opposite alternatives have been proposed. Available data suggested that the interaction of positively charged amino acids of AS-48 with the membrane would produce membrane destabilization and disruption. Alternatively, it has been proposed that AS-48 activity could rely on the effective insertion of the bacteriocin into the membrane. The biological and structural properties of the AS-48G13K/L40K double mutant were investigated to shed light on this subject. Compared with the wild type, the mutant protein suffered an important reduction in the antibacterial activity. Biochemical and structural studies of AS-48G13K/L40K mutant suggest the basis of its decreased antimicrobial activity. Lipid cosedimentation assays showed that the membrane affinity of AS-48G13K/L40K is 12-fold lower than that observed for the wild type. L40K mutation is responsible for this reduced membrane affinity and thus, hydrophobic interactions are involved in membrane association. Furthermore, the high-resolution crystal structure of AS-48G13K/L40K, together with the study of its dimeric character in solution showed that G13K stabilizes the inactive water-soluble dimer, which displays a reduced dipole moment. Our data suggest that the cumulative effect of these three affected properties reduces AS-48 activity, and point out that the bactericidal effect is achieved by the electrostatically driven approach of the inactive water-soluble dimer towards the membrane, followed by the dissociation and insertion of the protein into the lipid bilayer. PMID:25816760

  5. Immunotherapy of malignant disease with tumor antigen (TA)-specific monoclonal antibodies: does its therapeutic efficacy require cooperation with TA-specific CTL?

    PubMed Central

    Campoli, Michael; Ferris, Robert; Ferrone, Soldano; Wang, Xinhui

    2009-01-01

    A few tumor antigen (TA)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have been approved by FDA for the treatment of several major malignant diseases and are commercially available. Once in the clinic, mAb have an average success rate of ~30% and are well tolerated. These results have changed the face of cancer therapy, bringing us closer to more specific and more effective biologic therapy of cancer. The challenge facing tumor immunologists at present is represented by the identification of the mechanism(s) underlying patients’ differential clinical response to mAb-based immunotherapy. This information is expected to lead to the development of criteria to select patients to be treated with mAb-based immunotherapy. In the past in vitro and in vivo evidence has shown that TA-specific mAb can mediate their therapeutic effect by inducing tumor cell apoptosis, inhibiting the targeted antigen function, blocking tumor cell signaling and/or mediating complement-or cell-dependent lysis of tumor cells. More recent evidence suggests that TA-specific mAb can induce TA-specific cytotoxic T cell responses by enhancing TA uptake by dendritic cells (DC) and cross-priming of T cells. In this manuscript, we briefly summarize the TA-specific mAb that have received FDA approval. Next we review the potential mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of TA-specific mAb with emphasis on the induction of TA-specific cellular immune responses and their potential to contribute to the clinical efficacy of TA-specific mAb-based immunotherapy. Lastly, we discuss the potential negative impact of immune escape mechanisms on the clinical efficacy of TA-specific mAb-based immunotherapy. PMID:20028761

  6. PilF Is an Outer Membrane Lipoprotein Required for Multimerization and Localization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type IV Pilus Secretin

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, J.; Tammam, S; Ku, S; Samplaeanu, L; Burrows, L; Howell, P

    2008-01-01

    Type IV pili (T4P) are retractile appendages that contribute to the virulence of bacterial pathogens. PilF is a Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipoprotein that is essential for T4P biogenesis. Phenotypic characterization of a pilF mutant confirmed that T4P-mediated functions are abrogated: T4P were no longer present on the cell surface, twitching motility was abolished, and the mutant was resistant to infection by T4P retraction-dependent bacteriophage. The results of cellular fractionation studies indicated that PilF is the outer membrane pilotin required for the localization and multimerization of the secretin, PilQ. Mutation of the putative PilF lipidation site untethered the protein from the outer membrane, causing secretin assembly in both inner and outer membranes. T4P-mediated twitching motility and bacteriophage susceptibility were moderately decreased in the lipidation site mutant, while cell surface piliation was substantially reduced. The tethering of PilF to the outer membrane promotes the correct localization of PilQ and appears to be required for the formation of stable T4P. Our 2.0-A structure of PilF revealed a superhelical arrangement of six tetratricopeptide protein-protein interaction motifs that may mediate the contacts with PilQ during secretin assembly. An alignment of pseudomonad PilF sequences revealed three highly conserved surfaces that may be involved in PilF function.

  7. Nuclear inner membrane fusion facilitated by yeast Jem1p is required for spindle pole body fusion but not for the first mitotic nuclear division during yeast mating.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi; Hirata, Aiko; Endo, Toshiya

    2008-11-01

    During mating of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two haploid nuclei fuse to produce a diploid nucleus. The process of nuclear fusion requires two J proteins, Jem1p in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen and Sec63p, which forms a complex with Sec71p and Sec72p, in the ER membrane. Zygotes of mutants defective in the functions of Jem1p or Sec63p contain two haploid nuclei that were closely apposed but failed to fuse. Here we analyzed the ultrastructure of nuclei in jem1 Delta and sec71 Delta mutant zygotes using electron microscope with the freeze-substituted fixation method. Three-dimensional reconstitution of nuclear structures from electron microscope serial sections revealed that Jem1p facilitates nuclear inner-membrane fusion and spindle pole body (SPB) fusion while Sec71p facilitates nuclear outer-membrane fusion. Two haploid SPBs that failed to fuse could duplicate, and mitotic nuclear division of the unfused haploid nuclei started in jem1 Delta and sec71 Delta mutant zygotes. This observation suggests that nuclear inner-membrane fusion is required for SPB fusion, but not for SPB duplication in the first mitotic cell division.

  8. Dual Lipid Modification of Arabidopsis Gγ-Subunits Is Required for Efficient Plasma Membrane Targeting1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qin; Wang, Xuejun; Running, Mark P.

    2007-01-01

    Posttranslational lipid modifications are important for proper localization of many proteins in eukaryotic cells. However, the functional interrelationships between lipid modification processes in plants remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that the two heterotrimeric G-protein γ-subunits from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), AGG1 and AGG2, are prenylated, and AGG2 is S-acylated. In wild type, enhanced yellow fluorescent protein-fused AGG1 and AGG2 are associated with plasma membranes, with AGG1 associated with internal membranes as well. Both can be prenylated by either protein geranylgeranyltransferase I (PGGT-I) or protein farnesyltransferase (PFT). Their membrane localization is intact in mutants lacking PFT activity and largely intact in mutants lacking PGGT-I activity but is disrupted in mutants lacking both PFT and PGGT-I activity. Unlike in mammals, Arabidopsis Gγs do not rely on functional Gα for membrane targeting. Mutation of the sixth to last cysteine, the putative S-acylation acceptor site, causes a dramatic change in AGG2 but not AGG1 localization pattern, suggesting S-acylation serves as an important additional signal for AGG2 to be targeted to the plasma membrane. Domain-swapping experiments suggest that a short charged sequence at the AGG2 C terminus contributes to AGG2's efficient membrane targeting compared to AGG1. Our data show the large degree to which PFT and PGGT-I can compensate for each other in plants and suggest that differential lipid modification plays an important regulatory role in plant protein localization. PMID:17220359

  9. Posttranscriptional control is a strong factor enabling exclusive expression of surface antigens in Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Simon, Martin C; Marker, Simone; Schmidt, Helmut J

    2006-01-01

    Variable antigens are large proteins located on the outer membrane of parasitic but also of free-living protists. Multigene families encoding surface antigens demonstrate an exclusive expression of proteins. The resulting presence of just one protein species on the cell surface is required for surface antigen function; therefore, the molecular mechanism of exclusive expression is of main interest. Regulation of gene expression and mechanisms establishing switching of antigens are hardly understood in any organism. Here we report on the reaction of Paramecium to the artificial knock down of surface antigen 51A expression by bacteria-mediated RNAi. This technique involves the feeding of dsRNA-producing bacteria. We analyzed different fragments of the target gene for dsRNA template regarding their specific knock down efficiency and found great differences. Treatment of Paramecia with RNAi against the 51A antigen demonstrated that although a massive amount of mRNA was present, the protein was not detected on the cell surface. Moreover, a minor abundance of 51D transcripts resulted in an exclusive presence of 51D proteins on the cell surface. This posttranscriptional regulation was confirmed by the transcript ratio (51A/51D) determined by real-time (RT) PCR of single cells. Because we were able to document unexclusive transcription also in wild-type cells our results indicate that this posttranscriptional regulation is a main factor of enabling exclusive gene expression. The comparison of serotype shifts, caused by efficient and inefficient knock down, indicates an involvement of full-length transcripts in regulation of gene expression. Thus, our study gives new insights into the mechanism of exclusive expression on the molecular level: (i) exclusive transcription does not occur, (ii) posttranscriptional regulation is a powerful factor enabling exclusive antigen expression, and (iii) surface antigen mRNA is shown to be involved in this mechanism in a regulating way.

  10. COMMON CELL SURFACE ANTIGEN ASSOCIATED WITH MAMMALIAN C-TYPE RNA VIRUSES

    PubMed Central

    Yoshiki, Takashi; Mellors, Robert C.; Hardy, William D.; Fleissner, Erwin

    1974-01-01

    The indirect membrane immunofluorescence test and the absorption analysis of rabbit anti-FeLV, rabbit anti-FeLVp 30, and rabbit anti-MuLVp 30 antisera yielded the following conclusions. An antigen shared by mammalian (murine and feline) C-type RNA leukemia and sarcoma viruses was detected on the surface of cells infected or transformed by C-type viruses. The antigen was characterized as membrane-bound gs antigen bearing two determinants, membrane-bound gs-1, intraspecies-specific antigenic determinant, and membrane-bound gs-3, interspecies-specific antigenic determinant. Membrane-bound gs antigen was located on the cell surface, frequently near the site of virus budding but not on the envelope of murine C-type RNA virus. PMID:4131513

  11. Structure of the cytoplasmic domain of TcpE, the inner membrane core protein required for assembly of the Vibrio cholerae toxin-coregulated pilus.

    PubMed

    Kolappan, Subramaniapillai; Craig, Lisa

    2013-04-01

    Type IV pili are long thin surface-displayed polymers of the pilin subunit that are present in a diverse group of bacteria. These multifunctional filaments are critical to virulence for pathogens such as Vibrio cholerae, which use them to form microcolonies and to secrete the colonization factor TcpF. The type IV pili are assembled from pilin subunits by a complex inner membrane machinery. The core component of the type IV pilus-assembly platform is an integral inner membrane protein belonging to the GspF superfamily of secretion proteins. These proteins somehow convert chemical energy from ATP hydrolysis by an assembly ATPase on the cytoplasmic side of the inner membrane to mechanical energy for extrusion of the growing pilus filament out of the inner membrane. Most GspF-family inner membrane core proteins are predicted to have N-terminal and central cytoplasmic domains, cyto1 and cyto2, and three transmembrane segments, TM1, TM2 and TM3. Cyto2 and TM3 represent an internal repeat of cyto1 and TM1. Here, the 1.88 Å resolution crystal structure of the cyto1 domain of V. cholerae TcpE, which is required for assembly of the toxin-coregulated pilus, is reported. This domain folds as a monomeric six-helix bundle with a positively charged membrane-interaction face at one end and a hydrophobic groove at the other end that may serve as a binding site for partner proteins in the pilus-assembly complex.

  12. The association of myosin IB with actin waves in dictyostelium requires both the plasma membrane-binding site and actin-binding region in the myosin tail.

    PubMed

    Brzeska, Hanna; Pridham, Kevin; Chery, Godefroy; Titus, Margaret A; Korn, Edward D

    2014-01-01

    F-actin structures and their distribution are important determinants of the dynamic shapes and functions of eukaryotic cells. Actin waves are F-actin formations that move along the ventral cell membrane driven by actin polymerization. Dictyostelium myosin IB is associated with actin waves but its role in the wave is unknown. Myosin IB is a monomeric, non-filamentous myosin with a globular head that binds to F-actin and has motor activity, and a non-helical tail comprising a basic region, a glycine-proline-glutamine-rich region and an SH3-domain. The basic region binds to acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane through a short basic-hydrophobic site and the Gly-Pro-Gln region binds F-actin. In the current work we found that both the basic-hydrophobic site in the basic region and the Gly-Pro-Gln region of the tail are required for the association of myosin IB with actin waves. This is the first evidence that the Gly-Pro-Gln region is required for localization of myosin IB to a specific actin structure in situ. The head is not required for myosin IB association with actin waves but binding of the head to F-actin strengthens the association of myosin IB with waves and stabilizes waves. Neither the SH3-domain nor motor activity is required for association of myosin IB with actin waves. We conclude that myosin IB contributes to anchoring actin waves to the plasma membranes by binding of the basic-hydrophobic site to acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane and binding of the Gly-Pro-Gln region to F-actin in the wave.

  13. Lipase Processing of Complex Lipid Antigens.

    PubMed

    Sander, Peter; Becker, Katja; Molin, Michael Dal

    2016-09-22

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis synthesizes a wide variety of complex lipids that can serve as antigens in immune recognition of the bacterium. In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Gilleron et al. (2016) identify key enzymes essential for lipid antigen processing, which is required for CD1b-restricted T cell activation. PMID:27662250

  14. Antigenic Variation in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Petter, Michaela; Duffy, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is the protozoan parasite that causes most malaria-associated morbidity and mortality in humans with over 500,000 deaths annually. The disease symptoms are associated with repeated cycles of invasion and asexual multiplication inside red blood cells of the parasite. Partial, non-sterile immunity to P. falciparum malaria develops only after repeated infections and continuous exposure. The successful evasion of the human immune system relies on the large repertoire of antigenically diverse parasite proteins displayed on the red blood cell surface and on the merozoite membrane where they are exposed to the human immune system. Expression switching of these polymorphic proteins between asexual parasite generations provides an efficient mechanism to adapt to the changing environment in the host and to maintain chronic infection. This chapter discusses antigenic diversity and variation in the malaria parasite and our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that direct the expression of these proteins. PMID:26537377

  15. Killed poliovirus antigen titration in humans.

    PubMed

    Salk, J; Cohen, H; Fillastre, C; Stoeckel, P; Rey, J L; Schlumberger, M; Nicolas, A; van Steenis, G; van Wezel, A L; Triau, R; Saliou, P; Barry, L F; Moreau, J P; Mérieux, C

    1978-01-01

    To establish the antigen content of a killed poliovirus vaccine sufficiently potent to induce immunity with one or two doses and to establish a reference standard vaccine which has been tested under field conditions, a titration was carried out in infants to determine the amount of each of the three antigenic types of poliovirus vaccine required to induce seroconversion with a single dose. It has been observed that over a critical range of antigen concentration there is an essentially linear relationship between antibody response and quantity of antigen administered. More than 90 percent of the groups studied had detectable antibody after receiving single injections of 80, 8 and 64 D-antigen units of Types I, II and III, respectively. Four-fold less antigen for each of the three types was less effective. The implications of these findings for an efficient immunization procedure are discussed.

  16. Plasma Membrane Potential Oscillations in Insulin Secreting Ins-1 832/13 Cells Do Not Require Glycolysis and Are Not Initiated by Fluctuations in Mitochondrial Bioenergetics*

    PubMed Central

    Goehring, Isabel; Gerencser, Akos A.; Schmidt, Sara; Brand, Martin D.; Mulder, Hindrik; Nicholls, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Oscillations in plasma membrane potential play a central role in glucose-induced insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells and related insulinoma cell lines. We have employed a novel fluorescent plasma membrane potential (Δψp) indicator in combination with indicators of cytoplasmic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c), mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), matrix ATP concentration, and NAD(P)H fluorescence to investigate the role of mitochondria in the generation of plasma membrane potential oscillations in clonal INS-1 832/13 β-cells. Elevated glucose caused oscillations in plasma membrane potential and cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration over the same concentration range required for insulin release, although considerable cell-to-cell heterogeneity was observed. Exogenous pyruvate was as effective as glucose in inducing oscillations, both in the presence and absence of 2.8 mm glucose. Increased glucose and pyruvate each produced a concentration-dependent mitochondrial hyperpolarization. The causal relationships between pairs of parameters (Δψp and [Ca2+]c, Δψp and NAD(P)H, matrix ATP and [Ca2+]c, and Δψm and [Ca2+]c) were investigated at single cell level. It is concluded that, in these β-cells, depolarizing oscillations in Δψp are not initiated by mitochondrial bioenergetic changes. Instead, regardless of substrate, it appears that the mitochondria may simply be required to exceed a critical bioenergetic threshold to allow release of insulin. Once this threshold is exceeded, an autonomous Δψp oscillatory mechanism is initiated. PMID:22418435

  17. Membrane regulation of the chromosomal replication activity of E. coli DnaA requires a discrete site on the protein.

    PubMed Central

    Garner, J; Crooke, E

    1996-01-01

    The capacity of DnaA protein to initiate DNA synthesis at the chromosomal origin is influenced profoundly by the tightly bound nucleotides ATP and ADP. Acidic phospholipids can catalyze the conversion of inactive ADP-DnaA protein into the active ATP form. Proteolytic fragments of the nucleotide form of DnaA protein were examined to determine regions of the protein critical for functional interaction with membranes. A 35 kDa chymotryptic and 29 kDa tryptic fragment retained the tightly bound nucleotide. The fragments, whose amino-termini are within three residues of each other, but differ at their carboxyl ends, showed strikingly different behavior when treated with acidic phospholipids. The larger chymotryptic fragment released the bound nucleotide in the presence of acidic, but not neutral phospholipids. In contrast, the smaller tryptic fragment was inert to both forms of phospholipids. Acidic membranes, but not those composed of neutral phospholipids, protect from tryptic digestion a small portion of the segment that constitutes the difference between the 29 and 35 kDa fragments. The resulting 30 kDa tryptic fragment, which possesses this protected region, interacts functionally with acidic membranes to release the bound effector nucleotide. Inasmuch as the anionic ganglioside GM1, a compound structurally dissimilar to acidic glycerophospholipids, efficiently releases the nucleotide from DnaA protein, an acidic surface associated with a hydrophobic environment is the characteristic of the membrane that appears crucial for regulatory interaction with DnaA protein. Images PMID:8670850

  18. Plasma membrane aminoglycerolipid flippase function is required for signaling competence in the yeast mating pheromone response pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sartorel, Elodie; Barrey, Evelyne; Lau, Rebecca K.; Thorner, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The class 4 P-type ATPases (“flippases”) maintain membrane asymmetry by translocating phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine from the outer leaflet to the cytosolic leaflet of the plasma membrane. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, five related gene products (Dnf1, Dnf2, Dnf3, Drs2, and Neo1) are implicated in flipping of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylcholine. In MATa cells responding to α-factor, we found that Dnf1, Dnf2, and Dnf3, as well as the flippase-activating protein kinase Fpk1, localize at the projection (“shmoo”) tip where polarized growth is occurring and where Ste5 (the central scaffold protein of the pheromone-initiated MAPK cascade) is recruited. Although viable, a MATa dnf1∆ dnf2∆ dnf3∆ triple mutant exhibited a marked decrease in its ability to respond to α-factor, which we could attribute to pronounced reduction in Ste5 stability resulting from an elevated rate of its Cln2⋅Cdc28-initiated degradation. Similarly, a MATa dnf1∆ dnf3∆ drs2∆ triple mutant also displayed marked reduction in its ability to respond to α-factor, which we could attribute to inefficient recruitment of Ste5 to the plasma membrane due to severe mislocalization of the cellular phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate pools. Thus proper remodeling of plasma membrane aminoglycerolipids and phosphoinositides is necessary for efficient recruitment, stability, and function of the pheromone signaling apparatus. PMID:25378585

  19. Fusion between perinuclear virions and the outer nuclear membrane requires the fusogenic activity of herpes simplex virus gB.

    PubMed

    Wright, Catherine C; Wisner, Todd W; Hannah, Brian P; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Cohen, Gary H; Johnson, David C

    2009-11-01

    Herpesviruses cross nuclear membranes (NMs) in two steps, as follows: (i) capsids assemble and bud through the inner NM into the perinuclear space, producing enveloped virus particles, and (ii) the envelopes of these virus particles fuse with the outer NM. Two herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins, gB and gH (the latter, likely complexed as a heterodimer with gL), are necessary for the second step of this process. Mutants lacking both gB and gH accumulate in the perinuclear space or in herniations (membrane vesicles derived from the inner NM). Both gB and gH/gL are also known to act directly in fusing the virion envelope with host cell membranes during HSV entry into cells, i.e., both glycoproteins appear to function directly in different aspects of the membrane fusion process. We hypothesized that HSV gB and gH/gL also act directly in the membrane fusion that occurs during virus egress from the nucleus. Previous studies of the role of gB and gH/gL in nuclear egress involved HSV gB and gH null mutants that could potentially also possess gross defects in the virion envelope. Here, we produced recombinant HSV-expressing mutant forms of gB with single amino acid substitutions in the hydrophobic "fusion loops." These fusion loops are thought to play a direct role in membrane fusion by insertion into cellular membranes. HSV recombinants expressing gB with any one of four fusion loop mutations (W174R, W174Y, Y179K, and A261D) were unable to enter cells. Moreover, two of the mutants, W174Y and Y179K, displayed reduced abilities to mediate HSV cell-to-cell spread, and W174R and A261D exhibited no spread. All mutant viruses exhibited defects in nuclear egress, enveloped virions accumulated in herniations and in the perinuclear space, and fewer enveloped virions were detected on cell surfaces. These results support the hypothesis that gB functions directly to mediate the fusion between perinuclear virus particles and the outer NM.

  20. Identification and Characterization of LFD-2, a Predicted Fringe Protein Required for Membrane Integrity during Cell Fusion in Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Palma-Guerrero, Javier; Zhao, Jiuhai; Gonçalves, A. Pedro; Starr, Trevor L.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of membrane merger during somatic cell fusion in eukaryotic species are poorly understood. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, somatic cell fusion occurs between genetically identical germinated asexual spores (germlings) and between hyphae to form the interconnected network characteristic of a filamentous fungal colony. In N. crassa, two proteins have been identified to function at the step of membrane fusion during somatic cell fusion: PRM1 and LFD-1. The absence of either one of these two proteins results in an increase of germling pairs arrested during cell fusion with tightly appressed plasma membranes and an increase in the frequency of cell lysis of adhered germlings. The level of cell lysis in ΔPrm1 or Δlfd-1 germlings is dependent on the extracellular calcium concentration. An available transcriptional profile data set was used to identify genes encoding predicted transmembrane proteins that showed reduced expression levels in germlings cultured in the absence of extracellular calcium. From these analyses, we identified a mutant (lfd-2, for late fusion defect-2) that showed a calcium-dependent cell lysis phenotype. lfd-2 encodes a protein with a Fringe domain and showed endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membrane localization. The deletion of an additional gene predicted to encode a low-affinity calcium transporter, fig1, also resulted in a strain that showed a calcium-dependent cell lysis phenotype. Genetic analyses showed that LFD-2 and FIG1 likely function in separate pathways to regulate aspects of membrane merger and repair during cell fusion. PMID:25595444

  1. Diffusion of nitric oxide across cell membranes of the vascular wall requires specific connexin-based channels.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Xavier F; Lillo, Mauricio A; Gaete, Pablo S; Riquelme, Manuel A; Sáez, Juan C

    2013-12-01

    NO is generated within cells and frequently must be transferred to responsive neighboring cells, as occurs in the endothelium-dependent relaxation of smooth muscle cells observed in blood vessels. It is thought that NO diffuses freely across cell membranes, but it may also permeate through low resistant membrane pathways. Here, we describe the participation of connexin (Cx)-formed channels in the NO transport across cell membranes and between endothelial and smooth muscle cells. We used a water-soluble NO donor of high molecular weight (S-nitrosylated albumin, BSA-NO) that does not permeate through cell membranes or Cx-based channels and the NO-sensitive dye 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate to detect changes of intracellular NO concentration. We found that NO generated in the extracellular space was not detected intracellularly in Cx-deficient HeLa cells, suggesting that cell membrane represents a significant diffusion barrier for NO transfer. However, Cx-based channels provide efficient pathways for NO signaling because NO opened and permeated hemichannels expressed in HeLa cells transfected with Cx43, Cx40, or Cx37. In contrast, NO closed hemichannels of HeLa-Cx32 cells, which otherwise are permeable to NO if are opened by a divalent cation-free extracellular solution. Consistent with this, blockade of Cx-based channels abolished the myoendothelial NO transfer and associated NO-dependent vasodilation induced by acethylcholine. These results indicate that Cx-based channels play a key role in the NO-dependent tonic control of vascular function and may direct the NO signal to specific targets, which provides a novel mechanistic basis for the critical role of Cxs in cell-cell communication in the vessel wall. This article is part of the Special Issue Section entitled 'Current Pharmacology of Gap Junction Channels and Hemichannels'.

  2. Formation of anion-selective channels in the cell plasma membrane by the toxin VacA of Helicobacter pylori is required for its biological activity.

    PubMed Central

    Szabò, I; Brutsche, S; Tombola, F; Moschioni, M; Satin, B; Telford, J L; Rappuoli, R; Montecucco, C; Papini, E; Zoratti, M

    1999-01-01

    The vacuolating toxin VacA, a major determinant of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric diseases, forms anion-selective channels in artificial planar lipid bilayers. Here we show that VacA increases the anion permeability of the HeLa cell plasma membrane and determines membrane depolarization. Electrophysiological and pharmacological approaches indicated that this effect is due to the formation of low-conductance VacA pores in the cell plasma membrane and not to the opening of Ca(2+)- or volume-activated chloride channels. VacA-dependent increase of current conduction both in artificial planar lipid bilayers and in the cellular system was effectively inhibited by the chloride channel blocker 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB), while2-[(2-cyclopentenyl-6,7dichloro-2, 3-dihydro-2-methyl-1-oxo-1H-inden-5-yl)oxy]acetic acid (IAA-94) was less effective. NPPB inhibited and partially reversed the vacuolation of HeLa cells and the increase of ion conductivity of polarized Madine Darby canine kidney cell monolayers induced by VacA, while IAA-94 had a weaker effect. We conclude that pore formation by VacA accounts for plasma membrane permeabilization and is required for both cell vacuolation and increase of trans-epithelial conductivity. PMID:10523296

  3. Rac1-mediated membrane raft localization of PI3K/p110β is required for its activation by GPCRs or PTEN loss

    PubMed Central

    Cizmecioglu, Onur; Ni, Jing; Xie, Shaozhen; Zhao, Jean J; Roberts, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to understand how spatial compartmentalization in the plasma membrane might contribute to the functions of the ubiquitous class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) isoforms, p110α and p110β. We found that p110β localizes to membrane rafts in a Rac1-dependent manner. This localization potentiates Akt activation by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Thus genetic targeting of a Rac1 binding-deficient allele of p110β to rafts alleviated the requirement for p110β-Rac1 association for GPCR signaling, cell growth and migration. In contrast, p110α, which does not play a physiological role in GPCR signaling, is found to reside in nonraft regions of the plasma membrane. Raft targeting of p110α allowed its EGFR-mediated activation by GPCRs. Notably, p110β dependent, PTEN null tumor cells critically rely upon raft-associated PI3K activity. Collectively, our findings provide a mechanistic account of how membrane raft localization regulates differential activation of distinct PI3K isoforms and offer insight into why PTEN-deficient cancers depend on p110β. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17635.001 PMID:27700986

  4. Vesicle associated membrane protein (VAMP)-7 and VAMP-8, but not VAMP-2 or VAMP-3, are required for activation-induced degranulation of mature human mast cells.

    PubMed

    Sander, Leif E; Frank, Simon P C; Bolat, Seza; Blank, Ulrich; Galli, Thierry; Bigalke, Hans; Bischoff, Stephan C; Lorentz, Axel

    2008-03-01

    Mediator release from mast cells (MC) is a crucial step in allergic and non-allergic inflammatory disorders. However, the final events in response to activation leading to membrane fusion and thereby facilitating degranulation have hitherto not been analyzed in human MC. Soluble N-ethyl-maleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNARE) represent a highly conserved family of proteins that have been shown to mediate intracellular membrane fusion events. Here, we show that mature MC isolated from human intestinal tissue express soluble N-ethylmaleide sensitive factor attachment protein (SNAP)-23, Syntaxin (STX)-1B, STX-2, STX-3, STX-4, and STX-6 but not SNAP-25. Furthermore, we found that primary human MC express substantial amounts of vesicle associated membrane protein (VAMP)-3, VAMP-7 and VAMP-8 and, in contrast to previous reports about rodent MC, only low levels of VAMP-2. Furthermore, VAMP-7 and VAMP-8 were found to translocate to the plasma membrane and interact with SNAP-23 and STX-4 upon activation. Inhibition of SNAP-23, STX-4, VAMP-7 or VAMP-8, but not VAMP-2 or VAMP-3, resulted in a markedly reduced high-affinity IgE receptor-mediated histamine release. In summary, our data show that mature human MC express a specific pattern of SNARE and that VAMP-7 and VAMP-8, but not VAMP-2, are required for rapid degranulation.

  5. Bipolar Plasma Membrane Distribution of Phosphoinositides and Their Requirement for Auxin-Mediated Cell Polarity and Patterning in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Tejos, Ricardo; Sauer, Michael; Vanneste, Steffen; Palacios-Gomez, Miriam; Li, Hongjiang; Heilmann, Mareike; van Wijk, Ringo; Vermeer, Joop E.M.; Heilmann, Ingo; Munnik, Teun; Friml, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Cell polarity manifested by asymmetric distribution of cargoes, such as receptors and transporters, within the plasma membrane (PM) is crucial for essential functions in multicellular organisms. In plants, cell polarity (re)establishment is intimately linked to patterning processes. Despite the importance of cell polarity, its underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown, including the definition and distinctiveness of the polar domains within the PM. Here, we show in Arabidopsis thaliana that the signaling membrane components, the phosphoinositides phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] as well as PtdIns4P 5-kinases mediating their interconversion, are specifically enriched at apical and basal polar plasma membrane domains. The PtdIns4P 5-kinases PIP5K1 and PIP5K2 are redundantly required for polar localization of specifically apical and basal cargoes, such as PIN-FORMED transporters for the plant hormone auxin. As a consequence of the polarity defects, instructive auxin gradients as well as embryonic and postembryonic patterning are severely compromised. Furthermore, auxin itself regulates PIP5K transcription and PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels, in particular their association with polar PM domains. Our results provide insight into the polar domain–delineating mechanisms in plant cells that depend on apical and basal distribution of membrane lipids and are essential for embryonic and postembryonic patterning. PMID:24876254

  6. The UNC-112 Gene in Caenorhabditis elegansEncodes a Novel Component of Cell–Matrix Adhesion Structures Required for Integrin Localization in the Muscle Cell Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Rogalski, Teresa M.; Mullen, Gregory P.; Gilbert, Mary M.; Williams, Benjamin D.; Moerman, Donald G.

    2000-01-01

    Embryos homozygous for mutations in the unc-52, pat-2, pat-3, and unc-112 genes of C. elegans exhibit a similar Pat phenotype. Myosin and actin are not organized into sarcomeres in the body wall muscle cells of these mutants, and dense body and M-line components fail to assemble. The unc-52 (perlecan), pat-2 (α-integrin), and pat-3 (β-integrin) genes encode ECM or transmembrane proteins found at the cell–matrix adhesion sites of both dense bodies and M-lines. This study describes the identification of the unc-112 gene product, a novel, membrane-associated, intracellular protein that colocalizes with integrin at cell–matrix adhesion complexes. The 720–amino acid UNC-112 protein is homologous to Mig-2, a human protein of unknown function. These two proteins share a region of homology with talin and members of the FERM superfamily of proteins. We have determined that a functional UNC-112::GFP fusion protein colocalizes with PAT-3/β-integrin in both adult and embryonic body wall muscle. We also have determined that UNC-112 is required to organize PAT-3/β-integrin after it is integrated into the basal cell membrane, but is not required to organize UNC-52/perlecan in the basement membrane, nor for DEB-1/vinculin to localize with PAT-3/β-integrin. Furthermore, UNC-112 requires the presence of UNC-52/perlecan and PAT-3/β-integrin, but not DEB-1/vinculin to become localized to the muscle cell membrane. PMID:10893272

  7. Lymphocyte activation by streptococcal antigens in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Gross, W L; Packhäuser, U; Hahn, G; Westphal, E; Christophers, E; Schlaak, M

    1977-11-01

    Cell-mediated immune responses in 28 hospitalized patients with psoriasis and in 36 healthy controls were studied using the two-step leukocyte migration agarose test. Specific cell-mediated immunity to A-streptococcal cell wall and cell membrane antigens occurred significantly more often in patients with psoriasis than in the control group. A statistically significant correlation between psoriasis-associated antigens of the HLA-B locus and cellular immune reactivity to A-streptococcal antigens or clinical course was not found. When patients with guttate psoriasis were compared separately with the control group, leukocyte migration inhibition induced by cell-free supernatants of A-streptococcal antigen-exposed mononuclear cell cultures was found to be more frequent than in other forms of psoriasis.

  8. CELL SURFACE ANTIGENS OF A MOUSE TESTICULAR TERATOMA

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Linda R.; Edidin, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Rabbit antisera to a mouse testicular teratoma, absorbed with normal mouse tissues, react by immunofluorescence with plasma membrane antigens of a variety of transplantable mouse tumor cells and transformed fibroblast cell lines including Clone 1D, SV-40-3T3, and 3T12. Trypsin treatment of cells of "normal" lines, 3T3 and FR-SV-3T3, uncovers reactivity on these as well. Early passage mouse embryo fibroblast cell cultures do not react even after trypsinization. By cross-absorbtion studies, the anti-teratoma serum appears to react with an antigen common to most tumor cells investigated thus far. When this antigen on Clone 1D cells is "capped," H-2 antigens collect with the teratoma antigens in the cap indicating a physical association between the molecules. Molecules specified by both the H-2D and H-2K regions are bound to the teratoma antigens in the Clone 1D plasma membrane. This antigen is also found in soluble tumor cell fractions where it is believed to be free of H-2. A second cell surface antigen defined by anti-teratoma serum is expressed only by hepatoma and teratoma itself. This second antigen is apparently a secretory product of teratoma cells. A third surface antigen defined by anti-teratoma serum appears to be specific for the teratoma. PMID:4365513

  9. IRGM3 Contributes to Immunopathology and Is Required for Differentiation of Antigen-Specific Effector CD8+ T Cells in Experimental Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jintao; McQuillan, James A.; Yau, Belinda; Tullo, Gregory S.; Long, Carole A.; Bertolino, Patrick; Roediger, Ben; Weninger, Wolfgang; Taylor, Gregory A.; Hunt, Nicholas H.; Ball, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) drives antiparasite responses and immunopathology during infection with Plasmodium species. Immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) are a class of IFN-γ-dependent proteins that are essential for cell autonomous immunity to numerous intracellular pathogens. However, it is currently unknown whether IRGs modulate responses during malaria. We have used the Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) model in which mice develop experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) to study the roles of IRGM1 and IRGM3 in immunopathology. Induction of mRNA for Irgm1 and Irgm3 was found in the brains and spleens of infected mice at times of peak IFN-γ production. Irgm3−/− but not Irgm1−/− mice were completely protected from the development of ECM, and this protection was associated with the decreased induction of inflammatory cytokines, as well as decreased recruitment and activation of CD8+ T cells within the brain. Although antigen-specific proliferation of transferred CD8+ T cells was not diminished compared to that of wild-type recipients following PbA infection, T cells transferred into Irgm3−/− recipients showed a striking impairment of effector differentiation. Decreased induction of several inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (interleukin-6, CCL2, CCL3, and CCL4), as well as enhanced mRNA expression of type-I IFNs, was found in the spleens of Irgm3−/− mice at day 4 postinfection. Together, these data suggest that protection from ECM pathology in Irgm3−/− mice occurs due to impaired generation of CD8+ effector function. This defect is nonintrinsic to CD8+ T cells. Instead, diminished T cell responses most likely result from defective initiation of inflammatory responses in myeloid cells. PMID:25644000

  10. Rabies virus glycoprotein as a carrier for anthrax protective antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Mary Ellen; Koser, Martin; Xiao Sa; Siler, Catherine; McGettigan, James P.; Calkins, Catherine; Pomerantz, Roger J.; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Schnell, Matthias J. . E-mail: matthias.schnell@jefferson.edu

    2006-09-30

    Live viral vectors expressing foreign antigens have shown great promise as vaccines against viral diseases. However, safety concerns remain a major problem regarding the use of even highly attenuated viral vectors. Using the rabies virus (RV) envelope protein as a carrier molecule, we show here that inactivated RV particles can be utilized to present Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) domain-4 in the viral membrane. In addition to the RV glycoprotein (G) transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, a portion of the RV G ectodomain was required to express the chimeric RV G anthrax PA on the cell surface. The novel antigen was also efficiently incorporated into RV virions. Mice immunized with the inactivated recombinant RV virions exhibited seroconversion against both RV G and anthrax PA, and a second inoculation greatly increased these responses. These data demonstrate that a viral envelope protein can carry a bacterial protein and that a viral carrier can display whole polypeptides compared to the limited epitope presentation of previous viral systems.

  11. Assessment of the requirement for aquaporins in the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts to sustain photosynthetic water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Beebo, Azeez; Mathai, John C; Schoefs, Benoît; Spetea, Cornelia

    2013-07-11

    Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms use sunlight energy to oxidize water to molecular oxygen. This process is mediated by the photosystem II complex at the lumenal side of the thylakoid membrane. Most research efforts have been dedicated to understanding the mechanism behind the unique water oxidation reactions, whereas the delivery pathways for water molecules into the thylakoid lumen have not yet been studied. The most common mechanisms for water transport are simple diffusion and diffusion facilitated by specialized channel proteins named aquaporins. Calculations using published data for plant chloroplasts indicate that aquaporins are not necessary to sustain water supply into the thylakoid lumen at steady state photosynthetic rates. Yet, arguments for their presence in the plant thylakoid membrane and beneficial action are presented. PMID:23732702

  12. The F-BAR domain of srGAP2 induces membrane protrusions required for neuronal migration and morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Guerrier, Sabrice; Coutinho-Budd, Jaeda; Sassa, Takayuki; Gresset, Aurélie; Jordan, Nicole Vincent; Cheng, Ken; Jin, Wei-Lin; Frost, Adam; Polleux, Franck

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY During brain development, proper neuronal migration and morphogenesis is critical for the establishment of functional neural circuits. Here we report that srGAP2 negatively regulates neuronal migration and induces neurite outgrowth and branching through the ability of its F-BAR domain to induce filopodia-like membrane protrusions resembling those induced by I-BAR domains in vivo and in vitro. Previous work has suggested that in non-neuronal cells, filopodia dynamics decreases the rate of cell migration and the persistence of leading edge protrusions. srGAP2 knockdown reduces leading process branching and increases the rate of neuronal migration in vivo. Overexpression of srGAP2 or its F-BAR domain has the opposite effects, increasing leading process branching and decreasing migration. These results (1) suggest that F-BAR domains are functionally diverse and (2) highlight the functional importance of proteins directly regulating membrane deformation for proper neuronal migration and morphogenesis. PMID:19737524

  13. Membrane-Localized Estrogen Receptor 1 Is Required for Normal Male Reproductive Development and Function in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nanjappa, Manjunatha K; Hess, Rex A; Medrano, Theresa I; Locker, Seth H; Levin, Ellis R; Cooke, Paul S

    2016-07-01

    Estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) mediates major reproductive functions of 17β-estradiol (E2). Male Esr1 knockout (Esr1KO) mice are infertile due to efferent ductule and epididymal abnormalities. The majority of ESR1 is nuclear/cytoplasmic; however, a small fraction is palmitoylated at cysteine 451 in mice and localized to cell membranes, in which it mediates rapid E2 actions. This study used an Esr1 knock-in mouse containing an altered palmitoylation site (C451A) in ESR1 that prevented cell membrane localization, although nuclear ESR1 was expressed. These nuclear-only estrogen receptor 1 (NOER) mice were used to determine the roles of membrane ESR1 in males. Epididymal sperm motility was reduced 85% in 8-month-old NOER mice compared with wild-type controls. The NOER mice had decreased epididymal sperm viability and greater than 95% of sperm had abnormalities, including coiled midpieces and tails, absent heads, and folded tails; this was comparable to 4-month Esr1KO males. At 8 months, daily sperm production in NOER males was reduced 62% compared with controls. The NOER mice had histological changes in the rete testes, efferent ductules, and seminiferous tubules that were comparable with those previously observed in Esr1KO males. Serum T was increased in NOER males, but FSH, LH, and E2 were unchanged. Critically, NOER males were initially subfertile, becoming infertile with advancing age. These findings identify a previously unknown role for membrane ESR1 in the development of normal sperm and providing an adequate environment for spermatogenesis. PMID:27145009

  14. HSP90 activity is required for MLKL oligomerisation and membrane translocation and the induction of necroptotic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, A V; Lowes, K N; Tanzer, M C; Lucet, I S; Hildebrand, J M; Petrie, E J; van Delft, M F; Liu, Z; Conos, S A; Zhang, J-G; Huang, D C S; Silke, J; Lessene, G; Murphy, J M

    2016-01-01

    Necroptosis is a caspase-independent form of regulated cell death that has been implicated in the development of a range of inflammatory, autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases. The pseudokinase, Mixed Lineage Kinase Domain-Like (MLKL), is the most terminal known obligatory effector in the necroptosis pathway, and is activated following phosphorylation by Receptor Interacting Protein Kinase-3 (RIPK3). Activated MLKL translocates to membranes, leading to membrane destabilisation and subsequent cell death. However, the molecular interactions governing the processes downstream of RIPK3 activation remain poorly defined. Using a phenotypic screen, we identified seven heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitors that inhibited necroptosis in both wild-type fibroblasts and fibroblasts expressing an activated mutant of MLKL. We observed a modest reduction in MLKL protein levels in human and murine cells following HSP90 inhibition, which was only apparent after 15 h of treatment. The delayed reduction in MLKL protein abundance was unlikely to completely account for defective necroptosis, and, consistent with this, we also found inhibition of HSP90 blocked membrane translocation of activated MLKL. Together, these findings implicate HSP90 as a modulator of necroptosis at the level of MLKL, a function that complements HSP90's previously demonstrated modulation of the upstream necroptosis effector kinases, RIPK1 and RIPK3. PMID:26775703

  15. Activation of integrin α5 mediated by flow requires its translocation to membrane lipid rafts in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Fu, Yi; Gu, Mingxia; Zhang, Lu; Li, Dan; Li, Hongliang; Chien, Shu; Shyy, John Y-J; Zhu, Yi

    2016-01-19

    Local flow patterns determine the uneven distribution of atherosclerotic lesions. Membrane lipid rafts and integrins are crucial for shear stress-regulated endothelial function. In this study, we investigate the role of lipid rafts and integrin α5 in regulating the inflammatory response in endothelial cells (ECs) under atheroprone versus atheroprotective flow. Lipid raft proteins were isolated from ECs exposed to oscillatory shear stress (OS) or pulsatile shear stress, and then analyzed by quantitative proteomics. Among 396 proteins redistributed in lipid rafts, integrin α5 was the most significantly elevated in lipid rafts under OS. In addition, OS increased the level of activated integrin α5 in lipid rafts through the regulation of membrane cholesterol and fluidity. Disruption of F-actin-based cytoskeleton and knockdown of caveolin-1 prevented the OS-induced integrin α5 translocation and activation. In vivo, integrin α5 activation and EC dysfunction were observed in the atheroprone areas of low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice, and knockdown of integrin α5 markedly attenuated EC dysfunction in partially ligated carotid arteries. Consistent with these findings, mice with haploinsufficency of integrin α5 exhibited a reduction of atherosclerotic lesions in the regions under atheroprone flow. The present study has revealed an integrin- and membrane lipid raft-dependent mechanotransduction mechanism by which atheroprone flow causes endothelial dysfunction.

  16. CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTIVE1 Is Required for Fast Recycling of Cellulose Synthase Complexes to the Plasma Membrane in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Lei; Bashline, Logan; Li, Shundai

    2015-01-01

    Plants are constantly subjected to various biotic and abiotic stresses and have evolved complex strategies to cope with these stresses. For example, plant cells endocytose plasma membrane material under stress and subsequently recycle it back when the stress conditions are relieved. Cellulose biosynthesis is a tightly regulated process that is performed by plasma membrane-localized cellulose synthase (CESA) complexes (CSCs). However, the regulatory mechanism of cellulose biosynthesis under abiotic stress has not been well explored. In this study, we show that small CESA compartments (SmaCCs) or microtubule-associated cellulose synthase compartments (MASCs) are critical for fast recovery of CSCs to the plasma membrane after stress is relieved in Arabidopsis thaliana. This SmaCC/MASC-mediated fast recovery of CSCs is dependent on CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTIVE1 (CSI1), a protein previously known to represent the link between CSCs and cortical microtubules. Independently, AP2M, a core component in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, plays a role in the formation of SmaCCs/MASCs. Together, our study establishes a model in which CSI1-dependent SmaCCs/MASCs are formed through a process that involves endocytosis, which represents an important mechanism for plants to quickly regulate cellulose synthesis under abiotic stress. PMID:26443667

  17. Functional characterization of ExFadLO, an outer membrane protein required for exporting oxygenated long-chain fatty acids in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Eriel; Estupiñán, Mónica; Pastor, F I Javier; Busquets, Montserrat; Díaz, Pilar; Manresa, Angeles

    2013-02-01

    Bacterial proteins of the FadL family have frequently been associated to the uptake of exogenous hydrophobic substrates. However, their outer membrane location and involvement in substrate uptake have been inferred mainly from sequence similarity to Escherichia coli FadL, the first well-characterized outer membrane transporters of Long-Chain Fatty Acids (LCFAs) in bacteria. Here we report the functional characterization of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer membrane protein (ORF PA1288) showing similarities to the members of the FadL family, for which we propose the name ExFadLO. We demonstrate herein that this protein is required to export LCFAs 10-HOME and 7,10-DiHOME, derived from a diol synthase oxygenation activity on oleic acid, from the periplasm to the extracellular medium. Accumulation of 10-HOME and 7,10-DiHOME in the extracellular medium of P. aeruginosa was abolished by a transposon insertion mutation in exFadLO (ExFadLO¯ mutant). However, intact periplasm diol synthase activity was found in this mutant, indicating that ExFadLO participates in the export of these oxygenated LCFAs across the outer membrane. The capacity of ExFadLO¯ mutant to export 10-HOME and 7,10-DiHOME was recovered after complementation with a wild-type, plasmid-expressed ExFadLO protein. A western blot assay with a variant of ExFadLO tagged with a V5 epitope confirmed the location of ExFadLO in the bacterial outer membrane under the experimental conditions tested. Our results provide the first evidence that FadL family proteins, known to be involved in the uptake of hydrophobic substrates from the extracellular environment, also function as secretion elements for metabolites of biological relevance.

  18. Evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma aggressiveness by a panel of extracellular matrix antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Grigioni, W. F.; Garbisa, S.; D'Errico, A.; Baccarini, P.; Stetler-Stevenson, W. G.; Liotta, L. A.; Mancini, A. M.

    1991-01-01

    Invasion and metastasis requires a series of interactions between malignant cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Antigen markers that relate to these interactions were evaluated for prognostic correlation in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Basement membrane type IV collagen (cIV), type IV collagenase (cIVase), laminin, and laminin receptors (LRs)--all ECM antigens previously proposed to be modulated in association with tumor aggressiveness--were immunohistochemically investigated in 30 cases of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). The pattern of antigen expression was correlated with 1) 36 months' clinical follow-up and 2) the pathologic grade. As a means of estimating the proliferation fraction, an additional antigen, Ki67, was also studied in this series. There were major differences in the distribution of cIV and laminin, and in the quantity of cIVase-, LR-, and Ki67-positive cells associated with grade and prognosis. A smaller quantity of cIV and laminin and a higher number of cIVase-, LR-, and Ki67-positive cells were detected in the poorly differentiated compared with the well-differentiated HCCs. The tumors with lower immunoreactivity for cIV and laminin components accompanied by a higher number of cIVase-, LR-, and Ki67-positive cells fall into a group with the poorest overall survival (P less than 0.006). The panel of antigens is proposed as a useful prognostic tool for evaluating HCC tumor aggressiveness. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1848041

  19. The Mxi-Spa Type III Secretory Pathway of Shigella flexneri Requires an Outer Membrane Lipoprotein, MxiM, for Invasin Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Schuch, Raymond; Maurelli, Anthony T.

    1999-01-01

    Invasion of epithelial cells by Shigella flexneri is mediated by a set of translocated bacterial invasins, the Ipa proteins, and its dedicated type III secretion system, called Mxi-Spa. We show here that mxiM, part of the mxi-spa locus in the S. flexneri virulence plasmid, encodes an indispensable type III secretion apparatus component, required for both Ipa translocation and tissue culture cell invasion. We demonstrated that mature MxiM, first identified as a putative lipoprotein, is lipidated in vivo. Consistent with features of known lipoproteins, MxiM (i) can be labeled with [3H]palmitate and [2-3H]glycerol, (ii) is associated with the cell envelope, (iii) is secreted independently of the type III pathway, and (iv) requires an intact lipoprotein modification and processing site for full activity. The lipidated form of MxiM was detected primarily in the outer membrane, where it establishes a peripheral association with the inner leaflet. Through analysis of subcellular Ipa distribution in a mxiM null mutant background, MxiM was found to be required for the assembly and/or function of outer, but not inner, membrane regions of Mxi-Spa. This function probably requires interactions with other Mxi-Spa subunits within the periplasmic space. We discuss implications of these findings with respect to the function of MxiM and the structure of Mxi-Spa as a whole. PMID:10085046

  20. Development of a novel universal immune receptor for antigen targeting

    PubMed Central

    Urbanska, Katarzyna; Powell, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) possess fixed specificity for a single antigen and require empirical testing in T cells. To address this, we have developed a novel, adaptable immune receptor strategy that allows for the rapid generation and testing of T cells of nearly infinite antigen specificity. PMID:22934280

  1. Using Sequence Data To Infer the Antigenicity of Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hailiang; Yang, Jialiang; Zhang, Tong; Long, Li-Ping; Jia, Kun; Yang, Guohua; Webby, Richard J.; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The efficacy of current influenza vaccines requires a close antigenic match between circulating and vaccine strains. As such, timely identification of emerging influenza virus antigenic variants is central to the success of influenza vaccination programs. Empirical methods to determine influenza virus antigenic properties are time-consuming and mid-throughput and require live viruses. Here, we present a novel, experimentally validated, computational method for determining influenza virus antigenicity on the basis of hemagglutinin (HA) sequence. This method integrates a bootstrapped ridge regression with antigenic mapping to quantify antigenic distances by using influenza HA1 sequences. Our method was applied to H3N2 seasonal influenza viruses and identified the 13 previously recognized H3N2 antigenic clusters and the antigenic drift event of 2009 that led to a change of the H3N2 vaccine strain. PMID:23820391

  2. The requirement for membrane sialic acid in the stimulation of superoxide production during phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    The effect of desialylation on phagocytosis of latex particles and oxidative metabolism of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes was studied. Removal of 20% total leukocyte sialic acid by bacterial neuraminidase had no effect on phagocytosis of latex particles and phagocytosis- associated activation of hexose monophosphate shunt in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In contrast, desialylation prevented the stimulation of superoxide production either by phagocytosis or by concanavalin A. It is concluded that membrane sialic acid is essential for the stimulation of superoxide production by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. PMID:178821

  3. Pentobarbital-Induced Myocardial Stunning in Status Epilepticus Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Kavi, Tapan; Molaie, Donna; Nurok, Michael; Rosengart, Axel; Lahiri, Shouri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Mild hypotension is a well-recognized complication of intravenous pentobarbital; however fulminant cardiopulmonary failure has not been previously reported. Case Report. A 28-year-old woman developed pentobarbital-induced cardiopulmonary failure that was successfully treated with maximal medical management including arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. She made an excellent cardiopulmonary and neurological recovery. Discussion and Conclusion. Pentobarbital is underrecognized as a potential cause of myocardial stunning. The mechanism involves direct myocardial depression and inhibition of autonomic neuroanatomical structures including the medulla and hypothalamus. Early recognition and implementation of aggressive cardiopulmonary support are essential to optimize the likelihood of a favorable outcome. PMID:27529037

  4. Pentobarbital-Induced Myocardial Stunning in Status Epilepticus Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Molaie, Donna; Nurok, Michael; Rosengart, Axel; Lahiri, Shouri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Mild hypotension is a well-recognized complication of intravenous pentobarbital; however fulminant cardiopulmonary failure has not been previously reported. Case Report. A 28-year-old woman developed pentobarbital-induced cardiopulmonary failure that was successfully treated with maximal medical management including arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. She made an excellent cardiopulmonary and neurological recovery. Discussion and Conclusion. Pentobarbital is underrecognized as a potential cause of myocardial stunning. The mechanism involves direct myocardial depression and inhibition of autonomic neuroanatomical structures including the medulla and hypothalamus. Early recognition and implementation of aggressive cardiopulmonary support are essential to optimize the likelihood of a favorable outcome. PMID:27529037

  5. Cloning and expression of genes encoding Haemophilus somnus antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Corbeil, L B; Chikami, G; Yarnall, M; Smith, J; Guiney, D G

    1988-01-01

    A genomic library of Haemophilus somnus 2336, a virulent isolate from a calf with pneumonia (later used to reproduce H. somnus experimental pneumonia), was constructed in the cosmid vector pHC79. The gene bank in Escherichia coli DH1 was screened by filter immunoassay with convalescent-phase serum, which reacted with several outer membrane antigens of H. somnus. On Western blotting (immunoblotting) of immunoreactive colonies, five clones were found to express proteins which comigrated with H. somnus surface antigens. Three clones (DH1 pHS1, pHS3, and pHS4) expressed both a 120-kilodalton (kDa) antigen and a 76-kDa antigen, one clone (DH1 pHS2) expressed only the 76-kDa antigen, and the fifth clone (DH1 pHS5) expressed a 60-kDa antigen. The 120-kDa and 76-kDa antigens were found internally, whereas the 60-kDa protein was detected in the DH1 pHS5 culture supernatant as membrane blebs or insoluble protein. Both the H. somnus 120-kDa antigen and the recombinant 120-kDa antigen had immunoglobulin Fc-binding activity. Restriction endonuclease mapping demonstrated that the genomic DNA inserts of clones expressing the 76-kDa antigen shared a common 28.4-kilobase-pair region, and the three clones also expressing the 120-kDa antigen shared an additional 7.0-kilobase-pair region. The restriction endonuclease map of pHS5, which expressed the 60-kDa antigen, was not similar to the maps of the other four plasmids. Since these three H. somnus antigens reacted with protective convalescent-phase serum, the recombinants which express these proteins should be useful in further studies of protective immunity in bovine H. somnus disease. Images PMID:2843469

  6. Structural determinants of Actinomyces sortase SrtC2 required for membrane localization and assembly of type 2 fimbriae for interbacterial coaggregation and oral biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenggang; Mishra, Arunima; Reardon, Melissa E; Huang, I-Hsiu; Counts, Sarah C; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2012-05-01

    As a pioneer colonizer of the oral cavity, Actinomyces oris expresses proteinaceous pili (also called fimbriae) to mediate the following two key events in biofilm formation: adherence to saliva deposits on enamel and interbacterial associations. Assembly of type 2 fimbriae that directly facilitate coaggregation with oral streptococci and Actinomyces biofilm development requires the class C sortase SrtC2. Although the general sortase-associated mechanisms have been elucidated, several structural attributes unique to the class C sortases require functional investigation. Mutational studies reported here suggest that the N-terminal transmembrane (TM) region of SrtC2, predicted to contain a signal peptide sequence, is cleaved off the mature protein and that this processing is critical for the proper integration of the enzyme at the cytoplasmic membrane, which is mediated by the extended hydrophobic C terminus containing a TM domain and a cytoplasmic tail. Deletion of this putative TM or the entire cytoplasmic domain abolished the enzyme localization and functionality. Alanine substitution of the conserved catalytic Cys-His dyad abrogated the SrtC2 enzymatic activity. In contrast, mutations designed to alter a "lid" domain that covers the catalytic pocket of a class C sortase showed no effect on enzyme activity. Finally, each of the deleterious mutations that affected SrtC2 activity or membrane localization also eliminated Actinomyces species biofilm development and bacterial coaggregation with streptococci. We conclude that the N terminus of SrtC2, which contains the signal sequence, is required for proper protein translocation and maturation, while the extended C-terminal hydrophobic region serves as a stable membrane anchor for proper enzyme functionality.

  7. Structural and mechanistic analysis of the membrane-embedded glycosyltransferase WaaA required for lipopolysaccharide synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Helgo; Hansen, Guido; Singh, Sonia; Hanuszkiewicz, Anna; Lindner, Buko; Fukase, Koichi; Woodard, Ronald W.; Holst, Otto; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Mamat, Uwe; Mesters, Jeroen R.

    2012-01-01

    WaaA is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of LPS, a critical component of the outer envelope of Gram-negative bacteria. Embedded in the cytoplasmic face of the inner membrane, WaaA catalyzes the transfer of 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) to the lipid A precursor of LPS. Here we present crystal structures of the free and CMP-bound forms of WaaA from Aquifex aeolicus, an ancient Gram-negative hyperthermophile. These structures reveal details of the CMP-binding site and implicate a unique sequence motif (GGS/TX5GXNXLE) in Kdo binding. In addition, a cluster of highly conserved amino acid residues was identified which represents the potential membrane-attachment and acceptor-substrate binding site of WaaA. A series of site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed critical roles for glycine 30 and glutamate 31 in Kdo transfer. Our results provide the structural basis of a critical reaction in LPS biosynthesis and allowed the development of a detailed model of the catalytic mechanism of WaaA. PMID:22474366

  8. Minimum structural requirements for cell membrane leakage-mediated anti-MRSA activity of macrocyclic bis(bibenzyl)s.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Kana; Morita, Daichi; Onoda, Kenji; Kuroda, Teruo; Miyachi, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Macrocyclic bis(bibenzyl)-type phenolic natural products, found exclusively in bryophytes, exhibit potent antibacterial activity towards methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (anti-MRSA activity). Here, in order to identify the minimum essential structure for cell membrane leakage-mediated anti-MRSA activity of these compounds, we synthesized acyclic fragment structures and evaluated their anti-MRSA activity. The activities of all of the acyclic fragments tested exhibited similar characteristics to those of the macrocycles, i.e., anti-MRSA bactericidal activity, an enhancing effect on influx and efflux of ethidium bromide (EtBr: fluorescent DNA-binder) in Staphylococcus aureus cells, and bactericidal activity towards a Staphylococcus aureus strain resistant to 2-phenoxyphenol (4). The latter result suggests that they have a different mechanism of action from 4, which is a FabI inhibitor previously proposed to be the minimum active fragment of riccardin-type macrocycles. Thus, cyclic structure is not a necessary condition for cell membrane leakage-mediated anti-MRSA activity of macrocyclic bis(bibenzyl)s. PMID:26995530

  9. Vacuole Membrane Protein 1 Is an Endoplasmic Reticulum Protein Required for Organelle Biogenesis, Protein Secretion, and Development

    PubMed Central

    Calvo-Garrido, Javier; Carilla-Latorre, Sergio; Lázaro-Diéguez, Francisco; Egea, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Vacuole membrane protein 1 (Vmp1) is membrane protein of unknown molecular function that has been associated with pancreatitis and cancer. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has a vmp1-related gene that we identified previously in a functional genomic study. Loss-of-function of this gene leads to a severe phenotype that compromises Dictyostelium growth and development. The expression of mammalian Vmp1 in a vmp1− Dictyostelium mutant complemented the phenotype, suggesting a functional conservation of the protein among evolutionarily distant species and highlights Dictyostelium as a valid experimental system to address the function of this gene. Dictyostelium Vmp1 is an endoplasmic reticulum protein necessary for the integrity of this organelle. Cells deficient in Vmp1 display pleiotropic defects in the secretory pathway and organelle biogenesis. The contractile vacuole, which is necessary to survive under hypoosmotic conditions, is not functional in the mutant. The structure of the Golgi apparatus, the function of the endocytic pathway and conventional protein secretion are also affected in these cells. Transmission electron microscopy of vmp1− cells showed the accumulation of autophagic features that suggests a role of Vmp1 in macroautophagy. In addition to these defects observed at the vegetative stage, the onset of multicellular development and early developmental gene expression are also compromised. PMID:18550798

  10. Pravastatin transport across the hepatocyte canalicular membrane requires both ATP and a transmembrane pH gradient.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Y; Okuyama, Y; Miya, H; Matsusita, H; Kitano, M; Kamisako, T; Yamamoto, T

    1996-06-01

    Hepatic excretion of non-bile acid organic anions is reported to be ATP-dependent and a defect of this transport has been reported in congenitally jaundiced rats, animal models of human Dubin-Johnson syndrome. To investigate the effect of the transmembrane pH gradient on hepatocyte canalicular membrane transport of ATP-dependent organic anions, uptake of pravastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase-inhibiting organic anion, by hepatocyte canalicular membrane vesicles was observed in the presence or absence of transmembrane pH gradients. Uptake was assessed by a rapid filtration technique. ATP-dependent pravastatin uptake was stimulated in the presence of a transmembrane pH gradient (in > out) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Uptake was dependent on both pravastatin and ATP concentrations and showed saturation kinetics. After intravenous injection of [14C]-pravastatin (0.3 mumol), 81% of the dose was excreted in the bile within 35 min in SD rats, whereas only 20% was excreted in the bile in Eisai hyperbilirubinuria rats. ATP and the pH gradient also co-stimulated the uptake of pravastatin in Eisai hyperbilirubinuria rats, although the K(m) was much higher and Vmax was much lower than corresponding values in SD rats. This coincided well with the marked reduction in vivo biliary excretion of pravastatin in jaundiced rats.

  11. Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthesis in the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts is required for enhanced growth under sucrose supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Murakawa, Masato; Shimojima, Mie; Shimomura, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Koichi; Awai, Koichiro; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Plant galactolipid synthesis on the outer envelope membranes of chloroplasts is an important biosynthetic pathway for sustained growth under conditions of phosphate (Pi) depletion. During Pi starvation, the amount of digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) is increased to substitute for the phospholipids that are degraded for supplying Pi. An increase in DGDG concentration depends on an adequate supply of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), which is a substrate for DGDG synthesis and is synthesized by a type-B MGDG synthase, MGD3. Recently, sucrose was suggested to be a global regulator of plant responses to Pi starvation. Thus, we analyzed expression levels of several genes involved in lipid remodeling during Pi starvation in Arabidopsis thaliana and found that the abundance of MGD3 mRNA increased when sucrose was exogenously supplied to the growth medium. Sucrose supplementation retarded the growth of the Arabidopsis MGD3 knockout mutant mgd3 but enhanced the growth of transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing MGD3 compared with wild type, indicating the involvement of MGD3 in plant growth under sucrose-replete conditions. Although most features such as chlorophyll content, photosynthetic activity, and Pi content were comparable between wild-type and the transgenic plants overexpressing MGD3, sucrose content in shoot tissues decreased and incorporation of exogenously supplied carbon to DGDG was enhanced in the MGD3-overexpressing plants compared with wild type. Our results suggest that MGD3 plays an important role in supplying DGDG as a component of extraplastidial membranes to support enhanced plant growth under conditions of carbon excess. PMID:25002864

  12. Heavy metal tolerance in the fission yeast requires an ATP-binding cassette-type vacuolar membrane transporter.

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, D F; Kreppel, L; Speiser, D M; Scheel, G; McDonald, G; Ow, D W

    1992-01-01

    In response to heavy metal stress, plants and certain fungi, such as the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, synthesize small metal-binding peptides known as phytochelatins. We have identified a cadmium sensitive S. pombe mutant deficient in the accumulation of a sulfide-containing phytochelatin-cadmium complex, and have isolated the gene, designated hmt1, that complements this mutant. The deduced protein sequence of the hmt1 gene product shares sequence identity with the family of ABC (ATP-binding cassette)-type transport proteins which includes the mammalian P-glycoproteins and CFTR, suggesting that the encoded product is an integral membrane protein. Analysis of fractionated fission yeast cell components indicates that the HMT1 polypeptide is associated with the vacuolar membrane. Additionally, fission yeast strains harboring an hmt1-expressing multicopy plasmid exhibit enhanced metal tolerance along with a higher intracellular level of cadmium, implying a relationship between HMT1 mediated transport and compartmentalization of heavy metals. This suggests that tissue-specific overproduction of a functional hmt1 product in transgenic plants might be a means to alter the tissue localization of these elements, such as for sequestering heavy metals away from consumable parts of crop plants. Images PMID:1396551

  13. Arabidopsis RABA1 GTPases are involved in transport between the trans-Golgi network and the plasma membrane, and are required for salinity stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, Rin; Uemura, Tomohiro; Ito, Jun; Fujimoto, Masaru; Ito, Emi; Ueda, Takashi; Nakano, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    RAB GTPases are key regulators of membrane traffic. Among them, RAB11, a widely conserved sub-group, has evolved in a unique way in plants; plant RAB11 members show notable diversity, whereas yeast and animals have only a few RAB11 members. Fifty-seven RAB GTPases are encoded in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, 26 of which are classified in the RAB11 group (further divided into RABA1-RABA6 sub-groups). Although several plant RAB11 members have been shown to play pivotal roles in plant-unique developmental processes, including cytokinesis and tip growth, molecular and physiological functions of the majority of RAB11 members remain unknown. To reveal precise functions of plant RAB11, we investigated the subcellular localization and dynamics of the largest sub-group of Arabidopsis RAB11, RABA1, which has nine members. RABA1 members reside on mobile punctate structures adjacent to the trans-Golgi network and co-localized with VAMP721/722, R-SNARE proteins that operate in the secretory pathway. In addition, the constitutive-active mutant of RABA1b, RABA1b(Q72L) , was present on the plasma membrane. The RABA1b -containing membrane structures showed actin-dependent dynamic motion . Vesicles labeled by GFP-RABA1b moved dynamically, forming queues along actin filaments. Interestingly, Arabidopsis plants whose four major RABA1 members were knocked out, and those expressing the dominant-negative mutant of RABA1B, exhibited hypersensitivity to salinity stress. Altogether, these results indicate that RABA1 members mediate transport between the trans-Golgi network and the plasma membrane, and are required for salinity stress tolerance.

  14. Antigenic determinants and functional domains in core antigen and e antigen from hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed Central

    Salfeld, J; Pfaff, E; Noah, M; Schaller, H

    1989-01-01

    The precore/core gene of hepatitis B virus directs the synthesis of two polypeptides, the 21-kilodalton subunit (p21c) forming the viral nucleocapsid (serologically defined as core antigen [HBcAg]) and a secreted processed protein (p17e, serologically defined as HBe antigen [HBeAg]). Although most of their primary amino acid sequences are identical, HBcAg and HBeAg display different antigenic properties that are widely used in hepatitis B virus diagnosis. To locate and to characterize the corresponding determinants, segments of the core gene were expressed in Escherichia coli and probed with a panel of polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassays or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blots, and competition assays. Three distinct major determinants were characterized. The single conformational determinant responsible for HBc antigenicity in the assembled core (HBc) and a linear HBe-related determinant (HBe1) were both mapped to an overlapping hydrophilic sequence around amino acid 80; a second HBe determinant (HBe2) was assigned to a location in the vicinity of amino acid 138 but found to require for its antigenicity the intramolecular participation of the extended sequence between amino acids 10 and 140. It is postulated that HBcAg and HBeAg share common basic three-dimensional structure exposing the common linear determinant HBe1 but that they differ in the presentation of two conformational determinants that are either introduced (HBc) or masked (HBe2) in the assembled core. The simultaneous presentation of HBe1 and HBc, two distinctly different antigenic determinants with overlapping amino acid sequences, is interpreted to indicate the presence of slightly differently folded, stable conformational states of p21c in the hepatitis B virus nucleocapsid. Images PMID:2463383

  15. Flotillins regulate membrane mobility of the dopamine transporter but are not required for its protein kinase C dependent endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Sorkina, Tatiana; Caltagarone, John; Sorkin, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Flotillins were proposed to mediate clathrin-independent endocytosis, and recently, flotillin-1 was implicated in the protein kinase C (PKC)-triggered endocytosis of the dopamine transporter (DAT). Since endocytosis of DAT was previously shown to be clathrin-mediated, we re-examined the role of clathrin coat proteins and flotillin in DAT endocytosis using DAT tagged with the hemagglutinin epitope (HA) in the extracellular loop and a quantitative HA antibody uptake assay. Depletion of flotillin-1, flotillin-2 or both flotillins together by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) did not inhibit PKC-dependent internalization and degradation of HA-DAT. In contrast, siRNAs to clathrin heavy chain and μ2