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Sample records for membrane skeleton organization

  1. Posterior midgut epithelial cells differ in their organization of the membrane skeleton from other drosophila epithelia.

    PubMed

    Baumann, O

    2001-11-01

    In epithelial cells, the various components of the membrane skeleton are segregated within specialized subregions of the plasma membrane, thus contributing to the development and stabilization of cell surface polarity. It has previously been shown that, in various Drosophila epithelia, the membrane skeleton components ankyrin and alphabeta-spectrin reside at the lateral surface, whereas alphabeta(H)-spectrin is restricted to the apical domain. By use of confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, the present study characterizes the membrane skeleton of epithelial cells in the posterior midgut, leading to a number of unexpected results. First, ankyrin and alphabeta-spectrin are not detected on the entire lateral surface but appear to be restricted to the apicolateral area, codistributing with fasciclin III at smooth septate junctions. The presumptive ankyrin-binding proteins neuroglian and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, however, do not colocalize with ankyrin. Second, alphabeta(H)-spectrin is enriched at the apical domain but is also present in lower amounts on the entire lateral surface, colocalizing apicolaterally with ankyrin/alphabeta-spectrin. Finally, despite the absence of zonulae adherentes, F-actin, beta(H)-spectrin, and nonmuscle myosin-II are enriched in the midlateral region. Thus, the model established for the organization of the membrane skeleton in Drosophila epithelia does not hold for the posterior midgut, and there is quite some variability between the different epithelia with respect to the organization of the membrane skeleton.

  2. Contribution of ankyrin-band 3 complexes to the organization and mechanical properties of the membrane skeleton of human erythrocyte

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, B.W.

    1995-02-01

    To understand the role of ankyrin-band 3 complexes in the organization of the spectrin-based membrane skeleton and its contribution to the mechanical properties of human erythrocytes, intact skeletons and single-layered skeleton leaflets were prepared from intact and physically sheared membrane ghosts, expanded in low salt buffer, and examined by transmission electron microscopy. While the structures of intact skeletons and single-layered skeleton leaflets shared many common features, including rigid junctional complexes of spectrin, actin, and band 4.1; short stretches ({approximately}50 {angstrom}) of flexible spectrin filaments; and globular masses of ankyrin-band 3 complexes situated close to the middle of the spectrin filaments, the definition of structural units in the intact skeleton is obscured by the superposition of the two layers. However, the spatial disposition of structural elements can be clearly defined in the images of the single-layered skeleton leaflets. Partially expanded skeletal leaflets contain conglomerates of ankyrin-band 3 complexes arranged in a circular or clove-leaf configuration that straddles multiple strands of thick spectrin cables, presumably reflecting the association of ankyrin-band 3 complexes on neighboring spectrin tetramers as well as the lateral association of the spectrin filaments. Hyperexpansion of the skeleton leaflets led to dissociation of the conglomerates of ankyrin-band 3 complexes, full-extension of the spectrin tetramers, and separation of the individual strands of spectrin tetramers. Clearly defined stands of spectrin tetramers in the hyperexpanded single-layered skeletal leaflets often contained two sets of globular protein masses that divided the spectrin tetramers into three segments of approximately equal length.

  3. Depletion of membrane skeleton in red blood cell vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Iglic, A; Svetina, S; Zeks, B

    1995-01-01

    A possible physical interpretation of the partial detachment of the membrane skeleton in the budding region of the cell membrane and consequent depletion of the membrane skeleton in red blood cell vesicles is given. The red blood cell membrane is considered to consist of the bilayer part and the membrane skeleton. The skeleton is, under normal conditions, bound to the bilayer over its whole area. It is shown that, when in such conditions it is in the expanded state, some cell shape changes can induce its partial detachment. The partial detachment of the skeleton from the bilayer is energetically favorable if the consequent decrease of the skeleton expansion energy is larger than the corresponding increase of the bilayer-skeleton binding energy. The effect of shape on the skeleton detachment is analyzed theoretically for a series of the pear class shapes, having decreasing neck diameter and ending with a parent-daughter pair of spheres. The partial detachment of the skeleton is promoted by narrowing of the cell neck, by increasing the lateral tension in the skeleton and its area expansivity modulus, and by diminishing the attraction forces between the skeleton and the bilayer. If the radius of the daughter vesicle is sufficiently small relative to the radius of the parent cell, the daughter vesicle can exist either completely underlaid with the skeleton or completely depleted of the skeleton. PMID:7669905

  4. Anatomy of the red cell membrane skeleton: unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Lux, Samuel E

    2016-01-14

    The red cell membrane skeleton is a pseudohexagonal meshwork of spectrin, actin, protein 4.1R, ankyrin, and actin-associated proteins that laminates the inner membrane surface and attaches to the overlying lipid bilayer via band 3-containing multiprotein complexes at the ankyrin- and actin-binding ends of spectrin. The membrane skeleton strengthens the lipid bilayer and endows the membrane with the durability and flexibility to survive in the circulation. In the 36 years since the first primitive model of the red cell skeleton was proposed, many additional proteins have been discovered, and their structures and interactions have been defined. However, almost nothing is known of the skeleton's physiology, and myriad questions about its structure remain, including questions concerning the structure of spectrin in situ, the way spectrin and other proteins bind to actin, how the membrane is assembled, the dynamics of the skeleton when the membrane is deformed or perturbed by parasites, the role lipids play, and variations in membrane structure in unique regions like lipid rafts. This knowledge is important because the red cell membrane skeleton is the model for spectrin-based membrane skeletons in all cells, and because defects in the red cell membrane skeleton underlie multiple hemolytic anemias.

  5. Proteome analysis of the triton-insoluble erythrocyte membrane skeleton.

    PubMed

    Basu, Avik; Harper, Sandra; Pesciotta, Esther N; Speicher, Kaye D; Chakrabarti, Abhijit; Speicher, David W

    2015-10-14

    Erythrocyte shape and membrane integrity is imparted by the membrane skeleton, which can be isolated as a Triton X-100 insoluble structure that retains the biconcave shape of intact erythrocytes, indicating isolation of essentially intact membrane skeletons. These erythrocyte "Triton Skeletons" have been studied morphologically and biochemically, but unbiased proteome analysis of this substructure of the membrane has not been reported. In this study, different extraction buffers and in-depth proteome analyses were used to more fully define the protein composition of this functionally critical macromolecular complex. As expected, the major, well-characterized membrane skeleton proteins and their associated membrane anchors were recovered in good yield. But surprisingly, a substantial number of additional proteins that are not considered in erythrocyte membrane skeleton models were recovered in high yields, including myosin-9, lipid raft proteins (stomatin, flotillin1 and 2), multiple chaperone proteins (HSPs, protein disulfide isomerase and calnexin), and several other proteins. These results show that the membrane skeleton is substantially more complex than previous biochemical studies indicated, and it apparently has localized regions with unique protein compositions and functions. This comprehensive catalog of the membrane skeleton should lead to new insights into erythrocyte membrane biology and pathogenic mutations that perturb membrane stability. Biological significance Current models of erythrocyte membranes describe fairly simple homogenous structures that are incomplete. Proteome analysis of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton shows that it is quite complex and includes a substantial number of proteins whose roles and locations in the membrane are not well defined. Further elucidation of interactions involving these proteins and definition of microdomains in the membrane that contain these proteins should yield novel insights into how the membrane skeleton

  6. Proteome analysis of the triton-insoluble erythrocyte membrane skeleton.

    PubMed

    Basu, Avik; Harper, Sandra; Pesciotta, Esther N; Speicher, Kaye D; Chakrabarti, Abhijit; Speicher, David W

    2015-10-14

    Erythrocyte shape and membrane integrity is imparted by the membrane skeleton, which can be isolated as a Triton X-100 insoluble structure that retains the biconcave shape of intact erythrocytes, indicating isolation of essentially intact membrane skeletons. These erythrocyte "Triton Skeletons" have been studied morphologically and biochemically, but unbiased proteome analysis of this substructure of the membrane has not been reported. In this study, different extraction buffers and in-depth proteome analyses were used to more fully define the protein composition of this functionally critical macromolecular complex. As expected, the major, well-characterized membrane skeleton proteins and their associated membrane anchors were recovered in good yield. But surprisingly, a substantial number of additional proteins that are not considered in erythrocyte membrane skeleton models were recovered in high yields, including myosin-9, lipid raft proteins (stomatin, flotillin1 and 2), multiple chaperone proteins (HSPs, protein disulfide isomerase and calnexin), and several other proteins. These results show that the membrane skeleton is substantially more complex than previous biochemical studies indicated, and it apparently has localized regions with unique protein compositions and functions. This comprehensive catalog of the membrane skeleton should lead to new insights into erythrocyte membrane biology and pathogenic mutations that perturb membrane stability. Biological significance Current models of erythrocyte membranes describe fairly simple homogenous structures that are incomplete. Proteome analysis of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton shows that it is quite complex and includes a substantial number of proteins whose roles and locations in the membrane are not well defined. Further elucidation of interactions involving these proteins and definition of microdomains in the membrane that contain these proteins should yield novel insights into how the membrane skeleton

  7. Purification and proteomic analysis of liver membrane skeletons.

    PubMed

    He, Jintang; Liu, Yashu; Wang, Qingsong; Ji, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    The detergent-resistant membrane skeletons play a critical role in cell shaping and signaling. The focus of the methods described in this chapter is first on the preparation of membrane skeletons from liver by multistep sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and then on the analysis of the protein components of membrane skeletons using proteomics techniques. Two proteomic analysis strategies are described. In the first strategy, membrane skeleton proteins are separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In the other strategy, proteins are separated by SDS-PAGE and identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The methods facilitate the understanding of the structure of membrane skeletons.

  8. The skeleton as an endocrine organ.

    PubMed

    DiGirolamo, Douglas J; Clemens, Thomas L; Kousteni, Stavroula

    2012-11-01

    Surprising new discoveries in the field of skeletal biology show that bone cells produce endocrine hormones that regulate phosphate and glucose homeostasis. In this Review, we examine the features of these new endocrine pathways and discuss their physiological importance in the context of our current understanding of energy metabolism and mineral homeostasis. Consideration of evolutionary and comparative biology provides clues that a key driving force for the emergence of these hormonal pathways was the development of a large, energy-expensive musculoskeletal system. Specialized bone cells also evolved and produced endocrine hormones to integrate the skeleton in global mineral and nutrient homeostasis. The recognition of bone as a true endocrine organ represents a fertile area for further research and should improve the diagnosis and treatment of metabolic diseases such as osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus.

  9. Multifractal characterization of morphology of human red blood cells membrane skeleton.

    PubMed

    Ţălu, Ş; Stach, S; Kaczmarska, M; Fornal, M; Grodzicki, T; Pohorecki, W; Burda, K

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show applicability of multifractal analysis in investigations of the morphological changes of ultra-structures of red blood cells (RBCs) membrane skeleton measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Human RBCs obtained from healthy and hypertensive donors as well as healthy erythrocytes irradiated with neutrons (45 μGy) were studied. The membrane skeleton of the cells was imaged using AFM in a contact mode. Morphological characterization of the three-dimensional RBC surfaces was realized by a multifractal method. The nanometre scale study of human RBCs surface morphology revealed a multifractal geometry. The generalized dimensions Dq and the singularity spectrum f(α) provided quantitative values that characterize the local scale properties of their membrane skeleton organization. Surface characterization was made using areal ISO 25178-2: 2012 topography parameters in combination with AFM topography measurement. The surface structure of human RBCs is complex with hierarchical substructures resulting from the organization of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton. The analysed AFM images confirm a multifractal nature of the surface that could be useful in histology to quantify human RBC architectural changes associated with different disease states. In case of very precise measurements when the red cell surface is not wrinkled even very fine differences can be uncovered as was shown for the erythrocytes treated with a very low dose of ionizing radiation. PMID:27002485

  10. Multifractal characterization of morphology of human red blood cells membrane skeleton.

    PubMed

    Ţălu, Ş; Stach, S; Kaczmarska, M; Fornal, M; Grodzicki, T; Pohorecki, W; Burda, K

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show applicability of multifractal analysis in investigations of the morphological changes of ultra-structures of red blood cells (RBCs) membrane skeleton measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Human RBCs obtained from healthy and hypertensive donors as well as healthy erythrocytes irradiated with neutrons (45 μGy) were studied. The membrane skeleton of the cells was imaged using AFM in a contact mode. Morphological characterization of the three-dimensional RBC surfaces was realized by a multifractal method. The nanometre scale study of human RBCs surface morphology revealed a multifractal geometry. The generalized dimensions Dq and the singularity spectrum f(α) provided quantitative values that characterize the local scale properties of their membrane skeleton organization. Surface characterization was made using areal ISO 25178-2: 2012 topography parameters in combination with AFM topography measurement. The surface structure of human RBCs is complex with hierarchical substructures resulting from the organization of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton. The analysed AFM images confirm a multifractal nature of the surface that could be useful in histology to quantify human RBC architectural changes associated with different disease states. In case of very precise measurements when the red cell surface is not wrinkled even very fine differences can be uncovered as was shown for the erythrocytes treated with a very low dose of ionizing radiation.

  11. Dipole relaxation in erythrocyte membrane: involvement of spectrin skeleton.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, I T; Paarvanova, B; Slavov, T

    2012-12-01

    Polarization of spectrin-actin undermembrane skeleton of red blood cell (RBC) plasma membranes was studied by impedance spectroscopy. Relatedly, dielectric spectra of suspensions that contained RBCs of humans, mammals (bovine, horse, dog, cat) and birds (turkey, pigeon, duck), and human RBC ghost membranes were continuously obtained during heating from 20 to 70°C. Data for the complex admittance and capacitance were used to derive the suspension resistance, R, and capacitance, C, as well as the energy loss as a function of temperature. As in previous studies, two irreversible temperature-induced transitions in the human RBC plasma membrane were detected at 49.5°C and at 60.7°C (at low heating rate). The transition at 49.5°C was evident from the abrupt changes in R, and C and the fall in the energy loss, due to dipole relaxation. For the erythrocytes of indicated species the changes in R and C displayed remarkable and similar frequency profiles within the 0.05-13MHz domain. These changes were subdued after cross-linking of membranes by diamide (0.3-1.3mM) and glutaraldehyde (0.1-0.4%) and at the presence of glycerol (10%). Based on the above results and previous reports, the dielectric changes at 49.5°C were related to dipole relaxation and segmental mobility of spectrin cytoskeleton. The results open the possibility for selective dielectric thermolysis of cell cytoskeleton.

  12. Interactions between Plasmodium falciparum skeleton-binding protein 1 and the membrane skeleton of malaria-infected red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Buckingham, Donna W.; Blanc, Lionel; Hale, John; Guo, Xinhua; Pei, Xinhong; Herrmann, Susann; Hanssen, Eric G.; Coppel, Ross L.; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli; Cooke, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    During development inside red blood cells (RBCs), Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites export proteins that associate with the RBC membrane skeleton. These interactions cause profound changes to the biophysical properties of RBCs that underpin the often severe and fatal clinical manifestations of falciparum malaria. P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is one such exported parasite protein that plays a major role in malaria pathogenesis since its exposure on the parasitised RBC surface mediates their adhesion to vascular endothelium and placental syncytioblasts. En route to the RBC membrane skeleton, PfEMP1 transiently associates with Maurer's clefts (MCs), parasite-derived membranous structures in the RBC cytoplasm. We have previously shown that a resident MC protein, skeleton-binding protein 1 (SBP1), is essential for the placement of PfEMP1 onto the RBC surface and hypothesised that the function of SBP1 may be to target MCs to the RBC membrane. Since this would require additional protein interactions, we set out to identify binding partners for SBP1. Using a combination of approaches, we have defined the region of SBP1 that binds specifically to defined subdomains of two major components of the RBC membrane skeleton, protein 4.1R and spectrin. We show that these interactions serve as one mechanism to anchor MCs to the RBC membrane skeleton, however, while they appear to be necessary, they are not sufficient for the translocation of PfEMP1 onto the RBC surface. The N-terminal domain of SBP1 that resides within the lumen of MCs clearly plays an essential, but presently unknown role in this process. PMID:25883090

  13. Interactions between Plasmodium falciparum skeleton-binding protein 1 and the membrane skeleton of malaria-infected red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Kats, Lev M; Proellocks, Nicholas I; Buckingham, Donna W; Blanc, Lionel; Hale, John; Guo, Xinhua; Pei, Xinhong; Herrmann, Susann; Hanssen, Eric G; Coppel, Ross L; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli; Cooke, Brian M

    2015-07-01

    During development inside red blood cells (RBCs), Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites export proteins that associate with the RBC membrane skeleton. These interactions cause profound changes to the biophysical properties of RBCs that underpin the often severe and fatal clinical manifestations of falciparum malaria. P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is one such exported parasite protein that plays a major role in malaria pathogenesis since its exposure on the parasitised RBC surface mediates their adhesion to vascular endothelium and placental syncytioblasts. En route to the RBC membrane skeleton, PfEMP1 transiently associates with Maurer's clefts (MCs), parasite-derived membranous structures in the RBC cytoplasm. We have previously shown that a resident MC protein, skeleton-binding protein 1 (SBP1), is essential for the placement of PfEMP1 onto the RBC surface and hypothesised that the function of SBP1 may be to target MCs to the RBC membrane. Since this would require additional protein interactions, we set out to identify binding partners for SBP1. Using a combination of approaches, we have defined the region of SBP1 that binds specifically to defined sub-domains of two major components of the RBC membrane skeleton, protein 4.1R and spectrin. We show that these interactions serve as one mechanism to anchor MCs to the RBC membrane skeleton, however, while they appear to be necessary, they are not sufficient for the translocation of PfEMP1 onto the RBC surface. The N-terminal domain of SBP1 that resides within the lumen of MCs clearly plays an essential, but presently unknown role in this process.

  14. The membrane skeleton of erythrocytes: models of its effect on lateral diffusion.

    PubMed

    Saxton, M J

    1990-01-01

    The membrane skeleton, a network of structural proteins attached to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane, hinders lateral diffusion of integral proteins. 2. In some types of cells, such as epithelial cells and nerve cells, the obstruction of lateral diffusion by the membrane skeleton is one of the mechanisms by which proteins are localized to domains on the cell surface. 3. The effect of the membrane skeleton on lateral diffusion may involve steric hindrance, transient binding or both. Three pictures of the effect are reviewed, the discrete barrier model, the continuous barrier model and the transient binding model. 4. Experiments to distinguish the models are discussed.

  15. Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes students' (n=175) understandings of the structure of animal (including human) skeletons and the internal organs found in them. Finds that older students have a better knowledge of animals' internal anatomies, although knowledge of human internal structure is significantly better than knowledge of rat, bird, and fish internal structure.…

  16. Protein 4.1R–deficient mice are viable but have erythroid membrane skeleton abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zheng-Tao; Afzal, Veena; Coller, Barry; Patel, Dipti; Chasis, Joel A.; Parra, Marilyn; Lee, Gloria; Paszty, Chris; Stevens, Mary; Walensky, Loren; Peters, Luanne L.; Mohandas, Narla; Rubin, Edward; Conboy, John G.

    1999-01-01

    A diverse family of protein 4.1R isoforms is encoded by a complex gene on human chromosome 1. Although the prototypical 80-kDa 4.1R in mature erythrocytes is a key component of the erythroid membrane skeleton that regulates erythrocyte morphology and mechanical stability, little is known about 4.1R function in nucleated cells. Using gene knockout technology, we have generated mice with complete deficiency of all 4.1R protein isoforms. These 4.1R-null mice were viable, with moderate hemolytic anemia but no gross abnormalities. Erythrocytes from these mice exhibited abnormal morphology, lowered membrane stability, and reduced expression of other skeletal proteins including spectrin and ankyrin, suggesting that loss of 4.1R compromises membrane skeleton assembly in erythroid progenitors. Platelet morphology and function were essentially normal, indicating that 4.1R deficiency may have less impact on other hematopoietic lineages. Nonerythroid 4.1R expression patterns, viewed using histochemical staining for lacZ reporter activity incorporated into the targeted gene, revealed focal expression in specific neurons in the brain and in select cells of other major organs, challenging the view that 4.1R expression is widespread among nonerythroid cells. The 4.1R knockout mice represent a valuable animal model for exploring 4.1R function in nonerythroid cells and for determining pathophysiological sequelae to 4.1R deficiency. PMID:9927493

  17. Membrane skeleton orchestrates the platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX complex clustering and signaling.

    PubMed

    Shang, Dan; Zhang, Zuping; Wang, Qian; Ran, Yali; Shaw, Tanner S; Van, John N; Peng, Yuandong

    2016-10-01

    Platelet glycoprotein Ib-IX complex is affixed to the membrane skeleton through interaction with actin binding protein 280 (ABP-280). We find that removal of the ABP-280 binding sites in GP Ibα cytoplasmic tail has little impact on the complex clustering induced by antibody crosslinking. However, large truncation of the GP Ibα cytoplasmic tail allows the formation of larger patches of the complex, suggesting that an ABP-280 independent force may exist. Besides, we observe that the signaling upon GP Ib-IX clustering is elicited in both membrane lipid domain dependent and independent manner, a choice that relies on how the membrane skeleton interacts with the complex. Our findings suggest a more complex mechanism for how the membrane skeleton regulates the GP Ib-IX function. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(10):823-829, 2016. PMID:27634617

  18. Membrane skeleton orchestrates the platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX complex clustering and signaling.

    PubMed

    Shang, Dan; Zhang, Zuping; Wang, Qian; Ran, Yali; Shaw, Tanner S; Van, John N; Peng, Yuandong

    2016-10-01

    Platelet glycoprotein Ib-IX complex is affixed to the membrane skeleton through interaction with actin binding protein 280 (ABP-280). We find that removal of the ABP-280 binding sites in GP Ibα cytoplasmic tail has little impact on the complex clustering induced by antibody crosslinking. However, large truncation of the GP Ibα cytoplasmic tail allows the formation of larger patches of the complex, suggesting that an ABP-280 independent force may exist. Besides, we observe that the signaling upon GP Ib-IX clustering is elicited in both membrane lipid domain dependent and independent manner, a choice that relies on how the membrane skeleton interacts with the complex. Our findings suggest a more complex mechanism for how the membrane skeleton regulates the GP Ib-IX function. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(10):823-829, 2016.

  19. XANES mapping of organic sulfate in three scleractinian coral skeletons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Dauphin, Yannicke; Doucet, Jean; Salome, Murielle; Susini, Jean

    2003-01-01

    The presence and localization of organic sulfate within coral skeletons are studied by using X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) fluorescence. XANES spectra are recorded from four reference sulfur-bearing organic molecules: three amino acids (H-S-C bonds in cysteine; C-S-C bonds in methionine; one disulfide bond C-S-S-C bonds in cystine) and a sulfated sugar (C-SO 4 bonds in chondroitin sulfate). Spectral responses of three coral skeletons show that the sulfated form is extremely dominant in coral aragonite, and practically exclusive within both centres of calcification and the surrounding fibrous tissues of coral septa. Mapping of S-sulfate concentrations in centres and fibres gives us direct evidence of high concentration of organic sulfate in centres of calcification. Additionally, a banding pattern of S-sulfate is visible in fibrous part of the coral septa, evidencing a biochemical zonation that corresponds to the step-by-step growth of fibres.

  20. Evolution of the spectrin-based membrane skeleton.

    PubMed

    Baines, A J

    2010-09-01

    A group of four proteins - spectrin, ankyrin, 4.1 and adducin - evolved with the metazoa. These membrane-cytoskeletal proteins cross-link actin on the cytoplasmic face of plasma membranes and link a variety of transmembrane proteins to the cytoskeleton. In this paper, the evolution of these proteins is analysed. Genomics indicate that spectrin was the first to appear, since the genome of the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicolis contains genes for alpha, beta and betaH spectrin. This organism represents a lineage of free-living and colonial protists from which the metazoa are considered to have diverged. This indicates that spectrin emerged in evolution before the animals. Simple animals such as the placozoan Trichoplax adherens also contain recognizable precursors of 4.1, ankyrin and adducin, but these could probably not bind spectrin. Ankyrin and adducin seem to have acquired spectrin-binding activity with the appearance of tissues since they appear to have largely the same domain structure in all eumetazoa. 4.1 was adapted more recently, with the emergence of the vertebrates, to bind spectrin and promote its interaction with actin. A simple hypothesis is that spectrin was prerequisite (but not sufficient) for animal life; that spectrin interaction with ankyrin and adducin was required for evolution of major tissues; and that 4.1 acquired a spectrin-actin binding activity as animal size increased with the appearance of vertebrates. The spectrin/ankyrin/adducin/4.1 complex represents a remarkable system that underpins animal life; it has been adapted to many different functions at different times during animal evolution.

  1. The skeleton as an intracrine organ for vitamin D metabolism.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Paul H; Atkins, Gerald J

    2008-12-01

    The endocrine hormone, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25D) is an important regulator of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. In this context, 1,25D is generally recognized as necessary for the maintenance of a healthy skeleton through its actions on the small intestine. In this review, we highlight the direct effects of 1,25D on the constituent cells of the bone, actions that are independent of effects on the intestine and kidney. We also consider the evidence that 25D levels, not 1,25D levels, correlate best with parameters of bone health, and that the bone itself is a site of metabolic conversion of 25D into 1,25D, by virtue of its expression of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase, CYP27B1. We review the evidence that at least osteoblasts and chondrocytes, and possibly also bone resorbing osteoclasts, are capable of such metabolic conversion, and therefore that these cells likely participate in autocrine and paracrine loops of vitamin D metabolism. We conclude that the skeleton is an intracrine organ for vitamin D metabolism, challenging the long-held notion that 1,25D is solely an endocrine hormone.

  2. Stress-free state of the red blood cell membrane and the deformation of its skeleton.

    PubMed

    Svelc, Tjaša; Svetina, Saša

    2012-06-01

    The response of a red blood cell (RBC) to deformation depends on its membrane, a composite of a lipid bilayer and a skeleton, which is a closed, two-dimensional network of spectrin tetramers as its bonds. The deformation of the skeleton and its lateral redistribution are studied in terms of the RBC resting state for a fixed geometry of the RBC, partially aspirated into a micropipette. The geometry of the RBC skeleton in its initial state is taken to be either two concentric circles, a references biconcave shape or a sphere. It is assumed that in its initial state the skeleton is distributed laterally in a homogeneous manner with its bonds either unstressed, presenting its stress-free state, or prestressed. The lateral distribution was calculated using a variational calculation. It was assumed that the spectrin tetramer bonds exhibit a linear elasticity. The results showed a significant effect of the initial skeleton geometry on its lateral distribution in the deformed state. The proposed model is used to analyze the measurements of skeleton extension ratios by the method of applying two modes of RBC micropipette aspiration.

  3. Articulins and epiplasmins: two distinct classes of cytoskeletal proteins of the membrane skeleton in protists.

    PubMed

    Huttenlauch, I; Peck, R K; Stick, R

    1998-11-01

    The cortex of ciliates, dinoflagellates and euglenoids comprises a unique structure called the epiplasm, implicated in pattern-forming processes of the cell cortex and in maintaining cell shape. Despite significant variation in the structural organization of their epiplasm and cortex, a novel type of cytoskeletal protein named articulin is the principal constituent of the epiplasm in the euglenoid Euglena and the ciliate Pseudomicrothorax. For another ciliate, Paramecium, epiplasmins, a group of polypeptides with common biochemical properties, are the major constituents of the epiplasm. Using molecular tools and affinity purification we have selected polyclonal antibodies and identified epitopes of monoclonal antibodies that identify epitopes characteristic of articulins and epiplasmins. With these antibodies we have analysed the occurrence of the two types of cytoskeletal proteins in a dinoflagellate, a euglenoid and several ciliates. Our results indicate that both articulins and epiplasmins are present in these organisms, suggesting that both contribute to the organization of the membrane skeleton in protists. Articulins and epiplasmins represent two distinct classes of cytoskeletal proteins, since different polypeptides were labeled by articulin core domain-specific or epiplasmin epitope-specific antibodies in each organism studied. In one case, a polypeptide in Pseudomicrothorax was identified that reacts with both articulin core domain-specific and with anti-epiplasmin monoclonal antibodies; however, the epiplasmin monoclonal antibody epitope was mapped to the C terminus of the polypeptide, well outside the central VPV-repeat core domain that contains the articulin monoclonal antibody epitope and that is the hallmark of the articulins.

  4. Membrane domains of intestinal epithelial cells: distribution of Na+,K+- ATPase and the membrane skeleton in adult rat intestine during fetal development and after epithelial isolation

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The organization of the basolateral membrane domain of highly polarized intestinal absorptive cells was studied in adult rat intestinal mucosa, during development of polarity in fetal intestine, and in isolated epithelial sheets. Semi-thin frozen sections of these tissues were stained with a monoclonal antibody (mAb 4C4) directed against Na+,K+- ATPase, and with other reagents to visualize distributions of the membrane skeleton (fodrin), an epithelial cell adhesion molecule (uvomorulin), an apical membrane enzyme (aminopeptidase), and filamentous actin. In intact adult epithelium, Na+,K+-ATPase, membrane- associated fodrin, and uvomorulin were concentrated in the lateral, but not basal, subdomain. In the stratified epithelium of fetal intestine, both fodrin and uvomorulin were localized in areas of cell-cell contact at 16 and 17 d gestation, a stage when Na+,K+-ATPase was not yet expressed. These molecules were excluded from apical domains and from cell surfaces in contact with basal lamina. When Na+,K+-ATPase appeared at 18-19 d, it was codistributed with fodrin. Detachment of epithelial sheets from adult intestinal mucosa did not disrupt intercellular junctions or lateral cell contacts, but cytoplasmic blebs appeared at basal cell surfaces, and a diffuse pool of fodrin and actin accumulated in them. At the same time, Na+,K+-ATPase moved into the basal membrane subdomain, and extensive endocytosis of basolateral membrane, including Na+,K+-ATPase, occurred. Endocytosis of uvomorulin was not detected and no fodrin was associated with endocytic vesicles. Uvomorulin, along with some membrane-associated fodrin and some Na+,K+-ATPase, remained in the lateral membrane as long as intercellular contacts were maintained. Thus, in this polarized epithelium, interaction of lateral cell-cell adhesion molecules as well as basal cell-substrate interactions are required for maintaining the stability of the lateral membrane skeleton and the position of resident membrane proteins

  5. Relationship between spatial pattern of basal bodies and membrane skeleton (epiplasm) during the cell cycle of Tetrahymena: cdaA mutant and anti-membrane skeleton immunostaining.

    PubMed

    Kaczanowska, J; Buzanska, L; Ostrowski, M

    1993-01-01

    Microtubular basal bodies and epiplasm (membrane skeleton) are the main components of the cortical skeleton of Tetrahymena. The aim of this report was to study functional interactions of basal bodies and epiplasm during the cell cycle. The cortex of Tetrahymena cells was stained with anti-epiplasm antibody. This staining produced a bright epiplasmic layer with a dark pattern of unstained microtubular structures. The fluorescence of the anti-epiplasm antibody disappeared at sites of newly formed microtubular structures, so the new basal body domains and epiplasmic layer could be followed throughout the cell cycle. Different patterns of deployment of new basal bodies were observed in early and advanced dividers. In advanced dividers the fluorescence of the epiplasmic layer diminished locally within the forming fission line where the polymerization of new basal bodies largely extincted. In wild type Tetrahymena, the completion of the micronuclear metaphase/anaphase transition was associated with a transition from the pattern of new basal body deployment and epiplasm staining of the early divider to the pattern of the advanced dividers. The signal for the fission line formation in Tetrahymena (absent in cdaA1 Tetrahymena mutationally arrested in cytokinesis) brings about 1) transition of patterns of deployment of basal bodies and epiplasmic layer on both sides of the fission line; and 2) coordination of cortical divisional morphogenesis with the micronuclear mitotic cycle.

  6. Skeleton-supported stochastic networks of organic memristive devices: Adaptations and learning

    SciTech Connect

    Erokhina, Svetlana; Sorokin, Vladimir; Erokhin, Victor

    2015-02-15

    Stochastic networks of memristive devices were fabricated using a sponge as a skeleton material. Cyclic voltage-current characteristics, measured on the network, revealed properties, similar to the organic memristive device with deterministic architecture. Application of the external training resulted in the adaptation of the network electrical properties. The system revealed an improved stability with respect to the networks, composed from polymer fibers.

  7. What's Inside Bodies? Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael

    This paper describes a study of young children's understanding of what is on the inside of animals--skeletons and other organ systems. The study uses 2-D drawings based on the idea that a drawing is the representational model and is the outward expression of the mental model. The 617 drawings made by participants in the study were awarded one of…

  8. Direct measurement of the area expansion and shear moduli of the human red blood cell membrane skeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Lenormand, G; Hénon, S; Richert, A; Siméon, J; Gallet, F

    2001-01-01

    The area expansion and the shear moduli of the free spectrin skeleton, freshly extracted from the membrane of a human red blood cell (RBC), are measured by using optical tweezers micromanipulation. An RBC is trapped by three silica beads bound to its membrane. After extraction, the skeleton is deformed by applying calibrated forces to the beads. The area expansion modulus K(C) and shear modulus mu(C) of the two-dimensional spectrin network are inferred from the deformations measured as functions of the applied stress. In low hypotonic buffer (25 mOsm/kg), one finds K(C) = 4.8 +/- 2.7 microN/m, mu(C) = 2.4 +/- 0.7 microN/m, and K(C)/mu(C) = 1.9 +/- 1.0. In isotonic buffer, one measures higher values for K(C), mu(C), and K(C)/mu(C), partly because the skeleton collapses in a high-ionic-strength environment. Some data concerning the time evolution of the mechanical properties of the skeleton after extraction and the influence of ATP are also reported. In the Discussion, it is shown that the measured values are consistent with estimates deduced from experiments carried out on the intact membrane and agree with theoretical and numerical predictions concerning two-dimensional networks of entropic springs. PMID:11423393

  9. Spectrin-ankyrin interaction mechanics: A key force balance factor in the red blood cell membrane skeleton.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masakazu; Watanabe-Nakayama, Takahiro; Machida, Shinichi; Osada, Toshiya; Afrin, Rehana; Ikai, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    As major components of red blood cell (RBC) cytoskeleton, spectrin and F-actin form a network that covers the entire cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane. The cross-linked two layered structure, called the membrane skeleton, keeps the structural integrity of RBC under drastically changing mechanical environment during circulation. We performed force spectroscopy experiments on the atomic force microscope (AFM) as a means to clarify the mechanical characteristics of spectrin-ankyrin interaction, a key factor in the force balance of the RBC cytoskeletal structure. An AFM tip was functionalized with ANK1-62k and used to probe spectrin crosslinked to mica surface. A force spectroscopy study gave a mean unbinding force of ~30 pN under our experimental conditions. Two energy barriers were identified in the unbinding process. The result was related to the well-known flexibility of spectrin tetramer and participation of ankyrin 1-spectrin interaction in the overall balance of membrane skeleton dynamics.

  10. Characterisation of two articulins, the major epiplasmic proteins comprising the membrane skeleton of the ciliate Pseudomicrothorax.

    PubMed

    Huttenlauch, I; Peck, R K; Plessmann, U; Weber, K; Stick, R

    1998-07-30

    Most protists possess a unique membrane skeleton, the epiplasm, which is involved in pattern forming processes of the cell cortex and functions in maintaining cell shape. Articulins, a novel class of cytoskeletal proteins, are major constituents of the epiplasm. We have isolated cDNAs encoding the two major articulins of the ciliate Pseudomicrothorax dubius. Peptide sequence data confirm the identity of the cloned cDNAs encoding articulins 1 and 4. With the data presented here sequence information for all major articulins of ciliates as well as the distantly related euglenoids is available. Sequence comparison of the two newly characterised ciliate articulins with the previously determined sequences of p60, a minor articulin of the same species, and the two euglenoid articulins reveals general sequence principles and uncovers new features of this protein family. The hallmark of articulins is a central core domain of repetitive motifs of alternating valine and proline residues, the VPV-motif. These VPV-motif repeats are either 12-residues, or in some places, six residues long. Positively and negatively charged residues segregate in register with valine and proline positions. The VPV-motif is unique to articulins. The terminal domains flanking the core are generally hydrophobic and contain a series of hexa- or heptapeptide repeats rich in glycine and hydrophobic residues. The sequences of these short repeats are very similar in articulins of the same species but are not conserved between euglenoids and ciliates.

  11. Hollow silica-copper-carbon anodes using copper metal-organic frameworks as skeletons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zixu; Xin, Fengxia; Cao, Can; Zhao, Chongchong; Shen, Cai; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2015-12-01

    Hollow silica-copper-carbon (H-SCC) nanocomposites are first synthesized using copper metal-organic frameworks as skeletons to form Cu-MOF@SiO2 and then subjected to heat treatment. In the composites, the hollow structure and the void space from the collapse of the MOF skeleton can accommodate the huge volume change, buffer the mechanical stress caused by lithium ion insertion/extraction and maintain the structural integrity of the electrode and a long cycling stability. The ultrafine copper with a uniform size of around 5 nm and carbon with homogeneous distribution from the decomposition of the MOF skeleton can not only enhance the electrical conductivity of the composite and preserve the structural and interfacial stabilization, but also suppress the aggregation of silica nanoparticles and cushion the volume change. In consequence, the resulting material as an anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) delivers a reversible capacity of 495 mA h g-1 after 400 cycles at a current density of 500 mA g-1. The synthetic method presented in this paper provides a facile and low-cost strategy for the large-scale production of hollow silica/copper/carbon nanocomposites as an anode in LIBs.Hollow silica-copper-carbon (H-SCC) nanocomposites are first synthesized using copper metal-organic frameworks as skeletons to form Cu-MOF@SiO2 and then subjected to heat treatment. In the composites, the hollow structure and the void space from the collapse of the MOF skeleton can accommodate the huge volume change, buffer the mechanical stress caused by lithium ion insertion/extraction and maintain the structural integrity of the electrode and a long cycling stability. The ultrafine copper with a uniform size of around 5 nm and carbon with homogeneous distribution from the decomposition of the MOF skeleton can not only enhance the electrical conductivity of the composite and preserve the structural and interfacial stabilization, but also suppress the aggregation of silica nanoparticles and

  12. A novel strain energy relationship for red blood cell membrane skeleton based on spectrin stiffness and its application to micropipette deformation.

    PubMed

    Svetina, Saša; Kokot, Gašper; Kebe, Tjaša Švelc; Žekš, Boštjan; Waugh, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) membrane skeleton is a closed two-dimensional elastic network of spectrin tetramers with nodes formed by short actin filaments. Its three-dimensional shape conforms to the shape of the bilayer, to which it is connected through vertical linkages to integral membrane proteins. Numerous methods have been devised over the years to predict the response of the RBC membrane to applied forces and determine the corresponding increase in the skeleton elastic energy arising either directly from continuum descriptions of its deformation, or seeking to relate the macroscopic behavior of the membrane to its molecular constituents. In the current work, we present a novel continuum formulation rooted in the molecular structure of the membrane and apply it to analyze model deformations similar to those that occur during aspiration of RBCs into micropipettes. The microscopic elastic properties of the skeleton are derived by treating spectrin tetramers as simple linear springs. For a given local deformation of the skeleton, we determine the average bond energy and define the corresponding strain energy function and stress-strain relationships. The lateral redistribution of the skeleton is determined variationally to correspond to the minimum of its total energy. The predicted dependence of the length of the aspirated tongue on the aspiration pressure is shown to describe the experimentally observed system behavior in a quantitative manner by taking into account in addition to the skeleton energy an energy of attraction between RBC membrane and the micropipette surface.

  13. Linkage of a membrane skeleton to integral membrane glycoproteins in human platelets. Identification of one of the glycoproteins as glycoprotein Ib.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, J E

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine whether platelets contain a membrane skeleton. Platelets were labeled by a sodium periodate/sodium [3H]borohydride method and lysed with Triton X-100. Much of the filamentous actin could be sedimented at low g forces (15,600 g, 4 min), but some of the actin filaments required high-speed centrifugation for their sedimentation (100,000 g, 3 h). The latter filaments differed from those in the low-speed pellet in that they could not be depolymerized by Ca2+ and could not be sedimented at low g forces even from Triton X-100 lysates of platelets that had been activated with thrombin. Actin-binding protein sedimented with both types of filaments, but 3H-labeled membrane glycoproteins were recovered mainly with the high-speed filaments. The primary 3H-labeled glycoprotein recovered with this "membrane skeleton" was glycoprotein (GP) Ib. Approximately 70% of the platelet GP Ib was present in this skeleton. Several other minor glycoproteins, including greater than 50% of the GP Ia and small amounts of three unidentified glycoproteins of Mr greater than 200,000, were also recovered with the membrane skeleton. The Triton X-100 insolubility of GP Ib, GP Ia, a minor membrane glycoprotein of 250,000 Mr, and actin-binding protein resulted from their association with actin filaments as they were rendered Triton X-100-soluble when actin filaments were depolymerized with deoxyribonuclease I and co-isolated with actin filaments on sucrose gradients. When isolated platelet plasma membranes were extracted with Triton X-100, actin, actin-binding protein, and GP Ib were recovered as the Triton X-100 residue. These studies show that unstimulated platelets contain a membrane skeleton composed of actin filaments and actin-binding protein that is distinct from the rest of the cytoskeleton and is attached to GP Ib, GP Ia, and a minor glycoprotein of 250,000 Mr on the plasma membrane. Images PMID:2932470

  14. Hollow silica-copper-carbon anodes using copper metal-organic frameworks as skeletons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zixu; Xin, Fengxia; Cao, Can; Zhao, Chongchong; Shen, Cai; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2015-12-28

    Hollow silica-copper-carbon (H-SCC) nanocomposites are first synthesized using copper metal-organic frameworks as skeletons to form Cu-MOF@SiO(2) and then subjected to heat treatment. In the composites, the hollow structure and the void space from the collapse of the MOF skeleton can accommodate the huge volume change, buffer the mechanical stress caused by lithium ion insertion/extraction and maintain the structural integrity of the electrode and a long cycling stability. The ultrafine copper with a uniform size of around 5 nm and carbon with homogeneous distribution from the decomposition of the MOF skeleton can not only enhance the electrical conductivity of the composite and preserve the structural and interfacial stabilization, but also suppress the aggregation of silica nanoparticles and cushion the volume change. In consequence, the resulting material as an anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) delivers a reversible capacity of 495 mA h g(-1) after 400 cycles at a current density of 500 mA g(-1). The synthetic method presented in this paper provides a facile and low-cost strategy for the large-scale production of hollow silica/copper/carbon nanocomposites as an anode in LIBs. PMID:26489524

  15. Axial Skeleton

    MedlinePlus

    ... Site-specific Modules Resources Archived Modules Updates Axial Skeleton (80 bones) Skull (28) Cranial Bones Parietal (2) ... Sternum (1) Ribs (24) « Previous (Divisions of the Skeleton) Next (Appendicular Skeleton (126 bones)) » Contact Us | Privacy ...

  16. Studies on polymer nanofibre membranes with optimized core-shell structure as outstanding performance skeleton materials in gel polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Haitao; Sui, Gang; Yang, Xiaoping

    2014-12-01

    The polyporous polymer nanofibre membranes with optimized core (polyacrylonitrile, PAN)-shell (polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA) structure are prepared by coaxial electrospinning, and then converted to gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) after the activation process of stacked nanofibre membranes in liquid electrolyte. Based on the proper collocation of polymer materials, the desirable microstructure of polymer membranes as well as the affinity between fibre shell and the electrode/electrolyte result in a high saturated electrolyte uptake and conservation rate. The electrochemical testing results of the GPEs indicate high ionic conductivities, good electrochemical stability and appropriate lithium-ion transference numbers, which are realized through choosing optimal core-shell flow rate ratio. Furthermore, the interface impedance performance of the GPEs shows good stability and compatibility with lithium electrode, which is beneficial for long-term storage and use of the lithium-ion battery. The Li/GPE/LiCoO2 cells with GPEs based on the electrospun membranes with optimized core-shell structure present excellent cycle performance compared to the cell involved with GPEs based on PAN and commercial Celgard 2500. Thus, the polymer membranes consisting of nanofibres with well-designed core-shell structure can be used as a new type of skeleton material in GPEs used in lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Membrane skeleton restraint of surface shape change during fusion of erythrocyte membranes: evidence from use of osmotic and dielectrophoretic microforces as probes.

    PubMed Central

    Sowers, A E

    1995-01-01

    The role of the spectrin-based membrane skeleton in cell fusion was studied by following the condition-dependent diameter versus time expansion signature of the fusion zone in electrofused pairs of erythrocyte ghost membranes. Previous work showed that the presence of the dielectrophoresis-inducing alternating electric field, which is used to bring membranes into contact through pearl chain formation, had a detectable promoting effect on fusion zone expansion. Two new dielectrophoresis protocols were used in the present work to utilize this externally generated and controllable microforce field to probe the forces intrinsic to the system that drives the expansion of the fusion zone. First, fusion zones expanded to a greater diameter in a strong AC field compared to a weak AC field, and they expanded to a greater diameter if erythrocyte ghosts received a prior heat treatment (42 degrees C, 20 min). Furthermore, flat diaphragm fusion zones broke down into open lumen fusion zones sooner (i.e., had shorter lifetimes) when they were expanding more quickly. Second, changing the AC field strength at specific times during the fusion zone expansion led to an immediate visco-elastic response. However, shifting the AC field strength to zero after 5 s of fusion zone expansion resulted in a subsequent decrease in the average fusion zone diameter. This suggests not only that the spectrin-based membrane skeleton actually tends to prevent the rounding up process but that it may be capable of generating an antirounding force, which has broad implications for the role of the membrane skeleton in cell fusion. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that flat diaphragm fusion zones induced in heat-treated membranes were very easily stretched and that membrane-based forces that control or drive the expansion process must originate from membrane area that is outside rather than inside the fusion zone. Lastly, when an outward-directed osmotic pressure-based microforce was

  18. Organ-Specific Membrane Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Sell, K. W.; Mori, W.; Rack, J. H.; Gurner, B. W.; Coombs, R. R. A.

    1969-01-01

    A satisfactory system for testing the reaction of rabbit antisera with membrane antigens of human tissue cells is described. This method allows the differentiation between IgG and IgM antibodies and provides an extremely sensitive method for the detection of antigens on all cells including non-viable fixed cells. Anti-organ serum before selective absorption showed very little organ specificity in their reactions, but may be made specific by extensive absorption although often the resulting specific titre was very low. Organ-specific membrane antigens were also identified and shown to be represented on tumour cells, although in some cases such as the colon the reactions were weaker with tumour cells than with normal parenchymal cells of an organ. On the other hand, in one case of carcinoma of the kidney the organ-specific antigens were detectably stronger on tumour cells than on normal kidney cells. Preliminary studies on human ascitic tumour cells from 4 different cancer patients show that species-specific membrane antigens can be demonstrated. Unfortunately none of the cases were derived from organs whose origin could be identified with the antisera which had been prepared for this series of experiments. ImagesFigs. 2-3 PMID:5806432

  19. Control of erythroid differentiation: asynchronous expression of the anion transporter and the peripheral components of the membrane skeleton in AEV- and S13-transformed cells

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Chicken erythroblasts transformed with avian erythroblastosis virus or S13 virus provide suitable model systems with which to analyze the maturation of immature erythroblasts into erythrocytes. The transformed cells are blocked in differentiation at around the colony-forming unit- erythroid stage of development but can be induced to differentiate in vitro. Analysis of the expression and assembly of components of the membrane skeleton indicates that these cells simultaneously synthesize alpha-spectrin, beta-spectrin, ankyrin, and protein 4.1 at levels that are comparable to those of mature erythroblasts. However, they do not express any detectable amounts of anion transporter. The peripheral membrane skeleton components assemble transiently and are subsequently rapidly catabolized, resulting in 20-40-fold lower steady-state levels than are found in maturing erythrocytes. Upon spontaneous or chemically induced terminal differentiation of these cells expression of the anion transporter is initiated with a concommitant increase in the steady- state levels of the peripheral membrane-skeletal components. These results suggest that during erythropoiesis, expression of the peripheral components of the membrane skeleton is initiated earlier than that of the anion transporter. Furthermore, they point a key role for the anion transporter in conferring long-term stability to the assembled erythroid membrane skeleton during terminal differentiation. PMID:2946700

  20. Lipids and Membrane Lateral Organization

    PubMed Central

    Sonnino, Sandro; Prinetti, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Shortly after the elucidation of the very basic structure and properties of cellular membranes, it became evident that cellular membranes are highly organized structures with multiple and multi-dimensional levels of order. Very early observations suggested that the lipid components of biological membranes might be active players in the creation of these levels of order. In the late 1980s, several different and diverse experimental pieces of evidence coalesced together giving rise to the lipid raft hypothesis. Lipid rafts became enormously (and, in the opinion of these authors, sometimes acritically) popular, surprisingly not just within the lipidologist community (who is supposed to be naturally sensitive to the fascination of lipid rafts). Today, a PubMed search using the key word “lipid rafts” returned a list of 3767 papers, including 690 reviews (as a term of comparison, searching over the same time span for a very hot lipid-related key word, “ceramide” returned 6187 hits with 799 reviews), and a tremendous number of different cellular functions have been described as “lipid raft-dependent.” However, a clear consensus definition of lipid raft has been proposed only in recent times, and the basic properties, the ruling forces, and even the existence of lipid rafts in living cells has been recently matter of intense debate. The scenario that is gradually emerging from the controversies elicited by the lipid raft hypothesis emphasizes multiple roles for membrane lipids in determining membrane order, that encompass their tendency to phase separation but are clearly not limited to this. In this review, we would like to re-focus the attention of the readers on the importance of lipids in organizing the fine structure of cellular membranes. PMID:21423393

  1. Mechanical compression insults induce nanoscale changes of membrane-skeleton arrangement which could cause apoptosis and necrosis in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xin; Guo, Kai; Wang, Yuqing; Huang, Liangliang; Chen, Beiyu; Ye, Zhengxu; Luo, Zhuojing

    2014-01-01

    In a primary spinal cord injury, the amount of mechanical compression insult that the neurons experience is one of the most critical factors in determining the extent of the injury. The ultrastructural changes that neurons undergo when subjected to mechanical compression are largely unknown. In the present study, using a compression-driven instrument that can simulate mechanical compression insult, we applied mechanical compression stimulation at 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 MPa to dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons for 10 min. Combined with atomic force microscopy, we investigated nanoscale changes in the membrane-skeleton, cytoskeleton alterations, and apoptosis induced by mechanical compression injury. The results indicated that mechanical compression injury leads to rearrangement of the membrane-skeleton compared with the control group. In addition, mechanical compression stimulation induced apoptosis and necrosis and also changed the distribution of the cytoskeleton in DRG neurons. Thus, the membrane-skeleton may play an important role in the response to mechanical insults in DRG neurons. Moreover, sudden insults caused by high mechanical compression, which is most likely conducted by the membrane-skeleton, may induce necrosis, apoptosis, and cytoskeletal alterations.

  2. Protein kinase C phosphorylates a recently identified membrane skeleton-associated calmodulin-binding protein in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ling, E; Gardner, K; Bennett, V

    1986-10-25

    A membrane skeleton-associated protein with calmodulin-binding activity recently has been purified and characterized from human erythrocytes (Gardner, K. and Bennett, V. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 1339-1348). This new protein (CaM-BP103/97) has now been identified as a major substrate for protein kinase C in erythrocytes since phosphorylation of both of its subunits (Mr = 103,000 and 97,000) is elevated 3-15-fold in the presence of the phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol beta-acetate (TPA), under the following conditions: ghost membranes incubated with protein kinase C purified from rat brain, ghost membranes from erythrocytes pretreated with TPA, and intact erythrocytes metabolically labeled with 32PO4 and stimulated by TPA. The sites of phosphorylation of this protein by exogenous and endogenous protein kinase C are identical since two-dimensional 32P-peptide maps of both subunits labeled by either endogenous or exogenous enzyme are indistinguishable. Each subunit of CaM-BP103/97 accepts up to 3 mol of phosphate/polypeptide chain. In the presence of low calcium concentrations and in the absence of cytosol, the phosphorylation of CaM-BP103/97 is, on a molar basis, equal to or greater than that of proteins 4.1 and 4.9. As a target for both calmodulin and protein kinase C, CaM-BP103/97 is likely to play a key role in the effect of calcium on erythrocyte membrane shape and stability.

  3. Appendicular Skeleton

    MedlinePlus

    ... Site-specific Modules Resources Archived Modules Updates Appendicular Skeleton (126 bones) Pectoral girdles Clavicle (2) Scapula (2) ... Tarsals (14) Metatarsals (10) Phalanges (28) « Previous (Axial Skeleton (80 bones)) Next (Articulations) » Contact Us | Privacy Policy | ...

  4. The membrane skeleton in Paramecium: Molecular characterization of a novel epiplasmin family and preliminary GFP expression results.

    PubMed

    Pomel, Sébastien; Diogon, Marie; Bouchard, Philippe; Pradel, Lydie; Ravet, Viviane; Coffe, Gérard; Viguès, Bernard

    2006-02-01

    Previous attempts to identify the membrane skeleton of Paramecium cells have revealed a protein pattern that is both complex and specific. The most prominent structural elements, epiplasmic scales, are centered around ciliary units and are closely apposed to the cytoplasmic side of the inner alveolar membrane. We sought to characterize epiplasmic scale proteins (epiplasmins) at the molecular level. PCR approaches enabled the cloning and sequencing of two closely related genes by amplifications of sequences from a macronuclear genomic library. Using these two genes (EPI-1 and EPI-2), we have contributed to the annotation of the Paramecium tetraurelia macronuclear genome and identified 39 additional (paralogous) sequences. Two orthologous sequences were found in the Tetrahymena thermophila genome. Structural analysis of the 43 sequences indicates that the hallmark of this new multigenic family is a 79 aa domain flanked by two Q-, P- and V-rich stretches of sequence that are much more variable in amino-acid composition. Such features clearly distinguish members of the multigenic family from epiplasmic proteins previously sequenced in other ciliates. The expression of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-tagged epiplasmin showed significant labeling of epiplasmic scales as well as oral structures. We expect that the GFP construct described herein will prove to be a useful tool for comparative subcellular localization of different putative epiplasmins in Paramecium. PMID:16427359

  5. Nitrogen isotopes of coral skeleton-bound organic matter and a 20-year record from Central Equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Sigman, D. M.; Sinclair, D.; Sherrell, R. M.; Rafter, P. A.; Ren, H.; Cobb, K.; Weigand, A.; Oleynik, S.

    2011-12-01

    We have developed a sensitive method for measuring nitrogen isotopes of coral skeleton-bound organic matter, requiring 5 mg of chemically cleaned coral skeleton powder and yielding a standard deviation for measured d15N of ~0.3%. This method allows for the generation of high-resolution d15N records of coral skeleton-bound organic matter, which we seek to advance as a proxy for the ocean nitrogen cycle in the past. A 20-year coral d15N record (1977-1997) from the Central Equatorial Pacific (Line Islands, Kiribati (2°N, 157°W)) yields an average d15N of 13%, which is similar to the d15N of mixed layer nitrate in this region but 6% higher than the subsurface nitrate being upwelled in this region. The 21 samples over this 20 year period yield a range of only 1.5% (12.5-14.0%), suggesting no substantial change of the mixed layer nitrogen pool over this period. There is some evidence for a lower d15N during El Nino events, but this requires testing by extension of the record and higher resolution sampling. If robust, this d15N decrease may reflect an increased reliance of corals on particulate organic nitrogen and recycled forms of nitrogen relative to nitrate during El Nino events, when mixed layer nitrate concentration declines in the Central Equatorial Pacific.

  6. Porous membrane with high curvature, three-dimensional heat-resistance skeleton: a new and practical separator candidate for high safety lithium ion battery

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Junli; Xia, Yonggao; Yuan, Zhizhang; Hu, Huasheng; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin; Liu, Zhaoping

    2015-01-01

    Separators with high reliability and security are in urgent demand for the advancement of high performance lithium ion batteries. Here, we present a new and practical porous membrane with three-dimension (3D) heat-resistant skeleton and high curvature pore structure as a promising separator candidate to facilitate advances in battery safety and performances beyond those obtained from the conventional separators. The unique material properties combining with the well-developed structural characteristics enable the 3D porous skeleton to own several favorable properties, including superior thermal stability, good wettability with liquid electrolyte, high ion conductivity and internal short-circuit protection function, etc. which give rise to acceptable battery performances. Considering the simply and cost-effective preparation process, the porous membrane is deemed to be an interesting direction for the future lithium ion battery separator. PMID:25653104

  7. Porous membrane with high curvature, three-dimensional heat-resistance skeleton: a new and practical separator candidate for high safety lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junli; Xia, Yonggao; Yuan, Zhizhang; Hu, Huasheng; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin; Liu, Zhaoping

    2015-02-01

    Separators with high reliability and security are in urgent demand for the advancement of high performance lithium ion batteries. Here, we present a new and practical porous membrane with three-dimension (3D) heat-resistant skeleton and high curvature pore structure as a promising separator candidate to facilitate advances in battery safety and performances beyond those obtained from the conventional separators. The unique material properties combining with the well-developed structural characteristics enable the 3D porous skeleton to own several favorable properties, including superior thermal stability, good wettability with liquid electrolyte, high ion conductivity and internal short-circuit protection function, etc. which give rise to acceptable battery performances. Considering the simply and cost-effective preparation process, the porous membrane is deemed to be an interesting direction for the future lithium ion battery separator.

  8. Lipid organization of the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I; Melo, Manuel N; van Eerden, Floris J; Arnarez, Clément; Lopez, Cesar A; Wassenaar, Tsjerk A; Periole, Xavier; de Vries, Alex H; Tieleman, D Peter; Marrink, Siewert J

    2014-10-15

    The detailed organization of cellular membranes remains rather elusive. Based on large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we provide a high-resolution view of the lipid organization of a plasma membrane at an unprecedented level of complexity. Our plasma membrane model consists of 63 different lipid species, combining 14 types of headgroups and 11 types of tails asymmetrically distributed across the two leaflets, closely mimicking an idealized mammalian plasma membrane. We observe an enrichment of cholesterol in the outer leaflet and a general non-ideal lateral mixing of the different lipid species. Transient domains with liquid-ordered character form and disappear on the microsecond time scale. These domains are coupled across the two membrane leaflets. In the outer leaflet, distinct nanodomains consisting of gangliosides are observed. Phosphoinositides show preferential clustering in the inner leaflet. Our data provide a key view on the lateral organization of lipids in one of life's fundamental structures, the cell membrane.

  9. Prevalent presence of periodic actin-spectrin-based membrane skeleton in a broad range of neuronal cell types and animal species.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Zhou, Ruobo; Wu, Zhuhao; Carrasco, Monica A; Kurshan, Peri T; Farley, Jonathan E; Simon, David J; Wang, Guiping; Han, Boran; Hao, Junjie; Heller, Evan; Freeman, Marc R; Shen, Kang; Maniatis, Tom; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2016-05-24

    Actin, spectrin, and associated molecules form a periodic, submembrane cytoskeleton in the axons of neurons. For a better understanding of this membrane-associated periodic skeleton (MPS), it is important to address how prevalent this structure is in different neuronal types, different subcellular compartments, and across different animal species. Here, we investigated the organization of spectrin in a variety of neuronal- and glial-cell types. We observed the presence of MPS in all of the tested neuronal types cultured from mouse central and peripheral nervous systems, including excitatory and inhibitory neurons from several brain regions, as well as sensory and motor neurons. Quantitative analyses show that MPS is preferentially formed in axons in all neuronal types tested here: Spectrin shows a long-range, periodic distribution throughout all axons but appears periodic only in a small fraction of dendrites, typically in the form of isolated patches in subregions of these dendrites. As in dendrites, we also observed patches of periodic spectrin structures in a small fraction of glial-cell processes in four types of glial cells cultured from rodent tissues. Interestingly, despite its strong presence in the axonal shaft, MPS is disrupted in most presynaptic boutons but is present in an appreciable fraction of dendritic spine necks, including some projecting from dendrites where such a periodic structure is not observed in the shaft. Finally, we found that spectrin is capable of adopting a similar periodic organization in neurons of a variety of animal species, including Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, Gallus gallus, Mus musculus, and Homo sapiens. PMID:27162329

  10. Prevalent presence of periodic actin–spectrin-based membrane skeleton in a broad range of neuronal cell types and animal species

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiang; Zhou, Ruobo; Wu, Zhuhao; Carrasco, Monica A.; Kurshan, Peri T.; Farley, Jonathan E.; Simon, David J.; Wang, Guiping; Han, Boran; Hao, Junjie; Heller, Evan; Freeman, Marc R.; Shen, Kang; Maniatis, Tom; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Actin, spectrin, and associated molecules form a periodic, submembrane cytoskeleton in the axons of neurons. For a better understanding of this membrane-associated periodic skeleton (MPS), it is important to address how prevalent this structure is in different neuronal types, different subcellular compartments, and across different animal species. Here, we investigated the organization of spectrin in a variety of neuronal- and glial-cell types. We observed the presence of MPS in all of the tested neuronal types cultured from mouse central and peripheral nervous systems, including excitatory and inhibitory neurons from several brain regions, as well as sensory and motor neurons. Quantitative analyses show that MPS is preferentially formed in axons in all neuronal types tested here: Spectrin shows a long-range, periodic distribution throughout all axons but appears periodic only in a small fraction of dendrites, typically in the form of isolated patches in subregions of these dendrites. As in dendrites, we also observed patches of periodic spectrin structures in a small fraction of glial-cell processes in four types of glial cells cultured from rodent tissues. Interestingly, despite its strong presence in the axonal shaft, MPS is disrupted in most presynaptic boutons but is present in an appreciable fraction of dendritic spine necks, including some projecting from dendrites where such a periodic structure is not observed in the shaft. Finally, we found that spectrin is capable of adopting a similar periodic organization in neurons of a variety of animal species, including Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, Gallus gallus, Mus musculus, and Homo sapiens. PMID:27162329

  11. Prevalent presence of periodic actin-spectrin-based membrane skeleton in a broad range of neuronal cell types and animal species.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Zhou, Ruobo; Wu, Zhuhao; Carrasco, Monica A; Kurshan, Peri T; Farley, Jonathan E; Simon, David J; Wang, Guiping; Han, Boran; Hao, Junjie; Heller, Evan; Freeman, Marc R; Shen, Kang; Maniatis, Tom; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2016-05-24

    Actin, spectrin, and associated molecules form a periodic, submembrane cytoskeleton in the axons of neurons. For a better understanding of this membrane-associated periodic skeleton (MPS), it is important to address how prevalent this structure is in different neuronal types, different subcellular compartments, and across different animal species. Here, we investigated the organization of spectrin in a variety of neuronal- and glial-cell types. We observed the presence of MPS in all of the tested neuronal types cultured from mouse central and peripheral nervous systems, including excitatory and inhibitory neurons from several brain regions, as well as sensory and motor neurons. Quantitative analyses show that MPS is preferentially formed in axons in all neuronal types tested here: Spectrin shows a long-range, periodic distribution throughout all axons but appears periodic only in a small fraction of dendrites, typically in the form of isolated patches in subregions of these dendrites. As in dendrites, we also observed patches of periodic spectrin structures in a small fraction of glial-cell processes in four types of glial cells cultured from rodent tissues. Interestingly, despite its strong presence in the axonal shaft, MPS is disrupted in most presynaptic boutons but is present in an appreciable fraction of dendritic spine necks, including some projecting from dendrites where such a periodic structure is not observed in the shaft. Finally, we found that spectrin is capable of adopting a similar periodic organization in neurons of a variety of animal species, including Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, Gallus gallus, Mus musculus, and Homo sapiens.

  12. The combined application of organic sulphur and isotope geochemistry to assess multiple sources of palaeobiochemicals with identical carbon skeletons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohnen, M. E.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Merrit, D.; Hayes, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Five immature sediments from a Messinian evaporitic basin, representing one evaporitic cycle, were studied using molecular organic sulphur and isotope geochemistry. It is shown that a specific carbon skeleton which is present in different "modes of occurrence" ("free" hydrocarbon, alkylthiophene, alkylthiolane, alkyldithiane, alkylthiane, and sulphur-bound in macromolecules) may have different biosynthetic precursors which are possibly derived from different biota. It is demonstrated that the mode of occurrence and the carbon isotopic composition of a sedimentary lipid can be used to "reconstruct" its biochemical precursor. This novel approach of recognition of the suite of palaeobiochemicals present during the time of deposition allows for identification of the biological sources with an unprecedented specificity.

  13. Vinculin is a permanent component of the membrane skeleton and is incorporated into the (re)organising cytoskeleton upon platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Asijee, G M; Sturk, A; Bruin, T; Wilkinson, J M; Ten Cate, J W

    1990-04-20

    Vinculin, a 130-kDa protein discovered in chicken gizzard smooth-muscle cells and subsequently also described in platelets, is believed to be involved in membrane-cytoskeleton interactions. In this study we investigated vinculin distribution in human blood platelets. Two skeletal fractions and a remaining cytosolic fraction were prepared with a recently described Triton X-100 lysis buffer causing minimal post-lysis breakdown by proteolysis. The presence of vinculin was demonstrated in the membrane skeleton and cytosol of resting and thrombin-activated human platelets. Upon thrombin stimulation vinculin also appeared in the cytoskeleton. this cytoskeletal incorporation was completed during the early stages of platelet aggregation and secretion, when the uptake of myosin, actin-binding protein and talin was still not maximal. We conclude therefore, that vinculin may play an important role in the structural (re)organisation of the human platelet cytoskeleton upon platelet activation.

  14. Evidence for common epitopes among proteins of the membrane skeleton of a ciliate, an euglenoid and a dinoflagellate.

    PubMed

    Vigues, B; Bricheux, G; Metivier, C; Brugerolle, G; Peck, R K

    1988-03-01

    The cytoskeleton of many protists comprises an extensive submembranous epiplasm which contributes to cell shape and integration of cell membranes with underlying structures according to the species-specific cortical architecture. Using various extraction procedures, epiplasm-enriched fractions have been isolated from the ciliate Pseudomicrothorax dubius, the euglenoid Euglena acus and the dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans. Comparative gel electrophoretic analysis of such preparations reveals heterogeneity of protein composition, the major polypeptides differing in size. Antibodies raised against epiplasmic proteins from these three organisms have permitted the confirmation of submembranous localization of the antigens by immunoelectron microscopy. Heterologous reactions performed by means of combined immunocytochemical and immunoblotting procedures indicate the existence of common epitopes among major proteins making up the bulk of the epiplasm of the three species examined. These findings suggest that proteins of the epiplasm have significantly diverged during evolution while conserving structural domains essential for their cytoskeletal function. It is postulated that these common domains may underly the ability of epiplasmic proteins to assemble into an ordered spatial organization, typical of the highly differentiated cortex of unicellular micro-organisms.

  15. Freely turning over palmitate in erythrocyte membrane proteins is not responsible for the anchoring of lipid rafts to the spectrin skeleton: a study with bio-orthogonal chemical probes.

    PubMed

    Ciana, Annarita; Achilli, Cesare; Hannoush, Rami N; Risso, Angela; Balduini, Cesare; Minetti, Giampaolo

    2013-03-01

    Erythrocyte lipid rafts are anchored to the underlying spectrin membrane skeleton [A. Ciana, C. Achilli, C. Balduini, G. Minetti, On the association of lipid rafts to the spectrin skeleton in human erythrocytes, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1808 (2011) 183-190]. The nature of this linkage and the molecules involved are poorly understood. The interaction is sensitive to the increase in pH and ionic strength induced by carbonate. Given the role of palmitoylation in modulating the partitioning of certain proteins between various sub-cellular compartments and the plasma membrane, we asked whether palmitoylation of p55, a peripheral protein located at the junctional complex between spectrin-actin-protein 4.1 that anchors the membrane skeleton to the lipid bilayer via the transmembrane protein glycophorin C, could contribute to the anchoring of lipid rafts to the membrane skeleton. We adopted a new, non-radioactive method for studying protein palmitoylation, based on bio-orthogonal chemical analogues of fatty acids, containing an omega-alkynyl group, to metabolically label cell proteins, which are then revealed by a "click chemistry" reaction of the alkynyl moiety with an azide-containing reporter tag. We show that the membrane localization and palmitoylation levels of p55 did not change after carbonate treatment. 2-bromopalmitate and cerulenin, two known palmitoylation inhibitors, completely inhibited p55 palmitoylation, and protein palmitoyl thioesterase-1 (PPT1) reduced it, without affecting the association between lipid rafts and membrane-skeleton, indicating, on the one hand, that p55 palmitoylation is enzymatic, and, on the other, that it is not involved in the modulation of the linkage of lipid rafts to the membrane-skeleton.

  16. Fungal membrane organization: the eisosome concept.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Lois M; Konopka, James B

    2014-01-01

    The fungal plasma membrane is organized into specialized domains that vary in size, stability, and composition. Membrane compartment of Can1(MCC)/eisosome domains that were recently discovered in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are interesting because they represent a novel type of membrane domain that is important for plasma membrane organization, sphingolipid homeostasis, and cell wall morphogenesis. The MCC portion was identified as stable punctate patches that correspond to furrows in the plasma membrane that are about 300 nm long and 50 nm deep. These domains contain integral membrane proteins, including the tetraspan proteins Sur7 and Nce102. The eisosome portion includes proteins peripherally associated with the cytoplasmic side of the MCC, including the Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs-domain proteins Pil1 and Lsp1, which assemble into filaments that curve the membrane to form the furrows. By comparing MCC/eisosome domains in diverse fungi, researchers are identifying common features that further our understanding of their unique biogenesis, structure, and function.

  17. Orbiter's Skeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The structure of NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft is constructed from composite panels of carbon layers over aluminum honeycomb, lightweight yet strong. This forms a basic structure or skeleton on which the instruments, electronics, propulsion and power systems can be mounted. The propellant tank is contained in the center of the orbiter's structure. This photo was taken at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, during construction of the spacecraft.

  18. The dynamic skeleton.

    PubMed

    Gonciulea, Anda; de Beur, Suzanne Jan

    2015-06-01

    Adding to its well-known roles in locomotion and calcium balance, the skeleton has recently been appreciated as a true endocrine organ. Bone remodeling, a highly dynamic process, requires synchronized activities and crosstalk between bone cells. Discovery and characterization of the Wnt/β catenin pathway in bone formation, FGF23 regulation of phosphate homeostasis and osteocalcin in energy and glucose homeostasis have reframed our view of the skeleton from simply a target tissue of the endocrine system to an endocrine tissue itself. This comprehensive review provides an overview of these complex pathways, their application to human bone disorders and implications for developing diagnostic and therapeutic targets.

  19. Membranes, metabolism, and dry organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Leopold, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Our understanding of the ways in which desiccated organisms are protected from destruction by reactions in the dry state is in an early state of development. In this volume, contributions to each of these pathways of research are reported. The wide range of experimental and theoretical approaches, from biological to physicochemical, covers an exciting spectrum, from natural history to reductionist experimentation, and blends physiological, chemical, and physical methods in the pursuit of an understanding of anhydrous biology. Each individual report in this volume is separately abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

  20. Periaxin is required for hexagonal geometry and membrane organization of mature lens fibers

    PubMed Central

    Maddala, Rupalatha; Skiba, Nikolai P.; Lalane, Robert; Sherman, Diane L.; Brophy, Peter J.; Rao, Ponugoti V.

    2011-01-01

    Transparency of the ocular lens depends on symmetric packing and membrane organization of highly elongated hexagonal fiber cells. These cells possess an extensive, well-ordered cortical cytoskeleton to maintain cell shape and to anchor membrane components. Periaxin (Prx), a PDZ domain protein involved in myelin sheath stabilization, is also a component of adhaerens plaques in lens fiber cells. Here we show that Prx is expressed in lens fibers and exhibits maturation dependent redistribution, clustering discretely at the tricellular junctions in mature fiber cells. Prx exists in a macromolecular complex with proteins involved in membrane organization including ankyrin-B, spectrin, NrCAM, filensin, ezrin and desmoyokin. Importantly, Prx knockout mouse lenses were found to be softer and more easily deformed than normal lenses, revealing disruptions in fiber cell hexagonal packing, membrane skeleton and membrane stability. These observations suggest a key role for Prx in maturation, packing, and membrane organization of lens fiber cells. Hence, there may be functional parallels between the roles of Prx in membrane stabilization of the myelin sheath and the lens fiber cell. PMID:21745462

  1. Constructing Free Standing Metal Organic Framework MIL-53 Membrane Based on Anodized Aluminum Oxide Precursor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunlu; Gao, Qiuming; Lin, Zhi; Zhang, Tao; Xu, Jiandong; Tan, Yanli; Tian, Weiqian; Jiang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Metal organic framework (MOF) materials have attracted great attention due to their well-ordered and controllable pores possessing of prominent potentials for gas molecule sorption and separation performances. Organizing the MOF crystals to a continuous membrane with a certain scale will better exhibit their prominent potentials. Reports in recent years concentrate on well grown MOF membranes on specific substrates. Free standing MOF membranes could have more important applications since they are independent from the substrates. However, the method to prepare such a membrane has been a great challenge because good mechanical properties and stabilities are highly required. Here, we demonstrate a novel and facile technique for preparing the free standing membrane with a size as large as centimeter scale. The substrate we use proved itself not only a good skeleton but also an excellent precursor to fulfill the reaction. This kind of membrane owns a strong mechanical strength, based on the fact that it is much thinner than the composite membranes grown on substrates and it could exhibit good property of gas separation. PMID:24821299

  2. Constructing Free Standing Metal Organic Framework MIL-53 Membrane Based on Anodized Aluminum Oxide Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunlu; Gao, Qiuming; Lin, Zhi; Zhang, Tao; Xu, Jiandong; Tan, Yanli; Tian, Weiqian; Jiang, Lei

    2014-05-01

    Metal organic framework (MOF) materials have attracted great attention due to their well-ordered and controllable pores possessing of prominent potentials for gas molecule sorption and separation performances. Organizing the MOF crystals to a continuous membrane with a certain scale will better exhibit their prominent potentials. Reports in recent years concentrate on well grown MOF membranes on specific substrates. Free standing MOF membranes could have more important applications since they are independent from the substrates. However, the method to prepare such a membrane has been a great challenge because good mechanical properties and stabilities are highly required. Here, we demonstrate a novel and facile technique for preparing the free standing membrane with a size as large as centimeter scale. The substrate we use proved itself not only a good skeleton but also an excellent precursor to fulfill the reaction. This kind of membrane owns a strong mechanical strength, based on the fact that it is much thinner than the composite membranes grown on substrates and it could exhibit good property of gas separation.

  3. Gas Separation Using Organic-Vapor-Resistent Membranes In Conjunctin With Organic-Vapor-Selective Membranes

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Pinnau, Ingo; He, Zhenjie; Da Costa, Andre R.; Daniels, Ramin; Amo, Karl D.; Wijmans, Johannes G.

    2003-06-03

    A process for treating a gas mixture containing at least an organic compound gas or vapor and a second gas, such as natural gas, refinery off-gas or air. The process uses two sequential membrane separation steps, one using membrane selective for the organic compound over the second gas, the other selective for the second gas over the organic vapor. The second-gas-selective membranes use a selective layer made from a polymer having repeating units of a fluorinated polymer, and demonstrate good resistance to plasticization by the organic components in the gas mixture under treatment, and good recovery after exposure to liquid aromatic hydrocarbons. The membrane steps can be combined in either order.

  4. The nuclear membrane organization of leukotriene synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Asim K; Jones, Phillip B; Bair, Angela M; Christmas, Peter; Miller, Douglas; Yamin, Ting-ting D; Wisniewski, Douglas; Menke, John; Evans, Jilly F; Hyman, Bradley T; Bacskai, Brian; Chen, Mei; Lee, David M; Nikolic, Boris; Soberman, Roy J

    2008-12-23

    Leukotrienes (LTs) are signaling molecules derived from arachidonic acid that initiate and amplify innate and adaptive immunity. In turn, how their synthesis is organized on the nuclear envelope of myeloid cells in response to extracellular signals is not understood. We define the supramolecular architecture of LT synthesis by identifying the activation-dependent assembly of novel multiprotein complexes on the outer and inner nuclear membranes of mast cells. These complexes are centered on the integral membrane protein 5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Protein, which we identify as a scaffold protein for 5-Lipoxygenase, the initial enzyme of LT synthesis. We also identify these complexes in mouse neutrophils isolated from inflamed joints. Our studies reveal the macromolecular organization of LT synthesis.

  5. Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) of organic matrix from coral skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Muscatine, Leonard; Goiran, Claire; Land, Lynton; Jaubert, Jean; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Allemand, Denis

    2005-01-01

    The evolutionary success of reef-building corals in nutrient-poor tropical waters is attributed to endosymbiotic dinoflagellates. The algae release photosynthetic products to the coral animal cells, augment nutrient flux, and enhance the rate of coral calcification. Natural abundance of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ18O) provides answers to modern and paleobiological questions about the effect of photosymbiosis on sources of carbon and oxygen in coral skeletal calcium carbonate. Here we compare 17 species of symbiotic and nonsymbiotic corals to determine whether evidence for photosymbiosis appears in stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) of an organic skeletal compartment, the coral skeletal organic matrix (OM). Mean OM δ13C in symbiotic and nonsymbiotic corals was similar (-26.08‰ vs. -24.31‰), but mean OM δ15N was significantly depleted in 15N in the former (4.09‰) relative to the latter (12.28‰), indicating an effect of the algae on OM synthesis and revealing OM δ15N as a proxy for photosymbiosis. To answer an important paleobiological question about the origin of photosymbiosis in reef-building corals, we applied this proxy test to a fossil coral (Pachythecalis major) from the Triassic (240 million years ago) in which OM is preserved. Mean OM δ15N was 4.66‰, suggesting that P. major was photosymbiotic. The results show that symbiotic algae augment coral calcification by contributing to the synthesis of skeletal OM and that they may have done so as early as the Triassic. PMID:15671164

  6. Synchrotron-based photoelectron spectroscopy provides evidence for a molecular bond between calcium and mineralizing organic phases in invertebrate calcareous skeletons.

    PubMed

    Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Bendounan, Azzedine; Dauphin, Yannicke; Nouet, Julius; Sirotti, Fausto

    2013-11-01

    Organic compounds have been extracted from calcium carbonate skeletons produced by three invertebrate species belonging to distinct phyla. The soluble parts of these skeleton matrices were isolated and analysed by synchrotron-based X-ray spectroscopy (XPS). The presence of calcium associated with these organic materials was revealed in every sample studied, with important variations in Ca 2p binding energy from species to species. Measured Ca 2p binding energy values are more related to compositional diversity of the mineralizing matrices of the skeletons, whose taxonomic dependence has long been established, than to the Ca carbonate polymorph selected to build the skeletal units. This suggests a physical bond between species-specific mineralizing organic assemblages and the associated calcium. Remarkably, the binding energy of 2p electrons in calcium associated with mineralizing matrices is consistently higher than Ca 2p values obtained in purely mineral carbonate (both calcite and aragonite). The ability both to identify and measure the effect of organic matrices on their mineral counterpart in calcareous biominerals opens a new perspective for a functional approach to the biomineralization process.

  7. The spectrin-ankyrin-4.1-adducin membrane skeleton: adapting eukaryotic cells to the demands of animal life.

    PubMed

    Baines, Anthony J

    2010-08-01

    The cells in animals face unique demands beyond those encountered by their unicellular eukaryotic ancestors. For example, the forces engendered by the movement of animals places stresses on membranes of a different nature than those confronting free-living cells. The integration of cells into tissues, as well as the integration of tissue function into whole animal physiology, requires specialisation of membrane domains and the formation of signalling complexes. With the evolution of mammals, the specialisation of cell types has been taken to an extreme with the advent of the non-nucleated mammalian red blood cell. These and other adaptations to animal life seem to require four proteins--spectrin, ankyrin, 4.1 and adducin--which emerged during eumetazoan evolution. Spectrin, an actin cross-linking protein, was probably the earliest of these, with ankyrin, adducin and 4.1 only appearing as tissues evolved. The interaction of spectrin with ankyrin is probably a prerequisite for the formation of tissues; only with the advent of vertebrates did 4.1 acquires the ability to bind spectrin and actin. The latter activity seems to allow the spectrin complex to regulate the cell surface accumulation of a wide variety of proteins. Functionally, the spectrin-ankyrin-4.1-adducin complex is implicated in the formation of apical and basolateral domains, in aspects of membrane trafficking, in assembly of certain signalling and cell adhesion complexes and in providing stability to otherwise mechanically fragile cell membranes. Defects in this complex are manifest in a variety of hereditary diseases, including deafness, cardiac arrhythmia, spinocerebellar ataxia, as well as hereditary haemolytic anaemias. Some of these proteins also function as tumor suppressors. The spectrin-ankyrin-4.1-adducin complex represents a remarkable system that underpins animal life; it has been adapted to many different functions at different times during animal evolution.

  8. NOVEL POLYMERIC MEMBRANE FOR DEHYDRATION OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds and organic/organic separations. Development of a membrane system with suitable flux and selectivity characteristics plays a critical role...

  9. Characterization of organic membrane foulants in a forward osmosis membrane bioreactor treating anaerobic membrane bioreactor effluent.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Tian, Yu; Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Feng; You, Hong

    2014-09-01

    In this study, two aerobic forward osmosis (FO) membrane bioreactors (MBR) were utilized to treat the effluent of mesophilic (35°C) and atmospheric (25°C) anaerobic MBRs, respectively. The results showed that the FO membrane process could significantly improve the removal efficiencies of N and P. Meanwhile, the flux decline of the FOMBR treating effluent of mesophilic AnMBR (M-FOMBR) was higher than that treating effluent of atmospheric AnMBR (P-FOMBR). The organic membrane foulants in the two FOMBRs were analyzed to understand the membrane fouling behavior in FO processes. It was found that the slightly increased accumulation of protein-like substances into external foulants did not cause faster flux decline in P-FOMBR than that in M-FOMBR. However, the quantity of organic matter tended to deposit or adsorb into FO membrane pores in P-FOMBR was less than that in M-FOMBR, which was accordance with the tendency of membrane fouling indicated by flux decline.

  10. Spectrin-based skeleton as an actor in cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Machnicka, B; Grochowalska, R; Bogusławska, D M; Sikorski, A F; Lecomte, M C

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on the recent advances in functions of spectrins in non-erythroid cells. We discuss new data concerning the commonly known role of the spectrin-based skeleton in control of membrane organization, stability and shape, and tethering protein mosaics to the cellular motors and to all major filament systems. Particular effort has been undertaken to highlight recent advances linking spectrin to cell signaling phenomena and its participation in signal transduction pathways in many cell types.

  11. Chlorine-resistant composite membranes with high organic rejection

    DOEpatents

    McCray, Scott B.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Barss, Robert P.; Nelson, Leslie D.

    1996-01-01

    A method for making a chlorine-resistant composite polyamide membrane having high organic rejection, the essential step of which comprises treating a conventional composite membrane with an acyl halide. The novel membrane is especially suitable for the treatment of water containing chlorine or lower molecular weight organic compounds.

  12. Purification, in vitro reassembly, and preliminary sequence analysis of epiplasmins, the major constituent of the membrane skeleton of Paramecium.

    PubMed

    Coffe, G; Le Caer, J P; Lima, O; Adoutte, A

    1996-01-01

    The epiplasmic layer, a continuous rigid granulo-fibrillar sheet directly subtending the surface membranes of Paramecium, is one of the outermost of the various cytoskeletal networks that compose it cortex. We have previously shown that the epiplasm consists of a set of 30 to 50 protein bands on SDS-PAGE in the range 50 to 33 kDa, the epiplasmins. We report a purification procedure for the set of epiplasmic proteins, a description of their physicochemical and reassembly properties, and a preliminary characterization of their sequence. The conditions for solubilization of the epiplasm and for in vitro reassembly of its purified constituents ar described. Reassembly of the entire set of proteins and of some (but not all) subsets are shown to yield filamentous aggregates. Microsequences of two purified bands of epiplasmins reveal a striking amino acid sequence consisting of heptad repeats of only three main amino acids, P, V, and Q. These repeats were confirmed by DNA sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products. The motif is QPVQ-h, in which h is a hydrophobic residue. This may constitute the core of the epiplasmin sequence and, in view of the tendency of such a sequence to form a coiled-coil, may account for the remarkable self-aggregation properties of epiplasmins. PMID:8769725

  13. Organic fluid permeation through fluoropolymer membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Nemser, Stuart M.; Kosaraju, Praveen; Bowser, John

    2015-07-14

    Separation of the components of liquid mixtures is achieved by contacting a liquid mixture with a nonporous membrane having a fluoropolymer selectively permeable layer and imposing a pressure gradient across the membrane from feed side to permeate side. Unusually high transmembrane flux is obtained when the membrane is subjected to one or more process conditions prior to separation. These include (a) leaving some residual amount of membrane casting solvent in the membrane, and (b) contacting the membrane with a component of the mixture to be separated for a duration effective to saturate the membrane with the component.

  14. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  15. The membrane organization of leukotriene synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Asim K; Skoch, Jesse; Bacskai, Brian J; Hyman, Bradley T; Christmas, Peter; Miller, Douglas; Yamin, Ting-ting D; Xu, Shihua; Wisniewski, Douglas; Evans, Jilly F; Soberman, Roy J

    2004-04-27

    Cell signaling leading to the formation of leukotriene (LT)C(4) requires the localization of the four key biosynthetic enzymes on the outer nuclear membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. Whether any macromolecular organization of these proteins exists is unknown. By using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and biochemical analysis, we demonstrate the presence of two distinct multimeric complexes that regulate the formation of LTs in RBL-2H3 cells. One complex consists of multimers of LTC(4) synthase and the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP). The second complex consists of multimers of FLAP. Surprisingly, all LTC(4) synthase was found to be in association with FLAP. The results indicate that the formation of LTC(4) and LTB(4) may be determined by the compartmentalization of biosynthetic enzymes in discrete molecular complexes.

  16. The membrane: transertion as an organizing principle in membrane heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Kouji; Hara, Hiroshi; Fishov, Itzhak; Mileykovskaya, Eugenia; Norris, Vic

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial membrane exhibits a significantly heterogeneous distribution of lipids and proteins. This heterogeneity results mainly from lipid–lipid, protein–protein, and lipid–protein associations which are orchestrated by the coupled transcription, translation and insertion of nascent proteins into and through membrane (transertion). Transertion is central not only to the individual assembly and disassembly of large physically linked groups of macromolecules (alias hyperstructures) but also to the interactions between these hyperstructures. We review here these interactions in the context of the processes in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli of nutrient sensing, membrane synthesis, cytoskeletal dynamics, DNA replication, chromosome segregation, and cell division. PMID:26124753

  17. Membrane Driven Spatial Organization of GPCRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Sayan; Johnston, Jennifer M.; Wang, Hao; Khelashvili, George; Filizola, Marta; Weinstein, Harel

    2013-10-01

    Spatial organization of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) into dimers and higher order oligomers has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. The pharmacological readout was shown to depend on the specific interfaces, but why particular regions of the GPCR structure are involved, and how ligand-determined states change them remains unknown. Here we show why protein-membrane hydrophobic matching is attained upon oligomerization at specific interfaces from an analysis of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of the spontaneous diffusion-interaction of the prototypical beta2-adrenergic (β2AR) receptors in a POPC lipid bilayer. The energy penalty from mismatch is significantly reduced in the spontaneously emerging oligomeric arrays, making the spatial organization of the GPCRs dependent on the pattern of mismatch in the monomer. This mismatch pattern is very different for β2AR compared to the highly homologous and structurally similar β1AR, consonant with experimentally observed oligomerization patterns of β2AR and β1AR. The results provide a mechanistic understanding of the structural context of oligomerization.

  18. Current approaches to studying membrane organization

    PubMed Central

    van Zanten, Thomas S.; Mayor, Satyajit

    2015-01-01

    The local structure and composition of the outer membrane of an animal cell are important factors in the control of many membrane processes and mechanisms. These include signaling, sorting, and exo- and endocytic processes that are occurring all the time in a living cell. Paradoxically, not only are the local structure and composition of the membrane matters of much debate and discussion, the mechanisms that govern its genesis remain highly controversial. Here, we discuss a swathe of new technological advances that may be applied to understand the local structure and composition of the membrane of a living cell from the molecular scale to the scale of the whole membrane. PMID:26918150

  19. Current approaches to studying membrane organization.

    PubMed

    van Zanten, Thomas S; Mayor, Satyajit

    2015-01-01

    The local structure and composition of the outer membrane of an animal cell are important factors in the control of many membrane processes and mechanisms. These include signaling, sorting, and exo- and endocytic processes that are occurring all the time in a living cell. Paradoxically, not only are the local structure and composition of the membrane matters of much debate and discussion, the mechanisms that govern its genesis remain highly controversial. Here, we discuss a swathe of new technological advances that may be applied to understand the local structure and composition of the membrane of a living cell from the molecular scale to the scale of the whole membrane.

  20. Membrane-Organized Chemical Photoredox Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, James K.

    2014-09-18

    This project has three interrelated goals relevant to solar water photolysis, which are to develop: (1) vesicle-organized assemblies for H2 photoproduction that utilize pyrylium and structurally related compounds as combined photosensitizers and cyclic electroneutral transmembrane electron carriers; (2) transmembrane redox systems whose reaction rates can be modulated by light; and (3) homogeneous catalysts for water oxidation. . In area (1), initial efforts to photogenerate H2 from vectorially-organized vesicles containing occluded colloidal Pt and commonly available pyrylium ions as transmembrane redox mediators were unsuccessful. New pyrylium compounds with significantly lower reduction potentials have been synthesized to address this problem, their apparent redox potentials in functioning systems have been now evaluated by using a series of occluded viologens, and H2 photoproduction has been demonstrated in continuous illumination experiments. In area (2), spirooxazine-quinone dyads have been synthesized and their capacity to function as redox mediators across bilayer membranes has been evaluated through continuous photolysis and transient spectrophotometric measurements. Photoisomerization of the spiro moiety to the ring-open mero form caused net quantum yields to decrease significantly, providing a basis for photoregulation of transmembrane redox. Research on water oxidation (area 3) has been directed at understanding mechanisms of catalysis by cis,cis-[(bpy)2Ru(OH2)]2O4+ and related polyimine complexes. Using a variety of physical techniques, we have: (i) identified the redox state of the complex ion that is catalytically active; (ii) shown using 18O isotopic labeling that there are two reaction pathways, both of which involve participation of solvent H2O; and (iii) detected and characterized by EPR and resonance Raman spectroscopies new species which may be key intermediates in the catalytic cycle.

  1. [Skeleton extractions and applications].

    SciTech Connect

    Quadros, William Roshan

    2010-05-01

    This paper focuses on the extraction of skeletons of CAD models and its applications in finite element (FE) mesh generation. The term 'skeleton of a CAD model' can be visualized as analogous to the 'skeleton of a human body'. The skeletal representations covered in this paper include medial axis transform (MAT), Voronoi diagram (VD), chordal axis transform (CAT), mid surface, digital skeletons, and disconnected skeletons. In the literature, the properties of a skeleton have been utilized in developing various algorithms for extracting skeletons. Three main approaches include: (1) the bisection method where the skeleton exists at equidistant from at least two points on boundary, (2) the grassfire propagation method in which the skeleton exists where the opposing fronts meet, and (3) the duality method where the skeleton is a dual of the object. In the last decade, the author has applied different skeletal representations in all-quad meshing, hex meshing, mid-surface meshing, mesh size function generation, defeaturing, and decomposition. A brief discussion on the related work from other researchers in the area of tri meshing, tet meshing, and anisotropic meshing is also included. This paper concludes by summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the skeleton-based approaches in solving various geometry-centered problems in FE mesh generation. The skeletons have proved to be a great shape abstraction tool in analyzing the geometric complexity of CAD models as they are symmetric, simpler (reduced dimension), and provide local thickness information. However, skeletons generally require some cleanup, and stability and sensitivity of the skeletons should be controlled during extraction. Also, selecting a suitable application-specific skeleton and a computationally efficient method of extraction is critical.

  2. Spatiotemporal Organization of Spin-Coated Supported Model Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    All cells of living organisms are separated from their surroundings and organized internally by means of flexible lipid membranes. In fact, there is consensus that the minimal requirements for self-replicating life processes include the following three features: (1) information carriers (DNA, RNA), (2) a metabolic system, and (3) encapsulation in a container structure [1]. Therefore, encapsulation can be regarded as an essential part of life itself. In nature, membranes are highly diverse interfacial structures that compartmentalize cells [2]. While prokaryotic cells only have an outer plasma membrane and a less-well-developed internal membrane structure, eukaryotic cells have a number of internal membranes associated with the organelles and the nucleus. Many of these membrane structures, including the plasma membrane, are complex layered systems, but with the basic structure of a lipid bilayer. Biomembranes contain hundreds of different lipid species in addition to embedded or peripherally associated membrane proteins and connections to scaffolds such as the cytoskeleton. In vitro, lipid bilayers are spontaneously self-organized structures formed by a large group of amphiphilic lipid molecules in aqueous suspensions. Bilayer formation is driven by the entropic properties of the hydrogen bond network in water in combination with the amphiphilic nature of the lipids. The molecular shapes of the lipid constituents play a crucial role in bilayer formation, and only lipids with approximately cylindrical shapes are able to form extended bilayers. The bilayer structure of biomembranes was discovered by Gorter and Grendel in 1925 [3] using monolayer studies of lipid extracts from red blood cells. Later, a number of conceptual models were developed to rationalize the organization of lipids and proteins in biological membranes. One of the most celebrated is the fluid-mosaic model by Singer and Nicolson (1972) [4]. According to this model, the lipid bilayer component of

  3. Importance of the hexagonal lipid phase in biological membrane organization

    PubMed Central

    Jouhet, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    Domains are present in every natural membrane. They are characterized by a distinctive protein and/or lipid composition. Their size is highly variable from the nano- to the micrometer scale. The domains confer specific properties to the membrane leading to original structure and function. The determinants leading to domain organization are therefore important but remain obscure. This review presents how the ability of lipids to organize into hexagonal II or lamellar phases can promote particular local structures within membranes. Since biological membranes are composed of a mixture of lipids, each with distinctive biophysical properties, lateral and transversal sorting of lipids can promote creation of domains inside the membrane through local modulation of the lipid phase. Lipid biophysical properties have been characterized for long based on in vitro analyses using non-natural lipid molecules; their re-examinations using natural lipids might open interesting perspectives on membrane architecture occurring in vivo in various cellular and physiological contexts. PMID:24348497

  4. Coral Skeletons Defend against Ultraviolet Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Reef, Ruth; Kaniewska, Paulina; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2009-01-01

    Background Many coral reef organisms are photosynthetic or have evolved in tight symbiosis with photosynthetic symbionts. As such, the tissues of reef organisms are often exposed to intense solar radiation in clear tropical waters and have adapted to trap and harness photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). High levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) associated with sunlight, however, represent a potential problem in terms of tissue damage. Methodology/Principal Findings By measuring UVR and PAR reflectance from intact and ground bare coral skeletons we show that the property of calcium carbonate skeletons to absorb downwelling UVR to a significant extent, while reflecting PAR back to the overlying tissue, has biological advantages. We placed cnidarians on top of bare skeletons and a UVR reflective substrate and showed that under ambient UVR levels, UVR transmitted through the tissues of cnidarians placed on top of bare skeletons were four times lower compared to their counterparts placed on a UVR reflective white substrate. In accordance with the lower levels of UVR measured in cnidarians on top of coral skeletons, a similar drop in UVR damage to their DNA was detected. The skeletons emitted absorbed UVR as yellow fluorescence, which allows for safe dissipation of the otherwise harmful radiation. Conclusions/Significance Our study presents a novel defensive role for coral skeletons and reveals that the strong UVR absorbance by the skeleton can contribute to the ability of corals, and potentially other calcifiers, to thrive under UVR levels that are detrimental to most marine life. PMID:19946361

  5. Mineralization of the Sea Urchin Skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilt, F.

    2001-12-01

    The sea urchin possess a calcareous skeleton composed of over 99% magnesian calcite,an enveloping extracellular matrix, and an occluded protein matrix. The most intensively studied skeletal element is the spicule of the embryo. At the 32 cell stage of development a cohort of 4 cells becomes irrevocably dedicated to spicule formation. At the early gastrula stage the descendants of these founder cells form the primary mesenchyme (PMC). The PMCs fuse to form a multinucleated syncytium connected by cytoplasmic cables, and the calcitic skeleton is formed within these cables. Our primary concern is with the cellular and molecular mechanisms that support the formation of the mineralized spicules. The import of calcium into the PMCs results in appearance of intracellular vesicles containing precipitated calcium, which is neither very stable nor birefringent, and could be amorphous. The precipitated calcium is vectorially secreted into an extracellular space. This space is almost completely enclosed by cytoplasmic strands, and the mineral is encased in an extracellular matrix. Proteins destined for the extracellular matrix, and for inclusion in the spicule, are present in the Golgi membranes and in small intracellular vesicles. These vesicles apparently deliver the matrix proteins to the growing spicule. Our current view is that the matrix molecules are much more than a passive armature, but are actively involved in precipitation, secretion, and organization of the mineral phase.

  6. Differential Effect of Plant Lipids on Membrane Organization

    PubMed Central

    Grosjean, Kevin; Mongrand, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The high diversity of the plant lipid mixture raises the question of their respective involvement in the definition of membrane organization. This is particularly the case for plant plasma membrane, which is enriched in specific lipids, such as free and conjugated forms of phytosterols and typical phytosphingolipids, such as glycosylinositolphosphoceramides. This question was here addressed extensively by characterizing the order level of membrane from vesicles prepared using various plant lipid mixtures and labeled with an environment-sensitive probe. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed that among major phytosterols, campesterol exhibits a stronger ability than β-sitosterol and stigmasterol to order model membranes. Multispectral confocal microscopy, allowing spatial analysis of membrane organization, demonstrated accordingly the strong ability of campesterol to promote ordered domain formation and to organize their spatial distribution at the membrane surface. Conjugated sterol forms, alone and in synergy with free sterols, exhibit a striking ability to order membrane. Plant sphingolipids, particularly glycosylinositolphosphoceramides, enhanced the sterol-induced ordering effect, emphasizing the formation and increasing the size of sterol-dependent ordered domains. Altogether, our results support a differential involvement of free and conjugated phytosterols in the formation of ordered domains and suggest that the diversity of plant lipids, allowing various local combinations of lipid species, could be a major contributor to membrane organization in particular through the formation of sphingolipid-sterol interacting domains. PMID:25575593

  7. Membrane permeation process for dehydration of organic liquid mixtures using sulfonated ion-exchange polyalkene membranes

    DOEpatents

    Cabasso, Israel; Korngold, Emmanuel

    1988-01-01

    A membrane permeation process for dehydrating a mixture of organic liquids, such as alcohols or close boiling, heat sensitive mixtures. The process comprises causing a component of the mixture to selectively sorb into one side of sulfonated ion-exchange polyalkene (e.g., polyethylene) membranes and selectively diffuse or flow therethrough, and then desorbing the component into a gas or liquid phase on the other side of the membranes.

  8. Nitrogen isotopic composition of organic matter from a 168 year-old coral skeleton: Implications for coastal nutrient cycling in the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, Dirk V.; Wang, Xingchen T.; Sigman, Daniel M.; Scheffers, Sander R.; Martínez-García, Alfredo; Haug, Gerald H.

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing human activities are known to affect nitrogen cycling on coral reefs, but the full history of anthropogenic impact is unclear due to a lack of continuous records. We have used the nitrogen isotopic composition of skeleton-bound organic matter (CS-δ15N) in a coastal Porites coral from Magnetic Island in the Great Barrier Reef as a proxy for N cycle changes over a 168 yr period (1820-1987 AD). The Magnetic Island inshore reef environment is considered to be relatively degraded by terrestrial runoff; given prior CS-δ15N studies from other regions, there was an expectation of both secular change and oscillations in CS-δ15N since European settlement of the mainland in the mid 1800s. Surprisingly, CS-δ15N varied by less than 1.5‰ despite significant land use change on the adjacent mainland over the 168-yr measurement period. After 1930, CS-δ15N may have responded to changes in local river runoff, but the effect was weak. We propose that natural buffering against riverine nitrogen load in this region between 1820 and 1987 is responsible for the observed stability in CS-δ15N. In addition to coral derived skeletal δ15N, we also report, for the first time, δ15N measurements of non-coral derived organic N occluded within the coral skeleton, which appear to record significant changes in the nature of terrestrial N inputs. In the context of previous CS-δ15N records, most of which yield CS-δ15N changes of at least 5‰, the Magnetic Island coral suggests that the inherent down-core variability of the CS-δ15N proxy is less than 2‰ for Porites.

  9. Isotopic composition of skeleton-bound organic nitrogen in reef-building symbiotic corals: A new method and proxy evaluation at Bermuda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. T.; Sigman, D. M.; Cohen, A. L.; Sinclair, D. J.; Sherrell, R. M.; Weigand, M. A.; Erler, D. V.; Ren, H.

    2015-01-01

    The skeleton-bound organic nitrogen in reef-building symbiotic corals may be a high-resolution archive of ocean nitrogen cycle dynamics and a tool for understanding coral biogeochemistry and physiological processes. However, the existing methods for measuring the isotopic composition of coral skeleton-bound organic nitrogen (hereafter, CS-δ15N) either require too much skeleton material or have low precision, limiting the applications of this relatively new proxy. In addition, the controlling factors on CS-δ15N remain poorly understood: the δ15N of source nitrogen and the internal nitrogen cycle of the coral/zooxanthellae symbiosis may both be important. Here, we describe a new ("persulfate/denitrifier"-based) method for measuring CS-δ15N, requiring only 5 mg of skeleton material and yielding a long-term precision better than 0.2‰ (1σ). Using this new method, we investigate CS-δ15N at Bermuda. Ten modern Diploria labyrinthiformis coral cores/colonies from 4 sampling sites were measured for CS-δ15N. Nitrogen concentrations (nitrate + nitrite, ammonium, and dissolved organic nitrogen) and δ15N of plankton were also measured at these coral sites. Among the 4 sampling sites, CS-δ15N shows an increase with proximity to the island, from ∼3.8‰ to ∼6.8‰ vs. atmospheric N2, with the northern offshore site having a CS-δ15N 1-2‰ higher than the δ15N of thermocline nitrate in the surrounding Sargasso Sea. Two annually resolved CS-δ15N time series suggest that the offshore-inshore CS-δ15N gradient has persisted since at least the 1970s. Plankton δ15N among these 4 sites also has an inshore increase, but of only ∼1‰. Coral physiological change must explain the remaining (∼2‰) inshore increase in CS-δ15N, and previous work points to the coral/zooxanthellae N cycle as a control on host tissue (and thus carbonate skeletal) δ15N. The CS-δ15N gradient is hypothesized to result mainly from varying efficiency in the internal nitrogen recycling of the

  10. Organization and Dynamics of Receptor Proteins in a Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Koldsø, Heidi; Sansom, Mark S P

    2015-11-25

    The interactions of membrane proteins are influenced by their lipid environment, with key lipid species able to regulate membrane protein function. Advances in high-resolution microscopy can reveal the organization and dynamics of proteins and lipids within living cells at resolutions <200 nm. Parallel advances in molecular simulations provide near-atomic-resolution models of the dynamics of the organization of membranes of in vivo-like complexity. We explore the dynamics of proteins and lipids in crowded and complex plasma membrane models, thereby closing the gap in length and complexity between computations and experiments. Our simulations provide insights into the mutual interplay between lipids and proteins in determining mesoscale (20-100 nm) fluctuations of the bilayer, and in enabling oligomerization and clustering of membrane proteins.

  11. Nanoscale membrane organization: where biochemistry meets advanced microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cambi, Alessandra; Lidke, Diane S.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms that shape an effective cellular response is a fundamental question in biology. Biochemical measurements have revealed critical information about the order of protein-protein interactions along signaling cascades, but lack the resolution to determine kinetics and localization of interactions on the plasma membrane. Furthermore, the local membrane environment influences membrane receptor distributions and dynamics, which in turn influences signal transduction. To measure dynamic protein interactions and elucidate the consequences of membrane architecture interplay, direct measurements at high spatiotemporal resolution are needed. In this review, we discuss the biochemical principles regulating membrane nanodomain formation and protein function, ranging from the lipid nanoenvironment to the cortical cytoskeleton. We also discuss recent advances in fluorescence microscopy that are making it possible to quantify protein organization and biochemical events at the nanoscale in the living cell membrane. PMID:22004174

  12. Investigation of membrane fouling in ultrafiltration using model organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Kweon, J H; Lawler, D F

    2005-01-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is known to be the worst foulant in the membrane processes, but the complexities of NOM make it difficult to determine its effects on membrane fouling. Therefore, simple organic compounds (surrogates for NOM) were used in this research to investigate the fouling mechanisms in ultrafiltration. Previous research on NOM components in membrane processes indicated that polysaccharides formed an important part of the fouling cake. Three polysaccharides (dextran, alginic acid, and polygalacturonic acid) and a smaller carbohydrate (tannic acid) were evaluated for their removal in softening (the treatment process in the City of Austin). Two polysaccharides (dextran and alginic acid) were selected and further investigated for their effects on membrane fouling. The two raw organic waters (4 mg/L C) showed quite different patterns of flux decline indicating different fouling mechanisms. Softening pretreatment was effective to reduce flux decline of both waters. The SEM images of the fouled membrane clearly showed the shapes of deposited foulants. The high resolution results of the XPS spectra showed substantially different spectra of carbon, C(1s), in the membrane fouled by two raw organic waters. The XPS was beneficial in determining the relative composition of each fouling material on the membrane surface.

  13. Investigation of membrane fouling in ultrafiltration using model organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Kweon, J H; Lawler, D F

    2005-01-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is known to be the worst foulant in the membrane processes, but the complexities of NOM make it difficult to determine its effects on membrane fouling. Therefore, simple organic compounds (surrogates for NOM) were used in this research to investigate the fouling mechanisms in ultrafiltration. Previous research on NOM components in membrane processes indicated that polysaccharides formed an important part of the fouling cake. Three polysaccharides (dextran, alginic acid, and polygalacturonic acid) and a smaller carbohydrate (tannic acid) were evaluated for their removal in softening (the treatment process in the City of Austin). Two polysaccharides (dextran and alginic acid) were selected and further investigated for their effects on membrane fouling. The two raw organic waters (4 mg/L C) showed quite different patterns of flux decline indicating different fouling mechanisms. Softening pretreatment was effective to reduce flux decline of both waters. The SEM images of the fouled membrane clearly showed the shapes of deposited foulants. The high resolution results of the XPS spectra showed substantially different spectra of carbon, C(1s), in the membrane fouled by two raw organic waters. The XPS was beneficial in determining the relative composition of each fouling material on the membrane surface. PMID:16003967

  14. Plasma membrane-associated platforms: dynamic scaffolds that organize membrane-associated events.

    PubMed

    Astro, Veronica; de Curtis, Ivan

    2015-03-10

    Specialized regions of the plasma membrane dedicated to diverse cellular processes, such as vesicle exocytosis, extracellular matrix remodeling, and cell migration, share a few cytosolic scaffold proteins that associate to form large plasma membrane-associated platforms (PMAPs). PMAPs organize signaling events and trafficking of membranes and molecules at specific membrane domains. On the basis of the intrinsic disorder of the proteins constituting the core of these PMAPs and of the dynamics of these structures at the periphery of motile cells, we propose a working model for the assembly and turnover of these platforms.

  15. Hyperthin Organic Membranes for Gas Separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minghui

    Gas separation is practically important in many aspects, e.g., clean energy production and global warming prevention. Compared to other separation technologies like cryogenic distillation and pressure swing adsorption, membrane separation is considered to be more energy efficient. For practical purposes, the ultimate goal is to construct membranes producing high flux and high gas permeation selectivity at the same time. Based on the inverse relationship between flux and membrane thickness, it is clear that fabricating highly selective membranes as thin as possible could increase the flux through the membrane without sacrificing selectivity. But it has proven to be challenging to manufacture selective membranes in the hyperthin (< 100nm) region. [Note: 100 nm is the typical dense layer thickness of commercial membranes to separation gases.] In this dissertation, the focus is on the development of hyperthin selective membranes that were supported by poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) (PTMSP), using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition methods. A "gluing" strategy has been successfully introduced into LB films by our laboratory recently, in which LB monolayers are ionically crosslinked with polyelectrolytes. This success stimulated the pursuance of LB films with improved gas separation properties by: (i) examining calix[n]arene-based surfactants with different sizes (ii) using polymeric surfactants as LB forming materials, and (iii) optimizing the condition of the subphase containing polyelectrolytes. Both a strong polyelectrolyte poly(4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and a weak polyelectrolyte poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were used to create glued LB bilayers. The gas permeation through PSS or PAA-glued LB bilayers made of calix[n]arenes was found to be dominated by solution-diffusion rather than molecular-sieving mechanism. The porous nature of calix[n]arene-based surfactants also turned out to be unnecessary for constructing LB films with high gas

  16. The Skeletons' Halloween

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourque, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Mexican printer Jose Guadalupe Posada's (1851-1913) numerous prints of "calaveras" gave vast popularity to skeleton figures through his satirical and politically critical renditions of skeletons engaged in daily activities. They are oftentimes represented in festive and playful posturing. Calaveras have now become the most original trait of…

  17. Actin Mediates the Nanoscale Membrane Organization of the Clustered Membrane Protein Influenza Hemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    Gudheti, Manasa V.; Curthoys, Nikki M.; Gould, Travis J.; Kim, Dahan; Gunewardene, Mudalige S.; Gabor, Kristin A.; Gosse, Julie A.; Kim, Carol H.; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Hess, Samuel T.

    2013-01-01

    The influenza viral membrane protein hemagglutinin (HA) is required at high concentrations on virion and host-cell membranes for infectivity. Because the role of actin in membrane organization is not completely understood, we quantified the relationship between HA and host-cell actin at the nanoscale. Results obtained using superresolution fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy (FPALM) in nonpolarized cells show that HA clusters colocalize with actin-rich membrane regions (ARMRs). Individual molecular trajectories in live cells indicate restricted HA mobility in ARMRs, and actin disruption caused specific changes to HA clustering. Surprisingly, the actin-binding protein cofilin was excluded from some regions within several hundred nanometers of HA clusters, suggesting that HA clusters or adjacent proteins within the same clusters influence local actin structure. Thus, with the use of imaging, we demonstrate a dynamic relationship between glycoprotein membrane organization and the actin cytoskeleton at the nanoscale. PMID:23708358

  18. MreB-Dependent Organization of the E. coli Cytoplasmic Membrane Controls Membrane Protein Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Felix; Varadarajan, Aravindan; Lill, Holger; Peterman, Erwin J G; Bollen, Yves J M

    2016-03-01

    The functional organization of prokaryotic cell membranes, which is essential for many cellular processes, has been challenging to analyze due to the small size and nonflat geometry of bacterial cells. Here, we use single-molecule fluorescence microscopy and three-dimensional quantitative analyses in live Escherichia coli to demonstrate that its cytoplasmic membrane contains microdomains with distinct physical properties. We show that the stability of these microdomains depends on the integrity of the MreB cytoskeletal network underneath the membrane. We explore how the interplay between cytoskeleton and membrane affects trans-membrane protein (TMP) diffusion and reveal that the mobility of the TMPs tested is subdiffusive, most likely caused by confinement of TMP mobility by the submembranous MreB network. Our findings demonstrate that the dynamic architecture of prokaryotic cell membranes is controlled by the MreB cytoskeleton and regulates the mobility of TMPs. PMID:26958890

  19. Organic Fouling of Graphene Oxide Membranes and Its Implications for Membrane Fouling Control in Engineered Osmosis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meng; Zheng, Sunxiang; Mi, Baoxia

    2016-01-19

    This study provides experimental evidence to mechanistically understand some contradicting effects of the characteristic properties of graphene oxide (GO), such as the high hydrophilicity, negative charge, strong adsorption capability, and large surface area, on the antifouling properties of GO membranes. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of forming a dense GO barrier layer on the back (i.e., porous) side of an asymmetric membrane for fouling control in pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO), an emerging engineered osmosis process whose advancement has been much hindered due to the severe irreversible fouling that occurs as foulants accumulate inside the porous membrane support. In the membrane fouling experiments, protein and alginate were used as model organic foulants. When operated in forward osmosis mode, the GO membrane exhibited fouling performance comparable with that of a polyamide (PA) membrane. Analysis of the membrane adsorption capacity showed that, likely due to the presence of hydrophobic regions in the GO basal plane, the GO membrane has an affinity toward organic foulants 4 to 5 times higher than the PA membrane. Such a high adsorption capacity along with a large surface area, however, did not noticeably aggravate the fouling problem. Our explanation for this phenomenon is that organic foulants are adsorbed mainly on the basal plane of GO nanosheets, and water enters the GO membrane primarily around the oxidized edges of GO, making foulant adsorption not create much hindrance to water flux. When operated in PRO mode, the GO membrane exhibited much better antifouling performance than the PA membrane. This is because unlike the PA membrane for which foulants can be easily trapped inside the porous support and hence cause severe irreversible fouling, the GO membrane allows the foulants to accumulate primarily on its surface due to the sealing effect of the GO layer assembled on the porous side of the asymmetric membrane support. Results

  20. Natural organic matter fouling behaviors on superwetting nanofiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Shan, Linglong; Fan, Hongwei; Guo, Hongxia; Ji, Shulan; Zhang, Guojun

    2016-04-15

    Nanofiltration has been widely recognized as a promising technology for the removal of micro-molecular organic components from natural water. Natural organic matter (NOM), a very important precursor of disinfection by-products, is currently considered as the major cause of membrane fouling. It is necessary to develop a membrane with both high NOM rejection and anti-NOM fouling properties. In this study, both superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic nanofiltration membranes for NOM removal have been fabricated. The fouling behavior of NOM on superwetting nanofiltration membranes has been extensively investigated by using humic acid (HA) as the model foulant. The extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek approach and nanoindentor scratch tests suggested that the superhydrophilic membrane had the strongest repulsion force to HA due to the highest positive total interaction energy (ΔG(TOT)) value and the lowest critical load. Excitation emission matrix analyses of natural water also indicated that the superhydrophilic membrane showed resistance to fouling by hydrophobic substances and therefore high removal thereof. Conversely, the superhydrophobic membrane showed resistance to fouling by hydrophilic substances and therefore high removal capacity. Long-term operation suggested that the superhydrophilic membrane had high stability due to its anti-NOM fouling capacity. Based on the different anti-fouling properties of the studied superwetting membranes, a combination of superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic membranes was examined to further improve the removal of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic pollutants. With a combination of superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic membranes, the NOM rejection (RUV254) and DOC removal rates (RDOC) could be increased to 83.6% and 73.3%, respectively. PMID:26900973

  1. Removal of organic contaminants by RO and NF membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Yeomin; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2005-01-01

    Rejection characteristics of organic and inorganic compounds were examined for six reverse osmosis (RO) membranes and two nanofiltration (NF) membranes that are commercially available. A batch stirred-cell was employed to determine the membrane flux and the solute rejection for solutions at various concentrations and different pH conditions. The results show that for ionic solutes the degree of separation is influenced mainly by electrostatic exclusion, while for organic solutes the removal depends mainly upon the solute radius and molecular structure. In order to provide a better understanding of rejection mechanisms for the RO and NF membranes, the ratio of solute radius (r(i,s)) to effective membrane pore radius (r(p)) was employed to compare rejections. An empirical relation for the dependence of the rejection of organic compounds on the ratio r(i,s)/r(p) is presented. The rejection for organic compounds is over 75% when r(i,s)/r(p) is greater than 0.8. In addition, the rejection of organic compounds is examined using the extended Nernst-Planck equation coupled with a steric hindrance model. The transport of organic solutes is controlled mainly by diffusion for the compounds that have a high r(i,s)/r(p) ratio, while convection is dominant for compounds that have a small r(i,s)/r(p) ratio. c2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Organic ionic salt draw solutions for osmotic membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Katie S; Achilli, Andrea; Childress, Amy E

    2012-10-01

    This investigation evaluates the use of organic ionic salt solutions as draw solutions for specific use in osmotic membrane bioreactors. Also, this investigation presents a simple method for determining the diffusion coefficient of ionic salt solutions using only a characterized membrane. A selection of organic ionic draw solutions underwent a desktop screening process before being tested in the laboratory and evaluated for performance using specific salt flux (reverse salt flux per unit water flux), biodegradation potential, and replenishment cost. Two of the salts were found to have specific salt fluxes three to six times lower than two commonly used inorganic draw solutions, NaCl and MgCl(2). All of the salts tested have organic anions with the potential to degrade in the bioreactor as a carbon source and aid in nutrient removal. Results demonstrate the potential benefits of organic ionic salt draw solutions over currently implemented inorganics in osmotic membrane bioreactor systems. PMID:22771022

  3. Transformation of metal-organic frameworks for molecular sieving membranes.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanbin; Zhang, Yufan; Zhang, Congyang; Meng, Qin; Xu, Zehai; Su, Pengcheng; Li, Qingbiao; Shen, Chong; Fan, Zheng; Qin, Lei; Zhang, Guoliang

    2016-04-19

    The development of simple, versatile strategies for the synthesis of metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived membranes are of increasing scientific interest, but challenges exist in understanding suitable fabrication mechanisms. Here we report a route for the complete transformation of a series of MOF membranes and particles, based on multivalent cation substitution. Through our approach, the effective pore size can be reduced through the immobilization of metal salt residues in the cavities, and appropriate MOF crystal facets can be exposed, to achieve competitive molecular sieving capabilities. The method can also be used more generally for the synthesis of a variety of MOF membranes and particles. Importantly, we design and synthesize promising MOF membranes candidates that are hard to achieve through conventional methods. For example, our CuBTC/MIL-100 membrane exhibits 89, 171, 241 and 336 times higher H2 permeance than that of CO2, O2, N2 and CH4, respectively.

  4. Transformation of metal-organic frameworks for molecular sieving membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wanbin; Zhang, Yufan; Zhang, Congyang; Meng, Qin; Xu, Zehai; Su, Pengcheng; Li, Qingbiao; Shen, Chong; Fan, Zheng; Qin, Lei; Zhang, Guoliang

    2016-04-01

    The development of simple, versatile strategies for the synthesis of metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived membranes are of increasing scientific interest, but challenges exist in understanding suitable fabrication mechanisms. Here we report a route for the complete transformation of a series of MOF membranes and particles, based on multivalent cation substitution. Through our approach, the effective pore size can be reduced through the immobilization of metal salt residues in the cavities, and appropriate MOF crystal facets can be exposed, to achieve competitive molecular sieving capabilities. The method can also be used more generally for the synthesis of a variety of MOF membranes and particles. Importantly, we design and synthesize promising MOF membranes candidates that are hard to achieve through conventional methods. For example, our CuBTC/MIL-100 membrane exhibits 89, 171, 241 and 336 times higher H2 permeance than that of CO2, O2, N2 and CH4, respectively.

  5. Transformation of metal-organic frameworks for molecular sieving membranes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wanbin; Zhang, Yufan; Zhang, Congyang; Meng, Qin; Xu, Zehai; Su, Pengcheng; Li, Qingbiao; Shen, Chong; Fan, Zheng; Qin, Lei; Zhang, Guoliang

    2016-01-01

    The development of simple, versatile strategies for the synthesis of metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived membranes are of increasing scientific interest, but challenges exist in understanding suitable fabrication mechanisms. Here we report a route for the complete transformation of a series of MOF membranes and particles, based on multivalent cation substitution. Through our approach, the effective pore size can be reduced through the immobilization of metal salt residues in the cavities, and appropriate MOF crystal facets can be exposed, to achieve competitive molecular sieving capabilities. The method can also be used more generally for the synthesis of a variety of MOF membranes and particles. Importantly, we design and synthesize promising MOF membranes candidates that are hard to achieve through conventional methods. For example, our CuBTC/MIL-100 membrane exhibits 89, 171, 241 and 336 times higher H2 permeance than that of CO2, O2, N2 and CH4, respectively. PMID:27090597

  6. There Is No Simple Model of the Plasma Membrane Organization

    PubMed Central

    Bernardino de la Serna, Jorge; Schütz, Gerhard J.; Eggeling, Christian; Cebecauer, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Ever since technologies enabled the characterization of eukaryotic plasma membranes, heterogeneities in the distributions of its constituents were observed. Over the years this led to the proposal of various models describing the plasma membrane organization such as lipid shells, picket-and-fences, lipid rafts, or protein islands, as addressed in numerous publications and reviews. Instead of emphasizing on one model we in this review give a brief overview over current models and highlight how current experimental work in one or the other way do not support the existence of a single overarching model. Instead, we highlight the vast variety of membrane properties and components, their influences and impacts. We believe that highlighting such controversial discoveries will stimulate unbiased research on plasma membrane organization and functionality, leading to a better understanding of this essential cellular structure. PMID:27747212

  7. Removal of trace organics by anaerobic membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Monsalvo, Victor M; McDonald, James A; Khan, Stuart J; Le-Clech, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    The biological removal of 38 trace organics (pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors, personal care products and pesticides) was studied in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). This work presents complete information on the different removal mechanisms involved in the removal of trace organics in this process. In particular, it is focused on advanced characterization of the relative amount of TO accumulated within the fouling layers formed on the membranes. The results show that only 9 out of 38 compounds were removed by more than 90% while 23 compounds were removed by less than 50%. These compounds are therefore removed in an AnMBR biologically and partially adsorbed and retained by flocs and the deposition developed on the membranes, respectively. A total amount of 288 mg of trace organics was retained per m(2) of membrane, which were distributed along the different fouling layers. Among the trace organics analyzed, 17α-ethynylestradiol, estrone, octylphenol and bisphenol A were the most retained by the fouling layers. Among the fouling layers deposited on the membranes, the non-readily detachable layer has been identified as the main barrier for trace organics.

  8. Removal of trace organics by anaerobic membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Monsalvo, Victor M; McDonald, James A; Khan, Stuart J; Le-Clech, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    The biological removal of 38 trace organics (pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors, personal care products and pesticides) was studied in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). This work presents complete information on the different removal mechanisms involved in the removal of trace organics in this process. In particular, it is focused on advanced characterization of the relative amount of TO accumulated within the fouling layers formed on the membranes. The results show that only 9 out of 38 compounds were removed by more than 90% while 23 compounds were removed by less than 50%. These compounds are therefore removed in an AnMBR biologically and partially adsorbed and retained by flocs and the deposition developed on the membranes, respectively. A total amount of 288 mg of trace organics was retained per m(2) of membrane, which were distributed along the different fouling layers. Among the trace organics analyzed, 17α-ethynylestradiol, estrone, octylphenol and bisphenol A were the most retained by the fouling layers. Among the fouling layers deposited on the membranes, the non-readily detachable layer has been identified as the main barrier for trace organics. PMID:24321247

  9. Collagenous skeleton of the rat mystacial pad.

    PubMed

    Haidarliu, Sebastian; Simony, Erez; Golomb, David; Ahissar, Ehud

    2011-05-01

    Anatomical and functional integrity of the rat mystacial pad (MP) is dependent on the intrinsic organization of its extracellular matrix. By using collagen autofluorescence, in the rat MP, we revealed a collagenous skeleton that interconnects whisker follicles, corium, and deep collagen layers. We suggest that this skeleton supports MP tissues, mediates force transmission from muscles to whiskers, facilitates whisker retraction after protraction, and limits MP extensibility.

  10. Permeability of low molecular weight organics through nanofiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Meylan, Sébastien; Hammes, Frederik; Traber, Jacqueline; Salhi, Elisabeth; von Gunten, Urs; Pronk, Wouter

    2007-09-01

    The removal of natural organic matter (NOM) using nanofiltration (NF) is increasingly becoming an option for drinking water treatment. Low molecular weight (LMW) organic compounds are nevertheless only partially retained by such membranes. Bacterial regrowth and biofilm formation in the drinking water distribution system is favoured by the presence of such compounds, which in this context are considered as the assimilable organic carbon (AOC). In this study, the question of whether NF produces microbiologically stable water was addressed. Two NF membranes (cut-off of about 300Da) were tested with different natural and synthetic water samples in a cross-flow filtration unit. NOM was characterised by liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) using a size-exclusion column in addition to specific organic acid measurements, while AOC was measured in a batch growth bioassay. Similarly to high molecular weight organic compounds like polysaccharides or humic substances that have a permeability lower than 1%, charged LMW organic compounds were efficiently retained by the NF membranes tested and showed a permeability lower than 3%. However, LMW neutrals and hydrophobic organic compounds permeate to a higher extent through the membranes and have a permeability of up to 6% and 12%, respectively. Furthermore, AOC was poorly retained by NF and the apparent AOC concentration measured in the permeated water was above the proposed limit for microbiologically stable water. This indicates that the drinking water produced by NF might be biologically unstable in the distribution system. Nevertheless, in comparison with the raw water, NF significantly reduced the AOC concentration.

  11. Functionalized Silicon Membranes for Selective Bio-Organisms Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Letant, S E; Hart, B R; van Buuren, A W; Terminello, L J

    2003-01-09

    Membranes with various pore size, length, morphology and density have been synthesized out of diverse materials for size exclusion-based separation. An example of application is the sterilization of intravenous lines by exclusion of bacteria and viruses using Polyvinylidene Fluoride membranes with 0.1 {micro}m diameter pores. The need for chemically specific filtration has recently been addressed, but for small molecules only. An important problem remaining to be solved is the selective capture of large bio-organisms for decontamination or analysis of air and liquids such as drinking water and body fluids. To achieve this goal, materials with controlled pore diameter, length and surface chemistry are required. In this letter, we present the first functionalized silicon membranes and demonstrate their ability to selectively capture simulated bio-organisms. These extremely versatile and rigid devices open the door on a new class of materials able to recognize the external fingerprints of bio-organisms such as size and outer membrane proteins for specific capture and detection applications.

  12. Pervaporation membranes--a novel separation technique for trace organics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, C.L.; Yuang, C.W.; Fried, J.R.; Greenberg, D.B.

    1983-05-01

    A viable separation of chlorinated hydrocarbons from dilute aqueous solutions can be achieved by a process known as pervaporation. It is applicable to the removal of chlorinated organics, pesticides, herbicides, etc., from industrial and municipal water supplies. The process separates trace amounts of hydrocarbons through polymer membranes by means of a liquid-vapor mass-transfer. The method involves the selective sorption of a liquid mixture, followed by diffusion, and then desorption into a vapor phase on the downstream side of the membrane. (JMT)

  13. Pattern Formation by Electrostatic Self-Organization of Membrane Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boedec, G.; Jaeger, M.; Homble, F.; Leonetti, M.

    2012-07-01

    The electric activity of biological cells and organs such as heart for example is at the origin of various phenomena of pattern formation. The electric membrane potential appears as the order parameter to characterize these spatiotemporal dynamics. A kind of patterns is characterized by a stationary spatial modulation of membrane potential along the cell, breaking a symmetry of the system. They are associated to transcellular currents. A mechanism proposed in literature is based on the coupling of the electric current produced by membrane proteins and their electrophoretic mobilities. Beyond its classical linear stability analysis, the numerical and theoretical analysis of this model offers a variety of spatiotemporal dynamics. Firstly, the background in the modelization of electric phenomena is recalled. Secondly, the analysis is focused on two nonlinear dynamics.

  14. Membrane bioreactor for control of volatile organic compound emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Ergas, S.J.; McGrath, M.S.

    1997-06-01

    A membrane bioreactor system that overcomes many of the limitations of conventional compost biofilters is described. The system utilizes microporous hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes for mass transfer of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the gas phase to a microbially active liquid phase. The reactor design provides a high biomass concentration, a method for wasting biomass, and a method for addition of pH buffers, nutrients, cometabolites, and/or other amendments. A theoretical model is developed, describing mass transfer and biodegradation in the membrane bioreactor. Reactor performance was determined in a laboratory scale membrane bioreactor over a range of gas loading rates using toluene as a model VOC. Toluene removal efficiency was greater than 98% at an inlet concentration of 100 ppm, and a gas residence time of less than 2 s. Factors controlling bioreactor performance were determined through both experiments and theoretical modeling to include: compound Henry`s law constant, membrane specific surface area, gas and VOC loading rates, liquid phase turbulence, and biomass substrate utilization rate.

  15. Investigating the Human Skeleton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1982-01-01

    Instructions are provided for assembly of a pull-out, two-sided picture puzzle of the skeleton of a seven-year-old girl. Suggestions for activities using the assembled puzzle and comments on bones and bone morphology are also provided. (Author/JN)

  16. Membrane contactor/separator for an advanced ozone membrane reactor for treatment of recalcitrant organic pollutants in water

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Wai Kit; Joueet, Justine; Heng, Samuel; Yeung, King Lun; Schrotter, Jean-Christophe

    2012-05-15

    An advanced ozone membrane reactor that synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone gas, membrane contactor for pollutant adsorption and reaction, and membrane separator for clean water production is described. The membrane reactor represents an order of magnitude improvement over traditional semibatch reactor design and is capable of complete conversion of recalcitrant endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water at less than three minutes residence time. Coating the membrane contactor with alumina and hydrotalcite (Mg/Al=3) adsorbs and traps the organics in the reaction zone resulting in 30% increase of total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Large surface area coating that diffuses surface charges from adsorbed polar organic molecules is preferred as it reduces membrane polarization that is detrimental to separation. - Graphical abstract: Advanced ozone membrane reactor synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone, membrane contactor for sorption and reaction and membrane separator for clean water production to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement in treatment performance compared to traditional ozone reactor. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel reactor using membranes for ozone distributor, reaction contactor and water separator. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Designed to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement over traditional reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and hydrotalcite coatings capture and trap pollutants giving additional 30% TOC removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High surface area coating prevents polarization and improves membrane separation and life.

  17. Analysis of Membrane Lipids of Airborne Micro-Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacNaughton, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    A method of characterization of airborne micro-organisms in a given location involves (1) large-volume filtration of air onto glass-fiber filters; (2) accelerated extraction of membrane lipids of the collected micro-organisms by use of pressurized hot liquid; and (3) identification and quantitation of the lipids by use of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. This method is suitable for use in both outdoor and indoor environments; for example, it can be used to measure airborne microbial contamination in buildings ("sick-building syndrome"). The classical approach to analysis of airborne micro-organisms is based on the growth of cultureable micro-organisms and does not provide an account of viable but noncultureable micro-organisms, which typically amount to more than 90 percent of the micro-organisms present. In contrast, the present method provides an account of all micro-organisms, including cultureable, noncultureable, aerobic, and anaerobic ones. The analysis of lipids according to this method makes it possible to estimate the number of viable airborne micro-organisms present in the sampled air and to obtain a quantitative profile of the general types of micro-organisms present along with some information about their physiological statuses.

  18. Membrane organization and regulation of cellular Cholesterol homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Jaureguiberry, María S.; Tricerri, M. Alejandra; Sanchez, Susana A; Garda, Horacio A; Finarelli, Gabriela S.; Gonzalez, Marina C.; Rimoldi, Omar J.

    2010-01-01

    An excess of intracellular free Cholesterol (Chol) is cytotoxic, and its homeostasis is crucial for cell viability. Apolipoprotein A–I (apoA-I) is a highly efficient Chol acceptor as it activates complex cellular pathways that tend to mobilize and export Chol from cellular depots. Here we hypothesize that membrane composition and/or organization is strongly involved in Chol homeostasis. To test this hypothesis, we constructed a cell line over expressing Stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD-cells), which modifies plasma membrane (PM) composition by the enrichment of monounsaturated fatty,acids and determined this effect on membrane properties, cell viability and cholesterol homeostasis. PM in SCD-cells has a higher phospholipids/sphingomyelin ratio and is slightly enriched in Chol. These cells showed an increase in the cholesteryl esters/free Chol ratio, they were more resistant to Chol toxicity and in addition, they exported more caveolin than Control cells. The data suggest that cell functionality is preserved by regulating membrane fluidity and Chol exportation and storage. PMID:20336284

  19. Electrospun Superhydrophobic Organic/Inorganic Composite Nanofibrous Membranes for Membrane Distillation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiong; Yu, Xufeng; Cheng, Cheng; Deng, Li; Wang, Min; Wang, Xuefen

    2015-10-01

    Electrospun superhydrophobic organic/inorganic composite nanofibrous membranes exhibiting excellent direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) performance were fabricated by a facile route combining the hydrophobization of silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) and colloid electrospinning of the hydrophobic silica/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix. Benefiting from the utilization of SiO2 NPs with three different particle sizes, the electrospun nanofibrous membranes (ENMs) were endowed with three different delicate nanofiber morphologies and fiber diameter distribution, high porosity, and superhydrophobic property, which resulted in excellent waterproofing and breathability. Significantly, structural attributes analyses have indicated the major contributing role of fiber diameter distribution on determining the augment of permeate vapor flux through regulating mean flow pore size (MFP). Meanwhile, the extremely high liquid entry pressure of water (LEPw, 2.40 ± 0.10 bar), robust nanofiber morphology of PVDF immobilized SiO2 NPs, remarkable mechanical properties, thermal stability, and corrosion resistance endowed the as-prepared membranes with prominent desalination capability and stability for long-term MD process. The resultant choreographed PVDF/silica ENMs with optimized MFP presented an outstanding permeate vapor flux of 41.1 kg/(m(2)·h) and stable low permeate conductivity (∼2.45 μs/cm) (3.5 wt % NaCl salt feed; ΔT = 40 °C) over a DCMD test period of 24 h without membrane pores wetting detected. This result was better than those of typical commercial PVDF membranes and PVDF and modified PVDF ENMs reported so far, suggesting them as promising alternatives for MD applications. PMID:26371965

  20. Electrospun Superhydrophobic Organic/Inorganic Composite Nanofibrous Membranes for Membrane Distillation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiong; Yu, Xufeng; Cheng, Cheng; Deng, Li; Wang, Min; Wang, Xuefen

    2015-10-01

    Electrospun superhydrophobic organic/inorganic composite nanofibrous membranes exhibiting excellent direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) performance were fabricated by a facile route combining the hydrophobization of silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) and colloid electrospinning of the hydrophobic silica/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix. Benefiting from the utilization of SiO2 NPs with three different particle sizes, the electrospun nanofibrous membranes (ENMs) were endowed with three different delicate nanofiber morphologies and fiber diameter distribution, high porosity, and superhydrophobic property, which resulted in excellent waterproofing and breathability. Significantly, structural attributes analyses have indicated the major contributing role of fiber diameter distribution on determining the augment of permeate vapor flux through regulating mean flow pore size (MFP). Meanwhile, the extremely high liquid entry pressure of water (LEPw, 2.40 ± 0.10 bar), robust nanofiber morphology of PVDF immobilized SiO2 NPs, remarkable mechanical properties, thermal stability, and corrosion resistance endowed the as-prepared membranes with prominent desalination capability and stability for long-term MD process. The resultant choreographed PVDF/silica ENMs with optimized MFP presented an outstanding permeate vapor flux of 41.1 kg/(m(2)·h) and stable low permeate conductivity (∼2.45 μs/cm) (3.5 wt % NaCl salt feed; ΔT = 40 °C) over a DCMD test period of 24 h without membrane pores wetting detected. This result was better than those of typical commercial PVDF membranes and PVDF and modified PVDF ENMs reported so far, suggesting them as promising alternatives for MD applications.

  1. Graphene oxide membrane for liquid phase organic molecular separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Renlong; Arabale, Girish; Kim, Jinseon; Sun, Ke; Lee, Yongwoon; Ryu, Changkook; Lee, Changgu

    2015-03-01

    The selective permeation of organic solvents and water through graphene oxide (GO) membranes has been demonstrated. Water was found to permeate through GO membranes faster than various alcohols. The permeation rates of propanol are about 80 times lower than that of water. Taking advantage of the differences in the permeation rates, we separated water from the alcohols and obtained alcohols with high purity. For ethanol and 1-propanol, binary solutions of the alcohol and water were filtered efficiently to produce alcohols with concentration of about 97%. However, the selectivity of the filtration of methanol is significantly lower than those of the other alcohols. To understand the mechanism we followed the structural changes in the GO membranes by X-Ray diffraction analysis. From the X-ray diffraction results we speculate that the selectivity of the permeation of water and alcohols is closely related to the molecular sizes of the solvents and their polarity. In order to demonstrate the potential applications of this process for the selective removal of water from aqueous organic mixtures, we performed the separation of water from a bio-oil containing 73% of water. The majority of the water was filtered out resulting in a higher purity bio-oil.

  2. Air-drying kinetics affect yeast membrane organization and survival.

    PubMed

    Lemetais, Guillaume; Dupont, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Gervais, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    The plasma membrane (PM) is a key structure for the survival of cells during dehydration. In this study, we focused on the concomitant changes in survival and in the lateral organization of the PM in yeast strains during desiccation, a natural or technological environmental perturbation that involves transition from a liquid to a solid medium. To evaluate the role of the PM in survival during air-drying, a wild-type yeast strain and an osmotically fragile mutant (erg6Δ) were used. The lateral organization of the PM (microdomain distribution) was observed using a fluorescent marker related to a specific green fluorescent protein-labeled membrane protein (Sur7-GFP) after progressive or rapid desiccation. We also evaluated yeast behavior during a model dehydration experiment performed in liquid medium (osmotic stress). For both strains, we observed similar behavior after osmotic and desiccation stresses. In particular, the same lethal magnitude of dehydration and the same lethal kinetic effect were found for both dehydration methods. Thus, yeast survival after progressive air-drying was related to PM reorganization, suggesting the positive contribution of passive lateral rearrangements of the membrane components. This study also showed that the use of glycerol solutions is an efficient means to simulate air-drying desiccation.

  3. ISTP CDF Skeleton Editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chimiak, Reine; Harris, Bernard; Williams, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    Basic Common Data Format (CDF) tools (e.g., cdfedit) provide no specific support for creating International Solar-Terrestrial Physics/Space Physics Data Facility (ISTP/SPDF) standard files. While it is possible for someone who is familiar with the ISTP/SPDF metadata guidelines to create compliant files using just the basic tools, the process is error-prone and unreasonable for someone without ISTP/SPDF expertise. The key problem is the lack of a tool with specific support for creating files that comply with the ISTP/SPDF guidelines. There are basic CDF tools such as cdfedit and skeletoncdf for creating CDF files, but these have no specific support for creating ISTP/ SPDF compliant files. The SPDF ISTP CDF skeleton editor is a cross-platform, Java-based GUI editor program that allows someone with only a basic understanding of the ISTP/SPDF guidelines to easily create compliant files. The editor is a simple graphical user interface (GUI) application for creating and editing ISTP/SPDF guideline-compliant skeleton CDF files. The SPDF ISTP CDF skeleton editor consists of the following components: A swing-based Java GUI program, JavaHelp-based manual/ tutorial, Image/Icon files, and HTML Web page for distribution. The editor is available as a traditional Java desktop application as well as a Java Network Launching Protocol (JNLP) application. Once started, it functions like a typical Java GUI file editor application for creating/editing application-unique files.

  4. Skeleton of weighted social network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhu, J.

    2013-03-01

    In the literature of social networks, understanding topological structure is an important scientific issue. In this paper, we construct a network from mobile phone call records and use the cumulative number of calls as a measure of the weight of a social tie. We extract skeletons from the weighted social network on the basis of the weights of ties, and we study their properties. We find that strong ties can support the skeleton in the network by studying the percolation characters. We explore the centrality of w-skeletons based on the correlation between some centrality measures and the skeleton index w of a vertex, and we find that the average centrality of a w-skeleton increases as w increases. We also study the cumulative degree distribution of the successive w-skeletons and find that as w increases, the w-skeleton tends to become more self-similar. Furthermore, fractal characteristics appear in higher w-skeletons. We also explore the global information diffusion efficiency of w-skeletons using simulations, from which we can see that the ties in the high w-skeletons play important roles in information diffusion. Identifying such a simple structure of a w-skeleton is a step forward toward understanding and representing the topological structure of weighted social networks.

  5. Depth-Dependent Organization and Dynamics of Archaeal and Eukaryotic Membranes: Development of Membrane Anisotropy Gradient with Natural Evolution.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Hirak; Haldar, Sourav; Chong, Parkson Lee-Gau; Kombrabail, Mamata; Krishnamoorthy, G; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2015-10-27

    The lipid composition of archaea is unique and has been correlated with increased stability under extreme environmental conditions. In this article, we have focused on the evolution of membrane organization and dynamics with natural evolution. Dynamic anisotropy along the membrane normal (i.e., gradients of mobility, polarity, and heterogeneity) is a hallmark of fluid phase diester or diether phospholipid membranes. We monitored gradients of mobility, polarity, and heterogeneity along the membrane normal in membranes made of a representative archaeal lipid using a series of membrane depth-dependent fluorescent probes, and compared them to membranes prepared from a typical diether lipid from higher organisms (eukaryotes). Our results show that the representative dynamic anisotropy gradient along the membrane normal is absent in membranes made from archaeal lipids. We hypothesize that the dynamic gradient observed in membranes of diester and diether phospholipids is a consequence of natural evolution of membrane lipids in response to the requirement of carrying out complex cellular functions by membrane proteins.

  6. Enzyme histochemical studies of membrane proteases in rat subfornical organ.

    PubMed

    De Bault, L E; Mitro, A

    1994-12-01

    Localization of membrane proteases glutamyl aminopeptidase (EAP), microsomal alanyl aminopeptidase (mAAP), dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GTP) were studied in vessels of the rat subfornical organ (SFO), ependyma which cover the surface of the SFO, and adjacent brain structures. Results of enzyme histochemical reactions showed strong activity for EAP, mAAP, and gamma-GTP, but absence of DPP IV in microvessels of SFO. The ependyma which cover the SFO was positive for gamma-GTP, but negative for other studied proteases. Our results showed that the spectrum of enzymes in the majority of the vessels of SFO is similar to that of the microvessels of the adjacent brain tissue which were positive for EAP, mAAP, and gamma-GTP, but negative for DPP IV. The relative intensity of the enzyme reactions in vessels varied from central to lateral locations in the SFO and the adjacent brain tissue. There was also a difference in the relative reaction intensity from one enzyme to the other. The presence and heterogeneous distribution of the enzymes are consistent with the hypothesis that membrane proteases of the microvascular endothelium constitute an enzyme-barrier between blood and parenchyma of the SFO and between blood and brain tissue, and may be involved in metabolism or modulation of various peptides when they contact the plasma membrane of the endothelial cells of the vessels.

  7. The bi-functional organization of human basement membranes.

    PubMed

    Halfter, Willi; Monnier, Christophe; Müller, David; Oertle, Philipp; Uechi, Guy; Balasubramani, Manimalha; Safi, Farhad; Lim, Roderick; Loparic, Marko; Henrich, Paul Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The current basement membrane (BM) model proposes a single-layered extracellular matrix (ECM) sheet that is predominantly composed of laminins, collagen IVs and proteoglycans. The present data show that BM proteins and their domains are asymmetrically organized providing human BMs with side-specific properties: A) isolated human BMs roll up in a side-specific pattern, with the epithelial side facing outward and the stromal side inward. The rolling is independent of the curvature of the tissue from which the BMs were isolated. B) The epithelial side of BMs is twice as stiff as the stromal side, and C) epithelial cells adhere to the epithelial side of BMs only. Side-selective cell adhesion was also confirmed for BMs from mice and from chick embryos. We propose that the bi-functional organization of BMs is an inherent property of BMs and helps build the basic tissue architecture of metazoans with alternating epithelial and connective tissue layers.

  8. The skeleton in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goode, A. W.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Calcium loss experience by astronauts under weightless conditions is discussed. I-125 photon absorption measurements on astronauts on the Apollo 14, 15, and 16 flights showed bone density decreases of 6.6 percent in one astronaut and 7.3 percent in another. The estimated total body calcium loss on Apollo 17 was 0.2 percent. The test results indicate that calcium losses occur mainly from the weight-bearing parts of the skeleton. Measures to counteract the losses include 'penguin' suits, maintenance of nutrient intakes at high levels, and extensive exercise on ergometer and treadmill.

  9. [WHAT SKELETONS TELL US].

    PubMed

    Catalano, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The recent excavations carried out by the Superintendence for the Colosseum, the Roman National Museum and the Archaeological Area of Rome allowed to uncover a large number of burial grounds of Imperial Age. In this work we present the data for 11 cemeteries scattered throughout the Suburbiumn, dating between 1st and 3rd centuries AD. A whole sample of 6061 tombs has been investigated and 5280 skeletons were anthropologically analyzed. All the field data have been scored in appropriate standardized charts in order to make easy their storage and processing in a dedicated database. PMID:27348986

  10. Path similarity skeleton graph matching.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiang; Latecki, Longin Jan

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a novel framework to for shape recognition based on object silhouettes. The main idea is to match skeleton graphs by comparing the shortest paths between skeleton endpoints. In contrast to typical tree or graph matching methods, we completely ignore the topological graph structure. Our approach is motivated by the fact that visually similar skeleton graphs may have completely different topological structures. The proposed comparison of shortest paths between endpoints of skeleton graphs yields correct matching results in such cases. The skeletons are pruned by contour partitioning with Discrete Curve Evolution, which implies that the endpoints of skeleton branches correspond to visual parts of the objects. The experimental results demonstrate that our method is able to produce correct results in the presence of articulations, stretching, and occlusion.

  11. A NOVEL HYDROPHILIC POLYMER MEMBRANE FOR THE DEHYDRATION OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Novel hydrophilic polymer membranes based on polyallylamine ydrochloride- polyvinylalcohol are developed. The high selectivity and flux characteristics of these membranes for the dehydration of organic solvents are evaluated using pervaporation technology and are found to be ver...

  12. Connexins in the skeleton.

    PubMed

    Stains, Joseph P; Civitelli, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Shaping of the skeleton (modeling) and its maintenance throughout life (remodeling) require coordinated activity among bone forming (osteoblasts) and resorbing cells (osteoclasts) and osteocytes (bone embedded cells). The gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) has emerged as a key modulator of skeletal growth and homeostasis. The skeletal developmental abnormalities present in oculodentodigital and craniometaphyseal dysplasias, both linked to Cx43 gene (GJA1) mutations, demonstrate that the skeleton is a major site of Cx43 action. Via direct action on osteolineage cells, including altering production of pro-osteoclastogenic factors, Cx43 contributes to peak bone mass acquisition, cortical modeling of long bones, and maintenance of bone quality. Cx43 also contributes in diverse ways to bone responsiveness to hormonal and mechanical signals. Skeletal biology research has revealed the complexity of Cx43 function; in addition to forming gap junctions and "hemichannels", Cx43 provides a scaffold for signaling molecules. Hence, Cx43 actively participates in generation and modulation of cellular signals driving skeletal development and homeostasis. Pharmacological interference with Cx43 may in the future help remedy deterioration of bone quality occurring with aging, disuse and hormonal imbalances.

  13. Organized living: formation mechanisms and functions of plasma membrane domains in yeast.

    PubMed

    Ziółkowska, Natasza E; Christiano, Romain; Walther, Tobias C

    2012-03-01

    Plasma membrane proteins and lipids organize into lateral domains of specific composition. Domain formation is achieved by a combination of lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions, membrane-binding protein scaffolds and protein fences. The resulting domains function in membrane protein turnover and homeostasis, as well as in cell signaling. We review the mechanisms generating plasma membrane domains and the functional consequences of this organization, focusing on recent findings from research on the yeast model system.

  14. Cell-Culture Reactor Having a Porous Organic Polymer Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A method for making a biocompatible polymer article using a uniform atomic oxygen treatment is disclosed. The substrate may be subsequently optionally grated with a compatibilizing compound. Compatibilizing compounds may include proteins, phosphory1choline groups, platelet adhesion preventing polymers, albumin adhesion promoters, and the like. The compatibilized substrate may also have a living cell layer adhered thereto. The atomic oxygen is preferably produced by a flowing afterglow microwave discharge, wherein the substrate resides in a sidearm out of the plasma. Also, methods for culturing cells for various purposes using the various membranes are disclosed as well. Also disclosed are porous organic polymers having a distributed pore chemistry (DPC) comprising hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions, and a method for making the DPC by exposing the polymer to atomic oxygen wherein the rate of hydrophilization is greater than the rate of mass loss.

  15. Organic membranes determine the pattern of the columnar prismatic layer of mollusc shells.

    PubMed

    Checa, Antonio G; Macías-Sánchez, Elena; Harper, Elizabeth M; Cartwright, Julyan H E

    2016-05-11

    The degree to which biological control is exercised compared to physical control of the organization of biogenic materials is a central theme in biomineralization. We show that the outlines of biogenic calcite domains with organic membranes are always of simple geometries, while without they are much more complex. Moreover, the mineral prisms enclosed within the organic membranes are frequently polycrystalline. In the prismatic layer of the mollusc shell, organic membranes display a dynamics in accordance with the von Neumann-Mullins and Lewis Laws for two-dimensional foam, emulsion and grain growth. Taken together with the facts that we found instances in which the crystals do not obey such laws, and that the same organic membrane pattern can be found even without the mineral infilling, our work indicates that it is the membranes, not the mineral prisms, that control the pattern, and the mineral enclosed within the organic membranes passively adjusts to the dynamics dictated by the latter. PMID:27147096

  16. Organic membranes determine the pattern of the columnar prismatic layer of mollusc shells.

    PubMed

    Checa, Antonio G; Macías-Sánchez, Elena; Harper, Elizabeth M; Cartwright, Julyan H E

    2016-05-11

    The degree to which biological control is exercised compared to physical control of the organization of biogenic materials is a central theme in biomineralization. We show that the outlines of biogenic calcite domains with organic membranes are always of simple geometries, while without they are much more complex. Moreover, the mineral prisms enclosed within the organic membranes are frequently polycrystalline. In the prismatic layer of the mollusc shell, organic membranes display a dynamics in accordance with the von Neumann-Mullins and Lewis Laws for two-dimensional foam, emulsion and grain growth. Taken together with the facts that we found instances in which the crystals do not obey such laws, and that the same organic membrane pattern can be found even without the mineral infilling, our work indicates that it is the membranes, not the mineral prisms, that control the pattern, and the mineral enclosed within the organic membranes passively adjusts to the dynamics dictated by the latter.

  17. A Stochastic Skeleton Model for the MJO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    thual, S.; Majda, A.; Stechmann, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of variability in the tropical atmosphere on intraseasonal timescales and planetary spatial scales. In recent work by two of the authors, a minimal dynamical model has been proposed that recovers robustly the most fundamental MJO features of (I) a slow eastward speed of roughly 5 ms-1, (II) a peculiar dispersion relation with dω/dk≈ 0, and (III) a horizontal quadrupole vortex structure. This model, the skeleton model, depicts the MJO as a neutrally-stable atmospheric wave that involves a simple multiscale interaction between planetary dry dynamics, planetary lower-tropospheric moisture, and the planetary envelope of synoptic-scale activity. Here, we show that the skeleton model can further account for (IV) the intermittent generation of MJO events and (V) the organization of MJO events into wave trains with growth and demise, as seen in nature. We achieve this goal by developing a simple stochastic parametrization for the unresolved details of synoptic-scale activity, that is coupled to otherwise deterministic processes in the skeleton model. In particular, the intermittent initiation, propagation and shut down of MJO wave trains in the skeleton model occur through these stochastic effects. This includes examples with a background warm-pool where some initial MJO-like disturbances propagate through the western region but stall at the peak of background convection/heating corresponding to the maritime continent in nature.

  18. Composite proton exchange membrane based on sulfonated organic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitia, Emmanuel Sokiri

    As the world sets its sight into the future, energy remains a great challenge. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is part of the solution to the energy challenge because of its high efficiency and diverse application. The purpose of the PEM is to provide a path for proton transport and to prevent direct mixing of hydrogen and oxygen at the anode and the cathode, respectively. Hence, PEMs must have good proton conductivity, excellent chemical stability, and mechanical durability. The current state-of-the-art PEM is a perfluorosulfonate ionomer, Nafion®. Although Nafion® has many desirable properties, it has high methanol crossover and it is expensive. The objective of this research was to develop a cost effective two-phase, composite PEM wherein a dispersed conductive organic phase preferentially aligned in the transport direction controls proton transport, and a continuous hydrophobic phase provides mechanical durability to the PEM. The hypothesis that was driving this research was that one might expect better dispersion, higher surface to volume ratio and improved proton conductivity of a composite membrane if the dispersed particles were nanometer in size and had high ion exchange capacity (IEC, = [mmol sulfonic acid]/gram of polymer). In view of this, considerable efforts were employed in the synthesis of high IEC organic nanoparticles and fabrication of a composite membrane with controlled microstructure. High IEC, ~ 4.5 meq/g (in acid form, theoretical limit is 5.4 meq/g) nanoparticles were achieved by emulsion copolymerization of a quaternary alkyl ammonium (QAA) neutralized-sulfonated styrene (QAA-SS), styrene, and divinylbenzene (DVB). The effects of varying the counterion of the sulfonated styrene (SS) monomer (alkali metal and QAA cations), SS concentration, and the addition of a crosslinking agent (DVB) on the ability to stabilize the nanoparticles to higher IECs were assessed. The nanoparticles were ion exchanged to acid form. The extent of ion

  19. Intramembrane particles and the organization of lymphocyte membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Kuby, J M; Wofsy, L

    1981-03-01

    An experimental system was developed in which the majority of all lymphocyte cell-surface proteins, regardless of antigenic specificity, could be cross-linked and redistributed in the membrane to determine whether this would induce a corresponding redistribution of intramembrane particles (IMP). Mouse spleen cells were treated with P-diazoniumphenyl- beta-D-lactoside (lac) to modify all exposed cell-surface proteins. Extensive azo- coupling was achieved without significantly reducing cell viability or compromising cellular function in mitogen- or antigen-stimulated cultures. When the lac-modified cell- surface proteins were capped with a sandwich of rabbit antilactoside antibody and fluorescein-goat anti-rabbit Ig, freeze-fracture preparations obtained from these cells revealed no obvious redistribution of IMP on the majority of fracture faces. However, detailed analysis showed a statistically significant 35 percent decrease (P less than 0.01) in average IMP density in the E face of the lac-capped spleen cells compared with control cells, whereas a few E-face micrographs showed intense IMP aggregation. In contrast, there was no significant alteration of P-face IMP densities or distribution. Apparently, the majority of E-face IMP and virtually all P-face IMP densities or distribution. Apparently, the majority of E-face IMP and virtually all P-face IMP do not present accessible antigenic sites on the lymphocyte surface and do not associate in a stable manner with surface protein antigens. This finding suggests that IMP, as observed in freeze-fracture analysis, may not comprise a representative reflection of lymphocyte transmembrane protein molecules and complexes because other evidence establishes: (a) that at least some common lymphocyte surface antigens are indeed exposed portions of transmembrane proteins and (b) that the aggregation of molecules of any surface antigen results in altered organization of contractile proteins at the cytoplasmic face of the membrane.

  20. Pervaporative removal of organics from water using hydrophobic membranes. Binary mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kujawski, W.

    2000-01-01

    Results of pervaporation experiments are presented for the separation of several polar and nonpolar organic solvents from their aqueous solutions. Three membranes were evaluated: a polydimethylsiloxane (PERVAP-1060) membrane, a PDMS ZSM-5 zeolite filled (PERVAP-1070) membrane, and a poly(ether-block-amide) (PEBAX-4033) membrane. The effect of feed composition on flux and selectivity was also investigated. Performance parameters of a given membrane depended both on the kind of the organic solvent and the feed composition. The PERVAP-1070 membrane exhibited the highest selectivity with a separation factor over 900 in contact with a water-butyl acetate mixture. Polar solvents like methanol were also preferentially separated from aqueous solutions, but the separation factors were close to those obtained from liquid-vapor equilibria data. Permeate fluxes of organics increased with increasing feed concentration. Synergetic effects between water and organics fluxes were also observed.

  1. Composite Membranes for CO2 Capture: High Performance Metal Organic Frameworks/Polymer Composite Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: A team of six faculty members at Georgia Tech are developing an enhanced membrane by fitting metal organic frameworks, compounds that show great promise for improved carbon capture, into hollow fiber membranes. This new material would be highly efficient at removing CO2 from the flue gas produced at coal-fired power plants. The team is analyzing thousands of metal organic frameworks to identify those that are most suitable for carbon capture based both on their ability to allow coal exhaust to pass easily through them and their ability to select CO2 from that exhaust for capture and storage. The most suitable frameworks would be inserted into the walls of the hollow fiber membranes, making the technology readily scalable due to their high surface area. This composite membrane would be highly stable, withstanding the harsh gas environment found in coal exhaust.

  2. Effects of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) on membrane fouling in anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactors (AnCMBRs) treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiaodi; Koh, Yoong Keat Kelvin; Ng, How Yong

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) have been regarded as a potential solution to achieve energy neutrality in the future wastewater treatment plants. Coupling ceramic membranes into AnMBRs offers great potential as ceramic membranes are resistant to corrosive chemicals such as cleaning reagents and harsh environmental conditions such as high temperature. In this study, ceramic membranes with pore sizes of 80, 200 and 300 nm were individually mounted in three anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactors (AnCMBRs) treating real domestic wastewater to examine the treatment efficiencies and to elucidate the effects of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) on fouling behaviours. The average overall chemical oxygen demands (COD) removal efficiencies could reach around 86-88%. Although CH4 productions were around 0.3 L/g CODutilised, about 67% of CH4 generated was dissolved in the liquid phase and lost in the permeate. When filtering mixed liquor of similar properties, smaller pore-sized membranes fouled slower in long-term operations due to lower occurrence of pore blockages. However, total organic removal efficiencies could not explain the fouling behaviours. Liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection, fluorescence spectrophotometer and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence and ultra-violet detectors were used to analyse the DOMs in detail. The major foulants were identified to be biopolymers that were produced in microbial activities. One of the main components of biopolymers--proteins--led to different fouling behaviours. It is postulated that the proteins could pass through porous cake layers to create pore blockages in membranes. Hence, concentrations of the DOMs in the soluble fraction of mixed liquor (SML) could not predict membrane fouling because different components in the DOMs might have different interactions with membranes.

  3. Selective aqueous extraction of organics coupled with trapping by membrane separation

    DOEpatents

    van Eikeren, Paul; Brose, Daniel J.; Ray, Roderick J.

    1991-01-01

    An improvement to processes for the selective extractation of organic solutes from organic solvents by water-based extractants is disclosed, the improvement comprising coupling various membrane separation processes with the organic extraction process, the membrane separation process being utilized to continuously recycle the water-based extractant and at the same time selectively remove or concentrate organic solute from the water-based extractant.

  4. The Milky Way Skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucker, Catherine; Battersby, Cara; Goodman, Alyssa A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Goodman et al. (2014) argued that a very long, very thin infrared dark cloud 'Nessie' lies directly in the Galactic mid-plane and runs along the Scutum-Centaurus arm in position-position-velocity space as traced by low density CO and high density NH3 gas. Nessie was presented as the first 'bone' of the Milky Way, an extraordinarily long, thin, high contrast filament that can be used to map our galaxy's 'skeleton.' We present the first evidence of additional 'bones' in the Milky Way Galaxy, arguing that Nessie is not a curiosity but one of many filaments that could potentially trace galactic structure. Our ten bone candidates are all long, filamentary, mid-infrared extinction features which lie parallel to, and no more than twenty parsecs from, the physical Galactic mid-plane. We use CO, N2H+, and NH3 radial velocity data to establish the location of the candidates in position-velocity space. Of the ten filaments, three candidates have a projected aspect ratio of >50:1 and run along, or extremely close to, the Scutum-Centaurus arm in position-velocity space. Evidence suggests that these three candidates are Nessie-like features which mark the location of the spiral arms in both physical space and position-velocity space. Other candidates could be spurs, feathers, or interarm clouds associated with the Milky Way's galactic structure. As molecular spectral-line and extinction maps cover more of the sky at increasing resolution and sensitivity, we hope to find more bones in future studies, to ultimately create a global-fit to the Galaxy's spiral arms by piecing together individual skeletal features. This work is supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  5. New insights into the organization of plasma membrane and its role in signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenichi G N

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membranes have heterogeneous structures for efficient signal transduction, required to perform cell functions. Recent evidence indicates that the heterogeneous structures are produced by (1) compartmentalization by actin-based membrane skeleton, (2) raft domains, (3) receptor-receptor interactions, and (4) the binding of receptors to cytoskeletal proteins. This chapter provides an overview of recent studies on diffusion, clustering, raft association, actin binding, and signal transduction of membrane receptors, especially glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored receptors. Studies on diffusion of GPI-anchored receptors suggest that rafts may be small and/or short-lived in plasma membranes. In steady state conditions, GPI-anchored receptors form transient homodimers, which may represent the "standby state" for the stable homodimers and oligomers upon ligation. Furthermore, It is proposed that upon ligation, the binding of GPI-anchored receptor clusters to cytoskeletal actin filaments produces a platform for downstream signaling, and that the pulse-like signaling easily maintains the stability of the overall signaling activity.

  6. Membrane tension and cytoskeleton organization in cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sens, Pierre; Plastino, Julie

    2015-07-01

    Cell membrane shape changes are important for many aspects of normal biological function, such as tissue development, wound healing and cell division and motility. Various disease states are associated with deregulation of how cells move and change shape, including notably tumor initiation and cancer cell metastasis. Cell motility is powered, in large part, by the controlled assembly and disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton. Much of this dynamic happens in close proximity to the plasma membrane due to the fact that actin assembly factors are membrane-bound, and thus actin filaments are generally oriented such that their growth occurs against or near the membrane. For a long time, the membrane was viewed as a relatively passive scaffold for signaling. However, results from the last five years show that this is not the whole picture, and that the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton are intimately linked to the mechanics of the cell membrane. In this review, we summarize recent findings concerning the role of plasma membrane mechanics in cell cytoskeleton dynamics and architecture, showing that the cell membrane is not just an envelope or a barrier for actin assembly, but is a master regulator controlling cytoskeleton dynamics and cell polarity.

  7. Enhanced gypsum scaling by organic fouling layer on nanofiltration membrane: Characteristics and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaxuan; Wang, Lei; Miao, Rui; Lv, Yongtao; Wang, Xudong; Meng, Xiaorong; Yang, Ruosong; Zhang, Xiaoting

    2016-03-15

    To investigate how the characteristics of pregenerated organic fouling layers on nanofiltration (NF) membranes influence the subsequent gypsum scaling behavior, filtration experiments with gypsum were carried out with organic-fouled poly(piperazineamide) NF membranes. Organic fouling layer on membrane was induced by bovine serum albumin (BSA), humic acid (HA), and sodium alginate (SA), respectively. The morphology and components of the scalants, the role of Ca(2+) adsorption on the organic fouling layer during gypsum crystallization, and the interaction forces of gypsum on the membrane surface were investigated. The results indicated that SA- and HA-fouled membranes had higher surface crystallization tendency along with more severe flux decline during gypsum scaling than BSA-fouled and virgin membranes because HA and SA macromolecules acted as nuclei for crystallization. Based on the analyses of Ca(2+) adsorption onto organic adlayers and adhesion forces, it was found that the flux decline rate and extent in the gypsum scaling experiment was positively related to the Ca(2+)-binding capacity of the organic matter. Although the dominant gypsum scaling mechanism was affected by coupling physicochemical effects, the controlling factors varied among foulants. Nevertheless, the carboxyl density of organic matter played an important role in determining surface crystallization on organic-fouled membrane.

  8. Separation of hazardous organics by low-pressure reverse-osmosis membranes. Phase 2 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Williams, M.E.

    1991-09-01

    Extensive experimental studies showed that thin-film, composite membranes can be used effectively for the separation of selected hazardous organic compounds. This waste treatment technique offers definite advantages in terms of high solute separations at low pressures (<2MPa) and broad pH operating range, and the use of charged membranes would allow the selective separation of some organics from feeds containing high salt concentrations. In addition, feed pre-ozonation of selected organics provided significant improvement in flux and rejection characteristics for both charged and uncharged membranes because of the formation of ionizable organic acid intermediates during the ozonation that did not interact as strongly with the membrane. The overall ozonation/membrane process effectively produced permeate water of high quality while it minimized the volume of waste that must be further treated.

  9. The effect of organic loading on bacterial community composition of membrane biofilms in a submerged polyvinyl chloride membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Xia, Siqing; Li, Jixiang; He, Shuying; Xie, Kang; Wang, Xiaojia; Zhang, Yanhao; Duan, Liang; Zhang, Zhiqiang

    2010-09-01

    The effect of organic loading on bacterial community composition of membrane biofilms was investigated using a submerged polyvinyl chloride membrane bioreactor. The low and high loadings were set at 0.33 and 0.52 gCOD/(gVSSd), respectively. The results showed that membrane fouling occurred earlier and faster under the high loading conditions. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that the similarity of bacterial community in the membrane biofilms between the two loadings was 0.67, higher than that in the mixed liquors (0.52-0.55), which indicated that some specific bacteria were selected preferentially on the membranes. Clone library analysis of the membrane biofilms indicated that Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes under the high loading were 54.72% and 19.81%, respectively. Microarray results further confirmed that the two bacteria were the dominant microorganisms in the high loading biofilm. The severe membrane fouling may be aroused mainly by the enrichment of the two bacteria under the high loading.

  10. Influence of membrane phospholipid composition and structural organization on spontaneous lipid transfer between membranes.

    PubMed

    Pankov, R; Markovska, T; Antonov, P; Ivanova, L; Momchilova, A

    2006-09-01

    Investigations were carried out on the influence of phospholipid composition of model membranes on the processes of spontaneous lipid transfer between membranes. Acceptor vesicles were prepared from phospholipids extracted from plasma membranes of control and ras-transformed fibroblasts. Acceptor model membranes with manipulated levels of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), sphingomyelin and phosphatidic acid were also used in the studies. Donor vesicles were prepared of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and contained two fluorescent lipid analogues, NBD-PC and N-Rh-PE, at a self-quenching concentration. Lipid transfer rate was assessed by measuring the increase of fluorescence in acceptor membranes due to transfer of fluorescent lipid analogues from quenched donor to unquenched acceptor vesicles. The results showed that spontaneous NBD-PC transfer increased upon fluidization of acceptor vesicles. In addition, elevation of PE concentration in model membranes was also accompanied by an increase of lipid transfer to all series of acceptor vesicles. The results are discussed with respect to the role of lipid composition and structural order of cellular plasma membranes in the processes of spontaneous lipid exchange between membrane bilayers. PMID:17197729

  11. Rejection of emerging organic micropollutants in nanofiltration-reverse osmosis membrane applications.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pei; Drewes, Jörg E; Bellona, Christopher; Amy, Gary; Kim, Tae-Uk; Adam, Marc; Heberer, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The rejection of emerging trace organics by a variety of commercial reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF), and ultra-low-pressure RO (ULPRO) membranes was investigated using TFC-HR, NF-90, NF-200, TFC-SR2, and XLE spiral membrane elements (Koch Membrane Systems, Wilmington, Massachusetts) to simulate operational conditions for drinking-water treatment and wastewater reclamation. In general, the presence of effluent organic matter (EfOM) improved the rejection of ionic organics by tight NF and RO membranes, as compared to a type-II water matrix (adjusted by ionic strength and hardness), likely as a result of a decreased negatively charged membrane surface. Rejection of ionic pharmaceutical residues and pesticides exceeded 95% by NF-90, XLE, and TFC-HR membranes and was above 89% for the NF-200 membrane. Hydrophobic nonionic compounds, such as bromoform and chloroform, exhibited a high initial rejection, as a result of both hydrophobic-hydrophobic solute-membrane interactions and steric exclusion, but rejection decreased significantly after 10 hours of operation because of partitioning of solutes through the membranes. This resulted in a partial removal of disinfection byproducts by the RO membrane TFC-HR. In a type-II water matrix, the effect of increasing feed water recoveries on rejection of hydrophilic ionic and nonionic compounds was compound-dependent and not consistent for different membranes. The presence of EfOM, however, could neutralize the effect of hydrodynamic operating condition on rejection performance. The ULPRO and tight NF membranes were operated at lower feed pressure, as compared to the TFC-HR, and provided a product water quality similar to a conventional RO membrane, regarding trace organics of interest.

  12. A Stochastic Skeleton Model for the MJO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stechmann, S. N.; Thual, S.; Majda, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of variability in the tropical atmosphere on intraseasonal time scales and planetary spatial scales. Despite the primary importance of the MJO and the decades of research progress since its original discovery, a generally accepted theory for its essential mechanisms has remained elusive. In recent work by two of the authors, a minimal dynamical model has been proposed that recovers robustly the most fundamental MJO features of (i) a slow eastward speed of roughly 5 m/s, (ii) a peculiar dispersion relation with dω/dk≈0, and (iii) a horizontal quadrupole vortex structure. This model, the skeleton model, depicts the MJO as a neutrally stable atmospheric wave that involves a simple multiscale interaction between planetary dry dynamics, planetary lower-tropospheric moisture, and the planetary envelope of synoptic-scale activity. In this article, it is shown that the skeleton model can further account for (iv) the intermittent generation of MJO events and (v) the organization of MJO events into wave trains with growth and demise, as seen in nature. The goal is achieved by developing a simple stochastic parameterization for the unresolved details of synoptic-scale activity, which is coupled to otherwise deterministic processes in the skeleton model. In particular, the intermittent initiation, propagation, and shut down of MJO wave trains in the skeleton model occur through these stochastic effects. This includes examples with a background warm pool where some initial MJO-like disturbances propagate through the western region but stall at the peak of background convection/heating corresponding to the Maritime Continent in nature. Also shown are examples with an idealized seasonal cycle, namely a background warm pool state of heating/moistening displacing meridionally during the year. This seasonally varying case considers both equatorial and off-equatorial components of the envelope of synoptic scale convective

  13. Actomyosin dynamics drive local membrane component organization in an in vitro active composite layer

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Kabir; Iljazi, Elda; Bhat, Abrar; Bieling, Peter; Mullins, R. Dyche; Rao, Madan; Mayor, Satyajit

    2016-01-01

    The surface of a living cell provides a platform for receptor signaling, protein sorting, transport, and endocytosis, whose regulation requires the local control of membrane organization. Previous work has revealed a role for dynamic actomyosin in membrane protein and lipid organization, suggesting that the cell surface behaves as an active composite composed of a fluid bilayer and a thin film of active actomyosin. We reconstitute an analogous system in vitro that consists of a fluid lipid bilayer coupled via membrane-associated actin-binding proteins to dynamic actin filaments and myosin motors. Upon complete consumption of ATP, this system settles into distinct phases of actin organization, namely bundled filaments, linked apolar asters, and a lattice of polar asters. These depend on actin concentration, filament length, and actin/myosin ratio. During formation of the polar aster phase, advection of the self-organizing actomyosin network drives transient clustering of actin-associated membrane components. Regeneration of ATP supports a constitutively remodeling actomyosin state, which in turn drives active fluctuations of coupled membrane components, resembling those observed at the cell surface. In a multicomponent membrane bilayer, this remodeling actomyosin layer contributes to changes in the extent and dynamics of phase-segregating domains. These results show how local membrane composition can be driven by active processes arising from actomyosin, highlighting the fundamental basis of the active composite model of the cell surface, and indicate its relevance to the study of membrane organization. PMID:26929326

  14. Synthesis of PVDF ultrafiltration membranes supported on polyester fabrics for separation of organic matter from water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhlanga, Sabelo D.; Tshabalala, Tumelo G.; Nxumalo, Edward N.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    2014-08-01

    Polyvinylidene flouride (PVDF) membranes supported on non-woven fabrics (NWF) of polyester are reported. The PVDF membranes were fabricated using the phase inversion method followed by modification of the active top layer of the PVDF thin film by adding polyvinylpyrolidone (PVP) into the cast solution. A PVDF resin was used with N- methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent. Sessile drop contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study the physical properties of the membranes. Membrane rejection of humic acid was studied using a cross-flow membrane testing unit. The contact angle results revealed that the hydrophilicity of PVDF membranes increased as the PVP concentration was increased from 3 to 10 wt%. SEM analysis of the membranes revealed that the membrane pore sizes increased when PVP was added. AFM analysis also showed that membrane roughness changed when PVP was added. Total organic carbon (TOC) analysis of water samples spiked with humic acid was performed to test the rejection capacity of the membranes. Rejections of up to 97% were achieved for PVDF membranes supported on polyester NWF1, which had smaller thickness and higher permeability compared to polyester NWF2. The NWFs provided the high strength required for the membranes despite the modifications done on the PDVF surface and microstructure.

  15. Membrane fouling controlled by coagulation/adsorption during direct sewage membrane filtration (DSMF) for organic matter concentration.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hui; Jin, Zhengyu; Wang, Xian; Wang, Kaijun

    2015-06-01

    Unlike the role of the membrane in a membrane bioreactor, which is designed to replace a sediment tank, direct sewage membrane filtration (DSMF), with the goal of concentrating organic matters, is proposed as a pretreatment process in a novel sewage treatment concept. The concept of membrane-based pretreatment is proposed to divide raw sewage into a concentrated part retaining most organics and a filtered part with less pollutant remaining, so that energy recovery and water reuse, respectively, could be realized by post-treatment. A pilot-scale experiment was carried out to verify the feasibility of coagulant/adsorbent addition for membrane fouling control, which has been the main issue during this DSMF process. The results showed that continuous coagulant addition successfully slowed down the increase in filtration resistance, with the resistance maintained below 1.0×10(13) m(-1) in the first 70 hr before a jump occurred. Furthermore, the adsorbent addition contributed to retarding the occurrence of the filtration resistance jump, achieving simultaneous fouling control and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration improvement. The final concentrated COD amounted to 7500 mg/L after 6 days of operation.

  16. Analysis of UF membrane fouling mechanisms caused by organic interactions in seawater.

    PubMed

    Resosudarmo, Adhikara; Ye, Yun; Le-Clech, Pierre; Chen, Vicki

    2013-02-01

    Organic fouling remains a significant challenge in the application of ultrafiltration (UF) pretreatment systems in the desalination industry. In this study, the fouling potential of organic materials in seawater was investigated using model seawater solution containing humic acid and alginate. The buildup of organic fouling on UF membranes was studied after consecutive filtration cycles with periodical backwash. The effects of varying backwash conditions (duration, frequency, permeate/deionized water) on membrane performance were analysed. It was observed that the variation in filtration condition resulted in minor differences in membrane performance provided the total backwash volume applied remained constant. However, the substitution of permeate water backwash with deionized water improved fouling reversibility significantly. Furthermore, advanced characterisation of the membrane fouling layer after filtration revealed significant differences in foulant distribution due to the nature of the backwash solution. Deionized water backwash was found to be particularly effective in removing alginate from the membrane fouling layer, although the humic acid adsorbed onto the membrane surface were not significantly affected. However, permeability testing of the membranes after chemical cleaning revealed higher levels of irrecoverable fouling after deionized water backwash. From the data obtained in this study, a fouling mechanism is therefore proposed, in which the alginate fouling layer performs as a dynamic membrane, prefiltering smaller humic acid molecules and reducing adsorption on the membrane surface.

  17. Differential effect of plant lipids on membrane organization: specificities of phytosphingolipids and phytosterols.

    PubMed

    Grosjean, Kevin; Mongrand, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia

    2015-02-27

    The high diversity of the plant lipid mixture raises the question of their respective involvement in the definition of membrane organization. This is particularly the case for plant plasma membrane, which is enriched in specific lipids, such as free and conjugated forms of phytosterols and typical phytosphingolipids, such as glycosylinositolphosphoceramides. This question was here addressed extensively by characterizing the order level of membrane from vesicles prepared using various plant lipid mixtures and labeled with an environment-sensitive probe. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed that among major phytosterols, campesterol exhibits a stronger ability than β-sitosterol and stigmasterol to order model membranes. Multispectral confocal microscopy, allowing spatial analysis of membrane organization, demonstrated accordingly the strong ability of campesterol to promote ordered domain formation and to organize their spatial distribution at the membrane surface. Conjugated sterol forms, alone and in synergy with free sterols, exhibit a striking ability to order membrane. Plant sphingolipids, particularly glycosylinositolphosphoceramides, enhanced the sterol-induced ordering effect, emphasizing the formation and increasing the size of sterol-dependent ordered domains. Altogether, our results support a differential involvement of free and conjugated phytosterols in the formation of ordered domains and suggest that the diversity of plant lipids, allowing various local combinations of lipid species, could be a major contributor to membrane organization in particular through the formation of sphingolipid-sterol interacting domains. PMID:25575593

  18. Differential effect of plant lipids on membrane organization: specificities of phytosphingolipids and phytosterols.

    PubMed

    Grosjean, Kevin; Mongrand, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia

    2015-02-27

    The high diversity of the plant lipid mixture raises the question of their respective involvement in the definition of membrane organization. This is particularly the case for plant plasma membrane, which is enriched in specific lipids, such as free and conjugated forms of phytosterols and typical phytosphingolipids, such as glycosylinositolphosphoceramides. This question was here addressed extensively by characterizing the order level of membrane from vesicles prepared using various plant lipid mixtures and labeled with an environment-sensitive probe. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed that among major phytosterols, campesterol exhibits a stronger ability than β-sitosterol and stigmasterol to order model membranes. Multispectral confocal microscopy, allowing spatial analysis of membrane organization, demonstrated accordingly the strong ability of campesterol to promote ordered domain formation and to organize their spatial distribution at the membrane surface. Conjugated sterol forms, alone and in synergy with free sterols, exhibit a striking ability to order membrane. Plant sphingolipids, particularly glycosylinositolphosphoceramides, enhanced the sterol-induced ordering effect, emphasizing the formation and increasing the size of sterol-dependent ordered domains. Altogether, our results support a differential involvement of free and conjugated phytosterols in the formation of ordered domains and suggest that the diversity of plant lipids, allowing various local combinations of lipid species, could be a major contributor to membrane organization in particular through the formation of sphingolipid-sterol interacting domains.

  19. Influence of nonequilibrium lipid transport, membrane compartmentalization, and membrane proteins on the lateral organization of the plasma membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jun; Sammalkorpi, Maria; Haataja, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Compositional lipid domains (lipid rafts) in plasma membranes are believed to be important components of many cellular processes. The mechanisms by which cells regulate the sizes, lifetimes, and spatial localization of these domains are rather poorly understood at the moment. We propose a robust mechanism for the formation of finite-sized lipid raft domains in plasma membranes, the competition between phase separation in an immiscible lipid system and active cellular lipid transport processes naturally leads to the formation of such domains. Simulations of a continuum model reveal that the raft size distribution is broad and the average raft size is strongly dependent on the rates of cellular and interlayer lipid transport processes. We demonstrate that spatiotemporal variations in the recycling may enable the cell to localize larger raft aggregates at specific parts along the membrane. Moreover, we show that membrane compartmentalization may further facilitate spatial localization of the raft domains. Finally, we demonstrate that local interactions with immobile membrane proteins can spatially localize the rafts and lead to further clustering.

  20. Natural organic matter removal and fouling in a low pressure hybrid membrane systems.

    PubMed

    Uyak, Vedat; Akdagli, Muge; Cakmakci, Mehmet; Koyuncu, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate powdered activated carbon (PAC) contribution to natural organic matter (NOM) removal by a submerged MF and UF hybrid systems. It was found that filtration of surface waters by a bare MF and UF membranes removed negligible TOC; by contrast, significant amounts of TOC were removed when daily added PAC particles were predeposited on the membrane surfaces. These results support the assumption that the membranes surface properties and PAC layer structure might have considerably influential factor on NOM removal. Moreover, it was concluded that the dominant removal mechanism of hybrid membrane system is adsorption of NOM within PAC layer rather than size exclusion of NOM by both of membrane pores. Transmembrane pressure (TMP) increases with PAC membrane systems support the view that PAC adsorption pretreatment will not prevent the development of membrane pressure; on the contrary, PAC particles themselves caused membrane fouling by blocking the entrance of pores of MF and UF membranes. Although all three source waters have similar HPI content, it appears that the PAC interaction with the entrance of membrane pores was responsible for offsetting the NOM fractional effects on membrane fouling for these source waters. PMID:24523651

  1. Combined organic-inorganic fouling of forward osmosis hollow fiber membranes.

    PubMed

    Arkhangelsky, Elizabeth; Wicaksana, Filicia; Tang, Chuyang; Al-Rabiah, Abdulrahman A; Al-Zahrani, Saeed M; Wang, Rong

    2012-12-01

    This research focused on combined organic-inorganic fouling and cleaning studies of forward osmosis (FO) membranes. Various organic/inorganic model foulants such as sodium alginate, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and silica nanoparticles were applied to polyamide-polyethersulfone FO hollow fiber membranes fabricated in our laboratory. In order to understand all possible interactions, experiments were performed with a single foulant as well as combinations of foulants. Experimental results suggested that the degree of FO membrane fouling could be promoted by synergistic effect of organic foulants, the presence of divalent cations, low cross-flow velocity and high permeation drag force. The water flux of fouled FO hollow fibers could be fully restored by simple physical cleaning. It was also found that hydrodynamic regime played an important role in combined organic-inorganic fouling of FO membranes.

  2. Applying membrane technology to air stripping effluent for remediation of groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.J.; Erickson, M.D.; Beskid, N.J.

    1993-12-31

    Remediation groundwater contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) requires cost- and technically-effective solutions. This paper reviews the options for VOC removal from remediation air streams, focusing on membrane separation. The basic separation science and technology, results of performance tests, and results of cost studies for membrane separation are presented. Competing technologies are discussed and compared with membrane separation. Membrane separation combined with air stripping will provide an economically and environmentally safe technology for remediation of VOC-contaminated groundwater and, as it matures, may become the preferred method. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Spatiotemporal mapping of diffusion dynamics and organization in plasma membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bag, Nirmalya; Ng, Xue Wen; Sankaran, Jagadish; Wohland, Thorsten

    2016-09-01

    Imaging fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and the related FCS diffusion law have been applied in recent years to investigate the diffusion modes of lipids and proteins in membranes. These efforts have provided new insights into the membrane structure below the optical diffraction limit, new information on the existence of lipid domains, and on the influence of the cytoskeleton on membrane dynamics. However, there has been no systematic study to evaluate how domain size, domain density, and the probe partition coefficient affect the resulting imaging FCS diffusion law parameters. Here, we characterize the effects of these factors on the FCS diffusion law through simulations and experiments on lipid bilayers and live cells. By segmenting images into smaller 7  ×  7 pixel areas, we can evaluate the FCS diffusion law on areas smaller than 2 µm and thus provide detailed maps of information on the membrane structure and heterogeneity at this length scale. We support and extend this analysis by deriving a mathematical expression to calculate the mean squared displacement (MSDACF) from the autocorrelation function of imaging FCS, and demonstrate that the MSDACF plots depend on the existence of nanoscopic domains. Based on the results, we derive limits for the detection of domains depending on their size, density, and relative viscosity in comparison to the surroundings. Finally, we apply these measurements to bilayers and live cells using imaging total internal reflection FCS and single plane illumination microscopy FCS.

  4. Comparison of membrane filtration and multiple tube methods for the enumeration of coliform organisms in water

    PubMed Central

    1972-01-01

    The membrane methods described in Report 71 on the bacteriological examination of water supplies (Report, 1969) for the enumeration of coliform organisms and Escherichia coli in waters, together with a glutamate membrane method, were compared with the glutamate multiple tube method recommended in Report 71 and an incubation procedure similar to that used for membranes with the first 4 hr. at 30° C., and with MacConkey broth in multiple tubes. Although there were some differences between individual laboratories, the combined results from all participating laboratories showed that standard and extended membrane methods gave significantly higher results than the glutamate tube method for coliform organisms in both chlorinated and unchlorinated waters, but significantly lower results for Esch. coli with chlorinated waters and equivocal results with unchlorinated waters. Extended membranes gave higher results than glutamate tubes in larger proportions of samples than did standard membranes. Although transport membranes did not do so well as standard membrane methods, the results were usually in agreement with glutamate tubes except for Esch. coli in chlorinated waters. The glutamate membranes were unsatisfactory. Preliminary incubation of glutamate at 30° C. made little difference to the results. PMID:4567313

  5. Comparison of membrane filtration and multiple tube methods for the enumeration of coliform organisms in water.

    PubMed

    1972-12-01

    The membrane methods described in Report 71 on the bacteriological examination of water supplies (Report, 1969) for the enumeration of coliform organisms and Escherichia coli in waters, together with a glutamate membrane method, were compared with the glutamate multiple tube method recommended in Report 71 and an incubation procedure similar to that used for membranes with the first 4 hr. at 30 degrees C., and with MacConkey broth in multiple tubes. Although there were some differences between individual laboratories, the combined results from all participating laboratories showed that standard and extended membrane methods gave significantly higher results than the glutamate tube method for coliform organisms in both chlorinated and unchlorinated waters, but significantly lower results for Esch. coli with chlorinated waters and equivocal results with unchlorinated waters. Extended membranes gave higher results than glutamate tubes in larger proportions of samples than did standard membranes. Although transport membranes did not do so well as standard membrane methods, the results were usually in agreement with glutamate tubes except for Esch. coli in chlorinated waters. The glutamate membranes were unsatisfactory. Preliminary incubation of glutamate at 30 degrees C. made little difference to the results.

  6. Spatio-temporal Remodeling of Functional Membrane Microdomains Organizes the Signaling Networks of a Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Johannes; Klein, Teresa; Mielich-Süss, Benjamin; Koch, Gudrun; Franke, Christian; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kovács, Ákos T.; Sauer, Markus; Lopez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains specialized in the regulation of numerous cellular processes related to membrane organization, as diverse as signal transduction, protein sorting, membrane trafficking or pathogen invasion. It has been proposed that this functional diversity would require a heterogeneous population of raft domains with varying compositions. However, a mechanism for such diversification is not known. We recently discovered that bacterial membranes organize their signal transduction pathways in functional membrane microdomains (FMMs) that are structurally and functionally similar to the eukaryotic lipid rafts. In this report, we took advantage of the tractability of the prokaryotic model Bacillus subtilis to provide evidence for the coexistence of two distinct families of FMMs in bacterial membranes, displaying a distinctive distribution of proteins specialized in different biological processes. One family of microdomains harbors the scaffolding flotillin protein FloA that selectively tethers proteins specialized in regulating cell envelope turnover and primary metabolism. A second population of microdomains containing the two scaffolding flotillins, FloA and FloT, arises exclusively at later stages of cell growth and specializes in adaptation of cells to stationary phase. Importantly, the diversification of membrane microdomains does not occur arbitrarily. We discovered that bacterial cells control the spatio-temporal remodeling of microdomains by restricting the activation of FloT expression to stationary phase. This regulation ensures a sequential assembly of functionally specialized membrane microdomains to strategically organize signaling networks at the right time during the lifespan of a bacterium. PMID:25909364

  7. Enhanced ethylene separation and plasticization resistance in polymer membranes incorporating metal-organic framework nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachman, Jonathan E.; Smith, Zachary P.; Li, Tao; Xu, Ting; Long, Jeffrey R.

    2016-08-01

    The implementation of membrane-based separations in the petrochemical industry has the potential to reduce energy consumption significantly relative to conventional separation processes. Achieving this goal, however, requires the development of new membrane materials with greater selectivity, permeability and stability than available at present. Here, we report composite materials consisting of nanocrystals of metal-organic frameworks dispersed within a high-performance polyimide, which can exhibit enhanced selectivity for ethylene over ethane, greater ethylene permeability and improved membrane stability. Our results suggest that framework-polymer interactions reduce chain mobility of the polymer while simultaneously boosting membrane separation performance. The increased stability, or plasticization resistance, is expected to improve membrane utility under real process conditions for petrochemical separations and natural gas purification. Furthermore, this approach can be broadly applied to numerous polymers that encounter aggressive environments, potentially making gas separations possible that were previously inaccessible to membranes.

  8. Enhanced ethylene separation and plasticization resistance in polymer membranes incorporating metal-organic framework nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Bachman, Jonathan E; Smith, Zachary P; Li, Tao; Xu, Ting; Long, Jeffrey R

    2016-08-01

    The implementation of membrane-based separations in the petrochemical industry has the potential to reduce energy consumption significantly relative to conventional separation processes. Achieving this goal, however, requires the development of new membrane materials with greater selectivity, permeability and stability than available at present. Here, we report composite materials consisting of nanocrystals of metal-organic frameworks dispersed within a high-performance polyimide, which can exhibit enhanced selectivity for ethylene over ethane, greater ethylene permeability and improved membrane stability. Our results suggest that framework-polymer interactions reduce chain mobility of the polymer while simultaneously boosting membrane separation performance. The increased stability, or plasticization resistance, is expected to improve membrane utility under real process conditions for petrochemical separations and natural gas purification. Furthermore, this approach can be broadly applied to numerous polymers that encounter aggressive environments, potentially making gas separations possible that were previously inaccessible to membranes.

  9. THE SKELETON IN THE CLOSET

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Frederick S.

    2015-01-01

    The origins of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) in human history are unknown but the condition has been well described since Freke’s account in 1740. Important contributions by physicians and scientists in the past two and a half centuries have converged on the remarkable skeleton of Harry Eastlack at The Mutter Museum of The College of Physicians in Philadelphia. PMID:23810943

  10. The skeleton in the closet.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Frederick S

    2013-10-01

    The origins of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) in human history are unknown but the condition has been well described since Freke's account in 1740. Important contributions by physicians and scientists in the past two and a half centuries have converged on the remarkable skeleton of Harry Eastlack at The Mutter Museum of The College of Physicians in Philadelphia.

  11. Relating rejection of trace organic contaminants to membrane properties in forward osmosis: measurements, modelling and implications.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming; Nghiem, Long D; Price, William E; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-02-01

    This study elucidates the relationship between membrane properties and the rejection of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) in forward osmosis (FO). An asymmetric cellulose triacetate (CTA) and a thin-film composite (TFC) polyamide FO membrane were used for this investigation. The effective average pore radius (rp), selective barrier thickness over porosity parameter (l/ε), surface charge, support layer structural parameter (S), pure water permeability coefficient (A) and salt (NaCl) permeability coefficient (B) of the two membranes were systematically characterised. Results show that measured rejection of TrOCs as a function of permeate water flux can be well described by the pore hindrance transport model. This observation represents the first successful application of this model, which was developed for pressure-driven nanofiltration, to an osmotically-driven membrane process. The rejection of charged TrOCs by the CTA and TFC membranes was high and was governed by both electrostatic repulsion and steric hindrance. The TFC membrane exhibited higher rejection of neutral TrOCs with low molecular weight than the CTA membrane, although the estimated pore size of the TFC membrane (0.42 nm) was slightly larger than that of the CTA membrane (0.37 nm). This higher rejection of neutral TrOCs by the TFC membrane is likely attributed to its active layer properties, namely a more effective active layer structure, as indicated by a larger l/ε parameter, and pore hydration induced by the negative surface charge.

  12. Relating rejection of trace organic contaminants to membrane properties in forward osmosis: measurements, modelling and implications.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming; Nghiem, Long D; Price, William E; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-02-01

    This study elucidates the relationship between membrane properties and the rejection of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) in forward osmosis (FO). An asymmetric cellulose triacetate (CTA) and a thin-film composite (TFC) polyamide FO membrane were used for this investigation. The effective average pore radius (rp), selective barrier thickness over porosity parameter (l/ε), surface charge, support layer structural parameter (S), pure water permeability coefficient (A) and salt (NaCl) permeability coefficient (B) of the two membranes were systematically characterised. Results show that measured rejection of TrOCs as a function of permeate water flux can be well described by the pore hindrance transport model. This observation represents the first successful application of this model, which was developed for pressure-driven nanofiltration, to an osmotically-driven membrane process. The rejection of charged TrOCs by the CTA and TFC membranes was high and was governed by both electrostatic repulsion and steric hindrance. The TFC membrane exhibited higher rejection of neutral TrOCs with low molecular weight than the CTA membrane, although the estimated pore size of the TFC membrane (0.42 nm) was slightly larger than that of the CTA membrane (0.37 nm). This higher rejection of neutral TrOCs by the TFC membrane is likely attributed to its active layer properties, namely a more effective active layer structure, as indicated by a larger l/ε parameter, and pore hydration induced by the negative surface charge. PMID:24345822

  13. A vanished history of skeletonization in Cambrian comb jellies.

    PubMed

    Ou, Qiang; Xiao, Shuhai; Han, Jian; Sun, Ge; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Zhifei; Shu, Degan

    2015-07-01

    Ctenophores are traditionally regarded as "lower" metazoans, sharing with cnidarians a diploblastic grade of organization. Unlike cnidarians, where skeletonization (biomineralization and sclerotization) evolved repeatedly among ecologically important taxa (for example, scleractinians and octocorals), living ctenophores are characteristically soft-bodied animals. We report six sclerotized and armored ctenophores from the early Cambrian period. They have diagnostic ctenophore features (for example, an octamerous symmetry, oral-aboral axis, aboral sense organ, and octaradially arranged ctene rows). Unlike most modern counterparts, however, they lack tentacles, have a sclerotized framework, and have eight pairs of ctene rows. They are resolved as a monophyletic group (Scleroctenophora new class) within the ctenophores. This clade reveals a cryptic history and sheds new light on the early evolution of this basal animal phylum. Skeletonization also occurs in some other Cambrian animal groups whose extant members are exclusively soft-bodied, suggesting the ecological importance of skeletonization in the Cambrian explosion. PMID:26601209

  14. A vanished history of skeletonization in Cambrian comb jellies

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Qiang; Xiao, Shuhai; Han, Jian; Sun, Ge; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Zhifei; Shu, Degan

    2015-01-01

    Ctenophores are traditionally regarded as “lower” metazoans, sharing with cnidarians a diploblastic grade of organization. Unlike cnidarians, where skeletonization (biomineralization and sclerotization) evolved repeatedly among ecologically important taxa (for example, scleractinians and octocorals), living ctenophores are characteristically soft-bodied animals. We report six sclerotized and armored ctenophores from the early Cambrian period. They have diagnostic ctenophore features (for example, an octamerous symmetry, oral-aboral axis, aboral sense organ, and octaradially arranged ctene rows). Unlike most modern counterparts, however, they lack tentacles, have a sclerotized framework, and have eight pairs of ctene rows. They are resolved as a monophyletic group (Scleroctenophora new class) within the ctenophores. This clade reveals a cryptic history and sheds new light on the early evolution of this basal animal phylum. Skeletonization also occurs in some other Cambrian animal groups whose extant members are exclusively soft-bodied, suggesting the ecological importance of skeletonization in the Cambrian explosion. PMID:26601209

  15. Making an Inexpensive Skeleton for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Edward L., Jr.; Pruitt, Nancy E.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which a skeleton is built using papier mache' and various household items. The materials; procedures for building each part of the skeleton; and directions for painting, assembling, and varnishing are included. (KR)

  16. The effects of organic fouling on the removal of radionuclides by reverse osmosis membranes.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shiyuan; Yang, Yu; Li, Chen; Huang, Haiou; Hou, Li-An

    2016-05-15

    The removals of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr), two hazardous and abundant radionuclides in aquatic environment, were assessed with their isotopes in a synthetic water containing Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM), a natural surface water (SW) and a wastewater effluent (WW) by two different types of ultra-low pressure RO membranes (M1 and M2). The rejections of Sr by the membranes M1 and M2 were higher than 97.5% and 96.0%, respectively, and the rejections of Cs exceeded 90.0% and 85.0%, respectively, in the filtration of real water. The membrane M1 exhibited a more significant flux decline in the filtration of the SRNOM solution, while more severe flux declines were observed with the membrane M2 in the filtration of SW and WW. Protein-like materials with relatively high molecular weight were the main contributors to the flux decline, and humic-acid-like compounds had little effect on the flux decline. Donnan exclusion and size exclusion by humic-acid-like compounds improved the rejections by the membrane M2 with weaker hydrophilicity, while the cake-enhanced concentration polarization reduced the rejections of Cs and Sr by the membrane M1 with stronger hydrophilicity. The ionic strength in the real water resulted in the mitigation of membrane fouling. This study provided important insights into foulant characterization and the mechanisms of organic-fouling-enhanced rejections of Cr and Sr by ultra-low pressure RO membranes.

  17. The effects of organic fouling on the removal of radionuclides by reverse osmosis membranes.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shiyuan; Yang, Yu; Li, Chen; Huang, Haiou; Hou, Li-An

    2016-05-15

    The removals of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr), two hazardous and abundant radionuclides in aquatic environment, were assessed with their isotopes in a synthetic water containing Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM), a natural surface water (SW) and a wastewater effluent (WW) by two different types of ultra-low pressure RO membranes (M1 and M2). The rejections of Sr by the membranes M1 and M2 were higher than 97.5% and 96.0%, respectively, and the rejections of Cs exceeded 90.0% and 85.0%, respectively, in the filtration of real water. The membrane M1 exhibited a more significant flux decline in the filtration of the SRNOM solution, while more severe flux declines were observed with the membrane M2 in the filtration of SW and WW. Protein-like materials with relatively high molecular weight were the main contributors to the flux decline, and humic-acid-like compounds had little effect on the flux decline. Donnan exclusion and size exclusion by humic-acid-like compounds improved the rejections by the membrane M2 with weaker hydrophilicity, while the cake-enhanced concentration polarization reduced the rejections of Cs and Sr by the membrane M1 with stronger hydrophilicity. The ionic strength in the real water resulted in the mitigation of membrane fouling. This study provided important insights into foulant characterization and the mechanisms of organic-fouling-enhanced rejections of Cr and Sr by ultra-low pressure RO membranes. PMID:26994696

  18. Hydrophilic fraction of natural organic matter causing irreversible fouling of microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Hiroshi; Okimoto, Kenji; Kimura, Katsuki; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

    2014-05-01

    Although membrane filtration is a promising technology in the field of drinking water treatment, persistent membrane fouling remains a major disadvantage. For more efficient operation, causative agents of membrane fouling need to be identified. Membrane fouling can be classified into physically reversible and irreversible fouling on basis of the removability of the foulants by physical cleaning. Four types of natural organic matter (NOM) in river water used as a source of drinking water were fractionated into hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions, and their potential to develop irreversible membrane fouling was evaluated by a bench-scale filtration experiment together with spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses. In this study, only dissolved NOM was investigated without consideration of interactions of NOM fractions with particulate matter. Results demonstrated that despite identical total organic carbon (TOC), fouling development trends were significantly different between hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions. The hydrophobic fractions did not increase membrane resistance, while the hydrophilic fractions caused severe loss of membrane permeability. These results were identical with the case when the calcium was added to hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions. The largest difference in NOM characteristics between hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions was the presence or absence of macromolecules; the primary constituent causing irreversible fouling was inferred to be "biopolymers", including carbohydrates and proteins. In addition, the results demonstrated that the extent of irreversible fouling was considerably different depending on the combination of membrane materials and NOM characteristics. Despite identical nominal pore size (0.1 μm), a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane was found to be more rapidly fouled than a PE membrane. This is probably explained by the generation of strong hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups of biopolymers and fluorine

  19. Hydrophilic fraction of natural organic matter causing irreversible fouling of microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Hiroshi; Okimoto, Kenji; Kimura, Katsuki; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

    2014-05-01

    Although membrane filtration is a promising technology in the field of drinking water treatment, persistent membrane fouling remains a major disadvantage. For more efficient operation, causative agents of membrane fouling need to be identified. Membrane fouling can be classified into physically reversible and irreversible fouling on basis of the removability of the foulants by physical cleaning. Four types of natural organic matter (NOM) in river water used as a source of drinking water were fractionated into hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions, and their potential to develop irreversible membrane fouling was evaluated by a bench-scale filtration experiment together with spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses. In this study, only dissolved NOM was investigated without consideration of interactions of NOM fractions with particulate matter. Results demonstrated that despite identical total organic carbon (TOC), fouling development trends were significantly different between hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions. The hydrophobic fractions did not increase membrane resistance, while the hydrophilic fractions caused severe loss of membrane permeability. These results were identical with the case when the calcium was added to hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions. The largest difference in NOM characteristics between hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions was the presence or absence of macromolecules; the primary constituent causing irreversible fouling was inferred to be "biopolymers", including carbohydrates and proteins. In addition, the results demonstrated that the extent of irreversible fouling was considerably different depending on the combination of membrane materials and NOM characteristics. Despite identical nominal pore size (0.1 μm), a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane was found to be more rapidly fouled than a PE membrane. This is probably explained by the generation of strong hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups of biopolymers and fluorine

  20. Nepenthes insignis uses a C2-portion of the carbon skeleton of L-alanine acquired via its carnivorous organs, to build up the allelochemical plumbagin.

    PubMed

    Rischer, Heiko; Hamm, Andreas; Bringmann, Gerhard

    2002-03-01

    Tropical pitcher plants (Nepenthes) catch animals in their specialized cup-shaped leaves, digest the prey by secreting enzymes, and actively take up the resulting compounds. The benefit of this behaviour is the ability to grow and compete in nutrient-poor habitats. Our present in vitro study shows that not only the nitrogen of alanine fed to the carnivorous organs is used by the plant but that in addition intact C2-units derived from C-2 and C-3 of stable isotope labelled L-alanine serve as building blocks, here exemplarily for the synthesis of the secondary metabolite plumbagin, a potent allelochemical. This result adds a new facet to the benefit of carnivory for plants. The availability of plumbagin by a de novo synthesis probably enhances the plants' fitness in their defence against phytophagous and pathogenic organisms. A missing specific uptake or CoA activation mechanism might be the reason that acetate fed to the pitchers was not incorporated into the naphthoquinone plumbagin. The dihydronaphthoquinone glucosides rossoliside and plumbaside A, here isolated for the first time from Nepenthes, by contrast, showed no incorporation after feeding of any of the two precursors, suggesting these compounds to be storage forms with probably very low turnover rates. PMID:11867092

  1. Emerging Insights into the Roles of Membrane Tethers from Analysis of Whole Organisms: The Tip of an Iceberg?

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Wei Hong; Gleeson, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane tethers have been identified throughout different compartments of the endomembrane system. It is now well established that a number of membrane tethers mediate docking of membrane carriers in anterograde and retrograde transport and in regulating the organization of membrane compartments. Much of our information on membrane tethers have been obtained from the analysis of individual membrane tethers in cultured cells. In the future it will be important to better appreciate the network of interactions mediated by tethers and the potential co-ordination of their collective functions in vivo. There are now a number of studies which have analyzed membrane tethers in tissues and organisms which are providing new insights into the role of this class of membrane protein at the physiological level. Here we review recent advances in the understanding of the function of membrane tethers from knock outs (or knock downs) in whole organisms and from mutations in tethers associated with disease. PMID:26973835

  2. Lateral organization of membrane proteins: tetraspanins spin their web.

    PubMed

    Charrin, Stéphanie; le Naour, François; Silvie, Olivier; Milhiet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Boucheix, Claude; Rubinstein, Eric

    2009-05-13

    Despite high expression levels at the plasma membrane or in intracellular vesicles, tetraspanins remain among the most mysterious transmembrane molecules 20 years after their discovery. Several genetic studies in mammals and invertebrates have demonstrated key physiological roles for some of these tetraspanins, in particular in the immune response, sperm-egg fusion, photoreceptor function and the normal function of certain epithelia. Other studies have highlighted their ability to modulate cell migration and metastasis formation. Their role in the propagation of infectious agents has drawn recent attention, with evidence for HIV budding in tetraspanin-enriched plasma membrane domains. Infection of hepatocytic cells by two major pathogens, the hepatitis C virus and the malaria parasite, also requires the tetraspanin CD81. The function of tetraspanins is thought to be linked to their ability to associate with one another and a wealth of other integral proteins, thereby building up an interacting network or 'tetraspanin web'. On the basis of the biochemical dissection of the tetraspanin web and recent analysis of the dynamics of some of its constituents, we propose that tetraspanins tightly regulate transient interactions between a variety of molecules and as such favour the efficient assembly of specialized structures upon proper stimulation.

  3. Wavelet-based approach to character skeleton.

    PubMed

    You, Xinge; Tang, Yuan Yan

    2007-05-01

    Character skeleton plays a significant role in character recognition. The strokes of a character may consist of two regions, i.e., singular and regular regions. The intersections and junctions of the strokes belong to singular region, while the straight and smooth parts of the strokes are categorized to regular region. Therefore, a skeletonization method requires two different processes to treat the skeletons in theses two different regions. All traditional skeletonization algorithms are based on the symmetry analysis technique. The major problems of these methods are as follows. 1) The computation of the primary skeleton in the regular region is indirect, so that its implementation is sophisticated and costly. 2) The extracted skeleton cannot be exactly located on the central line of the stroke. 3) The captured skeleton in the singular region may be distorted by artifacts and branches. To overcome these problems, a novel scheme of extracting the skeleton of character based on wavelet transform is presented in this paper. This scheme consists of two main steps, namely: a) extraction of primary skeleton in the regular region and b) amendment processing of the primary skeletons and connection of them in the singular region. A direct technique is used in the first step, where a new wavelet-based symmetry analysis is developed for finding the central line of the stroke directly. A novel method called smooth interpolation is designed in the second step, where a smooth operation is applied to the primary skeleton, and, thereafter, the interpolation compensation technique is proposed to link the primary skeleton, so that the skeleton in the singular region can be produced. Experiments are conducted and positive results are achieved, which show that the proposed skeletonization scheme is applicable to not only binary image but also gray-level image, and the skeleton is robust against noise and affine transform.

  4. Intracellular lipid flux and membrane microdomains as organizing principles in inflammatory cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Fessler, Michael B; Parks, John S

    2011-08-15

    Lipid rafts and caveolae play a pivotal role in organization of signaling by TLR4 and several other immune receptors. Beyond the simple cataloguing of signaling events compartmentalized by these membrane microdomains, recent studies have revealed the surprisingly central importance of dynamic remodeling of membrane lipid domains to immune signaling. Simple interventions upon membrane lipid, such as changes in cholesterol loading or crosslinking of raft lipids, are sufficient to induce micrometer-scale reordering of membranes and their protein cargo with consequent signal transduction. In this review, using TLR signaling in the macrophage as a central focus, we discuss emerging evidence that environmental and genetic perturbations of membrane lipid regulate protein signaling, illustrate how homeostatic flow of cholesterol and other lipids through rafts regulates the innate immune response, and highlight recent attempts to harness these insights toward therapeutic development.

  5. 2-Hydroxy Fatty Acid Enantiomers of Gb3 Impact Shiga Toxin Binding and Membrane Organization.

    PubMed

    Schütte, Ole M; Patalag, Lukas J; Weber, Lucas M C; Ries, Annika; Römer, Winfried; Werz, Daniel B; Steinem, Claudia

    2015-06-16

    Shiga toxin subunit B (STxB) binding to its cellular receptor Gb3 leads to the formation of protein-lipid clusters and bending of the membrane. A newly developed synthetic route allowed synthesizing the biologically most relevant Gb3-C24:1 2OH species with both, the natural (Gb3-R) as well as the unnatural (Gb3-S) configuration of the 2OH group. The derivatives bind STxB with identical nanomolar affinity, while the propensity to induce membrane tubules in giant unilamellar vesicles is more pronounced for Gb3-S. Fluorescence and atomic force microscopy images of phase-separated supported membranes revealed differences in the lateral organization of the protein on the membrane. Gb3-R favorably induces large and tightly packed protein clusters, while a lower protein density is found on Gb3-S doped membranes. PMID:26083916

  6. Cooperative Gating and Spatial Organization of Membrane Proteins through Elastic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ursell, Tristan; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Peterson, Eric; Phillips, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Biological membranes are elastic media in which the presence of a transmembrane protein leads to local bilayer deformation. The energetics of deformation allow two membrane proteins in close proximity to influence each other's equilibrium conformation via their local deformations, and spatially organize the proteins based on their geometry. We use the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) as a case study to examine the implications of bilayer-mediated elastic interactions on protein conformational statistics and clustering. The deformations around MscL cost energy on the order of 10 kBT and extend ∼3 nm from the protein edge, as such elastic forces induce cooperative gating, and we propose experiments to measure these effects. Additionally, since elastic interactions are coupled to protein conformation, we find that conformational changes can severely alter the average separation between two proteins. This has important implications for how conformational changes organize membrane proteins into functional groups within membranes. PMID:17480116

  7. Membrane air stripping: A process for removal of organics from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmud, H.; Kumar, A.; Narbaitz, R.M.; Matsuura, T.

    1998-10-01

    The membrane air-stripping (MAS) process using microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes has shown potential for the removal of volatile organics from aqueous streams over conventional treatment processes, particularly in reducing the size of the equipment. This paper reviews the theoretical aspects and experimental investigations on the performance of these membranes in terms of overall mass transfer capabilities in the removal of organics from aqueous solutions. The reported findings of the effect of pH, ozone, chlorine, influence of packing density and possible fouling on the performance of these hollow fibers membranes are presented. The fate of the stripped air is discussed. Other possible applications as well as the future research needs are highlighted, along with critical assessment of the reported work.

  8. Quantifying the deformation of the red blood cell skeleton in shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhangli; Zhu, Qiang

    2012-02-01

    To quantitatively predict the response of red blood cell (RBC) membrane in shear flow, we carried out multiphysics simulations by coupling a three-level multiscale approach of RBC membranes with a Boundary Element Method (BEM) for surrounding flows. Our multiscale approach includes a model of spectrins with the domain unfolding feature, a molecular-based model of the junctional complex with detailed protein connectivity and a whole cell Finite Element Method (FEM) model with the bilayer-skeleton friction derived from measured transmembrane protein diffusivity based on the Einstein-Stokes relation. Applying this approach, we investigated the bilayer-skeleton slip and skeleton deformation of healthy RBCs and RBCs with hereditary spherocytosis anemia during tank-treading motion. Compared with healthy cells, cells with hereditary spherocytosis anemia sustain much larger skeleton-bilayer slip and area deformation of the skeleton due to deficiency of transmembrane proteins. This leads to extremely low skeleton density and large bilayer-skeleton interaction force, both of which may cause bilayer loss. This finding suggests a possible mechanism of the development of hereditary spherocytosis anemia.

  9. Landform skeleton reconstruction from unorganized points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Mingliang; Tang, Guoan; Liu, Xuejun; Bian, Lu

    2007-11-01

    Landform skeleton are lines that indicate significant topographic features of the terrain. It is widely used in mapping and surveying, hydrology simulation, topography representation and engineering designing. In order to derive the landform skeleton, many kinds of data source have been used, including digitized contour lines, Grid-DEMs and TIN. As time goes by, more and more unorganized points have been acquired, created, maintained and disseminated in many fields. Those unorganized points are the most original and important information which is vital for mapping and surveying. How to extract the feature lines from unorganized points has been the hot-pot in computer design and reverse-engineering. Methods used to extract landform features in existence have shown dependence on data types and thresholds more or less. In the paper, the view sheds principle used to extract the feature points has been put forward and then those points have been organized into feature lines according to related rules. The result has shown that the view sheds principle can extract the features and give the levels of feature points.

  10. Reverse osmosis molecular differentiation of organic liquids using carbon molecular sieve membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Dong-Yeun; McCool, Benjamin A.; Deckman, Harry W.; Lively, Ryan P.

    2016-08-01

    Liquid-phase separations of similarly sized organic molecules using membranes is a major challenge for energy-intensive industrial separation processes. We created free-standing carbon molecular sieve membranes that translate the advantages of reverse osmosis for aqueous separations to the separation of organic liquids. Polymer precursors were cross-linked with a one-pot technique that protected the porous morphology of the membranes from thermally induced structural rearrangement during carbonization. Permeation studies using benzene derivatives whose kinetic diameters differ by less than an angstrom show kinetically selective organic liquid reverse osmosis. Ratios of single-component fluxes for para- and ortho-xylene exceeding 25 were observed and para- and ortho- liquid mixtures were efficiently separated, with an equimolar feed enriched to 81 mole % para-xylene, without phase change and at ambient temperature.

  11. Reverse osmosis molecular differentiation of organic liquids using carbon molecular sieve membranes.

    PubMed

    Koh, Dong-Yeun; McCool, Benjamin A; Deckman, Harry W; Lively, Ryan P

    2016-08-19

    Liquid-phase separations of similarly sized organic molecules using membranes is a major challenge for energy-intensive industrial separation processes. We created free-standing carbon molecular sieve membranes that translate the advantages of reverse osmosis for aqueous separations to the separation of organic liquids. Polymer precursors were cross-linked with a one-pot technique that protected the porous morphology of the membranes from thermally induced structural rearrangement during carbonization. Permeation studies using benzene derivatives whose kinetic diameters differ by less than an angstrom show kinetically selective organic liquid reverse osmosis. Ratios of single-component fluxes for para- and ortho-xylene exceeding 25 were observed and para- and ortho- liquid mixtures were efficiently separated, with an equimolar feed enriched to 81 mole % para-xylene, without phase change and at ambient temperature. PMID:27540170

  12. DEVELOPMENTAL PALEOBIOLOGY OF THE VERTEBRATE SKELETON

    PubMed Central

    RÜCKLIN, MARTIN; DONOGHUE, PHILIP C. J.; CUNNINGHAM, JOHN A.; MARONE, FEDERICA; STAMPANONI, MARCO

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the development of organisms can reveal crucial information on homology of structures. Developmental data are not peculiar to living organisms, and they are routinely preserved in the mineralized tissues that comprise the vertebrate skeleton, allowing us to obtain direct insight into the developmental evolution of this most formative of vertebrate innovations. The pattern of developmental processes is recorded in fossils as successive stages inferred from the gross morphology of multiple specimens and, more reliably and routinely, through the ontogenetic stages of development seen in the skeletal histology of individuals. Traditional techniques are destructive and restricted to a 2-D plane with the third dimension inferred. Effective non-invasive methods of visualizing paleohistology to reconstruct developmental stages of the skeleton are necessary. In a brief survey of paleohistological techniques we discuss the pros and cons of these methods. The use of tomographic methods to reconstruct development of organs is exemplified by the study of the placoderm dentition. Testing evidence for the presence of teeth in placoderms, the first jawed vertebrates, we compare the methods that have been used. These include inferring the development from morphology, and using serial sectioning, microCT or synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) to reconstruct growth stages and directions of growth. The ensuing developmental interpretations are biased by the methods and degree of inference. The most direct and reliable method is using SRXTM data to trace sclerochronology. The resulting developmental data can be used to resolve homology and test hypotheses on the origin of evolutionary novelties. PMID:26306050

  13. Novel Organic Membrane-based Thin-film Microsensors for the Determination of Heavy Metal Cations

    PubMed Central

    Arida, Hassan A.; Kloock, Joachim P.; Schöning, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    A first step towards the fabrication and electrochemical evaluation of thin-film microsensors based on organic PVC membranes for the determination of Hg(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) ions in solutions has been realised. The membrane-coating mixture used in the preparation of this new type of microsensors is incorporating PVC as supporting matrix, o-nitrophenyloctylether (o-NPOE) as solvent mediator and a recently synthesized Hg[dimethylglyoxime(phene)]2+ and Bis-(4-hydroxyacetophenone)-ethylenediamine as electroactive materials for Hg(II) and Cd(II), respectively. A set of three commercialised ionophores for Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) has been also used for comparison. Thin-film microsensors based on these membranes showed a Nernstian response of slope (26-30 mV/dec.) for the respective tested cations. The potentiometric response characteristics (linear range, pH range, detection limit and response time) are comparable with those obtained by conventional membranes as well as coated wire electrodes prepared from the same membrane. The realisation of the new organic membrane-based thin-film microsensors overcomes the problem of an insufficient selectivity of solid-state-based thin-film sensors.

  14. Lateral organization, bilayer asymmetry, and inter-leaflet coupling of biological membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Cheng, Xiaolin; Nickels, Jonathan D.

    2015-07-29

    Understanding of cell membrane organization has evolved significantly from the classic fluid mosaic model. It is now recognized that biological membranes are highly organized structures, with differences in lipid compositions between inner and outer leaflets and in lateral structures within the bilayer plane, known as lipid rafts. These organizing principles are important for protein localization and function as well as cellular signaling. However, the mechanisms and biophysical basis of lipid raft formation, structure, dynamics and function are not clearly understood. One key question, which we focus on in this review, is how lateral organization and leaflet compositional asymmetry are coupled. Detailed information elucidating this question has been sparse because of the small size and transient nature of rafts and the experimental challenges in constructing asymmetric bilayers. Resolving this mystery will require advances in both experimentation and modeling. We discuss here the preparation of model systems along with experimental and computational approaches that have been applied in efforts to address this key question in membrane biology. Furthermore, we seek to place recent and future advances in experimental and computational techniques in context, providing insight into in-plane and transverse organization of biological membranes.

  15. Lateral organization, bilayer asymmetry, and inter-leaflet coupling of biological membranes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Cheng, Xiaolin; Nickels, Jonathan D.

    2015-07-29

    Understanding of cell membrane organization has evolved significantly from the classic fluid mosaic model. It is now recognized that biological membranes are highly organized structures, with differences in lipid compositions between inner and outer leaflets and in lateral structures within the bilayer plane, known as lipid rafts. These organizing principles are important for protein localization and function as well as cellular signaling. However, the mechanisms and biophysical basis of lipid raft formation, structure, dynamics and function are not clearly understood. One key question, which we focus on in this review, is how lateral organization and leaflet compositional asymmetry are coupled.more » Detailed information elucidating this question has been sparse because of the small size and transient nature of rafts and the experimental challenges in constructing asymmetric bilayers. Resolving this mystery will require advances in both experimentation and modeling. We discuss here the preparation of model systems along with experimental and computational approaches that have been applied in efforts to address this key question in membrane biology. Furthermore, we seek to place recent and future advances in experimental and computational techniques in context, providing insight into in-plane and transverse organization of biological membranes.« less

  16. Lipids in the Assembly of Membrane Proteins and Organization of Protein Supercomplexes

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanov, Mikhail; Mileykovskaya, Eugenia; Dowhan, William

    2008-01-01

    Lipids play important roles in cellular dysfunction leading to disease. Although a major role for phospholipids is in defining the membrane permeability barrier, phospholipids play a central role in a diverse range of cellular processes and therefore are important factors in cellular dysfunction and disease. This review is focused on the role of phospholipids in normal assembly and organization of the membrane proteins, multimeric protein complexes, and higher order supercomplexes. Since lipids have no catalytic activity, it is difficult to determine their function at the molecular level. Lipid function has generally been defined by affects on protein function or cellular processes. Molecular details derived from genetic, biochemical, and structural approaches are presented for involvement of phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin in protein organization. Experimental evidence is presented that changes in phosphatidylethanolamine levels results in misfolding and topological misorientation of membrane proteins leading to dysfunctional proteins. Examples are presented for diseases in which proper protein folding or topological organization is not attained due to either demonstrated or proposed involvement of a lipid. Similar changes in cardiolipin levels affects the structure and function of individual components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and their organization into supercomplexes resulting in reduced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation efficiency and apoptosis. Diseases in which mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to reduced cardiolipin levels are described. Therefore, understanding the principles governing lipid-dependent assembly and organization of membrane proteins and protein complexes will be useful in developing novel therapeutic approaches for disorders in which lipids play an important role. PMID:18751913

  17. Lateral organization, bilayer asymmetry, and inter-leaflet coupling of biological membranes.

    PubMed

    Nickels, Jonathan D; Smith, Jeremy C; Cheng, Xiaolin

    2015-11-01

    Understanding of cell membrane organization has evolved significantly from the classic fluid mosaic model. It is now recognized that biological membranes are highly organized structures, with differences in lipid compositions between inner and outer leaflets and in lateral structures within the bilayer plane, known as lipid rafts. These organizing principles are important for protein localization and function as well as cellular signaling. However, the mechanisms and biophysical basis of lipid raft formation, structure, dynamics and function are not clearly understood. One key question, which we focus on in this review, is how lateral organization and leaflet compositional asymmetry are coupled. Detailed information elucidating this question has been sparse because of the small size and transient nature of rafts and the experimental challenges in constructing asymmetric bilayers. Resolving this mystery will require advances in both experimentation and modeling. We discuss here the preparation of model systems along with experimental and computational approaches that have been applied in efforts to address this key question in membrane biology. We seek to place recent and future advances in experimental and computational techniques in context, providing insight into in-plane and transverse organization of biological membranes.

  18. Specific oriented metal-organic framework membranes and their facet-tuned separation performance.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yiyin; Su, Binbin; Cao, Wei; Li, Junwei; Ying, Yulong; Ying, Wen; Hou, Yajun; Sun, Luwei; Peng, Xinsheng

    2014-09-24

    Modulating the crystal morphology, or the exposed crystal facets, of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) expands their potential applications in catalysis, adsorption, and separation. In this article, by immobilizing the citrate modulators on Au nanoparticles and subsequently being fixed on solid copper hydroxide nanostrands, a well-intergrown and oriented HKUST-1 cube crystal membrane was formed at room temperature. In contrast, in the absence of Au nanoparticles, well-intergrown and oriented cuboctahedron and octahedron membranes were formed in water/ethanol and ethanol, respectively. The gas separation performances of these HKUST-1 membranes were tuned via their exposed facets with defined pore sizes. The HKUST-1 cube membrane with exposed {001} facets demonstrated the highest permeance but lowest gas binary separation factors, while the octahedron membrane with exposed {111} facets presented the highest separation factors but lowest permeance, since the window size of {111} facets is 0.46 nm which is smaller than 0.9 nm of {001} facets. Separation of 0.38 nm CO2 from 0.55 nm SF6 was realized by the HKUST-1 octahedron membrane. As a proof of concept, this will open a new way to design MOF-related separation membranes by facet controlling. PMID:25184955

  19. Organically functionalized titanium oxide/Nafion composite proton exchange membranes for fuel cells applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozzi, Dafne; de Bonis, Catia; D'Epifanio, Alessandra; Mecheri, Barbara; Tavares, Ana C.; Licoccia, Silvia

    2014-02-01

    An organically-modified ceramic material (TiO2-RSO3H) to be used as filler in Nafion-based composite membranes was synthesized by covalently grafting propylsulfonic acid groups on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles. Higher ion exchange capacity (IEC) and proton conductivity of the hybrid material (one order of magnitude higher for the functionalized filler) reflected in superior performance of Nafion/TiO2-RSO3H composite membranes compared to Nafion. The highest conductivity value was obtained for the composite membrane containing 10 wt. % TiO2-RSO3H (σ = 0.08 S cm-1 at 140 °C). The membranes were tested in a DMFC single cell. The presence of the filler resulted in a general enhancement in the cell response, in terms of both higher power density (PD) delivered and lower methanol crossover with respect to unfilled Nafion membrane. The DMFC containing N_10TiO2-RSO3H membrane showed the best performance at 110 °C with a PD of 64 mW cm-2, corresponding to a PD improvement of about 40% with respect to that of Nafion membrane.

  20. Impact of polymeric membrane filtration of oil sands process water on organic compounds quantification.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Ahmed M A; Kim, Eun-Sik; Alpatova, Alla; Sun, Nian; Smith, Scott; Kang, Seoktae; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between organic fractions in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) and three polymeric membranes with varying hydrophilicity (nylon, polyvinylidene fluoride and polytetrafluoroethylene) at different pHs was studied to evaluate the impact of filtration on the quantification of acid-extractable fraction (AEF) and naphthenic acids (NAs). Four functional groups predominated in OSPW (amine, phosphoryl, carboxyl and hydroxyl) as indicated by the linear programming method. The nylon membranes were the most hydrophilic and exhibited the lowest AEF removal at pH of 8.7. However, the adsorption of AEF on the membranes increased as the pH of OSPW decreased due to hydrophobic interactions between the membrane surfaces and the protonated molecules. The use of ultra pressure liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC/HRMS) showed insignificant adsorption of NAs on the tested membranes at pH 8.7. However, 26±2.4% adsorption of NAs was observed at pH 5.3 following the protonation of NAs species. For the nylon membrane, excessive carboxylic acids in the commercial NAs caused the formation of negatively charged assisted hydrogen bonds, resulting in increased adsorption at pH 8.2 (25%) as compared to OSPW (0%). The use of membranes for filtration of soluble compounds from complex oily wastewaters before quantification analysis of AEF and NAs should be examined prior to application.

  1. A palmitoylation switch mechanism regulates Rac1 function and membrane organization

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Lérida, Inmaculada; Sánchez-Perales, Sara; Calvo, María; Rentero, Carles; Zheng, Yi; Enrich, Carlos; Del Pozo, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    The small GTPase Rac1 plays important roles in many processes, including cytoskeletal reorganization, cell migration, cell-cycle progression and gene expression. The initiation of Rac1 signalling requires at least two mechanisms: GTP loading via the guanosine triphosphate (GTP)/guanosine diphosphate (GDP) cycle, and targeting to cholesterol-rich liquid-ordered plasma membrane microdomains. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms governing this specific compartmentalization. We show that Rac1 can incorporate palmitate at cysteine 178 and that this post-translational modification targets Rac1 for stabilization at actin cytoskeleton-linked ordered membrane regions. Palmitoylation of Rac1 requires its prior prenylation and the intact C-terminal polybasic region and is regulated by the triproline-rich motif. Non-palmitoylated Rac1 shows decreased GTP loading and lower association with detergent-resistant (liquid-ordered) membranes (DRMs). Cells expressing no Rac1 or a palmitoylation-deficient mutant have an increased content of disordered membrane domains, and markers of ordered membranes isolated from Rac1-deficient cells do not correctly partition in DRMs. Importantly, cells lacking Rac1 palmitoylation show spreading and migration defects. These data identify palmitoylation as a mechanism for Rac1 function in actin cytoskeleton remodelling by controlling its membrane partitioning, which in turn regulates membrane organization. PMID:22157745

  2. Dynamic Organization of Myristoylated Src in the Live Cell Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam W; Huang, Hector H; Endres, Nicholas F; Rhodes, Christopher; Groves, Jay T

    2016-02-11

    The spatial organization of lipid-anchored proteins in the plasma membrane directly influences cell signaling, but measuring such organization in situ is experimentally challenging. The canonical oncogene, c-Src, is a lipid anchored protein that plays a key role in integrin-mediated signal transduction within focal adhesions and cell-cell junctions. Because of its activity in specific plasma membrane regions, structural motifs within the protein have been hypothesized to play an important role in its subcellular localization. This study used a combination of time-resolved fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy and super-resolution microscopy to quantify the dynamic organization of c-Src in live cell membranes. Pulsed-interleaved excitation fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (PIE-FCCS) showed that a small fraction of c-Src transiently sorts into membrane clusters that are several times larger than the monomers. Photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) confirmed that c-Src partitions into clusters with low probability and showed that the characteristic size of the clusters is 10-80 nm. Finally, time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements were used to quantify the rotational mobility of c-Src to determine how it interacts with its local environment. Taken together, these results build a quantitative description of the mobility and clustering behavior of the c-Src nonreceptor tyrosine kinase in the live cell plasma membrane. PMID:26771210

  3. Ultrathin Polymer Membranes with Patterned, Micrometric Pores for Organs-on-Chips.

    PubMed

    Pensabene, Virginia; Costa, Lino; Terekhov, Alexander Y; Gnecco, Juan S; Wikswo, John P; Hofmeister, William H

    2016-08-31

    The basal lamina or basement membrane (BM) is a key physiological system that participates in physicochemical signaling between tissue types. Its formation and function are essential in tissue maintenance, growth, angiogenesis, disease progression, and immunology. In vitro models of the BM (e.g., Boyden and transwell chambers) are common in cell biology and lab-on-a-chip devices where cells require apical and basolateral polarization. Extravasation, intravasation, membrane transport of chemokines, cytokines, chemotaxis of cells, and other key functions are routinely studied in these models. The goal of the present study was to integrate a semipermeable ultrathin polymer membrane with precisely positioned pores of 2 μm diameter in a microfluidic device with apical and basolateral chambers. We selected poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA), a transparent biocompatible polymer, to prepare the semipermeable ultrathin membranes. The pores were generated by pattern transfer using a three-step method coupling femtosecond laser machining, polymer replication, and spin coating. Each step of the fabrication process was characterized by scanning electron microscopy to investigate reliability of the process and fidelity of pattern transfer. In order to evaluate the compatibility of the fabrication method with organs-on-a-chip technology, porous PLLA membranes were embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices and used to grow human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECS) on top of the membrane with perfusion through the basolateral chamber. Viability of cells, optical transparency of membranes and strong adhesion of PLLA to PDMS were observed, thus confirming the suitability of the prepared membranes for use in organs-on-a-chip devices. PMID:27513606

  4. Phase separation dynamics and lateral organization of two-component lipid membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, K; Mouritsen, O G

    1995-01-01

    The non-equilibrium dynamic ordering process of coexisting phases has been studied for two-component lipid bilayers composed of saturated di-acyl phospholipids with different acyl chain lengths, such as DC14PC-DC18PC and DC12PC-DC18PC. By means of a microscopic interaction model and computer-simulation techniques the non-equilibrium properties of these two mixtures have been determined with particular attention paid to the effects of the non-equilibrium ordering process on membrane heterogeneity in terms of local and global lateral membrane organization. The results reveal that a sudden temperature change that takes the lipid mixture from the fluid one-phase region into the gel-fluid phase-coexistence region leads to the formation of a large number of small lipid domains which slowly are growing in time. The growth of the lipid domains, which is limited by long-range diffusion of the lipid molecules within the two-dimensional membrane plane, gives rise to the existence of a highly heterogeneous percolative-like structure with a network of interfacial regions that have properties different from those of the phase-separated gel and fluid bulk phases. The results, which are discussed in relation to recent experimental observations interpreted in terms of a percolative-like membrane structure within the two phase region (Almeida, P.F.F., Vaz, W.L.C., and T.E. Thompson. 1992. Biochemistry 31:7198-7210), suggest that non-equilibrium effects may influence lipid domain formation and membrane organization on various length and time scales. Such effects might be of importance in relation to membrane processes that require molecular mobility of the membrane components in restricted geometrical environments of the compartmentalized lipid membrane. Images FIGURE 6 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:8519994

  5. Membrane lipid raft organization is uniquely modified by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Harmony F.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Fish oil, enriched in bioactive n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), has been shown to play a role in prevention of colon cancer. The effects of n-3 PUFA are pleiotropic and multifaceted, resulting in an incomplete understanding of their molecular mechanisms of action. Here, we focus on a highly conserved mechanism of n-3 PUFA, which is the alteration of the organization of the plasma membrane. We highlight recent work demonstrating that enrichment of n-3 PUFA in the plasma membrane alters the lateral organization of membrane signaling assemblies (i.e. lipid rafts). This mechanism is central for n-3 PUFA regulation of downstream signaling, T-cell activation, transcriptional activation, and cytokine secretion. We conclude that these studies provide strong evidence for a predominant mechanism by which n-3 PUFA function in colon cancer prevention. PMID:22515942

  6. The Plasma Membrane Potential and the Organization of the Actin Cytoskeleton of Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chifflet, Silvia; Hernández, Julio A.

    2012-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of the polarized epithelial phenotype require a characteristic organization of the cytoskeletal components. There are many cellular effectors involved in the regulation of the cytoskeleton of epithelial cells. Recently, modifications in the plasma membrane potential (PMP) have been suggested to participate in the modulation of the cytoskeletal organization of epithelia. Here, we review evidence showing that changes in the PMP of diverse epithelial cells promote characteristic modifications in the cytoskeletal organization, with a focus on the actin cytoskeleton. The molecular paths mediating these effects may include voltage-sensitive integral membrane proteins and/or peripheral proteins sensitive to surface potentials. The voltage dependence of the cytoskeletal organization seems to have implications in several physiological processes, including epithelial wound healing and apoptosis. PMID:22315611

  7. Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton on cortical surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shi, Y; Thompson, P M; Dinov, I; Toga, A W

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method to construct graphical representations of cortical folding patterns by computing skeletons on triangulated cortical surfaces. In our approach, a cortical surface is first partitioned into sulcal and gyral regions via the solution of a variational problem using graph cuts, which can guarantee global optimality. After that, we extend the method of Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton [1] to subsets of triangulated surfaces, together with a geometrically intuitive pruning process that can trade off between skeleton complexity and the completeness of representing folding patterns. Compared with previous work that uses skeletons of 3-D volumes to represent sulcal patterns, the skeletons on cortical surfaces can be easily decomposed into branches and provide a simpler way to construct graphical representations of cortical morphometry. In our experiments, we demonstrate our method on two different cortical surface models, its ability of capturing major sulcal patterns and its application to compute skeletons of gyral regions. PMID:18450539

  8. Spatial and temporal evolution of organic foulant layers on reverse osmosis membranes in wastewater reuse applications.

    PubMed

    Farias, Elizabeth L; Howe, Kerry J; Thomson, Bruce M

    2014-07-01

    Advanced treatment to remove trace constituents and emerging contaminants is an important consideration for wastewater treatment for potable reuse, and reverse osmosis (RO) can be a suitable technology to provide the necessary level of treatment. However, membrane fouling by biological and organic matter is a concern. This research examined the development of the RO membrane fouling layer using a bench-scale membrane bioreactor operating at different solids retention times (SRTs), followed by a custom-designed RO test cell. The RO test cell contained stacked plates that sandwich five sheets of RO membrane material, which can be extracted for autopsy at separate times over the course of an experiment without disturbing the remaining membranes. The MBR-RO system was run continuously for 2 weeks at each SRT. The RO membranes were stained for live and dead cells, protein, and carbohydrate-like materials, and visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Images of the stained foulant layers were obtained at different depths within the foulant layer at each time point for all SRT conditions. As the RO foulant layer developed, changes occurred in the distribution and morphology of the live cells and carbohydrates, but not the proteins. These trends were similar for all three SRT conditions tested. RO membrane fouling increased with increased MBR SRT, and the highest SRT had the highest ratios of live to dead cells and carbohydrate-like material to dead cells. The autopsied membranes were also analyzed for protein and carbohydrate content, and it was found that the carbohydrate concentration on the membranes after 14 days increased as the SRT increased.

  9. DETERMINATION OF POLAR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN WATER BY MEMBRANE PERMEATE AND TRAP GC-MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel approach is presented combining semipermeable membranes with the accepted purge and trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technology to produce a method of selectively extracting polar, volatile organic compounds from water, particularly those compounds not am...

  10. A POLYMER-CERAMIC COMPOSITE MEMBRANE FOR RECOVERING VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM WASTEWATERS BY PERVAPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A composite membrane was constructed on a porous ceramic support from a block copolymer of styrene and butadiene (SBS). It was tested in a laboratory pervaporation apparatus for recovering volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such a 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and trichloroethylene ...

  11. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC CCL CONTAMINANTS FROM DRINKING WATERS BY MEMBRANE AND GAC PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale treatment data for membrane and granular activated carbon technologies are presented for the organic contaminants on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). For granular activated carbon (GAC), isotherm results are presented and q...

  12. Use of ejector for recirculating flow organization in hybrid membrane-sorption system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurchatov, I. M.; Laguntsov, N. I.; Gurkin, V. N.; Skuridin, I. E.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper the possibility of ejector using for recycle organization in the hybrid membrane adsorption system is considered. An algorithm of system solution that connects its dimensions and output parameters of the flow was described. The dependence of output pressure on the ejection coefficient under the selected geometry of the ejector was obtained.

  13. SEPARATION OF HAZARDOUS ORGANICS BY LOW PRESSURE REVERSE OSMOSIS MEMBRANES - PHASE II FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extensive experimental studies showed that thin-film, composite membranes can be used effectively for the separation of selected hazardous organic compounds. This waste treatment technique offers definite advantages in terms of high solute separations at low pressures (<2MPa) and...

  14. PSII-LHCII supercomplex organizations in photosynthetic membrane by coarse-grained simulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Pao, Chun-Wei; Smit, Berend

    2015-03-12

    Green plant photosystem II (PSII) and light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) in the stacked grana regions of thylakoid membranes can self-organize into various PSII-LHCII supercomplexes with crystalline or fluid-like supramolecular structures to adjust themselves with external stimuli such as high/low light and temperatures, rendering tunable solar light absorption spectrum and photosynthesis efficiencies. However, the mechanisms controlling the PSII-LHCII supercomplex organizations remain elusive. In this work, we constructed a coarse-grained (CG) model of the thylakoid membrane including lipid molecules and a PSII-LHCII supercomplex considering association/dissociation of moderately bound-LHCIIs. The CG interaction between CG beads were constructed based on electron microscope (EM) experimental results, and we were able to simulate the PSII-LHCII supramolecular organization of a 500 × 500 nm(2) thylakoid membrane, which is compatible with experiments. Our CGMD simulations can successfully reproduce order structures of PSII-LHCII supercomplexes under various protein packing fractions, free-LHCII:PSII ratios, and temperatures, thereby providing insights into mechanisms leading to PSII-LHCII supercomplex organizations in photosynthetic membranes.

  15. Novel polymer and inorganic/organic hybrid composite materials for proton exchange membrane applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhiwei

    In this study, various novel proton exchange membranes (PEM) have been synthesized and investigated for high temperature PEM applications. Sulfonic acid functionalized polysilsesquioxane hybrid membranes with the empirical formula of R-Si-(O)1.5 consist of a highly cross-linked Si-O backbone and pendant organic side chain R, which is terminated in a proton conducting functional group (i.e., sulfonic acid). The membranes exhibited excellent proton conductivities (sigma) of >10-2 S/cm under low humidity conditions and a wide range of temperatures. The fuel cell (FC) performance of the membranes under low humidity conditions has been evaluated. Acid-doped linear meta-polyaniline membranes have been prepared through solution casting of m-PANI. The obtained membrane shows good proton conductivities at temperatures above 100°C, achieving 10-2.7 S/cm under 120°C and practically no humidity conditions. The effects of doping acids, doping levels and humidity on the conductivity are discussed. Polyethylenimine (PEI)/SiO2 nanocomposites membranes have been synthesized through sol-gel processes. The introduction of SiO2 clusters into high molecule weight, linear PEI greatly improved its thermal stability at high temperatures and O2 atmosphere. During the sol-gel processes, trifluoromethanesulfonimide (HTFSI) was added to dope the amine groups of PEI and form immobilized proton-conducting ionic liquids, which provide the hybrid membranes with proton-conducting behavior. The resultant membranes show good proton conductivities at high temperatures and low to zero humidity conditions. The effects of temperature, humidity and mobility of active groups on the conductivity are discussed. Various organic amine/HTFSI ionic group functionalized polysilsesquioxane hybrid membranes have been prepared. The Si-O backbone provides excellent thermal/chemical/mechanical properties and the HTFSI-doped amine end groups provide the proton conducting properties. The membranes exhibited proton

  16. Morphological plasticity of the coral skeleton under CO2-driven seawater acidification

    PubMed Central

    Tambutté, E.; Venn, A. A.; Holcomb, M.; Segonds, N.; Techer, N.; Zoccola, D.; Allemand, D.; Tambutté, S.

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification causes corals to calcify at reduced rates, but current understanding of the underlying processes is limited. Here, we conduct a mechanistic study into how seawater acidification alters skeletal growth of the coral Stylophora pistillata. Reductions in colony calcification rates are manifested as increases in skeletal porosity at lower pH, while linear extension of skeletons remains unchanged. Inspection of the microstructure of skeletons and measurements of pH at the site of calcification indicate that dissolution is not responsible for changes in skeletal porosity. Instead, changes occur by enlargement of corallite-calyxes and thinning of associated skeletal elements, constituting a modification in skeleton architecture. We also detect increases in the organic matrix protein content of skeletons formed under lower pH. Overall, our study reveals that seawater acidification not only causes decreases in calcification, but can also cause morphological change of the coral skeleton to a more porous and potentially fragile phenotype. PMID:26067341

  17. Diffusion, transport, and cell membrane organization investigated by imaging fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Jagadish; Manna, Manoj; Guo, Lin; Kraut, Rachel; Wohland, Thorsten

    2009-11-01

    Cell membrane organization is dynamic and is assumed to have different characteristic length scales. These length scales, which are influenced by lipid and protein composition as well as by the cytoskeleton, can range from below the optical resolution limit (as with rafts or microdomains) to far above the resolution limit (as with capping phenomena or the formation of lipid "platforms"). The measurement of these membrane features poses a significant problem because membrane dynamics are on the millisecond timescale and are thus beyond the time resolution of conventional imaging approaches. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), a widely used spectroscopic technique to measure membrane dynamics, has the required time resolution but lacks imaging capabilities. A promising solution is the recently introduced method known as imaging total internal reflection (ITIR)-FCS, which can probe diffusion phenomena in lipid membranes with good temporal and spatial resolution. In this work, we extend ITIR-FCS to perform ITIR fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (ITIR-FCCS) between pixel areas of arbitrary shape and derive a generalized expression that is applicable to active transport and diffusion. ITIR-FCCS is applied to model systems exhibiting diffusion, active transport, or a combination of the two. To demonstrate its applicability to live cells, we observe the diffusion of a marker, the sphingolipid-binding domain (SBD) derived from the amyloid peptide Abeta, on live neuroblastoma cells. We investigate the organization and dynamics of SBD-bound lipid microdomains under the conditions of cholesterol removal and cytoskeleton disruption. PMID:19883607

  18. Interaction of the organic tin chloride with the liquid model membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolak, M.; Engel, G.; Man, D.

    2007-08-01

    The objective of the work was to investigate the effect of organic tin chloride (C3H7)3SnCl on the electric parameters of membranes in the form of filters of the company Synpor (Czech Republic) impregnated with various fatty acids, dissolved with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Three carboxylic acids were used in the study: palmitic, arachidic and oleic, and dissolvent of the acids (CCl4) as well as butylene ester of lauric acid. In all cases, introduction of tin chloride of constant concentration amounting to 0.15 mM to the measurement chamber resulted in induction of membrane voltage. In case of pure lauric acid and CCl4, the voltage reached the maximum value and then decreased to a certain constant value. In the case of all acids dissolved in CCl4, the voltage increased only up to a certain constant value. Voltage drop (below the value) was observed after application of appropriately high concentration of tin chloride, in case of membranes impregnated with the mixture of lauric acid ester with CCl4 and palmitic acid with CCl4. The study also demonstrated that electrical resistance of membranes impregnated with carboxylic acid increased in the presence of tin chloride and decreased in case of membranes impregnated with lauric acid ester. However, electric capacities of membranes did not significant change.

  19. Eisosomes promote the ability of Sur7 to regulate plasma membrane organization in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong X.; Douglas, Lois M.; Veselá, Petra; Rachel, Reinhard; Malinsky, Jan; Konopka, James B.

    2016-01-01

    The plasma membrane of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans forms a protective barrier that also mediates many processes needed for virulence, including cell wall synthesis, invasive hyphal morphogenesis, and nutrient uptake. Because compartmentalization of the plasma membrane is believed to coordinate these diverse activities, we examined plasma membrane microdomains termed eisosomes or membrane compartment of Can1 (MCC), which correspond to ∼200-nm-long furrows in the plasma membrane. A pil1∆ lsp1∆ mutant failed to form eisosomes and displayed strong defects in plasma membrane organization and morphogenesis, including extensive cell wall invaginations. Mutation of eisosome proteins Slm2, Pkh2, and Pkh3 did not cause similar cell wall defects, although pkh2∆ cells formed chains of furrows and pkh3∆ cells formed wider furrows, identifying novel roles for the Pkh protein kinases in regulating furrows. In contrast, the sur7∆ mutant formed cell wall invaginations similar to those for the pil1∆ lsp1∆ mutant even though it could form eisosomes and furrows. A PH-domain probe revealed that the regulatory lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate was enriched at sites of cell wall invaginations in both the sur7∆ and pil1∆ lsp1∆ cells, indicating that this contributes to the defects. The sur7∆ and pil1∆ lsp1∆ mutants displayed differential susceptibility to various types of stress, indicating that they affect overlapping but distinct functions. In support of this, many mutant phenotypes of the pil1∆ lsp1∆ cells were rescued by overexpressing SUR7. These results demonstrate that C. albicans eisosomes promote the ability of Sur7 to regulate plasma membrane organization. PMID:27009204

  20. Contribution of assimilable organic carbon to biological fouling in seawater reverse osmosis membrane treatment.

    PubMed

    Weinrich, Lauren; LeChevallier, Mark; Haas, Charles N

    2016-09-15

    Biological fouling occurs on RO membranes when bacteria and nutrients are present in conditions that are conducive to growth and proliferation of the bacteria. Controlling microbial growth on the membranes is typically limited to biocide application (i.e., disinfectants) in seawater RO plants. However, biological growth and subsequent fouling has not been well-managed. Pretreatment has not been focused on nutrient limitation. This project used a biological assay, the assimilable organic carbon (AOC) test to evaluate pretreatment effects on the nutrient supply. The AOC test provided a useful surrogate measurement for the biodegradability or biofouling potential of RO feed water. Biofouling observed in controlled conditions at the bench- and pilot-scale resulted in statistically significant correlations between AOC and the operational effects caused by biofouling. Membrane fouling rates are observed through operational changes over time such as increased differential pressure between the membrane feed and concentrate locations and decreased permeate flux through the membrane. In full scale plants there were strong correlations when AOC was used as a predictor variable for increased differential pressure (0.28-0.55 bar from September-December 2012) and decreased specific flux (1.40 L per hour/(m(2) · bar)). Increased differential pressure was associated with RO membrane biological fouling when the median AOC was 50 μg/L during pilot testing. Conditions were also evaluated at the bench-scale using a flat sheet RO membrane. In a comparison test using 30 and 1000 μg/L AOC, fouling was detected on more portions of the membrane when AOC was higher. Biofilm and bacterial deposits were apparent from scanning electron microscope imaging and biomass measurements using ATP.

  1. Nanofibrous asymmetric membranes self-organized from chemically heterogeneous electrospun mats for skin tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chaoxi; Chen, Tian; Xin, Yanjiao; Zhang, Zhen; Ren, Zhe; Lei, Jing; Chu, Bin; Wang, Yifei; Tang, Shunqing

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetric membranes, which mimic the structure and functions of human skin, have been extensively pursued as ideal skin tissue engineering constructs. In this study, we demonstrated that nanostructured asymmetric membranes can be prepared by the self-organization of chemically heterogeneous bilayer electrospun membranes in aqueous solutions. Structurally, the skin layer consists of hydrophobic β-glucan butyrate nanofibers and its inner layer consists of hydrophilic β-glucan acetate nanofibers. After the electrospinning process, both of the layers are in a dense state. When placed in water, the skin layer absorbs little water and still remains dense, but the fibers in the inner layer become extensively hydrated and spontaneously reorganize into a fully stretched structure, resulting in a significant volume increase and a density decrease of the inner layer. SEM imaging showed that β-glucan ester nanofibers exhibited a bead-free and uniform structure. Contact angle measurement and swelling tests showed that the inner layer was highly hydrophilic with extensive swelling, but the skin layer was highly hydrophobic with little swelling. Mechanical tests indicated that the nanofibrous asymmetric membranes had good mechanical properties in both the dry and wet states. In vitro cytocompatibility tests showed that nanofibrous asymmetric membranes could promote the adhesion and proliferation of fibroblasts and keratinocytes. A preliminary in vivo study performed on a full thickness mouse skin wound model demonstrated that the nanofibrous asymmetric membranes significantly accelerated the wound healing process by promoting re-epithelialization, tissue remodeling and collagen deposition. Taken together, our study provides a novel model for the design and fabrication of nanostructured asymmetric membranes, and our β-glucan based nanofibrous asymmetric membranes could be used as an advanced platform for skin tissue engineering. PMID:27327625

  2. Contribution of assimilable organic carbon to biological fouling in seawater reverse osmosis membrane treatment.

    PubMed

    Weinrich, Lauren; LeChevallier, Mark; Haas, Charles N

    2016-09-15

    Biological fouling occurs on RO membranes when bacteria and nutrients are present in conditions that are conducive to growth and proliferation of the bacteria. Controlling microbial growth on the membranes is typically limited to biocide application (i.e., disinfectants) in seawater RO plants. However, biological growth and subsequent fouling has not been well-managed. Pretreatment has not been focused on nutrient limitation. This project used a biological assay, the assimilable organic carbon (AOC) test to evaluate pretreatment effects on the nutrient supply. The AOC test provided a useful surrogate measurement for the biodegradability or biofouling potential of RO feed water. Biofouling observed in controlled conditions at the bench- and pilot-scale resulted in statistically significant correlations between AOC and the operational effects caused by biofouling. Membrane fouling rates are observed through operational changes over time such as increased differential pressure between the membrane feed and concentrate locations and decreased permeate flux through the membrane. In full scale plants there were strong correlations when AOC was used as a predictor variable for increased differential pressure (0.28-0.55 bar from September-December 2012) and decreased specific flux (1.40 L per hour/(m(2) · bar)). Increased differential pressure was associated with RO membrane biological fouling when the median AOC was 50 μg/L during pilot testing. Conditions were also evaluated at the bench-scale using a flat sheet RO membrane. In a comparison test using 30 and 1000 μg/L AOC, fouling was detected on more portions of the membrane when AOC was higher. Biofilm and bacterial deposits were apparent from scanning electron microscope imaging and biomass measurements using ATP. PMID:27262548

  3. Rejection of organic compounds by ultra-low pressure reverse osmosis membrane.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Hiroaki; Li, Huafang

    2002-01-01

    The introduction of ultra-low pressure reverse osmosis (ULPRO) membrane has widened the horizon of reverse osmosis (RO) in purification of surface water and wastewater as well as desalination of brackish water. The ULPRO membrane chemistry can provide a high water flux at low operating pressure, while maintaining a very good salt and organics rejection. This paper deals with the investigation on the rejection of low molecular weight organic compounds by ULPRO membrane. Laboratory scale experiments were carried out at a pressure of 3 kg/cm2 with a feed flow rate of 1.20 l/min. The rejection of undissociated organic compounds did not show a close relationship with the feed pH. The percentage removal of undissociated organic compounds increased linearly with the molecular weight as well as with the molecular width. The removal efficiency can be predicted by these relationships. But neither molecular weight nor molecular width can be considered as an absolute factor for rejection. The feed pH also influenced the removal efficiency of dissociated organic compounds. The efficiency decreased linearly with the increase in the dissociation constant.

  4. Electrochemical properties of honeycomb-like structured HFBI self-organized membranes on HOPG electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Ryota; Takatsuji, Yoshiyuki; Lienemann, Michael; Asakawa, Hitoshi; Fukuma, Takeshi; Linder, Markus; Haruyama, Tetsuya

    2014-11-01

    HFBI (derived from Trichoderma sp.) is a unique structural protein, which forms a self-organized monolayer at both air/water interface and water/solid interfaces in accurate two-dimensional ordered structures. We have taken advantage of the unique functionality of HFBI as a molecular carrier for preparation of ordered molecular phase on solid substrate surfaces. The HFBI molecular carrier can easily form ordered structures; however, the dense molecular layers form an electrochemical barrier between the electrode and solution phase. In this study, the electrochemical properties of HFBI self-organized membrane-covered electrodes were investigated. Wild-type HFBI has balanced positive and negative charges on its surface. Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrodes coated with HFBI molecules were investigated electrochemically. To improve the electrochemical properties of this HFBI-coated electrode, the two types of HFBI variants, with oppositely charged surfaces, were prepared genetically. All three types of HFBI-coated HOPG electrode perform electron transfer between the electrode and solution phase through the dense HFBI molecular layer. This is because the HFBI self-organized membrane has a honeycomb-like structure, with penetrating holes. In the cases of HFBI variants, the oppositely charged HFBI membrane phases shown opposite electrochemical behaviors in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. HFBI is a molecule with a unique structure, and can easily form honeycomb-like structures on solid material surfaces such as electrodes. The molecular membrane phase can be used for electrochemical molecular interfaces.

  5. Golgi sorting regulates organization and activity of GPI-proteins at apical membranes

    PubMed Central

    Tivodar, Simona; Formiggini, Fabio; Ossato, Giulia; Gratton, Enrico; Tramier, Marc; Coppey-Moisan, Maïté; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Here, we combined classical biochemistry with novel biophysical approaches to study with high spatial and temporal resolution the organization of GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) at the plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells. We show that in polarized MDCK cells, following sorting in the Golgi, each GPI-AP reaches the apical surface in homo-clusters. Golgi-derived homo-clusters are required for their subsequent plasma membrane organization into cholesterol-dependent hetero-clusters. By contrast, in non-polarized MDCK cells GPI-APs are delivered to the surface as monomers in an unpolarized manner and are not able to form hetero-clusters. We further demonstrate that this GPI-AP organization is regulated by the content of cholesterol in the Golgi apparatus and is required to maintain the functional state of the protein at the apical membrane. Thus, different from fibroblasts, in polarized epithelial cells a selective cholesterol-dependent sorting mechanism in the Golgi regulates both the organization and the function of GPI-APs at the apical surface. PMID:24681536

  6. Membrane fouling propensity after adsorption as pretreatment in rainwater: a detailed organic characterisation.

    PubMed

    Sabina, L; Kus, B; Shon, H-K; Kandasamy, J

    2008-01-01

    Organic characterisation in rainwater was investigated in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and molecular weight distribution (MWD) after powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption. PAC adsorption was used as pretreatment to membrane filtration to reduce membrane fouling. The MW of organic matter in rainwater used in this study was in the range of 43,000 Da to 30 Da. Each peak of organic matter consisted of biopolymers (polysaccharides and proteins), humic and fulvic acids, building blocks, low MW acids (hydrolysates of humic substances), low MW neutrals and amphiphilics. Rainwater contained the majority of hydrophilic compounds up to 72%. PAC adsorption removed 33% of total DOC. The removal efficiencies of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions after PAC adsorption were 50% and 27%, respectively. PAC adsorption was found to preferentially remove the hydrophobic fraction. The majority of the smaller MW of 1,100 Da, 820 Da, 550 Da, 90 Da and 30 Da was removed after PAC adsorption. The MFI values decreased from 1,436 s/L2 to 147 s/L2 after PAC adsorption. It was concluded that PAC adsorption can be used as a pretreatment to membrane filtration with rainwater.

  7. Membrane separation in green chemical processing: solvent nanofiltration in liquid phase organic synthesis reactions.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Andrew; Peeva, Ludmila; Han, Shejiao; Nair, Dinesh; Luthra, Satinder Singh; White, Lloyd S; Freitas Dos Santos, Luisa M

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes ideas together with preliminary experimental results for applying solvent nanofiltration to liquid phase organic synthesis reactions. Membranes for organic solvent nanofiltration have only recently (during the 1990s) become available and, to date, have been applied primarily to food processing (vegetable oil processing, in particular) and refinery processes. Applications to organic synthesis, even at a laboratory feasibility level, are few. However, these membranes have great potential to improve the environmental performance of many liquid phase synthesis reactions by reducing the need for complex solvent handling operations. Examples that are shown to be feasible are solvent exchanges, where it is desired to swap a high molecular weight molecule from one solvent to another between separate stages in a complex synthesis, and recycle and reuse of homogeneous catalysts. In solvent exchanges, nanofiltration is shown to provide a fast and effective means of swapping from a high boiling point solvent to a solvent with a lower boiling point-this is a difficult operation by means of distillation. Solvent nanofiltration is shown to be able to separate two distinct types of homogeneous catalysts, phase transfer catalysts and organometallic catalysts, from their respective reaction products. In both cases the application of organic solvent nanofiltration allows several reuses of the same catalyst. Catalyst stability is shown to be an essential requirement for this technique to be effective. Finally, we present a discussion of scale-up aspects including membrane flux and process economics.

  8. Bayesian estimation of the shape skeleton.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2006-11-21

    Skeletal representations of shape have attracted enormous interest ever since their introduction by Blum [Blum H (1973) J Theor Biol 38:205-287], because of their potential to provide a compact, but meaningful, shape representation, suitable for both neural modeling and computational applications. But effective computation of the shape skeleton remains a notorious unsolved problem; existing approaches are extremely sensitive to noise and give counterintuitive results with simple shapes. In conventional approaches, the skeleton is defined by a geometric construction and computed by a deterministic procedure. We introduce a Bayesian probabilistic approach, in which a shape is assumed to have "grown" from a skeleton by a stochastic generative process. Bayesian estimation is used to identify the skeleton most likely to have produced the shape, i.e., that best "explains" it, called the maximum a posteriori skeleton. Even with natural shapes with substantial contour noise, this approach provides a robust skeletal representation whose branches correspond to the natural parts of the shape.

  9. MICOS and phospholipid transfer by Ups2-Mdm35 organize membrane lipid synthesis in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, Mari J; Friedman, Jonathan R; Osman, Christof; Salin, Bénédicte; di Rago, Jean-Paul; Nunnari, Jodi; Langer, Thomas; Tatsuta, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria exert critical functions in cellular lipid metabolism and promote the synthesis of major constituents of cellular membranes, such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine. Here, we demonstrate that the phosphatidylserine decarboxylase Psd1, located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, promotes mitochondrial PE synthesis via two pathways. First, Ups2-Mdm35 complexes (SLMO2-TRIAP1 in humans) serve as phosphatidylserine (PS)-specific lipid transfer proteins in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, allowing formation of PE by Psd1 in the inner membrane. Second, Psd1 decarboxylates PS in the outer membrane in trans, independently of PS transfer by Ups2-Mdm35. This latter pathway requires close apposition between both mitochondrial membranes and the mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS). In MICOS-deficient cells, limiting PS transfer by Ups2-Mdm35 and reducing mitochondrial PE accumulation preserves mitochondrial respiration and cristae formation. These results link mitochondrial PE metabolism to MICOS, combining functions in protein and lipid homeostasis to preserve mitochondrial structure and function. PMID:27241913

  10. Distribution and deposition of organic fouling on the microfiltration membrane evaluated by high-frequency ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Hsun; Tung, Kuo-Lun; Wang, Shyh-Hau; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    A 50 MHz high-frequency ultrasound and analysis method were developed to further improve the in situ assessment of deposition and distribution of organic fouling on the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes. Measurements of fouling depositions were performed from PVDF membranes filtrated with aqueous humic acid solutions (HAS) of 2 and 4 ppm concentrations in a flat-sheet module. Ultrasound signals reflected from the PVDF membranes, following filtrations at various durations including 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, and 100 min, were acquired. The thickness and distribution of fouling estimated and assessed by peak-to-peak echo voltage (Vpp) and C-mode images were found to be non-homogeneously deposited on the membranes. Following the filtrations with 2 and 4 ppm HAS for 100 min, the corresponding thickness of fouling deposition increased from 1.81±9 to 2.4571.57 mm, respectively; those average Vpp decreased from 2.05±07 to 1.13±16 V and from 2.11±08 to 0.94±15 V. These results demonstrated that the deposition and distribution of organic fouling could be sensitively and rapidly evaluated by high-frequency ultrasound image incorporated with the analysis method. PMID:25309028

  11. Stitching Organelles: Organization and Function of Specialized Membrane Contact Sites in Plants.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sancho, Jessica; Tilsner, Jens; Samuels, A Lacey; Botella, Miguel A; Bayer, Emmanuelle M; Rosado, Abel

    2016-09-01

    The coordination of multiple metabolic activities in plants relies on an interorganelle communication network established through membrane contact sites (MCS). The MCS are maintained in transient or durable configurations by tethering structures which keep the two membranes in close proximity, and create chemical microdomains that allow localized and targeted exchange of small molecules and possibly proteins. The past few years have witnessed a dramatic increase in our understanding of the structural and molecular organization of plant interorganelle MCS, and their crucial roles in plant specialized functions including stress responses, cell to cell communication, and lipid transport. In this review we summarize recent advances in understanding the molecular components, structural organization, and functions of different plant-specific MCS architectures. PMID:27318776

  12. Characterization of organic fouling in reverse osmosis membranes by headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martínez, C; Gómez, V; Pocurull, E; Borrull, F

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption of organic substances on reverse osmosis (RO) membrane surfaces may form an organic film on the membrane, known as organic fouling, and cause flow-rate loss. This problem is mostly unavoidable as no pretreatment method exists for perfect removal of possible foulants, including organic compounds resulting from undesirable bioactivity. Understanding the characteristics of fouling layers is an essential step towards overall improvement of RO membrane operations. In this study, the organic fouling in RO membranes treating the effluent of a secondary treatment from an urban wastewater treatment plant was characterized. Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been used for the first time, to provide valuable information of organic fouling. Different polarity SPME fibers were tested for this purpose. In addition, the characterization of the organic fouling obtained by HS-SPME was compared with the results obtained by extraction using several organic solvents. The results indicated that more compound families can be identified by HS-SPME than by organic solvent extraction. Moreover, complementary organic analyses were done for better understanding of the organic fouling in RO membranes, such as total organic carbon and loss on ignition.

  13. Organic-inorganic hybrid proton exchange membrane based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes and sulfonated polyimides containing benzimidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Pu, Hongting; Chang, Zhihong

    2014-10-01

    A new series of organic-inorganic hybrid proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were prepared using sulfonated polyimides containing benzimidazole (SPIBIs) and glycidyl ether of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (G-POSS). SPIBIs were synthesized using 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA), 5-amino-2-(4-aminophenyl) benzimidazole (APBIA) and 4,4‧-diaminodiphenyl ether-2,2‧-disulfonic acid (ODADS). The organic-inorganic cross-linked membranes can be prepared by SPIBIs with G-POSS by a thermal treatment process. The cross-linking density of the membranes was evaluated by gel fractions. The water uptake, swelling ratio, mechanical property, thermal behavior, proton conductivity, oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the cross-linked organic-inorganic membranes were intensively investigated. All the cross-linked membranes exhibit high cross-linking density for the gel fraction higher than 70%. Compared to pristine membranes (SPIBIs) and membranes without benzimidazole groups (SPI), the anti-free-radical oxidative and hydrolytic stabilities of cross-linked membranes are significantly higher. The anti-free-oxidative stability of SPIBI-100-P (cross-linked SPIBI membrane with 100% degree of sulfonation) is nearly four-fold higher than that of SPIBI-100. The proton conductivity of the cross-linked membranes ranges from 10-3 S cm-1 to 10-2 S cm-1 depending both on the degree of sulfonation (DS) of the SPIBI and temperature.

  14. MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR RECOVERY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM REMEDIATION OFF-GASES

    SciTech Connect

    J.G. Wijmans

    2003-11-17

    In situ vacuum extraction, air or steam sparging, and vitrification are widely used to remediate soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All of these processes produce a VOC-laden air stream from which the VOC must be removed before the air can be discharged or recycled to the generating process. Treatment of these off-gases is often a major portion of the cost of the remediation project. Currently, carbon adsorption and catalytic incineration are the most common methods of treating these gas streams. Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) proposed an alternative treatment technology based on selective membranes that separate the organic components from the gas stream, producing a VOC-free air stream. This technology can be applied to off-gases produced by various remediation activities and the systems can be skid-mounted and automated for easy transportation and unattended operation. The target performance for the membrane systems is to produce clean air (less than 10 ppmv VOC) for discharge or recycle, dischargeable water (less than 1 ppmw VOC), and a concentrated liquid VOC phase. This report contains the results obtained during Phase II of a two-phase project. In Phase I, laboratory experiments were carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. In the subsequent Phase II project, a demonstration system was built and operated at the McClellan Air Force Base near Sacramento, California. The membrane system was fed with off-gas from a Soil Vacuum Extraction (SVE) system. The work performed in Phase II demonstrated that the membrane system can reduce the VOC concentration in remediation off-gas to 10 ppmv, while producing a concentrated VOC phase and dischargeable water containing less than 1 ppmw VOC. However, the tests showed that the presence of 1 to 3% carbon dioxide in the SVE off-gas reduced the treatment capacity of the system by a factor of three to four. In an economic analysis, treatment costs of the membrane

  15. Detection of persistent organic pollutants in the Mississippi Delta using semipermeable membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, L.R.; Thurman, E.M.; Bastian, K.C.

    2000-01-01

    From semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) placed in five Mississippi Delta streams in 1996 and 1997, the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) aldrin, chlordane, DCPA, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex, nonachlor, and toxaphene were detected. In addition, the insecticides chlorpyriphos, endosulfan, and hexachlorocyclohexanes were detected. Two low-solubility herbicides not detected commonly in surface water, pendimethalin and trifluralin, were also detected. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. Solvent-filled dialysis membranes simulate uptake of pollutants by aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Soedergren, A.

    1987-09-01

    Dialysis membranes filled with hexane accumulate persistent lipophilic pollutants in a way similar to that of aquatic organisms. The uptake of low molecular weight (< 1000), lipophilic compounds seems to be a passive process governed by partitioning mechanisms. The technique may be used to confirm bioaccumulation mechanisms, to predict environmental hazards of bioavailable compounds, and to monitor lipophilic pollutants, especially in environments too severe for biological indicators to survive.

  17. CAST AWAY, a membrane-associated receptor-like kinase, inhibits organ abscission in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Burr, Christian A; Leslie, Michelle E; Orlowski, Sara K; Chen, Iris; Wright, Catherine E; Daniels, Mark J; Liljegren, Sarah J

    2011-08-01

    Receptor-like kinase-mediated cell signaling pathways play fundamental roles in many aspects of plant growth and development. A pair of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs), HAESA (HAE) and HAESA-LIKE2 (HSL2), have been shown to activate the cell separation process that leads to organ abscission. Another pair of LRR-RLKs, EVERSHED (EVR) and SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE1, act as inhibitors of abscission, potentially by modulating HAE/HSL2 activity. Cycling of these RLKs to and from the cell surface may be regulated by NEVERSHED (NEV), a membrane trafficking regulator that is essential for organ abscission. We report here the characterization of CAST AWAY (CST), a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase that acts as a spatial inhibitor of cell separation. Disruption of CST suppresses the abscission defects of nev mutant flowers and restores the discrete identity of the trans-Golgi network in nev abscission zones. After organ shedding, enlarged abscission zones with obscured boundaries are found in nev cst flowers. We show that CST is a dual-specificity kinase in vitro and that myristoylation at its amino terminus promotes association with the plasma membrane. Using the bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay, we have detected interactions of CST with HAE and EVR at the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis protoplasts and hypothesize that CST negatively regulates cell separation signaling directly and indirectly. A model integrating the potential roles of receptor-like kinase signaling and membrane trafficking during organ separation is presented.

  18. In situ surface chemical modification of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes for enhanced organic fouling resistance.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinglin; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Shaffer, Devin L; Ma, Jun; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging membrane-based water separation process with potential applications in a host of environmental and industrial processes. Nevertheless, membrane fouling remains a technical obstacle affecting this technology, increasing operating costs and decreasing membrane life. This work presents the first fabrication of an antifouling thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane by an in situ technique without postfabrication treatment. The membrane was fabricated and modified in situ, grafting Jeffamine, an amine-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) derivative, to dangling acyl chloride surface groups on the nascent polyamide active layer. Surface characterization by contact angle, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), zeta potential, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and fluorescence microscopy, confirms the presence of Jeffamine on the membrane surface. We demonstrate the improved fouling resistance of the in situ modified membranes through accelerated dynamic fouling FO experiments using a synthetic wastewater feed solution at high concentration (250 mg/L) of alginate, a model macromolecule for the hydrophilic fraction of wastewater effluent organic matter. Our results show a significantly lower flux decline for the in situ modified membranes compared to pristine polyamide (14.3 ± 2.7% vs 2.8 ± 1.4%, respectively). AFM adhesion force measurements between the membrane and a carboxylate-modified latex particle, a surrogate for the organic (alginate) foulant, show weaker foulant-membrane interactions, further confirming the enhanced fouling resistance of the in situ modified membranes. PMID:24066902

  19. In situ surface chemical modification of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes for enhanced organic fouling resistance.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinglin; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Shaffer, Devin L; Ma, Jun; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging membrane-based water separation process with potential applications in a host of environmental and industrial processes. Nevertheless, membrane fouling remains a technical obstacle affecting this technology, increasing operating costs and decreasing membrane life. This work presents the first fabrication of an antifouling thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane by an in situ technique without postfabrication treatment. The membrane was fabricated and modified in situ, grafting Jeffamine, an amine-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) derivative, to dangling acyl chloride surface groups on the nascent polyamide active layer. Surface characterization by contact angle, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), zeta potential, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and fluorescence microscopy, confirms the presence of Jeffamine on the membrane surface. We demonstrate the improved fouling resistance of the in situ modified membranes through accelerated dynamic fouling FO experiments using a synthetic wastewater feed solution at high concentration (250 mg/L) of alginate, a model macromolecule for the hydrophilic fraction of wastewater effluent organic matter. Our results show a significantly lower flux decline for the in situ modified membranes compared to pristine polyamide (14.3 ± 2.7% vs 2.8 ± 1.4%, respectively). AFM adhesion force measurements between the membrane and a carboxylate-modified latex particle, a surrogate for the organic (alginate) foulant, show weaker foulant-membrane interactions, further confirming the enhanced fouling resistance of the in situ modified membranes.

  20. Membrane filtration of agro-industrial wastewaters and isolation of organic compounds with high added values.

    PubMed

    Zagklis, Dimitris P; Paraskeva, Christakis A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was the exploitation of agro-industrial wastes or by-products such as olive mill wastewater (OMW) and defective wines. A cost-effective system for their maximum exploitation is suggested, using a combined process of membrane filtration and other physicochemical processes. Wastewaters are first treated in a membrane system (prefiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis) where pure water and other organic fractions (by-products) are obtained. Organic fractions, called hereafter byproducts and not wastes, are further treated for the separation of organic compounds and isolation of high added value products. Experiments were performed with OMW and defective wines as characteristic agro-industrial wastewaters. Profit from the exploitation of agro-industrial wastewaters can readily help the depreciation of the indeed high cost process of membrane filtration. The simple phenolic fraction of the OMW was successfully isolated from the rest of the waste, and problems occurring during winemaking, such as high volatile acidity and odours, were tackled.

  1. Membrane filtration of agro-industrial wastewaters and isolation of organic compounds with high added values.

    PubMed

    Zagklis, Dimitris P; Paraskeva, Christakis A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was the exploitation of agro-industrial wastes or by-products such as olive mill wastewater (OMW) and defective wines. A cost-effective system for their maximum exploitation is suggested, using a combined process of membrane filtration and other physicochemical processes. Wastewaters are first treated in a membrane system (prefiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis) where pure water and other organic fractions (by-products) are obtained. Organic fractions, called hereafter byproducts and not wastes, are further treated for the separation of organic compounds and isolation of high added value products. Experiments were performed with OMW and defective wines as characteristic agro-industrial wastewaters. Profit from the exploitation of agro-industrial wastewaters can readily help the depreciation of the indeed high cost process of membrane filtration. The simple phenolic fraction of the OMW was successfully isolated from the rest of the waste, and problems occurring during winemaking, such as high volatile acidity and odours, were tackled. PMID:24434988

  2. Communication Between the Cell Membrane and the Nucleus: Role of Protein Compartmentalization

    SciTech Connect

    Lelievre, Sophie A; Bissell, Mina J

    1998-10-21

    Understanding how the information is conveyed from outside to inside the cell is a critical challenge for all biologists involved in signal transduction. The flow of information initiated by cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix contacts is mediated by the formation of adhesion complexes involving multiple proteins. Inside adhesion complexes, connective membrane skeleton (CMS) proteins are signal transducers that bind to adhesion molecules, organize the cytoskeleton, and initiate biochemical cascades. Adhesion complex-mediated signal transduction ultimately directs the formation of supramolecular structures in the cell nucleus, as illustrated by the establishment of multi complexes of DNA-bound transcription factors, and the redistribution of nuclear structural proteins to form nuclear subdomains. Recently, several CMS proteins have been observed to travel to the cell nucleus, suggesting a distinctive role for these proteins in signal transduction. This review focuses on the nuclear translocation of structural signal transducers of the membrane skeleton and also extends our analysis to possible translocation of resident nuclear proteins to the membrane skeleton. This leads us to envision the communication between spatially distant cellular compartments (i.e., membrane skeleton and cell nucleus) as a bidirectional flow of information (a dynamic reciprocity) based on subtle multilevel structural and biochemical equilibria. At one level, it is mediated by the interaction between structural signal transducers and their binding partners, at another level it may be mediated by the balance and integration of signal transducers in different cellular compartments.

  3. Relating organic fouling of reverse osmosis membranes to intermolecular adhesion forces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangyoup; Elimelech, Menachem

    2006-02-01

    Organic fouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes and its relation to foulant--foulant intermolecular adhesion forces has been investigated. Alginate and Suwannee River natural organic matter were used as model organic foulants. Atomic force microscopy was utilized to determine the adhesion force between bulk organic foulants and foulants deposited on the membrane surface under various solution chemistries. The measured adhesion force was related to the RO fouling rate determined from fouling experiments under solution chemistries similar to those used in the AFM measurements. A remarkable correlation was obtained between the measured adhesion force and the fouling rate under the solution chemistries investigated. Fouling was more severe at solution chemistries that resulted in larger adhesion forces, namely, lower pH, higher ionic strength, presence of calcium ions (but not magnesium ions), and higher mass ratio of alginate to Suwannee River natural organic matter. The significant adhesion force measured with alginate in the presence of calcium ions indicated the formation of a crossed-linked alginate gel layer during fouling through intermolecular bridging among alginate molecules.

  4. Properties governing the transport of trace organic contaminants through ion-exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Vanoppen, Marjolein; Bakelants, Annelise F A M; Gaublomme, Dorien; Schoutteten, Klaas V K M; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Verliefde, Arne R D

    2015-01-01

    Ion exchange membranes could provide a solution to the selective separation of organic and inorganic components in industrial wastewater. The phenomena governing the transport of organics through the IEM however, are not yet fully understood. Therefore, the transport of trace organic contaminants (TOrCs) as a model for a wide variety of organic compounds was studied under different conditions. It was found that in the absence of salt and external potential, the chemical equilibrium is the main driver for TOrC-transport, resulting in the transport of mainly charged TOrCs. When salt is present, the transport of TOrCs is hampered in favor of the NaCl transport, which shows a preferential interaction with the membranes due to its small size, high mobility and concentration. It is hypothesized that electrostatic interactions and electron donor/acceptor interactions are the main drivers for TOrC transport and that transport is mainly diffusion driven. This was confirmed in the experiments with different current densities, where the external potential seemed to have only a minor influence on the transport of TOrCs. It is only when the salt becomes nearly completely depleted that the TOrCs are transported as charge carriers. This shows that it is very difficult to get preferential transport of organic compounds due to the diffusive nature of their transport.

  5. TiO2 membranes for concurrent photocatalytic organic degradation and corrosion protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Robert; Hatat-Fraile, Melisa; He, Horatio; Arlos, Maricor; Servos, Mark R.; Zhou, Y. Norman

    2015-10-01

    Organic contaminants and corrosion in water treatment effluents are a current global problem and the development of effective methods to facilitate the removal of organic contaminants and corrosion control strategies are required to mitigate this problem. TiO2 nanomaterials that are exposed to UV light can generate electron-hole pairs, which undergo redox reactions to produce hydroxyl radicals from adsorbed molecular oxygen. They hydroxyl radicals are able to oxidize organic contaminants in water. This same process can be used in conjunction to protect metals from corrosion via cathodic polarization. In this work, TiO2 nanomaterials were synthesized and electrophoretically deposited on conductive substrates to serve as films or membranes. An illuminated TiO2 film on a conductive surface served as the photoanode and assisted in the cathodic protection of stainless steel (SS304) and the degradation of organic pollutants, in this case glucose. This proof-of-concept relied on photoelectrochemical experiments conducted using a potentiostat and a xenon lamp illumination source. The open-circuit potential changes that determine whether a metal is protected from corrosion under illumination was observed; and the electrical characteristics of the TiO2 film or membrane under dark and arc lamp illumination conditions were also analyzed. Furthermore, the effect of organic contaminants on the photocathodic protection mechanism and the oxidation of glucose during this process were explored.

  6. Aqueous liquid feed organic fuel cell using solid polymer electrolyte membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Vamos, Eugene (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor); Olah, George A. (Inventor); Prakash, G. K. Surya (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A liquid organic fuel cell is provided which employs a solid electrolyte membrane. An organic fuel, such as a methanol/water mixture, is circulated past an anode of a cell while oxygen or air is circulated past a cathode of the cell. The cell solid electrolyte membrane is preferably fabricated from Nafion.TM.. Additionally, a method for improving the performance of carbon electrode structures for use in organic fuel cells is provided wherein a high surface-area carbon particle/Teflon.TM.-binder structure is immersed within a Nafion.TM./methanol bath to impregnate the electrode with Nafion.TM.. A method for fabricating an anode for use in a organic fuel cell is described wherein metal alloys are deposited onto the electrode in an electro-deposition solution containing perfluorooctanesulfonic acid. A fuel additive containing perfluorooctanesulfonic acid for use with fuel cells employing a sulfuric acid electrolyte is also disclosed. New organic fuels, namely, trimethoxymethane, dimethoxymethane, and trioxane are also described for use with either conventional or improved fuel cells.

  7. Removal of trace organic chemicals and performance of a novel hybrid ultrafiltration-osmotic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Ryan W; Regnery, Julia; Nghiem, Long D; Cath, Tzahi Y

    2014-09-16

    A hybrid ultrafiltration-osmotic membrane bioreactor (UFO-MBR) was investigated for over 35 days for nutrient and trace organic chemical (TOrC) removal from municipal wastewater. The UFO-MBR system uses both ultrafiltration (UF) and forward osmosis (FO) membranes in parallel to simultaneously extract clean water from an activated sludge reactor for nonpotable (or environmental discharge) and potable reuse, respectively. In the FO stream, water is drawn by osmosis from activated sludge through an FO membrane into a draw solution (DS), which becomes diluted during the process. A reverse osmosis (RO) system is then used to reconcentrate the diluted DS and produce clean water suitable for direct potable reuse. The UF membrane extracts water, dissolved salts, and some nutrients from the system to prevent their accumulation in the activated sludge of the osmotic MBR. The UF permeate can be used for nonpotable reuse purposes (e.g., irrigation and toilet flushing). Results from UFO-MBR investigation illustrated that the chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus removals were greater than 99%, 82%, and 99%, respectively. Twenty TOrCs were detected in the municipal wastewater that was used as feed to the UFO-MBR system. Among these 20 TOrCs, 15 were removed by the hybrid UFO-MBR system to below the detection limit. High FO membrane rejection was observed for all ionic and nonionic hydrophilic TOrCs and lower rejection was observed for nonionic hydrophobic TOrCs. With the exceptions of bisphenol A and DEET, all TOrCs that were detected in the DS were well rejected by the RO membrane. Overall, the UFO-MBR can operate sustainably and has the potential to be utilized for direct potable reuse applications. PMID:25113310

  8. Removal of trace organic chemicals and performance of a novel hybrid ultrafiltration-osmotic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Ryan W; Regnery, Julia; Nghiem, Long D; Cath, Tzahi Y

    2014-09-16

    A hybrid ultrafiltration-osmotic membrane bioreactor (UFO-MBR) was investigated for over 35 days for nutrient and trace organic chemical (TOrC) removal from municipal wastewater. The UFO-MBR system uses both ultrafiltration (UF) and forward osmosis (FO) membranes in parallel to simultaneously extract clean water from an activated sludge reactor for nonpotable (or environmental discharge) and potable reuse, respectively. In the FO stream, water is drawn by osmosis from activated sludge through an FO membrane into a draw solution (DS), which becomes diluted during the process. A reverse osmosis (RO) system is then used to reconcentrate the diluted DS and produce clean water suitable for direct potable reuse. The UF membrane extracts water, dissolved salts, and some nutrients from the system to prevent their accumulation in the activated sludge of the osmotic MBR. The UF permeate can be used for nonpotable reuse purposes (e.g., irrigation and toilet flushing). Results from UFO-MBR investigation illustrated that the chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus removals were greater than 99%, 82%, and 99%, respectively. Twenty TOrCs were detected in the municipal wastewater that was used as feed to the UFO-MBR system. Among these 20 TOrCs, 15 were removed by the hybrid UFO-MBR system to below the detection limit. High FO membrane rejection was observed for all ionic and nonionic hydrophilic TOrCs and lower rejection was observed for nonionic hydrophobic TOrCs. With the exceptions of bisphenol A and DEET, all TOrCs that were detected in the DS were well rejected by the RO membrane. Overall, the UFO-MBR can operate sustainably and has the potential to be utilized for direct potable reuse applications.

  9. Characterizing algogenic organic matter (AOM) and evaluating associated NF membrane fouling.

    PubMed

    Her, Namguk; Amy, Gary; Park, Hyoung-Ryun; Song, Myoungsuk

    2004-03-01

    Occasional algal blooms, comprised of blue-green algae and/or green algae, cause significant challenges in drinking water treatment due to the release of algogenic organic matter (AOM) into water extracellularly and, upon cell lysis, intracellularly. AOM has been extracted from blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) by various means and analyzed by UV absorbance scanning, HPSEC-UV-fluorescence-DOC, UV absorbance ratio index (URI), FTIR, and fluorescence excitation emission matrix (EEM). AOM extracted in water as a solvent exhibited a high hydrophilic fraction (57.3%) with a low SUVA (1.0 L/m-mg). The molecular weight (MW) distribution showed a significant heterogeneity (high value of polydispersivity) and high protein content (as indicated by specific fluorescence). Significant amounts of proteinaceous components such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs, UV-screening components) and phycobilins (light-harvesting pigment) were detected by UV/visible absorption. The presence of proteins was confirmed by FTIR (at 1661 and 1552 cm(-1)), EEM spectra (EX:278-282 nm and EM:304-353 nm), and high URI values (3.1-6.0). A bench-scale cross-flow unit, employing a flat-sheet membrane specimen, was used to examine nanofiltration (NF) membrane fouling and removal of natural organic matter (NOM) derived from different blends of Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) and AOM: SRHA 10 mgC/L, AOM 3mg C/L + SRHA 7 mgC/L, AOM 7 mgC/L + SRHA 3 mgC/L, and AOM 10 mgC/L. The study focused mainly on the effects of two different sources of organic matter on NF (NF 200) membrane fouling under otherwise similar conditions. Flux decline and organic matter rejection as a function of delivered DOC (cumulative mass of feed DOC per unit area) showed significantly different results depending on the organic matter composition of samples even though the test conditions were the same (organic matter concentration, pH, temperature, inorganic salt composition and concentration, and recovery). A higher flux decline

  10. Separation of organic pollutants by reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes: Mathematical models and experimental verification

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.E.; Hestekin, J.A.; Smothers, C.N.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    1999-10-01

    Predictive reverse osmosis (RO) models have been well-developed for many systems. However, the applications to dilute organic-water systems require the modification of transport models and the understanding of solute-polymer interactions. Studies with various substituted, nonionized phenolic compounds showed that these could cause substantial membrane water flux drop, even in dilute solutions with negligible osmotic pressure. Further, the organics could significantly adsorb on the cross-linked aromatic polyamide active layer. In some cases, even concentrations as low as 0.2 mM, 2,4-dinitrophenol (solution in particle-free, double-distilled water) can cause as much as a 70% flux drop with an aromatic polyamide membrane. Two models are presented in this paper: a modified steady-state solution diffusion model and an unsteady-state diffusion adsorption model which are able to predict flux and permeate concentrations from a single RO experiment. Further, the development of these models allows for the understanding of the mechanisms of organic-membrane interactions. For instance, it has been proposed that increased adsorption inherently leads to an increase in flux drop. However, the authors have found, on one hand, that due to specific interactions with membrane water transport groups, chloro-, and nitro-substituted phenols cause significant flux drops. On the other hand, benzene had a high physical adsorption but caused negligible flux drop. The results were further extended to nanofiltration experiments with an aromatic pollutant containing two types of charge groups. The adsorption and separation results are explained according to an ionization model.

  11. The Effect of Loops on the Structural Organization of α-Helical Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tastan, Oznur; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Meirovitch, Hagai

    2009-01-01

    Loops connecting the transmembrane (TM) α-helices in membrane proteins are expected to affect the structural organization of the thereby connected helices and the helical bundles as a whole. This effect, which has been largely ignored previously, is studied here by analyzing the x-ray structures of 41 α-helical membrane proteins. First we define the loop flexibility ratio, R, and find that 53% of the loops are stretched, where a stretched loop constrains the distance between the two connected helices. The significance of this constraining effect is supported by experiments carried out with bacteriorhodopsin and rhodopsin, in which cutting or eliminating their (predominately stretched) loops has led to a decrease in protein stability, and for rhodopsin, in most cases, also to the destruction of the structure. We show that for nonstretched loops in the extramembranous regions, the fraction of hydrophobic residues is comparable to that for soluble proteins; furthermore (as is also the case for soluble proteins), the hydrophobic residues in these regions are preferentially buried. This is expected to lead to the compact structural organization of the loops, which is transferred to the TM helices, causing them to assemble. We argue that a soluble protein complexed with a membrane protein similarly promotes compactness; other properties of such complexes are also studied. We calculate complementary attractive interactions between helices, including hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions of sequential motifs, such as GXXXG. The relative and combined effects of all these factors on the association of the TM helices are discussed and protein structures with only a few of these factors are analyzed. Our study emphasizes the need for classifying membrane proteins into groups according to structural organization. This classification should be considered when procedures for structural analysis or prediction are developed and applied. Detailed analysis of each structure

  12. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and membrane organization: The balance between immunotherapy and susceptibility to infection

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Saame Raza; Edidin, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), notably of the n-3 series, have immunosuppressive effects which make these molecules candidates for treating inflammatory symptoms associated with cardiovascular disease, obesity, arthritis, and asthma. However, immunosuppression by PUFAs could increase susceptibility to bacterial and viral infection. A detailed molecular picture is required in order to understand the balance between the benefits and risks of utilizing PUFAs as adjuvant immunosuppressants. Here we review evidence that incorporation of PUFAs into membrane lipids of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) downregulates APC function. We propose that PUFAs modulate antigen presentation by altering the organization of lipid and protein molecules of the plasma membrane and endomembranes; this alters recognition and responses by T cells. The foundation of our hypothesis is built on data from artificial bilayer experiments which provide the physical principles by which PUFA acyl chains affect membrane architecture. This review also reconciles conflicting results in the literature by discussing the advantages and disadvantages of differing methods of PUFA treatment of cells. We suggest that membrane modulation of immune cells may be an important and overlooked mechanism of immunomodulation. In addition, we propose that mechanistic studies with defined experimental protocols will speed the translation of laboratory studies on PUFAs to the clinic. PMID:18346461

  13. Membrane organization and dynamics of "inner pair" and "outer pair" tryptophan residues in gramicidin channels.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Sourav; Chaudhuri, Arunima; Gu, Hong; Koeppe, Roger E; Kombrabail, Mamata; Krishnamoorthy, G; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2012-09-13

    The linear ion channel peptide gramicidin serves as an excellent prototype for monitoring the organization, dynamics, and function of membrane-spanning channels. The tryptophan residues in gramicidin channels are crucial for establishing and maintaining the structure and function of the channel in the membrane bilayer. In order to address the basis of differential importance of tryptophan residues in the gramicidin channel, we monitored the effects of pairwise substitution of two of the four gramicidin tryptophans, the inner pair (Trp-9 and -11) and the outer pair (Trp-13 and -15), using a combination of steady state and time-resolved fluorescence approaches and circular dichroism spectroscopy. We show here that these double tryptophan gramicidin analogues adopt different conformations in membranes, suggesting that the conformational preference of double tryptophan gramicidin analogues is dictated by the positions of the tryptophans in the sequence. These results assume significance in the context of recent observations that the inner pair of tryptophans (Trp-9 and -11) is more important for gramicidin channel formation and channel conductance. These results could be potentially useful in analyzing the effect of tryptophan substitution on the functioning of ion channels and membrane proteins.

  14. Superhydrophilic thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes for organic fouling control: fouling behavior and antifouling mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tiraferri, Alberto; Kang, Yan; Giannelis, Emmanuel P; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-10-16

    This study investigates the fouling behavior and fouling resistance of superhydrophilic thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes functionalized with surface-tailored nanoparticles. Fouling experiments in both forward osmosis and reverse osmosis modes are performed with three model organic foulants: alginate, bovine serum albumin, and Suwannee river natural organic matter. A solution comprising monovalent and divalent salts is employed to simulate the solution chemistry of typical wastewater effluents. Reduced fouling is consistently observed for the superhydrophilic membranes compared to control thin-film composite polyamide membranes, in both reverse and forward osmosis modes. The fouling resistance and cleaning efficiency of the functionalized membranes is particularly outstanding in forward osmosis mode where the driving force for water flux is an osmotic pressure difference. To understand the mechanism of fouling, the intermolecular interactions between the foulants and the membrane surface are analyzed by direct force measurement using atomic force microscopy. Lower adhesion forces are observed for the superhydrophilic membranes compared to the control thin-film composite polyamide membranes. The magnitude and distribution of adhesion forces for the different membrane surfaces suggest that the antifouling properties of the superhydrophilic membranes originate from the barrier provided by the tightly bound hydration layer at their surface, as well as from the neutralization of the native carboxyl groups of thin-film composite polyamide membranes.

  15. Superhydrophilic thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes for organic fouling control: fouling behavior and antifouling mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tiraferri, Alberto; Kang, Yan; Giannelis, Emmanuel P; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-10-16

    This study investigates the fouling behavior and fouling resistance of superhydrophilic thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes functionalized with surface-tailored nanoparticles. Fouling experiments in both forward osmosis and reverse osmosis modes are performed with three model organic foulants: alginate, bovine serum albumin, and Suwannee river natural organic matter. A solution comprising monovalent and divalent salts is employed to simulate the solution chemistry of typical wastewater effluents. Reduced fouling is consistently observed for the superhydrophilic membranes compared to control thin-film composite polyamide membranes, in both reverse and forward osmosis modes. The fouling resistance and cleaning efficiency of the functionalized membranes is particularly outstanding in forward osmosis mode where the driving force for water flux is an osmotic pressure difference. To understand the mechanism of fouling, the intermolecular interactions between the foulants and the membrane surface are analyzed by direct force measurement using atomic force microscopy. Lower adhesion forces are observed for the superhydrophilic membranes compared to the control thin-film composite polyamide membranes. The magnitude and distribution of adhesion forces for the different membrane surfaces suggest that the antifouling properties of the superhydrophilic membranes originate from the barrier provided by the tightly bound hydration layer at their surface, as well as from the neutralization of the native carboxyl groups of thin-film composite polyamide membranes. PMID:23002900

  16. Cilia involvement in patterning and maintenance of the skeleton.

    PubMed

    Haycraft, Courtney J; Serra, Rosa

    2008-01-01

    Although the expression of cilia on chondrocytes was described over 40 years ago, the importance of this organelle in skeletal development and maintenance has only recently been recognized. Primary cilia are found on most mammalian cells and have been shown to play a role in chemosensation and mechanosensation. A growing number of human pleiotropic syndromes have been shown to be associated with ciliary or basal body dysfunction. Skeletal phenotypes, including alterations in limb patterning, endochondral bone formation, craniofacial development, and dentition, have been described in several of these syndromes. Additional insights into the potential roles and mechanisms of cilia action in the mammalian skeleton have been provided by research in model organisms including mouse and zebrafish. In this article we describe what is currently known about the localization of cilia in the skeleton as well as the roles and underlying molecular mechanisms of cilia in skeletal development. PMID:19147010

  17. Human proximal tubule epithelial cells cultured on hollow fibers: living membranes that actively transport organic cations.

    PubMed

    Jansen, J; De Napoli, I E; Fedecostante, M; Schophuizen, C M S; Chevtchik, N V; Wilmer, M J; van Asbeck, A H; Croes, H J; Pertijs, J C; Wetzels, J F M; Hilbrands, L B; van den Heuvel, L P; Hoenderop, J G; Stamatialis, D; Masereeuw, R

    2015-11-16

    The bioartificial kidney (BAK) aims at improving dialysis by developing 'living membranes' for cells-aided removal of uremic metabolites. Here, unique human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell (ciPTEC) monolayers were cultured on biofunctionalized MicroPES (polyethersulfone) hollow fiber membranes (HFM) and functionally tested using microfluidics. Tight monolayer formation was demonstrated by abundant zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein expression along the tight junctions of matured ciPTEC on HFM. A clear barrier function of the monolayer was confirmed by limited diffusion of FITC-inulin. The activity of the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) in ciPTEC was evaluated in real-time using a perfusion system by confocal microscopy using 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP(+)) as a fluorescent substrate. Initial ASP(+) uptake was inhibited by a cationic uremic metabolites mixture and by the histamine H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine. In conclusion, a 'living membrane' of renal epithelial cells on MicroPES HFM with demonstrated active organic cation transport was successfully established as a first step in BAK engineering.

  18. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids exert immunomodulatory effects on lymphocytes by targeting plasma membrane molecular organization

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Saame Raza; Jolly, Christopher A.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Fish oil, enriched in bioactive n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), has therapeutic value for the treatment of inflammation-associated disorders. The effects of n-3 PUFAs are pleiotropic and complex; hence, an understanding of their cellular targets and molecular mechanisms of action remains incomplete. Here we focus on recent data indicating n-3 PUFAs exert immunosuppressive effects on the function of effector and regulatory CD4+ T cells. In addition, we also present emerging evidence that n-3 PUFAs have immunomodulatory effects on B cells. We then focus on one multifaceted mechanism of n-3 PUFAs, which is the alteration of the biophysical and biochemical organization of the plasma membrane. This mechanism is central for downstream signaling, eicosanoid production, transcriptional regulation and cytokine secretion. We highlight recent work demonstrating n-3 PUFA acyl chains in the plasma membrane target the lateral organization of membrane signaling assemblies (i.e. lipid rafts or signaling networks) and de novo phospholipid biosynthesis. We conclude by proposing new functional and mechanistic questions in this area of research that will aid in the development of fish oil as adjuvant therapy for treating unresolved chronic inflammation. PMID:22020145

  19. Organization and dynamics of membrane probes and proteins utilizing the red edge excitation shift.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Sourav; Chaudhuri, Arunima; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2011-05-19

    Dynamics of confined water has interesting implications in the organization and function of molecular assemblies such as membranes. A direct consequence of this type of organization is the restriction imposed on the mobility of the constituent structural units. Interestingly, this restriction (confinement) of mobility couples the motion of solvent (water) molecules with the slow moving molecules in the assembly. It is in this context that the red edge excitation shift (REES) represents a sensitive approach to monitor the environment and dynamics around a fluorophore in such organized assemblies. A shift in the wavelength of maximum fluorescence emission toward higher wavelengths, caused by a shift in the excitation wavelength toward the red edge of the absorption band, is termed REES. REES relies on slow solvent reorientation in the excited state of a fluorophore that can be used to monitor the environment and dynamics around a fluorophore in a host assembly. In this article, we focus on the application of REES to monitor organization and dynamics of membrane probes and proteins.

  20. Reduction of absorbed doses in radiography of the facial skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Julin, P.; Kraepelien, T.

    1984-11-01

    Radiation absorbed doses from radiography of the paranasal sinuses and the facial skeleton were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) on a phantom head using high-sensitivity screens in an Orbix stand. The entrance doses to the skin of the head ranged from 0.31 to 2.9 mGy per exposure. The absorbed dose from a full series of sinus exposures averaged 0.33 mGy for the oral mucous membrane, 0.33 mGy for the maxillary sinus mucous membrane, 0.11 mGy for the parotid gland, 0.15 mGy for the submandibular gland, 0.61 mGy for the eye lens, and 0.75 mGy for the thyroid gland region. A leaded soft collar adapted to the thyroid region reduced the thyroid doses by more than one order of magnitude, but also reduced the image field. The mean energy imparted from a full series of paranasal sinus projections was 4.8 mJ and from a total series of the facial skeleton, 7.9 mJ.

  1. Reduction of absorbed doses in radiography of the facial skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Julin, P.; Kraepelien, T.

    1984-11-01

    Radiation absorbed doses from radiography of the paranasal sinuses and the facial skeleton were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) on a phantom head using high-sensitivity screens in an Orbix stand. The entrance doses to the skin of the head ranged from 0.31 to 2.9 mGy per exposure. The absorbed dose from a full series of sinus exposures averaged 0.33 mGy for the oral mucous membrane, 0.33 mGy for the maxillary sinus mucous membrane, 0.11 MgY for the parotid gland, 0.15 MgY for the submandibular gland, 0.61 mGy for the eye lens, and 0.75 mGy for the thyroid gland region. A leaded soft collar adapted to the thyroid region reduced the thyroid doses by more than one order of magnitude, but also reduced the image field.

  2. Red blood cells in Rett syndrome: oxidative stress, morphological changes and altered membrane organization.

    PubMed

    Ciccoli, Lucia; De Felice, Claudio; Leoncini, Silvia; Signorini, Cinzia; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Zollo, Gloria; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Rossi, Marcello; Hayek, Joussef

    2015-11-01

    In this review, we summarize the current evidence on the erythrocyte as a previously unrecognized target cell in Rett syndrome, a rare (1:10 000 females) and devastating neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in a single gene (i.e. MeCP2, CDKL5, or rarely FOXG1). In particular, we focus on morphological changes, membrane oxidative damage, altered membrane fatty acid profile, and aberrant skeletal organization in erythrocytes from patients with typical Rett syndrome and MeCP2 gene mutations. The beneficial effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are also summarized for this condition to be considered as a 'model' condition for autism spectrum disorders.

  3. Rejection of trace organic compounds by forward osmosis membranes: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Coday, Bryan D; Yaffe, Bethany G M; Xu, Pei; Cath, Tzahi Y

    2014-04-01

    To meet surging water demands, water reuse is being sought as an alternative to traditional water resources. However, contamination of water resources by trace organic compounds (TOrCs), including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, disinfection byproducts, and industrial chemicals is of increasing concern. These compounds are not readily removed by conventional water treatment processes and require new treatment technologies to enable potable water reuse. Forward osmosis (FO) has been recognized in recent years as a robust process suitable for the treatment of highly impaired streams and a good barrier to TOrCs. To date, at least 14 studies have been published that investigated the rejection of various TOrCs by FO membranes under a variety of experimental conditions. In this paper, TOrC rejection by FO has been critically reviewed, evaluating the effects of membrane characteristics and orientation, experimental scale and duration, membrane fouling, feed solution chemistry, draw solution composition and concentration, and transmembrane temperature on process performance. Although it is important to continue to investigate the removal of diverse TOrCs by FO, and especially with new FO membranes, it is critically important to adhere to standard testing conditions to enable comparison of results between studies. Likewise, feed concentration of TOrCs during FO testing must be environmentally relevant (most commonly 10-100 ng/L range for most wastewaters) and not excessively high, and in addition to testing TOrC rejection in clean feedwater, the effects of real water matrix and membrane fouling on TOrC rejection must be evaluated.

  4. Characterization of natural organic matter treated by iron oxide nanoparticle incorporated ceramic membrane-ozonation process.

    PubMed

    Park, Hosik; Kim, Yohan; An, Byungryul; Choi, Heechul

    2012-11-15

    In this study, changes in the physical and structural properties of natural organic matter (NOM) were observed during hybrid ceramic membrane processes that combined ozonation with ultrafiltration ceramic membrane (CM) or with a reactive ceramic membrane (RM), namely, an iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) incorporated-CM. NOM from feed water and NOM from permeate treated with hybrid ceramic membrane processes were analyzed by employing several NOM characterization techniques. Specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA), high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and fractionation analyses showed that the hybrid ceramic membrane process effectively removed and transformed relatively high contents of aromatic, high molecular weight and hydrophobic NOM fractions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 3-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that this process caused a significant decrease of the aromaticity of humic-like structures and an increase in electron withdrawing groups. The highest removal efficiency (46%) of hydroxyl radical probe compound (i.e., para-Chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA)) in RM-ozonation process compared with that in CM without ozonation process (8%) revealed the hydroxyl radical formation by the surface-catalyzed reaction between ozone and IONs on the surface of RM. In addition, experimental results on flux decline showed that fouling of RM-ozonation process (15%) was reduced compared with that of CM without ozonation process (30%). These results indicated that the RM-ozonation process enhanced the destruction of NOM and reduced the fouling by generating hydroxyl radicals from the catalytic ozonation in the RM-ozonation process. PMID:22944203

  5. Fate of organic pollutants in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor-nanofiltration membrane system at high water yield in antibiotic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianxing; Wei, Yuansong; Li, Kun; Cheng, Yutao; Li, Mingyue; Xu, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    A double membrane system combining a membrane bioreactor (MBR) with a nanofiltration (NF) membrane at the pilot scale was tested to treat real antibiotic wastewater at a pharmaceutical company in Wuxi (China). The water yield of the pilot system reached over 92 ± 5.6% through recycling the NF concentrate to the MBR tank. Results showed that the pilot scale system operated in good conditions throughout the entire experiment period and obtained excellent water quality in which the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon were stable at 35 and 5.7 mg/L, respectively. The antibiotic removal rates of both spiramycin (SPM) and new spiramycin in wastewater were over 95%. Organics analysis results showed that the main organics in the biological effluent were proteins, soluble microbial by-product-like, fulvic acid-like and humic-like substances. These organics could be perfectly rejected by the NF membrane. Most of the organics could be removed through recycling NF concentrate to the MBR tank and only a small part was discharged with NF concentrate and permeate.

  6. Experimental Approach Reveals the Role of alx1 in the Evolution of the Echinoderm Larval Skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Hiroyuki; Fujitani, Haruka; Morino, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Norio; Tsuchimoto, Jun; Shibata, Tomoko F.; Nozawa, Masafumi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ogura, Atsushi; Tachibana, Kazunori; Kiyomoto, Masato; Amemiya, Shonan; Wada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of evolution, the acquisition of novel structures has ultimately led to wide variation in morphology among extant multicellular organisms. Thus, the origins of genetic systems for new morphological structures are a subject of great interest in evolutionary biology. The larval skeleton is a novel structure acquired in some echinoderm lineages via the activation of the adult skeletogenic machinery. Previously, VEGF signaling was suggested to have played an important role in the acquisition of the larval skeleton. In the present study, we compared expression patterns of Alx genes among echinoderm classes to further explore the factors involved in the acquisition of a larval skeleton. We found that the alx1 gene, originally described as crucial for sea urchin skeletogenesis, may have also played an essential role in the evolution of the larval skeleton. Unlike those echinoderms that have a larval skeleton, we found that alx1 of starfish was barely expressed in early larvae that have no skeleton. When alx1 overexpression was induced via injection of alx1 mRNA into starfish eggs, the expression patterns of certain genes, including those possibly involved in skeletogenesis, were altered. This suggested that a portion of the skeletogenic program was induced solely by alx1. However, we observed no obvious external phenotype or skeleton. We concluded that alx1 was necessary but not sufficient for the acquisition of the larval skeleton, which, in fact, requires several genetic events. Based on these results, we discuss how the larval expression of alx1 contributed to the acquisition of the larval skeleton in the putative ancestral lineage of echinoderms. PMID:26866800

  7. Experimental Approach Reveals the Role of alx1 in the Evolution of the Echinoderm Larval Skeleton.

    PubMed

    Koga, Hiroyuki; Fujitani, Haruka; Morino, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Norio; Tsuchimoto, Jun; Shibata, Tomoko F; Nozawa, Masafumi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ogura, Atsushi; Tachibana, Kazunori; Kiyomoto, Masato; Amemiya, Shonan; Wada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of evolution, the acquisition of novel structures has ultimately led to wide variation in morphology among extant multicellular organisms. Thus, the origins of genetic systems for new morphological structures are a subject of great interest in evolutionary biology. The larval skeleton is a novel structure acquired in some echinoderm lineages via the activation of the adult skeletogenic machinery. Previously, VEGF signaling was suggested to have played an important role in the acquisition of the larval skeleton. In the present study, we compared expression patterns of Alx genes among echinoderm classes to further explore the factors involved in the acquisition of a larval skeleton. We found that the alx1 gene, originally described as crucial for sea urchin skeletogenesis, may have also played an essential role in the evolution of the larval skeleton. Unlike those echinoderms that have a larval skeleton, we found that alx1 of starfish was barely expressed in early larvae that have no skeleton. When alx1 overexpression was induced via injection of alx1 mRNA into starfish eggs, the expression patterns of certain genes, including those possibly involved in skeletogenesis, were altered. This suggested that a portion of the skeletogenic program was induced solely by alx1. However, we observed no obvious external phenotype or skeleton. We concluded that alx1 was necessary but not sufficient for the acquisition of the larval skeleton, which, in fact, requires several genetic events. Based on these results, we discuss how the larval expression of alx1 contributed to the acquisition of the larval skeleton in the putative ancestral lineage of echinoderms. PMID:26866800

  8. Experimental Approach Reveals the Role of alx1 in the Evolution of the Echinoderm Larval Skeleton.

    PubMed

    Koga, Hiroyuki; Fujitani, Haruka; Morino, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Norio; Tsuchimoto, Jun; Shibata, Tomoko F; Nozawa, Masafumi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ogura, Atsushi; Tachibana, Kazunori; Kiyomoto, Masato; Amemiya, Shonan; Wada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of evolution, the acquisition of novel structures has ultimately led to wide variation in morphology among extant multicellular organisms. Thus, the origins of genetic systems for new morphological structures are a subject of great interest in evolutionary biology. The larval skeleton is a novel structure acquired in some echinoderm lineages via the activation of the adult skeletogenic machinery. Previously, VEGF signaling was suggested to have played an important role in the acquisition of the larval skeleton. In the present study, we compared expression patterns of Alx genes among echinoderm classes to further explore the factors involved in the acquisition of a larval skeleton. We found that the alx1 gene, originally described as crucial for sea urchin skeletogenesis, may have also played an essential role in the evolution of the larval skeleton. Unlike those echinoderms that have a larval skeleton, we found that alx1 of starfish was barely expressed in early larvae that have no skeleton. When alx1 overexpression was induced via injection of alx1 mRNA into starfish eggs, the expression patterns of certain genes, including those possibly involved in skeletogenesis, were altered. This suggested that a portion of the skeletogenic program was induced solely by alx1. However, we observed no obvious external phenotype or skeleton. We concluded that alx1 was necessary but not sufficient for the acquisition of the larval skeleton, which, in fact, requires several genetic events. Based on these results, we discuss how the larval expression of alx1 contributed to the acquisition of the larval skeleton in the putative ancestral lineage of echinoderms.

  9. Consequences of alkaline treatment for the ultrastructure of the acetylcholine-receptor-rich membranes from Torpedo marmorata electric organ

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    After fixation with glutaraldehyde and impregnation with tannic acid, the membrane that underlies the nerve terminals in Torpedo marmorata electroplaque presents a typical asymmetric triple-layered structure with an unusual thickness; in addition, it is coated with electron- dense material on its inner, cytoplasmic face. Filamentous structures are frequently found attached to these "subsynaptic densities." The organization of the subsynaptic membrane is partly preserved after homogenization of the electric organ and purification of acetylcholine- receptor (AchR)-rich membrane fragments. In vitro treatment at pH 11 and 4 degrees C of these AchR-rich membranes releases an extrinsic protein of 43,000 mol wt and at the same time causes the complete disappearance of the cytoplasmic condensations. Freeze-etching of native membrane fragments discloses remnants of the ribbonlike organization of the AchR rosettes. This organization disappears ater alkaline treatment and is replaced by a network which is not observed after rapid freezing and, therefore, most likely results from the lateral redistribution of the AchR rosettes during condition of slow freezing. A dispersion of the AchR rosettes in the plane of the membrane also occurs after fusion of the pH 11-treated fragments with phospholipid vesicles. These results are interpreted in terms of a structural stabilization and immobilization of the AchR by the 43,000- Mr protein binding to the inner face of the subsynaptic membrane. PMID:7287814

  10. Histology of the heterostracan dermal skeleton: Insight into the origin of the vertebrate mineralised skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Marquart, Chloe L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Living vertebrates are divided into those that possess a fully formed and fully mineralised skeleton (gnathostomes) versus those that possess only unmineralised cartilaginous rudiments (cyclostomes). As such, extinct phylogenetic intermediates of these living lineages afford unique insights into the evolutionary assembly of the vertebrate mineralised skeleton and its canonical tissue types. Extinct jawless and jawed fishes assigned to the gnathostome stem evidence the piecemeal assembly of skeletal systems, revealing that the dermal skeleton is the earliest manifestation of a homologous mineralised skeleton. Yet the nature of the primitive dermal skeleton, itself, is poorly understood. This is principally because previous histological studies of early vertebrates lacked a phylogenetic framework required to derive evolutionary hypotheses. Nowhere is this more apparent than within Heterostraci, a diverse clade of primitive jawless vertebrates. To this end, we surveyed the dermal skeletal histology of heterostracans, inferred the plesiomorphic heterostracan skeleton and, through histological comparison to other skeletonising vertebrate clades, deduced the ancestral nature of the vertebrate dermal skeleton. Heterostracans primitively possess a four‐layered skeleton, comprising a superficial layer of odontodes composed of dentine and enameloid; a compact layer of acellular parallel‐fibred bone containing a network of vascular canals that supply the pulp canals (L1); a trabecular layer consisting of intersecting radial walls composed of acellular parallel‐fibred bone, showing osteon‐like development (L2); and a basal layer of isopedin (L3). A three layered skeleton, equivalent to the superficial layer L2 and L3 and composed of enameloid, dentine and acellular bone, is possessed by the ancestor of heterostracans + jawed vertebrates. We conclude that an osteogenic component is plesiomorphic with respect to the vertebrate dermal skeleton. Consequently, we

  11. Histology of the heterostracan dermal skeleton: Insight into the origin of the vertebrate mineralised skeleton.

    PubMed

    Keating, Joseph N; Marquart, Chloe L; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2015-06-01

    Living vertebrates are divided into those that possess a fully formed and fully mineralised skeleton (gnathostomes) versus those that possess only unmineralised cartilaginous rudiments (cyclostomes). As such, extinct phylogenetic intermediates of these living lineages afford unique insights into the evolutionary assembly of the vertebrate mineralised skeleton and its canonical tissue types. Extinct jawless and jawed fishes assigned to the gnathostome stem evidence the piecemeal assembly of skeletal systems, revealing that the dermal skeleton is the earliest manifestation of a homologous mineralised skeleton. Yet the nature of the primitive dermal skeleton, itself, is poorly understood. This is principally because previous histological studies of early vertebrates lacked a phylogenetic framework required to derive evolutionary hypotheses. Nowhere is this more apparent than within Heterostraci, a diverse clade of primitive jawless vertebrates. To this end, we surveyed the dermal skeletal histology of heterostracans, inferred the plesiomorphic heterostracan skeleton and, through histological comparison to other skeletonising vertebrate clades, deduced the ancestral nature of the vertebrate dermal skeleton. Heterostracans primitively possess a four-layered skeleton, comprising a superficial layer of odontodes composed of dentine and enameloid; a compact layer of acellular parallel-fibred bone containing a network of vascular canals that supply the pulp canals (L1); a trabecular layer consisting of intersecting radial walls composed of acellular parallel-fibred bone, showing osteon-like development (L2); and a basal layer of isopedin (L3). A three layered skeleton, equivalent to the superficial layer L2 and L3 and composed of enameloid, dentine and acellular bone, is possessed by the ancestor of heterostracans + jawed vertebrates. We conclude that an osteogenic component is plesiomorphic with respect to the vertebrate dermal skeleton. Consequently, we interpret the

  12. Poly(imide)/Organically-Modified Montmorillonite Nanocomposite as a Potential Membrane for Alkaline Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Battirola, Liliane C.; Gasparotto, Luiz H. S.; Rodrigues-Filho, Ubirajara P.; Tremiliosi-Filho, Germano

    2012-01-01

    In this work we evaluated the potentiality of a poly(imide) (PI)/organically-modified montmorillonite (O-MMT) nanocomposite membrane for the use in alkaline fuel cells. Both X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy revealed a good dispersion of O-MMT into the PI matrix and preservation of the O-MMT layered structure. When compared to the pure PI, the addition of O-MMT improved thermal stability and markedly increased the capability of absorbing electrolyte and ionic conductivity of the composite. The results show that the PI/O-MMT nanocomposite is a promising candidate for alkaline fuel cell applications. PMID:24958290

  13. Real-time skeleton tracking for embedded systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleca, Foti; Klement, Sascha; Martinetz, Thomas; Barth, Erhardt

    2013-03-01

    Touch-free gesture technology is beginning to become more popular with consumers and may have a significant future impact on interfaces for digital photography. However, almost every commercial software framework for gesture and pose detection is aimed at either desktop PCs or high-powered GPUs, making mobile implementations for gesture recognition an attractive area for research and development. In this paper we present an algorithm for hand skeleton tracking and gesture recognition that runs on an ARM-based platform (Pandaboard ES, OMAP 4460 architecture). The algorithm uses self-organizing maps to fit a given topology (skeleton) into a 3D point cloud. This is a novel way of approaching the problem of pose recognition as it does not employ complex optimization techniques or data-based learning. After an initial background segmentation step, the algorithm is ran in parallel with heuristics, which detect and correct artifacts arising from insufficient or erroneous input data. We then optimize the algorithm for the ARM platform using fixed-point computation and the NEON SIMD architecture the OMAP4460 provides. We tested the algorithm with two different depth-sensing devices (Microsoft Kinect, PMD Camboard). For both input devices we were able to accurately track the skeleton at the native framerate of the cameras.

  14. Membrane-bound proteases of the gerbil subfornical organ and choroid plexus: an enzyme histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Mitro, A; De Bault, L E

    1994-03-01

    Using enzyme-histochemical methods, the membrane-bound peptidases, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GTP), microsomal alanyl aminopeptidase (mAAP), glutamyl aminopeptidase (EAP), and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), were studied in microvessels of the gerbil subfornical organ (SFO), choroid plexus adjacent to the SFO, and the ependyma of brain ventricle walls in the vicinity of the SFO. Vessels and microvessels of gerbil SFO and choroid plexus were positive for gamma-GTP, mAAP, and EAP, but negative for DPP IV. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) microvessels in the surrounding brain tissue also showed positive reactions for gamma-GTP, mAAP, and EAP but a negative reaction for DPP IV. Both epithelial cells of the choroid plexus and ependymal cells of the ventricle walls were negative for all four studied enzymes. It is suggested that blood-borne peptide hormones which can be substrates for these membrane-bound proteases can be modulated by gamma-GTP, mAAP, and EAP, but not by DPP IV, when they come in contact with the plasma membrane of the endothelial cells of the vessels in gerbil SFO, choroid plexus, and surrounding brain tissue.

  15. The Sac1 Phosphoinositide Phosphatase Regulates Golgi Membrane Morphology and Mitotic Spindle Organization in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Boukhelifa, Malika; Tribble, Emily; Morin-Kensicki, Elizabeth; Uetrecht, Andrea; Bear, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIPs) are ubiquitous regulators of signal transduction events in eukaryotic cells. PIPs are degraded by various enzymes, including PIP phosphatases. The integral membrane Sac1 phosphatases represent a major class of such enzymes. The central role of lipid phosphatases in regulating PIP homeostasis notwithstanding, the biological functions of Sac1-phosphatases remain poorly characterized. Herein, we demonstrate that functional ablation of the single murine Sac1 results in preimplantation lethality in the mouse and that Sac1 insufficiencies result in disorganization of mammalian Golgi membranes and mitotic defects characterized by multiple mechanically active spindles. Complementation experiments demonstrate mutant mammalian Sac1 proteins individually defective in either phosphoinositide phosphatase activity, or in recycling of the enzyme from the Golgi system back to the endoplasmic reticulum, are nonfunctional proteins in vivo. The data indicate Sac1 executes an essential household function in mammals that involves organization of both Golgi membranes and mitotic spindles and that both enzymatic activity and endoplasmic reticulum localization are important Sac1 functional properties. PMID:18480408

  16. The Sac1 phosphoinositide phosphatase regulates Golgi membrane morphology and mitotic spindle organization in mammals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Boukhelifa, Malika; Tribble, Emily; Morin-Kensicki, Elizabeth; Uetrecht, Andrea; Bear, James E; Bankaitis, Vytas A

    2008-07-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIPs) are ubiquitous regulators of signal transduction events in eukaryotic cells. PIPs are degraded by various enzymes, including PIP phosphatases. The integral membrane Sac1 phosphatases represent a major class of such enzymes. The central role of lipid phosphatases in regulating PIP homeostasis notwithstanding, the biological functions of Sac1-phosphatases remain poorly characterized. Herein, we demonstrate that functional ablation of the single murine Sac1 results in preimplantation lethality in the mouse and that Sac1 insufficiencies result in disorganization of mammalian Golgi membranes and mitotic defects characterized by multiple mechanically active spindles. Complementation experiments demonstrate mutant mammalian Sac1 proteins individually defective in either phosphoinositide phosphatase activity, or in recycling of the enzyme from the Golgi system back to the endoplasmic reticulum, are nonfunctional proteins in vivo. The data indicate Sac1 executes an essential household function in mammals that involves organization of both Golgi membranes and mitotic spindles and that both enzymatic activity and endoplasmic reticulum localization are important Sac1 functional properties.

  17. A novel anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactor (AnEMBR) with conductive hollow-fiber membrane for treatment of low-organic strength solutions.

    PubMed

    Katuri, Krishna P; Werner, Craig M; Jimenez-Sandoval, Rodrigo J; Chen, Wei; Jeon, Sungil; Logan, Bruce E; Lai, Zhiping; Amy, Gary L; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2014-11-01

    A new anaerobic treatment system that combined a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with membrane filtration using electrically conductive, porous, nickel-based hollow-fiber membranes (Ni-HFMs) was developed to treat low organic strength solution and recover energy in the form of biogas. This new system is called an anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactor (AnEMBR). The Ni-HFM served the dual function as the cathode for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the membrane for filtration of the effluent. The AnEMBR system was operated for 70 days with synthetic acetate solution having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 320 mg/L. Removal of COD was >95% at all applied voltages tested. Up to 71% of the substrate energy was recovered at an applied voltage of 0.7 V as methane rich biogas (83% CH4; <1% H2) due to biological conversion of the hydrogen evolved at the cathode to methane. A combination of factors (hydrogen bubble formation, low cathode potential and localized high pH at the cathode surface) contributed to reduced membrane fouling in the AnEMBR compared to the control reactor (open circuit voltage). The net energy required to operate the AnEMBR system at an applied voltage of 0.7 V was significantly less (0.27 kWh/m3) than that typically needed for wastewater treatment using aerobic membrane bioreactors (1-2 kWh/m3).

  18. Iron deficiency and bioavailability in anaerobic batch and submerged membrane bioreactors (SAMBR) during organic shock loads.

    PubMed

    Ketheesan, Balachandran; Thanh, Pham Minh; Stuckey, David C

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the effects of Fe(2+) and its bioavailability for controlling VFAs during organic shock loads in batch reactors and a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). When seed grown under Fe-sufficient conditions (7.95±0.05mgFe/g-TSS), an organic shock resulted in leaching of Fe from the residual to organically bound and soluble forms. Under Fe-deficient seed conditions (0.1±0.002mgFe/gTSS), Fe(2+) supplementation (3.34mgFe(2+)/g-TSS) with acetate resulted in a 2.1-3.9 fold increase in the rate of methane production, while with propionate it increased by 1.2-1.5 fold compared to non-Fe(2+) supplemented reactors. Precipitation of Fe(2+) as sulphides and organically bound Fe were bioavailable to methanogens for acetate assimilation. The results confirmed that the transitory/long term limitations of Fe play a significant role in controlling the degradation of VFAs during organic shock loads due to their varying physical/chemical states, and bioavailability. PMID:27015020

  19. A novel membrane distillation-thermophilic bioreactor system: biological stability and trace organic compound removal.

    PubMed

    Wijekoon, Kaushalya C; Hai, Faisal I; Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Cath, Tzahi Y; Nghiem, Long D

    2014-05-01

    The removal of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) by a novel membrane distillation-thermophilic bioreactor (MDBR) system was examined. Salinity build-up and the thermophilic conditions to some extent adversely impacted the performance of the bioreactor, particularly the removal of total nitrogen and recalcitrant TrOCs. While most TrOCs were well removed by the thermophilic bioreactor, compounds containing electron withdrawing functional groups in their molecular structure were recalcitrant to biological treatment and their removal efficiency by the thermophilic bioreactor was low (0-53%). However, the overall performance of the novel MDBR system with respect to the removal of total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and TrOCs was high and was not significantly affected by the conditions of the bioreactor. All TrOCs investigated here were highly removed (>95%) by the MDBR system. Biodegradation, sludge adsorption, and rejection by MD contribute to the removal of TrOCs by MDBR treatment.

  20. A novel membrane distillation-thermophilic bioreactor system: biological stability and trace organic compound removal.

    PubMed

    Wijekoon, Kaushalya C; Hai, Faisal I; Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Cath, Tzahi Y; Nghiem, Long D

    2014-05-01

    The removal of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) by a novel membrane distillation-thermophilic bioreactor (MDBR) system was examined. Salinity build-up and the thermophilic conditions to some extent adversely impacted the performance of the bioreactor, particularly the removal of total nitrogen and recalcitrant TrOCs. While most TrOCs were well removed by the thermophilic bioreactor, compounds containing electron withdrawing functional groups in their molecular structure were recalcitrant to biological treatment and their removal efficiency by the thermophilic bioreactor was low (0-53%). However, the overall performance of the novel MDBR system with respect to the removal of total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and TrOCs was high and was not significantly affected by the conditions of the bioreactor. All TrOCs investigated here were highly removed (>95%) by the MDBR system. Biodegradation, sludge adsorption, and rejection by MD contribute to the removal of TrOCs by MDBR treatment. PMID:24658107

  1. Threshold concentration of easily assimilable organic carton in feedwater for biofouling of spiral-wound membranes.

    PubMed

    Hijnen, W A M; Biraud, D; Cornelissen, E R; van der Kooij, D

    2009-07-01

    One of the major impediments in the application of spiral-wound membranes in water treatment or desalination is clogging of the feed channel by biofouling which is induced by nutrients in the feedwater. Organic carbon is, under most conditions, limiting the microbial growth. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the concentration of an easily assimilable organic compound such as acetate in the feedwater and the pressure drop increase in the feed channel. For this purpose the membrane fouling simulator (MFS) was used as a model for the feed channel of a spiral-wound membrane. This MFS unit was supplied with drinking water enriched with acetate at concentrations ranging from 1 to 1000 microg C x L(-1). The pressure drop (PD) in the feed channel increased at all tested concentrations but not with the blank. The PD increase could be described by a first order process based on theoretical considerations concerning biofilm formation rate and porosity decline. The relationship between the first order fouling rate constant R(f) and the acetate concentration is described with a saturation function corresponding with the growth kinetics of bacteria. Under the applied conditions the maximum R(f) (0.555 d(-1)) was reached at 25 microg acetate-C x L(-1) and the half saturation constant k(f) was estimated at 15 microg acetate-C x L(-1). This value is higher than k(s) values for suspended bacteria grown on acetate, which is attributed to substrate limited growth conditions in the biofilm. The threshold concentration for biofouling of the feed channel is about 1 microg acetate-C x L(-1).

  2. Feedback regulation between plasma membrane tension and membrane-bending proteins organizes cell polarity during leading edge formation.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, Kazuya; Takenawa, Tadaomi; Itoh, Toshiki

    2015-06-01

    Tension applied to the plasma membrane (PM) is a global mechanical parameter involved in cell migration. However, how membrane tension regulates actin assembly is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that FBP17, a membrane-bending protein and an activator of WASP/N-WASP-dependent actin nucleation, is a PM tension sensor involved in leading edge formation. In migrating cells, FBP17 localizes to short membrane invaginations at the leading edge, while diminishing from the cell rear in response to PM tension increase. Conversely, following reduced PM tension, FBP17 dots randomly distribute throughout the cell, correlating with loss of polarized actin assembly on PM tension reduction. Actin protrusive force is required for the polarized accumulation, indicating a role for FBP17-mediated activation of WASP/N-WASP in PM tension generation. In vitro experiments show that FBP17 membrane-bending activity depends on liposomal membrane tension. Thus, FBP17 is the local activator of actin polymerization that is inhibited by PM tension in the feedback loop that regulates cell migration.

  3. Enzyme augmentation of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating sewage containing organic particulates.

    PubMed

    Teo, Chee Wee; Wong, Philip Chuen Yung

    2014-01-01

    Hydrolytic enzymes offer the potential for enhancing the hydrolysis of organic particulates, which tends to be rate limiting in the anaerobic treatment of particulate containing wastewaters. In this study, the effects of enzyme augmentation on the biological performance of a laboratory submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) were investigated. A hydrolytic enzyme blend containing proteases, amylases and lipases was added to the bioreactor daily at doses ranging from 0.9 to 18 mL/g of influent COD to enhance the hydrolysis of organic particulates and soluble macromolecules. Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the reduction of total and volatile suspended solids by approximately 19% and 22%, respectively, on the average. Overall COD removal efficiency was unaffected while the average biogas production increased from 0.27 to 0.34 L/g of influent COD. Additionally, the concentrations of bound extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) decreased and increased respectively, suggesting the enzymatic hydrolysis of EPS to SMP. Low enzymatic activities were detected throughout the entire study, probably due to the instability of free enzymes in the bioreactor environment. Nevertheless, membrane retention of exogenous enzymes within the AnMBR is an inherent feature, as evidenced by size exclusion chromatography.

  4. MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR RECOVERY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM REMEDIATION OFF-GASES

    SciTech Connect

    J.G. Wijmans; R. Daniels; R. Olsen

    2000-01-13

    In situ vacuum extraction, air or steam sparging, and vitrification are widely used methods of remediating soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All of these processes produce a VOC.-laden air stream from which the VOC must be removed before the air can be discharged or recycled to the generating process. Treatment of these off-gases is often a major portion of the cost of the remediation project. Carbon adsorption and catalytic incineration, the most common methods of treating these gas streams, suffer from significant drawbacks. Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (NITR) proposes an alternative treatment technology, based on permselective membranes that separate the organic components from the gas stream, producing a VOC-free air stream. The technology we propose to develop can be applied to all of these off-gas streams and is not tied to a particular off-gas generating source. We propose to develop a completely self-contained system because remediation projects are frequently in remote locations where access to trained operators and utilities is limited. The system will be a turnkey unit, skid-mounted and completely automatic, requiring power but no other utilities. The system will process the off-gas, producing a concentrated liquid VOC stream and a purified gas containing less than 10 ppm VOC that can be discharged or recycled to the gas-generating process.

  5. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems.

    PubMed

    Bucs, Sz S; Valladares Linares, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Kruithof, J C; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2014-12-15

    The influence of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation (biofouling) and pressure drop development in membrane filtration systems was investigated. Nutrient load is the product of nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity. Biofouling - excessive growth of microbial biomass in membrane systems - hampers membrane performance. The influence of biodegradable organic nutrient load on biofouling was investigated at varying (i) crossflow velocity, (ii) nutrient concentration, (iii) shear, and (iv) feed spacer thickness. Experimental studies were performed with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) containing a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and a 31 mil thick feed spacer, commonly applied in practice in RO and nanofiltration (NF) spiral-wound membrane modules. Numerical modeling studies were done with identical feed spacer geometry differing in thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil). Additionally, experiments were done applying a forward osmosis (FO) membrane with varying spacer thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil), addressing the permeate flux decline and biofilm development. Assessed were the development of feed channel pressure drop (MFS studies), permeate flux (FO studies) and accumulated biomass amount measured by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC). Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer thickness. The impact of the same amount of accumulated biomass on feed channel pressure drop and permeate flux was influenced by membrane process design and operational conditions. Reducing the nutrient load by pretreatment slowed-down the biofilm formation. The impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance was reduced by applying a lower crossflow velocity and/or a thicker and/or a modified geometry feed spacer. The results indicate that cleanings can be delayed

  6. Retention of pesticide Endosulfan by nanofiltration: influence of organic matter-pesticide complexation and solute-membrane interactions.

    PubMed

    De Munari, Annalisa; Semiao, Andrea Joana Correia; Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca

    2013-06-15

    Nanofiltration (NF) is a well-established process used in drinking water production to effectively remove Natural Organic Matter (NOM) and organic micropollutants. The presence of NOM has been shown to have contrasting results on micropollutant retention by NF membranes and removal mechanisms are to date poorly understood. The permeate water quality can therefore vary during operation and its decrease would be an undesired outcome for potable water treatment. It is hence important to establish the mechanisms involved in the removal of organic micropollutants by NF membranes in the presence of NOM. In this study, the retention mechanisms of pesticide Endosulfan (ES) in the presence of humic acids (HA) by two NF membranes, TFC-SR2 and TFC-SR3, a "loose" and a "tight" membrane, respectively, were elucidated. The results showed that two mechanisms were involved: (1) the formation of ES-HA complexes (solute-solute interactions), determined from solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME), increased ES retention, and (2) the interactions between HA and the membrane (solute-membrane interactions) increased membrane molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) and decreased ES retention. HA concentration, pH, and the ratio between micropollutant molecular weight (MW) and membrane MWCO were shown to influence ES retention mechanisms. In the absence of HA-membrane interactions at pH 4, an increase of HA concentration increased ES retention from 60% to 80% for the TFC-SR2 and from 80% to 95% for the TFC-SR3 due to ES-HA complex formation. At pH 8, interactions between HA and the loose TFC-SR2 increased the membrane MWCO from 460 to 496 g/mol and ES retention decreased from 55% to 30%, as HA-membrane interactions were the dominant mechanism for ES retention. In contrast, for the "tight" TFC-SR3 membrane the increase in the MWCO (from 165 to 179 g/mol), was not sufficient to decrease ES retention which was dominated by ES-HA interactions. Quantification of the contribution of both solute

  7. Segmentation and Reconstruction of Cultured Neuron Skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Donggang; Pham, Tuan D.; Yan, Hong; Lai, Wei; Crane, Denis I.

    2007-11-01

    One approach to investigating neural death is through systematic studies of the changing morphology of cultured brain neurons in response to cellular challenges. Image segmentation and reconstruction methods developed to date to analyze such changes have been limited by the low contrast of cells. In this paper we present new algorithms that successfully circumvent these problems. The binary method is based on logical analysis of grey and distance difference of images. The spurious regions are detected and removed through use of a hierarchical window filter. The skeletons of binary cell images are extracted. The extension direction and connection points of broken cell skeletons are automatically determined, and broke neural skeletons are reconstructed. The spurious strokes are deleted based on cell prior knowledge. The efficacy of the developed algorithms is demonstrated here through a test of cultured brain neurons from newborn mice.

  8. Observations of the tissue-skeleton interface in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambutté, E.; Allemand, D.; Zoccola, D.; Meibom, A.; Lotto, S.; Caminiti, N.; Tambutté, S.

    2007-09-01

    Recent micro-analytical studies of coral skeletons have led to the discovery that the effects of biology on the skeletal chemical and isotopic composition are not uniform over the skeleton. The aim of the present work was to provide histological observations of the coral tissue at the interface with the skeleton, using Stylophora pistillata as a model, and to discuss these observations in the context of skeletal ultra-structural organization and composition. Several important observations are reported: (1) At all scales of observation, there was a precise morphological correspondence between the tissues and the skeleton. The morphological features of the calicoblastic ectoderm correspond exactly to the shape of individual crystal fiber bundles in the underlying skeleton, indicating that the calicoblastic cell layer is in direct physical contact with the skeletal surface. This is consistent with the previously observed chemical and isotopic composition of the ultra-structural components in the skeleton. (2) The distribution and density of desmocyte cells, which anchor the calicoblastic ectoderm to the skeletal surface, vary spatially and temporally during skeletal growth. (3) The tissue above the coenosteal spines lack endoderm and consists only of ectodermal cell-layers separated by mesoglea. These findings have important implications for models of vital effects in coral skeletal chemistry and isotope composition.

  9. DEMONSTRATION OF PILOT-SCALE PERVAPORATION SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND REMOVAL FROM A SURFACTANT ENHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION FLUID. II. HOLLOW FIBER MEMBRANE MODULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot-scale demonstration of pervaporation-based removal of volatile organic compounds from a surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) fluid has been conducted at USEPA's Test & Evaluation Facility using hollow fiber membrane modules. The membranes consisted of microporous...

  10. Skeletonization of Gridded Potential-Field Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, L.; Morozov, I. B.

    2012-12-01

    A new approach to skeletonization was developed for gridded potential-field data. Generally, skeletonization is a pattern-recognition technique allowing automatic recognition of near-linear features in the images, measurement of their parameters, and analyzing them for similarities. Our approach decomposes the images into arbitrarily-oriented "wavelets" characterized by positive or negative amplitudes, orientation angles, spatial dimensions, polarities, and other attributes. Orientations of the wavelets are obtained by scanning the azimuths to detect the strike direction of each anomaly. The wavelets are connected according to the similarities of these attributes, which leads to a "skeleton" map of the potential-field data. In addition, 2-D filtering is conducted concurrently with the wavelet-identification process, which allows extracting parameters of background trends and reduces the adverse effects of low-frequency background (which is often strong in potential-field maps) on skeletonization.. By correlating the neighboring wavelets, linear anomalies are identified and characterized. The advantages of this algorithm are the generality and isotropy of feature detection, as well as being specifically designed for gridded data. With several options for background-trend extraction, the stability for identification of lineaments is improved and optimized. The algorithm is also integrated in a powerful processing system which allows combining it with numerous other tools, such as filtering, computation of analytical signal, empirical mode decomposition, and various types of plotting. The method is applied to potential-field data for the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, in a study area which extends from southern Saskatchewan into southwestern Manitoba. The target is the structure of crystalline basement beneath Phanerozoic sediments. The examples illustrate that skeletonization aid in the interpretation of complex structures at different scale lengths. The results

  11. Using patterned supported lipid membranes to investigate the role of receptor organization in intercellular signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Pradeep M; Salaita, Khalid; Petit, Rebecca S; Groves, Jay T

    2014-01-01

    physical inputs, both internal and external to a cell, can directly alter the spatial organization of cell surface receptors and their associated functions. Here we describe a protocol that combines solid-state nanolithography and supported lipid membrane techniques to trigger and manipulate specific receptors on the surface of living cells and to develop an understanding of the interplay between spatial organization and receptor function. While existing protein-patterning techniques are capable of presenting cells with well-defined clusters of protein, this protocol uniquely allows for the control of the spatial organization of laterally fluid receptor-ligand complex at an intermembrane junction. a combination of immunofluorescence and single-cell microscopy methods and complementary biochemical analyses are used to characterize receptor signaling pathways and cell functions. the protocol requires 2–5 d to complete depending on the parameters to be studied. In principle, this protocol is widely applicable to eukaryotic cells and herein is specifically developed to study the role of physical organization and translocation of the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase across a library of model breast cancer cell lines. PMID:21455188

  12. Vibration responses of the organ of Corti and the tectorial membrane to electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Nowotny, Manuela; Gummer, Anthony W

    2011-12-01

    Coupling of somatic electromechanical force from the outer hair cells (OHCs) into the organ of Corti is investigated by measuring transverse vibration patterns of the organ of Cori and tectorial membrane (TM) in response to intracochlear electrical stimulation. Measurement places at the organ of Corti extend from the inner sulcus cells to Hensen's cells and at the lower (and upper) surface of the TM from the inner sulcus to the OHC region. These locations are in the neighborhood of where electromechanical force is coupled into (1) the mechanoelectrical transducers of the stereocilia and (2) fluids of the organ of Corti. Experiments are conducted in the first, second, and third cochlear turns of an in vitro preparation of the adult guinea pig cochlea. Vibration measurements are made at functionally relevant stimulus frequencies (0.48-68 kHz) and response amplitudes (<15 nm). The experiments provide phase relations between the different structures, which, dependent on frequency range and longitudinal cochlear position, include in-phase transverse motions of the TM, counterphasic transverse motions between the inner hair cell and OHCs, as well as traveling-wave motion of Hensen's cells in the radial direction. Mechanics of sound processing in the cochlea are discussed based on these phase relationships. PMID:22225042

  13. Microbial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Microfiltration Membranes: A Detailed Characterization Using Model Organisms with Increasing Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Vanysacker, L.; Denis, C.; Declerck, P.; Piasecka, A.; Vankelecom, I. F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Since many years, membrane biofouling has been described as the Achilles heel of membrane fouling. In the present study, an ecological assay was performed using model systems with increasing complexity: a monospecies assay using Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli separately, a duospecies assay using both microorganisms, and a multispecies assay using activated sludge with or without spiked P. aeruginosa. The microbial adhesion and biofilm formation were evaluated in terms of bacterial cell densities, species richness, and bacterial community composition on polyvinyldifluoride, polyethylene, and polysulfone membranes. The data show that biofouling formation was strongly influenced by the kind of microorganism, the interactions between the organisms, and the changes in environmental conditions whereas the membrane effect was less important. The findings obtained in this study suggest that more knowledge in species composition and microbial interactions is needed in order to understand the complex biofouling process. This is the first report describing the microbial interactions with a membrane during the biofouling development. PMID:23986906

  14. Controllable Preparation of Ultrathin Sandwich-Like Membrane with Porous Organic Framework and Graphene Oxide for Molecular Filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuanzhi; Xu, Danyun; Zhao, Qingshan; Li, Yang; Peng, Wenchao; Zhang, Guoliang; Zhang, Fengbao; Fan, Xiaobin

    2015-10-01

    Porous organic frameworks (POFs) based membranes have potential applications in molecular filtration, despite the lack of a corresponding study. This study reports an interesting strategy to get processable POFs dispersion and a novel ultrathin sandwich-like membrane design. It was accidentally found that the hydrophobic N-rich Schiff based POFs agglomerates could react with lithium-ethylamine and formed stable dispersion in water. By successively filtrating the obtained POFs dispersion and graphene oxide (GO), we successfully prepared ultrathin sandwich-like hybrid membranes with layered structure, which showed significantly improved separation efficiency in molecular filtration of organic dyes. This study may provide a universal way to the preparation of processable POFs and their hybrid membranes with GO.

  15. Fouling and cleaning characteristics of ultrafiltration of hydrophobic dissolved organic matter by a polyvinyl chloride hollow fiber membrane.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoyan; Gao, Wei; Li, Jihui; Hu, Wanli

    2009-06-01

    Ultrafiltration membrane fouling is a significant problem in drinking water treatment. Many researchers believe that hydrophobic natural organic matter is the main foulant. In this research, fulvic acid, tannin, and aniline were used to represent hydrophobic acid, neutral, and base, respectively, to investigate modified polyvinyl chloride ultrafiltration membrane fouling characteristics. Four kinds of cleaning methods were used in this study: flushing, backwashing, flushing and backwashing, and chemical cleaning with 0.5% sodium hydroxide. Each was performed on the three hydrophobic dissolved organic matters (acid, neutral, and base) to identify the fouling mechanisms of polyvinyl chloride ultrafiltration membrane. Results showed that hydrophobic base fouled membranes the most and hydrophobic acid the least based on cleaning difficulty.

  16. Controllable Preparation of Ultrathin Sandwich-Like Membrane with Porous Organic Framework and Graphene Oxide for Molecular Filtration

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuanzhi; Xu, Danyun; Zhao, Qingshan; Li, Yang; Peng, Wenchao; Zhang, Guoliang; Zhang, Fengbao; Fan, Xiaobin

    2015-01-01

    Porous organic frameworks (POFs) based membranes have potential applications in molecular filtration, despite the lack of a corresponding study. This study reports an interesting strategy to get processable POFs dispersion and a novel ultrathin sandwich-like membrane design. It was accidentally found that the hydrophobic N-rich Schiff based POFs agglomerates could react with lithium-ethylamine and formed stable dispersion in water. By successively filtrating the obtained POFs dispersion and graphene oxide (GO), we successfully prepared ultrathin sandwich-like hybrid membranes with layered structure, which showed significantly improved separation efficiency in molecular filtration of organic dyes. This study may provide a universal way to the preparation of processable POFs and their hybrid membranes with GO. PMID:26455497

  17. [Mechanisms of growth, development and disease of the craniofacial skeleton].

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Craniofacial skeleton is derived from several pieces of bone, which hold the brain and house the sensory organ of vision, hearing, taste and smell. It also serves as an entrance of the digestive and respiratory tracts. Hence, craniofacial complex develops under sophisticated balance between the shape and the function. Disruption of such balance leads to various types of malformation and/or deformation of the face. This review focuses on the molecular aspects of growth and developments of the craniofacial structures and also on the genetic basis of congenital craniofacial malformations.

  18. Skeleton and glucose metabolism: a bone-pancreas loop.

    PubMed

    Faienza, Maria Felicia; Luce, Vincenza; Ventura, Annamaria; Colaianni, Graziana; Colucci, Silvia; Cavallo, Luciano; Grano, Maria; Brunetti, Giacomina

    2015-01-01

    Bone has been considered a structure essential for mobility, calcium homeostasis, and hematopoietic function. Recent advances in bone biology have highlighted the importance of skeleton as an endocrine organ which regulates some metabolic pathways, in particular, insulin signaling and glucose tolerance. This review will point out the role of bone as an endocrine "gland" and, specifically, of bone-specific proteins, as the osteocalcin (Ocn), and proteins involved in bone remodeling, as osteoprotegerin, in the regulation of insulin function and glucose metabolism. PMID:25873957

  19. Fabrication of Porous Matrix Membrane (PMM) Using Metal-Organic Framework as Green Template for Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jian-Yuan; Tang, Chuyang Y.; Huo, Fengwei

    2014-01-01

    Pressure-driven membranes with high porosity can potentially be fabricated by removing template, such as low water stability metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) or other nanoparticles, in polymeric matrix. We report on the use of benign MOFs as green template to enhance porosity and interconnectivity of the water treatment membranes. Significantly enhanced separation performance was observed which might be attributed to the mass transfer coefficient of the substrate layer increased in ultrafiltration (UF) application. PMID:24435326

  20. LDRD final report on imaging self-organization of proteins in membranes by photocatalytic nano-tagging.

    SciTech Connect

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Shelnutt, John Allen; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Song, Yujiang; Medforth, Craig J.

    2005-11-01

    We have developed a new nanotagging technology for detecting and imaging the self-organization of proteins and other components of membranes at nanometer resolution for the purpose of investigating cell signaling and other membrane-mediated biological processes. We used protein-, lipid-, or drug-bound porphyrin photocatalysts to grow in-situ nanometer-sized metal particles, which reveal the location of the porphyrin-labeled molecules by electron microscopy. We initially used photocatalytic nanotagging to image assembled multi-component proteins and to monitor the distribution of lipids and porphyrin labels in liposomes. For example, by exchanging the heme molecules in hemoproteins with a photocatalytic tin porphyrin, a nanoparticle was grown at each heme site of the protein. The result obtained from electron microscopy for a tagged multi-subunit protein such as hemoglobin is a symmetric constellation of a specific number of nanoparticle tags, four in the case of the hemoglobin tetramer. Methods for covalently linking photocatalytic porphyrin labels to lipids and proteins were also developed to detect and image the self-organization of lipids, protein-protein supercomplexes, and membrane-protein complexes. Procedures for making photocatalytic porphyrin-drug, porphyrin-lipid, and porphyrin-protein hybrids for non-porphyrin-binding proteins and membrane components were pursued and the first porphyrin-labeled lipids was investigated in liposomal membrane models. Our photocatalytic nanotagging technique may ultimately allow membrane self-organization and cell signaling processes to be imaged in living cells. Fluorescence and plasmonic spectra of the tagged proteins might also provide additional information about protein association and membrane organization. In addition, a porphyrin-aspirin or other NSAID hybrid may be used to grow metal nanotags for the pharmacologically important COX enzymes in membranes so that the distribution of the protein can be imaged at the

  1. Mast cell- and dendritic cell-derived exosomes display a specific lipid composition and an unusual membrane organization.

    PubMed Central

    Laulagnier, Karine; Motta, Claude; Hamdi, Safouane; Roy, Sébastien; Fauvelle, Florence; Pageaux, Jean-François; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Perret, Bertrand; Bonnerot, Christian; Record, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Exosomes are small vesicles secreted from multivesicular bodies, which are able to stimulate the immune system leading to tumour cell eradication. We have analysed lipids of exosomes secreted either upon stimulation from rat mast cells (RBL-2H3 cells), or constitutively from human dendritic cells. As compared with parent cells, exosomes displayed an enrichment in sphingomyelin, but not in cholesterol. Phosphatidylcholine content was decreased, but an enrichment was noted in disaturated molecular species as in phosphatidylethanolamines. Lyso(bis)phosphatidic acid was not enriched in exosomes as compared with cells. Fluorescence anisotropy demonstrated an increase in exosome-membrane rigidity from pH 5 to 7, suggesting their membrane reorganization between the acidic multivesicular body compartment and the neutral outer cell medium. NMR analysis established a bilayer organization of exosome membrane, and ESR studies using 16-doxyl stearic acid demonstrated a higher flip-flop of lipids between the two leaflets as compared with plasma membrane. In addition, the exosome membrane exhibited no asymmetrical distribution of phosphatidylethanolamines. Therefore exosome membrane displays a similar content of the major phospholipids and cholesterol, and is organized as a lipid bilayer with a random distribution of phosphatidylethanolamines. In addition, we observed tight lipid packing at neutral pH and a rapid flip-flop between the two leaflets of exosome membranes. These parameters could be used as a hallmark of exosomes. PMID:14965343

  2. Membrane Organization and Ionization Behavior of the Minor but Crucial Lipid Ceramide-1-Phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Kooijman, Edgar E.; Sot, Jesus; Montes, L.-Ruth; Alonso, Alicia; Gericke, Arne; de Kruijff, Ben; Kumar, Satyendra; Goni, Felix M.

    2008-08-06

    Ceramide-1-phosphate (Cer-1-P), one of the simplest of all sphingophospholipids, occurs in minor amounts in biological membranes. Yet recent evidence suggests important roles of this lipid as a novel second messenger with crucial tasks in cell survival and inflammatory responses. We present a detailed description of the physical chemistry of this hitherto little explored membrane lipid. At full hydration Cer-1-P forms a highly organized subgel (crystalline) bilayer phase (L{sub c}) at low temperature, which transforms into a regular gel phase (L{sub {beta}}) at {approx}45 C, with the gel to fluid phase transition (L{sub {beta}}-L{sub {alpha}}) occurring at {approx}65 C. When incorporated at 5mol % in a phosphatidylcholine bilayer, the pK{sub a2} of Cer-1-P, 7.39{+-}0.03, lies within the physiological pH range. Inclusion of phosphatidylethanolamine in the phosphatidylcholine bilayer, at equimolar ratio, dramatically reduces the pK{sub a2} to 6.64{+-}0.03. We explain these results in light of the novel electrostatic/hydrogen bond switch model described recently for phosphatidic acid. In mixtures with dielaidoylphosphatidylethanolamine, small concentrations of Cer-1-P cause a large reduction of the lamellar-to-inverted hexagonal phase transition temperature, suggesting that Cer-1-P induces, like phosphatidic acid, negative membrane curvature in these types of lipid mixtures. These properties place Cer-1-P in a class more akin to certain glycerophospholipids (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid) than to any other sphingolipid. In particular, the similarities and differences between ceramide and Cer-1-P may be relevant in explaining some of their physiological roles.

  3. Organization of lipids in the artificial outer membrane of bull spermatozoa reconstructed at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Le Guillou, J; Ropers, M-H; Gaillard, C; David-Briand, E; Desherces, S; Schmitt, E; Bencharif, D; Amirat-Briand, L; Tainturier, D; Anton, M

    2013-08-01

    Cryopreservation is widely used to preserve the quality of bull spermatozoa over time. Sequestration of seminal plasma proteins by low density lipoproteins and formation of a protective film around the spermatozoa membrane by low density lipoproteins were the main mechanisms proposed. However, the organization of lipids in the outer leaflet of the spermatozoa membrane has been never considered as a possible parameter. This study evaluated whether a change in the organization of the outer leaflet of the spermotozoa membrane could occur during cooling down. The organization of the main components of the spermatozoa membrane's outer layer at the liquid-gas interface was analysed. Cryopreservative media (at 8° and 34°C) were used to study the miscibility of the spermatozoa membrane lipids using epifluorescence imaging and by tensiometry on Langmuir films. The results show that the four lipids: sphingomyelin, cholesterol, 1-palmitoyl-2-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PC) and plasmalogen 1-(1Z-octadecenyl)-2-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (P-PC) were not fully miscible and their organization was controlled by temperature. Cholesterol and sphingomyelin form condensed domains surrounded by a mixture of PC and P-PC at 34°C while these condensed domains are surrounded by separated domains of pure PC and pure P-PC at 8°C. The organization of the outer membrane lipids, in particular the separation of PC and P-PC lipids during cooling down, must be considered to fully understand preservation of membrane integrity during cryopreservation. PMID:23563290

  4. Influence of hydrophobic/hydrophilic fractions of extracellular organic matters of Microcystis aeruginosa on ultrafiltration membrane fouling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiqing; Shao, Yisheng; Gao, Naiyun; Li, Lei; Deng, Jing; Tan, Chaoqun; Zhu, Mingqiu

    2014-02-01

    Fouling is a major obstacle to maintain the efficiency of ultrafiltration-based drinking water treatment process. Algal extracellular organic matters (EOMs) are currently considered as one of the major sources of membrane fouling. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of different hydrophobic/hydrophilic fractions of EOM extracted from Microcystis aeruginosa on ultrafiltration membrane fouling at lab scale. The experimental data indicated that EOM exhibited similar flux decline trends on polyethersulfone (PES) and regenerated cellulose (RC) membranes but caused greater irreversible fouling on PES membrane than RC membrane due to its hydrophobic property. It was also observed that charged hydrophilic (CHPI) and neutral hydrophilic (NHPI) fractions caused greater flux decline over hydrophobic (HPO) and transphilic (TPI) fractions. For PES membrane, the order of the irreversible fouling potentials for the four fractions was HPO>TPI>CHPI>NHPI, while the irreversible fouling potentials of RC membrane were tiny and could be ignored. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra suggested that protein-like, polysaccharide-like and humic-like substances were the major components responsible for membrane fouling. The results also indicated that the irreversible fouling increased as the pH decreased. The addition of calcium to feed solutions led to more severe flux decline and irreversible fouling.

  5. The effect of natural and synthetic fatty acids on membrane structure, microdomain organization, cellular functions and human health.

    PubMed

    Ibarguren, Maitane; López, David J; Escribá, Pablo V

    2014-06-01

    This review deals with the effects of synthetic and natural fatty acids on the biophysical properties of membranes, and on their implication on cell function. Natural fatty acids are constituents of more complex lipids, like triacylglycerides or phospholipids, which are used by cells to store and obtain energy, as well as for structural purposes. Accordingly, natural and synthetic fatty acids may modify the structure of the lipid membrane, altering its microdomain organization and other physical properties, and provoking changes in cell signaling. Therefore, by modulating fatty acids it is possible to regulate the structure of the membrane, influencing the cell processes that are reliant on this structure and potentially reverting pathological cell dysfunctions that may provoke cancer, diabetes, hypertension, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The so-called Membrane Lipid Therapy offers a strategy to regulate the membrane composition through drug administration, potentially reverting pathological processes by re-adapting cell membrane structure. Certain fatty acids and their synthetic derivatives are described here that may potentially be used in such therapies, where the cell membrane itself can be considered as a target to combat disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Structure and Function: Relevance in the Cell's Physiology, Pathology and Therapy.

  6. Multipass membrane air-stripping (MAS) for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from surfactant micellar solutions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan; Luo, Jian; Sabatini, David A

    2009-10-30

    Air-stripping is one of the most effective technologies for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from surfactant solutions, although the presence of surfactant poses some unique challenges. This study evaluated the effect of a mixed surfactant system on the apparent Henry's law constant of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and the efficiency of PCE removal from surfactant solutions using a lab-scale hollow fiber membrane contactor. Results show that the presence of surfactant significantly reduced the apparent Henry's law constant of PCE, and the reduction was proportional to the total surfactant concentration. PCE removal efficiency by membrane air-stripping (MAS) decreased as the surfactant system transitioned from solubilization to supersolubilization. Besides significantly reducing the apparent volatility of VOCs, the presence of surfactant brings additional mass transfer resistance in air-stripping, which makes it difficult to achieve high levels of contaminant removal, even at very high air/liquid (A/L) ratios. In contrast, multipass/multistage MAS operated at low A/L ratios could achieve near 100% contaminant removal because of less mass transfer limitation during each stripping pass/stage. Experimental results, together with model calculations demonstrate multipass (and multistage) air-stripping as a cost-effective alternative for removing VOCs from surfactant micellar solutions compared to the options of using large air strippers or operating at high A/L ratios.

  7. Combined air stripper/membrane vapor separation systems. [Volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wijmans, J.G.; Baker, R.W.; Kamaruddin, H.D.; Kaschemekat, J.; Olsen, R.P.; Rose, M.E.; Segelke, S.V.

    1992-11-01

    Air stripping is an economical and efficient method of removing dissolved volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. Air strippers, however, produce a vent air stream, which must meet the local air quality limits. If the VOC content exceeds the limits, direct discharge is not possible; therefore, a carbon adsorption VOC capture system is used to treat the vent air. This treatment step adds a cost of at least $50/lb of VOC captured. In this program, a combined air stripper/membrane vapor separation system was constructed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The membrane system captures VOCs from the stripper vent stream at a projected cost of $15/lb VOC for a water VOC content of 5 ppmw, and $75/lb VOC for a water VOC content of 1 ppmw. The VOCs are recovered as a small, concentrated liquid fraction for disposal or solvent recycling. The concept has been demonstrated in experiments with a system capable of handling up to 150,000 gpd of water. The existing demonstration system is available for field tests at a DOE facility or remediation site. Replacement of the current short air stripping tower (effective height 3 m) with a taller tower is recommended to improve VOC removal.

  8. Treatability of organic fractions derived from secondary effluent by reverse osmosis membrane.

    PubMed

    Hu, J Y; Ong, S L; Shan, J H; Kang, J B; Ng, W J

    2003-11-01

    Dissolved organic matters (DOMs) from two batches of secondary effluent collected from a local water reclamation plant were fractionated using column chromatographic method with non-ionic resins XAD-8, AG MP-50 and IRA-96. Seven isolated fractions were obtained from the fractionation study and these fractions were quantified using DOC, UV(254) and SUVA values. The fractionation study revealed that the secondary effluent samples comprised about 47.3-60.6% of hydrophobic and 39.4-52.7% of hydrophilic solutes. The treatability of each isolated fraction was investigated by subjecting each fraction to reverse osmosis (RO) treatment individually. It was noted that RO process could achieve high DOC rejections for acid and neutral fractions (ranging from 80% to 98% removal) probably due to the negative charge of RO membrane. The results obtained also indicated that hydrophobicity of DOMs is significant in determining treatability of organic species by RO process. The performance of RO in terms of DOC rejection of un-fractionated secondary effluent was also investigated to assess possible effects of interactions among organic fractions on their treatability by RO process. It was noted that DOC rejection associated with the un-fractionated secondary effluent was generally higher (ranging from 2% to 45%) than the corresponding rejection obtained from each individual fraction isolated from the secondary effluent. This finding suggested there is a beneficial interaction among the fractions that in turn has contributed towards a better overall DOC rejection performance by RO treatment.

  9. Membrane Vesicles Nucleate Mineralo-organic Nanoparticles and Induce Carbonate Apatite Precipitation in Human Body Fluids*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Martel, Jan; Cheng, Wei-Yun; He, Chao-Chih; Ojcius, David M.; Young, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that membrane vesicles (MVs) secreted by various cells are associated with human diseases, including arthritis, atherosclerosis, cancer, and chronic kidney disease. The possibility that MVs may induce the formation of mineralo-organic nanoparticles (NPs) and ectopic calcification has not been investigated so far. Here, we isolated MVs ranging in size between 20 and 400 nm from human serum and FBS using ultracentrifugation and sucrose gradient centrifugation. The MV preparations consisted of phospholipid-bound vesicles containing the serum proteins albumin, fetuin-A, and apolipoprotein A1; the mineralization-associated enzyme alkaline phosphatase; and the exosome proteins TNFR1 and CD63. Notably, we observed that MVs induced mineral precipitation following inoculation and incubation in cell culture medium. The mineral precipitates consisted of round, mineralo-organic NPs containing carbonate hydroxyapatite, similar to previous descriptions of the so-called nanobacteria. Annexin V-immunogold staining revealed that the calcium-binding lipid phosphatidylserine (PS) was exposed on the external surface of serum MVs. Treatment of MVs with an anti-PS antibody significantly decreased their mineral seeding activity, suggesting that PS may provide nucleating sites for calcium phosphate deposition on the vesicles. These results indicate that MVs may represent nucleating agents that induce the formation of mineral NPs in body fluids. Given that mineralo-organic NPs represent precursors of calcification in vivo, our results suggest that MVs may initiate ectopic calcification in the human body. PMID:23990473

  10. Membrane vesicles nucleate mineralo-organic nanoparticles and induce carbonate apatite precipitation in human body fluids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Martel, Jan; Cheng, Wei-Yun; He, Chao-Chih; Ojcius, David M; Young, John D

    2013-10-18

    Recent studies indicate that membrane vesicles (MVs) secreted by various cells are associated with human diseases, including arthritis, atherosclerosis, cancer, and chronic kidney disease. The possibility that MVs may induce the formation of mineralo-organic nanoparticles (NPs) and ectopic calcification has not been investigated so far. Here, we isolated MVs ranging in size between 20 and 400 nm from human serum and FBS using ultracentrifugation and sucrose gradient centrifugation. The MV preparations consisted of phospholipid-bound vesicles containing the serum proteins albumin, fetuin-A, and apolipoprotein A1; the mineralization-associated enzyme alkaline phosphatase; and the exosome proteins TNFR1 and CD63. Notably, we observed that MVs induced mineral precipitation following inoculation and incubation in cell culture medium. The mineral precipitates consisted of round, mineralo-organic NPs containing carbonate hydroxyapatite, similar to previous descriptions of the so-called nanobacteria. Annexin V-immunogold staining revealed that the calcium-binding lipid phosphatidylserine (PS) was exposed on the external surface of serum MVs. Treatment of MVs with an anti-PS antibody significantly decreased their mineral seeding activity, suggesting that PS may provide nucleating sites for calcium phosphate deposition on the vesicles. These results indicate that MVs may represent nucleating agents that induce the formation of mineral NPs in body fluids. Given that mineralo-organic NPs represent precursors of calcification in vivo, our results suggest that MVs may initiate ectopic calcification in the human body.

  11. Membrane vesicles nucleate mineralo-organic nanoparticles and induce carbonate apatite precipitation in human body fluids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Martel, Jan; Cheng, Wei-Yun; He, Chao-Chih; Ojcius, David M; Young, John D

    2013-10-18

    Recent studies indicate that membrane vesicles (MVs) secreted by various cells are associated with human diseases, including arthritis, atherosclerosis, cancer, and chronic kidney disease. The possibility that MVs may induce the formation of mineralo-organic nanoparticles (NPs) and ectopic calcification has not been investigated so far. Here, we isolated MVs ranging in size between 20 and 400 nm from human serum and FBS using ultracentrifugation and sucrose gradient centrifugation. The MV preparations consisted of phospholipid-bound vesicles containing the serum proteins albumin, fetuin-A, and apolipoprotein A1; the mineralization-associated enzyme alkaline phosphatase; and the exosome proteins TNFR1 and CD63. Notably, we observed that MVs induced mineral precipitation following inoculation and incubation in cell culture medium. The mineral precipitates consisted of round, mineralo-organic NPs containing carbonate hydroxyapatite, similar to previous descriptions of the so-called nanobacteria. Annexin V-immunogold staining revealed that the calcium-binding lipid phosphatidylserine (PS) was exposed on the external surface of serum MVs. Treatment of MVs with an anti-PS antibody significantly decreased their mineral seeding activity, suggesting that PS may provide nucleating sites for calcium phosphate deposition on the vesicles. These results indicate that MVs may represent nucleating agents that induce the formation of mineral NPs in body fluids. Given that mineralo-organic NPs represent precursors of calcification in vivo, our results suggest that MVs may initiate ectopic calcification in the human body. PMID:23990473

  12. The ethics of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in brain-dead potential organ donors.

    PubMed

    Dalle Ave, Anne L; Gardiner, Dale; Shaw, David M

    2016-05-01

    Organ-preserving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (OP-ECMO) is defined as the use of extracorporeal support for the primary purpose of preserving organs for transplantation, rather than to save the patient's life. This paper discusses the ethics of using OP-ECMO in donation after brain determination of death (DBDD) to avoid the loss of organs for transplantation. We review case reports in the literature and analyze the ethical issues raised. We conclude that there is little additional ethical concern in continuing OP-ECMO in patients already on ECMO if they become brain dead. The implementation of OP-ECMO in hemodynamically unstable brain-dead patients is ethically permissible in certain clinical situations but requires specific consent from relatives if the patient's wish to donate is not clear. If no evidence of a patient's wish to donate is available, OP-ECMO is not recommended. In countries with presumed consent legislation, failure to opt out should be considered as a positive wish to donate. If a patient is not-yet brain-dead or is undergoing testing for brain death, OP-ECMO is not recommended. Further research on OP-ECMO is needed to better understand the attitudes of professionals, families, and lay people to ensure agreement on key ethical issues. PMID:26987689

  13. Organic micropollutants in aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Changes in microbial communities and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Harb, Moustapha; Wei, Chun-Hai; Wang, Nan; Amy, Gary; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2016-10-01

    Organic micro-pollutants (OMPs) are contaminants of emerging concern in wastewater treatment due to the risk of their proliferation into the environment, but their impact on the biological treatment process is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the presence of OMPs on the core microbial populations of wastewater treatment. Two nanofiltration-coupled membrane bioreactors (aerobic and anaerobic) were subjected to the same operating conditions while treating synthetic municipal wastewater spiked with OMPs. Microbial community dynamics, gene expression levels, and antibiotic resistance genes were analyzed using molecular-based approaches. Results showed that presence of OMPs in the wastewater feed had a clear effect on keystone bacterial populations in both the aerobic and anaerobic sludge while also significantly impacting biodegradation-associated gene expression levels. Finally, multiple antibiotic-type OMPs were found to have higher removal rates in the anaerobic MBR, while associated antibiotic resistance genes were lower.

  14. Organic micropollutants in aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Changes in microbial communities and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Harb, Moustapha; Wei, Chun-Hai; Wang, Nan; Amy, Gary; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2016-10-01

    Organic micro-pollutants (OMPs) are contaminants of emerging concern in wastewater treatment due to the risk of their proliferation into the environment, but their impact on the biological treatment process is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the presence of OMPs on the core microbial populations of wastewater treatment. Two nanofiltration-coupled membrane bioreactors (aerobic and anaerobic) were subjected to the same operating conditions while treating synthetic municipal wastewater spiked with OMPs. Microbial community dynamics, gene expression levels, and antibiotic resistance genes were analyzed using molecular-based approaches. Results showed that presence of OMPs in the wastewater feed had a clear effect on keystone bacterial populations in both the aerobic and anaerobic sludge while also significantly impacting biodegradation-associated gene expression levels. Finally, multiple antibiotic-type OMPs were found to have higher removal rates in the anaerobic MBR, while associated antibiotic resistance genes were lower. PMID:27441825

  15. Novel skeleton sesquiterpenoids isolated from guava leaves.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wen; Zhu, Xiao-ai; Wang, Wei; Chen, Xue-Xiang; Chen, Yun-Jiao; Cao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    A chemical investigation of the plant Psidium guajava L., collected in Guangdong province, afforded two novel skeleton sesquiterpenoids 1 and 2. Compound 2 also known as isocaryolan-9-one was a new natural product. The structure of the novel compound 1 was determined as guavacid A by various spectroscopic methods. A possible biosynthetic pathway for 1 and 2 was proposed. PMID:26308496

  16. Advances in evaluating the fetal skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Ann-Edwidge; Brown, Richard N

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we discuss aspects of the prenatal diagnosis of fetal skeletal malformations, concentrating on the advantages offered by different imaging techniques and the approaches that are of value in evaluating a suspected skeletal dysplasia. We also briefly address the findings in some of the commoner malformations of the fetal skeleton that may be encountered. PMID:24868173

  17. Isotropic microscale mechanical properties of coral skeletons

    PubMed Central

    Pasquini, Luca; Molinari, Alan; Fantazzini, Paola; Dauphen, Yannicke; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Levy, Oren; Dubinsky, Zvy; Caroselli, Erik; Prada, Fiorella; Goffredo, Stefano; Di Giosia, Matteo; Reggi, Michela; Falini, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Scleractinian corals are a major source of biogenic calcium carbonate, yet the relationship between their skeletal microstructure and mechanical properties has been scarcely studied. In this work, the skeletons of two coral species: solitary Balanophyllia europaea and colonial Stylophora pistillata, were investigated by nanoindentation. The hardness HIT and Young's modulus EIT were determined from the analysis of several load–depth data on two perpendicular sections of the skeletons: longitudinal (parallel to the main growth axis) and transverse. Within the experimental and statistical uncertainty, the average values of the mechanical parameters are independent on the section's orientation. The hydration state of the skeletons did not affect the mechanical properties. The measured values, EIT in the 76–77 GPa range, and HIT in the 4.9–5.1 GPa range, are close to the ones expected for polycrystalline pure aragonite. Notably, a small difference in HIT is observed between the species. Different from corals, single-crystal aragonite and the nacreous layer of the seashell Atrina rigida exhibit clearly orientation-dependent mechanical properties. The homogeneous and isotropic mechanical behaviour of the coral skeletons at the microscale is correlated with the microstructure, observed by electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, and with the X-ray diffraction patterns of the longitudinal and transverse sections. PMID:25977958

  18. A mitochondrial-focused genetic interaction map reveals a scaffold-like complex required for inner membrane organization in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Hoppins, Suzanne; Collins, Sean R; Cassidy-Stone, Ann; Hummel, Eric; Devay, Rachel M; Lackner, Laura L; Westermann, Benedikt; Schuldiner, Maya; Weissman, Jonathan S; Nunnari, Jodi

    2011-10-17

    To broadly explore mitochondrial structure and function as well as the communication of mitochondria with other cellular pathways, we constructed a quantitative, high-density genetic interaction map (the MITO-MAP) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The MITO-MAP provides a comprehensive view of mitochondrial function including insights into the activity of uncharacterized mitochondrial proteins and the functional connection between mitochondria and the ER. The MITO-MAP also reveals a large inner membrane-associated complex, which we term MitOS for mitochondrial organizing structure, comprised of Fcj1/Mitofilin, a conserved inner membrane protein, and five additional components. MitOS physically and functionally interacts with both outer and inner membrane components and localizes to extended structures that wrap around the inner membrane. We show that MitOS acts in concert with ATP synthase dimers to organize the inner membrane and promote normal mitochondrial morphology. We propose that MitOS acts as a conserved mitochondrial skeletal structure that differentiates regions of the inner membrane to establish the normal internal architecture of mitochondria.

  19. Glutamate cycling may drive organic anion transport on the basal membrane of human placental syncytiotrophoblast.

    PubMed

    Lofthouse, Emma M; Brooks, Suzanne; Cleal, Jane K; Hanson, Mark A; Poore, Kirsten R; O'Kelly, Ita M; Lewis, Rohan M

    2015-10-15

    The organic anion transporter OAT4 (SLC22A11) and organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP2B1 (SLCO2B1) are expressed in the basal membrane of the placental syncytiotrophoblast. These transporters mediate exchange whereby uptake of one organic anion is coupled to efflux of a counter-ion. In placenta, these exchangers mediate placental uptake of substrates for oestrogen synthesis as well as clearing waste products and xenobiotics from the fetal circulation. However, the identity of the counter-ion driving this transport in the placenta, and in other tissues, is unclear. While glutamate is not a known OAT4 or OATP2B1 substrate, we propose that its high intracellular concentration has the potential to drive accumulation of substrates from the fetal circulation. In the isolated perfused placenta, glutamate exchange was observed between the placenta and the fetal circulation. This exchange could not be explained by known glutamate exchangers. However, glutamate efflux was trans-stimulated by an OAT4 and OATP2B1 substrate (bromosulphothalein). Exchange of glutamate for bromosulphothalein was only observed when glutamate reuptake was inhibited (by addition of aspartate). To determine if OAT4 and/or OATP2B1 mediate glutamate exchange, uptake and efflux of glutamate were investigated in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Our data demonstrate that in Xenopus oocytes expressing either OAT4 or OATP2B1 efflux of intracellular [(14)C]glutamate could be stimulated by conditions including extracellular glutamate (OAT4), estrone-sulphate and bromosulphothalein (both OAT4 and OATP2B1) or pravastatin (OATP2B1). Cycling of glutamate across the placenta involving efflux via OAT4 and OATP2B1 and subsequent reuptake will drive placental uptake of organic anions from the fetal circulation.

  20. Organization of the Escherichia coli aerobic enzyme complexes of oxidative phosphorylation in dynamic domains within the cytoplasmic membrane

    PubMed Central

    Erhardt, Heiko; Dempwolff, Felix; Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Riehle, Marc; Schäfer, Caspar; Pohl, Thomas; Graumann, Peter; Friedrich, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    The Escherichia coli cytoplasmic membrane contains the enzyme complexes of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Not much is known about their supramolecular organization and their dynamics within the membrane in this model organism. In mitochondria and other bacteria, it was demonstrated by nondenaturing electrophoretic methods and electron microscopy that the OXPHOS complexes are organized in so-called supercomplexes, stable assemblies with a defined number of the individual enzyme complexes. To investigate the organization of the E. coli enzyme complexes of aerobic OXPHOS in vivo, we established fluorescent protein fusions of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, the succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, the cytochrome bd-I, and the cytochrome bo3 terminal oxidases, and the FoF1 ATP-synthase. The fusions were integrated in the chromosome to prevent artifacts caused by protein overproduction. Biochemical analysis revealed that all modified complexes were fully assembled, active, and stable. The distribution of the OXPHOS complexes in living cells was determined using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The dynamics within the membrane were detected by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. All aerobic OXPHOS complexes showed an uneven distribution in large mobile patches within the E. coli cytoplasmic membrane. It is discussed whether the individual OXPHOS complexes are organized as clustered individual complexes, here called “segrazones.” PMID:24729508

  1. Organization of the Escherichia coli aerobic enzyme complexes of oxidative phosphorylation in dynamic domains within the cytoplasmic membrane.

    PubMed

    Erhardt, Heiko; Dempwolff, Felix; Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Riehle, Marc; Schäfer, Caspar; Pohl, Thomas; Graumann, Peter; Friedrich, Thorsten

    2014-06-01

    The Escherichia coli cytoplasmic membrane contains the enzyme complexes of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Not much is known about their supramolecular organization and their dynamics within the membrane in this model organism. In mitochondria and other bacteria, it was demonstrated by nondenaturing electrophoretic methods and electron microscopy that the OXPHOS complexes are organized in so-called supercomplexes, stable assemblies with a defined number of the individual enzyme complexes. To investigate the organization of the E. coli enzyme complexes of aerobic OXPHOS in vivo, we established fluorescent protein fusions of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, the succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, the cytochrome bd-I, and the cytochrome bo3 terminal oxidases, and the FoF1 ATP-synthase. The fusions were integrated in the chromosome to prevent artifacts caused by protein overproduction. Biochemical analysis revealed that all modified complexes were fully assembled, active, and stable. The distribution of the OXPHOS complexes in living cells was determined using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The dynamics within the membrane were detected by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. All aerobic OXPHOS complexes showed an uneven distribution in large mobile patches within the E. coli cytoplasmic membrane. It is discussed whether the individual OXPHOS complexes are organized as clustered individual complexes, here called "segrazones."

  2. Organic fouling of thin-film composite polyamide and cellulose triacetate forward osmosis membranes by oppositely charged macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yangshuo; Wang, Yi-Ning; Wei, Jing; Tang, Chuyang Y

    2013-04-01

    Fouling of cellulose triacetate (CTA) and thin-film composite (TFC) forward osmosis (FO) membranes by organic macromolecules were studied using oppositely charged lysozyme (LYS) and alginate (ALG) as model foulants. Flux performance and foulant deposition on membranes were systematically investigated for a submerged membrane system. When an initial flux of 25 L/m(2)h was applied, both flux reduction and foulant mass deposition were severe for feed water containing the mixture of LYS and ALG (e.g., 50% LYS and 50% ALG at a total foulant concentration of 100 mg/L). In comparison, fouling was much milder for feed water containing either LYS or ALG alone. Compared to the CTA FO membrane, the TFC FO membrane showed greater fouling propensity under mild FO fouling conditions due to its much rougher surface. Nevertheless, under severe FO fouling conditions, fouling was dominated by foulant-deposited-foulant interaction and membrane surface properties played a less important role. Furthermore, when the feed water contained both LYS and ALG in sufficient amount, the deposited cake layer foulant composition (i.e., the LYS/ALG mass ratio) was not strongly affected by membrane types (CTA versus TFC) nor testing modes (pressure-driven NF mode versus osmosis-driven FO mode). In contrast, solution chemistry such as pH and calcium concentration had remarkable effect on the cake layer composition due to their effects on foulant-foulant interaction.

  3. Membrane flux dynamics in the submerged ultrafiltration hybrid treatment process during particle and natural organic matter removal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojian; Li, Yonghong; Wang, Jun; Chen, Chao

    2011-01-01

    Particles and natural organic matter (NOM) are two major concerns in surface water, which greatly influence the membrane filtration process. The objective of this article is to investigate the effect of particles, NOM and their interaction on the submerged ultrafiltration (UF) membrane flux under conditions of solo UF and coagulation and PAC adsorption as the pretreatment of UF. Particles, NOM and their mixture were spiked in tap water to simulate raw water. Exponential relationship, (J(P)/J(P0) = a x exp{-k[t-(n-1)T]}), was developed to quantify the normalized membrane flux dynamics during the filtration period and fitted the results well. In this equation, coefficient a was determined by the value of J(P)/J(P0) at the beginning of a filtration cycle, reflecting the flux recovery after backwashing, that is, the irreversible fouling. The coefficient k reflected the trend of flux dynamics. Integrated total permeability (SigmaJ(P)) in one filtration period could be used as a quantified indicator for comparison of different hybrid membrane processes or under different scenarios. According to the results, there was an additive effect on membrane flux by NOM and particles during solo UF process. This additive fouling could be alleviated by coagulation pretreatment since particles helped the formation of flocs with coagulant, which further delayed the decrease of membrane flux and benefited flux recovery by backwashing. The addition of PAC also increased membrane flux by adsorbing NOM and improved flux recovery through backwashing. PMID:22432326

  4. Effect of temperature on extracellular organic matter (EOM) of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and effect of EOM on irreversible membrane fouling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fangchao; Su, Yiming; Tan, Xiaobo; Chu, Huaqiang; Zhang, Yalei; Yang, Libin; Zhou, Xuefei

    2015-12-01

    Extracellular organic matter (EOM) can cause serious membrane fouling during the algae harvesting process. In this study, the secretion of EOM, including bound-EOM (bEOM) and dissolved-EOM (dEOM), by Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa) at different culturing temperatures, and their influences on membrane filtration, have been investigated. The secretion of EOM was markedly reduced at high temperatures. The specific EOM secretion rate (SEOM) reached 831.1 ± 55.3mg/g at the lowest temperatures of 15 °C; in contrast, the SEOM decreased to only 370-442 and 356-406 mg/g with temperature rising above 20-25 and 30-35 °C, respectively. Based on membrane filtration experiments, the influence of EOM on irreversible membrane fouling was studied. In a critical flux experiment, low critical flux (24 L/m(2)h) was observed in a system with a high EOM concentration. The fouled membranes were rinsed by water and then used for continuous filtration, scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The results revealed that there was irreversible membrane fouling caused by EOM, and irreversible membrane fouling can be more serious when an algae solution contains high EOM levels.

  5. Bioinspired membrane-based systems for a physical approach of cell organization and dynamics: usefulness and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Lagny, Thibaut J.; Bassereau, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Being at the periphery of each cell compartment and enclosing the entire cell while interacting with a large part of cell components, cell membranes participate in most of the cell's vital functions. Biologists have worked for a long time on deciphering how membranes are organized, how they contribute to trafficking, motility, cytokinesis, cell–cell communication, information transport, etc., using top-down approaches and always more advanced techniques. In contrast, physicists have developed bottom-up approaches and minimal model membrane systems of growing complexity in order to build up general models that explain how cell membranes work and how they interact with proteins, e.g. the cytoskeleton. We review the different model membrane systems that are currently available, and how they can help deciphering cell functioning, but also list their limitations. Model membrane systems are also used in synthetic biology and can have potential applications beyond basic research. We discuss the possible synergy between the development of complex in vitro membrane systems in a biological context and for technological applications. Questions that could also be discussed are: what can we still do with synthetic systems, where do we stop building up and which are the alternative solutions? PMID:26464792

  6. Organic fouling of thin-film composite polyamide and cellulose triacetate forward osmosis membranes by oppositely charged macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yangshuo; Wang, Yi-Ning; Wei, Jing; Tang, Chuyang Y

    2013-04-01

    Fouling of cellulose triacetate (CTA) and thin-film composite (TFC) forward osmosis (FO) membranes by organic macromolecules were studied using oppositely charged lysozyme (LYS) and alginate (ALG) as model foulants. Flux performance and foulant deposition on membranes were systematically investigated for a submerged membrane system. When an initial flux of 25 L/m(2)h was applied, both flux reduction and foulant mass deposition were severe for feed water containing the mixture of LYS and ALG (e.g., 50% LYS and 50% ALG at a total foulant concentration of 100 mg/L). In comparison, fouling was much milder for feed water containing either LYS or ALG alone. Compared to the CTA FO membrane, the TFC FO membrane showed greater fouling propensity under mild FO fouling conditions due to its much rougher surface. Nevertheless, under severe FO fouling conditions, fouling was dominated by foulant-deposited-foulant interaction and membrane surface properties played a less important role. Furthermore, when the feed water contained both LYS and ALG in sufficient amount, the deposited cake layer foulant composition (i.e., the LYS/ALG mass ratio) was not strongly affected by membrane types (CTA versus TFC) nor testing modes (pressure-driven NF mode versus osmosis-driven FO mode). In contrast, solution chemistry such as pH and calcium concentration had remarkable effect on the cake layer composition due to their effects on foulant-foulant interaction. PMID:23384517

  7. The puzzling presence of calcite in skeletons of modern solitary corals from the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goffredo, Stefano; Caroselli, Erik; Mezzo, Francesco; Laiolo, Leonardo; Vergni, Patrizia; Pasquini, Luca; Levy, Oren; Zaccanti, Francesco; Tribollet, Aline; Dubinsky, Zvy; Falini, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    ) calcite presence may result from skeletons of other calcifying organisms such as crustose coralline algae; and/or (3) calcite may result from the infilling of galleries of boring microorganisms which are known to colonize coral skeletons. We suggest that more than one of the above mentioned processes are involved.

  8. Selective interfacial synthesis of metal-organic frameworks on a polybenzimidazole hollow fiber membrane for gas separation.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Bishnu P; Bhaskar, Anand; Banerjee, Rahul; Kharul, Ulhas K

    2015-04-28

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have gained immense attention as new age materials due to their tuneable properties and diverse applicability. However, efforts on developing promising materials for membrane based gas separation, and control over the crystal growth positions on polymeric hollow fiber membranes still remain key challenges. In this investigation, a new, convenient and scalable room temperature interfacial method for growing MOFs (ZIF-8 and CuBTC) on either the outer or inner side of a polybenzimidazole based hollow fiber (PBI-BuI-HF) membrane surface has been achieved in a controlled manner. This was made possible by the appropriate selection of an immiscible solvent pair and the synthetic conditions. The growth of MOFs on the PBI-BuI-HF membrane by the interfacial method was continuous and showed an appreciable gas separation performance, conveying promise for their applicability.

  9. Patterning and lifetime of plasma membrane-localized cellulose synthase is dependent on actin organization in Arabidopsis interphase cells.

    PubMed

    Sampathkumar, Arun; Gutierrez, Ryan; McFarlane, Heather E; Bringmann, Martin; Lindeboom, Jelmer; Emons, Anne-Mie; Samuels, Lacey; Ketelaar, Tijs; Ehrhardt, David W; Persson, Staffan

    2013-06-01

    The actin and microtubule cytoskeletons regulate cell shape across phyla, from bacteria to metazoans. In organisms with cell walls, the wall acts as a primary constraint of shape, and generation of specific cell shape depends on cytoskeletal organization for wall deposition and/or cell expansion. In higher plants, cortical microtubules help to organize cell wall construction by positioning the delivery of cellulose synthase (CesA) complexes and guiding their trajectories to orient newly synthesized cellulose microfibrils. The actin cytoskeleton is required for normal distribution of CesAs to the plasma membrane, but more specific roles for actin in cell wall assembly and organization remain largely elusive. We show that the actin cytoskeleton functions to regulate the CesA delivery rate to, and lifetime of CesAs at, the plasma membrane, which affects cellulose production. Furthermore, quantitative image analyses revealed that actin organization affects CesA tracking behavior at the plasma membrane and that small CesA compartments were associated with the actin cytoskeleton. By contrast, localized insertion of CesAs adjacent to cortical microtubules was not affected by the actin organization. Hence, both actin and microtubule cytoskeletons play important roles in regulating CesA trafficking, cellulose deposition, and organization of cell wall biogenesis. PMID:23606596

  10. Self-organizing phenomena at membrane level and low-level laser therapy of rhinitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ailioaie, Laura; Ailioaie, C.; Topoliceanu, Fl.

    2000-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most common allergic disease affecting many people worldwide. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) was applied as monotherapy to 32 children, under placebo controlled conditions. There have been used two GaAlAs diode lasers. The density of energy and the frequency 2 sessions daily - were applied under a special experimental protocol of treatment, including endonasal regions treated with an optical fiber and the extrameridian acupuncture points for rhinitis, 10 days monthly, three months consecutively. The initial investigations with fiberoptic rhinoscope revealed a swollen, pale and edematous mucosa, with increased nasal sections, which may be watery to mucoid. At the end of LLLT, the symptoms of rhinitis like sneezing, nasal congestion, stuffy nose, mouth breathing, snoring - have disappeared and the aspect of nasal mucosa was normal. The results could be explained in the new scenario of self-organizing phenomena at membrane level. The physiological beneficial effects may be correlated and possibly explained by self-organizing paradigms. Our result warrant that LLL is a very good therapy modality for children suffering from allergic rhinitis.

  11. Human proximal tubule epithelial cells cultured on hollow fibers: living membranes that actively transport organic cations

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, J.; De Napoli, I. E; Fedecostante, M.; Schophuizen, C. M. S.; Chevtchik, N. V.; Wilmer, M. J.; van Asbeck, A. H.; Croes, H. J.; Pertijs, J. C.; Wetzels, J. F. M.; Hilbrands, L. B.; van den Heuvel, L. P.; Hoenderop, J. G.; Stamatialis, D.; Masereeuw, R.

    2015-01-01

    The bioartificial kidney (BAK) aims at improving dialysis by developing ‘living membranes’ for cells-aided removal of uremic metabolites. Here, unique human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell (ciPTEC) monolayers were cultured on biofunctionalized MicroPES (polyethersulfone) hollow fiber membranes (HFM) and functionally tested using microfluidics. Tight monolayer formation was demonstrated by abundant zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein expression along the tight junctions of matured ciPTEC on HFM. A clear barrier function of the monolayer was confirmed by limited diffusion of FITC-inulin. The activity of the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) in ciPTEC was evaluated in real-time using a perfusion system by confocal microscopy using 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP+) as a fluorescent substrate. Initial ASP+ uptake was inhibited by a cationic uremic metabolites mixture and by the histamine H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine. In conclusion, a ‘living membrane’ of renal epithelial cells on MicroPES HFM with demonstrated active organic cation transport was successfully established as a first step in BAK engineering. PMID:26567716

  12. Formation and removal of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in membrane bioreactor and conventional activated sludge processes.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaomeng; Wang, Zhiwei; Ma, Jinxing; Zheng, Junjian; Wang, Pan; Wu, Zhichao

    2015-08-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) has become a growing concern due to its contribution to eutrophication and nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs) formation. However, information of DON in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is very limited. In this study, occurrence, transformation and fate of DON in an MBR system were systematically investigated. MBR sludge showed a larger hydrolysis rate of particle organic nitrogen (PON) and also a higher transformation rate of DON to nitrate compared to conventional activated sludge (CAS). For long-term experiments, MBR achieved higher DON removal efficiency at low temperature than CAS; however, at high temperature, the effluent DON concentrations were almost the same in both systems. Batch tests on DON biodegradability showed that DON concentration increased and large molecular weight DON accumulated after 3-h aeration at low temperature, while DON concentration continuously decreased with the increase of aeration time at high temperature. The obtained results provide insights in DON removal in MBRs for meeting increasingly stringent regulations in terms of nitrogen removal.

  13. Selective interfacial synthesis of metal-organic frameworks on a polybenzimidazole hollow fiber membrane for gas separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswal, Bishnu P.; Bhaskar, Anand; Banerjee, Rahul; Kharul, Ulhas K.

    2015-04-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have gained immense attention as new age materials due to their tuneable properties and diverse applicability. However, efforts on developing promising materials for membrane based gas separation, and control over the crystal growth positions on polymeric hollow fiber membranes still remain key challenges. In this investigation, a new, convenient and scalable room temperature interfacial method for growing MOFs (ZIF-8 and CuBTC) on either the outer or inner side of a polybenzimidazole based hollow fiber (PBI-BuI-HF) membrane surface has been achieved in a controlled manner. This was made possible by the appropriate selection of an immiscible solvent pair and the synthetic conditions. The growth of MOFs on the PBI-BuI-HF membrane by the interfacial method was continuous and showed an appreciable gas separation performance, conveying promise for their applicability.Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have gained immense attention as new age materials due to their tuneable properties and diverse applicability. However, efforts on developing promising materials for membrane based gas separation, and control over the crystal growth positions on polymeric hollow fiber membranes still remain key challenges. In this investigation, a new, convenient and scalable room temperature interfacial method for growing MOFs (ZIF-8 and CuBTC) on either the outer or inner side of a polybenzimidazole based hollow fiber (PBI-BuI-HF) membrane surface has been achieved in a controlled manner. This was made possible by the appropriate selection of an immiscible solvent pair and the synthetic conditions. The growth of MOFs on the PBI-BuI-HF membrane by the interfacial method was continuous and showed an appreciable gas separation performance, conveying promise for their applicability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00299k

  14. An Adaptable Spectrin/Ankyrin-Based Mechanism for Long-Range Organization of Plasma Membranes in Vertebrate Tissues.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Vann; Lorenzo, Damaris N

    2016-01-01

    Ankyrins are membrane-associated proteins that together with their spectrin partners are responsible for micron-scale organization of vertebrate plasma membranes, including those of erythrocytes, excitable membranes of neurons and heart, lateral membrane domains of columnar epithelial cells, and striated muscle. Ankyrins coordinate functionally related membrane transporters and cell adhesion proteins (15 protein families identified so far) within plasma membrane compartments through independently evolved interactions of intrinsically disordered sequences with a highly conserved peptide-binding groove formed by the ANK repeat solenoid. Ankyrins are coupled to spectrins, which are elongated organelle-sized proteins that form mechanically resilient arrays through cross-linking by specialized actin filaments. In addition to protein interactions, cellular targeting and assembly of spectrin/ankyrin domains also critically depend on palmitoylation of ankyrin-G by aspartate-histidine-histidine-cysteine 5/8 palmitoyltransferases, as well as interaction of beta-2 spectrin with phosphoinositide lipids. These lipid-dependent spectrin/ankyrin domains are not static but are locally dynamic and determine membrane identity through opposing endocytosis of bulk lipids as well as specific proteins. A partnership between spectrin, ankyrin, and cell adhesion molecules first emerged in bilaterians over 500 million years ago. Ankyrin and spectrin may have been recruited to plasma membranes from more ancient roles in organelle transport. The basic bilaterian spectrin-ankyrin toolkit markedly expanded in vertebrates through gene duplications combined with variation in unstructured intramolecular regulatory sequences as well as independent evolution of ankyrin-binding activity by ion transporters involved in action potentials and calcium homeostasis. In addition, giant vertebrate ankyrins with specialized roles in axons acquired new coding sequences by exon shuffling. We speculate that

  15. Influence of squalene on lipid particle/droplet and membrane organization in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Spanova, Miroslava; Zweytick, Dagmar; Lohner, Karl; Klug, Lisa; Leitner, Erich; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study (Spanova et al., 2010, J. Biol. Chem., 285, 6127–6133) we demonstrated that squalene, an intermediate of sterol biosynthesis, accumulates in yeast strains bearing a deletion of the HEM1 gene. In such strains, the vast majority of squalene is stored in lipid particles/droplets together with triacylglycerols and steryl esters. In mutants lacking the ability to form lipid particles, however, substantial amounts of squalene accumulate in organelle membranes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of squalene on biophysical properties of lipid particles and biological membranes and compared these results to artificial membranes. Our experiments showed that squalene together with triacylglycerols forms the fluid core of lipid particles surrounded by only a few steryl ester shells which transform into a fluid phase below growth temperature. In the hem1∆ deletion mutant a slight disordering effect on steryl esters was observed indicated by loss of the high temperature transition. Also in biological membranes from the hem1∆ mutant strain the effect of squalene per se is difficult to pinpoint because multiple effects such as levels of sterols and unsaturated fatty acids contribute to physical membrane properties. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies using endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane and artificial membranes revealed that it is not the absolute squalene level in membranes but rather the squalene to sterol ratio which mainly affects membrane fluidity/rigidity. In a fluid membrane environment squalene induces rigidity of the membrane, whereas in rigid membranes there is almost no additive effect of squalene. In summary, our results demonstrate that squalene (i) can be well accommodated in yeast lipid particles and organelle membranes without causing deleterious effects; and (ii) although not being a typical membrane lipid may be regarded as a mild modulator of biophysical membrane properties. PMID:22342273

  16. Isotope and trace element proxies in sclerosponge skeletons: reproducibility and alteration through sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, K.; Haase-Schramm, A.; Böhm, F.; Eisenhauer, A.; Joachimski, M. M.; Dullo, W.-C.

    2003-04-01

    During the last decade sclerosponge skeletons have been increasingly used as proxy recorders, e.g. for reconstructions of mixed layer temperature histories, variations of the carbon isotopic composition of seawater or trace metal input to the oceans. We investigated the influences of drilling and bleaching on the reproducibility of the most commonly used proxies in the skeletons of Ceratoporella nicholsoni: δ13C, δ18O and Sr/Ca ratios. We further compare proxy records from different specimens that were correlated by U-Th dating. We find a good reproducibility for δ13C and Sr/Ca ratios. On the other hand, δ18O records show no reproducible trends and do not correlate with the Sr/Ca records. Bleaching alters the isotopic composition of the samples and decreases the reproducibilty. Sr/Ca ratios are not affected by bleaching. XRD analysis shows that fast sample drilling in the dense aragonitic skeletons can produce up to about 1 percent of calcite. Isotope values from samples drilled with different drill speeds show no significant variation, even at elevated calcite contents. Analysis of the organic carbon content shows a 3 cm wide zone in the youngest part of the skeletons with slightly elevated values (0.25 percent). In the older skeletal parts organic carbon contents are lower (0.1 percent). X-ray radiographs show no porosity change with increasing age of the skeleton except for a thin (<5 mm) rim with higher porosities below the oral surface. Overall, porosities are very low (<4 percent). These observations largely exclude early diagenetic influences through secondary cementation or contamination by organic carbon phases. We conclude that the skeletons of C. nicholsoni are very well suited as recorder of environmental proxies like Sr/Ca and δ13C.

  17. Escalation and ecological selectively of mineralogy in the Cambrian Radiation of skeletons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Rachel; Zhuravlev, Andrey Yu.

    2012-12-01

    Assembly of the necessary biochemical machinery for biomineralisation long-predated the appearance and rapid diversification of metazoan skeletons in the late Ediacaran to Middle Cambrian (~ 550-520 million years ago (Ma)), and the independent acquisition of skeletons of differing mineralogies suggests a trigger that conferred selective advantage to possession of a skeleton even though this involved physiological cost. The cost-benefit ratio of biomineralisation has changed over geological time, varying not only with the availability of precursor ions in seawater, but also with evolutionary innovations, as the energy required to produce a skeleton will change as a function of community ecology, particularly with increases in predation pressure. Here, we demonstrate that during the Cambrian Radiation the choice of biomineral was controlled by an interaction between changing seawater chemistry and evolving ecology. The record also reveals the successive skeletonisation of groups with increasing levels of activity from the Ediacaran to Middle Cambrian. The oldest (~ 550-540 Ma) biomineralised organisms were sessile, and preferentially formed low-cost, simple, skeletons of either high-Mg calcite coincident with high mMg:Ca and/or low pCO2 (aragonite seas), or phosphate during with a well-documented phosphogenic event. More elaborate, but tough and protective, aragonitic skeletons appeared from ~ 540 Ma, dominantly in motile benthos (mostly stem- and crown-group Lophotrochozoa). The first low-Mg calcite skeletons of novel organic-rich composite materials (e.g. trilobites) did not appear until the late early Cambrian (~ 526 Ma), coincident with the first onset of low mMg:Ca and/or high pCO2 (calcite seas). Active, bentho-pelagic predatory groups (vertebrates, chaetognaths, some arthropods) appearing mainly in the late early Cambrian preferentially possessed phosphatic skeletons, which were more stable at the low pH ranges of extracellular fluids associated with intense

  18. Method of separating organic contaminants from fluid feedstreams with polyphosphazene membranes

    DOEpatents

    McCaffrey, Robert R.; Cummings, Daniel G.

    1991-01-01

    A method is provided for separating halogenated hydrocarbons from a fluid feedstream. The fluid feedstream is flowed across a first surface of a polyphosphazene semipermeable membrane. At least one halogenated hydrocarbon from the fluid feedstream permeates through the polyphosphazene semipermeable membrane to a second opposed surface of the semipermeable membrane. Then the permeated polar hydrocarbon is removed from the second opposed surface of the polyphosphazene semipermeable membrane. Outstanding and unexpected separation selectivities on the order of 10,000 were obtained for methylene chloride when a methylene chloride in water feedstream was flowed across the polyphosphazene semipermeable membrane in the invented method.

  19. Method of separating organic contaminants from fluid feedstreams with polyphosphazene membranes

    SciTech Connect

    McCaffrey, R.R.; Cummings, D.G.

    1990-12-31

    A method is provided for separating polar hydrocarbons from a fluid feedstream. The fluid feedstream is flowed across a first surface of a polyphosphazene semipermeable membrane. At least one polar hydrocarbon from the fluid feedstream permeates through the polyphosphazene semipermeable membrane to a second opposed surface of the semipermeable membrane. Then the permeated polar hydrocarbon is removed from the second opposed surface of the polyphosphazene semipermeable membrane. Outstanding and unexpected separation selectivities on the order of 10,000 were obtained for methylene chloride when a methylene chloride in water feedstream was flowed across the polyphosphazene semipermeable membrane in the invented method.

  20. Extraction and applications of skeletons in finite element mesh generation.

    SciTech Connect

    Quadros, William Roshan

    2010-05-01

    This paper focuses on the extraction of skeletons of CAD models and its applications in finite element (FE) mesh generation. The term 'skeleton of a CAD model' can be visualized as analogous to the 'skeleton of a human body'. The skeletal representations covered in this paper include medial axis transform (MAT), Voronoi diagram (VD), chordal axis transform (CAT), mid surface, digital skeletons, and disconnected skeletons. In the literature, the properties of a skeleton have been utilized in developing various algorithms for extracting skeletons. Three main approaches include: (1) the bisection method where the skeleton exists at equidistant from at least two points on boundary, (2) the grassfire propagation method in which the skeleton exists where the opposing fronts meet, and (3) the duality method where the skeleton is a dual of the object. In the last decade, the author has applied different skeletal representations in all-quad meshing, hex meshing, mid-surface meshing, mesh size function generation, defeaturing, and decomposition. A brief discussion on the related work from other researchers in the area of tri meshing, tet meshing, and anisotropic meshing is also included. This paper concludes by summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the skeleton-based approaches in solving various geometry-centered problems in FE mesh generation. The skeletons have proved to be a great shape abstraction tool in analyzing the geometric complexity of CAD models as they are symmetric, simpler (reduced dimension), and provide local thickness information. However, skeletons generally require some cleanup, and stability and sensitivity of the skeletons should be controlled during extraction. Also, selecting a suitable application-specific skeleton and a computationally efficient method of extraction is critical.

  1. Skeletonizing a DEM into a drainage network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisels, Amnon; Raizman, Sonia; Karnieli, Arnon

    1995-02-01

    A new method for extracting drainage systems from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) is presented. The main algorithm of the proposed method performs a skeletonization process of the set of elevations in the DEM and produces a skeleton of flow paths. An enumeration algorithm performs the removal of loops from the initial flow path. A preprocess for filling depressions is described as is the necessary postprocessing for determining the drainage network through depressions. The new method does not suffer from any of the maladies of former methods described in the literature, such as flow cutoffs, loops of flow, and basin flooding. The new method is tested on several real-world DEMs and produced connected, complete, and loopless networks.

  2. Calcaneal spurs among San and Khoi skeletons.

    PubMed

    Caroline, Cermak; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Only few studies considered the prevalence of calcaneal enthesophytes commonly called heel spurs among historic skeleton samples. In the present study the frequency of plantar calcaneal spurs among 54 19(th) century Khoisan skeletons was analyzed. Five individuals (9.6 %) had a plantar calcaneal spur at the right side or left side. Calcaneal spurs were more likely to occur in older individuals. More than 20 % of the individuals aged between 40 and 60 years (mature) showed plantar spurs, while 6.2 % of the individuals aged between 20 and 40 years had plantar spurs; however this difference was not significant. No sex differences were present in the prevalence of calcaneal spurs. Male and female individuals did not differ in the metric dimensions of the calcanceal spurs significantly.

  3. Organic solvent-induced changes in membrane geometry in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells - a common narcotic effect?

    PubMed

    Meulenberg, Cécil J W; de Groot, Aart; Westerink, Remco H S; Vijverberg, Henk P M

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to organic solvents may cause narcotic effects. At the cellular level, these narcotic effects have been associated with a reduction in neuronal excitability caused by changes in membrane structure and function. In order to critically test whether changes in membrane geometry contribute to these narcotic effects, cultured human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells have been exposed to selected organic solvents. The solvent-induced changes in cell membrane capacitance were investigated using the whole-cell patch clamp technique for real-time capacitance measurements. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to the cyclic hydrocarbons m-xylene, toluene, and cyclohexane caused a rapid and reversible increase of membrane capacitance. The aliphatic, nonpolar n-hexane did not cause a detectable change of whole-cell membrane capacitance, whereas the amphiphiles n-hexanol and n-hexylamine caused an increase of membrane capacitance and a concomitant reduction in membrane resistance. Despite a large difference in dielectric properties, the chlorinated hydrocarbons 1,1,2,2-tetrachoroethane and tetrachloroethylene caused a similar magnitude increase in membrane capacitance. The theory on membrane capacitance has been applied to deduce changes in membrane geometry caused by solvent partitioning. Although classical observations have shown that solvents increase the membrane capacitance per unit area of membrane, i.e., increase membrane thickness, the present results demonstrate that solvent partitioning predominantly leads to an increase in membrane surface area and to a lesser degree to an increase in membrane thickness. Moreover, the present results indicate that the physicochemical properties of each solvent are important determinants for its specific effects on membrane geometry. This implies that the hypothesis that solvent partitioning is associated with a common perturbation of membrane structure needs to be revisited and cannot account for the commonly observed narcotic effects of

  4. [Soft tissues, hormones and the skeleton].

    PubMed

    Zofková, I

    2012-02-01

    Mechanical load activates bone modeling and increases bone strength. Thus physical activity is extremely important for overall bone health. Muscle volume and muscle contraction are closely related to bone mineral density in men and women, although these relationships are more significat in men. The muscle-bone unit has been defined as a functional system, in which both components are under control of the somatotropin-IGF-I system, androgens and D hormone. These endocrine systems play, via the muscle-bone unit, an important role in development of the skeleton and its stability in adulthood. That is why deficiency of any of these hormonal systems, or reduced physical activity (mainly in childhood) could seriously affect bone density and quality. Bone is also under control of adipose tissue, which modulates its metabolism via mechanical load and more importantly via adipocytokines (leptin, adiponectin and rezistin). Leptin increases bone formation by activation of osteoblasts. This direct effect of leptin is amplified by stimulation of the β-1 adrenergic system, which inhibits the negative osteotropic effects of neuropeptide Y. On the other hand, leptin also activates β-2 adrenergic receptors, which increase bone resorption. In humans, the overall osteo-anabolic effect of leptin tends to be dominant. Furthermore, leptin has a principal role in the start of puberty in girls and maturation, remodeling and development of the female skeleton. Adiponectin (and probably rezistin) has an unambiguous deteriorating effect on the skeleton. Further studies are needed to confirm the clinical importance of soft tissues relative to the integrity of the skeleton.

  5. Abstract Morphemes and Lexical Representation: The CV-Skeleton in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudelaa, Sami; Marslen-Wilson, Willian D.

    2004-01-01

    Overlaps in form and meaning between morphologically related words have led to ambiguities in interpreting priming effects in studies of lexical organization. In Semitic languages like Arabic, however, linguistic analysis proposes that one of the three component morphemes of a surface word is the CV-Skeleton, an abstract prosodic unit coding the…

  6. Abstract morphemes and lexical representation: the CV-Skeleton in Arabic.

    PubMed

    Boudelaa, Sami; Marslen-Wilson, William D

    2004-07-01

    Overlaps in form and meaning between morphologically related words have led to ambiguities in interpreting priming effects in studies of lexical organization. In Semitic languages like Arabic, however, linguistic analysis proposes that one of the three component morphemes of a surface word is the CV-Skeleton, an abstract prosodic unit coding the phonological shape of the surface word and its primary syntactic function, which has no surface phonetic content (McCarthy, J. J. (1981). A prosodic theory of non-concatenative morphology, Linguistic Inquiry, 12 373-418). The other two morphemes are proposed to be the vocalic melody, which conveys additional syntactic information, and the root, which defines meaning. In three experiments using masked, cross-modal, and auditory-auditory priming we examined the role of the vocalic melody and the CV-Skeleton as potential morphemic units in the processing and representation of Arabic words. Prime/target pairs sharing the vocalic melody but not the CV-Skeleton consistently failed to prime. In contrast, word pairs sharing only the CV-Skeleton primed reliably throughout, with the amount of priming being as large as that observed between word pattern pairs sharing both vocalic melody and CV-Skeleton. Priming between morphologically related words can be observed when there is no overlap either in meaning or in surface phonetic form.

  7. Naked Stony Corals: Skeleton Loss in Scleractinia

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Allen G.; Takaoka, Tori L.; Kuehl,Jennifer; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-12-01

    Hexacorallia includes the Scleractinia, or stony corals, characterized by having an external calcareous skeleton made of aragonite, and the Corallimorpharia, or mushroom corals, that lack such a skeleton. Although each group has traditionally been considered monophyletic, some molecular phylogenetic analyses have challenged this, suggesting that skeletal features are evolutionarily plastic, and reviving notions that the scleractinian skeleton may be ephemeral and that the group itself may be polyphyletic. Nevertheless, the most comprehensive phylogenetic study of Hexacorallia supported scleractinian monophyly (REF), and so this remains controversial. In order to resolve this contentious issue, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of nine scleractinians and four corallimorpharians and performed phylogenetic analysis that also included three outgroups (an octocoral and two sea anemones). Our data provide the first strong evidence that Scleractinia is paraphyletic and that the Corallimorpharia is derived from within the group, from which we conclude that skeletal loss has occurred in the latter group secondarily. It is possible that a driving force in such skeletal loss could be the high levels of CO{sub 2} in the ocean during the mid-Cretaceous, which would have impacted aragonite solubility. We estimate from molecular divergence measures that the Corallimorpharia arose in the mid-Cretaceous, approximately 87 million years ago (Ma), supporting this view. These data also permit us to date the origin of Scleractinia to 265 Ma, narrowing the gap between the group's phylogenetic origin and its earliest fossil record.

  8. Randomly organized lipids and marginally stable proteins: a coupling of weak interactions to optimize membrane signaling.

    PubMed

    Rice, Anne M; Mahling, Ryan; Fealey, Michael E; Rannikko, Anika; Dunleavy, Katie; Hendrickson, Troy; Lohese, K Jean; Kruggel, Spencer; Heiling, Hillary; Harren, Daniel; Sutton, R Bryan; Pastor, John; Hinderliter, Anne

    2014-09-01

    Eukaryotic lipids in a bilayer are dominated by weak cooperative interactions. These interactions impart highly dynamic and pliable properties to the membrane. C2 domain-containing proteins in the membrane also interact weakly and cooperatively giving rise to a high degree of conformational plasticity. We propose that this feature of weak energetics and plasticity shared by lipids and C2 domain-containing proteins enhance a cell's ability to transduce information across the membrane. We explored this hypothesis using information theory to assess the information storage capacity of model and mast cell membranes, as well as differential scanning calorimetry, carboxyfluorescein release assays, and tryptophan fluorescence to assess protein and membrane stability. The distribution of lipids in mast cell membranes encoded 5.6-5.8bits of information. More information resided in the acyl chains than the head groups and in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane than the outer leaflet. When the lipid composition and information content of model membranes were varied, the associated C2 domains underwent large changes in stability and denaturation profile. The C2 domain-containing proteins are therefore acutely sensitive to the composition and information content of their associated lipids. Together, these findings suggest that the maximum flow of signaling information through the membrane and into the cell is optimized by the cooperation of near-random distributions of membrane lipids and proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interfacially Active Peptides and Proteins. Guest Editors: William C. Wimley and Kalina Hristova.

  9. [Influence of wholemeal bread on functional and structure characteristics erythrocytes membrane and lipids oxidation in fraction of microsome of internal organs in rats].

    PubMed

    Vitavskaia, A V; Khasiev, Kh Kh; Murzakhmetova, M K

    2006-01-01

    Acute tests in rats showed, that application of wholemeal bread into a standard vivarium ration (40 g per a rat with body weight 180-200 g) drastically impoves structural and functional characteristics of membranes of erlthrocytes and cells of a number of internal organs. Anhibition of peroxide oxidation of biological membranes lipids of internal organs (liver, ridneys, heart, lungs and brain) takes place, as well as impairment of erythrocytes membranes perkeability and increase of their peroxide resistivity.

  10. Preparation of organic/inorganic composite membranes using two types of polymer matrix via a sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seung-Hee; Park, Jin-Soo; Yim, Sung-Dae; Park, Seok-Hee; Lee, Young-Moo; Kim, Chang-Soo

    Organic/inorganic composite membranes were prepared using two different polymers. BPO 4 particles were introduced into polymers via an in situ sol-gel process. Pre-/post-sulfonated polymers were used to prepare composite membranes as matrix. Pre-sulfonated poly(aryl ether ketone) (SPAEK-6F) copolymer was synthesized via nucleophilic aromatic substitution. Degree of sulfonation was adjusted by the percentage of sulfonated monomer. Post-sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) was prepared using concentrated sulfuric acid as sulfonation agent. The membranes were characterized in terms of the ion-exchange capacity (IEC), proton conductivity, water uptake, AFM, SEM and their thermal properties. The SPAEK-6F plain membranes showed higher proton conductivity than that of the SPEEK plain membranes at similar water uptake or IEC due to their structural difference. SEM images of the composite membranes showed that the BPO 4 particles were homogenously dispersed in the polymer matrices and BPO 4 particle size was greatly influenced by polymer matrix. The SPAEK-6F/BPO 4 composite membranes had much smaller BPO 4 particle size than the SPEEK/BPO 4 composite membranes due to well dispersion of BPO 4 sol-like particulates in SPAEK-6F polymer solutions forming more hydrophobic/hydrophilic nanophase than SPEEK polymer solutions. The latter containing a few micrometer-scale BPO 4 particles showed higher proton conductivity than the former containing hundreds nanometer-scale BPO 4 particles at similar water uptake due to the increase in freezable water and effect of particle size.

  11. Membrane-active peptides from marine organisms--antimicrobials, cell-penetrating peptides and peptide toxins: applications and prospects.

    PubMed

    Ponnappan, Nisha; Budagavi, Deepthi Poornima; Yadav, Bhoopesh Kumar; Chugh, Archana

    2015-03-01

    Marine organisms are known to be a rich and unique source of bioactive compounds as they are exposed to extreme conditions in the oceans. The present study is an attempt to briefly describe some of the important membrane-active peptides (MAPs) such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and peptide toxins from marine organisms. Since both AMPs and CPPs play a role in membrane perturbation and exhibit interchangeable role, they can speculatively fall under the broad umbrella of MAPs. The study focuses on the structural and functional characteristics of different classes of marine MAPs. Further, AMPs are considered as a potential remedy to antibiotic resistance acquired by several pathogens. Peptides from marine organisms show novel post-translational modifications such as cysteine knots, halogenation and histidino-alanine bridge that enable these peptides to withstand harsh marine environmental conditions. These unusual modifications of AMPs from marine organisms are expected to increase their half-life in living systems, contributing to their increased bioavailability and stability when administered as drug in in vivo systems. Apart from AMPs, marine toxins with membrane-perturbing properties could be essentially investigated for their cytotoxic effect on various pathogens and their cell-penetrating activity across various mammalian cells. The current review will help in identifying the MAPs from marine organisms with crucial post-translational modifications that can be used as template for designing novel therapeutic agents and drug-delivery vehicles for treatment of human diseases.

  12. Evaluation of persistent hydrophobic organic compounds in the Columbia River Basin using semipermeable-membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, K.A.; Gale, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    Persistent hydrophobic organic compounds are of concern in the Columbia River because they have been correlated with adverse effects on wildlife. We analysed samples from nine main-stem and six tributary sites throughout the Columbia River Basin (Washington and Oregon) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and priority-pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Because these compounds may have important biological consequences at aqueous concentrations well below the detection limits associated with conventional sampling methods, we used semipermeable-membrane devices to sample water and achieved parts-per-quintillion detection limits. All of these compound classes were prevalent within the basin, but concentrations of many analytes were highest in the vicinity of Portland-Vancouver, indicating that the Willamette subbasin-and perhaps the urban area in particular-is an important source of these compounds. Data collected during basin low-flow conditions in 1997 and again during basin high-flow conditions in 1998 indicate that in-stream processes such as dilution by relatively clean inflow, and flow through island hyporheic zones may be important mechanisms for attenuating dissolved concentrations of hydrophobic compounds.

  13. Membrane System for Recovery of Volatile Organic Compounds from Remediation Off-Gases.: Phase 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Wijmans, J.G.; Goakey, S.; Wang, X.; Baker, R.W.; Kaschemekat, J.H.

    1997-04-01

    In situ vacuum extraction, air or steam sparging, and vitrification are widely used methods of remediating soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All of these processes produce a VOC-laden air stream from which the VOC must be removed before the air can be discharged or recycled to the generating process. Treatment of these off-gases is often a major portion of the cost of the remediation project. Carbon adsorption and catalytic incineration, the most common methods of treating these gas streams, suffer from significant drawbacks. This report covers the first phase of a two-phase project. The first phase involved the laboratory demonstration of the water separation section of the unit, the production and demonstration of new membrane modules to improve the separation, the design studies required for the demonstration system, and initial contacts with potential field sites. In the second phase, the demonstration system will be built and, after a short laboratory evaluation, will be tested at two field sites.

  14. Probing the lateral organization of membranes: fluorescence repercussions of pyrene probe distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazères, Serge; Lagane, Bernard; Welby, Michèle; Trégou, Véronique; Lopez, André

    2001-09-01

    Phospholipids pyrene labeled are widely used to investigate dynamics and organizations of membranes. We studied pyrene probe lateral distribution by analyzing the variations of the molar absorption coefficient ( ɛ) versus probe concentrations, in small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) made of phospholipids and/or glycolipids, with pyrene labeled phosphatidylcholine (PyPC) or phosphatidylglycerol (PyPG). The results were interpreted according to an infinite associative model. They indicated that an effective self-association process corresponding to K ranging from 30 to 100 M -1 occurred with those probes incorporated in dimannosyl diacylglycerol (DMDG). In contrast, after SUV labeling of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EggPC) or phosphatidylglycerol (EggPG), K values <1 M -1 were determined. The corresponding percentages of various stacked forms of pyrene probes were calculated. They indicated that, for a 3% PyPG labeling, the monomer represented 21% of n-mers in DMDG and 94% in EggPC. The analysis of fluorescence experiments carried out on the same samples indicated that: (i) the fluorescence process of pyrene probes was generated by the monomers; and (ii) the excimer forming resulted from a diffusional encounter between one excited and one non-excited monomer. A correction of fluorescence data allowing a more correct interpretation of fluorescence measurements was proposed.

  15. Membrane phospholipid organization and vesiculation of erythrocytes in sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Wagner, G M; Schwartz, R S; Chiu, D T; Lubin, B H

    1985-02-01

    This review has examined the lipid composition of the RBC membrane and the methods used to determine the distribution of the phospholipids within the membrane. The importance of the membrane cytoskeletal proteins, in particular spectrin and protein 4.1, in maintaining this distribution has also been described. Membrane vesiculation and altered membrane phospholipid asymmetry in sickle cell anaemia have been reviewed. The relationships between vesiculation and hypercoagulability and an abnormal reticuloendothelial system in sickle cell disease have been examined. It is apparent that the single amino acid substitution leading to the production of sickle haemoglobin has profound effects on the entire erythrocyte, reaching to the limits of the cell, its plasma membrane. PMID:3886236

  16. Identification of a novel voltage-driven organic anion transporter present at apical membrane of renal proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Jutabha, Promsuk; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Hosoyamada, Makoto; Chairoungdua, Arthit; Kim, Do Kyung; Iribe, Yuji; Babu, Ellappan; Kim, Ju Young; Anzai, Naohiko; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Endou, Hitoshi

    2003-07-25

    A novel transport protein with the properties of voltage-driven organic anion transport was isolated from pig kidney cortex by expression cloning in Xenopus laevis oocytes. A cDNA library was constructed from size-fractionated poly(A)+ RNA and screened for p-aminohippurate (PAH) transport in high potassium medium. A 1856-base pair cDNA encoding a 467-amino acid peptide designated as OATV1 (voltage-driven organic anion transporter 1) was isolated. The predicted amino acid sequence of OATV1 exhibited 60-65% identity to those of human, rat, rabbit, and mouse sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter type 1 (NPT1), although OATV1 did not transport phosphate. The homology of this transporter to known members of the organic anion transporter family (OAT family) was about 25-30%. OATV1-mediated PAH transport was affected by the changes in membrane potential. The transport was Na+-independent and enhanced at high concentrations of extracellular potassium and low concentrations of extracellular chloride. Under the voltage clamp condition, extracellularly applied PAH induced outward currents in oocytes expressing OATV1. The current showed steep voltage dependence, consistent with the voltage-driven transport of PAH by OATV1. The PAH transport was inhibited by various organic anions but not by organic cations, indicating the multispecific nature of OATV1 for anionic compounds. This transport protein is localized at the apical membrane of renal proximal tubule, consistent with the proposed localization of a voltage-driven organic anion transporter. Therefore, it is proposed that OATV1 plays an important role to excrete drugs, xenobiotics, and their metabolites driven by membrane voltage through the apical membrane of the tubular epithelial cells into the urine. PMID:12740363

  17. Inorganic fouling of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and a polishing aerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Trzcinski, Antoine P; Stuckey, David C

    2016-03-01

    The treatment of leachate (Average TCOD=11.97 g/L, 14.4% soluble) from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste was investigated using a Submerged Anaerobic Membrane BioReactor (SAMBR), followed by an aerobic membrane bioreactor (AMBR) to polish this effluent. This paper investigated the exact nature and composition of the inorganic precipitate in each of the reactors in the process. The flux decreased due to precipitation of calcium as monohydrocalcite (CaCO3·H2O) containing traces of metals onto the SAMBR membrane because of high CO2 partial pressures. Precipitation of calcium in the AMBR was also observed due to a higher pH. In this case, phosphorus also precipitated with calcium in two different phases: the background layer contained calcium, oxygen, carbon and small amounts of phosphorus (2-6.7%), while flakes containing calcium, oxygen and higher amounts of phosphorus (10-17%) were probably hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4)3OH). PMID:26771921

  18. [Effects and mechanism on removing organics and reduction of membrane fouling using granular macro-porous anion exchange resin in drinking water treatment].

    PubMed

    He, Huan; Dong, Bing-Zhi; Xu, Guang-Hong; Yan, Zhao-Hui

    2014-05-01

    A granular macro-porous anion exchange resin combined with coagulation was used as pretreatment of microfiltration membrane, and their effects and mechanism on removing organics and reduction of membrane fouling were evaluated. The results showed that resin could be effective in removing organics with medium and small molecular weight ( Mr) but ineffective in removing organics with large Mr, while couagulation could significantly remove organics with large Mr, with a limited removal for organics with medium and small Mr. Using resin alone as pretreatment could be effective in removal of organics but limited in reduction of membrane fouling. With combination of coagulation and resin as pretreatment of microfiltration, not only organics could be removed effectively, but also membrane fouling could be reduced.

  19. Toward a novel membrane process for organic carbon removal-fate of slowly biodegradable substrate in super fast membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sözen, S; Teksoy Başaran, S; Akarsubaşı, A; Ergal, I; Insel, G; Karaca, C; Orhon, D

    2016-08-01

    The study tested the performance of super fast membrane bioreactor (SFMBR) using starch as a slowly biodegradable substrate, exploring the fate of starch, and the response of the microbial community. SFMBR was operated at extremely low sludge ages of 0.5-2.0 days, with a hydraulic retention time of 1.0 h. Average values for permeate chemical oxygen demand (COD) always remained in the narrow range between 14 and 18 mg/L, regardless of the selected mode of MBR operation at different sludge ages. Soluble COD levels in the reactor were consistently higher than the corresponding permeate COD. Parameters defining process kinetics, determined by model calibration of oxygen uptake rate (OUR) profiles, varied as a function of sludge age. Model simulation of SFMBR performance indicated total removal of hydrolysis products so that permeate COD consisted of residual microbial products. PCR-DGGE experiments revealed significant shifts in the composition of the microbial community imposed by variations in the sludge age, reflecting on corresponding process kinetics. PMID:27154840

  20. Elucidating the Functional Roles of Spatial Organization in Cross-Membrane Signal Transduction by a Hybrid Simulation Method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiawen; Xie, Zhong-Ru; Wu, Yinghao

    2016-07-01

    The ligand-binding of membrane receptors on cell surfaces initiates the dynamic process of cross-membrane signal transduction. It is an indispensable part of the signaling network for cells to communicate with external environments. Recent experiments revealed that molecular components in signal transduction are not randomly mixed, but spatially organized into distinctive patterns. These patterns, such as receptor clustering and ligand oligomerization, lead to very different gene expression profiles. However, little is understood about the molecular mechanisms and functional impacts of this spatial-temporal regulation in cross-membrane signal transduction. In order to tackle this problem, we developed a hybrid computational method that decomposes a model of signaling network into two simulation modules. The physical process of binding between receptors and ligands on cell surfaces are simulated by a diffusion-reaction algorithm, while the downstream biochemical reactions are modeled by stochastic simulation of Gillespie algorithm. These two processes are coupled together by a synchronization framework. Using this method, we tested the dynamics of a simple signaling network in which the ligand binding of cell surface receptors triggers the phosphorylation of protein kinases, and in turn regulates the expression of target genes. We found that spatial aggregation of membrane receptors at cellular interfaces is able to either amplify or inhibit downstream signaling outputs, depending on the details of clustering mechanism. Moreover, by providing higher binding avidity, the co-localization of ligands into multi-valence complex modulates signaling in very different ways that are closely related to the binding affinity between ligand and receptor. We also found that the temporal oscillation of the signaling pathway that is derived from genetic feedback loops can be modified by the spatial clustering of membrane receptors. In summary, our method demonstrates the functional

  1. Effects of bioactive monoterpenic ketones on membrane organization. A langmuir film study.

    PubMed

    Mariani, María Elisa; Sánchez-Borzone, Mariela E; García, Daniel A

    2016-06-01

    The cyclic ketones, thujone and dihydrocarvone, are lipophilic components of essential oils extracted from different plants, which have proven insecticidal activity. The GABAA receptor is activated by the neurotransmitter GABA and is the action site of widely used neurotoxic pesticides. Many compounds that regulate GABAA receptor function interact with membrane lipids, causing changes in their physical properties and consequently, in the membrane dynamic characteristics that modulate receptor macromolecules. In the present study, the biophysical effects of thujone (a gabaergic reference compound) and dihydrocarvone (structurally very similar) were explored by using monomolecular films of DPPC as a model membrane system, to gain insight into membrane-drug interaction. The compression isotherms showed that both ketones expand the DPPC isotherms and increase membrane elasticity. They penetrate the monolayer but their permanence depends on the possibility of establishing molecular interactions with the film component, favored by defects present in the membrane at the phase transition. Finally, by using Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) as a complementary technique for direct visualization of the study films, we found that incorporating ketone seems to reduce molecular repulsion among phospholipid headgroups. Our results reinforce the notion that changes in membrane mechanics may be occurring in the presence of the assayed ketones, suggesting that their interaction with the receptor's surrounding membrane may modulate or affect its functionality, possibly as part of the mechanism of the bioactivity described for thujone and DHC. PMID:27174212

  2. Highly Cross-Linked Epoxy Nanofiltration Membranes for the Separation of Organic Chemicals and Fish Oil Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Gilmer, Chad M; Bowden, Ned B

    2016-09-14

    Membrane separations are highly desired for the chemical industry because they are inexpensive, avoid the use of heat, can be applied to the purification of a wide range of chemicals, and can be scaled to industrial levels. Separating chemicals with molecular weights between 100 and 300 g mol(-1) remains a significant challenge in the field of organic solvent nanofiltration (OSN) due to their similar sizes and rotational flexibility. In this work, we report the fabrication of poly(epoxy) membranes that show excellent selectivity of over 100:1 for chemicals in this range. The membranes are easily tuned to obtain different flux and selectivity by using interchangeable amine and epoxide monomers. These membranes were used to separate the important nutritional omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters eicosapentaenoic ethyl ester (EPA-EE) and docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester (DHA-EE) from each other, despite a small difference in molecular weight (26 g mol(-1)). This is the first example of a separation of EPA-EE and DHA-EE using a membrane process.

  3. Highly Cross-Linked Epoxy Nanofiltration Membranes for the Separation of Organic Chemicals and Fish Oil Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Gilmer, Chad M; Bowden, Ned B

    2016-09-14

    Membrane separations are highly desired for the chemical industry because they are inexpensive, avoid the use of heat, can be applied to the purification of a wide range of chemicals, and can be scaled to industrial levels. Separating chemicals with molecular weights between 100 and 300 g mol(-1) remains a significant challenge in the field of organic solvent nanofiltration (OSN) due to their similar sizes and rotational flexibility. In this work, we report the fabrication of poly(epoxy) membranes that show excellent selectivity of over 100:1 for chemicals in this range. The membranes are easily tuned to obtain different flux and selectivity by using interchangeable amine and epoxide monomers. These membranes were used to separate the important nutritional omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters eicosapentaenoic ethyl ester (EPA-EE) and docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester (DHA-EE) from each other, despite a small difference in molecular weight (26 g mol(-1)). This is the first example of a separation of EPA-EE and DHA-EE using a membrane process. PMID:27552234

  4. HIV-1 MATRIX ORGANIZES AS A HEXAMER OF TRIMERS ON MEMBRANES CONTAINING PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL-(4,5)-BISPHOSPHATE

    PubMed Central

    Alfadhli, Ayna; Barklis, Robin Lid; Barklis, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) matrix (MA) protein represents the N-terminal domain of the HIV-1 precursor Gag (PrGag) protein and carries an N-terminal myristate (Myr) group. HIV-1 MA fosters PrGag membrane binding, as well as assembly of envelope (Env) proteins into virus particles, and recent studies have shown that HIV-1 MA preferentially directs virus assembly at plasma membrane sites enriched in cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate (PI[4,5]P2). To characterize the membrane binding of MA and PrGag proteins, we have examined how Myr-MA proteins, and proteins composed of Myr-MA and its neighbor Gag capsid (CA) protein associate on membranes containing cholesterol and PI[4,5]P2. Our results indicate that Myr-MA assembles as a hexamer of trimers on such membranes, and imply that MA trimers interconnect CA hexamer rings in immature virus particles. Our observations suggest a model for the organization of PrGag proteins, and for MA-Env protein interactions. PMID:19327811

  5. Low-temperature bonded glass-membrane microfluidic device for in vitro organ-on-a-chip cell culture models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pocock, Kyall J.; Gao, Xiaofang; Wang, Chenxi; Priest, Craig; Prestidge, Clive A.; Mawatari, Kazuma; Kitamori, Takehiko; Thierry, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    The integration of microfluidics with living biological systems has paved the way to the exciting concept of "organson- a-chip", which aims at the development of advanced in vitro models that replicate the key features of human organs. Glass based devices have long been utilised in the field of microfluidics but the integration of alternative functional elements within multi-layered glass microdevices, such as polymeric membranes, remains a challenge. To this end, we have extended a previously reported approach for the low-temperature bonding of glass devices that enables the integration of a functional polycarbonate porous membrane. The process was initially developed and optimised on specialty low-temperature bonding equipment (μTAS2001, Bondtech, Japan) and subsequently adapted to more widely accessible hot embosser units (EVG520HE Hot Embosser, EVG, Austria). The key aspect of this method is the use of low temperatures compatible with polymeric membranes. Compared to borosilicate glass bonding (650 °C) and quartz/fused silica bonding (1050 °C) processes, this method maintains the integrity and functionality of the membrane (Tg 150 °C for polycarbonate). Leak tests performed showed no damage or loss of integrity of the membrane for up to 150 hours, indicating sufficient bond strength for long term cell culture. A feasibility study confirmed the growth of dense and functional monolayers of Caco-2 cells within 5 days.

  6. Nano-clustering of ligands on surrogate antigen presenting cells modulates T cell membrane adhesion and organization.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Pierre; Pi, Fuwei; Lellouch, Annemarie C; Limozin, Laurent; Sengupta, Kheya

    2016-03-14

    We investigate the adhesion and molecular organization of the plasma membrane of T lymphocytes interacting with a surrogate antigen presenting cell comprising glass supported ordered arrays of antibody (α-CD3) nano-dots dispersed in a non-adhesive matrix of polyethylene glycol (PEG). The local membrane adhesion and topography, as well as the distribution of the T cell receptors (TCRs) and the kinase ZAP-70, are influenced by dot-geometry, whereas the cell spreading area is determined by the overall average density of the ligands rather than specific characteristics of the dots. TCR clusters are recruited preferentially to the nano-dots and the TCR cluster size distribution has a weak dot-size dependence. On the patterns, the clusters are larger, more numerous, and more enriched in TCRs, as compared to the homogeneously distributed ligands at comparable concentrations. These observations support the idea that non-ligated TCRs residing in the non-adhered parts of the proximal membrane are able to diffuse and enrich the existing clusters at the ligand dots. However, long distance transport is impaired and cluster centralization in the form of a central supramolecular cluster (cSMAC) is not observed. Time-lapse imaging of early cell-surface contacts indicates that the ZAP-70 microclusters are directly recruited to the site of the antibody dots and this process is concomitant with membrane adhesion. These results together point to a complex interplay of adhesion, molecular organization and activation in response to spatially modulated stimulation.

  7. Stereoselective synthesis of (+)-loline alkaloid skeleton.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kelsey E; Wright, Anthony J; Olesen, Margaret K; Hovey, M Todd; Scheerer, Jonathan R

    2015-02-01

    The loline alkaloids present a compact polycyclic pyrrolizidine skeleton and contain a strained five-membered ethereal bridge, structural features that have proven challenging for synthetic chemists to incorporate since the discovery of this natural product family more than 100 years ago. These alkaloids are produced by mutualistic fungal symbionts (endophytes) living on certain species of pasture grasses and protect the host plant from insect herbivory. The asymmetric total synthesis of loline alkaloids is reported and extends our first-generation (racemic) synthesis of this alkaloid family. Key to the synthesis is a diastereoselective tethered aminohydroxylation of a homoallylic carbamate function and a Petasis Borono-Mannich addition.

  8. Switching skeletons: hydrostatic support in molting crabs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Jennifer R A.; Kier, William M.; Walker, I. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal support systems are essential for support, movement, muscular antagonism, and locomotion. Crustaceans shed their rigid exoskeleton at each molt yet are still capable of forceful movement. We hypothesize that the soft water-inflated body of newly molted crabs may rely on a hydrostatic skeleton, similar to that of worms and polyps. We measured internal hydrostatic pressure and the force exerted during claw adduction and observed a strong correlation between force and hydrostatic pressure, consistent with hydrostatic skeletal support. This alternation between the two basic skeletal types may be widespread among arthropods.

  9. Fish-skeleton visualization of bending actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakshatharan, Sunjai; Punning, Andres; Assi, Siim; Johanson, Urmas; Aabloo, Alvo

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel experimental method for qualitative visualization and quantitative characterization of the time-dependent behavior of bending ionic electroactive polymer actuators. The thin fibers, attached to the actuator, represent the surface normal at the given points of the bending actuator. The structure, formed by the skeleton of many adjacent fibers, amplifies the visual overview about the whole actuator. The four coordinates formed by four tips of two fibers enable determining the axial as well as the bending strains of a bending actuator.

  10. Near field fluid coupling between internal motion of the organ of Corti and the basilar membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Stephen J.; Ni, Guangjian

    2015-12-31

    The pressure distribution in each of the fluid chambers of the cochlea can be decomposed into a 1D, or plane wave, component and a near field component, which decays rapidly away from the excitation point. The transverse motion of the basilar membrane, BM, for example, generates both a 1D pressure field, which couples into the slow wave, and a local near field pressure, proportional to the BM acceleration, that generates an added mass on the BM due to the fluid motion. When the organ of Corti, OC, undergoes internal motion, due for example to outer hair cell activity, this motion will not itself generate any 1D pressure if the OC is incompressible and the BM is constrained not to move volumetrically, and so will not directly couple into the slow wave. This motion will, however, generate a near field pressure, proportional to the OC acceleration, which will act on the OC and thus increases its effective mass. The near field pressure due to this OC motion will also act on the BM, generating a force on the BM proportional to the acceleration of the OC, and thus create a “coupling mass” effect. By reciprocity, this coupling mass is the same as that acting on the OC due to the motion of the BM. This near field fluid coupling is initially observed in a finite element model of a slice of the cochlea. These simulations suggest a simple analytical formulation for the fluid coupling, using higher order beam modes across the width of the cochlear partition. It is well known that the added mass due to the near field pressure dominates the overall mass of the BM, and thus significantly affects the micromechanical dynamics. This work not only quantifies the added mass of the OC due its own motion in the fluid, and shows that this is important, but also demonstrates that the coupling mass effect between the BM and OC significantly affects the dynamics of simple micromechanical models.

  11. Near field fluid coupling between internal motion of the organ of Corti and the basilar membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Stephen J.; Ni, Guangjian

    2015-12-01

    The pressure distribution in each of the fluid chambers of the cochlea can be decomposed into a 1D, or plane wave, component and a near field component, which decays rapidly away from the excitation point. The transverse motion of the basilar membrane, BM, for example, generates both a 1D pressure field, which couples into the slow wave, and a local near field pressure, proportional to the BM acceleration, that generates an added mass on the BM due to the fluid motion. When the organ of Corti, OC, undergoes internal motion, due for example to outer hair cell activity, this motion will not itself generate any 1D pressure if the OC is incompressible and the BM is constrained not to move volumetrically, and so will not directly couple into the slow wave. This motion will, however, generate a near field pressure, proportional to the OC acceleration, which will act on the OC and thus increases its effective mass. The near field pressure due to this OC motion will also act on the BM, generating a force on the BM proportional to the acceleration of the OC, and thus create a "coupling mass" effect. By reciprocity, this coupling mass is the same as that acting on the OC due to the motion of the BM. This near field fluid coupling is initially observed in a finite element model of a slice of the cochlea. These simulations suggest a simple analytical formulation for the fluid coupling, using higher order beam modes across the width of the cochlear partition. It is well known that the added mass due to the near field pressure dominates the overall mass of the BM, and thus significantly affects the micromechanical dynamics. This work not only quantifies the added mass of the OC due its own motion in the fluid, and shows that this is important, but also demonstrates that the coupling mass effect between the BM and OC significantly affects the dynamics of simple micromechanical models.

  12. Lab-on-a-brane: nanofibrous polymer membranes to recreate organ-capillary interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budhwani, Karim I.; Thomas, Vinoy; Sethu, Palaniappan

    2016-03-01

    Drug discovery is a complex and time consuming process involving significant basic research and preclinical evaluation prior to testing in patients. Preclinical studies rely extensively on animal models which often fail in human trials. Biomimetic microphysiological systems (MPS) using human cells can be a promising alternative to animal models; where critical interactions between different organ systems are recreated to provide physiologically relevant in vitro human models. Central here are blood-vessel networks, the interface controlling transport of cellular and biomolecular components between the circulating fluid and underlying tissue. Here we present a novel lab-on-a-brane (or lab-on-a-membrane) nanofluidics MPS that combines the elegance of lab-on-a-chip with the more realistic morphology of 3D fibrous tissue-engineering constructs. Our blood-vessel lab-on-a-brane effectively simulates in vivo vessel-tissue interface for evaluating transendothelial transport in various pharmacokinetic and nanomedicine applications. Attributes of our platform include (a) nanoporous barrier interface enabling transmembrane molecular transport, (b) transformation of substrate into nanofibrous 3D tissue matrix, (c) invertible-sandwich architecture, and (d) simple co-culture mechanism for endothelial and smooth muscle layers to accurately mimic arterial anatomy. Structural, mechanical, and transport characterization using scanning electron microscopy, stress/strain analysis, infrared spectroscopy, immunofluorescence, and FITC-Dextran hydraulic permeability confirm viability of this in vitro system. Thus, our lab-on-a-brane provides an effective and efficient, yet considerably inexpensive, physiologically relevant alternative for pharmacokinetic evaluation; possibly reducing animals used in preclinical testing, costs from false starts, and time-to-market. Furthermore, it can be configured in multiple simultaneous arrays for personalized and precision medicine applications and for

  13. New nanocomposite hybrid inorganic-organic proton-conducting membranes based on functionalized silica and PTFE.

    PubMed

    Di Noto, Vito; Piga, Matteo; Giffin, Guinevere A; Negro, Enrico; Furlan, Claudio; Vezzù, Keti

    2012-09-01

    Two types of new nanocomposite proton-exchange membranes, consisting of functionalized and pristine nanoparticles of silica and silicone rubber (SR) embedded in a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) matrix, were prepared. The membrane precursor was obtained from a mechanical rolling process, and the SiO₂ nanoparticles were functionalized by soaking the membranes in a solution of 2-(4-chlorosulfonylphenyl)ethyl trichlorosilane (CSPhEtCS). The membranes exhibit a highly compact morphology and a lack of fibrous PTFE. At 125 °C, the membrane containing the functionalized nanoparticles has an elastic modulus (2.2 MPa) that is higher than that of pristine Nafion (1.28 MPa) and a conductivity of 3.6×10⁻³  S cm⁻¹ despite a low proton-exchange capacity (0.11 meq g⁻¹). The good thermal and mechanical stability and conductivity at T>100 °C make these membranes a promising low-cost material for application in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells operating at temperatures higher than 100 °C. PMID:22807005

  14. [Wooden models of human skeleton made in Edo era, Japan, with special reference to Hoshino wooden skeleton].

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Katsuko; Suzaki, Etsuko; Ajima, Noriaki

    2006-03-01

    The wooden model of the human skeleton, called wooden skeleton, is a distinguished original craft object in Edo era (1600-1867), Japan, when medical doctors were unable to keep the human skeleton for their study and teaching purpose. There are three kinds of wooden skeletons, i. e. Hoshino, Kagami and Okuda wooden skeletons made in 1792, 1810 and 1820, respectively. The former two are of adult male and the latter of female. They were made in surprising accuracy as compared with figures appeared in medical books available in Japan at that time, which suggests scientific readiness of the doctors and skills of the craftsmen. A complete set of the skeleton, except for the hyoid bone, has been preserved for Hoshino and Okuda wooden skeletons, while several bones have been missing in Kagami wooden skeleton. Each bone of Hoshino and Kagami wooden skeletons was made separately and connected by a tenon and a corresponding mortise at the articular surface. So it is hardly considered that all wooden bones were assembled into the whole body skeleton on use. Okuda wooden skeleton, on the other hand, was made for being shown in sitting position. The skull of Hoshino wooden skeleton is of special interest: the skull cap is not open, yet the internal structures of the skull, such as the sella turcica, foramina for nerves and vessels, and sulci for venous sinuses were made in considerable accuracy. Moreover, the proper connection of most foramina was proved between the inside and outside of the skull. The skull caps of Kagami and Okuda wooden skeletons are open as those used in the modern medical education.

  15. Multicomponent membranes

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    A multicomponent membrane which may be used for separating various components which are present in a fluid feed mixture comprises a mixture of a plasticizer such as a glycol and an organic polymer cast upon a porous organic polymer support. The membrane may be prepared by casting an emulsion or a solution of the plasticizer and polymer on the porous support, evaporating the solvent and recovering the membrane after curing.

  16. Skeletal metastasis: the effect on immature skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.A.; Ogden, D.A.

    1982-12-01

    The unique opportunity to study the entire appendicular skeleton of a child who died from metastatic angiosarcoma allowed detailed assessment of radiographically evident involvement. Virtually every portion of the appendicular skeleton had evidence of metastatic disease. However, the extent of involvement was extremely variable, especially when contralateral regions were assessed. The most likely region of metastasis, the metaphysis, is normally a fenestrated cortex of woven bone in the young child, rather than a well demarcated cortex formed by osteon (lamellar) bone, as it is in the adult. The pattern of destruction is such that less extensive areas may be involved before becoming radiographically evident, and trabecular bone involvement may be evident even without cortical damage. The metaphyseal metastatic spread supports the concept of arterial hematogeneous dissemination, comparable to osteomyelitis in the child. Pathologic metaphyseal fractures involved both proximal humeri; the fracture also extended along a portion of the methaphyseal-physeal interface in one humerus. In one distal femur the physis readily separated from the metaphysis; this was a nondisplaced type 1 growth mechanism injury.

  17. Using supported bilayers to study the spatiotemporal organization of membrane bound proteins

    PubMed Central

    Field, Christine M.; Groen, Aaron C.; Mitchison, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Cell division in prokaryotes and eukaryotes is commonly initiated by the well-controlled binding of proteins to the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane. However, a precise characterization of the spatiotemporal dynamics of membrane-bound proteins is often difficult to achieve in vivo. Here, we present protocols for the use of supported lipid bilayers to rebuild the cytokinetic machineries of cells with greatly different dimensions: the bacterium Escherichia coli and eggs of the vertebrate Xenopus laevis. Combined with total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, these experimental setups allow for precise quantitative analyses of membrane-bound proteins. The protocols described to obtain glass-supported membranes from bacterial and vertebrate lipids can be used as starting points for other reconstitution experiments. We believe that similar biochemical assays will be instrumental to study the biochemistry and biophysics underlying a variety of complex cellular tasks, such as signaling, vesicle trafficking and cell motility. PMID:25997350

  18. Binding of concanavalin A by the cell membrane of a unicellular organism, Paramecium aurelia.

    PubMed

    Wyroba, E

    1975-01-01

    As demonstrated by electron microscopy, Concanavalin A receptors exist on the cell membrane of Paramecium aurelia. The interpretation of the cytochemical detection of Con A binding is not very precise because of a slight, unspecific peroxidase adsorption.

  19. A graphene oxide membrane with highly selective molecular separation of aqueous organic solution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kang; Liu, Gongping; Lou, Yueyun; Dong, Ziye; Shen, Jie; Jin, Wanqin

    2014-07-01

    A graphene oxide (GO) membrane is supported on a ceramic hollow fiber prepared by a vacuum suction method. This GO membrane exhibited excellent water permeation for dimethyl carbonate/water mixtures through a pervaporation process. At 25 °C and 2.6 wt % feed water content, the permeate water content reached 95.2 wt% with a high permeation flux (1702 g m(-2) h(-1)). PMID:24846755

  20. [Okuda wooden human skeleton made in Edo era, Japan].

    PubMed

    Baba, Hisao

    2006-03-01

    Probably in 1820 (late Edo era), a human skeleton for medical education was carved from cypress wood, based on a criminal's skeleton under the supervision of a medical doctor, Banri Okuda in Osaka City. The skeleton is called "Okuda wooden skeleton" and is now housed in the National Science Museum, Tokyo. The bones can be assembled into a skeleton by metal pivots or bamboo sticks. The thorax and pelvis were made of several pieces of wood and combined together, respectively. By and large, the wooden skeleton shows morphological characteristics usually seen in early middle-aged females of the Edo era. But the claviculae, distal ends of the femora, and the patellae are exceptionally larger than those of a female, implying that these bones of the original skeleton had already been lost or were deformed before the wooden skeleton was made. Actually the wooden skeleton might not have been used for medical education but rather for the promotion of European medicine, which was gradually developing in the Edo era.

  1. Three-dimensional organization of nascent rod outer segment disk membranes

    PubMed Central

    Volland, Stefanie; Hughes, Louise C.; Kong, Christina; Burgess, Barry L.; Linberg, Kenneth A.; Luna, Gabriel; Zhou, Z. Hong; Fisher, Steven K.; Williams, David S.

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate photoreceptor cell contains an elaborate cilium that includes a stack of phototransductive membrane disks. The disk membranes are continually renewed, but how new disks are formed remains poorly understood. Here we used electron microscope tomography to obtain 3D visualization of the nascent disks of rod photoreceptors in three mammalian species, to gain insight into the process of disk morphogenesis. We observed that nascent disks are invariably continuous with the ciliary plasma membrane, although, owing to partial enclosure, they can appear to be internal in 2D profiles. Tomographic analyses of the basal-most region of the outer segment show changes in shape of the ciliary plasma membrane indicating an invagination, which is likely a first step in disk formation. The invagination flattens to create the proximal surface of an evaginating lamella, as well as membrane protrusions that extend between adjacent lamellae, thereby initiating a disk rim. Immediately distal to this initiation site, lamellae of increasing diameter are evident, indicating growth outward from the cilium. In agreement with a previous model, our data indicate that mature disks are formed once lamellae reach full diameter, and the growth of a rim encloses the space between adjacent surfaces of two lamellae. This study provides 3D data of nascent and mature rod photoreceptor disk membranes at unprecedented z-axis depth and resolution, and provides a basis for addressing fundamental questions, ranging from protein sorting in the photoreceptor cilium to photoreceptor electrophysiology. PMID:26578801

  2. Review on the fate of organic micropollutants in wastewater treatment and water reuse with membranes.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, H; Joss, A

    2012-01-01

    A brief review of the fate of micropollutants in membrane-based wastewater treatment due to sorption, stripping, biological degradation/transformation and membrane separation is discussed, to give an overview of these technologies due to the growing importance for water reuse purposes. Compared with conventional activated sludge treatment (CAS) micropollutant removal in membrane bioreactor (MBR) is slightly improved due to complete suspended solids removal and increased sludge age. For discharge to sensitive receiving waters advanced treatment, such as post-ozonation or activated carbon adsorption, is recommended. In water reuse plants nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) efficiently reject micropollutants due to size exclusions as well as electrostatic and hydrophobic effects reaching potable quality. To remove micropollutants fully, additionally post-ozone or the addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) have to be applied, which in parallel also reduce NDMA precursors. The concentrate has to be treated if disposed to sensitive receiving waters due to its high micropollutant concentration and ecotoxicity potential. The present review summarizes principles and capabilities for the most important membrane-based applications for wastewater treatment, i.e. porous membranes in MBRs (micro- or ultrafiltration) and dense membrane applications (NF and RO) for water reuse. PMID:22828319

  3. Thickness and volume constants and ultrastructural organization of basement membrane (lens capsule).

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, R F; Hayes, B P

    1979-01-01

    1. The basement membrane of the crystalline lens of the rat has been found to have the following elastic constants: a Young's Modulus of elasticity of 0.56 +/- 0.38 x 10(6) Nm-2 at low stress and 11.3 +/- 1.9 x 10(6) Nm-2 at rupture, an ultimate stress of 28.8 +/- 4.5 x 10(5) Nm-2, and a maximum percentage elongation of 41.3 +/- 5.8. 2. The ratio of initial thickness of the membrane to the thickness at the point of rupture is 0.271 +/- 0.02 while the similar ratio for volume is 0.461 +/- 0.031. 3. Electron microscopic observations of ultrasonicated fragments of the entire membrane show long filaments in parallel arrays and sheets. The filaments show a periodicity of 3.7 nm and a spacing of 3.5 nm. 4. Electron microscopic observations of collagenase-treated membrane show a poorly staining matrix associated with separate short straight non-periodic filaments some 2.5 nm in diameter. In addition strands project from the ends of the filaments with a diameter of between 0.5 and 1.0 nm. 5. A model is proposed which consists of these filaments, composed of between three and five parallel strands, some 0.8 nm in diameter, wound in a superhelix. 6. The model predicts satisfactorily thickness and volume changes in the membrane when subjected to stress, and also indicates that the filaments would have a similar Young's Modulus of elasticity and ultimate stress to those of collagen. 7. If the basement membrane of the smallest retinal capillaries is subjected to a change of pressure of only 5 mmHg within the vessel lumen, then the membrane is likely to undergo some 30% reduction in thickness. Images Text-fig. 4 Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3 PMID:501593

  4. Obcells as proto-organisms: membrane heredity, lithophosphorylation, and the origins of the genetic code, the first cells, and photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Cavalier-Smith, T

    2001-01-01

    I attempt to sketch a unified picture of the origin of living organisms in their genetic, bioenergetic, and structural aspects. Only selection at a higher level than for individual selfish genes could power the cooperative macromolecular coevolution required for evolving the genetic code. The protein synthesis machinery is too complex to have evolved before membranes. Therefore a symbiosis of membranes, replicators, and catalysts probably mediated the origin of the code and the transition from a nucleic acid world of independent molecular replicators to a nucleic acid/protein/lipid world of reproducing organisms. Membranes initially functioned as supramolecular structures to which different replicators attached and were selected as a higher-level reproductive unit: the proto-organism. I discuss the roles of stereochemistry, gene divergence, codon capture, and selection in the code's origin. I argue that proteins were primarily structural not enzymatic and that the first biological membranes consisted of amphipathic peptidyl-tRNAs and prebiotic mixed lipids. The peptidyl-tRNAs functioned as genetically-specified lipid analogues with hydrophobic tails (ancestral signal peptides) and hydrophilic polynucleotide heads. Protoribosomes arose from two cooperating RNAs: peptidyl transferase (large subunit) and mRNA-binder (small subunit). Early proteins had a second key role: coupling energy flow to the phosphorylation of gene and peptide precursors, probably by lithophosphorylation by membrane-anchored kinases scavenging geothermal polyphosphate stocks. These key evolutionary steps probably occurred on the outer surface of an 'inside out-cell' or obcell, which evolved an unambiguous hydrophobic code with four prebiotic amino acids and proline, and initiation by isoleucine anticodon CAU; early proteins and nucleozymes were all membrane-attached. To improve replication, translation, and lithophosphorylation, hydrophilic substrate-binding and catalytic domains were later

  5. The Hoshino wooden skeleton, the first wooden model of a human skeleton, made during the Edo era in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Katsuko; Suzaki, Etsuko; Ajima, Noriaki

    2007-03-01

    The wooden model of the human skeleton, called the wooden skeleton, is a distinguished original craft object from the Edo era, in Japan, when medical doctors were unable to keep a human skeleton for study and teaching purposes. There are three types of wooden skeletons: (i) Hoshino made in 1792; (ii) Kagami made by 1810; and (iii) Okuda made around 1820. The former two are of adult males and the latter is of a female. The wooden skeletons were made with surprising accuracy compared with figures that appeared in the medical books available in Japan at that time, which suggests a scientific readiness of the doctors and the skill of the craftsmen. In the cases of the Hoshino and Kagami wooden skeletons, it is hard to consider that all wooden bones were assembled to show the entire body. Conversely, the Okuda wooden skeletons were made for showing in the sitting position. The skull of the Hoshino wooden skeleton is of special interest: the skull cap was not cut, yet the internal structures of the skull, such as the sella turcica, foramina for nerves and vessels, and the sulci for venous sinuses, were made with considerable accuracy. The skull caps of the Kagami and Okuda wooden skeletons were cut, as those used in modern medical education.

  6. Changes of the Membrane Lipid Organization Characterized by Means of a New Cholesterol-Pyrene Probe

    PubMed Central

    Le Guyader, Laurent; Le Roux, Christophe; Mazères, Serge; Gaspard-Iloughmane, Hafida; Gornitzka, Heinz; Millot, Claire; Mingotaud, Christophe; Lopez, André

    2007-01-01

    We synthesized 3β-hydroxy-pregn-5-ene-21-(1-methylpyrenyl)-20-methylidene (Py-met-chol), consisting of cholesterol steroid rings connected to a pyrene group via a linker without polar atoms. This compound has interesting spectroscopic properties when probing membranes: 1), The pyrene has hypochromic properties resulting from probe self-association processes in membranes. Using liposomes of various lipid compositions, we determined the association constants of the probe (K): KDOPC ≫ KPOPC ≫ KDMPC > KDMPC/15 mol % Chol > KDMPC/30 mol % Chol. This indicates a better probe solvation in saturated than in unsaturated lipids, and this effect is enhanced as the cholesterol concentration increases. 2), The pyrene fluorophore is characterized by monomer (I1–I5) and excimer (IE) emission bands. In model membranes, I1/I3 and IE/I3 ratios revealed a correlation between the polarity of the lipid core of the membrane and the amount of cholesterol. 3), Using this probe, we monitored the first steps of the signaling pathway of the mouse δ-opioid receptor, a G-protein-coupled receptor. The thickness of the membrane around this receptor is known to change after agonist binding. Fluorescence spectra of living Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing mouse δ-opioid receptor specifically revealed the agonist binding. These results indicate that Py-met-chol may be useful for screening ligands of this family of receptors. PMID:17766338

  7. [Transport of large organic ions through syringomycin channels in the membranes containing dipole modifiers].

    PubMed

    Efimova, S S; Ostroumova, O S; Malev, V V; Shchagina, L V

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the membrane dipole potential (Phid) on a conductance and a steady-state number of functioning channels formed by cyclic lipodepsipeptide syringomycin E (SRE) in bilayer lipid membranes made from phosphocholine and bathed in 0.4 M solution of sodium salts of aspartate, gluconate and chloride was shown. The magnitude of Phid was varied with the introduction to membrane bathing solutions of phloretin, which reduces the Phid, and RH 421, increasing the Phid. It was established that in all studied systems the increase in the membrane dipole potential cause a decrease in the steady-state number of open channels. In the systems containing sodium salts of aspartate (Asp) or gluconate (Glc), changes in the number of functioning channels are in an order of magnitude smaller than in systems containing sodium chloride. At the same time, the conductance (g) of single SRE-channels on the membranes bathed in NaCI solution increases with the increase in Phid, and in the systems containing NaAsp or NaGlc the conductance of single channels does not depend on the Phid. The latter is due to the lack of cation/anion selectivity of the SRE-channels in these systems. The different channel-forming activity of SRE in the experimental systems is defined by the gating charge of the channel and the partition coefficient of the dipole modifiers between the lipid and aqueous phases.

  8. Heterochronic activation of VEGF signaling and the evolution of the skeleton in echinoderm pluteus larvae.

    PubMed

    Morino, Yoshiaki; Koga, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Kazunori; Shoguchi, Eiichi; Kiyomoto, Masato; Wada, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the echinoderm larval skeleton was examined from the aspect of interactions between skeletogenic mesenchyme cells and surrounding epithelium. We focused on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling, which was reported to be essential for skeletogenesis in sea urchin larvae. Here, we examined the expression patterns of vegf and vegfr in starfish and brittle stars. During starfish embryogenesis, no expression of either vegfr or vegf was detected, which contrast with previous reports on the expression of starfish homologs of sea urchin skeletogenic genes, including Ets, Tbr, and Dri. In later stages, when adult skeletogenesis commenced, vegfr and vegf expression were upregulated in skeletogenic cells and in the adjacent epidermis, respectively. These expression patterns suggest that heterochronic activation of VEGF signaling is one of the key molecular evolutionary steps in the evolution of the larval skeleton. The absence of vegf or vegfr expression during early embryogenesis in starfish suggests that the evolution of the larval skeleton requires distinct evolutionary changes, both in mesoderm cells (activation of vegfr expression) and in epidermal cells (activation of vegf expression). In brittle stars, which have well-organized skeletons like the sea urchin, vegfr and vegf were expressed in the skeletogenic mesenchyme and the overlying epidermis, respectively, in the same manner as in sea urchins. Therefore, the distinct activation of vegfr and vegf may have occurred in two lineages, sea urchins and brittle stars.

  9. Influence of membrane structure on the operating current densities of non-aqueous redox flow batteries: Organic-inorganic composite membranes based on a semi-interpenetrating polymer network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sung-Hee; Kim, Yekyung; Yun, Sung-Hyun; Maurya, Sandip; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2015-11-01

    We develop three types of organic-inorganic composite membranes based on a semi-interpenetrating polymer network (SIPN) to explore the effects of membrane structure on the possible operating current densities of a non-aqueous redox flow battery (RFB) system. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) is selected as a supporting polymer matrix for improving the chemical and thermal stability of the organic-inorganic composite membranes. We also introduce silica nanoparticles (5 wt% of PVdF) into the membranes to ensure the low crossover of active species. The fabrication of SIPN through the addition of glycidyl methacrylate, 4-vinylpyridine, or N-vinylcarbazole enables control of the membrane structure. Depending on monomer type, the membrane structure is determined to be either aliphatic or aromatic in terms of chemical properties and either dense or porous in terms of physical properties. These chemical and physical structures affect the electrochemical properties that correspond to charge/discharge performance and to the range of possible operating current densities. An important requirement is to examine charge/discharge performance at the possible range of operating current densities by using various membrane structures. This requirement is discussed in relation to a proposed design strategy for non-aqueous RFB membranes.

  10. Effect of organic matter to nitrogen ratio on membrane bioreactor performance.

    PubMed

    Hao, L; Liao, B Q

    2015-01-01

    Effect of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to nitrogen (COD:N) ratio in feed on the performance of aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) for treating a synthetic high-strength industrial waste water containing glucose was studied for over 370 days. The widely recommended nutrients ratio (COD:N:P = 100:5:1) is not necessary for aerobic biological industrial waste water treatment. An increased COD:N ratio from 100:5 to 100:2.5 and 100:1.8 had a limited impact on COD removal efficiency and further led to a significant improvement in membrane performance, a reduced sludge yield, and improved effluent quality in terms of residual nutrients. An increased COD:N ratio will benefit the industrial waste water treatment using MBRs by reducing membrane fouling and sludge yield, saving chemical costs, and reducing secondary pollution by nutrients addition. Optimization of nutrients usage should be conducted for specific industrial waste water streams. PMID:25896854

  11. Supramolecular organization of the human N-BAR domain in shaping the sarcolemma membrane.

    PubMed

    Daum, Bertram; Auerswald, Andrea; Gruber, Tobias; Hause, Gerd; Balbach, Jochen; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Meister, Annette

    2016-06-01

    The 30kDa N-BAR domain of the human Bin1 protein is essential for the generation of skeletal muscle T-tubules. By electron cryo-microscopy and electron cryo-tomography with a direct electron detector, we found that Bin1-N-BAR domains assemble into scaffolds of low long-range order that form flexible membrane tubules. The diameter of the tubules closely matches the curved shape of the N-BAR domain, which depends on the composition of the target membrane. These insights are fundamental to our understanding of T-tubule formation and function in human skeletal muscle.

  12. Supramolecular organization of the human N-BAR domain in shaping the sarcolemma membrane.

    PubMed

    Daum, Bertram; Auerswald, Andrea; Gruber, Tobias; Hause, Gerd; Balbach, Jochen; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Meister, Annette

    2016-06-01

    The 30kDa N-BAR domain of the human Bin1 protein is essential for the generation of skeletal muscle T-tubules. By electron cryo-microscopy and electron cryo-tomography with a direct electron detector, we found that Bin1-N-BAR domains assemble into scaffolds of low long-range order that form flexible membrane tubules. The diameter of the tubules closely matches the curved shape of the N-BAR domain, which depends on the composition of the target membrane. These insights are fundamental to our understanding of T-tubule formation and function in human skeletal muscle. PMID:27016283

  13. The Skeleton of the Staghorn Coral Acropora millepora: Molecular and Structural Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Silva, Paula; Kaandorp, Jaap; Herbst, Frédéric; Plasseraud, Laurent; Alcaraz, Gérard; Stern, Christine; Corneillat, Marion; Guichard, Nathalie; Durlet, Christophe; Luquet, Gilles; Marin, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The scleractinian coral Acropora millepora is one of the most studied species from the Great Barrier Reef. This species has been used to understand evolutionary, immune and developmental processes in cnidarians. It has also been subject of several ecological studies in order to elucidate reef responses to environmental changes such as temperature rise and ocean acidification (OA). In these contexts, several nucleic acid resources were made available. When combined to a recent proteomic analysis of the coral skeletal organic matrix (SOM), they enabled the identification of several skeletal matrix proteins, making A. millepora into an emerging model for biomineralization studies. Here we describe the skeletal microstructure of A. millepora skeleton, together with a functional and biochemical characterization of its occluded SOM that focuses on the protein and saccharidic moieties. The skeletal matrix proteins show a large range of isoelectric points, compositional patterns and signatures. Besides secreted proteins, there are a significant number of proteins with membrane attachment sites such as transmembrane domains and GPI anchors as well as proteins with integrin binding sites. These features show that the skeletal proteins must have strong adhesion properties in order to function in the calcifying space. Moreover this data suggest a molecular connection between the calcifying epithelium and the skeletal tissue during biocalcification. In terms of sugar moieties, the enrichment of the SOM in arabinose is striking, and the monosaccharide composition exhibits the same signature as that of mucus of acroporid corals. Finally, we observe that the interaction of the acetic acid soluble SOM on the morphology of in vitro grown CaCO3 crystals is very pronounced when compared with the calcifying matrices of some mollusks. In light of these results, we wish to commend Acropora millepora as a model for biocalcification studies in scleractinians, from molecular and structural

  14. The skeleton of the staghorn coral Acropora millepora: molecular and structural characterization.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Silva, Paula; Kaandorp, Jaap; Herbst, Frédéric; Plasseraud, Laurent; Alcaraz, Gérard; Stern, Christine; Corneillat, Marion; Guichard, Nathalie; Durlet, Christophe; Luquet, Gilles; Marin, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The scleractinian coral Acropora millepora is one of the most studied species from the Great Barrier Reef. This species has been used to understand evolutionary, immune and developmental processes in cnidarians. It has also been subject of several ecological studies in order to elucidate reef responses to environmental changes such as temperature rise and ocean acidification (OA). In these contexts, several nucleic acid resources were made available. When combined to a recent proteomic analysis of the coral skeletal organic matrix (SOM), they enabled the identification of several skeletal matrix proteins, making A. millepora into an emerging model for biomineralization studies. Here we describe the skeletal microstructure of A. millepora skeleton, together with a functional and biochemical characterization of its occluded SOM that focuses on the protein and saccharidic moieties. The skeletal matrix proteins show a large range of isoelectric points, compositional patterns and signatures. Besides secreted proteins, there are a significant number of proteins with membrane attachment sites such as transmembrane domains and GPI anchors as well as proteins with integrin binding sites. These features show that the skeletal proteins must have strong adhesion properties in order to function in the calcifying space. Moreover this data suggest a molecular connection between the calcifying epithelium and the skeletal tissue during biocalcification. In terms of sugar moieties, the enrichment of the SOM in arabinose is striking, and the monosaccharide composition exhibits the same signature as that of mucus of acroporid corals. Finally, we observe that the interaction of the acetic acid soluble SOM on the morphology of in vitro grown CaCO3 crystals is very pronounced when compared with the calcifying matrices of some mollusks. In light of these results, we wish to commend Acropora millepora as a model for biocalcification studies in scleractinians, from molecular and structural

  15. Pervaporation Separation of Water-Ethanol Mixtures Using Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposite Membranes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preyssler type heteropolyacid viz., H14[NaP5W30O110] incorporated chitosan nanocomposite membranes (NCMs) were prepared by solution casting, characterized using a variety of techniques and employed in the pervaporation separation of water-ethanol mixtures as a function of feed wa...

  16. Energy saving membrane treatment of high organic load industrial effluents: from lab to pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mafalda Pessoa; Xin, Gang; Crespo, João G

    2013-12-15

    In this study, a nanofiltration unit was implemented at an industrial site, for the treatment of industrial wastewater generated during rubber tubing extrusion. The aim was to reduce the energy input required, while assuring a final effluent quality that meets the requirements of environmental legislation. In a first stage, two membrane process treatments, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, were evaluated at laboratory scale in order to assess the rejection of pollutants and maximise permeate throughput. Permeate generated from nanofiltration using either an NF90 or an NF270 membrane were shown to meet the effluent discharge requirements (<2000 mg COD/l). The less restrictive membrane, NF270, was chosen for study in a pilot plant at the industrial site, due to its higher membrane permeability. The pilot nanofiltration unit was integrated into the treatment plant operation aiming at optimising the process in terms of the efficiency of pollutant removal with minimal energy input. A feasibility study was performed for this case-study and it was concluded that the energy expenditure of the new process represents only 62% of the current energy consumption of the treatment plant. The proposed solution in this work may be retrofitted to full scale wastewater treatment processes, and may be applicable to industries that employ similar manufacturing processes, and face similar difficulties. PMID:24161805

  17. Determinants of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transfer during Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in an Experimental Model of Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Marcelo; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Maciel, Alexandre Toledo; Silva, Débora Prudêncio e; Friedrich, Natalia; Barbosa, Edzangela Vasconcelos Santos; Hirota, Adriana Sayuri; Schettino, Guilherme; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes

    2013-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has gained renewed interest in the treatment of respiratory failure since the advent of the modern polymethylpentene membranes. Limited information exists, however, on the performance of these membranes in terms of gas transfers during multiple organ failure (MOF). We investigated determinants of oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer as well as biochemical alterations after the circulation of blood through the circuit in a pig model under ECMO support before and after induction of MOF. A predefined sequence of blood and sweep flows was tested before and after the induction of MOF with fecal peritonitis and saline lavage lung injury. In the multivariate analysis, oxygen transfer had a positive association with blood flow (slope = 66, P<0.001) and a negative association with pre-membrane PaCO2 (slope = −0.96, P = 0.001) and SatO2 (slope = −1.7, P<0.001). Carbon dioxide transfer had a positive association with blood flow (slope = 17, P<0.001), gas flow (slope = 33, P<0.001), pre-membrane PaCO2 (slope = 1.2, P<0.001) and a negative association with the hemoglobin (slope = −3.478, P = 0.042). We found an increase in pH in the baseline from 7.50[7.46,7.54] to 7.60[7.55,7.65] (P<0.001), and during the MOF from 7.19[6.92,7.32] to 7.41[7.13,7.5] (P<0.001). Likewise, the PCO2 fell in the baseline from 35 [32,39] to 25 [22,27] mmHg (P<0.001), and during the MOF from 59 [47,91] to 34 [28,45] mmHg (P<0.001). In conclusion, both oxygen and carbon dioxide transfers were significantly determined by blood flow. Oxygen transfer was modulated by the pre-membrane SatO2 and CO2, while carbon dioxide transfer was affected by the gas flow, pre-membrane CO2 and hemoglobin. PMID:23383011

  18. Ultrafiltration membrane fouling by extracellular organic matters (EOM) of Microcystis aeruginosa in stationary phase: influences of interfacial characteristics of foulants and fouling mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Qu, Fangshu; Liang, Heng; Wang, Zhaozhi; Wang, Hui; Yu, Huarong; Li, Guibai

    2012-04-01

    This paper focused on the membrane fouling caused by extracellular organic matters (EOM) which was extracted from lab-cultured Microcystis aeruginosa in stationary phase. The characteristics of EOM such as molecular weight distribution, hydrophobicity and fluorescence were measured. It was found that high molecular weight (MW) and hydrophilic organics accounted for the major parts of algal EOM which was comprised of protein-like, polysaccharide-like and humic-like substances. Ultrafiltration (UF) experiments were carried out in a stirring cell and hydrophobic polyethersulfone (PES) membranes which carried negative charge were used. Prefiltration, calcium addition and XAD fractionation were employed to change the interfacial characteristics of EOM. Then the effects of these interfacial characteristics on flux decline, reversibility and mass balance of organics were compared. Algal EOM proved to cause serious membrane fouling during UF. The fraction of algal EOM between 0.45 μm and 100 kDa contributed a significant portion of the fouling. Hydrophobic organics in EOM tended to adhere to membrane surface causing irreversible fouling, while the cake layer formed by hydrophilic organics caused greater resistance to water flow due to hydrophilic interaction such as hydrogen bond and led to faster flux decline during UF. The results also indicated that the algal EOM was negatively charged and the electrostatic repulsion could prevent organics from adhering to membrane surface. In term of fouling mechanisms, cake layer formation, hydrophobic adhesion and pore plugging were the main mechanisms for membrane fouling caused by algal EOM. PMID:22178303

  19. Identification of the chemical form of sulfur compounds in the Japanese pink coral (Corallium elatius) skeleton using μ-XRF/XAS speciation mapping.

    PubMed

    Tamenori, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Luan, Nguyen Trong; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Kawahata, Hodaka; Iwasaki, Nozomu

    2014-05-01

    The distributions and chemical forms of sulfur compounds in the skeleton of Japanese pink coral (Corallium elatius) were investigated using X-ray spectroscopic techniques combined with micro-focused soft X-ray radiation. Microscopic X-ray fluorescence/soft X-ray photoabsorption (μ-XRF/XAS) speciation mapping clarified that sulfate is the primary species in the coral skeleton, with minor amounts of organic sulfur, whereas both sulfate and organic sulfur coexist in coenenchyme. Analysis of the post-edge region of the XAS spectra confirmed that sulfate ions in the coral skeleton are mainly in the form of gypsum-like inorganic sulfate substituting for the carbonate ions in the calcite skeleton. The sulfate concentration was negatively correlated with the magnesium concentration and positively correlated with that of phosphorus. Speciation mapping of sulfate in the coral skeleton showed clear fluctuations with sulfate concentrations being higher at dark bands, whereas the small amount of organic sulfur had unclear dark/bright bands. These results suggest that the little organic sulfur that is present is contained in the organic matter embedded in the biocrystal of coral skeleton.

  20. Growth and morphogenesis of embryonic mouse organs on non-coated and extracellular matrix-coated Biopore membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, P.; Klement, B. J.; Spooner, B. S.

    1993-01-01

    Embryonic mouse salivary glands, pancreata, and kidneys were isolated from embryos of appropriate gestational age by microdissection, and were cultured on Biopore membrane either non-coated or coated with type I collagen or Matrigel. As expected, use of Biopore membrane allowed high quality photomicroscopy of the living organs. In all organs extensive mesenchymal spreading was observed in the presence of type I collagen or Matrigel. However, differences were noted in the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM) coatings on epithelial growth and morphogenesis: salivary glands were minimally affected, pancreas morphogenesis was adversely affected, and kidney growth and branching apparently was enhanced. It is suggested that these differences in behaviour reflect differences in the strength of interactions between the mesenchymal cells and their surrounding endogenous matrix, compared to the exogenous ECM macromolecules. This method will be useful for culture of these and other embryonic organs. In particular, culture of kidney rudiments on ECM-coated Biopore offers a great improvement over previously used methods which do not allow morphogenesis to be followed in vitro.

  1. Branching out: origins of the sea urchin larval skeleton in development and evolution.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Daniel C; Lyons, Deirdre C; Martik, Megan; McClay, David R

    2014-03-01

    It is a challenge to understand how the information encoded in DNA is used to build a three-dimensional structure. To explore how this works the assembly of a relatively simple skeleton has been examined at multiple control levels. The skeleton of the sea urchin embryo consists of a number of calcite rods produced by 64 skeletogenic cells. The ectoderm supplies spatial cues for patterning, essentially telling the skeletogenic cells where to position themselves and providing the factors for skeletal growth. Here, we describe the information known about how this works. First the ectoderm must be patterned so that the signaling cues are released from precise positions. The skeletogenic cells respond by initiating skeletogenesis immediately beneath two regions (one on the right and the other on the left side). Growth of the skeletal rods requires additional signaling from defined ectodermal locations, and the skeletogenic cells respond to produce a membrane-bound template in which the calcite crystal grows. Important in this process are three signals, fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and Wnt5. Each is necessary for explicit tasks in skeleton production.

  2. Preparation, characterization and performance of poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide)/organically modified montmorillonite nanocomposite membranes in removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qin; Liu, Yanxia; Liu, Guixia; Zhao, Changwei

    2016-08-01

    Nanocomposite membranes containing poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide) (PMIA) and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) were prepared by a combination of solution dispersion and wet-phase inversion methods, and the effects of OMMT addition on the properties and performance of fabricated nanofiltration membranes were investigated. The membranes were characterized by contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermogravimetric analysis, and zeta potential. The performance of the membranes was elucidated by the removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at neutral pH. Increasing OMMT concentration improved the thermal stability and hydrophilicity of the membranes. The permeation and rejection of PFOS were significantly improved. The performance of fabricated nanofiltration membranes in removal of PFOS varied depending on the solute and membrane properties as well as solution conditions. Finally, a comparison between fabricated membranes and a commercial NF membrane (ESNA1-K1, Hydecanme) proved that the OMMT addition is a convenient procedure for producing nanocomposite membranes with superior properties and performance. PMID:27521944

  3. Permeation flux of organic molecules through silica-surfactant nanochannels in a porous alumina membrane.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Tomohisa; Kodama, Shuji; Ohto, Mikiya; Nakayama, Eriko; Hasegawa, Sumiyo; Takayanagi, Nobutaka; Kemmei, Tomoko; Yamaguchi, Akira; Teramae, Norio; Saito, Yukio

    2006-12-01

    The permeation fluxes of phenol, benzene sulfonate (BS) and benzene disulfonate (BDS) through a porous anodic alumina membrane with the perpendicularly oriented silica-surfactant nanochannel assembly membrane (NAM) were measured in water-ethanol mixture media. The permeation flux depended on solute charges and on solvent composition. As the ethanol ratio increased, the fluxes of BS and BDS increased and the flux of phenol decreased. The results of extraction/elution experiments also depended on the solute charges and the solvent composition. Chromatographic experiments in n-hexane showed that dipole and hydrophobic interactions affect the retention of solutes. Permeation of the solute across the NAM in water-ethanol mixture is likely to be determined by various factors such as dipole interaction, hydrophobic interaction, solvation, and anion-exchange efficiencies.

  4. Role of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in the regulation of organic acid exudation under aluminum toxicity and phosphorus deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wenqian; Kan, Qi; Zhang, Jiarong; Zeng, Bingjie; Chen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity and phosphorus (P) deficiency are 2 major limiting factors for plant growth and crop production in acidic soils. Organic acids exuded from roots have been generally regarded as a major resistance mechanism to Al toxicity and P deficiency. The exudation of organic acids is mediated by membrane-localized OA transporters, such as ALMT (Al-activated malate transporter) and MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion). Beside on up-regulation expression of organic acids transporter gene, transcriptional, translational and post-translational regulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase are also involved in organic acid release process under Al toxicity and P deficiency. This mini-review summarizes the current knowledge about this field of study on the role of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in organic acid exudation under Al toxicity and P deficiency conditions. PMID:26713714

  5. Highly Selective Membranes For The Separation Of Organic Vapors Using Super-Glassy Polymers

    DOEpatents

    Pinnau, Ingo; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid; Nguyen, Phuong; Segelke, Scott

    1997-11-18

    A process for separating hydrocarbon gases of low boiling point, particularly methane, ethane and ethylene, from nitrogen. The process is performed using a membrane made from a super-glassy material. The gases to be separated are mixed with a condensable gas, such as a C.sub.3+ hydrocarbon. In the presence of the condensable gas, improved selectivity for the low-boiling-point hydrocarbon gas over nitrogen is achieved.

  6. n-3 Fatty acids uniquely affect anti-microbial resistance and immune cell plasma membrane organization

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, David N.; Bonilla, Diana L.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    It is now well established that dietary lipids are incorporated into macrophage and T-cell membrane microdomains, altering their structure and function. Within cell membranes, there are specific detergent-resistant domains in which key signal transduction proteins are localized. These regions are classified as “lipid rafts”. Rafts are composed mostly of cholesterol and sphingolipids and therefore do not integrate well into the fluid phospholipid bilayers causing them to form microdomains. Upon cell activation, rafts compartmentalize signal-transducing molecules, thus providing an environment conducive to signal transduction. In this review, we discuss recent novel data describing the effects of n-3 PUFA on alterations in the activation and functions of macrophages and T-cells. We believe that the modifications in these two disparate immune cell types are linked by fundamentally similar changes in membrane lipid composition and transmembrane signaling functions. We conclude that the outcomes of n-3 PUFA-mediated immune cell alterations may be beneficial (e.g., anti-inflammatory) or detrimental (e.g., loss of microbial immunity) depending upon the cell type interrogated. PMID:21798252

  7. Comparison of two treatments for the removal of selected organic micropollutants and bulk organic matter: conventional activated sludge followed by ultrafiltration versus membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sahar, E; Ernst, M; Godehardt, M; Hein, A; Herr, J; Kazner, C; Melin, T; Cikurel, H; Aharoni, A; Messalem, R; Brenner, A; Jekel, M

    2011-01-01

    The potential of membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems to remove organic micropollutants was investigated at different scales, operational conditions, and locations. The effluent quality of the MBR system was compared with that of a plant combining conventional activated sludge (CAS) followed by ultrafiltration (UF). The MBR and CAS-UF systems were operated and tested in parallel. An MBR pilot plant in Israel was operated for over a year at a mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) range of 2.8-10.6 g/L. The MBR achieved removal rates comparable to those of a CAS-UF plant at the Tel-Aviv wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) for macrolide antibiotics such as roxythromycin, clarithromycin, and erythromycin and slightly higher removal rates than the CAS-UF for sulfonamides. A laboratory scale MBR unit in Berlin - at an MLSS of 6-9 g/L - showed better removal rates for macrolide antibiotics, trimethoprim, and 5-tolyltriazole compared to the CAS process of the Ruhleben sewage treatment plant (STP) in Berlin when both were fed with identical quality raw wastewater. The Berlin CAS exhibited significantly better benzotriazole removal and slightly better sulfamethoxazole and 4-tolyltriazole removal than its MBR counterpart. Pilot MBR tests (MLSS of 12 g/L) in Aachen, Germany, showed that operating flux significantly affected the resulting membrane fouling rate, but the removal rates of dissolved organic matter and of bisphenol A were not affected. PMID:21330721

  8. The study of organic removal efficiency and halophilic bacterial mixed liquor characteristics in a membrane bioreactor treating hypersaline produced water at varying organic loading rates.

    PubMed

    Sharghi, Elham Abdollahzadeh; Bonakdarpour, Babak

    2013-12-01

    In this study the organic pollutant removal performance and the mixed liquor characteristics of a membrane bioreactor (MBR), employing a halophilic bacterial consortium, for the treatment of hypersaline synthetic produced water - at varying organic loading rates (OLR) from 0.3 to 2.6 kg CODm(-3)d(-1) - were considered. The oil and grease (O&G) and COD removal efficiency were 95-99% and 83-93%, respectively with only transient O&G (mainly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and soluble microbial products accumulation being observed. With increasing OLR, in the range 0.9-2.6 kg COD m(-3)d(-1), as a result of change in both extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and zeta potential, bioflocculating ability improved but the compressibility of the flocs decreased resulting in the occurrence of EPS bulking at the highest OLR studied. The latter resulted in a change in the rheology of the mixed liquor from Newtonian to non-Newtonian and the occurrence of significant membrane fouling.

  9. Dynamic Transport and Cementation of Skeletal Elements Build Up the Pole-and-Beam Structured Skeleton of Sponges.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Sohei; Arima, Kazushi; Kawai, Kotoe; Mohri, Kurato; Inui, Chihiro; Sugano, Wakana; Koba, Hibiki; Tamada, Kentaro; Nakata, Yudai J; Kishimoto, Kouji; Arai-Shindo, Miyuki; Kojima, Chiaki; Matsumoto, Takeo; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Agata, Kiyokazu; Funayama, Noriko

    2015-10-01

    Animal bodies are shaped by skeletons, which are built inside the body by biomineralization of condensed mesenchymal cells in vertebrates [1, 2] and echinoderms [3, 4], or outside the body by apical secretion of extracellular matrices by epidermal cell layers in arthropods [5]. In each case, the skeletons' shapes are a direct reflection of the pattern of skeleton-producing cells [6]. Here we report a newly discovered mode of skeleton formation: assembly of sponges' mineralized skeletal elements (spicules) in locations distant from where they were produced. Although it was known that internal skeletons of sponges consist of spicules assembled into large pole-and-beam structures with a variety of morphologies [7-10], the spicule assembly process (i.e., how spicules become held up and connected basically in staggered tandem) and what types of cells act in this process remained unexplored. Here we found that mature spicules are dynamically transported from where they were produced and then pierce through outer epithelia, and their basal ends become fixed to substrate or connected with such fixed spicules. Newly discovered "transport cells" mediate spicule movement and the "pierce" step, and collagen-secreting basal-epithelial cells fix spicules to the substratum, suggesting that the processes of spiculous skeleton construction are mediated separately by specialized cells. Division of labor by manufacturer, transporter, and cementer cells, and iteration of the sequential mechanical reactions of "transport," "pierce," "raise up," and "cementation," allows construction of the spiculous skeleton spicule by spicule as a self-organized biological structure, with the great plasticity in size and shape required for indeterminate growth, and generating the great morphological diversity of individual sponges.

  10. Removal of some organic pollutants in water employing ceramic membranes impregnated with cross-linked silylated dendritic and cyclodextrin polymers.

    PubMed

    Allabashi, Roza; Arkas, Michael; Hörmann, Gerold; Tsiourvas, Dimitris

    2007-01-01

    Triethoxysilylated derivatives of poly(propylene imine) dendrimer, polyethylene imine and polyglycerol hyperbranched polymers and beta-cyclodextrin have been synthesized and characterized. These compounds impregnated ceramic membranes made from Al(2)O(3), SiC and TiO(2) and subsequently sol-gel reaction led to their polymerization and chemical bond formation with the ceramic substrates. The resulting organic-inorganic filters were tested for the removal of a variety of organic pollutants from water. They were found to remove of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (up to 99%), of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (up to 93%), trihalogen methanes (up to 81%), pesticides (up to 43%) and methyl-tert-butyl ether (up to 46%).

  11. Building Up the Milky Way's Skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    A team of scientistshas now uncovered half of theentire skeleton of the Milky Way, using an automated method to identify large filaments of gas and dust hiding between stars in the galactic plane.Galactic distribution of 54 newly discovered filaments, plotted along with colored lines indicating six relevant spiral arms in our galaxy. The upper two plots show the consistency of the filaments motion with the spiral arms, while the lower shows their location within the galactic plane. [Wang et al. 2016]The Search for Nessie and FriendsThe Milky Ways interstellar medium is structured hierarchically into filaments. These structures are difficult to observe since they largely lie in the galactic plane, but if we can discover the distribution and properties of these filaments, we can better understand how our galaxy formed, and how the filaments affect star formation in our galaxy today.Some of the largest of the Milky Ways filaments are hundreds of light-years long like the infrared dark cloud nicknamed Nessie, declared in 2013 to be one of the bones of the Milky Way because of its position along the center of the Scutum-Centaurus spiral arm.Follow-up studies since the discovery of Nessie (like this one, or this) have found a number of additional large-scale filaments, but these studies all use different search methods and selection criteria, and the searches all start with visual inspection by humans to identify candidates.What if we could instead automate the detection process and build a homogeneous sample of the large filaments making up the skeleton of the Milky Way?Automated DetectionThis is exactly what a team of astronomers led by Ke Wang (European Southern Observatory) has done. The group used a customization of an algorithm called a minimum spanning tree the technique used to optimize the cost of internet networks, road networks, and electrical grids in our communities to perform an automated search of data from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey. The search was

  12. Acid-Base and the Skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushinsky, David A.

    2008-09-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis increases urine calcium (Ca) excretion in the absence of a concomitant increase in intestinal Ca absorption resulting in a net loss of total body. The source of this additional urine Ca is almost certainly the skeleton, the primary reservoir of body Ca. In vitro metabolic acidosis, modeled as a primary reduction in medium bicarbonate concentration, acutely (<24 h) stimulates Ca efflux primarily through physicochemical mineral dissolution while at later time periods (>24 h) cell-mediated mechanisms predominate. In cultured neonatal mouse calvariae, acidosis-induced, cell-mediated Ca efflux is mediated by effects on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Metabolic acidosis inhibits extracellular matrix production by osteoblasts, as determined by measurement of collagen levels and levels for the non-collagenous matrix proteins osteopontin and matrix gla protein. Metabolic acidosis upregulates osteoblastic expression of RANKL (Receptor Activator of NFκB Ligand), an important osteoclastogenic and osteoclast-activating factor. Acidosis also increases osteoclastic activity as measured by release of β-glucuronidase, an enzyme whose secretion correlates with osteoclast-mediated bone resorption.

  13. Network quotients: Structural skeletons of complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yanghua; MacArthur, Ben D.; Wang, Hui; Xiong, Momiao; Wang, Wei

    2008-10-01

    A defining feature of many large empirical networks is their intrinsic complexity. However, many networks also contain a large degree of structural repetition. An immediate question then arises: can we characterize essential network complexity while excluding structural redundancy? In this article we utilize inherent network symmetry to collapse all redundant information from a network, resulting in a coarse graining which we show to carry the essential structural information of the “parent” network. In the context of algebraic combinatorics, this coarse-graining is known as the “quotient.” We systematically explore the theoretical properties of network quotients and summarize key statistics of a variety of “real-world” quotients with respect to those of their parent networks. In particular, we find that quotients can be substantially smaller than their parent networks yet typically preserve various key functional properties such as complexity (heterogeneity and hub vertices) and communication (diameter and mean geodesic distance), suggesting that quotients constitute the essential structural skeletons of their parent networks. We summarize with a discussion of potential uses of quotients in analysis of biological regulatory networks and ways in which using quotients can reduce the computational complexity of network algorithms.

  14. Harmonic Skeleton Guided Evaluation of Stenoses in Human Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Zhu, Lei; Haker, Steven; Tannenbaum, Allen R.; Giddens, Don P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that three-dimensionally visualizes and evaluates stenoses in human coronary arteries by using harmonic skeletons. A harmonic skeleton is the center line of a multi-branched tubular surface extracted based on a harmonic function, which is the solution of the Laplace equation. This skeletonization method guarantees smoothness and connectivity and provides a fast and straightforward way to calculate local cross-sectional areas of the arteries, and thus provides the possibility to localize and evaluate coronary artery stenosis, which is a commonly seen pathology in coronary artery disease. PMID:16685882

  15. Harmonic skeleton guided evaluation of stenoses in human coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Zhu, Lei; Haker, Steven; Tannenbaum, Allen R; Giddens, Don P

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that three-dimensionally visualizes and evaluates stenoses in human coronary arteries by using harmonic skeletons. A harmonic skeleton is the center line of a multi-branched tubular surface extracted based on a harmonic function, which is the solution of the Laplace equation. This skeletonization method guarantees smoothness and connectivity and provides a fast and straightforward way to calculate local cross-sectional areas of the arteries, and thus provides the possibility to localize and evaluate coronary artery stenosis, which is a commonly seen pathology in coronary artery disease. PMID:16685882

  16. Skeleton-based shape analysis of protein models.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Qin, Shengwei; Yu, Zeyun; Jin, Yao

    2014-09-01

    In order to compare the similarity between two protein models, a shape analysis algorithm based on skeleton extraction is presented in this paper. It firstly extracts the skeleton of a given protein surface by an improved Multi-resolution Reeb Graph (MRG) method. A number of points on the model surface are then collected to compute the local diameter (LD) according to the skeleton. Finally the LD frequency is calculated to build up the line chart, which is employed to analyze the shape similarity between protein models. Experimental results show that the similarity comparison using the proposed shape descriptor is more accurate especially for protein models with large deformations.

  17. Second messengers and membrane trafficking direct and organize growth cone steering

    PubMed Central

    Tojima, Takuro; Hines, Jacob H.; Henley, John R.; Kamiguchi, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Graded distributions of extracellular cues guide developing axons toward their targets. A network of second messengers, Ca2+ and cyclic nucleotides, shapes cue-derived information into either attractive or repulsive signals that steer growth cones bidirectionally. Emerging evidence suggests that such guidance signals create a localized imbalance between exocytosis and endocytosis, which in turn redirects membrane, adhesion and cytoskeletal components asymmetrically across the growth cone to bias the direction of axon extension. These recent advances allow us to propose a unifying model of how the growth cone translates shallow gradients of environmental information into polarized activity of the steering machinery for axon guidance. PMID:21386859

  18. Self-cleaning Metal Organic Framework (MOF) based ultra filtration membranes--a solution to bio-fouling in membrane separation processes.

    PubMed

    Prince, J A; Bhuvana, S; Anbharasi, V; Ayyanar, N; Boodhoo, K V K; Singh, G

    2014-01-01

    Bio-fouling is a serious problem in many membrane-based separation processes for water and wastewater treatment. Current state of the art methods to overcome this are to modify the membranes with either hydrophilic additives or with an antibacterial compound. In this study, we propose and practise a novel concept to prevent bio-fouling by developing a killing and self-cleaning membrane surface incorporating antibacterial silver nanoparticles and highly hydrophilic negatively charged carboxylic and amine functional groups. The innovative surface chemistry helps to reduce the contact angle of the novel membrane by at least a 48% and increase the pure water flux by 39.4% compared to the control membrane. The flux drop for the novel membrane is also lower (16.3% of the initial flux) than the control membrane (55.3% of the initial flux) during the long term experiments with protein solution. Moreover, the novel membrane continues to exhibit inhibition to microbes even after 1320 min of protein filtration. Synthesis of self-cleaning ultrafiltration membrane with long lasting properties opens up a viable solution for bio-fouling in ultrafiltration application for wastewater purification.

  19. Self-cleaning Metal Organic Framework (MOF) based ultra filtration membranes - A solution to bio-fouling in membrane separation processes

    PubMed Central

    Prince, J. A.; Bhuvana, S.; Anbharasi, V.; Ayyanar, N.; Boodhoo, K. V. K.; Singh, G.

    2014-01-01

    Bio-fouling is a serious problem in many membrane-based separation processes for water and wastewater treatment. Current state of the art methods to overcome this are to modify the membranes with either hydrophilic additives or with an antibacterial compound. In this study, we propose and practise a novel concept to prevent bio-fouling by developing a killing and self-cleaning membrane surface incorporating antibacterial silver nanoparticles and highly hydrophilic negatively charged carboxylic and amine functional groups. The innovative surface chemistry helps to reduce the contact angle of the novel membrane by at least a 48% and increase the pure water flux by 39.4% compared to the control membrane. The flux drop for the novel membrane is also lower (16.3% of the initial flux) than the control membrane (55.3% of the initial flux) during the long term experiments with protein solution. Moreover, the novel membrane continues to exhibit inhibition to microbes even after 1320 min of protein filtration. Synthesis of self-cleaning ultrafiltration membrane with long lasting properties opens up a viable solution for bio-fouling in ultrafiltration application for wastewater purification. PMID:25296745

  20. Self-cleaning Metal Organic Framework (MOF) based ultra filtration membranes - A solution to bio-fouling in membrane separation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, J. A.; Bhuvana, S.; Anbharasi, V.; Ayyanar, N.; Boodhoo, K. V. K.; Singh, G.

    2014-10-01

    Bio-fouling is a serious problem in many membrane-based separation processes for water and wastewater treatment. Current state of the art methods to overcome this are to modify the membranes with either hydrophilic additives or with an antibacterial compound. In this study, we propose and practise a novel concept to prevent bio-fouling by developing a killing and self-cleaning membrane surface incorporating antibacterial silver nanoparticles and highly hydrophilic negatively charged carboxylic and amine functional groups. The innovative surface chemistry helps to reduce the contact angle of the novel membrane by at least a 48% and increase the pure water flux by 39.4% compared to the control membrane. The flux drop for the novel membrane is also lower (16.3% of the initial flux) than the control membrane (55.3% of the initial flux) during the long term experiments with protein solution. Moreover, the novel membrane continues to exhibit inhibition to microbes even after 1320 min of protein filtration. Synthesis of self-cleaning ultrafiltration membrane with long lasting properties opens up a viable solution for bio-fouling in ultrafiltration application for wastewater purification.

  1. Simple method for identification of skeletons of aporphine alkaloids from 13C NMR data using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Rufino, Alessandra R; Brant, Antônio J C; Santos, João B O; Ferreira, Marcelo J P; Emerenciano, Vicente P

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the use of artificial neural networks as a theoretical tool in the structural determination of alkaloids from (13)C NMR chemical shift data, aiming to identify skeletal types of those compounds. For that, 162 aporphine alkaloids belonging to 12 different skeletons were codified with their respective (13)C NMR chemical shifts. Each skeleton pertaining to aporphine alkaloid type was used as output, and the (13)C NMR chemical shifts were used as input data of the net. Analyzing the obtained results, one can then affirm the skeleton to which each one of these compounds belongs with high degree of confidence (over 97%). The relation between the correlation coefficient and the number of epochs and the architecture of net (3-layer MLP or 4-layer MLP) were analyzed, too. The analysis showed that the results predicted by the 3-layer MLP networks trained with a number of the epochs higher than 900 epochs are the best ones. The artificial neural nets were shown to be a simple and efficient tool to solve structural elucidation problems making use of (13)C NMR chemical shift data, even when a similarity between the searched skeletons occurs, offering fast and accurate results to identification of skeletons of organic compounds.

  2. Chitin-based scaffolds are an integral part of the skeleton of the marine demosponge Ianthella basta

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, E.; Ehrlich, H.; Schupp, P.; Hedrich, R.; Hunoldt, S.; Kammer, M.; Machill, S.; Paasch, S.; Bazhenov, V.V.; Kurek, D.V.; Arnold, T.; Brockmann, S.; Ruhnow, M.; Born, R.

    2010-01-01

    The skeletons of demosponges, such as Ianthella basta, are known to be a composite material containing organic constituents. Here, we show that a filigree chitin-based scaffold is an integral component of the I. basta skeleton. These chitin-based scaffolds can be isolated from the sponge skeletons using an isolation and purification technique based on treatment with alkaline solutions. Solid-state 13C NMR, Raman, and FT-IR spectroscopies, as well as chitinase digestion, reveal that the isolated material indeed consists of chitin. The morphology of the scaffolds has been determined by light and electron microscopy. It consists of cross-linked chitin fibers approximately 40–100 nm in diameter forming a micro-structured network. The overall shape of this network closely resembles the shape of the integer sponge skeleton. Solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize the sponge skeleton on a molecular level. The 13C NMR signals of the chitin-based scaffolds are relatively broad, indicating a high amount of disordered chitin, possibly in the form of surface-exposed molecules. X-ray diffraction confirms that the scaffolds isolated from I. basta consist of partially disordered and loosely packed chitin with large surfaces. The spectroscopic signature of these chitin-based scaffolds is closer to that of α-chitin than β-chitin. PMID:19567270

  3. The Roles of the Skeleton and Phosphorus in the CKD Mineral Bone Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hruska, Keith A.; Mathew, Suresh

    2011-01-01

    The CKD mineral bone disorder is a new term coined to describe the multiorgan system failure that is a major component of the excess cardiovascular mortality and morbidity complicating decreased kidney function. This syndrome embodies new discoveries of organ-to-organ communication including the skeletal hormone fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), which signals the status of skeletal mineral deposition to the kidney. The CKD mineral bone disorder begins with mild decreases in kidney function (stage 2 CKD) affecting the skeleton, as marked by increased FGF-23 secretion. At this stage, the stimulation of cardiovascular risk has begun and the increases in FGF-23 levels are strongly predictive of cardiovascular events. Later in CKD, hyperphosphatemia ensues when FGF-23 and hyperparathyroidism are no longer sufficient to maintain phosphate excretion. Hyperphosphatemia has been shown to be a direct stimulus to several cell types including vascular smooth muscle cells migrating to the neointima of atherosclerotic plaques. Phosphorus stimulates FGF-23 secretion by osteocytes and expression of the osteoblastic transcriptome, thereby increasing extracellular matrix mineralization in atherosclerotic plaques, hypertrophic cartilage, and skeletal osteoblast surfaces.In CKD, the skeleton positively contributes to hyperphosphatemia through excess bone resorption and inhibition of matrix mineralization. Thus, through the action of phosphorus, FGF-23, and other newly discovered skeletal hormones, such as osteocalcin, the skeleton plays an important role in the occurrence of cardiovascular morbidity in CKD. PMID:21406294

  4. Organic semiconductor wastewater treatment using a four-stage Bardenpho with membrane system.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jinwook; Fleege, Daniel; Ong, Say Kee; Lee, Yong-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Electronic wastewater from a semiconductor plant was treated with a pilot-scale four-stage Bardenpho process with membrane system. The system was operated over a 14-month period with an overall hydraulic retention time (HRT) ranging from 9.5 to 30 h. With a few exceptions, the pilot plant consistently treated the electronic wastewater with an average removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen of 97% and 93%, respectively, and achieving effluent quality of COD<15 mg/L, turbidity<1, and silt density index<1. Based on removal efficiencies of the pilot plant, it is possible to lower the HRT to less than 9.5 h to achieve comparable removal efficiencies. An energy-saving configuration where an internal recycle line was omitted and the biomass recycle was rerouted to the pre-anoxic tank, can reduce energy consumption by 8.6% and gave removal efficiencies that were similar to the Bardenpho process. The system achieved pre-anoxic and post-anoxic specific denitrification rate values with a 95% confidence interval of 0.091 ± 0.011 g NO₃-N/g MLVSS d and 0.087 ± 0.016 g NO₃-N/g MLVSS d, respectively. The effluent from the four-stage Bardenpho with membrane system can be paired with a reverse osmosis system to provide further treatment for reuse purposes.

  5. Spatial organization of bacteriorhodopsin in model membranes. Light-induced mobility changes.

    PubMed

    Kahya, Nicoletta; Wiersma, Douwe A; Poolman, Bert; Hoekstra, Dick

    2002-10-18

    Bacteriorhodopsin is a proton-transporting membrane protein in Halophilic archaea, and it is considered a prototype of membrane transporters and a model for G-protein-coupled receptors. Oligomerization of the protein has been reported, but it is unknown whether this feature is correlated with, for instance, light activation. Here, we have addressed this issue by reconstituting bacteriorhodopsin into giant unilamellar vesicles. The dynamics of the fully active protein was investigated using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and freeze fracture electron microscopy. At low protein-to-lipid ratios (<1:10 w/w), a decrease in mobility was observed upon protein photoactivation. This process occurred on a second time scale and was fully reversible, i.e. when the dark-adapted state was reestablished the lateral diffusion rate of the protein was returned to that prior to activation. A similar decrease in lateral mobility as observed upon photoactivation was obtained when bacteriorhodopsin was reconstituted at high protein-to-lipid ratios (>1:10 w/w). We interpret the shifts in mobility during light adaptation as being caused by transient photoinduced oligomerization of bacteriorhodopsin. These observations are fully supported by freeze-fracture electron microscopy, and the size of the clusters during photoactivation was estimated to consist of two or three trimers.

  6. Analysis of the effects of inter-individual variation in the distribution of plutonium in skeleton and liver.

    PubMed

    Klein, W; Breustedt, B

    2014-01-01

    One important parameter for biokinetic plutonium modelling is the ratio between the contents of plutonium in liver and skeleton. Autopsy data show a vast inter-individual variation in the partitioning between these organs. The capacity of recent biokinetic models for plutonium to reproduce these variations was studied. Autopsy data for plutonium amounts in liver and skeleton for both (238)Pu and (239)Pu isotopes can be merged into a single data set following several statistical tests. Simulations with different parameter values generate a mapping between the autopsy values and the model parameters. The observed partitioning distribution can be transformed into a distribution of transfer rates, which would result in the observed data. Besides, the variation in the partitioning between liver and skeleton leads via biliary pathway to a variation in the excretion ratio. This can be used to estimate an individual partitioning factor, which can be used in individual case assessments.

  7. Processing and Performance of MOF (Metal Organic Framework)-Loaded PAN Nanofibrous Membrane for CO2 Adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahiduzzaman; Khan, Mujibur R.; Harp, Spencer; Neumann, Jeffrey; Sultana, Quazi Nahida

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to produce a nanofibrous membrane functionalized with adsorbent particles called metal organic framework (MOF) in order to adsorb CO2 from a gas source. Therefore, Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was chosen as the precursor for nanofibers and HKUST-1, a Cu-based MOF, was chosen as adsorbent. The experimental process consists of electrospinning PAN solution blended with HKUST-1 to produce a nanofibrous mat as working substrates. The fibers were collected in a cylindrical canister model. SEM image of this mat showed nanofibers with the presence of small adsorbent particles, impregnated into the as-spun fibers discretely. To increase the amount of MOF particles for effectual gas adsorption, a secondary solvothermal process of producing MOF particles on the fibers was required. This process consists of multiple growth cycles of HKUST-1 particles by using a sol-gel precursor. SEM images showed uniform distribution of porous MOF particles of 2-4 µm in size on the fiber surface. Energy dispersive spectroscopy report of the fiber confirmed the presence of MOF particles through the identification of characteristic Copper elemental peaks of HKUST-1. To determine the thermal stability of the fibrous membrane, Thermogravimetric analysis of HKUST-1 consisting of PAN fiber was performed where a total weight loss of 40% between 210 and 360 °C was observed, hence proving the high-temperature durability of the synthesized membrane. BET surface area of the fiber membrane was measured as 540.73 m2/g. The fiber membrane was then placed into an experimental test bench containing a mixed gas inflow of CO2 and N2. Using non-dispersive infrared CO2 sensors connected to the inlet and outlet port of the bench, significant reduction of CO2 in concentration was measured. Comparative IR spectroscopic analysis between the gas-treated and gas untreated fiber samples showed the presence of characteristic peak in the vicinity of 2300 and 2400 cm-1 which

  8. Reproductive Organ and Vascular Specific Promoter of the Rice Plasma Membrane Ca2+ATPase Mediates Environmental Stress Responses in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Huda, Kazi Md. Kamrul; Banu, Mst. Sufara Akhter; Pathi, Krishna Mohan; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasma membrane Ca2+ATPase is a transport protein in the plasma membrane of cells and helps in removal of calcium (Ca2+) from the cell, hence regulating Ca2+ level within cells. Though plant Ca2+ATPases have been shown to be involved in plant stress responses but their promoter regions have not been well studied. Results The 1478 bp promoter sequence of rice plasma membrane Ca2+ATPase contains cis-acting elements responsive to stresses and plant hormones. To identify the functional region, serial deletions of the promoter were fused with the GUS sequence and four constructs were obtained. These were differentially activated under NaCl, PEG cold, methyl viologen, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate treatments. We demonstrated that the rice plasma membrane Ca2+ATPase promoter is responsible for vascular-specific and multiple stress-inducible gene expression. Only full-length promoter showed specific GUS expression under stress conditions in floral parts. High GUS activity was observed in roots with all the promoter constructs. The −1478 to −886 bp flanking region responded well upon treatment with salt and drought. Only the full-length promoter presented cold-induced GUS expression in leaves, while in shoots slight expression was observed for −1210 and −886 bp flanking region. The −1210 bp deletion significantly responded to exogenous methyl viologen and abscisic acid induction. The −1210 and −886 bp flanking region resulted in increased GUS activity in leaves under methyl jasmonate treatments, whereas in shoots the −886 bp and −519 bp deletion gave higher expression. Salicylic acid failed to induce GUS activities in leaves for all the constructs. Conclusions The rice plasma membrane Ca2+ATPase promoter is a reproductive organ-specific as well as vascular-specific. This promoter contains drought, salt, cold, methyl viologen, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate related cis-elements, which regulated gene expression. Overall, the tissue

  9. A Novel Di-Leucine Motif at the N-Terminus of Human Organic Solute Transporter Beta Is Essential for Protein Association and Membrane Localization

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shuhua; Soroka, Carol J.; Sun, An-Qiang; Backos, Donald S.; Mennone, Albert; Suchy, Frederick J.; Boyer, James L.

    2016-01-01

    The heteromeric membrane protein Organic Solute Transporter alpha/beta is the major bile acid efflux transporter in the intestine. Physical association of its alpha and beta subunits is essential for their polarized basolateral membrane localization and function in the transport of bile acids and other organic solutes. We identified a highly conserved acidic dileucine motif (-EL20L21EE) at the extracellular amino-tail of organic solute transporter beta from multiple species. To characterize the role of this protein interacting domain in the association of the human beta and alpha subunits and in membrane localization of the transporter, Leu20 and Leu21 on the amino-tail of human organic solute transporter beta were replaced with alanines by site-directed mutagenesis. Co-immunoprecipitation study in HEK293 cells demonstrated that substitution of the leucine residues with alanines prevented the interaction of the human beta mutant with the alpha subunit. Membrane biotinylation demonstrated that the LL/AA mutant eliminated membrane expression of both subunits. Computational-based modelling of human organic solute transporter beta suggested that the LL/AA mutation substantially alters both the structure and lipophilicity of the surface, thereby not only affecting the interaction with the alpha subunit but also possibly impacting the capacity of the beta subunit to traffick through the cell and interact with the membrane. In summary, our findings indicate that the dileucine motif in the extracellular N-terminal region of human organic solute transporter beta subunit plays a critical role in the association with the alpha subunit and in its polarized plasma membrane localization. PMID:27351185

  10. Penetrating trauma to the facial skeleton by pickaxe - case report.

    PubMed

    Neskoromna-Jędrzejczak, Aneta; Bogusiak, Katarzyna; Przygoński, Aleksander; Timler, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Number of deaths related with injuries suffered as a result of experienced traumas is increasing. Penetrating traumas of the facial skeleton occur relatively rarely and much more often concern rather children than adults. Epidemiology relating this kind of trauma differs depending on the region of the world. In Poland, gunshot injuries as well as traumas caused by explosions of firecrackers or fireworks amount only to a slight percentage among all facial skeleton traumas, and the most common reason for penetrating traumas lies in accidents or assault with the use of sharp, narrow and long objects that easily enter bones of the facial skeleton. The present study reported the case of 50-year-old man who suffered from trauma of the facial skeleton, which resulted from foreign body (pickaxe) penetration into the subtemporal area, zygomatic arch and the right orbital cavity. The surgical treatment method and final outcome was presented and discussed. PMID:27096775

  11. 41. Ground level photograph of two floors of skeleton complete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Ground level photograph of two floors of skeleton complete with 3rd and 4th floors being started,upper floors of county bldg visible - Chicago City Hall, 121 North LaSalle Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  12. A method for finding three-dimensional magnetic skeletons

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, A. L.; Parnell, C. E.

    2010-09-15

    Magnetic fields are an essential component of a plasma. In many astrophysical, solar, magnetospheric, and laboratory situations the magnetic field in the plasma can be very dynamic and form highly complex structures. One approach to unraveling these structures is to determine the magnetic skeleton of the field, a set of topological features that divide the magnetic field into topologically distinct domains. In general, the features of the magnetic skeleton are difficult to locate, in particular those given by numerical experiments. In this paper, we propose a new set of tools to find the skeleton of general magnetic fields including null points, spines, separatrix surfaces, and separators. This set of tools is found to be considerably better at finding the skeleton than the currently favored methods used in magnetohydrodynamics.

  13. Penetrating trauma to the facial skeleton by pickaxe - case report.

    PubMed

    Neskoromna-Jędrzejczak, Aneta; Bogusiak, Katarzyna; Przygoński, Aleksander; Timler, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Number of deaths related with injuries suffered as a result of experienced traumas is increasing. Penetrating traumas of the facial skeleton occur relatively rarely and much more often concern rather children than adults. Epidemiology relating this kind of trauma differs depending on the region of the world. In Poland, gunshot injuries as well as traumas caused by explosions of firecrackers or fireworks amount only to a slight percentage among all facial skeleton traumas, and the most common reason for penetrating traumas lies in accidents or assault with the use of sharp, narrow and long objects that easily enter bones of the facial skeleton. The present study reported the case of 50-year-old man who suffered from trauma of the facial skeleton, which resulted from foreign body (pickaxe) penetration into the subtemporal area, zygomatic arch and the right orbital cavity. The surgical treatment method and final outcome was presented and discussed.

  14. Effects of diabetes drugs on the skeleton.

    PubMed

    Meier, Christian; Schwartz, Ann V; Egger, Andrea; Lecka-Czernik, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased fracture risk and the mechanisms underlying the detrimental effects of diabetes on skeletal health are only partially understood. Antidiabetic drugs are indispensable for glycemic control in most type 2 diabetics, however, they may, at least in part, modulate fracture risk in exposed patients. Preclinical and clinical data clearly demonstrate an unfavorable effect of thiazolidinediones on the skeleton with impaired osteoblast function and activated osteoclastogenesis. The negative effect of thiazolidinediones on osteoblastogenesis includes decreased activity of osteoblast-specific transcription factors (e.g. Runx2, Dlx5, osterix) and decreased activity of osteoblast-specific signaling pathways (e.g. Wnt, TGF-β/BMP, IGF-1). In contrast, metformin has a positive effect on osteoblast differentiation due to increased activity of Runx2 via the AMPK/USF-1/SHP regulatory cascade resulting in a neutral or potentially protective effect on bone. Recently marketed antidiabetic drugs include incretin-based therapies (GLP-1 receptor agonists, DPP-4 inhibitors) and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2)-inhibitors. Preclinical studies indicate that incretins (GIP, GLP-1, and GLP-2) play an important role in the regulation of bone turnover. Clinical safety data are limited, however, meta-analyses of trials investigating the glycemic-lowering effect of both, GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP4-inhibitors, suggest a neutral effect of incretin-based therapies on fracture risk. For SGLT2-inhibitors recent data indicate that due to their mode of action they may alter calcium and phosphate homeostasis (secondary hyperparathyroidism induced by increased phosphate reabsorption) and thereby potentially affect bone mass and fracture risk. Clinical studies are needed to elucidate the effect of SGLT2-inhibitors on bone metabolism. Meanwhile SGLT2-inhibitors should be used with caution in patients with high fracture risk, which is specifically true

  15. The Skeleton of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucker, Catherine; Battersby, Cara; Goodman, Alyssa

    2015-12-01

    Recently, Goodman et al. argued that the very long, very thin infrared dark cloud “Nessie” lies directly in the Galactic midplane and runs along the Scutum-Centaurus Arm in position-position-velocity (p-p-v) space as traced by lower-density {{CO}} and higher-density {{NH}}3 gas. Nessie was presented as the first “bone” of the Milky Way, an extraordinarily long, thin, high-contrast filament that can be used to map our Galaxy’s “skeleton.” Here we present evidence for additional bones in the Milky Way, arguing that Nessie is not a curiosity but one of several filaments that could potentially trace Galactic structure. Our 10 bone candidates are all long, filamentary, mid-infrared extinction features that lie parallel to, and no more than 20 pc from, the physical Galactic mid-plane. We use {{CO}}, {{{N}}}2{{{H}}}+, {{{HCO}}}+, and {{NH}}3 radial velocity data to establish the three-dimensional location of the candidates in p-p-v space. Of the 10 candidates, 6 also have a projected aspect ratio of ≥50:1 run along, or extremely close to, the Scutum-Centaurus Arm in p-p-v space; and exhibit no abrupt shifts in velocity. The evidence presented here suggests that these candidates mark the locations of significant spiral features, with the bone called filament 5 (“BC_18.88-0.09”) being a close analog to Nessie in the northern sky. As molecular spectral-line and extinction maps cover more of the sky at increasing resolution and sensitivity, it should be possible to find more bones in future studies.

  16. Fracture occurrence from radionuclides in the skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Miller, S.C.

    2000-06-01

    Because skeletal fractures were an important finding among persons contaminated with {sup 226}Ra, experience with fractures among dogs in the colony was summarized to determine the projected significance for persons contaminated with bone-seeking radionuclides. Comparison by Fisher's Exact Test of lifetime fracture occurrence in the skeletons of beagles injected as young adults suggested that for animals given {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, or {sup 239}Pu citrate, there was probably an excess over controls in fractures of the ribs, leg bones, spinous processes, and pelvis (os coxae) plus the mandible for dogs given {sup 226}Ra and the scapulae for dogs given {sup 228}Ra or 228 Th. Regression analysis indicated that significantly elevated fracture occurrence was especially notable at the higher radiation doses, at about 50 Gy average skeletal dose for {sup 239}Pu, 140 Gy for {sup 226}Ra, about 40 Gy for {sup 228}Ra, and more than 15 Gy for {sup 228}Th. The average number of fractures per dog was significantly elevated over that noted in controls for the highest radiation doses of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 226}Ra and for the higher doses of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 228}Th. For those dogs given {sup 90}Sr citrate, there was virtually no important difference from control beagles not given radionuclides, even at group mean cumulative skeletal radiation doses up to 101 Gy. Because of a large proportion of dogs with fractures that died with bone malignancy (even at dosage levels lower than those exhibiting an excess average number of fractures per dog), they conclude that fracture would not be an important endpoint at lower levels of plutonium contamination in humans such as would be expected to occur from occupational or environmental exposure.

  17. Compositional variations at ultra-structure length scales in coral skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meibom, Anders; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Houlbreque, Fanny; Mostefaoui, Smail; Dauphin, Yannicke; Meibom, Karin L.; Dunbar, Robert

    2008-03-01

    Distributions of Mg and Sr in the skeletons of a deep-sea coral ( Caryophyllia ambrosia) and a shallow-water, reef-building coral ( Pavona clavus) have been obtained with a spatial resolution of 150 nm, using the NanoSIMS ion microprobe at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris. These trace element analyses focus on the two primary ultra-structural components in the skeleton: centers of calcification (COC) and fibrous aragonite. In fibrous aragonite, the trace element variations are typically on the order of 10% or more, on length scales on the order of 1-10 μm. Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca variations are not correlated. However, Mg/Ca variations in Pavona are strongly correlated with the layered organization of the skeleton. These data allow for a direct comparison of trace element variations in zooxanthellate and non-zooxanthellate corals. In both corals, all trace elements show variations far beyond what can be attributed to variations in the marine environment. Furthermore, the observed trace element variations in the fibrous (bulk) part of the skeletons are not related to the activity of zooxanthellae, but result from other biological activity in the coral organism. To a large degree, this biological forcing is independent of the ambient marine environment, which is essentially constant on the growth timescales considered here. Finally, we discuss the possible detection of a new high-Mg calcium carbonate phase, which appears to be present in both deep-sea and reef-building corals and is neither aragonite nor calcite.

  18. Biosynthesis of the lantibiotic nisin: genomic organization and membrane localization of the NisB protein.

    PubMed Central

    Engelke, G; Gutowski-Eckel, Z; Hammelmann, M; Entian, K D

    1992-01-01

    Nisin produced by Lactococcus lactis 6F3 is used as a food preservative and is the most important member of a group of peptide-antibiotics containing lanthionine bridges (lantibiotics) (N. Schnell, K.-D. Entian, U. Schneider, F. Götz, H. Zähner, R. Kellner, and G. Jung, Nature [London] 333:276-278, 1988). Nisin is ribosomally synthesized, and its structural gene, nisA, encodes a prepeptide that is posttranslationally modified, revealing the active lantibiotic (C. Kaletta and K.-D. Entian, J. Bacteriol. 171:1597-1601, 1989). Adjacent to nisA, the additional genes nisB, nisT, and nisC were identified. Over their entire sequences, these genes were homologous to genes recently identified as important for the biosynthesis of lantibiotics, that is, subtilin from Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and epidermin from Staphylococcus epidermidis Tü 3298. Genes nisB, nisT, and nisC corresponded to open reading frames of 993, 600, and 418 amino acid residues, respectively. The nisT open reading frame is homologous to proteins of the HlyB (hemolysin B protein of Escherichia coli) subfamily. Proteins of this subfamily are responsible for the secretion of a variety of compounds, including large polypeptides, polysaccharides, and anti-drug tumors, indicating that NisT may be involved in nisin transport. Northern (RNA) blot analysis revealed a 0.3-kb transcript for the nisA structural gene, and the transcriptional start point of the nisA gene was determined by primer extension. Additionally, a mRNA of at least 3 kb was identified by using a hybridization probe specific to nisB. Antibodies were raised against the NisB protein, and Western blot (immunoblot) analysis revealed a molecular weight of about 115 kDa, which is in accordance with the theoretical protein size of 117.5 kDa as calculated from the nisB open reading frame. Several amphipathic transmembrane alpha-helices indicated that NisB is associated with the membrane. This was confirmed by preparing L. lactis vesicles. The Nis

  19. Organization into Higher Ordered Ring Structures Counteracts Membrane Binding of IM30, a Protein Associated with Inner Membranes in Chloroplasts and Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, Jennifer; Wulf, Verena; Hennig, Raoul; Saur, Michael; Markl, Jürgen; Sönnichsen, Carsten; Schneider, Dirk

    2016-07-15

    The IM30 (inner membrane-associated protein of 30 kDa), also known as the Vipp1 (vesicle-inducing protein in plastids 1), has a crucial role in thylakoid membrane biogenesis and maintenance. Recent results suggest that the protein binds peripherally to membranes containing negatively charged lipids. However, although IM30 monomers interact and assemble into large oligomeric ring complexes with different numbers of monomers, it is still an open question whether ring formation is crucial for membrane interaction. Here we show that binding of IM30 rings to negatively charged phosphatidylglycerol membrane surfaces results in a higher ordered membrane state, both in the head group and in the inner core region of the lipid bilayer. Furthermore, by using gold nanorods covered with phosphatidylglycerol layers and single particle spectroscopy, we show that not only IM30 rings but also lower oligomeric IM30 structures interact with membranes, although with higher affinity. Thus, ring formation is not crucial for, and even counteracts, membrane interaction of IM30. PMID:27226585

  20. Membrane boenergetics of salt tolerant organisms. Progress report, June 1993--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Lanyi, J.K.

    1996-06-01

    Substantial progress was made on describing the pathway of the transported proton in bacteriorhodopsin, and the thermodynamics of the proton transfers. The underlying principle of the transport was identified as the alternating access of the retinal Schiff base toward the two membrane surfaces, regulated by electrostatic interaction between the retinylidene nitrogen and its counterion. Consistent with a shared transport mechanism for both retinal proteins, bacteriorhodopsin was converted into a balorhodopsin-like chloride pump by replacing asp-85 with threonine. This region is thereby identified as the active site that determines ion specificity. Description of the metal ion-dependent kinetics of the ATP hydrolysis provided clues to the structure of active site in the halobacterial ATPase.

  1. The Effect of Trans Unsaturation on Molecular Organization in a Phospholipid Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Smita; Runyan, Jenniffer; Brich, Garrison; Ward, Jesse; Sen, Stephanie; Feller, Scott; Wassall, Stephen

    2009-05-01

    The ingestion of trans fatty acids (TFA) formed during the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils has been linked to a detrimental impact on health by an, as yet, unknown mechanism. We synthesized deuterated analogs of 1-elaidoyl-2-stearoylphosphatidylcholine (t18:1-18:0PC) that contains a single ``unnatural'' trans double bond and 1-oleoyl-2-stearoylphosphatidylcholine (c18:1-18:0PC) that contains a single ``natural'' cis double bond. Solid state ^2H NMR spectra for model membranes prepared from these phospholipids reveal a higher chain melting temperature for the trans isomer, indicating tighter molecular packing in the gel state. In the liquid crystalline, however, the difference between the trans and cis isomers is subtle. Order as probed by the perdeuterated [^2H31]18:0 sn-2 chain, and corroborated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, coincides within <5%.

  2. Structure and organization of phycobilisomes on membranes of the red alga Porphyridium cruentum.

    PubMed

    Arteni, Ana A; Liu, Lu-Ning; Aartsma, Thijs J; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Boekema, Egbert J

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, electron microscopy and single particle averaging was performed to investigate the supramolecular architecture of hemiellipsoidal phycobilisomes from the unicellular red alga Porphyridium cruentum. The dimensions were measured as 60 x 41 x 34 nm (length x width x height) for randomly ordered phycobilisomes, seen under high-light conditions. The hemiellipsoidal phycobilisomes were found to have a relatively flexible conformation. In closely packed semi-crystalline arrays, observed under low-light conditions, the width is reduced to 31 or 35 nm, about twice the width of the phycobilisome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Since the latter size matches the width of dimeric PSII, we suggest that one PBS lines up with one PSII dimer in cyanobacteria. In red algae, a similar 1:1 ratio under low-light conditions may indicate that the red algal phycobilisome is enlarged by a membrane-bound peripheral antenna which is absent in cyanobacteria.

  3. Membrane-based osmotic heat engine with organic solvent for enhanced power generation from low-grade heat.

    PubMed

    Shaulsky, Evyatar; Boo, Chanhee; Lin, Shihong; Elimelech, Menachem

    2015-05-01

    We present a hybrid osmotic heat engine (OHE) system that uses draw solutions with an organic solvent for enhanced thermal separation efficiency. The hybrid OHE system produces sustainable energy by combining pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) as a power generation stage and membrane distillation (MD) utilizing low-grade heat as a separation stage. While previous OHE systems employed aqueous electrolyte draw solutions, using methanol as a solvent is advantageous because methanol is highly volatile and has a lower heat capacity and enthalpy of vaporization than water. Hence, the thermal separation efficiency of a draw solution with methanol would be higher than that of an aqueous draw solution. In this study, we evaluated the performance of LiCl-methanol as a potential draw solution for a PRO-MD hybrid OHE system. The membrane transport properties as well as performance with LiCl-methanol draw solution were evaluated using thin-film composite (TFC) PRO membranes and compared to the results obtained with a LiCl-water draw solution. Experimental PRO methanol flux and maximum projected power density of 47.1 L m(-2) h(-1) and 72.1 W m(-2), respectively, were achieved with a 3 M LiCl-methanol draw solution. The overall efficiency of the hybrid OHE system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages under conditions with and without heat recovery. The modeling results demonstrate higher OHE energy efficiency with the LiCl-methanol draw solution compared to that with the LiCl-water draw solution under practical operating conditions (i.e., heat recovery<90%). We discuss the implications of the results for converting low-grade heat to power. PMID:25839239

  4. Membrane-Based Osmotic Heat Engine with Organic Solvent for Enhanced Power Generation from Low-Grade Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Shaulsky, E; Boo, C; Lin, SH; Elimelech, M

    2015-05-05

    We present a hybrid osmotic heat engine (OHE) system that uses draw solutions with an organic solvent for enhanced thermal separation efficiency. The hybrid OHE system produces sustainable energy by combining pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) as a power generation stage and membrane distillation (MD) utilizing low-grade heat as a separation stage. While previous OHE systems employed aqueous electrolyte draw solutions, using methanol as a solvent is advantageous because methanol is highly volatile and has a lower heat capacity and enthalpy of vaporization than water. Hence, the thermal separation efficiency of a draw solution with methanol would be higher than that of an aqueous draw solution. In this study, we evaluated the performance of LiCl-methanol as a potential draw solution for a PRO-MD hybrid OHE system. The membrane transport properties as well as performance with LiCl methanol draw solution were evaluated using thin-film composite (TFC) PRO membranes and compared to the results obtained with a LiCl water draw solution. Experimental PRO methanol flux and maximum projected power density of 47.1 L m(-2) h(-1) and 72.1 W m(-2), respectively, were achieved with a 3 M LiCl-methanol draw solution. The overall efficiency of the hybrid OHE system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages under conditions with and without heat recovery. The modeling results demonstrate higher ORE energy efficiency with the LiCl methanol draw solution compared to that with the LiCl water draw solution under practical operating conditions (i.e., heat recovery <90%). We discuss the implications of the results for converting low-grade heat to power.

  5. Tetraspanin CD82 Inhibits Protrusion and Retraction in Cell Movement by Attenuating the Plasma Membrane-Dependent Actin Organization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei M.; Zhang, Feng; Moshiach, Simon; Zhou, Bin; Huang, Chao; Srinivasan, Kamalakkannan; Khurana, Seema; Zheng, Yi; Lahti, Jill M.; Zhang, Xin A.

    2012-01-01

    To determine how tetraspanin KAI1/CD82, a tumor metastasis suppressor, inhibits cell migration, we assessed which cellular events critical for motility are altered by KAI1/CD82 and how KAI1/CD82 regulates these events. We found that KAI1/CD82-expressing cells typically exhibited elongated cellular tails and diminished lamellipodia. Live imaging demonstrated that the polarized protrusion and retraction of the plasma membrane became deficient upon KAI1/CD82 expression. The deficiency in developing these motility-related cellular events was caused by poor formations of actin cortical network and stress fiber and by aberrant dynamics in actin organization. Rac1 activity was reduced by KAI1/CD82, consistent with the diminution of lamellipodia and actin cortical network; while the growth factor-stimulated RhoA activity was blocked by KAI1/CD82, consistent with the loss of stress fiber and attenuation in cellular retraction. Upon KAI1/CD82 expression, Rac effector cofilin was not enriched at the cell periphery to facilitate lamellipodia formation while Rho kinase exhibited a significantly lower activity leading to less retraction. Phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-biphosphate, which initiates actin polymerization from the plasma membrane, became less detectable at the cell periphery in KAI1/CD82-expressing cells. Moreover, KAI1/CD82-induced phenotypes likely resulted from the suppression of multiple signaling pathways such as integrin and growth factor signaling. In summary, at the cellular level KAI1/CD82 inhibited polarized protrusion and retraction events by disrupting actin reorganization; at the molecular level, KAI1/CD82 deregulated Rac1, RhoA, and their effectors cofilin and Rho kinase by perturbing the plasma membrane lipids. PMID:23251627

  6. Membrane-based osmotic heat engine with organic solvent for enhanced power generation from low-grade heat.

    PubMed

    Shaulsky, Evyatar; Boo, Chanhee; Lin, Shihong; Elimelech, Menachem

    2015-05-01

    We present a hybrid osmotic heat engine (OHE) system that uses draw solutions with an organic solvent for enhanced thermal separation efficiency. The hybrid OHE system produces sustainable energy by combining pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) as a power generation stage and membrane distillation (MD) utilizing low-grade heat as a separation stage. While previous OHE systems employed aqueous electrolyte draw solutions, using methanol as a solvent is advantageous because methanol is highly volatile and has a lower heat capacity and enthalpy of vaporization than water. Hence, the thermal separation efficiency of a draw solution with methanol would be higher than that of an aqueous draw solution. In this study, we evaluated the performance of LiCl-methanol as a potential draw solution for a PRO-MD hybrid OHE system. The membrane transport properties as well as performance with LiCl-methanol draw solution were evaluated using thin-film composite (TFC) PRO membranes and compared to the results obtained with a LiCl-water draw solution. Experimental PRO methanol flux and maximum projected power density of 47.1 L m(-2) h(-1) and 72.1 W m(-2), respectively, were achieved with a 3 M LiCl-methanol draw solution. The overall efficiency of the hybrid OHE system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages under conditions with and without heat recovery. The modeling results demonstrate higher OHE energy efficiency with the LiCl-methanol draw solution compared to that with the LiCl-water draw solution under practical operating conditions (i.e., heat recovery<90%). We discuss the implications of the results for converting low-grade heat to power.

  7. Comparative Study of MIL-96(Al) as Continuous Metal-Organic Frameworks Layer and Mixed-Matrix Membrane.

    PubMed

    Knebel, Alexander; Friebe, Sebastian; Bigall, Nadja Carola; Benzaqui, Marvin; Serre, Christian; Caro, Jürgen

    2016-03-23

    MIL-96(Al) layers were prepared as supported metal-organic frameworks membrane via reactive seeding using the α-alumina support as the Al source for the formation of the MIL-96(Al) seeds. Depending on the solvent mixture employed during seed formation, two different crystal morphologies, with different orientation of the transport-active channels, have been formed. This crystal orientation and habit is predefined by the seed crystals and is kept in the subsequent growth of the seeds to continuous layers. In the gas separation of an equimolar H2/CO2 mixture, the hydrogen permeability of the two supported MIL-96(Al) layers was found to be highly dependent on the crystal morphology and the accompanied channel orientation in the layer. In addition to the neat supported MIL-96(Al) membrane layers, mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs, 10 wt % filler loading) as a composite of MIL-96(Al) particles as filler in a continuous Matrimid polymer phase have been prepared. Five particle sizes of MIL-96(Al) between 3.2 μm and 55 nm were synthesized. In the preparation of the MIL-96(Al)/Matrimid MMM (10 wt % filler loading), the following preparation problems have been identified: The bigger micrometer-sized MIL-96(Al) crystals show a trend toward sedimentation during casting of the MMM, whereas for nanoparticles aggregation and recrystallization to micrometer-sized MIL-96(Al) crystals has been observed. Because of these preparation problems for MMM, the neat supported MIL-96(Al) layers show a relatively high H2/CO2 selectivity (≈9) and a hydrogen permeance approximately 2 magnitudes higher than that of the best MMM. PMID:26886432

  8. Comparative Study of MIL-96(Al) as Continuous Metal-Organic Frameworks Layer and Mixed-Matrix Membrane.

    PubMed

    Knebel, Alexander; Friebe, Sebastian; Bigall, Nadja Carola; Benzaqui, Marvin; Serre, Christian; Caro, Jürgen

    2016-03-23

    MIL-96(Al) layers were prepared as supported metal-organic frameworks membrane via reactive seeding using the α-alumina support as the Al source for the formation of the MIL-96(Al) seeds. Depending on the solvent mixture employed during seed formation, two different crystal morphologies, with different orientation of the transport-active channels, have been formed. This crystal orientation and habit is predefined by the seed crystals and is kept in the subsequent growth of the seeds to continuous layers. In the gas separation of an equimolar H2/CO2 mixture, the hydrogen permeability of the two supported MIL-96(Al) layers was found to be highly dependent on the crystal morphology and the accompanied channel orientation in the layer. In addition to the neat supported MIL-96(Al) membrane layers, mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs, 10 wt % filler loading) as a composite of MIL-96(Al) particles as filler in a continuous Matrimid polymer phase have been prepared. Five particle sizes of MIL-96(Al) between 3.2 μm and 55 nm were synthesized. In the preparation of the MIL-96(Al)/Matrimid MMM (10 wt % filler loading), the following preparation problems have been identified: The bigger micrometer-sized MIL-96(Al) crystals show a trend toward sedimentation during casting of the MMM, whereas for nanoparticles aggregation and recrystallization to micrometer-sized MIL-96(Al) crystals has been observed. Because of these preparation problems for MMM, the neat supported MIL-96(Al) layers show a relatively high H2/CO2 selectivity (≈9) and a hydrogen permeance approximately 2 magnitudes higher than that of the best MMM.

  9. Influence of active layer and support layer surface structures on organic fouling propensity of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinglin; Arias Chavez, Laura H; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Ma, Jun; Elimelech, Menachem

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigate the influence of surface structure on the fouling propensity of thin-film composite (TFC) forward osmosis (FO) membranes. Specifically, we compare membranes fabricated through identical procedures except for the use of different solvents (dimethylformamide, DMF and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, NMP) during phase separation. FO fouling experiments were carried out with a feed solution containing a model organic foulant. The TFC membranes fabricated using NMP (NMP-TFC) had significantly less flux decline (7.47 ± 0.15%) when compared to the membranes fabricated using DMF (DMF-TFC, 12.70 ± 2.62% flux decline). Water flux was also more easily recovered through physical cleaning for the NMP-TFC membrane. To determine the fundamental cause of these differences in fouling propensity, the active and support layers of the membranes were extensively characterized for physical and chemical characteristics relevant to fouling behavior. Polyamide surface roughness was found to dominate all other investigated factors in determining the fouling propensities of our membranes relative to each other. The high roughness polyamide surface of the DMF-TFC membrane was also rich in larger leaf-like structures, whereas the lower roughness NMP-TFC membrane polyamide layer contained more nodular and smaller features. The support layers of the two membrane types were also characterized for their morphological properties, and the relation between support layer surface structure and polyamide active layer formation was discussed. Taken together, our findings indicate that support layer structure has a significant impact on the fouling propensity of the active layer, and this impact should be considered in the design of support layer structures for TFC membranes.

  10. Influence of active layer and support layer surface structures on organic fouling propensity of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinglin; Arias Chavez, Laura H; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Ma, Jun; Elimelech, Menachem

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigate the influence of surface structure on the fouling propensity of thin-film composite (TFC) forward osmosis (FO) membranes. Specifically, we compare membranes fabricated through identical procedures except for the use of different solvents (dimethylformamide, DMF and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, NMP) during phase separation. FO fouling experiments were carried out with a feed solution containing a model organic foulant. The TFC membranes fabricated using NMP (NMP-TFC) had significantly less flux decline (7.47 ± 0.15%) when compared to the membranes fabricated using DMF (DMF-TFC, 12.70 ± 2.62% flux decline). Water flux was also more easily recovered through physical cleaning for the NMP-TFC membrane. To determine the fundamental cause of these differences in fouling propensity, the active and support layers of the membranes were extensively characterized for physical and chemical characteristics relevant to fouling behavior. Polyamide surface roughness was found to dominate all other investigated factors in determining the fouling propensities of our membranes relative to each other. The high roughness polyamide surface of the DMF-TFC membrane was also rich in larger leaf-like structures, whereas the lower roughness NMP-TFC membrane polyamide layer contained more nodular and smaller features. The support layers of the two membrane types were also characterized for their morphological properties, and the relation between support layer surface structure and polyamide active layer formation was discussed. Taken together, our findings indicate that support layer structure has a significant impact on the fouling propensity of the active layer, and this impact should be considered in the design of support layer structures for TFC membranes. PMID:25564877

  11. Biomineralization of unicellular organisms: an unusual membrane biochemistry for the production of inorganic nano- and microstructures.

    PubMed

    Bäuerlein, Edmund

    2003-02-10

    With evolution, Nature has ingeniously succeeded in giving rise to an impressive variety of inorganic structures. Every organism that synthesizes biogenic minerals does so in a form that is unique to that species. This biomineralization is apparently biologically controlled. It is thus expected that both the synthesis and the form of every specific biogenic mineral is genetically determined and controlled. An investigation of the mechanism of biomineralization has only become possible with the development of modern methods in molecular biology. Unicellular organisms such as magnetic bacteria, calcareous algae, and diatoms, all of which are amongst the simplest forms of life, are particularly suited to be investigated by these methods. Crystals and composites of proteins and amorphous inorganic polymers are formed as complex structures within these organisms; these structures are not known in conventional inorganic chemistry.

  12. Decoding the membrane activity of the cyclotide kalata B1: the importance of phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipids and lipid organization on hemolytic and anti-HIV activities.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Sónia Troeira; Huang, Yen-Hua; Rosengren, K Johan; Franquelim, Henri G; Carvalho, Filomena A; Johnson, Adam; Sonza, Secondo; Tachedjian, Gilda; Castanho, Miguel A R B; Daly, Norelle L; Craik, David J

    2011-07-01

    Cyclotides, a large family of cyclic peptides from plants, have a broad range of biological activities, including insecticidal, cytotoxic, and anti-HIV activities. In all of these activities, cell membranes seem likely to be the primary target for cyclotides. However, the mechanistic role of lipid membranes in the activity of cyclotides remains unclear. To determine the role of lipid organization in the activity of the prototypic cyclotide, kalata B1 (kB1), and synthetic analogs, their bioactivities and affinities for model membranes were evaluated. We found that the bioactivity of kB1 is dependent on the lipid composition of target cell membranes. In particular, the activity of kB1 requires specific interactions with phospholipids containing phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) headgroups but is further modulated by nonspecific peptide-lipid hydrophobic interactions, which are favored in raft-like membranes. Negatively charged phospholipids do not favor high kB1 affinity. This lipid selectivity explains trends in antimicrobial and hemolytic activities of kB1; it does not target bacterial cell walls, which are negatively charged and lacking PE-phospholipids but can insert in the membranes of red blood cells, which have a low PE content and raft domains in their outer layer. We further show that the anti-HIV activity of kB1 is the result of its ability to target and disrupt the membranes of HIV particles, which are raft-like membranes very rich in PE-phospholipids.

  13. Combining membrane extraction with mobile gas chromatography for the field analysis of volatile organic compounds in contaminated waters.

    PubMed

    Hauser, B; Popp, P

    2001-02-01

    A mobile gas chromatographic device (Airmobtx HC 1000 monitor manufactured by Airmotec, Germany), originally designed for the analysis of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) in air, was connected to a flow cell for dynamic membrane extraction. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) diffuse out of a water stream through a hollow fibre, are enriched onto sorption tubes integrated in the mobile device, and are then thermally desorbed and analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection. Battery operation of the device enables continuous on-site analysis of VOCs. Influences of the water flow-rate on system response and memory effects were investigated. The linear range of the method depends on the flow-rate of the water sample and did not exceed two orders of magnitude. The detection limits for trichloroethene, chlorobenzene and the BTEX compounds were found to be between 0.1 and 1.0 microg/l using a water flow-rate of 30 ml/min. Dynamic membrane extraction combined with the mobile gas chromatographic device was used for the on-site analysis of contaminated waters in the area of Leipzig.

  14. Investigation of Anion-Exchange and Immunoaffinity Particle-Loaded Membranes for the Isolation of Charged Organic Analytes from Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dombrowski, T.R.; Wilson, G.S.; Thurman, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    Anion-exchange and immunoaffinity particle loaded membranes (PLMs) were investigated as a mechanism for the isolation of charged organic analytes from water. Kinetic properties determined theoretically included dynamic capacity, pressure drop (??P), residence and diffusion times (Tr, Td), and total membrane porosity (???T). These properties were confirmed through experimental evaluation, and the PLM method showed significant improvement over conventional solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ion-exchange formats. Recoveries of more than 90% were observed for a variety of test compounds at flow rates up to 70 mL/min (equipment-limited maximum flow rate). A fast-flow immunoaffinity column was developed using antibodies (Abs) attached to the PLMs. Reproducible recoveries (88% ?? 4%) were observed at flow rates up to 70 mL/min for the antibody (Ab)-loaded PLMs. Findings indicate increased selectivity over anion-exchange PLMs and conventional SPE or ion-exchange methods and rapid Ab-antigen binding rates given the excellent mass-transfer characteristics of the PLMs.

  15. Dynamic Organization of SecA and SecY Secretion Complexes in the B. subtilis Membrane.

    PubMed

    Dajkovic, Alex; Hinde, Elizabeth; MacKichan, Calum; Carballido-Lopez, Rut

    2016-01-01

    In prokaryotes, about one third of cellular proteins are translocated across the plasma membrane or inserted into it by concerted action of the cytoplasmic ATPase SecA and the universally conserved SecYEG heterotrimeric polypeptide-translocating pore. Secretion complexes have been reported to localize in specific subcellular sites in Bacillus subtilis. In this work, we used a combination of total internal reflection microscopy, scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and pair correlation function to study the localization and dynamics of SecA and SecY in growing Bacillus subtilis cells. Both SecA and SecY localized in transient and dynamic foci in the cytoplasmic membrane, which displayed no higher-level organization in helices. Foci of SecA and SecY were in constant flux with freely diffusing SecA and SecY molecules. Scanning FCS confirmed the existence of populations of cellular SecA and SecY molecules with a wide range of diffusion coefficients. Diffusion of SecY as an uncomplexed molecular species was short-lived and only local while SecY complexed with its protein partners traversed distances of over half a micrometer in the cell. PMID:27336478

  16. Dynamic Organization of SecA and SecY Secretion Complexes in the B. subtilis Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Dajkovic, Alex; Hinde, Elizabeth; MacKichan, Calum; Carballido-Lopez, Rut

    2016-01-01

    In prokaryotes, about one third of cellular proteins are translocated across the plasma membrane or inserted into it by concerted action of the cytoplasmic ATPase SecA and the universally conserved SecYEG heterotrimeric polypeptide-translocating pore. Secretion complexes have been reported to localize in specific subcellular sites in Bacillus subtilis. In this work, we used a combination of total internal reflection microscopy, scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and pair correlation function to study the localization and dynamics of SecA and SecY in growing Bacillus subtilis cells. Both SecA and SecY localized in transient and dynamic foci in the cytoplasmic membrane, which displayed no higher-level organization in helices. Foci of SecA and SecY were in constant flux with freely diffusing SecA and SecY molecules. Scanning FCS confirmed the existence of populations of cellular SecA and SecY molecules with a wide range of diffusion coefficients. Diffusion of SecY as an uncomplexed molecular species was short-lived and only local while SecY complexed with its protein partners traversed distances of over half a micrometer in the cell. PMID:27336478

  17. The effects of mediator and granular activated carbon addition on degradation of trace organic contaminants by an enzymatic membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Luong N; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Leusch, Frederic D L; Roddick, Felicity; Ngo, Hao H; Guo, Wenshan; Magram, Saleh F; Nghiem, Long D

    2014-09-01

    The removal of four recalcitrant trace organic contaminants (TrOCs), namely carbamazepine, diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole and atrazine by laccase in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) was studied. Laccases are not effective for degrading non-phenolic compounds; nevertheless, 22-55% removal of these four TrOCs was achieved by the laccase EMR. Addition of the redox-mediator syringaldehyde (SA) to the EMR resulted in a notable dose-dependent improvement (15-45%) of TrOC removal affected by inherent TrOC properties and loading rates. However, SA addition resulted in a concomitant increase in the toxicity of the treated effluent. A further 14-25% improvement in aqueous phase removal of the TrOCs was consistently observed following a one-off dosing of 3g/L granular activated carbon (GAC). Mass balance analysis reveals that this improvement was not due solely to adsorption but also enhanced biodegradation. GAC addition also reduced membrane fouling and the SA-induced toxicity of the effluent. PMID:24980029

  18. FINAL REPORT: MEMBRANE-MEDIATED EXTRACTION AND BIODEGRADATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes feasibility tests of a two-step strategy for air pollution control applicable to exhaust air contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from painting aircraft. In the first step, the VOC-contaminated air passes over coated, polypropylene, hollow-fibe...

  19. Organic carbon recovery and photosynthetic bacteria population in an anaerobic membrane photo-bioreactor treating food processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chitapornpan, S; Chiemchaisri, C; Chiemchaisri, W; Honda, R; Yamamoto, K

    2013-08-01

    Purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) were cultivated by food industry wastewater in the anaerobic membrane photo-bioreactor. Organic removal and biomass production and characteristics were accomplished via an explicit examination of the long term performance of the photo-bioreactor fed with real wastewater. With the support of infra-red light transmitting filter, PNSB could survive and maintain in the system even under the continual fluctuations of influent wastewater characteristics. The average BOD and COD removal efficiencies were found at the moderate range of 51% and 58%, respectively. Observed photosynthetic biomass yield was 0.6g dried solid/g BOD with crude protein content of 0.41 g/g dried solid. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic analysis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA sequencing revealed the presence of Rhodopseudomonas palustris and significant changes in the photosynthetic bacterial community within the system. PMID:23489563

  20. Crystallization of fluorescent quantum dots within a three-dimensional bio-organic template of actin filaments and lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Henry, Etienne; Dif, Aurélien; Schmutz, Marc; Legoff, Loic; Amblard, François; Marchi-Artzner, Valérie; Artzner, Franck

    2011-12-14

    Biological molecules and molecular self-assemblies are promising templates to organize well-defined inorganic nanostructures. We demonstrate the ability of a self-assembled three-dimensional crystal template of helical actin protein filaments and lipids bilayers to generate a hierarchical self-assembly of quantum dots. Functionnalized tricystein peptidic quantum dots (QDs) are incorporated during the dynamical self-assembly of this actin/lipid template resulting in the formation of crystalline fibers. The crystal parameters, 26.5×18.9×35.5 nm3, are imposed by the membrane thickness, the diameter, and the pitch of the actin self-assembly. This process ensures the high quality of the crystal and results in unexpected fluorescence properties. This method of preparation offers opportunities to generate crystals with new symmetries and a large range of distance parameters.

  1. Crystallization of fluorescent quantum dots within a three-dimensional bio-organic template of actin filaments and lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Henry, Etienne; Dif, Aurélien; Schmutz, Marc; Legoff, Loic; Amblard, François; Marchi-Artzner, Valérie; Artzner, Franck

    2011-12-14

    Biological molecules and molecular self-assemblies are promising templates to organize well-defined inorganic nanostructures. We demonstrate the ability of a self-assembled three-dimensional crystal template of helical actin protein filaments and lipids bilayers to generate a hierarchical self-assembly of quantum dots. Functionnalized tricystein peptidic quantum dots (QDs) are incorporated during the dynamical self-assembly of this actin/lipid template resulting in the formation of crystalline fibers. The crystal parameters, 26.5×18.9×35.5 nm3, are imposed by the membrane thickness, the diameter, and the pitch of the actin self-assembly. This process ensures the high quality of the crystal and results in unexpected fluorescence properties. This method of preparation offers opportunities to generate crystals with new symmetries and a large range of distance parameters. PMID:22074314

  2. Organic carbon recovery and photosynthetic bacteria population in an anaerobic membrane photo-bioreactor treating food processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chitapornpan, S; Chiemchaisri, C; Chiemchaisri, W; Honda, R; Yamamoto, K

    2013-08-01

    Purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) were cultivated by food industry wastewater in the anaerobic membrane photo-bioreactor. Organic removal and biomass production and characteristics were accomplished via an explicit examination of the long term performance of the photo-bioreactor fed with real wastewater. With the support of infra-red light transmitting filter, PNSB could survive and maintain in the system even under the continual fluctuations of influent wastewater characteristics. The average BOD and COD removal efficiencies were found at the moderate range of 51% and 58%, respectively. Observed photosynthetic biomass yield was 0.6g dried solid/g BOD with crude protein content of 0.41 g/g dried solid. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic analysis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA sequencing revealed the presence of Rhodopseudomonas palustris and significant changes in the photosynthetic bacterial community within the system.

  3. Comparison between sequential and simultaneous application of activated carbon with membrane bioreactor for trace organic contaminant removal.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Luong N; Hai, Faisal I; Kang, Jinguo; Nghiem, Long D; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu H; Tung, Kuo-Lun

    2013-02-01

    The removal efficiency of 22 selected trace organic contaminants by sequential application of granular activated carbon (GAC) and simultaneous application of powdered activated carbon (PAC) with membrane bioreactor (MBR) was compared in this study. Both sequential application of GAC following MBR treatment (MBR-GAC) and simultaneous application of PAC within MBR (PAC-MBR) achieved improved removal (over 95%) of seven hydrophilic and biologically persistent compounds, which were less efficiently removed by MBR-only treatment (negligible to 70%). However, gradual breakthrough of these compounds occurred over an extended operation period. Charged compounds, particularly, fenoprop and diclofenac, demonstrated the fastest breakthrough (complete and 50-70%, in MBR-GAC and PAC-MBR, respectively). Based on a simple comparison from the long-term performance stability and activated carbon usage points of view, PAC-MBR appears to be a better option than MBR-GAC treatment. PMID:23313687

  4. Impacts of powdered activated carbon addition on trihalomethane formation reactivity of dissolved organic matter in membrane bioreactor effluent.

    PubMed

    Ma, Defang; Gao, Yue; Gao, Baoyu; Wang, Yan; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Qian

    2014-12-01

    Characteristics and trihalomethane (THM) formation reactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in effluents from two membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with and without powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition (referred to as PAC/MBR and MBR, respectively) were examined to investigate the effects of PAC addition on THM formation of MBR effluent during chlorination. PAC addition increased the specific UV absorbance. Hydrophobic DOM especially hydrophobic acids in PAC/MBR effluent (50%) were more than MBR effluent (42%). DOM with molecular weight <1 kDa constituted 12% of PAC/MBR effluent DOM, which was less than that of MBR effluent (16%). Data obtained from excitation and emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that PAC/MBR effluent DOM contained more simple aromatic protein, but had less fulvic acid-like and soluble microbial by-product-like. PAC addition reduced the formation of bromine-containing THMs during chlorination of effluents, but increased THM formation reactivity of effluent DOM. PMID:25150685

  5. Comparison of organic contaminant accumulation by semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and the caged mussel species Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Hofelt, C.; Shea, D.

    1995-12-31

    The accumulation of anthropogenic contaminants by sentinel species such as the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, is common in many monitoring programs such as the National Status and Trends Mussel Watch Program. Bivalves are used because they are filter-feeding organisms with a high lipid content and therefore accumulate pollutants readily, and they do not appear to metabolize contaminants to a large extent. There are difficulties associated with this approach however, such as mortality, changing lipid mass and respiration rates, and interspecies differences; therefore the use of a non-living substrate may be more practical. The semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) consists of a length of thin-walled polyethylene tubing with a film of high molecular weight neutral lipid (triolein) sealed inside. The SPMD, when suspended in the water column, will concentrate lipophilic organic contaminants from the surrounding environment. The authors deployed SPMDs and caged Mytilus edulis side-by-side at five sites near New Bedford Harbor, MA; an area highly contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A good correlation was observed between the SPMDs and the caged blue mussels, with R{sup 2} ranging from 0.57 to 0.85 (N = 16) for chlorinated pesticides and from 0.81 to 0.96 (N = 20) for PCBs. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) based on water column concentrations were also calculated and a good correlation was obtained between the SPMD BCFs and corresponding octanol-water partition coefficients. Unlike previous investigations, the authors found good agreement even with the highest chlorinated PCBs suggesting that there was no steric hindrance of uptake through the SPMD membrane.

  6. Effects of microwaves on membranes of hematopoietic cells in their structural and functional organization.

    PubMed

    Rotkovská, D; Bartonicková, A; Kautská, J

    1993-01-01

    The role of cell membranes in stimulating and inhibiting the effects of microwaves was investigated in experiments carried out with a suspension of murine bone marrow cells irradiated with microwaves in vitro [f = 2.45 GHz, CW, specific absorption rate (SAR) = 12 W/kg]. Results obtained by means of a structural probe, 2.4-TNS, indicate that no structural changes occur in the region of the protein-lipid interphase under conditions of short-term irradiation with microwaves that induced temperatures in the range 36-45 degrees C (exposure time 315 and 525 s, respectively). Investigation of one functional parameter--the ability to produce hematopoietic colonies in the spleen after transplantation of the bone marrow irradiated in vitro by microwaves--indicated the possibility of affecting stimulatory and inhibitory effects of microwaves by using a blocker of cell receptors, Trimepranol. The role of microwaves as a physical factor interfering in the process of cell proliferation at the level of receptor regulation is discussed.

  7. Therapeutic relationships between DNA synthesis and repair, membrane differentiation, and organ-specific immunotherapy in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Byfield, J E

    1976-01-01

    The mouse neuroblastoma cell system (MNB) is of interest to both neurobiologists and cancer researchers because of its capacity to differentiate, with the consequent loss of some properties classically associated with malignancy. The effects of chemotherapeutic agents on MNB cells are variable; in general, cell cycle-specific agents will frequently induce differentiation, leaving viable surviving cells, while cell cycle nonspecific agents are toxic to both dividing and nondividing MNB cells. X-rays appear intermediate in that they are toxic to both cell populations, but survivors tend to resemble cells treated with cell cycle-specific drugs. Differentiated MNB cells apparently lose their capacity to repair some forms of DNA damage and this loss may be associated with their sensitivity to DNA damaging compounds. MNB cells are also susceptible to immunological lysis, particularly antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Integration of these diverse modes of MNB cell killing is of great interest because of the close resemblance of this murine tumor to human cancers in which cell differentiation is also partially membrane-mediated an indepth study of MNB cell surface receptors may have general relevance in the theoretical approach to cancer treatment.

  8. Uptake rate constants and partition coefficients for vapor phase organic chemicals using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cranor, W.L.; Alvarez, D.A.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    To fully utilize semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as passive samplers in air monitoring, data are required to accurately estimate airborne concentrations of environmental contaminants. Limited uptake rate constants (kua) and no SPMD air partitioning coefficient (Ksa) existed for vapor-phase contaminants. This research was conducted to expand the existing body of kinetic data for SPMD air sampling by determining kua and Ksa for a number of airborne contaminants including the chemical classes: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, brominated diphenyl ethers, phthalate esters, synthetic pyrethroids, and organophosphate/organosulfur pesticides. The kuas were obtained for 48 of 50 chemicals investigated and ranged from 0.03 to 3.07??m3??g-1??d-1. In cases where uptake was approaching equilibrium, Ksas were approximated. Ksa values (no units) were determined or estimated for 48 of the chemicals investigated and ranging from 3.84E+5 to 7.34E+7. This research utilized a test system (United States Patent 6,877,724 B1) which afforded the capability to generate and maintain constant concentrations of vapor-phase chemical mixtures. The test system and experimental design employed gave reproducible results during experimental runs spanning more than two years. This reproducibility was shown by obtaining mean kua values (n??=??3) of anthracene and p,p???-DDE at 0.96 and 1.57??m3??g-1??d-1 with relative standard deviations of 8.4% and 8.6% respectively.

  9. Structural organization of the lens fiber cell plasma membrane protein MP18

    SciTech Connect

    Galvan, A.; Lampe, P.D.; Hur, K.C.; Howard, J.B.; Eccleston, E.D.; Arneson, M.; Louis, C.F. )

    1989-11-25

    The 18,000-dalton bovine lens fiber cell intrinsic membrane protein MP18 was phosphorylated on a serine residue by both cAMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C. In addition, this protein bound calmodulin and was recognized by a monoclonal antibody (2D10). These different regions were localized using enzymatic and chemical fragmentation of electrophoretically purified MP18 that had been phosphorylated with either cAMP-dependent protein kinase or protein kinase C. Partial digestion of 32P-labeled MP18 with protease V8 resulted in a Mr = 17,000 peptide that bound calmodulin, but neither contained 32P or was recognized by the monoclonal antibody 2D10. Furthermore, the 17-kDa peptide had the same N-terminal amino acid sequence as MP18. Thus, the monoclonal antibody 2D10 recognition site and the protein kinase phosphorylation site(s) are close together and confined to a small region in the C terminus of MP18. This conclusion was confirmed in experiments where MP18 was fragmented with trypsin, endoproteinase Lys-C, or CNBr. The location of the phosphorylation site was confirmed by sequencing the small 32P-labeled, C-terminal peptide that resulted from protease V8 digestion of 32P-labeled MP18. This peptide contained a consensus sequence for cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

  10. Yeast Pmp3p has an important role in plasma membrane organization.

    PubMed

    De Block, Julien; Szopinska, Aleksandra; Guerriat, Bérengère; Dodzian, Joanna; Villers, Jennifer; Hochstenbach, Jean-François; Morsomme, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Pmp3p-related proteins are highly conserved proteins that exist in bacteria, yeast, nematodes and plants, and its transcript is regulated in response to abiotic stresses, such as low temperature or high salinity. Pmp3p was originally identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and it belongs to the sensitive to Na(+) (SNA)-protein family, which comprises four members--Pmp3p/Sna1p, Sna2p, Sna3p and Sna4p. Deletion of the PMP3 gene conferred sensitivity to cytotoxic cations, whereas removal of the other SNA genes did not lead to clear phenotypic effects. It has long been believed that Pmp3p-related proteins have a common and important role in the modulation of plasma membrane potential and in the regulation of intracellular ion homeostasis. Here, we show that several growth phenotypes linked to PMP3 deletion can be modulated by the removal of specific genes involved in sphingolipid synthesis. These genetic interactions, together with lipid binding assays and epifluorescence microscopy, as well as other biochemical experiments, suggest that Pmp3p could be part of a phosphoinositide-regulated stress sensor. PMID:26303201

  11. A continuous membrane bioreactor for ester synthesis in organic media: II. Modeling Of MBR continuous operation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, C M; Aires-Barros, M R; Cabral, J M

    2001-01-20

    A model was developed to describe the conversion degree in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for the synthesis of short-chain esters as a function of the flow rate. The transesterification reaction was catalyzed by a recombinant cutinase of Fusarium solani pisi microencapsulated in reversed micelles of AOT/isooctane. The differences of product concentration in permeate and retentate together with the deactivation profiles led to an enzyme distribution evaluation that describes the experimental values attained. The model considers the bioreactor design as well as its hydrodynamics and the enzyme kinetics. The approach included the analysis of the MBR operation as a CSTR, a PFR, and a series of continuous reactors. The comparative efficiency of these reactor types is discussed. The enzyme distribution was estimated for all the cases. The best description was obtained considering a series of two CSTRs. The modeling results led to a re-evaluation of cutinase operational stability. Deactivation rates correlated very well with the hydrodynamic aspects of biocatalyst location.

  12. Assembly, molecular organization, and membrane-binding properties of development-specific septins

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Galo; Finnigan, Gregory C.; Heasley, Lydia R.; Sterling, Sarah M.; Aggarwal, Adeeti; Pearson, Chad G.

    2016-01-01

    Septin complexes display remarkable plasticity in subunit composition, yet how a new subunit assembled into higher-order structures confers different functions is not fully understood. Here, this question is addressed in budding yeast, where during meiosis Spr3 and Spr28 replace the mitotic septin subunits Cdc12 and Cdc11 (and Shs1), respectively. In vitro, the sole stable complex that contains both meiosis-specific septins is a linear Spr28–Spr3–Cdc3–Cdc10–Cdc10–Cdc3–Spr3–Spr28 hetero-octamer. Only coexpressed Spr3 and Spr28 colocalize with Cdc3 and Cdc10 in mitotic cells, indicating that incorporation requires a Spr28-Spr3 protomer. Unlike their mitotic counterparts, Spr28-Spr3–capped rods are unable to form higher-order structures in solution but assemble to form long paired filaments on lipid monolayers containing phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, mimicking presence of this phosphoinositide in the prospore membrane. Spr28 and Spr3 fail to rescue the lethality of a cdc11Δ cdc12Δ mutant, and Cdc11 and Cdc12 fail to restore sporulation proficiency to spr3Δ/spr3Δ spr28Δ/spr28Δ diploids. Thus, specific meiotic and mitotic subunits endow septin complexes with functionally distinct properties. PMID:26929450

  13. Biology of bone and how it orchestrates the form and function of the skeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sommerfeldt, D. W.; Rubin, C. T.

    2001-01-01

    The principal role of the skeleton is to provide structural support for the body. While the skeleton also serves as the body's mineral reservoir, the mineralized structure is the very basis of posture, opposes muscular contraction resulting in motion, withstands functional load bearing, and protects internal organs. Although the mass and morphology of the skeleton is defined, to some extent, by genetic determinants, it is the tissue's ability to remodel--the local resorption and formation of bone--which is responsible for achieving this intricate balance between competing responsibilities. The aim of this review is to address bone's form-function relationship, beginning with extensive research in the musculoskeletal disciplines, and focusing on several recent cellular and molecular discoveries which help understand the complex interdependence of bone cells, growth factors, physical stimuli, metabolic demands, and structural responsibilities. With a clinical and spine-oriented audience in mind, the principles of bone cell and molecular biology and physiology are presented, and an attempt has been made to incorporate epidemiologic data and therapeutic implications. Bone research remains interdisciplinary by nature, and a deeper understanding of bone biology will ultimately lead to advances in the treatment of diseases and injuries to bone itself.

  14. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) sensitive organic cation/H/sup +/ antiporter in renal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV)

    SciTech Connect

    Sokol, P.P.; Holohan, P.D.; Ross, C.R.

    1986-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that organic cation transport in BBMV is coupled to the countertransport of a H/sup +/ by employing a prototypic organic cation, N/sup 1/-methylnicotinamide (NMN), and a rapid filtration assay. Two H/sup +/ gradient uncouplers, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP)/sub 3/ and gramicidin D were effective in dissipating H/sup +/ driven (/sup 3/H)NMN transport. Nigericin, a K/sup +//H/sup +/ exchanger, generated a H/sup +/ gradient in situ which drove the net accumulation of NMN. The molecular mechanism of H/sup +/ coupling was examined employing DCCD, a hydrophobic carbodiimide, which inactivates essential carboxylate groups, the putative H/sup +/ receptor. DCCD inactivated NMN transport irreversibly with an IC/sub 50/ of 2.6..mu..M whereas the hydrophilic carbodiimide, 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide, did not. DCCD inactivation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and was not affected by NMN. A double logarithmic plot of the apparent rate constants vs. (DCCD) gave a slope of 0.8. The data are consistent with a simple bimolecular reaction mechanism and imply that one molecule of DCCD inactivates one carboxylate group per active transport unit. The results show that (1) the transport of organic cations is coupled to the countermovement of a H/sup +/ and (2) a carboxylate group is essential for H/sup +/ binding and translocation.

  15. Endocytosis of albumin and thyroglobulin at the basolateral membrane of thyrocytes organized in follicles.

    PubMed

    Gire, V; Kostrouch, Z; Bernier-Valentin, F; Rabilloud, R; Munari-Silem, Y; Rousset, B

    1996-02-01

    Serum proteins such as albumin are present inside thyroid follicles in both normal and pathological situations. To analyze the mechanism of entry of these proteins, we investigated the ability of polarized thyrocytes to internalize soluble molecules at their basolateral pole. Experiments were conducted on in vitro reconstituted thyroid follicles using BSA and pig thyroglobulin (Tg) coupled to gold particles for electron microscopy, conjugated to fluorescein for conventional and confocal fluorescence microscopy, or radioiodinated for biochemical measurements. Incubations were carried out at 37 C. BSA and Tg coupled to gold particles were rapidly internalized from the culture medium and sequentially found in small vesicles and early endosomes and in late endosomes and lysosomes. Fluorescence microscope analyses revealed that the majority of cells forming reconstituted thyroid follicles are capable of internalizing BSA and Tg, but that Tg was more efficiently endocytosed than BSA. Using radioiodinated ligands, it was observed that the endocytosis of Tg was 10 times higher than that of BSA. The internalization of [125I]Tg was inhibited by increasing concentrations of unlabeled Tg. In contrast, endocytosis of 125I-labeled BSA was independent of the unlabeled BSA concentration. Experiments performed at 4 C indicated the presence of a basolateral membrane binding activity for [125I]Tg; the Tg concentration that reduced the binding of labeled Tg by 50% ranged from 4-6 microM. These data are evidence of a process of internalization of soluble molecules at the basolateral pole of thyrocytes, with BSA being internalized by fluid phase endocytosis and Tg by selective endocytosis. Our findings explain how serum albumin can enter thyroid follicles and disclose a new cellular handling and transport pathway of Tg. We propose that selective uptake of Tg operating on molecules secreted at the basolateral surface of thyrocytes could control the amount of Tg released in the

  16. Sulfonic acid-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic proton exchange membranes synthesized by sol-gel using 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosa, J.; Durán, A.; Aparicio, M.

    2015-11-01

    Organic/inorganic hybrid membranes based on (3-glycidoxypropyl) trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) have been prepared by sol-gel method and organic polymerisation, as candidate materials for proton exchange membranes in direct alcohol fuel cell (DMFC) applications. The -SH groups of MPTMS are oxidized to sulfonic acid groups, which are attributed to enhance the proton conductivity of hybrid membranes. FTIR, XPS and contact angle were used to characterize and confirm the hybrid structure and oxidation reaction progress. Membranes characterization also includes ion exchange capacity, water uptake, methanol permeability and proton conductivity to confirm their applicability in fuel cells. All the membranes were homogeneous and thermally and chemically resistant. In particular, the hybrid membranes demonstrated proton conductivities as high as 0.16 S cm-1 at high temperature, while exhibiting a low methanol permeability as compared to Nafion®. These results are associated with proton conducting paths through the silica pseudo-PEO network in which sulfonic acid groups work as proton donor.

  17. Characterisation of organic matter in IX and PACl treated wastewater in relation to the fouling of a hydrophobic polypropylene membrane.

    PubMed

    Myat, Darli T; Mergen, Max; Zhao, Oliver; Stewart, Matthew B; Orbell, John D; Gray, Stephen

    2012-10-15

    Extensive organic characterisation of a wastewater using liquid chromatography with a photodiode array and fluorescence spectroscopy (Method A), and UV(254) and organic carbon detector (Method B) was undertaken, as well as with fluorescence excitation emission spectroscopy (EEM). Characterisation was performed on the wastewater before and after ion exchange (IX) treatment and polyaluminium chlorohydrate (PACl) coagulation, and following microfiltration of the wastewater and pre-treated wastewaters. Characterisation by EEM was unable to detect biopolymers within the humic rich wastewaters and was not subsequently used to characterise the MF permeates. IX treatment preferentially removed low molecular weight (MW) organic acids and neutrals, and moderate amounts of biopolymers in contrast to a previous report of no biopolymer removal with IX. PACl preferentially removed moderate MW humic and fulvic acids, and large amounts of biopolymers. PACl showed a great preference for removal of proteins from the biopolymer component in comparison to IX. An increase in the fluorescence response of tryptophan-like compounds in the biopolymer fraction following IX treatment suggests that low MW neutrals may influence the structure and/or inhibit aggregation of organic compounds. Fouling rates for IX and PACl treated wastewaters had high initial fouling rates that reduced to lower fouling rates with time, while the untreated Eastern Treatment Plant (ETP) wastewater displayed a consistent, high rate of fouling. The results for the IX and PACl treated wastewaters were consistent with the long-term fouling rate being determined by cake filtration while both pore constriction and cake filtration contributed to the higher initial fouling rates. Higher rejection of biopolymers was observed for PACl and IX waters compared to the untreated ETP water, suggesting increased adhesion of biopolymers to the membrane or cake layer may lead to the higher rejection.

  18. Identification, Purification, and Partial Characterization of an Organic Anion Binding Protein from Rat Liver Cell Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Wolkoff, Allan W.; Chung, Cathie T.

    1980-01-01

    Uptake of bilirubin, sulfobromophthalein (BSP), and other organic anions by the liver is a process with kinetics consistent with carrier mediation. The molecular basis of this transport mechanism is unknown. In the search for the putative organic anion carrier or receptor, the interaction of BSP with rat liver cell plasma membrane (LPM) has been studied. Specific binding of [35S]BSP to LPM was determined using a filtration assay. Results revealed high affinity (Ka = 0.27 μM−1), saturable (6.3 nmol/mg protein) binding, which was eliminated after preincubation with trypsin. Although [35S]BSP was strongly bound to LPM, the binding was rapidly reversible, preventing direct identification and study of a specific binding site(s). To avoid this problem, a photoaffinity probe was devised, in which [35S]BSP is covalently bound to LPM after exposure to ultraviolet light. Subsequent sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and fluorography revealed radioactivity predominantly associated with a single 55,000-mol wt protein. A protein with identical electrophoretic mobility was purified from deoxycholate solubilized LPM after affinity chromatography on glutathione-BSP-agarose gel. This protein migrated as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and on urea gel isoelectric focusing. It contained 1-2 residues of sialic acid per 55,000-dalton protein, and was immunologically distinct from rat albumin and ligandin. It bound bilirubin with a Kd of 20 μM, as determined by tryptophan fluorescence quenching. Although the high affinity of this LPM protein for organic anions suggests that it may function as a hepatocellular organic anion receptor, its role in transport of these compounds is unknown. Images PMID:7364942

  19. The unique invention of the siliceous sponges: their enzymatically made bio-silica skeleton.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Wang, Xiaohong; Chen, Ailin; Hu, Shixue; Gan, Lu; Schröder, Heinz C; Schloßmacher, Ute; Wiens, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Sponges are sessile filter feeders that, among the metazoans, evolved first on Earth. In the two classes of the siliceous sponges (the Demospongiae and the Hexactinellida), the complex filigreed body is stabilized by an inorganic skeleton composed of amorphous silica providing them a distinct body shape and plan. It is proposed that the key innovation that allowed the earliest metazoans to form larger specimens was the enzyme silicatein. This enzyme is crucial for the formation of the siliceous skeleton. The first sponge fossils with body preservation were dated back prior to the "Precambrian-Cambrian" boundary [Vendian (610-545 Ma)/Ediacaran (542-580 Ma)]. A further molecule required for the formation of a hard skeleton was collagen, fibrous organic filaments that need oxygen for their formation. Silicatein forming the spicules and collagen shaping their morphology are the two organic components that control the appositional growth of these skeletal elements. This process starts in both demosponges and hexactinellids intracellularly and is completed extracellularly where the spicules may reach sizes of up to 3 m. While the basic strategy of their formation is identical in both sponge classes, it differs on a substructural level. In Hexactinellida, the initial silica layers remain separated, those layers bio-fuse (bio-sinter) together in demosponges. In some sponge taxa, e.g., the freshwater sponges from the Lake Baikal, the individual spicules are embedded in an organic matrix that is composed of the DUF protein. This protein comprises clustered stretches of amino acid sequences composed of pronounced hydrophobic segments, each spanning around 35 aa. We concluded with the remark of Thompson (1942) highlighting that "the sponge-spicule is a typical illustration of the theory of 'bio-crystallisation' to form 'biocrystals' ein Mittelding between an inorganic crystal and an organic secretion." Moreover, the understanding of the enzymatic formation of the spicules

  20. Transparent Metal-Organic Framework/Polymer Mixed Matrix Membranes as Water Vapor Barriers.

    PubMed

    Bae, Youn Jue; Cho, Eun Seon; Qiu, Fen; Sun, Daniel T; Williams, Teresa E; Urban, Jeffrey J; Queen, Wendy L

    2016-04-27

    Preventing the permeation of reactive molecules into electronic devices or photovoltaic modules is of great importance to ensure their life span and reliability. This work is focused on the formation of highly functioning barrier films based on nanocrystals (NCs) of a water-scavenging metal-organic framework (MOF) and a hydrophobic cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) to overcome the current limitations. Water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) of the films reveal a 10-fold enhancement in the WVTR compared to the substrate while maintaining outstanding transparency over most of the visible and solar spectrum, a necessary condition for integration with optoelectronic devices. PMID:27071544

  1. Self-Organization of Quantum Rods Induced by Lipid Membrane Corrugations.

    PubMed

    Bizien, Thomas; Ameline, Jean-Claude; Yager, Kevin G; Marchi, Valérie; Artzner, Franck

    2015-11-10

    Self-organization of fluorescent nanoparticles, using biological molecules such as phospholipids to control assembly distances, is a promising method for creating hybrid nanostructures. We report here the formation of hybrid condensed phases made of anisotropic nanoparticles and phospholipids. Such structure formation is driven by electrostatic interaction between the nanoparticles and the phospholipids, and results in the formation of a 2D rectangular liquid crystal, as confirmed by high-resolution Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). Moreover, we show that the fluorescent properties of the NPs are not modified by the self-assembly process.

  2. Biological membranes

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Biological membranes allow life as we know it to exist. They form cells and enable separation between the inside and outside of an organism, controlling by means of their selective permeability which substances enter and leave. By allowing gradients of ions to be created across them, membranes also enable living organisms to generate energy. In addition, they control the flow of messages between cells by sending, receiving and processing information in the form of chemical and electrical signals. This essay summarizes the structure and function of membranes and the proteins within them, and describes their role in trafficking and transport, and their involvement in health and disease. Techniques for studying membranes are also discussed. PMID:26504250

  3. Organic-inorganic crosslinked and hybrid membranes derived from sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)/silica via sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shaoguang; Shang, Yuming; Wang, Yingzi; Xie, Xiaofeng; Mathur, V. K.; Xu, Jingming

    A series of covalently crosslinkable organic-inorganic hybrid membranes have been prepared from sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES) with pendant propenyl moiety and various amounts of vinyl substituted silica via sol-gel process which are then thermally crosslinked in the presence of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) initiator. The obtained membranes are characterized in terms of oxidative stability, thermal property, ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, swelling ratio in methanol aqueous solution, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability coefficient. The results indicate that the oxidative stability and thermal stability of the hybrid membranes are improved. Moreover, introduction of silica reduces the water uptake and methanol swelling of membranes. The swelling ratio of membranes in 2 mol L -1 methanol aqueous solution at 80 °C slowly decreases from 26 to 19% with the increase of SiO 2 content from 0 to 12 wt.%. Furthermore, with the increase in silica content, the methanol permeability coefficient of the hybrid membranes decreases at first and then increases. When the silica content reaches 8 wt.%, the methanol permeability coefficient is at the minimum of 6.02 × 10 -7 cm 2 s -1, a 2.64-fold decrease compared with that of the pristine SPAES membrane. Moreover, the proton conductivity is found to be at about 95% of that of pristine polymer at that silica content.