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Sample records for membrane-assisted solvent extraction

  1. Decontamination of groundwater using membrane-assisted solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, J.C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1991-09-01

    This report describes the development of a new process to remove volatile organic compounds at dilute concentrations (VOCs) from groundwater was recently begun at Argonne. This process consists of membrane-assisted solvent extraction and membrane-assisted distillation stripping (MASX/MADS). The use of membranes is the solvent extraction and distillation stripping units improves mass transfer by increasing the interfacial surface area, thus allowing the process to be performed efficiently at high throughputs. The thermodynamics of the separation process and regions of applicability of this process are discussed.

  2. Removal of VOCs from groundwater using membrane-assisted solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, J.C.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Nunez, L.; Redfield, D.H.

    1992-11-01

    A membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASX) system coupled to a membrane-assisted distillation stripping (MADS) system for use in decontaminating groundwater is discussed. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are extracted in the MASX using a sunflower oil solvent. In the MADS, VOCs are stripped from the sunflower oil, and the oil is recycled to the MASX. Thermodynamic data for the sunflower oil-water-VOCs system were experimentally collected. Published membrane-mass transfer results along with these data were used to design the MASX and MADS modules.

  3. Removal of VOCs from groundwater using membrane-assisted solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, J.C.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Nunez, L.; Redfield, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    A membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASX) system coupled to a membrane-assisted distillation stripping (MADS) system for use in decontaminating groundwater is discussed. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are extracted in the MASX using a sunflower oil solvent. In the MADS, VOCs are stripped from the sunflower oil, and the oil is recycled to the MASX. Thermodynamic data for the sunflower oil-water-VOCs system were experimentally collected. Published membrane-mass transfer results along with these data were used to design the MASX and MADS modules.

  4. Removal of VOCs from groundwater using membrane-assisted solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, J.C.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Nunez, L.; Redfield, D.H. . Chemical Technology Div.)

    1994-01-01

    A membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASX) system coupled to a membrane-assisted distillation stripping (MADS) system for use in decontaminating groundwater is evaluated. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the groundwater are extracted in the MASX unit using a sunflower oil solvent. In the MADS unit, VOCs are stripped from the sunflower oil, which is recycled to the MASX unit. Thermodynamic data for the sunflower oil-water-VOCs system were measured. The results were used along with published membrane mass-transfer data to design MASX and MADS modules.

  5. Rapid analysis of pyrethroid insecticides in aquaculture seawater samples via membrane-assisted solvent extraction coupled with gas chromatography-electron capture detection.

    PubMed

    Shi, X Z; Song, S Q; Sun, A L; Liu, J H; Li, D X; Chen, J

    2012-01-21

    A simple, efficient, and environmentally friendly membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASE) method for the extraction and preconcentration of six pyrethroid insecticides from aquaculture seawater samples followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) was successfully proposed. The operating conditions for MASE, such as the extraction solvent, solvent volume, NaCl concentration, stirring rate, extraction time, and temperature, were optimized. Compared to conventional Florisil-solid phase extraction (SPE), higher extraction recoveries (85.9% to 105.9%) of three spiked levels of the six pyrethroid pesticides in aquaculture seawater were obtained using MASE, and the RSD values were lower than 7.9%. The limits of detection (LOD, signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)=3) and quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) were in the range of 0.037-0.166 and 0.12-0.55 μg L(-1), respectively. The results demonstrate the excellent applicability of the MASE method in analyzing the six pyrethroid pesticides in aqueous samples. The proposed method exhibited a high potential for routine monitoring analysis of pyrethroid insecticides in seawater samples.

  6. Determination of pesticide residues in wine by membrane-assisted solvent extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Moeder, M; Bauer, C; Popp, P; van Pinxteren, M; Reemtsma, T

    2012-06-01

    The determination of pesticides in food products is an essential issue to guarantee food safety and minimise health risks of consumers. A protocol based on membrane-assisted solvent extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) that allows the determination of 18 pesticides in red wine at minimum labour effort for sample preparation was developed and validated. Ten millilitres of wine were extracted using 100 μL of toluene filled in a non-porous polyethylene membrane bag which is immersed in the wine sample. After 150 min extraction under stirring, an aliquot of the extraction solution is analysed using HPLC-MS/MS. The limits of quantification ranged from 3 ng/L for Pirimicarb to 1.33 μg/L for Imidacloprid. Quantification by matrix-matched calibration provided relative standard deviations ≤16 % for most of the target pesticides. The linearity of calibration was given over three to four orders of magnitude, which enables the reliable measurement of a broad range of pesticide concentrations, and for each target pesticide, the sensitivity of the protocol meets the maximum residue levels set by legislations at least for wine grapes. Good agreement of results was found when the new method was compared with a standard liquid-liquid extraction protocol. In five wine samples analysed, Carbendazim and Metalaxyl were determined at micrograms per litre concentrations, even in some of the organic wines. Tebuconazol and Cyprodinitril were determined at lower abundance and concentration, followed by Spiroxamin and Diuron.

  7. Simultaneous analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seawater samples by membrane-assisted solvent extraction combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detector and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xizhi; Tang, Zigang; Sun, Aili; Zhou, Lei; Zhao, Jian; Li, Dexiang; Chen, Jiong; Pan, Daodong

    2014-12-01

    A highly efficient and environment-friendly membrane-assisted solvent extraction system combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detector was applied in the simultaneous determination of 17 polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seawater samples. Variables affecting extraction efficiency, including extraction solvent used, stirring rate, extraction time, and temperature, were optimized extensively. Under optimal extraction conditions, recoveries between 76.9% and 104.6% in seawater samples were achieved, and relative standard deviation values below 10% were obtained. The limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio=3) and limit of quantification (signal-to-noise ratio=10) of 17 polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seawater ranged from 0.14ngL(-1) to 0.36ngL(-1) and 0.46ngL(-1) to 1.19ngL(-1), respectively. Matrix effects on extraction efficiency were evaluated by comparing with the results obtained using tap water. The extraction effect of developed membrane-assisted solvent extraction method was further demonstrated by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry which can provide structural information of the analytes for more accurate identification, and results identical to those produced by gas chromatography-electron capture detector were obtained. These findings demonstrate the applicability of the developed membrane-assisted solvent extraction determination method for coupling to gas chromatography-electron capture detector or tandem mass spectrometry for determining polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seawater samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Membrane-assisted culture of fungal mycelium on agar plates for RNA extraction and pharmacological analyses.

    PubMed

    Lange, Mario; Müller, Carolin; Peiter, Edgar

    2014-05-15

    Fungal mycelium grown in liquid culture is easy to harvest for RNA extraction and gene expression analyses, but liquid cultures often develop rather heterogeneously. In contrast, growth of fungal mycelium on agar plates is highly reproducible. However, this biological material cannot be harvested easily for downstream analyses. This article describes a PVDF (polyvinylidene difluoride) membrane-assisted agar plate culture method that enables the harvest of mycelium grown on agar plates. This culture method leads to a strongly reduced variation in gene expression between biological replicates and requires less growth space as compared with liquid cultures.

  9. NEPTUNIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, L.R.; Fields, P.R.

    1959-10-01

    The separation of neptunium from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and the extraction of neptunium from the solvent solution are described. Neptunium is separated from an aqueous solution containing tetravalent or hexavalent neptunium nitrate, nitric acid, and a nitrate salting out agent, such as sodium nitrate, by contacting the solution with an organic solvent such as diethyl ether. Subsequently, the neptunium nitrate is extracted from the organic solvent extract phase with water.

  10. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF NEPTUNIUM

    DOEpatents

    Butler, J.P.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of neptuniunn from dissolver solutions by solvent extraction. The neptunium containing solution should be about 5N, in nitric acid.and about 0.1 M in ferrous ion. The organic extracting agent is tributyl phosphate, and the neptuniunn is recovered from the organic solvent phase by washing with water.

  11. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  12. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Jonke, A.A.

    1957-10-01

    In improved solvent extraction process is described for the extraction of metal values from highly dilute aqueous solutions. The process comprises contacting an aqueous solution with an organic substantially water-immiscible solvent, whereby metal values are taken up by a solvent extract phase; scrubbing the solvent extract phase with an aqueous scrubbing solution; separating an aqueous solution from the scrubbed solvent extract phase; and contacting the scrubbed solvent phase with an aqueous medium whereby the extracted metal values are removed from the solvent phase and taken up by said medium to form a strip solution containing said metal values, the aqueous scrubbing solution being a mixture of strip solution and an aqueous solution which contains mineral acids anions and is free of the metal values. The process is particularly effective for purifying uranium, where one starts with impure aqueous uranyl nitrate, extracts with tributyl phosphate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, scrubs with aqueous nitric acid and employs water to strip the uranium from the scrubbed organic phase.

  13. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF RUTHENIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, H.H.; Leader, G.R.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is described. According to the invention, a nitrite selected from the group consisting of alkali nitrite and alkaline earth nitrite in an equimolecular quantity with regard to the quantity of rathenium present is added to an aqueous solution containing ruthenium tetrantrate to form a ruthenium complex. Adding an organic solvent such as ethyl ether to the resulting mixture selectively extracts the rathenium complex.

  14. Membrane-assisted extractive butanol fermentation by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 with 1-dodecanol as the extractant.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shigemitsu; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Kobayashi, Genta; Ikegami, Toru; Negishi, Hideyuki; Sakaki, Keiji

    2012-07-01

    A polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane was used in membrane-assisted extractive (MAE) fermentation of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. The growth inhibition effects of 1-dodecanol, which has a high partition coefficient for butanol, can be prevented by employing 1-dodecanol as an extractant when using a PTFE membrane. Compared to conventional fermentation, MAE-ABE fermentation with 1-dodecanol decreased butanol inhibition and increased glucose consumption from 59.4 to 86.0 g/L, and total butanol production increased from 16.0 to 20.1g/L. The maximum butanol production rate increased from 0.817 to 0.979 g/L/h. The butanol productivity per membrane area was remarkably high with this system, i.e., 78.6g/L/h/m(2). Therefore, it is expected that this MAE fermentation system can achieve footprint downsizing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Membrane-assisted liquid-liquid extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for determination of selected polycyclic musk compounds and drugs in water samples.

    PubMed

    Einsle, T; Paschke, H; Bruns, K; Schrader, S; Popp, P; Moeder, M

    2006-08-18

    Selected polycyclic musk compounds and drugs were extracted from water samples by membrane-assisted micro liquid-liquid extraction. The two-phase extraction system consisted of polyethylene membrane bags filled with an organic solvent. Chloroform proved to be most suited as acceptor phase to extract caffeine, Galaxolide, Tonalide, phenazone and carbamazepine from aqueous samples. The compounds were enriched from 50 mL sample into a volume of 500 microL of chloroform. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied for analysis. The extraction procedure was optimised in regard to membrane material, extraction time and temperature. The evaluation of the entire analysis protocol found limits of detection that ranged from 20 to 200 ng/L. The linear range of calibration covered one magnitude with standard deviations between 4 and 12%. Method comparison with standard analysis techniques such as solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with GC-MS as well as LC-MS-MS confirmed this method as an easy and reliable protocol, even for the monitoring of matrix-loaded wastewater. The analysis of real samples established the feasibility of the technique.

  16. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  17. Solvent extraction of lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Sequeira, A. Jr.

    1991-08-13

    This patent describes improvement in a process for solvent refining a hydrocarbon based lubricating oil stock containing aromatics and non-aromatics components with an extraction solvent wherein the lubricating oil stock is contacted with the extraction solvent in a first extraction zone at a first extraction temperature in the range of 100{degrees} F to 250{degrees} F and a solvent to oil dosage in the range of 75 to 500 vol % forming an aromatics-rich primary extract and an aromatics-lean primary raffinate of high viscosity index of at least 85. The improvement comprises: withdrawing and cooling the primary extract to a temperature 10{degrees} F to 120{degrees} F below the extraction temperature and admixing with 0.0 vol % to 10 vol % anti-solvent thereby forming a secondary extract and a secondary raffinate, passing the secondary raffinate to a second extraction zone wherein the secondary raffinate is contacted with the extraction solvent at a second extraction temperature in the range of 100{degrees} F to 250{degrees} F and solvent to oil dosage in the range of 75 to 500 vol %, to form an aromatics-lean tertiary raffinate phase of viscosity index 65 or greater.

  18. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  19. Separation by solvent extraction

    DOEpatents

    Holt, Jr., Charles H.

    1976-04-06

    17. A process for separating fission product values from uranium and plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution, comprising adding an oxidizing agent to said solution to secure uranium and plutonium in their hexavalent state; contacting said aqueous solution with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent while agitating and maintaining the temperature at from -1.degree. to -2.degree. C. until the major part of the water present is frozen; continuously separating a solid ice phase as it is formed; separating a remaining aqueous liquid phase containing fission product values and a solvent phase containing plutonium and uranium values from each other; melting at least the last obtained part of said ice phase and adding it to said separated liquid phase; and treating the resulting liquid with a new supply of solvent whereby it is practically depleted of uranium and plutonium.

  20. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E.; Delmau, Lætitia H.; Peterson, Eric S.; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R.

    2015-06-24

    In this paper, the rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acid solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. Finally, the resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets.

  1. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E.; Delmau, Lætitia H.; ...

    2015-06-24

    In this paper, the rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acidmore » solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. Finally, the resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets.« less

  2. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E; Delmau, Lætitia H; Peterson, Eric S; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2015-08-18

    The rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acid solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. The resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets.

  3. URANIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.

    1959-09-01

    A method is given for extracting uranium values from ores of high phosphate content consisting of dissolving them in aqueous nitric acid, adjusting the concentration of the aqueous solution to about 2 M with respect to nitric acid, and then contacting it with diethyl ether which has previously been made 1 M with respect to nitric acid.

  4. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.

  5. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  6. ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION COMBINED WITH ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A research project was initiated to address a recurring problem of elevated detection limits above required risk-based concentrations for the determination of semivolatile organic compounds in high moisture content solid samples. This project was initiated, in cooperation with the EPA Region 1 Laboratory, under the Regional Methods Program administered through the ORD Office of Science Policy. The aim of the project was to develop an approach for the rapid removal of water in high moisture content solids (e.g., wetland sediments) in preparation for analysis via Method 8270. Alternative methods for water removal have been investigated to enhance compound solid concentrations and improve extraction efficiency, with the use of pressure filtration providing a high-throughput alternative for removal of the majority of free water in sediments and sludges. In order to eliminate problems with phase separation during extraction of solids using Accelerated Solvent Extraction, a variation of a water-isopropanol extraction method developed at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, CO is being employed. The concentrations of target compounds in water-isopropanol extraction fluids are subsequently analyzed using an automated Solid Phase Extraction (SPE)-GC/MS method developed in our laboratory. The coupled approaches for dewatering, extraction, and target compound identification-quantitation provide a useful alternative to enhance sample throughput for Me

  7. ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION COMBINED WITH ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A research project was initiated to address a recurring problem of elevated detection limits above required risk-based concentrations for the determination of semivolatile organic compounds in high moisture content solid samples. This project was initiated, in cooperation with the EPA Region 1 Laboratory, under the Regional Methods Program administered through the ORD Office of Science Policy. The aim of the project was to develop an approach for the rapid removal of water in high moisture content solids (e.g., wetland sediments) in preparation for analysis via Method 8270. Alternative methods for water removal have been investigated to enhance compound solid concentrations and improve extraction efficiency, with the use of pressure filtration providing a high-throughput alternative for removal of the majority of free water in sediments and sludges. In order to eliminate problems with phase separation during extraction of solids using Accelerated Solvent Extraction, a variation of a water-isopropanol extraction method developed at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, CO is being employed. The concentrations of target compounds in water-isopropanol extraction fluids are subsequently analyzed using an automated Solid Phase Extraction (SPE)-GC/MS method developed in our laboratory. The coupled approaches for dewatering, extraction, and target compound identification-quantitation provide a useful alternative to enhance sample throughput for Me

  8. How solvent selection affects extraction performance

    SciTech Connect

    Sprague, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    Many solvents can be used in petroleum-refining solvent extraction processes to make products ranging from lube oil blending stocks to incremental FCCU feed. This paper describes how the deasphalted oil (DAO) quality changes with DAO yield and extraction solvent.

  9. Improved Supercritical-Solvent Extraction of Coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L.

    1982-01-01

    Raw coal upgraded by supercritical-solvent extraction system that uses two materials instead of one. System achieved extraction yields of 20 to 49 weight percent. Single-solvent yields are about 25 weight percent. Experimental results show extraction yields may be timedependent. Observed decreases in weight of coal agreed well with increases in ash content of residue.

  10. Supercritical solvent extraction of oil sand bitumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Tileuberdi, Ye.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Golovko, A. K.; Rudyk, S.

    2017-08-01

    The supercritical solvent extraction of bitumen from oil sand studied with organic solvents. The experiments were performed in autoclave reactor at temperature above 255 °C and pressure 29 atm with stirring for 6 h. The reaction resulted in the formation of coke products with mineral part of oil sands. The remaining products separated into SARA fractions. The properties of the obtained products were studied. The supercritical solvent extraction significantly upgraded extracted natural bitumen.

  11. Solvent Extraction of Furfural From Biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    Solvent-extraction method reduces energy required to remove furfural produced during acid hydrolysis of biomass. Acid hydrolysis performed in vessel containing both solvents and reacting ingredients. With intimate contact between solvents and aqueous hydrolyis liqour, furfural removed form liquor almost as fast as it forms.

  12. A spreadsheet algorithm for stagewise solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.A.; Regalbuto, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Part of the novelty is the way in which the problem is organized in the spreadsheet. In addition, to facilitate spreadsheet setup, a new calculational procedure has been developed. The resulting Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction (SASSE) can be used with either IBM or Macintosh personal computers as a simple yet powerful tool for analyzing solvent extraction flowsheets.

  13. REMEDIATING PESTICIDE CONTAMINATED SOILS USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD,, p,p'-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as sol...

  14. REMEDIATING PESTICIDE CONTAMINATED SOILS USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD,, p,p'-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as sol...

  15. Remediating pesticide contaminated soils using solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Sahle-Demessie, E.; Meckes, M.C.; Richardson, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p{prime}-DDT, p,p{prime}-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as solvents over a wide range of operating conditions. It was demonstrated that a six-stage methanol extraction using a solvent-to-soil ratio of 1.6 can decrease pesticide levels in the soil by more than 99% and reduce the volume of material requiring further treatment by 25 times or more. The high solubility of the pesticides in methanol resulted in rapid extraction rates, with the system reaching quasi-equilibrium state in 30 minutes. The extraction efficiency was influenced by the number of extraction stages, the solvent-to-soil ratio, and the soil moisture content. Various methods were investigated to regenerate and recycle the solvent. Evaporation and solvent stripping are low cost and reliable methods for removing high pesticide concentrations from the solvent. For low concentrations, GAC adsorption may be used. Precipitating and filtering pesticides by adding water to the methanol/pesticide solution was not successful when tested with soil extracts. 26 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Solvent-Composition Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Klatt, L.N.

    2002-05-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy has selected caustic-side solvent extraction as the preferred cesium removal technology for the treatment of high-level waste stored at the Savannah River Site. Data for the solubility of the extractant, calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octyl benzo-crown-6), acquired and reported for the Salt Processing Program down-select decision, showed the original solvent composition to be supersaturated with respect to the extractant. Although solvent samples have been observed for approximately 1 year without any solids formation, work was completed to define a new solvent composition that was thermodynamically stable with respect to solids formation and to expand the operating temperature with respect to third-phase formation. Chemical and physical data as a function of solvent component concentrations were collected. The data included calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octyl benzo-crown-6) solubility; cesium distribution ratio under extraction, scrub, and strip conditions; flow sheet robustness; temperature range of third-phase formation; dispersion numbers for the solvent against waste simulant, scrub and strip acids, and sodium hydroxide wash solutions; solvent density; viscosity; and surface and interfacial tension. These data were mapped against a set of predefined performance criteria. The composition of 0.007 M calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octyl benzo-crown-6), 0.75 M 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol, and 0.003 M tri-n-octylamine in the diluent Isopar{reg_sign} L provided the best match between the measured properties and the performance criteria. Therefore, it is recommended as the new baseline solvent composition.

  17. A Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.A.; Regalbuto, M.C.

    1993-08-01

    The material balance and equilibrium equations for solvent extraction processes have been combined with computer spreadsheets in a new way so that models for very complex multicomponent multistage operations can be setup and used easily. A part of the novelty is the way in which the problem is organized in the spreadsheet. In addition, to facilitate spreadsheet setup, a new calculational procedure has been developed. The resulting Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction (SASSE) can be used with either IBM or Macintosh personal computers as a simple yet powerful tool for analyzing solvent extraction flowsheets.

  18. Gallium complexes and solvent extraction of gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.P.; Graham, C.R.; Monzyk, B.F.

    1988-05-03

    This patent describes a process for recovering gallium from aqueous solutions containing gallium which comprises contacting such a solution with an organic solvent containing at least 2% by weight of a water-insoluble N-organo hydroxamic acid having at least about 8 carbon atoms to extract gallium, and separating the gallium loaded organic solvent phase from the aqueous phase.

  19. Supercritical-Multiple-Solvent Extraction From Coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, W.; Fong, W.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P.; Lawson, D.

    1983-01-01

    Large and small molecules dissolve different constituents. Experimental apparatus used to test supercritical extraction of hydrogen rich compounds from coal in various organic solvents. In decreasing order of importance, relevant process parameters were found to be temperature, solvent type, pressure, and residence time.

  20. ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE METAL SOLVENT EXTRACTANTS AND PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Long, R.L.

    1958-09-30

    A process is presented for the recovery of uranium from aqueous mineral acidic solutions by solvent extraction. The extractant is a synmmetrical dialkyl pyrophosphate in which the alkyl substituents have a chain length of from 4 to 17 carbon atoms. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dioctyl pyrophosphate. The uranium is precipitated irom the organic extractant phase with an agent such as HF, fluoride salts. alcohol, or ammonia.

  1. Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Research last year emphasized the nature of microscopic interfaces, i. e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co and Na in order to improve on a recently proposed model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of extractant molecules and their interactions with metal ions which occur in hydrometallurgical solvent extraction systems were further investigated.

  2. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.H.; Asprey, L.B.

    1960-02-01

    A process of separating plutonium in at least the tetravalent state from fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution by extraction with alkyl phosphate is reported. The plutonium can then be back-extracted from the organic phase by contact with an aqueous solution of sulfuric, phosphoric, or oxalic acid as a complexing agent.

  3. Solvent extraction of phenols from water

    SciTech Connect

    Greminger, D.C.; Burns, G.P.; Lynn, S.; Hanson, D.H.; King, C.J.

    1980-02-01

    Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and diisopropyl ether (DIPE) have been evaluated as solvents for extraction of phenols, at high dilution, from water. Equilibrium distribution coefficients (K/sub D/) have been measured for phenol, dihydroxybenzenes and trihydroxybenzenes in both solvents as a function of pH. Particularly for the multihydric phenols, MIBK gives substantially higher values of K/sub D/ than does DIPE. The effect of pH can be described quantitatively through a simple ionization model, using published values of dissociation constants for the various phenols. Some method for removal of residual dissolved solvent must ordinarily be included in any extraction process for phenols. Possibilities include atmospheric-steam or inert-gas stripping, vacuum-steam stripping, and extraction with a second solvent. Vacuum-steam stripping is a particularly attractive choice for removal of MIBK; this reinforces the utility of MIBK as a solvent. The optimal temperature for vacuum stripping is generally the temperature of the extraction operation, which in turn is related to the effect of temperature on K/sub D/. Values of K/sub D/ for phenol-water-MIBK were determined at 30, 50, and 75/sup 0/C, and were found to decrease with increasing temperature at all concentrations.

  4. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PROTACTINIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.

    1961-04-01

    A process is described for separating protactinium from thorium present together as the nitrates in a 0.1 to 10 N nitric acid solution. The separation is carried out by extraction with an aliphatic alcohol, ketone, and/or ester having at least six carbon atoms, such as n-amyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and diisopropyl ketone.

  5. Catalog solvent extraction: anticipate process adjustments

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, S.G.; Brass, E.A.; Brown, S.J.; Geeting, M.W.

    2008-07-01

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) utilizes commercially available centrifugal contactors to facilitate removal of radioactive cesium from highly alkaline salt solutions. During the fabrication of the contactor assembly, demonstrations revealed a higher propensity for foaming than was initially expected. A task team performed a series of single-phase experiments that revealed that the shape of the bottom vanes and the outer diameter of those vanes are key to the successful deployment of commercial contactors in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process. (authors)

  6. Solvent extraction of metals with hydroxamic acids.

    PubMed

    Vernon, F; Khorassani, J H

    1978-07-01

    Solvent extraction with hydroxamic acids has been investigated. with comparison of aliphatic and aromatic reagents for the extraction of iron, copper, cobalt and nickel. Caprylohydroxamic acid has been evaluated for use in extraction systems for titanium, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum and uranium, both in terms of acidity of aqueous phase and oxidation state of the metal. It has been established that caprylohydroxamic acid in 1-hexanol is a suitable extractant for the removal of titanium(IV), vanadium(V), chromium(VI), molybdenum(VI) and uranium(VI) from 6M hydrochloric acid.

  7. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM RECOVERY

    DOEpatents

    Clark, H.M.; Duffey, D.

    1958-06-17

    A process is described for extracting uranium from uranium ore, wherein the uranium is substantially free from molybdenum contamination. In a solvent extraction process for recovering uranium, uranium and molybdenum ions are extracted from the ore with ether under high acidity conditions. The ether phase is then stripped with water at a lower controiled acidity, resaturated with salting materials such as sodium nitrate, and reextracted with the separation of the molybdenum from the uranium without interference from other metals that have been previously extracted.

  8. Solvent-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Mohammad Reza; Firouzjah, Ahmad; Rahnama, Reyhaneh

    2013-11-15

    In this research, a novel extraction technique termed solvent-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction (SADSPE) was developed for the first time. The new method was based on the dispersion of the sorbent into the sample to maximize the contact surface. In this method, the dispersion of the sorbent at a very low milligram level was achieved by injecting a solution of the sorbent into the aqueous sample. Thereby, a cloudy solution formed. The cloudy state resulted from the dispersion of the fine particles of the sorbent in the bulk aqueous sample. After extraction, phase separation was performed by centrifugation and the enriched analyte in the sedimented phase could be determined by instrumental methods. The performance of SADSPE was illustrated with the determination of the trace amounts of cobalt(II) as a test analyte in food and environmental water samples by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry detection. Some key parameters for SADSPE, such as sorbent selection and amount, type and volume of dispersive solvent, pH, chelating agent concentration, and salt concentration, were investigated. Under the most favorable conditions, good limit of detection (as low as 0.2 µg L(-1)) and repeatability of extraction (RSD below 2.2%, n=10) was obtained. The accuracy of the method was tested with standard reference material (SRM-1643e and SRM-1640a) and spiked addition. The advantages of SADSPE method are simplicity of operation, rapidity, low cost, high recovery, and enrichment factor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Solvent extraction: the coordination chemistry behind extractive metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A Matthew; Bailey, Phillip J; Tasker, Peter A; Turkington, Jennifer R; Grant, Richard A; Love, Jason B

    2014-01-07

    The modes of action of the commercial solvent extractants used in extractive hydrometallurgy are classified according to whether the recovery process involves the transport of metal cations, M(n+), metalate anions, MXx(n-), or metal salts, MXx into a water-immiscible solvent. Well-established principles of coordination chemistry provide an explanation for the remarkable strengths and selectivities shown by most of these extractants. Reagents which achieve high selectivity when transporting metal cations or metal salts into a water-immiscible solvent usually operate in the inner coordination sphere of the metal and provide donor atom types or dispositions which favour the formation of particularly stable neutral complexes that have high solubility in the hydrocarbons commonly used in recovery processes. In the extraction of metalates, the structures of the neutral assemblies formed in the water-immiscible phase are usually not well defined and the cationic reagents can be assumed to operate in the outer coordination spheres. The formation of secondary bonds in the outer sphere using, for example, electrostatic or H-bonding interactions are favoured by the low polarity of the water-immiscible solvents.

  10. Electrode coke from coal via solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kimber, G.

    1994-12-31

    The development of a process to make high quality coke from coal for use in the manufacture of artificial graphite electrodes will be described. The process uses solvent extraction with a non-hydrogen donor recycle solvent; the effects of various process variables upon the quality of the final graphite were studied. Following laboratory work a 1/2 ton per day pilot was built which included a pair of delayed cokers, each with a capacity of 300 kg. After studying various chemical engineering aspects the pilot plant was run as a production unit in order to accumulate enough coke for the semi-commercial manufacture of graphite electrodes of 300 mm diameter. These electrodes were then tested in a 25 ton commercial arc steel furnace.

  11. Green solvents and technologies for oil extraction from oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S P Jeevan; Prasad, S Rajendra; Banerjee, Rintu; Agarwal, Dinesh K; Kulkarni, Kalyani S; Ramesh, K V

    2017-01-01

    Oilseeds are crucial for the nutritional security of the global population. The conventional technology used for oil extraction from oilseeds is by solvent extraction. In solvent extraction, n-hexane is used as a solvent for its attributes such as simple recovery, non-polar nature, low latent heat of vaporization (330 kJ/kg) and high selectivity to solvents. However, usage of hexane as a solvent has lead to several repercussions such as air pollution, toxicity and harmfulness that prompted to look for alternative options. To circumvent the problem, green solvents could be a promising approach to replace solvent extraction. In this review, green solvents and technology like aqueous assisted enzyme extraction are better solution for oil extraction from oilseeds. Enzyme mediated extraction is eco-friendly, can obtain higher yields, cost-effective and aids in obtaining co-products without any damage. Enzyme technology has great potential for oil extraction in oilseed industry. Similarly, green solvents such as terpenes and ionic liquids have tremendous solvent properties that enable to extract the oil in eco-friendly manner. These green solvents and technologies are considered green owing to the attributes of energy reduction, eco-friendliness, non-toxicity and non-harmfulness. Hence, the review is mainly focussed on the prospects and challenges of green solvents and technology as the best option to replace the conventional methods without compromising the quality of the extracted products.

  12. Development of deep eutectic solvents applied in extraction and separation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxia; Row, Kyung Ho

    2016-09-01

    Deep eutectic solvents, as an alternative to ionic liquids, have greener credentials than ionic liquids, and have attracted considerable attention in related chemical research. Deep eutectic solvents have attracted increasing attention in chemistry for the extraction and separation of various target compounds from natural products. This review highlights the preparation of deep eutectic solvents, unique properties of deep eutectic solvents, and synthesis of deep-eutectic-solvent-based materials. On the other hand, application in the extraction and separation of deep eutectic solvents is also included in this report. In this paper, the available data and references in this field are reviewed to summarize the applications and developments of deep eutectic solvents. Based on the development of deep eutectic solvents, an exploitation of new deep eutectic solvents and deep eutectic solvents-based materials is expected to diversify into extraction and separation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. PULSED MIXER-SETTLER SOLVENT EXTRACTION CONTACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Figg, W.S.

    1958-08-12

    A mixer-settler extractor is described for contacting immiscible liquids having different specific gravities in order to withdraw one or more components from one liquid with the aid of the other liquid. The extractor consists of a hollow column, a rotary drive shafi extending : through the column with a number of impellers spaced thereon, an equal nunnber of separator plate sets each consisting of one fluorothene and one stainless steel plate with peripheral recesses and flow slots mounted on the column, and a pulse generator. This apparatus is particularly useful in solvent extraction processes for recovering plutonium from aqueous acidic solutions of irradiated uranium.

  14. PROCESS OF SEPARATING URANIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Warf, J.C.

    1958-08-19

    A process is described for separating uranium values from aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions. The process consists in contacting the uramium bearing solution with an organic solvent, tributyl phosphate, preferably diluted with a less viscous organic liquida whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the organic solvent phase. The uranvl nitrate may be recovered from the solvent phase bv back extracting with an aqueous mediuin.

  15. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  16. Solvent-extraction purification of neptunium

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.A.; Hudlow, S.L.

    2008-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has recovered {sup 237}Np from reactor fuel that is currently being processed into NpO{sub 2} for future production of {sup 238}Pu. Several purification flowsheets have been utilized. An oxidizing solvent-extraction (SX) flowsheet was used to remove Fe, sulfate ion, and Th while simultaneously {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}Pu, u, and nonradioactive Ce(IV) was extracted into the tributyl phosphate (TBP) based organic solvent. A reducing SX flowsheet (second pass) removed the Ce and Pu and recovered both Np and U. The oxidizing flowsheet was necessary for solutions that contained excessive amounts of sulfate ion. Anion exchange was used to perform final purification of Np from Pu, U, and various non-actinide impurities. The Np(IV) in the purified solution was then oxalate-precipitated and calcined to an oxide for shipment to other facilities for storage and future target fabrication. Performance details of the SX purification and process difficulties are discussed. (authors)

  17. Non-Ideal Behavior in Solvent Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Zalupski

    2011-09-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet FCR&D level 3 milestone M31SW050801, 'Complete the year-end report summarizing FY11 experimental and modeling activities.' This work was carried out under the auspices of the Non-Ideality in Solvent Extraction Systems FCR&D work package. The report summarizes our initial considerations of potential influences that non-ideal chemistry may impose on computational prediction of outcomes in solvent extraction systems. The report is packaged into three separate test cases where a robustness of the prediction by SXFIT program is under scrutiny. The computational exercises presented here emphasize the importance of accurate representation of both an aqueous and organic mixtures when modeling liquid-liquid distribution systems. Case No.1 demonstrates that non-ideal behavior of HDEHP in aliphatic diluents, such as n-dodecane, interferes with the computation. Cases No.2 and No.3 focus on the chemical complexity of aqueous electrolyte mixtures. Both exercises stress the need for an improved thermodynamic model of an aqueous environment present in the europium distribution experiments. Our efforts for year 2 of this project will focus on the improvements of aqueous and non-aqueous solution models using fundamental physical properties of mixtures acquired experimentally in our laboratories.

  18. Subcritical solvent extraction of anthocyanins from dried red grape pomace.

    PubMed

    Monrad, Jeana K; Howard, Luke R; King, Jerry W; Srinivas, Keerthi; Mauromoustakos, Andy

    2010-03-10

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was used to optimize and determine the effectiveness of an alternative, environmentally friendly extraction procedure using subcritical solvents to recover anthocyanins from freeze-dried, ground Sunbelt red grape pomace. Anthocyanins were extracted from pomace using the following ASE variables: pressure (6.8 MPa), one extraction cycle, and temperature (40, 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 degrees C). Conventional solvent extraction with methanol/water/formic acid (60:37:3 v/v/v) was compared to four hydroethanolic solvents (10, 30, 50, and 70% ethanol in water, v/v). Anthocyanins in the extracts were identified and quantified by HPLC-MS and HPLC. There was an insignificant interaction between solvent and temperature (p = 0.0663). Solvents containing 70 and 50% ethanol in water extracted more total anthocyanins (463 and 455 mg/100 g of DW, respectively) than other solvents. The total amounts of anthocyanins extracted at 100 degrees C (450 mg/100 g of DW), 80 degrees C (436 mg/100 g of DW), and 120 degrees C (411 mg/100 g of DW) were higher than at the other temperatures. Solvents containing 70 and 50% ethanol in water extracted similar amounts of anthocyanins as conventional extraction solvent.

  19. Terpenes as green solvents for extraction of oil from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Dejoye Tanzi, Celine; Abert Vian, Maryline; Ginies, Christian; Elmaataoui, Mohamed; Chemat, Farid

    2012-07-09

    Herein is described a green and original alternative procedure for the extraction of oil from microalgae. Extractions were carried out using terpenes obtained from renewable feedstocks as alternative solvents instead of hazardous petroleum solvents such as n-hexane. The described method is achieved in two steps using Soxhlet extraction followed by the elimination of the solvent from the medium using Clevenger distillation in the second step. Oils extracted from microalgae were compared in terms of qualitative and quantitative determination. No significant difference was obtained between each extract, allowing us to conclude that the proposed method is green, clean and efficient.

  20. Batch extracting process using magneticparticle held solvents

    DOEpatents

    Nunez, Luis; Vandergrift, George F.

    1995-01-01

    A process for selectively removing metal values which may include catalytic values from a mixture containing same, wherein a magnetic particle is contacted with a liquid solvent which selectively dissolves the metal values to absorb the liquid solvent onto the magnetic particle. Thereafter the solvent-containing magnetic particles are contacted with a mixture containing the heavy metal values to transfer metal values into the solvent carried by the magnetic particles, and then magnetically separating the magnetic particles. Ion exchange resins may be used for selective solvents.

  1. Availability assessment of a centrifugal contactor solvent extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M J; Grady, M S; Jubin, R T

    1985-08-01

    A systematic and detailed reliability, availability, and maintainability assessment was made of the preconceptual design of the Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test solvent extraction system. Initially, the computed availability for the five cycles of solvent extraction was less than the goal for the facility. Contributions to the downtime were identified. Improvements in specifications, design, and equipment configurations that raise the predicted availability are recommended.

  2. Solvent Extraction External Radiation Stability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.A.

    2001-01-05

    Personnel irradiated a number of samples of calixarene-based solvent. Analysis of these samples indicated that measurable loss of the calixarene occurred at very high doses (-16 Mrad). No measurable loss of the Cs-7SB modifier occurred at equivalent doses. The primary degradation product, 4-sec-butylphenol, observed during analysis of the samples came from degradation of the modifier. Also, TOA proved more susceptible to damage than the other components of the solvent. The total degradation of the solvent proved relatively minor. The consistent solvent performance, as indicated by the measured D Cs values, after exposure at high total doses serves as evidence of the relatively low degree of degradation of the solvent components. Additional tests employing internal irradiation of solvents with both simulants and SRS tank waste will be completed by the end of March 2001 to provide confirmation of the results presented herein.

  3. Ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents in natural products research: mixtures of solids as extraction solvents.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yuntao; van Spronsen, Jaap; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2013-11-22

    Mixtures of solid chemicals may become liquid under certain conditions. These liquids are characterized by the formation of strong ionic (ionic liquids) or hydrogen bonds (deep eutectic solvents). Due to their extremely low vapor pressure, they are now widely used in polymer chemistry and synthetic organic chemistry, yet little attention has been paid to their use as extraction solvents of natural products. This review summarizes the preparation of ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents with natural product components and recent progress in their applications to the extraction and analysis of natural products as well as the recovery of extracted compounds from their extracts. Additionally, various factors affecting extraction features of ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents, as well as potential useful technologies including microwave and ultrasound to increase the extraction efficiency, are discussed.

  4. Solvent extraction for heavy crude oil removal from contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingang; Du, Yongliang; Wu, Guozhong; Li, Zhongyuan; Li, Hong; Sui, Hong

    2012-06-01

    A new strategy of heavy crude oil removal from contaminated soils was studied. The hexane-acetone solvent mixture was used to investigate the ability of solvent extraction technique for cleaning up soils under various extraction conditions. The mixtures of hexane and acetone (25 vol%) were demonstrated to be the most effective in removing petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated soils and approx 90% of saturates, naphthene aromatics, polar aromatics, and 60% of nC(7)-asphaltenes were removed. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that the equilibrium was reached in 5 min and the majority of the oil pollutants were removed within 0.5 min. The effect of the ratio between solvent and soil on the extraction efficiency was also studied and results showed that the efficiency would increase following the higher solvent soil ratio. Then the multistage continuous extraction was considered to enhance the removal efficiency of oil pollutants. Three stages crosscurrent and countercurrent solvent extraction with the solvent soil ratio 6:1 removed 97% oil contaminants from soil. Clearly the results showed that the mixed-solvent of hexane and acetone (25 vol%) with character of low-toxic, acceptable cost and high efficiency was promising in solvent extraction to remove heavy oil fractions as well as petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated soils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Chemical and Physical Properties of the Optimized Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.

    2002-10-08

    This work was undertaken to optimize the solvent used in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process and to measure key chemical and physical properties related to its performance in the removal of cesium from the alkaline high-level salt waste stored in tanks at the Savannah River Site. The need to adjust the solvent composition arose from the prior discovery that the previous baseline solvent was supersaturated with respect to the calixarene extractant. The following solvent-component concentrations in Isopar{reg_sign} L diluent are recommended: 0.007 M calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) extractant, 0.75 M 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol (Cs-7SB) phase modifier, and 0.003 M tri-n-octylamine (TOA) stripping aid. Criteria for this selection included BOBCalixC6 solubility, batch cesium distribution ratios (D{sub Cs}), calculated flowsheet robustness, third-phase formation, coalescence rate (dispersion numbers), and solvent density. Although minor compromises within acceptable limits were made in flowsheet robustness and solvent density, significant benefits were gained in lower risk of third-phase formation and lower solvent cost. Data are also reported for the optimized solvent regarding the temperature dependence of D{sub Cs} in extraction, scrubbing, and stripping (ESS); ESS performance on recycle; partitioning of BOBCalixC6, Cs-7SB, and TOA to aqueous process solutions; partitioning of organic anions; distribution of metals; solvent phase separation at low temperatures; solvent stability to elevated temperatures; and solvent density and viscosity. Overall, the technical risk of the CSSX process has been reduced by resolving previously identified issues and raising no new issues.

  6. Centrifugal contractors for laboratory-scale solvent extraction tests

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.A.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.

    1995-12-31

    A 2-cm contactor (minicontactor) was developed and used at Argonne National Laboratory for laboratory-scale testing of solvent extraction flowsheets. This new contactor requires only 1 L of simulated waste feed, which is significantly less than the 10 L required for the 4-cm unit that had previously been used. In addition, the volume requirements for the other aqueous and organic feeds are reduced correspondingly. This paper (1) discusses the design of the minicontactor, (2) describes results from having applied the minicontactor to testing various solvent extraction flowsheets, and (3) compares the minicontactor with the 4-cm contactor as a device for testing solvent extraction flowsheets on a laboratory scale.

  7. Effect of weathering on solvent extraction of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, D.H.; Warfel, L.C.; Mai, W.; Lucas, D.

    1987-04-01

    Ambient temperature air oxidation of coal (weathering) is a problem in storage, utilization, and characterization. This work grew out of our observations that toluene insoluble, pyridine soluble (TIPS) fractions of Illinois coals isolated by conventional Soxhlet extraction differed in number average molecular weights, phenol contents, and elemental analyses from the TIPS fractions isolated by the slurry/centrifugation method. Several Soxhlet fraction would not completely redissolve in the extraction solvent and phenol and oxygen contents were unreproducible. The problems have been traced to oxidation during extraction and subsequent work-up, unremoved extraction solvents, and contamination of Soxhlet extracts by colloids.

  8. RECOVERY OF METAL VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.L.

    1959-09-01

    An organic solvent mixure is described for extracting actinides from aqueous solutions; the solvent mixture consists of from 10 to 25% by volume of tributyl phosphate and the remainder a chlorine-fluorine-substituted saturated hydrocarbon having two carbon atoms in the molecule.

  9. Comparison of solvent mixtures for pressurized solvent extraction of soil fatty acid biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Jeannotte, Richard; Hamel, Chantal; Jabaji, Suha; Whalen, Joann K

    2008-10-19

    The extraction and transesterification of soil lipids into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) is a useful technique for studying soil microbial communities. The objective of this study was to find the best solvent mixture to extract soil lipids with a pressurized solvent extractor system. Four solvent mixtures were selected for testing: chloroform:methanol:phosphate buffer (1:2:0.8, v/v/v), chloroform:methanol (1:2, v/v), hexane:2-propanol (3:2, v/v) and acetone. Soils were from agricultural fields and had a wide range of clay, organic matter and microbial biomass contents. Total lipid fatty acid methyl esters (TL-FAMEs) were the extractable soil lipids identified and quantified with gas chromatography and flame ionization detection. Concentrations of TL-FAMEs ranged from 57.3 to 542.2 nmole g(-1) soil (dry weight basis). The highest concentrations of TL-FAMEs were extracted with chloroform:methanol:buffer or chloroform:methanol mixtures than with the hexane:2-propanol or acetone solvents. The concentrations of TL-FAMEs in chemical groups, including saturated, branched, mono- and poly-unsaturated and hydroxy fatty acids were assessed, and biological groups (soil bacteria, mycorrhizal fungi, saprophytic fungi and higher plants) was distinguished. The extraction efficiency for the chemical and biological groups followed the general trend of: chloroform:methanol:buffer> or =chloroform:methanol>hexane:2-propanol=acetone. Discriminant analysis revealed differences in TL-FAME profiles based on the solvent mixture and the soil type. Although solvent mixtures containing chloroform and methanol were the most efficient for extracting lipids from the agricultural soils in this study, soil properties and the lipid groups to be studied should be considered when selecting a solvent mixture. According to our knowledge, this is the first report of soil lipid extraction with hexane:2-propanol or acetone in a pressurized solvent extraction system.

  10. Preparation of Simulated Waste Solutions for Solvent Extraction Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.A.

    2000-06-27

    Personnel will need to routinely prepare 0.5 to 10 L batches of salt solutions simulating Savannah River Site (SRS) soluble waste for solvent extraction testing. This report describes the compositions and preparation methods.

  11. FIELD EVALUATION OF THE SOLVENT EXTRACTION RESIDUAL BIOTREATMENT (SERB) TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was demonstrated at the former Sage's Dry Cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL where an area of PCE (tetrachloroethylene) contamination was identified. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site...

  12. Pulsed column and mixer-settler applications in solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vancas, Mark F.

    2003-07-01

    Pulsed columns and mixer-settlers are the solvent extraction contactors used most frequently in the minerals industry. Each contactor has inherent advantages and disadvantages that can be utilized to create the optimum processing plant for a given mineral.

  13. FIELD EVALUATION OF THE SOLVENT EXTRACTION RESIDUAL BIOTREATMENT (SERB) TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was demonstrated at the former Sage's Dry Cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL where an area of PCE (tetrachloroethylene) contamination was identified. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site...

  14. Next Generation Solvent Performance in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process - 15495

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Tara E.; Scherman, Carl; Martin, David; Suggs, Patricia

    2015-01-14

    Changes to the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) flow-sheet were implemented in the facility. Implementation included changing the scrub and strip chemicals and concentrations, modifying the O/A ratios for the strip, scrub, and extraction contactor banks, and blending the current BoBCalixC6 extractant-based solvent in MCU with clean MaxCalix extractant-based solvent. During the successful demonstration period, the MCU process was subject to rigorous oversight to ensure hydraulic stability and chemical/radionuclide analysis of the key process tanks (caustic wash tank, solvent hold tank, strip effluent hold tank, and decontaminated salt solution hold tank) to evaluate solvent carryover to downstream facilities and the effectiveness of cesium removal from the liquid salt waste. Results indicated the extraction of cesium was significantly more effective with an average Decontamination Factor (DF) of 1,129 (range was 107 to 1,824) and that stripping was effective. The contactor hydraulic performance was stable and satisfactory, as indicated by contactor vibration, contactor rotational speed, and flow stability; all of which remained at or near target values. Furthermore, the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) level and specific gravity was as expected, indicating that solvent integrity and organic hydraulic stability were maintained. The coalescer performances were in the range of processing results under the BOBCalixC6 flow sheet, indicating negligible adverse impact of NGS deployment. After the Demonstration period, MCU began processing via routine operations. Results to date reiterate the enhanced cesium extraction and stripping capability of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) flow sheet. This paper presents process performance results of the NGS Demonstration and continued operations of MCU utilizing the blended BobCalixC6-MaxCalix solvent under the NGS flowsheet.

  15. Propionic acid production by extractive fermentation. I. Solvent considerations.

    PubMed

    Gu, Z; Glatz, B A; Glatz, C E

    1998-02-20

    Solvent selection for extractive fermentation for propionic acid was conducted with three systems: Alamine 304-1 (trilaurylamine) in 2-octanol, 1-dodecanol, and Witcohol 85 NF (oleyl alcohol). Among them, the solvent containing 2-octanol exhibited the highest partition coefficient in acid extraction, but it was also toxic to propionibacteria. The most solvent-resistant strain among five strains of the microorganism was selected. Solvent toxicity was eliminated via two strategies: entrapment of dissolved toxic solvent in the culture growth medium with vegetable oils such as corn, olive, or soybean oils; or replacement of the toxic 2-octanol with nontoxic Witcohol 85 NF. The complete recovery of acids from the Alamine 304-1/Witcohol 85 NF was also realized with vacuum distillation.

  16. Propionic acid production by extractive fermentation. 1. Solvent considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Z.; Glatz, B.A.; Glatz, C.E.

    1998-02-20

    Solvent selection for extractive fermentation for propionic acid was conducted with three systems: Alamine{reg_sign} 304-1 (trilaurylamine) in 2-octanol, 1-dodecanol, and Witcohol{reg_sign} 85 NF (oleyl alcohol). Among them, the solvent containing 2-octanol exhibited the highest partition coefficient in acid extraction, but it was also toxic to propionibacteria. The most solvent-resistant strain among five strains of the microorganism was selected. Solvent toxicity was eliminated via two strategies: entrapment of dissolved toxic solvent in the culture growth medium with vegetable oils such as corn, olive, or soybean oils; or replacement of the toxic 2-octanol with nontoxic Witcohol 85 NF. The complete recovery of acids from the Alamine 304-1/Witcohol 85 NF was also realized with vacuum distillation.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of ultrasound-assisted solvent-extracted spices.

    PubMed

    Thongson, C; Davidson, P M; Mahakarnchanakul, W; Weiss, J

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the antimicrobial activity of conventional and high-intensity ultrasound-assisted (HI-US) solvent-extracted Thai spices, including ginger (Zingiber officinale Rose), fingerroot (Bosenbergia pandurata Holtt) and turmeric (Curouma longa Linn). Extracts were obtained using hexane, isopropanol and a 7 : 3 isopropanol : hexane mixture as solvents with and without HI-US. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was assayed against four strains each of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 using an agar dilution assay. Application of HI-US did not alter antibacterial activity against S. Typhimurium, but antilisterial activity of some HI-US spice extracts decreased. Solvent type affected antimicrobial efficacy of extracts with hexane producing the least antimicrobial activity. Fingerroot extracted with isopropanol-hexane and without HI-US had the best antilisterial effect while HI-US-isopropanol fingerroot extract had the greatest antimicrobial efficacy against S. Typhimurium. Application of HI-US reduced time of extraction to 5 min, compared with the 24 h required for conventional extraction and maintained antimicrobial activity against Salmonella but slightly reduced activity against Listeria. HI-US in combination with proper solvent selection may offer a new tool to optimize extraction of spice essential oil for use as antimicrobial agents, and reduce processing time and costs.

  18. Carotenoid extraction from plants using a novel, environmentally friendly solvent.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Betty K; Chapman, Mary H

    2009-02-11

    Few environmentally friendly solvents are available to extract carotenoids for use in foods. The most effective known solvents are products of the petroleum industry and toxic for human consumption. Yet carotenoid extracts are desirable for use in dietary supplements and as additives to enhance the health benefits of processed foods. Ethyl lactate is an excellent solvent to extract both trans- and cis-lycopene isomers from dried tomato powder, the extraction efficiency of which is enhanced by the addition of the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and alpha-lipoic acid, both of which are known to benefit human health. It is also useful to extract lutein and beta-carotene from dried powders prepared from white corn and carrots. Because of its low flammability and its origin as a byproduct of the corn and soybean industries, it is more advantageous than ethyl acetate, which is a petroleum product.

  19. Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Baker, John D.

    2007-11-06

    A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

  20. Solvent extraction studies of coprocessing flowsheets: Results from Campaign 6 of the Solvent Extraction Test Facility (SETF)

    SciTech Connect

    Benker, D.E.; Bigelow, J.E.; Chattin, F.R.; Collins, E.D.; King, L.J.; Ross, R.G.; Savage, H.C.; Stacy, R.G.

    1986-11-01

    A series of five solvent extraction tests were made in the Solvent Extraction Test Facility (SETF) during Campaign 6. Each test used a coprocessing flowsheet that included coextraction-coscrubbing of the heavy metals followed by partial partitioning of the uranium and plutonium into separate uranium and uranium-plutonium products. The separation of the uranium and plutonium was aided by the addition of HNO{sub 2} to the organic backscrub stream. Two of these tests compared the performance of the traditional Purex solvent, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), with a potential replacement, tri-2-ethylhexyl phosphate (TEHP). The remaining three tests were made with a chemically-degraded TBP solvent to compare the effectiveness of two solvent cleanup methods - treatment with silica gel or scrubbing with sodium carbonate and water.

  1. CHEMICAL STABILITY OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE IN THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT FOR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-12-08

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. For simplicity, this solvent is referred to as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The initial deployment target envisioned for the technology was within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), the polymer used in the coalescers within MCU. This report provides the data from exposing PPS polymer to NGS. The test was conducted over a three month period. PPS is remarkably stable in the presence of the next generation solvent. Testing showed no indication of swelling or significant leaching. Preferential sorption of the Modifier on PPS was observed but the same behavior occurs with the baseline solvent. Therefore, PPS coalescers exposed to the NGS are expected to perform comparably to those in contact with the baseline solvent.

  2. Antimicrobial potentials of different solvent extracted samples from Physalis ixocarpa.

    PubMed

    Khan, Wajid; Bakht, Jehan; Shafi, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigates the antimicrobial activities of different solvent extracted samples isolated from different parts of Physalis ixocarpa through disc diffusion assay using three different concentrations. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that different parts of the plant showed varying degree of inhibition against different bacteria at different concentrations. Different solvent extracted samples from the calyx showed inhibitory activity against most of the bacteria under study. Extracts from leaf and fruit samples showed activity against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae and extracts from the stem tissues were effective to control the growth of E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Crude methanolic extract from the stem and n-butanol extracted samples from fruit exhibited strong inhibitory activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae at highest concentrations. Antifungal activity was observed only in crude methanol extract from the leaf against Rhizopus stolinifer, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum.

  3. Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Research this past year continued to emphasize characterization of the physicochemical nature of the microscopic interfaces, i.e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co, and Na in order to improve on the model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of model extractant (surfactant) molecules was further investigated. 1 fig.

  4. Upgrading of solvent extracted athabasca bitumen by membrane ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, B.D.; Hazlett, J.D.; Kutowy, O.; Tweddle, T.A. )

    1990-08-01

    This paper reports on solvent extraction processes that have been tested extensively for the separation of bitumen from surface-mineable, oil-bearing deposits. The end result of these processes is a solution of bitumen in a hydrocarbon solvent, usually a light naphtha. The bitumen solution contains only minimal amounts of solids and water; but, because of the constraints of the solid- liquid separation and washing steps, the bitumen concentration in the produced solutions can be quite low. Solvent must be separated from these solutions for recycle back to the extraction step of the process. This is usually accomplished by conventional techniques such as distillation, multiple-effect evaporation, or steam stripping. Sometimes a combination of these techniques is required. As a result of the low bitumen content of the solutions, the energy and capital costs associated with solvent recycle can be substantial. The use of membranes for nonaqueous liquid separations is a recent application of this developing technology. Several patents can be found describing processes for the recovery of solvent used in lube oil dewaxing or the regeneration of used automotive oils. A Japanese company has reported the development of several solvent-stable ultrafiltration membranes for the removal of solids from a number of solvents. The use of spiral-wound polysulfone membranes for the recovery of pentane solvent used in heavy oil deasphalting has been described by an American firm.

  5. Solvent extraction of gold using ionic liquid based process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, Megawati; Rizki, Z.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-01-01

    In decades, many research and mineral processing industries are using solvent extraction technology for metal ions separation. Solvent extraction technique has been used for the purification of precious metals such as Au and Pd, and base metals such as Cu, Zn and Cd. This process uses organic compounds as solvent. Organic solvents have some undesired properties i.e. toxic, volatile, excessive used, flammable, difficult to recycle, low reusability, low Au recovery, together with the problems related to the disposal of spent extractants and diluents, even the costs associated with these processes are relatively expensive. Therefore, a lot of research have boosted into the development of safe and environmentally friendly process for Au separation. Ionic liquids (ILs) are the potential alternative for gold extraction because they possess several desirable properties, such as a the ability to expanse temperature process up to 300°C, good solvent properties for a wide range of metal ions, high selectivity, low vapor pressures, stability up to 200°C, easy preparation, environmentally friendly (commonly called as "green solvent"), and relatively low cost. This review paper is focused in investigate of some ILs that have the potentials as solvent in extraction of Au from mineral/metal alloy at various conditions (pH, temperature, and pressure). Performances of ILs extraction of Au are studied in depth, i.e. structural relationship of ILs with capability to separate Au from metal ions aggregate. Optimal extraction conditon in order to gain high percent of Au in mineral processing is also investigated.

  6. Solvent extraction and tandem dechlorination for decontamination of soil.

    PubMed

    Nam, P; Kapila, S; Liu, Q; Tumiatti, W; Porciani, A; Flanigan, V

    2001-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) guidelines allow removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soils via solvent extraction. This option holds promise for removal of other recalcitrant organic contaminants as well. A study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of solvent extraction with two tandem degradation techniques. The degradation techniques were chemical dehalogenation with immobilized reagents and gamma-ray irradiation. The integrated approach was evaluated with contaminated soils from wood treatment and electric power substation sites. Evaluations were carried out on a bench scale in the laboratory and on a semi-pilot scale at a contaminated site. Binary solvent mixture of alkanes and alcohols yielded the highest extraction efficiencies. Extraction efficiencies in excess of 90% were obtained for PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Extracted PCBs were rapidly degraded through chemical dehalogenation or with high doses of the gamma-ray irradiation. The residual organics in the solvent mixture were removed with activated carbon, and the solvent was recycled for subsequent soil extractions. Contaminants adsorbed on the activated carbon were destroyed with a counter flow oxidation process.

  7. Degradation problems with the solvent extraction organic at Roessing uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Munyungano, Brodrick; Feather, Angus; Virnig, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Roessing Uranium Ltd recovers uranium from a low-grade ore in Namibia. Uranium is recovered and purified from an ion-exchange eluate in a solvent-extraction plant. The solvent-extraction plant uses Alamine 336 as the extractant for uranium, with isodecanol used as a phase modifier in Sasol SSX 210, an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent. Since the plant started in the mid 1970's, there have been a few episodes where the tertiary amine has been quickly and severely degraded when the plant was operated outside certain operating parameters. The Rossing experience is discussed in more detail in this paper. (authors)

  8. Development of novel contactor for nuclear solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Shekhar; Kumar, Rajnish; Sivakumar, D.; Balamurugan, M.; Koganti, S.B.

    2008-07-01

    For current designs of radiochemical plants, solvent-extraction contactors with no periodic maintenance like pulse column are the first choice. In addition, as costs of specialty solvents for nuclear extraction are quite high, there is a demand for operation at extreme phase ratios. Recently a novel mixer-settler was visualized and developed for this kind of service. The mixer of the novel contactor is based on rotated helical tubes and does not involve any mechanical moving part. Mass-transfer runs were carried out with aqueous nitric acid and 30% TBP solvent at A/O of 0.25-200 (in extraction) and A/O of 0.25-10 (in back-extraction mode). The developed contactor exhibited nearly 100% efficiency for all the cases. (authors)

  9. Mesoscopic aspects of phase transitions in a solvent extraction system.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Ross J; Audras, Matthieu; Antonio, Mark R

    2012-11-06

    In liquid-liquid extraction, organic phase splitting arises when high concentrations of polar solutes (acids/metal ions) are extracted. Herein, we investigate the mesoscopic roots that underpin phase splitting in alkane phases containing mixed amphiphiles, of contemporary interest in solvent extraction separation systems, by extracting various oxoacids. The oxoacids exhibited individual macroscopic (extractive and physical) behaviors, inducing phase splitting into heavy and light domains under markedly different conditions. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data analyzed using the generalized indirect Fourier transform (GIFT) method, we showed that, in all cases, acid extraction drove the self-assembly of reverse micelles into rods. These grew with increased acid extraction until reaching a critical length of 20 nm, at which point interactions produced interconnected cylinders or lamellar sheets that prelude phase splitting into heavy and light domains. In all cases, the heavy phase contained the same surfactant ratio-TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate) and CMPO (octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide)-even though the concentrations of acid, water, and amphiphiles were markedly different. The remarkable similarities in structure and amphiphile stoichiometries underpinning phase splitting across the macroscopically different acid extraction series allude to the mesoscopic roots of organic phase behavior in solvent extraction. Our studies show that the structures underpinning phase splitting in solvent extraction systems are more complex than previously thought and are reminiscent of phase transitions in soft matter.

  10. Oil recovery from petroleum sludge through ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Huang, Shuhui; Li, Yubao

    2016-09-18

    The effect of ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) process on oil recovery from refinery oily sludge was examined in this study. Two types of UAE treatment including UAE probe (UAEP) system and UAE bath (UAEB) system were investigated. Their oil recovery efficiencies were compared to that of mechanical shaking extraction (MSE). Three solvents including cyclohexane (CHX), ethyl acetate (EA), and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) were examined as the extraction solvents. The influence of experimental factors on oil and solvent recovery was investigated using an orthogonal experimental design. Results indicated that solvent type, solvent-to-sludge (S/S) ratio, and treatment duration could have significant effects on oil recovery in UAE treatment. Under the optimum conditions, UAEP treatment can obtain an oil recovery of 68.8% within 20 s, which was higher than that (i.e., 62.0%) by MSE treatment after 60 min' extraction. UAEB treatment can also obtain a promising oil recovery within shorter extraction duration (i.e., 15 min) than MSE. UAE was thus illustrated as an effective and improved approach for oily sludge recycling.

  11. Extraction of fatty acids from dried freshwater algae using accelerated solvent extraction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A high temperature/pressure extraction method (accelerated solvent extraction)(ASE) and a manual extraction method (modified Folch extraction) were compared with regard to their ability to extract total fat from three samples of air-dried filamentous algae and determine the fatty acid (FA) profile o...

  12. SPIRAL CONTACTOR FOR SOLVENT EXTRACTION COLUMN

    DOEpatents

    Cooley, C.R.

    1961-06-13

    The patented extraction apparatus includes a column, perforated plates extending across the column, liquid pulse means connected to the column, and an imperforate spiral ribbon along the length of the column.

  13. SEPARATION OF RARE EARTHS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Peppard, D.F.; Mason, G.W.

    1960-10-11

    A process is given for separating lanthanide rare earths from each other from an aqueous mineral acid solution, e.g., hydrochloric or nitric acid of a concentration of above 3 M, preferably 12 to 16 M, by extraction with a water- immiscible alkyl phosphate, such as tributyl phosphate or a mixture of mono-, di- and tributyl phosphate, and fractional back-extraction with mineral acid whereby the lanthanides are taken up by the acid in the order of increasing atomic number.

  14. Ionic liquids as a novel solvent for lanthanide extraction.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Kazunori; Kubota, Fukiko; Maruyama, Tatsuo; Goto, Masahiro

    2003-08-01

    Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) dissolved in an ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate, greatly enhances extractability and selectivity of lanthanide cations compared to that dissolved in conventional organic solvents; further, the recovery of lanthanides extracted into ionic liquids can be accomplished using several stripping solutions containing complexing agents. The possibility of utilizing ionic liquids as novel separation media in an industrial liquid-liquid extraction process was demonstrated.

  15. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. seed extracts after sequential solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Yusri, Noordin Mohd; Chan, Kim Wei; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-10-25

    A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05). As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications.

  16. Selective solvent extraction of cellulosic material

    DOEpatents

    Wang, D.I.C.; Avgerinos, G.C.

    1983-07-26

    Cellulosic products having a high hemicellulose to lignin weight ratio are obtained by extracting a cellulosic composition with basic ethanol-water solution having a pH between about 12 and about 14 at a temperature between about 15 and about 70 C and for a time period between about 2 and about 80 hours. 6 figs.

  17. Selective solvent extraction of cellulosic material

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Daniel I. C.; Avgerinos, George C.

    1983-01-01

    Cellulosic products having a high hemicellulose to lignin weight ratio are obtained by extracting a cellulosic composition with basic ethanol-water solution having a pH between about 12 and about 14 at a temperature between about 15.degree. and about 70.degree. C. and for a time period between about 2 and about 80 hours.

  18. Rare earth element enrichment using membrane based solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makertiharta, I. G. B. N.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.; Zunita, M.; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-01-01

    The chemical, catalytic, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties of rare earth elements are required in broad applications. Rare earth elements have similar physical and chemical properties thus it is difficult to separate one from each other. Rare earth element is relatively abundant in earth's crust but rarely occur in high concentrated deposits. Traditionally, ion-exchange and solvent extraction techniques have been developed to separate and purify single rare earth solutions or compounds. Recently, membrane starts to gain attention for rare earth separation by combining membrane and proven technologies such as solvent extraction. Membrane-based process offers selective, reliable, energy efficient and easy to scale up separation. During membrane-based separation process, one phase passes through membrane pores while the other phase is rejected. There is no direct mixing of two phases thus the solvent loss is very low. Membrane can also lower solvent physical properties requirement (viscosity, density) and backmixing, eliminate flooding phenomenon and provide large interfacial area for mass transfer. This paper will summarize research efforts in developing membrane technology for rare earth element separation. Special attention will be given to solvent extraction related process as the commonly used method for rare earth element separation. Furthermore, membrane configuration and its potentials will also be discussed.

  19. CHLORINATED SOLVENT CONTAMINATED SOILS AND GROUNDWATER: FIELD APPLICATION OF THE SOLVENT EXTRACTION RESIDUAL BIOTREATMENT TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot scale demonstration of the Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was conducted at the former Sage's Dry Cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site restoration, which combines an active in situ...

  20. CHLORINATED SOLVENT CONTAMINATED SOILS AND GROUNDWATER: FIELD APPLICATION OF THE SOLVENT EXTRACTION RESIDUAL BIOTREATMENT TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot scale demonstration of the Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was conducted at the former Sage's Dry Cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site restoration, which combines an active in situ...

  1. Concentration of 68Ga via solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Mushtaq, A; Khan, Islam Ullah

    2009-01-01

    The metallic cation, (68)Ga (III) is suitable for complexation with chelators either naked or conjugated with biological macromolecules, however, such labeling procedure requires high chemical purity and concentrated solutions of (68)Ga (III), which cannot be sufficiently fulfilled by the presently available (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator eluate. A method to increase the concentration and purity of (68)Ga obtained from a commercial (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator has been developed. The (68)Ga eluate (1M HCl) is extracted in methyl ethyl ketone, which is evaporated and taken in a small volume of buffer.

  2. Application of ultrasound in solvent extraction of nickel and gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Pesic, B.

    1996-07-01

    The effects of ultrasound on the rate of solvent extraction of nickel with Lix 65N and Lix 70, and gallium with Kelex 100 were investigated. These solvent extraction systems are noted by their sluggish nature. Low frequency (20 kHz) ultrasound increased the rates of extraction of nickel by factors of four to seven. The ultrasound had no effect on the final chemical equilibrium. Gallium extraction rates were enhanced with the use of ultrasound by as much as a factor of 15. Again, the ultrasound had no effect on extraction equilibrium. For both nickel and gallium, the enhanced rates were attributed to increased interfacial surface area associated with ultrasonically induced cavitation and microdroplet formation. The stability of the microdroplets permitted intermittent application of ultrasound with corresponding decreases in ultrasonic energy requirements. The lowest energy consumption was observed with short (0.25 to 5 s) bursts of high power (41 to 61 W) ultrasonic inputs. The study also provided insight into the factors that affect the complex extraction of gallium from sodium aluminate solutions. The rate controlling step was found to be the dehydration of the gallate ion, Ga(OH)4, and the first complex formation between gallium and Kelex 100. Sodium was found to enhance the extraction rate up to a point, beyond which increased concentration was detrimental. Increasing aluminum concentration was found to slow extraction rates. Modifiers and diluents were shown to markedly affect extraction rates even without ultrasound. Ketone modifiers, particularly 2-undecanone, when used with Kermac 470B or Escaid 200 diluents enhanced extraction rates of gallium to the point that the use of ultrasound provided no additional benefits. The positive effects of ketone modifiers for the solvent extraction of gallium had not been previously reported.

  3. Process for separation of the rare earths by solvent extraction

    DOEpatents

    Mason, George W.; Lewey, Sonia

    1977-04-05

    Production rates for solvent extraction separation of the rare earths and yttrium from each other can be improved by the substitution of di(2-ethylhexyl) mono-thiophosphoric acid for di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid. The di(2-ethylhexyl) mono-thiophosphoric acid does not form an insoluble polymer at approximately 50% saturation as does the former extractant, permitting higher feed solution concentration and thus greater throughput.

  4. Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation: Demonstration Bulletin: Organic Extraction Utilizing Solvents

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technology utilizes liquified gases as the extracting solvent to remove organics, such as hydrocarbons, oil and grease, from wastewater or contaminated sludges and soils. Carbon dioxide is generally used for aqueous solutions, and propane is used for sediment, sludges and ...

  5. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: TERRA-KLEEN SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of PCBs in soils has been difficult to implement on a full-scale, cost-effective basis. The Terra-Kleen solvent extraction system has overcome many of the soil handling, contaminant removal, and regulatory restrictions that have made it difficult to implement a cost-e...

  6. Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation: Demonstration Bulletin: Organic Extraction Utilizing Solvents

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technology utilizes liquified gases as the extracting solvent to remove organics, such as hydrocarbons, oil and grease, from wastewater or contaminated sludges and soils. Carbon dioxide is generally used for aqueous solutions, and propane is used for sediment, sludges and ...

  7. Semi-commercial solvent extraction of tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, L.W.

    1982-06-01

    A patented process built for Tarco in Southwest Kentucky is described. The basic flow pattern involves mining, crushing, feed to the plant, extraction, desolventizing of the sand and distillation of the solvent from the oil. The Tarco plant is also available for the developmental testing of other tar sand deposits. (JMT)

  8. Pressurized solvent extraction of pure food grade starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A commercial pressurized solvent extractor was used to remove lipid and non-lipid material from cornstarch using n-propanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures. Yields and chemical composition of the extract fractions were determined. Cornstarch samples were characterized using pasting properties and...

  9. Juniperus extraction: a comparison of species and solvents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effectiveness of the three solvents, hexane, methanol and ethanol were compared for their ability to extract non-polar and polar materials from sawdust from three species of Juniperus (i.e., J. virginianna, J. occidentalis and J. ashei). These species studied represent the junipers with the grea...

  10. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: TERRA-KLEEN SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of PCBs in soils has been difficult to implement on a full-scale, cost-effective basis. The Terra-Kleen solvent extraction system has overcome many of the soil handling, contaminant removal, and regulatory restrictions that have made it difficult to implement a cost-e...

  11. Acidic solvent extraction of gossypol from cottonseed meal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In order to expand the use of cottonseed meal in animal feeding, extraction of the meal gossypol was studied with acetic acetone- and ethanol-based solutions. Phosphoric acid was added to hydrolyze and release gossypol bound within the meal. Both solvent systems were effective at reducing gossypo...

  12. Fuel grade ethanol by solvent extraction: Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Tedder, D.W.

    1987-04-01

    This report summarizes final results for ethanol recovery by solvent extraction and extractive distillation. At conclusion this work can be summarized as ethanol dehydration and recovery dilute fermentates is feasible using liquid/liquid extraction and extractive distillation. Compared to distillation, the economics are more attractive for less than 5 wt % ethanol. However, an economic bias in favor of SEED appears to exist even for 10 wt % feeds. It is of particular interest to consider the group extraction of ethanol and acetic acid followed by conversion to a mixture of ethanol and ethyl acetate. The latter species is a more valuable commodity and group extraction of inhibitory species is one feature of liquid/liquid extraction that is not easily accomodated using distillation. Upflow immobilized reactors offer the possibility of achieving high substrate conversion while also maintaining low metabolite concentrations. However, many questions remain to be answered with such a concept. 135 refs., 42 figs., 61 tabs.

  13. Stability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process Solvent: Effect of High Nitrite on Solvent Nitration

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnesen, P.V.

    2002-06-26

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether nitrated organic compounds could be formed during operation of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process, and whether such compounds would present a safety concern. The CSSX process was developed to remove cesium from alkaline high-level salt waste stored at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). The solvent is composed of the cesium extractant calix[4]arene-bis-(4-tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6), a fluorinated alcohol phase modifier, tri-n-octylamine (TOA), and an isoparaffinic diluent (Iospar{reg_sign}). During the CSSX process, the solvent is expected to be exposed to high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite dissolved in the alkaline waste feed. The solvent will also be exposed to dilute (50 mM) nitric acid solutions containing low concentrations of nitrite during scrubbing, followed by stripping with 1 mM nitric acid. The solvent is expected to last for one year of plant operation, and the temperatures the solvent may experience during the process could range from as low as 15 C to as high as 35 C. Excursions from standard process conditions could result in the solvent experiencing higher temperatures, as well as concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, and most importantly nitric acid, that exceed normal operating conditions. Accordingly, conditions may exist where nitration reactions involving the solvent components, possibly leading to other chemical reactions stemming from nitration reactions, could occur. To model such nitration reactions, the solvent was exposed to the types of nitrate- and nitrite-containing solutions that might be expected to be encountered during the process (even under off-normal conditions), as a function of time, temperature, and concentration of nitrate, nitrite, and nitric acid. The experiments conducted as part of this report were designed to examine the more specific effect that high nitrite concentrations could have on forming nitrated

  14. Waste and Solvent Composition Limits for Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU)

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, Kofi; Waler, Douglas D.; Edwards, Thomas B

    2005-05-26

    This study examined waste feed and solvent limits for the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) currently being designed and built at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to remove cesium from highly alkaline radioactive waste. The study involved proposing ranges for 12 waste feed components (i.e., Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +}, OH{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, F{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and AlO{sub 2}{sup -}) through a compilation of SRS waste data. Statistical design methods were used to generate numerous wastes with varying compositions from the proposed ranges. An Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) model called SXFIT was used to predict the cesium extraction distribution coefficients (D-values) between the organic (solvent) phase and the aqueous waste phase using the waste component concentrations as inputs. The D-values from the SXFIT model were used as input along with MCU base case process parameters to a SASSE (Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction) model to calculate final cesium concentrations for the MCU. The SASSE model was developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The SXFIT D-value and the waste component concentration data were used to develop a handier alternative model (neural network model) to the SXFIT model that predicts D-values within 15% of the SXFIT D-values. Both the SXFIT and the neural network model revealed the following. The solvent extractant concentration ratios are approximately equal to the corresponding D-value ratios; a useful feature that could be used to predict extraction D-values when the extractant concentration in the solvent changes in the MCU operation. Also, potassium is the only waste component out of the 12 that shows a distinct relationship with the cesium extraction D-values; an indication of potassium's competition with cesium in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. A waste feed acceptance model suitable

  15. Development of Solvent Extraction Approach to Recycle Enriched Molybdenum Material

    SciTech Connect

    Tkac, Peter; Brown, M. Alex; Sen, Sujat; Bowers, Delbert L.; Wardle, Kent; Copple, Jacqueline M.; Pupek, Krzysztof Z.; Dzwiniel, Trevor L.; Pereira, Candido; Krumdick, Gregory K.; Vandegrift, George F.

    2016-06-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, in cooperation with Oak Ridge National Laboratory and NorthStar Medical Technologies, LLC, is developing a recycling process for a solution containing valuable Mo-100 or Mo-98 enriched material. Previously, Argonne had developed a recycle process using a precipitation technique. However, this process is labor intensive and can lead to production of large volumes of highly corrosive waste. This report discusses an alternative process to recover enriched Mo in the form of ammonium heptamolybdate by using solvent extraction. Small-scale experiments determined the optimal conditions for effective extraction of high Mo concentrations. Methods were developed for removal of ammonium chloride from the molybdenum product of the solvent extraction process. In large-scale experiments, very good purification from potassium and other elements was observed with very high recovery yields (~98%).

  16. Development of carbon-carbon composites from solvent extracted pitch

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-24

    There are several methods used to fabricate carbon-carbon composites. One used extensively in the fabrication of aerospace components such as rocket nozzles and reentry vehicle nosetips, as well as commercial components for furnace fixturing and glass manufacturing, is the densification of a woven preform with molten pitch, and the subsequent conversion of the pitch to graphite through heat treatment. Two types of pitch are used in this process; coal tar pitch and petroleum pitch. The objective of this program was to determine if a pitch produced by the direct extraction of coal could be used as a substitute for these pitches in the fabrication of carbon-carbon composites. The program involved comparing solvent extracted pitch with currently accepted pitches and rigidizing a carbon-carbon preform with solvent extracted pitch for comparison with carbon-carbon fabricated with currently available pitch.

  17. Microfluidic Extraction of Biomarkers using Water as Solvent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Manohara, Harish; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Mehdi, Imran

    2009-01-01

    A proposed device, denoted a miniature microfluidic biomarker extractor (mu-EX), would extract trace amounts of chemicals of interest from samples, such as soils and rocks. Traditionally, such extractions are performed on a large scale with hazardous organic solvents; each solvent capable of dissolving only those molecules lying within narrow ranges of specific chemical and physical characteristics that notably include volatility, electric charge, and polarity. In contrast, in the mu-EX, extractions could be performed by use of small amounts (typically between 0.1 and 100 L) of water as a universal solvent. As a rule of thumb, in order to enable solvation and extraction of molecules, it is necessary to use solvents that have polarity sufficiently close to the polarity of the target molecules. The mu-EX would make selection of specific organic solvents unnecessary, because mu-EX would exploit a unique property of liquid water: the possibility of tuning its polarity to match the polarity of organic solvents appropriate for extraction of molecules of interest. The change of the permittivity of water would be achieved by exploiting interactions between the translational states of water molecules and an imposed electromagnetic field in the frequency range of 300 to 600 GHz. On a molecular level, these interactions would result in disruption of the three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network among liquid-water molecules and subsequent solvation and hydrolysis of target molecules. The mu-EX is expected to be an efficient means of hydrolyzing chemical bonds in complex macromolecules as well and, thus, enabling analysis of the building blocks of these complex chemical systems. The mu-EX device would include a microfluidic channel, part of which would lie within a waveguide coupled to an electronically tuned source of broad-band electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range from 300 to 600 GHz (see figure). The part of the microfluidic channel lying in the waveguide would

  18. Next Generation Solvent (NGS): Development for Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction of Cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Birdwell, Jr, Joseph F.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bruffey, Stephanie H.; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Duncan, Nathan C.; Ensor, Dale; Hill, Talon G.; Lee, Denise L.; Rajbanshi, Arbin; Roach, Benjamin D.; Szczygiel, Patricia L.; Frederick V. Sloop, Jr.; Stoner, Erica L.; Williams, Neil J.

    2014-03-01

    This report summarizes the FY 2010 and 2011 accomplishments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in developing the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process, referred to commonly as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS), under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), Office of Technology Innovation and Development. The primary product of this effort is a process solvent and preliminary flowsheet capable of meeting a target decontamination factor (DF) of 40,000 for worst-case Savannah River Site (SRS) waste with a concentration factor of 15 or higher in the 18-stage equipment configuration of the SRS Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). In addition, the NG-CSSX process may be readily adapted for use in the SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) or in supplemental tank-waste treatment at Hanford upon appropriate solvent or flowsheet modifications. Efforts in FY 2010 focused on developing a solvent composition and process flowsheet for MCU implementation. In FY 2011 accomplishments at ORNL involved a wide array of chemical-development activities and testing up through single-stage hydraulic and mass-transfer tests in 5-cm centrifugal contactors. Under subcontract from ORNL, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) designed a preliminary flowsheet using ORNL cesium distribution data, and Tennessee Technological University confirmed a chemical model for cesium distribution ratios (DCs) as a function of feed composition. Interlaboratory efforts were coordinated with complementary engineering tests carried out (and reported separately) by personnel at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Savannah River Remediation (SRR) with helpful advice by Parsons Engineering and General Atomics on aspects of possible SWPF implementation.

  19. Next Generation Solvent Development for Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction of Cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Birdwell, Joseph F.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bruffey, Stephanie

    2014-03-01

    This report summarizes the FY 2010 and 2011 accomplishments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in developing the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process, referred to commonly as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS), under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), Office of Technology Innovation and Development. The primary product of this effort is a process solvent and preliminary flowsheet capable of meeting a target decontamination factor (DF) of 40,000 for worst-case Savannah River Site (SRS) waste with a concentration factor of 15 or higher in the 18-stage equipment configuration of the SRS Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). In addition, the NG-CSSX process may be readily adapted for use in the SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) or in supplemental tank-waste treatment at Hanford upon appropriate solvent or flowsheet modifications. Efforts in FY 2010 focused on developing a solvent composition and process flowsheet for MCU implementation. In FY 2011 accomplishments at ORNL involved a wide array of chemical-development activities and testing up through single-stage hydraulic and mass-transfer tests in 5-cm centrifugal contactors. Under subcontract from ORNL, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) designed a preliminary flowsheet using ORNL cesium distribution data, and Tennessee Technological University confirmed a chemical model for cesium distribution ratios (DCs) as a function of feed composition. Inter laboratory efforts were coordinated with complementary engineering tests carried out (and reported separately) by personnel at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Savannah River Remediation (SRR) with helpful advice by Parsons Engineering and General Atomics on aspects of possible SWPF implementation.

  20. EXTRACTION AND DETECTION OF ARSENICALS IN SEAWEED VIA ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION WITH ION CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND ICP-MS DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) device was evaluated as a semi-automated means of extracting arsenicals from ribbon kelp. Objective was to investigate effect of experimentally controllable ASE parameters (pressure, temperature, static time and solvent composition) on extr...

  1. EXTRACTION AND DETECTION OF ARSENICALS IN SEAWEED VIA ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION WITH ION CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND ICP-MS DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) device was evaluated as a semi-automated means of extracting arsenicals from ribbon kelp. Objective was to investigate effect of experimentally controllable ASE parameters (pressure, temperature, static time and solvent composition) on extr...

  2. Extraction of organochlorine pesticides in sediments using soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Yinhai; Cao, Zhengmei; Nie, Xinhua

    2005-04-01

    The application of soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques to the analysis of six organochlorine pesticides (α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, o, p‧-DDT, p, p‧-DDT and p, p‧-DDE) in Taihu Lake sediment samples is described. It was found that the limits of quantification ranged from 0.002 µgg-1 to 0.004 µgg-1, and the recoveries of organochlorine pesticides with the three extraction techniques were acceptable (>80.7%). With a mass selective detector, better results were obtained by accelerated solvent extraction using hexane-acetone (1:1) as compared with soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction. It was shown that the accelerated solvent extraction was the optimum technique for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in sediments. The general features of the three extraction techniques are also presented.

  3. Simultaneous extraction of flavonoids from Chamaecyparis obtusa using deep eutectic solvents as additives of conventional extractions solvents.

    PubMed

    Tang, Baokun; Park, Ha Eun; Row, Kyung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Three flavones (quercetin, myricetin and amentoflavone) were extracted from Chamaecyparis obtusa leaves using deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as additives to conventional extractions solvents. Sixteen DESs were synthesized from different salts and hydrogen bond donors. In addition, C. obtusa was extracted under optimal conditions of methanol as the solvent in the heating process (60°C) for 120 min at a solid/liquid ratio of 80%. Under these optimal conditions, a good linear relationship was observed at analyte concentrations ranging from 5.0 to 200.0 μg/mL (R(2) > 0.999). The extraction recovery ranged from 96.7 to 103.3% with the inter- and intraday relative standard deviations of <4.97%. Under the optimal conditions, from C. obtusa, the quantities of quercetin, myricetin and amentoflavone extracted were 325.90, 8.66 and 50.34 µg/mL, respectively. Overall, DESs are expected to have a wide range of applications. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Effect of solvent type and ratio on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of extracts from Hylocereus polyrhizus flesh and peel by supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Fathordoobady, Farahnaz; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Selamat, Jinap; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abd

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of solvent type and ratio as well as the extraction techniques (i.e. supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and conventional solvent extraction) on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of the peel and fresh extract from the red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus). The peel and flesh extracts obtained by SFE at 25MPa pressure and 10% EtOH/water (v/v) mixture as a co-solvent contained 24.58 and 91.27mg/100ml total betacyanin, respectively; while the most desirable solvent extraction process resulted in a relatively higher total betacyanin in the peel and flesh extracts (28.44 and 120.28mg/100ml, respectively). The major betacyanins identified in the pitaya peel and flesh extracts were betanin, isobetanin, phyllocactin, butyrylbetanin, isophyllocactin and iso-butyrylbetanin. The flesh extract had the stronger antioxidant activity than the peel extract when the higher proportion of ethanol to water (E/W) was applied for the extraction.

  5. Solvent extraction of radionuclides from aqueous tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnesen, P.; Sachleben, R.; Moyer, B.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop an efficient solvent-extraction and stripping process to remove the fission products {sup 99}Tc, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline tank waste, such as those stored at Hanford and Oak Ridge. As such, this task expands on FY 1995`s successful development of a solvent-extraction and stripping process for technetium separation from alkaline tank-waste solutions. This process now includes the capability of removing both technetium and strontium simultaneously. In this form, the process has been named SRTALK and will be developed further in this program as a prelude to developing a system capable of removing technetium, strontium, and cesium.

  6. Microfluidic process monitor for industrial solvent extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Gelis, Artem; Pereira, Candido; Nichols, Kevin Paul Flood

    2016-01-12

    The present invention provides a system for solvent extraction utilizing a first electrode with a raised area formed on its surface, which defines a portion of a microfluidic channel; a second electrode with a flat surface, defining another portion of the microfluidic channel that opposes the raised area of the first electrode; a reversibly deformable substrate disposed between the first electrode and second electrode, adapted to accommodate the raised area of the first electrode and having a portion that extends beyond the raised area of the first electrode, that portion defining the remaining portions of the microfluidic channel; and an electrolyte of at least two immiscible liquids that flows through the microfluidic channel. Also provided is a system for performing multiple solvent extractions utilizing several microfluidic chips or unit operations connected in series.

  7. Investigation of HNO2 Production in Solvent Extraction Organic Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Leigh R.

    2014-09-01

    This document is a letter report that was prepared to meet FCR&D level 4 milestone M4FT-14IN0304054, “Investigate HNO2 production in solvent extraction organic phases.” This work was carried out under the auspices of the Fundamental Radiation Chemistry FCR&D work package. This document reports on an initial tests performed to follow HNO2 formation in reference flowsheet relevant organic phases.

  8. The Kentucky tar sand project: Bitumen recovery by solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, M.N.; Fedde, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Texas Gas Development Corporation selected the Dravo solvent extraction process for a proposed 5000-barrel-per-day plant to produce heavy oil from a tar sand deposit in Kentucky. A 200-ton-per-day pilot plant has demonstrated the process concept and collected design data. The company applied for financial assistance from the U.S. Synthetic Fuels Corporation for the proposed production plant.

  9. Vibrational spectroscopy for online monitoring of extraction solvent degradation products

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.; Robinson, T.; Bryan, S.A.; Levitskaia, T.G.

    2013-07-01

    In our research, we are exploring the potential of online monitoring of the organic solvents for the flowsheets relevant to the used nuclear fuel reprocessing and tributyl phosphate (TBP)- based extraction processes in particular. Utilization of vibrational spectroscopic techniques permits the discrimination of the degradation products from the primary constituents of the loaded extraction solvent. Multivariate analysis of the spectral data facilitates development of the regression models for their quantification in real time and potentially enables online implementation of a monitoring system. Raman and FTIR spectral databases were created and used to develop the regression partial least squares (PLS) chemometric models for the quantitative prediction of HDBP (dibutyl phosphoric acid) degradation product, TBP, and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} extraction organic product phase. It was demonstrated that both these spectroscopic techniques are suitable for the quantification of the Purex solvent components in the presence of UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. Developed PLS models successfully predicted HDBP and TBP organic concentrations in simulated Purex solutions.

  10. Accelerated solvent extraction of lignin from Aleurites moluccana (Candlenut) nutshells.

    PubMed

    Klein, Andrew P; Beach, Evan S; Emerson, John W; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2010-09-22

    Lignin from candlenut shells was isolated using an ethanol-water accelerated solvent extraction method. Yields (based on Klason lignin) increased from about 14 to 33% as temperature increased from 100 to 195 °C and were also influenced by the amount of aqueous acid used to precipitate lignin from the extraction liquor. These yields were higher than could be obtained using a conventional dioxane-water acidolysis method. The resulting lignin was characterized by IR, 31P NMR, and 1H-13C HMQC NMR spectroscopic techniques. The lignin contained predominantly guaiacyl units, and both the total hydroxyl group content and phenolic hydroxyl group content were high.

  11. Ultrasound induced green solvent extraction of oil from oleaginous seeds.

    PubMed

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline Abert; Fine, Frédéric; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction of rapeseed oil was investigated and compared with conventional extraction for energy efficiency, throughput time, extraction yield, cleanness, processing cost and product quality. A multivariate study enabled us to define optimal parameters (7.7 W/cm(2) for ultrasonic power intensity, 40 °C for processing temperature, and a solid/liquid ratio of 1/15) for ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from oilseeds to maximize lipid yield while reducing solvent consumption and extraction time using response surface methodology (RSM) with a three-variable central composite design (CCD). A significant difference in oil quality was noted under the conditions of the initial ultrasound extraction, which was later avoided using ultrasound in the absence of oxygen. Three concepts of multistage cross-current extraction were investigated and compared: conventional multistage maceration, ultrasound-assisted maceration and a combination, to assess the positive impact of using ultrasound on the seed oil extraction process. The study concludes that ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil is likely to reduce both economic and ecological impacts of the process in the fat and oil industry.

  12. Insight of solvent extraction process: Reassessment of trace level determinations.

    PubMed

    Chandramouleeswaran, S; Ramkumar, Jayshree; Basu, M

    2016-09-28

    Solvent extraction is hoary yet modern technique with great scope of research due to the various intriguing phenomena in the system. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) is a well known extractant which has been extensively used for separation of uranium matrix prior to elemental profiling. In this paper, one of the impurities namely Fe is being considered as it posed a challenge to the separation due to its co-extraction with TBP along with uranium. In these studies, for the first time, the existence of cation-cation inner sphere complexes between the UO2(2+)and Fe(3+) ions in both aqueous and organic phases have been establisted in addition to the selective separation of iron from uranium sample matrix using only TBP. The data from both spectrophotometric and thermophysical studies corroborated one another confirming the presence of cation-cation interactions (CCIs). The developed solvent extraction with only TBP showed almost no interferences on the iron extraction from matrix uranium and other co-ions like aluminum and copper. This has been the first time application of pure TBP for selective removal of iron from uranium samples. The procedure possessed excellent reproducibility and robustness.

  13. Coal hydroconversion process comprising solvent extraction (OP-3472)

    SciTech Connect

    Stuntz, G.F.; Culross, C.C.; Reynolds, S.D.

    1991-06-25

    This patent describes a process for hydroconverting coal to produce a carbonaceous liquid. It comprises forming a mixture comprising coal particles, carbon monoxide and water in a pretreatment zone and heating the mixture to a temperature within the range of about 550{degrees} to 700{degrees} F and under a system pressure of at least about 1800 psi for a period of time sufficient to cause an increase in the solubility of the coal in organic solvent, the weight ratio of liquid water to coal present during the heating stage being at least about 0.5:1; extracting the pretreated coal with an organic solvent in an extraction zone to obtain from the coal an extract, comprising a substantial amount of soluble hydrocarbonaceous materials, and a residue comprising substantially all of the inorganic ash; forming a mixture comprising the extract and a catalyst, wherein the catalyst is comprised of dispersed particles of a sulfided metal containing compound, the metal being selected from the group consisting of Groups VA, VIA, VIIA and VIIIA of the Periodic Table of Elements and mixtures thereof; and treating the mixture of coal extract and catalyst with a hydrogen-containing gas under coal hydroconversion conditions, in a hydroconversion zone to obtain a hydrocarbonaceous liquid.

  14. Solvent extraction of cobalt from laterite-ammoniacal leach liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, D.N.; Siemens, R.E.; Rhoads, S.C.

    1980-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines is developing a method to recover Ni, Co, and Cu from laterites containing less than 1.2% Ni and 0.25% Co. The method consists of the following basic unit operations: (1) reduction roasting, (2) leaching, (3) solvent extraction, and (4) electrowinning. The method reflects three Bureau of Mines objectives: (1) recovery of critical minerals that are domestically in short supply from low-grade domestic laterites, (2) lower processing energy requirements, and (3) solution recycling. This report deals with the extraction of cobalt and the preparation of a suitable cobalt electrolyte by solvent extraction from liquor produced by this method. Nickel and copper are coextracted with LIX64N from an ammoniacal ammonium sulfate leach liquor containing about 1.00 g/1 Ni, 0.30 g/1 Co, 0.03 g/1 Cu, and 0.02 g/1 Zn. Cobalt (III) in the nickel-copper barren raffinate is reduced to cobalt (II) with cobalt metal. Reduction of cobalt (III) to cobalt (II) greatly aids subsequent extraction. Commercially available XI-51 extracts about 94% of the cobalt from the treated raffinate in one stage in a laboratory mixer-settler continuous circuit. Ammonia loaded on the solvent is removed in two washing steps. About 94% of the cobalt then is stripped from the XI-51 in one stage with spent cobalt electrolyte containing about 77 g/1 Co and 18 g/1 sulfuric acid (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). Electrolytes containing less H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ also may be used. Preliminary data indicate that coextracted zinc may be removed from pregnant cobalt electrolyte containing 3 g/1 or less H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ with di-(2 ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA).

  15. [Study of using shattering extraction with solvent to extract ingredient of three kinds of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiao-ru; Song, Wen-hui; Lian, Jiang-ping; Zhang, Pen; Zuo, Yan; Zhao, Bo

    2008-06-01

    To prove if it is possible for using the shattering extraction with solvent to extract ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine. The shattering extraction with solvent, the refluxing extraction and the ultrasonic extraction were used to extract paeoniflorin from Radix Paeoniae rubra, and to extract baicalein from Radix Scutellariae, and to extract chlorogenic acid from Flos lonicerae japonicae respectively, using ingredient content and extract yield as the measuring indexes. The content of each every ingredient obviously higher by using shattering extraction with solvent than using refluxing extraction or the ultrasonic extraction. The shattering extraction with solvent is a high efficiency, simple and quick extraction. It may be used to extract the ingredient of three kinds of traditional Chinese medicine.

  16. Solvent extraction studies with high-burnup Fast Flux Test Facility fuel in the Solvent Extraction Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Benker, D.E.; Bigelow, J.E.; Bond, W.D.; Chattin, F.R.; King, L.J.; Kitts, F.G.; Ross, R.G.; Stacy, R.G.

    1986-10-01

    A batch of high-burnup fuel from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was processed in the Solvent Extraction Test Facility (SETF) during Campaign 9. The fuel had a burnup of {similar_to}0 MWd/kg and a cooling time of {similar_to} year. Two runs were made with this fuel; in the first, the solvent contained 30% tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and partitioning of the uranium and plutonium was effected by reducing the plutonium with hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN); in the second, the solvent contained 10% TBP and a low operating temperature was used in an attempt to partition without reducing the plutonium valence. The plutonium reoxidation problem, which was present in previous runs that used HAN, may have been solved by lowering the temperature and acidity in the partition contactor. An automatic control system was used to maintain high loadings of heavy metals in the coextraction-coscrub contactor in order to increase its efficiency while maintaining low losses of uranium and plutonium to the aqueous raffinate. An in-line photometer system was used to measure the plutonium concentration in an intermediate extraction stage; and based on this data, a computer algorithm determined the appropriate adjustments in the addition rate of the extractant. The control system was successfully demonstrated in a preliminary run with purified uranium. However, a variety of equipment and start up problems prevented an extended demonstration from being accomplished during the runs with the FFTF fuel.

  17. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Full-Scale Test

    SciTech Connect

    Lentsch, R.D.; Stephens, A.B.; Bartling, K.E.; Singer, S.A.

    2008-07-01

    A Full-Scale Test (FST) program was performed by Parsons and its team members General Atomics and Energy Solutions to assess the performance of full-scale centrifugal contactors specified for the Department of Energy Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The SWPF, to be located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina, will remove highly radioactive waste constituents, principally actinides, strontium (Sr), and cesium (Cs) radionuclides, from salt waste solutions currently stored in SRS high-level waste tanks. Caustic-side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) removes Cs from waste feed that has been treated upstream to remove actinides and Sr. CSSX uses a custom solvent to extract Cs from the salt solution in a series of single stage centrifugal contactors. The test system comprised (a) eleven 25.4 cm (10'') full-scale contactors (versus 36 in SWPF) for the extraction, scrub, strip, and wash stages; (b) two solvent recovery coalescers; and (c) the associated hardware and control system, packaged in four skid mounted modules. This paper describes the results of tests performed to define both hydraulic performance parameters (maximum hydraulic capacity and phase carryover) and solvent extraction performance parameters (Cs mass transfer efficiencies) using simulated SWPF waste and actual CSSX solvent. The test results confirmed key design features of the CSSX process and, as a consequence, the use of CSSX in the SWPF. In conclusion: Total throughput was initially limited to 85% of maximum flow during FST. Minor system modifications performed prior to mass transfer testing series resulted in the realization of 100% throughput. The 100% flow equates to slightly more than 35.6 x 10{sup 6} L/yr (9.4 Mgal/yr) of waste processed in SWPF which is anticipated to be the peak plant throughput. To achieve the best hydraulic performance in extraction, it is recommended that the extraction contactors be operated at the highest reasonable speed possible (>2100 rpm

  18. Organic compounds of different extractability in total solvent extracts from soils of contrasting water repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies examining organic compounds that may cause water-repellent behaviour of soils have typically focussed on analysing only the lipophilic fraction of extracted material. This study aimed to provide a more comprehensive examination by applying single- and sequential-accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), separation and analysis by GC/MS of the total solvent extracts of three soils taken from under eucalypt vegetation with different levels of water repellency. Water repellency increased in all the soils after extraction with DCM:MeOH (95:5), but was eliminated with iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5). Quantities of major lipid compound classes varied between solvents and soils. Iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5) solvent released saccharides, glycerol, aromatic acids and other polar organic compounds, which were more abundant in fractionated extracts from the single extraction and the third step sequential ASE extraction, than in the extracts from the DCM:MeOH ASE solvent. Dominant compounds extracted from all soils were long-chain alkanols (>C22), palmitic acid, C29 alkane, β-sitosterol, terpenes, terpenoids and other polar compounds. The soil with smallest repellency lacked >C18 fatty acids and had smallest concentrations of alkanols (C26, C28 and C30) and alkanes (C29, C31), but a greater abundance of more complex polar compounds than the more repellent soils. We therefore speculate that the above compounds play an important role in determining the water repellency of the soils tested. The results suggest that one-stage and sequential ASE extractions with iso-propanol:ammonia and subsequent fractionation of extracts are a useful approach in providing a comprehensive assessment of the potential compounds involved in causing soil water repellency.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) recovery from spiked organic matrix using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and Soxhlet extraction.

    PubMed

    Abrha, Y; Raghavan, D

    2000-12-30

    The recovery of five PCB congeners from PCB spiked organic matrices was studied using Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and Soxhlet extraction (SE). The chromatogram of ASE extract was found to be relatively clean and similar to that of SE extract. ASE extraction efficiency was dependent on the operation temperature and sample size loading. ASE showed extraction efficiency comparable or slightly higher to that of SE for the PCB spiked organic matrix. PCB recovery from spiked matrix was dependent on the type and molecular weight of congener, and nature of matrix. For some selected PCB congeners, ortho-substitution did influence the PCB recovery from graphite matrix.

  20. Electromembrane extraction from aqueous samples containing polar organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2013-09-20

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed from aqueous samples and from aqueous samples containing methanol, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and acetonitrile. The basic drugs pethidine, haloperidol, nortriptyline, methadone and loperamide were used as model analytes. Reversed phase (C18) HPLC with UV (235 nm) and MS detection was used for analysis of the samples. With no organic solvent in the sample, maximum recoveries were obtained after 5-10 min. The maximum recoveries ranged between 83 and 95%. With 50% (v/v) methanol, ethanol, or dimethyl sulfoxide in the sample, recoveries were comparable to those from an aqueous sample, but the time required reaching maximum recovery increased to 15-25 min. With 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) as the supported liquid membrane (SLM), a stable EME system was obtained for 50% (v/v) methanol, 50% (v/v) ethanol, or 75% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide in the sample solution. On the other hand, the EME system was unstable with acetonitrile in the sample, as this solvent partly dissolved the SLM. In addition, acetonitrile migrated through the SLM and caused a volume expansion of the acceptor solution. Other SLMs were also tested (ethyl nitrobenzene, isopropyl nitrobenzene, and dodecyl nitrobenzene), but were inferior to NPOE. As a practical example, EME on dried blood spot extracts (80% methanol) were tested, and proved highly successful. These observations showed that EME can be an effective way of preparing aqueous samples containing substantial amounts of an organic solvent.

  1. Solvent extraction of the Avgamasya asphaltite of southeastern Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Tolay, M.; Bartle, K.D.; Ekinci, E.; Erdem-Senatakr, A.; Kadioglu, E.

    1983-12-01

    The Avgamasya asphaltite of southeastern Turkey is geochemically classified as a solid aromatic-asphaltic oil containing mineral matter (mainly carbonates, sulphates, silicates and sulphides) derived from nearby Jurassic-Cretaceous oil deposits by alteration during migration. The asphaltite has been extracted by a variety of methods: Soxhlet at atmospheric pressure; with liquids under moderate pressure; and with supercritical gases. The effects of different extraction methods and solvents along with changes in temperature and pressure as well as prior acid treatment have been studied. The methods were fractionation of the extracts into pentane solubes and asphaltenes, followed by analyses by column chromatography, capillary gas chromatography, size exclusion chromatography and infra-red, (especially) /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. In comparison with Soxhlet extraction, liquid extraction under pressure produces further quantities of asphaltenes, with a more condensed average aromatic skeleton. On the other hand, extraction with supercritical toluene at 350/sup 0/C gives a similar yield to liquid extraction at 215/sup 0/C, but with a preponderance of low molecular mass petane soluble material.

  2. NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYMER COMPONENTS WITHIN MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2011-09-29

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil{reg_sign}, Tefzel{reg_sign} and Isolast{reg_sign}) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of the guanidine suppressor and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that guanidine (LIX{reg_sign}79) selectively affected Tefzel{reg_sign} (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel{reg_sign} and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of guanidine. Tefzel{reg_sign} is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to guanidine, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel{reg_sign}) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel{reg_sign} in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel{reg_sign} seating material. PEEK, Grafoil{reg_sign} and Isolast{reg_sign} were not affected by guanidine and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The

  3. [Mild solvent extraction technique for the evaluation of PAHs bioavailability].

    PubMed

    Lü, Zheng-Yong; Yang, Xing-Lun; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yin-Ping; Jiang, Xin

    2011-08-01

    n-butanol and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) were used to extract polyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from 9 aged agricultural fields and to assess the PAHs bioavailability to earthworm (Eisenia fetida). It was demonstrated that the high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (> or = 4 rings) contribute the largest proportions (4-ring PAHs: 34.06%, 5-6 rings: 34.09%) to the contaminants in long-term aged field soils. Moreover, the light molecular weight PAHs were easily accumulated in the earthworm,while the high molecular weight PAHs were hard to accumulate. The extraction by mild solvent correlated well with the 3 ring PAHs (r2 0.77-0.79) but not for the other rings PAHs (r2 <0.35), indicating that mild extraction may not serve as a good predictor of PAHs bioavailability to earthworm.

  4. Advanced integrated solvent extraction and ion exchange systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, P.

    1996-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction (SX) and ion exchange (IX) systems are a series of novel SX and IX processes that extract and recover uranium and transuranics (TRUs) (neptunium, plutonium, americium) and fission products {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste and that sorb and recover {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline supernatant high-level waste. Each system is based on the use of new selective liquid extractants or chromatographic materials. The purpose of the integrated SX and IX processes is to minimize the quantity of waste that must be vitrified and buried in a deep geologic repository by producing raffinates (from SX) and effluent streams (from IX) that will meet the specifications of Class A low-level waste.

  5. Cellulose nanocrystals from acacia bark-Influence of solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Taflick, Ticiane; Schwendler, Luana A; Rosa, Simone M L; Bica, Clara I D; Nachtigall, Sônia M B

    2017-08-01

    The isolation of cellulose nanocrystals from different lignocellulosic materials has shown increased interest in academic and technological research. These materials have excellent mechanical properties and can be used as nanofillers for polymer composites as well as transparent films for various applications. In this work, cellulose isolation was performed following an environmental friendly procedure without chlorine. Cellulose nanocrystals were isolated from the exhausted acacia bark (after the industrial process of extracting tannin) with the objective of evaluating the effect of the solvent extraction steps on the characteristics of cellulose and cellulose nanocrystals. It was also assessed the effect of acid hydrolysis time on the thermal stability, morphology and size of the nanocrystals, through TGA, TEM and light scattering analyses. It was concluded that the extraction step with solvents was important in the isolation of cellulose, but irrelevant in the isolation of cellulose nanocrystals. Light scattering experiments indicated that 30min of hydrolysis was long enough for the isolation of cellulose nanocrystals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fabrication of nanoporous block copolymer films using highly selective solvents and non-solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Changhuai; Vogt, Bryan

    Nanoporous polymeric films with high porosity are necessary for some applications, such as anti-reflective coating. A simple and relatively environmental benign method is developed to fabricate nanoporous block copolymer thin film with tunable porosity up to 69% based on selective solvent swelling of the majority phase and subsequent rapid extraction with a miscible non-solvent (water). Poly(butylnorbornene)-block-poly(hydroxyhexafluoroisopropyl norbornene) (BuHFA) is used to generate these porous thin films due to its high Tg (>300 °C) and the selectivity of primary alcohols towards HFA. The porosity of these nanoporous films is highly dependent on the solvent quality for HFA. The modulus of the as-prepared nanoporous BuHFA thin films with the porosity from 0% to 69% was investigated by surface wrinkling and a scaling law of modulus versus density was obtained. These nanoporous thin films act as anti-reflective coatings and an increase in transmittance from approximately 92% to 99.1% (average for the full range of visible light) was obtained for double-side coated glass slides. This methodology is simple and highly tunable; extension to other block copolymer systems is likely possible if sufficient solubility contrast between segments exists.

  7. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction of essential oil from Botryophora geniculate using different extracting solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibullah, Wilfred, Cecilia Devi

    2016-11-01

    This study compares the performance of ionic liquids to substitute conventional solvents (hexane, dichloromethane and methanol) to extract essential oil from Botryophora geniculate plant. Two different Ionic liquids ([C3MIM][Ac], [C4MIM][Ac]) with co-solvent diethyl ether were used in the ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The effect of various experimental conditions such as time, temperature and solvent were studied. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used to analyze essential oils. The results showed that in ultrasonic-assisted extraction using ionic liquids as a solvent gave highest yield (9.5%) in 30 min at temperature 70°C. When using ultrasonic bath with hexane, dichloromethane and methanol, yields was (3.34%), (3.6%) and (3.81%) at 90 min, respectively were obtained. The ultrasonic-assisted extraction under optimal extraction conditions (time 30 min, temperature of 70°C) gave the best yield for the essential oil extraction.

  8. SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM AND NIOBIUM BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Voiland, E.E.

    1958-05-01

    A process for separation of the uranium from zirconium and/or niobium values contained in 3 to 7M aqueous nitric acid solutions is described. This is accomplished by adding phosphoric acid anions to the nitric acid solution containing the uranium, zirconium, and/or niobium in an amount sufficient to make the solution 0.05 to 0.2M in phosphate ion and contacting the solution with an organic water-immiscible solvent such as MEK, whereby the uranyl values are taken up by the extract phase while the zirconium and niobium preferentially remain in the aqueous raffinate.

  9. Impact of solvent extraction organics on bioleaching by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hualong; Liu, Xiaorong; Shen, Junhui; Chi, Daojie

    2017-03-01

    Solvent extraction organics (SX organics) entrained and dissoluted in the raffinate during copper SX operation, can impact bioleaching in case of raffinate recycling. The influence of SX organics on bioleaching process by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (At. ferrooxidans) has been investigated. The results showed that, cells of At. ferrooxidans grew slower with contaminated low-grade chalcopyrite ores in shaken flasks bioleaching, the copper bioleaching efficiency reached 15%, lower than that of 24% for uncontaminated minerals. Obviously, the SX organics could adsorb on mineral surface and hinder its contact with bacterials, finanlly lead to the low bioleaching efficiency.

  10. Mechanism of electrodialytic ion transport through solvent extraction membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Moskvin, L.N.; Shmatko, A.G.; Krasnoperov, V.M.

    1987-02-01

    The authors construct a mathematical model for electrodialysis and solvent extraction via an ion-selective ion exchange membrane and accounts for the electrochemical, ion exchange, and diffusional behavior of the processes including their dependence on component concentration and current and voltage. The model is tested against experimental data for the electrodialytic transport of anionic platinum complexes of chlorides from hydrochloric acid solution through tributylphosphate membranes. The platinum concentration in the aqueous solution was determined by gamma spectroscopy obtained via platinum 191 as a radiotracer.

  11. Effect of extraction solvent/technique on the antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2009-06-15

    Theeffects of four extracting solvents [absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v) and aqueous methanol (methanol: water, 80:20 v/v)] and two extraction techniques (shaking and reflux) on the antioxidant activity of extracts of barks of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia arjuna, leaves and roots of Moringa oleifera, fruit of Ficus religiosa,and leaves of Aloe barbadensis were investigated. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (0.31-16.5 g GAE /100g DW), total flavonoid (2.63-8.66 g CE/100g DW); reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration (1.36-2.91), DPPH(.) scavenging capacity (37.2-86.6%), and percent inhibition of linoleic acid (66.0-90.6%). Generally higher extract yields, phenolic contents and plant material antioxidant activity were obtained using aqueous organic solvents, as compared to the respective absolute organic solvents. Although higher extract yields were obtained by the refluxing extraction technique, in general higher amounts of total phenolic contents and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using a shaker.

  12. Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. Solvent Extraction Technology Rapid Commercialization Initiative Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terra-Kleen Response Group Inc. (Terra-Kleen), has commercialized a solvent extraction technology that uses a proprietary extraction solvent to transfer organic constituents from soil to a liquid phase in a batch process at ambient temperatures. The proprietary solvent has a rel...

  13. Deep eutectic solvents as novel extraction media for phenolic compounds from model oil.

    PubMed

    Gu, Tongnian; Zhang, Mingliang; Tan, Ting; Chen, Jia; Li, Zhan; Zhang, Qinghua; Qiu, Hongdeng

    2014-10-11

    Deep eutectic solvents (DES) as a new kind of green solvent were used for the first time to excellently extract phenolic compounds from model oil. It was also proved that DES could be used to extract other polar compounds from non-polar or weakly-polar solvents by liquid-phase microextraction.

  14. Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. Solvent Extraction Technology Rapid Commercialization Initiative Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terra-Kleen Response Group Inc. (Terra-Kleen), has commercialized a solvent extraction technology that uses a proprietary extraction solvent to transfer organic constituents from soil to a liquid phase in a batch process at ambient temperatures. The proprietary solvent has a rel...

  15. Investigation of aggregation in solvent extraction of lanthanides by acidic extractants (organophosphorus and naphthenic acid)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, N.; Wu, J.; Yu, Z.; Neuman, R.D.; Wang, D.; Xu, G.

    1997-01-01

    Three acidic extractants (I) di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), (II) 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEHPEHE) and (III) naphthenic acid were employed in preparing the samples for the characterization of the coordination structure of lanthanide-extractant complexes and the physicochemical nature of aggregates formed in the organic diluent of the solvent extraction systems. Photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) results on the aggregates formed by the partially saponified HDEHP in n-heptane showed that the hydrodynamic radius of the aggregates was comparable to the molecular dimensions of HDEHP. The addition of 2-octanol into the diluent, by which the mixed solvent was formed, increased the dimensions of the corresponding aggregates. Aggregates formed from the lanthanide ions and HDEHP in the organic phase of the extraction systems were found very unstable. In the case of naphthenic acid, PCS data showed the formation of w/o microemulsion from the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent. The extraction of lanthanides by the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent under the given experimental conditions was a process of destruction of the w/o microemulsion. A possible mechanism of the breakdown of the w/o microemulsion droplets is discussed.

  16. Solvent extraction studies with intermediate-burnup Fast Flux Test Facility fuel in the Solvent Extraction Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Benker, D. E.; Bigelow, J. E.; Bond, W. D.; Chattin, F. R.; King, L. J.; Kitts, F. G.; Ross, R. G.; Stacy, R. G.

    1986-04-01

    In Campaign 8, two batches of irradiated fuel from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) were processed, using 30% TBP-NPH, in the Solvent Extraction Test Facility (SETF). The burnups were about 36 and 55 MWd/kg with 1.3- and 1-year cooling times, respectively. The latter fuel had the highest burnup and shortest cooling time of any fuel ever handled in the SETF. No major problems were noted during the operation of the mixer-settlers, and low uranium and plutonium losses (<0.02%) were achieved. Zirconium and ruthenium decontamination factors (DFs) were improved by increasing the number of scrub stages and increasing the peak solvent loading in the coextraction-coscrub bank. The use of an in-line photometer to measure the uranium and plutonium concentrations in a process stream permitted high solvent loadings of heavy metals to be achieved in the extraction bank while maintaining low losses to the aqueous raffinate. The investigation of two flowsheet options for making separate uranium and plutonium products (organic backscrub and selective uranium extraction) that was started in Campaign 7 was continued. High-quality products were again obtained (uranium and plutonium DFs of {similar_to}0{sup 4}). Plutonium reoxidation was still extensive even though hydrazine was added to the aqueous strip for the organic backscrub flowsheet. Two different plutonium oxalate precipitation procedures [Pu(III) and Pu(IV)] were used in the preparation of the plutonium oxide products; this was done so that the fuel fabrication characteristics of the oxide from the two procedures could be compared. A total of {similar_to}50 g of plutonium was recovered and shipped to the fuel refabrication program.

  17. Strategies for reducing solvent toxicity in extractive ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kapucu, H; Mehmetoğlu, U

    1998-01-01

    Extractive fermentation is a widely preferred technique in which the products of fermentation are removed from the fermentation medium by a proper solvent, in order to avoid the inhibitory effects of the products. In this work, decanol, which has a high distribution coefficient with respect to the biocompatible solvents, was used in extractive ethanol fermentation. In order to reduce decanol toxicity, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were immobilized in calcium alginate gel. Further, sunflower oil and Al2O3 were added to the immobilization media. Experiments were performed in 250-mL Erlenmeyer flasks that were placed in the constant-temperature bath of a constant stirring-rate shaker. Ethanol concentrations were measured to observe the effect of various parameters on ethanol production. Immobilization media included 10, 20, and 30% sunflower oil, or 5, 10, and 20% Al2O3, or Al2O3 and sunflower oil together. The ratio of the volume of aqueous phase to that of decanol phase ranged from 2:1 to 6:1. It was observed that protection depends on the oil, Al2O3, and decanol amounts. Utilization of sunflower oil (30%) and Al2O3 (5%) together yielded best results.

  18. Application of deep eutectic solvents in the extraction and separation of target compounds from various samples.

    PubMed

    Tang, Baokun; Zhang, Heng; Row, Kyung Ho

    2015-03-01

    Deep eutectic solvents, as a new type of eco-friendly solvent, have attracted increasing attention in chemistry for the extraction and separation of target compounds from various samples. To summarize the application of deep eutectic solvents, this review highlights some of the unique properties of deep eutectic solvents and deep-eutectic-solvent-based materials, as well as their applications in extraction and separation. In this paper, the available data and references in this field are reviewed to summarize the application developments of deep eutectic solvents. Based on the development of deep eutectic solvents, the exploitation of new deep eutectic solvents and deep-eutectic-solvent-based materials are expected to diversify into extraction and separation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Optimization of soy isoflavone extraction with different solvents using the simplex-centroid mixture design.

    PubMed

    Yoshiara, Luciane Yuri; Madeira, Tiago Bervelieri; Delaroza, Fernanda; da Silva, Josemeyre Bonifácio; Ida, Elza Iouko

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction of different isoflavone forms (glycosidic, malonyl-glycosidic, aglycone and total) from defatted cotyledon soy flour using the simplex-centroid experimental design with four solvents of varying polarity (water, acetone, ethanol and acetonitrile). The obtained extracts were then analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The profile of the different soy isoflavones forms varied with different extractions solvents. Varying the solvent or mixture used, the extraction of different isoflavones was optimized using the centroid-simplex mixture design. The special cubic model best fitted to the four solvents and its combination for soy isoflavones extraction. For glycosidic isoflavones extraction, the polar ternary mixture (water, acetone and acetonitrile) achieved the best extraction; malonyl-glycosidic forms were better extracted with mixtures of water, acetone and ethanol. Aglycone isoflavones, water and acetone mixture were best extracted and total isoflavones, the best solvents were ternary mixture of water, acetone and ethanol.

  20. Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction: Supramolecular Aspects of Solvent Exchange Volume 21

    SciTech Connect

    Gloe, Karsten; Tasker, Peter A; Oshima, Tatsuya; Watarai, Hitoshi; Nilsson, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Preface The theme of supramolecular chemistry (SC), entailing the organization of multiple species through noncovalent interactions, has permeated virtually all aspects of chemical endeavor over the past several decades. Given that the observed behavior of discrete molecular species depends upon their weak interactions with one another and with matrix components, one would have to conclude that SC must indeed form part of the fabric of chemistry itself. A vast literature now serves to categorize SC phenomena within a body of consistent terminology. The word supramolecular itself appears in the titles of dozens of books, several journals, and a dedicated encyclopedia. Not surprisingly, the theme of SC also permeates the field of solvent extraction (SX), inspiring the framework for this volume of Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction. It is attempted in the six chapters of this volume to identify both how supramolecular behavior occurs and is studied in the context of SX and how SC is influencing the current direction of SX. Researchers and practitioners have long dealt with supramolecular interactions in SX. Indeed, the use of polar extractant molecules in nonpolar media virtually assures that aggregative interactions will dominate the solution behavior of SX. Analytical chemists working in the 1930s to the 1950s with simple mono- and bidentate chelating ligands as extractants noted that extraction of metal ions obeyed complicated mass-action equilibria involving complex stoichiometries. As chemists and engineers developed processes for nuclear and hydrometallurgical applications in the 1950s and 1960s, the preference for aliphatic diluents only enhanced the complexity and supramolecular nature of extraction chemistry. Use of physical techniques such as light scattering and vapor-pressure measurements together with various spectroscopic methods revealed organic-phase aggregates from well-defined dimers to small aggregates containing a few extractant molecules to large

  1. Neutron Polarization Analysis for Biphasic Solvent Extraction Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Motokawa, Ryuhei; Endo, Hitoshi; Nagao, Michihiro; ...

    2016-06-16

    Here we performed neutron polarization analysis (NPA) of extracted organic phases containing complexes, comprised of Zr(NO3)4 and tri-n-butyl phosphate, which enabled decomposition of the intensity distribution of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) into the coherent and incoherent scattering components. The coherent scattering intensity, containing structural information, and the incoherent scattering compete over a wide range of magnitude of scattering vector, q, specifically when q is larger than q* ≈ 1/Rg, where Rg is the radius of gyration of scatterer. Therefore, it is important to determine the incoherent scattering intensity exactly to perform an accurate structural analysis from SANS data when Rgmore » is small, such as the aforementioned extracted coordination species. Although NPA is the best method for evaluating the incoherent scattering component for accurately determining the coherent scattering in SANS, this method is not used frequently in SANS data analysis because it is technically challenging. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that experimental determination of the incoherent scattering using NPA is suitable for sample systems containing a small scatterer with a weak coherent scattering intensity, such as extracted complexes in biphasic solvent extraction systems.« less

  2. Neutron Polarization Analysis for Biphasic Solvent Extraction Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Motokawa, Ryuhei; Endo, Hitoshi; Nagao, Michihiro; Heller, William T.

    2016-06-16

    Here we performed neutron polarization analysis (NPA) of extracted organic phases containing complexes, comprised of Zr(NO3)4 and tri-n-butyl phosphate, which enabled decomposition of the intensity distribution of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) into the coherent and incoherent scattering components. The coherent scattering intensity, containing structural information, and the incoherent scattering compete over a wide range of magnitude of scattering vector, q, specifically when q is larger than q* ≈ 1/Rg, where Rg is the radius of gyration of scatterer. Therefore, it is important to determine the incoherent scattering intensity exactly to perform an accurate structural analysis from SANS data when Rg is small, such as the aforementioned extracted coordination species. Although NPA is the best method for evaluating the incoherent scattering component for accurately determining the coherent scattering in SANS, this method is not used frequently in SANS data analysis because it is technically challenging. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that experimental determination of the incoherent scattering using NPA is suitable for sample systems containing a small scatterer with a weak coherent scattering intensity, such as extracted complexes in biphasic solvent extraction systems.

  3. Neutron Polarization Analysis for Biphasic Solvent Extraction Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Motokawa, Ryuhei; Endo, Hitoshi; Nagao, Michihiro; Heller, William T.

    2016-06-16

    Here we performed neutron polarization analysis (NPA) of extracted organic phases containing complexes, comprised of Zr(NO3)4 and tri-n-butyl phosphate, which enabled decomposition of the intensity distribution of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) into the coherent and incoherent scattering components. The coherent scattering intensity, containing structural information, and the incoherent scattering compete over a wide range of magnitude of scattering vector, q, specifically when q is larger than q* ≈ 1/Rg, where Rg is the radius of gyration of scatterer. Therefore, it is important to determine the incoherent scattering intensity exactly to perform an accurate structural analysis from SANS data when Rg is small, such as the aforementioned extracted coordination species. Although NPA is the best method for evaluating the incoherent scattering component for accurately determining the coherent scattering in SANS, this method is not used frequently in SANS data analysis because it is technically challenging. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that experimental determination of the incoherent scattering using NPA is suitable for sample systems containing a small scatterer with a weak coherent scattering intensity, such as extracted complexes in biphasic solvent extraction systems.

  4. Solvent extraction of rare-earth metals by carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Preez, A.C. du; Preston, J.S.

    1992-04-01

    The solvent extraction of the trivalent lanthanides and yttrium from nitrate media by solutions of carboxylic acids in xylene has been studied. Commercially available carboxylic acids such as Versatic 10 and naphthenic acids were used, as well as model compounds of known structure, such as 2-ethylhexanoic and 3-cyclohexylpropanoic acids. In a few cases, extraction of the metals from sulphate and chloride solutions was also investigated. The dependence of the extraction properties of the carboxylic acids on the atomic number of the lanthanide shows a definite relationship to the steric bulk of the carboxylic acid molecule quantified by means of the steric parameter, E{sub s}{prime} of the substituent alkyl group. The stoichiometries of the extracted complexes for representative light (La), middle (Gd) and heavy (Lu) rare-earth metals were investigated by the slope-analysis technique for a sterically hindered acid (Versatic 10 acid; -E{prime}{sub s} = 3.83) and an acid with low steric hindrance (3-cyclohexylpropanoic acid; -E{prime}{sub s} = 0.28). 14 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Extraction of functional ingredients from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) using liquid solvent and supercritical CO₂ extraction.

    PubMed

    Jaime, Laura; Vázquez, Erika; Fornari, Tiziana; López-Hazas, María del Carmen; García-Risco, Mónica R; Santoyo, Susana; Reglero, Guillermo

    2015-03-15

    In this work three different techniques were applied to extract dry leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea): solid-liquid extraction (SLE), pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to investigate the influence of extraction solvent and technique on extracts composition and antioxidant activity. Moreover, the influence of carotenoids and phenolic compounds on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of spinach extracts was also studied. The higher concentrations of carotenoids and the lower content of phenolic compounds were observed in the supercritical CO₂ extracts; whereas water and/or ethanol PLE extracts presented low amounts of carotenoids and the higher concentrations of phenolic compounds. PLE extract with the highest content of phenolic compounds showed the highest antioxidant activity, although SFE carotenoid rich extract also showed a high antioxidant activity. Moreover, both extracts presented an important anti-inflammatory activity. PLE seems to be a good technique for the extraction of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds from spinach leaves. Moreover, spinach phenolic compounds and carotenoids present a high antioxidant activity, whereas spinach carotenoids seem to show a higher anti-inflammatory activity than phenolic compounds. It is worth noting that of our knowledge this is the first time the anti-inflammatory activity of lipophilic extracts from spinach leaves is reported. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Process for producing fuel grade alcohol by solvent extraction and carrier gas stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Tedder, D.W.

    1985-04-09

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol; extracting said aqueous fermentation liquor with an organic solvent containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate; contacting said alcohol-organic solvent phase with a carrier gas thereby separating said alcohol from said alcohol-organic solvent phase and forming an alcohol laden solvent vapor; and separating alcohol substantially free of water from said carrier gas.

  7. Thermal degradation of the solvent employed in the next-generation caustic-side solvent extraction process and its effect on the extraction, scrubbing, and stripping of cesium

    DOE PAGES

    Roach, Benjamin D.; Williams, Neil J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2015-09-02

    As part of the ongoing development of the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) process, the thermal stability of the process solvent was investigated and shown to be adequate for industrial application. The solvent was thermally treated at 35 C over a period of 13 months whilst in dynamic contact with each of the aqueous phases of the current NGS process, namely SRS 15 (a highly caustic waste simulant), sodium hydroxide scrub solution (0.025 M), and boric acid strip solution (0.01 M). The effect of thermal treatment was evaluated by assessing batch extract/scrub/strip performance as a function of time, by monitoringmore » the sodium extraction capacity of the solvent, and by analysis of the solvent using electrospray mass spectrometry. Current studies indicate that the NGS solvent should be thermally robust for a period of XXX months at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) pilot plant located at Savannah River Site. Furthermore, the guanidine suppressor appears to be the solvent component most significantly impacted by thermal treatment of the solvent, showing significant degradation over time.« less

  8. Thermal degradation of the solvent employed in the next-generation caustic-side solvent extraction process and its effect on the extraction, scrubbing, and stripping of cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Benjamin D.; Williams, Neil J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2015-09-02

    As part of the ongoing development of the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) process, the thermal stability of the process solvent was investigated and shown to be adequate for industrial application. The solvent was thermally treated at 35 C over a period of 13 months whilst in dynamic contact with each of the aqueous phases of the current NGS process, namely SRS 15 (a highly caustic waste simulant), sodium hydroxide scrub solution (0.025 M), and boric acid strip solution (0.01 M). The effect of thermal treatment was evaluated by assessing batch extract/scrub/strip performance as a function of time, by monitoring the sodium extraction capacity of the solvent, and by analysis of the solvent using electrospray mass spectrometry. Current studies indicate that the NGS solvent should be thermally robust for a period of XXX months at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) pilot plant located at Savannah River Site. Furthermore, the guanidine suppressor appears to be the solvent component most significantly impacted by thermal treatment of the solvent, showing significant degradation over time.

  9. Fuel characteristics and pyrolysis studies of solvent extractables and residues from the evergreen shrub Calotropis procera

    SciTech Connect

    Erdman, M.D.; Gregorski, K.S.; Pavlath, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    Solvent extractables and residues from milkweed were evaluated as sources of liquid and solid fuels. Selected chemical, physical and pyrolytic determinations of the extractables and residues indicated that hexane extract is a potentially valuable, high density fuel resource. Methanol extract was shown to be a lower energy, highly toxic extract. Extracted residues were demonstrated to be valuable as solid fuel energy resources. 31 references.

  10. Coal extraction by aprotic dipolar solvents. Final report. [Tetramethylurea, hexa-methylphosphoramide

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, J T

    1985-12-01

    The overall goals of this project were to examine the rate and amount of extraction of coals at low temperature by a class of solvents with a generic structure to include tetramethylurea (TMU) and hexa-methylphosphoramide (HMPA) and to examine the nature of the extracted coal chemicals. The class of solvents with similar action, however, can be classified as aprotic, base solvents or, somewhat more broadly, specific solvents. The action of solvents by this last classification was then examined to postulate a mechanism of attack. Experimental work was conducted to explain the specific solvent attack including (1) pure solvent extraction, (2) extraction in mixtures with otherwise inert solvents and inhibitors, and (3) extraction with simultaneous catalytic enhancement attempts including water-gas shift conversion. Thus nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas-chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of extract molecules and extraction with high-pressure CO in TMU (plus 2% H2O) was performed. Effects of solvent additives such as cumene and quinone of large amounts of inert solvents such as tetralin, liminone, or carbon disulfide on extraction were also determined. Results are discussed. 82 refs., 36 figs., 37 tabs.

  11. Effect of Organic Solvents on Microalgae Growth, Metabolism and Industrial Bioproduct Extraction: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Miazek, Krystian; Sulc, Radek; Jirout, Tomas; Aguedo, Mario; Goffin, Dorothee

    2017-01-01

    In this review, the effect of organic solvents on microalgae cultures from molecular to industrial scale is presented. Traditional organic solvents and solvents of new generation-ionic liquids (ILs), are considered. Alterations in microalgal cell metabolism and synthesis of target products (pigments, proteins, lipids), as a result of exposure to organic solvents, are summarized. Applications of organic solvents as a carbon source for microalgal growth and production of target molecules are discussed. Possible implementation of various industrial effluents containing organic solvents into microalgal cultivation media, is evaluated. The effect of organic solvents on extraction of target compounds from microalgae is also considered. Techniques for lipid and carotenoid extraction from viable microalgal biomass (milking methods) and dead microalgal biomass (classical methods) are depicted. Moreover, the economic survey of lipid and carotenoid extraction from microalgae biomass, by means of different techniques and solvents, is conducted. PMID:28677659

  12. Effect of Organic Solvents on Microalgae Growth, Metabolism and Industrial Bioproduct Extraction: A Review.

    PubMed

    Miazek, Krystian; Kratky, Lukas; Sulc, Radek; Jirout, Tomas; Aguedo, Mario; Richel, Aurore; Goffin, Dorothee

    2017-07-04

    In this review, the effect of organic solvents on microalgae cultures from molecular to industrial scale is presented. Traditional organic solvents and solvents of new generation-ionic liquids (ILs), are considered. Alterations in microalgal cell metabolism and synthesis of target products (pigments, proteins, lipids), as a result of exposure to organic solvents, are summarized. Applications of organic solvents as a carbon source for microalgal growth and production of target molecules are discussed. Possible implementation of various industrial effluents containing organic solvents into microalgal cultivation media, is evaluated. The effect of organic solvents on extraction of target compounds from microalgae is also considered. Techniques for lipid and carotenoid extraction from viable microalgal biomass (milking methods) and dead microalgal biomass (classical methods) are depicted. Moreover, the economic survey of lipid and carotenoid extraction from microalgae biomass, by means of different techniques and solvents, is conducted.

  13. Solvent extraction process for rerefining used lubricating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, L.C.; O'blasny, R.H.

    1981-11-24

    In accordance with the present invention, a process is provided for removing impurities from heavy and light lube oil fractions that have been obtained from waste lubricating oil. The impurities in the light lube oil fraction are removed utilizing tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol in an extraction column (10). An oilrich raffinate has the solvent removed therefrom by steam distillation and stripping at reduced pressure in a distillation tower (20). The heavy lube oil fraction is purified in a manner similar to the purification of the light lube oil fraction. The finished heavy and light lube oil may then be subjected to further treatment, such as polishing steps or additives may be blended into the lube oil product depending on the desired use.

  14. Polyhydroxyflavones as extractants. Communication 7. Solvent extraction of europrium complexes with morin from alkaline media

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, A.B.

    1985-09-01

    This paper studies the analytical application of europium (III)-morin complex which is formed in alkaline medium and has an intense color. The extent of europium extraction was determined by adding to the extract a morin solution in isoamyl alcohol in a 50-100-fold excess with respect to europium. The dependence of the optical density of the extracts on the ph in the system europium (III)-morin-water-organic solvent for different excesses of the reagent is shown: this indicates formation of two extractable complexes, one being dominant in the pH range 4-7, the other at pH greater than or equal to 8.5. The extraction of the europium (III)-morin complex from alkaline solution is used for direct extraction-photometric determination of europium(III) in compounds of elements having amphoteric properties or forming amines (Zns, Mo0/sub 3/).

  15. Sharp Interface Tracking in Rotating Microflows of Solvent Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Glimm, James; Almeida, Valmor de; Jiao, Xiangmin; Sims, Brett; Li, Xaiolin

    2013-01-08

    The objective of this project is to develop a specialized sharp interface tracking simulation capability for predicting interaction of micron-sized drops and bubbles in rotating flows relevant to optimized design of contactor devices used in solvent extraction processes of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. The primary outcomes of this project include the capability to resolve drops and bubbles micro-hydrodynamics in solvent extraction contactors, determining from first principles continuum fluid mechanics how micro-drops and bubbles interact with each other and the surrounding shearing fluid for realistic flows. In the near term, this effort will play a central role in providing parameters and insight into the flow dynamics of models that average over coarser scales, say at the millimeter unit length. In the longer term, it will prove to be the platform to conduct full-device, detailed simulations as parallel computing power reaches the exaflop level. The team will develop an accurate simulation tool for flows containing interacting droplets and bubbles with sharp interfaces under conditions that mimic those found in realistic contactor operations. The main objective is to create an off-line simulation capability to model drop and bubble interactions in a domain representative of the averaged length scale. The technical approach is to combine robust interface tracking software, subgrid modeling, validation quality experiments, powerful computational hardware, and a team with simulation modeling, physical modeling and technology integration experience. Simulations will then fully resolve the microflow of drops and bubbles at the microsecond time scale. This approach is computationally intensive but very accurate in treating important coupled physical phenomena in the vicinity of interfaces. The method makes it possible to resolve spatial scales smaller than the typical distance between bubbles and to model some non-equilibrium thermodynamic features such as finite

  16. Importance of extracting solvent vapor pressure in headspace liquid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xue; Yang, Cui; Ren, Chunyan; Li, Donghao

    2008-09-26

    Of the many parameters that affect the enrichment factors in headspace liquid-phase microextraction, in this study, we systematically investigated the influence of the vapor pressure of the extracting solvent. Seven extracting solvents with different vapor pressures were selected and tested. It was found that the vapor pressure of the extracting solvent dramatically affects the enrichment factor and the factor was increasing by decreasing the extracting solvent vapor pressure under given experimental conditions. The result was validated for volatile organic compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls.

  17. Evidence for Complex Molecular Architectures for Solvent-Extracted Lignins

    SciTech Connect

    Rials, Timothy G; Urban, Volker S; Langan, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Lignin, an abundant, naturally occurring biopolymer, is often considered 'waste' and used as a simple fuel source in the paper-making process. However, lignin has emerged as a promising renewable resource for engineering materials, such as carbon fibers. Unfortunately, the molecular architecture of lignin (in vivo and extracted) is still elusive, with numerous conflicting reports in the literature, and knowledge of this structure is extremely important, not only for materials technologies, but also for production of biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol due to biomass recalcitrance. As such, the molecular structures of solvent-extracted (sulfur-free) lignins, which have been modified using various acyl chlorides, have been probed using small-angle X-ray (SAXS) and neutron (SANS) scattering in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution along with hydrodynamic characterization using dilute solution viscometry and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) in THF. Mass spectrometry shows an absolute molecular weight {approx}18-30 kDa ({approx}80-140 monomers), while GPC shows a relative molecular weight {approx}3 kDa. A linear styrene oligomer (2.5 kDa) was also analyzed in THF using SANS. Results clearly show that lignin molecular architectures are somewhat rigid and complex, ranging from nanogels to hyperbranched macromolecules, not linear oligomers or physical assemblies of oligomers, which is consistent with previously proposed delignification (extraction) mechanisms. Future characterization using the methods discussed here can be used to guide extraction processes as well as genetic engineering technologies to convert lignin into value added materials with the potential for high positive impact on global sustainability.

  18. MILESTONES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN THE SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF CAESIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    The remarkable development of solvent-extraction (SX) chemistry for caesium separation over the past half a century as driven by the needs of the nuclear industry now constitutes an instructive case study in exploring the limits of selectivity and cycle efficiency in SX. In this review, key milestones in the pursuit of both fundamentals and applications of caesium extraction will be highlighted along with a look at future prospects. The high-yield fission-product 137Cs constitutes a major fraction of the radioactivity in nuclear wastes, and in view of its heat production, environmental mobility, radiation hazard, and even uses as a radiation source, methods have long been sought for its separation. Toward this end, the evolving science has been challenged by daunting requirements for decontamination in the presence of high concentrations of competing cations, and demands for small footprint, modular design, and high throughput place a premium on selectivity and efficiency. Fortunately, the science has also benefited from the peculiar economics of nuclear separations, which have afforded the development of wonderfully sophisticated reagents. With its location in the lower left side of the periodic table, the Cs+ cation has the distinction of having the lowest charge density of any metal cation except short-lived francium. For practical purposes, Cs+ is thus the least hydrated and, in principle, the most directly extractable metal cation. Technologies employing liquid-liquid cation exchange with very large, durable anions like those from the dicarbollide family have therefore been quite effective based solely on solvation principles. Alternatively, researchers have turned to macrocyclic coordinating extractants, such as calix-crown ethers, following principles of molecular recognition, with dramatic results. Overall, strides continue along these lines, though it is apparent that caesium SX has reached a state of excellent fundamental understanding and technical

  19. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soot and sediment: solvent evaluation and implications for sorption mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Michiel T O; Koelmans, Albert A

    2002-10-01

    Soot contains high levels of toxic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Extraction of PAHs from soot for quantitative analysis is difficult because the compounds are extremely tightly bound to the sorbent matrix. This study was designed to investigate the effect of solvent type on PAH extraction yield, to identify the most optimal solvent for PAH extraction from soot, and to gain insight into the mechanism of PAH sorption to soot in aquatic environments. To that end, different types of soot as well as coal, charcoal, and sediments containing soot-like material were extracted with seven organic solvents. Large differences in extraction recoveries were observed among solvents, with relative values as low as 16% as compared to the best extracting solvent. These differences were much larger for soot than for sediments. Dichloromethane, which to date is the most widely used solvent for soot and sediment extractions, appeared to be the overall worst extractant, whereas toluene/methanol (1:6) gave the best results. Based on extraction yields and solvent properties, extraction of PAHs from soot was explained by a two-step mechanism involving swelling of the sorbent matrix and subsequent displacement of sorbates by solvent molecules. Due to the low displacement capacity of water, desorption of PAHs from soot in the aquatic environment will be strongly limited. Moreover, a certain fraction of the total PAH mass on soot is suggested to be physically entrapped, making it unavailable for partitioning to the aqueous phase.

  20. Evaluation of Co-solvents with supercritical fluid extraction of atrazine from soil.

    PubMed

    Senseman, S A; Ketchersid, M L

    2000-04-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO(2) has been successfully applied to herbicide extractions from soil. The objectives of this work were to compare extraction efficiency of atrazine from soil using different types and quantities of co-solvent modifiers under a specified set of SFE instrument conditions and to determine the ruggedness of an optimized extraction program and co-solvent on several soils with varying characteristics. The effect of 18 co-solvents on atrazine extraction from Lufkin fine sandy loam was determined using a completely randomized design with six replications. Extractions of Lufkin soil using the more nonpolar co-solvents had recovery similar to extractions where no co-solvent was added. The co-solvents that showed high extraction efficiency, low incidences of restrictor plugging, and ease of cleaning extraction cells were acetone, acetone:water mixtures (with and without 1% triethylamine), and acetonitrile. The addition of 1% triethylamine (TEA) did not increase recovery significantly. The 9:1 acetone:water mixture with 1% TEA was used for the soil comparison because of the high atrazine recovery and low water content. No differences in atrazine recovery were detected between extractions of the four representative soils when the same extraction conditions were employed. No cleanup steps were included in the procedure, yet adequate chromatography results were obtained suggesting some selectivity for this procedure. These data indicate that SFE with optimized conditions and appropriate co-solvents is a relatively robust method that can effectively be used in soil extractions of atrazine.

  1. THERMAL AND SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSES OF CAUSTIC LIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT CONTACTED WITH 16 MOLAR AND 8 MOLAR NITRIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F; David Hobbs, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-07-12

    Thermal and spectroscopic analyses were performed on multiple layers formed from contacting Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent with 1 M or 3 M nitric acid. A slow chemical reaction occurs (i.e., over several weeks) between the solvent and 1 M or 3 M nitric acid as evidenced by color changes and the detection of nitro groups in the infrared spectrum of the aged samples. Thermal analysis revealed that decomposition of the resulting mixture does not meet the definition of explosive or deflagrating material.

  2. THERMAL AND SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSES OF CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT CONTACTED WITH 1 MOLARAND 3 MOLAR NITRIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F; David Hobbs, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-07-23

    Thermal and spectroscopic analyses were performed on multiple layers formed from contacting Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent with 1 M or 3 M nitric acid. A slow chemical reaction occurs (i.e., over several weeks) between the solvent and 1 M or 3 M nitric acid as evidenced by color changes and the detection of nitro groups in the infrared spectrum of the aged samples. Thermal analysis revealed that decomposition of the resulting mixture does not meet the definition of explosive or deflagrating material.

  3. Extraction of lignite coal fly ash for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons: modified and unmodified supercritical fluid extraction, enhanced-fluidity solvents, and accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Kenny, D V; Olesik, S V

    1998-02-01

    A comparison among modified and unmodified supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), enhanced-fluidity liquid extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) techniques was made for the extraction of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from an aged, spiked lignite coal fly ash. All of the attempted extraction conditions allowed the extraction of the PAHs to some degree, but no single extraction technique proved to be superior for all of the PAHs used. Three groups of PAHs with similar extraction efficiencies were identified. The group with the lowest molecular weights was best recovered using a 90% CO2-10% methanol mixture at 70 degrees C and 238 atm. The group of medium-molecular-weight PAHs was recovered equally well using any of three extraction conditions: SFE (100% CO2, 90 degrees C, and 238 atm), enhanced-fluidity liquid mixture (60% CO2-40% methanol, 70 degrees C, and 238 atm), and a methanol ASE mixture. The group of high-molecular-weight PAHs seemed to be equally well recovered with all of the attempted extraction conditions, but the enhanced-fluidity conditions (60% CO2-40% methanol, 70 degrees C, and 238 atm) had extraction recoveries (> 85%) with the lowest standard deviations (approximately 5%).

  4. The solvent absorption-extractive distillation (SAED) process for ethanol recovery from gas/vapor streams

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, M.C.

    1993-12-31

    A low energy system for ethanol recovery and dehydration has been developed. This system utilizes a solvent for (1) absorption of ethanol vapors, and then the same solvent for (2) extractive distillation. The ideal solvent for this process would have a high affinity for ethanol, and no affinity for water. Heavy alcohols such as dodecanol, and tridecanol, some phosphorals, and some fatty acids have been determined to meet the desired specifications. These solvents have the effect of making water more volatile than ethanol. Thus, a water stream is taken off initially in the dehydration column, and a near anhydrous ethanol stream is recovered from the ethanol/solvent stripper column. Thus the solvent serves dual uses (1) absorption media, and (2) dehydration media. The SAED process as conceptualized would use a solvent similar to solvents used for direct extractive separation of ethanol from aqueous ethanol solutions.

  5. Solvent screening study and conceptual extractive distillation process to produce anhydrous ethanol from fermentation broth

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, F-M.; Pahl, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    This solvent screening study indicates that glycols are very selective solvents for producing anhydrous ethanol from fermentation broth by extractive distillation. The promising solvents are glycerin, ethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, and triethylene glycol. An improved extractive distillation process for producing anhydrous ethanol was conceptually developed which was based on the analysis of the experimental solvent screening data. The basic idea of this process is to add an extractive solvent only to the ethanol-rich portion of the fractionator to eliminate the ethanol-water azeotrope and to change the undesirable shape of the vapor-liquid equilibrium curve to one more favorable for distillation. With a suitable solvent, such as ethylene glycol, anhydrous ethanol could be produced from the fermentation broth in a column with only 18 theoretical trays. A low reflux ratio of 1.5 and a low solvent-to-feed ratio of 0.27 (based on fermentation broth) would be needed for the separation.

  6. Secondary amines as switchable solvents for lipid extraction from non-broken microalgae.

    PubMed

    Du, Ying; Schuur, Boelo; Samorì, Chiara; Tagliavini, Emilio; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2013-12-01

    Lipids from algal biomass may provide renewable fuel and chemical feedstock in large quantities. The energy intensity of drying and milling of algae prior to extraction and of solvent recovery afterwards is a major obstacle. The objective is to use switchable solvents to extract oil directly from wet microalgae slurries without the need for drying and milling, and subsequently recover the extracted oil and solvent by simple phase splitting, using CO2 as trigger. In this work secondary amine solvents were investigated for lipids extraction, polarity switching and phase splitting ability upon contacting with CO2. For strain Desmodesmus sp. extraction yields from the wet algal slurries, with and without cell disruption, were comparable with Bligh & Dyer method yields. Oil and solvent recovery via phase separation was realized by CO2 induced phase splitting, making secondary amines a candidate for further development of an energy efficient lipid extraction technology for non-broken microalgae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Deep eutectic solvents as efficient solvent system for the extraction of κ-carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii.

    PubMed

    Das, Arun Kumar; Sharma, Mukesh; Mondal, Dibyendu; Prasad, Kamalesh

    2016-01-20

    Three different deep eutectic solvents (DESs) prepared by the complexation of choline chloride with urea, ethylene glycol and glycerol along with their hydrated counterparts were used for the selective extraction of κ-carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii. Upon comparison of the quality of the polysaccharide with the one obtained using water as extraction media as well as the one extracted using widely practiced conventional method, it was found that, the physicochemical as well as rheological properties of κ-carrageenan obtained using DESs as solvents was at par to the one obtained using conventional method and was superior in quality when compared to κ-carrageenan obtained using water as solvent. Considering the tedious nature of the extraction method employed in conventional extraction process, the DESs can be considered as suitable alternative solvents for the facile extraction of the polysaccharide directly from the seaweed. However, among the hydrated and non-hydrated DESs, the hydrated ones were found to be more effective in comparison to their non-hydrated counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Batch extracting process using magnetic particle held solvents

    DOEpatents

    Nunez, L.; Vandergrift, G.F.

    1995-11-21

    A process is described for selectively removing metal values which may include catalytic values from a mixture containing same, wherein a magnetic particle is contacted with a liquid solvent which selectively dissolves the metal values to absorb the liquid solvent onto the magnetic particle. Thereafter the solvent-containing magnetic particles are contacted with a mixture containing the heavy metal values to transfer metal values into the solvent carried by the magnetic particles, and then magnetically separating the magnetic particles. Ion exchange resins may be used for selective solvents. 5 figs.

  9. Solvent Extraction Separation of La3+ and Ba2+ using Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and TODGA Extractant

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Jason R; Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    Solvent extractions of La3+ and Ba2+ by N,N,N ,N -tetra(n-octyl)diglycolamide (TODGA) from aqueous solutions in twelve imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide / bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ([Cnmim][NTf2]/[BETI], n = 2,3, 4, 6, 8, 10) were investigated. The corresponding extraction efficiencies were found to be dependent on concentration of TODGA used, the acidity of aqueous phase, alkyl chain length on IL cation, and IL anion as well.

  10. Radiation chemistry in solvent extraction: FY2010 Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher; Leigh R. Martin; Stephen P. Mezyk

    2010-09-01

    This report summarizes work accomplished under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) program in the area of radiation chemistry during FY 2010. The tasks assigned during FY 2010 included: • Development of techniques to measure free radical reaction kinetics in the organic phase. • Initiation of an alpha-radiolysis program • Initiation of an effort to understand dose rate effects in radiation chemistry • Continued work to characterize TALSPEAK radiation chemistry Progress made on each of these tasks is reported here. Briefly, a method was developed and used to measure the kinetics of the reactions of the •NO3 radical with solvent extraction ligands in organic solution, and the method to measure •OH radical reactions under the same conditions has been designed. Rate constants for the CMPO and DMDOHEMA reaction with •NO3 radical in organic solution are reported. Alpha-radiolysis was initiated on samples of DMDOHEMA in alkane solution using He ion beam irradiation and 211At isotope irradiation. The samples are currently being analyzed for comparison to DMDOHEMA ?-irradiations using a custom-developed mass spectrometric method. Results are also reported for the radiolytic generation of nitrous acid, in ?-irradiated nitric acid. It is shown that the yield of nitrous acid is unaffected by an order-of-magnitude change in dose rate. Finally, recent results for TALSPEAK radiolysis are reported, summarizing the effects on solvent extraction efficiency due to HDEHP irradiation, and the stable products of lactic acid and DTPA irradiation. In addition, results representing increased scope are presented for the radiation chemistry program. These include an investigation of the effect of metal complexation on radical reaction kinetics using DTPA as an example, and the production of a manuscript reporting the mechanism of Cs-7SB radiolysis. The Cs-7SB work takes advantage of recent results from a current LDRD program to understand the fundamental chemistry

  11. Solvent extraction studies with low-burnup Fast Flux Test Facility fuel in the Solvent Extraction Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Benker, D.E.; Bigelow, J.E.; Bond, W.D.; Chattin, F.R.; King, L.J.; Kitts, F.G.; Ross, R.G.; Stacy, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    A batch of irradiated Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel was processed for the first time in the Solvent Extraction Test Facility (SETF) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during Campaign 7. The average burnup of the fuel was only 0.2 atom %, but the cooling time was short enough ({similar_to}2 years) so that {sup 95}Zr was detected in the feed. This short cooling permitted our first measurement of {sup 95}Zr decontamination factors (DFs) without having to use tracers. No operational problems were noted in the operation of the extraction-scrubbing contactor, and low uranium and plutonium losses (< 0.01%) were measured. Fission product DFs were improved noticeably by increasing the number of scrub stages from six to eight. Two flowsheet options for making pure uranium and plutonium products (total partitioning) were tested. Each flowsheet used hydroxylamine nitrate for reducing plutonium. Good products were obtained (uranium DFs of > 10{sup 3} and plutonium DFs of > 10{sup 4}), but each flowsheet was troubled with plutonium reoxidation. Adding hydrazine and lowering the plutonium concentration lessened the problem but did not eliminate it. About 370 g of plutonium was recovered from these tests, purified by anion exchange, converted to PuO{sub 2}, and transferred to the fuel refabrication program. 7 references.

  12. Comparison of solvent extraction and solid-phase extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oil.

    PubMed

    Mahindrakar, A N; Chandra, S; Shinde, L P

    2014-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) of nine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from transformer oil samples was evaluated using octadecyl (CI8)-bonded porous silica. The efficiency of SPE of these PCBs was compared with those obtained by solvent extraction with DMSO and hexane. Average recoveries exceeding 95% for these PCBs were obtained via the SPE method using small cartridges containing 100mg of 40 pm CI8-bonded porous silica. The average recovery by solvent extraction with DMSO and hexane exceeded 83%. It was concluded that the recoveries and precision for the solvent extraction of PCBs were poorer than those for the SPE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficient removal of naphthalene-2-ol from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jingjing; Cheng, Yan; Yang, Chunping; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Wencan; Jiao, Panpan; He, Huijun

    2016-09-01

    Naphthalene-2-ol is a typical biologically recalcitrant pollutant in dye wastewater. Solvent extraction of naphthalene-2-ol from aqueous solutions using mixed solvents was investigated. Various extractants and diluents were evaluated, and the effects of volume ratio of extractant to diluent, initial pH, initial concentration of naphthalene-2-ol in aqueous solution, extraction time, temperature, volume ratio of organic phase to aqueous phase (O/A), stirring rate and extraction stages, on extraction efficiency were examined separately. Regeneration and reuse of the spent extractant were also investigated. Results showed that tributyl phosphate (TBP) achieved 98% extraction efficiency for naphthalene-2-ol in a single stage extraction, the highest among the 12 extractants evaluated. Extraction efficiency was optimized when cyclohexane and n-octane were used as diluents. The solvent combination of 20% TBP, 20% n-octanol and 60% cyclohexane (V/V) obtained the maximum extraction efficiency for naphthalene-2-ol, 99.3%, within 20min using three cross-current extraction stages under the following extraction conditions: O/A ratio of 1:1, initial pH of 3, 25°C and stirring rate of 150r/min. Recovery of mixed solvents was achieved by using 15% (W/W) NaOH solution at an O:A ratio of 1:1 and a contact time of 15min. The mixed solvents achieved an extraction capacity for naphthalene-2-ol stably higher than 90% during five cycles after regeneration.

  14. A comparison of accelerated solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction for analysis of terpenoids and sterols in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jinchao; Shao, Xueguang

    2005-11-01

    The performance of accelerated solvent extraction in the analysis of terpenoids and sterols in tobacco samples was investigated and compared with those of Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonically assisted extraction with respect to yield, extraction time, reproducibility and solvent consumption. The results indicate that although the highest yield was achieved by Soxhlet extraction, ASE appears to be a promising alternative to classical methods since it is faster and uses less solvent, especially when applied to the investigation of large batch tobacco samples. However, Soxhlet extraction is still the preferred method for analyzing sterols since it gives a higher extraction efficiency than other methods.

  15. Application of Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES) for Phenolic Compounds Extraction: Overview, Challenges, and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Ruesgas-Ramón, Mariana; Figueroa-Espinoza, Maria Cruz; Durand, Erwann

    2017-05-10

    The green chemistry era has pushed the scientific community to investigate and implement new solvents in phenolic compounds (PC) extraction as alternatives to organic solvents, which are toxic and may be dangerous. Recently, deep eutectic solvents (DES) have been applied as extraction solvents for PC. They have the advantages of biodegradability and ease of handling with very low toxicity. Nevertheless, the extraction process is affected by several factors: affinity between DES and the target compounds, the water content, the mole ratio between DES' starting molecules, the liquid/solid ratio between the DES and sample, and the conditions and extraction method. On the other hand, PC recovery from DES is a challenge because they can establish a strong hydrogen bond network. Alternatively, another possibility is to use DES as solvent extraction as well as formulation medium. In this way, DES can be suitable for cosmetics, pharmaceutical, or food applications.

  16. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  17. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE SEPARATION OF URANIUM AND THORIUM FROM PROTACTINIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Rainey, R.H.; Moore, J.G.

    1962-08-14

    A liquid-liquid extraction process was developed for recovering thorium and uranium values from a neutron irradiated thorium composition. They are separated from a solvent extraction system comprising a first end extraction stage for introducing an aqueous feed containing thorium and uranium into the system consisting of a plurality of intermediate extractiorr stages and a second end extractron stage for introducing an aqueous immiscible selective organic solvent for thorium and uranium in countercurrent contact therein with the aqueous feed. A nitrate iondeficient aqueous feed solution containing thorium and uranium was introduced into the first end extraction stage in countercurrent contact with the organic solvent entering the system from the second end extraction stage while intro ducing an aqueous solution of salting nitric acid into any one of the intermediate extraction stages of the system. The resultant thorium and uranium-laden organic solvent was removed at a point preceding the first end extraction stage of the system. (AEC)

  18. Solvent extraction, ion chromatography, and mass spectrometry of molybdenum isotopes.

    PubMed

    Dauphas, N; Reisberg, L; Marty, B

    2001-06-01

    A procedure was developed that allows precise determination of molybdenum isotope abundances in natural samples. Purification of molybdenum was first achieved by solvent extraction using di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate. Further separation of molybdenum from isobar nuclides was obtained by ion chromatography using AG1-X8 strongly basic anion exchanger. Finally, molybdenum isotopic composition was measured using a multiple collector inductively coupled plasma hexapole mass spectrometer. The abundances of molybdenum isotopes 92, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, and 100 are 14.8428(510), 9.2498(157), 15.9303(133), 16.6787(37), 9.5534(83), 24.1346(394), and 9.6104(312) respectively, resulting in an atomic mass of 95.9304(45). After internal normalization for mass fractionation, no variation of the molybdenum isotopic composition is observed among terrestrial samples within a relative precision on the order of 0.00001-0.0001. This demonstrates the reliability of the method, which can be applied to searching for possible isotopic anomalies and mass fractionation.

  19. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its application to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N. ); King, C.J. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports on solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents which increase sharply as the concentration of water in the solvent increases. This phenomenon leads to a method of regeneration for solvent-extraction processes whereby coextracted water is selectively removed from the extract, such as by stripping, thereby precipitating the acid. The removal of a minor constituent to cause precipitation reduces energy consumption, in contrast with bulk removal of solvent. Solubilities of fumaric acid were measured in a number of organic solvents, with varying amounts of water in the organic phase. Cyclohexanone and methylcyclohexanone were chosen as solvents for which detailed solid-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria were measured for adipic, fumaric, and succinic acids in the presence of varying concentrations of water, at both 25 and 45[degrees]C. Batch precipitation experiments were performed to demonstrate the processing concept and determine the relative volatility of water to solvent in the presence of carbon.

  20. Comparative study of lipid extraction from microalgae by organic solvent and supercritical CO2.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chen-Hsi; Du, Tz-Bang; Pi, Hsien-Chueh; Jang, Shyue-Ming; Lin, Yun-Huin; Lee, Hom-Ti

    2011-11-01

    Pavlova sp. was employed to evaluate the efficiency of different lipid extraction methods. The microalgal crude lipids content determined using the mixed solvent with ultrasonic method was 44.7 wt.%. The triglyceride content obtained by the mixed solvent method was 15.6 wt.%. The extraction yield was the FAME yield divided by the maximum FAME (15.9 wt.%). The extraction yield was improved by cell disruption prior to extraction, and the highest triglyceride extraction yield of 98.7% was observed using the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method with bead-beating. The results indicate that the SFE method is effective and provides higher selectivity for triglyceride extraction though the total lipid extracted was less than that using solvent extraction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Extraction of bituminous coal fly ash for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons: evaluation of modified and unmodified supercritical fluid extraction, enhanced fluidity solvents, and accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Kenny, D V; Olesik, S V

    1998-02-01

    A comparison among supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), modified SFE, enhanced-fluidity extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) techniques was made for the extraction of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from an aged, spiked bituminous coal fly ash. Non-ASE extraction techniques used in this study could not recover PAHs with molecular weights greater than that of pyrene. ASE techniques using methylene chloride (with and without a static step) and toluene were able to recover most of the PAHs studied. None of the ASE techniques could quantitatively extract the low-molecular-weight PAHs from the bituminous fly ash. The medium-molecular-weight PAHs were best recovered with toluene ASE. The high-molecular-weight PAHs were best recovered with the toluene ASE technique (> 80%), but the overall precision of these measurements was low. Methylene chloride ASE with a static step recovered the high-molecular-weight PAHs with the next highest efficiency (approximately 55%) and had standard deviations less than 10% (longer extraction times [> 30 min] with the methylene chloride would increase the recoveries of these analytes.) A comparison of the results from this study with those of a previous study using lignite coal fly ash illustrates the difficulty in developing and adapting analyte-specific extraction methods for analytes that are adsorbed on different matrices.

  2. Purity Evaluation of Curcuminoids in the Turmeric Extract Obtained by Accelerated Solvent Extraction.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Dinesh K; Sharma, Khushbu; Dutta, Anirban; Kundu, Aditi; Awasthi, Akanksha; Goon, Arnab; Banerjee, Kaushik; Saha, Supradip

    2017-03-16

    Curcuminoids, the active principle of Curcuma longa L, is one of the most researched subjects worldwide for its broad-spectrum biological activities. Being traditionally known for their anticancer properties and issues related to bioavailability, the curcuminoids, including diferuloylmethane (curcumin), have gained special attention. Thus, the current study focused on the purity profiling of curcuminoids when extracted by accelerated solvent extraction, which was run with turmeric rhizome powder (20 g) at 1500 psi and at 50°C, with a static time of 10 min and with three cycles. The performance of ethanol, ethyl acetate, and acetone as extraction solvents was comparatively evaluated. Once extracted, the individual curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin) were purified by column chromatography, followed by preparative TLC, and the compounds were characterized by spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. The HPLC method was standardized by using a gradient mobile phase of water and acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid. The LODs were calculated as 0.27, 0.33, and 0.42 μg/mL for curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, respectively. Accuracy (relative percentage error) and precision RSD values of the developed HPLC method were below 5%. The intraday accuracy ranged between -0.9 and -3.63%. The physical yield was the highest in ethanol (8.4%) extraction, followed by ethyl acetate (7.4%) and acetone (6.6%). Maximum purity was recorded in acetone (46.2%), followed by ethanol (43.4%) and ethyl acetate (38.8%), with no significant differences across the individual curcuminoids. This research will be useful for future applications related to the extraction of curcuminoids at a commercial level and to their profiling in food matrixes.

  3. Knowledge based system for runtime controlling of multiscale model of ion-exchange solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macioł, Piotr; Gotfryd, Leszek; Macioł, Andrzej

    2012-09-01

    The hereby paper concerns the issue of solution of runtime controlling of multiscale model of ion-exchange solvent extraction. It is based on cooperation of a framework applying Agile Multiscale Modeling Methodology (AM3), and the REBIT Knowledge Based System. Ion-exchange solvent extraction has been shortly introduced. Design assumptions of AM3 and theoretical basis of REBIT have been described. Designed workflows and rules for simple laminar/ turbulent flow and extraction processes have been shown.

  4. Water at room temperature as a solvent for the extraction of apple pomace phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Reis, Sofia F; Rai, Dilip K; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen

    2012-12-01

    A fractionation method was used to extract phenolic compounds from apple pomace (AP) involving a first extraction with water and subsequent extractions of the same residue with two different organic solvents. The water extracts obtained contained high amounts of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant capacity. However, the second and third extractions of the same residue still extracted considerable amounts of remaining phenolic compounds, both with significant antioxidant capacities. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS) studies showed water to be a good solvent to extract hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, flavanols, dihydrochalcones and flavones present in the AP. However, water was not the ideal solvent to extract the quercetin glycosides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced solvent extraction of polar lipids associated with rubber particles from Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Bonfils, Frederic; Ehabe, Eugene Ejolle; Aymard, Christian; Vaysse, Laurent; Sainte-Beuve, Jerome

    2007-01-01

    Biochemical studies of lipids bound to rubber particles have been complicated due to the solubility of polyisoprene chains in most extracting solvents and the rather delicate nature of polar lipids that are often denatured when traditional solvent extraction techniques are employed. In this paper, we describe a traditional technique and accompanying solvents that permit optimal extraction of rubber particle bound lipids. The technique, which is validated after characterizing the lipid extracts by elemental analysis, silica column adsorption and thin layer chromatography, appeared more suitable for extracting total lipids with optimal glycolipid and phospholipid contents. This technique is proposed as an alternative to traditional extraction methods used for solid natural rubber as it offers advantages with respect to ease of application, extract quality, extraction yields and reproducibility.

  6. Combination of extractive solvent addition and immobilization culture for continuous production of scopoletin by tobacco cells.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Yasuhiro; Kato, Ryohei; Shibasaki-Kitakawa, Naomi; Yonemoto, Toshikuni

    2005-01-01

    Extractive solvent addition was combined with immobilization cultures of Nicotiana tabacum cells to produce scopoletin. Using various solvents, the partition coefficients of scopoletin between the solvent and water phases and the solvent toxicity to the cell viability were investigated. The effect of the solvent addition on cell growth and scopoletin production was elucidated in the suspension cultures. Coconut oil, one of the natural vegetable oils, was selected as the most suitable extractive solvent. The cells were immobilized in the calcium alginate gel bead coated with a cell-free gel film and then the batch cultures with the addition of various volumes of the coconut oil were performed. The total scopoletin production increased with the solvent volume according to the amount of scopoletin transferred from the medium to the solvent. The maximum productivity obtained in the batch immobilization cultures was about 16 times larger than that in the suspension culture without solvent. A continuous production system, in which the fresh solvent was supplied to the culture system and the solvent containing scopoletin was recovered from it, was constructed. The integrated scopoletin production in the effluent oil attained 2.21 mg/gDCW for 30 days at 100 cm(3)/day without cell leakage.

  7. Ultra-sonication-assisted solvent extraction of quercetin glycosides from 'Idared' apple peels.

    PubMed

    Vasantha Rupasinghe, H P; Kathirvel, Priya; Huber, Gwendolyn M

    2011-11-25

    Quercetin and quercetin glycosides are physiologically active flavonol molecules that have been attributed numerous health benefits. Recovery of such molecules from plant matrices depends on a variety of factors including polarity of the extraction solvent. Among the solvents of a wide range of dielectric constants, methanol recovered the most quercetin and its glycosides from dehydrated 'Idared' apple peels. When ultra-sonication was employed to facilitate the extraction, exposure of 15 min of ultrasound wavelengths of dehydrated apple peel powder in 80% to 100% (v/v) methanol in 1:50 (w:v) solid to solvent ratio provided the optimum extraction conditions for quercetin and its glycosides. Acidification of extraction solvent with 0.1% (v/v) or higher concentrations of HCl led to hydrolysis of naturally occurring quercetin glycosides into the aglycone as an extraction artifact.

  8. Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation

    DOEpatents

    Tedder, Daniel W.

    1985-05-14

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

  9. Pressurized solvent extraction and monolithic column-HPLC/DAD analysis of anthocyanins in red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Turner, Charlotta

    2008-02-15

    The aim of this work was to develop a fast method for extraction and analysis of anthocyanins in red cabbage. Pressurized hot water containing 5% of ethanol was used as an extremely efficient extraction solvent. HPLC/DAD with a monolithic column was used to accomplish a fast analysis-24 anthocyanin peaks within 18min. Statistical design was used to optimize the studied extraction parameters: temperature (80-120 degrees C); sample amount (1-3g); extraction time (6-11min); concentration of formic acid in the extraction solvent (0-5vol.%). The best extraction conditions for a majority of the anthocyanin peaks were 2.5g of sample, 99 degrees C (at 50bar), 7min of extraction and a solvent composition of water/ethanol/formic acid (94/5/1, v/v/v).

  10. Solvent Extraction of Chemical Attribution Signature Compounds from Painted Wall Board: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Jon H.; Colburn, Heather A.

    2009-10-29

    This report summarizes work that developed a robust solvent extraction procedure for recovery of chemical attribution signature (CAS) compound dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) (as well as diethyl methyl phosphonate (DEMP), diethyl methyl phosphonothioate (DEMPT), and diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP)) from painted wall board (PWB), which was selected previously as the exposed media by the chemical attribution scientific working group (CASWG). An accelerated solvent extraction approach was examined to determine the most effective method of extraction from PWB. Three different solvent systems were examined, which varied in solvent strength and polarity (i.e., 1:1 dichloromethane : acetone,100% methanol, and 1% isopropanol in pentane) with a 1:1 methylene chloride : acetone mixture having the most robust and consistent extraction for four original target organophosphorus compounds. The optimum extraction solvent was determined based on the extraction efficiency of the target analytes from spiked painted wallboard as determined by gas chromatography x gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) analysis of the extract. An average extraction efficiency of approximately 60% was obtained for these four compounds. The extraction approach was further demonstrated by extracting and detecting the chemical impurities present in neat DMMP that was vapor-deposited onto painted wallboard tickets.

  11. Ionic liquid solutions as extractive solvents for value-added compounds from biomass

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Helena; Freire, Mara G.; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, the number of studies regarding the application of ionic liquids (ILs) as alternative solvents to extract value-added compounds from biomass has been growing. Based on an extended compilation and analysis of the data hitherto reported, the main objective of this review is to provide an overview on the use of ILs and their mixtures with molecular solvents for the extraction of value-added compounds present in natural sources. The ILs (or IL solutions) investigated as solvents for the extraction of natural compounds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, lipids, among others, are outlined. The extraction techniques employed, namely solid–liquid extraction, and microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted extractions, are emphasized and discussed in terms of extraction yields and purification factors. Furthermore, the evaluation of the IL chemical structure and the optimization of the process conditions (IL concentration, temperature, biomass–solvent ratio, etc.) are critically addressed. Major conclusions on the role of the ILs towards the extraction mechanisms and improved extraction yields are additionally provided. The isolation and recovery procedures of the value-added compounds are ascertained as well as some scattered strategies already reported for the IL solvent recovery and reusability. Finally, a critical analysis on the economic impact versus the extraction performance of IL-based methodologies was also carried out and is here presented and discussed. PMID:25516718

  12. Ionic liquid solutions as extractive solvents for value-added compounds from biomass.

    PubMed

    Passos, Helena; Freire, Mara G; Coutinho, João A P

    2014-12-01

    In the past few years, the number of studies regarding the application of ionic liquids (ILs) as alternative solvents to extract value-added compounds from biomass has been growing. Based on an extended compilation and analysis of the data hitherto reported, the main objective of this review is to provide an overview on the use of ILs and their mixtures with molecular solvents for the extraction of value-added compounds present in natural sources. The ILs (or IL solutions) investigated as solvents for the extraction of natural compounds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, lipids, among others, are outlined. The extraction techniques employed, namely solid-liquid extraction, and microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted extractions, are emphasized and discussed in terms of extraction yields and purification factors. Furthermore, the evaluation of the IL chemical structure and the optimization of the process conditions (IL concentration, temperature, biomass-solvent ratio, etc.) are critically addressed. Major conclusions on the role of the ILs towards the extraction mechanisms and improved extraction yields are additionally provided. The isolation and recovery procedures of the value-added compounds are ascertained as well as some scattered strategies already reported for the IL solvent recovery and reusability. Finally, a critical analysis on the economic impact versus the extraction performance of IL-based methodologies was also carried out and is here presented and discussed.

  13. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS USING WATER-ETHANOL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a wood preserving agent that is commonly found in contaminated soils at wood treatment sties. The extraction of PCP from contaminated soils was evaluated using water-ethanol mixtures as solvents. A mixed solvent containing equal proportions of water and...

  14. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TERRA KLEEN SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY - TERRA-KLEEN RESPONSE GROUP, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Terra-Kleen Solvent Extraction Technology was developed by Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc., to remove polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other organic constituents from contaminated soil. This batch process system uses a proprietary solvent at ambient temperatures to treat ...

  15. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TERRA KLEEN SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY - TERRA-KLEEN RESPONSE GROUP, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Terra-Kleen Solvent Extraction Technology was developed by Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc., to remove polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other organic constituents from contaminated soil. This batch process system uses a proprietary solvent at ambient temperatures to treat ...

  16. Optimization of flavanones extraction by modulating differential solvent densities and centrifuge temperatures.

    PubMed

    Chebrolu, Kranthi K; Jayaprakasha, G K; Jifon, J; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2011-07-15

    Understanding the factors influencing flavonone extraction is critical for the knowledge in sample preparation. The present study was focused on the extraction parameters such as solvent, heat, centrifugal speed, centrifuge temperature, sample to solvent ratio, extraction cycles, sonication time, microwave time and their interactions on sample preparation. Flavanones were analyzed in a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and later identified by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The five flavanones were eluted by a binary mobile phase with 0.03% phosphoric acid and acetonitrile in 20 min and detected at 280 nm, and later identified by mass spectral analysis. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and dimethyl formamide (DMF) had optimum extraction levels of narirutin, naringin, neohesperidin, didymin and poncirin compared to methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH) and acetonitrile (ACN). Centrifuge temperature had a significant effect on flavanone distribution in the extracts. The DMSO and DMF extracts had homogeneous distribution of flavanones compared to MeOH, EtOH and ACN after centrifugation. Furthermore, ACN showed clear phase separation due to differential densities in the extracts after centrifugation. The number of extraction cycles significantly increased the flavanone levels during extraction. Modulating the sample to solvent ratio increased naringin quantity in the extracts. Current research provides critical information on the role of centrifuge temperature, extraction solvent and their interactions on flavanone distribution in extracts. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Application of natural deep eutectic solvents to the extraction of anthocyanins from Catharanthus roseus with high extractability and stability replacing conventional organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yuntao; Rozema, Evelien; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2016-02-19

    Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) have attracted a great deal of attention in recent times as promising green media. They are generally composed of neutral, acidic or basic compounds that form liquids of high viscosity when mixed in certain molar ratio. Despite their potential, viscosity and acid or basic nature of some ingredients may affect the extraction capacity and stabilizing ability of the target compounds. To investigate these effects, extraction with a series of NADES was employed for the analysis of anthocyanins in flower petals of Catharanthus roseus in combination with HPLC-DAD-based metabolic profiling. Along with the extraction yields of anthocyanins their stability in NADES was also studied. Multivariate data analysis indicates that the lactic acid-glucose (LGH), and 1,2-propanediol-choline chloride (PCH) NADES present a similar extraction power for anthocyanins as conventional organic solvents. Furthermore, among the NADES employed, LGH exhibits an at least three times higher stabilizing capacity for cyanidins than acidified ethanol, which facilitates their extraction and analysis process. Comparing NADES to the conventional organic solvents, in addition to their reduced environmental impact, they proved to provide higher stability for anthocyanins, and therefore have a great potential as possible alternatives to those organic solvents in health related areas such as food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Extraction of Illegal Dyes from Red Chili Peppers with Cholinium-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shuqiang; Liu, Dongling; Zhu, Xinyue; Su, Along; Zhang, Haixia

    2017-01-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as a new kind of green solvents have been used to extract bioactive compounds but there are few applications in extracting chrysoidine dyes. In this study, we developed an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method with choline chloride/hydrogen bond donor (ChCl/HBD) DES for the extraction of chrysoidine G (COG), astrazon orange G (AOG), and astrazon orange R (AOR) in food samples. Some experimental parameters, such as extraction time, raw material/solvent ratio, and temperature, were evaluated and optimized as follows: the ratio of ChCl/HBD, 1 : 2 (v/v); the ratio of sample/DES, 1 : 10 (g/mL); extraction time, 20 min; extraction temperature, 50°C. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (μg/mL) were 0.10 for COG and 0.06 for AOG and AOR. The relative standard deviations were in the range of 1.2-2.1%. The recoveries of the three dyes were in the range of 80.2-105.0%. By comparing with other commonly used solvents for extracting chrysoidine dyes, the advantages of DESs proved them to be potential extraction solvents for chrysoidine G, astrazon orange G, and astrazon orange R in foods.

  19. Extraction of Illegal Dyes from Red Chili Peppers with Cholinium-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shuqiang; Zhu, Xinyue; Su, Along

    2017-01-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as a new kind of green solvents have been used to extract bioactive compounds but there are few applications in extracting chrysoidine dyes. In this study, we developed an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method with choline chloride/hydrogen bond donor (ChCl/HBD) DES for the extraction of chrysoidine G (COG), astrazon orange G (AOG), and astrazon orange R (AOR) in food samples. Some experimental parameters, such as extraction time, raw material/solvent ratio, and temperature, were evaluated and optimized as follows: the ratio of ChCl/HBD, 1 : 2 (v/v); the ratio of sample/DES, 1 : 10 (g/mL); extraction time, 20 min; extraction temperature, 50°C. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (μg/mL) were 0.10 for COG and 0.06 for AOG and AOR. The relative standard deviations were in the range of 1.2–2.1%. The recoveries of the three dyes were in the range of 80.2–105.0%. By comparing with other commonly used solvents for extracting chrysoidine dyes, the advantages of DESs proved them to be potential extraction solvents for chrysoidine G, astrazon orange G, and astrazon orange R in foods. PMID:28831327

  20. Application of accelerated solvent extraction to the investigation of saikosaponins from the roots of Bupleurum falcatum.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Liu, Zhengbo; Wang, Zi; Chen, Li; Sun, Yinshi; Hou, Jingang; Zheng, Yinan

    2010-06-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was applied to the extraction of saikosaponin a, saikosaponin c and saikosaponin d from the roots of Bupleurum falcatum. Main extraction parameters such as the extraction solvents, extraction temperature and static extraction time were investigated and optimized. The optimized procedure employed 70% methanol as extraction solvent, 120 degrees C of extraction temperature, 10 min of static extraction time, 60% of flush volume and the extraction recoveries of the three compounds were near to 100% with one extraction cycle. The extracted samples were analyzed by HPLC with UV detector. The HPLC conditions were as follows: Hypersil ODS2 (4.6 mmx250 mm, 5 microm) column, acetonitrile and water as mobile phase, flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, UV detection wavelength of 204 nm and injection volume of 20 microL. Compared with the traditional methods including heat-reflux extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction, the proposed ASE method was more efficient and faster to be operated. The results indicated that ASE was an alternative method for extracting saikosaponins from the roots of B. falcatum.

  1. Natural deep eutectic solvents as a new extraction media for phenolic metabolites in Carthamus tinctorius L.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yuntao; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2013-07-02

    Developing green solvents with low toxicity and cost is an important issue for the biochemical industry. Synthetic ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents have received considerable attention due to their negligible volatility at room temperature, high solubilization ability, and tunable selectivity. However, the potential toxicity of the synthetic ionic liquids and the solid state at room temperature of most deep eutectic solvents hamper their application as extraction solvents. In this study, a wide range of recently discovered natural ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents (NADES) composed of natural compounds were investigated for the extraction of phenolic compounds of diverse polarity. Safflower was selected as a case study because its aromatic pigments cover a wide range of polarities. Many advantageous features of NADES (such as their sustainability, biodegradability combined with acceptable pharmaceutical toxicity profiles, and their high solubilization power of both polar and nonpolar compounds) suggest their potential as green solvents for extraction. Experiments with different NADES and multivariate data analysis demonstrated that the extractability of both polar and less polar metabolites was greater with NADES than conventional solvents. The water content in NADES proved to have the biggest effect on the yield of phenolic compounds. Most major phenolic compounds were recovered from NADES with a yield between 75% and 97%. This study reveals the potential of NADES for applications involving the extraction of bioactive compounds from natural sources.

  2. Solvent-free microwave extraction : an innovative tool for rapid extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs and spices.

    PubMed

    Lucchesi, Marie E; Chemat, Farid; Smadja, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    A relatively simple apparatus is described for extracting essential oils from aromatic plant material by atmospheric solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) without the addition of any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds were performed by a single stage. The product solutions of volatile compounds were directly analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oils fiom aromatic herbs (basil, crispate mint, thyme) and spices (ajowan, cumin, star anise) extracted by SFME for 30 minutes and I hour, were similar to those obtained by conventional hydro-distillation (HD)for (respectively) 4 and 8 hours. Substantially higher amounts of oxygenated compounds and lower amounts of monoterpenes hydrocarbons are present in the essential oils of the aromatic plants extracted by SFME in comparison with HD. Solvent-free microwave extraction is clearly advantageous to conventional distillation in terms of rapidity, efficiency, cleanliness, substantial saving of energy, and is environmentally friendly.

  3. Evaluation of different solvents to extract antibacterial compounds from jalapeño peppers.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Karleigh; Boyer, Renee; Denbow, Cynthia; O'Keefe, Sean; Neilson, Andrew; Williams, Robert

    2017-05-01

    Chili peppers (Capsicum spp.) may possess antibacterial properties and have potential to be used in foods as antimicrobial. The complete chili pepper extract should be evaluated to determine which compounds are responsible for the antimicrobial activity. Extraction of compounds from the pepper is completed using a solvent. The type of solvent used for extraction influences which compounds are isolated, therefore the best extraction method needs to be determined. The purpose of this study was to identify which solvent is most successful at extracting unknown antibacterial compounds from jalapeño peppers. Fresh jalapeño peppers were chopped, weighed, and blended with a solvent (sterilized hot water, 70% methanol, 95% methanol, 70% ethanol, or 95% ethanol) at a 1:1 ratio (g/g) until the mixture was homogenized, followed by shaking for 15 min. The slurry was centrifuged; supernatant was removed and used for antibacterial testing against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica. The diameter of growth inhibition was measured and statistically evaluated using ANOVA to determine the extract with the greatest antimicrobial activity. Solvents were tested alone as a control. There was greater bacterial inhibition from extracts created with methanol and ethanol than hot water. Listeria monocytogenes was significantly more susceptible to the extracts than E. coli or Salmonella isolates. Each solvent extract was then analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fractions (A-G) were collected and used for subsequent disk diffusion analysis against L. monocytogenes. Fractions E and F (eluded between 20 and 30 min) exhibited the most antibacterial activity. There were no differences between solvents used (p = .05). Further investigation into specific compounds within these extracts will be completed in the future.

  4. Novel biphasic separations utilising highly selective molecularly imprinted polymers as biorecognition solvent extraction agents.

    PubMed

    Castell, Oliver K; Allender, Christopher J; Barrow, David A

    2006-10-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) represent a class of artificial receptors that promise an environmentally robust alternative to naturally occurring biorecognition elements of biosensing devices and systems. However, in general, the performance of conventional MIPs in aqueous environments is poor. In the study reported here, this limitation has been addressed by the novel application of MIPs as a solvent extraction solid phase in a biphasic solvent system. This paper describes a previously unreported use of MIPs as solvent extraction reagents, their successful application to aqueous sample media and the opportunities for utilisation of this unique system in novel biosensing and separation procedures. This study demonstrates the development of a novel biphasic solvent system utilising MIP in the extracting phase to enhance both efficiency and selectivity of a simple two phase liquid extraction. Monodisperse propranolol imprinted polymer microspheres [p(divinylbenzene-co-methacrylic acid)] were prepared by precipitation polymerisation. Initially, the affinity of the polymers for (R,S)-propranolol was assessed by established techniques whereby the MIP demonstrated greater affinity for the template than did the non-imprinted control polymer (NIP). Importantly, MIP performance was also assessed using the novel dual solvent system. The depletion of (R,S)-propranolol from the aqueous phase into the polymer containing organic phase was determined. When compared to control extractions containing no polymer the presence of MIP in the extracting solvent phase resulted in an increased extraction of (R,S)-propranolol from the aqueous phase. Importantly, this extraction was significantly greater in the presence of MIP when compared to NIP. This unique principle generates opportunities for MIP based extractions and chemical enrichments in industrial applications, offering commercial, ecological and practical advantages to traditional solvent extraction techniques. The

  5. Solvent-bar microextraction--using a silica monolith as the extractant phase holder.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Lee, Hian Kee

    2009-07-17

    In this paper, a novel liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) approach, based on solvent-bar microextraction (SBME), was developed in which a silica monolith was used as the extractant solvent holder. Owing to the porous nature of the monolith, the extractant solvent could be easily held in the material; when the monolith containing the extractant solvent was exposed to the sample solution, analytes could directly diffuse from the sample solution into the extractant solvent. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were used as model analytes to evaluate the procedure. Through the investigation of the effect of agitation speed, extraction time, length of the monolith (that determined the volume of organic extractant solvent) and salt concentration on extraction efficiency, the following optimal extraction conditions were obtained: stirring at 1000 rpm for 30 min without salt addition using a 4-mm silica monolith. The limits of detection ranged from 3.9 pg/mL to 28.8 pg/mL, with relative standard deviations of between 8.16% and 10.5% on the same silica monolith. The linearity was 0.05-200 ng/mL for fluoranthene and pyrene, and 0.5-200 ng/mL for chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene, with acceptable correlation coefficient. When this method was applied for the spiked real river sample, the relative recoveries ranged from 87.1% to 100.7% for the tested PAHs. This method was also compared to polymeric hollow fiber-based SBME and hollow fiber-protected LPME and found to provide better results. Additionally, compared with the polymeric hollow fiber, the silica monolith possesses good resistance to extreme conditions, such as high temperature and pH, and is more compatible with various organic solvents. This is the first report of an application of a monolithic material for LPME, and as a solvent holder for SBME. It extends the scope of applications of such materials, to analytical chemistry, specifically to sample preparation.

  6. Optimization of deep eutectic solvent-based ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Dioscorea opposita Thunb.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijin; Wang, Maoshan

    2017-02-01

    In this study, deep eutectic solvents were proposed for the ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Dioscorea opposita Thunb. Several deep eutectic solvents were prepared for the extraction of polysaccharides, among which the deep eutectic solvent composed of choline chloride and 1,4-butanediol was proved to be suitable for the extraction. Based on the screening of single-factor experiment design and orthogonal experiment design, three experimental factors were optimized for the Box-Behnken experimental design combined with response surface methodology, which gave the optimal extraction conditions: water content of 32.89%(v/v), extraction temperature of 94.00°C, and the extraction time of 44.74min. The optimal extraction conditions could supply higher extraction yield than those of hot water extraction and water-based ultrasound-assisted extraction. Therefore, deep eutectic solvents were an excellent extraction solvent alternative to the extraction of polysaccharides from sample matrices.

  7. Extraction of orange peel's essential oil by solvent-free microwave extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qadariyah, Lailatul; Amelia, Prilia Dwi; Admiralia, Cininta; Bhuana, Donny S.; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2017-05-01

    Sweet orange peel (Citrus sinensis) is part of orange plant that contains essential oils. Generally, taking essential oil from orange peel is still using hydrodistillation and steam-hydrodistillation method which still needs solvent and takes a long time to produce high quality essential oil. Therefore, the objectives of this experiment are to study the process of orange peel's essential oil extraction using Solvent Free Microwave Extraction (SFME) and to study the operating condition that effect an optimum yield and quality of the essential oil. In this experiment, extraction process with SFME method goes for 60 minutes at atmospheric pressure. Variables for SFME are: variation of orange peel condition (fresh and dry), ratio orange peel mass to distiller volume (0,1; 0,2; 0,3; 0,4 g/mL), orange peel size (±0,5; ±2; ±3,5 cm width), and microwave power (100, 264, 400 Watt). Moisture content of fresh peel is 71,4% and for dry peel is 17,37% which is obtained by sun drying. The result of this experiment will be analyzed with GC-MS, SEM, density, and miscibility in ethanol 90%. The optimum result obtained from this experiment based on the number of the yield under condition of fresh orange peel is at peel mass/distiller volume 0,1 g/mL, orange peel size ±3,5 cm width, and microwave power 400 Watt, results 1,6738% yield. The result of GC-MS for fresh orange peel shows that the dominant compound is Limonene 54,140% and for dry orange peel is Limonene 59,705%. The density obtained is around 0,8282-0,8530 g/mL and miscibility in ethanol 90% is 1:5.

  8. COORDINATION COMPOUND-SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM RECOVERY

    DOEpatents

    Reas, W.H.

    1959-03-10

    A method is presented for the separation of uranium from aqueous solutions containing a uranyl salt and thorium. Thc separation is effected by adding to such solutions an organic complexing agent, and then contacting the solution with an organic solvent in which the organic complexing agent is soluble. By use of the proper complexing agent in the proper concentrations uranium will be complexed and subsequently removed in the organic solvent phase, while the thorium remains in the aqueous phase. Mentioned as suitable organic complexing agents are antipyrine, bromoantipyrine, and pyramidon.

  9. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides from soils: a comparison between Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wentao; Meng, Bingjun; Lu, Xiaoxia; Liu, Yu; Tao, Shu

    2007-10-29

    The methods of simultaneous extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from soils using Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) were established, and the extraction efficiencies using the three methods were systemically compared from procedural blank, limits of detection and quantification, method recovery and reproducibility, method chromatogram and other factors. In addition, soils with different total organic carbon contents were used to test the extraction efficiencies of the three methods. The results showed that the values obtained in this study were comparable with the values reported by other studies. In some respects such as method recovery and reproducibility, there were no significant differences among the three methods for the extraction of PAHs and OCPs. In some respects such as procedural blank and limits of detection and quantification, there were significant differences among the three methods. Overall, ASE had the best extraction efficiency compared to MAE and Soxhlet extraction, and the extraction efficiencies of MAE and Soxhlet extraction were comparable to each other depending on the property such as TOC content of the studied soil. Considering other factors such as solvent consumption and extraction time, ASE and MAE are preferable to Soxhlet extraction.

  10. Effect of ultrasound and green solvents addition on the oil extraction efficiency from rapeseed flakes.

    PubMed

    Perrier, A; Delsart, C; Boussetta, N; Grimi, N; Citeau, M; Vorobiev, E

    2017-11-01

    The current procedure of rapeseed oil extraction is based on a first extraction step by pressing followed by a second extraction step with hexane. This solvent being toxic for the users, the consumers and the environment, its use could be forbidden within the coming years. Stimulated by a stringent regulation, the research activity for the replacement of toxic solvents shows a significant development. The aim of this study was to select alternative solvent to hexane such as ethanol or isopropanol, and, to adjust the oil extraction process by developing an ultrasound assisted method. The objective was to reach a comparable efficiency but also to enhance the oil quality. When applied to isopropanol, the ultrasound assisted extraction method has shown promising results, and comparable to those obtained with hexane (oil yield of 80% for hexane and 79% for isopropanol at optimum extraction conditions (20min of ultrasound pretreatment followed by 2h of additional solid/liquid extraction)). Conversely, in studied conditions, ethanol did not seem to be an appropriate alternative solvent to hexane as the extraction yields obtained by using this solvent were quite low. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METALS FROM PHOSPHORIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.

    1958-11-01

    > A solvent extraction process is presented for recovering metal values including uranium, thorium, and other lanthanide and actinide elements from crude industrial phosphoric acid solutions. The process conslsts of contacting said solution with an immisclble organic solvent extractant containing a diluent and a material selected from the group consisting of mono and di alkyl phosphates, alkyl phosphonates and alkyl phosphites. The uranlum enters the extractant phase and is subsequently recovered by any of the methods known to the art. Recovery is improved if the phosphate solution is treated with a reducing agent such as iron or aluminum powder prior to the extraction step.

  12. Green extraction of grape skin phenolics by using deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Cvjetko Bubalo, Marina; Ćurko, Natka; Tomašević, Marina; Kovačević Ganić, Karin; Radojčić Redovniković, Ivana

    2016-06-01

    Conventional extraction techniques for plant phenolics are usually associated with high organic solvent consumption and long extraction times. In order to establish an environmentally friendly extraction method for grape skin phenolics, deep eutectic solvents (DES) as a green alternative to conventional solvents coupled with highly efficient microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods (MAE and UAE, respectively) have been considered. Initially, screening of five different DES for proposed extraction was performed and choline chloride-based DES containing oxalic acid as a hydrogen bond donor with 25% of water was selected as the most promising one, resulting in more effective extraction of grape skin phenolic compounds compared to conventional solvents. Additionally, in our study, UAE proved to be the best extraction method with extraction efficiency superior to both MAE and conventional extraction method. The knowledge acquired in this study will contribute to further DES implementation in extraction of biologically active compounds from various plant sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental life cycle assessment on the separation of rare earth oxides through solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Vahidi, Ehsan; Zhao, Fu

    2017-12-01

    Over the past decade, Rare Earth Elements (REEs) have gained special interests due to their significance in many industrial applications, especially those related to clean energy. While REEs production is known to cause damage to the ecosystem, only a handful of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) investigations have been conducted in recent years, mainly due to lack of data and information. This is especially true for the solvent extraction separation of REEs from aqueous solution which is a challenging step in the REEs production route. In the current investigation, an LCA is carried out on a typical REE solvent extraction process using P204/kerosene and the energy/material flows and emissions data were collected from two different solvent extraction facilities in Inner Mongolia and Fujian provinces in China. In order to develop life cycle inventories, Ecoinvent 3 and SimaPro 8 software together with energy/mass stoichiometry and balance were utilized. TRACI and ILCD were applied as impact assessment tools and LCA outcomes were employed to examine and determine ecological burdens of the REEs solvent extraction operation. Based on the results, in comparison with the production of generic organic solvent in the Ecoinvent dataset, P204 production has greater burdens on all TRACI impact categories. However, due to the small amount of consumption, the contribution of P204 remains minimal. Additionally, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid are the two impactful chemicals on most environmental categories used in the solvent extraction operation. On average, the solvent extraction step accounts for 30% of the total environmental impacts associated with individual REOs. Finally, opportunities and challenges for an enhanced environmental performance of the REEs solvent extraction operation were investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Accelerated Solvent Extraction of Insecticides from Rice Hulls, Rice Bran, and Polished Rice Grains.

    PubMed

    Teló, Gustavo Mack; Senseman, Scott Allen; Marchesan, Enio; Camargo, Edinalvo Rabaioli; Carson, Katherine

    2017-03-01

    Analysis of pesticide residues in irrigated rice grains is important for food security. In this study, we analyzed accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) conditions for the extraction of thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole insecticides from rice hulls, rice bran, and polished rice grains. Several variables, including extraction solvent, extraction temperature, extraction pressure, cell size, static extraction time, and sample concentration, were investigated. The average recoveries of the three matrixes were between 89.7 and 109.7% at the fortification level of 0.75 mg/kg. The optimum ASE operating conditions were acetonitrile (100%) as extraction solvent, extraction temperature of 75°C for rice hulls and 100°C for rice bran and polished rice grains, extraction cell pressure of 10.3 MPa, 22 mL cell size, and two extraction cycles. The total extraction time was approximately 25 min. The extracted volume was evaporated to dryness and the residues were redissolved in 2 mL acetonitrile after 1 min of vortex-shaking. Thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole were analyzed by ultra-HPLC with tandem MS. In conclusion, ASE in rice hulls, rice bran, and polished rice grains offers the possibility of a fast and simple method for obtaining a quantitative extraction of the studied pesticides.

  15. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM FROM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Blake, C.A. Jr.; Brown, K.B.; Horner, D.E.

    1960-05-24

    An improvement was made in a uranium extraction process wherein the organic extractant is a phosphine oxide. An aqueous solution containing phosphate ions or sulfate ions together with uranium is provided with a source of chloride ions during the extraction step. The presence of the chloride ions enables a phosphine oxide to extract uranium in the presence of strong uranium- complexing ions such as phosphate or sulfate ions.

  16. Feasibility of ionic liquids as extractants for selective separation of vitamin D₃ and tachysterol₃ by solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ruisi; Bao, Zongbi; Su, Baogen; Xing, Huabin; Yang, Qiwei; Yang, Yiwen; Ren, Qilong

    2013-04-10

    A selective separation of vitamin D₃ and tachysterol₃ by solvent extraction with 7 organic solvents and 11 ionic liquids (ILs) has been reported. Among organic solvents sulfolane showed optimal extraction performance, giving only a selectivity of 1.44 for tachysterol₃ over vitamin D₃. ILs with unsaturated bonds demonstrated high selectivity probably due to their different π-π interactions with the two compounds. A pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquid, for example, [BMPr][NTf2], provided the highest selectivity up to 1.77. Acceptable selectivity and distribution coefficients were observed by a combination of organic solvents and ILs as extracting agents. In this work, the effects of concentrations, anions, cations, and substituent of ILs were investigated, which may provide a rational strategy for the design of novel ILs for extractive separation of structural analogues. The purification and recovery of vitamin D₃3 via continuous multistage extractions were simulated, indicating that IL-based liquid-liquid extraction might be superior to traditional organic solvents in practical production.

  17. Green and efficient extraction of rutin from tartary buckwheat hull by using natural deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao; Feng, Fang; Jiang, Jie; Qiao, Ying; Wu, Tao; Voglmeir, Josef; Chen, Zhi-Gang

    2017-04-15

    In this study, an efficient extraction technique using a combination of ultrasound and natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) was developed. Some basic physical properties, including viscosity, polarity, and solubility, of thirteen NADESs prepared from natural components were investigated systematically. Results show that the solubility of rutin increased in choline chloride- and glycerol-based NADESs by 660-1577times compared to water. NADESs with high rutin extractability can be designed by combining NADESs components. A maximum of 9.5mg/g rutin was extracted from tartary buckwheat hull with extraction efficiencies of 95%. NADESs can be recovered and recycled. In addition, the biocompatibility and biodegradability of the tested NADESs were also evaluated. The results demonstrated that these NADESs were excellent solvents with extremely low toxicities and favorable biodegradabilities. Our findings suggest that NADESs can be used as green solvents for the extraction of bioactive ingredients.

  18. Thermal lensing detection of lanthanide ions by solvent extraction using crown ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, C.D.; Zhang, Weifeng )

    1990-04-15

    A novel method has been developed to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of the thermal lens detection of lanthanide ions. In this method, the rare-earth ions were selectively extracted from water to organic solvent with the use of crown either, e.g., 18-crown-6, 15-crown-5 as synergistic extractant. The thermal lens signal intensity of the extracted ions in the organic phase can be enhanced up to 24-fold. This enhancement is due to the fact that the thermal lens signal is dependent on the thermooptical properties of the solvent, and water is a poor thermooptical solvent (low dn/dT and high thermal conductivity, k, values), whereas organic solvents are good thermooptical media (high dn/dT and low k values). The well-defined cavities of the crown ethers restrict their complex formation (and hence solvent extraction) only with the rare-earth ions whose sizes are comparable to their cavities, and this is the origin for the improvement in the selectivity. For instance, with the use of 18-crown-6, up to 41% of the Er{sup 3+} ion can be extracted from water to chloroform, whereas the extraction yield for the Pr{sup 3+} ion, under the same experimental conditions, was only 28%. The thermal lens technique was used to determine the stoichiometry of the extracted ion pair complexes.

  19. A survey of extraction solvents in the forensic analysis of textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Groves, Ethan; Palenik, Christopher S; Palenik, Skip

    2016-11-01

    The characterization and identification of dyes in fibers can be used to provide investigative leads and strengthen associations between known and questioned items of evidence. The isolation of a dye from its matrix (e.g., a textile fiber) permits detailed characterization, comparison and, in some cases, identification using methods such as thin layer chromatography in conjunction with infrared and Raman spectroscopy. A survey of dye extraction publications reveals that pyridine:water (4:3) is among the most commonly cited extraction solvent across a range of fiber and dye chemistries. Here, the efficacy of this solvent system has been evaluated for the extraction of dyes from 172 commercially prevalent North American textile dyes. The evaluated population represents seven dye application classes, 18 chemical classes, and spans nine types of commercial textile fibers. The results of this survey indicate that ∼82% of the dyestuffs studied are extractable using this solvent system. The results presented here summarize the extraction efficacy by class and fiber type and illustrate that this solvent system is applicable to a wider variety of classes and fibers than previously indicated in the literature. While there is no universal solvent for fiber extraction, these results demonstrate that pyridine:water represents an excellent first step for extracting unknown dyes from questioned fibers in forensic casework.

  20. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2004-06-22

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  1. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2007-03-27

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  2. Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems. Progress report, June 1, 1991--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Research last year emphasized the nature of microscopic interfaces, i. e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co and Na in order to improve on a recently proposed model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of extractant molecules and their interactions with metal ions which occur in hydrometallurgical solvent extraction systems were further investigated.

  3. Recovery of boric acid from wastewater by solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Michiaki; Kondo, Kazuo; Hirata, Makoto; Kokubu, Shuzo; Hano, Tadashi

    1997-03-01

    An extraction system for the recovery of boric acid using 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPD) as an extractant was studied. Loss of the extractant to the aqueous solution was lowered by using 2-ethylhexanol as a diluent. The extraction equilibrium of boric acid with BEPD was clarified, and the equilibrium constants for various diluents were determined. Furthermore, continuous operation for the recovery of boric acid using mixer-settlers for extraction and stripping was successfully conducted during 100 hours. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Comparison of the chemical composition of extracts from Scutellaria lateriflora using accelerated solvent extraction and supercritical fluid extraction versus standard hot water or 70% ethanol extraction.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Chantal; Gafner, Stefan; Clausen, Edgar; Carrier, Danielle J

    2005-04-20

    The aqueous extract of American skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora L. (S. lateriflora), Lamiaceae) has been traditionally used by North American Indians as a nerve tonic and for its sedative and diuretic properties. Recent reports stated that flavonoids and possibly amino acids are responsible for the anxiolytic activity. As a part of our search for environmentally friendly solvents to extract the active components from medicinal plants, we used S. lateriflora in a comparison of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) using water, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 and 10% EtOH as modifier, at different temperatures. Flavonoids and amino acids were quantified by HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS, respectively. The flavonoid content was compared with conventional extraction methods (hot water extraction and 70% ethanol). The use of ASE at 85 degrees C with water as solvent gave the best results for flavonoid glycosides and amino acids, whereas SFE gave higher yields of flavonoid aglycones. However, the results obtained for total flavonoids were not significatively superior to hot water extraction or 70% aqueous EtOH extract.

  5. Effects of extraction solvents on photoluminescent properties of eysenhardtia polystachia and their potential usage as biomarker.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-García, M G; Hernandez-Martinez, A R; Esparza, R; Molina, G A; Rodriguez-Melgarejo, F; Jiménez, S; Estevez, M

    2017-03-01

    Currently, nanomaterials had been used for several applications; one of them is as bio-markers. These nanomaterials contain fluorescent compounds as effective indicators for imaging and other applications in Biotechnology. In previous studies, we proposed a functionalized nanomaterial-based biomarker from silica and Eysenhardtia Polystachia, a medicinal tree known in Mexico as "palo azul" (Kidneywood). Our previous results showed the feasibility of the nanomaterial obtained as bio-marker. In this article, our purpose is to evaluate the effects of extraction solvents on fluorescence of that biomarker. The photoluminescence (PL) effect was evaluated at different pH (4, 7.4 and 8); four extraction solvents, ethanol, methanol, methanol-ethanol and methanol-ethanol-water were evaluated. A molecular dynamics simulation was performed to recognize molecular interaction between the compounds of the extracts with solvent molecules and to investigate the solvent molecules effect on photoluminescence spectra. The results were also compared with rhodamine 6G and we found that, at physiological pH (7.4), the fluorescent-coated silica nanoparticles obtained were also stable. We found that extraction solvents could be used for obtaining different nanomaterials for specific applications, and also found the best extraction solvent for obtaining EP nanomaterials for health care applications, specifically for imaging techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Different Solvents on the Measurement of Phenolics and the Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) with Accelerated Solvent Extraction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiufang; Ou, XiaoQun; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Zhou, ZiYing; Ma, LiYan

    2017-03-01

    The effects of 9 different solvents on the measurement of the total phenolics and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruits were studied using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). Sixteen to 22 types of phenolics (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, flavanol, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, and stilbenes) from different mulberry extracts were characterized and quantified using HPLC-MS/MS. The principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the suitable solvents to distinguish between different classes of phenolics. Additionally, the phenolic extraction abilities of ASE and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) were compared. The highest extraction efficiency could be achieved by using 50% acidified methanol (50MA) as ASE solvents with 15.14 mg/gallic acid equivalents g dry weight of mulberry fruit. The PCA results revealed that the 50MA followed by 50% acidified acetone (50AA) was the most efficient solvent for the extraction of phenolics, particularly flavonols (627.12 and 510.31 μg/g dry weight, respectively), while water (W) was not beneficial to the extraction of all categories of phenolics. Besides, the results of 3 antioxidant capability assays (DPPH, ABTS free radical-scavenging assay, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay) showed that water-based organic solvents increased the antioxidant capabilities of the extracts compared with water or pure organic solvents. ASE was more suitable for the extraction of phenolics than UAE. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Organic-solvent extraction of model biomaterials for use in the in vitro chromosome aberration test.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Atsuko; Haishima, Yuji; Hasegawa, Chie; Matsuda, Yoshie; Tsuchiya, Toshie

    2008-07-01

    We prepared polyurethane (PU) containing 0.4% or 4% 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) as model materials to investigate the effectiveness of sample preparation by organic-solvent extraction for the in vitro chromosome aberration (CA) test. MDA itself (0.4 mg/mL) was positive only in the presence of an exogenous metabolizing system (S9 mix). The culture medium extract of PU containing 4% MDA (PU/4% MDA) was negative with and without S9 mix. Methanol and acetone extracts, on the other hand, induced structural CAs without S9 mix, which we did not expect because MDA requires S9 mix for activity. On chemical analysis, however, we found that the ratio of MDA extracted by the organic solvents to that extracted by the culture medium of PU/4% MDA was about 15:1. Interestingly, oligomers consisting of poly(tetramethyleneglycol) derivatives (OTMG) were also extracted by the organic solvents. The data suggest that the induction of structural CAs in the absence of S9 mix may have been partly due to synergism of MDA and OTMG. CA tests of MDA and PTMG-1000 in combination confirmed that to be the case. Thus, organic-solvent extraction may be more effective than medium extraction in evaluating the biological safety of biomaterials. Detailed chemical analysis of extracts was performed. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Extraction of coal with solvents in liquid and supercritical state under nonhydrogenating and hydrogenating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, A.; Hedden, K.

    1982-10-01

    The basic steps of coal extraction to determine the optimum conditions for obtaining a higher coal conversion yield in a technical process of supercritical coal extraction were examined. A fixed bed of coal was slowly heated up in a current of pressurized solvent by a nonisothermal technique. The solvent changes its physical state during extraction from a liquid to a supercritical fluid. The formation rates of extract and gaseous products and their integral yields were measured under different extraction conditions. Various coals and lignites as well as different solvents including H-donor solvents and the effect of the addition of molecular hydrogen to the supercritical phase with and without catalyst were studied. Results are interpreted with an extraction scheme, comprising chemical reactions, phase equilibria and transport processes as single steps of the complex extraction procedure. Using a simplified mathematical model, the formation rates of extract as a function of temperature were quantitatively described with effective kinetic parameters. New process for the hydrogenating supercritical extraction of coal, which produces high coal conversion yields is proposed.

  9. Use of aqueous and solvent extraction to assess risk and bioavailability of contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Bordelon, N.; Huebner, H.; Washburn, K.; Donnelly, K.C.

    1995-12-31

    Contaminated media at Superfund sites typically consist of complex mixtures of organic and inorganic chemicals. These mixtures are difficult to characterize, both analytically and toxicologically, especially the complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The current approach to risk assessment assumes that all contaminants in the soil are available for human exposure. EPA protocol uses solvent extraction to remove chemicals from the soil as a basis for estimating risk to the human population. However, contaminants that can be recovered with a solvent extract may not represent chemicals that are available for exposure. A system using aqueous extraction provides a more realistic picture of what chemicals are bioavailable through leaching and ingestion. A study was conducted with coal tar contaminated soil spiked with benzo(a)pyrene, and trinitrotoluene. Samples were extracted with hexane:acetone and water titrated to pH 2 and pH 7. HPLC analysis demonstrated up to 35% and 29% recovery of contaminants from aqueous extracts with an estimated cancer risk one order of magnitude less than that for solvent extracts. Analysis using the Salmonella/microsome assay showed that solvent extracts were genotoxic with metabolic activation while aqueous extracts showed no genotoxicity. These results suggest that aqueous extraction may be useful in determining what contaminants are available for human exposure, as well as what compounds may pose a risk to human health.

  10. Antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis L. from Jaffna.

    PubMed

    Jeyaseelan, E Christy; Jenothiny, S; Pathmanathan, M K; Jeyadevan, J P

    2012-10-01

    To reveal the antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted different cold organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis (L. against) some pathogenic bacteria. Powders of fruits, flowers and leaves of L. inermis were continuously extracted with dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate and ethanol at ambient temperature. The dried extracts were prepared into different concentrations and tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method, and also the extracts were tested to determine the available phytochemicals. Except DCM extract of flower all other test extracts revealed inhibitory effect on all tested bacteria and their inhibitory effect differed significantly (P<0.05). The highest inhibitory effect was showed by ethyl acetate extract of flower against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), and ethyl acetate extract of fruit on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis). The ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of flower, fruit and leaf expressed inhibition even at 1 mg/100 µl against all test bacteria. Among the tested phytochemicals flavonoids were detected in all test extracts except DCM extract of flower. The study demonstrated that the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of fruit and flower of L. inermis are potentially better source of antibacterial agents compared to leaf extracts of respective solvents.

  11. Antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis L. from Jaffna

    PubMed Central

    Jeyaseelan, E Christy; Jenothiny, S; Pathmanathan, MK; Jeyadevan, JP

    2012-01-01

    Objective To reveal the antibacterial activity of sequentially extracted different cold organic solvent extracts of fruits, flowers and leaves of Lawsonia inermis (L. against) some pathogenic bacteria. Methods Powders of fruits, flowers and leaves of L. inermis were continuously extracted with dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate and ethanol at ambient temperature. The dried extracts were prepared into different concentrations and tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method, and also the extracts were tested to determine the available phytochemicals. Results Except DCM extract of flower all other test extracts revealed inhibitory effect on all tested bacteria and their inhibitory effect differed significantly (P<0.05). The highest inhibitory effect was showed by ethyl acetate extract of flower against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), and ethyl acetate extract of fruit on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis). The ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of flower, fruit and leaf expressed inhibition even at 1 mg/100 µl against all test bacteria. Among the tested phytochemicals flavonoids were detected in all test extracts except DCM extract of flower. Conclusions The study demonstrated that the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of fruit and flower of L. inermis are potentially better source of antibacterial agents compared to leaf extracts of respective solvents. PMID:23569850

  12. Metallic solvent extraction of manganese and titanium from ferroalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godsell, A. J.; Fray, D. J.

    1990-04-01

    The selective removal of valuable elements from ferroalloys has been investigated. It has been found that liquid bismuth is a suitable solvent for leaching manganese from its ferroalloy. High recoveries and rapid reaction rates were obtained for low-carbon ferromanganese, but results for the high-carbon ferromanganese and silicomanganese were less favorable due to the lower activity of manganese in these alloys and the lack of wetting by liquid bismuth. Antimony was found to be a suitable solvent for titanium from ferrotitanium but iron was also taken into solution. Manganese was successfully transferred from solution in liquid bismuth to liquid aluminum by fused salt electrorefining, using a NaCl-KCl-MnCl electrolyte, at high current efficiencies with negligible carryover of bismuth.

  13. Evaluation of different solvent mixtures in esterifiable lipids extraction from microalgae Botryococcus braunii for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Pamela; Ciudad, Gustavo; Navia, Rodrigo

    2016-02-01

    Non-polar and polar solvents as well as their mixtures were tested for the extraction of microalgae lipids and thus, to evaluate their effect on total and esterifiable lipids extraction yields with potential to be converted to biodiesel. The obtained results show an increase in lipids and esterifiable lipids extraction yields when non-polar and polar solvent mixtures were used. The higher esterifiable lipids extraction yield was 19.2%wt (based on dry biomass) using a chloroform-methanol mixture (75%v/v of methanol), corresponding to a 98.9%wt esterifiable lipids extraction. In addition, esterifiable lipids extraction yield of 18.9%wt (based on dry biomass) was obtained when a petroleum ether-methanol mixture (75%v/v of methanol) was used, corresponding to a 96.9%wt esterifiable lipids extraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. DEMONSTRATION OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT WITH 2-CM CENTRIGUGAL CONTRACTORS USING TANK 49H WASTE AND WASTE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Pak, D.; Fink, S.; Blessing, R.; Washington, A.; Caldwell, T.

    2011-11-29

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet using MaxCalix for the decontamination of high level waste (HLW). The demonstration was completed using a 12-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This represents the first CSSX process demonstration of the MaxCalix solvent system with Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW. Two tests lasting 24 and 27 hours processed non-radioactive simulated Tank 49H waste and actual Tank 49H HLW, respectively. A solvent extraction system for removal of cesium from alkaline solutions was developed utilizing a novel solvent invented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This solvent consists of a calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant dissolved in an inert hydrocarbon matrix. A modifier is added to the solvent to enhance the extraction power of the calixarene and to prevent the formation of a third phase. An additional additive is used to improve stripping performance and to mitigate the effects of any surfactants present in the feed stream. The process that deploys this solvent system is known as Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX). The solvent system has been deployed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) since 2008.

  15. [Evaluation of bioavailability of hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene to rice roots in soils by accelerated solvent extraction].

    PubMed

    Liu, Cui-ying; Jiang, Xin; Yang, Xing-lun; Song, Yang

    2010-05-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in greenhouse in two types of soils, Hydragric Acrisols (Ac) and Gleyi-Stagnic Anthrosols (An). Three treatments as control and the additions of 1% and 2% organic fertilizer were designed in each type of soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accumulation abilities of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and its predominant metabolite of pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) by rice roots, and to compare the correlation between HCB or PeCB concentrations in rice roots and in soils extracted by four extraction solvents (hexane/acetone = 3/1(V/V), ethanol, hexane, water) to evaluate the bioavailability of HCB and PeCB to rice roots. The results showed that the mean concentrations of HCB in rice roots for Ac and An were 364.1 and 306.0 ng/g, respectively, while PeCB were 12.7 and 28.7 ng/g, respectively, which was due to the higher degradation rates of HCB in An than in Ac. Both the applications of 1% and 2% organic fertilizer inhibited HCB degradation, so as to decrease PeCB concentrations in rice roots either in Ac or An. The orders of correlation coefficient of both HCB and PeCB concentrations in rice roots and in soils extracted by four extraction solvents were ethanol > hexane/acetone > hexane > water, which indicated that ethanol was the best extraction solvent of soils to evaluate the bioavailability of HCB and PeCB to rice roots. Only the HCB concentrations in soils extracted by ethanol were significantly positive correlated with the HCB concentrations in rice roots. And the PeCB concentrations in soils extracted by all solvents except for water were significantly positive correlated with the PeCB concentrations in rice roots. Our results suggested that it was feasible to evaluate the bioavailability of HCB and PeCB to rice roots using accelerated solvent extraction by choosing proper extraction solvent.

  16. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

    2014-03-03

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

  17. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING ACTINIDE AND LANTHANIDE METAL VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Hildebrandt, R.A.; Hyman, H.H.; Vogler, S.

    1962-08-14

    A process of countercurrently extracting an aqueous mineral acid feed solution for the separation of actinides from lanthanides dissolved therern is described. The feed solution is made acid-defrcient with alkali metal hydroxide prior to.contact with acid extractant; during extraction, however, acid is transferred from organic to aqueous solution and the aqueous solution gradually becomes acid. The acid-deficient phase ' of the process promotes the extraction of the actinides, while the latter acid phase'' of the process improves retention of the lanthanides in the aqueous solution. This provides for an improved separation. (AEC)

  18. Experiment on the treatment of waste extraction solvent from the molybdenum-99 process

    SciTech Connect

    Hsien-Ming Hsiao; Chang-Liang Hu; Kuang-Li Chien; Wen-Cheng Lee; Tsong-Yang Wei

    2013-07-01

    In the Mo-99 (Molybdenum-99) isotope extraction test process for radiopharmaceutical applications, organic solvent is used to extract Mo-99 from an irradiated UO{sub 2} dissolution. The extraction solvent was stored when the test work was stopped. A total of about 120 liters of waste solvent was stored at INER (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan). The extraction solvent consisted of 5% di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and kerosene. The radionuclides found in the waste solvent include Cs-137, Am-241, Tc-99, and Sr-90, which give off gross alpha and beta radioactivity of 1898 and 471 Bq/ml, respectively. This study aims to remove radionuclides from the waste solvent using sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide solutions in different concentrations. After mixing the waste solvent with the alkaline solution followed by settling, a third phase other than organic and aqueous phase appeared which is expected due to the saponification reaction. The experimental results showed that increasing the number of washing and the alkaline solution concentration could enhance the radionuclides removal rate. An optimal removal method was proposed using 2 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution twice followed by 1 M NaOH solution one time for the third phase generated early in the mixing stages. The remaining gross alpha and beta radioactivity of the treated organic solvent was 2 and 3 Bq/ml, respectively. The treated solvent could be stabilized by ashing at 500 deg. C and then immobilized. The alkaline solution would be neutralized by hydrochloric or nitric acid and then treated using a variety of adsorbents or bone char via adsorption to remove nuclides to meet the wastewater discharge limitation. (authors)

  19. REMOVAL OF PCBS FROM A CONTAMINATED SOIL USING CF-SYSTEMS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's START team in cooperation with EPA's SITE program evaluated a pilot scale solvent extraction process developed by CF-Systems. This process uses liquified propane to extract organic contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments. A pilot-scale evaluation was conducte...

  20. RESOURCES CONSERVATIONS COMPANY - B.E.S.T. SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Resources Conservation Company (RCC) Basic Extractive Sludge Treatment (B.E.S.T.®) solvent extraction technology and its applicability as a treatment technique for soils, sediments, and sludges contaminated with organics. B...

  1. RESOURCES CONSERVATIONS COMPANY - B.E.S.T. SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Resources Conservation Company (RCC) Basic Extractive Sludge Treatment (B.E.S.T.®) solvent extraction technology and its applicability as a treatment technique for soils, sediments, and sludges contaminated with organics. B...

  2. Growth and Decay: An Experiment Demonstrating Radioactivity Relationships and Chelate Solvent Extraction Separations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, D. M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The separation of lead and bismuth by chelate solvent extraction is of interest because of the simplicity which the use of radiotracers allows in its demonstration. Theoretical background information, procedures, materials needed, and typical results are provided for an experiment involving the extraction. (JN)

  3. REMOVAL OF PCBS FROM A CONTAMINATED SOIL USING CF-SYSTEMS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's START team in cooperation with EPA's SITE program evaluated a pilot scale solvent extraction process developed by CF-Systems. This process uses liquified propane to extract organic contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments. A pilot-scale evaluation was conducte...

  4. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM FROM AQUEOUS ACIDIC SOLUTIONS OF NEUTRON IRRADIATED URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Bruce, F.R.

    1962-07-24

    A solvent extraction process was developed for separating actinide elements including plutonium and uranium from fission products. By this method the ion content of the acidic aqueous solution is adjusted so that it contains more equivalents of total metal ions than equivalents of nitrate ions. Under these conditions the extractability of fission products is greatly decreased. (AEC)

  5. Evaluation of new natural deep eutectic solvents for the extraction of isoflavones from soy products.

    PubMed

    Bajkacz, Sylwia; Adamek, Jakub

    2017-06-01

    Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) are considered to be new, safe solvents in green chemistry that can be widely used in many chemical processes such as extraction or synthesis. In this study, a simple extraction method based on NADES was used for the isolation of isoflavones (daidzin, genistin, genistein, daidzein) from soy products. Seventeen different NADES systems each including two or three components were tested. Multivariate data analysis revealed that NADES based on a 30% solution of choline chloride: citric acid (molar ratio of 1:1) are the most effective systems for the extraction of isoflavones from soy products. After extraction, the analytes were detected and quantified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (UHPLC-UV). The proposed NADES extraction procedure achieved enrichment factors up to 598 for isoflavones and the recoveries of the analytes were in the range 64.7-99.2%. The developed NADES extraction procedure and UHPLC-UV determination method was successfully applied for the analysis of isoflavones in soy-containing food samples. The obtained results indicated that new natural deep eutectic solvents could be an alternative to traditional solvents for the extraction of isoflavones and can be used as sustainable and safe extraction media for another applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES: A SURVEY OF SYSTEMS IN THE SITE PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction of contaminated soils, sludges and sediments has been successfully completed at a number ofSuperfund sites. Each commercialized process uses a unique operating system to extract organic contaminants from solids. These operating systems may be classified by the ...

  7. Growth and Decay: An Experiment Demonstrating Radioactivity Relationships and Chelate Solvent Extraction Separations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, D. M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The separation of lead and bismuth by chelate solvent extraction is of interest because of the simplicity which the use of radiotracers allows in its demonstration. Theoretical background information, procedures, materials needed, and typical results are provided for an experiment involving the extraction. (JN)

  8. Anticomplement activity of organic solvent extracts from Korea local Amarantaceae spp.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seil; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Young-Choon; Moon, Hyung-In

    2012-04-01

    The study evaluated the anticomplement activity from various solvent extracts of nine Amarantaceae plants (Achyranthes japonica (Miq.) Nakai, Amaranthus mangostanus L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Amaranthus spinosus L., Celosia argentea var. spicata., Amaranthus lividus L., Celosia cristata L., Amaranthus viridis L., Gomphrena globosa L.) from South Korea on the classical pathway. We have evaluated various organic solvent extract from nine Amarantaceae plants with regard to its anticomplement activity on the classical pathway. Achyranthes japonica chloroform extracts showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) value of 73.1μg/ml. This is the first report of anticomplement activity from Amarantaceae plants.

  9. Energy requirements for wet solvent extraction of lipids from microalgal biomass.

    PubMed

    Martin, Gregory J O

    2016-04-01

    Biofuel production from microalgae requires energy efficient processes for extracting and converting triacylglyceride lipids to fuel, compatible with coproduction of protein feeds and nutraceuticals. Wet solvent extraction involves mechanical cell rupture, lipid extraction via solvent contacting, physical phase separation, thermal solvent recovery, and transesterification. A detailed analysis of the effect of key process parameters on the parasitic energy demand of this process was performed. On a well-to-pump basis, between 16% and 320% of the resultant biodiesel energy was consumed depending solely on the process parameters. Highly positive energy balances can be achieved, but only if a correctly designed process is used. This requires processing concentrated biomass (ca 25%w/w) with a high triacylglyceride content (ca 30%w/w), and an efficient extraction process employing a non-polar solvent, low solvent-to-paste ratio, and efficient energy recovery. These requirements preclude many laboratory scale processes and polar co-solvents as viable options for large-scale biofuel production.

  10. Investigation of the solvent extraction of californium, fermium and mendelevium.

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, K A; Gvuzdz, E; Starý, J; Seng, W T

    1966-03-01

    The extraction constants for the systems di-(2-ethylhexyl)-orthophosphoric acid/toluene/hydrochloric acid and americium, curium californium and fermium have been determined. They have been used to select the best conditions for the separation of californium, fermium and mendelevium by extraction chromatography. The separation factors are much higher than the corresponding ion-exchange methods.

  11. Solvent extraction studies of 10% TBP flowsheets in the solvent extraction test facility using irradiated fuel from the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Benker, D.E.; Bigelow, J.E.; Bond, W.D.; Campbell, D.O.; Chattin, F.R.; King, L.J.; Kitts, F.G.; Ross, R.G.; Stacy, R.G.

    1988-03-01

    Two solvent extraction experiments were made in the Solvent Extraction Test Facility (SETF) during Campaign 10 to continue the evaluation of: (1) a computer control system for the coextraction-coscrub contractor; and (2) a partitioning technique that separates uranium and plutonium without the aid of chemical reductants. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel used in this campaign had burnups of {approximately}55 and {approximately}60 (average) MWd/kg. During both experiments, the computer control system successfully maintained stable, efficient operation. The control system used an in-line photometer to monitor the plutonium concentration in the extraction section; and based on this data, it adjusted the addition rate of the extractant to maintain high loadings of heavy metal in the solvent and low raffinate losses. The uranium and plutonium partitioning relied entirely on the differences between the U(VI) and Pu(IV) distribution coefficients (since no reductant was used to adjust the plutonium valence). In order to enhance this difference, the TBP concentration and operating temperature were relatively low in comparison to traditional Purex flowsheets. Final product purities of 99{percent} were achieved for both the uranium and plutonium in one cycle of partitioning.

  12. NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT-MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYMER COMPONENTS WITHIN MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (FINAL REPORT)

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-17

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil, Tefzel and Isolast) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that LIX{reg_sign}79 selectively affected Tefzel and its different grades (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of LIX{reg_sign}79. Tefzel is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to LIX{reg_sign}79, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel seating material. PEEK, Grafoil and Isolast were not affected by LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The initial rapid weight gain observed in every polymer is assigned to the finite and

  13. Preliminary studies on the recovery of bitumen from Nigerian tar sands: I. Beneficiation and solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Ademodi, B.; Oshinowo, T.; Sanni, S.A.; Dawodu, O.F.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent extraction of bitumen from Nigerian tar sands using toluene has been investigated. Pulverization of the tar sands followed by agglomeration in a mechanical shaker resulted in spherical agglomerates having higher bitumen contents than the mined tar sand. The extent of beneficiation was 4% and 19% for the high grade and low grade sands, respectively. Temperature, agitation, and tar sand/solvent (S/L) ratios were found to be significant variables affecting the dissolution of bitumen from the sand. S/L ratio has the greatest effect on extraction efficiency. The rate of bitumen extraction, expressed as extractability eta* showed great dependence on agitation. About 16- and 15-fold increases in extractability were obtained for S/L ratios of 1/20 and 1/5 respectively for a 2.8 fold increase in agitation. At the initial stages of extraction, asphaltene content of the bitumen extracted at 50/sup 0/C was less than that in the bitumen extracted at 25/sup 0/C. This finding could have significant implications for the overall economics of upgrading processes. A high extraction efficiency of about 99% was obtained with stagewise extraction at high tar sand/solvent ratios.

  14. Bidentate organophosphorus solvent extraction process for actinide recovery and partition

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Wallace W.

    1976-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction process for the recovery and partitioning of actinide values from acidic nuclear waste aqueous solutions, the actinide values including trivalent, tetravalent and hexavalent oxidation states is provided and includes the steps of contacting the aqueous solution with a bidentate organophosphorous extractant to extract essentially all of the actinide values into the organic phase. Thereafter the respective actinide fractions are selectively partitioned into separate aqueous solutions by contact with dilute nitric or nitric-hydrofluoric acid solutions. The hexavalent uranium is finally removed from the organic phase by contact with a dilute sodium carbonate solution.

  15. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF THORIUM VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Warf, J.C.

    1959-04-21

    The separation of thorium values from rare earth metals contained ln aqueous solutions by means of extraction with a water immiscible alkyl phosphate diluted with a hydrocarbon such as hexane is described. While the extraction according to this invention may be carried out from any aqueous salt solution, it is preferred to use solutions containing free mineral acid. Hydrochloric acid and in particular nitric acid are sultable in a concentration ranging from 0.1 to 7 normal. The higher acid concentration results in higher extraction values.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Quentin C. Berg; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Jason C. Hissam; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Abha Saddawi; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-07

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of carbon electrodes for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC), and on carbon foam composites used in ballistic armor, as well as the hydrotreatment of solvents used in the basic solvent extraction process. A major goal is the production of 1500 pounds of binder pitch, corresponding to about 3000 pounds of hydrotreated solvent.

  17. Solvent extraction of organic molecules of exobiological interest for in situ analysis of the Martian soil.

    PubMed

    Buch, A; Sternberg, R; Meunier, D; Rodier, C; Laurent, C; Raulin, F; Vidal-Madjar, C

    2003-05-30

    A solid-liquid extraction method able to perform in situ extraction of organic compounds on Mars is proposed. The extraction efficiency of various organic solvents was tested and compared to that of water. The selected key compounds are molecules of exobiological interest: glycine, alanine, serine, glutamic acid, oxalic acid, benzoic acid, phthalic acid, isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid and 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid. Among the organic solvents, propanol gives the highest yield of extraction for all the targeted compounds except for benzoic acid. A mixture of propanol and ethyl acetate increases significantly the extraction yield of benzoic acid. The extraction time was considerably reduced (140 h to 15 min) by using sonication. The method is discussed for an easy automation with coupling to an in situ GC-MS space instrument.

  18. Hydrometallurgical recovery of germanium from coal gasification fly ash. Solvent extraction method

    SciTech Connect

    Arroyo, F.; Fernandez-Pereira, C.

    2008-05-15

    This article is concerned with a simple hydrometallurgical method for the selective recovery of germanium from fly ash (FA) generated in an integrated gasification with combined cycle (IGCC) process. The method is based on the leaching of FA with water and a subsequent concentration and selective separation of germanium by a solvent method. Regarding the leaching step, the different operational conditions studied were liquid/solid (L/S) ratio and time of contact. The solvent extraction method was based on germanium complexation with catechol (CAT) in an aqueous solution followed by the extraction of the Ge-CAT complex with an extracting organic reagent diluted in an organic solvent. The main factors examined during the extraction tests were aqueous phase/organic phase (AP/OP) volumetric ratio, aqueous phase pH, amounts of reagents, and time of contact. Germanium extraction yields were higher than 90%. Alkaline and acid stripping of organic extracts were studied obtaining the best results with 1M NaOH (85%). A high-purity germanium solution was obtained. Experimental data presented in this work show that the extraction of germanium by the solvent method designed can be selective toward germanium, and this element can be effectively separated from arsenic, molybdenum, nickel, antimony, vanadium, and zinc.

  19. Characteristics and antioxidant of Ulva intestinalis sulphated polysaccharides extracted with different solvents.

    PubMed

    Peasura, Napassorn; Laohakunjit, Natta; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Wanlapa, Sorada

    2015-11-01

    Ulva intestinalis, a tubular green seaweed, is a rich source of nutrient, especially sulphated polysaccharides. Sulphated polysaccharides from U. intestinalis were extracted with distilled water, 0.1N HCl, and 0.1N NaOH at 80°C for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24h to study the effect of the extraction solvent and time on their chemical composition and antioxidant activity. Different types of solvents and extraction time had a significant influence on the chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity (p<0.05). Monosaccharide composition and FT-IR spectra analyses revealed that sulphated polysaccharides from all solvent extractions have a typical sugar backbone (glucose, rhamnose, and sulphate attached at C-2 or C-3 of rhamnose). Sulphated polysaccharides extracted with acid exhibited greater antioxidant activity than did those extracted with distilled water and alkali. The results indicated that solvent extraction could be an efficacious method for enhancing antioxidant activity by distinct molecular weight and chemical characteristic of sulphated polysaccharides.

  20. Supercritical CO(2) extraction of PAHs on spiked soil Co-solvent effect and solvent regeneration by ozonization.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Javier; Gimeno, Olga; Mantell, Casimiro; Portela, Juan R; Martinez de la Ossa, Enrique J; de la Calle, Ruth G

    2009-03-15

    The supercritical CO(2) extraction of four PAHs (acenaphthene, phenanthrene, anthracene and fluoranthene) from an artificially contaminated soil has been investigated. The effect of temperature (40-60 degrees C), pressure (300-500 bar) and extraction time (90-150 min) has been assessed by conducting a Box-Behnken experimental design. The results suggest the existence of perturbation variables other than the aforementioned controlled variables leading to a significant dispersion of extraction recoveries. With the exception of anthracene, an optimum in temperature (50 degrees C) is envisaged when extracting the PAHs. Analogously, with the exception of anthracene (positive effect), pressure does not have a significant influence. The recovery yield increases as extraction time is increased to a value of 120 min. No further improvement is experienced thereafter. If a co-solvent is used (H(2)O(2) aqueous solution) a beneficial effect can be noticed. Hydrogen peroxide concentration did exert no significant influence in the process. Methanol used to collect the extracted PAHs could be regenerated by gaseous ozone and reused in several consecutive runs.

  1. STORAGE STABILITY OF PESTICIDES IN EXTRACT SOLVENTS AND SAMPLING MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Demonstrating that pesticides are stable in field media and their extracts over extended storage periods allows operational flexibility and cost efficiency. Stability of the 31 neutral pesticides and 2 acid herbicides of the Agricultural Health Study exposure pilot was evaluate...

  2. STORAGE STABILITY OF PESTICIDES IN EXTRACT SOLVENTS AND SAMPLING MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Demonstrating that pesticides are stable in field media and their extracts over extended storage periods allows operational flexibility and cost efficiency. Stability of the 31 neutral pesticides and 2 acid herbicides of the Agricultural Health Study exposure pilot was evaluate...

  3. Predominance zone diagrams and their application to solvent extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Páez-Hernández, M E; Ramírez, M T; Rojas-Hernández, A

    2000-01-24

    Predominance zone diagrams have been useful tools in solving problems in analytical chemistry. They can be used to establish the best conditions for separation of mixtures or to optimize recovery procedures for a given species. The few reports on predominance zone diagrams for the participant species in liquid-liquid extraction systems, describe their construction as diagrams of the Pourbaix type (epsilon/pH). With the generalized species and equilibria method (GSEM) it is possible to elaborate Predominance zone diagrams for extraction (PZDE) in proper spaces and with parameters strictly related to these processes such as pH and the volume ratio, r. Therefore, using the GSEM, PZDE that allow us to determine the best conditions for the extraction of a given substance have been elaborated. The stoichiometry of the species been extracted can also be determined from the experimental conditions. It has been demonstrated that with the GSEM, PZDE can be constructed for systems of one and two components. In this work, we intend to demonstrate that the algorithm is valid for the elaboration of PZDE in systems of three and four components. Examples of analytical interest are presented such as lead (II) extraction with diphenyltiocarbazone (dithizone) and that for cadmium (II) with 8-hydroxyquinolein (oxine) in chloroform. The influence of a masking agent, the etilendiaminotetraacetic acid (EDTA) over the extraction of both metals was also assessed.

  4. Optimization of solvent extraction of shea butter (Vitellaria paradoxa) using response surface methodology and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Ajala, E O; Aberuagba, F; Olaniyan, A M; Onifade, K R

    2016-01-01

    Shea butter (SB) was extracted from its kernel by using n-hexane as solvent in an optimization study. This was to determine the optima operating variables that would give optimum yield of SB and to study the effect of solvent on the physico-chemical properties and chemical composition of SB extracted using n-hexane. A Box-behnken response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the optimization study while statistical analysis using ANOVA was used to test the significance of the variables for the process. The variables considered for this study were: sample weight (g), solvent volume (ml) and extraction time (min). The physico-chemical properties of SB extracted were determined using standard methods and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for the chemical composition. The results of RSM analysis showed that the three variables investigated have significant effect (p < 0.05) on the %yield of SB, with R(2) - 0.8989 which showed good fitness of a second-order model. Based on this model, optima operating variables for the extraction process were established as: sample weight of 30.04 g, solvent volume of 346.04 ml and extraction time of 40 min, which gave 66.90 % yield of SB. Furthermore, the result of the physico-chemical properties obtained for the shea butter extracted using traditional method (SBT) showed that it is a more suitable raw material for food, biodiesel production, cosmetics, medicinal and pharmaceutical purposes than shea butter extracted using solvent extraction method (SBS). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) results obtained for the two samples were similar to what was obtainable from other vegetable oil.

  5. Upgrading the solvent used for the thermal extraction of sub-bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Nao Kashimura; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Ikuo Saito

    2006-10-15

    HyperCoal is an ash-free coal produced by extraction with an industrial solvent at temperatures around 360{sup o}C, which can be fed directly to gas turbines. We searched for more powerful solvents to extract low-rank coals, such as sub-bituminous coal. Polar materials were successfully concentrated from a polar industrial solvent, crude methylnaphthalene oil (CMNO), by extraction with a mixture of methanol and water or aqueous HCl. The soluble fraction obtained using the former (MW-S) extracted 73 wt % (daf) of Wyodak Anderson sub-bituminous coal at 360{sup o}C, while that obtained using the latter (AC-S) extracted 63 wt %. These extraction yields were much higher than those with CMNO (43 wt %), indicating that fractionation concentrated the materials that dissolve the constituents of coal. MW-S contained more indole than AC-S. The results of addition tests suggested that indole had a greater ability to extract coal constituents than quinoline. In addition, the addition of 5 wt % methanol to a mixture of 1-methylnaphthalene, indole, and quinoline (30/20/50 wt %) increased the extraction yield from 58 to 69%, which was close to the yield of MW-S (73%). Therefore, the high extraction yield of MW-S can be explained by not only the composition of the nitrogen-containing polar materials in MW-S but also the presence of methanol. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Comparative analysis of essential oil composition of Iranian and Indian Nigella sativa L. extracted using supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction

    PubMed Central

    Ghahramanloo, Kourosh Hasanzadeh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Akbari Javar, Hamid; Teguh Widodo, Riyanto; Majidzadeh, Keivan; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the oil extraction yield and essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian Nigella sativa L. extracted by using Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and solvent extraction methods. In this study, a gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrophotometer detector was employed for qualitative analysis of the essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian N. sativa L. The results indicated that the main fatty acid composition identified in the essential oils extracted by using SFE and solvent extraction were linoleic acid (22.4%–61.85%) and oleic acid (1.64%–18.97%). Thymoquinone (0.72%–21.03%) was found to be the major volatile compound in the extracted N. sativa oil. It was observed that the oil extraction efficiency obtained from SFE was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that achieved by the solvent extraction technique. The present study showed that SFE can be used as a more efficient technique for extraction of N. Sativa L. essential oil, which is composed of higher linoleic acid and thymoquinone contents compared to the essential oil obtained by the solvent extraction technique. PMID:28814830

  7. Comparative analysis of essential oil composition of Iranian and Indian Nigella sativa L. extracted using supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Ghahramanloo, Kourosh Hasanzadeh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Akbari Javar, Hamid; Teguh Widodo, Riyanto; Majidzadeh, Keivan; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the oil extraction yield and essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian Nigella sativa L. extracted by using Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and solvent extraction methods. In this study, a gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrophotometer detector was employed for qualitative analysis of the essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian N. sativa L. The results indicated that the main fatty acid composition identified in the essential oils extracted by using SFE and solvent extraction were linoleic acid (22.4%-61.85%) and oleic acid (1.64%-18.97%). Thymoquinone (0.72%-21.03%) was found to be the major volatile compound in the extracted N. sativa oil. It was observed that the oil extraction efficiency obtained from SFE was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that achieved by the solvent extraction technique. The present study showed that SFE can be used as a more efficient technique for extraction of N. Sativa L. essential oil, which is composed of higher linoleic acid and thymoquinone contents compared to the essential oil obtained by the solvent extraction technique.

  8. An Investigation of Aggregation in Synergistic Solvent Extraction Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Andy Steven

    With an increasing focus on anthropogenic climate change, nuclear reactors present an attractive option for base load power generation with regard to air pollution and carbon emissions, especially when compared with traditional fossil fuel based options. However, used nuclear fuel (UNF) is highly radiotoxic and contains minor actinides (americium and curium) which remain more radiotoxic than natural uranium ore for hundreds of thousands of years, presenting a challenge for long-term storage . Advanced nuclear fuel recycling can reduce this required storage time to thousands of years by removing the highly radiotoxic minor actinides. Many advanced separation schemes have been proposed to achieve this separation but none have been implemented to date. A key feature among many proposed schemes is the use of more than one extraction reagent in a single extraction phase, which can lead to the phenomenon known as "synergism" in which the extraction efficiency for a combination of the reagents is greater than that of the individual extractants alone. This feature is not well understood for many systems and a comprehensive picture of the mechanism behind synergism does not exist. There are several proposed mechanisms for synergism though none have been used to model multiple extraction systems. This work examines several proposed advanced extractant combinations which exhibit synergism: 2-bromodecanoic acid (BDA) with 2,2':6',2"-terpyridine (TERPY), tri-n-butylphosphine oxide (TPBO) with 2-thenoyltrifluoro acetone (HTTA), and dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (HDNNS) with 5,8-diethyl-7-hydroxy-dodecan-6-oxime (LIX). We examine two proposed synergistic mechanisms involving and attempt to verify the ability of these mechanisms to predict the extraction behavior of the chosen systems. These are a reverse micellar catalyzed extraction model and a mixed complex formation model. Neither was able to effectively predict the synergistic behavior of the systems. We further examine

  9. Predictive model for ionic liquid extraction solvents for rare earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabda, Mariusz; Oleszek, Sylwia; Panigrahi, Mrutyunjay; Kozak, Dmytro; Eckert, Franck; Shibata, Etsuro; Nakamura, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to select the most effective ionic liquid extraction solvents for dysprosium (III) fluoride using a theoretical approach. Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS), based on quantum chemistry and the statistical thermodynamics of predefined DyF3-ionic liquid systems, was applied to reach the target. Chemical potentials of the salt were predicted in 4,400 different ionic liquids. On the base of these predictions set of ionic liquids' ions, manifesting significant decrease of the chemical potentials, were selected. Considering the calculated physicochemical properties (hydrophobicity, viscosity) of the ionic liquids containing these specific ions, the most effective extraction solvents for liquid-liquid extraction of DyF3 were proposed. The obtained results indicate that the COSMO-RS approach can be applied to quickly screen the affinity of any rare earth element for a large number of ionic liquid systems, before extensive experimental tests.

  10. Solvent Selection for Pressurized Liquid Extraction of Polymeric Sorbents Used in Air Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Primbs, Toby; Genualdi, Susan; Simonich, Staci

    2014-01-01

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was evaluated as a method for extracting semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) from air sampling media; including quartz fiber filter (QFF), polyurethane foam (PUF), and a polystyrene divinyl benzene copolymer (XAD-2). Hansen solubility parameter plots were used to aid in the PLE solvent selection in order to reduce both co-extraction of polyurethane and save time in evaluating solvent compatibility during the initial steps of method development. A PLE solvent composition of 75:25% hexane:acetone was chosen for PUF. The XAD-2 copolymer was not solubilized under the PLE conditions used. The average percent PLE recoveries (and percent relative standard deviations) of 63 SOCs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine, amide, triazine, thiocarbamate, and phosphorothioate pesticides, were 76.7 (6.2), 79.3 (8.1), and 93.4 (2.9) % for the QFF, PUF, and XAD-2, respectively. PMID:18220448

  11. Predictive model for ionic liquid extraction solvents for rare earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Grabda, Mariusz; Oleszek, Sylwia; Panigrahi, Mrutyunjay; Kozak, Dmytro; Shibata, Etsuro; Nakamura, Takashi; Eckert, Franck

    2015-12-31

    The purpose of our study was to select the most effective ionic liquid extraction solvents for dysprosium (III) fluoride using a theoretical approach. Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS), based on quantum chemistry and the statistical thermodynamics of predefined DyF{sub 3}-ionic liquid systems, was applied to reach the target. Chemical potentials of the salt were predicted in 4,400 different ionic liquids. On the base of these predictions set of ionic liquids’ ions, manifesting significant decrease of the chemical potentials, were selected. Considering the calculated physicochemical properties (hydrophobicity, viscosity) of the ionic liquids containing these specific ions, the most effective extraction solvents for liquid-liquid extraction of DyF{sub 3} were proposed. The obtained results indicate that the COSMO-RS approach can be applied to quickly screen the affinity of any rare earth element for a large number of ionic liquid systems, before extensive experimental tests.

  12. Extraction of antioxidants from spruce (Picea abies) bark using eco-friendly solvents.

    PubMed

    Co, Michelle; Fagerlund, Amelie; Engman, Lars; Sunnerheim, Kerstin; Sjöberg, Per J R; Turner, Charlotta

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are known to avert oxidation processes and they are found in trees and other plant materials. Tree bark is a major waste product from paper pulp industries; hence it is worthwhile to develop an extraction technique to extract the antioxidants. To develop a fast and environmentally sustainable extraction technique for the extraction of antioxidants from bark of spruce (Picea abies) and also to identify the extracted antioxidants that are abundant in spruce bark. A screening experiment that involved three different techniques was conducted to determine the best technique to extract antioxidants. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined with DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) turned out to be the best technique and a response surface design was therefore utilised to optimise PFE. Furthermore, NMR and HPLC-DAD-MS/MS were applied to identify the extracted antioxidants. PFE using water and ethanol as solvent at 160 and 180°C, respectively, gave extracts of the highest antioxidant capacity. Stilbene glucosides such as isorhapontin, piceid and astringin were identified in the extracts. The study has shown that PFE is a fast and environmentally sustainable technique, using water and ethanol as solvent for the extraction of antioxidants from spruce bark. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE OPERATING EXPERIENCE AND LESSONS LEARNED

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.

    2010-01-06

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) is the first, production-scale Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction process for cesium separation to be constructed. The process utilizes an engineered solvent to remove cesium from waste alkaline salt solution resulting from nuclear processes. While the application of this solvent extraction process is unique, the process uses commercially available centrifugal contactors for the primary unit operation as well as other common methods of physical separation of immiscible liquids. The fission product, cesium-137, is the primary focus of the process due to the hazards associated with its decay. The cesium is extracted from the waste, concentrated, and stripped out of the solvent resulting in a low-level waste salt solution and a concentrated cesium nitrate stream. The concentrated cesium stream can be vitrified into borosilicate glass with almost no increase in glass volume, and the salt solution can be dispositioned as a low-level grout. The unit is deployed as an interim process to disposition waste prior to start-up of the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The Salt Waste Processing Facility utilizes the same cesium removal technology, but will treat more contaminated waste. The MCU is not only fulfilling a critical need, it is the first demonstration of the process at production-scale.

  14. Use of solvent mixtures for total lipid extraction of Chlorella vulgaris and gas chromatography FAME analysis.

    PubMed

    Moradi-Kheibari, Narges; Ahmadzadeh, Hossein; Hosseini, Majid

    2017-06-07

    Lipid extraction is the bottleneck step for algae-based biodiesel production. Herein, 12 solvent mixture systems (mixtures of three non-polar and two polar organic solvents) were examined to evaluate their effects on the total lipid yield from Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris). Moreover, the extraction yields of three solvent systems with maximum extraction efficiency of esterifiable lipids were determined by acidic transesterification and GC-FID analysis. Three solvent systems, which resulted in a higher extraction yield, were further subjected to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. The total lipid extraction yields (based on dry biomass) were (38.57 ± 1.51), (25.33 ± 0.58), and (25.17 ± 1.14) %, for chloroform-methanol (1:2) (C1M2), hexane-methanol (1:2) (H1M2), and chloroform-methanol (2:1) (C2M1), respectively. The extraction efficiency of C1M2 was approximately 1.5 times higher than H1M2 and C2M1, whereas the FAME profile of extracted lipids by H1M2 and C1M2 were almost identical. Moreover, the esterifiable lipid extraction yields of (18.14 ± 2.60), (16.66 ± 0.35), and (13.22 ± 0.31) % (based on dry biomass) were obtained for C1M2, H1M2, and C2M1 solvent mixture systems, respectively. The biodiesel fuel properties produced from C. vulgaris were empirically predicted and compared to that of the EN 14214 and ASTM 6751 standard specifications.

  15. Enzyme-mediated solvent extraction of carotenoids from marigold flower (Tagetes erecta).

    PubMed

    Barzana, E; Rubio, D; Santamaria, R I; Garcia-Correa, O; Garcia, F; Ridaura Sanz, V E; López-Munguía, A

    2002-07-31

    Marigold flowers are the most important source of carotenoids for application in the food industry. However, the extraction gives almost 50% losses of the carotenoids depending on conditions for silaging, drying, and solvent extraction. In the past decades, macerating enzymes have been successfully applied to improve the extraction yield of valued compounds from natural products. In this work, an alternative extraction process for carotenoids is proposed, consisting of a simultaneous enzymatic treatment and solvent extraction. The proposed process employs milled fresh flowers directly as raw material, eliminating the inefficient silage and drying operations as well as the generation of hard to deal with aqueous effluents present in traditional processes. The process developed was tested at the 80 L scale, where under optimal conditions a carotenoid recovery yield of 97% was obtained.

  16. FIELD EVALUATION OF SOLVENT EXTRACTION RESIDUAL BIOTREATMENT (SERB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory and pilot-scale studies have demonstrated that cosolvent-enhanced in situ extraction can remove residual and free-phase nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL), but may leave levels of contaminants in the ground water and subsurface formations in excess of the regulatory requir...

  17. FIELD EVALUATION OF SOLVENT EXTRACTION RESIDUAL BIOTREATMENT (SERB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory and pilot-scale studies have demonstrated that cosolvent-enhanced in situ extraction can remove residual and free-phase nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL), but may leave levels of contaminants in the ground water and subsurface formations in excess of the regulatory requir...

  18. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    PubMed

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-10-10

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions.

  19. Effects of extraction solvent on fucose content in fucoidan extracted from brown seaweed (Sargassum sp.) from Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Bibi Marliana; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan; Joe, Lim Seng

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of extraction solvent on the fucose content in fucoidan that had been isolated from Sargassum sp., which is a type of brown seaweed that was harvested in Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, Malaysia. There were three different solvents that were used in the extraction process in order to isolate the crude fucoidan including the hydrochloric acid, HCl, calcium chloride, CaCl2 solution and also the papain ezyme solution. Other extraction parameters that were the extraction temperature and time were fixed at three hours, at 45°C respectively. It was found that there was a significant different (p< 0.05) on the fucose content of fucoidan that had been extracted by using the enzymatic extraction (papain) with those were extracted by HCl and CaCl2 solution. However, the fucose content in fucoidan been extracted with HCl and CaCl2 solution showed no significant different (p> 0.05) amongst each other. Hence, this study indicated that the extraction of fucoidan using HCl tend to possess higher fucose content which will increase the potential of the extraction method to be used in the industries such as pharmaceuticals as well as the nutraceuticals.

  20. Tailoring and recycling of deep eutectic solvents as sustainable and efficient extraction media.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyung Min; Lee, Min Sang; Nam, Min Woo; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Yan; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kwon, Sung Won; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Lee, Jeongmi

    2015-12-11

    The present study demonstrates that deep eutectic solvents (DESs) with the highest extractability can be designed by combining effective DES components from screening diverse DESs. The extraction of polar ginseng saponins from white ginseng was used as a way to demonstrate the tuneability as well as recyclability of DESs. A newly designed ternary DES (GPS-5) composed of glycerol, l-proline, and sucrose at 9:4:1 was used as a sustainable and efficient extraction medium. Based on the anti-tumor activity on HCT-116 cancer cells, it was confirmed that GPS-5 was merely an extraction solvent with no influence of the bioactivity of the ginsenosides extracted. Excellent recovery of the extracted saponins was easily achieved through solid-phase extraction (SPE). Recycling of the DES was accomplished by simple freeze-drying of the washed solutions from the SPE. The extraction efficiencies of the DESs recycled once, twice, and thrice were 92%, 85%, and 83% of that of the freshly synthesized solvent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Distillation and solvent extraction process for rerefining used lubricating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, H.J.; Fletcher, L.C.; O'blasny, R.

    1982-11-23

    Used oil is rerefined by distillation and extraction with tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. In accordance with the process, used oil is rerefined by distillation to remove a volatile forecut followed by further distillation with recirculation provisions to obtain the desired fractions of lubricating oil products while reducing the vaporization temperature of the oil. The recycle effect tends to reduce coking and cracking while providing a greater recovery of lubricating oil products through the carrier effect of the light ends. After the desired fractions of lubricating oil have been obtained by the distillation phase of the process, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol is utilized in an extraction process to remove impurities remaining in the distilled oil. The tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol-lube oil mixture is separated into a raffinate and extract stream for distilling and steam stripping the tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol therefrom. In one embodiment of the invention, a waste oil feedstock has water, gasoline and other similarly volatile components removed in a first stage evaporator (16). Heavier fuel, such as fuel oil is then removed in the second stage evaporator (28). A light lube oil fraction is then obtained by distillation with a third stage wiped-film evaporator (40). Finally, a heavy lube oil fraction is obtained by distillation of the bottoms from the evaporator (40) in a fourth-stage with a wiped-film evaporator (64). The heavy and light lube oil fractions are then treated in the fifth stage of the process in which each of the lube oil fractions mix with tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol in extraction columns (80) and (96). Each of the tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and oil fractions are then separated into raffinate and extract streams for further treatment to further separate and recover the finished light and heavy lube oil products and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol which is reused in the fifth stage of the process.

  2. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT PROGRAM REAL WASTE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.

    2013-06-03

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed multiple Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing using real waste solutions, and three Next Generation Solvent (NGS) variations, which included radiologically clean pure NGS, a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically clean BOBCalixC6 (NGS-MCU), and a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically contaminated BOBCalixC6 from the MCU Solvent system. The results from the tests indicate that both the NGS and the NGS-MCU blend exhibit adequate extraction, scrub and strip behavior.

  3. Sample Results From The Next Generation Solvent Program Real Waste Extraction-Scrub-Strip Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L. II

    2013-08-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed multiple Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing using real waste solutions, and three Next Generation Solvent (NGS) variations, which included radiologically clean pure NGS, a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically clean BOBCalixC6 (NGS-MCU), and a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically contaminated BOBCalixC6 from the MCU Solvent system. The results from the tests indicate that both the NGS and the NGS-MCU blend exhibit adequate extraction, scrub and strip behavior.

  4. Stable Isotope-Assisted Evaluation of Different Extraction Solvents for Untargeted Metabolomics of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Doppler, Maria; Kluger, Bernhard; Bueschl, Christoph; Schneider, Christina; Krska, Rudolf; Delcambre, Sylvie; Hiller, Karsten; Lemmens, Marc; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of extraction protocols for untargeted metabolomics approaches is still difficult. We have applied a novel stable isotope-assisted workflow for untargeted LC-HRMS-based plant metabolomics , which allows for the first time every detected feature to be considered for method evaluation. The efficiency and complementarity of commonly used extraction solvents, namely 1 + 3 (v/v) mixtures of water and selected organic solvents (methanol, acetonitrile or methanol/acetonitrile 1 + 1 (v/v)), with and without the addition of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid were compared. Four different wheat organs were sampled, extracted and analysed by LC-HRMS. Data evaluation was performed with the in-house-developed MetExtract II software and R. With all tested solvents a total of 871 metabolites were extracted in ear, 785 in stem, 733 in leaf and 517 in root samples, respectively. Between 48% (stem) and 57% (ear) of the metabolites detected in a particular organ were found with all extraction mixtures, and 127 of 996 metabolites were consistently shared between all extraction agent/organ combinations. In aqueous methanol, acidification with formic acid led to pronounced pH dependency regarding the precision of metabolite abundance and the number of detectable metabolites, whereas extracts of acetonitrile-containing mixtures were less affected. Moreover, methanol and acetonitrile have been found to be complementary with respect to extraction efficiency. Interestingly, the beneficial properties of both solvents can be combined by the use of a water-methanol-acetonitrile mixture for global metabolite extraction instead of aqueous methanol or aqueous acetonitrile alone. PMID:27367667

  5. Effect of the solvent type and temperature on phytosterol contents and compositions of wheat straw, bran, and germ extracts.

    PubMed

    Dunford, Nurhan Turgut; Irmak, Sibel; Jonnala, Ramakanth

    2009-11-25

    Wheat fractions, such as bran, germ, and straw, are rich in a number of health beneficial bioactive compounds. However, they have not been exploited to their full capacity for value-added product development. This study examines the potential of recovering phytosterol (PS)-enriched extracts from wheat germ, bran, and straw. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of solvent type and temperature on PS content and composition in straw, bran, and germ extracts. Petroleum ether, chloroform, n-hexane, and ethanol were used as solvents. A pressurized solvent extraction system was used for extraction of wheat fractions. Germ extracts had the highest total PS content followed by straw and bran extracts. Beta-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol were the main PSs in all of the extracts. Ethanol extraction resulted in the lowest total PS recovery from germ. Solvent type had a significant effect on PS composition in straw extracts. beta-Sitosterol was the most abundant PS in straw hexane extracts (74% of total PS). Petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethanol extracted more stigmasterol than beta-sitosterol from straw. This study demonstrated that the solvent type and temperature had significant effects on both PS content and composition of extracts collected from wheat fractions. Because of the complex nature of the agricultural materials, solvent selection and process optimization need to be based on experimental data. Pressurized solvent extraction is a useful technique to screen complex biological materials for their composition and to determine processing conditions to be optimized.

  6. A rapid direct solvent extraction method for the extraction of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone from irradiated ground beef patties using acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Hijaz, Faraj; Kumar, Amit; Smith, J Scott

    2010-08-01

    The amount of irradiated beef in the U.S. market is growing, and a reliable, rapid method is needed to detect irradiated beef and quantify the irradiation dose. The official analytical method (BS EN 1785 2003) that has been adopted by the European Union is time consuming. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid method for the analysis of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) in irradiated beef. A 5 g sample of commercially irradiated ground beef patty (90/10) was extracted with n-hexane using a Soxhlet apparatus or with acetonitrile via direct solvent extraction. The Soxhlet hexane extract was evaporated to dryness, and the sample was dissolved in a mixture of ethyl acetate and acetonitrile (1:1). The defatted extract was purified with a 1 g silica cartridge. Another 5 g aliquot of the same patty was mixed with 50 mL acetonitrile and either blended for 1 min with a hand blender or crushed for 10 min with a glass rod. The extraction procedure was repeated 3 times, and the acetonitrile was collected and evaporated to dryness. Eluants from both methods were concentrated under nitrogen and injected into a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The 2-DCB concentration in the commercial samples was 0.031 +/- 0.0026 ppm (n = 5) for the Soxhlet method and 0.031 +/- 0.0025 ppm (n = 10) for direct solvent extraction. Recovery of 2-DCB from spiked beef samples in the direct solvent extraction method was 93.2 +/- 9.0% (n = 7). This study showed that the direct solvent extraction method is simple and as efficient and reproducible as the Soxhlet method.

  7. Solvent extraction of Pb(II) with AGDOMD

    SciTech Connect

    Filho, O.F.; Neves, E.F.A.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of Pb(II) between an aqueous phase and a toluene phase containing dehydrated fatty acids found in distilled castor oil (AGDOMD) has been studied. Using the slope technique the conditional equilibrium constant of extraction was determined (kext = 1.02 x 10/sup -7/) and the main species present in the organic phase was identified as (PbNO/sub 3/R.2HR)/sub (o)/, where HR represents the fatty acid used.

  8. Deep eutectic solvents as green media for extraction of flavonoid glycosides and aglycones from Platycladi Cacumen.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Bo; Dou, Li-Li; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2017-02-05

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are emerging as alternatives to conventional ionic liquids and organic solvents due to their unique advantages. In the present study, the tuneability of DESs as tailor-made solvents to efficiently extract polar and non-polar bioactive compounds from Platycladi Cacumen was detailedly investigated. Totally 12 types of choline chloride-, betaine-, and l-proline-based DESs were synthesized for initial screening, and extraction conditions was optimized by single-factor experiment. Experiments with different DESs and principal components analysis demonstrated that the extractability of both flavonoid glycosides and aglycones was greater with certain designed DESs than conventional solvents. In addition, the water content in DESs led to significantly different extraction yields of flavonoid compounds. The target compounds were recovered from DESs by macroporous resin LX-38 with a satisfactory yield between 77.44% and 98.92%. The knowledge acquired in this study could contribute to further DES application in extraction of bioactive compounds from natural sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Extraction of basil leaves (ocimum canum) oleoresin with ethyl acetate solvent by using soxhletation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambun, R.; Purba, R. R. H.; Ginting, H. K.

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this research is to produce oleoresin from basil leaves (Ocimum canum) by using soxhletation method and ethyl acetate as solvent. Basil commonly used in culinary as fresh vegetables. Basil contains essential oils and oleoresin that are used as flavouring agent in food, in cosmetic and ingredient in traditional medicine. The extraction method commonly used to obtain oleoresin is maceration. The problem of this method is many solvents necessary and need time to extract the raw material. To resolve the problem and to produce more oleoresin, we use soxhletation method with a combination of extraction time and ratio from the material with a solvent. The analysis consists of yield, density, refractive index, and essential oil content. The best treatment of basil leaves oleoresin extraction is at ratio of material and solvent 1:6 (w / v) for 6 hours extraction time. In this condition, the yield of basil oleoresin is 20.152%, 0.9688 g/cm3 of density, 1.502 of refractive index, 15.77% of essential oil content, and the colour of oleoresin product is dark-green.

  10. Cardioprotective potential of Irish macroalgae: generation of glycine betaine and dimethylsulfoniopropionate containing extracts by accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Juan; Hayes, Maria; McLoughlin, Pádraig; Rai, Dilip K; Soler-Vila, Anna

    2015-06-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE®) was used to generate 18 macroalgal extracts from Irish seaweeds. The glycine betaine and dimethylsulfoniopriopionate content of the generated ASE® extracts were estimated using (1)H-NMR and confirmed for selected extracts using ultra performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Dimethylsulfoniopriopionate was only identified in the ASE® extract generated from Codium fragile ISCG0029. Glycine betaine was identified in the ASE® extract generated from Ulva intestinalis ISCG0356 using (1)H-NMR. Mass spectrometry analysis found that the seaweed species Cytoseira nodicaulis ISCG0070, Cytoseira tamariscofolia ISCG0283, and Polysiphonia lanosa ISCG0462 also had a glycine betaine content that ranged from 1.39 ng/ml to 105.11 ng/ml. Generated ASE® macroalgal extracts have potential for use as functional food ingredients in food products.

  11. Solvent extraction of metal picrates by phosphoryl-containing podands

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarenko, A.Y. |; Baulin, V.E.; Lamb, J.D.; Volkova, T.A.; Varnek, A.A. |; Wipff, G.

    1999-05-01

    Using UV spectroscopy, the authors have studied the thermodynamics of extraction of metal picrates M{sup +}Pic{sup {minus}} (M{sup +} = Li{sup +}, Na{sup +} K{sup +}, Rb{sup +}, Cs{sup +}, Tl{sup +} and Ag{sup +}) and M{sup 2+} (Pic{sup {minus}}){sub 2} (M{sup 2+} = Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) from water to a chloroform or to a dichloromethane solution. The extractant molecules are mono-podands R-O-(CH{sub 2}-O-CH{sub 2}-){sub n}-O-R containing an ether chain and terminal phosphoryl groups: R = (Ph){sub 2}P(O)-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-; n = 3, 4 (I--II) and R = (Ph){sub 2}P(O)-CH{sub 2}-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-, n = 1, 3, 4 (III--V). The authors found that podand I displays a remarkable Ba{sup 2+}/Ca{sup 2+} extraction selectivity. All podands extract alkali and alkaline earth picrates in dichloromethane (as dissociated ion pairs) better than in chloroform (as non-dissociated ion pairs). Based on Molecular Dynamics simulations of the complexes I{sup {sm_bullet}}M{sup 2+} and I{sup {sm_bullet}}M{sup 2+} (Pic{sup {minus}}){sub 2} in the gas phase and in chloroform the authors suggest that the high selectivity of I for Ba{sup 2+} is due to (1) the formation of the complex with an optimal pseudocavity for Ba{sup 2+}, in which six donor atoms of the ligand and four oxygens of the Pic{sup {minus}} counter-ion coordinate to the cation, and (2) the smaller dehydration energy of Ba{sup 2+} compared to other alkaline earth cations. The relative free energies of extraction obtained from simulations on the I{sup {sm_bullet}} M{sup 2+} (Pic{sup {minus}}){sub 2} complexes are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Extraction and detection of arsenicals in seaweed via accelerated solvent extraction with ion chromatographic separation and ICP-MS detection.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, P A; Shoemaker, J A; Wei, X; Brockhoff-Schwegel, C A; Creed, J T

    2001-01-01

    An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) device was evaluated as a semi-automated means of extracting arsenicals from ribbon kelp. The effect of the experimentally controllable ASE parameters (pressure, temperature, static time, and solvent composition) on the extraction efficiencies of arsenicals from seaweed was investigated. The extraction efficiencies for ribbon kelp (approximately 72.6%) using the ASE were fairly independent (< 7%) of pressure, static time and particle size after 3 ASE extraction cycles. The optimum extraction conditions for the ribbon kelp were obtained by using a 3 mL ASE cell, 30/70 (w/w) MeOH/H2O, 500 psi (1 psi = 7 KPa), ambient temperature, 1 min heat step, 1 min static step, 90% vol. flush, and a 120 s purge. Using these conditions, two other seaweed products produced extraction efficiencies of 25.6% and 50.5%. The inorganic species present in the extract represented 62.5% and 27.8% of the extracted arsenic. The speciation results indicated that both seaweed products contained 4 different arsenosugars, DMA (dimethylarsinic acid), and As(V). One seaweed product also contained As(III). Both of these seaweed products contained an arsenosugar whose molecular weight was determined to be 408 and its structure was tentatively identified using ion chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (IC-ESI-MS/MS).

  13. Solvent extraction of cadmium and zinc from sulphate solutions: Comparison of mechanical agitation and ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Daryabor, Mahboubeh; Ahmadi, Ali; Zilouei, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the potential of ultrasonic irradiation during the solvent extraction of metals, and comparing its efficiency with a mechanically stirred system (MSSX). The simultaneous extraction of zinc and cadmium from sulphate solutions was investigated by di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as an organic extractant which was diluted (20%) in kerosene at the organic: aqueous phase ratio of 1:1 and the temperature of 25°C. The influence of some critical parameters, including contact time, solution pH, ultrasonic power, and zinc/cadmium ratio were investigated on the extraction of the metals. Results show that D2EHPA selectively extract zinc rather than cadmium in both mechanically and ultrasonically mixed systems. It was also found that increase of ultrasonic power from 10 to 120W cause a small decrease in zinc extraction; while, at low and high levels of the induced power, cadmium extraction was significantly decreased. Results also show that maximum extraction amounts of zinc (88.7%) and cadmium (68.2%) by the MSSX system occurred at the pH of 3 and the contact times of 3 and 20min, respectively. Although capability of extraction in the ultrasonically assisted solvent extraction (USAX) system for both metals was higher, the selectivity was lower than that of MSSX system under different conditions especially in high zinc/cadmium ratios. It can be concluded that physical effects (i.e. mixing) inducing at low ultrasonic powers (below 60W) mainly results in increasing solvent extraction rate, while the chemical actions applied at the higher powers have a negative outcome on the extraction rate particularly for cadmium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of terpenoid content in pine by organic solvent extraction and fast-GC analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Harman-Ware, Anne E.; Sykes, Robert; Peter, Gary F.; Davis, Mark

    2016-01-25

    Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors, and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and after extractions to monitor the extraction efficiency. The pyrolysis studies indicated that the optimal extraction method used a 1:1 hexane/acetone solvent system at 22°C for 1 h. Extracts from the hexane/acetone experiments were analyzed using a low thermal mass modular accelerated column heater for fast-GC/FID analysis. The most abundant terpenoids from the pine samples were quantified, using standard curves, and included the monoterpenes, α- and β-pinene, camphene, and δ-carene. Sesquiterpenes analyzed included caryophyllene, humulene, and α-bisabolene. In conclusion, diterpenoid resin acids were quantified in derivatized extractions, including pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, dehydroabietic, abietic, and neoabietic acids.

  15. Determination of terpenoid content in pine by organic solvent extraction and fast-GC analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Harman-Ware, Anne E.; Sykes, Robert; Peter, Gary F.; ...

    2016-01-25

    Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors, and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and after extractions to monitor the extraction efficiency. The pyrolysis studies indicated that the optimal extraction method used a 1:1 hexane/acetone solvent system at 22°C for 1 h. Extracts frommore » the hexane/acetone experiments were analyzed using a low thermal mass modular accelerated column heater for fast-GC/FID analysis. The most abundant terpenoids from the pine samples were quantified, using standard curves, and included the monoterpenes, α- and β-pinene, camphene, and δ-carene. Sesquiterpenes analyzed included caryophyllene, humulene, and α-bisabolene. In conclusion, diterpenoid resin acids were quantified in derivatized extractions, including pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, dehydroabietic, abietic, and neoabietic acids.« less

  16. Effect of different format-solvent rosemary extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis) on frozen chicken nuggets quality.

    PubMed

    Rocío Teruel, M; Garrido, M Dolores; Espinosa, Miriam C; Linares, M Belén

    2015-04-01

    Three kinds of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (powder-acetone, liquid-methanol, liquid-acetone) were used to examine the effects of format-solvent on the active compounds extracted (total phenolic, carnosol and carnosic acid content) and antioxidant activity (FRAP, ABTS). The results showed that both, as the format but also the solvent used, had significant effect on the parameters analyzed (p < 0.05). The highest antioxidant activity was found for the powder-acetone extract followed by the liquid methanol and liquid acetone extracts (p < 0.05). The effect of the three different extracts on the physical-chemical and sensory quality of frozen chicken nuggets was evaluated. At the dose proposed by the European Union Directive 2010/69/EU for the carnosic and carnosol compounds [150 ppm (mg/kg fat basic)], the format-solvent combination of the rosemary extracts used did not modify the chicken nuggets quality characteristics (pH, colour, sensory quality) and still underlines the effectiveness of these extracts.

  17. Extraction of thymol from different varieties of thyme plants using green solvents.

    PubMed

    Villanueva Bermejo, David; Angelov, Ivan; Vicente, Gonzalo; Stateva, Roumiana P; Rodriguez García-Risco, Mónica; Reglero, Guillermo; Ibañez, Elena; Fornari, Tiziana

    2015-11-01

    Thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol) is the main monoterpene phenol found in thyme essential oil. This compound has revealed several biological properties, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this work, a comparison was made between the performance of different green solvents (ethanol, limonene and ethyl lactate), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at different conditions, to extract thymol from three different varieties of thyme (Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis and Thymus citriodorus). Additionally, new solubility data of thymol in limonene and ethanol at ambient pressure and temperatures in the range 30-43 °C are reported. The highest thymol recoveries were attained with T. vulgaris (7-11 mg g(-1)). No thymol could be quantified in the PLE samples of T. citriodorus. The highest concentrations of thymol in the extracts were obtained with limonene. Thymol is very soluble in both solvents, particularly in ethanol (∼900 mg g(-1) at ∼40 °C), and is the main compound (in terms of peak area) present in the essential oil extracts obtained. The three solvents show good capacity to extract thymol from T. vulgaris and T. zygis by PLE. Although PLE proved to be a suitable technology to extract thymol from thyme plants, the highest concentrations of thymol were obtained by SFE with supercritical CO2 . © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Studies on antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of different spices.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Dilek; Toroglu, Sevil

    2011-03-01

    The antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extract of 12 plant species were studied. The extract of Capsicum annuum (red pepper) (fruit) Zingiber officinale (ginger) (root), Cuminum cyminum (cumin), Alpinia ficinarum (galingale), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), Cinnamomun zeylanicum Nees (cinnamomun), Origanum onites L. (thyme), Folium sennae (senna), Eugenia caryophyllata (cloves), Flos tiliae (lime), Folium menthae crispae (peppermint) and Piper nigrum (blackpepper) were tested in vitro against 2 fungi and 8 bacterial species by the disc diffusion method. Klebsiella pneumonia 13883, Bacillus megaterium NRS, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 27859, Staphylococcus aureus 6538 P, Escherichia coil ATCC 8739, Enterobacter cloaca ATCC 13047, Corynebacterium xerosis UC 9165, Streptococcus faecalis DC 74, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Rhodotorula rubra were used in this investigation. The results indicated that extracts of different spices has shown antibacterial activity in the range of 7-24 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Eugenia caryophyllata (clove), 7-20 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Capsicum annum (red pepper) and Cinnamomun zeylanicum (cinnamon) bark, 7-18 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium sennae (senna) leaves, 7-16 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Zingiber officinale (ginger) root, 7-15 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Cuminum cyminum (cumin) seed, 7-14 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium menthae crispae (peppermint), Origanum onites (thyme) leaves and Alpinia ficinarum (galingale) root, 7-12 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibiton zone Piper nigrum (blackpepper), 7-11 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Flos tiliae (lime) leaves, 7-8 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Coriandrum sativum (coriander) to the microorganisms tested.

  19. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts from purple basil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Şit, Latifşah

    2012-09-01

    Water, ethanol and acetone extracts from leaves and flowers of purple basil, one of the most popular spices consumed in the Thrace region of Turkey, were tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit peroxidation of lipids, to scavenge DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) and to chelate Fe(II) ions. The results showed that purple basil contained naturally occurring antioxidant components and possessed antioxidant activity which may be attributed to its lipid peroxidation inhibitory, radical scavenging and metal chelating activities. It was concluded that purple basil might be a potential source of antioxidants.

  20. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  1. SLURRY SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METALS FROM SOLID MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1959-01-20

    A solvent extraction process is described for recovering uranium from low grade uranium bearing minerals such as carnotit or shale. The finely communited ore is made up as an aqueous slurry containing the necessary amount of acid to solubilize the uranium and simultaneously or subsequently contacted with an organic solvent extractant such as the alkyl ortho-, or pyro phosphoric acids, alkyl phosphites or alkyl phosphonates in combination with a diluent such as kerosene or carbon tetrachlorids. The extractant phase is separated from the slurry and treated by any suitable process to recover the uranium therefrom. One method for recovering the uranium comprises treating the extract with aqueous HF containing a reducing agent such as ferrous sulfate, which reduces the uranium and causes it to be precipitated as uranium tetrafluoride.

  2. Extraction of phenols from lignin microwave-pyrolysis oil using a switchable hydrophilicity solvent.

    PubMed

    Fu, Dongbao; Farag, Sherif; Chaouki, Jamal; Jessop, Philip G

    2014-02-01

    Microwave pyrolysis of lignin, an aromatic polymer byproduct from paper-pulping industry, produces char, gases, and lignin pyrolysis oil. Within the oil are valuable phenolic compounds such as phenol, guaiacol and catechol. In this work, we describe a method using switchable hydrophilicity solvents (SHS) to extract phenols as a mixture from lignin microwave-pyrolysis oil at the scale of 10 g of bio-oil. Even at this small scale, losses are small; 96% of the bio-oil was recovered in its three fractions, 72% of guaiacol and 70% of 4-methylguaiacol, the most abundant phenols in the bio-oil, were extracted and 91% of the solvent SHS was recovered after extraction. The starting material (lignin microwave-pyrolysis oil) and the three fractions resulted from SHS extraction were characterized by GC-MS and quantitative (13)C{(1)H} and (31)P{(1)H} NMR spectroscopy.

  3. Recovery of fatty acid from a solvated hydrocarbon mixture applicable to the Beaver-Herter solvent extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, W.H.; Turpin, J.L.; Babcock, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Herter process is a patented solvent extraction enhanced oil recovery process. This process utilizes fatty acid as a solvent to mix with and reduce the viscosity of a heavy reservoir oil or a tar sand. This method differs from other solvent extraction oil recovery methods in that the recovery of the fatty acid solvent for further use, rather than the initial expense of the solvent, is the prime economic consideration. The fatty acid is recovered by saponification of the solvated oil mixture using an aqueous base, followed by migration of the resulting soap into the aqueous phase, and then desaponification of the aqueous phase.

  4. Fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers and process for cesium solvent extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bonnesen, Peter V.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.

    2003-05-20

    The invention relates to a class of phenoxy fluoro-alcohols, their preparation, and their use as phase modifiers and solvating agents in a solvent composition for the extraction of cesium from alkaline solutions. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohols comply with the formula: ##STR1## in which n=2 to 4; X represents a hydrogen or a fluorine atom, and R.sup.2 -R.sup.6 are hydrogen or alkyl substituents. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers are a necessary component to a robust solvent composition and process useful for the removal of radioactive cesium from alkaline nuclear waste streams. The fluoro-alcohols can also be used in solvents designed to extract other cesium from acidic or neutral solutions.

  5. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes for Coal Derived Carbon Products

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel

    2006-12-31

    This DOE NETL-sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous processes for producing carbon products from solvent-extracted coal. A key process step is removal of solids from liquefied coal. Three different processes were compared: gravity separation, centrifugation using a decanter-type Sharples Pennwalt centrifuge, and a Spinner-II centrifuge. The data suggest that extracts can be cleaned to as low as 0.5% ash level and probably lower using a combination of these techniques.

  6. Neutron-activation analysis by standard addition and solvent extraction Determination of traces of antimony.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Shabana, R; Sanad, W; Allam, B; Khalifa, K

    1968-02-01

    The application of neutron activation analysis by standard addition and solvent extraction to the determination of traces of antimony in aluminium and rocks is reported. Three simple extraction procedures, using isopropyl ether, hexone, and tributyl phosphate, are described for the selective separation of radioantimony from interfering radionuclides. Antimony concentration is measured by counting the activities of the (122)Sb and (124)Sb photopeaks at 0.564 and 0.603 MeV.

  7. Comprehensive comparison of classic Soxhlet extraction with Soxtec extraction, ultrasonication extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, microwave assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil.

    PubMed

    Sporring, Sune; Bøwadt, Søren; Svensmark, Bo; Björklund, Erland

    2005-10-07

    This paper compares the extraction effectiveness of six different commonly applied extraction techniques for the determination of PCBs in soil. The techniques included are Soxhlet, Soxtec, ultrasonication extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction. For none of the techniques were the extraction conditions optimized, but instead the extraction parameters were based on the experience from previous successful investigation published by a number of research groups worldwide. In general, all extraction techniques were capable of producing accurate data for one native PCB contaminated soil diluted with another soil sample to obtain two concentration levels. It could therefore be concluded that any of the investigated techniques can be used with success if the extraction conditions applied are chosen wisely.

  8. A green solvent holder in electro-mediated microextraction for the extraction of phenols in water.

    PubMed

    Chong, Yu Ting; Mohd Ariffin, Marinah; Mohd Tahir, Norhayati; Loh, Saw Hong

    2018-01-01

    Electro-mediated microextraction (EMM) combined with micro-high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection was successfully developed for the determination of selected phenols, namely 4-chlorophenol (4CP), 2-nitrophenol (2NP) and 2,4-dichlorophenols (2,4 DCP) in water. A solvent-impregnated agarose gel disc was utilized as a solvent holder in this study. Under optimum extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity in the range of 0.1-250µgL(-1), 0.3-250µgL(-1) and 0.2-500µgL(-1) for 4CP, 2NP and 2,4 DCP, respectively with correlation coefficients of ≥ 0.9975, ultra-trace LODs (0.03-0.1µgL(-1)) and satisfactory relative recovery average (85.0-114.1%) for the analysis of selected phenols. The proposed method was rapid and eco-friendly as the solvent holder was constructed using minute amounts of extraction solvent immobilized within the biodegradable agarose gel disc. A comparative microextraction technique termed solvent-impregnated agarose gel liquid phase microextraction (AG-LPME) was re-optimized and validated for the extraction of phenols in water. The method offered good linearity, ultra-trace LODs ranging 0.1-0.5µgL(-1) and satisfactory average of relative recovery (86.1-114.1%). The EMM was superior in terms of sensitivity and time-effectiveness compared to AG-LPME. Both techniques combine extraction and pre-concentration in mini-scaled approaches using an eco-friendly solvent holder that fulfil the green chemistry concept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. TERRA-KLEEN RESPONSE GROUP, INC. SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of a field demonstration conducted under the SITE program. The technology which was demonstrated was a solvent extraction technology developed by Terra-Kleen Response Group. Inc. to remove organic contaminants from soil. The technology employs...

  10. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  11. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  12. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  13. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  14. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280 Section 173.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...

  15. TERRA-KLEEN RESPONSE GROUP, INC. SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of a field demonstration conducted under the SITE program. The technology which was demonstrated was a solvent extraction technology developed by Terra-Kleen Response Group. Inc. to remove organic contaminants from soil. The technology employs...

  16. Extraction of ethanol with higher carboxylic acid solvents and their toxicity to yeast

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In a screening exercise for ethanol-selective extraction solvents, partitioning of ethanol and water from a 5 wt% aqueous solution into several C8 – C18 carboxylic acids was studied. Results for the acids are compared with those from alcohols of similar structure. In all cases studied, the acids exh...

  17. SOLVENT EXTRACTION AND SOIL WASHING TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED SOILS FROM WOOD PRESERVING SITES: BENCH SCALE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale solvent extraction and soil washing studies were performed on soil samples obtained from three abandoned wood preserving sites that included in the NPL. The soil samples from these sites were contaminated with high levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pentachlo...

  18. Development of a new three-phase membrane-assisted liquid-phase microextraction method: determination of nitrite in tap water samples as model analytical application.

    PubMed

    Pedrón, Isabel; Chisvert, Alberto; March, Juan G; Salvador, Amparo; Benedé, Juan L

    2011-04-01

    A novel and simple device for membrane-assisted liquid-phase microextraction is used for the first time in a three-phase system. The device consists of a glass vial containing the aqueous acceptor phase, whose septum of its screw stopper has been replaced by a sized piece of polytetrafluoroethylene membrane impregnated with n-decane. The vial is assembled to a volumetric flask containing the aqueous donor phase, and the membrane comes in contact alternatively with both donor and acceptor aqueous phases by orbital agitation. The device has been tested for the determination of nitrite in tap water samples, which is extensively carried out in routine analysis, as model analytical application. Experimental variables, such as the organic solvent used to form the supported liquid membrane, the volumes of both donor and acceptor phases, the orbital agitation rate, and the extraction time were studied and optimized in terms of enrichment factor. Under the selected working conditions, the analytical figures of merit for nitrite determination were a linearity range up to 50 ng mL(-1), limits of detection and quantification of 0.15 and 0.50 ng mL(-1), respectively, and a good repeatability (RSD < 10%). The method has been applied to four tap water samples of different origins, and accurate and precise results were achieved. Besides, the very low volume of organic solvent used, its low cost and the no-risk of cross-contamination are significant operational advantages.

  19. Optimization by response surface methodology of lutein recovery from paprika leaves using accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Suna; Moon, BoKyung

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we used response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the extraction conditions for recovering lutein from paprika leaves using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The lutein content was quantitatively analyzed using a UPLC equipped with a BEH C18 column. A central composite design (CCD) was employed for experimental design to obtain the optimized combination of extraction temperature (°C), static time (min), and solvent (EtOH, %). The experimental data obtained from a twenty sample set were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R(2)) for the lutein extraction model was 0.9518, and the probability value (p=0.0000) demonstrated a high significance for the regression model. The optimum extraction conditions for lutein were temperature: 93.26°C, static time: 5 min, and solvent: 79.63% EtOH. Under these conditions, the predicted extraction yield of lutein was 232.60 μg/g.

  20. Subcritical co-solvents extraction of lipid from wet microalgae pastes of Nannochloropsis sp

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; Liu, Tianzhong; Chen, Xiaolin; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Junfeng; Gao, Lili; Chen, Yu; Peng, Xiaowei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper subcritical co-solvents extraction (SCE) of algal lipid from wet pastes of Nannochloropsis sp. is examined. The influences of five operating parameters including the ratio between ethanol to hexane, the ratio of mixed solvents to algal biomass (dry weight), extraction temperature, pressure, and time were investigated. The determined optimum extraction conditions were 3:1 (hexane to ethanol ratio), 10:1 ratio (co-solvents to microalgae (dry weight) ratio), 90°C, 1.4 MPa, and 50 min, which could produce 88% recovery rate of the total lipids. In addition, electron micrographs of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were conducted to show that the algal cell presented shrunken, collapsed with some wrinkles and microholes after SCE extraction. The main composition of total lipids extracted under the optimum conditions was TAG which represented more than 80%. And the fatty acid profile of triglycerides revealed that C16:0 (35.67 ± 0.2%), C18:1 (26.84 ± 0.044%) and C16:1 (25.96 ± 0.011%) were dominant. Practical applications: The reported method could save energy consumption significantly through avoiding deep dewatering (for example drying). The composition of the extracted lipid is suitable for the production of high quality biodiesel. PMID:22745570

  1. Solvent Supercritical Fluid Technologies to Extract Bioactive Compounds from Natural Sources: A Review.

    PubMed

    Khaw, Kooi-Yeong; Parat, Marie-Odile; Shaw, Paul Nicholas; Falconer, James Robert

    2017-07-14

    Supercritical fluid technologies offer a propitious method for drug discovery from natural sources. Such methods require relatively short processing times, produce extracts with little or no organic co-solvent, and are able to extract bioactive molecules whilst minimising degradation. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) provides a range of benefits, as well as offering routes to overcome some of the limitations that exist with the conventional methods of extraction. Unfortunately, SFE-based methods are not without their own shortcomings; two major ones being: (1) the high establishment cost; and (2) the selective solvent nature of CO₂, i.e., that CO₂ only dissolves small non-polar molecules, although this can be viewed as a positive outcome provided bioactive molecules are extracted during solvent-based SFE. This review provides an update of SFE methods for natural products and outlines the main operating parameters for extract recovery. Selected processing considerations are presented regarding supercritical fluids and the development and application of ultrasonic-assisted SFE methods, as well as providing some of the key aspects of SFE scalability.

  2. Solvent Extraction Separation of Trivalent Americium from Curium and the Lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Mark P.; Chiarizia, Renato; Ulicki, Joseph S.; Spindler, Brian D.; Murphy, Daniel J.; Hossain, M; Roca-Sabio, Adrian; de Blas, Andres; Rodriguez-Blas, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The sterically constrained, macrocyclic, aqueous soluble ligand N,N′-bis[(6-carboxy-2-pyridyl)methyl]-1,10-diaza-18-crown-6 (H2BP18C6) was investigated for separating americium from curium and all the lanthanides by solvent extraction. Pairing H2BP18C6, which favors complexation of larger f-element cations, with acidic organophosphorus extractants that favor extraction of smaller f-element cations, such as bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) or (2-ethylhexyl)phosphonic acid mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester (HEH[EHP]), created solvent extraction systems with good Cm/Am selectivity, excellent trans-lanthanide selectivity (Kex,Lu/Kex,La = 108), but poor selectivity for Am against the lightest lanthanides. However, using an organic phase containing both a neutral extractant, N,N,N’,N’-tetra(2-ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (TEHDGA), and HEH[EHP] enabled rejection of the lightest lanthanides during loading of the organic phase from aqueous nitric acid, eliminating their interference in the americium stripping stages. In addition, although it is a macrocyclic ligand, H2BP18C6 does not significantly impede the mass transfer kinetics of the HDEHP solvent extraction system

  3. Influence of the amine salt anion on the synergic solvent extraction of praseodymium with mixtures of chelating extractants and tridodecylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Dukov, I.L.; Jordanov, V.M.

    1995-11-01

    The solvent extraction of Pr with thenoyltrifluoroacetone, (HTTA) or 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazol-5-one(HP) and tridodecylammonium salt (TDAHA,A{sup -} = Cl{sup -},NO{sub 3}{sup -}, ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) in C{sub 6}H{sub 6} has been studied. The composition of the extracted species has been determined as Pr(TTA){sub 3} TDAHA and TDAH{sup +}[PrP{sub 4}]{sup -}. The values of the equilibrium constants, have been calculated. The extraction mechanism has been discussed on the basis of the experimental data. 34 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Extraction of Nb(v) by quaternary ammonium-based solvents: toward organic hexaniobate systems.

    PubMed

    Deblonde, Gauthier J-P; Chagnes, Alexandre; Roux, Marie-Aude; Weigel, Valérie; Cote, Gérard

    2016-12-06

    Solvent extraction of Nb(v) from alkaline aqueous media using quaternary ammonium solutions, especially Aliquat® 336 diluted in an aliphatic diluent, was investigated. The hexaniobate ions (HxNb6O19(x-8)) were extracted into the organic phase with very high yields at room temperature and within a few minutes, affording easy access to organic solutions of hexaniobates. Several parameters were found to influence the extraction of HxNb6O19(x-8) including the nature and concentration of alkali cations, confirming subtle effects previously described for polyoxoniobates such as ion-pairing with alkali ions. The extraction of HxNb6O19(x-8) with Aliquat® 336 is also influenced if competing anions are present in the aqueous phase (NO3(-), Cl(-), C2O4(2-), SO4(2-) and CO3(2-)) and varies with the pH mainly due to the competitive extraction of hydroxide ions at high pH. The co-extraction of sodium ions with HxNb6O19(x-8) was observed as well as the co-extraction of water molecules, suggesting a self-association of the extractant. The proposed liquid-liquid extraction generic system paves the way for innovative niobium (and potentially tantalum) hydrometallurgical processes and it may also afford more direct routes for exploring the chemistry of hexaniobates in organic solvents.

  5. Ohmic heating as a pre-treatment in solvent extraction of rice bran.

    PubMed

    Nair, Gopu Raveendran; Divya, V R; Prasannan, Liji; Habeeba, V; Prince, M V; Raghavan, G S V

    2014-10-01

    Rice bran, which is one of the major by products of paddy contain high quality proteins and edible oil apart from fibre, ash and NFE (nitrogen free extract). The existing solvent extraction method employs n-hexane as the most viable solvent for the extraction of oil from rice bran. But the high cost and scarce availability of n-hexane resulted in uneconomical extraction of rice bran oil. In this study, rice bran was ohmically heated for different time periods(1, 2 and 3 min) with different current values (5, 15 and 20 A) and with different concentration of sodium chloride (1 M, 0.1 M and 0.01 M) as conducting medium. The ohmically heated rice bran was subjected to extraction studies. Ohmic heating of rice bran of paddy varieties Red Triveni and Basmati reduced the extraction time by nearly 75 % and 70 % respectively and gave a maximum quantity of oil extracted when compared to bran, which was not ohmically heated. From the experiments with varying concentrations, residence time of ohmic heating and currents, it was found that ohmically heating the rice bran with 1 M sodium chloride solution and with a current value of 20 A for 3 min gave maximum oil extraction with minimum extraction time.

  6. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for purification and extraction of silicone passive samplers used for the monitoring of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Brockmeyer, Berit; Kraus, Uta R; Theobald, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    Silicone passive samplers have gained an increasing attention as single-phased, practical and robust samplers for monitoring of organic contaminants in the aquatic environment in recent years. However, analytical challenges arise in routine application during the extraction of analytes as silicone oligomers are co-extracted and interfere severely during chemical analyses (e.g. gas chromatographic techniques). In this study, we present a fast, practical pre-cleaning method for silicone passive samplers applying accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for the removal of silicone oligomers prior to the water deployment (hexane/dichloromethane, 100 °C, 70 min). ASE was also shown to be a very fast (10 min) and efficient extraction method for non-polar contaminants (non-exposed PRC recoveries 66-101 %) sampled by the silicone membrane. For both applications, temperature, extraction time and the solvent used for ASE have been optimized. Purification of the ASE extract was carried out by silica gel and high-pressure liquid size exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC). The silicone oligomer content was checked by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) in order to confirm the absence of the silicone oligomers prior to analysis of passive sampler extracts. The established method was applied on real silicone samplers from the North- and Baltic Sea and showed no matrix effects during analysis of organic pollutants. Internal laboratory standard recoveries were in the same range for laboratory, transport and exposed samplers (85-126 %).

  7. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings. 182.40 Section 182.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... General Provisions § 182.40 Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings. Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings,...

  8. MEASUREMENT OF PYRETHROID RESIDUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL AND FOOD SAMPLES BY ENHANCED SOLVENT EXTRACTION/SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abstract summarizes pyrethorid methods development research. It provides a summary of sample preparation and analytical techniques such as supercritical fluid extraction, enhance solvent extraction, gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

  9. MEASUREMENT OF PYRETHROID RESIDUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL AND FOOD SAMPLES BY ENHANCED SOLVENT EXTRACTION/SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abstract summarizes pyrethorid methods development research. It provides a summary of sample preparation and analytical techniques such as supercritical fluid extraction, enhance solvent extraction, gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

  10. Accelerated, microwave-assisted, and conventional solvent extraction methods affect anthocyanin composition from colored grains.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Akhtar, Humayoun; Rabalski, Iwona; Bryan, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Anthocyanins are important dietary components with diverse positive functions in human health. This study investigates effects of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) on anthocyanin composition and extraction efficiency from blue wheat, purple corn, and black rice in comparison with the commonly used solvent extraction (CSE). Factorial experimental design was employed to study effects of ASE and MAE variables, and anthocyanin extracts were analyzed by spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (DAD), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry chromatography. The extraction efficiency of ASE and MAE was comparable with CSE at the optimal conditions. The greatest extraction by ASE was achieved at 50 °C, 2500 psi, 10 min using 5 cycles, and 100% flush. For MAE, a combination of 70 °C, 300 W, and 10 min in MAE was the most effective in extracting anthocyanins from blue wheat and purple corn compared with 50 °C, 1200 W, and 20 min for black rice. The anthocyanin composition of grain extracts was influenced by the extraction method. The ASE extraction method seems to be more appropriate in extracting anthocyanins from the colored grains as being comparable with the CSE method based on changes in anthocyanin composition. The method caused lower structural changes in anthocaynins compared with the MAE method. Changes in blue wheat anthocyanins were lower in comparison with purple corn or black rice perhaps due to the absence of acylated anthocyanin compounds in blue wheat. The results show significant differences in anthocyanins among the 3 extraction methods, which indicate a need to standardize a method for valid comparisons among studies and for quality assurance purposes.

  11. Headspace single drop microextraction versus dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using magnetic ionic liquid extraction solvents.

    PubMed

    An, Jiwoo; Rahn, Kira L; Anderson, Jared L

    2017-05-15

    A headspace single drop microextraction (HS-SDME) method and a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method were developed using two tetrachloromanganate ([MnCl4(2-)])-based magnetic ionic liquids (MIL) as extraction solvents for the determination of twelve aromatic compounds, including four polyaromatic hydrocarbons, by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analytical performance of the developed HS-SDME method was compared to the DLLME approach employing the same MILs. In the HS-SDME approach, the magnetic field generated by the magnet was exploited to suspend the MIL solvent from the tip of a rod magnet. The utilization of MILs in HS-SDME resulted in a highly stable microdroplet under elevated temperatures and long extraction times, overcoming a common challenge encountered in traditional SDME approaches of droplet instability. The low UV absorbance of the [MnCl4(2-)]-based MILs permitted direct analysis of the analyte enriched extraction solvent by HPLC. In HS-SDME, the effects of ionic strength of the sample solution, temperature of the extraction system, extraction time, stir rate, and headspace volume on extraction efficiencies were examined. Coefficients of determination (R(2)) ranged from 0.994 to 0.999 and limits of detection (LODs) varied from 0.04 to 1.0μgL(-1) with relative recoveries from lake water ranging from 70.2% to 109.6%. For the DLLME method, parameters including disperser solvent type and volume, ionic strength of the sample solution, mass of extraction solvent, and extraction time were studied and optimized. Coefficients of determination for the DLLME method varied from 0.997 to 0.999 with LODs ranging from 0.05 to 1.0μgL(-1). Relative recoveries from lake water samples ranged from 68.7% to 104.5%. Overall, the DLLME approach permitted faster extraction times and higher enrichment factors for analytes with low vapor pressure whereas the HS-SDME approach exhibited better extraction efficiencies for

  12. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Chemical and Physical Properties Progress in FY 2000 and FY 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, BA

    2002-04-17

    The purpose of this work was to provide chemical- and physical-property data addressing the technical risks of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process as applied specifically to the removal of cesium from alkaline high-level salt waste stored at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site. As part of the overall Salt Processing Project, this effort supported decision-making in regards to selecting a preferred technology among three alternatives: (1) CSSX, (2) nonelutable ion-exchange with an inorganic silicotitanate material and (3) precipitation with tetraphenylborate. High risks, innate to CSSX, that needed specific attention included: (1) chemical stability of the solvent matrix, (2) radiolytic stability of the solvent matrix, (3) proof-of-concept performance of the proposed process flowsheet with simulated waste, and (4) performance of the CSSX flowsheet with actual SRS high-level waste. This body of work directly addressed the chemical-stability risk and additionally provided supporting information that served to plan, carry out, and evaluate experiments conducted by other CSSX investigators addressing the other high risks. Information on cesium distribution in extraction, scrubbing, and stripping served as input for flowsheet design, provided a baseline for evaluating solvent performance under numerous stresses, and contributed to a broad understanding of the effects of expected process variables. In parallel, other measurements were directed toward learning how other system components distribute in the flowsheet. Such components include the solvent components themselves, constituents of the waste, and solvent-degradation products. Upon understanding which components influence flowsheet performance, it was then possible to address in a rational fashion how to clean up the solvent and maintain its stable function.

  13. Separation of chemical groups from bio-oil aqueous phase via sequential organic solvent extraction

    DOE PAGES

    Ren, Shoujie; Ye, Philip; Borole, Abhijeet P

    2017-01-05

    Bio-oil aqueous phase contains a considerable amount of furans, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and phenolics besides the major components of organic acids and anhydrosugars. The complexity of bio-oil aqueous phase limits its efficient utilization. To improve the efficiency of bio-oil biorefinery, this study focused on the separation of chemical groups from bio-oil aqueous phase via sequential organic solvent extractions. Due to their high recoverability and low solubility in water, four solvents (hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate) with different polarities were evaluated, and the optimum process conditions for chemical extraction were determined. Chloroform had high extraction efficiency for furans, phenolics,more » and ketones. In addition to these chemical groups, ethyl acetate had high extraction efficiency for organic acids. The sequential extraction by using chloroform followed by ethyl acetate rendered that 62.2 wt.% of original furans, ketones, alcohols, and phenolics were extracted to chloroform, over 62 wt.% acetic acid was extracted to ethyl acetate, resulting in a high concentration of levoglucosan (~53.0 wt.%) in the final aqueous phase. Chemicals separated via the sequential extraction could be used as feedstocks in biorefinery using processes such as catalytic upgrading of furans and phenolics to hydrocarbons, fermentation of levoglucosan to produce alcohols and diols, and hydrogen production from organic acids via microbial electrolysis.« less

  14. Development and demonstration of solvent extraction processes for the separation of radionuclides from acidic radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.D.; Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Todd, T.A.; Wood, D.J.

    1999-06-01

    The presence of long-lived radionuclides presents a challenge to the management of radioactive wastes. Immobilization of these radionuclides must be accomplished prior to long-term, permanent disposal. Separation of the radionuclides from the waste solutions has the potential of significantly decreasing the costs associated with the immobilization and disposal of the radioactive waste by minimizing waste volumes. Several solvent extraction processes have been developed and demonstrated at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for the separation of transuranic element (TRUs), {sup 90}Sr, and/or {sup 137}Cs from acidic radioactive waste solutions. The Transuranic Extraction (TRUEX) and phosphine oxide (POR) processes for the separation of TRUs, the Strontium Extraction (SREX) process for the separation of {sup 90}Sr, the chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (ChCoDiC) process for the separation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, and a universal solvent extraction process for the simultaneous separation of TRUs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs have all been demonstrated in centrifugal contactors using actual radioactive waste solutions. This article summarizes the most recent results of each of the flowsheet demonstrations and allows for comparison of the technologies. The successful demonstration of these solvent extraction processes indicates that they are all viable for the treatment of acidic radioactive waste solutions.

  15. Purification of zirconyl sulfate by solvent extraction. Report of investigations/1984

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, D.J.; Henry, H.G.; Bauer, D.J.

    1984-02-01

    The Bureau of Mines has conducted bench-scale investigations leading to the design of an integrated process for producing reactor-grade zirconium oxide (ZrO2) from zircon sand, which avoids the air pollution, water pollution, fire hazard, and odor problems associated with the hexone-thiocyanate process. The integrated process consists of three steps: production of crude zirconyl sulfate solution, solvent extraction, and production of ZrO2 from strip liquor. This report describes the solvent extraction step. Multistage, countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction with a tertiary amine in kerosine was used to separate zirconium from a dilute H2SO4 solution containing hafnium and other impurities. These steps were performed simultaneously in steady-state, bench-scale experiments. Zirconium recovery of up to 93 pct was achieved. Results of an economic evaluation are included.

  16. Pulsed electric field (PEF) as an intensification pretreatment for greener solvent lipid extraction from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Zbinden, Mauricio D Antezana; Sturm, Belinda S M; Nord, Ryan D; Carey, William J; Moore, David; Shinogle, Heather; Stagg-Williams, Susan M

    2013-06-01

    Microalgae, with their high lipid content, are a promising feedstock for renewable fuels. Traditionally, human and environmentally toxic solvents have been used to extract these lipids, diminishing the sustainability of this process. Herein, pulsed electric field technology was utilized as a process intensification strategy to enhance lipid extraction from Ankistrodesmus falcatus wet biomass using the green solvent, ethyl acetate. The extraction efficiency for ethyl acetate without PEF was lower (83-88%) than chloroform. In addition, the ethyl acetate exhibited a 2-h induction period, while the chloroform showed no time dependence. Utilizing PEF technology resulted in 90% of the cells being lysed and a significant enhancement in the rate of lipid recovery using ethyl acetate. The increase in lipid recovery was due to the presence of the electric field and not due to temperature effects. The PEF technology uses less energy than other PEF systems reported in the literature. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effect of experimental parameters in the pressurized solvent extraction of polyphenolic compounds from white grape marc.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Casas, Marta; García-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, María; Lores, Marta

    2014-08-15

    A method based on pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) to determine main polyphenolic compounds in the grape marc obtained as a byproduct of the white winemaking process has been developed. As response variables in the optimisation process include main individual polyphenols, as well as spectrophotometric indexes. The optimised PSE procedure implies the use of 1 g of sample, without preliminary clean-up step, sea sand as dispersant, temperature of 105 °C, methanol (63%) in water as solvent, and 5 min of extraction time (2 static cycles). The performance of the proposed method has been assessed in terms of recovery (91-105%), linearity (R(2)>0.995) and precision. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the analysis of bagasse samples collected from 12 wineries located in Galicia (NW Spain). Data of the in vitro antioxidant activities of the PSE extracts are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anticomplement activity of various solvent extracts from Korea local Artemisia spp.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyung-In; Jung, Seil; Lee, Young-Choon; Lee, Jai-Heon

    2012-02-01

    The study evaluated the anticomplement activity from various solvent extracts of eight Artemisia plants (Artemisia capillaris Thunb., Artemisia fukudo Makino., Artemisia japonica Thunb., Artemisia montana (Nakai) Pamp., Artemisia keiskeana Miq., Artemisia rubripes Nakai., Artemisia stolonifera (Maxim.) Kom., and Artemisia sylvatica Max.) from South Korea on the classical pathway (CP). We have evaluated various organic solvent extract from eight Artemisia plants with regard to its anticomplement activity on the CP. A. rubripes and A. montana chloroform extracts showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC₅₀) values of 54.3 and 64.2 μg/mL. This is the first report of anticomplement activity from Artemisia plants.

  19. Efficacy of extracting solvents to chemical components of kava (Piper methysticum) roots.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Tran Dang; Fukuta, Masakazu; Wei, Ao Chang; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Khanh, Tran Dang; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2008-04-01

    The chemical composition of kava (Piper methysticum) lactones and various phytochemicals obtained following the sonication of ground kava roots extracted in the solvents hexane, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water, respectively, was analyzed. Eighteen kava lactones, cinnamic acid bornyl ester and 5,7-dimethoxy-flavanone, known to be present in kava roots, were identified, and seven compounds, including 2,5,8-trimethyl-1-naphthol, 5-methyl-1-phenylhexen-3-yn-5-ol, 8,11-octadecadienoic acid-methyl ester, 5,7-(OH)(2)-4'-one-6,8-dimethylflavanone, pinostrobin chalcone and 7-dimethoxyflavanone-5-hydroxy-4', were identified for the first time. Glutathione (26.3 mg/g) was found in the water extract. Dihydro-5,6-dehydrokavain (DDK) was present at a higher level than methysticin and desmethoxyyagonin, indicating that DDK is also a major constituent of kava roots. Acetone was the most effective solvent in terms of maximum yield and types of kava lactones isolated, followed by water and chloroform, whereas hexane, methanol, and ethanol were less effective as solvents. Total phenolic and antioxidant activity varied among the extracting solvents, with acetone and chloroform producing the highest effects, followed by water, while methanol, ethanol and hexane were less effective.

  20. Separation and recovery of heavy metals from waste water using synergistic solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Yang, Limei; Xu, Zheng; Sun, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metal wastewater pollution is one of the three major water pollutions in the world. The zinc hydrometallurgy smelting process usually discharge large quantities of heavy metal wastewater into the environment. In this paper, a synergistic solvent extraction process has been developed to recover copper, nickel, zinc and cadmium respectively from calcium and magnesium. The synergistic organic system contained 0.50 M Versatic 10 and 0.5 M Mextral 984H in DT100. Adjusting pH to 2.0 at 40 °C, the copper will be extracted preferentially with the extraction rate more than 99%. Continuing to adjust pH to 4.2 at 40 °C, the nickel will be extracted secondly with an extraction rate more than 98%; the zinc and cadmium in raffinate could be extracted separately while pH is about 6.5.

  1. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila

    2015-09-01

    Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

  2. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    PubMed

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration.

  3. Ferric ion as a scavenging agent in a solvent extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Bruns, Lester E.; Martin, Earl C.

    1976-01-01

    Ferric ions are added into the aqueous feed of a plutonium scrap recovery process that employs a tributyl phosphate extractant. Radiolytic degradation products of tributyl phosphate such as dibutyl phosphate form a solid precipitate with iron and are removed from the extraction stages via the waste stream. Consequently, the solvent extraction characteristics are improved, particularly in respect to minimizing the formation of nonstrippable plutonium complexes in the stripping stages. The method is expected to be also applicable to the partitioning of plutonium and uranium in a scrap recovery process.

  4. Combination pulsed electric field with ethanol solvent for Nannochloropsis sp. extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafis, Ghazy Ammar; Mumpuni, Perwitasari Yekti; Indarto, Budiman, Arief

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, energy is one of human basic needs. As the human population increased, energy consumption also increased. This condition causes energy depletion. In case of the situation, alternative energy is needed to replace existing energy. Microalgae is chosen to become one of renewable energy resource, especially biodiesel, because it contains high amount of lipid instead of other feedstock which usually used. Fortunately, Indonesia has large area of water and high intensity of sunlight so microalgae cultivation becomes easier. Nannochloropsis sp., one of microalgae species, becomes the main focus because of its high lipid content. Many ways to break the cell wall of microalgae so the lipid content inside the microalgae will be released, for example conventional extraction, ultrasonic wave extraction, pressing, and electrical method. The most effective way for extraction is electrical method such as pulsed electric field method (PEF). The principal work of this method is by draining the electrical current into parallel plate. Parallel plate will generate the electrical field to break microalgae cell wall and the lipid will be released. The aim of this work is to evaluate two-stage procedure for extraction of useful components from microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. The first stage of this procedure includes pre-treatment of microalgae by ethanol solvent extraction and the second stage applies the PEF extraction using a binary mixture of water and ethanol solvent. Ethanol is chosen as solvent because it's safer to be used and easier to be handled than other solvent. Some variables that used to study the most effective operation conditions are frequency and duty cycle for microalgae. The optimum condition based on this research are at frequency 1 Hz and duty cycle 13%.

  5. Selective separation of rare earth metals by solvent extraction in the presence of new hyrophilic chelating polymers functionalized with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. II. Separation properties by solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuyama, Hideto; Miyamoto, Yoshikazu; Teramoto, Masaaki

    1996-03-01

    The selective separation of rare earth metals by solvent extraction including chelating polymers in the aqueous phase was investigated. The chelating polymers were synthesized in this laboratory by introducing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) onto water-soluble polyallylamine. The highest selectivity obtained for the Y/Er separation system was 14.7, which was much higher than that in extraction including EDTA (about 5.0). This means that the number of extraction stages required can be considerably reduced by the addition of chelating polymers. The effects of several experimental conditions such as pH, extractant concentrations, chelating polymer concentrations, and initial total rare earth metal concentrations, chelating polymer concentrations, and initial total rare earth metal concentrations on the separation factors and the distribution ratios for the Y/Er system were studied in detail. Furthermore, this extraction method was applied to other separation systems (Y/Dy, Y/Ho, Y/Tm). A remarkably high separation factor (12.6) was obtained for the Y/Tm system and the Y/Er system, although the separation factors were comparable to those in the presence of EDTA in the Y/Dy and Y/Ho systems.

  6. Determination of pharmaceuticals in biosolids using accelerated solvent extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yunjie; Zhang, Weihao; Gu, Cheng; Xagoraraki, Irene; Li, Hui

    2011-01-07

    An analytical method was developed to quantitatively determine pharmaceuticals in biosolid (treated sewage sludge) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The collected biosolid samples were initially freeze dried, and grounded to obtain relatively homogenized powders. Pharmaceuticals were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) under the optimized conditions. The optimal operation parameters, including extraction solvent, temperature, pressure, extraction time and cycles, were identified to be acetonitrile/water mixture (v/v 7:3) as extraction solvent with 3 extraction cycles (15 min for each cycle) at 100 °C and 100 bars. The extracts were cleaned up using solid-phase extraction followed by determination by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. For the 15 target pharmaceuticals commonly found in the environment, the overall method recoveries ranged from 49% to 68% for tetracyclines, 64% to 95% for sulfonamides, and 77% to 88% for other pharmaceuticals (i.e. acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, erythromycin, lincomycin and tylosin). The developed method was successfully validated and applied to the biosolid samples collected from WWTPs located in six cities in Michigan. Among the 15 target pharmaceuticals, 14 pharmaceuticals were detected in the collected biosolid samples. The average concentrations ranged from 2.6 μg/kg for lincomycin to 743.6 μg/kg for oxytetracycline. These results indicated that pharmaceuticals could survive wastewater treatment processes, and accumulate in sewage sludge and biosolids. Subsequent land application of the contaminated biosolids could lead to the dissemination of pharmaceuticals in soil and water environment, which poses potential threats to at-risk populations in the receiving ecosystems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Solvent effects on quantitative analysis of brominated flame retardants with Soxhlet extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yin; Li, Dan; Zhu, Xifen; Huang, Weilin; Peng, Ping'an

    2017-05-18

    Reliable quantifications of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) not only ensure compliance with laws and regulations on the use of BFRs in commercial products, but also is key for accurate risk assessments of BFRs. Acetone is a common solvent widely used in the analytical procedure of BFRs, but our recent study found that acetone can react with some BFRs. It is highly likely that such reactions can negatively affect the quantifications of BFRs in environmental samples. In this study, the effects of acetone on the extraction yields of three representative BFRs [i.e., decabrominated diphenyl ether (decaBDE), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)] were evaluated in the Soxhlet extraction (SE) system. The results showed that acetone-based SE procedure had no measureable effect for the recovery efficiencies of decaBDE but could substantially lower the extraction yields for both TBBPA and HBCD. After 24 h of extraction, the recovery efficiencies of TBBPA and HBCD by SE were 93 and 78% with acetone, 47 and 70% with 3:1 acetone:n-hexane, and 82 and 94% with 1:1 acetone:n-hexane, respectively. After 72 h of extraction, the extraction efficiencies of TBBPA and HBCD decreased to 68 and 55% with acetone, 0 and 5% with 3:1 acetone/n-hexane mixtures, and 0 and 13% with 1:1 acetone/n-hexane mixtures, respectively. The study suggested that the use of acetone alone or acetone-based mixtures should be restricted in the quantitative analysis of HBCD and TBBPA. We further evaluated nine alternative solvents for the extraction of the three BFRs. The result showed that diethyl ether might be reactive with HBCD and may not be considered as the alternative to acetone used solvents for the extraction of HBCD.

  8. Solvent extraction separation of Th-227 and Ac-225 in room temperature ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Jason R; Boll, Rose Ann; Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    The solvent extractions of Th-227 and Ac-225 from the aqueous phase into ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated by using N,N,N ,N - tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA) or di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) as an extractant. Four ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C4mim][NTf2]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(perfluoroethanesulfonyl)imide ([C4mim][BETI]), 1-butyl-2,3-trimethyleneimidazolium (trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [BuI5][NTf2], and 1-benzyl pyridinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([PhCH2Py][NTf2]) were used as extraction solvents for separation of Th-227 and Ac-225 in this study. Excellent extraction efficiencies and selectivities were found for Th-227/Ac-225 when HDEHP was used as an extractant in these ionic liquids. The effects of different extractant concentrations in ionic liquids and acidities of the aqueous phase on extraction efficiencies and selectivities of Th-227/Ac-225 are also presented in this article.

  9. Phytochemicals characterization of solvent extracts from taro-scented japonica rice bran.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua Han; Chiu, Tsai Hsin

    2011-05-01

    The major phytochemicals and antioxidant properties of taro-scented rice bran (TaiNung 71; TN71) extracts using 3 different solvents are characterized. Some progress is realized in creating an economic value for rice bran that has long been considered an agricultural waste. Various solvent extracts reveal the presence of phenolic compounds, oryzanols, tocopherols, and tocotrienols. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) can extract more oryzanols (1.55 ± 0.20 g/kg rice bran). Meanwhile, the methanol (MeOH) extract possesses a higher yield in total contents (15.42 ± 1.41 g/kg bran), which includes phenolic compounds (2.69 ± 0.29 g gallic acid equivalent/kg bran), tocopherols (251 ± 26 mg/kg bran) and tocotrienols (111 ± 4 mg/kg bran). The MeOH extract exhibits more effective antioxidant activity against various oxidative systems in vitro, including the inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (33.89%), scavenging of DPPH radicals (83.88%), and reducing power. It is found that the yield, total content in phenolic compounds and tocols of the extracts increase with increasing Synder's polarity value and viscosity, which can then be used as the indices in isolation of the desired rice bran phytochemicals extracts.

  10. RESULTS OF ANALYTICAL SAMPLE CROSSCHECKS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT EXTRACTION SAMPLES ISOPAR L CONCENTRATION AND PH

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2011-09-29

    As part of the implementation process for the Next Generation Cesium Extraction Solvent (NGCS), SRNL and F/H Lab performed a series of analytical cross-checks to ensure that the components in the NGCS solvent system do not constitute an undue analytical challenge. For measurement of entrained Isopar{reg_sign} L in aqueous solutions, both labs performed similarly with results more reliable at higher concentrations (near 50 mg/L). Low bias occurred in both labs, as seen previously for comparable blind studies for the baseline solvent system. SRNL recommends consideration to use of Teflon{trademark} caps on all sample containers used for this purpose. For pH measurements, the labs showed reasonable agreement but considerable positive bias for dilute boric acid solutions. SRNL recommends consideration of using an alternate analytical method for qualification of boric acid concentrations.

  11. Conventional, ultrasound-assisted, and accelerated-solvent extractions of anthocyanins from purple sweet potatoes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhan; Qu, Ziqian; Lan, Yu; Zhao, Shujuan; Ma, Xiaohua; Wan, Qiang; Jing, Pu; Li, Pingfan

    2016-04-15

    Purple sweet potatoes (PSPs) are rich in anthocyanins. In this study, we investigated the extraction efficiency of anthocyanins from PSPs using conventional extraction (CE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), and accelerated-solvent extraction (ASE). Additionally, the effects of these extraction methods on antioxidant activity and anthocyanin composition of PSP extracts were evaluated. In order of decreasing extraction efficiency, the extraction methods were ASE>UAE>CE for anthocyanins (218-244 mg/100 g DW) and CE>UAE>ASE for total phenolics (631-955 mg/100 g DW) and flavonoids (28-40 mg/100 g DW). Antioxidant activities of PSP extracts were CE≈UAE>ASE for ORAC (766-1091 mg TE/100 g DW) and ASE>CE≈UAE for FRAP (1299-1705 mg TE/100 g DW). Twelve anthocyanins were identified. ASE extracts contained more diacyl anthocyanins and less nonacyl and monoacyl anthocyanins than CE and ASE extracts (P<0.05). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Calixarene crown ether solvent composition and use thereof for extraction of cesium from alkaline waste solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Presley, Derek J.

    2001-01-01

    A solvent composition and corresponding method for extracting cesium (Cs) from aqueous neutral and alkaline solutions containing Cs and perhaps other competing metal ions is described. The method entails contacting an aqueous Cs-containing solution with a solvent consisting of a specific class of lipophilic calix[4]arene-crown ether extractants dissolved in a hydrocarbon-based diluent containing a specific class of alkyl-aromatic ether alcohols as modifiers. The cesium values are subsequently recovered from the extractant, and the solvent subsequently recycled, by contacting the Cs-containing organic solution with an aqueous stripping solution. This combined extraction and stripping method is especially useful as a process for removal of the radionuclide cesium-137 from highly alkaline waste solutions which are also very concentrated in sodium and potassium. No pre-treatment of the waste solution is necessary, and the cesium can be recovered using a safe and inexpensive stripping process using water, dilute (millimolar) acid solutions, or dilute (millimolar) salt solutions. An important application for this invention would be treatment of alkaline nuclear tank wastes. Alternatively, the invention could be applied to decontamination of acidic reprocessing wastes containing cesium-137.

  13. Hydrophobic solvent induced phase transition extraction to extract drugs from plasma for high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guozhu; Zhou, Naiyuan; Zhang, Mingshan; Li, Shengjun; Tian, Qingqing; Chen, Jitao; Chen, Bo; Wu, Yongning; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2010-01-15

    Novel sample preparation approaches for HPLC bioanalysis based on the phenomenon that acetonitrile can be separated from water by adding salts or cooling at subzero temperatures have been reported. These two methods are superior to conventional liquid-liquid extraction since the separated acetonitrile phase can be directly injected to the RP-LC system. However, the salting-out method suffers from a potential problem that the remained salt in the acetonitrile phase may harm the MS detector, while the subzero-temperature method is troublesome to operate. Here, we have reported a similar phase separation phenomenon that the acetonitrile aqueous mixture can be separated by adding a hydrophobic solvent; and capitalising on this phase transition phenomenon, we have proposed an alternative approach, named solvent induced phase transition extraction (SIPTE), to extract drug from plasma for HPLC-MS analysis. The proposed SIPTE method is much simpler and avoids contaminating the MS detector. Three structurally diverse drugs were selected as test compounds to design the SIPTE method and to validate the efficiency of this method. The four goals of plasma sample pretreatment for HPLC-MS analysis, i.e. removal of proteins, removal of other low-molecular interferences, preconcentration of the analytes of interest, and matching the sample solvent with the HPLC-MS system, can be rapidly performed in a very simple step by using the SIPTE method. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The enhancement of antioxidant compounds extracted from Thymus vulgaris using enzymes and the effect of extracting solvent.

    PubMed

    Cerda, Alejandra; Martínez, María Eugenia; Soto, Carmen; Poirrier, Paola; Perez-Correa, Jose R; Vergara-Salinas, Jose R; Zúñiga, María Elvira

    2013-08-15

    We evaluate the total phenolic compounds (TPC) content and the antioxidant activity (AA) of extracts obtained from ground fresh thyme (FT) and depleted thyme (DT), a by-product of the process of essential oil extraction. In addition, enzymatic treatments were evaluated to improve the extraction yields of polyphenolic compounds from thyme. Extractions were performed using several solvents as methanol, ethanol, and water. Enzymes were applied prior to extraction or during the extraction process. The best results were obtained using a mixture of methanol and water, resulting in 2790 and 220 mg Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L of TPC for FT and DT, respectively. A similar result was observed for AA. With regard to enzymatic treatment, application of Grindamyl CA 150 enzyme as a pre-treatment resulted in the production of an extract from DT with 614 mg TE (trolox equivalent)/L of AA, 70% more than the control, and an AA of 621 mg TE/L (74% more than the control sample) was obtained using Grindamyl CA 150 during the extraction process. These results suggest that enzymatic treatment is an interesting alternative for producing antioxidant extracts from DT.

  15. Effect of solvent addition sequence on lycopene extraction efficiency from membrane neutralized caustic peeled tomato waste.

    PubMed

    Phinney, David M; Frelka, John C; Cooperstone, Jessica L; Schwartz, Steven J; Heldman, Dennis R

    2017-01-15

    Lycopene is a high value nutraceutical and its isolation from waste streams is often desirable to maximize profits. This research investigated solvent addition order and composition on lycopene extraction efficiency from a commercial tomato waste stream (pH 12.5, solids ∼5%) that was neutralized using membrane filtration. Constant volume dilution (CVD) was used to desalinate the caustic salt to neutralize the waste. Acetone, ethanol and hexane were used as direct or blended additions. Extraction efficiency was defined as the amount of lycopene extracted divided by the total lycopene in the sample. The CVD operation reduced the active alkali of the waste from 0.66 to <0.01M and the moisture content of the pulp increased from 93% to 97% (wet basis), showing the removal of caustic salts from the waste. Extraction efficiency varied from 32.5% to 94.5%. This study demonstrates a lab scale feasibility to extract lycopene efficiently from tomato processing byproducts.

  16. Solvent-extraction methods of isolating, purifying, and separating the transplutonium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, V.M.; Filimonov, V.T.; Fillippov, E.A.; Laskorin, B.N.; Myasoedev, B.F.; Yakshin, V.V.

    1986-09-01

    The effects of HNO/sub 3/ concentration on the extraction of Am, Cm, and Eu by 0.5 mole/liter solutions in toluene of DTPMDP, HBTA, and TBP for Am, Eu and Cm are shown. The rare-earth concentrations may be 0.1-0.2 mole/liter in many solutions from which TPE must be extracted. A comparison of monofunctional phosphorus-bearing reagents with bifunctional ones containing various substituents shows that phosphine oxides of DOIAPO type are the most suitable for extracting TPE from acid solutions. It is shown that solvent-extraction processes can also be used in the final operations for isolating the TPE. Extracts of TPE in alpha-branched macromolecular carboxylic acids (VIK-1) can be used in the final operations to produce oxide films uniformly and firmly attached to surfaces.

  17. Enrichment of copper and recycling of cyanide from copper-cyanide waste by solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Teng-yue; Liu, Kui-ren; Han, Qing; Xu, Bin-shi

    2016-11-01

    The enrichment of copper from copper-cyanide wastewater by solvent extraction was investigated using a quaternary ammonium salt as an extractant. The influences of important parameters, e.g., organic-phase components, aqueous pH values, temperature, inorganic anion impurities, CN/Cu molar ratio, and stripping reagents, were examined systematically, and the optimal conditions were determined. The results indicated that copper was effectively concentrated from low-concentration solutions using Aliquat 336 and that the extraction efficiency increased linearly with increasing temperature. The aqueous pH value and concentrations of inorganic anion impurities only weakly affected the extraction process when varied in appropriate ranges. The CN/Cu molar ratio affected the extraction efficiency by changing the distribution of copper-cyanide complexes. The difference in gold leaching efficiency between using raffinate and fresh water was negligible.

  18. Review Article: The Effects of Radiation Chemistry on Solvent Extraction 3: A Review of Actinide and Lanthanide Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher; Giuseppe Modolo; Stephen P. Mezyk

    2009-12-01

    The partitioning of the long-lived ?-emitters and the high-yield fission products from dissolved nuclear fuel is a key component of processes envisioned for the safe recycling of nuclear fuel and the disposition of high-level waste. These future processes will likely be based on aqueous solvent extraction technologies for light water reactor fuel and consist of four main components for the sequential separation of uranium, fission products, group trivalent actinides and lanthanides, and then trivalent actinides from lanthanides. Since the solvent systems will be in contact with highly radioactive solutions, they must be robust toward radiolytic degradation in an irradiated mixed organic, aqueous acidic environment. Therefore, an understanding of their radiation chemistry is important to the design of a practical system. In the first paper in this series we reviewed the radiation chemistry of irradiated aqueous nitric acid and the tributyl phosphate ligand for uranium extraction in the first step of these extractions. In the second, we reviewed the radiation chemistry of the ligands proposed for use in the extraction of cesium and strontium fission products. Here, we review the radiation chemistry of the ligands that might be used in the third step in the series of separations, for the group extraction of the lanthanides and actinides. This includes traditional organophosphorous reagents such as CMPO and HDEHP, as well as novel reagents such as the amides and diamides currently being investigated.

  19. Highly efficient extraction of anthocyanins from grape skin using deep eutectic solvents as green and tunable media.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyung Min; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Yan; Heo, Seong Rok; Han, Se Young; Yoo, Da Eun; Lee, Jeongmi

    2015-12-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were investigated as tunable, environmentally benign, yet superior extraction media to enhance the extraction of anthocyanins from grape skin, which is usually discarded as waste. Ten DESs containing choline chloride as hydrogen bond acceptor combined with different hydrogen bond donors were screened for high extraction efficiencies based on the anthocyanin extraction yields. As a result, citric acid, D-(+)-maltose, and fructose were selected as the effective DES components, and the newly designed DES, CM-6 that is composed of citric acid and D-(+)-maltose at 4:1 molar ratio, exhibited significantly higher levels of anthocyanin extraction yields than conventional extraction solvents such as 80% aqueous methanol. The final extraction method was established based on the ultrasound-assisted extraction under conditions optimized using response surface methodology. Its extraction yields were double or even higher than those of conventional methods that are time-consuming and use volatile organic solvents. Our method is truly a green method for anthocyanin extraction with great extraction efficiency using a minimal amount of time and solvent. Moreover, this study suggested that grape skin, the by-products of grape juice processing, could serve as a valuable source for safe, natural colorants or antioxidants by use of the eco-friendly extraction solvent, CM-6.

  20. Recommended Guanidine Suppressor for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Duncan, Nathan C; Ensor, Dale; Hill, Talon G; Lee, Denise L; Roach, Benjamin D; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Williams, Neil J

    2013-01-01

    The guanidine recommended for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side is N,N ,N -tris(3,7-dimethyloctyl)guanidine (TiDG). Systematic testing has shown that it is significantly more lipophilic than the previously recommended guanidine DCiTG, the active extractant in the commercial guanidine product LIX -79, while not otherwise changing the solvent performance. Previous testing indicated that the extent of partitioning of the DCiTG suppressor to the aqueous strip solution is significantly greater than expected, potentially leading to rapid depletion of the suppressor from the solvent and unwanted organic concentrations in process effluents. Five candidate guanidines were tested as potential replacements for DCiTG. The tests included batch extraction with simulated waste and flowsheet solutions, third-phase formation, emulsion formation, and partition ratios of the guanidine between the solvent and aqueous strip solution. Preliminary results of a thermal stability test of the TiDG solvent at one month duration indicated performance approximately equivalent to DCiTG. Two of the guanidines proved adequate in all respects, and the choice of TiDG was deemed slightly preferable vs the next best guanidine BiTABG.

  1. Extraction of phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil by deep eutectic solvents (DESs).

    PubMed

    García, Aránzazu; Rodríguez-Juan, Elisa; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Rios, José Julian; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan

    2016-04-15

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are "green" solvents, applied in this study for the extraction of phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil (VOO). Different combinations of DES consisting of choline chloride (ChCl) in various mixing ratios with sugars, alcohols, organic acids, and urea, as well as a mixture of three sugars were used. The yields of the DES extractions were compared with those from conventional 80% (v/v) methanol/water. DES showed a good solubility of phenolic compounds with different polarities. The two most abundant secoiridoid derivatives in olive oil, oleacein and oleocanthal, extracted with ChCl/xylitol and ChCl/1,2-propanediol showed an increase of 20-33% and 67.9-68.3% with respect to conventional extraction, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first time that phenolic compounds have been extracted from VOO oil using DES. Our results suggest that DES offers an efficient, safe, sustainable, and cost effective alternative to methanol for extraction of bioactive compounds from VOO.

  2. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Maximillan Leite; Magalhães, Chaiana Froés; da Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos; de Assis Santos, Daniel; Brasileiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Peres, Rodrigo Loreto; Andrade, Anderson Assunção

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis. PMID:24688522

  3. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maximillan Leite; Magalhães, Chaiana Froés; da Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos; de Assis Santos, Daniel; Brasileiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Peres, Rodrigo Loreto; Andrade, Anderson Assunção

    2013-12-01

    The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  4. Evaluation of the efficiency of extraction of PAHs from diesel particulate matter with pressurized solvents.

    PubMed

    Turrio-Baldassarri, Luigi; Battistelli, Chiara Laura; Iamiceli, Anna Laura

    2003-02-01

    Pressurized Fluid Extraction (PFE) was evaluated for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-derivatives from diesel particulate matter. Extraction conditions were set up by performing several tests in which temperature, solvent strength, pressure, and static time were gradually increased. The results obtained on a laboratory test material made of a "lean" (low content of soluble fraction) Diesel particulate matter indicate that very severe conditions were needed in order to obtain better recoveries of the higher molecular weight molecules. Moreover, extraction efficiency seems to be influenced by the amount of soluble matter in the particulate, so that a "lean" particulate appears more difficult to extract. Recoveries of the deuterated standards of certain PAHs (i.e. indeno[1,2,3- cd]pyrene) were incomplete even with the toughest conditions tested. Experiments carried out on a certified material (SRM 1650 from NIST) also indicate that PFE can perform a better extraction of some of the PAHs than the method used for certification, but still incomplete. Comparison of results obtained on the SRM with different extraction techniques suggests that the composition of the extract varies considerably with the extraction technique and conditions. It is relevant to notice that recent Diesel engines produce leaner particulate: for future materials more drastic extraction conditions will be required.

  5. ICPSEF: a user's manual for the computer mathematical model of the ICPP purex solvent extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Bendixsen, C L

    1982-11-01

    A computer-based mathematical program, ICPSEF, was developed for the first-cycle extraction system at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). At the ICPP, spent nuclear fuels are processed to recover unfissioned uranium. The uranium is recovered from aqueous solutions in a pulse column, solvent extraction system using tributyl phosphate (TBP) solvent (purex process). A previously developed SEPHIS-MOD4 computer program was added to and modified to provide a model for the ICPP system. Major modifications included addition of: (1) partial theoretical stages to permit more accurate modeling of ICPP columns, (2) modeling ammonium hydroxide neutralization of nitric acid in a scrubbing column, and (3) equilibrium data for 5 to 10 vol % TBP. The model was verified by comparison with actual operating data. Detailed instructions for using the ICPSEF model and sample results of the model are included.

  6. Surface area generation and droplet size control in solvent extraction systems utilizing high intensity electric fields

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy C.; Wham, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    A method and system for solvent extraction where droplets are shattered by a high intensity electric field. These shattered droplets form a plurality of smaller droplets which have a greater combined surface area than the original droplet. Dispersion, coalescence and phase separation are accomplished in one vessel through the use of the single pulsing high intensity electric field. Electric field conditions are chosen so that simultaneous dispersion and coalescence are taking place in the emulsion formed in the electric field. The electric field creates a large amount of interfacial surface area for solvent extraction when the droplet is disintegrated and is capable of controlling droplet size and thus droplet stability. These operations take place in the presence of a counter current flow of the continuous phase.

  7. Solvent extraction of methane from simulated geopressured-geothermal fluids: sub-pilot test results

    SciTech Connect

    Quong, R.; Otsuki, H.H.; Locke, F.E.

    1982-01-14

    The extraction of methane dissolved in 15 wt % sodium chloride solution at 150/sup 0/C and 1000 psi has been demonstrated using n-hexadecane as the solvent in a sub-pilot scale extraction column operated in a continuous, countercurrent flow mode. Greater than 90% recovery of methane was obtained with solvent/brine mass flow ratios in the range of .040 to .045. The height of an ideal stage in this experimental Elgin-type spray column is estimated to be 1.5 ft. Application of this process on actual geopressured fluids is technically feasible, and when combined with direct drive injection disposal is economically attractive. Design and operation of a methane saturated-brine supply system to provide simulated geopressured fluid continuously at 150/sup 0/C and 1000 psi are also described.

  8. Evaluation of different solvent extraction methods for removing actinides from high acid waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbro, S.L.; Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L. ); Rogers, J. )

    1991-01-01

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility, anion exchange is used to recover plutonium from nitric acid solutions. Although this approach recovers >99%, trace amounts of plutonium and other actinides remain the effluent and require additional processing. Currently, a ferric hydroxide carrier precipitation is used to remove the trace actinides and the resulting sludge is cemented. Because it costs approximately $10,000 per drum for disposal, we are developing an additional polishing step so that the effluent actinide levels are reduced to below 100 nCi/g. This would allow the resulting waste sludge to disposed as low-level waste at approximately $200 per drum. We are investigating various solvent extraction techniques for removing actinides. The most promising are chelating resins and membrane-based liquid-liquid solvent extraction. This report details some of our preliminary results. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-08

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Madhavi Nallani-Chakravartula; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-27

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  11. Comparison of Methanol and Tetraglyme as Extraction Solvents for Determination of Volatile Organics in Soil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    determining volatile organics in soil can be classified into thefollowing groups: 1. Static or dynamic headspace analysis 2. Solvent extraction-direct...methods based on the dynamic headspace method whereby the volatiles are stripped from a soil/water slurry using a conventional purge-and-trap instrument...651. Brazell, R.S. and MP. Maskarinec (1981) Dynamic headspace analysis of solid waste materials. Journal of High Resolution Chromatography and

  12. Characterization of molybdenum interfacial crud in a uranium mill that employs tertiary-amine solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.; McDowell, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    In the present work, samples of a molybdenum-caused green gummy interfacial crud from an operating western US uranium mill have been physically and chemically examined. Formaton of cruds of this description has been a long-standing problem in the use of tertiary amine solvent extraction for the recovery of uranium from low-grade ores (Amex Process). The crud is essentially an organic-continuous dispersion containing about 10 wt % aqueous droplets and about 37 wt % greenish-yellow crystalline solids suspended in kerosene-amine process solvent. The greenish-yellow crystals were found to be a previously unknown double salt of tertiary amine molybdophosphate with three tertiary amine chlorides having the empirical formula (R/sub 3/NH)/sub 3/(PMo/sub 12/O/sub 40/).3(R/sub 3/NH)Cl. To confirm the identification of the compound, a pure trioctylamine (TOA) analog was synthesized. In laboratory extraction experiments, it was demonstrated that organic-soluble amine molydophosphate forms slowly upon contact of TOA solvent with dilute sulfuric acid solutions containing low concentrations of molybdate and phosphate. If the organic solutions of amine molybdophosphate were then contacted with aqueous NaCl solutions, a greenish-yellow precipitate of (TOAH)/sub 3/(PMo/sub 12/O/sub 40/).3(TOAH)Cl formed at the interface. The proposed mechanism for the formation of the crud under process conditions involves build up of molybdenum in the solvent, followed by reaction with extracted phosphate to give dissolved amine molybdophosphate. The amine molybdophosphate then co-crystallizes with amine chloride, formed during the stripping cycle, to give the insoluble double salt, which precipitates as a layer of small particles at the interface. The proposed solution to the problem is the use of branched-chain, instead of straight-chain, tertiary amine extractants under the expectation that branching would increase the solubility of the double salt. 2 figures, 5 tables.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-08-11

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the facility modifications for continuous hydrotreating, as well as developing improved protocols for producing synthetic pitches.

  14. Antibacterial and antioxidant properties of various solvents extracts of Abutilon theophrasti Medic. leaves.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chunlian; Yang, Caixia; Zhang, Dexian; Han, Limei; Liu, Yaochuan; Guo, Wenjie; Fan, Ruiming; Liu, Mingchun

    2017-05-01

    This paper described the extraction procedure of six extracts from Abutilon theophrasti Medic. leaves and evaluated antioxidant and antibacterial activity of different extracts by hydroxyl radical, DPPH radical scavenging, broth micro-dilution and agar-well diffusion methods. The six extracts were prepared by the two extraction procedures: (I) water was the extraction solvent; (II) 90% alcohol extract was extracted by petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol in turn. Extract yields were 7.34%, 7.31%, 0.45%, 0.12%, 2.70% and 5.68% for extract I to VI. It was revealed that the various extracts had effective antibacterial activity against four test strains from Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Streptococcus (ATCC 49619), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Salmonella (ATCC 01303); meanwhile, the six extracts demonstrated potent antioxidant activity, achieved by hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical scavenging assay. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for the bacterial species ranged from 2.21 to 539.46 mg/ml, diameter of inhibition zone ranged from 2.08 to 15.05mm. The scavenging •OH and DPPH• rates were 62.37% to 81.86% with the concentration 0.06 to 1.89mg/ml and 37.80% to 81.23% with the concentration 1.07 to 35.52mg/ml. According to the results, these extracts have antioxidant and antibacterial activity. In view of all the facts collectively, the six extracts will become natural and nontoxic antioxidant and antibacterial agent, and be applied in food and pharmaceutical industries for the prevention or treatment caused by microorganisms and free radicals.

  15. Coupling a Transient Solvent Extraction Module with the Separations and Safeguards Performance Model

    SciTech Connect

    de Almeida, Valmor F; Birdwell Jr, Joseph F; DePaoli, David W; Gauld, Ian C

    2009-10-01

    A past difficulty in safeguards design for reprocessing plants is that no code existed for analysis and evaluation of the design. A number of codes have been developed in the past, but many are dated, and no single code is able to cover all aspects of materials accountancy, process monitoring, and diversion scenario analysis. The purpose of this work was to integrate a transient solvent extraction simulation module developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the SSPM Separations and Safeguards Performance Model, developed at Sandia National Laboratory, as a first step toward creating a more versatile design and evaluation tool. The SSPM was designed for materials accountancy and process monitoring analyses, but previous versions of the code have included limited detail on the chemical processes, including chemical separations. The transient solvent extraction model is based on the ORNL SEPHIS code approach to consider solute build up in a bank of contactors in the PUREX process. Combined, these capabilities yield a much more robust transient separations and safeguards model for evaluating safeguards system design. This coupling and the initial results are presented. In addition, some observations toward further enhancement of separations and safeguards modeling based on this effort are provided, including: items to be addressed in integrating legacy codes, additional improvements needed for a fully functional solvent extraction module, and recommendations for future integration of other chemical process modules.

  16. Effect of Ethanol/Water Solvents on Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Beijing Propolis Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chunli; Wu, Zhengshuang; Wang, Ziyan; Zhang, Hongcheng

    2015-01-01

    Propolis is a natural substance known to be beneficial for human health and used as a folk medicine in many parts of the world. In this study, phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of Beijing propolis extracted by different ethanol/water solvents were analyzed. Our results reveal that phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of propolis extracts were significantly dependent on the concentration of ethanol/water solvents. Totally, 29 phenolic compounds were identified: 12 phenolic acids, 13 flavonoids, and 4 phenolic acid esters. In particular, 75 wt.% ethanol/water solvent may be the best for the highest extraction yield and the strongest antioxidant properties. Caffeic acid, benzyl caffeate, phenethyl caffeate, 5-methoxy pinobanksin, pinobanksin, pinocembrin, pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, chrysin, and galangin were the characteristic compounds of Beijing propolis, and these compounds seem to verify that Beijing propolis may be poplar-type propolis. In addition, the presence of high level of pinobanksin-3-O-acetate in Chinese propolis may be a novel finding, representing one-third of all phenolics. PMID:26351514

  17. Vanadium recovery from oil fly ash by leaching, precipitation and solvent extraction processes.

    PubMed

    Navarro, R; Guzman, J; Saucedo, I; Revilla, J; Guibal, E

    2007-01-01

    In order to reduce the environmental impact due to land disposal of oil fly ash from power plants and to valorize this waste material, the removal of vanadium was investigated using leaching processes (acidic and alkaline treatments), followed by a second step of metal recovery from leachates involving either solvent extraction or selective precipitation. Despite a lower leaching efficiency (compared to sulfuric acid), sodium hydroxide was selected for vanadium leaching since it is more selective for vanadium (versus other transition metals). Precipitation was preferred to solvent extraction for the second step in the treatment since: (a) it is more selective; enabling complete recovery of vanadate from the leachate in the form of pure ammonium vanadate; and (b) stripping of the loaded organic phase (in the solvent extraction process) was not efficient. Precipitation was performed in a two-step procedure: (a) aluminum was first precipitated at pH 8; (b) then ammonium chloride was added at pH 5 to bring about vanadium precipitation.

  18. Effect of Ethanol/Water Solvents on Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Beijing Propolis Extracts.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chunli; Wu, Zhengshuang; Wang, Ziyan; Zhang, Hongcheng

    2015-01-01

    Propolis is a natural substance known to be beneficial for human health and used as a folk medicine in many parts of the world. In this study, phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of Beijing propolis extracted by different ethanol/water solvents were analyzed. Our results reveal that phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of propolis extracts were significantly dependent on the concentration of ethanol/water solvents. Totally, 29 phenolic compounds were identified: 12 phenolic acids, 13 flavonoids, and 4 phenolic acid esters. In particular, 75 wt.% ethanol/water solvent may be the best for the highest extraction yield and the strongest antioxidant properties. Caffeic acid, benzyl caffeate, phenethyl caffeate, 5-methoxy pinobanksin, pinobanksin, pinocembrin, pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, chrysin, and galangin were the characteristic compounds of Beijing propolis, and these compounds seem to verify that Beijing propolis may be poplar-type propolis. In addition, the presence of high level of pinobanksin-3-O-acetate in Chinese propolis may be a novel finding, representing one-third of all phenolics.

  19. Inline Monitors for Measuring Cs-137 in the SRS Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, V

    2006-04-24

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, a portion of dissolved saltcake waste will be processed through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The MCU employs the CSSX process, a continuous process that uses a novel solvent to extract cesium from waste and concentrate it in dilute nitric acid. Of primary concern is Cs-137 which makes the solution highly radioactive. Since the MCU does not have the capacity to wait for sample results while continuing to operate, the Waste Acceptance Strategy is to perform inline analyses. Gamma-ray monitors are used to: measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) before entering the DSS Hold Tank; measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent (SE) before entering the SE Hold Tank; and verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process. Since this gamma ray monitoring system application is unique, specially designed shielding was developed and software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling the monitor hardware and communicating with the host Distributed Control System. This paper presents the design, fabrication and implementation of this monitoring system.

  20. Vanadium recovery from oil fly ash by leaching, precipitation and solvent extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, R.; Guzman, J.; Saucedo, I.; Guibal, E.

    2007-07-01

    In order to reduce the environmental impact due to land disposal of oil fly ash from power plants and to valorize this waste material, the removal of vanadium was investigated using leaching processes (acidic and alkaline treatments), followed by a second step of metal recovery from leachates involving either solvent extraction or selective precipitation. Despite a lower leaching efficiency (compared to sulfuric acid), sodium hydroxide was selected for vanadium leaching since it is more selective for vanadium (versus other transition metals). Precipitation was preferred to solvent extraction for the second step in the treatment since: (a) it is more selective; enabling complete recovery of vanadate from the leachate in the form of pure ammonium vanadate; and (b) stripping of the loaded organic phase (in the solvent extraction process) was not efficient. Precipitation was performed in a two-step procedure: (a) aluminum was first precipitated at pH 8; (b) then ammonium chloride was added at pH 5 to bring about vanadium precipitation.

  1. Impact of natural photosensitizer extraction solvent upon light absorbance in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaimi, Suriati; Mohamed Siddick, Siti Zubaidah; Ahmad Hambali, Nor Azura Malini; Retnasamy, Vithyacharan; Abdul Wahid, Mohamad Halim; Mohamad Shahimin, Mukhzeer

    2017-02-01

    Natural pigmentations of Ardisia, Bawang Sabrang, Harum Manis mango, Oxalis Triangularis and Rosella were used to study the general trend in performance of dyes as a photosensitizer in the application of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on optical light absorbance and photoelectrochemical characteristics. From the Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer with the recorded absorption measurements in the range between 400 nm to 800 nm, the dyes extracted from Rosella and Oxalis Triangularis in water solvent exhibited the conversion efficiency up to 0.68% and 0.67%, respectively. The light absorbance peak for dye extracted from Ardisia, Bawang Sabrang, Oxalis Triangularis and Rosella in water and ethanol solvent resulted in the range between 500 nm to 650 nm, while the Harum Manis mango resulted in the broader spectra in both water and ethanol solvent. The light absorbance spectra of each the dyes shows shifted wavelength spectrum when the extracted dye is adsorbed onto TiO2 film surface that might influenced the absorption of light by TiO2 particle in the visible region. The capabilities of the dyes to absorb light when bonded onto the TiO2 photoanode was found to be significant with the current-voltage conversion of the cell. The results demonstrates just the tip of the vastness of natural dyes' (native to tropical region) feasibility and applicability as a photosensitizer.

  2. Extraction efficiencies of heavy metals in hydroethanolic solvent from herbs of commerce.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, James; Greenfield, Jackie; Cumberford, Greg; Grant, Jim; Stewart, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination of herbal products is a major concern in the herbal and dietary supplement industry. Heavy metal exposure is well-documented to cause a variety of adverse human health effects and to negatively impact our environment. The Final Rule for Dietary Supplements for current good manufacturing practice regulation, 21 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Code of Federal Regulations 111, requires dietary supplement manufacturers to establish herbal purity limits for heavy metal contaminants considered safe for human consumption. Heavy metals may enter into the herbal manufacturing process via bioaccumulation from the harvest site or during postharvest processing phases, such as drying and/or liquid extraction. Traditionally, herbalists have used hydroethanolic solvents to extract herbal biomasses in pure food-grade ethanol-water combinations with solvent polarities capable of removing a wide range of hydrophilic and lipophilic constituents. The presented data demonstrate that hydroethanolic solvents are not completely efficient in the extraction of heavy metal accumulations from plant matrixes; and can act as an effective decontamination step in herbal product processing.

  3. Coupling a transient solvent extraction module with the separations and safeguards performance model.

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, David W.; Birdwell, Joseph F.; Gauld, Ian C.; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; de Almeida, Valmor F.

    2009-10-01

    A number of codes have been developed in the past for safeguards analysis, but many are dated, and no single code is able to cover all aspects of materials accountancy, process monitoring, and diversion scenario analysis. The purpose of this work was to integrate a transient solvent extraction simulation module developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM), developed at Sandia National Laboratory, as a first step toward creating a more versatile design and evaluation tool. The SSPM was designed for materials accountancy and process monitoring analyses, but previous versions of the code have included limited detail on the chemical processes, including chemical separations. The transient solvent extraction model is based on the ORNL SEPHIS code approach to consider solute build up in a bank of contactors in the PUREX process. Combined, these capabilities yield a more robust transient separations and safeguards model for evaluating safeguards system design. This coupling and initial results are presented. In addition, some observations toward further enhancement of separations and safeguards modeling based on this effort are provided, including: items to be addressed in integrating legacy codes, additional improvements needed for a fully functional solvent extraction module, and recommendations for future integration of other chemical process modules.

  4. Interfacing solvent extraction in the recovery of pyrochemical residues at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.; Holcomb, H.P.

    1986-10-07

    The traditional feedstock for plutonium recovery at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has been spent reactor fuel elements and irradiated targets. Feed sources have included both onsite reactors and a wide variety of domestic and foreign reactors. For the past few years, a growing and increasingly varied mix of unirradiated plutonium residues has been purified through SRP aqueous-based processes. Recently, plutonium residues generated in various chloride salt melts have become a significant offsite source of feed for SRP recovery operations. Impure plutonium metal and plutonium alloys have also been processed. A broader range of molten salt and other high temperature residues is anticipated for the future. The major advantage of solvent extraction for scrap purification is the versatility of the solvent extraction system which allows numerous contaminants to be removed by routine operations. Major concerns are nuclear safety control, corrosion of equipment, and control of releases to the environment. SRP's past, present, and future interfacing of solvent extraction in processing pyrochemical and other plutonium-containing residues is reviewed.

  5. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2006-07-11

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  6. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2002-01-01

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  7. Solvent extraction of uranium from leach solutions obtained in processing of Polish low-grade ores.

    PubMed

    Kiegiel, Katarzyna; Abramowska, Anna; Biełuszka, Paweł; Zakrzewska-Kołtuniewicz, Grażyna; Wołkowicz, Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    Solvent extraction of uranium from acidic and alkaline post-leaching liquors that were obtained by leaching of Polish ores is reported in this paper. The stripping of uranium from organic to aqueous phase was also studied. The synergistic mixture of 2-diethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and tri-n-butylphosphate (0.2 M:0.2 M) was found as a good extracting agent for uranium. Recovery of uranium was reached even 98 %. The effect of such parameters like uranium concentration and concentration of reagents used in the experiments was evaluated in advance by using a model uranium solutions.

  8. Effect of solvent and extraction methods on the bacterial mutagenicity of sidestream cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, R.S.; Tulis, J.J.; Claxton, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    The mutagenic activity of sidestream cigarette-smoke particles was estimated by testing sidestream cigarette-smoke particles that had been collected under controlled burning conditions in the laboratory. Two different extraction methods (Soxhlet and ultrasonic agitation) and 3 different solvents (dichloromethane, methanol, and acetone) were compared for their efficiencies in the extraction of compounds from sidestream cigarette-smoke particles that are mutagenic in the Ames test. The mutagenic activity of the sidestream smoke particles was estimated to be 15,000-20,000 revertants per cigarette in TA98 with metabolic activation and 12,000-17,000 revertants per cigarette in TA100 without metabolic activation.

  9. Antimicrobial potential of Ricinus communis leaf extracts in different solvents against pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains

    PubMed Central

    Naz, Rabia; Bano, Asghari

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the leaf extract in different solvents viz., methanol, ethanol and water extracts of the selected plant Ricinus communis. Methods Agar well diffusion method and agar tube dilution method were carried out to perform the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts. Results Methanol leaf extracts were found to be more active against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis: ATCC 6059 and Staphylococcus aureus: ATCC 6538) as well as Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa: ATCC 7221 and Klebsiella pneumoniae) than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts. Antifungal activity of methanol and aqueous leaf extracts were also carried out against selected fungal strains as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Methanolic as well as aqueous leaf extracts of Ricinus communis were effective in inhibiting the fungal growth. Conclusions The efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of Ricinus communis from the present investigation revealed that the methanol leaf extracts of the selected plant have significant potential to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts. PMID:23593573

  10. Antimicrobial potential of Ricinus communis leaf extracts in different solvents against pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains.

    PubMed

    Naz, Rabia; Bano, Asghari

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the leaf extract in different solvents viz., methanol, ethanol and water extracts of the selected plant Ricinus communis. Agar well diffusion method and agar tube dilution method were carried out to perform the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts. Methanol leaf extracts were found to be more active against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis: ATCC 6059 and Staphylococcus aureus: ATCC 6538) as well as Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa: ATCC 7221 and Klebsiella pneumoniae) than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts. Antifungal activity of methanol and aqueous leaf extracts were also carried out against selected fungal strains as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Methanolic as well as aqueous leaf extracts of Ricinus communis were effective in inhibiting the fungal growth. The efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of Ricinus communis from the present investigation revealed that the methanol leaf extracts of the selected plant have significant potential to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts.

  11. Study to find the best extraction solvent for use with guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) for high antioxidant efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jongkwon; Lee, Soojung; Elam, Marcus L; Johnson, Sarah A; Kang, Jonghoon; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2014-01-01

    The effects of guava leaves extracted using solvents of water, ethanol, methanol, and different concentrations of hydroethanolic solvents on phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and antioxidant properties have been investigated. The antioxidant capability was assessed based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical-scavenging abilities, reducing power, and nitric oxide-and nitrate-scavenging activities. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant ability of guava leaf extracts has a strong relationship with phenolic compound content rather than flavonoid content. Phenolic compound content of water extracted guava leaves was higher compared to pure ethanol and methanol extracts. However, phenolic compound content extracted using hydroethanolic solvent was higher than water, whereas 50% hydroethanolic was observed to be the most effective solvent showing high antioxidant ability. PMID:24804076

  12. Study to find the best extraction solvent for use with guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) for high antioxidant efficacy.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jongkwon; Lee, Soojung; Elam, Marcus L; Johnson, Sarah A; Kang, Jonghoon; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2014-03-01

    The effects of guava leaves extracted using solvents of water, ethanol, methanol, and different concentrations of hydroethanolic solvents on phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and antioxidant properties have been investigated. The antioxidant capability was assessed based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical-scavenging abilities, reducing power, and nitric oxide-and nitrate-scavenging activities. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant ability of guava leaf extracts has a strong relationship with phenolic compound content rather than flavonoid content. Phenolic compound content of water extracted guava leaves was higher compared to pure ethanol and methanol extracts. However, phenolic compound content extracted using hydroethanolic solvent was higher than water, whereas 50% hydroethanolic was observed to be the most effective solvent showing high antioxidant ability.

  13. Determination of volatile fatty acids in wastewater by solvent extraction and gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkhize, Nontando T.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Momba, Maggy

    The purpose of this study was to develop a liquid-liquid extraction method for the analysis of volatile fatty acids collected at the elutriation units of Unit 3, 4 and 5 at Johannesburg Water-Northern Works Wastewater Treatment Plant. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method employing dichloromethane (DCM) and methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) as extracting solvents was used during the quantitative analysis of volatile fatty acids namely acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric and heptanoic acid. The detection of the extracts was by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating under electron ionization mode (GC-EI-MS). The results showed that MTBE was a better extraction solvent than DCM as it gave much higher recoveries (>5 folds). On the other hand, the overall reactor performance for all the three units in the period when the samples were collected, which was measured by the ratio of propionic to acetic acid was good since the ratio o did not exceed 1.4 with the exception of the samples collected on the 3rd of October where the ratio exceeded 1.4 significantly. The concentration of acetic acid, another indicator for the reactor performance in all three units was way below 800 mg/L thus the digester balance was on par.

  14. Relationship between dieldrin uptake in cucumber and solvent-extractable residue in soil.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Mizuki; Seike, Nobuyasu; Murano, Hirotatsu; Otani, Takashi

    2009-12-09

    To prevent the distribution of cucumbers with dieldrin contamination exceeding the limit set by the Japanese Food Sanitation Law, the extraction solvent for dieldrin-contaminated soil was selected prior to cultivation so that the dieldrin residue level in cucumber could be predicted. The exhaustive extraction from soil could not explain the dieldrin uptake by cucumber plants. However, significant correlation (R(2) = 0.966, P < 0.001) was observed between dieldrin concentrations in cucumber and dieldrin concentrations extracted with 50% (v/v) methanol-water solution from soils. This was a result of the phytoavailability of dieldrin to the cucumber plants. The extractability of soil dieldrin with the methanol-water solution decreased as the organic carbon content in the soils increased. This suggested that a 50% (v/v) methanol-water solution is the optimal solution for predicting dieldrin concentrations in cucumbers by soil analysis.

  15. Use of solvent extraction technique in Brazilian uranium mills - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Gomiero, Luiz A.

    2008-07-01

    Solvent extraction has been applied to uranium-concentrate production in Brazil. At the first plant, uranium minerals associated with Zr and Mo were acid leached. Extraction was carried out by a mixture of Alamine 336 and Alamine 304, followed by selective Zr, U, and Mo stripping. At the currently operating facilities, a single U mineral is processed by acid heap leaching. Uranium is extracted with Alamine 336 and stripped with NaCl solution. As all water is recycled, chloride contents in the liquor have increased, causing detrimental effects to the extraction process. The current plant operating conditions and the improvements arisen from the research developed to solve these problems are presented. (authors)

  16. Hydrolysis of fluorotelomer compounds leading to fluorotelomer alcohol production during solvent extractions of soils.

    PubMed

    Dasu, Kavitha; Royer, Laurel A; Liu, Jinxia; Lee, Linda S

    2010-11-01

    The experimental approaches used in assessing the biodegradability of fluorotelomer-based surfactants and polymers have been under increasing scrutiny. These substances consist of an aliphatic or aromatic backbone linked to perfluoroethyl moieties by ester, ether or urethane linkages. These linkages when broken yield fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), which are known to biotransform to a suite of polyfluorinated metabolites including perfluorinated carboxylic acids. Quantifying FTOH levels with minimal experimental artifacts is imperative in properly assessing the biotransformation potential and half-lives of fluorotelomer-based materials. We examined the potential for solvent-enhanced ester hydrolysis of fluorotelomer compounds with different hydrocarbon backbones including a monoester stearate (FTS), a citrate tri-ester (TBC), an acrylate (FTA), and a 2,4-toluenediamine urethane (FTU) in acetonitrile, methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE), and ethyl acetate with live, autoclaved, 60Co-γ-irradiated, and heat-treated (400°C) soils. Substantial hydrolysis only occurred with FTS in live and γ-irradiated soils for which microbial enzymes are expected to be active, but not in autoclaved soils where enzymes are deactivated. Acetonitrile and methanol (solvents with higher dielectric constants) enhanced hydrolysis by an order of magnitude compared to less polar solvents such as MTBE and ethyl acetate. For example, in a 24-h extraction with acetonitrile of FTS-amended soil, >5wt.% FTOH was produced compared to <0.04wt.% in either ethyl acetate or MTBE. FTA hydrolysis was <0.7 wt.% after a 15-h extraction period and was not solvent dependent. No statistically significant solvent-enhanced hydrolysis was observed for TBC, FTA or FTU.

  17. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Extended Equilibrium Modeling of Cesium and Potassium Distribution Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.

    2002-06-13

    An extension of the model developed in FY01 for predicting equilibrium distribution ratios in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process is presented here. Motivation for extending the model arose from the need to predict extraction performance of the recently optimized solvent composition and the desire to include additional waste components. This model involves the extraction of cesium and potassium from different cesium, potassium, and sodium media over a large range of concentrations. Those different media include a large variety of anions such as nitrate, hydroxide, nitrite, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and carbonate. The model was defined based on several hundreds of experimental data points and predicted satisfactorily the cesium extraction from five different SRS waste simulants. This process model encompassed almost exclusively 1:1:1 metal:anion:ligand species. Fluoride, sulfate, and carbonate species were found to be very little extractable, and their main impact is reflected through their activity effects. This model gave a very good cesium and potassium extraction prediction from sodium salts, which is what is needed when trying to predict the behavior from actual waste. However, the extraction from potassium or cesium salts, and the extraction of sodium could be improved, and some additional effort was devoted to improve the thermodynamic rigor of the model. Toward this end, more detailed anion-specific models were developed based on the cesium, potassium, and sodium distribution ratios obtained with simple systems containing single anions, but it has not yet proven possible to combine those models to obtain better predictions than provided by the process model.

  18. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of potato peel, sugar beet pulp and sesame cake.

    PubMed

    Mohdaly, Adel A A; Sarhan, Mohamed A; Smetanska, Iryna; Mahmoud, Awad

    2010-01-30

    Growing interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on vegetable sources and screening of raw materials to identify new antioxidants. The food-processing industry generates substantial quantities of phenolic-rich by-products that could be valuable natural sources of antioxidants. In this study the antioxidant properties and total phenolic, flavonoid and flavonol contents of three industrial by-products, sugar beet pulp, sesame cake and potato peel, extracted with various solvents were examined. Since different antioxidant compounds have different mechanisms of action, several methods were used to assess the antioxidant efficacy of extracts. Among the six solvents tested, methanol gave the highest extract yield of potato peel and sugar beet pulp, while diethyl ether gave the highest extract yield of sesame cake. Methanol exhibited the highest extraction ability for phenolic compounds, with total phenolics amounting to 2.91, 1.79 and 0.81 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) dry weight in potato peel, sugar beet pulp and sesame cake extracts respectively, and also showed the strongest antioxidant capacity in the three assays used. All three methods proved that potato peel extract had the highest antioxidant activity owing to its high content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. On the basis of the results obtained, potato peel, sugar beet pulp and sesame cake extracts could serve as natural antioxidants owing to their significant antioxidant activity. Therefore they could be used as preservative ingredients in the food and/or pharmaceutical industries. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Determination of copper and zinc in soil extracts by atomic absorption spectrophometry using APDC-MIBK solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, S.S.; Martens, D.C.; Miller, W.P.

    1981-02-01

    This research was conducted to determine the usefulness of ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-methyl isobutyl ketone system (APDC-MIBK) solvent extraction for precleaning copper and zinc from 0.05 M CaCl/sub 2/ and 2.5 percent HOAc and for concentrating the metals from soil extracts with the two reagents. The system was effective in removng both Cu and Zn from 0.05 M CaCl/sub 2/, but only Cu from 2.5 percent HOAc without prior pH adjustment of the solutions. Simultaneous extraction of Cu and Zn from both 0.05 M CaCl/sub 2/ and 2.5 percent HOAc soil extracts was carried out by adjusting the pH of the soil extracts to 5.0. The undesirable effects due to iron-APDC precipitate formation in the 2.5 percent HOAc soil extracts were overcome by using a phase separation filter paper. The metal contents in soil extracts determined by this technique were in good agreement with those determined by an evaporation-concentration technique.

  20. Selection of optimum ionic liquid solvents for flavonoid and phenolic acids extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, N. R. A.; Yunus, N. A.; Mustaffa, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    Phytochemicals are important in improving human health with their functions as antioxidants, antimicrobials and anticancer agents. However, the quality of phytochemicals extract relies on the efficiency of extraction process. Ionic liquids (ILs) have become a research phenomenal as extraction solvent due to their unique properties such as unlimited range of ILs, non-volatile, strongly solvating and may become either polarity. In phytochemical extraction, the determination of the best solvent that can extract highest yield of solute (phytochemical) is very important. Therefore, this study is conducted to determine the best IL solvent to extract flavonoids and phenolic acids through a property prediction modeling approach. ILs were selected from the imidazolium-based anion for alkyl chains ranging from ethyl > octyl and cations consisting of Br, Cl, [PF6], BF4], [H2PO4], [SO4], [CF3SO3], [TF2N] and [HSO4]. This work are divided into several stages. In Stage 1, a Microsoft Excel-based database containing available solubility parameter values of phytochemicals and ILs including its prediction models and their parameters has been established. The database also includes available solubility data of phytochemicals in IL, and activity coefficient models, for solid-liquid phase equilibrium (SLE) calculations. In Stage 2, the solubility parameter values of the flavonoids (e.g. kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin) and phenolic acids (e.g. gallic acid and caffeic acid) are determined either directly from database or predicted using Stefanis and Marrero-Gani group contribution model for the phytochemicals. A cation-anion contribution model is used for IL. In Stage 3, the amount of phytochemicals extracted can be determined by using SLE relationship involving UNIFAC-IL model. For missing parameters (UNIFAC-IL), they are regressed using available solubility data. Finally, in Stage 4, the solvent candidates are ranked and five ILs, ([OMIM] [TF2N], [HeMIM] [TF2N], [HMIM] [TF2N

  1. A comparision of TRUEX and CMP solvent extraction processes for actinide removal from ICPP wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, R.S.; Brewer, K.N.; Garn, T.G.; Law, J.D.

    1996-04-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is currently engaged in development efforts for the decontamination of high-level radioactive wastes generated from decades of nuclear fuel reprocessing. These wastes include several types of calcine, generated by high temperature solidification of reprocessing raffinates. In addition to calcine, there are smaller quantities of secondary wastes from decontamination and solvent wash activities which are typically referred to as sodium-bearing waste (SBW). Solvent extraction technologies based on octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO, the active extractant in the TRUEX process) and dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (DHDECMP, the active extractant in the CMP process) are being evaluated for actinide partitioning from these waste streams. Calcines must first be dissolved in an appropriate acidic solution prior to treatment in solvent extraction based processes. The SBW is currently stored as an acidic solution and readily amenable to liquid extraction techniques. Development efforts to date have revolved around defining and refining baseline flowsheets with the TRUEX and CMP processes for each waste stream. Another objective of this work was to determine which of these technologies are best suited for the treatment of ICPP wastes. Laboratory batch contacts were performed to identify relevant chemistry and distribution coefficients. This information was then used to establish baseline flowsheet configuration with regard to chemistry. The laboratory data were used to model the behavior of the actinides and other constituents in the wastes in countercurrent, continuous processes based on centrifugal contactor technology. The laboratory data and modelling results form the basis for comparison of the two processes.

  2. In vitro antiplasmodial activities and synergistic combinations of differential solvent extracts of the polyherbal product, Nefang.

    PubMed

    Arrey Tarkang, Protus; Franzoi, Kathrin Diehl; Lee, Sukjun; Lee, Eunyoung; Vivarelli, Diego; Freitas-Junior, Lucio; Liuzzi, Michel; Nolé, Tsabang; Ayong, Lawrence S; Agbor, Gabriel A; Okalebo, Faith A; Guantai, Anastasia N

    2014-01-01

    Nefang, a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), is a potential therapy against P. falciparum malaria. In vitro antiplasmodial activities of its constituent solvent extracts were analyzed on CQ-sensitive (3D7) and multidrug resistant (Dd2) P. falciparum strains. The interactions involving the differential solvent extracts were further analyzed using a variable potency ratio drug combination approach. Effective concentration 50 (EC50) values were determined by nonlinear regression curve-fitting of the dose-response data and used in calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration 50 (FIC50) and combination indices (CI) for each pair. The derived EC50 values (3D7/Dd2, μ g/mL) are Nefang-96.96/55.08, MiB-65.33/34.58, MiL-82.56/40.04, Pg-47.02/25.79, Cp-1188/317.5, Cc-723.3/141, Cs-184.4/105.1, and Og-778.5/118.9. Synergism was obtained with MiB/Pg (CI = 0.351), MiL/Pg (0.358), MiB/Cs (0.366), MiL/Cs (0.482), Pg/Cs (0.483), and Cs/Og (0.414) when analyzed at equipotency ratios. Cytotoxicity testing of Nefang and the solvent extracts on two human cell lines (Hep G2 and U2OS) revealed no significant toxicity relative to their antiplasmodial activities (SI > 20). Taken together, our data confirm the antimalarial activities of Nefang and its constituent plant extracts and identified extract pairs with promising synergistic interactions for exploitation towards a rational phytotherapeutic and evidence-based antimalarial drug discovery.

  3. Solvent extraction of Sr2+ and Cs+ using protic amide-based ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng; Huang, Jing-Fang; Luo, Huimin

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen protic amide-based ionic liquids (ILs) derived from N,N-dimethylformamide and other protophilic amide derivatives with bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide or bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide as conjugated anions were synthesized in a one-pot reaction with very high yields. All sixteen of these protic ionic liquids (PILs) were characterized by NMR spectra, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. These protic amide-based ionic liquids were tested as extraction solvents using dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) as an extractant for separation of Sr2+ and Cs+ from aqueous solutions. The extraction efficiencies were studied in comparison with those derived from both imidazolium-based and ammonium-based IL extraction systems. Excellent extraction efficiencies were found for a number of these ILs using DCH18C6 as an extractant. Unlike findings for imidazolium-based and ammonium-based ILs, the observed enhancement trend for the extraction efficiency associated with our amide-based ILs is not directly correlated with the enhanced hydrophilicity of the corresponding cations of the PIL system. The effects on extraction efficiencies of solution acidities, anions, and alkyl chain lengths in the cations of ILs were also investigated and reported.

  4. Antioxidant activities of different solvent extracts of Piper retrofractum Vahl. using DPPH assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadid, Nurul; Hidayati, Dewi; Hartanti, Sylviana Rosyda; Arraniry, Byan Arasyi; Rachman, Rizka Yuanita; Wikanta, Wiwi

    2017-06-01

    Piper retrofractum Vahl., which belongs to the family Piperaceae, is geographically dispersed in tropical region including Indonesia. They are well-known spice possessing high medicinal properties. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity of P. retrofractum fruit, extracted with different solvents (methanol, ethyl acetate, n-hexane) using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. This research was carried out using different concentrations of methanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extracts, (0, 5, 15, 30, 45, 60 ppm). Ascorbic acid was also used as positive antioxidant control. The percentage of inhibition and IC50 were measured. The results showed that the DPPH free radicals were scavenged by all plant extracts in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, the IC50 values for DPPH radicals with methanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane extract of the P. retrofractum Vahl. were found to be 101.74; 66.12 and 57.66 ppm, respectively. Interestingly, the IC50 value of n-hexane extract (57.66 ppm) was lower than ascorbic acid (66.12 ppm), indicating that n-hexane extract was a more potent scavenger of free radicals than methanol and ethyl acetate extracts. Taken together, our results suggested that n-hexane extract of P. Retrofractum Vahl. might contain potential antioxidant compounds.

  5. Separation of Molybdenum from Acidic High-Phosphorus Tungsten Solution by Solvent Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongli; Zhao, Zhongwei

    2017-03-01

    A solvent-extraction process for deep separation of molybdenum from an acidic high-phosphate tungsten solution was developed using tributyl phosphate (TBP) as the extractant and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a complexing agent. The common aqueous complexes of tungsten and molybdenum (PMoxW12-xO40 3-, x = 0-12) are depolymerized to {PO4[Mo(O)2(O-O)]4}3- and {PO4[W(O)2(O-O)]4}3- by H2O2. The former can be preferentially extracted by TBP. The extractant concentration, phase contact time, H2O2 dosage, and H2SO4 concentration were optimized. By employing 80% by volume TBP, O:A = 1:1, 1.0 mol/L H2SO4, 1.0 mol/L H3PO4, a contact time of 2 min, and a molar ratio of H2O2/(W + Mo) equal to 1.5, 60.2% molybdenum was extracted in a single stage, while limiting tungsten co-extraction to 3.2%. An extraction isotherm indicated that the raffinate could be reduced to <0.1 g/L Mo in six stages of continuous counter-current extraction.

  6. Separation of Molybdenum from Acidic High-Phosphorus Tungsten Solution by Solvent Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongli; Zhao, Zhongwei

    2017-10-01

    A solvent-extraction process for deep separation of molybdenum from an acidic high-phosphate tungsten solution was developed using tributyl phosphate (TBP) as the extractant and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a complexing agent. The common aqueous complexes of tungsten and molybdenum (PMoxW12-xO40 3-, x = 0-12) are depolymerized to {PO4[Mo(O)2(O-O)]4}3- and {PO4[W(O)2(O-O)]4}3- by H2O2. The former can be preferentially extracted by TBP. The extractant concentration, phase contact time, H2O2 dosage, and H2SO4 concentration were optimized. By employing 80% by volume TBP, O:A = 1:1, 1.0 mol/L H2SO4, 1.0 mol/L H3PO4, a contact time of 2 min, and a molar ratio of H2O2/(W + Mo) equal to 1.5, 60.2% molybdenum was extracted in a single stage, while limiting tungsten co-extraction to 3.2%. An extraction isotherm indicated that the raffinate could be reduced to <0.1 g/L Mo in six stages of continuous counter-current extraction.

  7. Instrument for Solvent Extraction and Analysis (ISEE) of Organics from Regolith Simulant Using Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, Carolina; Hintze, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    ISEE is an instrument with the potential to perform extractions from regolith found on the surface of asteroids and planets, followed by characterization and quantitation of the extracts using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and chromatography (SFC). SFE is a developed technique proven to extract a wide range of organic compounds. SFC is similar to High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) but has the advantage of performing chiral separations without needing to derivatize the chiral compounds. CO2 will be the solvent for both stages as it is readily available in the Mars atmosphere. ISEE will capture CO2 from the environment, and use it for SFE and SFC. If successful, this would allow ISEE to perform analysis of organic compounds without using consumables. This paper will present results on a preliminary, proof-of-principle effort to use SFE and SFC to extract and analyze lunar regolith simulant spiked with organic compounds representing a range of organics that ISEE would expect to characterize. An optimization of variables for the extraction of the organics from the spiked regolith was successfully developed, using 138 bar pressure and 40 C temperature. The extraction flow rate was optimized at 2% SLPM with 30% methanol modifier. The extractions were successful with a value of 77.3+/- 0.9% of organics extracted. However, the recovery of organics after the extraction was very low with only 48.5+/-14.2%. Moreover, three columns were selected to analyze multiple samples at a time; two of them are Viridis HSS C18 SB and Torus DIOL, and the third column, specific for chiral separations, has not yet been selected yet.

  8. Complexation thermodynamics of diglycolamide with f-elements: solvent extraction and density functional theory analysis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sk M; Pahan, S; Bhattacharyya, A; Mohapatra, P K

    2016-04-14

    Comparative extraction of trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions (La(3+), Eu(3+), Lu(3+), Am(3+) and Cm(3+)) with tetra-n-octyl diglycolamide (TODGA) was studied and showed the trend: Lu(3+) > Eu(3+) > Cm(3+) > Am(3+) > La(3+). The structure, bonding, energetic and thermodynamic parameters of the trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions (La(3+), Eu(3+), Lu(3+), Am(3+) and Cm(3+)) with a tridentate ligand, tetra-methyl diglycolamide (TMDGA), are reported in the gas and solvent phases in order to understand their complexation and extraction behaviour. The calculations were performed using the generalized gradient approximated BP86 density functional and the hybrid B3LYP functional using SVP and TZVPP basis sets. The calculated structure obtained at the BP86/SVP level of optimization was found to be in close agreement with the X-ray data and also with the structure obtained at the B3LYP/TZVP level of theory. The free energy of extraction was found to be exergonic for the explicit monomer water model. From the solvent extraction experiment the order of extraction was observed as Lu(3+) > Eu(3+) > Cm(3+) > Am(3+) > La(3+), which was in line with the trends predicted based on the free energy changes in the gas phase calculations (ΔGgp). The Born-Haber thermodynamic cycle and the COSMO (conductor like screening model) solvation model were applied to calculate the free energy of extraction, ΔGext, of lanthanide and actinide ions in the aqueous-dodecane biphasic system and ΔGext, however, predicted different extraction trends. After dispersion correction (B3LYP-D3), the free energy of extraction for the metal ions was found to follow the order: Lu(3+) > Eu(3+) > La(3+), which was also observed in the solvent extraction experiments. Both COSMO and DCOSMO-RS models predict the same metal ion selectivity trend. Different bonding analyses indicate the electrostatic and less covalent nature of interactions between the ligands and the metal ions.

  9. Alternative bio-based solvents for extraction of fat and oils: solubility prediction, global yield, extraction kinetics, chemical composition and cost of manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Joffre, Florent; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop's byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil) and non-food (bio fuel) applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS) simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols). Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent.

  10. Alternative Bio-Based Solvents for Extraction of Fat and Oils: Solubility Prediction, Global Yield, Extraction Kinetics, Chemical Composition and Cost of Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Joffre, Florent; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop’s byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil) and non-food (bio fuel) applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS) simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols). Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent. PMID:25884332

  11. Sequential extraction of flavonoids and pectin from yellow passion fruit rind using pressurized solvent or ultrasound.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Caroline G; Rodrigues, Tigressa Hs; E Silva, Lorena Ma; Ribeiro, Paulo Rv; de Brito, Edy S

    2017-07-31

    Passion fruit rind (PFR) represents 90% of the total fruit weight and is wasted during juice processing. Passion fruit rind is known to contain flavonoids and pectin. An alternative use for this fruit juice industrial residue is to obtain these compounds. This study aimed to verify the influence of pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) or ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) of flavonoid and pectin in a sequential process. The PSE using ethanol at 60:40 (v/v) yielded a total polyphenol content of 4.67 g GAE kg(-1) PFR, orientin-7-O-glucoside (1.57 g kg(-1) PFR) and luteolin-6-C-glucoside (2.44 g kg(-1) PFR). Pectin yield was 165 g kg(-1) PFR, either in PSE or UAE. Pectin characterization indicates that the pectic structure has basically homogalacturonans and galacturonate followed by a galacturonic acid ester unit, with methylation degree of 70%. With this study it can be concluded that mixtures of alcohols with water favor the extraction of bioactive compounds of passion fruit peel. Both PSE and UAE were effective in sequentially extracting flavonoids and pectin. The preferred solvent is ethanol due to its lower toxicity. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. A stochastic model of NAPL composition dynamics and relative risk reduction due to solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, C.A.

    1996-12-31

    Many non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) of environmental concern are complex hydrocarbon mixtures of similar compounds with no single predominant species. Coal tar, a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), is a common subsurface contaminant at sites of former manufactured gas plants. The use of solvent extraction to enhance coal tar solubility is a remediation option that could be applied either in an in situ injection/recovery system or in an above-ground treatment operation. To describe and predict the efficacy of such a process requires an understanding of the effect of solvents on both the total NAPL dissolution behavior as well as the change in the NAPL composition. This paper presents a stochastic model in which the coal tar is represented as a continuous mixture, and statistical frequency functions are used to represent the distribution of equilibrium partition coefficients. Using mass balance and stochastic equilibrium relations, the model predicts not only the overall coal tar removal efficiency, but also a frequency distribution characterizing the composition of the residual coal tar, thus serving as a statistical representation of the solubility of the residual. This provides a convenient means of describing chemical heterogeneity of multicomponent NAPLs such as coal tar, as well as the effect of solvent extraction on this chemical heterogeneity. Data requirements for model parameterization are shown to be minimal. It is demonstrated that information about the coal tar composition and its dynamics is particularly important for risk assessment since NAPL phase composition drives aqueous phase concentrations, which ultimately determine exposure.

  13. Treatment of phenol in synthetic saline wastewater by solvent extraction and two-phase membrane biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Juang, Ruey-Shin; Huang, Wen-Ching; Hsu, Ya-Han

    2009-05-15

    Phenol in synthetic saline (100gL(-1) NaCl) and acidic (pH 3) wastewater was treated by a hybrid solvent extraction and two-phase membrane biodegradation process at 30 degrees C. Kerosene was adopted to be the organic solvent because it was biocompatible and had a suitable partition coefficient for phenol. Phenol in water was first extracted by kerosene in a batch stirred vessel and the loaded solvent was passed through the lumen of a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow-fiber membrane contactor; in the meantime, Pseudomonas putida BCRC 14365 in mineral salt medium was flowed across the shell, to which tetrasodium phyophosphate (1gL(-1)) was added as a dispersing agent. The effect of the initial phenol level in wastewater (110-2400mgL(-1)) on phenol removal and cell growth was experimentally studied. At a cell concentration of 0.023gL(-1), it was shown that the removal of phenol from saline wastewater was more efficient at a level of 2000mgL(-1) when 0.02-m(2) membrane module was used. The effects of bigger membrane module size (0.19m(2) area) and higher initial cell concentration (0.092-0.23gL(-1)) on the performance of such a hybrid process for the treatment of higher-level phenol in saline wastewater was also evaluated and discussed.

  14. Life Extension Program for the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit at Savannah River Site - 13179

    SciTech Connect

    Samadi, Azadeh

    2013-07-01

    Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) is currently used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) for removal of cesium from the high-level salt-wastes stored in underground tanks. Currently, the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the CSSX process are deployed in the (ARP)/Modular CSSX Unit (MCU), to process salt waste for permanent disposition. The CSSX technology utilizes a multi-component organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract cesium from alkaline salt waste. The original plant was permitted for a three year design life; however, given the successful operation of the plant, a life extension program was completed to continue operations. The program included detailed engineering analyses of the life-expectancy of passive and active components, resulting in component replacement and/or maintenance and monitoring program improvements. The program also included a review of the operations and resulted in a series of operational improvements. Since the improvements have been made, an accelerated processing rate has been demonstrated. In addition, plans for instituting a next-generation solvent are in place and will enhance the decontamination factors. (author)

  15. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FINAL REPORT: DEVELOPMENT OF OPTIMUM TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER LAGOONS PHASE II - SOLVENT EXTRACTION LABORATORY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Army surveyed innovative treatment techniques for restoration of hazardous waste lagoons and selected solvent extraction as cost-effective restoration for further study. This treatability study focuses on treatment of organic (explosive) contaminated lagoon sediments w...

  16. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FINAL REPORT: DEVELOPMENT OF OPTIMUM TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER LAGOONS PHASE II - SOLVENT EXTRACTION LABORATORY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Army surveyed innovative treatment techniques for restoration of hazardous waste lagoons and selected solvent extraction as cost-effective restoration for further study. This treatability study focuses on treatment of organic (explosive) contaminated lagoon sediments w...

  17. Evaluation of micro-colorimetric lipid determination method with samples prepared using sonication and accelerated solvent extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Billa, Nanditha; Hubin-Barrows, Dylan; Lahren, Tylor; Burkhard, Lawrence P

    2014-02-01

    Two common laboratory extraction techniques were evaluated for routine use with the micro-colorimetric lipid determination method developed by Van Handel (1985) [2] and recently validated for small samples by Inouye and Lotufo (2006) [1]. With the accelerated solvent extraction method using chloroform:methanol solvent and the colorimetric lipid determination method, 28 of 30 samples had significant proportional bias (α=1%, determined using standard additions) and 1 of 30 samples had significant constant bias (α=1%, determined using Youden Blank measurements). With sonic extraction, 0 of 6 samples had significant proportional bias (α=1%) and 1 of 6 samples had significant constant bias (α=1%). These demonstrate that the accelerated solvent extraction method with chloroform:methanol solvent system creates an interference with the colorimetric assay method, and without accounting for the bias in the analysis, inaccurate measurements would be obtained.

  18. Solvent extraction of organic acids from stillage for its re-use in ethanol production process.

    PubMed

    Castro, G A; Caicedo, L A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Sanchez, O F

    2010-06-01

    Stillage re-use in the fermentation stage in ethanol production is a technique used for the reduction of water and fermentation nutrients consumption. However, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth of the by-products and feed components that remains in stillage increases with re-use and reduces the number of possible recycles. Several methods such as ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and advanced oxidation processes have been used in stillage treatment prior its re-use in the fermentation stage. Nevertheless, few studies evaluating the effect of solvent extraction as a stillage treatment option have been performed. In this work, the inhibitory effect of serial stillage recycling over ethanol and biomass production was determined, using acetic acid as a monitoring compound during the fermentation and solvent extraction process. Raw palm oil methyl ester showed the highest acetic acid extraction from the aqueous phase, presenting a distribution coefficient of 3.10 for a 1:1 aqueous phase mixture:solvent ratio. Re-using stillage without treatment allowed up to three recycles with an ethanol production of 53.7 +/- 2.0 g L(-1), which was reduced 25% in the fifth recycle. Alternatively, treated stillage allowed up to five recycles with an ethanol final concentration of 54.7 +/- 1.3 g L(- 1). These results show that reduction of acetic acid concentration by an extraction process with raw palm oil methyl ester before re-using stillage improves the number of recycles without a major effect on ethanol production. The proposed process generates a palm oil methyl ester that contains organic acids, among other by-products, that could be used for product recovery and as an alternative fuel.

  19. Reagents regeneration flow injection analysis (RRFIA) for spectrophotometric determination of methamphetamine coupled with solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Norio; Fukui, Nobukazu; Sakai, Tadao

    2005-12-15

    Methamphetamine (MPA), being a stimulant drug, reacts with tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester (TBPEH) to form a red-violet ion associate, TBPEHMPA, in 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) at pH 9. The maximum absorption wavelength was at 570nm. After measuring, yellow TBPEH with DCE could be regenerated by mixing with the buffer solution at pH 3. The regenerated TBPEH/DCE could be reused as an ion association reagent and extracting solvent. In addition, the reagent regeneration could be performed by the on-line flow injection system and the cyclic flow injection analysis system was demonstrated for the determination of MPA without consumption of ion association reagent and organic solvent. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.5-3.5x10(-5)M with good repeatability. The sample throughput was 20h(-1).

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady B. Dadyburjor; Mark E. Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; J. Joshua Maybury; Alfred H. Stiller; Joseph M. Stoffa; John W. Zondlo

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, and porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, hydrotreatment of solvent was completed in preparation for pitch fabrication for graphite electrodes. Coal digestion has lagged but is expected to be complete by next quarter. Studies are reported on coal dissolution, pitch production, foam synthesis using physical blowing agents, and alternate coking techniques.

  1. A solvent extraction study of molybdenum chloride and molybdenum thiocyanate complexes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenland, L.P.; Lillie, E.G.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of reducing agents on molybdenum(VI) solutions in hydrochloric acid was studied by a solvent extraction technique to elucidate the composition of the colored molybdenum thiocyanate complex. Neither copper(I) chloride nor ascorbic acid have any effect on the extraction of MoO2Cl2; it is inferred that tin(II) chloride reduces Mo(VI) stepwise to a polynuclear Mo(V)??Mo(VI) complex and then to Mo(V). The colored thiocyanate complex produced by copper(I) and by ascorbic acid differs only slightly in extraction characteristics from the uncolored Mo(VI) complex. It is suggested that the color may be produced by an isomerization reaction of MoO2(SCN)2, and thus that the colored species may be a hexavalent rather than pentavalent molybdenum complex. ?? 1974.

  2. Solvent Extraction: Structure of the Liquid-Liquid Interface Containing a Diamide Ligand.

    PubMed

    Scoppola, Ernesto; Watkins, Erik B; Campbell, Richard A; Konovalov, Oleg; Girard, Luc; Dufrêche, Jean-Francois; Ferru, Geoffroy; Fragneto, Giovanna; Diat, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge of the (supra)molecular structure of an interface that contains amphiphilic ligand molecules is necessary for a full understanding of ion transfer during solvent extraction. Even if molecular dynamics already yield some insight in the molecular configurations in solution, hardly any experimental data giving access to distributions of both extractant molecules and ions at the liquid-liquid interface exist. Here, the combined application of X-ray and neutron reflectivity measurements represents a key milestone in the deduction of the interfacial structure and potential with respect to two different lipophilic ligands. Indeed, we show for the first time that hard trivalent cations can be repelled or attracted by the extractant-enriched interface according to the nature of the ligand.

  3. DRAMATIC IMPROVEMENTS IN CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF CESIUM THROUGH MORE EFFICIENT STRIPPING

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V; Engle, Nancy L; Gorbunova, Maryna; Haverlock, Tamara; Moyer, Bruce A; Ensor, Dale; Meadors, Viola M; Harmon, Ben; Bartsch, Richard A.; Surowiec, Malgorzata A.; Zhou, Hui

    2008-01-01

    Dramatic potential improvements to the chemistry of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process are presented as related to enhancement of cesium stripping. The current process for removing cesium from the alkaline high-level waste (HLW) at the USDOE Savannah River Site employs acidic scrub and strip stages and shows remarkable extraction and selectivity properties for cesium. It was determined that cesium stripping can be greatly improved with caustic or near-neutral stages using sodium hydroxide and boric acid as scrub and strip solutions, respectively. Improvements can also be achieved by appending pH-sensitive functional groups to the calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant. Addition of a proton-ionizable group to the calixarene frame leads to a dramatic "pH swing" of up to 6 orders of magnitude change in cesium distribution ratio.

  4. Towards an understanding of solvent extraction--electroanalytical characterization of chloride-leaching solutions.

    PubMed

    Paiva, A P; Abrantes, L M

    2001-08-01

    Solvent extraction has been employed to purify media simulating chloride-leaching solutions resulting from complex sulfide concentrate processing, and cyclic voltammetry (CV) has been chosen to characterize those hydrometallurgical aqueous phases. The possibilities of the CV technique were investigated by the evaluation of the adequacy of a specific organic extractant, triisobutylphosphine sulfide, aimed to efficiently and selectively extract silver from a complex chloride medium, additionally containing tenfold to 40-fold molar concentrations of iron, copper and lead. The influence of the oxidation state of the metallic ions present in the feed solution, namely Cu(II) and Cu(I), is considered. The possibilities of CV analysis for the characterization of stripping solutions are also illustrated.

  5. Solvent Extraction: Structure of the Liquid-Liquid Interface Containing a Diamide Ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Scoppola, Ernesto; Campbell, Richard A.; Konovalov, Oleg; Girard, Luc; Fragneto, Giovanna; Diat, Olivier

    2016-06-20

    Knowledge of the (supra)molecular structure of an interface that contains amphiphilic ligand molecules is necessary for a full understanding of ion transfer during solvent extraction. Even if molecular dynamics already yield some insight in the molecular configurations in solution, hardly any experimental data giving access to distributions of both extractant molecules and ions at the liquid–liquid interface exist. Here, the combined application of X-ray and neutron reflectivity measurements represents a key milestone in the deduction of the interfacial structure and potential with respect to two different lipophilic ligands. Indeed, we show for the first time that hard trivalent cations can be repelled or attracted by the extractant-enriched interface according to the nature of the ligand.

  6. Antioxidant components and properties of dry heat treated clove in different extraction solvents.

    PubMed

    Nikousaleh, Azadeh; Prakash, Jamuna

    2016-04-01

    The effects of heat treatment and extraction solvents (pure/aqueous acetone, ethanol, methanol) on antioxidant activity (AA) and components of clove (Syzygium aromaticum Linn) were studied. Clove was subjected to dry heat treatment (microwave and roasting) and the AA measured by free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), reducing power (RP), and phospho-molybdenum assay (TAA). Unheated samples served as controls. The antioxidant components estimated were total phenols, flavonoids and tannins. Using RP and FRSA, highest AA was observed in 80 % acetone extract of all samples (1.778-1448 and 84.5-86.0 %). TAA showed higher value in 80 % methanolic extract for all samples in the range 303.595-307.941 mmol ascorbic acid/g. Heated samples exhibited higher AA in all assays. Highest amount of phenols and flavonoids were extracted in 80 % acetone (4053-4064 mg/100 g) and 80 % methanol (11,271-11,370 mg/100 g) respectively. For tannins, maximum extraction was in 80 % acetone (control, 16441 mg/100 g), 80 % ethanol (microwave, 19,558 mg/100 g), and pure methanol (roasted, 15,823 mg/100 g). Total phenol and flavonoid contents were positively associated with AA determined using RP and FRSA. In conclusion, clove exhibited powerful AA in different extraction solvents which increased on dry heat treatments and correlated positively with antioxidant components. Hence, clove can be used as a natural antioxidant in food systems.

  7. Extraction of Tetra-oxo Anions into a Hydrophobic, Ionic Liquid-Based Solvent Without Concomitant Ion Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Stepinski, D.C.; Wishart, J.; Vandegrift, III, G.F.; Shkrob, I.A.; Kerr, K.; Dietz, M.L.; Qadah, D.T.D.; Garvey, S.L.

    2010-06-10

    Hydrophobic ionic liquids (IL) have the potential to simplify certain separations by serving as both an extraction solvent and an electrolyte for subsequent electrochemical reductions. While IL-based solvents are known to be efficient media for metal ion extraction, separations employing these solvents are frequently complicated by the loss of constituent IL ions to the aqueous phase, resulting in deteriorating performance. In this study, we have examined the extraction of pertechnetate and related tetra-oxo anions from aqueous solutions into IL-based solvents incorporating tetraalkylphosphonium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide and a crown ether. In contrast to various previously studied IL-based cation extraction systems, facile anion extraction without significant transfer of the IL ions to the aqueous phase has been observed. In addition, the solvents exhibit high distribution ratios (100-500 for pertechnetate), significant electrical conductivity (>100 {micro}S/cm), and a wide ({approx}4 V) electrochemical window. The results suggest that these solvents may provide the basis for improved approaches to the extraction and recovery of a variety of anions.

  8. Extraction of tetra-oxo anions into a hydrophobic, ionic liquid-based solvent without concomitant ion exchange.

    SciTech Connect

    Stepinski, D. C.; Vandegrift, G. F.; Shkrob, I. A.; Wishart, J. F.; Kerr, K.; Dietz, M. L.; Qadah, D. T. D.; Garvey, S. L.; BNL; Univ. of Wisconsin at Milwaukee

    2010-06-16

    Hydrophobic ionic liquids (IL) have the potential to simplify certain separations by serving as both an extraction solvent and an electrolyte for subsequent electrochemical reductions. While IL-based solvents are known to be efficient media for metal ion extraction, separations employing these solvents are frequently complicated by the loss of constituent IL ions to the aqueous phase, resulting in deteriorating performance. In this study, we have examined the extraction of pertechnetate and related tetra-oxo anions from aqueous solutions into IL-based solvents incorporating tetraalkylphosphonium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide and a crown ether. In contrast to various previously studied IL-based cation extraction systems, facile anion extraction without significant transfer of the IL ions to the aqueous phase has been observed. In addition, the solvents exhibit high distribution ratios (100-500 for pertechnetate), significant electrical conductivity (>100 ?S/cm), and a wide (4 V) electrochemical window. The results suggest that these solvents may provide the basis for improved approaches to the extraction and recovery of a variety of anions.

  9. Synergistic extraction and separation of Co(II)/Ni(II) by solvent extraction technique using TIOA/TOPO as carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okatan, Ahmet; Eyüpoǧlu, Volkan; Kumbasar, Recep Ali; Turgut, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    Cobalt and its compounds have wide range applications in some industrial and technological fields. These metals show excellent resistance to oxidation and corrosion under extreme conditions. However, these metals found together within metal ores in nature. This situation makes their separation difficult from each other. They have very similar physical and chemical properties making them very hard to be purified with using traditional separation pathways. Moreover, increasing supply-demand gap between them and decreasing valuable ores because of limited deposit in earth crust have been limited the sources of them. Under the light of this knowledge, one of the practical solutions should be produced to recycle cobalt and nickel from solid and liquid waste containing trace amounts of them. In this study, we investigated the selective and the synergistic cobalt extraction from acidic aqueous solutions by solvent extraction using tri-iso-octylamine (TIOA) and Tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) as carriers. The effective parameters on the extraction and the stripping of the cobalt were investigated, and optimum synergistic extraction and stripping conditions were identified. The cobalt extraction from aqueous Co/Ni solutions in various molar concentrations was examined in the optimum conditions to determine the synergism between TIOA and TOPO.

  10. Radiolytic Treatment of the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) Solvent and its Effect on the NGS Process

    DOE PAGES

    Roach, Benjamin D.; Williams, Neil J.; Duncan, Nathan C.; ...

    2014-12-01

    We show in this work that the solvent used in the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) process can withstand a radiation dose well in excess of the dose it would receive in multiple years of treating legacy salt waste at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site. The solvent was subjected to a maximum of 50 kGy of gamma radiation while in dynamic contact with each of the aqueous phases of the current NGS process, namely SRS−15 (a highly caustic waste simulant), sodium hydroxide scrub solution (0.025 M), and boric acid strip solution (0.01 M). Bench-top testing ofmore » irradiated solvent confirmed that irradiation has inconsequential impact on the extraction, scrubbing, and stripping performance of the solvent up to 13 times the estimated 0.73 kGy/y annual absorbed dose. Lastly, stripping performance is the most sensitive step to radiation, deteriorating more due to buildup of p-sec-butylphenol (SBP) and possibly other proton-ionizable products than to degradation of the guanidine suppressor, as shown by chemical analyses.« less

  11. Radiolytic Treatment of the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) Solvent and its Effect on the NGS Process

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Benjamin D.; Williams, Neil J.; Duncan, Nathan C.; Delmau, Lætitia H.; Lee, Denise L.; Birdwell, Joseph F.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2014-12-01

    We show in this work that the solvent used in the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) process can withstand a radiation dose well in excess of the dose it would receive in multiple years of treating legacy salt waste at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site. The solvent was subjected to a maximum of 50 kGy of gamma radiation while in dynamic contact with each of the aqueous phases of the current NGS process, namely SRS−15 (a highly caustic waste simulant), sodium hydroxide scrub solution (0.025 M), and boric acid strip solution (0.01 M). Bench-top testing of irradiated solvent confirmed that irradiation has inconsequential impact on the extraction, scrubbing, and stripping performance of the solvent up to 13 times the estimated 0.73 kGy/y annual absorbed dose. Lastly, stripping performance is the most sensitive step to radiation, deteriorating more due to buildup of p-sec-butylphenol (SBP) and possibly other proton-ionizable products than to degradation of the guanidine suppressor, as shown by chemical analyses.

  12. Effect of temperature and solvent composition on extraction of fumonisins B1 and B2 from corn products.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J F; Niedzwiadek, B; Scott, P M

    2000-01-01

    Fumonisins B1 and B2 were extracted from naturally contaminated corn products by using different extraction solvent compositions (methanol-water, acetonitrile-methanol-water, ethanol-water, and 100% water) and a range of temperatures from ambient to 150 degrees C. Ground samples of several corn products and 1 rice sample were mixed with an adsorbent material (Hydromatrix), and the fumonisins were extracted in 2 sequential 5 min static extractions at various temperatures. The combined extracts were cleaned up and analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after o-phthaldialdehyde-mercaptoethanol derivatization. The results showed a clear influence of temperature and solvent composition on recovery of fumonisins from some matrixes. With acetonitrile-methanol-water (1 + 1 + 2) the quantity of fumonisins extracted from naturally contaminated taco shells almost tripled in going from 23 degrees to 80 degrees C, and increased by another 30% when ethanol-water (3 + 7) was used as extraction solvent at 80 degrees C. Similar results were obtained with nacho chips. These effects were less pronounced with cornmeal, and small differences due to temperature and solvent composition were observed for corn flakes and rice. The ethanol-water extraction solvent combinations were specifically evaluated in an effort to use the cheapest, least toxic, and most environmentally friendly solvents for organic residue analysis. At 80 degrees C, ethanol-water combinations performed equally or better than methanol-water (8 + 2) or acetonitrile-methanol-water (1 + 1 + 2), combinations which are commonly used for fumonisin extractions. Even 100% water was successful for extracting fumonisins from the products, except for rice. However, increased amounts of water created technical problems and required an increased amount of Hydromatrix in the samples prior to extraction.

  13. METHOD FOR SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM URANIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Blaedel, W.J.; Walling, M.T. Jr.

    1960-08-23

    A process is given for separating from each other uranium, plutonium, and fission products in an aqueous nitric acid solution by the so-called Redox process. The plutonium is first oxidized to the hexavalent state, e.g., with a water-soluble dichromate or sodium bismuthate, preferably together with a holding oxidant such as potassium bromate. potassium permanganate, or an excess of the oxidizing agent. The solution is then contacted with a water-immiscible organic solvent, preferably hexone. whereby uranium and plutonium are extracted while the fission products remain in the aqueous solution. The separated organic phase is then contacted with an aqueous solution of a reducing agent, with or without a holding reductant (e.g., with a ferrous salt plus hydrazine or with ferrous sulfamate), whereby plutonium is reduced to the trivalent state and back- extracted into the aqueous solution. The uranium may finally be back-extracted from the organic solvent (e.g., with a 0.1 N nitric acid).

  14. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    DOE PAGES

    Samarasinghe, Nalin; Fernando, Sandun; Faulkner, William B.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage.more » Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.« less

  15. Removal of endotoxins from bacteriophage preparations by extraction with organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Szermer-Olearnik, Bożena; Boratyński, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin, pyrogen) constitutes a very troubling contaminant of crude phage lysates produced in Gram-negative bacteria. Toxicity of LPS depends on the strong innate immunity response including the cytokines. Therefore, its removal is important for bacteriophage applications. In this paper, we present a procedure for extractive removal of endotoxin from bacteriophage preparations with water immiscible solvents (1-octanol or 1-butanol). During extraction most of the phage lytic activity is retained in the aqueous phase, while endotoxin accumulates in the organic solvent. The levels of endotoxin (expressed as endotoxin units, EU) in the aqueous bacteriophage-containing fraction determined by limulus amebocyte lysate or EndoLISA assay were exceptionally low. While the initial endotoxin levels in the crude phage lysates ranged between 10(3) and 10(5) EU/ml the average level after organic extraction remaining in the aqueous fraction was 5.3 EU/ml. These values when related to phage titers decreased from 10(3)-10(5) EU/10(9) PFU (plaque forming units) down to an average of 2.8 EU/10(9) PFU. The purification procedure is scalable, efficient and applicable to all the bacteriophages tested: T4, HAP1 (E. coli) and F8 (P. aeruginosa).

  16. Extractive-transesterification of algal lipids under microwave irradiation with hexane as solvent.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar; Mondala, Andro; Holmes, William; Hernandez, Rafael

    2014-03-01

    This study describes the use of microwaves (MW) for enhanced extractive-transesterification of algal lipids from dry algal biomass (Chlorella sp.). Two different single-step extractive-transesterification methods under MW irradiation were evaluated: (1) with ethanol as solvent/reactant and sodium hydroxide catalyst; and (2) with ethanol as reactant and hexane as solvent (sodium hydroxide catalyst). Biodiesel (fatty-acid-ethyl-esters, FAEE) yields from these two methods were compared with the conventional Bligh and Dyer (BD) method which followed a two-step extraction-transesterification process. The maximum lipid yields for MW, MW with hexane and BD methods were 20.1%, 20.1%, and 13.9%, respectively; while the FAEE conversion of the algal lipids were 96.2%, 94.3%, and 78.1%, respectively. The algae-biomass:ethanol molar ratio of 1:250-500 and 2.0-2.5% catalyst with reaction times around 6min were determined as optimum conditions for both methods. This study confers that the single-step non-conventional methods can contribute to higher algal lipid and FAEE yields. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Remarkable solvent and extractable lignin effects on enzymatic digestibility of organosolv pretreated hardwood.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chenhuan; Tu, Maobing; Li, Mi; Yu, Shiyuan

    2014-03-01

    Low solvent concentration effect on substrate digestibility of ethanol organosolv pretreated sweetgum was examined. Surprisingly, lower ethanol concentration in organosolv pretreatments resulted in faster initial rates and higher 72h hydrolysis yields in pretreated substrates. A strong correlation (r(2)=0.96) between pretreatment combined severity factor and residual xylan/glucan ratio was observed. The residual xylan/glucan ratio was associated with the initial hydrolysis rate closely. Furthermore, it was found that preserving extractable lignin in the pretreated substrates could improve enzymatic hydrolysis yield by 33%. This has an important implication in reducing the pretreatment and enzyme cost, because the typical solvent washing after pretreatment could be eliminated and preserving extractable lignin could reduce enzyme loading. Finally, we observed that xylan removal by xylanase could improve the initial rate by 53% and increase the 72h hydrolysis yield by 21%. The extractable lignin precipitation on pretreated substrates increased the 72h hydrolysis yield by 10%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Removal of Endotoxins from Bacteriophage Preparations by Extraction with Organic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Szermer-Olearnik, Bożena; Boratyński, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin, pyrogen) constitutes a very troubling contaminant of crude phage lysates produced in Gram-negative bacteria. Toxicity of LPS depends on the strong innate immunity response including the cytokines. Therefore, its removal is important for bacteriophage applications. In this paper, we present a procedure for extractive removal of endotoxin from bacteriophage preparations with water immiscible solvents (1-octanol or 1-butanol). During extraction most of the phage lytic activity is retained in the aqueous phase, while endotoxin accumulates in the organic solvent. The levels of endotoxin (expressed as endotoxin units, EU) in the aqueous bacteriophage-containing fraction determined by limulus amebocyte lysate or EndoLISA assay were exceptionally low. While the initial endotoxin levels in the crude phage lysates ranged between 103 and 105 EU/ml the average level after organic extraction remaining in the aqueous fraction was 5.3 EU/ml. These values when related to phage titers decreased from 103-105 EU/109 PFU (plaque forming units) down to an average of 2.8 EU/109 PFU. The purification procedure is scalable, efficient and applicable to all the bacteriophages tested: T4, HAP1 (E. coli) and F8 (P. aeruginosa). PMID:25811193

  19. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Samarasinghe, Nalin; Fernando, Sandun; Faulkner, William B.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage. Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.

  20. Response surface methodology to optimise Accelerated Solvent Extraction of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves.

    PubMed

    Jentzer, Jean-Baptiste; Alignan, Marion; Vaca-Garcia, Carlos; Rigal, Luc; Vilarem, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Following the approval of steviol glycosides as a food additive in Europe in December 2011, large-scale stevia cultivation will have to be developed within the EU. Thus there is a need to increase the efficiency of stevia evaluation through germplasm enhancement and agronomic improvement programs. To address the need for faster and reproducible sample throughput, conditions for automated extraction of dried stevia leaves using Accelerated Solvent Extraction were optimised. A response surface methodology was used to investigate the influence of three factors: extraction temperature, static time and cycle number on the stevioside and rebaudioside A extraction yields. The model showed that all the factors had an individual influence on the yield. Optimum extraction conditions were set at 100 °C, 4 min and 1 cycle, which yielded 91.8% ± 3.4% of total extractable steviol glycosides analysed. An additional optimisation was achieved by reducing the grind size of the leaves giving a final yield of 100.8% ± 3.3%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of various solvent extracts from Impatiens balsamina L. stems.

    PubMed

    Su, Bu-Li; Zeng, Rong; Chen, Jin-Yin; Chen, Chu-Ying; Guo, Juan-Hua; Huang, Chang-Gan

    2012-06-01

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as well as the quantity of phenolic substances of Impatiens balsamina L. stem extracts obtained with various solvent were determined in this study. All of the extracts possessed moderate antioxidant potential in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and reducing power assays. Antimicrobial activity was estimated using the cylinder-plate and agar dilution methods against four bacterial and six fungal strains. The extracts showed good antimicrobial activity especially antifungal activity against all of the tested microorganisms. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 2.88 to 13.63 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dried extract and 0.98 to 7.87 mg quercetin equivalents/g dried extract, respectively. The results presented here indicate that the I. balsamina stem extracts have antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and are therefore a potential source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for the food and pharmaceutical industries. Our work indicates that the I. balsamina stem may be a good candidate as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. It can be applied in food industry for preservation. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Evaluation of various solvent systems for lipid extraction from wet microalgal biomass and its effects on primary metabolites of lipid-extracted biomass.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Faiz Ahmad; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Shriwastav, Amritanshu; Guldhe, Abhishek; Rawat, Ismail; Bux, Faizal

    2017-06-01

    Microalgae have tremendous potential to grow rapidly, synthesize, and accumulate lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The effects of solvent extraction of lipids on other metabolites such as proteins and carbohydrates in lipid-extracted algal (LEA) biomass are crucial aspects of algal biorefinery approach. An effective and economically feasible algae-based oil industry will depend on the selection of suitable solvent/s for lipid extraction, which has minimal effect on metabolites in lipid-extracted algae. In current study, six solvent systems were employed to extract lipids from dry and wet biomass of Scenedesmus obliquus. To explore the biorefinery concept, dichloromethane/methanol (2:1 v/v) was a suitable solvent for dry biomass; it gave 18.75% lipids (dry cell weight) in whole algal biomass, 32.79% proteins, and 24.73% carbohydrates in LEA biomass. In the case of wet biomass, in order to exploit all three metabolites, isopropanol/hexane (2:1 v/v) is an appropriate solvent system which gave 7.8% lipids (dry cell weight) in whole algal biomass, 20.97% proteins, and 22.87% carbohydrates in LEA biomass. Graphical abstract: Lipid extraction from wet microalgal biomass and biorefianry approach.

  3. Extraction of DNA by magnetic ionic liquids: tunable solvents for rapid and selective DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kevin D; Nacham, Omprakash; Yu, Honglian; Li, Tianhao; Yamsek, Melissa M; Ronning, Donald R; Anderson, Jared L

    2015-02-03

    DNA extraction represents a significant bottleneck in nucleic acid analysis. In this study, hydrophobic magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) were synthesized and employed as solvents for the rapid and efficient extraction of DNA from aqueous solution. The DNA-enriched microdroplets were manipulated by application of a magnetic field. The three MILs examined in this study exhibited unique DNA extraction capabilities when applied toward a variety of DNA samples and matrices. High extraction efficiencies were obtained for smaller single-stranded and double-stranded DNA using the benzyltrioctylammonium bromotrichloroferrate(III) ([(C8)3BnN(+)][FeCl3Br(-)]) MIL, while the dicationic 1,12-di(3-hexadecylbenzimidazolium)dodecane bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide bromotrichloroferrate(III) ([(C16BnIM)2C12(2+)][NTf2(-), FeCl3Br(-)]) MIL produced higher extraction efficiencies for larger DNA molecules. The MIL-based method was also employed for the extraction of DNA from a complex matrix containing albumin, revealing a competitive extraction behavior for the trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tetrachloroferrate(III) ([P6,6,6,14(+)][FeCl4(-)]) MIL in contrast to the [(C8)3BnN(+)][FeCl3Br(-)] MIL, which resulted in significantly less coextraction of albumin. The MIL-DNA method was employed for the extraction of plasmid DNA from bacterial cell lysate. DNA of sufficient quality and quantity for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was recovered from the MIL extraction phase, demonstrating the feasibility of MIL-based DNA sample preparation prior to downstream analysis.

  4. Impact of solvent extraction organics on adsorption and bioleaching of A. ferrooxidans and L. ferriphilum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hualong, Yu; Xiaorong, Liu

    2017-04-01

    Copper solvent extraction entrained and dissoluted organics (SX organics) in the raffinate during SX operation can contaminated chalcopyrite ores and influence bioleaching efficiency by raffinate recycling. The adsorption and bioleaching of A. ferrooxidans and L. ferriphilum with contaminated ores were investigated. The results showed that, A. ferrooxidans and L. ferriphilum cells could adsorb quickly on minerals, the adsorption rate on contaminated ores were 83% and 60%, respectively, larger than on uncontaminated ores. However, in the bioleaching by the two kinds of acid bacterias, contaminated ores presented a lower bioleaching efficiency.

  5. Blotting Assisted by Heating and Solvent Extraction for DESI-MS Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Elaine C.; Mirabelli, Mario F.; Perez, Consuelo J.; Ifa, Demian R.

    2013-06-01

    Imprints of potato sprout ( Solanum tuberosum L.), gingko leaves (Gingko biloba L. ) and strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. ) were successfully imaged by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) on TLC plates through blotting assisted by heating and/or solvent extraction. Ion images showing the distribution of significant compounds such as glycoalkaloid toxins in potato sprout, ginkgolic acids and flavonoids in ginkgo leaves, and sugars and anthocyanidin in strawberry were obtained. Practical implications of this work include analysis of a wide range of irregular or soft materials by different imprinting conditions without requiring the addition of matrices or use of specific kinds of surfaces.

  6. Final Report - Energy Reduction and Advanced Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, John; Fanselow, Dan; Abbas, Charles; Sammons, Rhea; Kinchin, Christopher

    2014-08-06

    3M and Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) collaborated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a novel membrane solvent extraction (MSE) process that can substantially reduce energy and water consumption in ethanol production, and accelerate the fermentation process. A cross-flow membrane module was developed, using porous membrane manufactured by 3M. A pilot process was developed that integrates fermentation, MSE and vacuum distillation. Extended experiments of 48-72 hours each were conducted to develop the process, verify its performance and begin establishing commercial viability.

  7. Analytical Methods Development in Support of the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction System

    SciTech Connect

    Maskarinec, M.P.

    2001-07-17

    The goal of the project reported herein was to develop and apply methods for the analysis of the major components of the solvent system used in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process (CSSX). These include the calix(4)arene, the modifier, 1-(2,2,3,3- tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol and tri-n-octylamine. In addition, it was an objective to develop methods that would allow visualization of other components under process conditions. These analyses would include quantitative laboratory methods for each of the components, quantitative analysis of expected breakdown products (4-see-butylphenol and di-n-octylamine), and qualitative investigations of possible additional breakdown products under a variety of process extremes. These methods would also provide a framework for process analysis should a pilot facility be developed. Two methods were implemented for sample preparation of aqueous phases. The first involves solid-phase extraction and produces quantitative recovery of the solvent components and degradation products from the various aqueous streams. This method can be automated and is suitable for use in radiation shielded facilities. The second is a variation of an established EPA liquid-liquid extraction procedure. This method is also quantitative and results in a final extract amenable to virtually any instrumental analysis. Two HPLC methods were developed for quantitative analysis. The first is a reverse-phase system with variable wavelength W detection. This method is excellent from a quantitative point of view. The second method is a size-exclusion method coupled with dual UV and evaporative light scattering detectors. This method is much faster than the reverse-phase method and allows for qualitative analysis of other components of the waste. For tri-n-octylamine and other degradation products, a GC method was developed and subsequently extended to GUMS. All methods have precision better than 5%. The combination of these methods

  8. Measurement of achievable plutonium decontamination from gallium by means of PUREX solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.D.; Campbell, D.O.; Felker, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the work described herein was to measure, experimentally, the achievable decontamination of plutonium from gallium by means of the PUREX solvent extraction process. Gallium is present in surplus weapons-grade plutonium (WG-Pu) at a concentration of approximately 1 wt%. Plans are to dispose of surplus WG-Pu by converting it to UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. However, the presence of high concentrations of gallium in plutonium is a potential corrosion problem during the process of MOX fuel irradiation. The batch experiments performed in this study were designed to measure the capability of the PUREX solvent extraction process to separate gallium from plutonium under idealized conditions. Radioactive tracing of the gallium with {sup 72}Ga enabled the accurate measurement of low concentrations of extractable gallium. The experiments approximated the proposed flowsheet for WG-Pu purification, except that only one stage was used for each process: extraction, scrubbing, and stripping. With realistic multistage countercurrent systems, much more efficient separations are generally obtained. The gallium decontamination factor (DF) obtained after one extraction stage was about 3 x 10{sup 6}. After one scrub stage, all gallium measurements were less than the detection limit, which corresponded to DFs >5 x 10{sup 6}. All these values exceed a 10{sup 6} DF needed to meet a hypothetical 10-ppb gallium impurity limit in MOX fuel. The results of this study showed no inherent or fundamental problem with regard to removing gallium from plutonium.

  9. Evaluation of Soxhlet extraction, accelerated solvent extraction and microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil and fish samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Yawei; Wang, Thanh; Li, Xiaomin; Ding, Lei; Jiang, Guibin

    2010-03-17

    Three commonly applied extraction techniques for persistent organic chemicals, Soxhlet extraction (SE), accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), were applied on soil and fish samples in order to evaluate their performances. For both PCBs and PBDEs, the two more recent developed techniques (ASE and MAE) were in general capable of producing comparable extraction results as the classical SE, and even higher extraction recoveries were obtained for some PCB congeners with large octanol-water partitioning coefficients (K(ow)). This relatively uniform extraction results from ASE and MAE indicated that elevated temperature and pressure are favorable to the efficient extraction of PCBs from the solid matrices. For PBDEs, difference between the results from MAE and ASE (or SE) suggests that the MAE extraction condition needs to be carefully optimized according to the characteristics of the matrix and analyte to avoid degradation of higher brominated BDE congeners and improve the extraction yields. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of biomass pre-treatment and solvent extraction on beta-carotene and lycopene recovery from Blakeslea trispora cells.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, E; Roukas, T; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, M

    2008-01-01

    The production of carotenoids from Blakeslea trispora cells in a synthetic medium has been reported, with the main products being beta-carotene, lycopene, and gamma-carotene. The effect of biomass pretreatment and solvent extraction on their selective recovery is reported here. Eight solvents of class II and III of the International Conference of Harmonization: ethanol, methanol, acetone, 2-propanol, pentane, hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether, and HPLC analysis were used for the evaluation of their selectivities towards the three main carotenoids with regard to different biomass pre-treatment. The average C(max) values (maximum concentration of caronoids in a specific solvent) were estimated to 16 mg/L with the five out of eight solvents investigated, whereas methanol, pentane, and hexane gave lower values of 10, 11, and 9 mg/L, respectively. The highest carotenoid yield was obtained in the case of wet biomass, where 44-56% is recovered with one solvent and three extractions and the rest is recovered only after subsequent treatment with acetone; thus, four extractions of 2.5 h are needed. Two extractions of 54 min are enough to recover carotenoids from dehydrated biomass, with the disadvantage of a high degree of degradation. Our results showed that, for maximum carotenoid recovery, ethyl ether, 2-propanol, and ethanol could be successfully used with biomass without prior treatment, whereas fractions enriched in beta-carotene or lycopene can be obtained by extraction with the proper solvent, thus avoiding degradation due to time-consuming processes.

  11. A combination of solvent extraction and freeze thaw for oil recovery from petroleum refinery wastewater treatment pond sludge.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Hou, Haobo

    2015-01-01

    A combination of solvent extraction and freeze thaw was examined for recovering oil from the high-moisture petroleum refinery wastewater treatment pond sludge. Five solvents including cyclohexane (CHX), dichloromethane (DCM), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), ethyl acetate (EA), and 2-propanol (2-Pro) were examined. It was found that these solvents except 2-Pro showed a promising oil recovery rate of about 40%, but the recycling of DCM solvent after oil extraction was quite low. Three solvents (CHX, MEK and EA) were then selected for examining the effect of freeze/thaw treatment on improving the quality of recovered oil. This treatment increased the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in recovered oil from about 40% to 60% for both MEK and EA extractions, but little effect was observed for CHX extraction. Although the solid residue after oil recovery had a significantly decreased TPH content, a high concentration of heavy metals was observed, indicating that this residue may require proper management. In general, the combination of solvent extraction with freeze/thaw is effective for high-moisture oily hazardous waste treatment.

  12. Two stage leaching of activated spent HDS catalyst and solvent extraction of aluminium using organo-phosphinic extractant, Cyanex 272.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung Ho; Mohapatra, Debasish; Nam, Chul-Woo

    2007-09-05

    Spent catalyst generally contains valuable metals like Mo, Co, Ni on a supporting material, such as gamma-A1(2)O(3). In the present study, a two stage alkali/acid leaching process is proposed to selectively target molybdenum and cobalt/nickel separately to facilitate the downstream processing. Prior to the leaching, the spent catalyst was calcined at 500 degrees C to remove C and S; and to convert metal sulphides to metal oxides. 98% Mo, 93% Co and 90% Ni was effectively recovered by this process. The sulphuric acid leaching of spent catalyst, previously treated by alkali solutions to remove Mo, yielded a solution rich in Ni, Co and Al. In order to recover Co and Ni, the Al impurity must be eliminated. The extraction and stripping of Al has been carried out using the organo-phosphinic extractant, Cyanex 272 diluted in carbon tetrachloride. Quantitative Al extraction efficiency was achieved with 1.0M Cyanex 272 in two stages at an aqueous:organic (A:O) phase ratio of 1:1 and equilibrium pH of 3.2. Complete stripping of Al from the loaded organic was carried out using 2M H(2)SO(4) at an A:O phase ratio of 1:1. The extraction reaction proceeded via the cation exchange mechanism and the extracted species was assumed to be AlA(3).3HA. The extraction of Al was carried out in the presence of various ions to ascertain the tolerance limit of individual ions. The regenerated solvent was successfully used for 8 cycles without any significant loss of extraction efficiency, suggesting that Cyanex 272 is extremely stable under present experimental conditions.

  13. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  14. Solvent Extraction of Copper: An Extractive Metallurgy Exercise for Undergraduate Teaching Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smellie, Iain A.; Forgan, Ross S.; Brodie, Claire; Gavine, Jack S.; Harris, Leanne; Houston, Daniel; Hoyland, Andrew D.; McCaughan, Rory P.; Miller, Andrew J.; Wilson, Liam; Woodhall, Fiona M.

    2016-01-01

    A multidisciplinary experiment for advanced undergraduate students has been developed in the context of extractive metallurgy. The experiment serves as a model of an important modern industrial process that combines aspects of organic/inorganic synthesis and analysis. Students are tasked to prepare a salicylaldoxime ligand and samples of the…

  15. Solvent Extraction of Copper: An Extractive Metallurgy Exercise for Undergraduate Teaching Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smellie, Iain A.; Forgan, Ross S.; Brodie, Claire; Gavine, Jack S.; Harris, Leanne; Houston, Daniel; Hoyland, Andrew D.; McCaughan, Rory P.; Miller, Andrew J.; Wilson, Liam; Woodhall, Fiona M.

    2016-01-01

    A multidisciplinary experiment for advanced undergraduate students has been developed in the context of extractive metallurgy. The experiment serves as a model of an important modern industrial process that combines aspects of organic/inorganic synthesis and analysis. Students are tasked to prepare a salicylaldoxime ligand and samples of the…

  16. Online determination of copper in aluminum alloy by microchip solvent extraction using isotope dilution ICP-MS method.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Tsuyoshi; Ohno, Masashi; Seki, Tatsuya; Chikama, Katsumi

    2009-09-15

    Isotope dilution mass spectroscopy (IDMS)/ICP-MS combined with microchip solvent extraction was successfully applied for the online determination of copper in an aluminum alloy. The microchip solvent extraction was developed for the separation of Cu from major element, and optimal pH range was wider than that of the batchwise extraction method. The dimensions of the microchip were 30 mm x 70 mm and that of micro-channel on the microchip was 180 microm wide and 40 microm deep. The copper complex with 8-hydroxyquinoline was extracted into o-xylene at pH 5.5 and back extracted with 0.1 mol l(-1) nitric acid at flow rate of 20 microl min(-1). The total extraction efficiency (water/organic solvent/nitric acid) was around 40%. IDMS/ICP-MS was coupled with solvent extraction for precise determination of Cu. The extraction and back-extraction on the microchip took about 1s and the total measurement time for the IDMS/ICP-MS was about 40s/sample. The blank value of this method was 0.1 ng g(-1). The proposed method was used for the determination of Cu in Al standard materials (JSAC 0121-C, The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry and 7074 Al alloy, Nippon Light Metal Co. Ltd.). The obtained analytical results are in good agreement with the certified values.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. A process has been developed which results in high quality binder pitch suitable for use in graphite electrodes or carbon anodes. A detailed description of the protocol is given by Clendenin. Briefly, aromatic heavy oils are hydro-treated under mild conditions in order to increase their ability to dissolve coal. An example of an aromatic heavy oil is Koppers Carbon Black Base (CBB) oil. CBB oil has been found to be an effective solvent and acceptably low cost (i.e., significantly below the market price for binder pitch, or about $280 per ton at the time of this writing). It is also possible to use solvents derived from hydrotreated coal and avoid reliance on coke oven recovery products completely if so desired.

  18. Extraction of lignins from aqueous-ionic liquid mixtures by organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Xin, Qin; Pfeiffer, Katie; Prausnitz, John M; Clark, Douglas S; Blanch, Harvey W

    2012-02-01

    The commercial development of ionic liquids (ILs) to pretreat lignocellulose by dissolution of whole biomass and cellulose precipitation by addition of water is hindered by the absence of an effective technique to recover the lignin content of the biomass from the IL. Three organic solvents [ethyl acetate, 1,4-dioxane, and tetrahydrofuran (THF)] were studied for their ability to form a two-liquid-phase system with water and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C(2)mim][OAc]), and for partitioning model lignins and lignin monomers between the two liquid phases. Ternary diagrams were obtained for three [C(2)mim][OAc]/organic solvent/water systems at 22°C. Partition coefficients were measured for several types of lignin in these three systems. Partition coefficients increase with rising water content in the IL phase, and depend strongly on the type of lignin and on the organic solvent. Partition coefficients rise as the pH of the ionic-liquid-rich phase falls. Small molecule model lignin monomer compounds (guaiacol, syringaldehyde) are also readily extracted from the IL/water system by THF. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of solvent fractions of Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Sonibare, Mubo A; Aremu, Oluwafunmilola T; Okorie, Patricia N

    2016-06-01

    Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less is used in folk medicine as a remedy for various diseases. The present study reports antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of solvent fractions of Vernonia cinerea. The antioxidant properties of solvent fractions of V. cinerea were evaluated by determining radicals scavenging activity, total flavonoid and phenolic contents measured with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) test, the aluminum chloride and the Folin-ciocalteau methods, respectively. Antimicrobial activities were tested against human pathogenic microorganisms using agar diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of each active extract were determined. The ethyl acetate fraction having the IC50 value of 6.50 µg/mL demonstrated comparable DPPH radical-scavenging activity with standard antioxidants, gallic acid and quercetin included in the study. All fractions displayed moderate antimicrobial potential against the tested pathogens with the zone of inhibition that ranged from 9.0 to 13.5 mm. The MIC (1.56 mg/mL) and MBC (3.13 mg/mL) indicated highest susceptibility of Candida albicans in all fractions. The results of this study showed that the solvent fractions of V. cinerea possess antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, hence justifying the folkloric use of the plant for the treatment of various ailments in traditional medicine.

  20. Maximizing Lipid Yield in Neochloris oleoabundans Algae Extraction by Stressing and Using Multiple Extraction Stages with N-Ethylbutylamine as Switchable Solvent

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The extraction yield of lipids from nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans was maximized by using multiple extraction stages and using stressed algae. Experimental parameters that affect the extraction were investigated. The study showed that with wet algae (at least) 18 h extraction time was required for maximum yield at room temperature and a solvent/feed ratio of 1:1 (w/w). For fresh water (FW), nonstressed, nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans, 13.1 wt % of lipid extraction yield (based on dry algae mass) was achieved, which could be improved to 61.3 wt % for FW stressed algae after four extractions, illustrating that a combination of stressing the algae and applying the solvent N-ethylbutylamine in multiple stages of extraction results in almost 5 times higher yield and is very promising for further development of energy-efficient lipid extraction technology targeting nonbroken wet microalgae. PMID:28781427

  1. Life extension program for the modular caustic side solvent extraction unit at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Samadi-Dezfouli, Azadeh

    2012-11-14

    Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) is currently used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) for removal of cesium from the high-level salt-wastes stored in underground tanks. At SRS, the CSSX process is deployed in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The CSSX technology utilizes a multi-component organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract cesium from alkaline salt waste. Coalescers and decanters process the Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS) and Strip Effluent (SE) streams to allow recovery and reuse of the organic solvent and to limit the quantity of solvent transferred to the downstream facilities. MCU is operated in series with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) which removes strontium and actinides from salt waste utilizing monosodium titanate. ARP and MCU were developed and implemented as interim salt processing until future processing technology, the CSSX-based Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), is operational. SWPF is slated to come on-line in October 2014. The three year design life of the ARP/MCU process, however, was reached in April 2011. Nevertheless, most of the individual process components are capable of operating longer. An evaluation determined ARP/MCU can operate until 2015 before major equipment failure is expected. The three year design life of the ARP/MCU Life Extension (ARP/MCU LE) program will bridge the gap between current ARP/MCU operations and the start of SWPF operation. The ARP/MCU LE program introduces no new technologies. As a portion of this program, a Next Generation Solvent (NGS) and corresponding flowsheet are being developed to provide a major performance enhancement at MCU. This paper discusses all the modifications performed in the facility to support the ARP/MCU Life Extension. It will also discuss the next generation chemistry, including NGS and new stripping chemistry, which will increase cesium removal efficiency in MCU. Possible implementation of the NGS chemistry in MCU

  2. Antioxidant activities of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed as affected by extraction solvent, prior dechlorophyllisation and drying methods.

    PubMed

    Benjakul, Soottawat; Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Maqsood, Sajid

    2014-11-01

    Extracts of brown lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed prepared using different extraction solvents were determined for antioxidative activities using different assays. The highest yield (3.4-4.0%) was obtained when water was used as an extraction solvent, compared with all ethanolic extracts used (1.2-2.0 %) (P < 0.05). Much lower chlorophyll content was found in the water extract. When hot water was used, the resulting extract contained lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P < 0.05). In general, 60-80 % ethanolic extracts had higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and metal chelating activity than water extracts (P < 0.05). When brown lead seed was dechlorophyllised prior to extraction, the water extract had slightly increased yield with lower chlorophyll content. Nevertheless, prior chlorophyll removal resulted in the increase in antioxidative activities but lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P < 0.05). Generally, phenolic compounds and mimosine were more released when water was used as the extraction solvent, while the lower amount of chlorophyll was extracted. Oven-drying exhibited the negative effect on antioxidative activities and mimosine content. The higher antioxidative activities with concomitant higher total phenolic and mimosine contents were found in water extract dried by freeze drying. Thus, extraction solvent, dechlorophyllisation and drying methods directly influenced the yield and antioxidative activity of lead seed extract.

  3. Structural study of trivalent lanthanide and actinide complexes formed upon solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Gannaz, Benoît; Antonio, Mark R; Chiarizia, Renato; Hill, Clément; Cote, Gérard

    2006-10-14

    The coordination of the trivalent 4f ions, Ln = Nd3+, Eu3+ and Yb3+, as well as the trivalent 5f ion, Am3+, with diamide and dialkylphosphoric acid extractants, individually and in combination, was studied by use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. These studies provide metrical information about the interatomic interactions between the f-ions (M3+) and the ligands, dihexylphosphoric acid (HDHP) and N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-dioctylhexylethoxymalonamide (DMDOHEMA), that is of practical relevance to the control of metal-ligand binding in liquid-liquid extraction systems for the separation of trivalent actinide ions, An3+, from trivalent lanthanide ions, Ln3+. Through systematic variations of extraction conditions and extractant combinations, we have found that the HDHP complexes with M3+ involve MO6 coordination and distant M...P interactions, whereas the DMDOHEMA complexes with M3+ involve MO8 coordination. The combination of the EXAFS results with ancillary extraction data and IR results facilitates descriptions of the stoichiometries and structures of the molecular species formed in solution upon liquid-liquid extraction and leads to a new understanding of the binary extraction systems in terms of the strength and selectivity of An3+- vs. Ln3+-ligand interactions. This fundamental structure information affords insight into solvent extraction processes that are of contemporary and practical importance in heavy element chemistry and to environmentally related issues arising from the separation and disposal of radioactive materials, particularly actinides and selected fission products, in the field of nuclear waste reprocessing research.

  4. Thallium extraction from hydrochloric acid media into a deep eutectic solvent using bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Kate; Volia, Merinda; Tereshatov, Evgeny; Folden, Charles, III

    2016-09-01

    The chemical properties of superheavy elements are relatively unknown due to their short half-lives and difficulty of production. In preparation for a future experiment to study the chemical properties of element 113, separation techniques have been used to study the behavior of its homologs, In and Tl. Previous work studied the liquid-liquid extraction of radioactive 201Tl (t1 / 2 = 3 . 04 d) from various concentrations of HCl into a mixture of menthol and lauric acid that formed a so-called deep eutectic solvent (DES). This work focuses on the effects of adding an extraction agent, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (HDEHP), to the DES on the efficiency of thallium extraction. The extraction of Tl(I) was generally poor, both with and without HDEHP added. In contrast, 111In (t1 / 2 = 2 . 80 d) showed significant extraction using HDEHP added to the same DES. This difference in behavior could potentially be exploited in a future experiment on the chemistry of element 113. National Science Foundation.

  5. Recovery of nitrotoluenes from wastewater by solvent extraction enhanced with salting-out effect.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Shing; Chiang, Wen-Chih; Wei, Kuo-Ming

    2007-08-17

    Toluene extraction enhanced by salting-out effect was employed to recover dinitrotoluene isomers and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (2,4,6-TNT) from wastewater of toluene nitration processes (e.g. dinitration or trinitration). The batchwise experiments were conducted to elucidate the influence of various operating variables on the extracting performance, including concentrations and species of inorganic salts, such as NaCl, KCl, Na(2)SO(4), K(2)SO(4) and MgSO4, acidity of wastewater, volume ratios of solvent versus wastewater and extraction stages in existence of inorganic salts. It was found that recovery of total organic compounds (TOC) was significantly elevated with increasing concentrations of salts, whose promoting effects were in the following order: NaCl>Na(2)SO(4)>K(2)SO(4)>MgSO4>KCl on the weight basis of wastewater. Besides, high volume ratio of toluene/wastewater (ca. 2.0) was more suitable for recovery of TOC from wastewater with or without addition of NaCl, of which extractable priority was as follows: 2,6-DNT>2,4-DNT>2,4,6-TNT. It is remarkable that TOC in wastewater would be almost completely recovered by sequential four stages toluene extraction, promoted continuously by salting-out effect.

  6. Bufferized solvent extraction and HPLC fluorometric detection method for sarafloxacin in pig and chicken muscles.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Heui; Na, Tae Woong; Mamun, Md Iqbal Rouf; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shin, Eun-Ho; Park, Jong-Hyouk; Shim, Jae-Han

    2011-03-01

    In this study, a method for the detection of sarafloxacin in pig and chicken muscles was developed using HPLC-FLD as a regulatory residue technique. Good extraction efficiency was achieved using a mixture of 1% orthophosphoric acid-0.2 m MgCl(2) in water and acetonitrile as an extraction solvent, and n-hexane partitioning and centrifugation for cleanup was used in the absence of dehydration. Specificity, linearity, detection and quantification limits, recovery, accuracy and precision were all validated, and all results were sufficient for the SARA regulatory residue method in pig and chicken muscles. The method developed and described herein was not only simple but also reliable, and was applied to market samples to determine their residue contents. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Sequential solvent extraction for forms of antimony in five selected coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, C.; Liu, Gaisheng; Kong, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, R.

    2008-01-01

    Abundance of antimony in bulk samples has been determined in five selected coals, three coals from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, and two from the Illinois Basin in the United States. The Sb abundance in these samples is in the range of 0.11-0.43 ??g/g. The forms of Sb in coals were studied by sequential solvent extraction. The six forms of Sb are water soluble, ion changeable, organic matter bound, carbonate bound, silicate bound, and sulfide bound. Results of sequential extraction show that silicate-bound Sb is the most abundant form in these coals. Silicate- plus sulfide-bound Sb accounts for more than half of the total Sb in all coals. Bituminous coals are higher in organic matterbound Sb than anthracite and natural coke, indicating that the Sb in the organic matter may be incorporated into silicate and sulfide minerals during metamorphism. ?? 2008 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  8. A solvent extraction technique for the isotopic measurement of dissolved copper in seawater.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Claire M; Ellwood, Michael J; Wille, Martin

    2013-05-02

    Stable copper (Cu) isotope geochemistry provides a new perspective for investigating and understanding Cu speciation and biogeochemical Cu cycling in seawater. In this work, sample preparation for isotopic analysis employed solvent-extraction with amino pyrollidine dithiocarbamate/diethyl dithiocarbamate (APDC/DDC), coupled with a nitric acid back-extraction, to concentrate Cu from seawater. This was followed by Cu-purification using anion-exchange. This straightforward technique is high yielding and fractionation free for Cu and allows precise measurement of the seawater Cu isotopic composition using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. A deep-sea profile measured in the oligotrophic north Tasman Sea shows fractionation in the Cu isotopic signature in the photic zone but is relatively homogenised at depth. A minima in the Cu isotopic profile correlates with the chlorophyll a maximum at the site. These results indicate that a range of processes are likely to fractionate stable Cu isotopes in seawater.

  9. Molecular characteristics of Kraft-AQ pulping lignin fractionated by sequential organic solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Xu, Feng; Sun, Runcang

    2010-08-16

    Kraft-AQ pulping lignin was sequentially fractionated by organic solvent extractions and the molecular properties of each fraction were characterized by chemical degradation, GPC, UV, FT-IR, (13)C-NMR and thermal analysis. The average molecular weight and polydispersity of each lignin fraction increased with its hydrogen-bonding capacity (Hildebrand solubility parameter). In addition, the ratio of the non-condensed guaiacyl/syringyl units and the content of β-O-4 linkages increased with the increment of the lignin fractions extracted successively with hexane, diethylether, methylene chloride, methanol, and dioxane. Furthermore, the presence of the condensation reaction products was contributed to the higher thermal stability of the larger molecules.

  10. Sequential solvent extraction for forms of antimony in five selected coals

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, C.C.; Liu, G.J.; Kang, Y.; Chou, C.L.; Wang, R.W.

    2008-03-15

    Abundance of antimony in bulk samples has been determined in five selected coals, three coals from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, and two from the Illinois Basin in the United States. The Sb abundance in these samples is in the range of 0.11-0.43 {mu} g/g. The forms of Sb in coals were studied by sequential solvent extraction. The six forms of Sb are water soluble, ion changeable, organic matter bound, carbonate bound, silicate bound, and sulfide bound. Results of sequential extraction show that silicate-bound Sb is the most abundant form in these coals. Silicate-plus sulfide-bound Sb accounts for more than half of the total Sb in all coals. Bituminous coals are higher in organic matter bound Sb than anthracite and natural coke, indicating that the Sb in the organic matter may be incorporated into silicate and sulfide minerals during metamorphism.

  11. Influence of extraction solvent on antioxidant capacity value of oleaster measured by ORAC method.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Gorkem; Sogut, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) is a widely used hydrogen atom transfer-based method which measures the antioxidant capacity of natural products. ORAC values of oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.), which was extracted with ethanol/acetone (7:3, v/v), ethanol/water (1:1, v/v) and methanol/water (1:1, v/v) in order to evaluate the effects of solvent type on antioxidant capacity, were examined. In general, results revealed that ethanol/water extracts exhibited better antioxidant capacity values. Furthermore, results obtained by using ORAC-eosin y (ORAC-EY), one of the widely used derivative of fluorescein (FL), as a fluorescent probe were compared with those obtained by using ORAC-FL. According to the results, ORAC-EY values were found to be compatible with ORAC-FL values.

  12. Nickel solvent extraction from cold purification filter cakes of Angouran mine concentrate using LIX984N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balesini, A. A.; Zakeri, A.; Razavizadeh, H.; Khani, A.

    2013-11-01

    Cold purification filter cakes generated in the hydrometallurgical processing of Angouran mine zinc concentrate commonly contain significant amounts of Zn, Cd, and Ni ions and thus are valuable resources for metal recovery. In this research, a nickel containing solution that was obtained from sulfuric acid leaching of the filter cake following cadmium and zinc removal was subjected to solvent extraction experiments using 10vol% LIX984N diluted in kerosene. Under optimum experimental conditions (pH 5.3, volume ratio of organic/aqueous (O:A) = 2:1, and contact time = 5 min), more than 97.1% of nickel was extracted. Nickel was stripped from the loaded organic by contacting with a 200 g/L sulfuric acid solution, from which 77.7% of nickel was recovered in a single contact at the optimum conditions (pH 1-1.5, O:A = 5:1, and contact time = 15 min).

  13. Molecular Characteristics of Kraft-AQ Pulping Lignin Fractionated by Sequential Organic Solvent Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun; Xu, Feng; Sun, Runcang

    2010-01-01

    Kraft-AQ pulping lignin was sequentially fractionated by organic solvent extractions and the molecular properties of each fraction were characterized by chemical degradation, GPC, UV, FT-IR, 13C-NMR and thermal analysis. The average molecular weight and polydispersity of each lignin fraction increased with its hydrogen-bonding capacity (Hildebrand solubility parameter). In addition, the ratio of the non-condensed guaiacyl/syringyl units and the content of β-O-4 linkages increased with the increment of the lignin fractions extracted successively with hexane, diethylether, methylene chloride, methanol, and dioxane. Furthermore, the presence of the condensation reaction products was contributed to the higher thermal stability of the larger molecules. PMID:21152286

  14. Factors influencing phase-disengagement rates in solvent-extraction systems employing tertiary amine extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.A.; McDowell, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effects of amine size and structure on phase disengagement. Nine commercial tertiary amines were tested together with four laboratory-quality amines for uranium extraction and both organic-continuous (OC) and aqueous-continuous (AC) phase disengagement under Amex-type conditions. Synthetic acid sulfate solutions with and without added colloidal silica and actual ore leach solutions were used as the aqueous phases. Phase disengagement results were correlated with amine size and branching and solution wetting behavior on a silicate (glass) surface. The results suggest that the performance of some Amex systems may be improved by using branched chain tertiary amine extractants of higher molecular weight than are now normally used.

  15. Compound Specific Extraction of Camptothecin from Nothapodytes nimmoniana and Piperine from Piper nigrum Using Accelerated Solvent Extractor.

    PubMed

    Upadhya, Vinayak; Pai, Sandeep R; Sharma, Ajay K; Hegde, Harsha V; Kholkute, Sanjiva D; Joshi, Rajesh K

    2014-01-01

    Effects of varying temperatures with constant pressure of solvent on extraction efficiency of two chemically different alkaloids were studied. Camptothecin (CPT) from stem of Nothapodytes nimmoniana (Grah.) Mabb. and piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum L. were extracted using Accelerated Solvent Extractor (ASE). Three cycles of extraction for a particular sample cell at a given temperature assured complete extraction. CPT and piperine were determined and quantified by using a simple and efficient UFLC-PDA (245 and 343 nm) method. Temperature increased efficiency of extraction to yield higher amount of CPT, whereas temperature had diminutive effect on yield of piperine. Maximum yield for CPT was achieved at 80°C and for piperine at 40°C. Thus, the study determines compound specific extraction of CPT from N. nimmoniana and piperine from P. nigrum using ASE method. The present study indicates the use of this method for simple, fast, and accurate extraction of the compound of interest.

  16. Caustic-Side Solvent-Extraction Modeling for Hanford Interim Pretreatment System

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.A.; Birdwell, J.F.; Delmau, L. H.; McFarlane, J.

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to examine the applicability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process for the removal of cesium from Hanford tank-waste supernatant solutions in support of the Hanford Interim Pretreatment System (IPS). The Hanford waste types are more challenging than those at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in that they contain significantly higher levels of potassium, the chief competing ion in the extraction of cesium. It was confirmed by use of the CSSX model that the higher levels of potassium depress the cesium distribution ratio (DCs), as validated by measurement of DCs values for four of eight specified Hanford waste-simulant compositions. The model predictions were good to an apparent standard error of ±11%. It is concluded from batch distribution experiments, physical-property measurements, equilibrium modeling, flowsheet calculations, and contactor sizing that the CSSX process as currently employed for cesium removal from alkaline salt waste at the SRS is capable of treating similar Hanford tank feeds. For the most challenging waste composition, 41 stages would be required to provide a cesium decontamination factor (DF) of 5000 and a concentration factor (CF) of 5. Commercial contacting equipment with rotor diameters of 10 in. for extraction and 5 in. for stripping should have the capacity to meet throughput requirements, but testing will be required to confirm that the needed efficiency and hydraulic performance are actually obtainable. Markedly improved flowsheet performance was calculated for a new solvent formulation employing the more soluble cesium extractant BEHBCalixC6 used with alternative scrub and strip solutions, respectively 0.1 M NaOH and 10 mM boric acid. The improved system can meet minimum requirements (DF = 5000 and CF = 5) with 17 stages or more ambitious goals (DF = 40,000 and CF = 15) with 19 stages. Potential benefits of further research and development are identified that would lead to reduced costs, greater

  17. A green analytical chemistry approach for lipid extraction: computation methods in the selection of green solvents as alternative to hexane.

    PubMed

    Cascant, Mari Merce; Breil, Cassandra; Garrigues, Salvador; de la Guardia, Miguel; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne Silvie; Chemat, Farid

    2017-04-07

    There is a great interest in finding alternatives and green solvents in extraction processes to replace petroleum based solvents. In order to investigate these possibilities, computational methods, as Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) and conductor-like screening model for real solvent (COSMO-RS), were used in this work to predict the solvation power of a series of solvents in salmon fish lipids. Additionally, experimental studies were used to evaluate the performance in lipids extraction using 2-methyltetrahydrofurane, cyclopentyl methyl ether, dimethyl carbonate, isopropanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, p-cymene and d-limonene compared with hexane. Lipid classes of extracts were obtained by using high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), whereas gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID) technique was employed to obtain fatty acid profiles. Some differences between theoretical and experimental results were observed, especially regarding the behavior of p-cymene and d-limonene, which separate from the predicted capability. Results obtained from HPTLC indicated that p-cymene and d-limonene extract triglycerides (TAGs) and diglycerides (DAGs) at levels of 73 and 19%, respectively, whereas the other studied extracts contain between 75 and 76% of TAGs and between 16 and 17% of DAGs. Fatty acid profiles, obtained by using GC-FID, indicated that saturated fatty acids (SFAs) between 19.5 and 19.9% of extracted oil, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in the range between 43.5 and 44.9%, and PUFAs between 31.2 and 34.6% were extracted. p-Cymene and limonene extracts contained lower percentages than the other studied solvents of some PUFAs due probably to the fact that these unsaturated fatty acids are more susceptible to oxidative degradation than MUFAs. Ethyl acetate has been found to be the best alternative solvent to hexane for the extraction of salmon oil lipids. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  18. Magnetic ionic liquids as non-conventional extraction solvents for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Rodríguez, María J; Nacham, Omprakash; Clark, Kevin D; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L; Ayala, Juan H; Afonso, Ana M

    2016-08-31

    This work describes the applicability of magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) in the analytical determination of a group of heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Three different MILs, namely, benzyltrioctylammonium bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL A), methoxybenzyltrioctylammonium bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL B), and 1,12-di(3-benzylbenzimidazolium) dodecane bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)]imide bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL C), were designed to exhibit hydrophobic properties, and their performance examined in a microextraction method for hydrophobic analytes. The magnet-assisted approach with these MILs was performed in combination with high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. The study of the extraction performance showed that MIL A was the most suitable solvent for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and under optimum conditions the fast extraction step required ∼20 μL of MIL A for 10 mL of aqueous sample, 24 mmol L(-1) NaOH, high ionic strength content of NaCl (25% (w/v)), 500 μL of acetone as dispersive solvent, and 5 min of vortex. The desorption step required the aid of an external magnetic field with a strong NdFeB magnet (the separation requires few seconds), two back-extraction steps for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons retained in the MIL droplet with n-hexane, evaporation and reconstitution with acetonitrile. The overall method presented limits of detection down to 5 ng L(-1), relative recoveries ranging from 91.5 to 119%, and inter-day reproducibility values (expressed as relative standard derivation) lower than 16.4% for a spiked level of 0.4 μg L(-1) (n = 9). The method was also applied for the analysis of real samples, including tap water, wastewater, and tea infusion.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; R. Michael Bergen; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; W. Morgan Summers; John W. Zondlo

    2006-05-12

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, coking and composite fabrication continued using coal-derived samples. These samples were tested in direct carbon fuel cells. Methodology was refined for determining the aromatic character of hydro treated liquid, based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Tests at GrafTech International showed that binder pitches produced using the WVU solvent extraction protocol can result in acceptable graphite electrodes for use in arc furnaces. These tests were made at the pilot scale.

  20. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, V

    2007-06-25

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU.'' The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Revision of this report is a deliverable in Technical Task Report SP-TTR-2006-00010, ''NaI Shield Box Testing.'' Gamma-ray monitors were developed to: {lg_bullet} Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, {lg_bullet} Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, {lg_bullet} Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be approximately fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.)