Science.gov

Sample records for membrane materials annual

  1. Materials Sciences Division 1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report is the Materials Sciences Division's annual report. It contains abstracts describing materials research at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, and for research groups in metallurgy, solid-state physics, materials chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, electronic materials, surface science and catalysis, ceramic science, high tc superconductivity, polymers, composites, and high performance metals.

  2. Materials Sciences Division 1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This report is the Materials Sciences Division`s annual report. It contains abstracts describing materials research at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, and for research groups in metallurgy, solid-state physics, materials chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, electronic materials, surface science and catalysis, ceramic science, high tc superconductivity, polymers, composites, and high performance metals.

  3. FY 2012 Lightweight Materials Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, David C.

    2013-04-15

    The FY 2012 Annual Progress Report for Lightweight Materials provides a detailed description of the activities and technical accomplishments which focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce light and heavy duty vehicle weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost.

  4. Effect of dialyzer membrane materials on survival in chronic hemodialysis patients: Results from the annual survey of the Japanese Nationwide Dialysis Registry.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masanori; Hamano, Takayuki; Wada, Atsushi; Nakai, Shigeru; Masakane, Ikuto

    2017-01-01

    Little information is available regarding which type of dialyzer membrane results in good prognosis in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Therefore, we conducted a cohort study from a nationwide registry of hemodialysis patients in Japan to establish the association between different dialyzer membranes and mortality rates. We followed 142,412 patients on maintenance hemodialysis (female, 39.1%; mean age, 64.8 ± 12.3 years; median dialysis duration, 7 [4-12] years) for a year from 2008 to 2009. We included patients treated with seven types of high-flux dialyzer membranes at baseline, including cellulose triacetate (CTA), ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVAL), polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyester polymer alloy (PEPA), polyethersulfone (PES), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and polysulfone (PS). Cox regression was used to estimate the association between baseline dialyzers and all-cause mortality as hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for 1-year mortality adjusting for potential confounders, and propensity score matching analysis was performed. The distribution of patients treated with each membrane was as follows: PS (56.0%), CTA (17.3%), PES (12.0%), PEPA (7.5%), PMMA (4.9%), PAN (1.2%), and EVAL (1.1%). When data were adjusted using basic factors, with PS as a reference group, the mortality rate was significantly higher in all groups except for the PES group. When data were further adjusted for dialysis-related factors, HRs were significantly higher for the CTA, EVAL, and PEPA groups. When the data were further adjusted for nutrition-and inflammation-related factors, HRs were significantly lower for the PMMA and PES groups compared with the PS group. After propensity score matching, HRs were significantly lower for the PMMA group than for the PS group. The results suggest that the use of different membrane types may affect mortality in hemodialysis patients. However, further long-term prospective studies are needed to clarify these findings, including whether the

  5. Zwitterionic materials for antifouling membrane surface construction.

    PubMed

    He, Mingrui; Gao, Kang; Zhou, Linjie; Jiao, Zhiwei; Wu, Mengyuan; Cao, Jialin; You, Xinda; Cai, Ziyi; Su, Yanlei; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2016-08-01

    Membrane separation processes are often perplexed by severe and ubiquitous membrane fouling. Zwitterionic materials, keeping electric neutrality with equivalent positive and negative charged groups, are well known for their superior antifouling properties and have been broadly utilized to construct antifouling surfaces for medical devices, biosensors and marine coatings applications. In recent years, zwitterionic materials have been more and more frequently utilized for constructing antifouling membrane surfaces. In this review, the antifouling mechanisms of zwitterionic materials as well as their biomimetic prototypes in cell membranes will be discussed, followed by the survey of common approaches to incorporate zwitterionic materials onto membrane surfaces including surface grafting, surface segregation, biomimetic adhesion, surface coating and so on. The potential applications of these antifouling membranes are also embedded. Finally, we will present a brief perspective on the future development of zwitterionic materials modified antifouling membranes. Membrane fouling is a severe problem hampering the application of membrane separation technology. The properties of membrane surfaces play a critical role in membrane fouling and antifouling behavior/performance. Antifouling membrane surface construction has evolved as a hot research issue for the development of membrane processes. Zwitterionic modification of membrane surfaces has been recognized as an effective strategy to resist membrane fouling. This review summarizes the antifouling mechanisms of zwitterionic materials inspired by cell membranes as well as the popular approaches to incorporate them onto membrane surfaces. It can help form a comprehensive knowledge about the principles and methods of modifying membrane surfaces with zwitterionic materials. Finally, we propose the possible future research directions of zwitterionic materials modified antifouling membranes. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc

  6. Membrane behavior of clay liner materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jong Beom

    Membrane behavior represents the ability of porous media to restrict the migration of solutes, leading to the existence of chemico-osmosis, or the flow of liquid in response to a chemical concentration gradient. Membrane behavior is an important consideration with respect to clay soils with small pores and interactive electric diffuse double layers associated with individual particles, such as bentonite. The results of recent studies indicate the existence of membrane behavior in bentonite-based hydraulic barriers used in waste containment applications. Thus, measurement of the existence and magnitude of membrane behavior in such clay soils is becoming increasingly important. Accordingly, this research focused on evaluating the existence and magnitude of membrane behavior for three clay-based materials that typically are considered for use as liners for waste containment applications, such as landfills. The three clay-based liner materials included a commercially available geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) consisting of sodium bentonite sandwiched between two geotextiles, a compacted natural clay known locally as Nelson Farm Clay, and compacted NFC amended with 5% (dry wt.) of a sodium bentonite. The study also included the development and evaluation of a new flexible-wall cell for clay membrane testing that was used subsequently to measure the membrane behaviors of the three clay liner materials. The consolidation behavior of the GCL under isotropic states of stress also was evaluated as a preliminary step in the determination of the membrane behavior of the GCL under different effective consolidation stresses.

  7. 2010 Membranes: Materials & Processes Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Lin

    2010-07-30

    The GRC series on Membranes: Materials and Processes have gained significant international recognition, attracting leading experts on membranes and other related areas from around the world. It is now known for being an interdisciplinary and synergistic meeting. The next summer's edition will keep with the past tradition and include new, exciting aspects of material science, chemistry, chemical engineering, computer simulation with participants from academia, industry and national laboratories. This edition will focus on cutting edge topics of membranes for addressing several grand challenges facing our society, in particular, energy, water, health and more generally sustainability. During the technical program, we want to discuss new membrane structure and characterization techniques, the role of advanced membranes and membrane-based processes in sustainability/environment (including carbon dioxide capture), membranes in water processes, and membranes for biological and life support applications. As usual, the informal nature of the meeting, excellent quality of the oral presentations and posters, and ample opportunity to meet many outstanding colleagues make this an excellent conference for established scientists as well as for students. A Gordon Research Seminar (GRS) on the weekend prior to the GRC meeting will provide young researchers an opportunity to present their work and network with outstanding experts. It will also be a right warm-up for the conference participants to join and enjoy the main conference.

  8. FY2011 Annual Progress Report for Propulsion Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Patrick B.; Schutte, Carol L.; Gibbs, Jerry L.

    2011-12-01

    Annual Progress Report for Propulsion Materials focusing on enabling and innovative materials technologies that are critical in improving the efficiency of advanced engines by providing enabling materials support for combustion, hybrid, and power electronics development.

  9. Hydrogen separation membranes annual report for FY 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.; Chen, L.; Ciocco, M.; Doctor, R. D.; Dorris, S.E.; Emerson, J. E.; Fisher, B.; Lee, T. H.; Killmeyer, R. P.; Morreale,B.; Picciolo, J. J.; Siriwardane, R. V.; Song, S. J.

    2007-02-05

    The objective of this work is to develop dense ceramic membranes for separating hydrogen from other gaseous components in a nongalvanic mode, i.e., without using an external power supply or electrical circuitry. This goal of this project is to develop two types of dense ceramic membrane for producing hydrogen nongalvanically, i.e., without electrodes or external power supply, at commercially significant fluxes under industrially relevant operating conditions. The first type of membrane, hydrogen transport membranes (HTMs), will be used to separate hydrogen from gas mixtures such as the product streams from coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. Potential ancillary uses of HTMs include dehydrogenation and olefin production, as well as hydrogen recovery in petroleum refineries and ammonia synthesis plants, the largest current users of deliberately produced hydrogen. The second type of membrane, oxygen transport membranes (OTMs), will produce hydrogen by nongalvanically removing oxygen that is generated when water dissociates at elevated temperatures. This report describes progress that was made during FY 2006 on the development of OTM and HTM materials.

  10. Hydrogen separation membranes annual report for FY 2010.

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Lu, Y.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J.

    2011-03-14

    The objective of this work is to develop dense ceramic membranes for separating hydrogen from other gaseous components in a nongalvanic mode, i.e., without using an external power supply or electrical circuitry. The goal of this project is to develop dense hydrogen transport membranes (HTMs) that nongalvanically (i.e., without electrodes or external power supply) separate hydrogen from gas mixtures at commercially significant fluxes under industrially relevant operating conditions. These membranes will be used to separate hydrogen from gas mixtures such as the product streams from coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. Potential ancillary uses of HTMs include dehydrogenation and olefin production, as well as hydrogen recovery in petroleum refineries and ammonia synthesis plants, the largest current users of deliberately produced hydrogen. This report describes the results from the development and testing of HTM materials during FY 2010.

  11. FY2012 Annual Progress Report for Propulsion Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Patrick B.; Schutte, Carol L.; Gibbs, Jerry L.

    2013-01-01

    FY2012 annual progress report focusing on enabling and innovative materials technologies that are critical in improving the efficiency of advanced engines by providing enabling materials support for combustion, hybrid, and power electronics development.

  12. Materials for next-generation molecularly selective synthetic membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koros, William J.; Zhang, Chen

    2017-03-01

    Materials research is key to enable synthetic membranes for large-scale, energy-efficient molecular separations. Materials with rigid, engineered pore structures add an additional degree of freedom to create advanced membranes by providing entropically moderated selectivities. Scalability -- the capability to efficiently and economically pack membranes into practical modules -- is a critical yet often neglected factor to take into account for membrane materials screening. In this Progress Article, we highlight continuing developments and identify future opportunities in scalable membrane materials based on these rigid features, for both gas and liquid phase applications. These advanced materials open the door to a new generation of membrane processes beyond existing materials and approaches.

  13. Materials for next-generation molecularly selective synthetic membranes.

    PubMed

    Koros, William J; Zhang, Chen

    2017-03-01

    Materials research is key to enable synthetic membranes for large-scale, energy-efficient molecular separations. Materials with rigid, engineered pore structures add an additional degree of freedom to create advanced membranes by providing entropically moderated selectivities. Scalability - the capability to efficiently and economically pack membranes into practical modules - is a critical yet often neglected factor to take into account for membrane materials screening. In this Progress Article, we highlight continuing developments and identify future opportunities in scalable membrane materials based on these rigid features, for both gas and liquid phase applications. These advanced materials open the door to a new generation of membrane processes beyond existing materials and approaches.

  14. Hydrogen separation membranes annual report for FY 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E.; Lu, Y.; Emerson, J. E.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, T. H.; Picciolo, J. J.; Energy Systems

    2010-04-16

    The objective of this work is to develop dense ceramic membranes for separating hydrogen from other gaseous components in a nongalvanic mode, i.e., without using an external power supply or electrical circuitry. The goal of this project is to develop dense hydrogen transport membranes (HTMs) that nongalvanically (i.e., without electrodes or external power supply) separate hydrogen from gas mixtures at commercially significant fluxes under industrially relevant operating conditions. HTMs will be used to separate hydrogen from gas mixtures such as the product streams from coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. Potential ancillary uses of HTMs include dehydrogenation and olefin production, as well as hydrogen recovery in petroleum refineries and ammonia synthesis plants, the largest current users of deliberately produced hydrogen. This report describes the results from the development and testing of HTM materials during FY 2009.

  15. Hydrogen separation membranes annual report for FY 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Lu, Y.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J.; Energy Systems

    2009-03-17

    The objective of this work is to develop dense ceramic membranes for separating hydrogen from other gaseous components in a nongalvanic mode, i.e., without using an external power supply or electrical circuitry. The goal of this project is to develop dense hydrogen transport membranes (HTMs) that nongalvanically (i.e., without electrodes or external power supply) separate hydrogen from gas mixtures at commercially significant fluxes under industrially relevant operating conditions. HTMs will be used to separate hydrogen from gas mixtures such as the product streams from coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. Potential ancillary uses of HTMs include dehydrogenation and olefin production, as well as hydrogen recovery in petroleum refineries and ammonia synthesis plants, the largest current users of deliberately produced hydrogen. This report describes progress that was made during Fy 2008 on the development of HTM materials.

  16. Polymer synthesis toward fuel cell membrane materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebeck, Nathaniel T.

    Fuel cells are a promising technology that will be part of the future energy landscape. New membranes for alkaline and proton exchange membrane fuel cells are needed to improve the performance, simplify the system, and reduce cost. Polymer chemistry can be applied to develop new polymers and to assemble polymers into improved membranes that need less water, have increased performance and are less expensive, thereby removing the deficiencies of current membranes. Nucleophilic aromatic substitution polymerization typically produces thermally stable engineering polymers that can be easily functionalized. New functional monomers were developed to explore new routes to novel functional polymers. Sulfonamides were discovered as new activating groups for polymerization of high molecular weight thermooxidatively stable materials with sulfonic acid latent functionality. While the sulfonamide functional polymers could be produced, the sulfonamide group proved to be too stable to convert into a sulfonic acid after reaction. The reactivity of 2-aminophenol was investigated to search for a new class of ion conducting polymer materials. Both the amine and the phenol groups are found to be reactive in a nucleophilic aromatic substitution, however not to the extent to allow the formation of high molecular weight polymer materials. Layer-by-layer films were assembled from aqueous solutions of poly(styrene sulfonate) and trimethylammonium functionalized poly(phenylene oxide). The deposition conditions were adjusted to increase the free charge carrier content, and chloride conductivites reached almost 30 mS/cm for the best films. Block and random poly(phenylene oxide) copolymers were produced from 2,6-dimethylphenol and 2,6-diphenylphenol and the methyl substituted repeat units were functionalized with trimethylammonium bromide. The block copolymers displayed bromide conductivities up to 26 mS/cm and outperformed the random copolymers, indicating that morphology has an effect on ion

  17. Sandia National Laboratories, California Hazardous Materials Management Program annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2011-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Hazardous Materials Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the calender past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Hazardous Materials Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  18. Materials research institute annual report FY98

    SciTech Connect

    Radousky, H

    1999-11-02

    The Materials Research Institute (MRI) is the newest of the University/LLNL Institutes and began operating in March 1997. The MRI is one of five Institutes reporting to the LLNL University Relations Program (URP), all of which have as their primary goal to facilitate university interactions at LLNL. This report covers the period from the opening of the MRI through the end of FY98 (September 30, 1998). The purpose of this report is to emphasize both the science that has been accomplished, as well as the LLNL and university people who were involved. The MRI is concentrating on projects, which highlight and utilize the Laboratory's unique facilities and expertise. Our goal is to enable the best university research to enhance Laboratory programs in the area of cutting-edge materials science. The MRI is focusing on three primary areas of materials research: Biomaterials (organic/inorganic interfaces, biomemetic processes, materials with improved biological response, DNA materials science); Electro/Optical Materials (laser materials and nonlinear optical materials, semiconductor devices, nanostructured materials); and Metals/Organics (equation of state of metals, synthesis of unique materials, high explosives/polymers). In particular we are supporting projects that will enable the MRI to begin to make a distinctive name for itself within the scientific community and will develop techniques applicable to LLNL's core mission. This report is organized along the lines of these three topic areas. A fundamental goal of the MRI is to nucleate discussion and interaction between Lab and university researchers, and among Lab researchers from different LLNL Directorates. This is accomplished through our weekly seminar series, special seminar series such as Biomaterials and Applications of High Pressure Science, conferences and workshops, our extensive visitors program and MRI lunches. We are especially pleased to have housed five graduate students who are performing their thesis

  19. Effect of membrane polymeric materials on relationship between surface pore size and membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Taro; Yuasa, Kotaku; Ishigami, Toru; Rajabzadeh, Saeid; Kamio, Eiji; Ohmukai, Yoshikage; Saeki, Daisuke; Ni, Jinren; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the effect of different membrane polymeric materials on the relationship between membrane pore size and development of membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). Membranes with different pore sizes were prepared using three different polymeric materials, cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), polyvinyl butyral (PVB), and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and the development of membrane fouling in each membrane was evaluated by batch filtration tests using a mixed liquor suspension obtained from a laboratory-scale MBR. The results revealed that the optimal membrane pore size to mitigate membrane fouling differed depending on membrane polymeric material. For PVDF membranes, the degree of membrane fouling decreased as membrane pore size increased. In contrast, CAB membranes with smaller pores had less fouling propensity than those with larger ones. Such difference can be attributed to the difference in major membrane foulants in each membrane; in PVDF, they were small colloids or dissolved organics in which proteins are abundant, and in CAB, microbial flocs. The results obtained in this study strongly suggested that optimum operating conditions of MBRs differ depending on the characteristics of the used membrane.

  20. Synthesis of dense energetic materials. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Coon, C.

    1982-07-01

    The objective of the research described in the report is to synthesize new, dense, stable, highly energetic materials which will ultimately be a candidates for improved explosive and propellant formulations. Following strict guidelines pertaining to energy, density, stability, etc. Specific target molecules were chosen that appear to possess the improved properties desired for new energetic materials. This report summarizes research on the synthesis of these target materials from February 1981 to January 1982. The following compounds were synthesized: 5,5'-diamino-3,3'-bioxadiazole(1,2,4); 5,5'-bis(trichloromethyl)-3,3'-di(1,2,4-oxadiazole); 3,3'-bi(1,2,4-oxadiazole); ethylene tetranitramine (ETNA); N,N-bis(methoxymethyl)acetamide; N,N-bis(chloromethyl)acetamide; 7,8-dimethylglycoluril; Synthesis of 3,9-Di(t-butyl)-13,14-dimethyl-tetracyclo-(5,5,2,0/sup 5/ /sup 13/ 0/sup 11/ /sup 14/)-1,3,5,7,9,11-hexaaza-6,12-dioxotetradecane.

  1. Cellulose as Sustainable Materials for Separation Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Benjamin

    2013-03-01

    Polysaccharides, while complex, form one of the most abundant sustainable resources on earth. We want to take advantage of fundamental advances in materials understanding across length and time scales to investigate the interrelationships between structure, morphology, processing, properties, performance, and cost to meet the specific challenges arising from separation membranes for water purification. Non-woven fiber mats have unique properties, such as interconnected pores, a very large surface-to-volume ratio, and a high capacity for surface modifications. The breakthrough concept of combining fibrous mats composed of different fiber diameters for fabricating scaffolds as a unique platform for water purification is presented. Further, we take advantage of recent advances in chemical modifications, structural studies using synchrotron X-rays, and physical scale-up transformations to drastically improve filtration membrane development. Support of this work by the NSF, ONR, NIH and Stony Brook Univ. is gratefully acknowledged. The Chu/Hsiao group on water purification includes Profs. B.S.Hsiao and C.Burger, Drs. H-Y.Ma, D-F.Fang, R.Wang, and grad students: X.Wang, Z. Wang, Y.Su, R. Yang

  2. Annual report, Materials Science Branch, FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, S.

    1993-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Materials Science Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1991, through September 30, 1992. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid State Theory, Solid State Spectroscopy, and Program Management. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  3. High Temperature Materials Laboratory third annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1990-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its third year of operation as a designated DOE User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the user program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions who have executed user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 88 nonproprietary agreements (40 university and 48 industry) and 20 proprietary agreements (1 university, 19 industry) are now in effect. Sixty-eight nonproprietary research proposals (39 from university, 28 from industry, and 1 other government facility) and 8 proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Research projects active in FY 1990 are summarized.

  4. Materials for next-generation desalination and water purification membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werber, Jay R.; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-05-01

    Membrane-based separations for water purification and desalination have been increasingly applied to address the global challenges of water scarcity and the pollution of aquatic environments. However, progress in water purification membranes has been constrained by the inherent limitations of conventional membrane materials. Recent advances in methods for controlling the structure and chemical functionality in polymer films can potentially lead to new classes of membranes for water purification. In this Review, we first discuss the state of the art of existing membrane technologies for water purification and desalination, highlight their inherent limitations and establish the urgent requirements for next-generation membranes. We then describe molecular-level design approaches towards fabricating highly selective membranes, focusing on novel materials such as aquaporin, synthetic nanochannels, graphene and self-assembled block copolymers and small molecules. Finally, we highlight promising membrane surface modification approaches that minimize interfacial interactions and enhance fouling resistance.

  5. Hydrogen separation membranes - annual report for FY 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J.; Song, S. J.; Energy Systems

    2008-01-31

    The objective of this work is to develop dense ceramic membranes for separating hydrogen from other gaseous components in a nongalvanic mode, i.e., without using an external power supply or electrical circuitry.

  6. Improved Membrane Materials for PEM Fuel Cell Application

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth A. Mauritz; Robert B. Moore

    2008-06-30

    The overall goal of this project is to collect and integrate critical structure/property information in order to develop methods that lead to significant improvements in the durability and performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) materials. This project is focused on the fundamental improvement of PEMFC membrane materials with respect to chemical, mechanical and morphological durability as well as the development of new inorganically-modified membranes.

  7. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1987-08-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1984 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1984 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  8. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1988-01-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1985 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1985 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  9. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-03-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commerical light water reactors during 1978 have been compiled and reported. Data on soild waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1978 release data are compared with previous years releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  10. Proceedings of the fourth annual conference on fossil energy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.; Braski, D.N.

    1990-08-01

    The Fourth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on may 15--17, 1990. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Materials Program, and ASM International. The objective of the AR TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) Ceramics, (2) New Alloys, (3) Corrosion and Erosion, and (4) Technology Assessment and Technology Transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  11. A new material concept for the red cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Evans, E A

    1973-09-01

    The proposition is made that the red cell membrane is a two-dimensional, incompressible material and a general stress-strain law is developed for finite deformations. In the linear form, the character of such a material is analogous to a two-dimensional Mooney material (e.g., rubber), indicating that the molecular structure in the plane of the membrane would consist of long chains, randomly kinked and cross-linked in the natural state. The loose network could be provided by the protein component and the lipid phase could exist interstitially as a liquid bilayer, giving the membrane its two-dimensional incompressibility. The material provides the capability of large deformations exhibited by the discocyte and yet the rigidity associated with the osmotic spherocyte state. It is demonstrated that a membrane of this type can form a sphere at constant area. An illustrative example of the application to single cell discocyte-to-osmotic spherocyte transformations is presented.

  12. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  13. Chemistry and Materials Science Department annual report, 1988--1989

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, R.J.; Sugihara, T.T.; Cherniak, J.C.; Corey, C.W.

    1989-12-31

    This is the first annual report of the Chemistry & Materials Science (C&MS) Department. The principal purpose of this report is to provide a concise summary of our scientific and technical accomplishments for fiscal years 1988 and 1989. The report is also tended to become part of the archival record of the Department`s activities. We plan to publish future editions annually. The activities of the Department can be divided into three broad categories. First, C&MS staff are assigned by the matrix system to work directly in a program. These programmatic assignments typically involve short deadlines and critical time schedules. A second category is longer-term research and development in technologies important to Laboratory programs. The focus and direction of this technology-base work are generally determined by programmatic needs. Finally, the Department manages its own research program, mostly long-range in outlook and basic in orientation. These three categories are not mutually exclusive but form a continuum of technical activities. Representative examples of all three are included in this report. The principal subject matter of this report has been divided into six sections: Innovations in Analysis and Characterization, Advanced Materials, Metallurgical Science and Technology, Surfaces and Interfaces, Energetic Materials and Chemical Synthesis, and Energy-Related Research and Development.

  14. Laser vibrometry for investigation of tympanic membrane implant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnert, Thomas; Kuster, Manfred; Vogel, Uwe; Hofmann, Gert; Huettenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    1996-12-01

    The human tympanic membrane has reasonably good sound sensing properties. A destroyed tympanic membrane due to middle ear diseases or traumata may be repaired by different types of grafts. Middle ear surgery mostly uses autologous temporal fascia, cartilage, or cartilage perichondrium transplants. We have investigated the acoustical and mechanical properties of these materials and compared them with human tympanic membrane by constructing an ear canal model completed by an artificial tympanic membrane. Circular stretched human fascia, perichondrium, and cartilage preparations were exposed to static pressures up to 4 kPa and white noise sound pressure levels of 70 dB. The vibrational amplitudes and displacements due to static pressure of the graft material were measured by laser Doppler vibrometry and compared. The thin materials temporal fascia and perichondrium show similar amplitude frequency responses compared to the tympanic membrane for dynamic excitation. The displacement of these materials at static pressures above 4 kPA yields a higher compliance than tympanic membrane. The acoustical and mechanical properties of cartilage transplants change with the thickness of the slices. However, the thinner the cartilage slice combined with lower stability, the more similar is the frequency response with the intact tympanic membrane. The vibration amplitudes decrease more and more for layer thicknesses above 500 micrometers. Cartilage acts as an excellent transplant material which provides a better prognosis than different materials in cases of ventilation disorders with long-term middle ear pressure changes. Large cartilage slice transplants should not exceed layer thicknesses of 500 micrometer in order to prevent drawbacks to the transfer characteristics of the tympanic membrane.

  15. Proceedings of the ninth annual conference on fossil energy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    The Ninth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy materials was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on May 16--18, 1995. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR&TD) Materials Program. The objective of the AR&TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the program has been decentralized to the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as the technical support contractor. The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) structural ceramics, (2) new alloys and coatings, (3) functional materials, and (4) technology assessment and transfer. This conference is held each year to review the work on all of the projects of the Program. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  16. Proceedings of the tenth annual conference on fossil energy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R.

    1996-08-01

    The Tenth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on May 14-16, 1996. The meeting was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR&TD) Materials Program. The objective of the AR&TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the program has been decentralized to the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) structural ceramics, (2) new alloys and coatings, (3) functional materials, and (4) technology development and transfer. This conference is held each year to review the work on all of the projects of the program. The final program for the meeting is given in Appendix A, and a list of attendees is presented in Appendix B. Selected items have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  17. Proceedings of the sixth annual conference on fossil energy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R.

    1992-07-01

    The Sixth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on May 12--14, 1992. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Materials Program, and ASM International. The objective of the AR TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the Program has been decentralized to the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as the technical support contractor. The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by a substantial number of researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) ceramics, (2) development and corrosion resistance of iron aluminide, advanced austenitic and chromium-niobium alloys, and (3) technology assessment and technology transfer. This conference is held each year to review the work on all of the projects of the Program. The agenda for the meeting is given in Appendix A, and a list of attendees is presented in Appendix B. ASM International cosponsored the conference, for which we are especially grateful.

  18. Proceedings of the fifth annual conference on fossil energy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R.

    1991-09-01

    The Fifth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on May 14--16, 1991. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Materials Program, and ASM International. The objective of the AR TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the Program has been decentralized to the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as the technical support contractor. The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by a substantial number of researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) Ceramics, (2) New Alloys, (3) Corrosion and Erosion, and (4) Technology Assessment and Technology Transfer. This conference is held every year to review the work on all of the projects of the Program. The agenda for the meeting is given in Appendix A, and a list of attendees is presented in Appendix B.

  19. Feed Materials Production Center annual environmental report for calendar 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Dugan, T.A.; Gels, G.L.; Oberjohn, J.S.; Rogers, L.K.

    1990-10-01

    The mission of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) has been to process uranium for United States' defense programs. On July 10, 1989, the FMPC suspended production operations, but remains on standby for certain segments of production. The FMPC also manages the storage of some radioactive and hazardous materials. As part of its operations, the FMPC continuously monitors the environment to determine that it is operating within federal and state standards and guidelines regarding emission of radioactive and nonradioactive materials. Data collected from the FMPC monitoring program are used to calculate estimates of radiation dose for residents due to FMPC operations. For 1989, the estimate of dose through the air pathway, excluding radon, indicated that people in the area were exposed to less than 6% of the DOE guideline established to protect the public from radiation exposure. When radon emissions are included, the dose from FMPC operations during 1989 was less than 22% of the annual background radiation dose in the Greater Cincinnati area. This report is a summary of FMPC's environmental activities and monitoring program for 1989. An Environmental Compliance Self-Assessment presents the FMPC's efforts to comply with environmental regulations through June 1990. 44 refs., 48 figs.

  20. Nuclear materials 1993 annual report. Volume 8, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) describes activities conducted during 1993. The report is published in two parts. NUREG-1272, Vol. 8, No. 1, covers power reactors and presents an overview of the operating experience of the nuclear power industry from the NRC perspective, including comments about the trends of some key performance measures. The report also includes the principal findings and issues identified in AEOD studies over the past year and summarizes information from such sources as licensee event reports, diagnostic evaluations, and reports to the NRC`s Operations Center. NUREG-1272, Vol. 8, No. 2, covers nuclear materials and presents a review of the events and concerns during 1993 associated with the use of licensed material in nonreactor applications, such as personnel overexposures and medical misadministrations. Note that the subtitle of No. 2 has been changed from ``Nonreactors`` to ``Nuclear Materials.`` Both reports also contain a discussion of the Incident Investigation Team program and summarize both the Incident Investigation Team and Augmented Inspection Team reports. Each volume contains a list of the AEOD reports issued from 1980 through 1993.

  1. Chemistry and Materials Science 2004 Annual Report, Preview Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, S; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Rennie, G

    2005-05-16

    Thriving from change is a constant element at LLNL. Through our commitment to scientific accomplishments, we have met the challenges posed by our evolving missions in 2004. It is the scientific breakthroughs that substantiate our strategic directions. Investments based on our strategic directions are bearing fruit, as illustrated in this preview of the 2004 Annual Report. We describe how our science is built around a strategic plan with four organizing themes: {sm_bullet} Materials properties and performance under extreme conditions {sm_bullet} Chemistry under extreme conditions and chemical engineering in support of national-security programs {sm_bullet} Science supporting national objectives at the intersection of chemistry, materials science, and biology {sm_bullet} Applied nuclear science for human health and national security We are particularly pleased with achievements within the 'intersection of chemistry, materials science, and biology,' an emerging area of science that may reshape the landscape of our national-security mission. CMS continues to have an unambiguous role both as a technology leader and as a partner for all of the four theme areas. We look forward to expanding the frontiers of science and continuing our partnership with the worldwide scientific community, as we firmly respond to the changing environment with agility and flexibility.

  2. Two-dimensional materials for novel liquid separation membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Yulong; Yang, Yefeng; Ying, Wen; Peng, Xinsheng

    2016-08-01

    Demand for a perfect molecular-level separation membrane with ultrafast permeation and a robust mechanical property for any kind of species to be blocked in water purification and desalination is urgent. In recent years, due to their intrinsic characteristics, such as a unique mono-atom thick structure, outstanding mechanical strength and excellent flexibility, as well as facile and large-scale production, graphene and its large family of two-dimensional (2D) materials are regarded as ideal membrane materials for ultrafast molecular separation. A perfect separation membrane should be as thin as possible to maximize its flux, mechanically robust and without failure even if under high loading pressure, and have a narrow nanochannel size distribution to guarantee its selectivity. The latest breakthrough in 2D material-based membranes will be reviewed both in theories and experiments, including their current state-of-the-art fabrication, structure design, simulation and applications. Special attention will be focused on the designs and strategies employed to control microstructures to enhance permeation and selectivity for liquid separation. In addition, critical views on the separation mechanism within two-dimensional material-based membranes will be provided based on a discussion of the effects of intrinsic defects during growth, predefined nanopores and nanochannels during subsequent fabrication processes, the interlayer spacing of stacking 2D material flakes and the surface charge or functional groups. Furthermore, we will summarize the significant progress of these 2D material-based membranes for liquid separation in nanofiltration/ultrafiltration and pervaporation. Lastly, we will recall issues requiring attention, and discuss existing questionable conclusions in some articles and emerging challenges. This review will serve as a valuable platform to provide a compact source of relevant and timely information about the development of 2D material-based membranes as

  3. Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate 2005 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz De La Rubia, T; Fluss, M J; Rath, K; Rennie, G; Shang, S; Kitrinos, G

    2006-08-08

    In 1952, we began laboratory operations in the barracks building of the Naval Air Station with approximately 50 employees. Today, the Chemistry and Materials Science (CMS) Directorate is a major organization at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory with more than 500 employees who continue to contribute to our evolving national security mission. For more than half a century, the mission of the Laboratory revolved primarily around nuclear deterrence and associated defense technologies. Today, Livermore supports a broad-based national security mission, and our specialized capabilities increasingly support emerging missions in human health and energy security. In the future, CMS will play a significantly expanded role in science and technology at the intersection of national security, energy and environment, and health. Our world-class workforce will provide the science and technology base for radically innovative materials to our programs and sponsors. Our 2005 Annual Report describes how our successes and breakthroughs follow a path set forward by our strategic plan and four organizing research themes, each with key scientific accomplishments by our staff and collaborators. Organized into two major sections-research themes and dynamic teams, this report focuses on achievements arising from earlier investments that address future challenges. The research presented in this annual report gives substantive examples of how we are proceeding in each of these four theme areas and how they are aligned with our national security mission. Research Themes: (1) Materials Properties and Performance under Extreme Conditions--We are developing ultrahard nanocrystalline metals, exploring the properties of nanotubes when exposed to very high temperatures, and engineering stronger materials to meet future needs for materials that can withstand extreme conditions. (2) Chemistry under Extreme Conditions and Chemical Engineering to Support National-Security Programs--Our recent

  4. ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS TO PD MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PURIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T; Paul Korinko, P

    2007-11-13

    Development of advanced hydrogen separation membranes in support of hydrogen production processes such as coal gasification and as front end gas purifiers for fuel cell based system is paramount to the successful implementation of a national hydrogen economy. Current generation metallic hydrogen separation membranes are based on Pd-alloys. Although the technology has proven successful, at issue is the high cost of palladium. Evaluation of non-noble metal based dense metallic separation membranes is currently receiving national and international attention. The focal point of the reported work was to evaluate two different classes of materials for potential replacement of conventional Pd-alloy purification/diffuser membranes. Crystalline V-Ni-Ti and Amorphous Fe- and Co-based metallic glass alloys have been evaluated using both electrochemical and gaseous hydrogen permeation testing techniques..

  5. Chitosan as a barrier membrane material in periodontal tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chun; Lei, Chang; Meng, Liuyan; Wang, Changning; Song, Yaling

    2012-07-01

    Periodontal regeneration is defined as regeneration of the tooth-supporting tissues including cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has been demonstrated to be an effective technique to achieve periodontal regeneration. In the GTR procedures, various kinds of membranes play important roles. Chitosan, a deacetylated derivative of chitin, is biocompatible, biodegradable, and antimicrobial. It acts as hydrating agent and possesses tissue healing and osteoinducing effect. Chitosan can be easily processed into membranes, gels, nanofibers, beads, nanoparticles, scaffolds, and sponges forms and can be used in drug delivery systems. Here, we review the bioproperties of chitosan and report the progress of application of chitosan as membranes in GTR and guided bone regeneration (GBR), which indicates that chitosan could be a good substrate candidate as the materials for the GTR/GBR membranes.

  6. Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate Annual Report 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz de la Rubia, T; Shang, S P; Kitrinos, G A; Fluss, M; Westbrook, C; Rennie, G

    2004-04-21

    Evolving challenges and solid accomplishments define the year 2003 for us. Our scientific breakthroughs validate our strategic directions and reaffirm our critical role in fulfilling the Laboratory's missions. Our growth continues in new research projects and significant new programmatic support. Our mission is clear: to enable the Laboratory to accomplish its primary mission through excellence in the chemical and materials sciences. The directorate's common theme and determination has remained constant: Deliver on our commitments, while anticipating and capitalizing on opportunities through innovation in science and technology. In this, the 2003 Annual Report, we describe how our science is built around a strategic plan with four organizing themes, each with key scientific accomplishments by our staff and collaborators. Our strategic plan is synergistic with the Laboratory's Long-Range Science and Technology Plan, which identifies six areas of institutional research and development strategy. This 2003 CMS Annual Report is organized into two major sections: research themes and dynamic teams. The research-theme section addresses challenges, achievements, and new frontiers within each of the four research themes. The dynamic-teams section illustrates the directorate's organizational structure of divisions, centers, and institutes that supports a team environment across disciplinary and institutional boundaries. The research presented gives substantive examples of how we are proceeding in each of these four theme areas and how they are aligned with the institutional strategy. Our organizational structure offers an environment of collaborative problem-solving opportunities, an environment that attracts and retains the best and the brightest from across the Laboratory and around the world.

  7. Membranes for Periodontal Regeneration--A Materials Perspective.

    PubMed

    Bottino, Marco C; Thomas, Vinoy

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting nearly 50% of adults in the United States. If left untreated, it can lead to the destruction of both soft and mineralized tissues that constitute the periodontium. Clinical management, including but not limited to flap debridement and/or curettage, as well as regenerative-based strategies with periodontal membranes associated or not with grafting materials, has been used with distinct levels of success. Unquestionably, no single implantable biomaterial can consistently guide the coordinated growth and development of multiple tissue types, especially in very large periodontal defects. With the global aging population, it is extremely important to find novel biomaterials, particularly bioactive membranes and/or scaffolds, for guided tissue (GTR) and bone regeneration (GBR) to aid in the reestablishment of the health and function of distinct periodontal tissues. This chapter offers an update on the evolution of biomaterials (i.e. membranes and bioactive scaffolds) as well as material-based strategies applied in periodontal regeneration. The authors start by providing a brief summary of the histological characteristics and functions of the periodontium and its main pathological condition, namely periodontitis. Next, a review of commercially available GTR/GBR membranes is given, followed by a critical appraisal of the most recent advances in the development of bioactive materials that enhance the chance for clinical success of periodontal tissue regeneration.

  8. Abnormalities in the membrane material properties of hereditary spherocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, R.E.; La Celle, P.L.

    1980-08-01

    Mechanical measurements of intrinsic membrane material properties are used to characterize the defect in hereditary spherocyte membrane at a continuum level. The value of the surface elastic shear modulus is two-thirds as large as normal values, and the value of the yield shear resultant is one-third as large as normal values. The viscosity of the surface above th elastic-plastic transition appears normal. Under similar geometric conditions, the force required to fragment a hereditary spherocyte is about one-third as large as the force required to fragment a normal cell.

  9. Composite materials for polymer electrolyte membrane microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Antolini, Ermete

    2015-07-15

    Recently, the feasibility of using composite metal-carbon, metal-polymer, polymer-carbon, polymer-polymer and carbon-carbon materials in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been investigated. These materials have been tested as MFC anode catalyst (microorganism) supports, cathode catalysts and membranes. These hybrid materials, possessing the properties of each component, or even with a synergistic effect, would present improved characteristics with respect to the bare components. In this paper we present an overview of the use of these composite materials in microbial fuel cells. The characteristics of the composite materials as well as their effect on MFC performance were compared with those of the individual component and/or the conventionally used materials.

  10. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC). Annual Technical Report, Fiscal Year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2001-07-31

    The Energy Materials Coordinating Committee Annual Report (attached, DOE/SC-0040) provides an annual summary of non-classified materials-related research programs supported by various elements within the Department of Energy. The EMaCC Annual Report is a useful working tool for project managers who want to know what is happening in other divisions, and it provides a guide for persons in industry and academia to the materials program within the Department. The major task of EMaCC this year was to make the Annual Report a more user-friendly document by removing redundant program information and shortening the project summaries.

  11. Thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membrane materials. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, G.N.; Sanjurjo, A.; Wood, B.J.; Lau, K.H.

    1994-04-01

    This report describes the results of a literature review to evaluate the long-term thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membranes that are being developed to separate gaseous products produced by the gasification or combustion of coal in fixed-, fluidized-, and entrained-bed gasifiers, direct coal-fired turbines, and pressurized-fluidized-bed combustors. Several impurities, such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and trace metal compounds are generated during coal conversion, and they must be removed from the coal gas or the combustor flue gas to meet environmental standards. The use of membranes to separate these noxious gases is an attractive alternative to their removal by sorbents such as zinc titanate or calcium oxide. Inorganic membranes that have a high separation efficiency and exhibit both thermal and chemical stability would improve the economics of power generation from coal. The U.S. Department of Energy is supporting investigations to develop inorganic membranes for separating hydrogen from coal gas streams and noxious impurities from hot coal- and flue-gas streams. Membrane materials that have been investigated in the past include glass (silica), alumina, zirconia, carbon, and metals (Pd and Pt).

  12. Flexible anodized aluminum oxide membranes with customizable back contact materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadimpally, B.; Jarro, C. A.; Mangu, R.; Rajaputra, S.; Singh, V. P.

    2016-12-01

    Anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes were fabricated using flexible substrate/carrier material. This method facilitates the use of AAO templates with many different materials as substrates that are otherwise incompatible with most anodization techniques. Thin titanium (Ti) and tungsten (W) layers were employed as interlayer materials. Titanium enhances adhesion. Tungsten not only helps eliminate the barrier layer but also plays a critical role in enabling the use of flexible substrates. The resulting flexible templates provide new, exciting opportunities in photovoltaic and other device applications. CuInSe2 nanowires were electrochemically deposited into porous AAO templates with molybdenum (Mo) as the back contact material. The feasibility of using any material to form a contact with semiconductor nanowires has been demonstrated for the first time enabling new avenues in photovoltaic applications.

  13. Graphene-based structure, method of suspending graphene membrane, and method of depositing material onto graphene membrane

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Meyer, Jannik Christian

    2013-04-02

    An embodiment of a method of suspending a graphene membrane across a gap in a support structure includes attaching graphene to a substrate. A pre-fabricated support structure having the gap is attached to the graphene. The graphene and the pre-fabricated support structure are then separated from the substrate which leaves the graphene membrane suspended across the gap in the pre-fabricated support structure. An embodiment of a method of depositing material includes placing a support structure having a graphene membrane suspended across a gap under vacuum. A precursor is adsorbed to a surface of the graphene membrane. A portion of the graphene membrane is exposed to a focused electron beam which deposits a material from the precursor onto the graphene membrane. An embodiment of a graphene-based structure includes a support structure having a gap, a graphene membrane suspended across the gap, and a material deposited in a pattern on the graphene membrane.

  14. Selection and Manufacturing of Membrane Materials for Solar Sails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G.; Seaman, Shane T.; Wilkie, W. Keats; Miyaucchi, Masahiko; Working, Dennis C.

    2013-01-01

    Commercial metallized polyimide or polyester films and hand-assembly techniques are acceptable for small solar sail technology demonstrations, although scaling this approach to large sail areas is impractical. Opportunities now exist to use new polymeric materials specifically designed for solar sailing applications, and take advantage of integrated sail manufacturing to enable large-scale solar sail construction. This approach has, in part, been demonstrated on the JAXA IKAROS solar sail demonstrator, and NASA Langley Research Center is now developing capabilities to produce ultrathin membranes for solar sails by integrating resin synthesis with film forming and sail manufacturing processes. This paper will discuss the selection and development of polymer material systems for space, and these new processes for producing ultrathin high-performance solar sail membrane films.

  15. Studies of membrane structure by freeze-etching. Annual report, January 1-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Branton, D

    1980-01-01

    Investigations of membrane structure that are ultimately intended to provide a better understanding of the parameters which modulate cell behavior in response to environmental perturbants and which regulate the movement of materials from the outside environment to the inside of living cells are reported.

  16. Block copolymers for alkaline fuel cell membrane materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yifan

    Alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) using anion exchange membranes (AEMs) as electrolyte have recently received considerable attention. AFCs offer some advantages over proton exchange membrane fuel cells, including the potential of non-noble metal (e.g. nickel, silver) catalyst on the cathode, which can dramatically lower the fuel cell cost. The main drawback of traditional AFCs is the use of liquid electrolyte (e.g. aqueous potassium hydroxide), which can result in the formation of carbonate precipitates by reaction with carbon dioxide. AEMs with tethered cations can overcome the precipitates formed in traditional AFCs. Our current research focuses on developing different polymer systems (blend, block, grafted, and crosslinked polymers) in order to understand alkaline fuel cell membrane in many aspects and design optimized anion exchange membranes with better alkaline stability, mechanical integrity and ionic conductivity. A number of distinct materials have been produced and characterized. A polymer blend system comprised of poly(vinylbenzyl chloride)-b-polystyrene (PVBC-b-PS) diblock copolymer, prepared by nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP), with poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) or brominated PPO was studied for conversion into a blend membrane for AEM. The formation of a miscible blend matrix improved mechanical properties while maintaining high ionic conductivity through formation of phase separated ionic domains. Using anionic polymerization, a polyethylene based block copolymer was designed where the polyethylene-based block copolymer formed bicontinuous morphological structures to enhance the hydroxide conductivity (up to 94 mS/cm at 80 °C) while excellent mechanical properties (strain up to 205%) of the polyethylene block copolymer membrane was observed. A polymer system was designed and characterized with monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) as a hydrophilic polymer grafted through substitution of pendent benzyl chloride groups of a PVBC

  17. FY2009 Annual Progress Report for Propulsion Materials

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-01-16

    The Propulsion Materials program focuses on enabling and innovative materials technologies that are critical in improving the efficiency of advanced engines. Projects within the Propulsion Materials Program address materials concerns that directly impact the critical technical barriers in each of these programs—barriers such as fuel efficiency, thermal management, emissions reduction, and reduced manufacturing costs.

  18. High Temperature Materials Laboratory User Program: 19th Annual Report, October 1, 2005 - September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Pasto, Arvid

    2007-08-01

    Annual Report contains overview of the High Temperature Materials Laboratory User Program and includes selected highlights of user activities for FY2006. Report is submitted to individuals within sponsoring DOE agency and to other interested individuals.

  19. Sandia National Laboratories, California Hazardous Materials Management Program annual report : February 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2009-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Hazardous Materials Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental anagement ystem Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Hazardous Materials Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  20. FY2008 Annual Progress Report for Propulsion Materials

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-01-01

    This program focuses on enabling and innovative materials technologies that are critical in improving the efficiency of advanced engines providing enabling materials support for combustion, hybrid, and power electronics development.

  1. FY2010 Annual Progress Report for Propulsion Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Patrick B.; Schutte, Carol L.; Gibbs, Jerry L.

    2011-01-01

    The Propulsion Materials Technology actively supports the energy security and reduction of greenhouse emissions goals of the Vehicle Technologies Program by developing advanced materials that enable development of higher efficiency powertrains for ground transportation. Propulsion Materials works closely with the other disciplines within the VT Program to identify the materials properties essential for the development of cost-effective, highly efficient, and environmentally friendly next-generation heavy and light duty powertrains.

  2. ABSTRACTS: Seventh annual conference on fossil energy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    Objective of the Advanced Research and Technology Development materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications (coal processing, coal liquefaction, gasification, heat engines and recovery, combustion systems, fuel cells). Research is aimed at better understanding of materials in fossil energy environments and development of new materials for improvement of plant operations and reliability. Abstracts are given of 37 papers on ceramics/composites, intermetallics (iron aluminides, etc.), and advanced austenitics. (DLC)

  3. ABSTRACTS: Seventh annual conference on fossil energy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Objective of the Advanced Research and Technology Development materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications (coal processing, coal liquefaction, gasification, heat engines and recovery, combustion systems, fuel cells). Research is aimed at better understanding of materials in fossil energy environments and development of new materials for improvement of plant operations and reliability. Abstracts are given of 37 papers on ceramics/composites, intermetallics (iron aluminides, etc.), and advanced austenitics. (DLC)

  4. Materials and Molecular Research Division annual report 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Searcy, A.W.; Muller, R.H.; Peterson, C.V.

    1984-07-01

    Progress is reported in the following fields: materials sciences (metallurgy and ceramics, solid-state physics, materials chemistry), chemical sciences (fundamental interactions, processes and techniques), actinide chemistry, fossil energy, electrochemical energy storage systems, superconducting magnets, semiconductor materials and devices, and work for others. (DLC)

  5. Trusted materials using orthogonal testing. 2015 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benthem, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to prove (or disprove) that a reasonable number of simple tests can be used to provide a unique data signature for materials, changes in which could serve as a harbinger of material deviation, prompting further evaluations. The routine tests are mutually orthogonal to any currently required materials specification tests.

  6. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee, fiscal year 1997. Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-31

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1997 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  7. Proceedings of the eleventh annual conference on fossil energy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR and TD) Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. These proceedings contain 34 papers organized under the following topical sections: Ceramic composites and functional materials; Ceramics, new alloys, and functional materials; and New alloys. Also included is a summary of a workshop on materials issues in low emission boilers and in high efficiency coal-fired cycles. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. FY2014 Propulsion Materials R&D Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-01

    The Propulsion Materials Program actively supports the energy security and reduction of greenhouse emissions goals of VTO by investigating and identifying the materials properties that are most essential for continued development of cost-effective, highly efficient, and environmentally friendly next-generation heavy and light-duty powertrains. The technical approaches available to enhance propulsion systems focus on improvements in both vehicle efficiency and fuel substitution, both of which must overcome the performance limitations of the materials currently in use. Propulsion Materials Program activities work with national laboratories, industry experts, and VTO powertrain systems (e.g., Advanced Combustion Engines [ACE], Advanced Power Electronics and Electrical Machines [APEEM], and fuels) teams to develop strategies that overcome materials limitations in future powertrain performance. The technical maturity of the portfolio of funded projects ranges from basic science to subsystem prototype validation. Projects within a Propulsion Materials Program activity address materials concerns that directly impact critical technology barriers within each of the above programs, including barriers that impact fuel efficiency, thermal management, emissions reduction, improved reliability, and reduced manufacturing costs. The program engages only the barriers that result from material property limitations and represent fundamental, high-risk materials issues.

  9. Advanced Industrial Materials Program. Annual progress report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Stooksbury, F.

    1994-06-01

    Mission of the AIM program is to commercialize new/improved materials and materials processing methods that will improve energy efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness. Program investigators in the DOE national laboratories are working with about 100 companies, including 15 partners in CRDAs. Work is being done on intermetallic alloys, ceramic composites, metal composites, polymers, engineered porous materials, and surface modification. The program supports other efforts in the Office of Industrial Technologies to assist the energy-consuming process industries. The aim of the AIM program is to bring materials from basic research to industrial application to strengthen the competitive position of US industry and save energy.

  10. FY2014 Lightweight Materials R&D Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    The Lightweight Materials research and development (R&D) area within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to commercializing lightweight materials for passenger and commercial vehicles.

  11. Materials and Molecular Research Division annual report 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    Progress made in the following research areas is reported: materials sciences (metallurgy and ceramics, solid state physics, materials chemistry); chemical sciences (fundamental interactions, processes and techniques); nuclear sciences; fossil energy; advanced isotope separation technology; energy storage; magnetic fusion energy; and nuclear waste management.

  12. FY2010 Annual Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-01-15

    The Lightweight Materials activity (LM) within the Vehicle Technologies Program focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce light and heavy duty vehicle weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost.

  13. FY2013 Lightweight Materials R&D Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-02-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTO), the Lightweight Materials (LM) activity focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce light and heavy duty vehicle weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost.

  14. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program. Annual progress report, FY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sorrell, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in the Department of Energy. The mission of the AIM Program is to conduct applied research, development, and applications engineering work, in partnership with industry, to commercialize new or improved materials and materials processing methods that will improve energy efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness. AIM is responsible for identifying, supporting, and coordinating multidisciplinary projects to solve identified industrial needs and transferring the technology to the industrial sector. Program investigators in the DOE National Laboratories are working closely with approximately 100 companies, including 15 partners in Cooperative Research and Development Agreements. Work is being done in a wide variety of materials technologies, including intermetallic alloys, ceramic composites, metal composites, polymers, engineered porous materials, and surface modification. The Program supports other efforts in the Office of Industrial Technologies to assist the energy consuming process industries, including forest products, glass, steel, aluminum, foundries, chemicals, and refineries. To support OITs {open_quotes}Industries of the Future{close_quotes} initiatives and to improve the relevance of materials research, assessments of materials needs and opportunities in the process industries are being made. These assessments are being used for program planning and priority setting; support of work to satisfy those needs is being provided. Many new materials that have come into the marketplace in recent years, or that will be available for commercial use within a few more years, offer substantial benefits to society. This document contains 28 reports on advanced materials research. Individual reports have been processed separately for entry onto the Department of Energy databases.

  15. Materials and Chemical Sciences Division annual report, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    Research programs from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in materials science, chemical science, nuclear science, fossil energy, energy storage, health and environmental sciences, program development funds, and work for others is briefly described. (CBS)

  16. Chemistry and Materials Science, 1990--1991. [Second annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Sugihara, T.T.; Bruner, J.M.; McElroy, L.A.

    1991-12-31

    This 2-year (FY 1990-91) contains 49 technical articles in ten sections: research sampler, metals and alloys, energetic materials, chemistry and physics of advanced materials, bonding and reactions at surfaces and interfaces, superconductivity, energy R and D, waste processing and management, characterization and analysis, and facilities and instrumentation. Two more sections list department personnel, their publications etc., consultants, and summary of department budgets. The articles are processed separately for the data base. (DLC)

  17. Proceedings of the Eight Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R.

    1994-08-01

    Objective of the meeting was to conduct R and D on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The work is divided into ceramics, new alloys, corrosion, and technology assessment/transfer. The 39 papers are arranged under the session headings: ceramics, ceramics and new alloys, and intermetallics and advanced austenitics; a workshop on new materials development and applications is summarized briefly. The papers are processed separately for the data base.

  18. [Study on spectroscopic characterization and property of PES/ micro-nano cellulose composite membrane material].

    PubMed

    Tang, Huan-Wei; Zhang, Li-Ping; Li, Shuai; Zhao, Guang-Jie; Qin, Zhu; Sun, Su-Qin

    2010-03-01

    In the present paper, the functional groups of PES/micro-nano cellulose composite membrane materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Also, changes in crystallinity in composite membrane materials were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of micro-nano cellulose content on hydrophilic property of composite membrane material were studied by measuring hydrophilic angle. The images of support layer structure of pure PES membrane material and composite membrane material were showed with scanning electron microscope (SEM). These results indicated that in the infrared spectrogram, the composite membrane material had characteristic peaks of both PES and micro-nano cellulose without appearance of other new characteristics peaks. It revealed that there were no new functional groups in the composite membrane material, and the level of molecular compatibility was achieved, which was based on the existence of inter-molecular hydrogen bond association between PES and micro-nano cellulose. Due to the existence of micro-nano cellulose, the crystallinity of composite membrane material was increased from 37.7% to 47.9%. The more the increase in micro-nano cellulose mass fraction, the better the van de Waal force and hydrogen bond force between composite membrane material and water were enhanced. The hydrophilic angle of composite membrane material was decreased from 55.8 degrees to 45.8 degrees and the surface energy was raised from 113.7 to 123.5 mN x m(-2). Consequently, the hydrophilic property of composite membrane material was improved. The number of pores in the support layer of composite membrane material was lager than that of pure PES membrane. Apparently, pores were more uniformly distributed.

  19. Proceedings of the 4th Annual Workshop: Advances in Smart Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Robin C. (Editor); Simpson, Joycelyn O. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the Fourth Annual Conference on Advances in Smart Materials for Aerospace Applications was to provide a forum for technical dialogue on numerous topics in the area of smart materials. The proceedings presented herein represent the technical contributions of the participants of the workshop. Topics addressed include shape memory alloys, ferroelectrics, fiber optics, finite element simulation, and active control.

  20. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

  1. Materials and Molecular Research Division annual report 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    This report is divided into: materials sciences, chemical sciences, nuclear sciences, fossil energy, advanced isotope separation technology (AISI), energy storage, magnetic fusion energy (MFE), nuclear waste management, and work for others (WFO). Separate abstracts have been prepared for all except AIST, MFE, and WFO. (DLC)

  2. Materials and Molecular Research Division. Annual report 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    Progress is reported in the areas of materials sciences, chemical sciences, nuclear sciences, fossil energy, advanced (laser) isotope separation technology, energy storage, superconducting magnets, and nuclear waste management. Work for others included phase equilibria for coal gasification products and ..beta..-alumina electrolytes for storage batteries. (DLC)

  3. Materials and Chemical Sciences Division annual report 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This report describes research conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, programs are discussed in the following topics: materials sciences; chemical sciences; fossil energy; energy storage systems; health and environmental sciences; exploratory research and development funds; and work for others. A total of fifty eight programs are briefly presented. References, figures, and tables are included where appropriate with each program.

  4. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program. Annual progress report. FY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven `Vision Industries` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. These are: aluminium; chemical; forest products; glass; metal casting; refineries; and steel. OIT is working with these industries, through appropriate organizations, to develop Visions of the desired condition of each industry some 20 or 25 years in the future and then to prepare Road Maps and Implementation Plans to enable them to reach their goals. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to `Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is necessary that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the energy database for articles from this report.

  5. Life Prediction Methodologies for Aerospace Materials Annual Report, 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    nickel and aluminum alloys used in fabricating engine components have been examined to assess their behavior under laboratory conditions designed to...INVESTIGATIONS Titanium, nickel and aluminum alloys used in fabricating engine components are being re-examined in an ongoing effort to assess...superalloys, titanium (Ti) alloys (near α and α+β), and aluminum alloys . To apply the advanced materials effectively or to consider further applications of

  6. Materials issues in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, N. L.; Benjamin, T. G.; Kopasz, J. P.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; DOE

    2008-11-01

    Fuel cells have the potential to reduce the nation's energy use through increased energy conversion efficiency and dependence on imported petroleum by the use of hydrogen from renewable resources. The US DOE Fuel Cell subprogram emphasizes polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells as replacements for internal combustion engines in light-duty vehicles to support the goal of reducing oil use in the transportation sector. PEM fuel cells are the focus for light-duty vehicles because they are capable of rapid start-up, demonstrate high operating efficiency, and can operate at low temperatures. The program also supports fuel cells for stationary power, portable power, and auxiliary power applications where earlier market entry would assist in the development of a fuel cell manufacturing and supplier base. The technical focus is on developing materials and components that enable fuel cells to achieve the fuel cell subprogram objectives, primarily related to system cost and durability. For transportation applications, the performance and cost of a fuel cell vehicle must be comparable or superior to today's gasoline vehicles to achieve widespread penetration into the market and achieve the desired reduction in petroleum consumption. By translating vehicle performance requirements into fuel cell system needs, DOE has defined technical targets for 2010 and 2015. These targets are based on competitiveness with current internal combustion engine vehicles in terms of vehicle performance and cost, while providing improvements in efficiency of a factor of 2.5 to 3. The overall system targets are: a 60% peak-efficient, durable, direct hydrogen fuel cell power system for transportation at a cost of $45/kW by 2010 and $30/kW by 2015. DOE's approach to achieving these technical and cost targets is to improve existing materials and to identify and qualify new materials.

  7. Radiation effects in nuclear waste materials. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, W.J.; Corrales, L.R.; Birtcher, R.C.; Nastasi, M.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this multidisciplinary, multi-institutional research effort is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics at the atomic, microscopic, and macroscopic levels. The goal is to provide the underpinning science and models necessary to assess the performance of glasses and ceramics designed for the immobilization and disposal of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues, excess weapons plutonium, and other highly radioactive waste streams. A variety of experimental and computer simulation methods are employed in this effort. In general, research on glasses focuses on the electronic excitations due to ionizing radiation emitted from beta decay, since this is currently thought to be the principal mechanism for deleterious radiation effects in nuclear waste glasses. Research on ceramics focuses on defects and structural changes induced by the elastic interactions between alpha-decay particles and the atoms in the structure. Radiation effects can lead to changes in physical and chemical properties that may significantly impact long-term performance of nuclear waste materials. The current lack of fundamental understanding of radiation effects in nuclear waste materials makes it impossible to extrapolate the limited existing data bases to larger doses, lower dose rates, different temperature regimes, and different glass compositions or ceramic structures. This report summarizes work after almost 2 years of a 3-year project. Work to date has resulted in 9 publications. Highlights of the research over the past year are presented.'

  8. Ionic liquid-based materials: a platform to design engineered CO2 separation membranes.

    PubMed

    Tomé, Liliana C; Marrucho, Isabel M

    2016-05-21

    During the past decade, significant advances in ionic liquid-based materials for the development of CO2 separation membranes have been accomplished. This review presents a perspective on different strategies that use ionic liquid-based materials as a unique tuneable platform to design task-specific advanced materials for CO2 separation membranes. Based on compilation and analysis of the data hitherto reported, we provide a judicious assessment of the CO2 separation efficiency of different membranes, and highlight breakthroughs and key challenges in this field. In particular, configurations such as supported ionic liquid membranes, polymer/ionic liquid composite membranes, gelled ionic liquid membranes and poly(ionic liquid)-based membranes are detailed, discussed and evaluated in terms of their efficiency, which is attributed to their chemical and structural features. Finally, an integrated perspective on technology, economy and sustainability is provided.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF MESOPOROUS MEMBRANE MATERIALS FOR CO2 SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wei-Heng Shih; Tejas Patil; Qiang Zhao

    2003-03-25

    The huge emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel fired power plants and industrial plants over the last century have resulted in an increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Climatological modeling work has predicted severe climate disruption as a result of the trapping of heat due to CO{sub 2}. As an attempt to address this global warming effect, DOE has initiated the Vision 21 concept for future power plants. We first synthesized mesoporous aluminosilicates that have high surface area and parallel pore channels for membrane support materials. Later we synthesized microporous aluminosilicates as the potential thin membrane materials for selective CO{sub 2} adsorption. The pore size is controlled to be less that 1 nm so that the adsorption of CO{sub 2} on the pore wall will block the passage of N{sub 2}. Mesoporous and precipitated alumina were synthesized as the base material for CO{sub 2} adsorbent. The porous alumina is doped with Ba to enhance its CO{sub 2} affinity due to the basicity of Ba. It is shown by gas chromatograph (GC) that the addition of Ba enhances the separation CO{sub 2} from N{sub 2}. It was found that mesoporous alumina has larger specific surface area and better selectivity of CO{sub 2} than precipitated alumina. Ba improves the affinity of mesoporous alumina with CO{sub 2}. Phase may play an important role in selective adsorption of CO{sub 2}. It is speculated that mesoporous alumina is more reactive than precipitated alumina creating the xBaO {center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase that may be more affinitive to CO{sub 2} than N{sub 2}. On the other hand, the barium aluminates phase (Ba{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6}) in the mesoporous sample does not help the adsorption of CO{sub 2}. Microporous aluminosilicate was chosen as a suitable candidate for CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separation because the pore size is less than 10 {angstrom}. If a CO{sub 2} adsorbent is added to the microporous silica, the adsorption of CO{sub 2} can block the

  10. Radiation effects in nuclear waste materials. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, W.J.; Corrales, L.R.

    1997-06-01

    'The objective of this multidisciplinary, multi-institutional research effort is to develop a fundamental understanding at the atomic, microscopic, and macroscopic levels of radiation effects in glass and ceramics. This research will provide the underpinning science and models for evaluation and performance assessments of glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposal of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scrap, and excess weapons plutonium. Studies will focus on the effects of ionization and elastic collision interactions on defect production, defect interactions, diffusion, solid-state phase transformations, and gas accumulation using actinide-containing materials, gamma irradiation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of a-decay and p-decay on nuclear waste glasses and ceramics. This program will exploit a variety of structural, optical, and spectroscopic probes to characterize the nature and behavior of the defects, defect aggregates, and phase transforma-tions. Computer simulation techniques will be used to determine defect production, calculate defect stability, defect energies, damage processes within an a-recoil cascade, and defect/gas diffusion and interactions. A number of irradiation facilities and capabilities will be used, including user facilities at several national laboratories, to study the effects of irradiation under different conditions.'

  11. 75 FR 62181 - Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge Rehabilitation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Federal Highway Administration Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge.... L. 109-59; 119 Stat. 1144) continued the highway bridge program to enable States to improve the condition of their highway bridges over waterways, other topographical barriers, other highways, and...

  12. 77 FR 53251 - Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge Rehabilitation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... Federal Highway Administration Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge.... L. 109-59; 119 Stat. 1144) continued the highway bridge program to enable States to improve the condition of their highway bridges over waterways, other topographical barriers, other highways, and...

  13. 76 FR 55160 - Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge Rehabilitation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... Federal Highway Administration Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge.... L. 109-59; 119 Stat. 1144) continued the highway bridge program to enable States to improve the condition of their highway bridges over waterways, other topographical barriers, other highways, and...

  14. Optical and thermal characterization of membrane reflector materials for solar orbit transfer vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, Gregory D.; McGee, Jennie K.; Partch, Russell; Lester, Dean M.

    2002-01-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), is advancing technologies to enable greater mobility for future AF spacecraft. The Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicle (SOTV) program is developing components for a concept based on a solar thermal rocket and solar thermal power generation. The program is performing ground testing of a thin film membrane concentrator concept. To better understand system performance, a series of optical characterization tests of the membrane material were performed. The objective was to quantify the relationship between membrane optical properties and the concentrator on-orbit transmission performance and thermal profile. During testing we collected reflectivity, absorptivity, transmissivity, and emissivity data for un-coated and coated membrane material. The membrane material tested was fabricated using a flight-qualified polyimide material and proven manufacturing processes. The test results, and system thermal analysis are presented in this paper. The results of this research will be used to refine hardware performance predictions and improve sizing for flight demonstration. .

  15. Effect of geometrical dimension, shape, thickness, material & applied pressure on nanopore thin filtration membrane strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Kamarul Asyikin; Yunas, Jumril; Hamzah, Azrul Azlan; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop

    2017-09-01

    Filtration membrane is an essential part in an artificial kidney device functioning as a channel to pass through all wastes from blood. This paper focuses on the effect of dimension, shape, thickness, material and applied pressure on the artificial filtration membrane to be used in terms of its mechanical strength. Studied parameters important for consideration of an actual filtration membrane design for the artificial kidney. The stress and deflection at the center of the membrane is studied using COMSOL Multiphysics simulation tool using "Solid Mechanics" physics module. The results shows that maximum deflection happens at the center of the membrane. Higher applied pressure causes more membrane deflection from the initial state while thicker membrane shows a better withstand towards applied pressure. Circle shape pores has lower stress and deflection compared to slit pores whereas filtration pore size does not give much impact on the stress and deflection of the membrane. Silicon Nitride filtration membrane is the most robust compared to Silicon and Silicon Dioxide membrane evaluated. To conclude, thicker Silicon Nitride membrane with arrays of uniform circle pores will result to a more stable filtration membrane that would be able to withstand simulated blood stream pressure of 10 until 55 mmHg in an artificial kidney.

  16. Task 9 - centrifugal membrane filtration. Semi-annual report April 1--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Stepan, D.J.; Moe, T.A.; Collings, M.E.

    1997-05-01

    This report assesses a centrifugal membrane filtration technology developed by SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc. The technology uses supported microporous membranes rotating at high rpm, under pressure, to separate suspended and colloidal solids from liquid streams, yielding a solids-free permeate stream and a highly concentrated solids stream. The Tank Waste Focus Area was chosen for study. Membrane-screening tests were performed with the STC-X4 static test cell filtration unit, using five ceramic membranes with different pore size and composition. Based on permeate flux, a 0.25-{mu}m TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membrane was selected for detailed performance evaluation using the centrifugal membrane filtration unit with a surrogate tank waste solution. The performance of the unit was evaluated with a statistical test design that determined the effect of temperature, pressure, membrane rotational speed, and solids loading on permeate flux. All four variables were found to be statistically significant, with the magnitude of the effect in the order of temperature, solids loading, rotor speed, and pressure. Temperature, rotor speed, and pressure had an increasing effect on flux with increasing value, while increases in solids loading showed a decrease in permeate flux. Significant interactions between rotor speed and solids loading and pressure and solids loading were also observed. The regression equation derived from test data had a correlation coefficient of 0.934, which represents a useful predictive capability for integrating the technology into DOE cleanup efforts. An extended test run performed on surrogate waste showed some deterioration in filtration performance, based on flux, apparently due to the buildup of solids near the inner portion of the membrane where relative membrane velocities were low. Continued testing of the system will focus on modifications to the shear pattern across the entire membrane surface to affect improved long-term performance.

  17. Mixed anion materials and compounds for novel proton conducting membranes

    DOEpatents

    Poling, Steven Andrew; Nelson, Carly R.; Martin, Steve W.

    2006-09-05

    The present invention provides new amorphous or partially crystalline mixed anion chalcogenide compounds for use in proton exchange membranes which are able to operate over a wide variety of temperature ranges, including in the intermediate temperature range of about 100 .degree. C. to 300.degree. C., and new uses for crystalline mixed anion chalcogenide compounds in such proton exchange membranes. In one embodiment, the proton conductivity of the compounds is between about 10.sup.-8 S/cm and 10.sup.-1 S/cm within a temperature range of between about -60 and 300.degree. C. and a relative humidity of less than about 12%..

  18. Maximum yields of microsomal-type membranes from small amounts of plant material without requiring ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Abas, Lindy; Luschnig, Christian

    2010-06-15

    Isolation of a microsomal membrane fraction is a common procedure in studies involving membrane proteins. By conventional definition, microsomal membranes are collected by centrifugation of a postmitochondrial fraction at 100,000g in an ultracentrifuge, a method originally developed for large amounts of mammalian tissue. We present a method for isolating microsomal-type membranes from small amounts of Arabidopsis thaliana plant material that does not rely on ultracentrifugation but instead uses the lower relative centrifugal force (21,000g) of a microcentrifuge. We show that the 21,000g pellet is equivalent to that obtained at 100,000g and that it contains all of the membrane fractions expected in a conventional microsomal fraction. Our method incorporates specific manipulation of sample density throughout the procedure, with minimal preclearance, minimal volumes of extraction buffer, and minimal sedimentation pathlength. These features allow maximal membrane yields, enabling membrane isolation from limited amounts of material. We further demonstrate that conventional ultracentrifuge-based protocols give submaximal yields due to losses during early stages of the procedure; that is, extensive amounts of microsomal-type membranes can sediment prematurely during the typical preclearance steps. Our protocol avoids such losses, thereby ensuring maximal yield and a representative total membrane fraction. The principles of our method can be adapted for nonplant material. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Static adsorptive fouling of extracellular polymeric substances with different membrane materials.

    PubMed

    Su, Xinying; Tian, Yu; Zuo, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Li, Hui; Pan, Xiaoyue

    2014-03-01

    Adsorptive fouling of microbial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) greatly influences the fouling behavior and membrane characteristics in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). In this study, adsorptive fouling of the EPS on different membrane materials was compared and adsorptive mechanism between membranes and EPS was investigated by thermodynamic analysis. The results suggested that both the absolute and relative changes of hydraulic resistances should be considered to evaluate fouling of membranes with different materials, and Sips isotherm was the most suitable model to describe the EPS carbohydrate and protein adsorptions on membranes. Thermodynamic analysis showed that both EPS carbohydrate and protein adsorptions were spontaneous (ΔrG(θ) < 0), endothermic (ΔrH(θ) > 0), and entropy driven (ΔrS(θ) > 0). Decreasing ΔrG(θ) values with temperature suggested that EPS adsorptive fouling can be limited by reducing temperature. In addition, physisorption processes and hydrogen bonding interactions between EPS and membranes might play a relatively major role in the adsorption mechanism of EPS on the membrane surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle analysis confirmed that the adsorptive fouling modified the membrane surface, making the membrane surface more heterogeneous and more hydrophobic.

  20. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Fiscal year 1996. Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research in his or her capacity as overseer of the technical programs of the Department. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMaCC terms of reference. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1996 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  1. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1989: Volume 10

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1992-09-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1989 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1970 through 1988 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1989 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  2. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1991, Volume 12

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Congemi, J.

    1994-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1991 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1991 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data Covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  3. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Volume 13, Annual report 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Lucadamo, K.

    1995-08-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1992 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1973 through 1991 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1992 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  4. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Volume 11: Annual report, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Congemi, J.

    1993-10-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1990 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1990 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  5. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1993. Volume 14

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Lucadamo, K.

    1995-12-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1993 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1974 through 1992 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1993 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  6. Block Copolymers for Alkaline Fuel Cell Membrane Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-30

    113 CHAPTER 5 MONO METHOXY POLY( ETHYLENE GLYCOL) GRAFTED BLOCK COPOLYMERS FOR ALKALINE EXCHANGE MEMBRANE...polystyrene-poly( ethylene -co-butylene)-polystyrene (SEBS) copolymer.[37, 42] Chloromethylation of the polystyrene block and trimethylamine...temperature. The same graft and functionalization strategy was applied to poly( ethylene -co- tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) film leading to a promising

  7. Monoolein lipid phases as incorporation and enrichment materials for membrane protein crystallization.

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, E.; Dranow, D.; Laible, P. D.; Christensen, J.; Nollert, P.

    2011-01-01

    The crystallization of membrane proteins in amphiphile-rich materials such as lipidic cubic phases is an established methodology in many structural biology laboratories. The standard procedure employed with this methodology requires the generation of a highly viscous lipidic material by mixing lipid, for instance monoolein, with a solution of the detergent solubilized membrane protein. This preparation is often carried out with specialized mixing tools that allow handling of the highly viscous materials while minimizing dead volume to save precious membrane protein sample. The processes that occur during the initial mixing of the lipid with the membrane protein are not well understood. Here we show that the formation of the lipidic phases and the incorporation of the membrane protein into such materials can be separated experimentally. Specifically, we have investigated the effect of different initial monoolein-based lipid phase states on the crystallization behavior of the colored photosynthetic reaction center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. We find that the detergent solubilized photosynthetic reaction center spontaneously inserts into and concentrates in the lipid matrix without any mixing, and that the initial lipid material phase state is irrelevant for productive crystallization. A substantial in-situ enrichment of the membrane protein to concentration levels that are otherwise unobtainable occurs in a thin layer on the surface of the lipidic material. These results have important practical applications and hence we suggest a simplified protocol for membrane protein crystallization within amphiphile rich materials, eliminating any specialized mixing tools to prepare crystallization experiments within lipidic cubic phases. Furthermore, by virtue of sampling a membrane protein concentration gradient within a single crystallization experiment, this crystallization technique is more robust and increases the efficiency of identifying productive crystallization

  8. Monoolein Lipid Phases as Incorporation and Enrichment Materials for Membrane Protein Crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Ellen; Dranow, David; Laible, Philip D.; Christensen, Jeff; Nollert, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The crystallization of membrane proteins in amphiphile-rich materials such as lipidic cubic phases is an established methodology in many structural biology laboratories. The standard procedure employed with this methodology requires the generation of a highly viscous lipidic material by mixing lipid, for instance monoolein, with a solution of the detergent solubilized membrane protein. This preparation is often carried out with specialized mixing tools that allow handling of the highly viscous materials while minimizing dead volume to save precious membrane protein sample. The processes that occur during the initial mixing of the lipid with the membrane protein are not well understood. Here we show that the formation of the lipidic phases and the incorporation of the membrane protein into such materials can be separated experimentally. Specifically, we have investigated the effect of different initial monoolein-based lipid phase states on the crystallization behavior of the colored photosynthetic reaction center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. We find that the detergent solubilized photosynthetic reaction center spontaneously inserts into and concentrates in the lipid matrix without any mixing, and that the initial lipid material phase state is irrelevant for productive crystallization. A substantial in-situ enrichment of the membrane protein to concentration levels that are otherwise unobtainable occurs in a thin layer on the surface of the lipidic material. These results have important practical applications and hence we suggest a simplified protocol for membrane protein crystallization within amphiphile rich materials, eliminating any specialized mixing tools to prepare crystallization experiments within lipidic cubic phases. Furthermore, by virtue of sampling a membrane protein concentration gradient within a single crystallization experiment, this crystallization technique is more robust and increases the efficiency of identifying productive crystallization

  9. Hydrogen production by water dissociation using ceramic membranes - annual report for FY 2010.

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Lu, Y.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J.

    2011-03-14

    The objective of this project is to develop dense ceramic membranes that can produce hydrogen via coal/coal gas-assisted water dissociation without using an external power supply or circuitry. This project grew from an effort to develop a dense ceramic membrane for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures such as those generated during coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. That effort led to the development of various cermet (i.e., ceramic/metal composite) membranes that enable hydrogen production by two methods. In one method, a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) selectively removes hydrogen from a gas mixture by transporting it through either a mixed protonic/electronic conductor or a hydrogen transport metal. In the other method, an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) generates hydrogen mixed with steam by removing oxygen that is generated through water splitting. This project focuses on the development of OTMs that efficiently produce hydrogen via the dissociation of water. Supercritical boilers offer very high-pressure steam that can be decomposed to provide pure hydrogen using OTMs. Oxygen resulting from the dissociation of steam can be used for coal gasification, enriched combustion, or synthesis gas production. Hydrogen and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} can be produced from coal and steam by using the membrane being developed in this project. Although hydrogen can also be generated by high-temperature steam electrolysis, producing hydrogen by water splitting with a mixed-conducting membrane requires no electric power or electrical circuitry.

  10. Hydrogen production by water dissociation using ceramic membranes - annual report for FY 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Lu, Y.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J.; Energy Systems

    2009-03-25

    The objective of this project is to develop dense ceramic membranes that, without using an external power supply or circuitry, can produce hydrogen via coal/coal gas-assisted water dissociation. This project grew from an effort to develop a dense ceramic membrane for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures such as those generated during coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. That effort led to the development of various cermet (i.e., ceramic/metal composite) membranes that enable hydrogen production by two methods. In one method, a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) selectively removes hydrogen from a gas mixture by transporting it through either a mixed protonic/electronic conductor or a hydrogen transport metal. In the other method, an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) generates hydrogen mixed with steam by removing oxygen that is generated through water splitting. This project focuses on the development of OTMs that efficiently produce hydrogen via the dissociation of water. Supercritical boilers offer very high-pressure steam that can be decomposed to provide pure hydrogen by means of OTMs. Oxygen resulting from the dissociation of steam can be used for coal gasification, enriched combustion, or synthesis gas production. Hydrogen and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} can be produced from coal and steam by using the membrane being developed in this project. Although hydrogen can also be generated by high-temperature steam electrolysis, producing hydrogen by water splitting with a mixed-conducting membrane requires no electric power or electrical circuitry.

  11. Hydrogen production by water dissociation using ceramic membranes. Annual report for FY 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Lu, Y.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J.; Energy Systems

    2010-04-20

    The objective of this project is to develop dense ceramic membranes that can produce hydrogen via coal/coal gas-assisted water dissociation without using an external power supply or circuitry. This project grew from an effort to develop a dense ceramic membrane for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures such as those generated during coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. That effort led to the development of various cermet (i.e., ceramic/metal composite) membranes that enable hydrogen production by two methods. In one method, a hydrogen transport membrane selectively removes hydrogen from a gas mixture by transporting it through either a mixed protonic/electronic conductor or a hydrogen transport metal. In the other method, an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) generates hydrogen mixed with steam by removing oxygen that is generated through water splitting. This project focuses on the development of OTMs that efficiently produce hydrogen via the dissociation of water. Supercritical boilers offer very high-pressure steam that can be decomposed to provide pure hydrogen by means of OTMs. Oxygen resulting from the dissociation of steam can be used for coal gasification, enriched combustion, or synthesis gas production. Hydrogen and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} can be produced from coal and steam by using the membrane being developed in this project. Although hydrogen can also be generated by high-temperature steam electrolysis, producing hydrogen by water splitting with a mixed-conducting membrane requires no electric power or electrical circuitry.

  12. Membrane research subtask, alcohol-fuels program. Annual progress report, FY 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Schissel, P.

    1983-04-01

    A first step toward the evaluation of membranes is to separate ethanol/water mixtures over a range of feed composition, temperature, and pressure. This has been accomplished for an initial set of commercially available membranes using reverse osmosis and pervaporation. Two membrane types (UOP, Inc. RC100 and FilmTec FT30) have performed well. Under reverse osmosis conditions the trends of product fluxes and separation factors are similar for the two types; however, FT30 is somewhat better in both categories. The flux and separation factors decrease rapidly as the wt % ethanol is increased, and water is always selectively permeated. Fluxes remain at an acceptable level over a wide concentration range; however, the separation factor becomes unacceptably low as the effects of osmotic pressure become predominant (15 to 30 wt % ethanol). This report discusses several methods that can overcome the limitations imposed by osmotic pressure. The present results are compared to published work where polyetheramide and particularly polyacrylamide membranes are identified as excellent performers. Pervaporation apparatus was designed, fabricated, installed, and used to test the membrane set. The vacuum system design was conservative to ensure the maintenance of low, down-stream pressures as required for pervaporation. The RC100 and FT30 membranes also performed well during pervaporation. Each membrane was tested over virtually the complete concentration range, and at both ends of the concentration range each membrane passed the least abundant component preferentially. These results contrast to the reverse osmosis results for these membranes where at low ethanol concentrations water is passed preferentially. The difference in behavior under reverse osmosis and pervaporation conditions disagrees with theoretical implications of one presentation using the solution-diffusion model to compare reverse osmosis and pervaporation.

  13. Membrane materials for addressing energy and environmental challenges.

    PubMed

    Drioli, Enrico; Fontananova, Enrica

    2012-01-01

    Our modern society must solve various severe problems to maintain and increase our quality of life: from water stress to global warming, to fossil fuel depletion, to environmental pollution. The process intensification (PI) strategy is expected to contribute to overcoming many of these issues by facilitating the transition from a resource-intensive to a knowledge-intensive industrial system that will guarantee sustainable growth. Membrane operations, which respond efficiently to the requirements of the PI strategy, have the potential to replace conventional energy-intensive separation techniques, which will boost the efficiency and reduce the environmental impact of separations as well as conversion processes. This work critically reviews the current status and emerging applications of (integrated) membrane operations with a special focus on energy and environmental applications.

  14. Thermal/chemical degradation of inorganic membrane materials

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, G.N.; Sanjurgo, A.; Wood, B.J.

    1993-09-01

    The specific objectives of this program are to (1) identify and evaluate long-term degradation mechanisms for inorganic membranes exposed to hot coal gasification and combustion gas streams using data from the existing literature, (2) quantify the extent of the degradation process for the most serious mechanisms by performing experiments under laboratory-scale conditions, and (3) develop a predictive model that allows estimation of membrane degradation under operating conditions. To achieve the above objectives, the program is divided into the following tasks: (1) Development of evaluation methodology; (2) evaluation of potential long-term degradation mechanism; (3) submission of a topical report and a plan for experimental testing; (4) experimental testing; and (5) model development. Tasks 4 and 5 are separate options that may be exercised by the US Department of Energy at the conclusion of Task 3. Accomplishments are presented for Tasks 1, 2 and 3.

  15. Thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membrane materials. Final report, August 1992--May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Damle, A.S.; Krishnan, G.N.; Sanjurjo, A.; Wood, B.J.; Lau, K.H.

    1995-05-01

    SRI International conducted a theoretical and experimental program to evaluate the long-term thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membranes that are being developed to separate the gaseous products of coal gasification. A variety of developmental efforts are underway, including a number of projects sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), to improve the selectivity and permeability of porous inorganic membranes. DOE is also sponsoring efforts to extend the use of metallic membranes to new applications. Most developmental efforts have focused on hydrogen separation by inorganic membranes, which may be used to maximize hydrogen production from coal gas or to remove H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} contaminants via thermal or catalytic decomposition in integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems. Inorganic membranes that have a high separation efficiency and exhibit both thermal and chemical stability would improve the economics of power generation from coal. Membrane materials that have been investigated include glass (silica), alumina, carbon, and metals (Pd and Pt). This report describes inorganic membrane materials, long term membrane exposure tests, membrane permeation tests, coal gasifier exposure tests, conclusions, and recommendations.

  16. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, RR

    2004-11-02

    The 18th Annual conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on June 2 through June 4, 2004. The meeting was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research Materials Program (ARM). The objective of the ARM Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications, as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the program has been decentralized to the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) structural, ceramics, (2) new alloys and coatings, (3) functional materials, and (4) technology development and transfer.

  17. High-Performance Water Filtration Membranes using Surface Modification and New Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xinwei

    Water scarcity is one of the most critical challenges faced by mankind and it is only getting worse due to source pollution and rising population. There is critical need for the development of water filtration membranes in order to treat polluted water and turn water from non-potable sources such as waste waster and ocean water into freshwater for human consumption and agricultural irrigation. Filtration Membranes are generally classified into four categories: microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), with decreasing pore size for rejecting different sized substances. Commercial filtration membranes are able to provide decent flux and rejection for their targeted applications. However, most of them suffer from fouling issues when the microorganisms and organic matter such as proteins and polysaccharides in the water source deposit onto the membrane surface, impeding the permeation of water and lowering the flux. Therefore, it is of high demand to develop membranes that are anti-fouling. Foulants such as protein particles adhere to the membrane surface via hydrophobic interactions. In order to minimize such effects, a typical way is to increase the hydrophilicity of the membrane by surface modification or by utilizing hydrophilic membrane materials. Foulants also tend to get trapped in the open "pores" on a rough membrane surface with ridges and valleys. It is then expected that a smoother membrane surface tend to lessen such effects. Incorporating antimicrobial properties into the membrane is also an effective way to reduce fouling as this inhibits the growth of microorganisms on the membrane surfaces. New materials are also used to fabricate membranes with improved performance. Conducting polymers have recently been discovered as a new category of membrane-making materials that are hydrophilic and low-fouling. A new type of polyaniline derivative has been used to fabricate UF membranes that demonstrate chlorine

  18. Membrane materials for storing biological samples intended for comparative nanotoxicological testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metelkin, A.; Kuznetsov, D.; Kolesnikov, E.; Chuprunov, K.; Kondakov, S.; Osipov, A.; Samsonova, J.

    2015-11-01

    The study is aimed at identifying the samples of most promising membrane materials for storing dry specimens of biological fluids (Dried Blood Spots, DBS technology). Existing sampling systems using cellulose fiber filter paper have a number of drawbacks such as uneven distribution of the sample spot, dependence of the spot spreading area on the individual biosample properties, incomplete washing-off of the sample due to partially inconvertible sorption of blood components on cellulose fibers, etc. Samples of membrane materials based on cellulose, polymers and glass fiber with applied biosamples were studied using methods of scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and surface-wetting measurement. It was discovered that cellulose-based membrane materials sorb components of biological fluids inside their structure, while membranes based on glass fiber display almost no interaction with the samples and biological fluid components dry to films in the membrane pores between the structural fibers. This characteristic, together with the fact that membrane materials based on glass fiber possess sufficient strength, high wetting properties and good storage capacity, attests them as promising material for dry samples of biological fluids storage systems.

  19. Hydrogen production by water dissociation using ceramic membranes. Annual report for FY 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.; Chen, L.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J.; Song, S. J.; Energy Systems

    2008-03-04

    The objective of this project is to develop dense ceramic membranes that, without using an external power supply or circuitry, can produce hydrogen via coal/coal gas-assisted water dissociation. This project grew out of an effort to develop a dense ceramic membrane for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures such as those generated during coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions [1]. That effort led to the development of various cermet (i.e., ceramic/metal composite) membranes that enable hydrogen to be produced by two methods. In one method, a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) selectively removes hydrogen from a gas mixture by transporting it through either a mixed protonic/electronic conductor or a hydrogen transport metal. In the other method, an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) generates hydrogen mixed with steam by removing oxygen that is generated through water splitting [1, 2]. This project focuses on the development of OTMs that efficiently produce hydrogen via the dissociation of water. Supercritical boilers offer very high-pressure steam that can be decomposed to provide pure hydrogen by means of OTMs. Oxygen resulting from the dissociation of steam can be used for coal gasification, enriched combustion, or synthesis gas production. Hydrogen and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} can be produced from coal and steam by using the membrane being developed in this project. Although hydrogen can also be generated by high-temperature steam electrolysis, producing hydrogen by water splitting with a mixed-conducting membrane requires no electric power or electrical circuitry.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF MESOPOROUS MEMBRANE MATERIALS FOR CO2 SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wei-Heng Shih; Qiang Zhao; Tejas Patil

    2002-05-01

    The authors propose to use microporous silica as a suitable candidate for CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separation because the pore size is less than 10 {angstrom}. If a CO{sub 2}adsorbent is added to the microporous silica, the adsorption of CO{sub 2} can block the passage of N{sub 2} and an effective CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separator will be found. It was first demonstrated that microporous silica could be synthesized. The microporous silica was then impregnated with Ba(OH){sub 2}. The results of GC study showed that at temperatures between 50 C and 90 C, Ba-doped microporous silica can separate CO{sub 2} from N{sub 2} and the idea of a microporous membrane for CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separation is feasible. The new result gives strong support to the proposed research that was outlined in the Phase II proposal. They hope to be able to continue the research and build an effective CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} membrane separator in the Phase II of this project.

  1. Effects of Membrane Material Properties on the Deformation of Elastic Capsules in a Shear Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kit Yan; Eggleton, Charles

    2006-03-01

    The deformation process of elastic capsules in a simple shear flow is studied numerically using the immersed boundary method to probe the influence of membrane material properties. Membrane models that are representative of linear elastic membrane (Hookean law), strain hardening membrane (Skalak), and strain softening membrane (Mooney-Rivlin, neo-Hookean) and the Evans-Skalak model developed from thermodynamic principles to represent the behavior of a lipid bilayer and a cytoskeletal network, are used to study the effects of membrane material properties on the response of the capsule at various shear rates. Simulation results indicate that both the time to reach steady state and the final steady shape of the capsule are sensitive to the choice of the membrane model and parameter values used. These experimentally measurable quantities may be compared with computations for determining suitable model of a particular capsule of interest, and the associated material properties. Local strain and energy distributions computed also provide additional information that is not easily accessible experimentally.

  2. Annual Reports Regarding Progress in Developing a Dredged Material Management Plan for the Long Island Sound Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The site designation for the Western and Central Long Island Sound disposal sites requires the completion of a Dredged Material Management Plan (DMMP) and EPA to conduct an annual review of progress toward completion of the DMMP.

  3. Imidazolium-Based Polymeric Materials as Alkaline Anion-Exchange Fuel Cell Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri R.; Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Reddy, Prakash V.; Nair, Nanditha

    2012-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membranes that conduct hydroxide ions have potential use in fuel cells. A variety of polystyrene-based quaternary ammonium hydroxides have been reported as anion exchange fuel cell membranes. However, the hydrolytic stability and conductivity of the commercially available membranes are not adequate to meet the requirements of fuel cell applications. When compared with commercially available membranes, polystyrene-imidazolium alkaline membrane electrolytes are more stable and more highly conducting. At the time of this reporting, this has been the first such usage for imidazolium-based polymeric materials for fuel cells. Imidazolium salts are known to be electrochemically stable over wide potential ranges. By controlling the relative ratio of imidazolium groups in polystyrene-imidazolium salts, their physiochemical properties could be modulated. Alkaline anion exchange membranes based on polystyrene-imidazolium hydroxide materials have been developed. The first step was to synthesize the poly(styrene-co-(1-((4-vinyl)methyl)-3- methylimidazolium) chloride through a free-radical polymerization. Casting of this material followed by in situ treatment of the membranes with sodium hydroxide solutions provided the corresponding hydroxide salts. Various ratios of the monomers 4-chloromoethylvinylbenzine (CMVB) and vinylbenzine (VB) provided various compositions of the polymer. The preferred material, due to the relative ease of casting the film, and its relatively low hygroscopic nature, was a 2:1 ratio of CMVB to VB. Testing confirmed that at room temperature, the new membranes outperformed commercially available membranes by a large margin. With fuel cells now in use at NASA and in transportation, and with defense potential, any improvement to fuel cell efficiency is a significant development.

  4. Annual metallic flows in roof runoff from different materials: test-bed scale in Paris conurbation.

    PubMed

    Robert-Sainte, P; Gromaire, M C; De Gouvello, B; Saad, M; Chebbo, G

    2009-08-01

    A substantial database of annual metal runoff loads, obtained from a 14-month field exposure campaign on 12 different metal roofing materials at two sites within Paris conurbation, is presented herein. Thirteen metallic species have been considered. A comparison among the various roofing materials yields a ranking of their runoff pollution potential, which highlights that aluminum, coated products, and stainless steel display the lower emission levels, before zinc and copper materials. Lead materials appear to release more metallic species, and tend to do so in quite large quantities. Whatever the material family considered, older materials apparently release more metallic species with higher levels of emission. In considering zinc emissions from zinc-based materials, it is clear that surface coatings significantly reduce zinc emissions (40% less for the Zn3(PO4)2 surface-treated Anthra zinc, compared to natural zinc; and 99% less for prepainted galvanized steel compared to standard galvanized steel). In the case of Anthra zinc however, surface treatment induces the release of Ni into the runoff, and Ni constitutes a priority pollutant in the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60 CE). A high level of consistency with literature data has been found for Zn runoff when considering runoff rates reported at the same inclination.

  5. Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2014-01-28

    Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  6. Characterization of commercial proton exchange membrane materials after exposure to beta and gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, S.N.; Carson, R.; Muirhead, C.; Li, H.; Castillo, I.; Boniface, H.; Suppiah, S.; Ratnayake, A.; Robinson, J.

    2015-03-15

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) type electrolysis cells have a potential use for tritium removal and heavy water upgrading. AECL is currently exposing various commercial PEM materials to both gamma (Cobalt-60 source) and beta (tritiated water) radiation to study the effects of radiation on these materials. This paper summarizes the testing methods and results that have been collected to date. The PEM materials that are or have been exposed to radiation are: Nafion 112, 212, 117 and 1110. Membrane characterization pre- and post- exposure consists of non-destructive inspection (FTIR, SEM/XPS), mechanical (tensile strength, percentage elongation, and modulus), electrical (resistance), or chemical (ion-exchange capacity - IEC). It has appeared that the best characterization techniques to compare exposed versus unexposed membranes were IEC, ultimate tensile strength and percent elongation. These testing techniques are easy and cheap to perform. The non-destructive tests, such as SEM and FTIR did not provide particularly useful information on radiation-induced degradation. Where changes in material properties were measured after radiation exposure, they would be expected to result in poorer cell performance. However, for modest γ-radiation exposure, all membranes showed a slight decrease in cell voltage (better performance). In contrast, the one β-radiation exposed membrane did show the expected increase in cell voltage. The counterintuitive trend for γ-radiation exposed membranes is not yet understood. Based on these preliminary results, it appears that γ- and β-radiation exposures have different effects.

  7. Materials for use as proton conducting membranes for fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Einsla, Brian R.; McGrath, James E.

    2009-01-06

    A family of polymers having pendent sulfonate moieties connected to polymeric main chain phenyl groups are described. These polymers are prepared by the steps of polymerization (using a monomer with a phenyl with an alkoxy substitution), deportation by converting the alkoxy to a hydroxyl, and functionalization of the polymer with a pendant sulfonate group. As an example, sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers with pendent sulfonic acid groups are synthesized by the direct copolymerization of methoxy-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, then converting the methoxy groups to the reactive hydroxyl form, and finally functionalizing the hydroxyl form with proton-conducting sites through nucleophilic substitution. The family of polymers may have application in proton exchange membranes and in other applications.

  8. Purple membrane-polyacrilamide films as holographic recording materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fimia, Antonio; Acebal, P.; Murciano, A.; Blaya, S.; Carretero, L.; Ulibarrena, M.; Aleman, R.; Gomariz, M.; Meseguer, I.

    2003-12-01

    The holographic parameters of purple membrane-polyacrylamide films obtained from a mutant form of Halobacterium salinarum (originally Halobacterium halobium) were measured. The synthesized films have an absorption of around 2.5 at 532 nm and a pH of 8.65. The results show that diffraction efficiencies of about 1.2 % (measured at 633 nm) can be achieved with writing intensities in the range of 200-400 mW/cm2 (532 nm), and these values remain constant after saturation. Pump-probe experiments were also used to measure the M state lifetime and our PM films were found to have the lowest M state lifetime described at this pH.

  9. Synthetic Two-Dimensional Materials: A New Paradigm of Membranes for Ultimate Separation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhikun; Grünker, Ronny; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    Microporous membranes act as selective barriers and play an important role in industrial gas separation and water purification. The permeability of such membranes is inversely proportional to their thickness. Synthetic two-dimensional materials (2DMs), with a thickness of one to a few atoms or monomer units are ideal candidates for developing separation membranes. Here, groundbreaking advances in the design, synthesis, processing, and application of 2DMs for gas and ion separations, as well as water desalination are presented. This report describes the syntheses, structures, and mechanical properties of 2DMs. The established methods for processing 2DMs into selective permeation membranes are also discussed and the separation mechanism and their performances addressed. Current challenges and emerging research directions, which need to be addressed for developing next-generation separation membranes, are summarized.

  10. Impact of colloidal and soluble organic material on membrane performance in membrane bioreactors for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, S; Laabs, C; Lesjean, B; Gnirss, R; Amy, G; Jekel, M; Schrotter, J-C

    2006-02-01

    Two parallel membrane bioreactors (2 m3 each) were operated over a period of 2 years. Both pilots were optimised for nitrification, denitrification, and enhanced biological phosphorous elimination, treating identical municipal wastewater under comparable operating conditions. The only constructional difference between the pilots was the position of the denitrification zone (pre-denitrification in pilot 1 and post-denitrification in pilot 2). Despite identical modules and conditions, the two MBRs showed different permeabilities and fouling rates. The differences were not related to the denitrification scheme. In order to find an explanation for the different membrane performances, a one-year investigation was initiated and the membrane performance as well as the operating regime and characteristics of the activated sludge were closely studied. MLSS concentrations, solid retention time, loading rates, and filtration flux were found not to be responsible for the different performance of the submerged modules. These parameters were kept identical in the two pilot plants. Instead, the non-settable fraction of the sludges (soluble and colloidal material, i.e. polysaccharides, proteins and organic colloids) was found to impact fouling and to cause the difference in membrane performance between the two MBR. This fraction was analysed by spectrophotometric and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) methods. In a second step, the origin of these substances was investigated. The results point to microbiologically produced substances such as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) or soluble microbial products (SMP).

  11. Annual replenishment of bed material by sediment transport in the Wind River near Riverton, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smalley, M.L.; Emmett, W.W.; Wacker, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Transportation, conducted a study during 1985-87 to determine the annual replenishment of sand and gravel along a point bar in the Wind River near Riverton, Wyoming. Hydraulic- geometry relations determined from streamflow measurements; streamflow characteristics determined from 45 years of record at the study site; and analyses of suspended-sediment, bedload, and bed- material samples were used to describe river transport characteristics and to estimate the annual replenishment of sand and gravel. The Wind River is a perennial, snowmelt-fed stream. Average daily discharge at the study site is about 734 cubic feet per second, and bankfull discharge (recurrence interval about 1.5 years) is about 5,000 cubic feet per second. At bankfull discharge, the river is about 136 feet wide and has an average depth of about 5.5 feet and average velocity of about 6.7 feet per second. Streams slope is about 0.0010 foot per foot. Bed material sampled on the point bar before the 1986 high flows ranged from sand to cobbles, with a median diameter of about 22 millimeters. Data for sediment samples collected during water year 1986 were used to develop regression equations between suspended-sediment load and water discharge and between bedload and water discharge. Average annual suspended-sediment load was computed to be about 561,000 tons per year using the regression equation in combination with flow-duration data. The regression equation for estimating bedload was not used; instead, average annual bedload was computed as 1.5 percent of average annual suspended load about 8,410 tons per year. This amount of bedload material is estimated to be in temporary storage along a reach containing seven riffles--a length of approximately 1 river mile. On the basis of bedload material sampled during the 1986 high flows, about 75 percent (by weight) is sand (2 millimeters in diameter or finer); median particle size is

  12. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMACC) Fiscal Year 1982. Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1983-03-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/ workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, the EMaCC aids in obtaining materials - related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Membership in the EMaCC is open to any Department organizational unit; participants are appointed by Division or Office Directors. The current membership is listed in Table 1. The EMACC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research in his capacity as overseer of the technical programs of the Department. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMACC terms of reference. In this report are described 1) EMACC activities for FY 1982; 2) a summary of materials funding in the Department from FY 1978 to the present; and 3) on-going materials programs in the Department.

  13. Comparing graphene, carbon nanotubes, and superfine powdered activated carbon as adsorptive coating materials for microfiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Ellerie, Jaclyn R; Apul, Onur G; Karanfil, Tanju; Ladner, David A

    2013-10-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), nano-graphene platelets (NGPs), and superfine powdered activated carbon (S-PAC) were comparatively evaluated for their applicability as adsorptive coatings on microfiltration membranes. The objective was to determine which materials were capable of contaminant removal while causing minimal flux reduction. Methylene blue and atrazine were the model contaminants. When applied as membrane coatings, MWCNTs had minimal retention capabilities for the model contaminants, and S-PAC had the fastest removal. The membrane coating approach was also compared with a stirred vessel configuration, in which the adsorbent was added to a stirred flask preceding the membrane cell. Direct application of the adsorbent to the membrane constituted a greater initial reduction in permeate concentrations of the model contaminants than with the stirred flask setup. All adsorbents except S-PAC showed flux reductions less than 5% after application as thin-layer membrane coatings, and flux recovery after membrane backwashing was greater than 90% for all materials and masses tested.

  14. Polypropylene track membranes as a promising material for targets with polarized protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barashkova, I. I.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Kravets, L. I.

    2014-01-01

    Polypropylene track membranes made by irradiation of polypropylene films with a beam of high-energy heavy ions followed by chemical etching of latent ion tracks are proposed for being used as a polarized target material. To give membranes paramagnetic properties needed for allowing dynamic polarization of nuclei, the nitroxyl radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl was introduced in the samples by the thermal diffusion technique. Using the electron paramagnetic resonance method, we obtained information on paramagnetic centers in the polymer matrix of the membranes and determined the nitroxyl radical concentration and rotational mobility of the spin probe in them.

  15. Self-Repair and Patterning of 2D Membrane-Like Peptoid Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Fang; Chen, Yulin; Jin, Haibao; He, Pingang; Chen, Chun-Long; De Yoreo, James J.

    2016-08-31

    Two-dimensional materials are of increasing interest for use in filtration, sensing, nanoelectronics, and biomedical devices. Peptoids are a class of biomimetic sequence-defined polymers for which certain amphiphillic sequences self-assemble into 2D crystalline materials with properties that mimic those of cell membranes. Using in situ AFM to both dissect these membrane-like materials and image their subsequent behavior, we explore their ability to self-repair on a range of solid substrates. We show that, in a suitable range of pH, self-repair occurs on both negatively and positively charged substrates and can even occur in the absence of an underlying surface. Following dissection of pre-assembled peptoid membranes and upon introduction of a peptoid monomer solution, peptoids repair the damage by assembling at the newly created edges. The speed of the advancing edge depends on the edge orientation, reflecting the two-fold symmetry of the underlying peptoid lattice. Moreover, because the membranes are stabilized by hydrophobic interactions, if the solution contains peptoids possessing an identical sequence in the hydrophobic block but a distinct hydrophilic block, filling of the defects creates membranes that are patterned at the nanoscale. Consequently, we can utilize this ability to create nm-sized patterns of distinct functional groups within a single coherent membrane.

  16. Friction properties of biological functional materials: PVDF membranes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Di, Changan; Chen, Xuguang; Li, Zhengzhi; Luo, Jia

    2017-01-02

    Touch is produced by sensations that include approaching, sliding, pressing, and temperature. This concept has become a target of research in biotechnology, especially in the field of bionic biology. This study measured sliding and pressing with traditional tactile sensors in order to improve a machine operator's judgment of surface roughness. Based on the theory of acoustic emission, this study combined polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with a sonic transducer to produce tactile sensors that can detect surface roughness. Friction between PVDF films and experimental materials generated tiny acoustic signals that were transferred into electrical signals through a sonic transducer. The characteristics of the acoustic signals for the various materials were then analyzed. The results suggest that this device can effectively distinguish among different objects based on roughness. Tactile sensors designed using this principle and structure function very similarly to the human body in recognizing the surface of an object.

  17. Some Characteristics of the Outer Membrane Material Released by Growing Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Gankema, Henk; Wensink, Jan; Guinée, Pieter A. M.; Jansen, Wim H.; Witholt, Bernard

    1980-01-01

    The high-molecular-weight material released into the medium by Escherichia coli AP1, an enterotoxigenic strain of porcine origin, has been isolated and resolved into two clearly distinct fractions, based on sucrose density gradient and differential centrifugation, chemical analysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and freeze-fracture electron microscopy. These two fractions, referred to as “medium vesicles” and “medium lipopolysaccharides”, were compared with the cellular outer and cytoplasmic membranes, the periplasmic fraction, and the cytoplasmic fraction. The medium vesicles closely resembled outer membrane and accounted for 3 to 5% of the total cellular outer membrane. They contained most of the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) activity released into the medium by E. coli AP1. The medium lipopolysaccharide consisted mostly of lipopolysaccharide and a small amount of outer membrane and contained relatively little LT activity. Based on experiments with E. coli K-12 strains, in which about 5% of the newly synthesized outer membrane is lost from areas of outer membrane synthesis, it is proposed that enterotoxigenic E. coli strains release LT as part of such newly synthesized outer membrane fragments and that released outer membrane fragments may function as physiologically significant LT carriers. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:7011982

  18. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Annual technical report, fiscal year 1988

    SciTech Connect

    1989-06-30

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees are established and are continuing their own programs: Structural Ceramics, Batteries and Fuel Cells, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Superconductivity (established in FY 1987). In addition, the EMaCC aids in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Membership in the EMaCC is open to any Department organizational unit; participants are appointed by Division or Office Directors. The current active membership is listed on the following four pages. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research in his capacity as overseer of the technical programs of the Department. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMaCC terms of reference. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1988 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  19. Radiation-grafted, chemically modified membranes part I - Synthesis of a selective aluminum material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazante-Yamaguishi, Renata; Moura, Eduardo; Manzoli, José E.; Geraldo, Aurea B. C.

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric membranes were styrene grafted by irradiation methods and the obtained material was chemically modified to become aluminum selective. For this purpose, polymeric substrates of PVC (polyvinyl chloride) and PP (polypropylene) were styrene grafted mutually by gamma and electron beam irradiation. The modification process includes three basic reaction paths: Friedel-Crafts acylation, 2-methylanisole coupling and a final oxidation to achieve aluminum selectivity. Although this specific chemical modification in derivatives of polystyrene is not new, the new challenge is to obtain a selective material where original membrane characteristics (physical shape and mechanical resistance) are minimally conserved after such an aggressive treatment.

  20. Impact of ultrafiltration membrane material on Peptide separation from a snow crab byproduct hydrolysate by electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Doyen, Alain; Beaulieu, Lucie; Saucier, Linda; Pouliot, Yves; Bazinet, Laurent

    2011-03-09

    Electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membrane (EDUF) is a technology based on the separation of molecules according to their charge and molecular mass. Some works have already successfully demonstrated the recovery of bioactive peptide fractions. However, the impact of ultrafiltration membrane (UFM) material, used in the EDUF system, on the peptide migration has never been studied. Consequently, the objectives of this work were (1) to evaluate the effect of two different UFM materials on the selective separation of peptides from a snow crab byproduct hydrolysate by electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membranes and (2) to determine the effect of UFM material on their potential fouling by peptides. It appeared that, after 6 h of EDUF separation using polyether sulfone (PES) and cellulose acetate (CA) UFM, peptides with low molecular weights ranging from 300 to 700 Da represented the most abundant population in the KCl1 (compartment located near the anode for the recovery of anionic/acid peptide fractions) and KCl2 (compartment located near the cathode for the recovery of cationic/basic peptide fractions) permeates. Peptides with molecular weights ranging from 700 to 900 Da did not migrate during the EDUF treatment. Moreover, only CA UFM allowed the recovery of high molecular weight molecules (900-20000 Da) in both KCl compartments. Peptides desorbed from PES and CA UFM after 6 h of EDUF separation had low molecular weights and belonged mainly to the 600-700 Da molecular weight range. These peptides represented a low proportion of the peptides initially present in the snow crab byproduct hydrolysate with individual molecular weight range proportions from 1.52 ± 0.31 to 10.2 ± 2.32%.

  1. Methane to syngas conversion. Part I. Equilibrium conditions and stability requirements of membrane materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frade, J. R.; Kharton, V. V.; Yaremchenko, A.; Naumovich, E.

    Thermodynamic data have been used to predict the dependence of methane conversion on temperature and oxygen partial pressure in mixed conducting membrane reactors, and the corresponding fractions of water vapor, H 2, CO and CO 2. The relations between methane conversion, gas composition and oxygen partial pressure were also used to formulate the oxygen balance in mixed conducting membrane reactors, with tubular reactor and continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) configurations. A single dimensionless parameter accounts for the combined effects of geometric parameters of the membrane reactor, the permeability of the membrane material, and flow rate at the entry of the reactor. Selected examples were calculated to illustrate the effects of steam to methane and inert to methane ratios in the gas entering the reactor. The values of oxygen partial pressure required to attain the highest yield of CO and H 2 were also used to estimate the stability requirements to be met by mixed conducting membrane materials. Suitable membrane designs might be needed to bridge the difference between the conditions inside the reactors and the stability limits of known mixed conductors.

  2. Regulation of photosynthetic membrane components in cyanobacteria. Annual report, June 1, 1991 to May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, L.A.

    1992-12-31

    The goals of this proposal were two-fold: (1) to analyze the impact of mutations in the Mn-stabilizing protein (MSP) on O{sub 2}-evolution; and (2) to analyze the effect of iron deficiency on membrane assembly in cyanobacteria. The mutations in the psbO gene were performed in the transformable and photoheterotrophic cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC6803; this strain allows PSII mutations to be propagated under nonphotosynthetic conditions. The research with iron deficiency was performed in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7942, which is transformable and which has been used previously for all of the authors nutritional-deficiency research. The Synechocystis psbO gene encodes the 33 kDa Mn-stabilizing protein (MSP) of PSII. MSP is an extrinsic protein situated on the lumenal face on the thylakoid membrane, and has been implicated in the stabilization of two of the four Mn atoms, which form the catalytic center of the H{sub 2}O-splitting reaction. There has been a long-standing controversy surrounding the problem. All previous genetic results indicated that MSP was required for O{sub 2}-evolution in vivo. In contrast, biochemical depletion/reconstitution studies suggested that MSP is not absolutely essential, but promotes optimal rates of O{sub 2}-evolving activity by accelerating certain catalytic steps of the reaction cycle.

  3. The Subsequent Dissemination of Material Presented in Sessions of the Metallurgical Society at the 96th AIME Annual Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD. Center for Research in Scientific Communication.

    Studies of 255 authors of program material at the Metallurgical Society session of the 96th American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) Annual Meeting yielded data on the subsequent dissemination of presented material during the year following the meeting. Data showed that three-fourths of the authors who made…

  4. Metalized Nanocellulose Composites as a Feasible Material for Membrane Supports: Design and Applications for Water Treatment.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Tato, Perla; Ortiz-Quiles, Edwin O; Vega-Figueroa, Karlene; Santiago-Martoral, Liz; Flynn, Michael; Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M; Nicolau, Eduardo

    2017-04-18

    Herein, we study the feasibility of using nanocellulose (NC)-based composites with silver and platinum nanoparticles as additive materials to fabricate the support layer of thin film composite (TFC) membranes for water purification applications. In brief, the NC surface was chemically modified and then was decorated with silver and platinum nanoparticles, respectively, by chemical reduction. These metalized nanocellulose composites (MNC) were characterized by several techniques including: FTIR, XPS, TGA, XRD, and XANES to probe their integrity. Thereafter, we fabricated the MNC-TFC membranes and the support layer was modified to improve the membrane properties. The membranes were thoroughly characterized, and the performance was evaluated in forward osmosis (FO) mode with various feed solutions: nanopure water, urea, and wastewater samples. The fabricated membranes exhibited finger-like pore morphologies and varying pore sizes. Interestingly, higher water fluxes and solute rejection was obtained with the MNC-TFC membranes with wastewater samples. The overall approach of this work provides an effort to fabricated membranes with high water flux and enhanced selectivity.

  5. A review on dynamic membrane filtration: materials, applications and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ersahin, Mustafa Evren; Ozgun, Hale; Dereli, Recep Kaan; Ozturk, Izzet; Roest, Kees; van Lier, Jules B

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of the current status of dynamic membrane (DM) technology as an alternative to membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems. DM filtration makes use of a physical barrier (e.g. cloth or mesh) on which a cake layer is formed. It is already used in traditional filtration systems, but applications in biological wastewater treatment are still at its infancy. Dynamic filtration of sludge has lower risk of fouling and requires less energy and lower capital costs compared to MBR. A review of the state-of-art in both DM materials and configurations is presented. Factors affecting DM performance are discussed in order to determine the optimum and critical approaches for membrane operation. Future perspectives to enhance the applicability and functionality of the technology regarding the treatment and membrane performance are presented.

  6. Polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs): organic materials for membrane separations, heterogeneous catalysis and hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Neil B; Budd, Peter M

    2006-08-01

    This tutorial review describes recent research directed towards the synthesis of polymer-based organic microporous materials termed Polymers of Intrinsic Microporosity (PIMs). PIMs can be prepared either as insoluble networks or soluble polymers with both types giving solids that exhibit analogous behaviour to that of conventional microporous materials such as activated carbons. Soluble PIMs may be processed into thin films for use as highly selective gas separation membranes. Preliminary results also demonstrate the potential of PIMs for heterogeneous catalysis and hydrogen storage.

  7. Modified by air plasma polymer tack membranes as drainage material for antiglaucomatous operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryazantseva, T. V.; Kravets, L. I.; Elinson, V. M.

    2014-06-01

    The morphological and clinical studies of poly(ethylene terephthalate) track membranes modified by air plasma as drainage materials for antiglaucomatous operations were performed. It was demonstrated their compatibility with eye tissues. Moreover, it was shown that a new drainage has a good lasting hypotensive effect and can be used as operation for refractory glaucoma surgery.

  8. Fiscal Year 1993 annual report for the Bubble Membrane Radiator Project

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, R.J.; Pauley, K.A.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Sambrook, J.M.

    1994-02-01

    This report summarizes the activities conducted on the Bubble Membrane Radiator (BMR) Project during Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington. Funding for this work has been provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC), Crew and Thermal Sciences Division. The BMR Project was initiated at PNL in March 1988 to continue development of promising thermal management concepts for space applications. In FY 1992 work was refocused from the BMR to fabrication and testing of ultralight fabric reflux tubes (UFRT) because of progress in this area and the desire to incorporate this concept in thermal management for a lunar colony. Development, optimization, and testing of UFRTs continued in FY 1993 under five tasks. Task B, Radiative Properties, and Task D, Development of Tough Metal UFRT Technology, were initiated in FY 1992 and completed this year. Three additional tasks were initiated: Task 1, Fabricate Tubes; Task 2, Heat Transfer Optimization; and Task 3, Analyses Follow-On. A summary of the activities under these tasks and conclusions are provided below.

  9. Contact probing of stretched membranes and adhesive interactions: graphene and other two-dimensional materials

    PubMed Central

    Galanov, Boris A.

    2016-01-01

    Contact probing is the preferable method for studying mechanical properties of thin two-dimensional (2D) materials. These studies are based on analysis of experimental force–displacement curves obtained by loading of a stretched membrane by a probe of an atomic force microscope or a nanoindenter. Both non-adhesive and adhesive contact interactions between such a probe and a 2D membrane are studied. As an example of the 2D materials, we consider a graphene crystal monolayer whose discrete structure is modelled as a 2D isotropic elastic membrane. Initially, for contact between a punch and the stretched circular membrane, we formulate and solve problems that are analogies to the Hertz-type and Boussinesq frictionless contact problems. A general statement for the slope of the force–displacement curve is formulated and proved. Then analogies to the JKR (Johnson, Kendall and Roberts) and the Boussinesq–Kendall contact problems in the presence of adhesive interactions are formulated. General nonlinear relations among the actual force, displacements and contact radius between a sticky membrane and an arbitrary axisymmetric indenter are derived. The dimensionless form of the equations for power-law shaped indenters has been analysed, and the explicit expressions are derived for the values of the pull-off force and corresponding critical contact radius. PMID:27956879

  10. Contact probing of stretched membranes and adhesive interactions: graphene and other two-dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodich, Feodor M.; Galanov, Boris A.

    2016-11-01

    Contact probing is the preferable method for studying mechanical properties of thin two-dimensional (2D) materials. These studies are based on analysis of experimental force-displacement curves obtained by loading of a stretched membrane by a probe of an atomic force microscope or a nanoindenter. Both non-adhesive and adhesive contact interactions between such a probe and a 2D membrane are studied. As an example of the 2D materials, we consider a graphene crystal monolayer whose discrete structure is modelled as a 2D isotropic elastic membrane. Initially, for contact between a punch and the stretched circular membrane, we formulate and solve problems that are analogies to the Hertz-type and Boussinesq frictionless contact problems. A general statement for the slope of the force-displacement curve is formulated and proved. Then analogies to the JKR (Johnson, Kendall and Roberts) and the Boussinesq-Kendall contact problems in the presence of adhesive interactions are formulated. General nonlinear relations among the actual force, displacements and contact radius between a sticky membrane and an arbitrary axisymmetric indenter are derived. The dimensionless form of the equations for power-law shaped indenters has been analysed, and the explicit expressions are derived for the values of the pull-off force and corresponding critical contact radius.

  11. Contact probing of stretched membranes and adhesive interactions: graphene and other two-dimensional materials.

    PubMed

    Borodich, Feodor M; Galanov, Boris A

    2016-11-01

    Contact probing is the preferable method for studying mechanical properties of thin two-dimensional (2D) materials. These studies are based on analysis of experimental force-displacement curves obtained by loading of a stretched membrane by a probe of an atomic force microscope or a nanoindenter. Both non-adhesive and adhesive contact interactions between such a probe and a 2D membrane are studied. As an example of the 2D materials, we consider a graphene crystal monolayer whose discrete structure is modelled as a 2D isotropic elastic membrane. Initially, for contact between a punch and the stretched circular membrane, we formulate and solve problems that are analogies to the Hertz-type and Boussinesq frictionless contact problems. A general statement for the slope of the force-displacement curve is formulated and proved. Then analogies to the JKR (Johnson, Kendall and Roberts) and the Boussinesq-Kendall contact problems in the presence of adhesive interactions are formulated. General nonlinear relations among the actual force, displacements and contact radius between a sticky membrane and an arbitrary axisymmetric indenter are derived. The dimensionless form of the equations for power-law shaped indenters has been analysed, and the explicit expressions are derived for the values of the pull-off force and corresponding critical contact radius.

  12. Materials and characterization techniques for high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zeis, Roswitha

    2015-01-01

    The performance of high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFC) is critically dependent on the selection of materials and optimization of individual components. A conventional high-temperature membrane electrode assembly (HT-MEA) primarily consists of a polybenzimidazole (PBI)-type membrane containing phosphoric acid and two gas diffusion electrodes (GDE), the anode and the cathode, attached to the two surfaces of the membrane. This review article provides a survey on the materials implemented in state-of-the-art HT-MEAs. These materials must meet extremely demanding requirements because of the severe operating conditions of HT-PEMFCs. They need to be electrochemically and thermally stable in highly acidic environment. The polymer membranes should exhibit high proton conductivity in low-hydration and even anhydrous states. Of special concern for phosphoric-acid-doped PBI-type membranes is the acid loss and management during operation. The slow oxygen reduction reaction in HT-PEMFCs remains a challenge. Phosphoric acid tends to adsorb onto the surface of the platinum catalyst and therefore hampers the reaction kinetics. Additionally, the binder material plays a key role in regulating the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity of the catalyst layer. Subsequently, the binder controls the electrode-membrane interface that establishes the triple phase boundary between proton conductive electrolyte, electron conductive catalyst, and reactant gases. Moreover, the elevated operating temperatures promote carbon corrosion and therefore degrade the integrity of the catalyst support. These are only some examples how materials properties affect the stability and performance of HT-PEMFCs. For this reason, materials characterization techniques for HT-PEMFCs, either in situ or ex situ, are highly beneficial. Significant progress has recently been made in this field, which enables us to gain a better understanding of underlying processes occurring during fuel cell

  13. Materials and characterization techniques for high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary The performance of high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFC) is critically dependent on the selection of materials and optimization of individual components. A conventional high-temperature membrane electrode assembly (HT-MEA) primarily consists of a polybenzimidazole (PBI)-type membrane containing phosphoric acid and two gas diffusion electrodes (GDE), the anode and the cathode, attached to the two surfaces of the membrane. This review article provides a survey on the materials implemented in state-of-the-art HT-MEAs. These materials must meet extremely demanding requirements because of the severe operating conditions of HT-PEMFCs. They need to be electrochemically and thermally stable in highly acidic environment. The polymer membranes should exhibit high proton conductivity in low-hydration and even anhydrous states. Of special concern for phosphoric-acid-doped PBI-type membranes is the acid loss and management during operation. The slow oxygen reduction reaction in HT-PEMFCs remains a challenge. Phosphoric acid tends to adsorb onto the surface of the platinum catalyst and therefore hampers the reaction kinetics. Additionally, the binder material plays a key role in regulating the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity of the catalyst layer. Subsequently, the binder controls the electrode–membrane interface that establishes the triple phase boundary between proton conductive electrolyte, electron conductive catalyst, and reactant gases. Moreover, the elevated operating temperatures promote carbon corrosion and therefore degrade the integrity of the catalyst support. These are only some examples how materials properties affect the stability and performance of HT-PEMFCs. For this reason, materials characterization techniques for HT-PEMFCs, either in situ or ex situ, are highly beneficial. Significant progress has recently been made in this field, which enables us to gain a better understanding of underlying processes occurring during

  14. Amniotic membrane - A Novel material for the root coverage: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anamika; Yadav, Komal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Periodontal plastic surgical procedures aimed at coverage of exposed root surface. Owing to the second surgical donor site and difficulty in procuring a sufficient graft for the treatment of root coverage procedures, various alternative additive membranes have been used. A recent resorbable amniotic membrane, not only maintains the structural and anatomical configuration of regenerated tissues, but also enhances gingival wound healing, provides a rich source of stem cells. Therefore, amniotic membrane is choice of material these days in augmenting the better results in various periodontal procedures. Aim: The aim of this observational case series was to evaluate the effectiveness, predictability and the use of a novel material, amniotic membrane in the treatment of shallow-to-moderate isolated recession defects. Materials and Methods: A total of three cases, showing Miller's Class I or Class II gingival recession, participated in this study. Recession depth, recession width, keratinized gingiva (KG) tissue width, clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded at baseline, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Results: Six months following root coverage procedures, the mean root coverage was found to be 70.2 ± 6.8%. CAL significantly decreased from 6.4 ± 0.54 mm preoperatively to 3.5 ± 0.9 mm postoperatively at 6 months while KG showed significant improvement from 3.2 ± 0.28 mm preoperatively to 5.9 ± 0.74 mm postoperatively at 6 months. Conclusion: Autogenous graft tissue procurement significantly increases patient morbidity while also lengthening the duration of surgery in placing the graft, while self-adherent nature of amniotic membrane significantly reduces surgical time and made the procedure easier to perform, making it membrane of choice. PMID:26392696

  15. Utilization of Shrimp Skin Waste (Sea Lobster) As Raw Material for the Membrane Filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyoman Rupiasih, Ni; Sumadiyasa, Made; Suyanto, Hery; Windari, Putri

    2017-05-01

    In view of the increasing littering of the sea banks by shells of crustaceans, a study was carried out to investigate the extraction and characterization of chitosan from skin waste of sea lobster i.e. ‘Bamboo Lobster’ (Panulirus versicolor). Chitosan was extracted using conventional methods such as pretreatment, demineralization, deprotienization, and deacetylation. The result showed that the degree of deacetylation of chitosan obtained is 70.02%. The FTIR spectra of the chitosan gave a characteristic of -NH2 band at 3447 cm-1 and carbonyl group band at 1655 cm-1. This chitosan has been used to prepare membrane. The chitosan membrane 2% has been prepared using phase inversion method with precipitation by solvent evaporation. The membranes were characterized by FTIR spectrophotometer, Nova 1200e using BJH method, and filtration method. The results show that thickness of the membrane is about 134 μm. The FTIR spectra show that functional groups present in the membrane are -NH, -CH, C=O, and -OH. Using BJH method obtained that the pore diameter is 3.382 nm with pore density is 8.95 x 105 pores/m3. By filtration method obtained that pure water flux (PWF) of the membrane are 386.662 and 489.627 1/m2.h at pressure 80-85 kPa and 90-100 kPa, respectively. These results show that skin waste of sea lobster was discovered as a raw material to prepare chitosan membrane. The membrane obtained is belonged to mesoporous group which may use in microfiltration process.

  16. Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells; Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storate

    SciTech Connect

    Gopal Rao, MRS Web-Editor; Yury Gogotsi, Drexel University; Karen Swider-Lyons, Naval Research Laboratory

    2010-08-05

    Symposium T: Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are under intense investigation worldwide for applications ranging from transportation to portable power. The purpose of this seminar is to focus on the nanomaterials and nanostructures inherent to polymer fuel cells. Symposium topics will range from high-activity cathode and anode catalysts, to theory and new analytical methods. Symposium U: Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storage Electricity, which can be generated in a variety of ways, offers a great potential for meeting future energy demands as a clean and efficient energy source. However, the use of electricity generated from renewable sources, such as wind or sunlight, requires efficient electrical energy storage. This symposium will cover the latest material developments for batteries, advanced capacitors, and related technologies, with a focus on new or emerging materials science challenges.

  17. Chemical vapor deposition of atomically thin materials for membrane dialysis applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidambi, Piran; Mok, Alexander; Jang, Doojoon; Boutilier, Michael; Wang, Luda; Karnik, Rohit; Microfluidics; Nanofluidics Research Lab Team

    2015-11-01

    Atomically thin 2D materials like graphene and h-BN represent a new class of membranes materials. They offer the possibility of minimum theoretical membrane transport resistance along with the opportunity to tune pore sizes at the nanometer scale. Chemical vapor deposition has emerged as the preferable route towards scalable, cost effective synthesis of 2D materials. Here we show selective molecular transport through sub-nanometer diameter pores in graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition processes. A combination of pressure driven and diffusive transport measurements shows evidence for size selective transport behavior which can be used for separation by dialysis for applications such as desalting of biomolecular or chemical solutions. Principal Investigator

  18. Parylene as a new membrane material for BioMEMS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bo

    The work in this thesis aims to use MEMS and microfabrication technologies to develop two types of parylene membrane devices for biomedical applications. The first device is the parylene membrane filter for cancer detection. The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in patient blood is an important sign of cancer metastasis. However, currently there are two big challenges for CTC detection. First, CTCs are extremely rare, especially at the early stage of cancer metastasis. Secondly, CTCs are very fragile, and are very likely to be damaged during the capturing process. By using size-based membrane filtration through the specially designed parylene filters, together with a constant-pressure filtration system, we are able to capture the CTCs from patient blood with high capture efficiency, high viability, moderate enrichment, and high throughput. Both immunofluorescence enumeration and telomerase activity detection have been used to detect and differentiate the captured CTCs. The feasibility of further cell culture of the captured CTCs has also been demonstrated, which could be a useful way to increase the number of CTCs for future studies. Models of the time-dependent cell membrane damage are developed to predict and prevent CTC damage during this detection process. The results of clinical trials further demonstrate that the parylene membrane filter is a promising device for cancer detection. The second device is the parylene artificial Bruch's membrane for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is usually characterized by an impaired Bruch's membrane with much lowered permeability, which impedes the transportation of nutrients from choroid vessels to nourish the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and photoreceptors. Parylene is selected as a substitute material because of its good mechanical properties, transparency, biocompatibility, and machinability. More importantly, it is found that the permeability of submicron parylene is very similar to that of

  19. Fabrication of GaN nanotubular material using MOCVD with aluminum oxide membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Woo-Gwang; Jung, Se-Hyuck; Kung, Patrick; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2006-02-01

    GaN nanotubular material is fabricated with aluminum oxide membrane in MOCVD. SEM, XRD, TEM and PL are employed to characterize the fabricated GaN nanotubular material. An aluminum oxide membrane with ordered nano holes is used as template. Gallium nitride is deposited at the inner wall of the nano holes in aluminum oxide template, and the nanotubular material with high aspect ratio is synthesized using the precursors of TMG and ammonia gas. Optimal synthesis condition in MOCVD is obtained successfully for the gallium nitride nanotubular material in this research. The diameter of GaN nanotube fabricated is approximately 200 ~ 250 nm and the wall thickness is about 40 ~ 50 nm. GaN nanotubular material consists of numerous fine GaN particulates with sizes ranging 15 to 30 nm. The composition of gallium nitride is confirmed to be stoichiometrically 1:1 for Ga and N by EDS. XRD and TEM analyses indicate that grains in GaN nanotubular material have nano-crystalline structure. No blue shift is found in the PL spectrum on the GaN nanotubular material fabricated in aluminum oxide template.

  20. Fabrication of GaN nanotubular material using MOCVD with an aluminium oxide membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Woo-Gwang; Jung, Se-Hyuck; Kung, Patrick; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2006-01-01

    GaN nanotubular material is fabricated with an aluminium oxide membrane in MOCVD. SEM, XRD, TEM and PL are employed to characterize the fabricated GaN nanotubular material. An aluminium oxide membrane with ordered nanoholes is used as a template. Gallium nitride is deposited at the inner wall of the nanoholes in the aluminium oxide template, and the nanotubular material with high aspect ratio is synthesized using the precursors of TMG and ammonia gas. Optimal synthesis conditions in MOCVD are obtained successfully for the gallium nitride nanotubular material in this research. The diameter of the GaN nanotube fabricated is approximately 200-250 nm and the wall thickness is about 40-50 nm. GaN nanotubular material consists of numerous fine GaN particulates with size range 15-30 nm. The composition of gallium nitride is confirmed to be stoichiometrically 1:1 for Ga and N by EDS. XRD and TEM analyses indicate that the grains in GaN nanotubular material have a nano-crystalline structure. No blue shift is found in the PL spectrum on the GaN nanotubular material fabricated in an aluminium oxide template.

  1. Engineered Graphene Materials: Synthesis and Applications for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    He, Daping; Tang, Haolin; Kou, Zongkui; Pan, Mu; Sun, Xueliang; Zhang, Jiujun; Mu, Shichun

    2017-05-01

    Engineered graphene materials (EGMs) with unique structures and properties have been incorporated into various components of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) such as electrode, membrane, and bipolar plates to achieve enhanced performances in terms of electrical conductivity, mechanical durability, corrosion resistance, and electrochemical surface area. This research news article provides an overview of the recent development in EGMs and EGM-based PEMFCs with a focus on the effects of EGMs on PEMFC performance when they are incorporated into different components of PEMFCs. The challenges of EGMs for practical PEMFC applications in terms of production scale, stability, conductivity, and coupling capability with other materials are also discussed and the corresponding measures and future research trends to overcome such challenges are proposed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A review of composite and metallic bipolar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cell: Materials, fabrication, and material selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taherian, Reza

    2014-11-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells offer exceptional potential for a clean, efficient, and reliable power source. The bipolar plate (BP) is a key component in this device, as it connects each cell electrically, supplies reactant gases to both anode and cathode, and removes reaction products from the cell. BPs have primarily been fabricated from high-density graphite, but in recent years, much attention has been paid to develop the cost-effective and feasible alternative materials. Recently, two different classes of materials have been attracted attention: metals and composite materials. This paper offers a comprehensive review of the current researches being carried out on the metallic and composite BPs, covering materials and fabrication methods. In this research, the phenomenon of ionic contamination due to the release of the corrosion products of metallic BP and relative impact on the durability as well as performance of PEM fuel cells is extensively investigated. Furthermore, in this paper, upon several effective parameters on commercialization of PEM fuel cells, such as stack cost, weight, volume, durability, strength, ohmic resistance, and ionic contamination, a material selection is performed among the most common BPs currently being used. This material selection is conducted by using Simple Additive Weighting Method (SAWM).

  3. Cleaning Aged EPDM Rubber Roofing Membrane Material for Patching: Laboratory Investigations and Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    preparation on the surface characteristics of a cleaned sheet of aged EPDM rubber and the bond strength of seam specimens fabricated from it. This report...aged EPDM membrane material under creep conditions was compared with that of specimens fabricated from new, well cleaned EPDM rubber . 5. The results...field seams fabricated from solvent-based adhesives and new EPDM rubber .1 9 Only three of the surface cleaning methods (No. 2, 4, and 11) produced

  4. Two-component membrane material properties and domain formation from dissipative particle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Illya, G; Lipowsky, R; Shillcock, J C

    2006-09-21

    The material parameters (area stretch modulus and bending rigidity) of two-component amphiphilic membranes are determined from dissipative particle dynamics simulations. The preferred area per molecule for each species is varied so as to produce homogeneous mixtures or nonhomogeneous mixtures that form domains. If the latter mixtures are composed of amphiphiles with the same tail length, but different preferred areas per molecule, their material parameters increase monotonically as a function of composition. By contrast, mixtures of amphiphiles that differ in both tail length and preferred area per molecule form both homogeneous and nonhomogeneous mixtures that both exhibit smaller values of their material properties compared to the corresponding pure systems. When the same nonhomogeneous mixtures of amphiphiles are assembled into planar membrane patches and vesicles, the resulting domain shapes are different when the bending rigidities of the domains are sufficiently different. Additionally, both bilayer and monolayer domains are observed in vesicles. We conclude that the evolution of the domain shapes is influenced by the high curvature of the vesicles in the simulation, a result that may be relevant for biological vesicle membranes.

  5. High Temperature Materials Laboratory, Eleventh Annual Report: October 1997 through September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Pasto, A.E.; Russell, B.J.

    2000-03-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) has completed its eleventh year of operation as a designated US Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This document profiles the historical growth of the HTML User and Fellowship Programs since their inception in 1987. Growth of the HTML programs has been demonstrated by the number of institutions executing user agreements and by the number of days of instrument use (user days) since the HTML began operation.A total of 522 agreements (351 industry,156 university,and 15 other federal agency) are now in effect (452 nonproprietary and 70 proprietary). This represents an increase of 75 user agreements since the last reporting period (for FY 1997). A state-by-state summary of the nonproprietary user agreements is given in Appendix A. Forty-six states are represented. During FY 1998, the HTML User Program evaluated 80 nonproprietary proposals (32 from industry, 45 from universities, and 3 from other government facilities) and several proprietary proposals. Appendix B provides a detailed breakdown of the nonproprietary proposals received during FY 1998. The HTML User Advisory Committee approved about 95% of those proposals, sometimes after the prospective user revised the proposal based on comments from the committee. This annual report discusses activities in the individual user centers as well as plans for the future. It also gives statistics about users, proposals, and publications as well as summaries of the nonproprietary research projects active during 1998.

  6. High Temperature Materials Laboratory seventh annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Tennery, V.J.; Teague, P.A.

    1994-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) has completed its seventh year of operation as a designated Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the User Program has been demonstrated by the number of institutions executing user agreements since the HTML began operation in 1987. A total of 193 nonproprietary agreements (91 industry and 102 university) and 41 proprietary agreements (39 industry and two university) are now in effect. This represents an increase of 21 nonproprietary user agreements during FY 1994. Forty-one states are represented by these users. During FY 1994, the HTML User Program evaluated 106 nonproprietary proposals (46 from industry, 52 from universities, and 8 from other government facilities) and 8 proprietary proposals. The HTML User Advisory Committee approved about ninety-five percent of those evaluated proposals, sometimes after the prospective user revised the proposal based on comments from the Committee. This annual report discusses FY 1994 activities in the individual user centers, as well as plans for the future. It also gives statistics about users and their proposals and FY 1994 publications, and summarizes nonproprietary research projects active in FY 1994.

  7. High Temperature Materials Laboratory eight and ninth annual reports, October 1994 through September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pasto, A.E.; Russell, B.J.

    1997-10-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) has completed its ninth year of operation as a designated US Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This document profiles the historical growth of the HTML User and Fellowship Programs since their inception in 1987. Growth of the HTML programs has been demonstrated by the number of institutions executing user agreements, and by the number of days of instrument use (user days) since the HTML began operation. A total of 276 nonproprietary agreements (135 industry, 135 university, and 6 other federal agency) and 56 proprietary agreements are now in effect. This represents an increase of 70 nonproprietary user agreements since the last reporting period (for FY 1994). A state-by-state summary of these nonproprietary user agreements is given in Appendix A, and an alphabetical listing is provided in Appendix B. Forty-four states are represented by these users. During FY 1995 and 1996, the HTML User Program evaluated 145 nonproprietary proposals (62 from industry, 82 from universities, and 1 from other government facilities) and several proprietary proposals. The HTML User Advisory Committee approved about 95% of those proposals, frequently after the prospective user revised the proposal based on comments from the committee. This annual report discusses activities in the individual user centers, as well as plans for the future. It also gives statistics about users, proposals, and publications as well as summaries of the nonproprietary research projects active during 1995 and 1996.

  8. High Temperature Materials Laboratory Thirteenth Annual Report: October 1999 Through September 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Pasto, AE

    2001-11-07

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program continued to work with industrial, academic, and governmental users this year, accepting 86 new projects and developing 50 new user agreements. The table on the following page presents the breakdown of these statistics. The figure on page 2 depicts the continued growth in user agreements and user projects. You may note that our total number of proposals is nearing 1000, and we expect to achieve this number in our first proposal review meeting of FY 2001. The large number of new agreements bodes well for the future. A list of proposals to the HTML follows this section; at the end of the report, we present a list of agreements between HTML and universities and industries, broken down by state. Program highlights this year included several outstanding user projects (some of which are discussed in later sections), the annual meeting of the HTML Programs Senior Advisory Committee, the completion of a formal Multiyear Program Plan (MYPP), and finalization of a purchase agreement with JEOL for a new-generation electron microscope.

  9. Materials and fractal designs for 3D multifunctional integumentary membranes with capabilities in cardiac electrotherapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lizhi; Gutbrod, Sarah R; Ma, Yinji; Petrossians, Artin; Liu, Yuhao; Webb, R Chad; Fan, Jonathan A; Yang, Zijian; Xu, Renxiao; Whalen, John J; Weiland, James D; Huang, Yonggang; Efimov, Igor R; Rogers, John A

    2015-03-11

    Advanced materials and fractal design concepts form the basis of a 3D conformal electronic platform with unique capabilities in cardiac electrotherapies. Fractal geometries, advanced electrode materials, and thin, elastomeric membranes yield a class of device capable of integration with the entire 3D surface of the heart, with unique operational capabilities in low power defibrillation. Co-integrated collections of sensors allow simultaneous monitoring of physiological responses. Animal experiments on Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts demonstrate the key features of these systems. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Functionally gradient material for membrane reactors to convert methane gas into value-added products

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Kobylinski, T.P.

    1996-11-12

    A functionally gradient material for a membrane reactor for converting methane gas into value-added-products includes an outer tube of perovskite, which contacts air; an inner tube which contacts methane gas, of zirconium oxide, and a bonding layer between the perovskite and zirconium oxide layers. The bonding layer has one or more layers of a mixture of perovskite and zirconium oxide, with the layers transitioning from an excess of perovskite to an excess of zirconium oxide. The transition layers match thermal expansion coefficients and other physical properties between the two different materials. 7 figs.

  11. Functionally gradient material for membrane reactors to convert methane gas into value-added products

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Dusek, Joseph T.; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thadeus P.

    1996-01-01

    A functionally gradient material for a membrane reactor for converting methane gas into value-added-products includes an outer tube of perovskite, which contacts air; an inner tube which contacts methane gas, of zirconium oxide, and a bonding layer between the perovskite and zirconium oxide layers. The bonding layer has one or more layers of a mixture of perovskite and zirconium oxide, with the layers transitioning from an excess of perovskite to an excess of zirconium oxide. The transition layers match thermal expansion coefficients and other physical properties between the two different materials.

  12. Development of modifications to the material point method for the simulation of thin membranes, compressible fluids, and their interactions

    SciTech Connect

    York, A.R. II

    1997-07-01

    The material point method (MPM) is an evolution of the particle in cell method where Lagrangian particles or material points are used to discretize the volume of a material. The particles carry properties such as mass, velocity, stress, and strain and move through a Eulerian or spatial mesh. The momentum equation is solved on the Eulerian mesh. Modifications to the material point method are developed that allow the simulation of thin membranes, compressible fluids, and their dynamic interactions. A single layer of material points through the thickness is used to represent a membrane. The constitutive equation for the membrane is applied in the local coordinate system of each material point. Validation problems are presented and numerical convergence is demonstrated. Fluid simulation is achieved by implementing a constitutive equation for a compressible, viscous, Newtonian fluid and by solution of the energy equation. The fluid formulation is validated by simulating a traveling shock wave in a compressible fluid. Interactions of the fluid and membrane are handled naturally with the method. The fluid and membrane communicate through the Eulerian grid on which forces are calculated due to the fluid and membrane stress states. Validation problems include simulating a projectile impacting an inflated airbag. In some impact simulations with the MPM, bodies may tend to stick together when separating. Several algorithms are proposed and tested that allow bodies to separate from each other after impact. In addition, several methods are investigated to determine the local coordinate system of a membrane material point without relying upon connectivity data.

  13. Lateral acoustic wave resonator comprising a suspended membrane of low damping resonator material

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady; , Ihab F.; Ziaei-Moayyed, Maryam; Branch; , Darren W.; Su; Mehmet F.,; Reinke; Charles M.,

    2013-09-03

    A very high-Q, low insertion loss resonator can be achieved by storing many overtone cycles of a lateral acoustic wave (i.e., Lamb wave) in a lithographically defined suspended membrane comprising a low damping resonator material, such as silicon carbide. The high-Q resonator can sets up a Fabry-Perot cavity in a low-damping resonator material using high-reflectivity acoustic end mirrors, which can comprise phononic crystals. The lateral overtone acoustic wave resonator can be electrically transduced by piezoelectric couplers. The resonator Q can be increased without increasing the impedance or insertion loss by storing many cycles or wavelengths in the high-Q resonator material, with much lower damping than the piezoelectric transducer material.

  14. Flexible magnetic membranes based on bacterial cellulose and its evaluation as electromagnetic interference shielding material.

    PubMed

    Marins, Jéssica A; Soares, Bluma G; Barud, Hernane S; Ribeiro, Sidney J L

    2013-10-01

    Flexible magnetic membranes with high proportion of magnetite were successfully prepared by previous impregnation of the never dried bacterial cellulose pellicles with ferric chloride followed by reduction with sodium bisulfite and alkaline treatment for magnetite precipitation. Membranes were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating magnetometer, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) and impedance spectroscopy. Microwave properties of these membranes were investigated in the X-band (8.2 to 12.4 GHz). FEG-SEM micrographs show an effective coverage of the BC nanofibers by Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Membranes with up to 75% in weight of particles have been prepared after 60 min of reaction. Magnetite nanoparticles in the form of aggregates well adhered to the BC fibers were observed by SEM. The average crystal sizes of the magnetic particles were in the range of 10±1 to 13±1 nm (estimated by XRD). The magnetic particles in the BC pellicles presented superparamagnetic behavior with a saturation magnetization in the range of 60 emu g(-1) and coercive force around 15 Oe. These magnetic pellicles also displayed high electrical permittivity and a potential application as microwave absorber materials.

  15. Treatment of nitrate-rich water in a baffled membrane bioreactor (BMBR) employing waste derived materials.

    PubMed

    Basu, Subhankar; Singh, Saurabh K; Tewari, Prahlad K; Batra, Vidya S; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2014-12-15

    Nitrate removal in submerged membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is limited as intensive aeration (for maintaining adequate dissolved oxygen levels and for membrane scouring) deters the formation of anoxic zones essential for biological denitrification. The present study employs baffled membrane bioreactor (BMBR) to overcome this constraint. Treatment of nitrate rich water (synthetic and real groundwater) was investigated. Sludge separation was achieved using ceramic membrane filters prepared from waste sugarcane bagasse ash. A complex external carbon source (leachate from anaerobic digestion of food waste) was used to maintain an appropriate C/N ratio. Over 90% COD and 95% NO3-N reduction was obtained. The bagasse ash filters produced a clear permeate, free of suspended solids. Sludge aggregates were observed in the reactor and were linked to the high extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content. Lower sludge volume index (40 mL/g compared to 150 mL/g for seed sludge), higher settling velocity (47 m/h compared to 10 m/h for seed sludge) and sludge aggregates (0.7 mm aggregates compared to <0.2 mm for seed sludge) was observed. The results demonstrate the potential of waste-derived materials viz. food waste leachate and bagasse ash filters in water treatment.

  16. Oriented free-standing ammonium vanadium oxide nanobelt membranes: highly selective absorbent materials.

    PubMed

    Zou, Rujia; Zhang, Zhenyu; Yu, Li; Tian, Qiwei; Wu, Jianghong; Sun, Yangang; Chen, Zhigang; Hu, Junqing

    2010-12-27

    Highly selective, absorbent, free-standing, paper-like membranes made of ammonium vanadium oxide (NH(4)V(4)O(14)) nanobelts have been engineered by taking advantage of the nanoscaled self-assembly of architectures that display a mesh structure with an average periodic pore size of about 5 to 10 nm. The NH(4)V(4)O(14) nanobelts are synthesized by using a simple hydrothermal process, and exhibit the same orientation and assemble into bundles, each about 40 to 80 nm in width, 3 to 5 nm in thickness, and up to several millimeters in length. Importantly, the as-obtained NH(4)V(4)O(14) nanobelt membranes can highly selectively absorb a variety of organic solvents, covering both polar and non-polar solvents, for example, the absorbent capacity of glycol is 28 times as high as the initial weight of the membrane, and it can even separate organic solvents with similar polarities and absorb solid contaminants in organic solvents. These highly selective, absorbent membrane materials can be an ideal candidate for the separation and removal of pollution in industrial and environmental applications.

  17. Design of antimicrobial membrane based on polymer colloids/multiwall carbon nanotubes hybrid material with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rusen, Edina; Mocanu, Alexandra; Nistor, Leona Cristina; Dinescu, Adrian; Călinescu, Ioan; Mustăţea, Gabriel; Voicu, Ştefan Ioan; Andronescu, Corina; Diacon, Aurel

    2014-10-22

    The aim of this study was to obtain membranes with antimicrobial activity presenting a complex sandwich-type structure. The outer layers are comprised of poly(methyl methacrylate) membranes, whereas the inner active layer consists of a modified commercial membrane to achieve antimicrobial properties. This activity arises due to the presence of silver nanoparticles in a material with a hybrid composition deposited on a commercial membrane. This hybrid material consists of polymer colloids and multiwall carbon nanotubes used for both the stabilization of the active layer by the interconnections of the polymer particles and as active component. The filtration tests revealed a good stability of the materials and an increased hydrophilicity of the hybrid membranes. The antimicrobial properties have been evaluated using Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and have been correlated with the content and migration rate of silver ions.

  18. A multi-material topology optimization approach for wrinkle-free design of cable-suspended membrane structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yangjun; Niu, Yanzhuang; Li, Ming; Kang, Zhan

    2017-06-01

    In order to eliminate stress-related wrinkles in cable-suspended membrane structures and to provide simple and reliable deployment, this study presents a multi-material topology optimization model and an effective solution procedure for generating optimal connected layouts for membranes and cables. On the basis of the principal stress criterion of membrane wrinkling behavior and the density-based interpolation of multi-phase materials, the optimization objective is to maximize the total structural stiffness while satisfying principal stress constraints and specified material volume requirements. By adopting the cosine-type relaxation scheme to avoid the stress singularity phenomenon, the optimization model is successfully solved through a standard gradient-based algorithm. Four-corner tensioned membrane structures with different loading cases were investigated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in automatically finding the optimal design composed of curved boundary cables and wrinkle-free membranes.

  19. Membrane Bioreactor Technology for the Development of Functional Materials from Sea-Food Processing Wastes and Their Potential Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Senevirathne, Mahinda

    2011-01-01

    Sea-food processing wastes and underutilized species of fish are a potential source of functional and bioactive compounds. A large number of bioactive substances can be produced through enzyme-mediated hydrolysis. Suitable enzymes and the appropriate bioreactor system are needed to incubate the waste materials. Membrane separation is a useful technique to extract, concentrate, separate or fractionate the compounds. The use of membrane bioreactors to integrate a reaction vessel with a membrane separation unit is emerging as a beneficial method for producing bioactive materials such as peptides, chitooligosaccharides and polyunsaturated fatty acids from diverse seafood-related wastes. These bioactive compounds from membrane bioreactor technology show diverse biological activities such as antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antitumor, anticoagulant, antioxidant and radical scavenging properties. This review discusses the application of membrane bioreactor technology for the production of value-added functional materials from sea-food processing wastes and their biological activities in relation to health benefits. PMID:24957872

  20. A multi-material topology optimization approach for wrinkle-free design of cable-suspended membrane structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yangjun; Niu, Yanzhuang; Li, Ming; Kang, Zhan

    2017-02-01

    In order to eliminate stress-related wrinkles in cable-suspended membrane structures and to provide simple and reliable deployment, this study presents a multi-material topology optimization model and an effective solution procedure for generating optimal connected layouts for membranes and cables. On the basis of the principal stress criterion of membrane wrinkling behavior and the density-based interpolation of multi-phase materials, the optimization objective is to maximize the total structural stiffness while satisfying principal stress constraints and specified material volume requirements. By adopting the cosine-type relaxation scheme to avoid the stress singularity phenomenon, the optimization model is successfully solved through a standard gradient-based algorithm. Four-corner tensioned membrane structures with different loading cases were investigated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in automatically finding the optimal design composed of curved boundary cables and wrinkle-free membranes.

  1. Schiff's Bases and Crown Ethers as Supramolecular Sensing Materials in the Construction of Potentiometric Membrane Sensors.

    PubMed

    Faridbod, Farnoush; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Norouzi, Parviz; Riahi, Siavash

    2008-03-11

    Ionophore incorporated PVC membrane sensors are well-established analyticaltools routinely used for the selective and direct measurement of a wide variety of differentions in complex biological and environmental samples. Potentiometric sensors have someoutstanding advantages including simple design and operation, wide linear dynamic range,relatively fast response and rational selectivity. The vital component of such plasticizedPVC members is the ionophore involved, defining the selectivity of the electrodes' complexformation. Molecular recognition causes the formation of many different supramolecules.Different types of supramolecules, like calixarenes, cyclodextrins and podands, have beenused as a sensing material in the construction of ion selective sensors. Schiff's bases andcrown ethers, which feature prominently in supramolecular chemistry, can be used assensing materials in the construction of potentiometric ion selective electrodes. Up to now,more than 200 potentiometric membrane sensors for cations and anions based on Schiff's bases and crown ethers have been reported. In this review cation binding and anioncomplexes will be described. Liquid membrane sensors based on Schiff's bases and crownethers will then be discussed.

  2. Vanadium As a Potential Membrane Material for Carbon Capture: Effects of Minor Flue Gas Species.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Mengyao; Liguori, Simona; Lee, Kyoungjin; Van Campen, Douglas G; Toney, Michael F; Wilcox, Jennifer

    2017-10-03

    Vanadium and its surface oxides were studied as a potential nitrogen-selective membrane material for indirect carbon capture from coal or natural gas power plants. The effects of minor flue gas components (SO2, NO, NO2, H2O, and O2) on vanadium at 500-600 °C were investigated by thermochemical exposure in combination with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that SO2, NO, and NO2 are unlikely to have adsorbed on the surface vanadium oxides at 600 °C after exposure for up to 10 h, although NO and NO2 may have exhibited oxidizing effects (e.g., exposure to 250 ppmv NO/N2 resulted in an 2.4 times increase in surface V2O5 compared to exposure to just N2). We hypothesize that decomposition of surface vanadium oxides and diffusion of surface oxygen into the metal bulk are both important mechanisms affecting the composition and morphology of the vanadium membrane. The results and hypothesis suggest that the carbon capture performance of the vanadium membrane can potentially be strengthened by material and process improvements such as alloying, operating temperature reduction, and flue gas treatment.

  3. Schiff's Bases and Crown Ethers as Supramolecular Sensing Materials in the Construction of Potentiometric Membrane Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Faridbod, Farnoush; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Norouzi, Parviz; Riahi, Siavash

    2008-01-01

    Ionophore incorporated PVC membrane sensors are well-established analytical tools routinely used for the selective and direct measurement of a wide variety of different ions in complex biological and environmental samples. Potentiometric sensors have some outstanding advantages including simple design and operation, wide linear dynamic range, relatively fast response and rational selectivity. The vital component of such plasticized PVC members is the ionophore involved, defining the selectivity of the electrodes' complex formation. Molecular recognition causes the formation of many different supramolecules. Different types of supramolecules, like calixarenes, cyclodextrins and podands, have been used as a sensing material in the construction of ion selective sensors. Schiff's bases and crown ethers, which feature prominently in supramolecular chemistry, can be used as sensing materials in the construction of potentiometric ion selective electrodes. Up to now, more than 200 potentiometric membrane sensors for cations and anions based on Schiff's bases and crown ethers have been reported. In this review cation binding and anion complexes will be described. Liquid membrane sensors based on Schiff's bases and crown ethers will then be discussed. PMID:27879786

  4. Bridged polysilsesquioxanes: Hybrid organic-inorganic materials as fuel cell polyelectrolyte membranes and functional nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiterer, Mariya

    2007-05-01

    This dissertation describes the design, fabrication, and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid materials. Several classes of bridged polysilsesquioxanes are presented. The first class is a membrane material suitable for fuel cell technology as a proton conducting polyelectrolyte. The second class includes hybrid nanoparticles for display device applications and chromatographic media. Chapter 1 is an introduction to hybrid organic-inorganic materials. Sol-gel chemistry is discussed, followed by a survey of prominent examples of silica hybrids. Examples of physical organic-silica blends and covalent organo-silicas, including ORMOCERSRTM, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes, and bridged polysilsesquioxanes are discussed. Bridged polysilsesquioxanes are described in great detail. Monomer synthesis, sol-gel chemistry, processing, characterization, and physical properties are included. Chapter 2 describes the design of polyelectrolyte bridged polysilsesquioxane membranes. The materials contain covalently bound sulfonic acid groups originating from the corresponding disulfides. These organic-inorganic hybrid materials integrate a network supporting component which is systematically changed to fine-tune their physical properties. The membranes are characterized as PEM fuel cell electrolytes, where proton conductivities of 4-6 mS cm-1 were measured. In Chapter 3 techniques for the preparation of bridged polysilsesquioxane nanoparticles are described. An inverse water-in-oil microemulsion polymerization method is developed to prepare cationic nanoparticles, including viologen-bridged materials with applications in electrochromic display devices. An aqueous ammonia system is used to prepare neutral nanoparticles containing hydrocarbon bridging groups, which have potential applications as chromatographic media. Chapter 4 describes electrochromic devices developed in collaboration with the Heflin group of Virginia Tech, which incorporate viologen bridged nanoparticles

  5. Guided Bone Regeneration with Collagen Membranes and Particulate Graft Materials: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wessing, Bastian; Lettner, Stefan; Zechner, Werner

    2017-09-22

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate different methods for guided bone regeneration using collagen membranes and particulate grafting materials in implant dentistry. An electronic database search and hand search were performed for all relevant articles dealing with guided bone regeneration in implant dentistry published between 1980 and 2014. Only randomized clinical trials and prospective controlled studies were included. The primary outcomes of interest were survival rates, membrane exposure rates, bone gain/defect reduction, and vertical bone loss at follow-up. A meta-analysis was performed to determine the effects of presence of membrane cross-linking, timing of implant placement, membrane fixation, and decortication. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. Implant survival rates were similar between simultaneous and subsequent implant placement. The membrane exposure rate of cross-linked membranes was approximately 30% higher than that of non-cross-linked membranes. The use of anorganic bovine bone mineral led to sufficient newly regenerated bone and high implant survival rates. Membrane fixation was weakly associated with increased vertical bone gain, and decortication led to higher horizontal bone gain (defect depth). Guided bone regeneration with particulate graft materials and resorbable collagen membranes is an effective technique for lateral alveolar ridge augmentation. Because implant survival rates for simultaneous and subsequent implant placement were similar, simultaneous implant placement is recommended when possible. Additional techniques like membrane fixation and decortication may represent beneficial implications for the practice.

  6. Green materials science and engineering reduces biofouling: approaches for medical and membrane-based technologies

    PubMed Central

    Dobosz, Kerianne M.; Kolewe, Kristopher W.; Schiffman, Jessica D.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous engineered and natural environments suffer deleterious effects from biofouling and/or biofilm formation. For instance, bacterial contamination on biomedical devices pose serious health concerns. In membrane-based technologies, such as desalination and wastewater reuse, biofouling decreases membrane lifetime, and increases the energy required to produce clean water. Traditionally, approaches have combatted bacteria using bactericidal agents. However, due to globalization, a decline in antibiotic discovery, and the widespread resistance of microbes to many commercial antibiotics and metallic nanoparticles, new materials, and approaches to reduce biofilm formation are needed. In this mini-review, we cover the recent strategies that have been explored to combat microbial contamination without exerting evolutionary pressure on microorganisms. Renewable feedstocks, relying on structure-property relationships, bioinspired/nature-derived compounds, and green processing methods are discussed. Greener strategies that mitigate biofouling hold great potential to positively impact human health and safety. PMID:25852659

  7. Green materials science and engineering reduces biofouling: approaches for medical and membrane-based technologies.

    PubMed

    Dobosz, Kerianne M; Kolewe, Kristopher W; Schiffman, Jessica D

    2015-01-01

    Numerous engineered and natural environments suffer deleterious effects from biofouling and/or biofilm formation. For instance, bacterial contamination on biomedical devices pose serious health concerns. In membrane-based technologies, such as desalination and wastewater reuse, biofouling decreases membrane lifetime, and increases the energy required to produce clean water. Traditionally, approaches have combatted bacteria using bactericidal agents. However, due to globalization, a decline in antibiotic discovery, and the widespread resistance of microbes to many commercial antibiotics and metallic nanoparticles, new materials, and approaches to reduce biofilm formation are needed. In this mini-review, we cover the recent strategies that have been explored to combat microbial contamination without exerting evolutionary pressure on microorganisms. Renewable feedstocks, relying on structure-property relationships, bioinspired/nature-derived compounds, and green processing methods are discussed. Greener strategies that mitigate biofouling hold great potential to positively impact human health and safety.

  8. The effect of materials on proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrode performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millington, Ben; Du, Shangfeng; Pollet, Bruno G.

    This paper describes the optimisation in the fabrication materials and techniques used in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) electrodes. The effect on the performance of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) from the solvents used in producing catalyst inks is reported. Comparison in MEA performances between various gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and the importance of microporous layers (MPLs) in gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) are also shown. It was found that the best performances were achieved for GDEs using tetrahydrofuran (THF) as the solvent in the catalyst ink formulation and Sigracet 10BC as the GDL. The results also showed that our in-house painted GDEs were comparable to commercial ones (using Johnson Matthey HiSpec™ and E-TEK catalysts).

  9. Thermal transport in silicon nitride membranes and far infrared studies of novel materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Warren Albert

    The central theme of this thesis is the design and use of bolometers for detection of far infrared and submillimeter wavelength radiation. A new material, micrometer thick membranes of silicon nitride, is used in modern bolometer designs. An understanding of thermal transport in silicon nitride is critical to evaluate and optimize detector performance. We have measured the thermal conductance, G, of {≈}1μm thick low-stress silicon nitride membranes over the temperature range, 0.06 4K,\\ G is independent of surface morphology indicating that the thermal transport is determined by bulk scattering. For T < 4K, scattering from membrane surfaces becomes significant. We find that G is reduced by a factor as large as 5 for membranes which have sub-micron sized Ag particles glued to the surface or are micromachined into narrow strips as are required in many applications when compared with that of clean, solid membranes with the same ratio of cross section to length. We have used optimized bolometers for the study of two novel materials, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and single crystals of high temperature superconductors. We have measured the transmittance of several samples of bundles of SWNT over the frequency range 10 < nu < 300cmsp{-1} at temperatures 1.2 < T < 300K. The broadband shape of the transmittance has a temperature dependence similar to the DC transport measurements. We find a temperature dependent feature near nu≈ 30cmsp{-1} that is consistent with the prediction of a small energy gap Esb{g}≈ 4meV and also with a soft librational mode in SWNT bundles. We have directly measured the absorptivity of high quality single crystals of YBasb2Cusb3Osb{6.5} and Tlsb2Basb2Casb2Cusb3Osb{10-delta} over the frequency range 50 < nu < 800cmsp{-1} at a temperature of 1.2K. Direct absorptivity measurements are powerful for studying materials in the superconducting state since in conventional superconductors the loss at frequencies below the energy gap is zero

  10. Piezo- and Flexoelectric Membrane Materials Underlie Fast Biological Motors in the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Breneman, Kathryn D.; Rabbitt, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian inner ear is remarkably sensitive to quiet sounds, exhibits over 100dB dynamic range, and has the exquisite ability to discriminate closely spaced tones even in the presence of noise. This performance is achieved, in part, through active mechanical amplification of vibrations by sensory hair cells within the inner ear. All hair cells are endowed with a bundle of motile microvilli, stereocilia, located at the apical end of the cell, and the more specialized outer hair cells (OHC’s) are also endowed with somatic electromotility responsible for changes in cell length in response to perturbations in membrane potential. Both hair bundle and somatic motors are known to feed energy into the mechanical vibrations in the inner ear. The biophysical origin and relative significance of the motors remains a subject of intense research. Several biological motors have been identified in hair cells that might underlie the motor(s), including a cousin of the classical ATP driven actin-myosin motor found in skeletal muscle. Hydrolysis of ATP, however, is much too slow to be viable at audio frequencies on a cycle-by-cycle basis. Heuristically, the OHC somatic motor behaves as if the OHC lateral wall membrane were a piezoelectric material and the hair bundle motor behaves as if the plasma membrane were a flexoelectric material. We propose these observations from a continuum materials perspective are literally true. To examine this idea, we formulated mathematical models of the OHC lateral wall “piezoelectric” motor and the more ubiquitous “flexoelectric” hair bundle motor. Plausible biophysical mechanisms underlying piezo- and flexoelectricity were established. Model predictions were compared extensively to the available data. The models were then applied to study the power conversion efficiency of the motors. Results show that the material properties of the complex membranes in hair cells provide them with the ability to convert electrical power available in

  11. Effect of mechanical cleaning with granular material on the permeability of submerged membranes in the MBR process.

    PubMed

    Siembida, B; Cornel, P; Krause, S; Zimmermann, B

    2010-07-01

    The research on fouling reduction and permeability loss in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) was carried out at two MBR pilot plants with synthetic and real wastewater. On the one hand, the effect of mechanical cleaning with an abrasive granular material on the performance of a submerged MBR process was tested. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements and integrity tests were conducted to check whether the membrane material was damaged by the granulate.The results indicate that the fouling layer formation was significantly reduced by abrasion using the granular material. This technique allowed a long-term operation of more than 600 days at a flux up to 40 L/(m2 h) without chemical cleaning of the membranes. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the membrane bioreactor (MBR) with granulate could be operated with more than 20% higher flux compared to a conventional MBR operation. SEM images and integrity tests showed that in consequence of abrasive cleaning, the granular material left brush marks on the membrane surface, however, the membrane function was not affected.In a parallel experimental set up, the impact of the operationally defined "truly soluble fraction" <0.04 microm from wastewater and activated sludge on the ultrafiltration membrane fouling characteristics was investigated. It was shown that the permeability loss was caused predominantly by the colloidal fraction >0.04 microm rather than by the dissolved fraction of wastewater and activated sludge.

  12. Estimation of diffusion anisotropy in microporous crystalline materials and optimization of crystal orientation in membranes.

    PubMed

    Gounaris, Chrysanthos E; First, Eric L; Floudas, Christodoulos A

    2013-09-28

    The complex nature of the porous networks in microporous materials is primarily responsible for a high degree of intracrystalline diffusion anisotropy. Although this is a well-understood phenomenon, little attention has been paid in the literature with regards to classifying such anisotropy and elucidating its effect on the performance of membrane-based separation systems. In this paper, we develop a novel methodology to estimate full diffusion tensors based on the detailed description of the porous network geometry through our recent advances for the characterization of such networks. The proposed approach explicitly accounts for the tortuosity and complex connectivity of the porous framework, as well as for the variety of diffusion regimes that may be experienced by a guest molecule while it travels through the different localities of the crystal. Results on the diffusion of light gases in silicalite demonstrate good agreement with results from experiments and other computational techniques that have been reported in the literature. A comprehensive computational study involving 183 zeolite frameworks classifies these structures in terms of a number of anisotropy metrics. Finally, we utilize the computed diffusion tensors in a membrane optimization model that determines optimal crystal orientations. Application of the model in the context of separating carbon dioxide from nitrogen demonstrates that optimizing crystal orientation can offer significant benefit to membrane-based separation processes.

  13. Novel naturally crosslinked electrospun nanofibrous chitosan mats for guided bone regeneration membranes: material characterization and cytocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Norowski, Peter A; Fujiwara, Tomoko; Clem, William C; Adatrow, Pradeep C; Eckstein, Eugene C; Haggard, Warren O; Bumgardner, Joel D

    2015-05-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) barrier membranes are used to prevent soft tissue infiltration into the graft space during dental procedures that involve bone grafting. Chitosan materials have shown promise as GBR barrier membranes, due to their biocompatibility and predictable biodegradability, but degradation rates may still be too high for clinical applications. In this study, chitosan GBR membranes were electrospun using chitosan (70% deacetylated, 312 kDa, 5.5 w/v%), with or without the addition of 5 or 10 mm genipin, a natural crosslinking agent, in order to extend the degradation to meet the clinical target time frame of 4-6 months. Membranes were evaluated for fibre diameter, tensile strength, biodegradation rate, bond structure and cytocompatibility. Genipin addition, at 5 or 10 mm, resulted in median fibre diameters 184, 144 and 154 nm for uncrosslinked, 5 mm and 10 mm crosslinked, respectively. Crosslinking, examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, showed a decrease in N-H stretch as genipin levels were increased. Genipin-crosslinked mats exhibited only 22% degradation based on mass loss, as compared to 34% for uncrosslinked mats at 16 weeks in vitro. The ultimate tensile strength of the mats was increased by 165% to 32 MPa with 10 mm crosslinking as compared to the uncrosslinked mats. Finally, genipin-crosslinked mats supported the proliferation of SAOS-2 cells in a 5 day growth study, similar to uncrosslinked mats. These results suggest that electrospun chitosan mats may benefit from genipin crosslinking and have the potential to meet clinical degradation time frames for GBR applications.

  14. Advances in membrane materials: desalination membranes based on directly copolymerized disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei; Park, Ho-Bum; Cook, Joseph; Lee, Chang Hyun; Byun, Gwangsu; Freeman, Benny D; McGrath, James E

    2010-01-01

    The water and salt transport properties of chlorine tolerant disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (BPS) copolymers have been characterized. Cast BPS membranes of both salt form and acid form with sulfonation levels from 20% to 40% were investigated. Water permeability of BPS films increases more than one order of magnitude as sulfonation level increases from 20% to 40%, while the salt permeability of the corresponding membranes increases two orders of magnitude. Moderate salt rejection (98.2%) was achieved by a BPS salt form membrane with a sulfonation level of 20%.

  15. Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell development with lightweight component materials, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abens, Sandors

    1995-07-01

    Although the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell is a leading candidate for an automobile power source through meeting the zero emission requirement, its power density is currently an order of magnitude below the 400 W/kg criterion proposed by the Department of Energy. The major contributors to stack weight are the bipolar gas distribution plates. This effort, performed jointly by Energy Research Corporation (ERC) and Texas A&M University (TAM U), focused on lightweight alternative bipolar plate materials and designs. The electronic conductivity of various candidate materials was evaluated. The emphasis was on conductive plastic materials and porous graphite. Several plastic materials with specific resistance between 0.5 and 0.8 ohm/cm were identified. Preliminary evaluation of lightweight materials was performed in single cell tests. The emphasis was on atmospheric pressure and internally humidified cell operation as a potential means of system simplification and reduction of PEM fuel cell ancillary equipment complexity and weight. The performance of single cells was nearly the same at 1 and 3 atm pressure. At a cell potential of O.6V, a current density of 230 mA/sq cm was reached at 1.7 stoichiometric air flow rate. With lightweight bipolar plates, the DOE power density target may be achieved with unpressurized, internally humidified cell stacks.

  16. The Blood Compatibilities of Blood Purification Membranes and Other Materials Developed in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Takaya; Kato, Karen; Fujioka, Tomoaki; Akizawa, Tadao

    2011-01-01

    The biocompatibilities in blood purification therapy are defined as “a concept to stipulate safety of blood purification therapy by an index based on interaction in the body arising from blood purification therapy itself.” The biocompatibilities are associated with not only materials to be used but also many factors such as sterilization method and eluted substance. It is often evaluated based on impacts on cellular pathways and on humoral pathways. Since the biocompatibilities of blood purification therapy in particular hemodialysis are not just a prognostic factor for dialysis patients but a contributory factor for long-term complications, it should be considered with adequate attention. It is important that blood purification therapy should be performed by consistently evaluating not only risks associated with these biocompatibilities but also the other advantages obtained from treatments. In this paper, the biocompatibilities of membrane and adsorption material based on Japanese original which are used for blood purification therapy are described. PMID:21969830

  17. Characterisation of porous carbon electrode materials used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells via gas adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt-Smith, M. J.; Rigby, S. P.; Ralph, T. R.; Walsh, F. C.

    Porous carbon materials are typically used in both the substrate (typically carbon paper) and the electrocatalyst supports (often platinised carbon) within proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Gravimetric nitrogen adsorption has been studied at a carbon paper substrate, two different Pt-loaded carbon paper electrodes and three particulate carbon blacks. N 2 BET surface areas and surface fractal dimensions were determined using the fractal BET and Frenkel-Halsey-Hill models for all but one of the materials studied. The fractal dimensions of the carbon blacks obtained from gas adsorption were compared with those obtained independently by small angle X-ray scattering and showed good agreement. Density functional theory was used to characterise one of the carbon blacks, as the standard BET model was not applicable.

  18. Metal nanoparticle/ionic liquid/cellulose: new catalytically active membrane materials for hydrogenation reactions.

    PubMed

    Gelesky, Marcos A; Scheeren, Carla W; Foppa, Lucas; Pavan, Flavio A; Dias, Silvio L P; Dupont, Jairton

    2009-07-13

    Transition metal-containing membrane films of 10, 20, and 40 μm thickness were obtained by the combination of irregularly shaped nanoparticles with monomodal size distributions of 4.8 ± 1.1 nm (Rh(0)) and 3.0 ± 0.4 nm (Pt(0)) dispersed in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (BMI·(NTf)(2)) with a syrup of cellulose acetate (CA) in acetone. The Rh(0) and Pt(0) metal concentration increased proportionally with increases in film thickness up to 20 μm, and then the material became metal saturated. The presence of small and stable Rh(0) or Pt(0) nanoparticles induced an augmentation in the CA/IL film surface areas. The augmentation of the IL content resulted in an increase of elasticity and decrease in tenacity and toughness, whereas the stress at break was not influenced. The introduction of IL probably causes an increase in the separation between the cellulose macromolecules that results in a higher flexibility, lower viscosity, and better formability of the cellulose material. The nanoparticle/IL/CA combinations exhibit an excellent synergistic effect that enhances the activity and durability of the catalyst for the hydrogenation of cyclohexene. The nanoparticle/IL/cellulose acetate film membranes display higher catalytic activity (up to 7353 h(-1) for the 20 μm film of CA/IL/Pt(0)) and stability than the nanoparticles dispersed only in the IL.

  19. Novel conducting polymer-heteropoly acid hybrid material for artificial photosynthetic membranes.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Michael B; Freund, Michael S

    2011-04-01

    Artificial photosynthetic (AP) approaches to convert and store solar energy will require membranes capable of conducting both ions and electrons while remaining relatively transparent and chemically stable. A new approach is applied herein involving previously described in situ chemical polymerization of electronically conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) in the presence of proton conducting heteropoly acid (HPA) phosphomolybdic acid (PMA). The electrochemical behaviour of the PEDOT/PMA hybrid material was investigated and it was found that the conducting polymer (CP) is susceptible to irreversible oxidative processes at potentials where water is oxidized. This will be problematic in AP devices should the process occur in very close proximity to a conducting polymer-based membrane. It was found that PEDOT grants the system good electrical performance in terms of conductivity and stability over a large pH window; however, the presence of PMA was not found to provide sufficient proton conductivity. This was addressed in an additional study by tuning the ionic (and in turn, electronic) conductivity in creating composites with the proton-permselective polymer Nafion. It was found that a material of this nature with near-equal conductivity for optimal chemical conversion efficiency will consist of roughly three parts Nafion and one part PEDOT/PMA.

  20. Membrane stabilizer

    DOEpatents

    Mingenbach, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material.

  1. Materials Genomics Screens for Adaptive Ion Transport Behavior by Redox-Switchable Microporous Polymer Membranes in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Selective ion transport across membranes is critical to the performance of many electrochemical energy storage devices. While design strategies enabling ion-selective transport are well-established, enhancements in membrane selectivity are made at the expense of ionic conductivity. To design membranes with both high selectivity and high ionic conductivity, there are cues to follow from biological systems, where regulated transport of ions across membranes is achieved by transmembrane proteins. The transport functions of these proteins are sensitive to their environment: physical or chemical perturbations to that environment are met with an adaptive response. Here we advance an analogous strategy for achieving adaptive ion transport in microporous polymer membranes. Along the polymer backbone are placed redox-active switches that are activated in situ, at a prescribed electrochemical potential, by the device’s active materials when they enter the membrane’s pore. This transformation has little influence on the membrane’s ionic conductivity; however, the active-material blocking ability of the membrane is enhanced. We show that when used in lithium–sulfur batteries, these membranes offer markedly improved capacity, efficiency, and cycle-life by sequestering polysulfides in the cathode. The origins and implications of this behavior are explored in detail and point to new opportunities for responsive membranes in battery technology development. PMID:28573201

  2. Materials genomics screens for adaptive ion transport behavior by redox-switchable microporous polymer membranes in lithium–sulfur batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Ward, Ashleigh L.; Doris, Sean E.; Li, Longjun; ...

    2017-04-27

    Selective ion transport across membranes is critical to the performance of many electrochemical energy storage devices. While design strategies enabling ion-selective transport are well-established, enhancements in membrane selectivity are made at the expense of ionic conductivity. To design membranes with both high selectivity and high ionic conductivity, there are cues to follow from biological systems, where regulated transport of ions across membranes is achieved by transmembrane proteins. The transport functions of these proteins are sensitive to their environment: physical or chemical perturbations to that environment are met with an adaptive response. Here we advance an analogous strategy for achieving adaptivemore » ion transport in microporous polymer membranes. Along the polymer backbone are placed redox-active switches that are activated in situ, at a prescribed electrochemical potential, by the device’s active materials when they enter the membrane’s pore. This transformation has little influence on the membrane’s ionic conductivity; however, the active-material blocking ability of the membrane is enhanced. We show that when used in lithium-sulfur batteries, these membranes offer markedly improved capacity, efficiency, and cycle-life by sequestering polysulfides in the cathode. Furthermore, the origins and implications of this behavior are explored in detail and point to new opportunities for responsive membranes in battery technology development« less

  3. Preparation and photoelectrocatalytic performance of N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane composite electrode material.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhi-Lin; Han, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    A novel composite electrode material based on a N-doped TiO2-loaded NaY zeolite membrane (N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane) for photoelectrocatalysis was presented. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible (UV-vis) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization techniques were used to analyze the structure of the N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane. The XRD and SEM results verified that the N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with the size of ca. 20 nm have been successfully loaded on the porous stainless steel-supported NaY zeolite membrane. The UV-vis result showed that the N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane exhibited a more obvious red-shift than that of N-TiO2 nanoparticles. The XPS characterization revealed that the doping of N element into TiO2 was successfully achieved. The photoelectrocatalysis performance of the N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane composite electrode material was evaluated by phenol removal and also the effects of reaction conditions on the catalytic performance were investigated. Owing to exhibiting an excellent catalytic activity and good recycling stability, the N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane composite electrode material was of promising application for photoelectrocatalysis in wastewater treatment.

  4. Theoretical Studies in Enhancing the Efficiency of Cathode and Anode Materials in PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-04

    efficiency of cathode and anode materials in PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA23861014012 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Theoretical studies in enhancing the efficiency of cathode and anode materials in PEMFC (Proton Exchange

  5. Methods for using novel cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Allan J.; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2016-01-12

    Methods using novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials operating at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes include oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  6. Proton exchange membrane materials for the advancement of direct methanol fuel-cell technology

    DOEpatents

    Cornelius, Christopher J.

    2006-04-04

    A new class of hybrid organic-inorganic materials, and methods of synthesis, that can be used as a proton exchange membrane in a direct methanol fuel cell. In contrast with Nafion.RTM. PEM materials, which have random sulfonation, the new class of materials have ordered sulfonation achieved through self-assembly of alternating polyimide segments of different molecular weights comprising, for example, highly sulfonated hydrophilic PDA-DASA polyimide segment alternating with an unsulfonated hydrophobic 6FDA-DAS polyimide segment. An inorganic phase, e.g., 0.5 5 wt % TEOS, can be incorporated in the sulfonated polyimide copolymer to further improve its properties. The new materials exhibit reduced swelling when exposed to water, increased thermal stability, and decreased O.sub.2 and H.sub.2 gas permeability, while retaining proton conductivities similar to Nafion.RTM.. These improved properties may allow direct methanol fuel cells to operate at higher temperatures and with higher efficiencies due to reduced methanol crossover.

  7. Characterization and Testing of Improved Hydrogen Getter Materials - FY16 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, Kevin Mark; Sandoval, Cynthia Wathen

    2016-11-07

    Organic-based hydrogen getter materials have been in use for many years. These materials are able to prevent the dangerous buildup of hydrogen gas in sealed containers, and are also used to protect surrounding materials from degradation caused by chemical reactions. This document describes these materials.

  8. Neutron and X-ray Studies of Advanced Materials VII Symposium at the 143rd TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Spanos, George

    2015-02-05

    The Neutron and X-Ray Studies of Advanced Materials VII Symposium, held at the 2014, 143rd Annual Meeting of The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society (TMS), brought together experts, young investigators, and students from this sub-discipline of materials science in order for them to share their latest discoveries and develop collaborations. This annual symposium, which is organized by The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society, is an important event for this community of scientists. This year, over 100 high-level technical talks were delivered over the course of the four day event. In addition, the large number of students and young investigators in attendance ensured the maximum benefit to the next generation’s work force in this area of study. The science surrounding the utilization of neutrons and x-rays to study advanced materials is becoming increasingly important in increasing the understanding of how the exceptional materials properties of such materials arise. In particular, x-rays and neutrons can be used to visualize material structures at an extremely high resolution and in some cases, three dimensions—allowing unprecedented insights into the mechanisms governing certain materials properties such as strength and toughness. Moreover, some of these techniques allow materials to be visualized without damaging the material, approaches known as non-destructive evaluation or “NDE”. This allows materials to be studied in 3 dimensions while undergoing change in real time which represents an important (and long sought-after) advancement in materials science. The types of interactions afforded by this event are beneficial to society at large primarily because they provide opportunities for the leaders within this field to learn from one another and thus improve the quality and productivity of their investigations. Additionally, the presence of young investigators and students with technical interests in this field provides promise that the United

  9. Ulvan and ulvan/chitosan polyelectrolyte nanofibrous membranes as a potential substrate material for the cultivation of osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Toskas, Georgios; Heinemann, Sascha; Heinemann, Christiane; Cherif, Chokri; Hund, Rolf-Dieter; Roussis, Vassilios; Hanke, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    A new generation of biomaterials composed of the natural polysaccharides, ulvans extracted from the green seaweed Ulva rigida and chitosan have been investigated. Ulvan, chitosan alone and ulvan/chitosan polyelectrolyte membranes have been synthesised and characterised. The structure of the membranes was altered by the weight ratio of the polyion components. Fibrous and nanofibrous morphology was created, in accordance with a supramolecular self assembly. ATR-FTIR measurements suggested the presence of both polycationic chitosan and polyanionic ulvan in the polyelectrolyte membranes. The cytocompatibility of these new materials was examined by fluorescence microscopy. The results show that ulvan as well as ulvan/chitosan membranes promoted the attachment and proliferation of 7F2 osteoblasts and maintained the cell morphology and viability. Thus, ulvan and chitosan which possess unique properties might have high impact in biomedical applications as potential scaffold materials.

  10. The carbohydrate components of arterial basement-membrane-like material. Studies on rabbit aortic myomedial cells in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Heickendorff, L; Ledet, T

    1983-01-01

    The carbohydrate composition of arterial basement-membrane-like material was investigated. Basement-membrane-like material was isolated from cultures of aortic myomedial cells by a sonication/differential-centrifugation technique. Purified basement-membrane-like material contained a total of 5% sugars, comprising glucose, galactose, mannose, fucose, sialic acid, glucosamine and galactosamine in the approximate molar proportions 3.2:3.5:3.4:3.2:1:5.5:3.1. In addition, small amounts of xylose were found. Analyses for uronic acid showed that glycosaminoglycans comprised about 1% of isolated basement-membrane-like material. The carbohydrate composition indicated the presence of complex-type oligosaccharides in addition to hydroxylysine-linked disaccharides. [3H]Glucosamine-labelled glycopeptides obtained by proteinase digestion and gel filtration were resistant to endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase D, but more than 10% were susceptible to alpha-mannosidase, demonstrating the presence of high-mannose-type oligosaccharides. The distribution of carbohydrates among peptides of basement-membrane-like material on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis was investigated after labelling with [3H]mannose, [3H]fucose, [3H]galactose and [3H]glucosamine. Among peptides that appeared to carry carbohydrates were a proteoglycan(s) and seven glycoproteins in the molecular-weight range 120 000-700 000. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6882367

  11. Detection and Monitoring of Airborne Nuclear Waste Materials. Annual Report to Department of Energy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-04

    DETECTOR BASED ON LASER INDUCED FLUORESCENCE 2.1 INTRODUCTION Of the six major iodine isotopes produced in nuclear reactors , 1291 represents only...mechanisms associated with various operational components of nuclear reactors . Its production is indigenous to these operations and represents an... Reactors " C. Kunz, W. E. Mahoney and T. W. Miller Annual Meeting of the American Nuclear Society, New Orleans, LA, June 1975. 41 4. "Removal of 14

  12. Interfacial Structure, Dynamics, and Transport of Polyelectrolyte Membrane Materials for Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soles, Christopher; Page, K.; Eastman, S.; Kim, S.; Kang, S.; Dura, J.; National Institute of Standards; Technology; Polymers Divison Team; NIST Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEM) fuel cells show promise for a wide range of applications both in the transportation sector and for stationary power production due to their high charge density and low operating temperatures. While the structure and transport of bulk PEMs have been studied extensively, little is known about these materials at interfaces and under confinement, as they exist within the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). Using neutron/ x-ray reflectivity and polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy, we have studied the polymer-substrate interfacial structure, swelling, and water transport as function of humidity, surface chemistry, and film thickness. The interfacial structure is highly dependent upon the substrate surface chemistry and the swelling/water diffusivity are suppressed when the PEM is confined to a thin film. This new information will enable researchers to more accurately model the performance of the MEA as current simulations typically rely on bulk property values to predict water and proton transport under these conditions.

  13. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, Fiscal Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-08-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations.

  14. Educators Guide to Free Science Materials, 11th Annual Edition--1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saterstrom, Mary Horkheimer; Renner, John W.

    This eleventh edition of the Educators Guide to Free Science Materials is devoted exclusively to free science materials, based on the cross-media approach. It is designed to provide a continuing means of identifying existing materials that are currently available. It is a complete, up-to-date, annotated schedule of selected free or inexpensive…

  15. Boronization of nickel and nickel clad materials for potential use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Xia, Gordon; Coleman, J. E.; Yang, Z Gary

    2006-12-20

    A new low-cost, nickel clad bipolar plate concept is currently being developed for use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Reported in this paper are the details of a powder-pack boronization process that would be used to establish a passivation layer on the electrolyte exposed surfaces of the bipolar plate in the final stage of manufacture. Results from energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy indicate that under moderate boronization conditions a homogeneous Ni3B layer grows on the exposed surfaces of the nickel clad material, the thickness of which depends on the time and temperature of boronization according to a Wagner-type scale growth relationship. At higher temperatures and longer reaction times, a Ni2B overlayer forms on top of the Ni3B during boronization.

  16. Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials. Fossil Energy AR and TD Materials Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R.

    1993-07-01

    Objective of the AR&TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The 37 papers are arranged into 3 sessions: ceramics, new alloys/intermetallics, and new alloys/advanced austenitics. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Toward cell-inspired materials that feel: measurements and modeling of mechanotransduction in droplet-based, multi-membrane arrays.

    PubMed

    Tamaddoni, Nima; Sarles, Stephen A

    2016-04-29

    The droplet interface bilayer (DIB) was recently used to show that a 5 nm thick lipid membrane placed near a vibrating synthetic hair could transduce hair motion into electrical current. Herein, we study for the first time mechanoelectrical transduction of hair motion using multi-membrane DIB arrays formed with more than 2 droplets connected in series, and we introduce a transduction model to investigate how airflow across the hair generates current in a membrane-based hair cell. Measurements of sensing currents across every membrane in serial chains of up to 5 connected droplets demonstrate that perturbation of a single hair creates vibrations that propagate across several droplets, allowing for membranes that are not directly attached to the hair to still transduce its motion. Membranes positioned closest to the hair generate the largest currents, while those farther away produce less current due to energy loss from fluid damping. Inserting multiple hairs of different lengths into different droplets in the array yields sensing currents that exhibit multiple characteristic frequencies in addition to location specific current intensities, features that can be used to spatially localize mechanical perturbations. We also develop a transduction model that provides an order-of-magnitude approximation of the sensing current generated by a membrane in response to airflow across the hair. This model provides physical insights into how membrane-based materials can be used for sensing mechanical stimuli--just like nature does.

  18. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) Fiscal Year 1999 annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-31

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1999 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  19. Pluronic F127 as a cell encapsulation material: utilization of membrane-stabilizing agents.

    PubMed

    Khattak, Sarwat F; Bhatia, Surita R; Roberts, Susan C

    2005-01-01

    Thermoreversible gelation of the copolymer Pluronic F127 (generic name, poloxamer 407) in water makes it a unique candidate for cell encapsulation applications, either alone or to promote cell seeding and attachment in tissue scaffolds. At concentrations of 15-20% (w/w), aqueous Pluronic F127 (F127) solutions gel at physiological temperatures. The effect of F127 on viability and proliferation of human liver carcinoma cells (HepG2) was determined for both liquid and gel formulations. Cell concentration and viability over a 5-day period were measured by the trypan blue assay via hemocytometry and results were confirmed in both the MTT and LDH assays. With 0.1-5% (w/w) F127 (liquid), cells proliferated and maintained high viability over 5 days. However, at 10% (w/w) F127 (liquid), there was a significant decrease in cell viability and no cell proliferation was evident. HepG2 cell encapsulation in F127 concentrations ranging from 15 to 20% (w/w) (gel) resulted in complete cell death by 5 days. This was also true for the HMEC-1 (endothelial) and L6 (muscle) cell lines evaluated. Cell-seeding density did not affect cell survival or proliferation. Membrane-stabilizing agents (hydrocortisone, glucose, and glycerol) were added to the F127 gel formulations to improve cell viability. The steroid hydrocortisone demonstrated the most significant improvement in viability, from <2% (in F127 alone) to >70% (with 60 nM hydrocortisone added). These results suggest that F127 formulations supplemented with membrane-stabilizing agents can serve as viable cell encapsulation materials. In addition, hydrocortisone may be generally useful in the promotion of cell viability for a wide range of encapsulation materials.

  20. Enhancement in biological response of Ag-nano composite polymer membranes using plasma treatment for fabrication of efficient bio materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Narendra Kumar; Sharma, Tamanna Kumari; Chauhan, Manish; Agarwal, Ravi; Vijay, Y. K.; Swami, K. C.

    2016-05-01

    Biomaterials are nonviable material used in medical devices, intended to interact with biological systems, which are becoming necessary for the development of artificial material for biological systems such as artificial skin diaphragm, valves for heart and kidney, lenses for eye etc. Polymers having novel properties like antibacterial, antimicrobial, high adhesion, blood compatibility and wettability are most suitable for synthesis of biomaterial, but all of these properties does not exist in any natural or artificial polymeric material. Nano particles and plasma treatment can offer these properties to the polymers. Hence a new nano-biomaterial has been developed by modifying the surface and chemical properties of Ag nanocomposite polymer membranes (NCPM) by Argon ion plasma treatment. These membranes were characterized using different techniques for surface and chemical modifications occurred. Bacterial adhesion and wettability were also tested for these membranes, to show direct use of this new class of nano-biomaterial for biomedical applications.

  1. Novel ceramic-polymer composite membranes for the separation of hazardous liquid waste. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Y.

    1998-06-01

    'This report summarizes the work progress over the last 1.75 years of a 3 year project. The objectives of the project have been to develop a new class of ceramic-supported polymeric membranes that could be tailored-designed for a wide-range of applications in remediation and pollution prevention. To date, a new class of chemically-modified ceramic membranes was developed for the treatment of oil-in-water emulsions and for the pervaporation removal of volatile organics from aqueous systems. These new ceramic-supported polymer (CSP) membranes are fabricated by modifying the pore surface of a ceramic membrane support by a graft polymerization process (Chaimberg and Cohen, 1994). The graft polymerization process consists of activating the membrane surface with alkoxy vinyl silanes onto which vinyl monomers are added via free-radical graft polymerization resulting in a thin surface layer of terminally anchored polymer chains. Reaction conditions are selected based on knowledge of the graft polymerization kinetics for the specific polymer/substrate system. The resultant ceramic-supported polymer (CSP) membrane is a composite structure in which mechanical strength is provided by the ceramic support and the selectivity is determined by the covalently bonded polymer brush layer. Thus, one of the unique attributes of the CSP membrane is that it can be used in environments where the polymer layer is swollen (or even completely miscible) in the mixture to be separated (Castro et al., 1993). It is important to note that the above modification process is carried out under mild conditions (e.g., temperature of about 70 C) and is well suited for large scale commercial application. In a series of studies, the applicability of a polyvinylpyrrolidone CSP membrane was demonstrated for the treatment of oil-in-water emulsion under a variety of flow conditions (Castro et al.,1996). Improved membrane performance was achieved due to minimization of surface adsorption of the oil components

  2. Materials Presented at the MU-SPIN Tenth Annual Users' Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, James L., Jr.; Shukla, Pooja

    2000-01-01

    The Minority University-Space Interdisciplinary Network (MU-SPIN) Program and NASA's Minority University Research and Education Division (MURED) both reached their 10th anniversaries. In honor of this occasion, the 2000 Annual Users' Conference held at Morris Brown College in Atlanta, Georgia, September 11-15, 2000, was the first to be jointly hosted by MU-SPIN and MURED. With the theme 'Celebrating Our Tenth Year With Our Eyes on the Prize,' the conference provided a national forum for showcasing successful MU-SPIN and MURED Program (MUREP) experiences to enhance faculty/student development in areas of scientific and technical research and education.

  3. Materials Presented at the MU-SPIN Ninth Annual Users' Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, James, Jr.; Brown, Robin L.

    2000-01-01

    MU-SPIN's Ninth Annual Users' Conference was held from September 21-25, 1999, and hosted by Florida International University, a predominantly Hispanic-serving institution located in Miami, Florida. Its theme was A New MU-SPIN for the New Millennium. The MU-SPIN conference focused on showcasing successful experiences with information technology to enhance faculty and student development in areas of scientific and technical research and education. And, it provided a forum for discussing increased participation of MU-SPIN schools in NASA Flight Missions and NASA Educational and Public Outreach activities.

  4. Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, nondestructive evaluation: technical activities 1988. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Yolken, H.T.

    1988-10-01

    The report provides brief reviews of technical activities in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) that were carried out by or for the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST--formerly the National Bureau of Standards) in fiscal year 1988 (October 1, 1987, through September 30, 1988). The reviews in the annual report are arranged in the following sections that reflect the NDE Program's four major activity areas: NDE for Ceramic and Metal Powder Production and Consolidation; NDE for Formability of Metals; NDE for Composites Processing and Interfaces; and NDE Standards and Methods. Each of the sections is preceded by an introduction.

  5. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Annual technical report, fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1993 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department. The program descriptions consist of a funding summary for each Assistant Secretary office and the Office of Energy Research, and detailed project summaries with project goals and accomplishments. The FY 1993 budget summary table for DOE Materials Activities in each of the programs is presented.

  6. Metals and Ceramics Division Materials Science Program. Annual progress report for period ending June 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    McHargue, C.J.

    1984-11-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Materials Sciences Program in the Metals and Ceramics Division for the period January 1, 1983, to June 30, 1984. These activities constitute about one-fourth of the research and development conducted by the division. The emphasis of the program can be described as the scientific design of materials. The efforts are directed toward three classes of materials: high-temperature metallic alloys based on intermetallic compounds, structural ceramics, and radiation-resistant alloys.

  7. Abstracts: Eighth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials. Fossil Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    Abstracts are presented for about 40 papers. The Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials program is an integrated materials research activity of the fossil energy coal program, whose objective is to conduct R and D for all advanced coal conversion and utilization technologies. The program is aimed at understanding materials behavior in coal system environments and the development of new materials for improving plant operations and reliability. A generic approach is used for addressing multiple coal technologies; for example, the hot-gas particulate filter development is applicable to pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle, coal combustion, and indirectly fired combined-cycle systems.

  8. A new patch material for tympanic membrane perforation by trauma: the membrane of a hen egg shell.

    PubMed

    Jun, Hyung Jin; Oh, Kyung-Ho; Yoo, Jun; Han, Won-Gue; Chang, Jiwon; Jung, Hak Hyun; Choi, June

    2014-03-01

    The egg shell membrane (ESM) patch may promote tympanic membrane (TM) healing in acute traumatic TM perforation. To evaluate the use of ESM for treating acute traumatic TM perforation. We reviewed charts of patients with traumatic TM injury from 2008 to 2011. Treatments were an ESM patch or a perforation edge approximation. We divided patients into two groups according to the treatment used. Each patient was matched by treatment onset and perforation size. We compared healing ratio, healing time, and frequency of otorrhea between the perforation edge approximation group and the ESM patch group. Matched t tests were used for analysis. The healing ratio of the TM showed no significant difference between the two groups, but the time to heal was significantly shorter in the ESM patch group than in the perforation edge approximation group.

  9. Science-Driven Candidate Search for New Scintillator Materials: FY 2014 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Gao, Fei; Xie, YuLong; Campbell, Luke W.; Wu, Dangxin; Prange, Micah P.

    2014-10-01

    This annual reports presents work carried out during Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the project entitled “Science-Driven Candidate Search for New Scintillator Materials” (Project number: PL13-SciDriScintMat-PD05) and led by Drs. Fei Gao and Sebastien N. Kerisit. This project is divided into three tasks: 1) Ab initio calculations of electronic properties, electronic response functions and secondary particle spectra; 2) Intrinsic response properties, theoretical light yield, and microscopic description of ionization tracks; and 3) Kinetics and efficiency of scintillation: nonproportionality, intrinsic energy resolution, and pulse shape discrimination. Detailed information on the results obtained in each of the three tasks is provided in this Annual Report. Furthermore, peer-reviewed articles published this FY or currently under review and presentations given this FY are included in Appendix. This work was supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D/NA-22), of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  10. Development of a membrane-based process for the treatment of oily waste waters. Annual report, March 4, 1993--March 5, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    McCray, S.B.

    1995-08-30

    The goal of this program was to develop an economical oily-water treatment system based on reverse-osmosis (RO) membrane technology. The RO system would be used to: (1) reduce oil-production costs by reducing the volume of waste water for which disposal is required; (2) form the basis of a generic waste-water treatment system that can easily be integrated into oil-field operations, especially at production facilities that are small or in remote locations: and (3) produce water clean enough to meet current and anticipated environmental regulations. The specific focus of this program was to develop a hollow-fiber membrane module capable of treating oily waste waters. Typically, the organics in oily waste water swell or dissolve the materials used in conventional polymeric membranes and modules. Our goal was to develop hollow-fiber membranes and modules that were more solvent-resistant than conventional membrane modules. We successfully achieved this goal. During the course of this program. we developed thin-film-composite (TFC) membranes, which consisted of a solvent-resistant selective coating placed on a solvent-resistant hollow-fiber support. These TFC membranes were used in low-cost, hollow-fiber modules, which were made using solvent-resistant components. The modules were tube-side-feed modules, in which the oily waste water travels down the inside (lumen) of the hollow fiber. The selective coating allows water to pass freely through the wall of the fiber, but restricts the transport of oil and grease and some of the dissolved organics and salts in the feed. Using these modules, more than 90% of the oily waste water can be recovered as clean permeate (suitable for discharge), while the remaining 10% is removed as oily-water concentrate (which can be recycled for recovery of the oil or disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner).

  11. Very low surface energy (<11 dyn/cm) heterophase polymeric materials for membrane separations: An integrated polymer chemistry/engineering approach and the influence of backpulsing on fouling properties of novel nanofiltration membranes for wastewater remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, B.D.; DeSimone, J.M.

    1998-07-13

    The focus of the fundamental research program is to explore several new classes of polymeric materials to identify promising routes for developing low-fouling nanofiltration membranes for wastewater remediation. This objective will be accomplished through an iterative process of polymer synthesis and characterization, membrane fabrication, separation performance characterization, and fouling assessment. Three classes of materials are being evaluated: low surface energy heterophase fluoropolymeric materials (synthesized by DeSimone`s group), functionalized nanoporous polymeric membranes with well-defined pore size formed via lyotropic liquid crystalline monomers (in collaboration with Professor Douglas L. Gin at the University of California at Berkeley), and nonporous hydrophilic blend membrane materials (in collaboration with Professor Virgil Percec at Case Western Reserve University). The focus of the closely related research program, The Influence of Backpulsing on Fouling Properties of Novel Nanofiltration Membranes for Wastewater Remediation, is to determine the efficacy of backpulsing to reduce the fouling of nanofiltration membranes.

  12. Educators Guide to Free Health, Physical Education and Recreation Materials. A Multimedia Guide. Ninth Annual Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horkheimer, Foley A., Comp.

    This guide to free resource materials in health, physical education, and recreation was developed as a basic resource reference for instructors, coaches, recreation directors, and instructional materials center heads. It identifies selected existing resources (including films, filmstrips, slides, transparencies, tapes, scripts, and printed…

  13. Metals and Ceramics Division Materials Science Program. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    McHargue, C.J.

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Materials Sciences Program in the Metals and Ceramics Division. These activities constitute about one-fourth of the research and development conducted by the division. The major elements of the Materials Sciences Program can be grouped under the areas of (1) structural characterization, (2) high-temperature alloy studies, (3) structural ceramics, and (4) radiation effects.

  14. Materials, design, and modeling for bipolar/end plates in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Atul

    New vehicle technologies are required to improve upon conventional internal combustion engine technologies. In this regard, the development of fuel cell (polymer electrolyte membrane type) vehicles with improved efficiency and reliability seems promising. However, some technical issues exist that hinder the commercialization of this technology. One such issue is the high cost, volume, and mass of the bipolar/end plates in the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack. This research, therefore, focuses on materials, design, and modeling for bipolar/end plates in PEMFC stack. Alternative materials were tested that can replace the conventionally used graphite in the PEMFC stack. With regards to these, a two-cell PEMFC stack was fabricated with SS-316 multi-parallel flow-field (MPFF) designed bipolar/end plates. The stack was run for over 1000 hours and showed no appreciable drop in performance. To enhance the understanding and for determining the effect of operating parameters in PEMFC, a single cell model was developed. The model results agree well with the experimental data. The gas flow-field in bipolar/end plates of the PEMFC was optimized with respect to channel dimensions, channel shape, flow-field design, and flow-field permeability. It was seen that lower the flow-field permeability better is the fuel cell performance. Based on this, the concept of use of metal foams in the gas flow-field was proposed. Experiments were carried out to test the feasibility of metal foams in the gas flow-field of bipolar/end plates in PEMFC stack. Three different porous materials, viz. Ni-Cr metal foam (50 P PI, pores per inch), S S-316 metal foam (20 PPI), and carbon cloth were tested, and the results were compared to the conventional MPFF channel design concept. It was seen that the performance with Ni-Cr metal foam was highest, and decreased in the order of SS-316 metal foam, conventional MPFF design, and carbon cloth. This trend was explained based on the effective

  15. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) annual technical report, fiscal year 1984 with fiscal year 1985 data

    SciTech Connect

    1985-07-01

    The Department of Energy funded about 374 million dollars of materials science and technology activities in both fiscal years 1984 and 1985. These funds and the commensurate program management responsibilities resided in 21 DOE program offices, each of which has its own mission and responsibilities. The Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) provides a formal mechanism to insure coordinated planning and maximum programmatic effectiveness for the Department's 374 million dollar per year materials effort. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research who in turn has oversight responsibilities for proper coordination of the technical programs of the Department. In carrying out this responsibility, EMaCC hosts meetings, organizes working groups, and publishes an annual technical report. This report is mandated by the EMaCC Terms of Reference. Its purpose is to disseminate information on the DOE materials programs for more effective coordination. It describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department for FY 1984, contains funding information for FYs 1984 and 1985, and summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1985.

  16. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-10-18

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed.

  17. Research and development to overcome fouling of membranes. First annual report, October 1, 1989--October 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Narang, S.C.; Sharma, S.K.; Ventura, S.C.; Roberts, D.L.; Ahner, N.

    1992-06-01

    During this first year of the program, we have successfully accomplished the main objective of demonstrating the feasibility of using piezoelectrically assisted ultrafiltration to reduce membrane fouling and enhance the flux through ultrafiltration membranes. A preliminary economic evaluation, accounting for the power consumption of the piezoelectric driver and the extent of permeate flow rate enhancement, has also shown that piezoelectrically assisted ultrafiltration is cost effective and economically competitive with traditional separation processes. Piezoelectric transducers, such as a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) disc or a piezoelectric horn, driven by moderate power, significantly enhance the permeate flux on fouled membranes, presumably because they promote local turbulence. Several experiments were conducted on polysulfone and regenerated cellulose UF membranes fouled during filtration of model feed solutions. Solutions of poly(ethylene glycol) and of high-molecular weight dextran were used as models. We found that we could significantly increase the permeate flux by periodically driving the piezoelectric transducer, horn, or PZT disc, by application of moderate power over short periods of time, from 20 to 90 seconds. Enhancements as high as a factor of 8 were recorded with a few seconds, and enhanced permeate fluxes were maintained over a prolonged period (up to 3 hours). The prolonged flux enhancement makes it feasible to drive the piezoelectric transducer intermittently, thereby reducing the power consumption of the piezoelectric driver.

  18. Iron porphyrin-modified PVDF membrane as a biomimetic material and its effectiveness on nitric oxide binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Can, Faruk; Demirci, Osman Cahit; Dumoulin, Fabienne; Erhan, Elif; Arslan, Leyla Colakerol; Ergenekon, Pınar

    2017-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive gas well-known as an air pollutant causing severe environmental problems. NO is also an important signaling molecule having a strong affinity towards heme proteins in the body. Taking this specialty as a model, a biomimetic membrane was developed by modification of the membrane surface with iron-porphyrin which depicts very similar structure to heme proteins. In this study, PVDF membrane was coated with synthesized (4-carboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-triphenyl-porphyrin iron(III) chloride (FeCTPP) to promote NO fixation on the surface. The coated membrane was characterized in terms of ATR-IR spectra, contact angle measurement, chemical composition, and morphological structure. Contact angle of original PVDF first decreased sharply after plasma treatment and surface polymerization steps but after incorporation of FeCTPP, the surface acquired its hydrophobicity again. NO binding capability of modified membrane surface was evaluated on the basis of X-ray Photoelectron. Upon exposure to NO gas, a chemical shift of Fe+3 and appearance of new N peak was observed due to the electron transfer from NO ligand to Fe ion with the attachment of nitrosyl group to FeCTPP. This modification brings the functionality to the membrane for being used in biological systems such as membrane bioreactor material in biological NO removal technology.

  19. Ion exchange membranes as novel passive sampling material for organic ions: application for the determination of freely dissolved concentrations.

    PubMed

    Oemisch, Luise; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Endo, Satoshi

    2014-11-28

    Many studies in pharmacology, toxicology and environmental science require a method for determining the freely dissolved concentration of a target substance. A recently developed tool for this purpose is equilibrium passive sampling with polymeric materials. However, this method has rarely been applied to ionic organic substances, primarily due to limited availability of convenient sorption materials. This study introduces ion exchange membranes (IEMs) as a novel passive sampling material for organic ions. The partitioning of 4-ethylbenzene-1-sulfonate, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and pentachlorophenol to one anion exchange membrane (FAS) and of difenzoquat, nicotine and verapamil to one cation exchange membrane (FKS) was investigated. All test substances exhibited a sufficiently high affinity for the respective IEM with logarithmic IEM-water partition coefficients >2.3. Sorption equilibrium was established quickly, within several hours for the FAS membrane and within 1-3 days for the FKS membrane. For permanently charged substances the partitioning to the IEMs was independent of pH, but was influenced by the salt composition of the test solution. For all test substances sorption to IEM was dependent on the substance concentration. Bovine serum albumin-water partition coefficients determined by passive sampling with IEMs agree well with those determined by the conventional dialysis method. The results of this study indicate that IEMs exhibit the potential to measure freely dissolved concentrations of organic ions in a simple and time-saving manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Smart sensory materials for divalent cations: a dithizone immobilized membrane for optical analysis.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Giancarla; Re, Silvia; Tivelli, Anna Maria Chiara; Biesuz, Raffaela

    2016-10-17

    An optode for Cu(ii), Cd(ii), Zn(ii) and Hg(ii) sensing has been designed by immobilization of dithizone on a triacetylcellulose membrane (mem-DTZ). The sorption of the metal ions on the mem-DTZ has been thoroughly characterized, in particular sorption kinetics, sorption isotherms and profiles as a function of the pH have been studied. Methods to assess the concentrations of the cations, both individually and in a mixture, in unknown samples, have been developed. In particular, UV-vis spectra and digital information of pictures taken by using a common desktop scanner, of the mem-DTZ sensor after equilibration with different solutions, were acquired and they were correlated with the concentration of the metal ions in solutions. For the single analyte determination, the RGB parameters of the pictures were subjected to Principal Component Analysis (PCA); otherwise the UV-vis spectra of a mixture of two cations were elaborated by Partial Least Squares (PLS) Regression. The membrane responds to the divalent cations by changing colour reversibly. The response time of the mem-DTZ is about 1 h for Cd(ii), Hg(ii) and Zn(ii), but longer for Cu(ii): more than 10 h are required. The linear interval is in the range of about 10(-7) to 10(-5) M for all metal ions. The limit of detection (LOD) is around 10(-6) M for Cu(ii), Cd(ii) and Hg(ii); for Zn(ii) a lower LOD of 10(-7) M is obtained. The applicability of mem-DTZ to real samples has been proved by analysis of the four metal cations in a certificate material (Sewage Sludge CC136A), white wine, and drinking water samples.

  1. High Temperature Materials Laboratory Fourteenth Annual Report: October 2000 through September 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Pasto, A.E.

    2002-05-16

    The HTML User Program continued to work with industrial, academic, and governmental users this year, accepting 92 new projects and developing 48 new user agreements. Table 1 presents the breakdown of these statistics. Figure 1 depicts the continued growth in user agreements and user projects. You will note that the total number of HTML proposals has now exceeded 1000. Also, the large number of new agreements bodes well for the future. At the end of the report, we present a list of proposals to the HTML and a list of agreements between HTML and universities and industries, broken down by state. Program highlights this year included several outstanding user projects (some of which are highlighted in later sections), the annual meeting of the HTML Programs Senior Advisory Committee, and approval by ORNL for the construction of a building to house our new aberration-corrected electron microscope (ACEM) and several other sensitive electron and optical instruments.

  2. Science-Driven Candidate Search for New Scintillator Materials FY 2013 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fei; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Xie, YuLong; Wu, Dangxin; Prange, Micah P.; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Campbell, Luke W.; Wang, Zhiguo

    2013-10-01

    This annual report presents work carried out during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the project entitled “Science-Driven Candidate Search for New Scintillator Materials” (Project number: PL13-SciDriScintMat-PD05) and led by Dr. Fei Gao. This project is divided into three tasks, namely (1) Ab initio calculations of electronic properties, electronic response functions and secondary particle spectra; (2) Intrinsic response properties, theoretical light yield, and microscopic description of ionization tracks; and (3) Kinetics and efficiency of scintillation: nonlinearity, intrinsic energy resolution, and pulse shape discrimination. Detailed information on the findings and insights obtained in each of these three tasks are provided in this report. Additionally, papers published this fiscal year or currently in review are included in Appendix together with presentations given this fiscal year.

  3. Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Nondestructive Evaluation: technical activities, 1989. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Yolken, H.T.

    1989-11-01

    A review of the Nondestructive Evaluation Program at NIST for fiscal year 1989 is presented in the annual report. Topics include the following: Intelligent processing of rapidly solidified metal powders; Nondestructive characterization of ceramic sintering; Monitoring of machined ceramic surfaces by thermal waves; Eddy-current temperature sensing; Ultrasonic sensor for sheet metal formability; Ultrasonic metrology for surface finish and part thickness; Measurement and control of polymer-processing parameters using fluorescence spectroscopy; Nondestructive evaluation of diamond films; Transient elastic waves in laminates; Intelligent processing of solder-joint connections for printed wiring assemblies; Ultrasonics and acoustic emission; Real-time x-ray radioscopy; Magnetic methods and standards for NDE; Eddy-current techniques; New standard test methods for characterizing performance of thermal-imaging systems; and Capacitive array research for characterization of ceramics.

  4. Purchasing and Materials Management Organization, Sandia National Laboratories annual report, fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.R.

    1994-02-01

    This report summarizes the purchasing and transportation activities of the Purchasing and Materials Management Organization for Fiscal Year 1993. Activities for both the New Mexico and California locations are included.

  5. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMACC) Fiscal Year 1980. Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    This report contains information on the FY 1980 Department of Energy materials research and development programs and on those programs/projects with a significant materials activity. It was compiled by the Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC). The previous report in this series summarized the FY 1979 programs (DOE/US-0002-2). The report is separated into sections, each containing programs reporting to one of six Assistant Secretaries of the Department: Conservation and Solar Energy, Defense Programs, Environment, Fossil Energy, Nuclear Energy, and Resource Applications; and one section, Energy Research, responsible to the Director of the Office of Energy Research. For convenience in locating the generic types of materials activities, an Appendix has been added that contains a primary keyword index.

  6. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC), Fiscal year 1992. Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The DOE EMaCC serves to coordinate the department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the department. This document presents summaries of budgets and of research projects, arranged according to the offices of energy efficiency and renewable energy, energy research, environmental restoration and waste management, nuclear energy, civilian radioactive waste management, defense, and fossil energy. A directory and a keyword index are included.

  7. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 1983

    SciTech Connect

    1984-03-01

    The following text briefly describes the materials research programs of the Department of Energy. It is organized by office and organizational charts are provided to allow easy identification of the materials research programs of each office. These program descriptions have been prepared from inputs submitted by many different EMaCC members. This report is not a comprehensive summary of the Department's programs, but rather a compilation of the programs of those offices that submitted inputs.

  8. Proceedings of the sixth annual conference on fossil energy materials. Fossil Energy AR and TD Mateials Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R.

    1992-07-01

    The Sixth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on May 12--14, 1992. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR&TD) Materials Program, and ASM International. The objective of the AR&TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the Program has been decentralized to the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as the technical support contractor. The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by a substantial number of researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) ceramics, (2) development and corrosion resistance of iron aluminide, advanced austenitic and chromium-niobium alloys, and (3) technology assessment and technology transfer. This conference is held each year to review the work on all of the projects of the Program. The agenda for the meeting is given in Appendix A, and a list of attendees is presented in Appendix B. ASM International cosponsored the conference, for which we are especially grateful.

  9. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-08-31

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed. The FY 2004 budget summary for DOE Materials Activities is presented on page 8. The distribution of these funds between DOE laboratories, private industry, academia and other organizations is presented in tabular form on page 10. Following the budget summary is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 2004 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department. A mission statement, a budget summary listing the project titles and FY 2004 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office, the Office of Science, and the National Nuclear Security Administration. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project, as appropriate.

  10. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2006-09-29

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed. The FY 2004 budget summary for DOE Materials Activities is presented on page 8. The distribution of these funds between DOE laboratories, private industry, academia and other organizations is presented in tabular form on page 10. Following the budget summary is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 2004 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department. A mission statement, a budget summary listing the project titles and FY 2004 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office, the Office of Science, and the National Nuclear Security Administration. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project, as appropriate.

  11. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2002

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-08-08

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed. The EMaCC Charter and the memorandum approving it are presented in the Appendix of this report. The FY 2002 budget summary for DOE Materials Activities is presented on page 8. The distribution of these funds between DOE laboratories, private industry, academia and other organizations is presented in tabular form on page 10. Following the budget summary is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 2002 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department. A mission statement, a budget summary listing the project titles and FY 2002 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office, the Office of Science, and the National Nuclear Security Administration. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project, as appropriate.

  12. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC), fiscal year 1985. Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1986-05-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meeting/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees on Structural Ceramics, Batteries and Fuel Cells, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Steel are established and are continuing their own program. The FY 1985 and FY 1986 meeting program is given. The EMaCC aids in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and inter-agency compilations. Brief summaries of the materials research programs associated with each office and division are presented, including tables listing individual projects and the FY 1985 budgets for each. More details on the individual projects within the divisions and the specific tasks or subcontracts within the various projects are given in the paragraph descriptions.

  13. Materials studies for preventing corrosion in condensing environments. Annual report, October 1990--September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.; Sugama, T.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the fundamental interfacial requirements for low-cost, organic and inorganic materials resistive to corrosion in condensing furnace exhausts. This research effort is being focused to provide information regarding corrosion resistance, heat transfer, material cost, fabrication method and cost, and product reliability since all are important in the final design and production of a heat exchanger. Results to date indicate that organic and inorganic-type polymer coating systems applied to low cost metals such as mild steel and aluminum provide good corrosion protection. The thermal stability of these polymers plus the identification of the interfacial requirements needed to utilize them with reactive filler materials should also make their use as bulk composites feasible.

  14. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1996-12-01

    The FY 1995 budget summary table for DOE Materials Activities is presented on pages 6-8. Following the budget summary table is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 1995 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department A mission statement a budget summary table listing the project titles and FY 1995 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office and the Office of Energy Research. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project as appropriate.

  15. PREFACE: Annual Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies - FM&NT 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Andris; Muzikante, Inta; Zicans, Janis

    2011-06-01

    The International Conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2011) was held in Riga, 5-8 April 2011 in the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia (ISSP LU). The conference was organized in co-operation with projects ERANET 'MATERA' and National Research programme in Materials Science and Information Technologies. The purpose of the conference was to bring together scientists, engineers and students from universities, research institutes and related industrial companies active in the field of advanced material science and materials technologies trends and future activities. Scientific themes covered in the conference are: theoretical research and modelling of processes and materials; materials for energetics, renewable energy technologies and phtovoltaics; multifunctional inorganic, organic and hybrid materials for photonic, micro and nanoelectronic applications and innovative methods for research of nanostructures; advanced technologies for synthesis and research of nanostructured materials, nanoparticles, thin films and coatings; application of innovative materials in science and economics. The number of registered participants from 17 countries was nearly 300. During three days of the conference 22 invited, 69 oral reports and 163 posters were presented. 40 papers, based on these reports, are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Additional information about FM&NT-2011 is available in its homepage http://www.fmnt.lu.lv. The Organizing Committee would like to thank all speakers, contributors, session chairs, referees and meeting staff for their efforts in making the FM&NT-2011 successful. The Organizing Committee sincerely hopes that that the conference gave all participants new insights into the widespread development of functional materials and nanotechnologies and would enhance the circulation of information released at the meeting. Andris Sternberg Inta Muzikante Janis Zicans

  16. Self-Assembly-Directed Aerogel and Membrane Formation from a Magnetic Composite: An Approach to Developing Multifunctional Materials.

    PubMed

    Vivek, Balachandran; Prasad, Edamana

    2017-03-01

    Herein, we report the preparation of an aerogel and a membrane from a magnetic composite material by tuning the self-assembly at the molecular level. The gel exhibits an excellent oil absorption property, and the membrane shows a remarkable autonomous self-healing property. The composite is formed from an organosilicon-modified poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer, which is linked with iron oxide nanoparticles and poly(vinyl alcohol). Upon the addition of a cross-linker (formaldehyde), the system undergoes a fast self-assembly and gelation process. The aerogel, obtained after drying of the hydrogel, was modified with 1- bromohexadecane at room temperature and utilized for the removal of oil from water with 22.9 g/g absorption capacity. Intriguingly, the same system forms a membrane with 97% autonomous self-healing ability, in the absence of the cross-linker. The membrane was used to remove the salt content from water with an efficiency of 85%. The control experiments suggest that the presence of the magnetic material (iron oxide) plays a key role in the formation of both the aerogel and membrane.

  17. 24. annual conference of the North American Association for Environmental Education: Curriculum and resources fair -- List of materials

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The North American Association for Environmental Education (NAAEE) is a network of professionals and students working in the field of environmental education throughout North America and in 40 countries around the world. For almost 25 years, the Association has promoted EE and supported the work of environmental educators. There are many environmental interest groups, and many organizations dedicated to the improvement of education. NAAEE uniquely combines and integrates both of these perspectives, and takes a cooperative, nonconfrontational approach to promoting education about environmental issues. NAAEE recognizes the need for a coherent body of information about environmental issues. Its members also recognize that information and analysis are only part of an effective education program. To be truly effective, this body of knowledge must be integrated into all aspects of the curriculum and into all types of educating institutions for the widest array of audiences. In order to translate theory into reality, and provide tangible support for EE and environmental educators, NAAEE engages in a variety of programs and activities. Some examples are the annual conference at varying North American sites, and active publications program, the Environmental Education Training Institute, the VINE (Volunteer-led Investigations of Neighborhood Ecology) Network, the Environmental Issues Forums (EIF) program, and the NAAEE Skills Bank. Each year at its annual conference, NAAEE holds a Curriculum and Resources Fair where conference participants can examine EE materials submitted to NAAEE. This listing contains descriptions of all entries that NAAEE received for the 1995 Fair.

  18. Binary and ternary nano-catalysts as cathode materials in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimm, Bryan Dunning

    The need for alternative energy, in order to reduce dependence on petroleum based fuels, has increased in recent years. Public demand is at an all-time high for low emitting or none polluting energy sources, driving the research for cleaner technology. Lithium batteries and fuel cells have the ability to produce this alternative energy with much cleaner standards, while allowing for portability and high energy densities. This work focuses on the performance of nanocatalysts in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell or PEMFC. A key technical challenge is the sluggish rate for oxygen reduction reaction at the cathode of PEMFC, which requires highly-active and stable catalysts. Our investigation is directed at increasing stability and durability as well as reducing high loading of noble metals in these catalyst materials. Binary and ternary structured nanomaterials, e.g., Pt51V1Co48/C and Pd xCu1-x/C, have been synthesized and tested in a PEMFC, in order to gain a better understanding of their durability and efficiency. In addition to electrochemical characterization, synchrotron x-ray techniques at the Advance Photon Source in Argonne National Lab have also been used for the structural characterization.

  19. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.; Schnitzer, H. S.

    1980-07-01

    The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. Technical activities during the past year have covered a number of topics and have emphasized the development of solar module encapsulation technology that employs ethylene/vinyl acetate, copolymer (EVA) as the pottant. These activities have included: (1) continued production of encapsulation grade EVA in sheet form to meet the needs of the photovoltaic industry; (2) investigations of three non-blocking techniques for EVA sheet; (3) performed an economic analysis of the high volume production of each pottant in order to estimate the large volume selling price (EVA, EPDM, aliphatic urethane, PVC plastisol, and butyl acrylate); (4) initiated an experimental corrosion protection program to determine if metal components could be successfully protected by encapsulation; (5) began an investigation to determine the maximum temperature which can be tolerated by the candidate pottant material in the event of hot spot heating or other temperature override; (6) continuation of surveys of potentially useful outer cover materials; and (7) continued with the accelerated artificial weathering of candidate encapsulation materials. Study results are presented. (WHK)

  20. Ceramic tube materials and processing development. Annual report Feb-Oct 82

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, D.W.; Green, K.E.; Oliver, R.E.; Rivkin, M.I.

    1983-12-01

    Evaluation of state-of-the-art in ceramic recuperator design and application, including the current requirements (specifications) for reaction bonded SiC tubing. Discussion of the perceived joining problem(s) and comments on possible solutions. Initial examination of low cost raw materials and qualitative discussion of the ceramic produced from selected grades of same.

  1. Synthesis and design of silicide intermetallic materials. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; Castro, R.G.; Butt, D.P.; Park, Y.; Vaidya, R.U.; Hollis, K.J.; Kung, H.H.

    1999-03-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop structural silicide-based materials with optimum combinations of elevated temperature strength/creep resistance, low temperature fracture toughness, and high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance for applications of importance to the US processing industry. A further objective is to develop silicide-based prototype industrial components. The ultimate aim of the program is to work with industry to transfer the structural silicide materials technology to the private sector in order to promote international competitiveness in the area of advanced high temperature materials and important applications in major energy-intensive US processing industries. The program presently has a number of developing industrial connections, including a CRADA with Johns Manville Corporation targeted at the area of MoSi{sub 2}-based high temperature materials and components for fiberglass melting and processing applications. The authors are also developing an interaction with the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) to develop silicides for high temperature radiant gas burner applications, for the glass and other industries. With Combustion Technology Inc., they are developing silicide-based periscope sight tubes for the direct observation of glass melts. With Accutru International Corporation, they are developing silicide-based protective sheaths for self-verifying temperature sensors which may be used in glass furnaces and other industrial applications. The progress made on the program in this period is summarized.

  2. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar-cell encapsulants. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.

    1982-07-01

    Potentially useful low cost encapsulation materials are evaluated. The goal of the program is to identify, evaluate, test, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long life solar cell modules. Technical investigations have concerned the development of advanced cure chemistries for lamination type pottants, the continued evaluation of soil resistant surface treatments, and the results of an accelerated aging test program for the comparison of material stabilities. Experiments are underway to assess the durability and cost effectiveness of coatings for protection of steel. Investigations are continuing with commercial maintenance coatings based on fluorocarbon and silicone-alkyd chemistries. Experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of occlusive coatings for wood products such as hard-board. An experimental program continued to determine the usefulness of soil resistant coatings. Primers were evaluated for effectiveness in bonding candidate pottants to outer covers, glass and substate materials. A program of accelerated aging and life predictive strategies is being conducted and data are reported for sunlamp exposure and thermal aging. Supporting activities are also discussed briefly. (LEW)

  3. Hydrophilicity and antifouling property of membrane materials from cellulose acetate/polyethersulfone in DMAc.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhonghua; Chen, Fushan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, cellulose acetate (CA) was blended with polyethersulfone (PES) to endow the ultrafiltration membrane with the improved hydrophilicity and antifouling property by using N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) as the solvent. The effects of blend composition and evaporation time on the mechanical strength and pure water flux were investigated. It was found that the optimal composition of the casting solution was: 18wt% (PES), 4wt% (Polyvinylpyrrolidone K30), 3wt% (CA) and 20s (Evaporation time). The characteristics of CA-PES blend membranes were investigated through the methods of contact angle goniometer, antifouling property, compatibility, thermo gravimetric analysis and SEM. The results showed that the hydrophilicity and antifouling property of CA-PES ultrafiltration membranes were enhanced in comparison with the pure PES membranes. The CA-PES membranes exhibited semi-compatibility and good thermal stability below 270°C. This study provided a potential industrial application prospect of CA-PES membranes prepared in DMAc.

  4. Maxillary Sinus Membrane Elevation With Simultaneous Installation of Implants Without the Use of a Graft Material: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Starch-Jensen, Thomas; Schou, Søren

    2017-08-01

    To compare implant treatment outcome after maxillary sinus membrane elevation with simultaneous installation of implants with or without the use of graft material applying the lateral window technique. MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase search in combination with a hand-search of relevant journals was conducted from January 1, 2004 to January 1, 2016. Thirteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Survival of suprastructures has not been compared within the same study. Short-term implant survival without graft material varied between 96% and 100% compared to 100% for autogenous bone or bone substitutes. No significant difference in bone gain was reported without graft material compared to autogenous bone. The density of newly formed bone increased significantly during the observation period. Bone density was significantly higher in sinuses augmented with blood clot compared to bone substitute, whereas no significant difference was found when compared to autogenous bone. Noncomparative studies demonstrated high long-term implant survival and new bone formation after sinus membrane elevation without graft material. Sinus membrane elevation without the use of a graft material seems to enhance new bone formation with high implant survival, but long-term comparative studies are missing.

  5. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1999-07-31

    The FY 1998 budget summary for DOE Materials Activities is presented on pages 7 and 8. The distribution of these funds between DOE laboratories, private industry, academia and other organizations is presented in tabular form on page 9. Following the budget summary is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 1998 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department. A mission statement, a budget summary listing the project titles and FY 1998 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office and the Office of Energy Research. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project, as appropriate.

  6. Roll-to-Roll Advanced Materials Manufacturing DOE Lab Consortium - FY16 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Claus; Wood, III, David L.; Krumdick, Gregory; Ulsh, Michael; Srinivasan, Venkat

    2016-12-01

    A DOE laboratory consortium comprised of ORNL, ANL, NREL and LBNL, coordinating with Kodak’s Eastman Business Park (Kodak) and other selected industry partners, was formed to address enhancing battery electrode performance and R2R manufacturing challenges. The objective of the FY 2016 seed project was to develop a materials genome synthesis process amenable to R2R manufacturing and to provide modeling, simulation, processing, and manufacturing techniques that demonstrate the feasibility of process controls and scale-up potential for improved battery electrodes. The research efforts were to predict and measure changes and results in electrode morphology and performance based on process condition changes; to evaluate mixed, active, particle size deposition and drying for novel electrode materials; and to model various process condition changes and the resulting morphology and electrode performance.

  7. Annual Technical Report, Materials Research Laboratory, July 1, 1973-June 30, 1974

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-30

    Aeronautics and Space Administration National Science Foundation NSF/Rann Solar Energy Conversion Program Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Fellowship Union Carbide...84 Section 11: Materials for Solar Cells ......... 94 Section 12: Optical Properties ................. 97 Section 13: Magnetic Properties...that for step-loading conditions the small parameter would allow one to identify boundary layers at the loaded end and possibly at the wavefront. Tf so

  8. Annual Technical Report, Materials Research Laboratory, 1 July 1982 - 30 June 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-30

    Experimental Personnel: A. LeGrand. Graduate Student, Physics Studies of Chemisorption and D. (Locotos) Stewart , Graduate Student, Chem- The kinetics...MATERIALS. December 17, 1982 Chemistry Colloquium: Dr. Myung Jhon , Carnegie Mellon, MOLECULAR THEORY OF POLYMER CONFORMATIONS - LAMINAR AND/OR TURBULENT...Prybyla, D. (Loco- tos) Stewart . ENGINEERING Professors R.J. Asaro, R. J. Clifton, J. Duffy, L. B. Freund, J. Gurland, G. S. Heller, J. J. Loferski, A

  9. Metals and Ceramics Division materials science program. Annual progress report for period ending June 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    McHargue, C.J.

    1981-09-01

    Information is presented concerning the theoretical studies of metals and alloys; x-ray diffraction research; structural ceramics; structure of coal; analytical and high-voltage electron microscopy; deformation and mechanical properties; mechanisms of surface and solid-state reactions; physical properties research; metastable materials; neutron radiation effects; charged particle radiation effects; theory and modeling of radiation effects; facility and advanced technique development; fundamentals of welding and joining; and studies in nondestructive evaluation.

  10. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Seventh annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, P.B.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of the program is to identify and evaluate encapsulation materials and processes for the protection of silicon solar cells for service in a terrestrial environment. Aging and degradation studies were performed including: thermal aging, sunlamp exposures, aging in controlled environment reactors and outdoor photothermal aging devices, and metal catalyzed degradation. Other tests addressed water absorption, primers and adhesives, soiling experiments, and corrosion protection. (LEW)

  11. Membrane stabilizer

    DOEpatents

    Mingenbach, W.A.

    1988-02-09

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material. 10 figs.

  12. Nanostructured TiOx as a catalyst support material for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Richard S.

    Recent interest in the development of new catalyst support materials for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) has stimulated research into the viability of TiO2-based support structures. Specifically, substoichiometric TiO2 (TiOx) has been reported to exhibit a combination of high conductivity, stability, and corrosion resistance. These properties make TiOx-based support materials a promising prospect when considering the inferior corrosion resistance of traditional carbon-based supports. This document presents an investigation into the formation of conductive and stable TiOx thin films employing atomic layer deposition (ALD) and a post deposition oxygen reducing anneal (PDORA). Techniques for manufacturing TiOx-based catalyst support nanostructures by means of ALD in conjunction with carbon black (CB), anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) and silicon nanowires (SiNWs) will also be presented. The composition and thickness of resulting TiOx thin films was determined with the aid of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Film crystal structure was determined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Film conductivity was calculated using four-point probe (4-PP) and film thickness measurement data. Resulting thin films show a significant decrease of oxygen in ALD TiOx films corresponding with a great increase in conductivity following the PDORA. The effectiveness of the PDORA was also found to be highly dependent on ALD process parameters. TiOx-based nanostructures were coated with platinum using one of three Pt deposition techniques. First, liquid phase deposition (LPD), which was performed at room temperature, provided equal access to catalyst support material surfaces which were suspended in solution. Second, plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), which was performed at 450°C, provided good Pt

  13. Histological assessment of augmented jaw bone utilizing a new collagen barrier membrane compared to a standard barrier membrane to protect a granular bone substitute material.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Anton; Strietzel, Frank Peter; Maretzki, Burghard; Pitaru, Sandu; Bernimoulin, Jean-Pierre

    2002-12-01

    Successful bone augmentation requires predictable space maintenance and adequate exclusion of those cells that lack osteogenetic potential from the defect area. Natural bone mineral is considered to be osteoconductive and is used as space maker in combination with membrane barrier techniques. The aim of this study was to compare qualitative histological results achieved by using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) as a space maintainer and a new collagen barrier (Ossix, test group) vs. the same bone substitute and the standard e-PTFE membrane (Gore-Tex), control group). Twenty-eight patients were randomly assigned to the test or the control group. Seven months after augmentation procedures, biopsies were obtained at reentry and were analysed histomorphometrically. In all, 14 specimens of group I (test group, Ossix) and 13 specimens of group II (controls, PTFE-membranes) showed close qualitative similarity of their histologies. Histomorphometrically, total mineralized bone area was 42% +/- 18% in group I vs. 39% +/- 15% in group II. The unmineralized tissue area was 44% +/- 15% vs. 46% +/- 12% and the area of DBBM remnants 14% +/- 9% and 15% +/- 12%, respectively. The differences were statistically nonsignificant (Mann-Whitney test). The occurrence of barrier exposure did not interfere with the histological outcome either in the test or in the control group. The new collagen barrier combined with the DBBM provided qualitative bone regeneration comparable to the standard e-PTFE material combined with the same mineral.

  14. Effect of gas adsorption on acoustic wave propagation in MFI zeolite membrane materials: experiment and molecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Manga, Etoungh D; Blasco, Hugues; Da-Costa, Philippe; Drobek, Martin; Ayral, André; Le Clezio, Emmanuel; Despaux, Gilles; Coasne, Benoit; Julbe, Anne

    2014-09-02

    The present study reports on the development of a characterization method of porous membrane materials which consists of considering their acoustic properties upon gas adsorption. Using acoustic microscopy experiments and atomistic molecular simulations for helium adsorbed in a silicalite-1 zeolite membrane layer, we showed that acoustic wave propagation could be used, in principle, for controlling the membranes operando. Molecular simulations, which were found to fit experimental data, showed that the compressional modulus of the composite system consisting of silicalite-1 with adsorbed He increases linearly with the He adsorbed amount while its shear modulus remains constant in a large range of applied pressures. These results suggest that the longitudinal and Rayleigh wave velocities (VL and VR) depend on the He adsorbed amount whereas the transverse wave velocity VT remains constant.

  15. Next-Generation Electrochemical Energy Materials for Intermediate Temperature Molten Oxide Fuel Cells and Ion Transport Molten Oxide Membranes.

    PubMed

    Belousov, Valery V

    2017-02-21

    High temperature electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and oxygen separators based on ceramic materials are used for efficient energy conversion. These devices generally operate in the temperature range of 800-1000 °C. The high operating temperatures lead to accelerated degradation of the SOFC and oxygen separator materials. To solve this problem, the operating temperatures of these electrochemical devices must be lowered. However, lowering the temperature is accompanied by decreasing the ionic conductivity of fuel cell electrolyte and oxygen separator membrane. Therefore, there is a need to search for alternative electrolyte and membrane materials that have high ionic conductivity at lower temperatures. A great many opportunities exist for molten oxides as electrochemical energy materials. Because of their unique electrochemical properties, the molten oxide innovations can offer significant benefits for improving energy efficiency. In particular, the newly developed electrochemical molten oxide materials show high ionic conductivities at intermediate temperatures (600-800 °C) and could be used in molten oxide fuel cells (MOFCs) and molten oxide membranes (MOMs). The molten oxide materials containing both solid grains and liquid channels at the grain boundaries have advantages compared to the ceramic materials. For example, the molten oxide materials are ductile, which solves a problem of thermal incompatibility (difference in coefficient of thermal expansion, CTE). Besides, the outstanding oxygen selectivity of MOM materials allows us to separate ultrahigh purity oxygen from air. For their part, the MOFC electrolytes show the highest ionic conductivity at intermediate temperatures. To evaluate the potential of molten oxide materials for technological applications, the relationship between the microstructure of these materials and their transport and mechanical properties must be revealed. This Account summarizes the latest results on

  16. Lactose electroisomerization into lactulose: effect of the electrode material, active membrane surface area-to-electrode surface area ratio, and interelectrode-membrane distance.

    PubMed

    Aït-Aissa, Amara; Aïder, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study and develop an innovative, clean, and environmentally friendly process for lactulose synthesis by electroactivation of lactose. In this work, the electrode material (type 304 stainless steel, titanium, and copper), dimensionless interelectrode-membrane distance at the cathodic compartment (0.36, 0.68, and 1), and the membrane:electrode surface area ratio (0.23, 0.06, and 0.015) were considered to be the factors that could affect the kinetic conversion of lactose into lactulose. The reactions were conducted under an initial lactose concentration of 0.15mol/L at 10°C, Froude number (mixing speed) of 2.05×10(-2), and electric current intensity of 300mA for 30min. The highest lactulose formation yield of 32.50% (0.05mol/L) was obtained by using a copper electrode, interelectrode-membrane distance of 0.36, and membrane:electrode surface area ratio of 0.23. The 2-parameter Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models were used for the prediction of the lactose isomerization kinetics as well as the 3-parameter Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model. It was shown that the lactose isomerization kinetics into lactulose followed the Temkin and Langmuir-Freundlich models with coefficients of determination of 0.99 and 0.90 and a relative error of 1.42 to 1.56% and 4.27 to 4.37%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Organ culture storage of pre-prepared corneal donor material for Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bhogal, Maninder; Matter, Karl; Balda, Maria S; Allan, Bruce D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of media composition and storage method on pre-prepared Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) grafts. Methods 50 corneas were used. Endothelial wound healing and proliferation in different media were assessed using a standard injury model. DMEK grafts were stored using three methods: peeling with free scroll storage; partial peeling with storage on the stroma and fluid bubble separation with storage on the stroma. Endothelial cell (EC) phenotype and the extent of endothelial overgrowth were examined. Global cell viability was assessed for storage methods that maintained a normal cell phenotype. Results 1 mm wounds healed within 4 days. Enhanced media did not increase EC proliferation but may have increased EC migration into the wounded area. Grafts that had been trephined showed evidence of EC overgrowth, whereas preservation of a physical barrier in the bubble group prevented this. In grafts stored in enhanced media or reapposed to the stroma after trephination, endothelial migration occurred sooner and cells underwent endothelial-mesenchymal transformation. Ongoing cell loss, with new patterns of cell death, was observed after returning grafts to storage. Grafts stored as free scrolls retained more viable ECs than grafts prepared with the fluid bubble method (74.2± 3% vs 60.3±6%, p=0.04 (n=8). Conclusion Free scroll storage is superior to liquid bubble and partial peeling techniques. Free scrolls only showed overgrowth of ECs after 4 days in organ culture, indicating a viable time window for the clinical use of pre-prepared DMEK donor material using this method. Methods for tissue preparation and storage media developed for whole corneas should not be used in pre-prepared DMEK grafts without prior evaluation. PMID:27543290

  18. Annual report: Purchasing and Materials Management Organization, Sandia National Laboratories, fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Zaeh, R.A.

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the purchasing and transportation activities of the Purchasing and Materials Management Organization for Fiscal Year 1992. Activities for both the New Mexico and California locations are included. Topics covered in this report include highlights for fiscal year 1992, personnel, procurements (small business procurements, disadvantaged business procurements, woman-owned business procurements, New Mexico commercial business procurements, Bay area commercial business procurements), commitments by states and foreign countries, and transportation activities. Also listed are the twenty-five commercial contractors receiving the largest dollar commitments, commercial contractors receiving commitments of $1,000 or more, integrated contractor and federal agency commitments of $1,000 or more from Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and California, and transportation commitments of $1,000 or more from Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and California.

  19. High Temperature Materials Laboratory fifth annual report, October 1991--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1992-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) has completed its fifth year of operation as a designated Department of Energy (DOE) User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Growth of the User Program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions executing user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 145 nonproprietary agreements (77 university and 68 industry) and 30 proprietary agreements (2 university, 28 industry) are now in effect. Five other government facilities have also participated in the User Program. Thirty-six states are represented by these interactions. Eighty-one nonproprietary research proposals (44 from university, 36 from industry, and 1 other government facility) and six proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Research projects active in FY 1992 are summarized.

  20. High Temperature Materials Laboratory fourth annual report, October 1990--September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1991-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its fourth year of operation as a designated Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the user program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions who have executed user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 118 nonproprietary agreements (62 university and 56 industry) and 28 proprietary agreements (2 university, 26 industry) are now in effect. Five other government facilities have also participated in the user program. Sixty-free nonproprietary research proposals (38 from university, 26 from industry, and 1 other government facility) and four proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Research projects active in FY 1991 are summarized.

  1. High Temperature Materials Laboratory fifth annual report, October 1991--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1992-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) has completed its fifth year of operation as a designated Department of Energy (DOE) User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Growth of the User Program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions executing user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 145 nonproprietary agreements (77 university and 68 industry) and 30 proprietary agreements (2 university, 28 industry) are now in effect. Five other government facilities have also participated in the User Program. Thirty-six states are represented by these interactions. Eighty-one nonproprietary research proposals (44 from university, 36 from industry, and 1 other government facility) and six proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Research projects active in FY 1992 are summarized.

  2. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Fiscal year 1986, Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1987-05-01

    The first part of the Program Descriptions consists of a funding summary for each Assistant Secretary office and the Office of Energy Research. This is followed by a summary of project titles and objectives, including the program/project manager(s) and principal investigator. The second part of the Program Descriptions consists of more detailed project summaries with project goals and accomplishments. They are for the Offices of Conservation and Renewable Energy, Energy Research, Nuclear Energy, Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, and Fossil Energy. Each of these are numbered for purposes of reference in the Keyword Index. The FY 1986 Budget Summary for materials activities in each of the 29 programs within the DOE are also included.

  3. High Temperature Materials Laboratory sixth annual report, October 1992--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1993-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its sixth year of operation as a designated Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the User Program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions executing user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 172 nonproprietary agreements (88 university and 84 industry) and 35 proprietary agreements, (2 university, 33 industry) are now in effect. Six other government facilities have also participated in the User Program. Thirty-eight states are represented by these interactions. Ninety-four nonproprietary research proposals (44 from universities, 47 from industry, and 3 from other government facilities) and three proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Nonproprietary research projects active in FY 1993 are summarized.

  4. Impact of feed water pH and membrane material on nanofiltration of perfluorohexanoic acid in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chenghui; Tanaka, Shuhei; Suzuki, Yuji; Fujii, Shigeo

    2017-09-01

    Nanofiltration was thought to be a good option for the recovery of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) from industrial wastewater. In this study, two commercially available nanofiltration (NF) membranes (NF 270 and NTR-7450) were tested to concentrate the PFHxA in aqueous solution. Filtration test was conducted in crossflow filtration mode. Membrane flux and PFHxA rejection rate were monitored throughout the filtration test. The impact of initial feed water pH on membrane performance was investigated. Results demonstrated that the two NF membranes showed different response to the change of initial feed water pH, which was caused by the intrinsic properties of membrane material. The flux performance of NF 270 was stable, while its rejection rate of PFHxA was very sensitive to the change of initial feed water pH. Opposite result was obtained with NTR-7450. It had a very good stability on rejection rate, while its flux was very sensitive to the change of initial feed water pH. The mechanisms behind these phenomena were also discussed. The results obtained in this study should be very useful for the process design in practical engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultra-thin porous glass membranes--an innovative material for the immobilization of active species for optical chemosensors.

    PubMed

    Müller, R; Anders, N; Titus, J; Enke, D

    2013-03-30

    In addition to polymers, porous glasses can be used for the immobilization of indicators, chromoionophores or enzymes. Advantages of these materials include, among others, the photochemical and thermal stability. Porous glass membranes (CPG) based on phase-separated alkali borosilicate glasses with thicknesses of 250-300 μm and dimensions of approximately 9-13 mm² were used in this work. The average pore diameter was found to be between 12 and 112 nm. Initially, the membrane permeability for water was determined. Furthermore, the absorption spectra for the water-soaked membranes were recorded optically. CPG membranes which are pH-sensitive were prepared based on the covalent immobilization of thymol blue and a derivative of styryl acridine. In each case, the absorption spectra of the immobilized indicators are shown. The t90-times vary between 4 and 20 min and were determined for the thermodynamic equilibrium. The influence of the ionic strength on the characteristic curve is discussed and detailed results are given. After the storage time of about 900 days a pH-sensitivity for a CPG membrane styryl acridine derivative sample was still detectable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Production of an ion-exchange membrane-catalytic electrode bonded material for electrolytic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takenaka, H.; Torikai, E.

    1986-01-01

    A good bond is achieved by placing a metal salt in solution on one side of a membrane and a reducing agent on the other side so that the reducing agent penetrates the membrane and reduces the metal. Thus, a solution containing Pt, Rh, etc., is placed on one side of the membrane and a reducing agent such as NaBH, is placed on the other side. The bonded metal layer obtained is superior in catalytic activity and is suitable as an electrode in a cell such as for solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis.

  7. Uptake of iodinated contrast material in ischemic myocardium as an indicator of loss of cellular membrane integrity.

    PubMed

    Abraham, J L; Higgins, C B; Newell, J D

    1980-11-01

    Differential uptake of iodine containing radiographic contrast medium (I) in myocardial infarcts compared with normal mycardium has been detected by computerized transmission tomography (CTT). In this study the histologic and cellular distribution of I in ischemically damaged canine myocardium after intravenous administration of contrast material was examined by the use of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis of fresh frozen cryosections. Analysis of individual cells in 6-mu thick sections mounted on carbon substrates showed that I was detectable in the ischemically damaged but not the normal myocardial cells. A decline in the potassium-to-sodium ratio confirmed the loss of membrane integrity in the ischemically damaged cells that accumulated I. These results indicate that I enters ischemically damaged but not normal myocardial cells suggesting that CTT scans after intravenous administration of contrast material may be capable of defining the area of the myocardium in which cells have lost membrane integrity after an ischemic injury.

  8. Polycrystalline thin film materials and devices. Annual subcontract report, 16 January 1991--15 January 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, B.N.; Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Shafarman, W.N.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E.

    1992-10-01

    Results of Phase II of a research program on polycrystalline thin film heterojunction solar cells are presented. Relations between processing, materials properties and device performance were studied. The analysis of these solar cells explains how minority carrier recombination at the interface and at grain boundaries can be reduced by doping of windows and absorber layers, such as in high efficiency CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} based solar cells. The additional geometric dimension introduced by the polycrystallinity must be taken into consideration. The solar cells are limited by the diode current, caused by recombination in the space charge region. J-V characteristics of CuInSe{sub 2}/(CdZn)S cells were analyzed. Current-voltage and spectral response measurements were also made on high efficiency CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells prepared by vacuum evaporation. Cu-In bilayers were reacted with Se and H{sub 2}Se gas to form CuInSe{sub 2} films; the reaction pathways and the precursor were studied. Several approaches to fabrication of these thin film solar cells in a superstrate configuration were explored. A self-consistent picture of the effects of processing on the evolution of CdTe cells was developed.

  9. Development of an electromagnetic microscope for eddy-current evaluation of materials. Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Podney, W.N.

    1991-08-01

    Superconductive quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) offer new technology for locating material flaws electromagnetically that promises to increase sensitivity and depth of field as well as to enhance resolution and imaging. The ultrahigh sensitivity of SQUIDs to magnetic flux allows use of microscopic pickup loops in a gradiometer configuration to give high resolution. To realize the advantages of SQUID technology for Air Force requirements in evaluating the integrity of airframes, SQM Technology, Inc. is developing an electromagnetic microscope that uses an array of microscopic pickup loops for imaging micro flaws in aluminum. The prototype comprises a triangular array of microscopic gradiometers that are coupled to SQUID sensors through a flexible, cryogenic umbilical, which enables convenient scanning. Development to date shows three main accomplishments: (1) a planar, azimuthal gradiometer configuration enables suppressing source interference, (2) instrument noise at drive currents of 1 A or so at frequencies below a few kilohertz is of the order of SQUID noise, and (3) a cryogenic umbilical can provide adequate cooling over a four to six foot length.

  10. Advanced amorphous materials for photovoltaic conversion. Annual report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.W.; Kampas, F.J.; Vanier, P.E.; Hirsch, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this project are twofold: (1) to investigate new amorphous semiconductor (a-SC) materials, in which recombination centers are passivated, using plasma deposition techniques; and (2) to characterize the optoelectronic properties pertaining to both majority-carrier and minority-carrier transport in as-deposited films and in devices. The electronic properties of plasma-deposited a-Si:H alloys were studied as functions of oxygen and nitrogen impurities. Over a wide range of processing conditions, features displayed by the data include: (1) anomalous behavior in photoconductivity versus temperature for films deficient in either, or both, impurities (peaks appear that are associated with thermal-quenching processes and supralinearity); and (2) modification to classic behavior in photoconductivity owing to synergistic effects of oxygen and nitrogen. Correlations with photoluminescence were observed. Within the context of an emerging spectroscopy, optical emission spectroscopy was found to be a useful technique for the detection of emitting reactive species in the plasma. The presence of impurities, such as N/sub 2/ and chlorosilanes, was diagnosed.

  11. (Microstructural dependence of the cavitation damage function in the FCC materials: Annual report, 1990--1991)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The interface damage function (IDF) defines an area fraction of damage on crystallite interfaces. This function, which is material and condition dependent, sustains a complete geometrical description of grain boundaries and identifies those types of interfaces which are preferentially damaged. Included in the IDF is functional dependence, not only upon lattice orientations or misorientations, but also upon grain boundary normal; this dependence has been largely neglected in other studies examining damage inhomogeneity of polycrystals. The experimental method used in describing the damaged microstructures included random sectioning of the damaged specimen, and the manual or semi-automatic construction of grain maps describing the observed microstructure. The grain maps for the initial IDF determination were constructed from scanning electron micrographs. Several of these micrographs were joined together and the grain boundaries were traced. There were manually fed back into the computer using a digitizing pad with each grain boundary intersection defined by an (x,y) pair of coordinates. Using algorithms written as a part of this work, the computer then reconstructs the grain map from this series of points. Manual correction of the computer generated maps was required to obtain an acceptable digitized reproduction of the observed microstructure.

  12. Multifunctional-layered materials for creating membrane-restricted nanodomains and nanoscale imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, P.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental platform that allows precise spatial positioning of biomolecules with an exquisite control at nanometer length scales is a valuable tool to study the molecular mechanisms of membrane bound signaling. Using micromachined thin film gold (Au) in layered architecture, it is possible to add both optical and biochemical functionalities in in vitro. Towards this goal, here, I show that docking of complementary DNA tethered giant phospholiposomes on Au surface can create membrane-restricted nanodomains. These nanodomains are critical features to dissect molecular choreography of membrane signaling complexes. The excited surface plasmon resonance modes of Au allow label-free imaging at diffraction-limited resolution of stably docked DNA tethered phospholiposomes, and lipid-detergent bicelle structures. Such multifunctional building block enables realizing rigorously controlled in vitro set-up to model membrane anchored biological signaling, besides serving as an optical tool for nanoscale imaging.

  13. Multifunctional-layered materials for creating membrane-restricted nanodomains and nanoscale imaging

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, P.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental platform that allows precise spatial positioning of biomolecules with an exquisite control at nanometer length scales is a valuable tool to study the molecular mechanisms of membrane bound signaling. Using micromachined thin film gold (Au) in layered architecture, it is possible to add both optical and biochemical functionalities in in vitro. Towards this goal, here, I show that docking of complementary DNA tethered giant phospholiposomes on Au surface can create membrane-restricted nanodomains. These nanodomains are critical features to dissect molecular choreography of membrane signaling complexes. The excited surface plasmon resonance modes of Au allow label-free imaging at diffraction-limited resolution of stably docked DNA tethered phospholiposomes, and lipid-detergent bicelle structures. Such multifunctional building block enables realizing rigorously controlled in vitro set-up to model membrane anchored biological signaling, besides serving as an optical tool for nanoscale imaging. PMID:26869725

  14. A sensitive optode membrane for berberine using conjugated polymer as sensing material.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hong-Mei; Wang, Ke-Min; Yang, Rong-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Hai; Huang, Sha-Sheng; Xiao, Dan; Feng, Feng

    2002-10-01

    A new optode membrane for the sensitive determination of berberine based on fluorescence quenching of a conjugated polymer, poly(2,5-dimethoxy-phenyldiacetylene) (PDPA), is proposed. Incorporated in a membrane composed of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), the conjugated polymer exhibits better stability than those small sensing molecules regarding its excellent optical properties and lipophilic characteristics. Moreover, upon the introduction of a negatively charged lipophilic additive (tetraphenylborate salt) into a PVC membrane, the optode displayed enhanced sensitivity. In addition, satisfactory analytical sensing characteristics for determining beberine were obtained in terms of the selectivity, reversibility and reproducibility with a detecting range of between 7.5 x 10(-7) mol l(-1) and 7.5 x 10(-4) mol l(-1). The optode membrane has been applied to determine berberine in commercial tablets. The results showed a good agreement with those obtained by the pharmacopoeial method.

  15. Multifunctional-layered materials for creating membrane-restricted nanodomains and nanoscale imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, P. E-mail: srinivasan@lifesci.ucsb.edu

    2016-01-18

    Experimental platform that allows precise spatial positioning of biomolecules with an exquisite control at nanometer length scales is a valuable tool to study the molecular mechanisms of membrane bound signaling. Using micromachined thin film gold (Au) in layered architecture, it is possible to add both optical and biochemical functionalities in in vitro. Towards this goal, here, I show that docking of complementary DNA tethered giant phospholiposomes on Au surface can create membrane-restricted nanodomains. These nanodomains are critical features to dissect molecular choreography of membrane signaling complexes. The excited surface plasmon resonance modes of Au allow label-free imaging at diffraction-limited resolution of stably docked DNA tethered phospholiposomes, and lipid-detergent bicelle structures. Such multifunctional building block enables realizing rigorously controlled in vitro set-up to model membrane anchored biological signaling, besides serving as an optical tool for nanoscale imaging.

  16. Development and function of membrane systems in plant tissue. Annual technical progress report, 15 September 1981-15 August 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, J B

    1982-01-01

    Over the past 11 months we have continued investigation of ion transport mechanisms in corn roots and mitochondria. In mitochondria we find that only citrate and isocitrate are transported by the H/sup +//citrate symporter. However, the in vivo function of this carrier remains in doubt because citrate does not appear to be an effective substrate for corn mitochondria. Studies with roots have been directed to why various types of injury or shock all result in temporary blockage of the H/sup +/-efflux pump in the plasmamembrane. It appears this may be due to an injury-mediated Ca/sup 2 +/ influx into the tissue, which by raising free Ca/sup 2 +/ in the cytosal activates calmodulin (CaM). In turn, the Ca.CaM complex appears to activate protein kinase, phosphorylating membrane proteins. It is possible that one of these phosphorylated proteins is responsible for inactivation of the H/sup +/-ATPase. Future work is planned around the consequences of Ca/sup 2 +/ influx into the root cell subsequent to injury, investigating the recovery of the H/sup +/-ATPase and the initiation of the biosyntheses which lead to augmented ion transport.

  17. Novel polymer and inorganic/organic hybrid composite materials for proton exchange membrane applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhiwei

    In this study, various novel proton exchange membranes (PEM) have been synthesized and investigated for high temperature PEM applications. Sulfonic acid functionalized polysilsesquioxane hybrid membranes with the empirical formula of R-Si-(O)1.5 consist of a highly cross-linked Si-O backbone and pendant organic side chain R, which is terminated in a proton conducting functional group (i.e., sulfonic acid). The membranes exhibited excellent proton conductivities (sigma) of >10-2 S/cm under low humidity conditions and a wide range of temperatures. The fuel cell (FC) performance of the membranes under low humidity conditions has been evaluated. Acid-doped linear meta-polyaniline membranes have been prepared through solution casting of m-PANI. The obtained membrane shows good proton conductivities at temperatures above 100°C, achieving 10-2.7 S/cm under 120°C and practically no humidity conditions. The effects of doping acids, doping levels and humidity on the conductivity are discussed. Polyethylenimine (PEI)/SiO2 nanocomposites membranes have been synthesized through sol-gel processes. The introduction of SiO2 clusters into high molecule weight, linear PEI greatly improved its thermal stability at high temperatures and O2 atmosphere. During the sol-gel processes, trifluoromethanesulfonimide (HTFSI) was added to dope the amine groups of PEI and form immobilized proton-conducting ionic liquids, which provide the hybrid membranes with proton-conducting behavior. The resultant membranes show good proton conductivities at high temperatures and low to zero humidity conditions. The effects of temperature, humidity and mobility of active groups on the conductivity are discussed. Various organic amine/HTFSI ionic group functionalized polysilsesquioxane hybrid membranes have been prepared. The Si-O backbone provides excellent thermal/chemical/mechanical properties and the HTFSI-doped amine end groups provide the proton conducting properties. The membranes exhibited proton

  18. Investigation of membrane dryers and evaluation of a new ozone scrubbing material for the sampling of organosulphur compounds in air.

    PubMed

    Haberhauer-Troyer, C; Rosenberg, E; Grasserbauer, M

    1999-08-13

    The applicability of two different types of Nafion membrane dryers (based on counter-current flow and desiccant drying) and of a new ozone scrubbing material, polyphenylene sulphide wool (noXon-S), to adsorptive sampling of selected volatile sulphur compounds (methanethiol, dimethyl sulphide, isopropanethiol and isobutanethiol) is investigated at the low ppb (v/v) level (1-5 ppb). No analyte losses occur with either type of dryer at relative humidities (RH) of < or = 50%, while at higher RH values particularly the thiols tend to be lost (between 6 and 32%) even after conditioning. The actual losses depend more on the state of the individual permeation membrane rather than on the type of dryer. NoXon-S is a highly suitable ozone scrubber material for sulphur compounds since it efficiently removes ozone without retainment of the analytes and without the formation of blanks or artefacts from the scrubber material. The combined use of a Nafion membrane dryer and a noXon-S ozone scrubber is thus recommended for artifact-free sampling of sulphur compounds.

  19. Krypton-xenon separation properties of SAPO-34 zeolite materials and membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Hye Kwon, Yeon; Kiang, Christine; Benjamin, Emily; Crawford, Phillip; Nair, Sankar; Bhave, Ramesh

    2016-07-27

    Separation of the radioisotope 85Kr from 136Xe is an important target during used nuclear fuel recycling. In this paper, we report a detailed study on the Kr and Xe adsorption, diffusion, and membrane permeation properties of the silicoaluminophosphate zeolite SAPO-34. Adsorption and diffusion measurements on SAPO-34 crystals indicate their potential for use in Kr-Xe separation membranes, but also highlight competing effects of adsorption and diffusion selectivity. SAPO-34 membranes are synthesized on α$-$alumina disk and tubular substrates via steam assisted conversion seeding and hydrothermal growth, and are characterized in detail. Membrane transport measurements reveal that SAPO-34 membranes can separate Kr from Xe by molecular sieving, with Kr permeabilities around 50 Barrer and mixture selectivity of 25–30 for Kr at ambient or slight sub-ambient conditions. Finally, the membrane transport characteristics are modeled by the Maxwell-Stefan equations, whose predictions are in very good agreement with experiment and confirm the minimal competing effects of adsorption and diffusion.

  20. Pressure retarded osmosis for energy production: membrane materials and operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Choi, J-S; Lee, S

    2012-01-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a novel membrane process to produce energy. PRO has the potential to convert the osmotic pressure difference between fresh water (i.e. river water) and seawater to electricity. Moreover, it can recover energy from highly concentrated brine in seawater desalination. Nevertheless, relatively little research has been undertaken for fundamental understanding of the PRO process. In this study, the characteristics of the PRO process were examined using a proof-of-concept device. Forward osmosis (FO), reverse osmosis (RO), and nanofiltration (NF) membranes were compared in terms of flux rate and concentration polarization ratio. The results indicated that the theoretical energy production by PRO depends on the membrane type as well as operating conditions (i.e. back pressure). The FO membrane had the highest energy efficiency while the NF membrane had the lowest efficiency. However, the energy production rate was low due to high internal concentration polarization (ICP) in the PRO membrane. This finding suggests that the control of the ICP is essential for practical application of PRO for energy production.

  1. Krypton-xenon separation properties of SAPO-34 zeolite materials and membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Hye Kwon, Yeon; Kiang, Christine; Benjamin, Emily; ...

    2016-07-27

    Separation of the radioisotope 85Kr from 136Xe is an important target during used nuclear fuel recycling. In this paper, we report a detailed study on the Kr and Xe adsorption, diffusion, and membrane permeation properties of the silicoaluminophosphate zeolite SAPO-34. Adsorption and diffusion measurements on SAPO-34 crystals indicate their potential for use in Kr-Xe separation membranes, but also highlight competing effects of adsorption and diffusion selectivity. SAPO-34 membranes are synthesized on α$-$alumina disk and tubular substrates via steam assisted conversion seeding and hydrothermal growth, and are characterized in detail. Membrane transport measurements reveal that SAPO-34 membranes can separate Kr frommore » Xe by molecular sieving, with Kr permeabilities around 50 Barrer and mixture selectivity of 25–30 for Kr at ambient or slight sub-ambient conditions. Finally, the membrane transport characteristics are modeled by the Maxwell-Stefan equations, whose predictions are in very good agreement with experiment and confirm the minimal competing effects of adsorption and diffusion.« less

  2. Polymer nanocomposites with graphene-based hierarchical fillers as materials for multifunctional water treatment membranes.

    PubMed

    Crock, Christopher A; Rogensues, Adam R; Shan, Wenqian; Tarabara, Volodymyr V

    2013-08-01

    Phase inversion of polymer casting mixtures filled with hierarchical functional nanostructures is proposed as a synthetic route for the design of multifunctional membranes. The study tested the hypothesis that by regulating the relative content of components representing different levels in the nanofiller hierarchy, the structure and additional functions of such membranes could be controlled separately. Exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGnPs) decorated by Au nanoparticles (Au NPs), used as a model hierarchical nanofiller, were added to the casting mixture of polysulfone, N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone and polyethylene glycol prior to forming the membrane by phase inversion. The resulting porous asymmetric nanocomposites were shown to be permselective and catalytically active ultrafiltration membranes that were more resistant to compaction, more permeable than xGnP-free membranes and at least as selective. By designing membrane compositions with different relative amounts of Au-decorated xGnPs and Au-free xGnPs, the structure (controlled by the loading of xGnPs) and catalytic activity (controlled by the loading of Au NPs) could be controlled largely independently. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Polycrystalline thin film materials and devices. Annual subcontract report, 16 January 1990--15 January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, B.N.; Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Shafarman, W.N.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E.

    1991-11-01

    Results and conclusion of Phase I of a multi-year research program on polycrystalline thin film solar cells are presented. The research comprised investigation of the relationships among processing, materials properties and device performance of both CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells. The kinetics of the formation of CuInSe{sub 2} by selenization with hydrogen selenide was investigated and a CuInSe{sub 2}/CdS solar cell was fabricated. An alternative process involving the reaction of deposited copper-indium-selenium layers was used to obtain single phase CuInSe{sub 2} films and a cell efficiency of 7%. Detailed investigations of the open circuit voltage of CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells showed that a simple Shockley-Read-Hall recombination mechanism can not account for the limitations in open circuit voltage. Examination of the influence of CuInSe{sub 2} thickness on cell performance indicated that the back contact behavior has a significant effect when the CuInSe{sub 2} is less than 1 micron thick. CdTe/CdS solar cells with efficiencies approaching 10% can be repeatedly fabricated using physical vapor deposition and serial post deposition processing. The absence of moisture during post deposition was found to be critical. Improvements in short circuit current of CdTe solar cells to levels approaching 25 mA/cm{sup 2} are achievable by making the CdS window layer thinner. Further reductions in the CdS window layer thickness are presently limited by interdiffusion between the CdS and the CdTe. CdTe/CdS cells stored without protection from the atmosphere were found to degrade. The degradation was attributed to the metal contact. CdTe cells with ZnTe:Cu contacts to the CdTe were found to be more stable than cells with metal contacts. Analysis of current-voltage and spectral response of CdTe/CdS cells indicates the cell operates as a p-n heterojunction with the diode current dominated by SRH recombination in the junction region of the CdTe.

  4. Vitamin D. Its effect on the protein composition and core material structure of the chick intestinal brush-border membrane.

    PubMed

    Putkey, J A; Norman, A W

    1983-07-25

    Vitamin D3 is known to stimulate the absorption of calcium across the asymmetric intestinal epithelial cells. Efforts to elucidate the mechanism of stimulation of intestinal calcium transport by vitamin D are now focused on evaluating the protein composition and topology of the brush-border membrane and its associated core material. Intestinal brush-border membranes were isolated from vitamin D-replete and vitamin D-deficient chicks. Core material proteins were isolated, by sedimentation, from brush-border membranes which were solubilized with Triton X-100. As determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, dietary vitamin D3 treatment caused no change in the relative amounts of five major core material proteins with Mr = 101,000, 94,000, 67,000, 42,000 (actin), and 17,000. In contrast, dietary vitamin D3 treatment caused a significant reduction in the levels of two proteins with Mr = 111,000 (sucrase) and 83,000, and an increase in the levels of a protein with Mr = 78,000 (possibly a subunit of alkaline phosphatase). The Mr = 111,000, 83,000, and 78,000 proteins are readily solubilized by Triton X-100 and are located on the extracellular surface of the brush-border membrane, as judged by [125I]diazoiodosulfanilic acid and lactoperoxidase 125I labeling. A significant vitamin D-dependent difference was found with respect to iodination of isolated core material as evidenced by the 125I labeling patterns of the Mr = 42,000 protein (actin). The Mr = 42,000 protein was labeled two to three times more extensively when associated with core material derived from vitamin D-deficient chicks as compared to vitamin D-replete chicks. Increasing the salt concentration (0-125 mM KCl) present during core material isolation from either vitamin D-replete or vitamin D-deficient chicks yields core material actin which is more susceptible to iodination by both [125I]diazoiodosulfanilic acid and lactoperoxidase. This increase in the extent of actin iodination is coupled to a salt

  5. Report on the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Canadian Society of Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology: "Membrane Proteins in Health and Disease".

    PubMed

    Reithmeier, Reinhart A F; Casey, Joseph R

    2011-04-01

    The meeting "Membrane Proteins in Health and Disease" featured 6 sessions and 2 satellite meetings. At the opening session, Gunnar von Heijne delivered a plenary lecture entitled Insertion of Membrane Proteins into the Endoplasmic Reticulum. The following session topics were Membrane Protein Trafficking and Folding, Regulation of Membrane Proteins, Membrane Protein Structure, Membrane Proteins in Diverse Species, and Membrane Proteins and Diseases. The satellite meetings discussed bicarbonate transporters and Na+/H+ exchangers. Together the 21 lectures and 106 posters presented at the meeting spanned the full spectrum of current research into membrane protein structure and function.

  6. Insights into the flexibility of ZrMxOy (M = Na, Mg, Al) nanofibrous membranes as promising infrared stealth materials.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xue; Bai, Ying; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2016-04-21

    A surprising brittle to flexible transition in ZrMxOy (M = Na, Mg, Al) nanofibrous membranes was found by varying the undersized dopant species and content. The fiber morphology, crystalline structure, and pore structure of the ZrMxOy nanofibrous membranes can be significantly modulated by varying the dopant valence from +1 to 3 and the dopant content from 1 to 20 mol%, respectively. Meanwhile, a classical Hall-Petch effect was revealed for the ZrMxOy nanofibrous membranes systems, which corresponded to a nanocrystalline size of 22.8 nm and an enhanced flexibility of 23 mN. Moreover, the substitutional solid solution and interstitial solid solution dissolution processes of Na, Mg, and Al into ZrO2 were analyzed using vacancy compensation and dopant interstitial compensation mechanisms, respectively. Most importantly, the flexible Al doped zirconia nanofibrous membranes exhibit a low infrared emissivity of 0.589 and 0.703 in the 3-5 μm and 8-14 μm wavebands, respectively, which suggests them to be a promising candidate for infrared stealth materials in the confrontation strategy field for personnel, aircraft, missiles, satellites, etc.

  7. Thin films and assemblies of photosensitive membrane proteins and colloidal nanocrystals for engineering of hybrid materials with advanced properties.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, Sergei Yu; Solovyeva, Daria O; Nabiev, Igor

    2012-11-15

    The development and study of nano-bio hybrid materials engineered from membrane proteins (the key functional elements of various biomembranes) and nanoheterostructures (inorganic colloidal nanoparticles, transparent electrodes, and films) is a rapidly growing field at the interface of materials and life sciences. The mainspring of the development of bioinspired materials and devices is the fact that biological evolution has solved many problems similar to those that humans are attempting to solve in the field of light-harvesting and energy-transferring inorganic compounds. Along this way, bioelectronics and biophotonics have shown considerable promise. A number of proteins have been explored in terms of bioelectronic device applications, but bacteriorhodopsin (bR, a photosensitive membrane protein from purple membranes of the bacterium Halobacterium salinarum) and bacterial photosynthetic reaction centres have received the most attention. The energy harvesting in plants has a maximum efficiency of 5%, whereas bR, in the absence of a specific light-harvesting system, allows bacteria to utilize only 0.1-0.5% of the solar light. Recent nano-bioengineering approaches employing colloidal semiconductor and metal nanoparticles conjugated with biosystems permit the enhancement of the light-harvesting capacity of photosensitive proteins, thus providing a strong impetus to protein-based device optimisation. Fabrication of ultrathin and highly oriented films from biological membranes and photosensitive proteins is the key task for prospective bioelectronic and biophotonic applications. In this review, the main advances in techniques of preparation of such films are analyzed. Comparison of the techniques for obtaining thin films leads to the conclusion that the homogeneity and orientation of biomembrane fragments or proteins in these films depend on the method of their fabrication and increase in the following order: electrophoretic sedimentation < Langmuir-Blodgett and

  8. Electrospun Polycaprolactone Membrane Incorporated with Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles as Effective Wound Dressing Material.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Roshmi; Soumya, K R; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2015-08-01

    Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) incorporated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanomembrane was prepared by electrospinning as a cost-effective nanocomposite for application as an antimicrobial agent against wound infection. The nanocomposite membrane was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM). The hydrophilicity analysis of electrospun membranes as evaluated by water contact angle measurement showed the change of hydrophobicity of PCL to hydrophilic upon incorporation of silver nanoparticles. Better mechanical properties were also observed for PCL membrane due to the incorporation of silver nanoparticles and are highly supportive to explore its biomedical applications. Further antibacterial analysis of silver nanoparticle-incorporated PCL membrane against common wound pathogens coagulase-negative Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus showed remarkable activity. As biosynthesized AgNPs are least explored for clinical applications, the current study is a promising cost-effective method to explore the development of silver nanoparticle-based electrospun nanocomposite to resist wound-associated infection.

  9. Chemical interactions between protein molecules and polymer membrane materials. Annual progress report, February 1, 1994--October 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, J.A.; Belfort, G.

    1994-08-25

    During the past year, the authors have used the Surface Forces Apparatus (SFA) to measure the intermolecular forces between a model protein (hen egg-white lysozyme) and a model hydrophilic surface (mica), between lysozyme and itself and between lysozyme and a model hydrophobic surface composed of a crosslinked alkoxysilane surfactant (hexadecyltriethoxysilane, HTE). As expected, repulsive forces are dominant between the hydrophilic surfaces with the same charge (lysozyme-lysozyme) while attractive forces are dominant between oppositely charged surfaces (lysozyme-mica) and between the lysozyme and the hydrophobic surface. The DLVO theory for charged surfaces was found to agree with the results of the lysozyme-lysozyme interaction. Efforts also have been focused on trying to create a well-formed, defect-free monolayer of the HTE on the surface of the mica using a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) apparatus. A smooth, defect-free surface is desired for the intermolecular force studies. Atomic force microscopy has been used to determine the topography of the HTE films.

  10. Chemical interactions between protein molecules and polymer membrane materials. Annual progress report, August 1, 1992--July 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Belfort, G.; Koehler, J.; Wood, J.

    1993-07-15

    The Surface Force Apparatus is now operable; data collection is automatic. Hen egg lysozyme was chosen as model protein. Protein-protein, protein-mica, protein-polymer, and protein-surfactant interactions were studied. Circular dichroism was used to study changes in protein structure during adsorption.

  11. [The preparation and evaluation of the quality control materials for detection of platelet membrane glycoproteins by flow cytometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Y Q; Gong, Y; Qu, C X; You, R; Li, L P; Xing, L S; Wang, J Z

    2017-04-11

    Objective: To prepare the quality control material for detection of platelet membrane glycoproteins by flowcytometry and evaluate the appearance traits, homogeneity and stability of it. Methods: Fresh platelets from the blood group O donors were fixed by the certain concentration of aldehyde solution and then washed by the imidazole buffer. After that, adding certain concentration of lyophilized protection solution into the preparations. The preparations were dispensed to be lyophilized and then were kept refrigerated in 2-8 ℃.According to the protocol of control of lyophilized biological products, the quality indicator for monitoring the prepared process, containing the appearance traits, the residual water, the platelet recovery and the rehydration quality were evaluated. The homogeneity and stability of these preparations were evaluated according to the CNAS-GL03 Guidance on evaluating the homogeneity and stability of samples used for proficiency testing and the ISO Guide 35 Reference material-general and statistical principles for certification. Results: The appearance traits and the rehydration quality of the quality control materials meeted the requirements, with the residual water distributed between 3.96% to 4.04% and the platelet recovery rate ranged from 68% to 72%.The homogeneity evaluation showed that there was no significant difference among the groups(P>0.05). The stability test indicated that the positive rate of platelet membrane glycoproteins CD42b, CD41 and CD62P of the quality control material was -0.14%, -0.14% and 0.74%, respectively, at 16 weeks after storage. There was no linear trend between the percentage of positive platelets with membrane glycoproteins and time(P>0.05). Conclusions: The quality control material for detection of platelet membrane glycoproteins by flow cytometry prepared by us meets the needs of the appearance traits, the residual water, the rehydration quality, the homogeneity and the longtime stability.It is hopeful to

  12. A trans-well-based cellular model for the rapid pre-evaluation of tympanic membrane repair materials.

    PubMed

    Hung, Shih-Han; Su, Chin-Hui; Tseng, How

    2016-08-01

    It is important to have a standardized tympanic membrane (TM) perforation platform to evaluate the various myringoplasty materials that have been studied and developed extensively during recent years. However, currently there are no cellular models specifically designed for this purpose, and animal models remain unsatisfactory. The purpose of this study is to propose an inexpensive, readily available, well-controlled, and easy-to-create cellular model as a substitute for use in the evaluation of TM repairing materials. A trans-well model was created using a cell culture insert with a round hole created at the center of the polycarbonate membrane. HaCaT cells were cultured on the fenestrated culture insert, and the desired myringoplasty graft was placed at the center of the window for one week and observed by fluorescent microscopy under vital staining. Under this cellular model, there was notable migration of HaCaT cells onto the positive control graft (rabbit fascia), while only a few cell clusters were observed on the negative control graft (paper). Model validation showed that the cell migration ratio for the PLLA + 1% hyaluronic acid (HA) graft is significantly higher than using myringoplasty paper, poly L-lactide (PLLA), or PLLA + 0.5% HA (p < 0.05). This trans-well-based cellular model might be a useful pre-evaluation platform for the evaluation of TM repairing materials. The model is inexpensive, readily available, easy to create, and standardized for use.

  13. An effective and in-situ method based tresyl-functionalized porous polymer material for enrichment and digestion of membrane proteins and its application in extraction tips.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaxi; Gao, Mingxia; Yan, Guoquan; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2015-06-23

    Membrane proteins are one of promising targets for drug discovery because of the unique properties in physiological processes. Due to their low abundance and extremely hydrophobic nature, the analysis of membrane proteins is still a great challenge. In this work, an effective and in-situ method were developed to enrich and digest membrane proteins by adopting tresyl-functionalized porous polymer material. With tresyl groups, the material can effectively immobilize membrane proteins via covalent bonding on the surface. The material became a facile carrier to enrich membrane proteins from the rat liver in detergents and organic solvents owing to its outstanding binding capacity and excellent biocompatibility. Moreover, it was further applied in extraction tips to capture and in-situ digest the pretreatment membrane proteins in two different solutions. A total of 600 membrane proteins (51% of total protein groups) and 359 transmembrane proteins were identified by nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS in 4% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and similar results were achieved in the 60% methanol solution. All these results demonstrated that the new approach is of great promise for large-scale characterization of membrane proteins.

  14. The role of angiogenesis in implant dentistry part II: The effect of bone-grafting and barrier membrane materials on angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Asatourian, Armen; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Sheibani, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Background In implant dentistry, bone substitute materials and barrier membranes are used in different treatments including guided bone regeneration (GBR), socket preservation, alveolar ridge augmentation, maxillary sinus elevation, and filling bony defects around the inserted dental implant. One of the most important factors in prognosis of treatments using these materials is the growth of new blood vessels in applied areas. Present review was performed to evaluate the effect of the bone-grafting and barrier membrane materials on angiogenesis events. Material and Methods An electronic search was performed in PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases via OVID using the keywords mentioned in the PubMed and MeSH headings regarding the role of angiogenesis in implant dentistry from January 2000-April 2014. Results Of the 5,622 articles identified in our initial search results, only 33 met the inclusion criteria set for this review. Among bone substitute materials the autogenous bone-grafts, and among the barrier membranes the collagenous membranes, had the highest angiogenic potentials. Other bone-grafting materials or membranes were mostly used with pro-angiogenic factors to enhance their angiogenic properties. Conclusions Angiogenesis is one of the key factors, which plays a critical role in success rate of GBR technique and is seriously considered in manufacturing bone-grafting and barrier membrane materials. However, there is still lack of clinical and in-vivo studies addressing the effect of angiogenesis in treatments using bone-grafting and barrier membrane materials. Key words:Angiogenesis, bone-grafting materials, GBR, ridge augmentation, sinus elevation, socket preservation. PMID:27031074

  15. Novel Methods of Tritium Sequestration: High Temperature Gettering and Separation Membrane Materials Discovery for Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Franglin; Sholl, David; Brinkman, Kyle; Lyer, Ratnasabapathy; Iyer, Ratnasabapathy; Reifsnider, Kenneth

    2015-01-22

    This project is aimed at addressing critical issues related to tritium sequestration in next generation nuclear energy systems. A technical hurdle to the use of high temperature heat from the exhaust produced in the next generation nuclear processes in commercial applications such as nuclear hydrogen production is the trace level of tritium present in the exhaust gas streams. This presents a significant challenge since the removal of tritium from the high temperature gas stream must be accomplished at elevated temperatures in order to subsequently make use of this heat in downstream processing. One aspect of the current project is to extend the techniques and knowledge base for metal hydride materials being developed for the ''hydrogen economy'' based on low temperature absorption/desorption of hydrogen to develop materials with adequate thermal stability and an affinity for hydrogen at elevated temperatures. The second focus area of this project is to evaluate high temperature proton conducting materials as hydrogen isotope separation membranes. Both computational and experimental approaches will be applied to enhance the knowledge base of hydrogen interactions with metal and metal oxide materials. The common theme between both branches of research is the emphasis on both composition and microstructure influence on the performance of sequestration materials.

  16. Membranes for periodontal regeneration: From commercially available to spatially designed and functionally graded materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottino, Marco Cicero

    The aging of the global population will lead to a considerable increase in the number of surgical and restorative procedures related to oral rehabilitation or periodontal regeneration. Periodontitis is one of the most aggressive pathologies that concern the integrity of the periodontal system that can lead to the destruction of the periodontium. Guided tissue and guided bone regeneration (GTR/GBR) have been used for the repair and regeneration of periodontal tissues by utilizing an occlusive membrane. The goal of this dissertation is to advance the knowledge in the area of periodontal regeneration by investigating the properties of a commercially available freeze-dried collagen-based graft (AlloDermRTM) and by designing/fabricating a functionally graded membrane (FGM) via multilayer electrospinning. The effects of different rehydration times and of a simultaneous rehydration/crosslinking procedure on the biomechanical properties and matrix stability of the commercially available membrane were investigated. The results revealed that there are significant changes on the biomechanical properties of the graft as rehydration time increases. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the simultaneous rehydration/crosslinking protocol has a synergistic effect in terms of enhancing biomechanical properties. A FGM consisting of a core-layer (CL) and two functional surface-layers (SL) was fabricated via sequential electrospinning. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (n-HAp) were incorporated to enhance bone formation (SL facing bone defect), and metronidazole benzoate (MET) was added to prevent bacterial colonization (SL facing the epithelial tissue). Degradation studies performed on both the CL and the FGM confirmed that the design holds promise in terms of providing the required mechanical stability to avoid membrane collapse and, therefore, enhance bone regeneration. Finally, it was demonstrated that MET incorporation into the SL that would face epithelial tissue is effective in

  17. Metallic Membrane Materials Development for Hydrogen Production from Coal Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    O.N. Dogan; B.H. Howard; D.E. Alman

    2012-02-26

    The goals of Office of Clean Coal are: (1) Improved energy security; (2) Reduced green house gas emissions; (3) High tech job creation; and (4) Reduced energy costs. The goals of the Hydrogen from Coal Program are: (1) Prove the feasibility of a 40% efficient, near zero emissions IGCC plant that uses membrane separation technology and other advanced technologies to reduce the cost of electricity by at least 35%; and (2) Develop H{sub 2} production and processing technologies that will contribute {approx}3% in improved efficiency and 12% reduction in cost of electricity.

  18. Broad spectrum antibacterial and antifungal polymeric paint materials: synthesis, structure-activity relationship, and membrane-active mode of action.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Jiaul; Akkapeddi, Padma; Yadav, Vikas; Manjunath, Goutham B; Uppu, Divakara S S M; Konai, Mohini M; Yarlagadda, Venkateswarlu; Sanyal, Kaustuv; Haldar, Jayanta

    2015-01-28

    Microbial attachment and subsequent colonization onto surfaces lead to the spread of deadly community-acquired and hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections. Noncovalent immobilization of water insoluble and organo-soluble cationic polymers onto a surface is a facile approach to prevent microbial contamination. In the present study, we described the synthesis of water insoluble and organo-soluble polymeric materials and demonstrated their structure-activity relationship against various human pathogenic bacteria including drug-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and beta lactam-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae as well as pathogenic fungi such as Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. The polymer coated surfaces completely inactivated both bacteria and fungi upon contact (5 log reduction with respect to control). Linear polymers were more active and found to have a higher killing rate than the branched polymers. The polymer coated surfaces also exhibited significant activity in various complex mammalian fluids such as serum, plasma, and blood and showed negligible hemolysis at an amount much higher than minimum inhibitory amounts (MIAs). These polymers were found to have excellent compatibility with other medically relevant polymers (polylactic acid, PLA) and commercial paint. The cationic hydrophobic polymer coatings disrupted the lipid membrane of both bacteria and fungi and thus showed a membrane-active mode of action. Further, bacteria did not develop resistance against these membrane-active polymers in sharp contrast to conventional antibiotics and lipopeptides, thus the polymers hold great promise to be used as coating materials for developing permanent antimicrobial paint.

  19. Uptake of iodinated contrast material in ischemic myocardium as an indicator of loss of cellular membrane integrity.

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, J. L.; Higgins, C. B.; Newell, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Differential uptake of iodine containing radiographic contrast medium (I) in myocardial infarcts compared with normal mycardium has been detected by computerized transmission tomography (CTT). In this study the histologic and cellular distribution of I in ischemically damaged canine myocardium after intravenous administration of contrast material was examined by the use of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis of fresh frozen cryosections. Analysis of individual cells in 6-mu thick sections mounted on carbon substrates showed that I was detectable in the ischemically damaged but not the normal myocardial cells. A decline in the potassium-to-sodium ratio confirmed the loss of membrane integrity in the ischemically damaged cells that accumulated I. These results indicate that I enters ischemically damaged but not normal myocardial cells suggesting that CTT scans after intravenous administration of contrast material may be capable of defining the area of the myocardium in which cells have lost membrane integrity after an ischemic injury. Images Figure 1 p[329]-a Figure 2 PMID:7435540

  20. Eggshell membrane biomaterial as a platform for applications in materials science.

    PubMed

    Baláž, Matej

    2014-09-01

    Eggshell membrane (ESM) is a unique biomaterial, which is generally considered as waste. However, it has extraordinary properties which can be utilized in various fields and its potential applications are therefore now being widely studied. The first part of this review focuses on the chemical composition and morphology of ESM. The main areas of ESM application are discussed in the second part. These applications include its utilization as a biotemplate for the synthesis of nanoparticles; as a sorbent of heavy metals, organics, dyes, sulfonates and fluorides; as the main component of biosensors; in medicine; and various other applications. For each area of interest, a detailed literature survey is given. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel ceramic-polymer composite membranes for the separation of liquid waste. Annual progress report, September 15, 1996--September 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Y.

    1997-01-01

    'The project on ceramic-supported polymer membranes focuses on the development of a novel class of membranes for the separation of organics from both organic-aqueous and organic-organic mixtures, Theses membranes are fabricated by a graft polymerization process where polymer chains are grown onto the surface of a ceramic support membrane. The surface graft polymerization process, developed at UCLA, results in the formation of a thin polymer layer covalently bonded to the membrane pore surface as a layer of terminally anchored polymeric chains. Through the selection of the polymer most appropriate for the desired separation task, the graft polymerized surface layer can be synthesized to impart specific separation properties to the membrane. It is expected that this project will lead to the demonstration of a new technology for the tailor design of a new class of selective and robust ceramic-supported polymer membranes. This new approach will allow the rapid deployment of task-specific membranes for the separation of waste constituents for subsequent recovery, treatment or disposal. Progress to date includes the preparation of successful silica-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) membrane for the treatment of oil-in-water emulsions and a silica-polyvinylacetate (PVAc) pervaporation membrane for the separation of organics from water. Current work is ongoing to study the performance of the pervaporation membrane for the removal of chlorinated organics from water and to develop a pervaporation membrane for organic-organic separation. In another aspect of the study, the authors are studying the hydrophilic PVP CSP membrane for oil-in-water emulsion treatment with the goal of determining the optimal membrane polymer surface structure as a function of various operating conditions (e.g., tube-side Reynolds number and transmembrane pressure), Work is also in progress to characterize the polymer layer by AFM and internal reflection FTIR, and to model the conformation of the polymer

  2. The effect of detergents on the basement membrane complex of a biologic scaffold material.

    PubMed

    Faulk, D M; Carruthers, C A; Warner, H J; Kramer, C R; Reing, J E; Zhang, L; D'Amore, A; Badylak, S F

    2014-01-01

    The basement membrane complex (BMC) is a critical component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that supports and facilitates the growth of cells. This study investigates four detergents commonly used in the process of tissue decellularization and their effect upon the BMC. The BMC of porcine urinary bladder was subjected to 3% Triton-X 100, 8mM 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS), 4% sodium deoxycholate or 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) for 24h. The BMC structure for each treatment group was assessed by immunolabeling, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging of the fiber network. The composition was assessed by quantification of dsDNA, glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and collagen content. The results showed that collagen fibers within samples treated with 1% SDS and 8mM CHAPS were denatured, and the ECM contained fewer GAG compared with samples treated with 3% Triton X-100 or 4% sodium deoxycholate. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) were seeded onto each BMC and cultured for 7 days. Cell-ECM interactions were investigated by immunolabeling for integrin β-1, SEM imaging and semi-quantitative assessment of cellular infiltration, phenotype and confluence. HMEC cultured on a BMC treated with 3% Triton X-100 were more confluent and had a normal phenotype compared with HMEC cultured on a BMC treated with 4% sodium deoxycholate, 8mM CHAPS and 1% SDS. Both 8mM CHAPS and 1% SDS damaged the BMC to the extent that seeded HMEC were able to infiltrate the damaged sub-basement membrane tissue, showed decreased confluence and an atypical phenotype. The choice of detergents used for tissue decellularization can have a marked effect upon the integrity of the BMC of the resultant bioscaffold. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Detergents on the Basement Membrane Complex of a Biologic Scaffold Material

    PubMed Central

    Faulk, Denver M.; Carruthers, Christopher A.; Warner, Harleigh J.; Kramer, Caroline R.; Reing, Janet E.; Zhang, Li; D’Amore, Antonio; Badylak, Stephen F.

    2013-01-01

    The basement membrane complex (BMC) is a critical component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that supports and facilitates the growth of cells. This study investigates four detergents commonly used in the process of tissue decellularization and their effect upon the BMC. The BMC of porcine urinary bladder was subjected to either 3% Triton-X 100, 8 mM 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS), 4% sodium deoxycholate, or 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) for 24 hours. The BMC structure for each treatment group was assessed by immunolabeling, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging of the fiber network. The composition was assessed by quantification of dsDNA, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and collagen content. Results showed that collagen fibers within samples treated with 1% SDS and 8 mM CHAPS were denatured and the ECM contained less GAGs compared to samples treated with 3% Triton X-100 or 4% sodium deoxycholate. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) were seeded onto each BMC and cultured for 7 days. Cell-ECM interactions were investigated by immunolabeling for integrin β-1, SEM imaging, and semi-quantitative assessment of cellular infiltration, phenotype, and confluence. HMECs cultured on a BMC treated with 3% Triton X-100 were more confluent and had a normal phenotype compared to HMECs cultured on a BMC treated with 4% sodium deoxycholate, 8 mM CHAPS, and 1% SDS. Both 8 mM CHAPS and 1% SDS damaged the BMC to the extent that seeded HMECs were able to infiltrate the damaged sub-basement membrane tissue, showed decreased confluence, and an atypical phenotype. The choice of detergents used for tissue decellularization can have a marked effect upon the integrity of the BMC of the resultant bioscaffold. PMID:24055455

  4. An Overview of Polymeric Materials for Propellant Tank Membrane Applications in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia Bel, F.; Caramelli, F.

    2004-10-01

    Diaphragms and bladders are used as positive expulsion devices in liquid propulsion systems since the early stages of space flight. This paper presents an identification of the critical properties of polymeric materials for positive expulsion systems and an overview of the applicable mechanical and chemical performance requirements identified and tested in the frame of ESA technology development initiatives either carried out as R&D activities or within specific hardware development programs for Spacecraft projects. A set of requirements based on those experiences is presented. Finally, an approach of modelling and a comparison with experimental results is proposed for the identified critical properties. Materials currently adopted or considered suitable for potential utilisation in Monopropellant (Hydrazine) and Bipropellant systems (UDMH-NTO) have been treated. Possible alternative materials have also been described to provide a wider view of potential technological solutions.

  5. Journal Publication of Material Presented at the 1967 Annual Meeting of the Geophysical Union During the Year Following the Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD. Center for Research in Scientific Communication.

    The April 1967 Annual Meeting of the American Geophysical Union was the subject of an investigation of scientific information exchange among geophysicists. The study focused on meeting presentation papers and drew a sample of 240 of the 800 presentation authors. The results of the meeting study demonstrated the currency of the work reported by…

  6. Annual Program Plan Amendment for Part B (P.L. 94-142) Fiscal Year 1980: Material Incorporated by Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    The document presents the state of South Carolina's amended annual program plan for the fiscal year 1980, which describes how South Carolina plans to comply with the regulations mandated by the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (P.L. 94-142). Sections cover such aspects as policy regarding the right of handicapped students to education,…

  7. Journal Publication of Material Presented at the 1967 Annual Meeting of the Geophysical Union During the Year Following the Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD. Center for Research in Scientific Communication.

    The April 1967 Annual Meeting of the American Geophysical Union was the subject of an investigation of scientific information exchange among geophysicists. The study focused on meeting presentation papers and drew a sample of 240 of the 800 presentation authors. The results of the meeting study demonstrated the currency of the work reported by…

  8. Characterization of proton exchange membrane materials for fuel cells by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Zueqian

    2010-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used to explore the nanometer-scale structure of Nafion, the widely used fuel cell membrane, and its composites. We have shown that solid-state NMR can characterize chemical structure and composition, domain size and morphology, internuclear distances, molecular dynamics, etc. The newly-developed water channel model of Nafion has been confirmed, and important characteristic length-scales established. Nafion-based organic and inorganic composites with special properties have also been characterized and their structures elucidated. The morphology of Nafion varies with hydration level, and is reflected in the changes in surface-to-volume (S/V) ratio of the polymer obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The S/V ratios of different Nafion models have been evaluated numerically. It has been found that only the water channel model gives the measured S/V ratios in the normal hydration range of a working fuel cell, while dispersed water molecules and polymer ribbons account for the structures at low and high hydration levels, respectively.

  9. Novel: Eggshell membrane template assisted synthesis of Mn2O3 electrode material for supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tholkappiyan, R.; Naveen, A. Nirmalesh; Vishista, K.

    2015-06-01

    Novel Mn2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized using eggshell membrane as a template. The prepared nanoparticles were calcined at 800 °C and subjected to XRD measurement that reveals the formation of cubic structure with average grain size of 67 nm. From FTIR study, the lower vibrational band appearing in the range of 560-680 cm-1 confirms the presence of Mn2O3 in the synthesized samples. The morphology analysis of the synthesized nanoparticles shows the presence of pores inside the grain boundaries. Electrochemical performances of the synthesized nanoparticles were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and AC impedance analysis. From the results, the prepared nanoparticles show pseudocapacitive characteristics. The maximum specific capacitance of Mn2O3 nanoparticles was found to be 394 F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1. Nyquist plot shows lower value of charge transfer resistance, indicating the good electrical conductivity of the Mn2O3 electrode which accounts for the improved electrochemical performance of the supercapacitors.

  10. Oxygen transfer in membrane-ceramic composite materials for immobilized-cell monolithic reactors.

    PubMed

    Kornfield, J; Stephanopoulos, G; Voecks, G E

    1986-06-01

    A novel bioreactor concept is described for facilitated gas-liquid mass transfer, specifically oxygen supply, at low shear rates and low power input. The cross flow monolithic reactor is a single piece of ceramic consisting of continuous flow passages manifolded in a cross flow arrangement. Liquid medium circulates through the passages in one direction and gas circulates through the passages in an orthogonal direction; thus, the two streams are contacted across a large area of a porous ceramic, gas permeable membrane composite.A test cell was designed and used to measure the rate of oxygen transfer across such a composite. High oxygen transfer rates (6.62g O(2) x l(-1) x hr(-1)), with minimal power requirements (estimated below 5 x 10(-3) watts/l reactor volume), were found. This corresponds to a transfer efficiency of greater than 1000 kg O(2)/kW . hr, orders of magnitude greater than the values reported by Serieys, et al.(14) due to the low flow rates and low pressure drops required in a cross flow monolith. This contacting configuration could be employed with highly aerobic, immobilized-cell fermentations to enhance oxygen transfer rates with a parallel decrease of process power requirements.

  11. Comparison of emulsifying properties of milk fat globule membrane materials isolated from different dairy by-products.

    PubMed

    Phan, T T Q; Le, T T; Van der Meeren, P; Dewettinck, K

    2014-01-01

    Emulsifying properties of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) materials isolated from reconstituted buttermilk (BM; i.e., BM-MFGM) and BM whey (i.e., whey-MFGM), individually or in mixtures with BM powder (BMP) were compared with those of a commercial dairy ingredient (Lacprodan PL-20; Arla Foods Ingredients Group P/S, Viby, Denmark), a material rich in milk polar lipids and proteins. The particle size distribution, viscosity, interfacial protein, and polar lipids load of oil-in-water emulsions prepared using soybean oil were examined. Pronounced droplet aggregation was observed with emulsions stabilized with whey-MFGM or with a mixture of whey-MFGM and BMP. No aggregation was observed for emulsions stabilized with BM-MFGM, Lacprodan PL-20, or a mixture of BM-MFGM and BMP. The surface protein load and polar lipids load were lowest in emulsions with BM-MFGM. The highest protein load and polar lipids load were observed for emulsions made with a mixture of whey-MFGM and BMP. The differences in composition of MFGM materials, such as in whey proteins, caseins, MFGM-specific proteins, polar lipids, minerals, and especially their possible interactions determine their emulsifying properties. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tectorial Membrane Material Properties in TectaY1870C/+ Heterozygous Mice

    PubMed Central

    Masaki, Kinuko; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Gu, Jianwen Wendy; Richardson, Guy P.; Freeman, Dennis M.; Aranyosi, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The solid component of the tectorial membrane (TM) is a porous matrix made up of the radial collagen fibers and the striated sheet matrix. The striated sheet matrix is believed to contribute to shear impedance in both the radial and longitudinal directions, but the molecular mechanisms involved have not been determined. A missense mutation in Tecta, a gene that encodes for the α-tectorin protein in the striated sheet matrix, causes a 60-dB threshold shift in mice with relatively little reduction in outer hair cell amplification. Here, we show that this threshold shift is coupled to changes in shear impedance, response to osmotic pressure, and concentration of fixed charge of the TM. In TectaY1870C/+ mice, the tectorin content of the TM was reduced, as was the content of glycoconjugates reacting with the lectin wheat germ agglutinin. Charge measurements showed a decrease in fixed charge concentration from −6.4±1.4 mmol/L in wild-types to −2.1±0.7 mmol/L in TectaY1870C/+ TMs. TMs from TectaY1870C/+ mice showed little volume change in response to osmotic pressure compared to those of wild-type mice. The magnitude of both radial and longitudinal TM shear impedance was reduced by 10±1.6 dB in TectaY1870C/+ mice. However, the phase of shear impedance was unchanged. These changes are consistent with an increase in the porosity of the TM and a corresponding decrease of the solid fraction. Mechanisms by which these changes can affect the coupling between outer and inner hair cells are discussed. PMID:21081075

  13. Osteoblasts Interaction with PLGA Membranes Functionalized with Titanium Film Nanolayer by PECVD. In vitro Assessment of Surface Influence on Cell Adhesion during Initial Cell to Material Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Terriza, Antonia; Vilches-Pérez, José I.; González-Caballero, Juan L.; de la Orden, Emilio; Yubero, Francisco; Barranco, Angel; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustín R.; Vilches, José; Salido, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    New biomaterials for Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR), both resorbable and non-resorbable, are being developed to stimulate bone tissue formation. Thus, the in vitro study of cell behavior towards material surface properties turns a prerequisite to assess both biocompatibility and bioactivity of any material intended to be used for clinical purposes. For this purpose, we have developed in vitro studies on normal human osteoblasts (HOB®) HOB® osteoblasts grown on a resorbable Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) membrane foil functionalized by a very thin film (around 15 nm) of TiO2 (i.e., TiO2/PLGA membranes), designed to be used as barrier membrane. To avoid any alteration of the membranes, the titanium films were deposited at room temperature in one step by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Characterization of the functionalized membranes proved that the thin titanium layer completely covers the PLGA foils that remains practically unmodified in their interior after the deposition process and stands the standard sterilization protocols. Both morphological changes and cytoskeletal reorganization, together with the focal adhesion development observed in HOB osteoblasts, significantly related to TiO2 treated PLGA in which the Ti deposition method described has revealed to be a valuable tool to increase bioactivity of PLGA membranes, by combining cell nanotopography cues with the incorporation of bioactive factors. PMID:28788538

  14. Nanostructured catalyst materials for next generation polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khudhayer, Wisam J.

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are electrochemical energy conversion devices which have demonstrated great promise as future energy sources for electric vehicles, as they convert chemical energy to electrical energy with a significantly higher efficiency and lower environmental impact than in standard combustion processes. However, the commercialization of PEM fuel cells for transportation applications has been hindered by several factors such as high cost of Pt, low Pt utilization, poor long-term durability of the conventional PEM fuel cell catalyst (Pt nanoparticels supported on carbon black; Pt/C), and poor thermal and chemical stability of the electrocatalyst supports (carbon black). The goal of this research was to fabricate high performance, durable, carbon-free, controllable porosity, and low cost (low Pt loading) sputtered-nanostructured electrocatalysts and investigate their morphologies, crystal properties, and electrocatalytic activities. First, the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of vertically-aligned solid Pt nanorods was evaluated. A glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique was used to fabricate Pt nanorod arrays directly on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. It was found that Pt-nanorod electrocatalysts exhibit higher area-specific activity, greater electrochemical stability, higher electron-transfer rate constant, and comparable activation energy for ORR than those of Pt/C due to their larger crystallite size, single-crystal property, and dominance of the preferred crystal orientations (Pt[110]) for ORR. However, Pt nanorods show lower mass specific activity than that of Pt/C electrocatalyst due to the large diameter of nanorods. Second, to further enhance the mass-specific activity of solid GLAD Pt nanorods, the GLAD chromium (Cr) nanorods were used as low-cost catalyst supports for conformal Pt thin film coating achieved by a small angle deposition (SAD) technique as a potential catalyst electrode for oxygen

  15. Solubility selective membrane materials for carbon dioxide removal from mixtures with light gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Haiqing

    Membrane technology has attracted interest for the selective removal of carbon dioxide from mixtures with light gases such as H2, CH4 and N2. While conventional structure-property correlations have focused mainly on improving the separation performance by increasing polymer size sieving ability (i.e., diffusivity selectivity), this project explores the possibility of harnessing favorable interactions between CO 2 and polymers containing polar groups to improve permeability/selectivity properties. Ether oxide groups are discovered to be among the best moieties known to interact with CO2, leading to high CO2 solubility and CO2/light gas solubility selectivity, while still providing polymer chain flexibility, leading to high CO2 diffusivity and favorable CO2/H2 diffusivity selectivity. Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) has a high concentration of ether oxygen groups and exhibits high CO2/light gas selectivities. However, gas permeability is low due to the high crystallinity in PEO. Crosslinking and introduction of short chain branching are efficient methods to inhibit crystallization. Three series of crosslinked poly(ethylene oxide) rubbers have been prepared using prepolymer solutions containing: (1) poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and H2O, (2) PEGDA and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGMEA), and (3) PEGDA and poly(ethylene glycol) acrylate (PEGA). Independent of the prepolymer composition, all of these polymers have similar ethylene oxide (EO) content (approximately 82 wt.%). Crosslink density decreases with decreasing PEGDA content in the prepolymer solution, which is estimated from water swelling experiments and/or dynamic mechanical testing and has essentially no effect on gas transport properties. Increasing PEGMEA content increases the average size of free volume elements, resulting in a decreased glass transition temperature, and increased CO 2 permeability and CO2/H2 selectivity. In contrast, the presence of PEGA or water has a negligible

  16. Global socioeconomic material stocks rise 23-fold over the 20th century and require half of annual resource use.

    PubMed

    Krausmann, Fridolin; Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Lauk, Christian; Haas, Willi; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Fishman, Tomer; Miatto, Alessio; Schandl, Heinz; Haberl, Helmut

    2017-02-21

    Human-made material stocks accumulating in buildings, infrastructure, and machinery play a crucial but underappreciated role in shaping the use of material and energy resources. Building, maintaining, and in particular operating in-use stocks of materials require raw materials and energy. Material stocks create long-term path-dependencies because of their longevity. Fostering a transition toward environmentally sustainable patterns of resource use requires a more complete understanding of stock-flow relations. Here we show that about half of all materials extracted globally by humans each year are used to build up or renew in-use stocks of materials. Based on a dynamic stock-flow model, we analyze stocks, inflows, and outflows of all materials and their relation to economic growth, energy use, and CO2 emissions from 1900 to 2010. Over this period, global material stocks increased 23-fold, reaching 792 Pg (±5%) in 2010. Despite efforts to improve recycling rates, continuous stock growth precludes closing material loops; recycling still only contributes 12% of inflows to stocks. Stocks are likely to continue to grow, driven by large infrastructure and building requirements in emerging economies. A convergence of material stocks at the level of industrial countries would lead to a fourfold increase in global stocks, and CO2 emissions exceeding climate change goals. Reducing expected future increases of material and energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions will require decoupling of services from the stocks and flows of materials through, for example, more intensive utilization of existing stocks, longer service lifetimes, and more efficient design.

  17. Global socioeconomic material stocks rise 23-fold over the 20th century and require half of annual resource use

    PubMed Central

    Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Lauk, Christian; Haas, Willi; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Miatto, Alessio; Haberl, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    Human-made material stocks accumulating in buildings, infrastructure, and machinery play a crucial but underappreciated role in shaping the use of material and energy resources. Building, maintaining, and in particular operating in-use stocks of materials require raw materials and energy. Material stocks create long-term path-dependencies because of their longevity. Fostering a transition toward environmentally sustainable patterns of resource use requires a more complete understanding of stock-flow relations. Here we show that about half of all materials extracted globally by humans each year are used to build up or renew in-use stocks of materials. Based on a dynamic stock-flow model, we analyze stocks, inflows, and outflows of all materials and their relation to economic growth, energy use, and CO2 emissions from 1900 to 2010. Over this period, global material stocks increased 23-fold, reaching 792 Pg (±5%) in 2010. Despite efforts to improve recycling rates, continuous stock growth precludes closing material loops; recycling still only contributes 12% of inflows to stocks. Stocks are likely to continue to grow, driven by large infrastructure and building requirements in emerging economies. A convergence of material stocks at the level of industrial countries would lead to a fourfold increase in global stocks, and CO2 emissions exceeding climate change goals. Reducing expected future increases of material and energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions will require decoupling of services from the stocks and flows of materials through, for example, more intensive utilization of existing stocks, longer service lifetimes, and more efficient design. PMID:28167761

  18. Enzymes for Degradation of Energetic Materials and Demilitarization of Explosives Stockpiles - SERDP Annual (Interim) Report, 12/98

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M.M.

    1999-01-18

    The current stockpile of energetic materials requiring disposal contains about half a million tons. Through 2001, over 2.1 million tons are expected to pass through the stockpile for disposal. Safe and environmentally acceptable methods for disposing of these materials are needed. This project is developing safe, economical, and environmentally sound processes using biocatalyst (enzymes) to degrade energetic materials and to convert them into economically valuable products. Alternative methods for destroying these materials are hazardous, environmentally unacceptable, and expensive. These methods include burning, detonation, land and sea burial, treatment at high temperature and pressure, and treatment with harsh chemicals. Enzyme treatment operates at room temperature and atmospheric pressure in a water solution.

  19. Effects of freezing and cold acclimation on the plasma membrane of isolated protoplasts. [Annual report], May 16, 1993--January 29, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Steponkus, P.L.

    1994-06-01

    Our aim is to provide a mechanistic understanding of the cellular and molecular aspects of freezing injury and cold acclimation from a perspective of the structural and functional integrity of the plasma membrane-the primary site of freezing injury in winter cereals. We established that destabilization of the plasma membrane of winter rye, the most freezing-tolerant winter cereal, can result from several different lesions: expansion induced lysis, lamellar-to-hexagonal II phase transitions, and the fracture-jump lesion. The occurrence and incidence of these various lesions, depends on the freeze/thaw protocol and the stage of cold acclimation. In non-acclimated leaves and protoplasts, expansion-induced lysis is the predominant lesion at temperatures between {minus}2 and {minus}5{degree}C, whereas freeze-induced formation of the H{sub II} phase is the predominant lesion at temperatures below {minus}10{degree}C. We investigated whether the difference in freezing tolerance and the threshold temperatures at which the lesions occur in rye and oat are a consequence of differences in the lipid composition of the plasma membrane. There are substantial differences between rye and oat cell membranes both before and after cold acclimation. The plasma membrane of oat contains greater proportions of acylated sterylglucosides and cerebrosides than that of rye, and there is little change in these two lipid classes during cold acclimation. The lyotropic phase behavior of lipid mixtures that resemble the plasma membrane of rye and oat was studied. The differences in lipid composition of rye and oat are of mechanistic significance because of their influence on the hydration characteristics of the plasma membrane, the propensity for dehydration-induced lipid-lipid demixing, and the intrinsic curvature of the lipid monolayers. These studies suggest that strategies for improving the freezing tolerance of winter cereals should include approaches to modify membrane lipid composition.

  20. Elastomer based composite materials for bipolar plates in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrach, Elaine M.

    2011-07-01

    In most investigations, polymer conductive composite bipolar plates have failed to achieve the low resistivity required for PEMFCs. The goal of this dissertation is to investigate whether a composite of conductive fillers and a two-phase polymeric matrix will achieve low resistivity through preferred distribution of the fillers at the interface of the two phases. The use of an elastomer as one component of the blend will impart fracture resistance. Three types of matrices were investigated, a single phase polyvinyl ester plastic matrix, a compatible one-phase blend of polyvinyl ester (VER) and polyurethane (PU) elastomer, and a two-phase system of polyvinyl ester and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) elastomer. The different phases were determined by the theory of mixing. When solubility parameters are closer together it is likely that the system will be one phase. The one and two-phase systems were analyzed within the composition containing natural Cytec DKD graphite fibers, Asbury synthetic graphite 4012 flakes and ultra high surface area synthetic graphite TC 307. Phase systems affect the mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. The percolation theory analysis was applied to determine the optimal percentage of conductive fillers and polymer blends. The optimal composition for composite materials consisted of 35vo1% of conductive fillers and 65vo1% of a two-phase blend matrix. The conductive filler included 3vol% of synthetic graphite TC307, 25.5vol% of Cytec DKD graphite fibers and 6.5vol% of Asbury synthetic graphite 4012 flakes. The two-phase blend matrix included 40vol% of EPDM to 60vol% of VER. This resulted in an electrical resistivity of 0.009O-cm and a thermal conductivity of 11.6W/m-K. The two-phase blend matrix added more ductility to the composition with the ability to withstand a stress of 10MPa with over 1% strain applied to the overall composite bipolar plates. The composition also absorbed 60% more mechanical energy than that

  1. Curriculum Materials Exhibited at the 1976 ASCD Annual Conference (31st, Miami Beach, Florida, March 13-17, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, H. Minnie, Comp.; And Others

    This catalog lists all curriculum materials submitted for display at the 1976 Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development Conference in Miami Beach. Materials are grouped according to subject matter, with separate sections for general curriculum development, adult education, art, bilingual education, career education, consumer…

  2. In vitro and in vivo degradation of potential anti-adhesion materials: Electrospun membranes of poly(ester-amide) based on l-phenylalanine and p-(dioxanone).

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Dong, Jun; Niu, Lijing; Chen, Wenyan; Chen, Dongliang; Shen, Chengyi; Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-08-01

    Electrospun membranes of poly(p-dioxanone-co-l-phenylalanine) (PDPA) hold potential as an anti-adhesion material. Since adjustable degradation properties are important for anti-adhesion materials, in this study, the in vitro and in vivo degradation processes of PDPA electrospun membranes were investigated in detail. The morphological analysis of these membranes revealed the main degradation conditions of PDPA membranes. The weight remaining and molecular weight variation showed that the overall degradation rate of the membranes could be adjusted by modulating the molecular structure of the PDPAs. Especially, α-chymotrypsin could catalyze the degradation process of PDPAs. Based on these results, the in vitro degradation mechanism was demonstrated, and confirmed by (1) H NMR of the hydrolysis products. Finally, the in vivo degradation and biocompatibility of different PDPAs were investigated. The kinetic study showed that the in vitro and in vivo molecular weight loss of PDPAs have the first-order characteristics. The in vivo degradation rate of the most Phe-containing PDPA-3 is the slowest, and this result relates to the biocompatibilities of PDPAs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1369-1378, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 29th, Pittsburgh, PA, November 8-11, 1983, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, R.; Koon, N.C.; Cooper, B.R.

    1984-03-15

    Various topics on magnetism and magnetic materials are addressed. The subjects considered include: spin glasses, amorphous magnetism, actinide and rare earth intermetallics, magnetic excitation, itinerant magnetism and magnetic structure, valence instabilities, Kondo effect, transport and Hall effects, mixed valence and Kondo compounds, superconductivity and magnetism, d and f electron magnetism and superconductivity, Fe-based microcrystalline and permanent magnetic alloys, hard and soft magnetic materials, and magnetooptics. Also discussed are: numerical methods for magnetic field computation, recording theory and experiments, recording heads and media, magnetic studies via hyperfine interactions, magnetic semiconductors, magnet insulators, transition metal systems, random fields, critical phenomena and magnetoelastic effects and resonance, surfaces and interfaces, magnetostatic waves and resonance, bubble materials and implantation, bubble devices and physics, magnetic separation, ferrofluids, magnetochemistry, new techniques and materials, and new applications.

  4. Follow-Up of the Sinus Membrane Elevation Technique for Maxillary Sinus Implants without the Use of Graft Material.

    PubMed

    Riben, Christopher; Thor, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    There is a limited amount of studies evaluating long-term results of the sinus membrane elevation technique for bone formation around implants in the maxillary sinus floor without the use of bone graft material. To investigate the long-term results of this technique with regard to implant survival and bone gain in the maxillary sinus floor. A retrospective study was conducted on patients who had undergone the surgical procedure from November 2001 to August 2008. Thirty-six patients with a total of 87 implants (ASTRA TECH Implant System™) in 53 sinuses were examined. After a submerged healing period of 6 months and at least 12 months of loading, the patients were examined clinically and radiologically. Implant stability was measured using resonance frequency analysis (RFA). The mean follow-up time was 4.6 years (range 1.5-7 years). Five implants were lost giving a survival rate of 94.3%.Subantral preoperative vertical bone levels were in the range of 1 to 10 mm. The average bone gain at the sinus floor was 6 mm. The 55 fixtures eligible for RFA displayed a mean implant stability quotient of 77 (range 56-85.5). The present study illustrates the long-term reliability of the technique. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semi-annual progress report for October 1997 through March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1--3 trucks to realize a 35{percent} fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7--8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy-duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies.

  6. Study of materials to resist corrosion in condensing gas fired furnaces. Annual report Oct 79-Oct 80

    SciTech Connect

    Lahtvee, T.; Khoo, S.W.; Schaus, O.O.

    1981-02-01

    Based on a thorough review of background information on the performance of materials in condensing gas-fired furnace heat exchangers and in similar corrosive environments, candidate materials were selected and tested on one of two identical test rigs built to provide the varying corrosive conditions encountered in an actual gas-fired condensing system heat exchanger. The 32 different materials tested in a one month screening test included: mild, low alloy, galvanized, solder coated and CaCO3 dipped galvanized steel, porcelain, epoxy, teflon and nylon coated and alonized mild steel; austenitic, ferritic, low interstitial Ti stabilized ferritic, and high alloy stainless steels; aluminum alloy anodized and porcelain coated aluminum; copper and cupronickel alloys, solder coated copper; and titanium.

  7. Crystalline Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsapatsis, Michael (Inventor); Lai, Zhiping (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    In certain aspects, the invention features methods for forming crystalline membranes (e.g., a membrane of a framework material, such as a zeolite) by inducing secondary growth in a layer of oriented seed crystals. The rate of growth of the seed crystals in the plane of the substrate is controlled to be comparable to the rate of growth out of the plane. As a result, a crystalline membrane can form a substantially continuous layer including grains of uniform crystallographic orientation that extend through the depth of the layer.

  8. Theoretical and Experimental Thermal Performance Analysis of Complex Thermal Storage Membrane Containing Bio-Based Phase Change Material (PCM)

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, Jan; Stovall, Therese K; Shrestha, Som S; Yarbrough, David W

    2010-12-01

    Since 2000, an ORNL research team has been testing different configurations of PCM-enhanced building envelop components to be used in residential and commercial buildings. During 2009, a novel type of thermal storage membrane was evaluated for building envelope applications. Bio-based PCM was encapsulated between two layers of heavy-duty plastic film forming a complex array of small PCM cells. Today, a large group of PCM products are packaged in such complex PCM containers or foils containing arrays of PCM pouches of different shapes and sizes. The transient characteristics of PCM-enhanced building envelope materials depend on the quality and amount of PCM, which is very often difficult to estimate because of the complex geometry of many PCM heat sinks. The only widely used small-scale analysis method used to evaluate the dynamic characteristics of PCM-enhanced building products is the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Unfortunately, this method requires relatively uniform, and very small, specimens of the material. However, in numerous building thermal storage applications, PCM products are not uniformly distributed across the surface area, making the results of traditional DSC measurements unrealistic for these products. In addition, most of the PCM-enhanced building products contain blends of PCM with fire retardants and chemical stabilizers. This combination of non-uniform distribution and non-homogenous composition make it nearly impossible to select a representative small specimen suitable for DSC tests. Recognizing these DSC limitations, ORNL developed a new methodology for performing dynamic heat flow analysis of complex PCM-enhanced building materials. An experimental analytical protocol to analyze the dynamic characteristics of PCM thermal storage makes use of larger specimens in a conventional heat-flow meter apparatus, and combines these experimental measurements with three-dimensional (3-D) finite-difference modeling and whole building energy

  9. Poly(ionic liquid)/Ionic Liquid Ion-Gels with High "Free" Ionic Liquid Content: Platform Membrane Materials for CO2/Light Gas Separations.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Matthew G; Gin, Douglas L; Noble, Richard D

    2016-04-19

    The recycling or sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the waste gas of fossil-fuel power plants is widely acknowledged as one of the most realistic strategies for delaying or avoiding the severest environmental, economic, political, and social consequences that will result from global climate change and ocean acidification. For context, in 2013 coal and natural gas power plants accounted for roughly 31% of total U.S. CO2 emissions. Recycling or sequestering this CO2 would reduce U.S. emissions by ca. 1800 million metric tons-easily meeting the U.S.'s currently stated CO2 reduction targets of ca. 17% relative to 2005 levels by 2020. This situation is similar for many developed and developing nations, many of which officially target a 20% reduction relative to 1990 baseline levels by 2020. To make CO2 recycling or sequestration processes technologically and economically viable, the CO2 must first be separated from the rest of the waste gas mixture-which is comprised mostly of nitrogen gas and water (ca. 85%). Of the many potential separation technologies available, membrane technology is particularly attractive due to its low energy operating cost, low maintenance, smaller equipment footprint, and relatively facile retrofit integration with existing power plant designs. From a techno-economic standpoint, the separation of CO2 from flue gas requires membranes that can process extremely high amounts of CO2 over a short time period, a property defined as the membrane "permeance". In contrast, the membrane's CO2/N2 selectivity has only a minor effect on the overall cost of some separation processes once a threshold permeability selectivity of ca. 20 is reached. Given the above criteria, the critical properties when developing membrane materials for postcombustion CO2 separation are CO2 permeability (i.e., the rate of CO2 transport normalized to the material thickness), a reasonable CO2/N2 selectivity (≥20), and the ability to be processed into defect-free thin

  10. 10 CFR 171.16 - Annual fees: Materials licensees, holders of certificates of compliance, holders of sealed source...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...,000 (b) Gas centrifuge enrichment demonstration facilities $1,053,000 (c) Others, including hot cell... contaminants (source material) from drinking water $8,600 B. Licenses that authorize only the possession, use...-produced radionuclides $15,000 4. Waste disposal and processing: A. Licenses specifically authorizing the...

  11. 10 CFR 171.16 - Annual fees: Materials licensees, holders of certificates of compliance, holders of sealed source...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... limited operations N/A.5 (b) Gas centrifuge enrichment demonstration facilities $1,225,000. (c) Others... removal of contaminants (source material) from drinking water $7,100. B. Licenses that authorize only the... accelerator-produced radionuclides $15,500. 4. Waste disposal and processing: A. Licenses specifically...

  12. 10 CFR 171.16 - Annual fees: Materials licensees, holders of certificates of compliance, holders of sealed source...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... limited operations 765,000 (b) Gas centrifuge enrichment demonstration facilities 918,000 (c) Others... material) from drinking water 7,000 B. Licenses that authorize only the possession, use and/or installation... specified in 10 CFR 31.12(a)(4), or (5) 3,700 S. Licenses for production of accelerator-produced...

  13. 10 CFR 171.16 - Annual fees: Materials licensees, holders of certificates of compliance, holders of sealed source...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... limited operations 5 N/A. (b) Gas centrifuge enrichment demonstration facilities 1,354,000 (c) Others... contaminants (source material) from drinking water 4,700 B. Licenses that authorize only the possession, use... specified in 10 CFR 31.12(a)(4) or (5) 8,600 S. Licenses for production of accelerator-produced...

  14. Exascale Co-Design Center for Materials in Extreme Environments (ExMatEx) Annual Report - Year 2

    SciTech Connect

    Germann, T.; Richards, D.; McPherson, A.; Belak, J.

    2013-11-25

    All activities of the Exascale Co-design Center for Materials in Extreme Environments (Ex- MatEx) are focused on the two ultimate goals of the project: (1) demonstrating and delivering a prototype scale-bridging materials science application based upon adaptive physics refinement, and (2) identifying the requirements for the exascale ecosystem that are necessary to perform computational materials science simulations (both single- and multi-scale). During the first year of ExMatEx, our focus was on establishing how we do computational materials science, by developing an initial suite of flexible proxy applications. These “proxy apps” are the primary vehicle for the co-design process, involving assessments and tradeoff evaluations both within the ExMatEx team, and with the entire exascale ecosystem. These interactions have formed the basis of our second year activities. The set of artifacts from these co-design interactions are the lessons learned, that are used to re-express the applications and algorithms within the context of emerging architectures, programming models, and runtime systems.

  15. Investigation of cross-linked and additive containing polymer materials for membranes with improved performance in pervaporation and gas separation.

    PubMed

    Hunger, Katharina; Schmeling, Nadine; Jeazet, Harold B Tanh; Janiak, Christoph; Staudt, Claudia; Kleinermanns, Karl

    2012-10-22

    Pervaporation and gas separation performances of polymer membranes can be improved by crosslinking or addition of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Crosslinked copolyimide membranes show higher plasticization resistance and no significant loss in selectivity compared to non-crosslinked membranes when exposed to mixtures of CO2/CH4 or toluene/cyclohexane. Covalently crosslinked membranes reveal better separation performances than ionically crosslinked systems. Covalent interlacing with 3-hydroxypropyldimethylmaleimide as photocrosslinker can be investigated in situ in solution as well as in films, using transient UV/Vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The photocrosslinking yield can be determined from the FTIR-spectra. It is restricted by the stiffness of the copolyimide backbone, which inhibits the photoreaction due to spatial separation of the crosslinker side chains. Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) with MOFs as additives (fillers) have increased permeabilities and often also selectivities compared to the pure polymer. Incorporation of MOFs into polysulfone and Matrimid® polymers for MMMs gives defect-free membranes with performances similar to the best polymer membranes for gas mixtures, such as O2/N2 H2/CH4, CO2/CH4, H2/CO2, CH4/N2 and CO2/N2 (preferentially permeating gas is named first). The MOF porosity, its particle size and content in the MMM are factors to influence the permeability and the separation performance of the membranes.

  16. Investigation of Cross-Linked and Additive Containing Polymer Materials for Membranes with Improved Performance in Pervaporation and Gas Separation

    PubMed Central

    Hunger, Katharina; Schmeling, Nadine; Jeazet, Harold B. Tanh; Janiak, Christoph; Staudt, Claudia; Kleinermanns, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Pervaporation and gas separation performances of polymer membranes can be improved by crosslinking or addition of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Crosslinked copolyimide membranes show higher plasticization resistance and no significant loss in selectivity compared to non-crosslinked membranes when exposed to mixtures of CO2/CH4 or toluene/cyclohexane. Covalently crosslinked membranes reveal better separation performances than ionically crosslinked systems. Covalent interlacing with 3-hydroxypropyldimethylmaleimide as photocrosslinker can be investigated in situ in solution as well as in films, using transient UV/Vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The photocrosslinking yield can be determined from the FTIR-spectra. It is restricted by the stiffness of the copolyimide backbone, which inhibits the photoreaction due to spatial separation of the crosslinker side chains. Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) with MOFs as additives (fillers) have increased permeabilities and often also selectivities compared to the pure polymer. Incorporation of MOFs into polysulfone and Matrimid® polymers for MMMs gives defect-free membranes with performances similar to the best polymer membranes for gas mixtures, such as O2/N2 H2/CH4, CO2/CH4, H2/CO2, CH4/N2 and CO2/N2 (preferentially permeating gas is named first). The MOF porosity, its particle size and content in the MMM are factors to influence the permeability and the separation performance of the membranes. PMID:24958427

  17. Corrosion and environmental-mechanical characterization of iron-base nuclear waste package structural barrier materials. Annual report, FY 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Westerman, R.E.; Haberman, J.H.; Pitman, S.G.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Sigalla, L.A.

    1986-03-01

    Disposal of high-level nuclear waste in deep underground repositories may require the development of waste packages that will keep the radioisotopes contained for up to 1000 y. A number of iron-base materials are being considered for the structural barrier members of waste packages. Their uniform and nonuniform (pitting and intergranular) corrosion behavior and their resistance to stress-corrosion cracking in aqueous environments relevant to salt media are under study at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The purpose of the work is to provide data for a materials degradation model that can ultimately be used to predict the effective lifetime of a waste package overpack in the actual repository environment. The corrosion behavior of the candidate materials was investigated in simulated intrusion brine (essentially NaCl) in flowing autoclave tests at 150/sup 0/C, and in combinations of intrusion/inclusion (high-Mg) brine environments in moist salt tests, also at 150/sup 0/C. Studies utilizing a /sup 60/Co irradiation facility were performed to determine the corrosion resistance of the candidate materials to products of brine radiolysis at dose rates of 2 x 10/sup 3/ and 1 x 10/sup 5/ rad/h and a temperature of 150/sup 0/C. These irradiation-corrosion tests were ''overtests,'' as the irradiation intensities employed were 10 to 1000 times as high as those expected at the surface of a thick-walled waste package. With the exception of the high general corrosion rates found in the tests using moist salt containing high-Mg brines, the ferrous materials exhibited a degree of corrosion resistance that indicates a potentially satisfactory application to waste package structural barrier members in a salt repository environment.

  18. Industrial Membrane Filtration and Short-bed Fractal Separation Systems for Separating Monomers from Heterogeneous Plant Material

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, M; Kochergin, V; Hess, R; Foust, T; Herbst, R; Mann, N

    2005-03-31

    Large-scale displacement of petroleum will come from low-cost cellulosic feedstocks such as straw and corn stover crop residues. This project has taken a step toward making this projection a reality by reducing capital and energy costs, the two largest cost factors associated with converting cellulosic biomass to chemicals and fuels. The technology exists for using acid or enzyme hydrolysis processes to convert biomass feedstock (i.e., waste cellulose such as straw, corn stover, and wood) into their base monomeric sugar building blocks, which can, in turn, be processed into chemicals and fuels using a number of innovative fermentation technologies. However, while these processes are technically possible, practical and economic barriers make these processes only marginally feasible or not feasible at all. These barriers are due in part to the complexity and large fixed and recurring capital costs of unit operations including filtration, chromatographic separation, and ion exchange. This project was designed to help remove these barriers by developing and implementing new purification and separation technologies that will reduce the capital costs of the purification and chromatographic separation units by 50% to 70%. The technologies fundamental to these improvements are: (a) highly efficient clarification and purification systems that use screening and membrane filtration to eliminate suspended solids and colloidal material from feed streams and (b) fractal technology based chromatographic separation and ion exchange systems that can substitute for conventional systems but at much smaller size and cost. A non-hazardous ''raw sugar beet juice'' stream (75 to 100 gal/min) was used for prototype testing of these technologies. This raw beet juice stream from the Amalgamated Sugar LLC plant in Twin Falls, Idaho contained abrasive materials and membrane foulants. Its characteristics were representative of an industrial-scale heterogeneous plant extract/hydrolysis stream

  19. DOE-DARPA High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM), Annual HPCRM Team Meeting & Technical Review

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J; Brown, B; Bayles, B; Lemieux, T; Choi, J; Ajdelsztajn, L; Dannenberg, J; Lavernia, E; Schoenung, J; Branagan, D; Blue, C; Peter, B; Beardsley, B; Graeve, O; Aprigliano, L; Yang, N; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Lewandowski, J; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Lewandowski, J; Boudreau, J

    2007-09-21

    The overall goal is to develop high-performance corrosion-resistant iron-based amorphous-metal coatings for prolonged trouble-free use in very aggressive environments: seawater & hot geothermal brines. The specific technical objectives are: (1) Synthesize Fe-based amorphous-metal coating with corrosion resistance comparable/superior to Ni-based Alloy C-22; (2) Establish processing parameter windows for applying and controlling coating attributes (porosity, density, bonding); (3) Assess possible cost savings through substitution of Fe-based material for more expensive Ni-based Alloy C-22; (4) Demonstrate practical fabrication processes; (5) Produce quality materials and data with complete traceability for nuclear applications; and (6) Develop, validate and calibrate computational models to enable life prediction and process design.

  20. Annual Conference on Composites and Advanced Ceramic Materials, 9th, Cocoa Beach, FL, January 20-23, 1985, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    The present conference discusses testing methods for ceramic matrix composites, developments in ceramic fibers, space transportation systems thermal protection materials, ceramics for heat engines and other severe environments, thermal sprayed coatings, the development status of ceramic tribology, and the fabrication of ceramics and hard metals. Specific attention is given to the mechanical characterization of ceramic and glass matrix composites, the application of fracture mechanics to fiber composites, the degradation properties of Nicalon SiC fibers, ceramic matrix toughening, SiC/glass composite phases, ceramic composite manufacture by infiltration, and ceramic coatings for the Space Shuttle's surface insulation. Also treated are design principles for anisotropic brittle materials, ceramics for intense radiant heat applications, ceramic-coated tip seals for turbojet engines, composite production by low pressure plasma deposition, tribology in military systems, lubrication for ceramics, a systems approach to the grinding of structural ceramics, and the fabrication of inorganic foams by microwave irradiation.

  1. Task 6.3 - Engineering Performance of Advanced Structural Materials Semi-annual report, July 1- December 31, 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, J.P.; Hurley, J.P.; Roling, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this work by the Energy {ampersand} Environmental Research Center (EERC) is to assist in the development of new materials that can be used for the construction of high-temperature components in advanced energy systems. This work will include the development of data on corrosion resistance of selected high- temperature alloys and the development of a patentable technique for joining large silicon-based advanced ceramics in the field. The key to developing a successful joining technique will be the use of reactive joining compounds to lower the joining temperature without leaving continuous channels of unreacted compounds that can weaken the joint at temperatures over 1400{degrees}C or serve as conduits for transport of corrodents. Special efforts will be made in this project to transfer the developed technologies to the materials industry via licensing agreements through the EERC Foundation.

  2. Measurement and modeling of energetic material mass transfer to soil pore water : Project CP-1227 : FY04 annual technical report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Webb, Stephen Walter

    2005-01-01

    Military test and training ranges operate with live fire engagements to provide realism important to the maintenance of key tactical skills. Ordnance detonations during these operations typically produce minute residues of parent explosive chemical compounds. Occasional low order detonations also disperse solid phase energetic material onto the surface soil. These detonation remnants are implicated in chemical contamination impacts to groundwater on a limited set of ranges where environmental characterization projects have occurred. Key questions arise regarding how these residues and the environmental conditions (e.g., weather and geostratigraphy) contribute to groundwater pollution impacts. This report documents interim results of a mass transfer model evaluating mass transfer processes from solid phase energetics to soil pore water based on experimental work obtained earlier in this project. This mass transfer numerical model has been incorporated into the porous media simulation code T2TNT. Next year, the energetic material mass transfer model will be developed further using additional experimental data.

  3. Radiation effects on materials in the near-field of nuclear waste repository. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.M.; Ewing, R.C.

    1998-06-01

    'Site restoration activities at DOE facilities and the permanent disposal of nuclear waste generated at DOE facilities involve working with and within various types and levels of radiation fields. Once the nuclear waste is incorporated into a final form, radioactive decay will decrease the radiation field over geologic time scales, but the alpha-decay dose for these solids will still reach values as high as 10{sup 18} alpha-decay events/gm in periods as short as 1,000 years. This dose is well within the range for which important chemical (e.g., increased leach rate) and physical (e.g., volume expansion) changes may occur in crystalline ceramics. Release and sorption of long-lived actinides (e.g., {sup 237}Np) can provide a radiation exposure to backfill materials, and changes in important properties (e.g., cation exchange capacity) may occur. The objective of this research program is to evaluate the long term radiation effects in the materials in the near-field of a nuclear waste repository with accelerated experiments in the laboratory using energetic particles (electrons, ions and neutrons). Experiments on the microstructural evolution during irradiation of two important groups of materials, sheet silicates (e.g., clays) and zeolites (analcime), have been conducted; and studies of radiation-induced changes in chemical properties (e.g. cation exchange capacity) are underway. As of the mid-2nd year of the 3-year project, experiments on the microstructural evolution during irradiation of two important group of materials, sheet silicates (mica) and zeolites (analcime), have been conducted; and studies of radiation-induced changes in chemical properties (e.g., cation exchange capacity) are underway.'

  4. Nanocrystalline SiC and Ti3SiC2 Alloys for Reactor Materials: Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Charles H.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Shin, Yongsoon; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Borlaug, Brennan A.; Jiang, Weilin; Arreguin, Shelly A.

    2015-01-15

    A new dual-phase nanocomposite of Ti₃SiC₂/SiC is being synthesized using preceramic polymers, ceramic powders, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) designed to be suitable for advanced nuclear reactors and perhaps as fuel cladding. The material is being designed to have superior fracture toughness compared to SiC, adequate thermal conductivity, and higher density than SiC/SiC composites. This annual report summarizes the progress towards this goal and reports progress in understanding certain aspects of the material behavior but some shortcomings in achieving full density or in achieving adequate incorporation of CNTs. The measured thermal conductivity is adequate and falls into an expected range based on SiC and Ti₃SiC₂. Part of this study makes an initial assessment for Ti₃SiC₂ as a barrier to fission product transport. Ion implantation was used to introduce fission product surrogates (Ag and Cs) and a noble metal (Au) in Ti₃SiC₂, SiC, and a synthesized at PNNL. The experimental results indicate that the implanted Ag in SiC is immobile up to the highest temperature (1273 K) applied in this study; in contrast, significant out-diffusion of both Ag and Au in MAX phase Ti₃SiC₂ occurs during ion implantation at 873 K. Cs in Ti₃SiC₂ is found to diffuse during post-irradiation annealing at 973 K, and noticeable Cs release from the sample is observed. This study may suggest caution in using Ti₃SiC₂ as a fuel cladding material for advanced nuclear reactors operating at very high temperatures. Progress is reported in thermal conductivity modeling of SiC-based materials that is relevant to this research, as is progress in modeling the effects of CNTs on fracture strength of SiC-based materials.

  5. Measurement and modeling of energetic material mass transfer to soil pore water :project CP-1227 FY03 annual technical report.

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, James M.; Barnett, James L.; Kerr, Dayle R.

    2004-01-01

    Military test and training ranges operate with live fire engagements to provide realism important to the maintenance of key tactical skills. Ordnance detonations during these operations typically produce minute residues of parent explosive chemical compounds. Occasional low order detonations also disperse solid phase energetic material onto the surface soil. These detonation remnants are implicated in chemical contamination impacts to groundwater on a limited set of ranges where environmental characterization projects have occurred. Key questions arise regarding how these residues and the environmental conditions (e.g., weather and geostratigraphy) contribute to groundwater pollution impacts. This report documents interim results of experimental work evaluating mass transfer processes from solid phase energetics to soil pore water. The experimental work is used as a basis to formulate a mass transfer numerical model, which has been incorporated into the porous media simulation code T2TNT. This report documents the results of the Phase III experimental effort, which evaluated the impacts of surface deposits versus buried deposits, energetic material particle size, and low order detonation debris. Next year, the energetic material mass transfer model will be refined and a 2-d screening model will be developed for initial site-specific applications. A technology development roadmap was created to show how specific R&D efforts are linked to technology and products for key customers.

  6. Mechanical properties of structural materials for FBR sodium application. Semi-annual progress report for period ending January 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Metallographic evaluations of the CRBR core barrel forging material, creep rupture tested at 538/sup 0/C in air, were performed. The majority of the specimens had a knobby appearance on the surface of the gage section. The stress-rupture life for sodium pre-exposed Type 316 stainless steel performed at 538/sup 0/C in flowing sodium is increased by a factor of at least three at a stress of 275.8 MPa (40.0 ksi) when compared to tests in sodium for as-received material (mill annealed) at the same conditions. Creep-rupture tests of mill annealed type 316 stainless steel in flowing sodium at 593/sup 0/C and 224.1 MPa (32.5 ksi), involving different gage diameters of 0.25, 0.15, and 0.10 inches, were evaluated. A creep-rupture test of an alloy 718 specimen tested at 649/sup 0/C and 344.7 MPa (50.0 ksi) in the flowing sodium, after exposure to flowing sodium at 649/sup 0/C for 10,000 hours, ruptured after 9617 hours. It is estimated that after nearly 20,000 hours in sodium, the rupture life was reduced approximately 30% when compared to results for as-received material tested in flowing sodium (and air).

  7. Micropipet manipulation of lipid membranes: Direct measurement of the material properties of a cohesive structure that is only two molecules thick

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needham, David

    1993-01-01

    The objectives are to demonstrate how we can make direct measurements of the mechanical properties of a special structure in biology, namely the lipid bilayer membrane, using a micromanipulation technique, and how these properties compare and contrast with 'more traditional' technological/engineering materials. Given that the investment in equipment and expertise to carry out these experiments is probably beyond the scope of most teaching labs, the described experiment is not intended as one that can actually be demonstrated in a student laboratory class. The intention behind presenting this work is to begin to raise awareness in the Material Science community about the material properties of biological material that form a new (to us) category of soft engineering materials that have dimensions on the nanoscale.

  8. Increased initiation and growth of tumor cell lines, cancer stem cells and biopsy material in mice using basement membrane matrix protein (Cultrex or Matrigel) co-injection.

    PubMed

    Fridman, Rafael; Benton, Gabriel; Aranoutova, Irina; Kleinman, Hynda K; Bonfil, R Daniel

    2012-05-17

    This protocol requires 2-4 h and presents a method for injecting tumor cells, cancer stem cells or dispersed biopsy material into subcutaneous or orthotopic locations within recipient mice. The tumor cells or biopsy are mixed with basement membrane matrix proteins (CultrexBME or Matrigel) at 4 °C and then injected into recipient animals at preferred anatomical sites. Tumor cells can also be co-injected with additional cell types, such as fibroblasts, stromal cells, endothelial cells and so on. Details are given on appropriate cell numbers, handling and concentration of the basement membrane proteins, recipient animals, injection location and techniques. This procedure enables the growth of tumors from cells or biopsy material (tumor graft) with greater efficiency of take and growth, and with retention of the primary tumor phenotype based on histology. Co-injection with additional cell types provides more physiological models of human cancers for use in drug screening and studying cancer biology.

  9. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Annual technical report, 30 December 1992--29 December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and beyond the year 2000. In 1989, the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) was established as the umbrella organization which coordinates environmental research at both universities. In December, 1992, the Tulane/Xavier DBR was awarded a five year grant to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ``Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin`` project is a broad research and education program aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Studies include defining the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The Mississippi River Basin represents a model system for analyzing and solving contamination problems that are found in aquatic systems world-wide. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  10. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Annual technical report, December 30, 1992--December 29, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and by the year 2000. In December, 1992, the Tulane/Xavier CBR was awarded a five year grant to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ``Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin`` project is a broad research and education program aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Studies include defining the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The Mississippi River Basin represents a model system for analyzing and solving contamination problems that are found in aquatic systems world-wide. These research and education projects are particularly relevant to the US Department of Energy`s programs aimed at addressing aquatic pollution problems associated with DOE National Laboratories. First year funding supported seven collaborative cluster projects and twelve initiation projects. This report summarizes research results for period December 1992--December 1993.

  11. Importance of the support material in thin palladium composite membranes for steady hydrogen permeation at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Junya; Ikeda, Takuji; Pacheco Tanaka, David A; Llosa Tanco, Margot A; Wakui, Yoshito; Sato, Koich; Mizukami, Fujio; Suzuki, Toshishige M

    2009-10-14

    Hydrogen permeation performance of palladium membranes supported on porous alpha-alumina and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was studied at 300-850 degrees C. The hydrogen permeation flux across the palladium-alpha-alumina membrane decreased markedly during permeation tests conducted at >600 degrees C. The SEM and XPS studies of the post-test membrane revealed the presence of aluminium in the palladium layer. Such migration of aluminium was not observed by heating the palladium-alpha-alumina membrane under an argon atmosphere, indicating that hydrogen is responsible for this phenomenon. Hydrogen-induced strong metal-support interaction might be related to this considerable loss of the hydrogen flux. Reduction of alumina to Al(0) by active hydrogen at the membrane-support interface and subsequent migration of Al(0) into the palladium layer represents the most plausible mechanism for the aluminium diffusion. Actually, Al(0) that migrated into the palladium membrane layer generated less hydrogen-permeable palladium-aluminium alloy or inter-metallic compound phase. In contrast, no such strong interaction was found between the YSZ support and the palladium membrane. This composite membrane exhibited a steady permeation of hydrogen at 650 degrees C for 336 h. Having a remarkably high reduction potential, Y(III) is unlikely to be reduced to Y(0), although Zr(IV) has a comparable reduction potential to that of Al(III). A binary phase diagram shows a liquid alloy phase present for the Pd/Al couple at temperatures greater than 615 degrees C (eutectic point), while an inter-metallic compound or liquid alloy phase in the Pd-Zr binary system is not apparent at temperatures less than 750 degrees C. Consequently, inter-diffusion of zirconium with palladium did not occur during operations at 650 degrees C.

  12. Nondestructive evaluation and material properties of advanced materials; Proceedings of the Symposium, TMS Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, Feb. 17-21, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Liaw, P.K.; Buck, O.; Wolf, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented in these proceedings include those on the high-frequency ultrasonic inspection of green and hipped silicon nitride cylindrical samples, an NDE characterization of the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Li alloys, modeling the interaction of ultrasound with pores, and elastic properties of uniaxial-fiber reinforced composites. Attention is also given to anisotropic elastic properties of SiC particulate reinforced aluminum composites, a nondestructive evaluation technology for metal matrix composite billets, ultrasonic techniques for monitoring texture, and the overload effects on fatigue crack growth characteristics of 2014-Al 20 percent SiC composite. Other papers are on dynamic fracture properties of Inco 625 braze joint, laser speckle correlation studies of compression-compression fatigue damage in thick composites, acoustic emission-fracture strength relations for Al/Gr composites, and computed tomography of advanced materials and processes.

  13. A membrane-integrated fermentation reactor system: its effects in reducing the amount of sub-raw materials for D-lactic acid continuous fermentation by Sporolactobacillus laevolacticus.

    PubMed

    Mimitsuka, Takashi; Na, Kyungsu; Morita, Ken; Sawai, Hideki; Minegishi, Shinichi; Henmi, Masahiro; Yamada, Katsushige; Shimizu, Sakayu; Yonehara, Tetsu

    2012-01-01

    Continuous fermentation by retaining cells with a membrane-integrated fermentation reactor (MFR) system was found to reduce the amount of supplied sub-raw material. If the amount of sub-raw material can be reduced, continuous fermentation with the MFR system should become a more attractive process for industrialization, due to decreased material costs and loads during the refinement process. Our findings indicate that the production rate decreased when the amount of the sub-raw material was reduced in batch fermentation, but did not decrease during continuous fermentation with Sporolactobacillus laevolacticus. Moreover, continuous fermentation with a reduced amount of sub-raw material resulted in a productivity of 11.2 g/L/h over 800 h. In addition, the index of industrial process applicability used in the MFR system increased by 6.3-fold as compared with the conventional membrane-based fermentation reactor previously reported, suggesting a potential for the industrialization of this D-lactic acid continuous fermentation process.

  14. Materials Assessment of Insulating Foam in the 9977 Shipping Package for Long-Term Storage - Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    McWilliams, A. J.

    2016-08-01

    The 9977 shipping package is being evaluated for long-term storage applications in the K-Area Complex (KAC) with specific focus on the packaging foam material. A rigid closed cell polyurethane foam, LAST-A-FOAM® FR-3716, produced by General Plastics Manufacturing Company is sprayed and expands to fill the void between the inner container and the outer shell of the package. The foam is sealed in this annular space and is not accessible. During shipping and storage, the foam experiences higher than ambient temperatures from the heat generated by nuclear material within the package creating the potential for degradation of the foam. A series of experiments is underway to determine the extent of foam degradation. Foam samples of three densities have been aging at elevated temperatures 160 °F, 160 °F + 50% relative humidity (RH), 185 °F, 215 °F, and 250 °F since 2014. Samples were periodically removed and tested. After approximately 80 weeks, samples conditioned at 160 °F, 160 °F + 50% RH, and 185 °F have retained initial property values while samples conditioned at 215 °F have reduced intumescence. Samples conditioned at 250 °F have shown the most degradation, loss of volume, mass, absorbed energy under compression, intumescence, and increased flammability. Based on the initial data, temperatures up to 185 °F have not yet shown an adverse effect on the foam properties and it is recommended that exposure of FR-3716 foam to temperatures in excess of 250 °F be avoided or minimized. Testing will continue beyond the 96 week mark. This will provide additional data to help define the long-term behavior for the lower temperature conditions. Additional testing will be pursued in an attempt to identify transition points (threshold times and temperatures) at the higher temperatures of interest, as well as possible benefits of aging within the relatively oxygen-free environment the foam experiences inside the 9977 shipping package.

  15. Measurement and Modeling of Energetic Material Mass Transfer to Soil Pore Water - Project CP-1227 Annual Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    PHELAN, JAMES M.; WEBB, STEPHEN W.; ROMERO, JOSEPH V.; BARNETT, JAMES L.; GRIFFIN, FAWN A.

    2003-01-01

    Military test and training ranges operate with live fire engagements to provide realism important to the maintenance of key tactical skills. Ordnance detonations during these operations typically produce minute residues of parent explosive chemical compounds. Occasional low order detonations also disperse solid phase energetic material onto the surface soil. These detonation remnants are implicated in chemical contamination impacts to groundwater on a limited set of ranges where environmental characterization projects have occurred. Key questions arise regarding how these residues and the environmental conditions (e.g. weather and geostratigraphy) contribute to groundwater pollution impacts. This report documents interim results of experimental work evaluating mass transfer processes from solid phase energetics to soil pore water. The experimental work is used as a basis to formulate a mass transfer numerical model, which has been incorporated into the porous media simulation code T2TNT. Experimental work to date with Composition B explosive has shown that column tests typically produce effluents near the temperature dependent solubility limits for RDX and TNT. The influence of water flow rate, temperature, porous media saturation and mass loading is documented. The mass transfer model formulation uses a mass transfer coefficient and surface area function and shows good agreement with the experimental data. Continued experimental work is necessary to evaluate solid phase particle size and 2-dimensional effects, and actual low order detonation debris. Simulation model improvements will continue leading to a capability to complete screening assessments of the impacts of military range operations on groundwater quality.

  16. Materials for high efficiency monolithic multigap concentrator solar cells. Semi-annual report, 1 July-31 December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to develop a materials technology of the AlGaInAs and AlInAsSb mixed crystal systems. These technologies are directed towards the development of a two-gap, monolithic, lattice-matched concentrator cell with 28% or higher AM2 conversion efficiency at 500 to 1000 suns. The work to be performed is subdivided into the five major tasks: (1) develop and demonstrate the technology for a grading layer of GaInAs/GaAs and low-bandgap cells in AlGaInAs/GaInAs/GaAs; (2) develop and demonstrate intercell tunnel junction contacts in the higher bandgap AlGaInAs alloys; (3) develop and demonstrate technology for a higher bandgap concentrator cell in AlGaInAs alloys; (4) demonstrate a complete two-gap monolithic concentrator cell with AM2 efficiency of 28% or more; and (5) investigate the potential of AlInAsSb alloys grown on InAs substrates. Progress is reported.

  17. Radiation effects on materials in the near-field of a nuclear waste repository. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.M.; Ewing, R.C.

    1997-11-25

    'Sheet silicates (e.g. micas and clays) are important constituents of a wide variety of geological formations such as granite, basalt, and sandstone. Sheet silicates, particularly clays such as bentonite are common materials in near-field engineered barriers in high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repositories. This is because migration of radionuclides from an underground HLW repository to the geosphere may be significantly reduced by sorption of radionuclides (e.g., Pu, U and Np) onto sheet silicates (e.g., clays and micas) that line the fractures and pores of the rocks along groundwater flowpaths. In addition to surface sorption, it has been suggested that some sheet silicates may also be able to incorporate many radionuclides, such as Cs and Sr, in the inter-layer sites of the sheet structure. However, theability of the sheet silicates to incorporate radionuclides and retard release and migration of radionuclides may be significantly affected by the near-field radiation due to the decay of fission products and actinides. for example, the unique properties of the sheet structures will be lost completely if the structure becomes amorphous due to irradiation effects. Thus, the study of irradiation effects on sheet-structures, such as structural damage and modification of chemical properties, are critical to the performance assessment of long-term repository behavior.'

  18. A study of mechanical processing damage in brittle materials. Annual progress report, 1 April 1988--31 March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Khuri-Yakub, B.T.

    1989-04-01

    The first project deals with examining ceramics when they are in the green state, and evaluating the effect of density and mechanical property variations on the final hot-pressed parts. The second aspect of the project deals with the direct characterization of surface and near-surface defects that are induced by machining operations. For the ultrasonic inspection of green ceramics, it is necessary to introduce ultrasound in the sample without immersing it in water. The author`s approach is to develop air transducers based on using new types of matching layers. The paper describes the development of these air transducers. The work on the characterization of machining damage in ceramics considered the special problem of ball bearings. Ball bearings may be the first wide-range industrial application for hot-pressed ceramic materials. The major problem with the ball bearings is their sensitivity to small surface and near-surface defects. Presently, inspection is performed by optical microscopy. The author developed an amplitude and phase acoustic microscopy method and constructed a special fixture to rotate the ball bearings under a focused transducer.

  19. TARDEC Annual Report 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-15

    working on specific technologies, such as automotive capabilities, materials and software development. The benefits of these collaborations are two-fold...ANNUAL REPORT U.S. ARMY TANK AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING CENTER TWO THOUSAND TEN Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Tank- Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) Fiscal Year (FY) 10 Annual Report 14. ABSTRACT

  20. Recycling of used perfluorosulfonic acid membranes

    DOEpatents

    Grot, Stephen; Grot, Walther

    2007-08-14

    A method for recovering and recycling catalyst coated fuel cell membranes includes dissolving the used membranes in water and solvent, heating the dissolved membranes under pressure and separating the components. Active membranes are produced from the recycled materials.

  1. Effect of time-dependent material properties on the mechanical behavior of PFSA membranes subjected to humidity cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khattra, Narinder S.; Karlsson, Anette M.; Santare, Michael H.; Walsh, Peter; Busby, F. Colin

    2012-09-01

    A viscoelastic-plastic constitutive model is developed to characterize the time-dependent mechanical response of perfluorosulphonic acid (PFSA) membranes. This model is then used in finite element simulations of a representative fuel cell unit, (consisting of electrodes, gas diffusion layer and bipolar plates) subjected to standardized relative humidity (RH) cycling test conditions. The effects of hold times at constant RH, the feed rate of humidified air and sorption rate of water into the membrane on the stress response are investigated. While the longer hold times at high and low humidity lead to considerable redistribution of the stresses, the lower feed and sorption rates were found to reduce the overall stress levels in the membrane. The redistribution and reduction in stress magnitudes along with inelastic deformation during hydration eventually lead to development of residual tensile stresses after dehydration. Simulations indicate that these tensile stresses can be on the order of 9-10 MPa which may lead to mechanical degradation of the membrane. The simulation results show that time-dependent properties can have a significant effect on the in-plane stress response of the membrane.

  2. Predictive Service Life Tests for Roofing Membranes: Phase II Investigation of Accelerated Aging Tests for Tracking Degradation of Roofing Membrane Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    bitumen 2 ply SBS modified bitumen G H J K L M 2 ply APP modified bitumen 2 ply APP modified bitumen 1 ply EPDM, nonreinforced 1 ply EPDM...chloride] (PVC), and modified bitumen (MB) roofing systems, the Army currently uses these materials on all types of low-slope applications. Even when...asphalt built-up roofing (BUR), poly [vinyl choloride] (PVC,) styrene-butadiene-styrene ( SBS ) modified bi- tumen (MB), atactic polypropylene (APP) MB

  3. Persistently Auxetic Materials: Engineering the Poisson Ratio of 2D Self-Avoiding Membranes under Conditions of Non-Zero Anisotropic Strain.

    PubMed

    Ulissi, Zachary W; Govind Rajan, Ananth; Strano, Michael S

    2016-08-23

    Entropic surfaces represented by fluctuating two-dimensional (2D) membranes are predicted to have desirable mechanical properties when unstressed, including a negative Poisson's ratio ("auxetic" behavior). Herein, we present calculations of the strain-dependent Poisson ratio of self-avoiding 2D membranes demonstrating desirable auxetic properties over a range of mechanical strain. Finite-size membranes with unclamped boundary conditions have positive Poisson's ratio due to spontaneous non-zero mean curvature, which can be suppressed with an explicit bending rigidity in agreement with prior findings. Applying longitudinal strain along a singular axis to this system suppresses this mean curvature and the entropic out-of-plane fluctuations, resulting in a molecular-scale mechanism for realizing a negative Poisson's ratio above a critical strain, with values significantly more negative than the previously observed zero-strain limit for infinite sheets. We find that auxetic behavior persists over surprisingly high strains of more than 20% for the smallest surfaces, with desirable finite-size scaling producing surfaces with negative Poisson's ratio over a wide range of strains. These results promise the design of surfaces and composite materials with tunable Poisson's ratio by prestressing platelet inclusions or controlling the surface rigidity of a matrix of 2D materials.

  4. Scanning force microscopy study of phase segregation in fuel cell membrane materials as a function of solvent polarity and relative humidity

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, Marilyn Emily; Kim, Yu S; Hjelm, Rex P

    2010-01-01

    Scanning force microscopy (SFM) phase imaging provides a powerful method for directly studying and comparing phase segregation in fuel cell membrane materials due to different preparation and under different temperature and hwnidity exposures. In this work, we explored two parameters that can influence phase segregation: the properties of the solvents used in casting membrane films and how these solvents alter phase segregation after exposure to boiling water as a function of time. SFM was used under ambient conditions to image phase segregation in Nafion samples prepared using five different solvents. Samples were then subjected to water vapor maintained at 100C for periods ranging from 30 minutes to three hours and re-imaged using the same phase imaging conditions. SFM shows what appears to be an increase in phase segregation as a function of solvent polarity that changes as a function of water exposure.

  5. A genipin-crosslinked gelatin membrane as wound-dressing material: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Hsiang; Chang, Yen; Lai, Po-Hong; Sung, Hsing-Wen

    2003-01-01

    A naturally occurring crosslinking agent (genipin) was used in this study to crosslink gelatin hydrogel to develop a wound-dressing membrane. The study was to investigate the in vitro characteristics of the genipin-crosslinked gelatin membrane. The glutaraldehyde-crosslinked counterpart, at a similar crosslinking degree, was used as control. Additionally, an in vivo experiment was undertaken to study the wound healings covered with the glutaraldehyde- and genipin-crosslinked dressings in a rat model. The in vitro results obtained suggested that crosslinking of gelatin membranes with glutaraldehyde or genipin may produce distinct crosslinking structures. The differences in crosslinking structure can significantly affect the mechanical property, water-vapor-transmission rate, swelling ratio, degradation against enzyme and cellular compatibility of the crosslinked membranes. In the in vivo study, it was found that the degree of inflammatory reaction for the wound treated with the genipin-crosslinked dressing was significantly less severe than that covered with the glutaraldehyde-crosslinked dressing throughout the entire course of the study. Additionally, the healing rate for the wound treated with the genipin-crosslinked dressing was notably faster than its glutaraldehyde-crosslinked counterpart.

  6. Sessions with Associated Abstracts by Day: Teaching Materials and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiologist, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presented are abstracts of five papers on teaching materials/methods presented at the 35th annual meeting of the American Physiological Society. Topic areas include expert system used as a teacher/consultant in hemostasis problems, computer assisted testing, and excitation/conduction properties of membranes as illustrated by the compound action…

  7. Sessions with Associated Abstracts by Day: Teaching Materials and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physiologist, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presented are abstracts of five papers on teaching materials/methods presented at the 35th annual meeting of the American Physiological Society. Topic areas include expert system used as a teacher/consultant in hemostasis problems, computer assisted testing, and excitation/conduction properties of membranes as illustrated by the compound action…

  8. Measurement techniques for high-power semiconductor materials and devices. Annual report, October 1, 1980-December 31, 1981. [For calculating excess-carrier lifetime in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Thurber, W R; Phillips, W E; Larrabee, R D

    1982-08-01

    This annual report describes results of NBS research directed toward the development of measurement methods for semiconductor materials and devices which will lead to more effective use of high-power semiconductor devices in applications for energy generation, transmission, conversion, and conservation. Emphasis is on the development of measurement methods for power-device-grade silicon. Major accomplishments during this reporting period were : (1) characterizing by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) the energy levels in silicon power rectifier diodes, (2) writing of a computer program to predict lifetime-related parameters using as input the measured properties of the deep energy levels, (3) developing a novel method to detect nonexponential transients using a conventional double-boxcar DLTS system, (4) analyzing transient capacitance measurements to extend the techniques to nonexponential decays, (5) using a platinum resistance thermometer to calibrate temperature sensing diodes to obtain the precision needed for careful isothermal capacitance measurements, and (6) utilizing trap changing time as a technique to resolve overlapping DLTS peaks in sulfur-doped silicon.

  9. Meniscus membranes for separations

    DOEpatents

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.

    2004-01-27

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  10. Meniscus Membranes For Separation

    DOEpatents

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.

    2005-09-20

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  11. Separation membrane development

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.W.

    1998-08-01

    A ceramic membrane has been developed to separate hydrogen from other gases. The method used is a sol-gel process. A thin layer of dense ceramic material is coated on a coarse ceramic filter substrate. The pore size distribution in the thin layer is controlled by a densification of the coating materials by heat treatment. The membrane has been tested by permeation measurement of the hydrogen and other gases. Selectivity of the membrane has been achieved to separate hydrogen from carbon monoxide. The permeation rate of hydrogen through the ceramic membrane was about 20 times larger than Pd-Ag membrane.

  12. Multipronged approach to managing beta-glucan contaminants in the downstream process: control of raw materials and filtration with charge-modified nylon 6,6 membrane filters.

    PubMed

    Gefroh, Eva; Hewig, Art; Vedantham, Ganesh; McClure, Megan; Krivosheyeva, Alla; Lajmi, Ajay; Lu, Yuefeng

    2013-01-01

    (1→3)-β-D-Glucans (beta-glucans) have been found in raw materials used in the manufacture of recombinant therapeutics. Because of their biological activity, beta-glucans are considered process contaminants and consequently their level in the product needs to be controlled. Although beta-glucans introduced into the cell culture process can readily be removed by bind-and-elute chromatography process steps, beta-glucans can also be introduced into the purification process through raw materials containing beta-glucans as well as leachables from filters made from cellulose. This article reports a multipronged approach to managing the beta-glucan contamination in the downstream process. Raw material screening and selection can be used to effectively limit the level of beta-glucan introduced into the downstream process. Placement of a cellulosic filter upstream of the last bind-and-elute column step or effective preuse flushing can also limit the level of contaminant introduced. More importantly, this article reports the active removal of beta-glucan from the downstream process when necessary. It was discovered that the Posidyne(®) filter, a charge-modified nylon 6,6 membrane filter, was able to effectively remove beta-glucans from buffers at relatively low pH and salt concentrations. An approach of using low beta-glucan buffer components combined with filtration of the buffer with a Posidyne membrane has been successfully demonstrated at preparative scale. Additionally, the feasibility of active removal of beta-glucan from in-process product pools by Posidyne membrane filtration has also been demonstrated. Based on the data presented, a mechanism for binding is proposed, as well as a systematic approach for sizing of the Posidyne filter.

  13. Annual Materials Plan Analysis Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    Ore;ST; 16074; 17729 Beryllium Copper Master Alloy; ST; 7387; 7387 Bismuth; Lb; 1631406; 300000 Cadmium; Lb; 6328570; 6328570 Chromite , Chemical; SDT...242414; 0 Chromite , Metallurgical; SDT; 873122; 0 F1O Save and Return to MAIN ESC Abort Figure 3-2. Comodity Baster List 3.4 SPECIFIC FUNCTIONALITY...Copper Master Alloy *Bismuth *Cadmium * Chromite , Chemical * Chromite , Metallurgical * Chromite , Metallurgical NSG Figure 3-4. Listing of Commodities in

  14. Use of an absorbable membrane to position biologically inductive materials in the periprosthetic space of cemented joints.

    PubMed

    DiResta, Gene R; Brown, Holly; Aiken, Sean; Doty, Steven; Schneider, Robert; Wright, Timothy; Healey, John H

    2006-01-01

    A device is presented that positions ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) debris against periprosthetic bone surfaces. This can facilitate the study of aseptic loosening associated with cemented joint prostheses by speeding the appearance of this debris within the periprosthetic space. The device, composed of a 100 microm thick bioabsorbable membrane impregnated with 1.4 x 10(9) sub-micron particles of UHMWPE debris, is positioned on the endosteum of the bone prior to the insertion of the cemented orthopedic implant. An in vitro pullout study and an in vivo canine pilot study were performed to investigate its potential to accelerate "time to aseptic loosening" of cemented prosthetic joints. Pullout studies characterized the influence of the membrane on initial implant fixation. The tensile stresses (mean+/-std.dev.) required to withdraw a prosthesis cemented into canine femurs with and without the membrane were 1.15+/-0.3 and 1.54+/-0.01 MPa, respectively; these findings were not significantly different (p > 0.4). The in vivo pilot study, involving five dogs, was performed to evaluate the efficacy of the debris to accelerate loosening in a canine cemented hip arthroplasty. Aseptic loosening and lameness occurred within 12 months, quicker than the 30 months reported in a retrospective clinical review of canine hip arthroplasty.

  15. Molecular, Cellular and Pharmaceutical Aspects of bone grafting materials and membranes during maxillary sinus-lift procedures. Part 2: detailed characteristics of the materials.

    PubMed

    Iezzi, Giovanna; Piatelli, Adriano; Giuliani, Alessandra; Mangano, Carlo; Barone, Antonio; Manzon, Licia; Degidi, Marco; Scarano, Antonio; Filippone, Antonella; Perrotti, Vittoria

    2016-12-01

    Various grafts or combination of bone substitute materials have been used in sinus lift procedures. Currently, ongoing developments in several disciplines, from molecular biology and chemistry to computer science and engineering, have contributed to the understanding of biological processes leading to bone healing after the use of bone substitute materials (BSBs) and therefore of the behavior of BSBs. The understanding of the properties of each graft enables individual treatment concepts and therefore allows shift from a simple replacement material to the modern concept of an individually created composite biomaterial. Indeed, the choice of the best BSB still remains crucial for success in maxillary sinus augmentation procedures. The present article provides an overview of most of the materials currently available for sinus lift, with a specific focus on their histological, molecular, cellular and pharmaceutical aspects.

  16. Restoration of resorbed mandible using resorbable membrane and bone graft material with simultaneous implant placement: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun-Beom

    2010-01-01

    Guided bone regeneration has proven effective for the reconstruction of localized bony defects around endosseous implants. Acellular dermal matrix has been used in a wide range of dental applications, including root coverage and keratinized tissue build-up. In this report, acellular dermal matrix was used as a membrane in implantation with simultaneous bone augmentation in resorbed mandible situations. The width of the ridge was well-preserved, and the buccal dehiscence defects were covered with regenerate bone. This surgical technique may provide the clinician with an option for implant therapy. Further randomized controlled studies over long periods of time are necessary to establish whether this procedure offers long-term benefits.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Annual, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Kressel, H.Y.

    1985-01-01

    The inaugural volume of Magnetic Resonance Annual includes reviews of MRI of the posterior fossa, cerebral neoplasms, and the cardiovascular and genitourinary systems. A chapter on contrast materials outlines the mechanisms of paramagnetic contrast enhancement and highlights several promising contrast agents.

  18. Materialism.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  19. Efficient energy transmission and amplification in the cochlea relies on frequency-dependent material properties of the tectorial membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Gareth P.; Lukashkina, Victoria A.; Russell, Ian J.; Elliott, Stephen J.; Lukashkin, Andrei N.

    2015-12-01

    The remarkable sensitivity, frequency selectivity, and dynamic range of the mammalian cochlea relies on longitudinal transmission of minuscule amounts of energy as passive, pressure-driven, basilar membrane (BM) traveling waves which are actively amplified at frequency-specific locations. Transmission of passive waves through viscous tissue situated in a viscous media is not an easy task. Here we describe mechanical properties of the tectorial membrane (TM) which facilitate this transmission. From mechanical measurements of isolated segments of the TM, we discovered that the stiffness of the TM is reduced when it is mechanically stimulated at physiologically relevant magnitudes and at frequencies below their frequency place in the cochlea. The reduction in stiffness functionally uncouples the TM from the organ of Corti, thereby minimizing energy losses during passive traveling wave propagation. Stiffening and decreased viscosity of the TM at high stimulus frequencies can potentially facilitate active amplification, especially in the high-frequency, basal turn, where energy loss due to internal friction within the TM is less than in the apex. This prediction is confirmed by neural recordings from several frequency regions of the cochlea.

  20. Catalytic membranes beckon

    SciTech Connect

    Caruana, C.M.

    1994-11-01

    Chemical engineers here and abroad are finding that the marriage of catalysts and membranes holds promise for faster and more specific reactions, although commercialization of this technology is several years away. Catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) combine a heterogeneous catalyst and a permselective membrane. Reactions performed by CMRs provide higher yields--sometimes as much as 50% higher--because of better reaction selectivity--as opposed to separation selectivity. CMRs also can work at very high temperatures, using ceramic materials that would not be possible with organic membranes. Although the use of CMRs is not widespread presently, the development of new membranes--particularly porous ceramic and zeolite membranes--will increase the potential to improve yields of many catalytic processes. The paper discusses ongoing studies, metal and advanced materials for membranes, the need for continued research, hydrogen recovery from coal-derived gases, catalytic oxidation of sulfides, CMRs for water purification, and oxidative coupling of methane.

  1. Membrane Innovation in Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Boschetti-de-Fierro, Adriana; Beck, Werner; Hildwein, Helmut; Krause, Bernd; Storr, Markus; Zweigart, Carina

    2017-01-01

    Despite advances in renal replacement therapy, the adequate removal of uremic toxins over a broad molecular weight range remains one of the unmet needs in hemodialysis. Therefore, membrane innovation is currently directed towards enhanced removal of uremic toxins and increased membrane permeability. This chapter presents a variety of opportunities where innovation is brought into dialysis membranes. It covers the membrane formation from solution, describing different approaches to control the phase inversion process through additives that either swell in the polymer solution or influence the pore shrinkage during the membrane drying process. Additionally, large-scale manufacturing is described, and the influence of raw materials, spinning, and drying processes on membrane selectivity are presented. Finally, new characterization methods developed for the latest innovations around the application of membranes in dialysis are discussed, which allow the membrane performance for removal of a broad range of uremic toxins and the expected albumin loss in clinical use. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Asymmetric gas separation membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Malon, R. F.; Zampini, A.

    1984-12-04

    Asymmetric gas separation membranes of materials having selective permeation of at least one gas of a gaseous mixture over that of one or more remaining gases of the gaseous mixture, exhibit significantly improved permeation selectivities for the at least one gas when the asymmetric membrane is contacted on one or both surfaces with an effective amount of a Lewis acid. The improved asymmetric gas separation membranes, process for producing the improved membrane, and processes utilizing such membranes for selectively separating at least one gas from a gaseous mixture by permeation are disclosed.

  3. Asymmetric gas separation membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Malon, R. F.; Zampini, A.

    1984-09-18

    Asymmetric gas separation membranes of materials having selective permeation of at least one gas of a gaseous mixture over that of one or more remaining gases of the gaseous mixture, exhibit significantly improved permeation selectivities for the at least one gas when the asymmetric membrane is contacted on one or both surfaces with an effective amount of a Br nsted-Lowry acid. The improved asymmetric gas separation membranes, process for producing the improved membrane, and processes utilizing such membranes for selectively separating at least one gas from a gaseous mixture by permeation are disclosed.

  4. Applicability of Thermal Analysis to Characterization of Roof Membrane Materials: A Summary of the 28-29 March 1990 Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    performance of the coating. Research is needed to tesi the haypothesis. This presenter questioned the CIB/RILEM recommendation that an allowable change in...materials. He subjected the test specimens to the exposure conditions given in ASTM D 4637, "Standard Specification for Vulcanized Rubber Sheet Used

  5. Biomimetic membranes and methods of making biomimetic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Rempe, Susan; Brinker, Jeffrey C.; Rogers, David Michael; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Yang, Shaorong

    2016-11-08

    The present disclosure is directed to biomimetic membranes and methods of manufacturing such membranes that include structural features that mimic the structures of cellular membrane channels and produce membrane designs capable of high selectivity and high permeability or adsorptivity. The membrane structure, material and chemistry can be selected to perform liquid separations, gas separation and capture, ion transport and adsorption for a variety of applications.

  6. Mechanism of inhibition on L929 rat fibroblasts proliferation induced by potential adhesion barrier material poly(p-dioxanone-co-L-phenylalanine) electrospun membranes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Dong, Jun; Li, Qijie; Xiong, Zuochun; Xiong, Chengdong; Chen, Dongliang

    2014-11-01

    Fibroblast plays an important role in the occurrence of postoperative tissue adhesion; materials that have particular "cell-material" interactions to inhibit proliferation of fibroblast will be excellent potential adhesion barriers. In the current study, we synthesized copolymers of p-dioxanone and L-phenylalanine (PDPA) and evaluated the mechanism of its particular inhibition effect on L929 fibroblast proliferation when used as a culture surface. PDPA electrospun membranes could induce apoptosis of L929 fibroblasts. We hypothesized there were two reasons for the apoptosis induction: one was the ability to facilitate cell adhesion of materials, and the other was production of the degradation product, L-phenylalanine. Ninhydrin colorimetric results revealed that L-phenylalanine was continuously released during the culture process and could induce apoptosis in L929 cells. Relatively poor cell adhesion and constant release of L-phenylalanine made PDPA-1 to be the most efficient polymer for the induction of apoptosis. Analysis of apoptosis-related genes revealed that PDPA-induced apoptosis might be performed in a mitochondrial-dependent pathway. But poly(p-dioxanone)-induced apoptosis might occur in a c-Myc independent pathway that was different from PDPA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Biological Fuel Cells and Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Ghassemi, Zahra; Slaughter, Gymama

    2017-01-01

    Biofuel cells have been widely used to generate bioelectricity. Early biofuel cells employ a semi-permeable membrane to separate the anodic and cathodic compartments. The impact of different membrane materials and compositions has also been explored. Some membrane materials are employed strictly as membrane separators, while some have gained significant attention in the immobilization of enzymes or microorganisms within or behind the membrane at the electrode surface. The membrane material affects the transfer rate of the chemical species (e.g., fuel, oxygen molecules, and products) involved in the chemical reaction, which in turn has an impact on the performance of the biofuel cell. For enzymatic biofuel cells, Nafion, modified Nafion, and chitosan membranes have been used widely and continue to hold great promise in the long-term stability of enzymes and microorganisms encapsulated within them. This article provides a review of the most widely used membrane materials in the development of enzymatic and microbial biofuel cells. PMID:28106711

  8. Biological Fuel Cells and Membranes.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi, Zahra; Slaughter, Gymama

    2017-01-17

    Biofuel cells have been widely used to generate bioelectricity. Early biofuel cells employ a semi-permeable membrane to separate the anodic and cathodic compartments. The impact of different membrane materials and compositions has also been explored. Some membrane materials are employed strictly as membrane separators, while some have gained significant attention in the immobilization of enzymes or microorganisms within or behind the membrane at the electrode surface. The membrane material affects the transfer rate of the chemical species (e.g., fuel, oxygen molecules, and products) involved in the chemical reaction, which in turn has an impact on the performance of the biofuel cell. For enzymatic biofuel cells, Nafion, modified Nafion, and chitosan membranes have been used widely and continue to hold great promise in the long-term stability of enzymes and microorganisms encapsulated within them. This article provides a review of the most widely used membrane materials in the development of enzymatic and microbial biofuel cells.

  9. 28 CFR 16.208 - Annual report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual report. 16.208 Section 16.208 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Public Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.208 Annual report. The Commission shall report annually...

  10. 28 CFR 16.208 - Annual report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual report. 16.208 Section 16.208 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Public Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.208 Annual report. The Commission shall report annually...

  11. 28 CFR 16.208 - Annual report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual report. 16.208 Section 16.208 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Public Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.208 Annual report. The Commission shall report annually...

  12. 28 CFR 16.208 - Annual report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual report. 16.208 Section 16.208 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Public Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.208 Annual report. The Commission shall report annually...

  13. 28 CFR 16.208 - Annual report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual report. 16.208 Section 16.208 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Public Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.208 Annual report. The Commission shall report annually to...

  14. Polymeric membrane materials: new aspects of empirical approaches to prediction of gas permeability parameters in relation to permanent gases, linear lower hydrocarbons and some toxic gases.

    PubMed

    Malykh, O V; Golub, A Yu; Teplyakov, V V

    2011-05-11

    Membrane gas separation technologies (air separation, hydrogen recovery from dehydrogenation processes, etc.) use traditionally the glassy polymer membranes with dominating permeability of "small" gas molecules. For this purposes the membranes based on the low free volume glassy polymers (e.g., polysulfone, tetrabromopolycarbonate and polyimides) are used. On the other hand, an application of membrane methods for VOCs and some toxic gas recovery from air, separation of the lower hydrocarbons containing mixtures (in petrochemistry and oil refining) needs the membranes with preferable penetration of components with relatively larger molecular sizes. In general, this kind of permeability is characterized for rubbers and for the high free volume glassy polymers. Data files accumulated (more than 1500 polymeric materials) represent the region of parameters "inside" of these "boundaries." Two main approaches to the prediction of gas permeability of polymers are considered in this paper: (1) the statistical treatment of published transport parameters of polymers and (2) the prediction using model of ≪diffusion jump≫ with consideration of the key properties of the diffusing molecule and polymeric matrix. In the frames of (1) the paper presents N-dimensional methods of the gas permeability estimation of polymers using the correlations "selectivity/permeability." It is found that the optimal accuracy of prediction is provided at n=4. In the frames of the solution-diffusion mechanism (2) the key properties include the effective molecular cross-section of penetrating species to be responsible for molecular transportation in polymeric matrix and the well known force constant (ε/k)(eff i) of {6-12} potential for gas-gas interaction. Set of corrected effective molecular cross-section of penetrant including noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe), permanent gases (H(2), O(2), N(2), CO), ballast and toxic gases (CO(2), NO(,) NO(2), SO(2), H(2)S) and linear lower hydrocarbons (CH(4

  15. Uranium industry annual 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-22

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  16. Asymmetric membranes for gas separations

    SciTech Connect

    Finken, H.

    1985-01-01

    Recent membrane developments for gaseous mixture separations are compared to the development of reverse osmosis membranes for water desalination. The goals of these developments have been the search for ideal permselective polymeric materials, techniques for producing ultrathin membrane layers free of imperfections and transforming gelled reverse osmosis membranes into solid gas permeation membranes. A novel approach to meeting the basic requirements of high permselectivity is attempted by altering the physical polymer structure within the membrane prior to application for gas separation. The influence of these physical interactions on membrane properties is presented. 47 references, 11 figures, 6 tables.

  17. Histomorphometric analysis of newly formed bone after bilateral maxillary sinus augmentation using two different osteoconductive materials and internal collagen membrane.

    PubMed

    Kolerman, Roni; Samorodnitzky-Naveh, Gili R; Barnea, Eitan; Tal, Haim

    2012-02-01

    Deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) and human freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) were compared in five patients undergoing bilateral maxillary sinus floor augmentation using DBBM on one side and FDBA on the contralateral side. After 9 months, core biopsy specimens were harvested. Mean newly formed bone values were 31.8% and 27.2% at FDBA and DBBM sites, respectively (P = .451); mean residual graft particle values were 21.5% and 24.2%, respectively (P = .619); and mean connective tissue values were 46.7% and 48.6%, respectively (P = .566). Within the limits of the present study, it is suggested that both graft materials are equally suitable for sinus augmentation.

  18. Metabolic Signatures of Oxidative Stress and Their Relationship with Erythrocyte Membrane Surface Roughness Among Workers of Manual Materials Handling (MMH)

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Subrata; Acharyya, Muktish; Majumder, Titlee; Bagchi, Anandi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brickfield workers in India perform manual materials handling (MMH) and as a result, are at a high risk of developing oxidative stress. This results in an alteration of the various markers of metabolic oxidative stress at the cellular level. Since red blood cell (RBC) is the central point where oxygen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), and glutathione (GSH) are involved, the surface roughness and its alteration and modeling with respect to workers exposed to MMH may be considered as helpful determinants in predicting early damage to the cell and restoring better health to the exposed population, that is, the worker exposed to stress. Hence, nanometric analysis of the surface roughness of the RBC may serve as an early indicator of the stress-related damage in these individuals. Aims: The purpose of the study was to identify early red blood corpuscular surface damage profile in terms of linear modeling correlating various biochemical parameters. Linear modeling has been aimed to be developed in order to demonstrate how individual oxidative stress markers such as malondialdehyde (MDA), G-6-PD, and reduced GSH are related to the RBC surface roughness [root mean square (RMS)]. Materials and Methods: Conventional analysis of these biochemical responses were evaluated in MMH laborers (age varying between 18 years and 21 years) and a comparable control group of the same age group (with sedentary lifestyles). Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and RBC surface analysis by atomic-force microscopy (AFM) and correlated scanning probe microscopy (SPM-analytical software) with corresponding image analysis were performed immediately after completion of standardized exercise (MMH) at the brickfield. Results: A number of correlated significances and regressive linear models were developed among MDA, G-6-PD, GSH, and RBC surface roughness. Conclusion: It appears that these linear models might be instrumental in predicting early oxidative damages related to

  19. Inverse colloidal crystal membranes for hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography.

    PubMed

    Vu, Anh T; Wang, Xinying; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil; Yu, Bing; Yuan, Hua; Cong, Hailin; Luo, Yongli; Tang, Jianguo

    2015-08-01

    Hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography has gained interest due to its excellent performance in the purification of humanized monoclonal antibodies. The membrane material used in hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography has typically been commercially available polyvinylidene fluoride. In this contribution, newly developed inverse colloidal crystal membranes that have uniform pores, high porosity and, therefore, high surface area for protein binding are used as hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography membranes for humanized monoclonal antibody immunoglobulin G purification. The capacity of the inverse colloidal crystal membranes developed here is up to ten times greater than commercially available polyvinylidene fluoride membranes with a similar pore size. This work highlights the importance of developing uniform pore size high porosity membranes in order to maximize the capacity of hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Metabolic Signatures of Oxidative Stress and Their Relationship with Erythrocyte Membrane Surface Roughness Among Workers of Manual Materials Handling (MMH).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subrata; Acharyya, Muktish; Majumder, Titlee; Bagchi, Anandi

    2015-12-01

    Brickfield workers in India perform manual materials handling (MMH) and as a result, are at a high risk of developing oxidative stress. This results in an alteration of the various markers of metabolic oxidative stress at the cellular level. Since red blood cell (RBC) is the central point where oxygen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), and glutathione (GSH) are involved, the surface roughness and its alteration and modeling with respect to workers exposed to MMH may be considered as helpful determinants in predicting early damage to the cell and restoring better health to the exposed population, that is, the worker exposed to stress. Hence, nanometric analysis of the surface roughness of the RBC may serve as an early indicator of the stress-related damage in these individuals. The purpose of the study was to identify early red blood corpuscular surface damage profile in terms of linear modeling correlating various biochemical parameters. Linear modeling has been aimed to be developed in order to demonstrate how individual oxidative stress markers such as malondialdehyde (MDA), G-6-PD, and reduced GSH are related to the RBC surface roughness [root mean square (RMS)]. Conventional analysis of these biochemical responses were evaluated in MMH laborers (age varying between 18 years and 21 years) and a comparable control group of the same age group (with sedentary lifestyles). Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and RBC surface analysis by atomic-force microscopy (AFM) and correlated scanning probe microscopy (SPM-analytical software) with corresponding image analysis were performed immediately after completion of standardized exercise (MMH) at the brickfield. A number of correlated significances and regressive linear models were developed among MDA, G-6-PD, GSH, and RBC surface roughness. It appears that these linear models might be instrumental in predicting early oxidative damages related to specific occupational hazards.

  1. Program to discover materials suitable for service under hostile conditions obtaining in equipment for the gasification of coal and other solid fuels. Phase 1. High temperature corrosion. Annual report, January-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, S.K.; Schaefer, A.O.

    1986-08-15

    The Annual Report of the Phase I program begins with consideration of the results of test runs 64 to 67 conducted on equipment at IITRI under contract with MPC. To assess materials behavior in the direct-methanation-effluent environment of Westinghouse and Lurgi, four new tests (Runs 64-67) were initiated in 1984 at 1200/sup 0/F. These test coupons (Runs 64 and 66) and weldments (Runs 65 and 67) completed 10,000 hours exposure in 1985. A number of alloys and weldments suitable for direct methanation effluents were identified.

  2. Investigation of titanium nitride as catalyst support material and development of durable electrocatalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avasarala, Bharat K.

    The impending energy and climatic crisis makes it imperative for human society to seek non-fossil based alternative sources for our energy needs. Although many alternative energy technologies are currently being developed, fuel cell technology provides energy solutions, which satisfy a wide range of applications. But the current fuel cell technology is far from its target of large scale commercialization mainly because of its high cost and poor durability. Considerable work has been done in reducing the cost but its durability still needs significant improvement. Of the various materials in a PEM fuel cell, the degradation of electrocatalyst affects its durability the most, leading to performance loss. Carbon black (C) support corrosion plays a significant role in the electrocatalyst degradation and its severe affects due to potential cycling has been identified through my research. Through my resaerch, I introduce titanium nitride nanoparticles (TiN NP) as alternative catalyst supports replacing carbon black. TiN NP has higher electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance compared to that of C. The physical and electrochemical properties of TiN NP were studied and the Pt/TiN electrocatalyst was synthesized using polyol process. Upon optimizing using DOE, for desired catalyst particle size and activity, Pt/TiN is shown to have higher catalytic performance than conventional Pt/C. TiN NP are significantly influenced by the electrochemical conditions and show 'active' or 'passive' nature depending on the temperature and acidic concentration; and a temperature dependence model is proposed to understand the active/passive nature of TiN NP. A one-to-one comparison between TiN NP and C electrodes under similar electrochemical conditions show a superior performance of TiN NP as a catalyst support. The durability of the Pt/TiN electrocatalyst is also tested and it agrees well with the proposed model of active/passive nature of the TiN NP. Through theoretical calculation

  3. Freestanding manganese dioxide nanosheet network grown on nickel/polyvinylidene fluoride coaxial fiber membrane as anode materials for high performance lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Luo, Zhongping; Xiao, Qizhen; Sun, Tianlei; Lei, Gangtie; Li, Zhaohui; Li, Xiaojing

    2015-11-01

    A novel manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanosheet network grown on nickel/polyvinylidene fluoride (Ni/PVDF) coaxial fiber membrane is successfully fabricated by a three-step route: the polyvinylidene fluoride fiber membrane is prepared by electrospinning method, and then the Ni(shell)/PVDF(core) coaxial fiber membrane with core-shell structure can be obtained by the electroless deposition, and finally the manganese dioxide nanosheet network grown on Ni/PVDF coaxial fiber membrane can be achieved by using a simple hydrothermal treatment. This as-prepared binder-free and flexible composite membrane is directly used as anode for lithium ion batteries. The excellent electrochemical performance of the composite membrane can be attributed to the unique combinative effects of nanosized MnO2 network and conductive Ni/PVDF fiber matrix as well as the porous structure of composite fiber membrane.

  4. AAPCC Annual Reports

    MedlinePlus

    ... Annual Report 2000 Annual Report 1999 Annual Report Poison Data National Poison Data System Uses for NPDS ... Elements NPDS FAQs Annual Reports Find Your Local Poison Center Poison centers offer free, private, confidential medical ...

  5. Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  6. Membrane projection lithography

    DOEpatents

    Burckel, David Bruce; Davids, Paul S; Resnick, Paul J; Draper, Bruce L

    2015-03-17

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a three dimensional manufacturing technique for application with semiconductor technologies. A membrane layer can be formed over a cavity. An opening can be formed in the membrane such that the membrane can act as a mask layer to the underlying wall surfaces and bottom surface of the cavity. A beam to facilitate an operation comprising any of implantation, etching or deposition can be directed through the opening onto the underlying surface, with the opening acting as a mask to control the area of the underlying surfaces on which any of implantation occurs, material is removed, and/or material is deposited. The membrane can be removed, a new membrane placed over the cavity and a new opening formed to facilitate another implantation, etching, or deposition operation. By changing the direction of the beam different wall/bottom surfaces can be utilized to form a plurality of structures.

  7. An Electrochromic Bipolar Membrane Diode.

    PubMed

    Malti, Abdellah; Gabrielsson, Erik O; Crispin, Xavier; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-07-08

    Conducting polymers with bipolar membranes (a complementary stack of selective membranes) may be used to rectify current. Integrating a bipolar membrane into a polymer electrochromic display obviates the need for an addressing backplane while increasing the device's bistability. Such devices can be made from solution-processable materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Uranium industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ``Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,`` is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2.

  9. Membrane Transport Phenomena (MTP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1997-01-01

    The third semi-annual period of the MTP project has been involved with performing experiments using the Membrane Transport Apparatus (MTA), development of analysis techniques for the experiment results, analytical modeling of the osmotic transport phenomena, and completion of a DC-9 microgravity flight to test candidate fluid cell geometries. Preparations were also made for the MTP Science Concept Review (SCR), held on 13 June 1997 at Lockheed Martin Astronautics in Denver. These activities are detailed in the report.

  10. Introduction to membrane lipids.

    PubMed

    Epand, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    Biological membranes are composed largely of lipids and proteins. The most common arrangement of lipids in biological membranes is as a bilayer. This arrangement spontaneously forms a barrier for the passage of polar materials. The bilayer is thin but can have a large area in the dimension perpendicular to its thickness. The physical nature of the bilayer membrane will vary according to the conditions of the environment as well as the chemical structure of the lipid constituents of the bilayer. These physical properties determine the function of the membrane together with specific structural features of the lipids that allow them to have signaling properties. The lipids of the membrane are not uniformly distributed. There is an intrinsic asymmetry between the two monolayers that constitute the bilayer. In addition, some lipids tend to be enriched in particular regions of the membrane, termed domains. There is evidence that certain domains recruit specific proteins into that domain. This has been suggested to be important for allowing interaction among different proteins involved in certain signal transduction pathways. Membrane lipids have important roles in determining the physical properties of the membrane, in modulating the activity of membrane-bound proteins and in certain cases being specific secondary messengers that can interact with specific proteins. A large variety of lipids present in biological membranes result in them possessing many functions.

  11. Annealing induced interfacial layers in niobium-clad stainless steel developed as a bipolar plate material for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Sung Tae; Weil, K. Scott; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Bae, In-Tae; Pan, Jwo

    2010-05-01

    Niobium (Nb)-clad 304L stainless steel (SS) manufactured by cold rolling is currently under consideration for use as a bipolar plate material in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stacks. To make the fabrication of bipolar plates using the Nb-clad SS feasible, annealing may be necessary for the Nb-clad SS to reduce the springback induced by cold rolling. However, the annealing can develop an interfacial layer between the Nb cladding and the SS core and the interfacial layer plays a key role in the failure of the Nb-clad SS as reported earlier [JPS our work]. In this investigation, the Nb-clad SS specimens in as-rolled condition were annealed at different combinations of temperature and time. Based on the results of scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, an annealing process map for the Nb-clad SS was obtained. The results of SEM analysis and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis also suggest that different interfacial layers occurred based on the given annealing conditions.

  12. An investigation on corrosion protection of chromium nitride coated Fe-Cr alloy as a bipolar plate material for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, T. J.; Zhang, B.; Li, J.; He, Y. X.; Lin, F.

    2014-12-01

    The corrosion properties of chromium nitride (CrN) coating are investigated to assess the potential use of this material as a bipolar plate for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Conductive metallic ceramic CrN layers are firstly deposited onto Fe-Cr alloy using a multi-arc ion plating technique to increase the corrosion resistance of the base alloy. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the corrosion resistance of the substrate alloy is greatly enhanced by the CrN coating. The free corrosion potential of the substrate is increased by more than 50 mV. Furthermore, a decrease in three orders of magnitude of corrosive current density for the CrN-coated alloy is observed compared to the as-received Fe-Cr alloy. Long-term immersion tests show that the CrN layer is highly stable and effectively acts as a barrier to inhibit permeation of corrosive species. On the contrary, corrosion of the Fe-Cr alloy is rather severe without the protection of CrN coating due to the active dissolution. Finally, the corresponding electrochemical impedance models are proposed to elucidate the corrosion process of the CrN/Fe-Cr alloy submerged in a simulated PEMFCs environment.

  13. Synthesis of free-standing MnO2/reduced graphene oxide membranes and electrochemical investigation of their performances as anode materials for half and full lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaojun; Wang, Gang; Wang, Hui

    2016-10-01

    MnO2 nanotubes/reduced graphene oxide (MnO2/RGO) membranes with different MnO2 contents are successfully synthesized by a facile two-step method including vacuum filtration and subsequent thermal reduction route. The MnO2 nanotubes obtained are 38 nm in diameter and homogeneously imbedded in RGO sheets as spacers. The synthesized MnO2/RGO membranes exhibit excellent mechanical flexibilities and free-standing properties. Using the membranes directly as anode materials for lithium batteries (LIBs), the membranes for half LIBs show superb cycling stabilities and rate performances. Importantly, the electrochemical performances of MnO2/RGO membranes show a strong dependence on the MnO2 nanotube contents in the hybrids. In addition, our results show that the hybrid membranes with 49.0 wt% MnO2 nanotube in half LIBs achieve a high reversible capacity of 1006.7 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g-1, which is higher lithium storage capacity than that of reported MnO2-carbon electrodes. Furthermore, the synthesized full cell (MnO2/RGO//LiCoO2) system also exhibit excellent electrochemical performances, which can be attributed to the unique microstructures of MnO2 and GRO, coupled with the strong synergistic interaction between MnO2 nanotubes and GRO sheets.

  14. Synthetic membranes and membrane processes with counterparts in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, Stephen L.

    1996-02-01

    Conventional synthetic membranes, fashioned for the most part from rather unremarkable polymeric materials, are essentially passive structures that achieve various industrial and biomedical separations through simple and selective membrane permeation processes. Indeed, simplicity of membrane material, structure, and function has long been perceived as a virtue of membranes relative to other separation processes with which they compete. The passive membrane separation processes -- exemplified by micro- and ultrafiltration, dialysis, reverse osmosis, and gas permeation -- differ from one another primarily in terms of membrane morphology or structure (e.g., porous, gel-type, and nonporous) and the permeant transport mechanism and driving force (e.g., diffusion, convection, and 'solution/diffusion'). The passive membrane separation processes have in common the fact that interaction between permeant and membrane material is typically weak and physicochemical in nature; indeed, it is frequently an objective of membrane materials design to minimize interaction between permeant and membrane polymer, since such strategies can minimize membrane fouling. As a consequence, conventional membrane processes often provide only modest separation factors or permselectivities; that is, they are more useful in performing 'group separations' (i.e., the separation of different classes of material) than they are in fractionating species within a given class. It has long been recognized within the community of membrane technologists that biological membrane structures and their components are extraordinarily sophisticated and powerful as compared to their synthetic counterparts. Moreover, biomembranes and related biological systems have been 'designed' according to a very different paradigm -- one that frequently maximizes and capitalizes on extraordinarily strong and biochemically specific interactions between components of the membrane and species interacting with them. Thus, in recent

  15. Official 1997 Mock Trial Materials for the Twenty-Fifth Annual District of Columbia Public Schools Mock Trail Program: Ricki Jones, Plaintiff v. Metro City, Defendant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Kamina A.; Roe, Richard L.

    This packet of materials contains law-related materials for students to conduct a mock trial. In this case a faulty water system, containing the parasite Pindia, contributed to the death of an AIDS patient. Statements from the plaintiff, a representative of the Metro City Water Department, health officials, and others are presented. New releases,…

  16. Official 1997 Mock Trial Materials for the Twenty-Fifth Annual District of Columbia Public Schools Mock Trail Program: Ricki Jones, Plaintiff v. Metro City, Defendant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Kamina A.; Roe, Richard L.

    This packet of materials contains law-related materials for students to conduct a mock trial. In this case a faulty water system, containing the parasite Pindia, contributed to the death of an AIDS patient. Statements from the plaintiff, a representative of the Metro City Water Department, health officials, and others are presented. New releases,…

  17. Uranium industry annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1995 (UIA 1995) provides current statistical data on the U.S. uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1995 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the period 1986 through 2005 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey``. Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1995, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1986 through 1995 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2005, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1995 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. For the reader`s convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix D along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  18. FY05 HPCRM Annual Report: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Iron-Based Amorphous Metal Coatings Evaluation of Corrosion Reistance FY05 HPCRM Annual Report # Rev. 1DOE-DARPA Co-Sponsored Advanced Materials Program

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C; Haslam, J J; Day, S D

    2007-09-19

    New corrosion-resistant, iron-based amorphous metals have been identified from published data or developed through combinatorial synthesis, and tested to determine their relative corrosion resistance. Many of these materials can be applied as coatings with advanced thermal spray technology. Two compositions have corrosion resistance superior to wrought nickel-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022) in some very aggressive environments, including concentrated calcium-chloride brines at elevated temperature. Two Fe-based amorphous metal formulations have been found that appear to have corrosion resistance comparable to, or better than that of Ni-based Alloy C-22, based on breakdown potential and corrosion rate. Both Cr and Mo provide corrosion resistance, B enables glass formation, and Y lowers critical cooling rate (CCR). SAM1651 has yttrium added, and has a nominal critical cooling rate of only 80 Kelvin per second, while SAM2X7 (similar to SAM2X5) has no yttrium, and a relatively high critical cooling rate of 610 Kelvin per second. Both amorphous metal formulations have strengths and weaknesses. SAM1651 (yttrium added) has a low critical cooling rate (CCR), which enables it to be rendered as a completely amorphous thermal spray coating. Unfortunately, it is relatively difficult to atomize, with powders being irregular in shape. This causes the powder to be difficult to pneumatically convey during thermal spray deposition. Gas atomized SAM1651 powder has required cryogenic milling to eliminate irregularities that make flow difficult. SAM2X5 (no yttrium) has a high critical cooling rate, which has caused problems associated with devitrification. SAM2X5 can be gas atomized to produce spherical powders of SAM2X5, which enable more facile thermal spray deposition. The reference material, nickel-based Alloy C-22, is an outstanding corrosion-resistant engineering material. Even so, crevice corrosion has been observed with C-22 in hot sodium chloride environments without buffer

  19. Dialysis membranes for blood purification.

    PubMed

    Sakai, K

    2000-01-01

    All of the artificial membranes in industrial use, such as a reverse-osmosis membrane, dialysis membrane, ultrafiltration membrane, microfiltration membrane and gas separation membrane, also have therapeutic applications. The most commonly used artificial organ is the artificial kidney, a machine that performs treatment known as hemodialysis. This process cleanses the body of a patient with renal failure by dialysis and filtration, simple physicochemical processes. Hemodialysis membranes are used to remove accumulated uremic toxins, excess ions and water from the patient via the dialysate, and to supply (deficit) insufficient ions from the dialysate. Dialysis membranes used clinically in the treatment of patients with renal failure account for by far the largest volume of membranes used worldwide; more than 70 million square meters are used a year. Almost all dialyzers now in use are of the hollow-fiber type. A hollow-fiber dialyzer contains a bundle of approximately 10000 hollow fibers, each with an inner diameter of about 200 microm when wet. The membrane thickness is about 20-45 microm, and the length is 160-250 mm. The walls of the hollow fibers function as the dialysis membrane. Various materials, including cellulose-based materials and synthetic polymers, are used for dialysis membranes. This paper reviews blood purification, hemodialysis and dialysis membranes.

  20. Characterization of Hybrid Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS)-Polybenzimidazole (PBI)-Phosphoric Acid (PA) Materials Intended for Proton Exchange Membranes (PEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubeck, Robert; Stark, Edmund; Decker, Berryinne; Hartmann-Thompson, Claire

    2013-03-01

    Isophthalic acid and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) were polymerized in the presence of polyphosphoric acid (PPA) and various additives, degree of polymerization was monitored by viscosity and torque change measurements, and membranes were prepared by casting the reaction solution and allowing PPA to hydrolyze to PA under ambient conditions. As a function of relative humidity, the membranes were characterized for (1) acid content, (2) in-plane conductivity and (3) complex shear modulus G* obtained via oscillatory parallel plate dynamic mechanical spectroscopy. The addition of sulfonated octaphenyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquixane (S-POSS) to m-polybenzimidazole (PBI)-phosphoric acid (PA) membranes resulted in increased in-plane proton conductivity at high temperatures (120-150 °C) and increased G* relative to a m-PBI control membrane and to m-PBI control membranes carrying comparable weight loadings of non-proton conducting octaphenyl-POSS nanoadditive or silica.

  1. CMS Annual Report 2004

    SciTech Connect

    de la Rubia, T D; Shang, S P; Rennie, G; Fluss, M; Westbrook, C

    2005-07-29

    Glance at the articles in this report, and you will sense the transformation that is reshaping the landscape of materials science and chemistry. This transformation is bridging the gaps among chemistry, materials science, and biology--ushering in a wealth of innovative technologies with broad scientific impact. The emergence of this intersection is reinvigorating our strategic investment into areas that build on our strength of interdisciplinary science. It is at the intersection that we position our strategic vision into a future where we will provide radical materials innovations and solutions to our national-security programs and other sponsors. Our 2004 Annual Report describes how our successes and breakthroughs follow a path set forward by our strategic plan and four organizing research themes, each with key scientific accomplishments by our staff and collaborators. We have organized this report into two major sections: research themes and our dynamic teams. The research-theme sections focus on achievements arising from earlier investments while addressing future challenges. The dynamic teams section illustrates the directorate's organizational structure of divisions, centers, and institutes that support a team environment across disciplinary and institutional boundaries. The research presented in this annual report gives substantive examples of how we are proceeding in each of these four theme areas and how they are aligned with our national-security mission. By maintaining an organizational structure that offers an environment of collaborative problem-solving opportunities, we are able to nurture the discoveries and breakthroughs required for future successes.

  2. Recent Advances in Pd-Based Membranes for Membrane Reactors.

    PubMed

    Arratibel Plazaola, Alba; Pacheco Tanaka, David Alfredo; Van Sint Annaland, Martin; Gallucci, Fausto

    2017-01-01

    Palladium-based membranes for hydrogen separation have been studied by several research groups during the last 40 years. Much effort has been dedicated to improving the hydrogen flux of these membranes employing different alloys, supports, deposition/production techniques, etc. High flux and cheap membranes, yet stable at different operating conditions are required for their exploitation at industrial scale. The integration of membranes in multifunctional reactors (membrane reactors) poses additional demands on the membranes as interactions at different levels between the catalyst and the membrane surface can occur. Particularly, when employing the membranes in fluidized bed reactors, the selective layer should be resistant to or protected against erosion. In this review we will also describe a novel kind of membranes, the pore-filled type membranes prepared by Pacheco Tanaka and coworkers that represent a possible solution to integrate thin selective membranes into membrane reactors while protecting the selective layer. This work is focused on recent advances on metallic supports, materials used as an intermetallic diffusion layer when metallic supports are used and the most recent advances on Pd-based composite membranes. Particular attention is paid to improvements on sulfur resistance of Pd based membranes, resistance to hydrogen embrittlement and stability at high temperature.

  3. Molecular, Cellular and Pharmaceutical Aspects of Bone Grafting Materials and Membranes During Maxillary Sinus-lift Procedures. Part 1: A General Overview.

    PubMed

    Iezzi, Giovanna; Piattelli, Adriano; Giuliani, Alessandra; Mangano, Carlo; Manzon, Licia; Degidi, Marco; Iaculli, Flavia; Scarano, Antonio; Filippone, Antonella; Perrotti, Vittoria

    2017-01-01

    Sinus augmentation procedure has been demonstrated to be a highly predictable treatment in posterior maxilla atrophy. All the surgical interventions in the maxillary region require deep knowledge of anatomy and possible anatomical variations. In this article, pre-operative and post- operative assessments of sinus cavity as well as novel approaches to deepen our knowledge of the behavior of bone substitute materials are described. The awareness of the patient's morphologic conditions enables exact planning of invasive surgery and aids to avoid complications. Pre- operative radiologic evaluation of the region before sinus lift is advisable both for a planning of the sinus augmentation and for selection and alignment of the optimum placement of implants. On the orthopantomography it is possible to measure the vertical dimension of graft, but not the volume and 3D changes. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has become the "gold standard" to plan a comprehensive implant treatment and to achieve a post-operative assessment. A computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique is proposed to produce custom-made block grafts for sinus lift procedure, and a customized cutting guide to accurately place the lateral wall and ease membrane elevation. This procedure allows to reduce intervention time, to precisely adapt the scaffold, to reduce risk of complications and to improve operation quality. Recently, a novel approach has been used to deepen our knowledge of the behavior of BSBs: by means of synchrotron micro-tomography (SCT). It is a 3-D analyzing method, suitable to examine the dynamic and spatial arrangement of regenerative phenomena in complex anatomical structures such as bone, where tissues with several morphologies (alveolar process, unmineralized extracellular matrix, regenerated vessels, etc.) compete to achieve the final goal of bone regeneration. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Resonance energy transfer improves the biological function of bacteriorhodopsin within a hybrid material built from purple membranes and semiconductor quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Rakovich, Aliaksandra; Sukhanova, Alyona; Bouchonville, Nicolas; Lukashev, Evgeniy; Oleinikov, Vladimir; Artemyev, Mikhail; Lesnyak, Vladimir; Gaponik, Nikolai; Molinari, Michael; Troyon, Michel; Rakovich, Yury P; Donegan, John F; Nabiev, Igor

    2010-07-14

    Purple membrane (PM) from bacteria Halobacterium salinarum contains a photochromic protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) arranged in a 2D hexagonal nanocrystalline lattice (Figure 1 ). Absorption of light by the protein-bound chromophore retinal results in pumping the protons through the PM creating an electrochemical gradient which is then used by the ATPases to energize the cellular processes. Energy conversion, photochromism, and photoelectrism are the inherent effects which are employed in many bR technical applications. bR, along with the other photosensitive proteins, is not able to deal with the excess energy of photons in UV and blue spectral region and utilizes less than 0.5% of the energy from the available incident solar light for its biological function. Here, we proceed with optimization of bR functions through the engineering of a "nanoconverter" of solar energy based on semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) tagged with the PM. These nanoconverters are able to harvest light from deep-UV to the visible region and to transfer this additionally collected energy to bR via Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). We show that specific nanobio-optical and spatial coupling of QDs (donor) and bR retinal (acceptor) provide a means to achieve FRET with efficiency approaching 100%. We have finally demonstrated that the integration of QDs within PM significantly increases the efficiency of light-driven transmembrane proton pumping, which is the main bR biological function. This new QD-PM hybrid material will have numerous optoelectronic, photonic, and photovoltaic applications based on its energy conversion, photochromism, and photoelectrism properties.

  5. Hydrogen transport membranes

    DOEpatents

    Mundschau, Michael V.

    2005-05-31

    Composite hydrogen transport membranes, which are used for extraction of hydrogen from gas mixtures are provided. Methods are described for supporting metals and metal alloys which have high hydrogen permeability, but which are either too thin to be self supporting, too weak to resist differential pressures across the membrane, or which become embrittled by hydrogen. Support materials are chosen to be lattice matched to the metals and metal alloys. Preferred metals with high permeability for hydrogen include vanadium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, palladium, and alloys thereof. Hydrogen-permeable membranes include those in which the pores of a porous support matrix are blocked by hydrogen-permeable metals and metal alloys, those in which the pores of a porous metal matrix are blocked with materials which make the membrane impervious to gases other than hydrogen, and cermets fabricated by sintering powders of metals with powders of lattice-matched ceramic.

  6. Evaporative Cooling Membrane Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lomax, Curtis (Inventor); Moskito, John (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An evaporative cooling membrane device is disclosed having a flat or pleated plate housing with an enclosed bottom and an exposed top that is covered with at least one sheet of hydrophobic porous material having a thin thickness so as to serve as a membrane. The hydrophobic porous material has pores with predetermined dimensions so as to resist any fluid in its liquid state from passing therethrough but to allow passage of the fluid in its vapor state, thereby, causing the evaporation of the fluid and the cooling of the remaining fluid. The fluid has a predetermined flow rate. The evaporative cooling membrane device has a channel which is sized in cooperation with the predetermined flow rate of the fluid so as to produce laminar flow therein. The evaporative cooling membrane device provides for the convenient control of the evaporation rates of the circulating fluid by adjusting the flow rates of the laminar flowing fluid.

  7. Fabrication technology to increase surface area of ionomer membrane material and its application towards high surface area electric double-layer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Alberto A.; Patel, Jasbir N.; Cordoba, Cristina; Kaminska, Bozena; Kavanagh, Karen

    2014-03-01

    An application friendly technique to increase the surface area of the ionomer membrane such as Aquivion™ has been developed. By utilizing existing micro-fabrication technologies, square pillars were fabricated onto glass and silicon substrates. In combination with a low cost heat press, the glass and silicon stamps were used to successfully hot emboss micro-features onto the ionomer membrane. Consequently, the surface area of the Aquivion™ membrane was drastically increased enabling potential improvement of sensing and energy storage technologies. Preliminary results show successful fabrication of devices with systematic higher surface area and an improved capacitance.

  8. Title II Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Public Law 89-10) as Amended. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1972, School Library Resources, Textbooks, and Other Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Title II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965 (Public Law 89-10) as amended, provides direct Federal assistance for the acquisition of school library resources, textbooks, and other instructional materials for the use of children and teachers in public and private elementary and secondary schools. Its purpose is to improve…

  9. Development of New Low-Cost, High-Performance, PV Module Encapsulant/Packaging Materials: Annual Technical Progress Report, Phase 1, 22 October 2002-30 September 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Agro, S. C.; Tucker, R. T.

    2004-03-01

    The primary objectives of this subcontract are for Specialized Technology Resources, Inc., to work with U.S.-based PV module manufacturers representing crystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide (CIS), and other state-of-the-art thin-film technologies to develop formulations, production processes, prototype and qualify new low-cost, high-performance photovoltaic module encapsulants/packaging materials. The manufacturers will assist in identifying each materials' deficiencies while undergoing development, and then ultimately in qualifying the final optimized materials designed to specifically meet their requirements. Upon completion of this program, new low-cost, high-performance, PV module encapsulant/packaging materials will be qualified, by one or more end-users, for their specific application. Information gathering on topics related to thin-film module technology, including device performance/failure analysis, glass stability, and de vice encapsulation, has been completed. This information has provided concepts and considerations for module failure analysis, accelerated testing design, and encapsulation formulation strategy for thin-film modules.

  10. Membrane reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.

    1988-01-21

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.

  11. Membrane reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo; Bloom, Ira D.

    1989-01-01

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured with high spatial resolution.

  12. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Yahnke, Mark S.; Shlomo, Golan; Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  13. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOEpatents

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  14. Ames Infusion Stories for NASA Annual Technology Report: Development of an Ablative 3D Quartz / Cyanate Ester Composite Multi-Functional Material for the Orion Spacecraft Compression Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brandon; Jan, Darrell Leslie; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2015-01-01

    Vehicles re-entering Earth's atmosphere require protection from the heat of atmospheric friction. The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) has more demanding thermal protection system (TPS) requirements than the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) missions, especially in regions where the structural load passes through. The use of 2-dimensional laminate materials along with a metal insert, used in EFT1 flight test for the compression pad region, are deemed adequate but cannot be extended for Lunar return missions.

  15. Uranium industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  16. Composite membrane with integral rim

    DOEpatents

    Routkevitch, Dmitri; Polyakov, Oleg G

    2015-01-27

    Composite membranes that are adapted for separation, purification, filtration, analysis, reaction and sensing. The composite membranes can include a porous support structure having elongate pore channels extending through the support structure. The composite membrane also includes an active layer comprising an active layer material, where the active layer material is completely disposed within the pore channels between the surfaces of the support structure. The active layer is intimately integrated within the support structure, thus enabling great robustness, reliability, resistance to mechanical stress and thermal cycling, and high selectivity. Methods for the fabrication of composite membranes are also provided.

  17. Research on polycrystalline thin-film submodules based on CuInSe{sub 2} materials. Annual subcontract report, 1 November 1991--31 December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Arya, R.; Fogleboch, J.; Lommasson, T.; Podlesny, R.; Russell, L.; Skibo, S.; Wiedeman, S.; Rothwarf, A.; Birkmire, R.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes a 3-year, cost-shared research program at Solarex to develop all pertinent processes and technologies required to achieve the goal of 12% CIS submodule (with areas > 900 cm{sup 2}). The work is focused on four tasks: (1) window layers, contacts, substrate; (2) CIS absorber layer; (3) device structure; and (4) submodule design and encapsulation. Each task addresses (1) basic material improvements, (2) fabrication and characterization of CIS solar cells, and (3) scale up of processes to large-area substrates.

  18. Research on polycrystalline thin film submodules based on CuInSe{sub 2} materials. Annual subcontract report, 11 November 1990--31 October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Catalano, A.; Arya, R.; Carr, L.; Fieselmann, B.; Lommasson, T.; Podlesny, R.; Russell, L.; Skibo, S.; Rothwarf, A.; Birkmire, R.

    1992-05-01

    This report describes progress during the first year of a three-year research program to develop 12%-efficient CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) submodules with area greater than 900 cm{sup 2}. To meet this objective, the program was divided into five tasks: (1) windows, contacts, substrates; (2) absorber material; (3) device structure; (4) submodule design and encapsulation; and (5) process optimization. In the first year of the program, work was concentrated on the first three tasks with an objective to demonstrate a 9%-efficient CIS solar cell. 7 refs.

  19. Electrospun polyethersulfone affinity membrane: membrane preparation and performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zuwei; Lan, Zhengwei; Matsuura, Takeshi; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2009-11-01

    Non-woven polyethersulfone (PES) membranes were prepared by electrospinning. After heat treatment and surface activation, the membranes were covalently functionalized with ligands to be used as affinity membranes. The membranes were characterized in terms of fiber diameter, porosity, specific area, pore size, ligand density and binding capacities. To evaluate the binding efficiency of the membrane, dynamic adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the Cibacron blue F3GA (CB) functionalized PES membrane was studied. Experimental breakthrough curves were fitted with the theoretical curves based on the plate model to estimate plate height (H(p)) of the affinity membrane. The high value of H(p) (1.6-8 cm) of the affinity membrane implied a poor dynamic binding efficiency, which can be explained by the intrinsic microstructures of the material. Although the electrospun membrane might not be an ideal candidate for the preparative affinity membrane chromatography for large-scale production, it still can be used for fast small-scale protein purification in which a highly efficient binding is not required. Spin columns packed with protein A/G immobilized PES membranes were demonstrated to be capable of binding IgG specifically. SDS-PAGE results demonstrated that the PES affinity membrane had high specific binding selectivity for IgG molecules and low non-specific protein adsorption. Compared with other reported affinity membranes, the PES affinity membrane had a comparable IgG binding capacity of 4.5 mg/ml, and had a lower flow through pressure drop due to its larger pore size. In conclusion, the novel PES affinity membrane is an ideal spin column packing material for fast protein purification.

  20. Effects of a collagen membrane positioned between augmentation material and the sinus mucosa in the elevation of the maxillary sinus floor. An experimental study in sheep.

    PubMed

    Scala, Alessandro; Lang, Niklaus P; Velez, Joaquin Urbizo; Favero, Riccardo; Bengazi, Franco; Botticelli, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    To assess the influence of a collagen membrane placed subjacent to a pristine sinus mucosa on the healing outcome of a sinus floor elevation procedure. Eight Pelibuey sheep (Cubano rojo) underwent sinus floor elevation on both sides of the maxilla. At a randomly selected side (test), a collagen membrane was placed subjacent to the sinus mucosa, while the contralateral side (control) was left without the placement of a membrane. Deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) was used to fill the space created. A collagen membrane was placed bilaterally to cover the access osteotomy. After 4 months, biopsies were harvested and ground sections prepared. Morphometric analysis was performed in four different regions, three within the elevated area and one at the site of the osteotomy. The total percentages of mineralized new bone within the elevated area were 29.4 ± 16.2% and 30.9 ± 9.2% and of marrow spaces 44.0 ± 23.0% and 45.6 ± 14.1%, at the Non-membrane and at the Membrane sites, respectively. A low content of connective tissue within the elevated area was noticed. A higher content of connective tissue was found in the osteotomy region, however. Remnants of DBBM granules were found at a percentage of 17-19%. No statistically significant differences were observed between test and control sites. The application of a collagen membrane subjacent to the Schneiderian mucosa in a sinus floor elevation procedure did not influence the healing outcomes at all. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Tulane/Xavier University hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Annual technical report, January 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-02

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and beyond the year 2000. In 1989, the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) was established as the umbrella organization which coordinates environmental research at both universities. In December, 1992, the Tulane/Xavier CBR was awarded a five year grant to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin project is a broad research and education program aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Studies include defining the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The Mississippi River Basin represents a model system for analyzing and solving contamination problems that are found in aquatic systems world-wide. Summaries which describe objectives, goals, and accomplishments are included on ten collaborative cluster projects, two education projects, and six initiation projects. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for April 1, 2002 Through September 20, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.P.

    2002-12-03

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. For the Cassini Mission, for example, ORNL was involved in the production of carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS). This report has been divided into three sections to reflect program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2002. The first section deals primarily with maintenance of the capability to produce flight quality (FQ) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS. In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of FQ components. The second section deals with several technology activities to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop technologies for new radioisotope power systems. The last section is dedicated to studies related to the production of {sup 238}Pu.

  3. Annual Technical Progress Report of the Radioisotope Power Systems Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2008 through September 30, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    King, James F

    2010-05-01

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. ORNL has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2009. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new RPS.

  4. Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2001 Through March 31, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    J. P. Moore, JPM

    2002-05-22

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. For the Cassini Mission, for example, ORNL was involved in the production of carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS). This report has been divided into three sections to reflect program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2002. The first section deals primarily with maintenance of the capability to produce flight quality (FQ) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS. In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of FQ components. The second section deals with several technology activities to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop technologies for new radioisotope power systems. The last section is dedicated to studies related to the production of {sup 238}Pu.

  5. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power Systems Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2007 Through September 30,2008

    SciTech Connect

    King, James F

    2009-04-01

    The Office of Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides RPS for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of RPS for fiscal year (FY) 2008. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new RPS.

  6. ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT OF RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS MATERIALS PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM TASKS FOR OCTOBER 1, 2010 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    King, James F

    2012-05-01

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. These components were also produced for the Pluto New Horizons and Mars Science Lab missions launched in January 2006 and November 2011respectively. The ORNL has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for nearly four decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of RPS for fiscal year (FY) 2011. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new RPS. Work has also been initiated to establish fabrication capabilities for the Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units.

  7. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power Systems Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2006 Through September 30, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    King, James F

    2008-04-01

    The Office of Radioisotope Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Radioisotope Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2007. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  8. Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report of the Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for September 2000 through March 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.P.

    2001-05-22

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. For the Cassini Mission, for example, ORNL was involved in the production of carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) and weld shields (WS). This report has been divided into three sections to reflect program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2001. The first section deals primarily with maintenance of the capability to produce flight quality (FQ) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, CVS, and WS. In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of FQ components. The second section deals with several technology activities to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials. or to develop technologies for new radioisotope power systems. The last section is dedicated to studies related to the production of {sup 238}Pu.

  9. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2002 Through September 30, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.F.

    2004-05-18

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. For the Cassini Mission, for example, ORNL was involved in the production of carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS). This report has been divided into three sections to reflect program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2003. The first section deals primarily with maintenance of the capability to produce flight quality (FQ) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS. In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of FQ components. The second section deals with several technology activities to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop technologies for new radioisotope power systems. The last section is dedicated to studies related to the production of {sup 238}Pu.

  10. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Tasks for October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    None listed

    2005-06-01

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2004. Production and production maintenance activities for flight quality (FQ) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of FQ components. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  11. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Programs Tasks for October 1, 2005, through September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-30

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2006. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  12. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technical Program Tasks for October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    2007-04-02

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2006. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  13. ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT OF RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEM MATERIALS PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM TASKS FOR OCTOBER 1, 2005 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    King, James F

    2007-04-01

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2006. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  14. ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT OF RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEM MATERIALS PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM TASKS FOR OCTOBER 1, 2004, THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-30

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2005. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  15. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Tasks for October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    None listed

    2006-08-03

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2005. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  16. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2004 Through September 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    King, James F

    2006-06-01

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2005. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  17. Membranes for the Guided Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Woon; Kim, Seong-Gon

    2014-01-01

    Many kinds of membrane have been used for the guided bone regeneration (GBR) technique. However, most membranes do not fulfill all requirements for the ideal membrane for the GBR technique. Among them, collagen membrane has been most widely used. However, its high price and weak tensile strength in wet condition are limitations for wide clinical application. Synthetic polymers have also been used for the GBR technique. Recently, silk based membrane has been considered as a membrane for the GBR technique. Despite many promising preclinical data for use of a silk membrane, clinical data regarding the silk membrane has been limited. However, silk based material has been used clinically as vessel-tie material and an electrospun silk membrane was applied successfully to patients. No adverse effect related to the silk suture has been reported. Considering that silk membrane can be provided to patients at a cheap price, its clinical application should be encouraged. PMID:27489841

  18. 2014 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Mike

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2013 through October 31, 2014. The report contains the following information; Facility and system description; Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; Groundwater monitoring data; Status of special compliance conditions; Noncompliance issues; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2014 reporting year, an estimated 10.11 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

  19. 2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 reporting year, an estimated 11.84 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  20. [Adsorption and diffusion of fluids in well-characterized adsorbent materials]. Annual technical progress report, September 1, 1988--July 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This grant covers theoretical and molecular simulation studies in two areas: the thermodynamic behavior of associating liquids and their mixtures in the bulk phase, and the behavior of fluids in narrow pores. Fluids of longer chains are being simulated to test the perturbation theory. The Helmholtz free energy equation with the first order theory for association was applied to a wide variety of pure and mixed fluids; good agreement with experiment was found. In the second area, the nonlocal form of density functional theory was used together with molecular simulation (grand canonical Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics methods) to study pure and mixed fluids in pores. The fluids were organic compounds and argon; the porous materials were graphite, aluminophosphates, molecular sieves, and clays. 16 refs, 6 figs. (DLC)

  1. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    David Frederick

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000160-01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of special compliance conditions; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 reporting year, an estimated 6.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. Using the dissolved iron data, the concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  2. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  3. Polymer Brushes for Membrane Separations: A Review.

    PubMed

    Keating, John Joseph; Imbrogno, Joseph; Belfort, Georges

    2016-10-06

    The fundamentals and applications of polymer brush modified membranes are reviewed. This new class of synthetic membranes is explored with an emphasis on tuning the membrane performance through polymer brush grafting. This work highlights the intriguing performance characteristics of polymer brush modified membranes in a variety of separations. Polymer brushes are a versatile and effective means in designing membranes for applications in protein adsorption and purification, colloid stabilization, sensors, water purification, pervaporation of organic compounds, gas separations, and as stimuli responsive materials.

  4. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOEpatents

    Pellin, Michael J.; Hryn, John N.; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2009-12-01

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity.

  5. Elastic-mathematical theory of cells and mitochondria in swelling process. II. Effect of temperature upon modulus of elasticity of membranous material of egg cells of sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, and of oyster, Crassostrea virginica.

    PubMed

    Mela, M J

    1968-01-01

    The elastic behavior of the cell wall as a function of the temperature has been studied with particular attention being given to the swelling of egg cells of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Crassostrea virginica in different sea water concentrations at different temperatures. It was found that the modulus of elasticity is a nonlinear function of temperature. At about 12-13 degrees C the modulus of elasticity (E) is constant, independent of the stress (sigma) and strain (epsilon(nu)) which exist at the cell wall; the membranous material follows Hooke's law, and E approximately 3 x 10(7) dyn/cm(2) for S. purpuratus and C. virginica. When the temperature is higher or lower than 12-13 degrees C, the modulus of elasticity increases, and the membranous material does not follow Hooke's law, but is almost directly proportional to the stresses existing at the cell wall. On increasing the stress, the function E(sigma) = E(sigma) approaches saturation. The corresponding stress-strain diagrams, sigma = sigma(epsilon(nu)), and the graphs, E(sigma) = E(sigma) and E(sigma) = E(t) are given. The cyto-elastic phenomena at the membrane are discussed.

  6. Ordered ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.A.; Hill, C.G. Jr.; Zeltner, W.A.

    1991-10-01

    Ceramic membranes have been formed from colloidal sols coated on porous clay supports. These supported membranes have been characterized in terms of their permeabilities and permselectivities to various aqueous test solutions. The thermal stabilities and pore structures of these membranes have been characterized by preparing unsupported membranes of the correpsonding material and performing N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption and X-ray diffraction studies on these membranes. To date, membranes have been prepared from a variety of oxides, including TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, as well as Zr-, Fe-, and Nb-doped TiO{sub 2}. In many of these membranes pore diameters are less than 2 nm, while in others the pore diameters are between 3 and 5 nm. Procedures for fabricating porous clay supports with reproducible permeabilities for pure water are also discussed. 30 refs., 59 figs., 22 tabs.

  7. Dense ceramic catalytic membranes and membrane reactors for energy and environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xueliang; Jin, Wanqin; Xu, Nanping; Li, Kang

    2011-10-21

    Catalytic membrane reactors which carry out separation and reaction in a single unit are expected to be a promising approach to achieve green and sustainable chemistry with less energy consumption and lower pollution. This article presents a review of the recent progress of dense ceramic catalytic membranes and membrane reactors, and their potential applications in energy and environmental areas. A basic knowledge of catalytic membranes and membrane reactors is first introduced briefly, followed by a short discussion on the membrane materials including their structures, composition and strategies for material development. The configuration of catalytic membranes, the design of membrane reaction processes and the high temperature sealing are also discussed. The performance of catalytic membrane reactors for energy and environmental applications are summarized and typical catalytic membrane reaction processes are presented and discussed. Finally, current challenges and difficulties related to the industrialization of dense ceramic membrane reactors are addressed and possible future research is also outlined.

  8. Research on high-band-gap materials and amorphous-silicon-based solar cells. Annual subcontract report, May 15, 1994--May 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schiff, E.A.; Gu, Q.; Jiang, L.; Wang, Q.

    1995-12-01

    We have conducted a survey of thin BP:H and BPC:H films prepared by plasma deposition using phosphine, diborane, tri-methylboron, and hydrogen as precursor gases. The objective of this research is to find out whether such films might offer a superior window layer film for application to wide bandgap a-Si solar cells. The research has shown good optical properties in a-BP:H films, but electrical properties acceptable for use in window layers have not been demonstrated yet. We have also found an interesting, conductive and transparent BPC:H film in a remote deposition region of the reactor, but have been unable to transfer deposition of this film to the standard interelectrode region. We have developed our capability to deposit nip sequence amorphous silicon based solar cells, and have demonstrated an open circuit voltage greater than 0.7 V. We have continued our studies of built-in potentials in a-Si based solar cells using the electroabsorption technique, extending our measurements to include cells with wider bandgap intrinsic layers and Schottky barrier test structures. We have made the first time-of-flight drift mobility measurements on a-Si:H prepared by hot wire (HW) deposition. Initial work has shown that light-soaked HW material can have much better ambipolar diffusion lengths than the plasma-deposited material following extended light soaking. We have performed some theoretical work which addresses a difficulty in understanding photocarrier recombination in a-Si:H first identified by Marvin Silver. In particular, electron-hole recombination is much slower than expected from the well-known {open_quotes}diffusion-controlled{close_quotes} models for Onsager (geminate) recombination and Langevin recombination. This slowness is essential to the success of a-Si in solar cells, but is unexplained. We have done work on high field electron drift mobilities in a-Si:H and on the validity of the Einstein relation connecting the diffusion and drift of holes in a-Si:H.

  9. Lipid Polymorphisms and Membrane Shape

    PubMed Central

    Frolov, Vadim A.; Shnyrova, Anna V.; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Morphological plasticity of biological membrane is critical for cellular life, as cells need to quickly rearrange their membranes. Yet, these rearrangements are constrained in two ways. First, membrane transformations may not lead to undesirable mixing of, or leakage from, the participating cellular compartments. Second, membrane systems should be metastable at large length scales, ensuring the correct function of the particular organelle and its turnover during cellular division. Lipids, through their ability to exist with many shapes (polymorphism), provide an adequate construction material for cellular membranes. They can self-assemble into shells that are very flexible, albeit hardly stretchable, which allows for their far-reaching morphological and topological behaviors. In this article, we will discuss the importance of lipid polymorphisms in the shaping of membranes and its role in controlling cellular membrane morphology. PMID:21646378

  10. 2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2012 through October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2013 reporting year, an estimated 9.64 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

  11. Investigation of material problems for high-temperature, high-power space energy-conversion systems. Annual progress report No. 2, 1 May 1984-30 April 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, D.L.; Morris, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Specific areas of research include investigations of methods of decreasing creep at the high temperatures encountered in the space environment; investigations for improving the properties of refractory metals, tungsten in particular, by alloy additions of rhenium, thoria and hafnium carbide; and development of emissivity data for materials of interest at elevated temperatures. The baseline system of tungsten-rhenium alloys is being researched to improve recrystallization characteristics, creep resistance, etc. Impurity distributions and their deleterious phenomena are studied. Micro-alloying with thorium and hafnium is being evaluated because of their obvious influences on recrystallization; impurity segregation and embrittlement; solution, precipitation and embrittlement; solution, precipitation and dispersion strengthening; as well as other effects of their intensive gettering capabilities. The alloys are sintered and swaged into rods and wires for various high-temperature mechanical and electronic testing. Testing devices include: a high-temperature thermionic-emission microscope; a specially designed high-temperature vacuum tensile-testing machine; a specially designed and built zone refiner for possible refining conventional metallographic procedures; SEM, TEM and Auger surface analyses.

  12. Multicomponent membranes

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    A multicomponent membrane which may be used for separating various components which are present in a fluid feed mixture comprises a mixture of a plasticizer such as a glycol and an organic polymer cast upon a porous organic polymer support. The membrane may be prepared by casting an emulsion or a solution of the plasticizer and polymer on the porous support, evaporating the solvent and recovering the membrane after curing.

  13. Liquid separation by membrane pervaporation: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Huang, R.Y.M.

    1997-04-01

    Pervaporation is one of the most active areas in membrane research, and the pervaporation process has been shown to be an indispensable component for chemical separations. In this paper, the recent development in pervaporation membranes and pervaporation processes is reviewed, and some outstanding questions involved in membrane pervaporation are discussed with emphasis on the following issues: mass transport in the membrane, membrane material selection, concentration polarization in the boundary layer, pressure buildup in hollow fiber membranes, asymmetric and composite membranes, and the activation energy for permeation. The authors attempt to provide insight into this dynamic field and to highlight some of the outstanding problems yet to be solved or clarified. 150 refs.

  14. Cross-linked poly (vinyl alcohol)/sulfosuccinic acid polymer as an electrolyte/electrode material for H2-O2 proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebenezer, D.; Deshpande, Abhijit P.; Haridoss, Prathap

    2016-02-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance with a cross-linked poly (vinyl alcohol)/sulfosuccinic acid (PVA/SSA) polymer is compared with Nafion® N-115 polymer. In this study, PVA/SSA (≈5 wt. % SSA) polymer membranes are synthesized by a solution casting technique. These cross-linked PVA/SSA polymers and Nafion are used as electrolytes and ionomers in catalyst layers, to fabricate different membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for PEMFCs. Properties of each MEA are evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, impedance spectroscopy and hydrogen pumping technique. I-V characteristics of each cell are evaluated in a H2-O2 fuel cell testing fixture under different operating conditions. PVA/SSA ionomer causes only an additional ≈4% loss in the anode performance compared to Nafion ionomer. The maximum power density obtained from PVA/SSA based cells range from 99 to 117.4 mW cm-2 with current density range of 247 to 293.4 mA cm-2. Ionic conductivity of PVA/SSA based cells is more sensitive to state of hydration of MEA, while maximum power density obtained is less sensitive to state of hydration of MEA. Maximum power density of cross-linked PVA/SSA membrane based cell is about 35% that of Nafion® N-115 based cell. From these results, cross-linked PVA/SSA polymer is identified as potential candidate for PEMFCs.

  15. Building membrane nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howorka, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    Membrane nanopores--hollow nanoscale barrels that puncture biological or synthetic membranes--have become powerful tools in chemical- and biosensing, and have achieved notable success in portable DNA sequencing. The pores can be self-assembled from a variety of materials, including proteins, peptides, synthetic organic compounds and, more recently, DNA. But which building material is best for which application, and what is the relationship between pore structure and function? In this Review, I critically compare the characteristics of the different building materials, and explore the influence of the building material on pore structure, dynamics and function. I also discuss the future challenges of developing nanopore technology, and consider what the next-generation of nanopore structures could be and where further practical applications might emerge.

  16. The effects of 405 nm light on bacterial membrane integrity determined by salt and bile tolerance assays, leakage of UV-absorbing material and SYTOX green labelling.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Karen; Maclean, Michelle; Grant, M Helen; Ramakrishnan, Praveen; MacGregor, Scott J; Anderson, John G

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial inactivation by 405 nm light is accredited to the photoexcitation of intracellular porphyrin molecules resulting in energy transfer and the generation of reactive oxygen species that impart cellular oxidative damage. The specific mechanism of cellular damage, however, is not fully understood. Previous work has suggested that destruction of nucleic acids may be responsible for inactivation; however, microscopic imaging has suggested membrane damage as a major constituent of cellular inactivation. This study investigates the membrane integrity of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus exposed to 405 nm light. Results indicated membrane damage to both species, with loss of salt and bile tolerance by S. aureus and E. coli, respectively, consistent with reduced membrane integrity. Increased nucleic acid release was also demonstrated in 405 nm light-exposed cells, with up to 50 % increase in DNA concentration into the extracellular media in the case of both organisms. SYTOX green fluorometric analysis, however, demonstrated contradictory results between the two test species. With E. coli, increasing permeation of SYTOX green was observed following increased exposure, with >500 % increase in fluorescence, whereas no increase was observed with S. aureus. Overall, this study has provided good evidence that 405 nm light exposure causes loss of bacterial membrane integrity in E. coli, but the results with S. aureus are more difficult to explain. Further work is required to gain greater understanding of the inactivation mechanism in different bacterial species, as there are likely to be other targets within the cell that are also impaired by the oxidative damage from photo-generated reactive oxygen species.

  17. HSPES membrane electrode assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved fuel cell electrode, as well as fuel cells and membrane electrode assemblies that include such an electrode, in which the electrode includes a backing layer having a sintered layer thereon, and a non-sintered free-catalyst layer. The invention also features a method of forming the electrode by sintering a backing material with a catalyst material and then applying a free-catalyst layer.

  18. RIBOSOME-MEMBRANE INTERACTION

    PubMed Central

    Adelman, M. R.; Sabatini, David D.; Blobel, Günter

    1973-01-01

    In a medium of high ionic strength, rat liver rough microsomes can be nondestructively disassembled into ribosomes and stripped membranes if nascent polypeptides are discharged from the bound ribosomes by reaction with puromycin. At 750 mM KCl, 5 mM MgCl2, 50 mM Tris·HCl, pH 7 5, up to 85% of all bound ribosomes are released from the membranes after incubation at room temperature with 1 mM puromycin. The ribosomes are released as subunits which are active in peptide synthesis if programmed with polyuridylic acid. The ribosome-denuded, or stripped, rough microsomes (RM) can be recovered as intact, essentially unaltered membranous vesicles Judging from the incorporation of [3H]puromycin into hot acid-insoluble material and from the release of [3H]leucine-labeled nascent polypeptide chains from bound ribosomes, puromycin coupling occurs almost as well at low (25–100 mM) as at high (500–1000 mM) KCl concentrations. Since puromycin-dependent ribosome release only occurs at high ionic strength, it appears that ribosomes are bound to membranes via two types of interactions: a direct one between the membrane and the large ribosomal subunit (labile at high KCl concentration) and an indirect one in which the nascent chain anchors the ribosome to the membrane (puromycin labile). The nascent chains of ribosomes specifically released by puromycin remain tightly associated with the stripped membranes. Some membrane-bound ribosomes (up to 40%) can be nondestructively released in high ionic strength media without puromycin; these appear to consist of a mixture of inactive ribosomes and ribosomes containing relatively short nascent chains. A fraction (∼15%) of the bound ribosomes can only be released from membranes by exposure of RM to ionic conditions which cause extensive unfolding of ribosomal subunits, the nature and significance of these ribosomes is not clear. PMID:4682341

  19. High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials: Iron-Based Amorphous-Metal Thermal-Spray Coatings: SAM HPCRM Program ? FY04 Annual Report ? Rev. 0 - DARPA DSO & DOE OCRWM Co-Sponsored Advanced Materials Program

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J; Haslam, J; Wong, F; Ji, S; Day, S; Branagan, D; Marshall, M; Meacham, B; Buffa, E; Blue, C; Rivard, J; Beardsley, M; Buffa, E; Blue, C; Rivard, J; Beardsley, M; Weaver, D; Aprigliano, L; Kohler, L; Bayles, R; Lemieux, E; Wolejsza, T; Martin, F; Yang, N; Lucadamo, G; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Heuer, A; Ernst, F; Michal, G; Kahn, H; Lavernia, E

    2007-09-19

    The multi-institutional High Performance Corrosion Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Team is cosponsored by the Defense Advanced Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Science Office (DSO) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and has developed new corrosion-resistant, iron-based amorphous metals that can be applied as coatings with advanced thermal spray technology. Two compositions have corrosion resistance superior to wrought nickel-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022) in very aggressive environments, including concentrated calcium-chloride brines at elevated temperature. Corrosion costs the Department of Defense billions of dollars every year, with an immense quantity of material in various structures undergoing corrosion. For example, in addition to fluid and seawater piping, ballast tanks, and propulsions systems, approximately 345 million square feet of structure aboard naval ships and crafts require costly corrosion control measures. The use of advanced corrosion-resistant materials to prevent the continuous degradation of this massive surface area would be extremely beneficial. The Fe-based corrosion-resistant, amorphous-metal coatings under development may prove of importance for applications on ships. Such coatings could be used as an 'integral drip shield' on spent fuel containers, as well as protective coatings that could be applied over welds, thereby preventing exposure to environments that might cause stress corrosion cracking. In the future, such new high-performance iron-based materials could be substituted for more-expensive nickel-based alloys, thereby enabling a reduction in the $58-billion life cycle cost for the long-term storage of the Nation's spent nuclear fuel by tens of percent.

  20. Membranes from academia to industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-03-01

    Andrew Livingston (Imperial College London) and Richard Baker (Membrane Technology and Research) talk to Nature Materials about the perks and pitfalls of membrane research and development, and how activities at the new Barrer Centre might lead to next-generation separation technologies.