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Sample records for memorial trust policy

  1. Pew Memorial Trust policy synthesis: 2. Postretirement health benefits.

    PubMed

    Dopkeen, J C

    1987-02-01

    One-fourth of all those over 65 have some form of employer-provided retirement medical benefits. For these retirees and dependents, having this medical coverage may mean the difference between retirement security and ruin; but for employers, providing it could mean serious financial strain or even a threat to survival. The unfunded liability for retirement medical coverage has been variously projected from +100 billion to nearly +2 trillion. Continuing corporate concerns over the costs of health care, and recent changes in federal policies regarding Medicare and the taxation of employee benefit funds, threaten to alter the system of postretirement health benefits substantially and perhaps irrevocably for many. Employers are being forced to reassess their retiree commitments. Some corporations have undertaken to modify and even eliminate postretirement medical coverage for those over 65. These changes will affect not only the corporations involved and their retirees, but also the national and state governments to whom retirees may turn for additional assistance in meeting their health care needs. The purpose of this synthesis is to explain the issue of postretirement health benefits (PRHBs) for both public and private sector policymakers who will be most involved with this issue over the next five years. The analysis identifies the issues involved, considers the dimensions of the problem, and attempts to assess the implications for the future.

  2. Pew Memorial Trust policy synthesis: 2. Postretirement health benefits.

    PubMed Central

    Dopkeen, J C

    1987-01-01

    One-fourth of all those over 65 have some form of employer-provided retirement medical benefits. For these retirees and dependents, having this medical coverage may mean the difference between retirement security and ruin; but for employers, providing it could mean serious financial strain or even a threat to survival. The unfunded liability for retirement medical coverage has been variously projected from +100 billion to nearly +2 trillion. Continuing corporate concerns over the costs of health care, and recent changes in federal policies regarding Medicare and the taxation of employee benefit funds, threaten to alter the system of postretirement health benefits substantially and perhaps irrevocably for many. Employers are being forced to reassess their retiree commitments. Some corporations have undertaken to modify and even eliminate postretirement medical coverage for those over 65. These changes will affect not only the corporations involved and their retirees, but also the national and state governments to whom retirees may turn for additional assistance in meeting their health care needs. The purpose of this synthesis is to explain the issue of postretirement health benefits (PRHBs) for both public and private sector policymakers who will be most involved with this issue over the next five years. The analysis identifies the issues involved, considers the dimensions of the problem, and attempts to assess the implications for the future. PMID:3106266

  3. Pew Memorial Trust policy synthesis: 3. Adolescent pregnancy: the responsibilities of policymakers.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, F; Brindis, C

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, adolescent pregnancy and childbearing have emerged as major health and social policy issues, sparking debates in local and national forums. The concern is a response to rates of adolescent sexual activity, pregnancy, and out-of-wedlock childbirth that have risen sharply in the past 20 years. The deleterious effects of early parenthood, especially in poor communities, have been amply documented; education, future employment, and health status are among the areas affected. Efforts at intervention have ranged from preventing pregnancy by encouraging celibacy to trying to enhance the options available to those who are already parents. Many of these efforts have fallen short, proving unequal to the complexity of the issues being tackled. Relatively successful approaches have also been developed, however, and the synthesis describes several. Strategies addressing the needs of adolescents comprehensively and involving a multiplicity of concerned players appear to be most effective in the long term. There is a pressing need for more program documentation to substantiate this and other promising strategies. PMID:3679836

  4. The Winston Churchill Memorial Trust of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Nicolette

    2013-01-01

    The Churchill Trust was established in 1965 to honour the memory of Sir Winston Churchill by awarding overseas research Fellowships known as "Churchill Fellowships". Since its inception, The Churchill Trust has awarded Churchill Fellowships to more than 3,700 Australians who, like Churchill, are innovative, filled with a spirit of…

  5. The Winston Churchill Memorial Trust of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Nicolette

    2013-01-01

    The Churchill Trust was established in 1965 to honour the memory of Sir Winston Churchill by awarding overseas research Fellowships known as "Churchill Fellowships". Since its inception, The Churchill Trust has awarded Churchill Fellowships to more than 3,700 Australians who, like Churchill, are innovative, filled with a spirit of…

  6. Trust and Public Participation in Risk Policy Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, Judith A. ); Branch, Kristi M. ); Focht, Will; Ragnar E. Lofstedt and George Cvetkovich

    1999-12-01

    Recent social science literature has paid increasing attention to the concept of trust, albeit with differing definitions and constituents and also with differing emphases on societal origins, functions, and implications. Recently, discussion has shifted to the role of trust in hazard management and, more broadly, to the fundamental role of trust in modern society. In this paper, we provide answers to the following questions, in an attempt to refocus the discussion and identify a more productive research approach to the relationship of trust and public participation in risk policy issues: -What is trust? What are the differing conceptions and dimensions of trust that have been identified in the literature? -What are the social functions of trust? -What is the relationship between trust and public participation in risk policy issues? Why is trust particularly important for agencies such as the Department of Energy (DOE) that are responsible for development and implementation of policies involving technological risk? -How should we define the research problem in examining the relationship between trust and public participation in risk policy issues? What are the key research questions to be addressed? Federal agencies have introduced public participation as a means of addressing public distrust and enhancing their ability to make decisions that can be implemented. In some cases, such as the Secretary of Energy's Advisory Board, public participation was explicitly identified as an organizational response that was needed to re-establish public trust and confidence in the Department of Energy (DOE). However, our review of the literature on both trust and public participation and our experience in developing criteria for evaluating public participation initiatives have resulted in our questioning the wisdom of establishing trust as a goal of public participation and caused us to examine the relationship between trust and public participation.

  7. Beyond Locutionary Denotations: Exploring Trust between Practitioners and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ade-Ojo, G. O.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the findings of a research on the trust relationship between practitioners in the Skills for Life (SfL) area and the policy that informs their practice. The exploration of this relationship was premised on an extended notion of trust relationship which draws from the Speech Act theory of Austin (1962; Searle 1969; Kissine 2008),…

  8. Security policies and trust in ubiquitous computing.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Anupam; Finin, Tim; Kagal, Lalana; Parker, Jim; Patwardhan, Anand

    2008-10-28

    Ubiquitous environments comprise resource-constrained mobile and wearable devices and computational elements embedded in everyday artefacts. These are connected to each other using both infrastructure-based as well as short-range ad hoc networks. Limited Internet connectivity limits the use of conventional security mechanisms such as public key infrastructures and other forms of server-centric authentication. Under these circumstances, peer-to-peer interactions are well suited for not just information interchange, but also managing security and privacy. However, practical solutions for protecting mobile devices, preserving privacy, evaluating trust and determining the reliability and accuracy of peer-provided data in such interactions are still in their infancy. Our research is directed towards providing stronger assurances of the reliability and trustworthiness of information and services, and the use of declarative policy-driven approaches to handle the open and dynamic nature of such systems. This paper provides an overview of some of the challenges and issues, and points out directions for progress.

  9. 36 CFR 1012.2 - What is the Presidio Trust's policy on granting requests for employee testimony or Presidio Trust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST LEGAL PROCESS: TESTIMONY BY EMPLOYEES AND PRODUCTION OF RECORDS General Information § 1012.2 What is the Presidio Trust's policy on granting requests for employee...

  10. 36 CFR 1012.2 - What is the Presidio Trust's policy on granting requests for employee testimony or Presidio Trust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST LEGAL PROCESS: TESTIMONY BY EMPLOYEES AND PRODUCTION OF RECORDS General Information § 1012.2 What is the Presidio Trust's policy on granting requests for employee...

  11. 36 CFR 1012.2 - What is the Presidio Trust's policy on granting requests for employee testimony or Presidio Trust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST LEGAL PROCESS: TESTIMONY BY EMPLOYEES AND PRODUCTION OF RECORDS General Information § 1012.2 What is the Presidio Trust's policy on granting requests for employee...

  12. Trust in Security-Policy Enforcement Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-26

    Schneider, Fred B. Morrisett, Greg 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Computer...Policy Enforcement Mechanisms AFOSR Grant F49620-03-1-0156 Final Report 1 July 2003 – 30 November 2005 Fred B. Schneider Greg Morrisett Computer...finite sets of keys, and therefore approximations are the best that can be achieved. Personnel Supported Faculty: Fred B. Schneider and Greg Morrisett

  13. Variation in local trust Do Not Attempt Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (DNACPR) policies: a review of 48 English healthcare trusts.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Karoline; Field, Richard A; Perkins, Gavin D

    2015-01-13

    To explore Do Not Attempt Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (DNACPR) policies from English acute, community and ambulance service Trusts for evidence of consistency and variation in implementation of national guidelines between healthcare organisations. Acute, community or ambulance National Health Service (NHS) Trusts in England. 48 NHS Trusts. Freedom of information requests for adult DNACPR policies were sent to a random sample of Trusts. DNACPR policies were assessed on aspects identified from national guidelines including documentation, ethical and legal issues, decision-makers and involvement of others in DNACPR decisions as well as practical considerations such as validity, review and portability of decisions. Policies from 26 acute, 12 community and 10 ambulance service Trusts were reviewed. There was variation in terminology used (85% described documents as policies, 6% procedures and 8% guidelines). Only one quarter of Trusts used the recommended Resuscitation Council (UK) record form (or a modification of the form). There was variation in the terminology used which included DNAR, DNACPR, Not for CPR and AND (allow natural death). Accountability for DNACPR decisions rested with consultants at all acute Trusts and the most senior clinician at community Trusts. Most Trusts (74%) recommended discussion of decisions with a multidisciplinary team. Compliance with guidance requiring clinical staff to assess the patient for capacity and when to consult a lasting power of attorney or independent mental capacity advocate occurred less commonly. There was wide variation in the duration of time over which a DNACPR decision was considered valid as well as in the Trusts' approach to reviewing DNACPR decisions. The level of portability of DNACPR decisions between healthcare organisations was one of the greatest sources of variation. There is significant variation in the translation of the national DNACPR guidelines into English healthcare Trusts' DNACPR policies. Published

  14. [Public health policies in Chile: seeking to regain trust].

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Cristóbal

    2016-09-07

    Healthcare represents a key area in the public agenda. In the case of Chile, this central part of citizen demands has emerged with an increasing criticism of the health system, its actors and institutions, while a major democratic and legitimacy crisis in Chilean society unfolds. The starting point of this analysis is the link between the critical and widespread societal dissatisfaction with the legitimacy crisis in the health sector. There is an interdependence and parallelism between these two different aspects of the crisis. The analysis is built around the dimensions of trust and legitimacy as a potential driver of the conflict, taking as an analytical framework the socio-political matrix. Conceptual elements around the ideas of trust and legitimacy in public policies are reviewed. This article focuses on recent situations surrounding the dynamics of the Chilean health system such as the rise of the Instituciones de Salud Previsional (ISAPRE) and the market-driven health system, the failed health care reform of the last decade, conflicts of interest in the formulation of public policies, loss of legitimacy of healthcare authorities, and the role of the health professionals in this process. Finally, a discussion arises seeking to regain public trust as a central issue for the future development and sustainability of health policies.

  15. 36 CFR 1012.2 - What is the Presidio Trust's policy on granting requests for employee testimony or Presidio Trust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... through 1012.11. United States ex rel. Touhy v. Ragen, 340 U.S. 462 (1951). Responsibilities of Requesters ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Presidio Trust's policy on granting requests for employee testimony or Presidio Trust records? 1012.2 Section 1012.2...

  16. Variation in local trust Do Not Attempt Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (DNACPR) policies: a review of 48 English healthcare trusts

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Karoline; Field, Richard A; Perkins, Gavin D

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore Do Not Attempt Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (DNACPR) policies from English acute, community and ambulance service Trusts for evidence of consistency and variation in implementation of national guidelines between healthcare organisations. Setting Acute, community or ambulance National Health Service (NHS) Trusts in England. Participants 48 NHS Trusts. Interventions Freedom of information requests for adult DNACPR policies were sent to a random sample of Trusts. Outcomes DNACPR policies were assessed on aspects identified from national guidelines including documentation, ethical and legal issues, decision-makers and involvement of others in DNACPR decisions as well as practical considerations such as validity, review and portability of decisions. Results Policies from 26 acute, 12 community and 10 ambulance service Trusts were reviewed. There was variation in terminology used (85% described documents as policies, 6% procedures and 8% guidelines). Only one quarter of Trusts used the recommended Resuscitation Council (UK) record form (or a modification of the form). There was variation in the terminology used which included DNAR, DNACPR, Not for CPR and AND (allow natural death). Accountability for DNACPR decisions rested with consultants at all acute Trusts and the most senior clinician at community Trusts. Most Trusts (74%) recommended discussion of decisions with a multidisciplinary team. Compliance with guidance requiring clinical staff to assess the patient for capacity and when to consult a lasting power of attorney or independent mental capacity advocate occurred less commonly. There was wide variation in the duration of time over which a DNACPR decision was considered valid as well as in the Trusts’ approach to reviewing DNACPR decisions. The level of portability of DNACPR decisions between healthcare organisations was one of the greatest sources of variation. Conclusions There is significant variation in the translation of the national

  17. 36 CFR § 1012.2 - What is the Presidio Trust's policy on granting requests for employee testimony or Presidio Trust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST LEGAL PROCESS: TESTIMONY BY EMPLOYEES AND PRODUCTION OF RECORDS General Information § 1012.2 What is the Presidio Trust's policy on granting requests for...

  18. 25 CFR 1200.3 - What is the Department's policy on tribal management of trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... tribes one approach for assuming increased management of their funds that we now hold in trust and... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the Department's policy on tribal management of..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT General Provisions § 1200.3 What...

  19. Value importance and value congruence as determinants of trust in health policy actors.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, Susan M; Ponting, J Rick

    2003-09-01

    The paper examines levels and determinants of trust in a health care system and in key actors in the health policy community. Talcott Parsons theorizes that the sharing of common values is a necessary condition for interpersonal trust to exist; this paper tests that notion at the level of systemic (institutional) trust. The paper reports findings of a 1999 survey of 493 randomly selected residents of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. It uses multiple regression analysis to identify the determinants of three different types of trust-generalized systemic trust, fiduciary trust, and generalized trust in particular actors' input to health system changes. Among the numerous independent variables, special attention is devoted to the degree of congruence or incongruence between the importance which respondents attach to one of the values enunciated in the Canada Health Act-namely, 'accessibility' (equal access to quality health care)-and the importance which respondents believe is attached to that value by the Regional Health Authority and by the Premier of the province. Both value importance and value congruence on equal accessibility are found to be important factors explaining variation in all three types of trust. In explaining levels of trust in the Premier on the issue of health care system reform, congruence on equal accessibility proved to be even more important than such factors as political partisanship, political cynicism, and personal experience as a patient in the health care system. Findings also suggest that there is an emotional component to systemic trust.

  20. Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Paul L.

    2007-01-01

    Children rely extensively on others' testimony to learn about the world. However, they are not uniformly credulous toward other people. From an early age, children's reliance on testimony is tempered by selective trust in particular informants. Three- and 4-year-olds monitor the accuracy or knowledge of informants, including those that are…

  1. Economic Profits Enhance Trust, Perceived Integrity and Memory of Fairness in Interpersonal Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Eto, Keisuke; Watanabe, Shigeru; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Does money lead to trust in personality and intention of others? Humans have a strong tendency to judge the intention of others from their sequent behaviors. In general, people trust others who behave fairly, but not always. Here we show that judgments of both intentional aspects and memory of intentional behavior are automatically influenced by unintentional benefits from the behaviors of others. We conducted a reward-manipulated and repeated trust game by using real participants interacting with moving image partners on a computer screen. The participants assessed likability, trustworthiness, and perceived integrity of the partners in pre- and post-game questionnaires. The results of judgments of all three dimensions and the memory of frequency of each partner's fair behavior (sharing) were strongly influenced by profitability in the trust game, even though all partners shared 75% of the profit and participants were told that profitability was randomly assigned to each partner. Furthermore, these effects were moderated by the gender of the participants: males were more sensitive to monetary profits than were females. The results reveal that humans automatically trust, approve the integrity of, and recall well the fair behavior of others who provide affectively positive outcomes such as monetary profits. We call this phenomenon the “affect ripple effect”. PMID:23251552

  2. Should I trust you? Learning and memory of social interactions in dementia.

    PubMed

    Wong, Stephanie; Irish, Muireann; O'Callaghan, Claire; Kumfor, Fiona; Savage, Greg; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier; Hornberger, Michael

    2017-08-12

    Social relevance has an enhancing effect on learning and subsequent memory retrieval. The ability to learn from and remember social interactions may impact on susceptibility to financial exploitation, which is elevated in individuals with dementia. The current study aimed to investigate learning and memory of social interactions, the relationship between performance and financial vulnerability and the neural substrates underpinning performance in 14 Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 20 behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls. On a "trust game" task, participants invested virtual money with counterparts who acted either in a trustworthy or untrustworthy manner over repeated interactions. A non-social "lottery" condition was also included. Participants' learning of trust/distrust responses and subsequent memory for the counterparts and nature of the interactions was assessed. Carer-rated profiles of financial vulnerability were also collected. Relative to controls, both patient groups showed attenuated learning of trust/distrust responses, and lower overall memory for social interactions. Despite poor learning performance, both AD and bvFTD patients showed better memory of social compared to non-social interactions. Importantly, better memory for social interactions was associated with lower financial vulnerability in AD, but not bvFTD. Learning and memory of social interactions was associated with medial temporal and temporoparietal atrophy in AD, whereas a wider network of frontostriatal, insular, fusiform and medial temporal regions was implicated in bvFTD. Our findings suggest that although social relevance influences memory to an extent in both AD and bvFTD, this is associated with vulnerability to financial exploitation in AD only, and is underpinned by changes to different neural substrates. Theoretically, these findings provide novel insights into potential mechanisms that give rise to vulnerability in

  3. Trust-based Hierarchical Role Enhanced Policy for Adaptive Availability of Confidential Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-31

    Trust-based Hierarchical Role Enhanced Policy for Adaptive Availability of Confidential Information 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-04-1-0429 5c...techniques that preserve confidentiality and integrity of information in computer systems while providing dynamic trust-based updates so that information is...of Confidential Information Grant Number: FA9550-04-1-0429 Principal Investigator: Dr. Brajendra Panda Program Manager: Dr. Robert L. Herklotz

  4. Exposing Trust Assumptions in Distributed Policy Enforcement (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-04

    506. September 2009, Pisa , Italy. – "Path-based Access Control for Enterprise Networks” Matthew Burnside and Angelos D. Keromytis. In Proceedings of...assumptions? 11/04/09 ONR MURI Review 14 Summary • Exploring systems that allow (and require) explicit assumption (trust) declarations • All

  5. Charitable Remainder Trusts and Pooled Income Funds: Internal Revenue Service Ruling Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, J. Patrick

    1975-01-01

    An examination of Internal Revenue Service administrative policies regarding Internal Revenue Code and Treasury regulations on charitable remainder trusts and pooled income funds concludes that rulings on the former have been few and results unexpected while those on the latter reflect the legal complexities, some being substantively and…

  6. Insights from socio-hydrology modelling on dealing with flood risk: roles of collective memory, risk-taking attitude and trust (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viglione, A.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Brandimarte, L.; Kuil, L.; Carr, G.; Salinas, J.; Scolobig, A.

    2013-12-01

    The risk coping culture of a community plays a major role in decision making in urban flood plains. While flood awareness is not necessarily linked to being prepared to face flooding at an individual level, the connection at the community level seems to be stronger through creating policy and initiating protection works. In this work we analyse, in a conceptual way, the interplay of community risk coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth. We particularly focus on three aspects: (i) collective memory, i.e., the capacity of the community to keep the awareness of flooding high; (ii) risk-taking attitude, i.e., the amount of risk a community is collectively willing to expose themselves to; and (iii) trust of people in risk protection measures. We use a dynamic model that represents the feedbacks between the hydrological and social system components. The model results indicate that, on one hand, by under perceiving the risk of flooding (because of short collective memory and too much trust in flood protection structures) in combination with a high risk-attitude, community survival is severely limited because of destruction caused by flooding. On the other hand, high perceived risk (long memory and lack of trust in flood protection structures) relative to the actual risk leads to lost economic opportunities and recession. There are many optimal scenarios for survival and economic growth, but greater certainty of survival plus economic growth can be achieved by ensuring community has accurate risk perception (memory neither too long nor too short and trust in flood protection neither too great nor too low) combined with a low to moderate risk-taking attitude. Interestingly, the model gives rise to situations in which the development of the community in the floodplain is path dependent, i.e., the history of flooding may lead to its growth or recession. Schematic of human adjustments to flooding: (a) settling away from the river; (b) raising levees/dikes.

  7. Formal Verification of Security Properties in Trust Management Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    the complexity of the role contain- ment problem, though Sistla and Zhou [36, 37] later showed a tighter, precise upper bound. Any analysis technique...increase the efficiency of other RCPI-solving approaches, such as one based on the proof method of Sistla and Zhou [36, 37]. 3.1 Cone of Influence...why a policy may fail to satisfy a particular property. Sistla and Zhou [36] also provide a framework for reasoning about security analysis of RT

  8. A Limited-Memory BFGS Algorithm Based on a Trust-Region Quadratic Model for Large-Scale Nonlinear Equations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Yuan, Gonglin; Wei, Zengxin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a trust-region algorithm is proposed for large-scale nonlinear equations, where the limited-memory BFGS (L-M-BFGS) update matrix is used in the trust-region subproblem to improve the effectiveness of the algorithm for large-scale problems. The global convergence of the presented method is established under suitable conditions. The numerical results of the test problems show that the method is competitive with the norm method. PMID:25950725

  9. From 'trust us' to participatory governance: Deliberative publics and science policy.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    The last 20 years have seen a shift from the view that publics need to be educated so that they trust science and its governance to the recognition that publics possess important local knowledge and the capacity to understand technical information sufficiently to participate in policy decisions. There are now a variety of approaches to increasing the role of publics and advocacy groups in the policy and governance of science and biotechnology. This article considers recent experiences that demonstrate that it is possible to bring together those with policy making responsibility and diverse publics to co-produce policy and standards of practice that are technically informed, incorporate wide social perspectives and explicitly involve publics in key decisions. Further, the process of deliberation involving publics is capable of being incorporated into governance structures to enhance the capacity to respond to emerging issues with levels of public engagement that are proportionate to the issues.

  10. Automatic memory management policies for low power, memory limited, and delay intolerant devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahid, Md. Abu

    Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets are energy and memory limited, and implement graphical user interfaces that are intolerant of computational delays. Mobile device platforms supporting apps implemented in languages that require automatic memory management, such as the Dalvik (Java) virtual machine within Google's Android, have become dominant. It is essential that automatic memory management avoid causing unacceptable interface delays while responsibly managing energy and memory resource usage. Dalvik's automatic memory management policies for heap growth and garbage collection scheduling utilize heuristics tuned to minimize memory footprint. These policies result in only marginally acceptable response times and garbage collection signicantly contributes to apps' CPU time and therefore energy consumption. The primary contributions of this research include a characterization of Dalvik's "baseline" automatic memory management policy, the development of a new "adaptive" policy, and an investigation of the performance of this policy. The investigation indicates that this adaptive policy consumes less CPU time and improves interactive performance at the cost of increasing memory footprint size by an acceptable amount.

  11. Content-addressable memory based enforcement of configurable policies

    DOEpatents

    Berg, Michael J

    2014-05-06

    A monitoring device for monitoring transactions on a bus includes content-addressable memory ("CAM") and a response policy unit. The CAM includes an input coupled to receive a bus transaction tag based on bus traffic on the bus. The CAM stores data tags associated with rules of a security policy to compare the bus transaction tag to the data tags. The CAM generates an output signal indicating whether one or more matches occurred. The response policy unit is coupled to the CAM to receive the output signal from the CAM and to execute a policy action in response to the output signal.

  12. Healthcare staff attitudes towards the use of electronic cigarettes ('e-cigarettes') compared with a local trust policy.

    PubMed

    Pippard, Benjamin J; Shipley, Mark D

    2017-07-01

    E-cigarette use has risen dramatically in recent years, despite uncertainty over long-term health effects and concerns regarding efficacy as a smoking cessation device. Currently, there is no legislation prohibiting use in public, though many trusts have extended the NHS Smokefree policy to include e-cigarettes. The successful implementation of such policy is, however, unclear. This study examined staff attitudes towards the use of e-cigarettes in a hospital environment with respect to enforcement of a local trust smoking policy. A total of 79 healthcare professionals working at South Tyneside District Hospital, South Shields, completed a written questionnaire regarding use of e-cigarettes, particularly views on use in public and on hospital premises. Factors influencing the likelihood of individuals to challenge the use of e-cigarettes were assessed. In all, 45% of respondents thought that e-cigarettes should be allowed in public places, though a majority (62%) favoured use on hospital grounds compared to within hospital buildings (18%). Over 50% of respondents were unaware of trust policy relating to e-cigarettes and only 25% had ever challenged someone using a device. Roughly, one-third reported that they would still not challenge someone in future, despite being informed of trust policy. Fear of abuse was the most cited reason for not challenging. Expressed concerns of e-cigarette use related to fire risk, 'normalising' smoking behaviour and uncertainty of long-term effects. Most staff do not enforce trust policy regarding e-cigarette use. This reflects variation in opinion over use, poor awareness of the policy itself and perceived barriers to implementation, including fear of abuse. Addressing these issues through staff education sessions may help successful future implementation.

  13. Building trust and confidence in laboratory ES and H policy and practices

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, J.

    2000-08-01

    This report describes a successful pilot event among LANL employees that can see as a model for employee involvement and community input. The conference was designed to begin building trust and confidence in Laboratory policy and practices in the area of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H). It represents a concrete step toward fostering better relationships among Lab employees and creating a new, innovative approach to communication that can also be used to build trust in the larger community. Based on the proven methods of the National Issues Forums and the Jefferson Center Citizen Jury Process, this conference enabled management to learn more about the thoughts and advice of LANL employees, During the course of the day, a random sample of Lab employees representing the LANL workforce learned about issues of health, safety and the environment, and some of the options available to increase trustworthiness in these areas. These Employee Advisors then discussed the options at some length and presented recommendations to senior Lab managers in the role of Decision Makers. At the end of the day, the participants offered their reflections and discussed what they learned during the conference, and Decision Makers responded to what they heard. The most common view expressed by the Employee Advisors was that a bottom-up approach was necessary to develop more relevant ES and H policies. They were unanimous in their desire for more employee inclusion into the decision making process. All Employee Advisors were in support of a Lab wide survey to determine employee concerns about ES and H issues. After listening to the deliberation, the Decision Makers responded with several commitments. The most significant was the pledge to meet with Employee Advisors by the end of February to discuss the status of their recommendations on ES and H policy and practices. The ensuing follow-up meeting explored employee concerns in greater depth resulting in forward-looking action steps

  14. Universal Preschool: Policy Change, Stability, and the Pew Charitable Trusts. SUNY Series in Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushouse, Brenda K.

    2009-01-01

    The spectacular recent success of state-funded preschool education is revealed and explained in this absorbing study. A quiet revolution has been underway in American education policy since 1995, with forty-one states and the District of Columbia creating some form of state-funded preschool learning. Brenda K. Bushouse tells why it became…

  15. Universal Preschool: Policy Change, Stability, and the Pew Charitable Trusts. SUNY Series in Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushouse, Brenda K.

    2009-01-01

    The spectacular recent success of state-funded preschool education is revealed and explained in this absorbing study. A quiet revolution has been underway in American education policy since 1995, with forty-one states and the District of Columbia creating some form of state-funded preschool learning. Brenda K. Bushouse tells why it became…

  16. Measuring physicians' trust: A scoping review with implications for public policy.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Adam S; Platt, Jodyn E

    2016-09-01

    Increasingly, physicians are expected to work in productive, trusting relationships with other health system stakeholders to improve patient and system outcomes. A better understanding of physicians' trust is greatly needed. This study assesses the state of the literature on physicians' trust in patients, other health care providers, institutions, and data systems or technology, and identifies key themes, dimensions of trust considered, quantitative measures used, and opportunities for further development via a scoping review. Peer-reviewed, English-language research articles were identified for inclusion in this study based on systematic searches of the Ovid/Medline, Pubmed, Proquest, Scopus, Elsevier, and Web of Science databases. Search terms included "trust" along with "physician," "doctor," "primary care provider," "family practitioner," "family practice," "generalist," "general practitioner," "general practice," "internist," "internal medicine," or "health professional," and plausible variants. Among the relevant articles identified (n = 446), the vast majority focused on patient trust in physicians (81.2%). Among articles examining physicians' trust, rigorous investigations of trust are rare, narrowly focused, and imprecise in their discussion of trust. Robust investigations of the effects of trust or distrust-as opposed to trust's determinants-and studies using validated quantitative trust measures are particularly rare. Studies typically measured trust using the language of confidence, effective communication, or cooperation, rarely or never capturing other important dimensions of trust, such as fidelity, the trustee's reputation, social capital, vulnerability, and acceptance. Research employing new, validated measures of physicians' trust, especially trust in institutions, may be highly informative to health system leaders and policymakers seeking to hone and enhance tools for improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the health care system

  17. 25 CFR 1200.3 - What is the Department's policy on tribal management of trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... trust funds? 1200.3 Section 1200.3 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE FOR AMERICAN INDIANS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT General Provisions § 1200.3 What... II of the American Indian Trust Fund Management Reform Act, implemented by these regulations,...

  18. 25 CFR 1200.3 - What is the Department's policy on tribal management of trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... trust funds? 1200.3 Section 1200.3 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE FOR AMERICAN INDIANS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT General Provisions § 1200.3 What... II of the American Indian Trust Fund Management Reform Act, implemented by these regulations, offers...

  19. 25 CFR 1200.3 - What is the Department's policy on tribal management of trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... trust funds? 1200.3 Section 1200.3 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE FOR AMERICAN INDIANS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT General Provisions § 1200.3 What... II of the American Indian Trust Fund Management Reform Act, implemented by these regulations, offers...

  20. 25 CFR 1200.3 - What is the Department's policy on tribal management of trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... trust funds? 1200.3 Section 1200.3 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE FOR AMERICAN INDIANS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT General Provisions § 1200.3 What... II of the American Indian Trust Fund Management Reform Act, implemented by these regulations, offers...

  1. Raising the Legal Age of Tobacco Sales: Policy Support and Trust in Government, 2014-2015, U.S.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph G L; Boynton, Marcella H; Richardson, Amanda; Jarman, Kristen; Ranney, Leah M; Goldstein, Adam O

    2016-12-01

    The National Academy of Medicine has called for an increase in the minimum age of tobacco product sales. It is not clear what age increase would garner the greatest public support, or whether trust in the U.S. government predicts policy support. The data for these analyses are from a nationally representative telephone sample of U.S. adults (N=4,880) conducted from September 2014 to May 2015. The authors assessed whether support varied by the proposed minimum age of tobacco sales using a survey experiment (i.e., random assignment to the 19-, 20-, or 21-year age minimum condition) and, in cross-sectional analyses, whether smoking status, individual demographics, state-level politics, and general trust in the government predicted policy support. Analyses were conducted from May to December 2015. Odds of support for raising the minimum sales age to 21 years trended higher than support for raising to age 20 or 19 years (AOR=1.22, 95% CI=0.97, 1.53, p=0.09). There was majority support for raising the age of sales for cigarettes in all regions of the U.S. (66.3%, 95% CI=64.0, 68.6). Race, age, and trust in government were significant predictors of support. Raising the age of tobacco sales is broadly supported by the public. An age 21 years tobacco sales policy trends toward garnering more support than a policy at age 19 or 20 years. Trust in government may be an important consideration in understanding policy support beyond demographics. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The influences of patient's trust in medical service and attitude towards health policy on patient's overall satisfaction with medical service and sub satisfaction in China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is widely accepted that patient generates overall satisfaction with medical service and sub satisfaction on the basis of response to patient's trust in medical service and response to patient's attitude towards health policy in China. This study aimed to investigate the correlations between patient's trust in medical service/patient's attitude towards health policy and patient's overall satisfaction with medical service/sub satisfaction in current medical experience and find inspiration for future reform of China's health delivery system on improving patient's overall satisfaction with medical service and sub satisfaction in considering patient's trust in medical service and patient's attitude towards health policy. Methods This study collaborated with the National Bureau of Statistics to collect a sample of 3,424 residents from 17 provinces and municipalities in a 2008 China household survey on patient's trust in medical service, patient's attitude towards health policy, patient's overall satisfaction and sub satisfaction in current medical experience. Results Patient's overall satisfaction with medical service and most kinds of sub satisfaction in current medical experience were significantly influenced by both patient's trust in medical service and patient's attitude towards health policy; among all kinds of sub satisfaction in current medical experience, patient's trust in medical service/patient's attitude towards health policy had the largest influence on patient's satisfaction with medical costs, the influences of patient's trust in medical service/patient's attitude towards health policy on patient's satisfaction with doctor-patient interaction and satisfaction with treatment process were at medium-level, patient's trust in medical service/patient's attitude towards health policy had the smallest influence on patient's satisfaction with medical facilities and hospital environment, while patient's satisfaction with waiting time in hospital was

  3. Blood donation and institutional trust: risk, policy rhetoric, and the men who have sex with men lifetime deferral policy in Canada.

    PubMed

    Smith, André; Fiddler, Jay; Walby, Kevin; Hier, Sean

    2011-11-01

    This article examines the process of rebuilding institutional trust in the Canadian blood system in the aftermath of the tainted blood scandal. Our focus is the policy of lifetime deferral from donating blood for men who have sex with men. Drawing on findings from interviews with representatives of Health Canada's Expert Advisory Committee on Blood Regulation, the National Liaison Committee, Canadian Blood Services, and blood consumer groups, we demonstrate how claims making about rights, discrimination, science, and risk contribute to policy continuity. We also examine the link between policy continuity and the management of reputational risk.

  4. Does Variation in the Extent of Generalized Trust, Does Variation in the Extent of Generalized Trust, Individual Education and Extensiveness of Social Security Policies Matter for Maximization of Subjective Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeeva, Rania F.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine whether generalized trust and education, as well as social security policies of welfare state institutions matter for cross-national differences in subjective well-being (SWB), because knowledge on this issue is still lacking. For this purpose I integrated the insights of two sociological theories: Social Function…

  5. The Origin and Role of Trust in Local Policy Elites' Perceptions of High-Voltage Power Line Installations in the State of Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Tumlison, Creed; Moyer, Rachael M; Song, Geoboo

    2016-12-20

    The debate over an installation of high-voltage power lines (HVPLs) has been intense, particularly in northwest Arkansas. Detractors claim that the installation will negatively affect both the natural environment and the local economy, which contains a large tourism component. By contrast, those in favor of installing HVPLs claim that the installation is necessary in order to reliably support the increasing demand for electric power. Using original data collected from a recent statewide Internet survey of 420 local policy elites in Arkansas, this article focuses on two key aspects. First, we examine how local policy elites' perceptions of risks versus benefits of HVPL installation in their communities are influenced by their levels of trust toward information provided by various sources (e.g., energy industry, environmental groups, and government). Second, we utilize cultural theory to explain how the cultural worldviews of policy elites--specifically, egalitarianism, individualism, hierarchism, and fatalism--shape these levels of trust and HVPL benefit-risk perceptions, while controlling for other factors claimed by previous literature, including levels of knowledge on energy-related issues and demographic characteristics. In general, our analysis indicates that policy elites' value-oriented formation of HVPL benefit-risk perceptions is partially due to the influence cultural values have on trust in information sources. We conclude this article by discussing broader implications for the origin and role of trust in policy elites' decisions throughout the policy-making process.

  6. Mixed messages: An evaluation of NHS Trust Social Media policies in the North West of England.

    PubMed

    Scragg, B; Shaikh, S; Robinson, L; Mercer, C

    2017-08-01

    Despite National Health Service (NHS) information strategy promoting the use of Social Media (SoMe) to encourage greater engagement between service users and providers, a team investigating online SoMe interaction between breast screening practitioners and clients found that practitioners alleged discouragement from employers' policies. This study aimed to investigate whether this barrier was genuine, and illuminate whether local policy differed from national strategy. The study used a qualitative grounded theory approach to generate a theory. Nine policies from the North West of England were analysed. A framework was derived from the data, and an analysis of policy tone followed by a detailed coding of policy content was undertaken. Comparative analysis continued by reviewing the literature, and a condensed framework revealed five broad categories that policies addressed. The analysis revealed the policies varied in content, but not in tone, which was mostly discouraging. Coding the content revealed that the most frequently addressed point was that of protecting the employers' reputation, and after further analysis, the resultant condensed framework showed that policies were imbalanced and heavily skewed towards Security, Conduct & Behaviour and Reputation. Practitioners within breast screening services are discouraged by overly prohibitive and prescriptive SoMe policies; with these varying tremendously in comprehensiveness, but with a narrow focus on security and employers reputation; in contrast with national strategy. Recommendations are that policy revision is undertaken with consultation by more than one stakeholder, and SoMe training is offered for all members of NHS staff. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of signals and experience on trust and trusting behavior.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Hueih; Chien, Shu-Hua; Wu, Jyh-Jeng; Tsai, Pei-Yin

    2010-10-01

    Trust is an essential factor that drives virtual interaction and transactions on the Internet. Researchers have investigated the trust development process, and identified several important factors that form the basis for trust. This research combines the signal perspective and trust theory to examine the impact of market signals and past experience on trust formation and trusting behavior. Three market signals, including brand image, Web-site investment, and privacy policies, are identified and empirically tested to determine their impact on consumer trust. Based on 322 active Web users, the quantitative results suggest that brand image, Web-site investment, privacy policies, and past experience all positively impact trust formation. Furthermore, trust shows a positive effect on Web-site stickiness. Both theoretical and practical implications of the results are also offered.

  8. Organisational culture and trust as influences over the implementation of equity-oriented policy in two South African case study hospitals.

    PubMed

    Erasmus, Ermin; Gilson, Lucy; Govender, Veloshnee; Nkosi, Moremi

    2017-09-15

    This paper uses the concepts of organisational culture and organisational trust to explore the implementation of equity-oriented policies - the Uniform Patient Fee Schedule (UPFS) and Patients' Rights Charter (PRC) - in two South African district hospitals. It contributes to the small literatures on organisational culture and trust in low- and middle-income country health systems, and broader work on health systems' people-centeredness and "software". The research entailed semi-structured interviews (Hospital A n = 115, Hospital B n = 80) with provincial, regional, district and hospital managers, as well as clinical and non-clinical hospital staff, hospital board members, and patients; observations of policy implementation, organisational functioning, staff interactions and patient-provider interactions; and structured surveys operationalising the Competing Values Framework for measuring organisational culture (Hospital A n = 155, Hospital B n = 77) and Organisational Trust Inventory (Hospital A n = 185, Hospital B n = 92) for assessing staff-manager trust. Regarding the UPFS, the hospitals' implementation approaches were similar in that both primarily understood it to be about revenue generation, granting fee exemptions was not a major focus, and considerable activity, facility management support, and provincial support was mobilised behind the UPFS. The hospitals' PRC paths diverged quite significantly, as Hospital A was more explicit in communicating and implementing the PRC, while the policy also enjoyed stronger managerial support in Hospital A than Hospital B. Beneath these experiences lie differences in how people's values, decisions and relationships influence health system functioning and in how the nature of policies, culture, trust and power dynamics can combine to create enabling or disabling micro-level implementation environments. Achieving equity in practice requires managers to take account of "unseen" but important factors such as

  9. Pew Memorial Trust policy synthesis: 5. State coverage for organ transplantation: a framework for decision making.

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, P A; McGlynn, E A

    1988-01-01

    Transplantation of hearts and livers for both adults and children is increasingly viewed as therapeutic and lifesaving, but access to these procedures is impeded by their high cost as well as by a limited supply of organs. In the absence of comprehensive federal coverage, pressure is being brought to bear on states to provide broader access to these procedures. This synthesis provides a framework for the consideration of coverage decisions at the state level. While there are no "right" answers about whether a state should support such coverage, the analytic tools of cost analysis, demand estimation, and assessment of capacity described in this synthesis can better inform the decision-making process. PMID:3279012

  10. Fees on health insurance policies and self-insured plans for the patient-centered outcomes research trust fund. Final regulations.

    PubMed

    2012-12-06

    This document contains final regulations that implement and provide guidance on the fees imposed by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on issuers of certain health insurance policies and plan sponsors of certain self-insured health plans to fund the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Trust Fund. These final regulations affect the issuers and plan sponsors that are directed to pay those fees.

  11. Cassandra and the Politicians: Higher Education and Policy Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, David

    2011-01-01

    Beginning with an analysis of the manifesto commitments of the two Coalition partners the author proceeds to set their subsequent policies as they are understood by June 2011 in the context of successive new "frameworks" for UK higher education since the Robbins Report of 1963. This analysis is developed in relation to: the relative…

  12. Cassandra and the Politicians: Higher Education and Policy Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, David

    2011-01-01

    Beginning with an analysis of the manifesto commitments of the two Coalition partners the author proceeds to set their subsequent policies as they are understood by June 2011 in the context of successive new "frameworks" for UK higher education since the Robbins Report of 1963. This analysis is developed in relation to: the relative…

  13. 7 CFR 1400.205 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES PAYMENT LIMITATION AND PAYMENT ELIGIBILITY FOR 2009 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.205 Trusts. A trust will be considered...

  14. "Doing Trust".

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn; Barnard, Emma; Stewart, Paul; Walker, Hannah; Rosenthal, Doreen

    2016-10-01

    Trust in research is important but not well understood. We examine the ways that researchers understand and practice trust in research. Using a qualitative research design, we interviewed 19 researchers, including eight researchers involved in Australian Indigenous research. The project design focused on sensitive research including research involving vulnerable participants and sensitive research topics. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. We found that researchers' understanding of trust integrates both the conceptual and concrete; researchers understand trust in terms of how it relates to other similar concepts and how they practice trust in research. This provides a sound basis to better understand trust in research, as well as identifying mechanisms to regain trust when it is lost in research.

  15. Rethinking trust.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Roderick M

    2009-06-01

    Will we ever learn? We'd barely recovered from Enron and WorldCom before we faced the subprime mortgage meltdown and more scandals that shook our trust in businesspeople. Which raises the question: Do we trust too much? In this article, Stanford professor and social psychologist Kramer explores the reasons we trust so easily--and, often, so unwisely. He explains that genetics and childhood learning make us predisposed to trust and that it's been a good survival mechanism. That said, our willingness to trust makes us vulnerable. Our sense of trust kicks in on remarkably simple cues, such as when people look like us or are part of our social group. We also rely on third parties to verify the character of others, sometimes to our detriment (as the victims of Bernard Madoff learned). Add in our illusions of invulnerability and our tendencies to see what we want to see and to overestimate our own judgment, and the bottom line is that we're often easily fooled. We need to develop tempered trust. For those who trust too much, that means reading cues better; for the distrustful, it means developing more receptive behaviors. Everyone should start with small acts of trust that encourage reciprocity and build up. Having a hedge against potential abuses also helps. Hollywood scriptwriters, for instance, register their treatments with the Writers Guild of America to prevent their ideas from being stolen by the executives they pitch. To attract the right relationships, people must strongly signal their own honesty, proactively allay concerns, and, if their trust is abused, retaliate. Trusting individuals in certain roles, which essentially means trusting the system that selects and trains them, also works but isn't foolproof. And don't count on due diligence alone for protection; constant vigilance is needed to make sure the landscape hasn't changed.

  16. Trust in managed care organizations.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Allen

    2000-09-01

    Two basic criticisms of managed care are that it erodes patient trust in physicians and subjects physicians to incentives and pressures that compromise the physician's fiduciary obligation to the patient. In this article, I first distinguish between status trust and merit trust, and then argue (1) that the value of status trust in physicians is probably over-rated and certainly underdocumented; (2) that erosion of status trust may not be detrimental if accompanied by an increase in well-founded merit trust; and (3) that under conditions of managed care the physician's commitment to traditional medical ethics cannot serve as an adequate basis for merit trust. Next, drawing on an analogy between managed care organzations and politics, I argue that (4) the most appropriate basis for merit trust in managed care is a conception of organizational legitimacy that includes procedural justice, empowerment of constructive criticism within the organization, and organizational accommodation of the noninstrumental commitment to patient well-being that is distinctive of medical professionalism. I then explore the conditions necessary for robust competition for merit trust among managed care organizations and indicate the kinds of public policies needed to facilitate such competition. Finally, I show how the account of organization-based merit trust can accommodate the special fiduciary obligation of medical professionals, without indulging in the delusion that it is the physician's fiduciary obligation always to provide all care that is expected to be of any net benefit to the patient.

  17. Memory

    MedlinePlus

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  18. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  19. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  20. Incomplete Markets and Imperfect Institutions: Some Challenges Posed by Trust for Contemporary Health Care and Health Policy.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Mark; Gray, Bradford H

    2016-08-01

    As contemporary health policy promotes evidence-based practices using targeted incentives, policy makers may lose track of vital aspects of care that are difficult to measure. For more than a half century, scholars have recognized that these latter aspects play a crucial role in high-quality care and equitable health system performance but depend on the potentially frail reed of providers' trustworthiness: that is, their commitment to facets and outcomes of care not easily assessed by external parties. More recently, early experience with pay for performance in health settings suggests that enhancing financial rewards for the measurable undermines providers' commitment to the unmeasurable, degrading the trustworthiness of their practices. Reformers have looked to revised professional norms or reorganized practice arrangements to bolster the intrinsic motivations required for trustworthiness. We suggest here that these responses are likely to prove inadequate. We propose that they be complemented by a renewed policy-making commitment to nonprofit ownership among health care providers, insurers, and integrated delivery systems. We identify some of the concerns raised in the past with ownership-based policies and propose a set of responses. If these are pursued in combination, they hold the promise of a sustainable ownership-based policy reform for the United States.

  1. A Unified Theory of Trust and Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Guoray; Squicciarini, Anna

    We consider a type of applications where collaboration and trust are tightly coupled with the need to protect sensitive information. Existing trust management technologies have been limited to offering generic mechanisms for enforcing access control policies based on exchanged credentials, and rarely deal with the situated meaning of trust in a specific collaborative context. Towards trust management for highly dynamic and collaborative activities, this paper describes a theory of trust intention and semantics that makes explicit connections between collaborative activities and trust. The model supports inferring trust state based on knowledge about state of collaborative activity. It is the first step towards a unified approach for computer-mediated trust communication in the context of collaborative work.

  2. 36 CFR 401.10 - Monument Trust Fund Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monument Trust Fund Program... MONUMENTS AND MEMORIALS § 401.10 Monument Trust Fund Program. Pursuant to the provisions of 36 U.S.C. 2106(d), the Commission operates a Monument Trust Fund Program (MTFP) in countries where there is a...

  3. PROMOTING HEALING AND RESTORING TRUST:POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVING BEHAVIORAL HEALTH CARE FOR AMERICAN INDIAN/ALASKA NATIVE ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Goodkind, Jessica R.; Ross-Toledo, Kimberly; John, Susie; Hall, Janie Lee; Ross, Lucille; Freeland, Lance; Coletta, Ernest; Becenti-Fundark, Twila; Poola, Charlene; Begay-Roanhorse, Regina; Lee, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    American Indian/Alaska Native youth represent the strength and continued survival of many Nations and Tribes. However, they currently experience numerous health disparities and challenges, including the highest rate of suicide among 15 to 24 year-olds in the United States. Our comprehensive review of the literature on the mental health of AI/AN youth highlighted seven focal causes of behavioral health disparities: 1) high levels of violence and trauma exposure and traumatic loss, 2) past and current oppression, racism, and discrimination, 3) underfunded systems of care, 4) disregard for effective indigenous practices in service provision, policy, and funding, 5) overreliance on evidence-based practices, 6) lack of cultural competence among systems of care and providers, and 7) barriers to care. Seven policy recommendations that recognize the importance of moving beyond exclusive reliance on western models of care and that seek to foster transformation of individuals, families, communities, behavioral health service systems of care, and social structures are presented, supported, and discussed. PMID:20857331

  4. Trust, terrorism and public health.

    PubMed

    McKee, Martin; Coker, Richard

    2009-12-01

    Policies to promote public health are based on trust. There is a danger that public trust may be lost, especially where policies are seen to be influenced by vested interests or conflict with available evidence. Although trust in public health policies in the UK is high, some commentators have questioned recent responses to the threat of pandemic flu, suggesting that they may be driven, in part, by those seeking to profit from health scares, and drawing a direct comparison with terrorist scares. We argue that the approach to evidence by the public health and counter-terrorist communities differ markedly. Public health professionals must ensure that their actions do not undermine their credibility, in particular those involved in response to the threat of bioterrorism.

  5. Trusted Objects

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  6. Trust, Respect, and Reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Phong, Tran Viet; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Dung, Nguyen Thanh; Ngan, Ta Thi Dieu; Kinh, Nguyen Van; Parker, Michael; Bull, Susan

    2015-01-01

    International science funders and publishers are driving a growing trend in data sharing. There is mounting pressure on researchers in low- and middle-income settings to conform to new sharing policies, despite minimal empirically grounded accounts of the ethical challenges of implementing the policies in these settings. This study used in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 48 stakeholders in Vietnam to explore the experiences, attitudes, and expectations that inform ethical and effective approaches to sharing clinical research data. Distinct views on the role of trust, respect, and reciprocity were among those that emerged to inform culturally appropriate best practices. We conclude by discussing the challenges that authors of data-sharing policies should consider in this unique context. PMID:26297747

  7. Trust and Influence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-05

    DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Program Trends •Trust in Autonomous Systems •Cross- cultural Trust... Cultural Trust – Identify the antecedents of trust in different cultures •Trust in Autonomous Systems/Autonomy – identify the factors that shape...Trust & trustworthiness are independent (Mayer et al, 1995) •Trust is relational •Humans in cross- cultural interactions •Complex human-machine

  8. 12 CFR 330.13 - Irrevocable trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Irrevocable trust accounts. 330.13 Section 330... POLICY DEPOSIT INSURANCE COVERAGE § 330.13 Irrevocable trust accounts. (a) General rule. Funds representing the “non-contingent trust interest(s)” (as defined in § 330.1(l)) of a beneficiary deposited...

  9. The Sutton Trust: Mobility Manifesto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton Trust, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Ahead of the party conference season, the Sutton Trust is urging fairer admissions to comprehensives, grammar schools and independent schools as part of a 10-point Mobility Manifesto setting out ten practical policy steps designed to put social mobility at the heart of the 2015 election campaign. The manifesto urges greater use of ballots (random…

  10. The Sutton Trust: Mobility Manifesto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton Trust, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Ahead of the party conference season, the Sutton Trust is urging fairer admissions to comprehensives, grammar schools and independent schools as part of a 10-point Mobility Manifesto setting out ten practical policy steps designed to put social mobility at the heart of the 2015 election campaign. The manifesto urges greater use of ballots (random…

  11. Mass casualty incidents: are NHS staff prepared? An audit of one NHS foundation trust.

    PubMed

    Milkhu, C S; Howell, D C J; Glynne, P A; Raptis, D; Booth, H L; Langmead, L; Datta, V K

    2008-09-01

    Lack of knowledge of an NHS trust's major incident policies by clinical staff may result in poorly coordinated responses during a mass casualty incident (MCI). To audit knowledge of the major incident policy by clinical staff working in a central London major acute NHS trust designated to receive casualties on a 24-h basis during a MCI. A 12-question proforma was distributed to 307 nursing and medical staff in the hospital, designed to assess their knowledge of the major incident policy. Completed proformas were collected over a 2-month period between December 2006 and February 2007. A reply rate of 34% was obtained, with a reasonable representation from all disciplines ranging from nurses to consultants. Despite only 41% having read the policy in full, 70% knew the correct immediate action to take if informed of major incident activation. 76% knew the correct stand-down procedure. 56% knew the correct reporting point but less than 25% knew that an action card system was utilised. Nurses had significantly (p<0.01) more awareness of the policy than doctors. In view of the heightened terrorist threat in London, knowledge of major incident policy is essential. The high percentage of positive responses relating to immediate and stand-down actions reflects the rolling trust-wide MCI education programme and the organisational memory of the trust following several previous MCI in the capital. There is still scope for an improvement in awareness, however, particularly concerning knowledge of action cards, which are now displayed routinely throughout clinical areas and will be incorporated into induction packs.

  12. Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  13. Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  14. In Public Education Expenditures We Trust: Does Trust Increase Support for Public Education Expenditures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur, Nurullah; Boyaci, Israfil; Ozcan, Yunus

    2015-01-01

    Trust is one crucial prerequisite for the welfare state. However, very few empirical studies exist that help us understand the mechanisms through which trust affects the welfare state. Influencing public support for developing friendly public policies might be one of these mechanisms. In this study, we use unique micro data from 34 countries to…

  15. Open referral policy within a nurse-led memory clinic: patient demographics, assessment scores, and diagnostic profiles.

    PubMed

    Minstrell, Melinda; Bentley, Michael; Bucher, Hazel; Morrissey, Martin; Higgs, Carl; Robinson, Andrew; Stirling, Christine

    2015-06-01

    Memory clinics, typically led by multidisciplinary teams and requiring health professional referral, are one means of providing diagnosis and care coordination for dementia. Nurse-led clinics may provide an effective and alternative means to dementia diagnosis, and open referral policies may minimize existing barriers to accessing a diagnosis, but evidence is needed. Patients attending a one-day per week nurse-led memory clinic over a 25-month period during 2011-2013 (n = 106) completed comprehensive cognitive assessments and were diagnosed by an aged care nurse practitioner. Descriptive statistics detail the demographics, assessment scores, and diagnostic profiles of patients. Comparable data from published literature was identified, and the differences were analyzed qualitatively. One hundred and six patients were assessed with the key differences from other data sets being history of falls more common, higher mean Mini-Mental State Examination scores, and fewer dementia diagnoses. Sixty-four patients (60%) were self-referred to the nurse-led memory clinic, of which 19 (30%) were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. Overall, forty-eight patients (45%) received diagnoses of MCI or dementia. An open referral policy led to a high proportion of patients being self-referred, and nearly a third of these were diagnosed with cognitive impairment or dementia. Open referral policies and nurse-led services may overcome some of the barriers to early diagnosis that are currently experienced. Considering an aging population worldwide and the associated increases in cognitive impairment, which benefits from early identification and intervention, this paper provides an alternative model of nurse-led assessment.

  16. Trust and Influence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-06

    how humans establish, maintain, and repair trust of humans and technological systems) and the science of influence (i.e., understanding how to shape...factors that shape reliance in complex human -machine interactions • Cross-Cultural Trust – identify the antecedents of trust in different cultures...actions of others with little ability to monitor their actions (Mayer et al., 1995) Assumptions: •Trust as a human phenomenon •Trust

  17. Trust in Social Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-07

    T. Schlosser, and H. Garcia-Molina. The eigentrust algorithm for reputation management in p2p networks . In Proceedings of the 12th international...demonstrate real-world applications where trust is explicitly used. As a new 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12...Mining, TrustModeling, Trust Measurements, Trust Applications , Dis-trust REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10

  18. Public Trust in Health Information Sharing: A Measure of System Trust.

    PubMed

    Platt, Jodyn E; Jacobson, Peter D; Kardia, Sharon L R

    2017-01-18

    To measure public trust in a health information sharing in a broadly defined health system (system trust), inclusive of health care, public health, and research; to identify individual characteristics that predict system trust; and to consider these findings in the context of national health initiatives (e.g., learning health systems and precision medicine) that will expand the scope of data sharing. Survey data (n = 1,011) were collected in February 2014. We constructed a composite index of four dimensions of system trust-competency, fidelity, integrity, and trustworthiness. The index was used in linear regression evaluating demographic and psychosocial predictors of system trust. Data were collected by GfK Custom using a nationally representative sample and analyzed in Stata 13.0. Our findings suggest the public's trust may not meet the needs of health systems as they enter an era of expanded data sharing. We found that a majority of the U.S. public does not trust the organizations that have health information and share it (i.e., the health system) in one or more dimensions. Together, demographic and psychosocial factors accounted for ~18 percent of the observed variability in system trust. Future research should consider additional predictors of system trust such as knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs to inform policies and practices for health data sharing. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. Scientific Research and the Public Trust

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2011-01-01

    This essay analyzes the concept of public trust in science and offers some guidance for ethicists, scientists, and policymakers who use this idea defend ethical rules or policies pertaining to the conduct of research. While the notion the public trusts science makes sense in the abstract, it may not be sufficiently focused to support the various rules and policies that authors have tried to derive from it, because the public is not a uniform body with a common set of interests. Well-focused arguments that use public trust to support rules or policies for the conduct of research should specify a) which public is being referred to (e.g. the general public or a specific public, such as a particular community or group); b) what this public expects from scientists; c) how the rule or policy will ensure that these expectations are met; and d) why is it important to meet these expectations. PMID:20803259

  20. Scientific research and the public trust.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2011-09-01

    This essay analyzes the concept of public trust in science and offers some guidance for ethicists, scientists, and policymakers who use this idea defend ethical rules or policies pertaining to the conduct of research. While the notion that public trusts science makes sense in the abstract, it may not be sufficiently focused to support the various rules and policies that authors have tried to derive from it, because the public is not a uniform body with a common set of interests. Well-focused arguments that use public trust to support rules or policies for the conduct of research should specify (a) which public is being referred to (e.g. the general public or a specific public, such as a particular community or group); (b) what this public expects from scientists; (c) how the rule or policy will ensure that these expectations are met; and (d) why is it important to meet these expectations.

  1. 36 CFR 401.10 - Monument Trust Fund Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Monument Trust Fund Program. 401.10 Section 401.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION MONUMENTS AND MEMORIALS § 401.10 Monument Trust Fund Program. Pursuant to the provisions of 36 U.S.C....

  2. Golden Is the Sand: Memory and Hope in Evaluation Policy and Evaluation Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datta, Lois-ellin

    2009-01-01

    Going from thought to action in influencing evaluation policy is an overdue, untried, and perhaps anxious-making role for the American Evaluation Association. We will need good courage, sustained conversation, and the widest views. The courage is needed in remembering that although this isn't going to be fast or easy, evaluation policies make a…

  3. Trust makers, breakers and brokers: building trust in the Australian food system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of consumer trust in the food supply has previously been identified, and dimensions of consumer trust in food—who they trust and the type of trust that they exhibit—has been explored. However, there is a lack of research about the mechanisms through which consumer trust in the food supply is developed, maintained, broken and repaired. This study seeks to address this gap by exploring if, and how, consumer trust in the food supply is considered by the media, food industry and governments when responding to food scares. The aim of the research is to develop models of trust building that can be implemented following food scares. Methods Semi-structured interviews will be undertaken with media, public relations officials and policy makers in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Participants will be recruited through purposive sampling and will be asked to discuss a hypothetical case study outlining a food incident, and any experiences of specific food scares. Models of trust development, maintenance and repair will be developed from interview data. Comment on these models will be sought from experts in food-related organizations through a Delphi study, where participants will be asked to consider the usefulness of the models. Participants’ comments will be used to revise the models until consensus is reached on the suitability and usability of the models. Discussion This study will contribute to the literature about systems-based trust, and explore trust as a social and regulatory process. The protocol and results will be of interest and use to the food industry, food regulators, consumer advocate groups, media seeking to report food-related issues and policy makers concerned with public health and consumer health and well-being. This research represents an important contribution to the translation of the theoretical conceptualizations of trust into practical use in the context of food. PMID:23496819

  4. Public trust in vaccination: an analytical framework.

    PubMed

    Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad

    2017-01-01

    While vaccination is one of the most successful public health interventions, there has always been a parallel movement against vaccines. Apart from scientific factors, the uptake of vaccinations is influenced by historical, political, sociocultural and economic factors. In India, the health system is struggling with logistical weaknesses in taking vaccination to the remotest corners; while on the other hand, some people in places where vaccination is available resist it. Unwillingness to be vaccinated is a growing problem in the developed world. This trend is gradually emerging in several parts of India as well. Other factors, such as heightened awareness of the profit motives of the vaccine industry, conflicts of interest among policy-makers, and social, cultural and religious considerations have eroded the people's trust in vaccination. This paper develops an analytical framework to assess trust in vaccination. The framework considers trust in vaccination from four perspectives - trust in the health system, the vaccine policy, vaccination providers and specific vaccines. The framework considers specific issues involved in vaccination trust, including the increasing scepticism towards medical technology, perceptions of conflicts of interest in the vaccine policy, and of lack of transparency and openness, the presence of strong alternative schools of thought, influence of the social media. The paper will conclude by arguing that engaging with communities and having a dialogue about the vaccination policy is an ethical imperative.

  5. Predators and the public trust.

    PubMed

    Treves, Adrian; Chapron, Guillaume; López-Bao, Jose V; Shoemaker, Chase; Goeckner, Apollonia R; Bruskotter, Jeremy T

    2017-02-01

    Many democratic governments recognize a duty to conserve environmental resources, including wild animals, as a public trust for current and future citizens. These public trust principles have informed two centuries of U.S.A. Supreme Court decisions and environmental laws worldwide. Nevertheless numerous populations of large-bodied, mammalian carnivores (predators) were eradicated in the 20th century. Environmental movements and strict legal protections have fostered predator recoveries across the U.S.A. and Europe since the 1970s. Now subnational jurisdictions are regaining management authority from central governments for their predator subpopulations. Will the history of local eradication repeat or will these jurisdictions adopt public trust thinking and their obligation to broad public interests over narrower ones? We review the role of public trust principles in the restoration and preservation of controversial species. In so doing we argue for the essential roles of scientists from many disciplines concerned with biological diversity and its conservation. We look beyond species endangerment to future generations' interests in sustainability, particularly non-consumptive uses. Although our conclusions apply to all wild organisms, we focus on predators because of the particular challenges they pose for government trustees, trust managers, and society. Gray wolves Canis lupus L. deserve particular attention, because detailed information and abundant policy debates across regions have exposed four important challenges for preserving predators in the face of interest group hostility. One challenge is uncertainty and varied interpretations about public trustees' responsibilities for wildlife, which have created a mosaic of policies across jurisdictions. We explore how such mosaics have merits and drawbacks for biodiversity. The other three challenges to conserving wildlife as public trust assets are illuminated by the biology of predators and the interacting

  6. Reliable Design Versus Trust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?

  7. Trust in Consumer Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursawe, Klaus; Katzenbeisser, Stefan

    While Trusted Computing is getting increasing attention in the PC world, consumer electronics devices have limited benefit from the Trusted Computing solutions currently under development. In this paper we outline the different requirements of consumer electronics devices, when compared to the PC world, and point out the technical consequences for standards like the Trusted Computing Group. In addition, we will touch on economic aspects that may inhibit or support Trusted Computing in this domain.

  8. Trust vs. Confidence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    both cognitive and affective factors can be implicated in trust judgements. Moreover, unlike confidence judgements (which can occur in many...occurs in situations without risks. A trust judgement, on the other hand, uses a variety of information beyond the merely cognitive , occurs only when...defined. Although there are many different definitions of trust, our definition (Adams and Webb, 2003) is as follows: Trust is a psychological state

  9. Children's Conceptions of Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; Turiel, Elliot

    Aware that children conceive of different types of trust, a study examined 60 children's conception of trust. The subjects comprised three age groups: 6-7 years old, 8-9 years old, and 10-11 years old. Each subject was interviewed on the basis of three stories. The stories depicted a hypothesized violation of trust in a moral context (lying),…

  10. Usability and trust in e-banking.

    PubMed

    Pravettoni, Gabriella; Leotta, Salvatore Nuccio; Lucchiari, Claudio; Misuraca, Raffaella

    2007-12-01

    This study assessed the role of usability in trust of e-banking services. A questionnaire was administered to 185 Italian undergraduate working students who volunteered for the experiment (M age = 30.5 yr., SD = 3.1). Participants were differentiated on computer ability (Expert, n = 104; Nonexpert, n = 81) and e-banking use (User, n = 93; Nonusers, n = 92). Analysis showed that the website usability of e-banking services did not play a very important role for the User group. Instead, institution-based trust, e.g., the trust in the security policy of the Web merchant, customers, and the overall trust of the bank were the crucial factors in the adoption of e-banking.

  11. Water law - Public Trust Doctrine

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, E.S.

    1984-07-01

    In a case involving California's Mono Lake, the State Supreme Court held that infringement of the values protected by the Public Trust Doctrine is a separate ground for challenging water appropriations, and that the continuing nature of the state's duty as trustee prevents the acquisition of a vested right to appropriations that injure navigation, commerce, and fisheries. The author summarizes the history and the competing claims of the Doctrine and the California Appropriative Water Rights System. The National Audubon suit now makes it possible for any member of the public to challenge any surface water diversion as injurious to the public trust, but it also offers the California courts an opportunity to redirect the state's water policies. 130 references.

  12. The primary care trust handbook Peter Smith The primary care trust handbook Radcliffe Medical Press £19.95 1 85775 467 0 1857754670 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2001-11-01

    Nurses wishing to find out more about the new English primary care organisations, but looking for an easier read than Trust in Experience, may find that The Primary Care Trust Handbook, edited by Peter Smith, will meet their needs. Although repetitive in some areas, The Primary Care Trust Handbook does provide the reader with a condensed overview of the shift which has taken place in healthcare policy, the emergence of primary care trusts, and the issues that face these new organisations.

  13. Personal Trust Increases Cooperation beyond General Trust

    PubMed Central

    Acedo-Carmona, Cristina; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a new methodology which, while allowing for anonymous interaction, it also makes possible to compare decisions of cooperating or defecting when playing games within a group, according to whether or not players personally trust each other. The design thus goes beyond standard approaches to the role of trust in fostering cooperation, which is restricted to general trust. It also allows considering the role of the topology of the social network involved may play in the level of cooperation found. The results of this work support the idea that personal trust promotes cooperation beyond the level of general trust. We also found that this effect carries over to the whole group, making it more cohesive, but that higher levels of cohesion rely on a particular topology. As a conclusion, we hypothesize that personal trust is a psychological mechanism evolved to make human social life possible in the small groups our ancestors lived in, and that this mechanism persists and plays a role in sustaining cooperation and social cohesion. PMID:25144539

  14. Trust-based information system architecture for personal wellness.

    PubMed

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka; Nykänen, Pirkko; Seppälä, Antto; Blobel, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Modern eHealth, ubiquitous health and personal wellness systems take place in an unsecure and ubiquitous information space where no predefined trust occurs. This paper presents novel information model and an architecture for trust based privacy management of personal health and wellness information in ubiquitous environment. The architecture enables a person to calculate a dynamic and context-aware trust value for each service provider, and using it to design personal privacy policies for trustworthy use of health and wellness services. For trust calculation a novel set of measurable context-aware and health information-sensitive attributes is developed. The architecture enables a person to manage his or her privacy in ubiquitous environment by formulating context-aware and service provider specific policies. Focus groups and information modelling was used for developing a wellness information model. System analysis method based on sequential steps that enable to combine results of analysis of privacy and trust concerns and the selection of trust and privacy services was used for development of the information system architecture. Its services (e.g. trust calculation, decision support, policy management and policy binding services) and developed attributes enable a person to define situation-aware policies that regulate the way his or her wellness and health information is processed.

  15. Validating the Trust in Teams and Trust in Leaders Scales

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Work Scale trust scale ( Cook , Hepworth, Wall and Warr , 1981). This scale measures interpersonal trust in the organizational context. The full version...2005) scale .....................................................................30 Table 16: Team Trust Scale and Cook and Wall ...a whole fairly similarly. Another analysis compared the Team Trust Scale with two subscales from the Cook and Wall (1980) Interpersonal Trust at

  16. Getting to Know You? Issues of Trust and Mistrust in Understanding Community, Developing Partnerships and Delivering Policy Change in Children's Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    This case study examined a joint assessment and allocation panel set up to inform local implementation of the UK Government's policy of integrating children's services, particularly the introduction of a Common Assessment Framework and the lead practitioner role. It brought together agencies serving one community. Professionals and parents agreed…

  17. The geography of trust.

    PubMed

    Joni, Saj-nicole A

    2004-03-01

    Leaders who rely forever on the same internal advisers, entrusting them with issues of ever greater sensitivity and consequence, run the risk of being sold short and possibly betrayed. Alternatively, lone-wolf leaders who trust no one may make enormous, yet preventable, mistakes when trying to sort through difficult decisions. A sophisticated understanding of trust can protect leaders from both fates. During the past decade, author and consultant Saj-nicole Joni studied leadership in more than 150 European and North American companies. Her research reveals three fundamental types of trustpersonal trust, expertise trust, and structural trust. Executives may persevere in relationships that are based on personal trust, no matter how exalted their leadership roles become. But such relationships are unlikely to remain static. They also probably won't provide the kinds of deep, often specialized knowledge leaders need. In circumstances where advisers' competence matters as much as their character, expertise trust--reliance on an adviser's ability in a specific subject--enters the picture. In organizations, leaders develop expertise trust by working closely with people who consistently demonstrate their mastery of particular subjects or processes. Structural trust refers to how roles and ambitions influence advisers' perspectives and candor. It shifts constantly as people rise through organizations. High-level structural trust can provide leaders with pure insight and information--but advisers in positions of the highest structural trust generally reside outside organizations. These advisers provide leaders with insights that their organizations cannot. High-performing leaders' most enduring--and most valuable--relationships are characterized by enormous levels of all three kinds of trust.

  18. Trust Discovery in Online Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piorkowski, John

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to discover interpersonal trust in online communities. Two novel trust models are built to explain interpersonal trust in online communities drawing theories and models from multiple relevant areas, including organizational trust models, trust in virtual settings, speech act theory, identity theory, and common bond theory. In…

  19. Neural correlates of trust

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Frank; McCabe, Kevin; Moll, Jorge; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Zahn, Roland; Strenziok, Maren; Heinecke, Armin; Grafman, Jordan

    2007-01-01

    Trust is a critical social process that helps us to cooperate with others and is present to some degree in all human interaction. However, the underlying brain mechanisms of conditional and unconditional trust in social reciprocal exchange are still obscure. Here, we used hyperfunctional magnetic resonance imaging, in which two strangers interacted online with one another in a sequential reciprocal trust game while their brains were simultaneously scanned. By designing a nonanonymous, alternating multiround game, trust became bidirectional, and we were able to quantify partnership building and maintenance. Using within- and between-brain analyses, an examination of functional brain activity supports the hypothesis that the preferential activation of different neuronal systems implements these two trust strategies. We show that the paracingulate cortex is critically involved in building a trust relationship by inferring another person's intentions to predict subsequent behavior. This more recently evolved brain region can be differently engaged to interact with more primitive neural systems in maintaining conditional and unconditional trust in a partnership. Conditional trust selectively activated the ventral tegmental area, a region linked to the evaluation of expected and realized reward, whereas unconditional trust selectively activated the septal area, a region linked to social attachment behavior. The interplay of these neural systems supports reciprocal exchange that operates beyond the immediate spheres of kinship, one of the distinguishing features of the human species. PMID:18056800

  20. In regulation we trust.

    PubMed

    Wiig, Siri; Tharaldsen, Jorunn Elise

    2012-01-01

    The role of trust has been argued to play an increasingly important role in modern, complex, and ambivalent risk societies. Trust within organizational research is anticipated to have a general strategic impact on aspects such as organizational performance, communication and knowledge exchange, and learning from accidents. Trust is also an important aspect related to regulation of risk. Diverse regulatory regimes, their contexts and risks influence regulators use of trust and distrust in regulatory practice. The aim of this paper is to discuss the relationship between risk regulation and trust across diverse risk regulation regimes. By drawing from studies of risk regulation, risk perception, and trust the purpose is to discuss how regulation and trust are linked and used in practice to control risk across system levels in socio-technical systems in high risk industries. This paper provides new knowledge on 1) how functional and dysfunctional trust and distrust are grounded in the empirical realities of high risk industries, 2) how different perspectives on trust and distrust act together and bring new knowledge on how society control risk.

  1. Trust in interprofessional collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Paul A. M.; Austin, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trust is integral to effective interprofessional collaboration. There has been scant literature characterizing how trust between practitioners is formed, maintained or lost. The objective of this study was to characterize the cognitive model of trust that exists between pharmacists and family physicians working in collaborative primary care settings. Methods: Pharmacists and family physicians who work collaboratively in primary care were participants in this study. Family health teams were excluded from this study because of the distinct nature of these settings. Through a snowball convenience sampling method, a total of 11 pharmacists and 8 family physicians were recruited. A semistructured interview guide was used to guide discussion around trust, relationships and collaboration. Constant-comparative coding was used to identify themes emerging from these data. Results: Pharmacists and family physicians demonstrate different cognitive models of trust in primary care collaboration. For pharmacists, trust appears to be conferred on physicians based on title, degree, status and positional authority. For family physicians, trust appears to be earned based on competency and performance. These differences may lead to interprofessional tension when expectations of reciprocal trust are not met. Conclusions: Further work in characterizing how trust is developed in interprofessional relationships is needed to support effective team formation and functioning. PMID:27540406

  2. Public knowledge and public trust.

    PubMed

    Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    social and ethical issues. Just as there can be no resolute expression of public knowledge or public opinion, it is unlikely that there is a resolute expression of public trust in genomics. However, ambivalence and scepticism can be harnessed as powerful resource for change, whether through the mobilization of public knowledges or the development of greater reflexivity within scientific institutions. This demands a sharing of power and greater public involvement in the early stages of policy formation and scientific and medical agenda setting. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The trust formula: Trust = fairness + leadership

    SciTech Connect

    Lovenheim, R.

    1995-11-01

    Many state and compact LLW siting processes have been characterized by slippage and failure. The paper focuses on two major {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes} regarding public interaction and trust, and how these lessons are being applied to current siting efforts. The relationship of environmental idealism and trust will be explored further in this paper. Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer concludes his 1994 book, Breaking the Vicious Circle by stating: {open_quotes}Finally, this book also reflects a belief that trust in institutions arises not simply as a result of openness in government, responses to local interest groups, or priorities emphasized in the press -- though these attitudes and actions play an important role -- but also from those institutions doing a difficult job well.{close_quotes}

  4. Trust but verify: the interactive effects of trust and autonomy preferences on health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yin-Yang; Lin, Julia L

    2009-09-01

    Patients' trust in their physicians improves their health outcomes because of better compliance, more disclosure, stronger placebo effect, and more physicians' trustworthy behaviors. Patients' autonomy may also impact on health outcomes and is increasingly being emphasized in health care. However, despite the critical role of trust and autonomy, patients that naïvely trust their physicians may become overly dependent and lack the motivation to participate in medical care. In this article, we argue that increased trust does not necessarily imply decreased autonomy. Furthermore, patients with high levels of trust and autonomy preferences are most likely to have the best health outcomes. We propose a framework for understanding simultaneous trust and autonomy preferences and for recognizing their interactive effects on health outcomes in the dynamic medical encounter. This framework argues that policy makers and health care providers should make efforts to foster not only patients' trust but also their preferences for autonomy and thus gain the best position for achieving health-related goals.

  5. National Education Trust Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapp, Milton J.

    1975-01-01

    A proposal from the governor of Pennsylvania for financing all levels of education through a National Education Trust Fund (NETF) that would operate as the present Federal Highway Trust Fund does on a revolving, self-liquidating basis with the cost of an individual's education repaid through a progressive education tax on income. (JT)

  6. Dimensionality of Organizational Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Samuel H.; Wiswell, Albert K.

    2007-01-01

    Trust facilitates individual and organizational learning, and is often misunderstood by organizations although they must continuously learn in order to attain organizational goals and survive. Leaders of organizations often view trust defensively and their reactions may impede organizational learning This paper builds on prior research concerning…

  7. Security and Trust Management for Virtual Organisations: GridTrust Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, Syed; Mori, Paolo

    The GridTrust Security Framework (GSF) offers security and trust management for the next generation Grids (NGG). It follows a vertical approach for Grid security from requirements level right down to application and middleware levels. New access control models for collaborative computing, such as the usage control model (UCON), are implemented for securing the Grid systems. The GSF is composed of security and trust services and tools provided at the middleware and Grid foundation middleware layers. GSF addresses three layers of the NGG architecture: the Grid application layer, the Grid service middleware layer, and the Grid foundation layer. The framework is composed of security and trust services and tools provided at the middleware and Grid foundation middleware layers. GSF provides policy-driven autonomic access control solutions that provide a continuous monitoring of the usage of resources by users.

  8. Rebuilding Public Trust in the Taiwan Military: A Systems Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    changing its posting strategies on the Taiwanese Ministry of Defense Facebook page. By enhancing public trust through social media, the military would be...Defense Facebook page. By enhancing public trust through social media, the military would be better positioned to increase recruitment, funding, and...stimulation stops but will be recalled from the memory if the same stimulation occurs again. Comparing the image with knowledge, there are some differences

  9. Trust, trustworthiness and health.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Trust is an essential component of good healthcare. If patients trust their physicians, then the relationship between them can be a richer and more meaningful one. The patient is more likely to feel confident and able to disclose symptoms, helping diagnosis and future care. If public health and community workers are trusted, not only is it likely that their work will be easier, in that their actions will be respected and accepted, but their advice will also be sought spontaneously. Trust, can, therefore, be thought of as something that is of benefit to all: healthcare workers, individuals and communities. Trust is, generally, something to be prized and we need to do anything we can to strengthen it.

  10. Facial resemblance enhances trust.

    PubMed

    DeBruine, Lisa M

    2002-07-07

    Organisms are expected to be sensitive to cues of genetic relatedness when making decisions about social behaviour. Relatedness can be assessed in several ways, one of which is phenotype matching: the assessment of similarity between others' traits and either one's own traits or those of known relatives. One candidate cue of relatedness in humans is facial resemblance. Here, I report the effects of an experimental manipulation of facial resemblance in a two-person sequential trust game. Subjects were shown faces of ostensible playing partners manipulated to resemble either themselves or an unknown person. Resemblance to the subject's own face raised the incidence of trusting a partner, but had no effect on the incidence of selfish betrayals of the partner's trust. Control subjects playing with identical pictures failed to show such an effect. In a second experiment, resemblance of the playing partner to a familiar (famous) person had no effect on either trusting or betrayals of trust.

  11. Signaling When (and When Not) to Be Cautious and Self-Protective: Impulsive and Reflective Trust in Close Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Sandra L.; Pinkus, Rebecca T.; Holmes, John G.; Harris, Brianna; Gomillion, Sarah; Aloni, Maya; Derrick, Jaye L.; Leder, Sadie

    2011-01-01

    A dual process model is proposed to explain how automatic evaluative associations to the partner (i.e., impulsive trust) and deliberative expectations of partner caring (i.e., reflective trust) interact to govern self-protection in romantic relationships. Experimental and correlational studies of dating and marital relationships supported the model. Subliminally conditioning more positive evaluative associations to the partner increased confidence in the partner’s caring, suggesting that trust has an impulsive basis. Being high on impulsive trust (i.e., more positive evaluative associations to the partner on the IAT) also reduced the automatic inclination to distance in response to doubts about the partner’s trustworthiness. It similarly reduced self-protective behavioral reactions to these reflective trust concerns. The studies further revealed that the effects of impulsive trust depend on working memory capacity: Being high on impulsive trust inoculated against reflective trust concerns for people low on working memory capacity. PMID:21443370

  12. Whom should we trust? Trust yourselves!

    SciTech Connect

    Fentiman, A.W.; Mancl, K.M.; Hajek, B.K.

    1995-11-01

    Members of the public, and their elected officials, often feel at a disadvantage when faced with decisions on technical issues such as those related to low-level radioactive waste management. Many have little or no knowledge of the underlying scientific concepts and often lack a clear understanding of the problems or possible solutions. In the case of controversial, highly emotional topics, facts presented by opposing groups often appear contradictory. People ask, {open_quotes}Whom should we trust?{close_quotes} While advocates of various positions shout, {open_quotes}Trust us!{close_quotes} members of the Ohio State University (OSU) Statewide Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program are saying, {open_quotes}Trust yourselves!{close_quotes} The goal of the OSU program is to provide Ohio`s citizens and their elected officials with accurate, easy-to-understand, unbiased information they need to prepare themselves to participate in discussions and decisions related to low-level waste. The faculty members on the project team want to encourage people to learn enough about the topic to feel confident in making their own decisions. For such a program to be successful, however, people must first trust the educational materials they are given. Over the past three years, the OSU team has developed materials that have won wide acceptance. Several factors that appear to have contributed to the acceptance are outlined.

  13. Autonomy, Trust, and Respect

    PubMed Central

    Nys, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to explore and analyze the relationship between autonomy and trust, and to show how these findings could be relevant to medical ethics. First, I will argue that the way in which so-called “relational autonomy theories” tie the notions of autonomy and trust together is not entirely satisfying Then, I will introduce the so-called Encapsulated Interest Account as developed by Russell Hardin. This will bring out the importance of the reasons for trust. What good reasons do we have for trusting someone? I will criticize Hardin’s business model as insufficiently robust, especially in the context of health care, and then turn to another source of trust, namely, love. It may seem that trust-through-love is much better suited for the vulnerability that is often involved in health care, but I will also show that it has its own deficiencies. Good health care should therefore pay attention to both models of trust, and I will offer some tentative remarks on how to do this. PMID:26668168

  14. Autonomy, Trust, and Respect.

    PubMed

    Nys, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    This article seeks to explore and analyze the relationship between autonomy and trust, and to show how these findings could be relevant to medical ethics. First, I will argue that the way in which so-called "relational autonomy theories" tie the notions of autonomy and trust together is not entirely satisfying Then, I will introduce the so-called Encapsulated Interest Account as developed by Russell Hardin. This will bring out the importance of the reasons for trust. What good reasons do we have for trusting someone? I will criticize Hardin's business model as insufficiently robust, especially in the context of health care, and then turn to another source of trust, namely, love. It may seem that trust-through-love is much better suited for the vulnerability that is often involved in health care, but I will also show that it has its own deficiencies. Good health care should therefore pay attention to both models of trust, and I will offer some tentative remarks on how to do this.

  15. Social trust and grassroots governance in rural China.

    PubMed

    Huhe, Narisong; Chen, Jie; Tang, Min

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between social trust and governance has been one of the focal points of the academic and policy-making communities. Empirical studies on this relationship, however, have focused mostly on democracies. The scarcity of such studies in authoritarian countries has left many important questions unanswered: Is social trust associated with effective governance only in democratic settings? Can social trust improve the quality of governance in non-democracies as well? Drawing on data from 2005 China General Social Survey-a representative survey conducted nationwide at both the individual- and village-level in rural China, this paper attempts to answer these questions empirically by examining the relationship between social trust and the quality of governance in rural China. The findings reveal that different types of social trust-particularized trust and generalized trust-correspond with different effects in rural governance: whereas villagers' trust in people whom they knew personally was positively and significantly associated with the provision of various public goods and services, their trust in strangers had virtually no impact on rural governance.

  16. Macroeconomic Dynamics of Assets, Leverage and Trust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozendaal, Jeroen C.; Malevergne, Yannick; Sornette, Didier

    A macroeconomic model based on the economic variables (i) assets, (ii) leverage (defined as debt over asset) and (iii) trust (defined as the maximum sustainable leverage) is proposed to investigate the role of credit in the dynamics of economic growth, and how credit may be associated with both economic performance and confidence. Our first notable finding is the mechanism of reward/penalty associated with patience, as quantified by the return on assets. In regular economies where the EBITA/Assets ratio is larger than the cost of debt, starting with a trust higher than leverage results in the highest long-term return on assets (which can be seen as a proxy for economic growth). Therefore, patient economies that first build trust and then increase leverage are positively rewarded. Our second main finding concerns a recommendation for the reaction of a central bank to an external shock that affects negatively the economic growth. We find that late policy intervention in the model economy results in the highest long-term return on assets. However, this comes at the cost of suffering longer from the crisis until the intervention occurs. The phenomenon that late intervention is most effective to attain a high long-term return on assets can be ascribed to the fact that postponing intervention allows trust to increase first, and it is most effective to intervene when trust is high. These results are derived from two fundamental assumptions underlying our model: (a) trust tends to increase when it is above leverage; (b) economic agents learn optimally to adjust debt for a given level of trust and amount of assets. Using a Markov Switching Model for the EBITA/Assets ratio, we have successfully calibrated our model to the empirical data of the return on equity of the EURO STOXX 50 for the time period 2000-2013. We find that dynamics of leverage and trust can be highly nonmonotonous with curved trajectories, as a result of the nonlinear coupling between the variables. This

  17. Winston Churchill Memorial Trust Fellowship Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramsen, Neil

    2014-01-01

    In March and April 2014, the author travelled overseas on a 2013 Churchill Fellowship to study education programs that successfully engage and enthuse primary and middle school students in maths, engineering and science (MES) or science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) learning in schools, universities and institutions in the United…

  18. Winston Churchill Memorial Trust Fellowship Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramsen, Neil

    2014-01-01

    In March and April 2014, the author travelled overseas on a 2013 Churchill Fellowship to study education programs that successfully engage and enthuse primary and middle school students in maths, engineering and science (MES) or science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) learning in schools, universities and institutions in the United…

  19. Assess and enhance public trust

    Treesearch

    Patricia Winter; James Absher; Alan Watson

    2007-01-01

    Trust is a form of social capital, facilitating effective land management, communication and collaboration. Although trust in the Forest Service is at least moderately high for most publics, evidence of a lack of trust and outright distrust has been found in some communities. However, the amount, types, and conditions of trust necessary for effective management to...

  20. Building trust-business essentials

    Treesearch

    Sandy MacIver

    2008-01-01

    (Please note: This paper only contains the abstract.) Trust is particularly vital in the leadership of organizations. Trust is built by working through "joy, fear, and vulnerability," especially as it relates to trust in others and in teams. Key is learning to trust the right people in the right way in the right circumstances. In addition...

  1. Trusting Crowdsourced Geospatial Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodhue, P.; McNair, H.; Reitsma, F.

    2015-08-01

    The degree of trust one can place in information is one of the foremost limitations of crowdsourced geospatial information. As with the development of web technologies, the increased prevalence of semantics associated with geospatial information has increased accessibility and functionality. Semantics also provides an opportunity to extend indicators of trust for crowdsourced geospatial information that have largely focused on spatio-temporal and social aspects of that information. Comparing a feature's intrinsic and extrinsic properties to associated ontologies provides a means of semantically assessing the trustworthiness of crowdsourced geospatial information. The application of this approach to unconstrained semantic submissions then allows for a detailed assessment of the trust of these features whilst maintaining the descriptive thoroughness this mode of information submission affords. The resulting trust rating then becomes an attribute of the feature, providing not only an indication as to the trustworthiness of a specific feature but is able to be aggregated across multiple features to illustrate the overall trustworthiness of a dataset.

  2. Using Trusted Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... any risk involved in sharing your information online. Social Media Social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter) are good ways ... when you're seeking medical information, only follow social media from reputable sources. Many trusted organizations have social ...

  3. Trust and Fertility Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Billari, Francesco C.; Pessin, Léa

    2016-01-01

    We argue that the divergence in fertility trends in advanced societies is influenced by the interaction of long-standing differences in generalized trust with the increase in women’s educational attainment. Our argument builds on the idea that trust enhances individuals’ and couples’ willingness to outsource childcare to outside their extended family. This becomes critically important as women’s increased education enhances the demand for combining work and family life. We test our hypothesis using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study on 36 industrialized countries between the years 1981 and 2009. Multilevel statistical analyses reveal that the interaction between national-level generalized trust and cohort-level women’s education is positively associated with completed fertility. As education among women expands, high levels of generalized trust moderate fertility decline. PMID:28003707

  4. Some correlates of trust.

    PubMed

    Frost, T; Stimpson, D V; Maughan, M R

    1978-05-01

    Trust has been variously defined by behavioral scientists and not very thoroughly investigated. In this study trust was defined as an expectancy held by an individual that the behavior of another person or a group would be altruistic and personally beneficial. An attempt was made, using this conceptual definition, to identify some personality and behavioral correlates of trust. Seven interpersonal relations groups with approximately 10 male and female undergraduates per group were studied with use of the Janis and Field self-esteem inventory, Schutz's FIRO-B scale, and the Rotter internal-external scale. It was discovered that a trusted person is one who is highly influential, has an internal locus of control, a low need to control others, high self-esteem, and is open to being influenced by others.

  5. A multi-domain trust management model for supporting RFID applications of IoT.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xu; Li, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The use of RFID technology in complex and distributed environments often leads to a multi-domain RFID system, in which trust establishment among entities from heterogeneous domains without past interaction or prior agreed policy, is a challenge. The current trust management mechanisms in the literature do not meet the specific requirements in multi-domain RFID systems. Therefore, this paper analyzes the special challenges on trust management in multi-domain RFID systems, and identifies the implications and the requirements of the challenges on the solutions to the trust management of multi-domain RFID systems. A multi-domain trust management model is proposed, which provides a hierarchical trust management framework include a diversity of trust evaluation and establishment approaches. The simulation results and analysis show that the proposed method has excellent ability to deal with the trust relationships, better security, and higher accuracy rate.

  6. A multi-domain trust management model for supporting RFID applications of IoT

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The use of RFID technology in complex and distributed environments often leads to a multi-domain RFID system, in which trust establishment among entities from heterogeneous domains without past interaction or prior agreed policy, is a challenge. The current trust management mechanisms in the literature do not meet the specific requirements in multi-domain RFID systems. Therefore, this paper analyzes the special challenges on trust management in multi-domain RFID systems, and identifies the implications and the requirements of the challenges on the solutions to the trust management of multi-domain RFID systems. A multi-domain trust management model is proposed, which provides a hierarchical trust management framework include a diversity of trust evaluation and establishment approaches. The simulation results and analysis show that the proposed method has excellent ability to deal with the trust relationships, better security, and higher accuracy rate. PMID:28708855

  7. Cooperative Trust Games

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    situation, both agents could form a coalition with a mutually trusted third party, such as an escrow agent. The escrow agent would receive the payment from...one agent to verify that the good can be shipped, and then later disperse the payment to the other agent (minus the escrow fee) when the good has...common in real world scenarios, and justifies the importance of various trusted third parties, such as escrow companies, website authentication services

  8. Computationally modeling interpersonal trust.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Joo; Knox, W Bradley; Wormwood, Jolie B; Breazeal, Cynthia; Desteno, David

    2013-01-01

    We present a computational model capable of predicting-above human accuracy-the degree of trust a person has toward their novel partner by observing the trust-related nonverbal cues expressed in their social interaction. We summarize our prior work, in which we identify nonverbal cues that signal untrustworthy behavior and also demonstrate the human mind's readiness to interpret those cues to assess the trustworthiness of a social robot. We demonstrate that domain knowledge gained from our prior work using human-subjects experiments, when incorporated into the feature engineering process, permits a computational model to outperform both human predictions and a baseline model built in naiveté of this domain knowledge. We then present the construction of hidden Markov models to investigate temporal relationships among the trust-related nonverbal cues. By interpreting the resulting learned structure, we observe that models built to emulate different levels of trust exhibit different sequences of nonverbal cues. From this observation, we derived sequence-based temporal features that further improve the accuracy of our computational model. Our multi-step research process presented in this paper combines the strength of experimental manipulation and machine learning to not only design a computational trust model but also to further our understanding of the dynamics of interpersonal trust.

  9. Computationally modeling interpersonal trust

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Joo; Knox, W. Bradley; Wormwood, Jolie B.; Breazeal, Cynthia; DeSteno, David

    2013-01-01

    We present a computational model capable of predicting—above human accuracy—the degree of trust a person has toward their novel partner by observing the trust-related nonverbal cues expressed in their social interaction. We summarize our prior work, in which we identify nonverbal cues that signal untrustworthy behavior and also demonstrate the human mind's readiness to interpret those cues to assess the trustworthiness of a social robot. We demonstrate that domain knowledge gained from our prior work using human-subjects experiments, when incorporated into the feature engineering process, permits a computational model to outperform both human predictions and a baseline model built in naiveté of this domain knowledge. We then present the construction of hidden Markov models to investigate temporal relationships among the trust-related nonverbal cues. By interpreting the resulting learned structure, we observe that models built to emulate different levels of trust exhibit different sequences of nonverbal cues. From this observation, we derived sequence-based temporal features that further improve the accuracy of our computational model. Our multi-step research process presented in this paper combines the strength of experimental manipulation and machine learning to not only design a computational trust model but also to further our understanding of the dynamics of interpersonal trust. PMID:24363649

  10. Trusted Computing Technologies, Intel Trusted Execution Technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Guise, Max Joseph; Wendt, Jeremy Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We describe the current state-of-the-art in Trusted Computing Technologies - focusing mainly on Intel's Trusted Execution Technology (TXT). This document is based on existing documentation and tests of two existing TXT-based systems: Intel's Trusted Boot and Invisible Things Lab's Qubes OS. We describe what features are lacking in current implementations, describe what a mature system could provide, and present a list of developments to watch. Critical systems perform operation-critical computations on high importance data. In such systems, the inputs, computation steps, and outputs may be highly sensitive. Sensitive components must be protected from both unauthorized release, and unauthorized alteration: Unauthorized users should not access the sensitive input and sensitive output data, nor be able to alter them; the computation contains intermediate data with the same requirements, and executes algorithms that the unauthorized should not be able to know or alter. Due to various system requirements, such critical systems are frequently built from commercial hardware, employ commercial software, and require network access. These hardware, software, and network system components increase the risk that sensitive input data, computation, and output data may be compromised.

  11. Trusting Beliefs: A Functional Measurement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidotto, Giulio; Massidda, Davide; Noventa, Stefano; Vicentini, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Trust is a fundamental aspect of everyday life. Several authors define trust as the wish to depend on another entity and split the concept of trust into several interconnected components such as trusting beliefs (e.g., benevolence, competence, honesty, and predictability), trusting intentions, trusting behaviors, disposition to trust, and…

  12. Social trust and the management of threatened and endangered species: A study of communities of interest and communities of place.

    Treesearch

    George T. Cvetkovich; Patricia L Winter

    2002-01-01

    Social trust, the willingness to rely on those with formal responsibility to develop policies and make decisions, facilitates effective management of environmental issues, including wildlife management. National polls suggest that the public trusts government agencies to solve environmental problems, yet such trust is low (or non-existent) in areas of controversy, such...

  13. Chimpanzees Trust Their Friends.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Jan M; Herrmann, Esther

    2016-01-25

    The identification and recruitment of trustworthy partners represents an important adaptive challenge for any species that relies heavily on cooperation [1, 2]. From an evolutionary perspective, trust is difficult to account for as it involves, by definition, a risk of non-reciprocation and defection by cheaters [3, 4]. One solution for this problem is to form close emotional bonds, i.e., friendships, which enable trust even in contexts where cheating would be profitable [5]. Little is known about the evolutionary origins of the human tendency to form close social bonds to overcome the trust problem. Studying chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), one of our closest living relatives, is one way of identifying these origins. While a growing body of research indicates that at least some of the properties of close human relationships find parallels in the social bonds of chimpanzees [6-10] and that chimpanzees extend favors preferentially toward selected individuals [11-14], it is unclear whether such interactions are based on trust. To fill this gap in knowledge, we observed the social interactions of a group of chimpanzees and established dyadic friendship relations. We then presented chimpanzees with a modified, non-verbal version of the human trust game and found that chimpanzees trust their friends significantly more frequently than their non-friends. These results suggest that trust within closely bonded dyads is not unique to humans but rather has its evolutionary roots in the social relationships of our closest primate relatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Trust Transitivity in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected “fringe” nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its “fringe” peers. PMID:21483683

  15. 25 CFR 900.3 - Policy statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... autonomy and flexibility in the administration of such programs. (2) It is the policy of the Secretary to... activities funded under the contract. The Secretary will continue to discharge the trust responsibilities to protect and conserve the trust resources of Indian tribes and the trust resources of individual...

  16. 25 CFR 900.3 - Policy statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... autonomy and flexibility in the administration of such programs. (2) It is the policy of the Secretary to... activities funded under the contract. The Secretary will continue to discharge the trust responsibilities to protect and conserve the trust resources of Indian tribes and the trust resources of individual...

  17. 36 CFR 1002.62 - Memorialization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Memorialization. 1002.62 Section 1002.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.62 Memorialization. (a) The installation of a monument, memorial, tablet, structure,...

  18. 36 CFR 1002.62 - Memorialization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Memorialization. 1002.62 Section 1002.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.62 Memorialization. (a) The installation of a monument, memorial, tablet, structure,...

  19. 36 CFR 1002.62 - Memorialization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Memorialization. 1002.62 Section 1002.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.62 Memorialization. (a) The installation of a monument, memorial, tablet, structure,...

  20. 36 CFR 1002.62 - Memorialization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Memorialization. 1002.62 Section 1002.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.62 Memorialization. (a) The installation of a monument, memorial, tablet, structure,...

  1. Stochastic models of the Social Security trust funds.

    PubMed

    Burdick, Clark; Manchester, Joyce

    Each year in March, the Board of Trustees of the Social Security trust funds reports on the current and projected financial condition of the Social Security programs. Those programs, which pay monthly benefits to retired workers and their families, to the survivors of deceased workers, and to disabled workers and their families, are financed through the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) Trust Funds. In their 2003 report, the Trustees present, for the first time, results from a stochastic model of the combined OASDI trust funds. Stochastic modeling is an important new tool for Social Security policy analysis and offers the promise of valuable new insights into the financial status of the OASDI trust funds and the effects of policy changes. The results presented in this article demonstrate that several stochastic models deliver broadly consistent results even though they use very different approaches and assumptions. However, they also show that the variation in trust fund outcomes differs as the approach and assumptions are varied. Which approach and assumptions are best suited for Social Security policy analysis remains an open question. Further research is needed before the promise of stochastic modeling is fully realized. For example, neither parameter uncertainty nor variability in ultimate assumption values is recognized explicitly in the analyses. Despite this caveat, stochastic modeling results are already shedding new light on the range and distribution of trust fund outcomes that might occur in the future.

  2. Trusted Translation Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atif, Yacine; Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Campbell, Piers; Mathew, Sujith Samuel

    Administering multilingual Web sites and applications reliably, involves interconnected and multipart tasks, where trust in the involved parties and content translation sources is paramount. Published Web sites may reflect content from databases, content management systems and other repositories to manage related Web content. But a Web site mirrored wholly or selectively onto a target language version requires streamlined trusted processes. Traditionally, files are translated and transferred via FTP, e-mail, or other communication means. Similarly, translation instructions are communicated between involved parties through verbal instruction, e-mail, and instruction files lead to a variety of inconsistencies and lack of trust in the translation process. This paper proposes a Web service approach to streamline the translation processes and an integration of trust properties in the proposed translation Web services. Web Services have been instrumental in handling problems inherent to systems integration, allowing web-based systems to converse and communicate data automatically. The OASIS Translation Web Services Technical Committee has released a standard way for Web Services to serve the translation and localization business. This article proposes a framework to centralize translation services at a reputable source providing a workflow and a mechanism to quantify service trust. An implementation of the framework is also described in the context of a localization case study.

  3. Contaminated salmon and the public's trust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, Samuel N.; Löfstedt, Ragnar E.

    2007-01-01

    Scientific uncertainties often make it difficult for environmental policy makers to determine how to communicate risks to the public. A constructive, holistic, multisectoral dialogue about an issue can improve understanding of uncertainties from different perspectives and clarify options for risk communication. Many environmental issues could benefit from explicit promotion of such a dialogue. When issues are complex, unconstructive advocacy, narrow focus, and exclusion of selected parties from decision making can erode public trust in science and lead to cynicism about the policies of government and the private sector.

  4. Exploring Meaning and Types of Trust in Maternity Care in Peri-Urban Kenya: A Qualitative Cross-Perspective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sripad, Pooja; Ozawa, Sachiko; Merritt, Maria W; Jennings, Larissa; Kerrigan, Deanna; Ndwiga, Charity; Abuya, Timothy; Warren, Charlotte E

    2017-08-01

    Trust offers a distinctive lens on facility responsiveness during labor and birth. Though acknowledged in prior literature, limited work exists linking conceptual and empirical spheres. This study explores trust in the maternity setting in Kenya through a theoretically driven qualitative approach. Focus groups ( n = 8, N = 70) with women who recently gave birth (WRB), pregnant women, and male partners, and in-depth-interviews ( n = 33) with WRB, frontline providers, and management, were conducted in and around a peri-urban public hospital. Combined coding and memo-writing showed that trust in maternity care is nested within understandings of institutional and societal trust. Content areas of trust include confidence, communication, integrity, mutual respect, competence, fairness, confidentiality, and systems trust. Trust is relevant, multidimensional, and dynamic. Examining trust provides a basis for developing quantitative measures and reveals structural underpinnings, repercussions for trust in other health areas, and health systems inequities, which have implications for maternal health policy, programming, and service utilization.

  5. Trust and obfuscation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sensoy, Murat; Bisdikian, Chatschik; Oren, Nir; Burnett, Chris; Norman, Timothy J.; Srivastava, Mani B.; Kaplan, Lance M.

    2012-06-01

    In modern coalition operations, decision makers must be capable of obtaining and fusing data from diverse sources. The reliability of these sources can vary, and, in order to protect their interests, the data they provide can be obfuscated. The trustworthiness of fused data depends on both the reliability of these sources and their obfuscation strategy. Information consumers must determine how to evaluate trust in the presence of obfuscation, while information providers must determine the appropriate level of obfuscation in order to ensure both that they remain trusted, and do not reveal any private information. In this paper, through a coalition scenario, we discuss and formalise trust and obfuscation in these contexts and the complex relationships between them.

  6. A qualitative study of patient (dis)trust in public and private hospitals: the importance of choice and pragmatic acceptance for trust considerations in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Paul R; Rokkas, Philippa; Cenko, Clinton; Pulvirenti, Mariastella; Dean, Nicola; Carney, Simon; Brown, Patrick; Calnan, Michael; Meyer, Samantha

    2015-07-30

    This paper explores the nature and reasoning for (dis)trust in Australian public and private hospitals. Patient trust increases uptake of, engagement with and optimal outcomes from healthcare services and is therefore central to health practice, policy and planning. A qualitative study in South Australia, including 36 in-depth interviews (18 from public and 18 from private hospitals). 'Private patients' made active choices about both their hospital and doctor, playing the role of the 'consumer', where trust and choice went hand in hand. The reputation of the doctor and hospital were key drivers of trust, under the assumption that a better reputation equates with higher quality care. However, making a choice to trust a doctor led to personal responsibility and the additional requirement for self-trust. 'Public patients' described having no choice in their hospital or doctor. They recognised 'problems' in the public healthcare system but accepted and even excused these as 'part of the system'. In order to justify their trust, they argued that doctors in public hospitals tried to do their best in difficult circumstances, thereby deserving of trust. This 'resigned trust' may stem from a lack of alternatives for free health care and thus a dependence on the system. These two contrasting models of trust within the same locality point to the way different configurations of healthcare systems, hospital experiences, insurance coverage and related forms of 'choice' combine to shape different formats of trust, as patients act to manage their vulnerability within these contexts.

  7. Trust in Anonymity Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassone, Vladimiro; Hamadou, Sardaouna; Yang, Mu

    Anonymity is a security property of paramount importance, as we move steadily towards a wired, online community. Its import touches upon subjects as different as eGovernance, eBusiness and eLeisure, as well as personal freedom of speech in authoritarian societies. Trust metrics are used in anonymity networks to support and enhance reliability in the absence of verifiable identities, and a variety of security attacks currently focus on degrading a user's trustworthiness in the eyes of the other users. In this paper, we analyse the privacy guarantees of the Crowds anonymity protocol, with and without onion forwarding, for standard and adaptive attacks against the trust level of honest users.

  8. TRUST, A Proposed Plan for Trusted Integrated Circuits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-20

    1714 Dean.collins@darpa.mil Summary: This paper outlines a DARPA’s Plan for Producing Trusted, Low Volume, Affordable, Fast Cycle Time, RADHard ...technical nature. The DARPA TRUST effort is not synonymous with RADHard , affordable, low volume and fast cycle time, but many customers for trusted

  9. Trust in Security-Policy Enforcement Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    Final Report 6. AUTHOR(S) Schneider, Fred B. Morrisett, Greg 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...July 2003 - 30 November 2005 Fred B. Schneider Greg Morrisett Computer Science Department Computer Science Department Cornell University Harvard...finite sets of keys, and therefore approximations are the best that can be achieved. Personnel Supported Faculty: Fred B. Schneider and Greg Morrisett

  10. The John Stanley Coulter memorial lecture. Anatomy of change: the need for effective disability policy change agents.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Robert

    2010-02-01

    The 2009 Coulter Lecture highlights the need for effective disability policy change agents to advocate for health care policy and research that focuses on optimizing the health and function of individuals with disabilities and chronic conditions-not only on their full restoration/cure. The lecture describes the "grotesque" historical treatment of persons with disabilities under the old policy framework, the treatment of people with disabilities under the new/emerging disability policy framework, and the critical role played by coalitions in bringing about progressive, sustainable change on behalf of individuals with disabilities. Copyright 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Trust It or Trash It?

    MedlinePlus

    Trust It or Trash It? About | Contact | Español Tab 1 Tab 2 What is Trust It or Trash It? This is a tool to help you think ... here for the developer version. Home Who Said It? Who wrote it? Think about TRUSTING IT if: ...

  12. Trust Development in Outdoor Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shooter, Wynn; Paisley, Karen; Sibthorp, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Establishing trusting relationships between leaders and participants is one way that outdoor leaders can create an emotionally safe and productive milieu that supports the attainment of desirable outcomes. Multidisciplinary literature offers considerable insight into leader trust development and the outcomes that are linked to trust in a leader.…

  13. Why Teachers Trust School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handford, Victoria; Leithwood, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Trust among teachers in schools is significantly related to student achievement and trust in school leaders is an important influence on such trust. The purpose of this study is to identify leadership practices which teachers interpret as signs of trustworthiness on the part of their principals. Design/methodology/approach: Evidence for…

  14. Why Teachers Trust School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handford, Victoria; Leithwood, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Trust among teachers in schools is significantly related to student achievement and trust in school leaders is an important influence on such trust. The purpose of this study is to identify leadership practices which teachers interpret as signs of trustworthiness on the part of their principals. Design/methodology/approach: Evidence for…

  15. Human Trust in Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Robert and Bertrand David (Eds.):  Proceedings of the 18th International Conference of the Association Francophone d’Interaction Homme ‐ Machine ...provides us with an avenue of approach; that is, to understand how trust is mediated by technology interfaces and connections. Salamacha and

  16. Four Essential Practices for Building Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Julie Peterson; Harris, Sandra; Edmonson, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The presence of trust can enhance an organization's efforts to fulfill its mission, and the lack of trust can constrict those efforts. The authors offer four essential guidelines to help school leaders communicate in a way that builds trust. Build trust by understanding trust. Trusted leaders demonstrate care, character, and competence in their…

  17. Four Essential Practices for Building Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Julie Peterson; Harris, Sandra; Edmonson, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The presence of trust can enhance an organization's efforts to fulfill its mission, and the lack of trust can constrict those efforts. The authors offer four essential guidelines to help school leaders communicate in a way that builds trust. Build trust by understanding trust. Trusted leaders demonstrate care, character, and competence in their…

  18. Are All Trust Violations the Same? A Dynamical Examination of Culture, Trust Dissolution, and Trust Recovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    interdependence grows, understanding how culture affects trust and how we can manage trust in intercultural relations is imperative. However, relatively few...construal and trust violation magnitude on the dynamic of trust changes. Implications for intercultural negotiation will be discussed. Keywords...in their degree; a delay in returning a book is clearly different from failure to keep a marriage vow. Small transgressions, therefore, should not

  19. Iranian public trust in health services: evidence from Tabriz, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, J S; Saadati, M; Sadeghi-Bazargani, H; Abedi, L; Alibabayee, R

    2017-01-23

    This study investigated public trust in health services in Tabriz, Islamic Republic of Iran. A crosssectional household study was conducted in 2014, using random cluster sampling. A total of 1050 households were enrolled in the study and a valid questionnaire was used to collect data through interviews. The mean score for public trust in health services in Tabriz (out of 100) was 53.91 ± 13.7. People had most trust in professional expertise and lowest in macro-level policy. Specialists, pharmacy doctors and nurses were the health providers that enjoyed the highest levels of trust. It is concluded that public trust in health services in Tabriz is low and policy-makers need to employ appropriate policies to improve patients' experience of health services.

  20. Homo economicus belief inhibits trust.

    PubMed

    Xin, Ziqiang; Liu, Guofang

    2013-01-01

    As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners' benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals' homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people's increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust.

  1. Homo Economicus Belief Inhibits Trust

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Ziqiang; Liu, Guofang

    2013-01-01

    As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners’ benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals’ homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people’s increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust. PMID:24146907

  2. Trust relations in health care: an agenda for future research.

    PubMed

    Calnan, Michael; Rowe, Rosemary; Entwistle, Vikki

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to draw together suggestions for future research from the papers and from the discussion that took place at the workshop. The suggestions are summarised under four broad themes. At an international workshop on trust organised by the U.K. MRC Health Services Research Collaboration there was broad agreement that trust was still a salient issue in diverse health care contexts. The workshop proceedings identified a number of important questions for empirical research and several key conceptual, theoretical and methodological questions relating to trust that need to be addressed in support of or alongside this. The collection of papers in this volume starts to address some of these questions. Considers trust relations in health care from patient, clinical, organisational and policy perspectives.

  3. Social Trust of Virtual Identities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seigneur, Jean-Marc

    Most other chapters of this book discuss computational models of trust in broader terms, giving definitions of trust, explaining how trust should evolve over time, surveying the different facets of trust .On the other hand, this chapter has a clear focus on the important element of identity in computational trust mechanisms. Trust and reputation are easier to form in face-to-face situations than in situations involving the use of computers and networks because the identity of the trustee is more difficult to verify. In this chapter, the different means to recognise virtual identities are surveyed. Next, their integration into computational trust engines is discussed, especially according to four main requirements: Adaptability, Security, Usability and Privacy (ASUP).

  4. Implementing a Portable Trusted Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zic, John; Nepal, Surya

    The development of trusted systems, as envisaged by the Trusted Computing Group, assumed that the computing environments are uniform in terms of their operational environment, including hardware configuration, execution of a standard set of applications, operating system and facilities and procedures that allow the issue, revocation and maintenance of critical encryption keys and authorization certificates. These assumptions may be applicable to a single managed enterprise infrastructure. However, in situations where the users are mobile, or the computing environment is heterogeneous and the Internet provides the connectivity, the management of trust between enterprises becomes overwhelmingly difficult, if not impossible. As a result, deployment and uptake of trusted secure systems based on Trusted Platform Module have not been as successful as first envisaged. In this paper, we report on our experiences in designing and implementing a prototype personal trusted device called the Trust Extension Device, or TED, that provides users with a portable trustworthy environment for conducting transactions on any Internet connected computer.

  5. Trust on the health Internet.

    PubMed

    Kemper, D W

    2001-01-01

    Trust and ethics have become common themes when discussing health on the Internet. By all accounts, trust is the key issue in the consumer's mind when considering whether or not to use a medical Web site. The user has two basic questions: Can I trust this information to be unbiased? Can I trust this site to protect my privacy? Without that trust, people are highly reluctant to become serious users of a health Web site, presenting a problem for managed care organizations whose public image already suffers from a lack of public trust. Health plans can re-earn that trust by providing evidence-based Information Therapy programs that prescribe to their members the information they need to make decisions and avoid medical mistakes.

  6. Struggling with imaginaries of trauma and trust: the refugee experience in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Gross, Corina Salis

    2004-06-01

    This article discusses some effects of migration politics on asylum seekers and refugees and on the Swiss health services. It is based on multisited ethnographic research that tracked interpretative concepts of the refugee experience. Following a grounded theory approach, it identifies imaginaries of trauma and trust as key categories in the field of transnational migration and health. The psychiatric concept of trauma and a more popularized discourse of traumatic memory are strongly emphasized in all of the investigated field sites: the providers of primary health care and psychosocial services and representatives of social welfare agencies and law-making bodies use this "diagnosis" extensively. This leads refugees to develop tactics of a) identifying with the trauma discourse in order to become "good refugees" and achieve legal status in Switzerland; b) struggling with the ascribed pathologies and suffering from retraumatizing effects of these predominant trauma policies; and c) trying to refuse or subvert them by emphasizing the existence of structural violence in the receiving countries. An analysis of the interactions of health providers and refugees shows that it takes place in an environment of social and economic insecurity and in a shared imaginary of (mis)trust, putting at stake the moral economy of recent migration politics and the refugee experience.

  7. The Condition for Generous Trust

    PubMed Central

    Shinya, Obayashi; Yusuke, Inagaki; Hiroki, Takikawa

    2016-01-01

    Trust has been considered the “cement” of a society and is much studied in sociology and other social sciences. Most studies, however, have neglected one important aspect of trust: it involves an act of forgiving and showing tolerance toward another’s failure. In this study, we refer to this concept as “generous trust” and examine the conditions under which generous trust becomes a more viable option when compared to other types of trust. We investigate two settings. First, we introduce two types of uncertainties: uncertainty as to whether trustees have the intention to cooperate, and uncertainty as to whether trustees have enough competence to accomplish the entrusted tasks. Second, we examine the manner in which trust functions in a broader social context, one that involves matching and commitment processes. Since we expect generosity or forgiveness to work differently in the matching and commitment processes, we must differentiate trust strategies into generous trust in the matching process and that in the commitment process. Our analytical strategy is two-fold. First, we analyze the “modified” trust game that incorporates the two types of uncertainties without the matching process. This simplified setting enables us to derive mathematical results using game theory, thereby giving basic insight into the trust mechanism. Second, we investigate socially embedded trust relationships in contexts involving the matching and commitment processes, using agent-based simulation. Results show that uncertainty about partner’s intention and competence makes generous trust a viable option. In contrast, too much uncertainty undermines the possibility of generous trust. Furthermore, a strategy that is too generous cannot stand alone. Generosity should be accompanied with moderate punishment. As for socially embedded trust relationships, generosity functions differently in the matching process versus the commitment process. Indeed, these two types of generous

  8. 26 CFR 1.643(a)-8 - Certain distributions by charitable remainder trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contributions. Upon the death of D, the proceeds of a life insurance policy on D's life are payable to T, a... commencing upon D's death, the trust shall pay an annuity amount equal to $x annually to A, the child of D. After the expiration of such three-year period, the remainder interest in the trust is to be transferred...

  9. The Dimensionality of Trust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-30

    possible responses that were worded either positively or negatively for mistrust. Using confirmatory factor analysis , the authors extracted one general...validity of their measure. Lastly, Omodei and McLennan (2000) explored the dimensionality of their measure by using confirmatory factor analysis to...confirmatory factor analysis showed these items to fit the two construct solution. That is, the model depicting trust and suspicion as two distinct

  10. Technology, Intelligence, and TRUST

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    single email or message. The collections team does not have to make an either/or decision about whom to send its intercept or interrogation report...International security studies at the George C. Marshall Center for european security studies in Garmisch- Partenkirchen, Germany. he is a career ... career as an intelligence officer, I was told on numerous occasions, “Trust us, when the balloon goes up, you’ll get all the intelligence you need

  11. Trusted Computer Systems - Glossary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Trusted Computer Systems- Glossary George A. Huff March 1981 CONTRACTSPONSOR OUSDRE, 0 3T I CONTRACT NO, FT1968-8J1-C-001C PROJECT NO 8120 DEPT. 075...its use for the simultaneous processing of multiple levels of classified or sensitive information. This glossary was prepared for distribution at the...Third Computer Security Initiative Seminar held at the Nati-onal Bureau of Standards, November 18-20, 1980. Emphasis is on terms which relate to the

  12. Position Paper: Applying Machine Learning to Software Analysis to Achieve Trusted, Repeatable Scientific Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Prowell, Stacy J; Symons, Christopher T

    2015-01-01

    Producing trusted results from high-performance codes is essential for policy and has significant economic impact. We propose combining rigorous analytical methods with machine learning techniques to achieve the goal of repeatable, trustworthy scientific computing.

  13. Retrospective: Ivy Lee and the German Dye Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hainsworth, Brad E.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the relationship between public relations trailblazer Ivy Lee and the German Dye Trust, which became an agent for the policies of Adolf Hitler. Discusses how Lee's efforts to use this relationship to persuade his contacts to influence the Nazi leadership failed because of his formal connection with this group. (JD)

  14. Retrospective: Ivy Lee and the German Dye Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hainsworth, Brad E.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the relationship between public relations trailblazer Ivy Lee and the German Dye Trust, which became an agent for the policies of Adolf Hitler. Discusses how Lee's efforts to use this relationship to persuade his contacts to influence the Nazi leadership failed because of his formal connection with this group. (JD)

  15. Optimal Distinctiveness Signals Membership Trust.

    PubMed

    Leonardelli, Geoffrey J; Loyd, Denise Lewin

    2016-07-01

    According to optimal distinctiveness theory, sufficiently small minority groups are associated with greater membership trust, even among members otherwise unknown, because the groups are seen as optimally distinctive. This article elaborates on the prediction's motivational and cognitive processes and tests whether sufficiently small minorities (defined by relative size; for example, 20%) are associated with greater membership trust relative to mere minorities (45%), and whether such trust is a function of optimal distinctiveness. Two experiments, examining observers' perceptions of minority and majority groups and using minimal groups and (in Experiment 2) a trust game, revealed greater membership trust in minorities than majorities. In Experiment 2, participants also preferred joining minorities over more powerful majorities. Both effects occurred only when minorities were 20% rather than 45%. In both studies, perceptions of optimal distinctiveness mediated effects. Discussion focuses on the value of relative size and optimal distinctiveness, and when membership trust manifests.

  16. Towards a politics of trust.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, T

    1998-05-01

    This paper draws upon sociological theory to demonstrate that the manufacture and deployment of trust is an integral part of the function of complex systems such as health care. The discussion begins by identifying the error within the nursing literature which arises from a rather technical conceptualization of trust. This tends to limit the dimensions to trust which is established, and fails to recognize that trust may be subject to competition and conflict. The paper continues by drawing upon the work of two theorists, Niklas Luhmann and Susan P. Shapiro, to demonstrate how trust functions within systems such as health care and the mechanisms through which it is controlled. The title of this paper, 'Towards a politics of trust', identifies that this is merely the first stage in the analysis. Further stages are necessary which analyse the ways in which power is exercised in the conflict for control within discrete elements of the system.

  17. Building and Understanding Trust Relationships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-17

    interdependence. To meet these challenges, senior military leaders must understand and build internal and external trust. The Ken Blanchard Company, one...Military Review: The Profession of Arms, September 30, 2011, 16. 2 The Ken Blanchard Company, “Building Trust,” 2010,pdf, http...www.kenblanchard.com/img/pub/ Blanchard -Building-Trust.pdf (accessed November 27, 2011). 3 Richard H. Kohn, “The Early Retirement of Gen. Ronald Fogleman, Chief of

  18. Trust-Effectiveness Patterns in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Patrick B.; Barnes, Laura L. B.; Adams, Curt M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the consequences of relational trust, especially parent measured trust, for desirable school outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Using a US Midwestern state sample of 79 schools, parent and teacher trust data are used to derive a trust-effectiveness typology. Trust was conceptualized as one party's willingness to be…

  19. A Requisite for Employee Trust: Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kerry Marshall

    1988-01-01

    Provides background on organizational trust as product of need satisfaction and presents framework for understanding organizational trust with regard to theoretical differentiation of personal trust and system trust. Defines three factors of organizational trust: openness/congruity, shared values, and autonomy/feedback. Discusses how supervisors…

  20. Capturing Young American Trust in National Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Lauren A.

    2011-01-01

    A pattern of decreasing trusting proportions in each consecutive decade and increasing trusting proportions with age was revealed in data. Although trust levels were lower in younger adults and the 2000s, findings did not support hypotheses of more rapidly falling trust levels or a college degree procuring less trust in the 2000s. A hypothesis of…

  1. Trusting in the New NHS: instrumental versus communicative action.

    PubMed

    Brown, Patrick R

    2008-04-01

    Recent reforms within the UK National Health Service, particularly the introduction of clinical governance, have been enacted with the apparent aim of rebuilding patient trust. This paper analyses the approach taken by policy makers, arguing that it is based very much on an instrumental conception of trust. The assumptions and limitations of this model are discussed and in so doing, a communicative understanding of trust is proposed as an alternative. It is argued that the instrumental rationality and institutional focus inherent to instrumental trust neglect the importance of the communication between patient and medical professional and its affective dimensions. Communicative trust goes beyond a mere cognitive appreciation of the system and rather is dependent on the qualitative interaction at the access point, where the patient comes to believe that the communicative rationality of their best interests is mirrored by the professional's instrumental rationality. Whilst recent challenges to the confidence of patients in professionals and medical knowledge make some approximation of an ideal speech situation more imperative than previously, the application of an instrumental concept of trust in the NHS makes such interactions less likely, as well as facilitating a divergence between instrumental and communicative rationality in healthcare provision.

  2. Only the carrot, not the stick: incorporating trust into the enforcement of regulation.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Juan P; Wielhouwer, Jacco L

    2015-01-01

    New enforcement strategies allow agents to gain the regulator's trust and consequently face a lower audit probability. Prior research suggests that, in order to prevent lower compliance, a reduction in the audit probability (the "carrot") must be compensated with the introduction of a higher penalty for non-compliance (the "stick"). However, such carrot-and-stick strategies reflect neither the concept of trust nor the strategies observed in practice. In response to this, we define trust-based regulation as a strategy that incorporates rules that allow trust to develop, and using a generic (non-cooperative) game of tax compliance, we examine whether trust-based regulation is feasible (i.e., whether, in equilibrium, a reduction in the audit probability, without ever increasing the penalty for non-compliance, does not lead to reduced compliance). The model shows that trust-based regulation is feasible when the agent sufficiently values the future. In line with the concept of trust, this strategy is feasible when the regulator is uncertain about the agent's intentions. Moreover, the model shows that (i) introducing higher penalties makes trust-based regulation less feasible, and (ii) combining trust and forgiveness can lead to a lower audit probability for both trusted and distrusted agents. Policy recommendations often point toward increasing deterrence. This model shows that the opposite can be optimal.

  3. Only the Carrot, Not the Stick: Incorporating Trust into the Enforcement of Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Juan P.; Wielhouwer, Jacco L.

    2015-01-01

    New enforcement strategies allow agents to gain the regulator’s trust and consequently face a lower audit probability. Prior research suggests that, in order to prevent lower compliance, a reduction in the audit probability (the “carrot”) must be compensated with the introduction of a higher penalty for non-compliance (the “stick”). However, such carrot-and-stick strategies reflect neither the concept of trust nor the strategies observed in practice. In response to this, we define trust-based regulation as a strategy that incorporates rules that allow trust to develop, and using a generic (non-cooperative) game of tax compliance, we examine whether trust-based regulation is feasible (i.e., whether, in equilibrium, a reduction in the audit probability, without ever increasing the penalty for non-compliance, does not lead to reduced compliance). The model shows that trust-based regulation is feasible when the agent sufficiently values the future. In line with the concept of trust, this strategy is feasible when the regulator is uncertain about the agent’s intentions. Moreover, the model shows that (i) introducing higher penalties makes trust-based regulation less feasible, and (ii) combining trust and forgiveness can lead to a lower audit probability for both trusted and distrusted agents. Policy recommendations often point toward increasing deterrence. This model shows that the opposite can be optimal. PMID:25705898

  4. The Need to Trust and to Trust More Wisely in Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Where trust is an issue, there is no trust. Trust in diverse organizations has never been lower. A shadow of doubt stalks one's every decision to trust collegially and institutionally. Still, colleagues sense intuitively that institutions cannot function optimally without a bedrock level of trust. In academic life, trust is a form of social…

  5. Generalized Trust and Trust in Institutions in Confucian Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Soo Jiuan; Tambyah, Siok Kuan

    2011-01-01

    This study examines generalized trust and trust in institutions in Confucian Asia, covering six countries namely, China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam, and one dependent region, Hong Kong. Using data from the 2006 AsiaBarometer Survey, our study affirms the reliability and validity of using a two-item scale to measure…

  6. Generalized Trust and Trust in Institutions in Confucian Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Soo Jiuan; Tambyah, Siok Kuan

    2011-01-01

    This study examines generalized trust and trust in institutions in Confucian Asia, covering six countries namely, China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam, and one dependent region, Hong Kong. Using data from the 2006 AsiaBarometer Survey, our study affirms the reliability and validity of using a two-item scale to measure…

  7. 12 CFR 7.2022 - Voting trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Practices § 7.2022 Voting trusts. The shareholders of a national bank may establish a voting trust under the applicable law of a state selected by the participants and designated in the trust agreement, provided the...

  8. 12 CFR 7.2022 - Voting trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Practices § 7.2022 Voting trusts. The shareholders of a national bank may establish a voting trust under the applicable law of a state selected by the participants and designated in the trust agreement, provided the...

  9. 12 CFR 7.2022 - Voting trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Practices § 7.2022 Voting trusts. The shareholders of a national bank may establish a voting trust under the applicable law of a state selected by the participants and designated in the trust agreement, provided the...

  10. Obtaining corporate information from NHS foundation trusts.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Valerie; Endacott, Ruth; Sheaff, Rod; Jones, Ray

    Foundation trusts have boards of directors that are responsible for the day-to-day running of the organisation, planning services and developing strategy. Unlike non-foundation trusts and primary care trusts (PCTs), foundation trusts are not obliged to hold directors' board meetings in public. This article describes the online availability and accessibility of the minutes of such meetings in a number of foundation trusts, non-foundation trusts and PCTs. The implications for transparency in the NHS are also discussed.

  11. TrustGuard: A Containment Architecture with Verified Output

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    Taek-Jun Kwon, J. Sondeen, and J. Draper. Design Trade-Offs in Floating-Point Unit Implementation for Embedded and Processing-in-Memory Systems . In 2005...may include purchasing components only from trusted companies, tamper- proofing system components [52], formal verification of component designs [64, 70...reality of creating modern systems —from the outsourcing and offshoring of design and fabrication to the incorporation of third-party components protected

  12. A Guide to Understanding Covert Channel Analysis of Trusted Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    computer products for use by any organization desiring better protection of its important data . One way we do this is by supporting the Trusted Product...I/O Operation Completion Channels ................... 113 A.2.3 Memory Resource Management Channels .............. 114 A.2.3.1 Data Page Pool Channels...normally viewed as data objects to transfer information from one subject to another." [Kemmerer83] The last three of the above definitions have been

  13. Suspicion, Trust, and Automation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-08

    EMBS, 2004. [2] R. McKendrick, H. Ayaz, R. Olmstead, and R. Parasuraman, “ Enhancing Dual-Task Performance with Verbal and Spatial Working Memory ...technology to enhance people’s lives (e.g., Gill et al., 2011). Technology, unfortunately, can also be used in ways that harm people, such as when a...Learning, Memory , & Cognition, 34(3), 712-718. doi:10.1037/0278-7393.34.3.712 Fischer, R., Gottschalk, C., & Dreisbach, G. (2014). Context-sensitive

  14. Trusted Computing Strengthens Cloud Authentication

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM). Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO) and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model. PMID:24701149

  15. Trusted computing strengthens cloud authentication.

    PubMed

    Ghazizadeh, Eghbal; Zamani, Mazdak; Ab Manan, Jamalul-lail; Alizadeh, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM). Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO) and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model.

  16. Trust-based environmental regulation.

    PubMed

    Lange, Bettina; Gouldson, Andy

    2010-10-15

    Within this paper, we examine the contribution that trust-based relationships can make to achieving better-and particularly more effective, efficient and equitable-environmental regulation. While levels of trust in regulators, regulatory processes and outcomes are often discussed, the influence of trust on different actors and on different measures of regulatory performance is poorly understood. Within this paper, we define trust-based environmental regulation as a specific regulatory style that involves openness and cooperation in interaction between regulated, regulators and third-party stakeholders in order to achieve environmental protection objectives. We then discuss the pros and cons of trust relationships between regulators, regulated businesses and citizens for achieving behavioural change towards greater environmental protection. To illustrate the significance of these issues, we then examine three forms of contractual regulatory style where trust relationships are critically important: responsive regulation, self-regulation and environmental agreements. Based on this analysis, we highlight the importance of trust-based relationships, and we argue that one of the greatest contributions of trust-based environmental regulation is to challenge how we think about regulation. Trust is often understood as enabling existing regulatory relationships or in the case of self-regulation as a complement to regulation. However, we argue that the real potential of trust is to open up new ways for participants in regulatory regimes to engage in collective action, to go beyond a perception of regulation as driven by the competing interests of individual actors, and thus, to open up new channels of influence for behavioural change towards greater environmental protection. Our analysis therefore has great relevance for future research and for on-going debates on the future of regulation. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Influence of trust in the spreading of information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hongrun; Arenas, Alex; Gómez, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The understanding and prediction of information diffusion processes on networks is a major challenge in network theory with many implications in social sciences. Many theoretical advances occurred due to stochastic spreading models. Nevertheless, these stochastic models overlooked the influence of rational decisions on the outcome of the process. For instance, different levels of trust in acquaintances do play a role in information spreading, and actors may change their spreading decisions during the information diffusion process accordingly. Here, we study an information-spreading model in which the decision to transmit or not is based on trust. We explore the interplay between the propagation of information and the trust dynamics happening on a two-layer multiplex network. Actors' trustable or untrustable states are defined as accumulated cooperation or defection behaviors, respectively, in a Prisoner's Dilemma setup, and they are controlled by a memory span. The propagation of information is abstracted as a threshold model on the information-spreading layer, where the threshold depends on the trustability of agents. The analysis of the model is performed using a tree approximation and validated on homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. The results show that the memory of previous actions has a significant effect on the spreading of information. For example, the less memory that is considered, the higher is the diffusion. Information is highly promoted by the emergence of trustable acquaintances. These results provide insight into the effect of plausible biases on spreading dynamics in a multilevel networked system.

  18. Building Trust, Forging Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Scott Andrews was a former guidance counselor with no experience in school administration when he became Amityville Memorial High School's principal in 2004, but he brought a wealth of knowledge and experience in psychology--including a doctorate--to the position. He also quickly recruited Peter Hutchison, a special education teacher, to be an…

  19. Trust in performance indicators?

    PubMed Central

    Davies, H. T.; Lampel, J.

    1998-01-01

    The 1980s and 90s have seen the proliferation of all forms of performance indicators as part of attempts to command and control health services. The latest area to receive attention is health outcomes. Published league tables of mortality and other health outcomes have been available in the United States for some time and in Scotland since the early 1990s; they have now been developed for England and Wales. Publication of these data has proceeded despite warnings as to their limited meaningfulness and usefulness. The time has come to ask whether the remedy is worse than the malady: are published health outcomes contributing to quality efforts or subverting more constructive approaches? This paper argues that attempts to force improvements through publishing health outcomes can be counterproductive, and outlines an alternative approach which involves fostering greater trust in professionalism as a basis for quality enhancements. PMID:10185142

  20. The Business of Trust.

    PubMed

    Frisse, Mark E

    2016-04-01

    New mobile devices, social networks, analytics, and communications technologies are emerging at an unparalleled rate. As a result, academic health centers will face both new opportunities and formidable challenges. Unlike previous transitions from paper-based systems to networked computer systems, these new technologies are the product of new entrepreneurial and commercial interests driven by consumers. As these new commercial products and services are more widely adopted, the likelihood grows that data will be used in unanticipated ways inconsistent with societal norms. Academic health centers will have to understand the implications of these technologies and engage more actively in processes governing the collection, aggregation, and use of health data produced in a new era of consumer-driven health care technology. Maintaining public trust should be a paramount concern.

  1. Never trust a croup…

    PubMed Central

    Nickinson, Andrew; Minhas, Jatinder Singh; Bhalla, Minak; Anwuzia-Iwegbu, Charles; Chapman, John

    2011-01-01

    A 2-year-old girl presented to the James Paget University Hospitals Trust with croup-like symptoms and was later discharged with dexamethasone syrup. The patient re-presented 6 h later following maternal concern with signs of acute respiratory distress. After a period of clinical stability, she acutely decompensated without any prior signs of a life-threatening deterioration. She was managed using nebulised epinephrine and showed signs of clinical improvement. Although improvement persisted, the child showed signs of exhaustion following the preceding events and was later intubed with an endotracheal tube and transferred to the paediatric intensive care unit at Addenbrooke’s University Hospital, Cambridge. Endotracheal aspiration later grew parainfluenza virus, rhinovirus and Staphylococcus aureus and the patient was diagnosed with the exceptionally rare life threatening complications of croup, bacterial tracheitis. The patient was discharged from intensive care 7 days later and has since made a full recovery. PMID:22689599

  2. ComTrustO: Composite Trust-Based Ontology Framework for Information and Decision Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-06

    ComTrustO: Composite Trust-based Ontology Framework for Information and Decision Fusion Alessandro Oltramari Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh... ontology -based framework for information fusion, as a support system for human decision makers. In particular, we build upon the concept of composite...multidimensional trust, we construct a composite trust ontology framework, called ComTrustO, that embraces four trust ontologies , one for each trust type. We

  3. Harm Reduction and Tensions in Trust and Distrust in a Mental Health Service: A Qualitative Approach.

    PubMed

    Lago, Rozilaine Redi; Peter, Elizabeth; Bógus, Cláudia Maria

    2017-03-08

    People seeking care for substance use (PSCSU) experience deep social and health inequities. Harm reduction can be a moral imperative to approach these persons. The purpose of this study was to explore relationships among users, health care providers, relatives, and society regarding harm reduction in mental health care, using a trust approach rooted in feminist ethics. A qualitative study was conducted in a mental health service for PSCSU, and included fifteen participants who were health care providers, users, and their relatives. Individual in-depth and group interviews, participant observation, and a review of patients' records and service reports were conducted. Three nested levels of (dis)trust were identified: (dis)trust in the treatment, (dis)trust in the user, and self-(dis)trust of the user, revealing the interconnections among different layers of trust. (Dis)trust at each level can amplify or decrease the potential for a positive therapeutic response in users, their relatives' support, and how professionals act and build innovations in care. Distrust was more abundant than trust in participants' reports, revealing the fragility of trust and the focus on abstinence within this setting. The mismatch between wants and needs of users and the expectations and requirements of a society and mental health care system based on a logic of "fixing" has contributed to distrust and stigma. Therefore, we recommend policies that increase the investment in harm reduction education and practice that target service providers, PSCSU, and society to change the context of distrust identified.

  4. Race, healthcare access and physician trust among prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Do, Young Kyung; Spain, Pamela; Clark, Jack A.; Hamilton, Robert J.; Galanko, Joseph A.; Jackman, Anne; Talcott, James A.; Godley, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of healthcare access and other characteristics on physician trust among black and white prostate cancer patients. Methods A three-timepoint follow-up telephone survey after cancer diagnosis was conducted. This study analyzed data on 474 patients and their 1,320 interviews over three time periods. Results Among other subpopulations, black patients who delayed seeking care had physician trust levels that were far lower than that of both Caucasians as well as that of the black patients overall. Black patients had greater variability in their levels of physician trust compared to their white counterparts. Conclusions Both race and access are important in explaining overall lower levels and greater variability in physician trust among black prostate cancer patients. Access barriers among black patients may spill over to the clinical encounter in the form of less physician trust, potentially contributing to racial disparities in treatment received and subsequent outcomes. Policy efforts to address the racial disparities in prostate cancer should prioritize improving healthcare access among minority groups. PMID:19777359

  5. The effect of propensity to trust and perceptions of trustworthiness on trust behaviors in dyads.

    PubMed

    Alarcon, Gene M; Lyons, Joseph B; Christensen, James C; Klosterman, Samantha L; Bowers, Margaret A; Ryan, Tyler J; Jessup, Sarah A; Wynne, Kevin T

    2017-09-15

    Research on trust has burgeoned in the last few decades. Despite the growing interest in trust, little is known about trusting behaviors in non-dichotomous trust games. The current study explored propensity to trust, trustworthiness, and trust behaviors in a new computer-mediated trust relevant task. We used multivariate multilevel survival analysis (MMSA) to analyze behaviors across time. Results indicated propensity to trust did not influence trust behaviors. However, trustworthiness perceptions influenced initial trust behaviors and trust behaviors influenced subsequent trustworthiness perceptions. Indeed, behaviors fully mediated the relationship of trustworthiness perceptions over time. The study demonstrated the utility of MMSA and the new trust game, Checkmate, as viable research methods and stimuli for assessing the loci of trust.

  6. 77 FR 39143 - Executive Branch Qualified Trusts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... continues to read as follows: Authority: 5 U.S.C. App. (Ethics in Government Act of 1978); 26 U.S.C. 1043... excess of the diversification standards. (c) Hybrid qualified trust. A qualified trust may contain both a... to this arrangement as a hybrid qualified trust. Sec. 2634.407 Certification of qualified trust...

  7. Revealing Preconditions for Trustful Collaboration in CSCL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses preconditions for trust in virtual learning environments. The concept of trust is discussed with reference to cases reporting trust in cyberspace and through a philosophical clarification holding that trust in the form of self-surrender is a common characteristic of all human co-existence. In virtual learning environments,…

  8. TRUST: TDRSS Resource User Support Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparn, Thomas P.; Gablehouse, R. Daniel

    1991-09-01

    TRUST-TDRSS (Tracking Data and Relay Satellite System) Resource User Support Tool is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: TRUST development cycle; the TRUST system; scheduling window; ODM/GCMR window; TRUST architecture; surpass; and summary.

  9. Trust, Behavior, and High School Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Lisa S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on student trust and to examine the relationship between student trust, behavior, and academic outcomes in high school. It asks, first, does trust have a positive effect on high school outcomes? Second, does trust influence student behavior, exerting an indirect effect on…

  10. The Complex Relationship between Cyberbullying and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieschl, Stephanie; Porsch, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Theoretically, there are strong arguments for a relationship between cyberbullying and trust. On the one hand, trust is built on experiences; thus, experiences of malevolence such as cyberbullying might contribute to low trust. On the other hand, high trust may lead to risky online behavior such as self-disclosures that could increase the risk of…

  11. 43 CFR 426.7 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trusts. 426.7 Section 426.7 Public Lands... LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.7 Trusts. (a) Definitions for purposes of this section: Grantor revocable trust means a trust that holds irrigable land or irrigation land that may be revoked at...

  12. 12 CFR 7.2022 - Voting trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting trusts. 7.2022 Section 7.2022 Banks and... Practices § 7.2022 Voting trusts. The shareholders of a national bank may establish a voting trust under the applicable law of a state selected by the participants and designated in the trust agreement, provided...

  13. 7 CFR 1400.100 - Revocable trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revocable trust. 1400.100 Section 1400.100... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Limitation § 1400.100 Revocable trust. A revocable trust and the grantor of the trust will be considered to be the same person....

  14. TRUST: TDRSS Resource User Support Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparn, Thomas P.; Gablehouse, R. Daniel

    1991-01-01

    TRUST-TDRSS (Tracking Data and Relay Satellite System) Resource User Support Tool is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: TRUST development cycle; the TRUST system; scheduling window; ODM/GCMR window; TRUST architecture; surpass; and summary.

  15. 14 CFR 47.8 - Voting trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting trusts. 47.8 Section 47.8... REGISTRATION General § 47.8 Voting trusts. (a) If a voting trust is used to qualify a domestic corporation as a... the fully executed voting trust agreement, which must identify each voting interest of the...

  16. 17 CFR 239.17c - Form N-6, registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance..., registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life... of separate accounts that offer variable life insurance policies and that register under the...

  17. 17 CFR 239.17c - Form N-6, registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance..., registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life... of separate accounts that offer variable life insurance policies and that register under the...

  18. 17 CFR 239.17c - Form N-6, registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance..., registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life... of separate accounts that offer variable life insurance policies and that register under the...

  19. 17 CFR 239.17c - Form N-6, registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance..., registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life... of separate accounts that offer variable life insurance policies and that register under the...

  20. 17 CFR 239.17c - Form N-6, registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance..., registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life... of separate accounts that offer variable life insurance policies and that register under the...

  1. Does Trust Beget Trustworthiness? Trust and Trustworthiness in Two Games and Two Cultures: A Research Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiyonari, Toko; Yamagishi, Toshio; Cook, Karen S.; Cheshire, Coye

    2006-01-01

    An important unanswered question in the empirical literature on trust is whether trusting begets trustworthiness. In two experimental games, with Japanese and American participants, respectively, we compared trust and trustworthiness to provide an answer to this question. The trustee in the standard Trust Game knows that he or she is trusted,…

  2. Trust is a must: What is involved in trusting those who manage forest fires?

    Treesearch

    Adam Liljeblad; Bill Borrie; Alan Watson

    2010-01-01

    Trust is a complicated emotion. In the past, many social scientists have studied trust. They discovered that trust involves a number of beliefs and emotions. The scientists in this study were interested in learning more about trust. They believed that forest managers can do a better job if people trust them to do what is best for citizens and the environment (figure 1...

  3. Trust Management Considerations For the Cooperative Infrastructure Defense Framework: Trust Relationships, Evidence, and Decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Maiden, Wendy M.

    2009-12-01

    Cooperative Infrastructure Defense (CID) is a hierarchical, agent-based, adaptive, cyber-security framework designed to collaboratively protect multiple enclaves or organizations participating in a complex infrastructure. CID employs a swarm of lightweight, mobile agents called Sensors designed to roam hosts throughout a security enclave to find indications of anomalies and report them to host-based Sentinels. The Sensors’ findings become pieces of a larger puzzle, which the Sentinel puts together to determine the problem and respond per policy as given by the enclave-level Sergeant agent. Horizontally across multiple enclaves and vertically within each enclave, authentication and access control technologies are necessary but insufficient authorization mechanisms to ensure that CID agents continue to fulfill their roles in a trustworthy manner. Trust management fills the gap, providing mechanisms to detect malicious agents and offering more robust mechanisms for authorization. This paper identifies the trust relationships throughout the CID hierarchy, the types of trust evidence that could be gathered, and the actions that the CID system could take if an entity is determined to be untrustworthy.

  4. Trust and Privacy in Healthcare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, Peter; Kalra, Dipak

    This paper considers issues of trust and privacy in healthcare around increased data-sharing through Electronic Health Records (EHRs). It uses a model structured around different aspects of trust in the healthcare organisation’s reasons for greater data-sharing and their ability to execute EHR projects, particularly any associated confidentiality controls. It reflects the individual’s personal circumstances and attitude to use of health records.

  5. Building Trust Through Servant Leadership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    standards within the whole organization. Patterson goes on to explain that trust in Servant Leadership nurtures teamwork , confidence, and self...emphasis on teamwork and equality. Patterson has found that when subordinates are trusted and empowered, they are self-accountable for the results they...empowerment include active listening, emphasizing teamwork , and valuing people. Another parallel to Army doctrine is that empowerment promotes critical

  6. Trust and Online Reputation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Ming; Ramachandran, Deepak

    Web 2.0 technologies provide organizations with unprecedented opportunities to expand and solidify relationships with their customers, partners, and employees—while empowering firms to define entirely new business models focused on sharing information in online collaborative environments. Yet, in and of themselves, these technologies cannot ensure productive online interactions. Leading enterprises that are experimenting with social networks and online communities are already discovering this fact and along with it, the importance of establishing trust as the foundation for online collaboration and transactions. Just as today's consumers must feel secure to bank, exchange personal information and purchase products and services online; participants in Web 2.0 initiatives will only accept the higher levels of risk and exposure inherent in e-commerce and Web collaboration in an environment of trust. Indeed, only by attending to the need to cultivate online trust with customers, partners and employees will enterprises ever fully exploit the expanded business potential posed by Web 2.0. But developing online trust is no easy feat. While various preliminary attempts have occurred, no definitive model for establishing or measuring it has yet been established. To that end, nGenera has identified three, distinct dimensions of online trust: reputation (quantitative-based); relationship (qualitative-based) and process (system-based). When considered together, they form a valuable model for understanding online trust and a toolbox for cultivating it to support Web 2.0 initiatives.

  7. Signaling when (and when not) to be cautious and self-protective: impulsive and reflective trust in close relationships.

    PubMed

    Murray, Sandra L; Pinkus, Rebecca T; Holmes, John G; Harris, Brianna; Gomillion, Sarah; Aloni, Maya; Derrick, Jaye L; Leder, Sadie

    2011-09-01

    A dual process model is proposed to explain how automatic evaluative associations to the partner (i.e., impulsive trust) and deliberative expectations of partner caring (i.e., reflective trust) interact to govern self-protection in romantic relationships. Experimental and correlational studies of dating and marital relationships supported the model. Subliminally conditioning more positive evaluative associations to the partner increased confidence in the partner's caring, suggesting that trust has an impulsive basis. Being high on impulsive trust (i.e., more positive evaluative associations to the partner on the Implicit Association Test; Zayas & Shoda, 2005) also reduced the automatic inclination to distance in response to doubts about the partner's trustworthiness. It similarly reduced self-protective behavioral reactions to these reflective trust concerns. The studies further revealed that the effects of impulsive trust depend on working memory capacity: Being high on impulsive trust inoculated against reflective trust concerns for people low on working memory capacity. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. A Conceptual Framework and Principles for Trusted Pervasive Health

    PubMed Central

    Blobel, Bernd Gerhard; Seppälä, Antto Veikko; Sorvari, Hannu Olavi; Nykänen, Pirkko Anneli

    2012-01-01

    Background Ubiquitous computing technology, sensor networks, wireless communication and the latest developments of the Internet have enabled the rise of a new concept—pervasive health—which takes place in an open, unsecure, and highly dynamic environment (ie, in the information space). To be successful, pervasive health requires implementable principles for privacy and trustworthiness. Objective This research has two interconnected objectives. The first is to define pervasive health as a system and to understand its trust and privacy challenges. The second goal is to build a conceptual model for pervasive health and use it to develop principles and polices which can make pervasive health trustworthy. Methods In this study, a five-step system analysis method is used. Pervasive health is defined using a metaphor of digital bubbles. A conceptual framework model focused on trustworthiness and privacy is then developed for pervasive health. On that model, principles and rules for trusted information management in pervasive health are defined. Results In the first phase of this study, a new definition of pervasive health was created. Using this model, differences between pervasive health and health care are stated. Reviewed publications demonstrate that the widely used principles of predefined and static trust cannot guarantee trustworthiness and privacy in pervasive health. Instead, such an environment requires personal dynamic and context-aware policies, awareness, and transparency. A conceptual framework model focused on information processing in pervasive health is developed. Using features of pervasive health and relations from the framework model, new principles for trusted pervasive health have been developed. The principles propose that personal health data should be under control of the data subject. The person shall have the right to verify the level of trust of any system which collects or processes his or her health information. Principles require that

  9. Consumer trust to a Web site: moderating effect of attitudes toward online shopping.

    PubMed

    San Martín, Sonia; Camarero, Carmen

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, authors suggest a model that reflects the role played by the Web site characteristics and the previous level of satisfaction as determinant factors of trust in the Web site. Also, authors consider the moderating effects of consumers' motives and inhibitors to purchase online. Results show that satisfaction with previous purchases, the Web site security and privacy policies, and service quality are the main determinants of trust. Also, the motives and inhibitors the individuals perceive when buying online determine the type of signals they consider to trust.

  10. Clinical focus and public accountability in English NHS Trust Board meetings.

    PubMed

    Endacott, Ruth; Sheaff, Rod; Jones, Ray; Woodward, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that greater focus on clinical matters in NHS commissioner and provider Trust Board meetings might improve the range, quality or cost of clinical care. This study reports the extent of clinical focus in Board meetings in three types of NHS Trust and considers the implications for public accountability. (1) Content analysis of published minutes of Board meetings from 105 randomly selected NHS Trusts in 2008/09. (2) Structured observation of 24 Board meetings in a qualitative sub-sample of eight of the above Trusts in 2008/09. The percentage of clinical items among the items discussed by NHS Trust Boards ranged from 0% to 51%, but did not differ by Trust type. Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) recorded more items than NHS Trusts and NHS Foundation Trusts because of PCTs' dual role as service providers and commissioners. There were significant differences between Trusts' board meetings in the numbers of clinical items concerning service design, clinical outcomes and activity levels. The availability and accessibility of supposedly publicly-available minutes from NHS Foundation Trust Board meetings was sometimes problematic. Observation of meetings revealed a number of dynamics not evident in the minutes. Board meetings were generally chair-led (conducted according to the chair's discretion); collegial; had similar levels and extent of discussion from the non-executive directors, with a focus on current policy initiatives. Boards differed in the extent of public questioning, how they exercised internal governance over the provision and quality of patient care, and the extent of pre-planning before the Board meeting. Published minutes were not always an accurate record of meetings. Findings illuminate important transparency issues which should be given careful consideration in the English NHS.

  11. Tradeoffs between trust and survivability for mission effectiveness in tactical networks.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin-Hee

    2015-04-01

    In a military tactical network, maintaining trust among members in a mission group is critical to successful mission completion. However, maintaining high trust among group members in a resource-restricted tactical environment detrimentally reduces system lifetime, which may lead to mission failure or low mission effectiveness. In this paper, we aim to investigate the relationships between group trust and system lifetime [i.e., survivability measuring mean time to mission failure (MTTMF)] and to capture mission effectiveness achieved by the mission group based on the tradeoff between these two goals. We employ a composite trust capturing various angles of trust concept derived from communication, information, and social networks. We take a game theoretic approach using the so called Aoyagi's game theory, enforcing nodes to exhibit desirable behavior based on reward or penalty given by the system. In designing reward/penalty mechanisms, we adopt the concept of aspiration level, defining success or failure based on a goal set by the system, and prove there exists an optimal trust threshold maximizing both MTTMF (i.e., system lifetime/survivability) and group trust. We devised a mission effectiveness metric based on both the metrics having conflicting goals. We developed an analytical model using Stochastic Petri Nets, and validated the analytical results with simulation results. We conducted comparative performance analyzes of the variations of the proposed scheme with respect to a node's decision nature (i.e., rational versus altruistic) and trust threshold policy (static versus dynamic) in resource-constrained tactical environments.

  12. System reliability, performance and trust in adaptable automation.

    PubMed

    Chavaillaz, Alain; Wastell, David; Sauer, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of reduced system reliability on operator performance and automation management in an adaptable automation environment. 39 operators were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: low (60%), medium (80%), and high (100%) reliability of automation support. The support system provided five incremental levels of automation which operators could freely select according to their needs. After 3 h of training on a simulated process control task (AutoCAMS) in which the automation worked infallibly, operator performance and automation management were measured during a 2.5-h testing session. Trust and workload were also assessed through questionnaires. Results showed that although reduced system reliability resulted in lower levels of trust towards automation, there were no corresponding differences in the operators' reliance on automation. While operators showed overall a noteworthy ability to cope with automation failure, there were, however, decrements in diagnostic speed and prospective memory with lower reliability.

  13. The fair factor in matters of trust.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lauren L

    2006-01-01

    Communities are bound together by trust among their members. Trust thrives when a pervasive sense of fairness exists. Evidence suggests that trust has social, professional, and economic value for today's organizations, making it worthy of attention. Matters of trust and justice are important and timely for nurse leaders to consider given the challenge to improve practice settings in a manner that enhances nurse satisfaction. The aim of this article is to make explicit the value in building organizational justice and trust within an organization's nursing community. Nursing leadership strategies are integrated, thus offering practical guidance in creating a culture of justice, making trust explicit, and establishing trustworthiness.

  14. Disaggregating ethnoracial disparities in physician trust.

    PubMed

    Sewell, Abigail A

    2015-11-01

    Past research yields mixed evidence regarding whether ethnoracial minorities trust physicians less than Whites. Using the 2002 and 2006 General Social Surveys, variegated ethnoracial differences in trust in physicians are identified by disaggregating a multidimensional physician trust scale. Compared to Whites, Blacks are less likely to trust the technical judgment and interpersonal competence of doctors. Latinos are less likely than Whites to trust the fiduciary ethic, technical judgment, and interpersonal competence of doctors. Black-Latino differences in physician trust are a function of ethnoracial differences in parental nativity. The ways ethnoracial hierarchies are inscribed into power-imbalanced clinical exchanges are discussed.

  15. Trust and disclosure of sexual orientation in gay males' mother-son relationships.

    PubMed

    Miller, R J; Boon, S D

    2000-01-01

    This study explored the possibility that changes in feelings of trust for mother are associated with gay males' decisions to disclose (or withhold) their sexual orientation in their mother-son relationships. Fifty gay and bisexual males completed a questionnaire about their coming out experiences in the context of their relationships with their mothers. As part of this questionnaire, they completed a retrospective graphical trust history task that involved plotting the degree of trust they felt for their mothers over time and across important events (such as disclosure). Results are discussed in terms of gay men's expectations about their mothers' responses to disclosure, the evidence for stability versus change in their memories regarding the nature of their feelings of maternal trust over time, the complexity of the trust histories participants drew, similarity between disclosers and non-disclosers in the shape of their trust curves, and the types of events and experiences that constituted the timeline or "plot" in the stories participants told about their mother-son relationships. This study offers the first empirical evidence to support speculations linking disclosure of sexual orientation to the climate of trust that exists in the relationship between discloser and target (e.g., Holtzen, Kenny & Mahalik, 1995).

  16. Online trust, trustworthiness, or assurance?

    PubMed

    Cheshire, Coye

    2011-01-01

    Every day, individuals around the world retrieve, share, and exchange information on the Internet. We interact online to share personal information, find answers to questions, make financial transactions, play social games, and maintain professional and personal relationships. Sometimes our online interactions take place between two or more humans. In other cases, we rely on computers to manage information on our behalf. In each scenario, risk and uncertainty are essential for determining possible actions and outcomes. This essay highlights common deficiencies in our understanding of key concepts such as trust, trustworthiness, cooperation, and assurance in online environments. Empirical evidence from experimental work in computer-mediated environments underscores the promises and perils of overreliance on security and assurance structures as replacements for interpersonal trust. These conceptual distinctions are critical because the future shape of the Internet will depend on whether we build assurance structures to limit and control ambiguity or allow trust to emerge in the presence of risk and uncertainty.

  17. A Trusted Portable Computing Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming-wei, Fang; Jun-jun, Wu; Peng-fei, Yu; Xin-fang, Zhang

    A trusted portable computing device and its security mechanism were presented to solve the security issues, such as the attack of virus and Trojan horse, the lost and stolen of storage device, in mobile office. It used smart card to build a trusted portable security base, virtualization to create a secure virtual execution environment, two-factor authentication mechanism to identify legitimate users, and dynamic encryption to protect data privacy. The security environment described in this paper is characteristic of portability, security and reliability. It can meet the security requirement of mobile office.

  18. Barometer. Acute trusts February 2005.

    PubMed

    2005-03-17

    Almost two thirds of acute trusts rate the quality of commissioning from their PCTs at three out of 10 or less, according to the latest HSJ Barometer survey. This is the lowest score since we began the survey a year ago. Confidence in their performance against the 98 per cent four-hour A&E target fell sharply from a December high to an average of 6.87. The survey also found that fewer than one in seven trusts were confident of winning foundation status by the end of 2006-07.

  19. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-05-16

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  20. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-08-15

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  1. Training the 21st-Century Worker: Policy Advice from the Dark Network of Implicit Memory. IBE Working Papers on Curriculum Issues No. 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abadzi, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Research on memory functions and their applications is a vast field that has unfolded for decades; some important studies are sixty years old. However, the research has remained a well-kept secret of cognitive psychologists. Education faculties rarely teach memory specifics, so people working in education typically do not know about the above…

  2. Adequate trust avails, mistaken trust matters: on the moral responsibility of doctors as proxies for patients' trust in biobank research.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, Linus; Helgesson, Gert; Hansson, Mats G; Eriksson, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    In Sweden, most patients are recruited into biobank research by non-researcher doctors. Patients' trust in doctors may therefore be important to their willingness to participate. We suggest a model of trust that makes sense of such transitions of trust between domains and distinguishes adequate trust from mistaken trust. The unique position of doctors implies, we argue, a Kantian imperfect duty to compensate for patients' mistaken trust. There are at least three kinds of mistaken trust, each of which requires a different set of countermeasures. First, trust is mistaken when necessary competence is lacking; the competence must be developed or the illusion dispelled. Second, trust is irrational whenever the patient is mistaken about his actual reasons for trusting. Care must therefore be taken to support the patient's reasoning and moral agency. Third, some patients inappropriately trust doctors to recommend only research that will benefit them directly. Such trust should be counteracted by nurturing a culture where patients expect to be asked occasionally to contribute to the common good.

  3. 25 CFR 1000.355 - How are trust evaluations conducted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review Annual Trust Evaluations § 1000.355 How are trust evaluations... required by § 1000.365. (b) This section describes the general framework for trust reviews. However,...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.355 - How are trust evaluations conducted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review Annual Trust Evaluations § 1000.355 How are trust evaluations... required by § 1000.365. (b) This section describes the general framework for trust reviews. However,...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.355 - How are trust evaluations conducted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review Annual Trust Evaluations § 1000.355 How are trust evaluations... required by § 1000.365. (b) This section describes the general framework for trust reviews. However,...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.355 - How are trust evaluations conducted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review Annual Trust Evaluations § 1000.355 How are trust evaluations... required by § 1000.365. (b) This section describes the general framework for trust reviews. However,...

  7. Applying Machine Trust Models to Forensic Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, Marika; Venter, Hein; Eloff, Jan; Olivier, Martin

    Digital forensics involves the identification, preservation, analysis and presentation of electronic evidence for use in legal proceedings. In the presence of contradictory evidence, forensic investigators need a means to determine which evidence can be trusted. This is particularly true in a trust model environment where computerised agents may make trust-based decisions that influence interactions within the system. This paper focuses on the analysis of evidence in trust-based environments and the determination of the degree to which evidence can be trusted. The trust model proposed in this work may be implemented in a tool for conducting trust-based forensic investigations. The model takes into account the trust environment and parameters that influence interactions in a computer network being investigated. Also, it allows for crimes to be reenacted to create more substantial evidentiary proof.

  8. Building trusting relationships in online health communities.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Ha, Sejin; Widdows, Richard

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates consumers' use of online health communities (OHCs) for healthcare from a relationship building perspective based on the commitment-trust theory of relationships. The study proposes that perspective taking, empathic concern, self-efficacy, and network density affect the development of both cognitive and affective trust, which together determine OHC members' membership continuance intention (MCI) and knowledge contribution. Data collected from eight existing OHCs (N=255) were utilized to test the hypothesized model. Results show that perspective taking and self-efficacy can increase cognitive trust and affective trust, respectively. Network density contributes to cognitive and affective trust. Both cognitive trust and affective trust influence MCI, while only affective trust impacts members' knowledge contribution behaviors.

  9. Nature's Trust: A Paradigm for Natural Resources Stewardship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, M. C.; Whitelaw, E.; Doppelt, B.; Burchell, A.

    2007-12-01

    Climate change uncertainty puts a premium on all remaining natural resources. Farmland, air, water, wetlands, wildlife, soils, mineral resources and forests must be protected to ensure that Americans - present citizens and future generations - have the fundamental survival resources they need in a future that holds many unknowns. Moreover, in light of the need to manage resources given climate and particle forcing, government must mitigate dangerous carbon loading of the atmosphere. Confronting climate change and protecting natural resources requires a clear sense of government obligation that is inherent to sovereignty, not a matter of political choice. Our government representatives can and must reframe government's discretion into a trustee obligation to protect Nature and ensure natural resource stewardship. Drawing upon enduring legal principles and court decisions, government can be characterized as a trustee of the natural resources essential to human survival. A trust is a fundamental type of ownership whereby one manages property for the benefit of another. Viewed as a trust, the environment consists of a portfolio of quantified natural assets that government manages. As beneficiaries, citizens hold a common property interest in defined, bounded assets that make up Nature's Trust. Such trust principles form the bedrock of statutory law. Trustees have a fiduciary obligation to protect trust assets and may not allow destruction of property they manage. This session will provide a policy frame for current scientific efforts to address climate change and natural resources loss. Under the Nature's Trust frame, U.S. government leaders and agencies at every level inherit a strict fiduciary obligation to protect our collective natural resources, including our water and the atmosphere, as assets in the trust. Their fiduciary standard of care consists of a proportionate responsibility, which ties directly to "Nature's Mandate" as defined by current climate

  10. 77 FR 5065 - Preservation Trust Advisors, LLC and Northern Lights Fund Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Preservation Trust Advisors, LLC and Northern Lights Fund Trust; Notice of Application January 26...'') and Northern Lights Fund Trust (the ``Trust''). FILING DATES: The application was filed on...

  11. An Investigation of Children's Peer Trust across Culture: Is the Composition of Peer Trust Universal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Lucy R.; Rotenberg, Ken J.; Petrocchi, Serena; Lecciso, Flavia; Sakai, Atsushi; Maeshiro, Kazumi; Judson, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The components of children's trust in same-gender peers (trust beliefs, ascribed trustworthiness, and dyadic reciprocal trust) were examined in samples of 8-11-year-olds from the UK, Italy, and Japan. Trust was assessed by children's ratings of the extent to which same-gender classmates kept promises and kept secrets. Social relations analyses…

  12. 26 CFR 26.2654-1 - Certain trusts treated as separate trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... trust under which income is to be paid in equal shares for 10 years to T's child, C, and T's grandchild... principal and the distributee's future rights with respect to the trust are correspondingly reduced. T may... children and grandchildren. The trust provides that, when T's youngest child reaches age 21, the trust will...

  13. Assessment of Organizational Trust: Italian Adaptation and Factorial Validity of the Organizational Trust Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidotto, Giulio; Vicentini, Marco; Argentero, Piergiorgio; Bromiley, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Trust influences interactions among individuals and organizations but has been an elusive concept to define and measure. The Organizational Trust Inventory (OTI) measures three dimensions of organizational trust, as defined by Cummings and Bromiley (in: Kramer and Tyler (eds) Trust in Organizations, 1996), believing or feeling that others: keep…

  14. An Investigation of Children's Peer Trust across Culture: Is the Composition of Peer Trust Universal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Lucy R.; Rotenberg, Ken J.; Petrocchi, Serena; Lecciso, Flavia; Sakai, Atsushi; Maeshiro, Kazumi; Judson, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The components of children's trust in same-gender peers (trust beliefs, ascribed trustworthiness, and dyadic reciprocal trust) were examined in samples of 8-11-year-olds from the UK, Italy, and Japan. Trust was assessed by children's ratings of the extent to which same-gender classmates kept promises and kept secrets. Social relations analyses…

  15. Trust or Consequences: The Relationship between Faculty Trust and Faculty Learning Communities in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Gaye R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between FLC membership and faculty trust in higher education colleagues and faculty trust in higher education administration in public and private universities in the United States. This quantitative study examines trust in colleagues and trust in administration in higher education, two…

  16. Inferring Trust Based on Similarity with TILLIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakolifard, Mozhgan; Herrmann, Peter; Knapskog, Svein J.

    A network of people having established trust relations and a model for propagation of related trust scores are fundamental building blocks in many of today’s most successful e-commerce and recommendation systems. However, the web of trust is often too sparse to predict trust values between non-familiar people with high accuracy. Trust inferences are transitive associations among users in the context of an underlying social network and may provide additional information to alleviate the consequences of the sparsity and possible cold-start problems. Such approaches are helpful, provided that a complete trust path exists between the two users. An alternative approach to the problem is advocated in this paper. Based on collaborative filtering one can exploit the like-mindedness resp. similarity of individuals to infer trust to yet unknown parties which increases the trust relations in the web. For instance, if one knows that with respect to a specific property, two parties are trusted alike by a large number of different trusters, one can assume that they are similar. Thus, if one has a certain degree of trust to the one party, one can safely assume a very similar trustworthiness of the other one. In an attempt to provide high quality recommendations and proper initial trust values even when no complete trust propagation path or user profile exists, we propose TILLIT — a model based on combination of trust inferences and user similarity. The similarity is derived from the structure of the trust graph and users’ trust behavior as opposed to other collaborative-filtering based approaches which use ratings of items or user’s profile. We describe an algorithm realizing the approach based on a combination of trust inferences and user similarity, and validate the algorithm using a real large-scale data-set.

  17. Research of trust model in P2P network based on trusted computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rong; Li, Lei

    2013-03-01

    In order to strengthen the security of P2P networks, it is necessary to build trust relationships between nodes of networks. However, the traditional trust evaluation models can't resist the attacks of Pseudospoofing and Pseudostheft effectively. To resolve the problems, in this paper, the trusted computing method is introduced into P2P networks, and an idea of group trust model based on trusted computing methods is proposed. In the process of trust evaluation, the model can realize the anonymous attestation of the node body, which improves the creditability of trust relationships between nodes and resolves the security problems of P2P networks.

  18. Trust Information-Based Privacy Architecture for Ubiquitous Health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ubiquitous health is defined as a dynamic network of interconnected systems that offers health services independent of time and location to a data subject (DS). The network takes place in open and unsecure information space. It is created and managed by the DS who sets rules that regulate the way personal health information is collected and used. Compared to health care, it is impossible in ubiquitous health to assume the existence of a priori trust between the DS and service providers and to produce privacy using static security services. In ubiquitous health features, business goals and regulations systems followed often remain unknown. Furthermore, health care-specific regulations do not rule the ways health data is processed and shared. To be successful, ubiquitous health requires novel privacy architecture. Objective The goal of this study was to develop a privacy management architecture that helps the DS to create and dynamically manage the network and to maintain information privacy. The architecture should enable the DS to dynamically define service and system-specific rules that regulate the way subject data is processed. The architecture should provide to the DS reliable trust information about systems and assist in the formulation of privacy policies. Furthermore, the architecture should give feedback upon how systems follow the policies of DS and offer protection against privacy and trust threats existing in ubiquitous environments. Methods A sequential method that combines methodologies used in system theory, systems engineering, requirement analysis, and system design was used in the study. In the first phase, principles, trust and privacy models, and viewpoints were selected. Thereafter, functional requirements and services were developed on the basis of a careful analysis of existing research published in journals and conference proceedings. Based on principles, models, and requirements, architectural components and their interconnections

  19. Trust in School Principals: Teachers' Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balyer, Aydin

    2017-01-01

    Trust is considered as one of the essential elements at schools. Although it is important, there is relatively little research on trust in educational settings. Research indicate that trust across school affects much of a school's functioning and it is a critical resource as principals embark on improvement plans. In this regard, it is a matter of…

  20. Trust and Schooling in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincer, Oguzhan C.

    2011-01-01

    I investigate the effects of trust on human capital measured as average years of schooling in U.S. states using data from the 1980s and the 1990s. I find robust evidence that an increase in trust increases schooling across U.S. states. According the results of the seemingly unrelated regression estimation, a 25 percentage point increase in "Trust"…

  1. Trust, Conflict and Performance in Scientific Collaborations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrum, Wesley; Chompalov, Ivan; Genuth, Joel

    2001-01-01

    Examines 53 collaborations in physics and related sciences with two unexpected findings: (1) trust is no higher in projects formed through pre-existing relationships than those without such ties; and (2) there is no relationship between trust and performance. Concludes that more important than trust for an understanding of large scientific…

  2. Trust and Relationship Building in Electronic Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulou, Panagiota; Andreou, Andreas; Kanellis, Panagiotis; Martakos, Drakoulis

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need for trust in electronic commerce to build customer relationships focuses on a model drawn from established theoretical work on trust and relationship marketing that highlights differences between traditional and electronic commerce. Considers how trust can be built into virtual environments. (Contains 50 references.)…

  3. 40 CFR 280.102 - Trust fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trust fund. 280.102 Section 280.102...) Financial Responsibility § 280.102 Trust fund. (a) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of § 280.93 by establishing a trust fund that conforms to the requirements of this section. The...

  4. 14 CFR 47.8 - Voting trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Voting trusts. 47.8 Section 47.8 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION General § 47.8 Voting trusts. (a) If a voting trust is used to qualify a domestic corporation as...

  5. Temperament Constructs Related to Betrayal of Trust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    disintegrate. The interrelatedness between system trust and interpersonal trust has been noted by Durkheim (1933), who predicted a loss of trust in others...and suspicion. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2, 265-279. Durkheim , E. (1933). The division of labor in societ’. New York: Free Press of Glencoe

  6. Trust and Relationship Building in Electronic Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulou, Panagiota; Andreou, Andreas; Kanellis, Panagiotis; Martakos, Drakoulis

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need for trust in electronic commerce to build customer relationships focuses on a model drawn from established theoretical work on trust and relationship marketing that highlights differences between traditional and electronic commerce. Considers how trust can be built into virtual environments. (Contains 50 references.)…

  7. Animal Behaviour: Friendship Enhances Trust in Chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Silk, Joan

    2016-01-25

    Individuals that participate in exchanges with delayed rewards can be exploited if their partners don't reciprocate. In humans, friendships are built on trust, and trust enhances cooperation. New evidence suggests that close social bonds also enhance trust in chimpanzees.

  8. 46 CFR 67.36 - Trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trust. 67.36 Section 67.36 Shipping COAST GUARD... Citizenship Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.36 Trust. (a) For the purpose of obtaining a registry or recreational endorsement, a trust arrangement meets citizenship requirements if: (1) Each of...

  9. Trust enhances IT service management.

    PubMed

    2007-08-01

    ITIL process adoption may be a prerequisite for the National Programme for IT (NPfIT), but implementation is far from straightforward. IT services company Plan-Net has been assisting Barts and The London NHS Trust with implementing its ambitious ITIL processes deployment.

  10. Review of Interorganizational Trust Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    58 2.24 STEPHENS, FULK , & MONGE (2009) ................................................................................................ 59...trust. 2.24 Stephens, Fulk , & Monge (2009) STEPHENS, K. J., FULK , J., & MONGE, P. R. (2009). Constrained choices in alliance formations: Cupids and...organizational marriages. Human Relations, 62, 501-536. Stephens, Fulk , and Monge (2009) note that the rate at which organizations are entering into

  11. Taxability of Educational Benefits Trusts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Law Quarterly, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Corporations have found the promise of providing a college education to the children of employees--without the recognition of income to the parent-employee--to be a popular fringe benefit. The Internal Revenue Service has attacked educational benefit trusts in Revenue Ruling 75-448. Implications are discussed. (LBH)

  12. Education and the National Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Gareth

    1995-01-01

    Defines the British National Trust as it marks its centenary. Known for its work in protecting historic buildings and places of natural beauty, a major focus is now education. Schoolchildren may attend curriculum-based special programs when visiting historic houses and the countryside. Others use open-space sites with no specific education…

  13. The Administrative Team, Trust & Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Elliot Z.

    This paper describes the first phase of a research study that examined (1) how superintendents define and select their administrative teams; (2) how team values are conceptualized by superintendents; (3) how "trust" is defined and its value perceived by superintendents; and (4) whether or not gender influences the way superintendents define "team"…

  14. Trust as a Teaching Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon-Weil, Anica; Hewitt, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Should I stop the conflict or narrate it? Do I redirect or reassure? Two infant/toddler teachers explain how they use trust as a teaching tool, "teaching" less and involving the toddlers in their classroom in the decisions that affect them. They took to heart the philosophy of Magda Gerber, who urged parents to "observe more, do less." The author…

  15. The Role of Trust in Information Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Stephen; Dibben, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the notion of trust as it relates to information science and technology, specifically user interfaces, autonomous agents, and information systems. Highlights include theoretical meaning of trust; trust and levels of analysis, including organizational trust; electronic commerce, user interfaces, and static trust; dynamic trust; and trust…

  16. The Role of Trust in Information Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Stephen; Dibben, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the notion of trust as it relates to information science and technology, specifically user interfaces, autonomous agents, and information systems. Highlights include theoretical meaning of trust; trust and levels of analysis, including organizational trust; electronic commerce, user interfaces, and static trust; dynamic trust; and trust…

  17. The Relationship between Collective Student Trust and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casper, David Carl

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between collective student trust and student achievement was tested in a sample of 1,748 5th grade students in 34 Title I elementary schools in an urban and urban fringe district. Trust was defined, the conditions of trust described, and the facets of trust discussed. Collective trust was distinguished from relational trust and…

  18. Building Stakeholder Trust: Defensible Government Decisions - 13110

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, Victor A.

    2013-07-01

    Administrative decisions must be grounded in reasonable expectations, founded on sound principles, and bounded by societal norms. Without these first principles, attaining and retaining public trust is a Herculean task. Decisions made by governmental administrators must be both transparent and defensible: without the former the agency will lose the public's trust and support (possibly prompting a legal challenge to the decision) and without the latter the decision may fail to withstand judicial scrutiny. This presentation and accompanying paper delves into the process by which governmental decisions can achieve both defensibility and openness through building stakeholder trust with transparency. Achieving and maintaining stakeholder trust is crucial, especially in the environs of nuclear waste management. Proving confidence, stability, and security to the surrounding citizenry as well as those throughout the country is the goal of governmental nuclear waste remediation. Guiding administrative decision-making processes and maintaining a broad bandwidth of communication are of incalculable importance to all those charged with serving the public, but are especially essential to those whose decisional impacts will be felt for millennia. A strong, clear, and concise administrative record documenting discrete decisions and overarching policy choices is the strongest defense to a decisional challenge. However, this can be accomplished using transparency as the fundamental building block. This documentation allows the decision-makers to demonstrate the synthesis of legal and technical challenges and fortifies the ground from which challenges will be defended when necessary. Further, administrative actions which capture the public's interest and captivate that interest throughout the process will result in a better-informed, more deeply-involved, and more heavily-invested group of interested parties. Management of information, involvement, and investment on the front-end of

  19. Public Trust in Health Information Sharing: Implications for Biobanking and Electronic Health Record Systems

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Jodyn; Kardia, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks are made all the more valuable when the biological samples they hold can be linked to health information collected in research, electronic health records, or public health practice. Public trust in such systems that share health information for research and health care practice is understudied. Our research examines characteristics of the general public that predict trust in a health system that includes researchers, health care providers, insurance companies and public health departments. We created a 119-item survey of predictors and attributes of system trust and fielded it using Amazon’s MTurk system (n = 447). We found that seeing one’s primary care provider, having a favorable view of data sharing and believing that data sharing will improve the quality of health care, as well as psychosocial factors (altruism and generalized trust) were positively and significantly associated with system trust. As expected, privacy concern, but counterintuitively, knowledge about health information sharing were negatively associated with system trust. We conclude that, in order to assure the public’s trust, policy makers charged with setting best practices for governance of biobanks and access to electronic health records should leverage critical access points to engage a diverse public in joint decision making. PMID:25654300

  20. Understanding factors that influence stakeholder trust of natural resource science and institutions.

    PubMed

    Gray, Steven; Shwom, Rachael; Jordan, Rebecca

    2012-03-01

    Building trust between resource users and natural resource institutions is essential when creating conservation policies that rely on stakeholders to be effective. Trust can enable the public and agencies to engage in cooperative behaviors toward shared goals and address shared problems. Despite the increasing attention that trust has received recently in the environmental management literature, the influence that individual cognitive and behavioral factors may play in influencing levels of trust in resource management institutions, and their associated scientific assessments, remains unclear. This paper uses the case of fisheries management in the northeast to explore the relationships between an individual's knowledge of the resource, perceptions of resource health, and participatory experience on levels of trust. Using survey data collected from 244 avid recreational anglers in the Northeast U.S., we test these relationships using structural equation modeling. Results indicate that participation in fisheries management is associated with increased trust across all aspects of fisheries management. In addition, higher ratings of resource health by anglers are associated with higher levels of trust of state and regional institutions, but not federal institutions or scientific methods.

  1. Awareness and trust of the FDA and CDC: Results from a national sample of US adults and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kowitt, Sarah D; Schmidt, Allison M; Hannan, Anika; Goldstein, Adam O

    2017-01-01

    Trust in government agencies plays a key role in advancing these organizations' agendas, influencing behaviors, and effectively implementing policies. However, few studies have examined the extent to which individuals are aware of and trust the leading United States agencies devoted to protecting the public's health. Using two national samples of adolescents (N = 1,125) and adults (N = 5,014), we examined demographic factors, with a focus on vulnerable groups, as correlates of awareness of and trust in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the federal government. From nine different weighted and adjusted logistic regression models, we found high levels of awareness of the existence of the FDA and CDC (ranging from 55.7% for adolescents' awareness of the CDC to 94.3% for adults' awareness of the FDA) and moderate levels of trust (ranging from a low of 41.8% for adults' trust in the federal government and a high of 78.8% for adolescents' trust of the FDA). In the adolescent and adult samples, awareness was higher among non-Hispanic Blacks and respondents with low numeracy. With respect to trust, few consistent demographic differences emerged. Our findings provide novel insights regarding awareness and trust in the federal government and specific United States public health agencies. Our findings suggest groups to whom these agencies may want to selectively communicate to enhance trust and thus facilitate their communication and regulatory agendas.

  2. [A study of factors related to Korean physicians' trust in the government: on the target for board members of physicians' associations].

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunhee; Yang, Gunmo; Seo, Juhyun; Kim, Juhye

    2010-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the factors related to Korean physicians' trust in the government. We used structured questionnaires that were composed of multidimensional scales for each of the various categories. The recognition levels of trust of the government by Korean physicians were not high, and they ranged from 3.6 to 4.8 for ten scales. The factors related to trust in the government were categorized into seven factors on the basis of a factor analysis. On the regression analysis, a positive relationship was found between "the individual propensity to trust" and trust in the government, while a negative relationship was found between "the recognition level regarding the government as an authoritarian power" and trust in the government. "Confidence about participation in the policy process" as internal efficacy and "belief in governmental ability and motivation toward public demand" as external efficacy also showed a strong positive relationship with trust in the government. From these results, we can draw the conclusion that making efforts to improve the recognition level of trust in the government among physicians is an important policy task. To increase the trust level, participation of physicians in the policy process in various ways and open communication between the physicians'associations and the government should be facilitated.

  3. Political Trust and Sophistication: Taking Measurement Seriously.

    PubMed

    Turper, Sedef; Aarts, Kees

    2017-01-01

    Political trust is an important indicator of political legitimacy. Hence, seemingly decreasing levels of political trust in Western democracies have stimulated a growing body of research on the causes and consequences of political trust. However, the neglect of potential measurement problems of political trust raises doubts about the findings of earlier studies. The current study revisits the measurement of political trust and re-examines the relationship between political trust and sophistication in the Netherlands by utilizing European Social Survey (ESS) data across five time points and four-wave panel data from the Panel Component of ESS. Our findings illustrate that high and low political sophistication groups display different levels of political trust even when measurement characteristics of political trust are taken into consideration. However, the relationship between political sophistication and political trust is weaker than it is often suggested by earlier research. Our findings also provide partial support for the argument that the gap between sophistication groups is widening over time. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, although the between-method differences between the latent means and the composite score means of political trust for high- and low sophistication groups are relatively minor, it is important to analyze the measurement characteristics of the political trust construct.

  4. Trust, Health Care Relationships, and Chronic Illness

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Carole A.

    2016-01-01

    Trust in health care relationships is a key ingredient of effective, high-quality care. Although the indirect influence of trust on health outcomes has long been recognized, recent research has shown that trust has a direct effect on outcomes of care. Trust is important. However, the research on trust is disparate, organized around differing definitions, and primarily focused on patients’ trust in physicians. Morse’s method of theoretical coalescence was used to further develop and elaborate a grounded theory of the evolution of trust in health care relationships, in the context of chronic illness. This middle-range theory offers a clear conceptual framework for organizing and relating disparate studies, explaining the findings of different studies at a higher conceptual level, and identifying gaps in research and understanding. In addition, the grounded theory is relevant to practice. PMID:28508016

  5. 25 CFR 1000.360 - Is the trust evaluation standard or process different when the trust asset is held in trust for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Is the trust evaluation standard or process different... EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review Annual Trust Evaluations § 1000.360 Is the trust evaluation standard... allottee? No, Tribes/Consortia are under the same obligation as the Secretary to perform trust...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.360 - Is the trust evaluation standard or process different when the trust asset is held in trust for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Is the trust evaluation standard or process different... EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review Annual Trust Evaluations § 1000.360 Is the trust evaluation standard... allottee? No, Tribes/Consortia are under the same obligation as the Secretary to perform trust...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.360 - Is the trust evaluation standard or process different when the trust asset is held in trust for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Is the trust evaluation standard or process different... EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review Annual Trust Evaluations § 1000.360 Is the trust evaluation standard... allottee? No, Tribes/Consortia are under the same obligation as the Secretary to perform trust...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.360 - Is the trust evaluation standard or process different when the trust asset is held in trust for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Is the trust evaluation standard or process different... EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review Annual Trust Evaluations § 1000.360 Is the trust evaluation standard... allottee? No, Tribes/Consortia are under the same obligation as the Secretary to perform trust...

  9. Optimal Foraging in Semantic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Thomas T.; Jones, Michael N.; Todd, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Do humans search in memory using dynamic local-to-global search strategies similar to those that animals use to forage between patches in space? If so, do their dynamic memory search policies correspond to optimal foraging strategies seen for spatial foraging? Results from a number of fields suggest these possibilities, including the shared…

  10. Optimal Foraging in Semantic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Thomas T.; Jones, Michael N.; Todd, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Do humans search in memory using dynamic local-to-global search strategies similar to those that animals use to forage between patches in space? If so, do their dynamic memory search policies correspond to optimal foraging strategies seen for spatial foraging? Results from a number of fields suggest these possibilities, including the shared…

  11. Sinking slowly: Diversity in propensity to trust predicts downward trust spirals in small groups.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Amanda J; Peterson, Randall S

    2015-07-01

    This paper examines the phenomenon of trust spirals in small groups. Drawing on literature on the spiral reinforcement of trust, we theorize that diversity in propensity to trust has affective and cognitive consequences related to trust (i.e., feelings of frustration and perceptions of low similarity), reducing the level of experienced intragroup trust early in a group's development. Reduced experienced trust then fuels relationship conflict and lowers trust even further over time, ultimately having a negative effect on group performance. These ideas are tested using a sample of MBA student groups surveyed at 3 time periods over 4 months. Results confirm our hypothesis that diversity in propensity to trust is sufficient to trigger a downward trust spiral and poor performance in small groups.

  12. On the relation between trust and fairness in environmental risk management.

    PubMed

    Earle, Timothy C; Siegrist, Michael

    2008-10-01

    In this study, we empirically examine the relations between trust, fairness, and cooperation within two environmental risk management contexts, one in which the focal issue is of high personal moral importance and the other in which the focal issue is of low moral importance. Using an experimental design embedded in two parallel survey questionnaires, one mailed to residents of Washington State, the other to German-speaking residents of Switzerland, we either manipulated or constructed three factors, issue importance (high/low), procedural fairness (fair/unfair), and policy outcome (risk averse/risk accepting). This design enabled us to compare the predictions of the standard account of procedural fairness, that trust and cooperation are determined by judgments of fairness, with the predictions of an alternative account, that trust and cooperation will be determined by judgments of procedural fairness only when the issue involved is not morally important. Results for the American case showed that under conditions of high issue importance, policy outcome affected judged fairness, trust, and cooperation. Under conditions of low issue importance, policy outcome had no effect on judged fairness or trust but did have a moderate impact on cooperation. Analyses also showed that when issue importance was high, procedural fairness had no effects. When issue importance was low, procedural fairness had moderate effects on judged fairness and trust. Results for the Swiss case replicated the main findings for the American case. Together, these results support the alternative model of the relation between trust and fairness, suggesting that the efficacy of fair procedures is strictly limited.

  13. Trust Development in Small Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    for 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, every person is liable to act negatively toward others, to violate their expectations, and perhaps even to break...Humansystems, Incorporated 111 Farquhar St., 2nd floor Guelph, ON N1H 3N4 Project Manager : Kim Iwasa-Madge, P.Eng., CHFP (519) 836 5911 PWGSC...12 2.4 Developments in Understanding Trust in Teams.............................................................. 24 2.5 Role of Attributions

  14. Money and trust among strangers.

    PubMed

    Camera, Gabriele; Casari, Marco; Bigoni, Maria

    2013-09-10

    What makes money essential for the functioning of modern society? Through an experiment, we present evidence for the existence of a relevant behavioral dimension in addition to the standard theoretical arguments. Subjects faced repeated opportunities to help an anonymous counterpart who changed over time. Cooperation required trusting that help given to a stranger today would be returned by a stranger in the future. Cooperation levels declined when going from small to large groups of strangers, even if monitoring and payoffs from cooperation were invariant to group size. We then introduced intrinsically worthless tokens. Tokens endogenously became money: subjects took to reward help with a token and to demand a token in exchange for help. Subjects trusted that strangers would return help for a token. Cooperation levels remained stable as the groups grew larger. In all conditions, full cooperation was possible through a social norm of decentralized enforcement, without using tokens. This turned out to be especially demanding in large groups. Lack of trust among strangers thus made money behaviorally essential. To explain these results, we developed an evolutionary model. When behavior in society is heterogeneous, cooperation collapses without tokens. In contrast, the use of tokens makes cooperation evolutionarily stable.

  15. Money and trust among strangers

    PubMed Central

    Camera, Gabriele; Casari, Marco; Bigoni, Maria

    2013-01-01

    What makes money essential for the functioning of modern society? Through an experiment, we present evidence for the existence of a relevant behavioral dimension in addition to the standard theoretical arguments. Subjects faced repeated opportunities to help an anonymous counterpart who changed over time. Cooperation required trusting that help given to a stranger today would be returned by a stranger in the future. Cooperation levels declined when going from small to large groups of strangers, even if monitoring and payoffs from cooperation were invariant to group size. We then introduced intrinsically worthless tokens. Tokens endogenously became money: subjects took to reward help with a token and to demand a token in exchange for help. Subjects trusted that strangers would return help for a token. Cooperation levels remained stable as the groups grew larger. In all conditions, full cooperation was possible through a social norm of decentralized enforcement, without using tokens. This turned out to be especially demanding in large groups. Lack of trust among strangers thus made money behaviorally essential. To explain these results, we developed an evolutionary model. When behavior in society is heterogeneous, cooperation collapses without tokens. In contrast, the use of tokens makes cooperation evolutionarily stable. PMID:23980139

  16. Social Collaborative Filtering by Trust.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Lei, Yu; Liu, Jiming; Li, Wenjie

    2016-09-01

    Recommender systems are used to accurately and actively provide users with potentially interesting information or services. Collaborative filtering is a widely adopted approach to recommendation, but sparse data and cold-start users are often barriers to providing high quality recommendations. To address such issues, we propose a novel method that works to improve the performance of collaborative filtering recommendations by integrating sparse rating data given by users and sparse social trust network among these same users. This is a model-based method that adopts matrix factorization technique that maps users into low-dimensional latent feature spaces in terms of their trust relationship, and aims to more accurately reflect the users reciprocal influence on the formation of their own opinions and to learn better preferential patterns of users for high-quality recommendations. We use four large-scale datasets to show that the proposed method performs much better, especially for cold start users, than state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms for social collaborative filtering based on trust.

  17. MEMORY MODULATION

    PubMed Central

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

  18. Memory Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... different parts. Some of them are important for memory. The hippocampus (say: hih-puh-KAM-pus) is one of the more important parts of the brain that processes memories. Old information and new information, or memories, are ...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.360 - Is the trust evaluation standard or process different when the trust asset is held in trust for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review Annual Trust Evaluations § 1000.360 Is the trust evaluation standard... 1000.360 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  20. Public health and public trust: Survey evidence from the Ebola Virus Disease epidemic in Liberia.

    PubMed

    Blair, Robert A; Morse, Benjamin S; Tsai, Lily L

    2017-01-01

    Trust in government has long been viewed as an important determinant of citizens' compliance with public health policies, especially in times of crisis. Yet evidence on this relationship remains scarce, particularly in the developing world. We use results from a representative survey conducted during the 2014-15 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic in Monrovia, Liberia to assess the relationship between trust in government and compliance with EVD control interventions. We find that respondents who expressed low trust in government were much less likely to take precautions against EVD in their homes, or to abide by government-mandated social distancing mechanisms designed to contain the spread of the virus. They were also much less likely to support potentially contentious control policies, such as "safe burial" of EVD-infected bodies. Contrary to stereotypes, we find no evidence that respondents who distrusted government were any more or less likely to understand EVD's symptoms and transmission pathways. While only correlational, these results suggest that respondents who refused to comply may have done so not because they failed to understand how EVD is transmitted, but rather because they did not trust the capacity or integrity of government institutions to recommend precautions and implement policies to slow EVD's spread. We also find that respondents who experienced hardships during the epidemic expressed less trust in government than those who did not, suggesting the possibility of a vicious cycle between distrust, non-compliance, hardships and further distrust. Finally, we find that respondents who trusted international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) were no more or less likely to support or comply with EVD control policies, suggesting that while INGOs can contribute in indispensable ways to crisis response, they cannot substitute for government institutions in the eyes of citizens. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for future

  1. From the general to the specific: How social trust motivates relational trust.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Blaine G

    2016-01-01

    When people form beliefs about the trustworthiness of others with respect to particular matters (i.e., when individuals trust), theory suggests that they rely on preexistent cognitive schemas regarding the general cooperativeness of individuals and organizations (i.e., social trust). In spite of prior work, the impact of social trust on relational trust-or what Russell Hardin (2002) calls trust as a three-part relation where actor A trusts actor B with reference to matter Y-is not well established. Four vignette experiments were administered to Amazon.com Mechanical Turk workers (N = 1388 and N = 1419) and to public university undergraduate students (N = 995 and N = 956) in order to investigate the relationship between social trust and relational trust. Measures of general social trust and particular social trust produced statistically equivalent effects that were positively associated with relational trust. Political trust, however, was statistically unrelated to relational trust. These results support the idea that people rely on schemas and stereotypes concerned with the general cooperativeness and helpfulness of others when forming beliefs about another person's trustworthiness with respect to a particular matter at hand.

  2. Trust me, I'm a researcher!: The role of trust in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Kerasidou, Angeliki

    2017-03-01

    In biomedical research lack of trust is seen as a great threat that can severely jeopardise the whole biomedical research enterprise. Practices, such as informed consent, and also the administrative and regulatory oversight of research in the form of research ethics committees and Institutional Review Boards, are established to ensure the protection of future research subjects and, at the same time, restore public trust in biomedical research. Empirical research also testifies to the role of trust as one of the decisive factors in research participation and lack of trust as a barrier for consenting to research. However, what is often missing is a clear definition of trust. This paper seeks to address this gap. It starts with a conceptual analysis of the term trust. It compares trust with two other related terms, those of reliance and trustworthiness, and offers a defence of Baier's attribute of 'good will' a basic characteristic of trust. It, then, proceeds to consider trust in the context of biomedical research by examining two questions: First, is trust necessary in biomedical research?; and second, do increases in regulatory oversight of biomedical research also increase trust in the field? This paper argues that regulatory oversight is important for increasing reliance in biomedical research, but it does not improve trust, which remains important for biomedical research. It finishes by pointing at professional integrity as a way of promoting trust and trustworthiness in this field.

  3. Consumer Trust in the U.S. Food System: An Examination of the Recreancy Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Stephen G.; Arnot, Charlie; Fallon, James; Fleck, Terry; Soorholtz, David; Sutton-Vermeulen, Matt; Wilson, Jannette J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Because consumer opinions to an increasing extent affect the structure and management of the U.S. food system, it is important for social scientists to accurately model consumer trust in this system so they can better understand and anticipate public responses to existing or proposed food-related regulatory policies and facilitate effective…

  4. For the Public Good?: Land-Grant Schools Straying from Public Missions, Education Trust Reports Say

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jamal Eric

    2011-01-01

    While many land-grant flagships strive to keep costs low for students, they have not been as successful in yielding high graduation rates, and, as a result, many students--including high numbers of Blacks and Latinos--fall through the cracks. Dr. Jose Cruz, the vice president for higher education, policy and practice at the Education Trust, a…

  5. Welfare Eligibility: Programs Treat Indian Tribal Trust Fund Report to Congressional Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This report was sought by the Conference Committee on the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985, concerned that federal law allows payments from tribal trust funds to be excluded when determining eligibility for welfare benefits to American Indians. Applicable federal laws and eligibility policies were reviewed to determine the…

  6. Consumer Trust in the U.S. Food System: An Examination of the Recreancy Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Stephen G.; Arnot, Charlie; Fallon, James; Fleck, Terry; Soorholtz, David; Sutton-Vermeulen, Matt; Wilson, Jannette J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Because consumer opinions to an increasing extent affect the structure and management of the U.S. food system, it is important for social scientists to accurately model consumer trust in this system so they can better understand and anticipate public responses to existing or proposed food-related regulatory policies and facilitate effective…

  7. 17 CFR 210.3-15 - Special provisions as to real estate investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 General Instructions As to... estate investment trusts. 210.3-15 Section 210.3-15 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...

  8. For the Public Good?: Land-Grant Schools Straying from Public Missions, Education Trust Reports Say

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jamal Eric

    2011-01-01

    While many land-grant flagships strive to keep costs low for students, they have not been as successful in yielding high graduation rates, and, as a result, many students--including high numbers of Blacks and Latinos--fall through the cracks. Dr. Jose Cruz, the vice president for higher education, policy and practice at the Education Trust, a…

  9. Increasing interpersonal trust through divergent thinking.

    PubMed

    Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard; de Kwaadsteniet, Erik W; van de Groep, Suzanne; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal trust is an essential ingredient of many social relationships but how stable is it actually, and how is it controlled? There is evidence that the degree of trust into others might be rather volatile and can be affected by manipulations like drawing attention to personal interdependence or independence. Here we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by inducing either a more integrative or a more focused/exclusive cognitive control mode by means of a creativity task requiring divergent or convergent thinking, respectively. Participants then performed the trust game, which provides an index of interpersonal trust by assessing the money units one participant (the trustor) transfers to another (the trustee). As expected, trustors transferred significantly more money to trustees after engaging in divergent thinking as compared to convergent thinking. This observation provides support for the idea that interpersonal trust is controlled by domain-general (i.e., not socially dedicated) cognitive states.

  10. Increasing interpersonal trust through divergent thinking

    PubMed Central

    Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard; de Kwaadsteniet, Erik W.; van de Groep, Suzanne; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal trust is an essential ingredient of many social relationships but how stable is it actually, and how is it controlled? There is evidence that the degree of trust into others might be rather volatile and can be affected by manipulations like drawing attention to personal interdependence or independence. Here we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by inducing either a more integrative or a more focused/exclusive cognitive control mode by means of a creativity task requiring divergent or convergent thinking, respectively. Participants then performed the trust game, which provides an index of interpersonal trust by assessing the money units one participant (the trustor) transfers to another (the trustee). As expected, trustors transferred significantly more money to trustees after engaging in divergent thinking as compared to convergent thinking. This observation provides support for the idea that interpersonal trust is controlled by domain-general (i.e., not socially dedicated) cognitive states. PMID:24936194

  11. Social information influences trust behaviour in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nikki C; Jolles, Jelle; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Trust plays an integral role in daily interactions within adolescents' social environment. Using a trust game paradigm, this study investigated the modulating influence of social information about three interaction partners on trust behaviour in adolescents aged 12-18 (N = 845). After receiving information about their interaction partners prior to the task, participants were most likely to share with a 'good' partner and rate this partner as most trustworthy. Over the course of the task all interaction partners showed similar levels of trustworthy behaviour, but overall participants continued to trust and view the good partner as more trustworthy than 'bad' and 'neutral' partners throughout the game. However, with age the ability to overcome prior social information and adapt trust behaviour improved: middle and late adolescents showed a larger decrease in trust of the good partner than early adolescents, and late adolescents were more likely to reward trustworthy behaviour from the negative partner.

  12. The Value of Trust to Nursing.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Marcella M

    2014-01-01

    Trust, one of nursing's intangible assets, impacts nurses' ability to form meaningful relationships with patients and this connection positively impacts health outcomes. Linking trust to the fabric of nursing and investing in its measurement will become essential to nursing's valuation and the resulting investment in nursing. Trust, as nursing's core value, should be fostered by nurse educators as they prepare the next generation of nurses. Nurse administrators should connect the trust a patient has for his or her nurse and patient cooperation and honest transparent communication between providers and the patient. Banking trust as a valuable nursing asset will substantiate nursing's marketing and support its worth. Nursing's trustworthiness is an intangible asset that warrants protection, as trust once lost is hard to recapture.

  13. Trust-Building in Electronic Markets: Relative Importance and Interaction Effects of Trust-Building Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tams, Stefan

    We examine the relative and complementary effectiveness of trust-building strategies in online environments. While prior research has examined various antecedents to trust, we investigated two trust-building mechanisms more in depth: Web site trust and vendor reputation. We tried to understand the relative effectiveness of these two important mechanisms to provide online businesses with a clear recommendation of how to establish trust in an effective and efficient manner. Drawing from the literature on trust, we proposed vendor reputation to be more effective than Web site trust. Moreover, we examined a potential complementary effect of these mechanisms so as to provide online businesses with a deeper understanding of how to derive superior trust. We hypothesize a small such effect. The study proposes a laboratory experiment to test the model.

  14. The Dyadic Trust Scale: Toward Understanding Interpersonal Trust in Close Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larzelere, Robert E.; Huston, Ted L.

    1980-01-01

    Dyadic trust proved to be associated with love and with intimacy of self-disclosure, especially for longer married partners. It varied by level of commitment. Partners reciprocated trust more than either love or depth of self-disclosure. (Author)

  15. Trust Restoration in International Military Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    health care and road/travel conditions, an educational system, and political infrastructure. Embedded within the scenario were the trust violation and...presence of trust has been found to offer several benefits ; for instance, trust promotes the ability to establish new and maintain existing...Safia in dealing with the terrorist threat and re-building the country, specifically by providing improved health care and road/travel conditions

  16. Representing Trust in Cognitive Social Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Shawn S.; Alt, Jonathan K.; Darken, Christian J.

    Trust plays a critical role in communications, strength of relationships, and information processing at the individual and group level. Cognitive social simulations show promise in providing an experimental platform for the examination of social phenomena such as trust formation. This paper describes the initial attempts at representation of trust in a cognitive social simulation using reinforcement learning algorithms centered around a cooperative Public Commodity game within a dynamic social network.

  17. Trust in telemedicine portals for rehabilitation care: an exploratory focus group study with patients and healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Van Velsen, Lex; Wildevuur, Sabine; Flierman, Ina; Van Schooten, Boris; Tabak, Monique; Hermens, Hermie

    2016-01-27

    For many eServices, end-user trust is a crucial prerequisite for use. Within the context of Telemedicine, the role of trust has hardly ever been studied. In this study, we explored what determines trust in portals that facilitate rehabilitation therapy, both from the perspective of the patient and the healthcare professional. We held two focus groups with patients (total n = 15) and two with healthcare professionals (total n = 13) in which we discussed when trust matters, what makes up trust in a rehabilitation portal, what effect specific design cues have, and how much the participants trust the use of activity sensor data for informing treatment. Trust in a rehabilitation portal is the sum of trust in different factors. These factors and what makes up these factors differ for patients and healthcare professionals. For example, trust in technology is made up, for patients, mostly by a perceived level of control and privacy, while for healthcare professionals, a larger and different set of issues play a role, including technical reliability and a transparent data storage policy. Healthcare professionals distrust activity sensor data for informing patient treatment, as they think that sensors are unable to record the whole range of movements that patients make (e.g., walking and ironing clothes). The set of factors that affect trust in a rehabilitation portal are different from the sets that have been found for other contexts, like eCommerce. Trust in telemedicine technology should be studied as a separate subject to inform the design of reliable interventions.

  18. 5 CFR 2634.409 - Pre-existing trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pre-existing trusts. 2634.409 Section... FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Qualified Trusts § 2634.409 Pre-existing trusts. An interested party may place a pre-existing irrevocable trust into a qualified...

  19. Trust in automation: integrating empirical evidence on factors that influence trust.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Kevin Anthony; Bashir, Masooda

    2015-05-01

    We systematically review recent empirical research on factors that influence trust in automation to present a three-layered trust model that synthesizes existing knowledge. Much of the existing research on factors that guide human-automation interaction is centered around trust, a variable that often determines the willingness of human operators to rely on automation. Studies have utilized a variety of different automated systems in diverse experimental paradigms to identify factors that impact operators' trust. We performed a systematic review of empirical research on trust in automation from January 2002 to June 2013. Papers were deemed eligible only if they reported the results of a human-subjects experiment in which humans interacted with an automated system in order to achieve a goal. Additionally, a relationship between trust (or a trust-related behavior) and another variable had to be measured. All together, 101 total papers, containing 127 eligible studies, were included in the review. Our analysis revealed three layers of variability in human-automation trust (dispositional trust, situational trust, and learned trust), which we organize into a model. We propose design recommendations for creating trustworthy automation and identify environmental conditions that can affect the strength of the relationship between trust and reliance. Future research directions are also discussed for each layer of trust. Our three-layered trust model provides a new lens for conceptualizing the variability of trust in automation. Its structure can be applied to help guide future research and develop training interventions and design procedures that encourage appropriate trust. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  20. On Propagating Interpersonal Trust in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Cai-Nicolas

    The age of information glut has fostered the proliferation of data and documents on the Web, created by man and machine alike. Hence, there is an enormous wealth of minable knowledge that is yet to be extracted, in particular, on the Semantic Web. However, besides understanding information stated by subjects, knowing about their credibility becomes equally crucial. Hence, trust and trust metrics, conceived as computational means to evaluate trust relationships between individuals, come into play. Our major contribution to Semantic Web trust management through this work is twofold. First, we introduce a classification scheme for trust metrics along various axes and discuss advantages and drawbacks of existing approaches for Semantic Web scenarios. Hereby, we devise an advocacy for local group trust metrics, guiding us to the second part, which presents Appleseed, our novel proposal for local group trust computation. Compelling in its simplicity, Appleseed borrows many ideas from spreading activation models in psychology and relates their concepts to trust evaluation in an intuitive fashion. Moreover, we provide extensions for the Appleseed nucleus that make our trust metric handle distrust statements.

  1. Medical bribery and the ethics of trust: the Romanian case.

    PubMed

    Manea, Teodora

    2015-02-01

    Medical bribery seems to be a global problem from Eastern Europe and the Balkans to China, a diffuse phenomenon, starting with morally acceptable gratitude and ending with institutional bribery. I focus my attention on Romania and analyze similar cases in Eastern European and postcommunist countries. Medical bribery can be regarded as a particular form of human transaction, a kind of primitive contract that occurs when people do not trust institutions or other forms of social contract that are meant to guarantee their rights and protect their interests. Concluding with strategies to fight medical bribery, I will underline better public policies for financing health and social care, and an ethic of trust that may help to restore trustworthiness of institutions and to rebuild interpersonal trust. This should be complemented by an educational program dedicated to understanding the negative consequences and mechanisms of corruption and the importance of ethical behavior. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Making partnerships work: issues of risk, trust and control for managers and service providers.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rae; Smith, Penny; Adam, Jenny

    2009-03-01

    Trust is widely recognised is a core feature of partnership relationships and one that facilitates joint work. It is an issue that must be addressed if partnerships are to enhance service system integration. In recent literature trust has been linked to concepts of risk and control. In this study of trust within a Primary Care Partnership (PCP) in Australia the experiences of risk and uncertainty, and control, of participants in different structural positions, were explored in detail. The data used in this paper was qualitative, derived from 63 interviews with managers and service providers participating in committees of the PCP. This paper reports on the differences in the experience of risk and uncertainty, trust and control, of managers and service providers working as boundary spanners through the committees of a PCP. For managers there were significant risks and uncertainties, and trust and control were important. For service providers there were few risks and uncertainties, and trust and control were of much less importance. Some policy implications of the differences in perspective are discussed, as are important areas for further research.

  3. Sensory Metrics of Neuromechanical Trust.

    PubMed

    Softky, William; Benford, Criscillia

    2017-09-01

    Today digital sources supply a historically unprecedented component of human sensorimotor data, the consumption of which is correlated with poorly understood maladies such as Internet addiction disorder and Internet gaming disorder. Because both natural and digital sensorimotor data share common mathematical descriptions, one can quantify our informational sensorimotor needs using the signal processing metrics of entropy, noise, dimensionality, continuity, latency, and bandwidth. Such metrics describe in neutral terms the informational diet human brains require to self-calibrate, allowing individuals to maintain trusting relationships. With these metrics, we define the trust humans experience using the mathematical language of computational models, that is, as a primitive statistical algorithm processing finely grained sensorimotor data from neuromechanical interaction. This definition of neuromechanical trust implies that artificial sensorimotor inputs and interactions that attract low-level attention through frequent discontinuities and enhanced coherence will decalibrate a brain's representation of its world over the long term by violating the implicit statistical contract for which self-calibration evolved. Our hypersimplified mathematical understanding of human sensorimotor processing as multiscale, continuous-time vibratory interaction allows equally broad-brush descriptions of failure modes and solutions. For example, we model addiction in general as the result of homeostatic regulation gone awry in novel environments (sign reversal) and digital dependency as a sub-case in which the decalibration caused by digital sensorimotor data spurs yet more consumption of them. We predict that institutions can use these sensorimotor metrics to quantify media richness to improve employee well-being; that dyads and family-size groups will bond and heal best through low-latency, high-resolution multisensory interaction such as shared meals and reciprocated touch; and

  4. Are Blacks Really Less Trusting than Whites? Revisiting the Race and Trust Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Brent; McGrimmon, Tucker; Irwin, Kyle

    2007-01-01

    Many scholars have concluded that blacks are less trusting than whites. The research presented here calls that conclusion into question. Previous research has been based on the standard trust measure, which may not be well suited to understanding how trust varies with social categories such as race. Building on theories of self-categorization and…

  5. Does corruption undermine trust in health care? Results from public opinion polls in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Radin, Dagmar

    2013-12-01

    Health and health care provision are one of the most important topics in public policy, and often a highly debated topic in the political arena. The importance of considering trust in the health care sector is highlighted by studies showing that trust is associated, among others, with poor self-related health, and poorer health outcomes. Similarly, corruption has shown to create economic costs and inefficiencies in the health care sector. This is particularly important for a newly democratized country such as Croatia, where a policy responsive government indicates a high level of quality of democracy (Roberts, 2009) and where a legacy of corruption in the health care sector has been carried over from the previous regime. In this study, I assess the relationship between health care corruption and trust in public health care and hypothesize that experience with health care corruption as well as perception of corruption has a negative effect on trust in public care facilities. Data were collected in two surveys, administered in 2007 and 2009 in Croatia. Experience with corruption and salience with corruption has a negative effect on trust in public health care in the 2007 survey, but not in the 2009 survey. While the results are mixed, they point to the importance of further studying this relationship.

  6. Mind the gap: are NHS trusts falling short of recommended standards for consent to autopsy?

    PubMed

    Eka, Ime; Rowan, Camilla; Osborn, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The decline of the hospital autopsy is a well-known phenomenon that shows no sign of ending. Debate continues for the reasons behind this, but inadequate consent practices are thought to play a role. The furore resulting from organ retention scandals at Bristol Royal Infirmary and The Royal Liverpool Children's Hospital led to widespread soul searching in the medical profession, and a fundamental change in how we treat the dead body. In response, the 2004 Human Tissue Act was created, and consent is now centrally placed to permit all activities dealing with the cadaver, including autopsy. This article reflects on consent practices for hospital autopsy in England and Wales. Relevant policies from 26 National Health Service trusts were examined against the recommended standards set by the Human Tissue Authority. We found numerous failures of multiple trusts to follow these standards. Several trust policies failed to outline basic information to guide staff in conducting the consent process, such as the training requirements of the consent taker, and the desired approach to take consent. Many trusts failed to outline vital recommendations of the Human tissue Authority, such as the requirement of the consent taker to be experienced, trained in dealing with the bereaved and well informed on autopsy practice, as well as the requirement to have witnessed an autopsy. We recommend trusts reassess their practices in order meet the established standards with an emphasis on educating staff and developing a team-based approach to consent taking.

  7. Fear, Trust, and Negotiating Safety

    PubMed Central

    Epperson, Matthew W.; Platais, Ingrida; Valera, Pamela; Barbieri, Raye; Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2010-01-01

    Through in-depth interviews, this study examined the relational context of sexual HIV risk for 10 Black women aged 18–30 who were defendants in a community court setting. A qualitative data analysis identified themes of actual and feared intimate partner violence (IPV) and the expectations of demonstrating trust in a relationship as obstacles to negotiating the use of condoms. The findings speak to the broader structural factors and consequences of IPV and drug use. The article discusses the implications for HIV prevention for Black women who are involved in the criminal justice system. PMID:20445827

  8. Memory Palaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a lesson called Memory Palaces. A memory palace is a memory tool used to remember information, usually as visual images, in a sequence that is logical to the person remembering it. In his book, "In the Palaces of Memory", George Johnson calls them "...structure(s) for arranging knowledge. Lots of connections to language arts,…

  9. Drawing on a Knowledge-Based Trust Perspective to Examine and Conceptualize within-School Trust Development by Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosner, Shelby

    2010-01-01

    Research has revealed the importance of trust to schools and pointed to the central role that principals play in cultivating within-school trust, yet less is known about the ways that principals cultivate such trust. Moreover, divergent perspectives and varied contexts for examining trust have limited the transfer of trust scholarship to practice…

  10. Trust in African Americans' Healthcare Experiences.

    PubMed

    Murray, Traci M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to clarify the concept of trust, identify its defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences, and apply to the healthcare experiences of African Americans. For African Americans, mistrust in the healthcare system is the result of unequal treatment that began in slavery. Fear and negative experiences engender a reluctance to trust healthcare providers, which contributes to health disparities. Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis was used to clarify the concept of trust. The concept was applied to African Americans' healthcare experiences with discussion of opportunities for trust building. Data support for concept development was done using Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medline, and online reference sources. Literature review was guided by using the keyword trust. Further contextual explication was done by adding a review of literature from sociology and history regarding the evolution of African American mistrust of the U.S. healthcare system. The defining attributes of trust are dependence, willingness, and met expectations. Antecedents to trust include a need requiring the help of another and prior knowledge or experience. The consequence of trust is an evaluation of the congruence between expected and actual behaviors of the trusted person or thing. Literature review of the African American culture adds a dynamic aspect for nurses to consider when developing relationships in minority communities. Trust is the willingness to enter a dependent relationship to have the needs addressed, and is maintained by met expectations. Rebuilding trusting relationships between providers and African American patients is a vital step toward reducing health disparities. Murray. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Keys to Heart Disease Care: Communication and Trust

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_164421.html Keys to Heart Disease Care: Communication and Trust These factors linked to patients' greater ... trusted the medical profession. It's no secret that communication and trust are important in any doctor-patient ...

  12. Price transparency: building community trust.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    With the push from policymakers, payers, and consumers for hospitals to make their prices public, healthcare executives need to recognize two central issues related to price transparency: 1) meaningful price transparency involves helping patients and consumers understand their financial obligation for an episode of care, and 2) price transparency is key to the most critical success strategy for healthcare providers: building trust. This article reviews the history of pricing and billing practices and explores why price transparency is not easily achieved in today's environment. Pricing is a mystery even to those of us who work in the field, yet despite its complexity, the call for price transparency is not going to go away. For transparency, the goal should be to establish a rational pricing system that is easily explainable and justified to all stakeholders. Healthcare executives must make pricing a priority, understand cost, develop a pricing philosophy, understand the overall revenue requirements, examine market conditions and prices, and set up systems for review. A rational process of price setting should enhance community trust. In this matter there is nothing less at stake than the hearts of our community members.

  13. A Strategic Model of Trust Management in Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junqing; Sun, Zhaohao; Li, Yuanzhe; Zhao, Shuliang

    This article examines trust and trust management in web services and proposes a multiagent model of trust relationship in web services. It looks at the hierarchical structure of trust management in web services and proposes a strategic model of trust management in web services. The proposed approach in this article will facilitate research and development of trust management in e-commerce, web services and social networking.

  14. Development of Trust and Reciprocity in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bos, Wouter; Westenberg, Michiel; van Dijk, Eric; Crone, Eveline A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the development of two types of prosocial behavior, trust and reciprocity, as defined using a game-theoretical task that allows investigation of real-time social interaction, among 4 age groups from 9 to 25 years. By manipulating the possible outcome alternatives, we could distinguish among important determinants of trust and…

  15. Explaining Math Achievement: Personality, Motivation, and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic-Bebek, Ebru

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the statistical significance of student trust next to the well-tested constructs of personality and motivation to determine whether trust is a significant predictor of course achievement in college math courses. Participants were 175 students who were taking undergraduate math courses in an urban public university. The…

  16. The Importance of Trust in Electronic Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnasingham, Pauline

    1998-01-01

    Introduces the new concept of trust and how it influences the process of managing the security of an organization operating in an electronic commerce environment. Theoretically, the study aims to develop a framework of trust and security to provide a set of guidelines for secure electronic commerce. (Author/LRW)

  17. 26 CFR 301.7701-4 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... federal, state, or local environmental laws; all contributors to the trust have (at the time of... federal, state, or local environmental laws for environmental remediation of the waste site; and the trust... environmental laws for remediation of the existing waste site if there is authority under a federal, state,...

  18. 26 CFR 301.7701-4 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... federal, state, or local environmental laws; all contributors to the trust have (at the time of... federal, state, or local environmental laws for environmental remediation of the waste site; and the trust... environmental laws for remediation of the existing waste site if there is authority under a federal, state,...

  19. 26 CFR 301.7701-4 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... federal, state, or local environmental laws; all contributors to the trust have (at the time of... federal, state, or local environmental laws for environmental remediation of the waste site; and the trust... environmental laws for remediation of the existing waste site if there is authority under a federal, state,...

  20. 26 CFR 301.7701-4 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... federal, state, or local environmental laws; all contributors to the trust have (at the time of... federal, state, or local environmental laws for environmental remediation of the waste site; and the trust... environmental laws for remediation of the existing waste site if there is authority under a federal, state,...

  1. Principles of Trust for Embedded Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    3 Principles of Trust 5 4 Implications for Software Engineering 8 5 Implications for Platform Infrastructure 10 6 Summary and Conclusions 11...automated systems and to embedded systems in particular. Principles of trust are identified. Some of their implications for software engineering practice

  2. Representing Trust in Cognitive Social Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    A. FOUNDATIONS OF TRUST The first rule of simulation is to know what is being simulated. If you want to draw an 800-pound gorilla , you must...first know what an 800-pound gorilla looks like. Trust is a concept that is easy to talk about casually but extraordinarily difficult to define

  3. Social capital and trust in providers.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Melissa M; Hendryx, Michael S

    2003-10-01

    Trust in providers has been in decline in recent decades. This study attempts to identify sources of trust in characteristics of health care systems and the wider community. The design is cross-sectional. Data are from (1) the 1996 Household Survey of the Community Tracking Study, drawn from 24 Metropolitan Statistical Areas; (2) a 1996 multi-city broadcast media marketing database including key social capital indicators; (3) Interstudy; (4) the American Hospital Association; and (5) the American Medical Association. Independent variables include individual socio-demographic variables, HMO enrollment, community-level health sector variables, and social capital. The dependent variable is self-reported trust in physicians. Data are merged from the various sources and analyzed using SUDAAN. Subjects include adults in the Household Survey who responded to the items on trust in physicians (N=17,653). Trust in physicians is independently predicted by community social capital (p<0.001). Trust is also negatively related to HMO enrollment and to many individual characteristics. The effect of HMOs is not uniform across all communities. Social capital plays a role in how health care is perceived by citizens, and how health care is delivered by providers. Efforts to build trust and collaboration in a community may improve trust in physicians, health care quality, access, and preserve local health care control.

  4. The Importance of Trust in Electronic Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnasingham, Pauline

    1998-01-01

    Introduces the new concept of trust and how it influences the process of managing the security of an organization operating in an electronic commerce environment. Theoretically, the study aims to develop a framework of trust and security to provide a set of guidelines for secure electronic commerce. (Author/LRW)

  5. Young Children and Trust in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alat, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine differences in children's generalised trust and the maternal behaviour, child temperament, and demographic factors on the levels of trust in children. A total of 314 mothers and their children participated in the study. Results showed no evidence of sex differences in children's beliefs. Children living in urban…

  6. Further Exploration of Organizational Trust Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Samuel H.; Wiswell, Albert K.

    2008-01-01

    Trust facilitates individual and organizational learning, and is often misunderstood by organizations although they must continuously learn in order to attain strategic goals and survive. Furthermore, leaders of organizations often view trust defensively and their reactions may impede organizational learning. This paper builds on prior research…

  7. New Superintendents: Trust, Networking, and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripley, Joan; Mitchell, Roxanne M.; Richman, John A.

    2013-01-01

    This instrumental case study explored how five newly appointed superintendents identified key stakeholders and built trust and social capital with stakeholders in their districts. Stakeholder, trust, and social capital theory were the lenses that guided this study. We utilized a pragmatic research design and thematic data analysis to interpret our…

  8. Social Trust and the Growth of Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornskov, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The paper develops a simple model to examine how social trust might affect the growth of schooling through lowering transaction costs associated with employing educated individuals. In a sample of 52 countries, the paper thereafter provides empirical evidence that trust has led to faster growth of schooling in the period 1960-2000. The findings…

  9. New Superintendents: Trust, Networking, and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripley, Joan; Mitchell, Roxanne M.; Richman, John A.

    2013-01-01

    This instrumental case study explored how five newly appointed superintendents identified key stakeholders and built trust and social capital with stakeholders in their districts. Stakeholder, trust, and social capital theory were the lenses that guided this study. We utilized a pragmatic research design and thematic data analysis to interpret our…

  10. 43 CFR 2532.2 - Trust patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Trust patent. 2532.2 Section 2532.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) INDIAN ALLOTMENTS Allotments § 2532.2 Trust patent. (a) To enable an Indian allottee to...

  11. 43 CFR 2532.2 - Trust patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Trust patent. 2532.2 Section 2532.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) INDIAN ALLOTMENTS Allotments § 2532.2 Trust patent. (a) To enable an Indian allottee to...

  12. Young Children and Trust in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alat, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine differences in children's generalised trust and the maternal behaviour, child temperament, and demographic factors on the levels of trust in children. A total of 314 mothers and their children participated in the study. Results showed no evidence of sex differences in children's beliefs. Children living in urban…

  13. Bootstrapping and Maintaining Trust in the Cloud

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-16

    system that will receive the encryption key). In an IaaS cloud en- vironment, there is neither a trusted console where a user can enter a password nor...Xiao, LaurenceT. Yang, Jianhua Ma, Christian Muller-Schloer, and Yu Hua, edi- tors, Autonomic and Trusted Computing, volume 4610 of Lecture Notes in

  14. Explaining Math Achievement: Personality, Motivation, and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic-Bebek, Ebru

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the statistical significance of student trust next to the well-tested constructs of personality and motivation to determine whether trust is a significant predictor of course achievement in college math courses. Participants were 175 students who were taking undergraduate math courses in an urban public university. The…

  15. Attachment Relationships: Self-Disclosure and Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole

    1993-01-01

    Examined differences in trust and self-disclosure associated with secure, anxious/ambivalent, and avoidant attachment. Findings from 98 undergraduate students revealed that, in general, subjects who reported themselves as securely attached also reported, in comparison with avoidant attachment, higher levels of trust in partner, amount of…

  16. Factor Analysis of the Interpersonal Trust Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Thomas L.; Tedeschi, Richard G.

    1975-01-01

    Separate factor analyses of four large samples of respondents to Rotter's Interpersonal Trust Scale produced three orthogonal factors that cross-validated over all samples. Results indicate there may be relatively independent dimensions of trust and factor scores may yield greater prediction than the general scale in many research applications.…

  17. Development of Trust and Reciprocity in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bos, Wouter; Westenberg, Michiel; van Dijk, Eric; Crone, Eveline A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the development of two types of prosocial behavior, trust and reciprocity, as defined using a game-theoretical task that allows investigation of real-time social interaction, among 4 age groups from 9 to 25 years. By manipulating the possible outcome alternatives, we could distinguish among important determinants of trust and…

  18. Perceptions of Trust in Public Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Lucy; Baird, Jo-Anne

    2013-01-01

    Over recent years, the credibility of public examinations in England has increasingly come to the fore. Government agencies have invested time and money into researching public perceptions of the reliability and validity of examinations. Whilst such research overlaps into the conceptual domain of trust, trust in examinations remains an elusive…

  19. Privacy as an enabler, not an impediment: building trust into health information exchange.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Deven; Dempsey, James X; Harris, Leslie; Goldman, Janlori

    2009-01-01

    Building privacy and security protections into health information technology systems will bolster trust in such systems and promote their adoption. The privacy issue, too long seen as a barrier to electronic health information exchange, can be resolved through a comprehensive framework that implements core privacy principles, adopts trusted network design characteristics, and establishes oversight and accountability mechanisms. The public policy challenges of implementing this framework in a complex and evolving environment will require improvements to existing law, new rules for entities outside the traditional health care sector, a more nuanced approach to the role of consent, and stronger enforcement mechanisms.

  20. Self-rated health, generalized trust, and the Affordable Care Act: A US panel study, 2006-2014.

    PubMed

    Mewes, Jan; Giordano, Giuseppe Nicola

    2017-10-01

    Previous research shows that generalized trust, the belief that most people can be trusted, is conducive to people's health. However, only recently have longitudinal studies suggested an additional reciprocal pathway from health back to trust. Drawing on a diverse body of literature that shows how egalitarian social policy contributes to the promotion of generalized trust, we hypothesize that this other 'reverse' pathway could be sensitive to health insurance context. Drawing on nationally representative US panel data from the General Social Survey, we examine whether the Affordable Care Act of 2010 could have had influence on the deteriorating impact of worsening self-rated health (SRH) on generalized trust. Firstly, using two-wave panel data (2008-2010, N = 1403) and employing random effects regression models, we show that a lack of health insurance coverage negatively determines generalized trust in the United States. However, this association is attenuated when additionally controlling for (perceived) income inequality. Secondly, utilizing data from two separate three-wave panel studies from the US General Social Survey (2006-10; N = 1652; 2010-2014; N = 1187), we employ fixed-effects linear regression analyses to control for unobserved heterogeneity from time-invariant factors. We demonstrate that worsening SRH was a stronger predictor for a decrease in generalized trust prior (2006-2010) to the implementation of the Affordable Care Act. Further, the negative effect of fair/poor SRH seen in the 2006-2010 data becomes attenuated in the 2010-2014 panel data. We thus find evidence for a substantial weakening of the previously established negative impact of decreasing SRH on generalized trust, coinciding with the most significant US healthcare reforms in decades. Social policy and healthcare policy implications are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Trusting Facebook in Crisis Situations: The Role of General Use and General Trust Toward Facebook.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Hermann; Kücükbalaban, Pinar; Lemanski, Sandra; Knuth, Daniela; Schmidt, Silke

    2016-01-01

    An important concept that has been rather neglected in research on social media is the concept of trust. Although there is a considerable amount of research on online trust in general, little has been done in the area of social media. As a situation of risk is necessary for trust, the perceived trustworthiness of Facebook in crisis situations was examined in this study. A sample of 340 European Facebook users were questioned as part of a large European study about social media in the context of emergency situations. We found that participants' general trust toward Facebook as a medium predicted to a significant degree how much they would trust Facebook in a crisis situation. General use of Facebook and dispositional trust were also significantly associated with trust toward Facebook in a crisis situation.

  2. DualTrust: A Distributed Trust Model for Swarm-Based Autonomic Computing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maiden, Wendy M.; Dionysiou, Ioanna; Frincke, Deborah A.; Fink, Glenn A.; Bakken, David E.

    2011-02-01

    For autonomic computing systems that utilize mobile agents and ant colony algorithms for their sensor layer, trust management is important for the acceptance of the mobile agent sensors and to protect the system from malicious behavior by insiders and entities that have penetrated network defenses. This paper examines the trust relationships, evidence, and decisions in a representative system and finds that by monitoring the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers rather than the swarming sensors, the trust management problem becomes much more scalable and still serves to protect the swarm. We then propose the DualTrust conceptual trust model. By addressing the autonomic manager’s bi-directional primary relationships in the ACS architecture, DualTrust is able to monitor the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers, protect the sensor swarm in a scalable manner, and provide global trust awareness for the orchestrating autonomic manager.

  3. Trust in the workplace: factors affecting trust formation between team members.

    PubMed

    Spector, Michele D; Jones, Gwen E

    2004-06-01

    The authors used survey data from 127 professional-level employees working in 8 industries to assess the effects of respondent's trusting stance and (a) the trustee's organization membership (internal or external), (b) the hierarchical relationship (supervisor or peer), and (c) the gender of the trustee, on initial trust level for a new project team member. The authors found that trusting stance was positively related to initial trust level. The authors also found an interaction effect between respondent gender and trustee gender on initial trust. Specifically, male initial trust level was higher for a new male team member and lower for a new female team member. The present study provided additional understanding of the formation of initial trust levels and its importance for team functioning.

  4. Trust in prescription drug brand websites: website trust cues, attitude toward the website, and behavioral intentions.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jisu; Shin, Wonsun

    2014-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug brand websites, as a form of DTC advertising, are receiving increasing attention due to the growing number and importance as an ad and a consumer information source. This study examined consumer trust in a DTC website as an important factor influencing consumers' attitude toward the website and behavioral intention. Applying the conceptual framework of website trust, the particular focus of investigation was the effect of the website trust cue factor on consumers' perceived DTC website trust and subsequent attitudinal and behavioral responses. Results show a significant relation between the website trust cue factor and consumers' perceived DTC website trust. Perceived DTC website trust, in turn, was found to be significantly associated with consumers' attitude toward the DTC website and behavioral intention.

  5. Trust method for multi-agent consensus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulski, Dariusz G.; Lewis, Frank L.; Gu, Edward Y.; Hudas, Greg R.

    2012-06-01

    The consensus problem in multi-agent systems often assumes that all agents are equally trustworthy to seek agreement. But for multi-agent military applications - particularly those that deal with sensor fusion or multi-robot formation control - this assumption may create the potential for compromised network security or poor cooperative performance. As such, we present a trust-based solution for the discrete-time multi-agent consensus problem and prove its asymptotic convergence in strongly connected digraphs. The novelty of the paper is a new trust algorithm called RoboTrust, which is used to calculate trustworthiness in agents using observations and statistical inferences from various historical perspectives. The performance of RoboTrust is evaluated within the trust-based consensus protocol under different conditions of tolerance and confirmation.

  6. Enhancing P3P Framework through Policies and Trust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    existing online review/rating systems are geared towards customer satisfaction in online shopping domain, we believe that in the future privacy will...ablers of online shopping to tracking of user browsing behavior. Though cookies are browser dependent, they are independent of internet service provider

  7. Detroit Jobs Trust Fund Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Clarke, Hansen [D-MI-13

    2011-09-14

    10/03/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations and Procurement Reform . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Detroit Jobs Trust Fund Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Clarke, Hansen [D-MI-13

    2011-09-14

    10/03/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations and Procurement Reform . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kikulwe, Enoch M; Wesseler, Justus; Falck-Zepeda, Jose

    2011-10-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers' perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results show a high willingness to purchase GM banana among consumers. An explanatory factor analysis is conducted to identify the perceptions toward genetic modification. The identified factors are used in a cluster analysis that grouped consumers into segments of GM skepticism, government trust, health safety concern, and food and environmental safety concern. Socioeconomic characteristics differed significantly across segments. Consumer characteristics and perception factors influence consumers' willingness to purchase GM banana. The institutional awareness and trust varied significantly across segments as well. The findings would be essential to policy makers when designing risk-communication strategies targeting different consumer segments to ensure proper discussion and addressing potential concerns about GM technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Perceptions of climate change and trust in information providers in rural Australia.

    PubMed

    Buys, Laurie; Aird, Rosemary; van Megen, Kimberley; Miller, Evonne; Sommerfeld, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    Disagreement within the global science community about the certainty and causes of climate change has led the general public to question what to believe and whom to trust on matters related to this issue. This paper reports on qualitative research undertaken with Australian residents from two rural areas to explore their perceptions of climate change and trust in information providers. While overall, residents tended to agree that climate change is a reality, perceptions varied in terms of its causes and how best to address it. Politicians, government, and the media were described as untrustworthy sources of information about climate change, with independent scientists being the most trusted. The vested interests of information providers appeared to be a key reason for their distrust. The findings highlight the importance of improved transparency and consultation with the public when communicating information about climate change and related policies.

  11. Memory Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood vessel (which carries the blood) bursts. continue Brain Injuries Affect Memory At any age, an injury to ... with somebody's memory. Some people who recover from brain injuries need to learn old things all over again, ...

  12. Memory Efficient Sequence Analysis Using Compressed Data Structures (Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    ScienceCinema

    Simpson, Jared [Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute

    2016-07-12

    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute's Jared Simpson on "Memory efficient sequence analysis using compressed data structures" at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011

  13. Memory Efficient Sequence Analysis Using Compressed Data Structures (Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Jared

    2011-10-13

    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute's Jared Simpson on "Memory efficient sequence analysis using compressed data structures" at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011

  14. Genetic Influences Are Virtually Absent for Trust

    PubMed Central

    Van Lange, Paul A. M.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Posthuma, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, numerous twin studies have revealed moderate to high heritability estimates for individual differences in a wide range of human traits, including cognitive ability, psychiatric disorders, and personality traits. Even factors that are generally believed to be environmental in nature have been shown to be under genetic control, albeit modest. Is such heritability also present in social traits that are conceptualized as causes and consequences of social interactions or in other ways strongly shaped by behavior of other people? Here we examine a population-based sample of 1,012 twins and relatives. We show that the genetic influence on generalized trust in other people (trust-in-others: h2 = 5%, ns), and beliefs regarding other people’s trust in the self (trust-in-self: h2 = 13%, ns), is virtually absent. As test-retest reliability for both scales were found to be moderate or high (r = .76 and r = .53, respectively) in an independent sample, we conclude that all variance in trust is likely to be accounted for by non-shared environmental influences. We show that, relative to cognitive abilities, psychiatric disorders, and classic personality variables, genetic influences are smaller for trust, and propose that experiences with or observations of the behavior of other people shape trust more strongly than other traits. PMID:24709897

  15. Hype and Public Trust in Science

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Social scientists have begun elucidating the variables that influence public trust in science, yet little is known about hype in biotechnology and its effects on public trust. Many scholars claim that hyping biotechnology results in a loss of public trust, and possibly public enthusiasm or support for science, because public expectations of the biotechnological promises will be unmet. We argue for the need for empirical research that examines the relationships between hype, public trust, and public enthusiasm/support. We discuss the complexities in designing empirical studies that provide evidence for a causal link between hype, public trust, and public enthusiasm/support, but also illustrate how this may be remedied. Further empirical research on hype and public trust is needed in order to improve public communication of science and to design evidence-based education on the responsible conduct of research for scientists. We conclude that conceptual arguments made on hype and public trust must be nuanced to reflect our current understanding of this relationship. PMID:22045550

  16. Trust build up and break down between stakeholders in water resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Gemma

    2015-04-01

    Trust is a word that is often heard in discussions about stakeholder participation in water management programmes and projects. A break down in trust between participants is often attributed to the failure of a project reaching its objectives. In contrast, the development of trust is often described as a success in itself, and is thought to lead to positive water management outcomes. To explore how trust impacts water management, this research explores the factors that led to trust development and break-down, and the implications of this, in a major stakeholder engagement project in water management in North America. A major review of the Lake Ontario and St Lawrence River water level operating system (the LOSL Study) was commissioned in 1999 by the International Joint Commission (IJC). The goal of the five-year LOSL Study was to produce an operating policy for the system that was acceptable to everyone impacted by the water levels and flows in the basin. Through public meetings and consultations, the Study aimed to bring together and combine public and scientist input to co-produce an operating policy that met the needs of all interest groups. Freely accessible documentation of the public involvement activities that took place is available, which is used to explore trust and mistrust development. Provisional findings show that some public/interest group representatives mistrusted the Study. This was related to concerns over data quality, whether appropriate indicators were selected by the researchers and whether the models used were producing accurate outputs. Scientist responses to questions at public meetings were able to address some of these concerns and therefore build trust in the methods, but could also lead to further mistrust if public concerns and questions were not addressed adequately (for example, simply dismissed as irrelevant by scientists without due explanation). The impacts of distrust between participants and scientists included apathy and low

  17. Memory Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Brandy R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article highlights the dissociable human memory systems of episodic, semantic, and procedural memory in the context of neurologic illnesses known to adversely affect specific neuroanatomic structures relevant to each memory system. Recent Findings: Advances in functional neuroimaging and refinement of neuropsychological and bedside assessment tools continue to support a model of multiple memory systems that are distinct yet complementary and to support the potential for one system to be engaged as a compensatory strategy when a counterpart system fails. Summary: Episodic memory, the ability to recall personal episodes, is the subtype of memory most often perceived as dysfunctional by patients and informants. Medial temporal lobe structures, especially the hippocampal formation and associated cortical and subcortical structures, are most often associated with episodic memory loss. Episodic memory dysfunction may present acutely, as in concussion; transiently, as in transient global amnesia (TGA); subacutely, as in thiamine deficiency; or chronically, as in Alzheimer disease. Semantic memory refers to acquired knowledge about the world. Anterior and inferior temporal lobe structures are most often associated with semantic memory loss. The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) is the paradigmatic disorder resulting in predominant semantic memory dysfunction. Working memory, associated with frontal lobe function, is the active maintenance of information in the mind that can be potentially manipulated to complete goal-directed tasks. Procedural memory, the ability to learn skills that become automatic, involves the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and supplementary motor cortex. Parkinson disease and related disorders result in procedural memory deficits. Most memory concerns warrant bedside cognitive or neuropsychological evaluation and neuroimaging to assess for specific neuropathologies and guide treatment. PMID:26039844

  18. DualTrust: A Trust Management Model for Swarm-Based Autonomic Computing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maiden, Wendy M.

    2010-05-01

    Trust management techniques must be adapted to the unique needs of the application architectures and problem domains to which they are applied. For autonomic computing systems that utilize mobile agents and ant colony algorithms for their sensor layer, certain characteristics of the mobile agent ant swarm -- their lightweight, ephemeral nature and indirect communication -- make this adaptation especially challenging. This thesis looks at the trust issues and opportunities in swarm-based autonomic computing systems and finds that by monitoring the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers rather than the swarming sensors, the trust management problem becomes much more scalable and still serves to protect the swarm. After analyzing the applicability of trust management research as it has been applied to architectures with similar characteristics, this thesis specifies the required characteristics for trust management mechanisms used to monitor the trustworthiness of entities in a swarm-based autonomic computing system and describes a trust model that meets these requirements.

  19. Do Reputation Systems Undermine Trust? Divergent Effects of Enforcement Type on Generalized Trust and Trustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Ko

    2015-03-01

    Research shows that enforcing cooperation using contracts or tangible sanctions can backfire, undermining people's intrinsic motivation to cooperate: when the enforcement is removed, people are less trusting or trustworthy than when there is no enforcement to begin with. The author examines whether reputation systems have similar consequences for generalized trust and trustworthiness. Using a web-based experiment simulating online market transactions (studies 1 and 2), he shows that reputation systems can reinforce generalized trust and trustworthiness, unlike contractual enforcement or relational enforcement based on repeated interactions. In a survey experiment (study 3), he finds that recalling their eBay feedback scores made participants more trusting and trustworthy. These results are predicated on the diffuse nature of reputational enforcement to reinforce perceptions of trust and trustworthiness. These results have implications for understanding how different forms of governance affect generalized trust and trustworthiness.

  20. Consumer trust in the Australian food system - The everyday erosive impact of food labelling.

    PubMed

    Tonkin, Emma; Webb, Trevor; Coveney, John; Meyer, Samantha B; Wilson, Annabelle M

    2016-08-01

    Consumer trust in food system actors is foundational for ensuring consumer confidence in food safety. As food labelling is a direct communication between consumers and food system actors, it may influence consumer perceptions of actor trustworthiness. This study explores the judgements formed about the trustworthiness of the food system and its actors through labelling, and the expectations these judgements are based on. In-depth, semi-structured interviews with 24 Australian consumers were conducted. Theoretical sampling focussed on shopping location, dietary requirements, rurality, gender, age and educational background. The methodological approach used (adaptive theory) enabled emerging data to be examined through the lens of a set of guiding theoretical concepts, and theory reconsidered in light of emerging data. Food labelling acted as a surrogate for personal interaction with industry and government for participants. Judgements about the trustworthiness of these actors and the broader food system were formed through interaction with food labelling and were based on expectations of both competence and goodwill. Interaction with labelling primarily reduced trust in actors within the food system, undermining trust in the system as a whole. Labelling has a role as an access point to the food system. Access points are points of vulnerability for systems, where trust can be developed, reinforced or broken down. For the participants in this study, in general labelling demonstrates food system actors lack goodwill and violate their fiduciary responsibility. This paper provides crucial insights for industry and policy actors to use this access point to build, rather than undermine, trust in food systems.

  1. 49 CFR 1013.2 - The irrevocability of the trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The irrevocability of the trust. 1013.2 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR THE PROPER USE OF VOTING TRUSTS § 1013.2 The irrevocability of the trust. (a) The trust and the nomination of the trustee...

  2. 49 CFR 1013.2 - The irrevocability of the trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The irrevocability of the trust. 1013.2 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR THE PROPER USE OF VOTING TRUSTS § 1013.2 The irrevocability of the trust. (a) The trust and the nomination of the trustee...

  3. Dynamic Trust Management for Mobile Networks and Its Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bao, Fenye

    2013-01-01

    Trust management in mobile networks is challenging due to dynamically changing network environments and the lack of a centralized trusted authority. In this dissertation research, we "design" and "validate" a class of dynamic trust management protocols for mobile networks, and demonstrate the utility of dynamic trust management…

  4. Trust Matters: Leadership for Successful Schools, 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschannen-Moran, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Make your school soar by escalating trust between teachers, students, and families. Trust is an essential element in all healthy relationships, and the relationships that exist in your school are no different. How can your school leaders or teachers cultivate trust? How can your institution maintain trust once it is established? These are the…

  5. A Novel Trust Service Provider for Internet Based Commerce Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyal, M. Y.; Barkat, B.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a framework for enhancing trust in Internet commerce. Shows how trust can be provided through a network of Trust Service Providers (TSp). Identifies a set of services that should be offered by a TSp. Presents a distributed object-oriented implementation of trust services using CORBA, JAVA and XML. (Author/AEF)

  6. 26 CFR 1.664-1 - Charitable remainder trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... not a charity, for life or for a term of years, with an irrevocable remainder interest to be held for... governing the creation and administration of a charitable remainder trust, and rules governing the taxation... charitable remainder trust from its creation. In order for a trust to be a charitable remainder trust, it...

  7. 26 CFR 1.664-1 - Charitable remainder trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... not a charity, for life or for a term of years, with an irrevocable remainder interest to be held for... governing the creation and administration of a charitable remainder trust, and rules governing the taxation... charitable remainder trust from its creation. In order for a trust to be a charitable remainder trust, it...

  8. 26 CFR 1.664-1 - Charitable remainder trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... not a charity, for life or for a term of years, with an irrevocable remainder interest to be held for... governing the creation and administration of a charitable remainder trust, and rules governing the taxation... charitable remainder trust from its creation. In order for a trust to be a charitable remainder trust, it...

  9. 76 FR 58849 - Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust, et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... COMMISSION Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust, et al.; Notice of Application September 15, 2011. AGENCY... relying on rule 12d1-2 under the Act to invest in certain financial instruments. Applicants: Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust (``LMP Equity Trust''), Legg Mason Partners Variable Equity Trust (``LMP Variable...

  10. Teacher Trust in District Administration: A Promising Line of Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Miskell, Ryan C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We set out in this study to establish a foundation for a line of inquiry around teacher trust in district administration by (1) describing the role of trust in capacity building, (2) conceptualizing trust in district administration, (3) developing a scale to measure teacher trust in district administration, and (4) testing the…

  11. Trust Matters: Leadership for Successful Schools, 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschannen-Moran, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Make your school soar by escalating trust between teachers, students, and families. Trust is an essential element in all healthy relationships, and the relationships that exist in your school are no different. How can your school leaders or teachers cultivate trust? How can your institution maintain trust once it is established? These are the…

  12. Dynamic Trust Management for Mobile Networks and Its Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bao, Fenye

    2013-01-01

    Trust management in mobile networks is challenging due to dynamically changing network environments and the lack of a centralized trusted authority. In this dissertation research, we "design" and "validate" a class of dynamic trust management protocols for mobile networks, and demonstrate the utility of dynamic trust management…

  13. Teacher Trust in District Administration: A Promising Line of Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Miskell, Ryan C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We set out in this study to establish a foundation for a line of inquiry around teacher trust in district administration by (1) describing the role of trust in capacity building, (2) conceptualizing trust in district administration, (3) developing a scale to measure teacher trust in district administration, and (4) testing the…

  14. Guide to the Administration of Charitable Remainder Trusts. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David W.; And Others

    This is the third edition of a workbook prepared as a kind of primer for those responsible for the administration of charitable remainder trusts in accordance with the Tax Reform Act of 1969. The topics covered include: trust administration in general; pooled income fund; unitrust; annuity trust; gift annuity; short term income (lead) trust; gift…

  15. 49 CFR 1013.2 - The irrevocability of the trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The irrevocability of the trust. 1013.2 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR THE PROPER USE OF VOTING TRUSTS § 1013.2 The irrevocability of the trust. (a) The trust and the nomination of the trustee...

  16. Guide to the Administration of Charitable Remainder Trusts. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David W.; And Others

    This is the third edition of a workbook prepared as a kind of primer for those responsible for the administration of charitable remainder trusts in accordance with the Tax Reform Act of 1969. The topics covered include: trust administration in general; pooled income fund; unitrust; annuity trust; gift annuity; short term income (lead) trust; gift…

  17. Trust Building via Risk Taking: A Cross-Societal Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Karen S.; Yamagishi, Toshio; Cheshire, Coye; Cooper, Robin; Matsuda, Masafumi; Mashima, Rie

    2005-01-01

    The role of risk taking in building trust relations has largely been overlooked in the burgeoning literature on trust in the social sciences; yet it is central to understanding how trust develops. We argue that a series of risk-taking behaviors is indispensable to building a trust relation. We conducted experiments in Japan and the United States…

  18. 26 CFR 1.851-7 - Certain unit investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of $100 and a short- term capital gain of $50, computed as follows: (1) B is treated as owning 110... trust will be treated as directly owning the assets of such trust for taxable years of such holder which... proportionate share of the trust assets in exchange for his interest in the trust. Also, no gain or loss will...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.354 - What is a trust evaluation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... evaluation is an annual review and evaluation of trust functions performed by a Tribe/Consortium to ensure that the functions are performed in accordance with trust standards as defined by Federal law. Trust evaluations address trust functions performed by the Tribe/Consortium on its own behalf as well as...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.354 - What is a trust evaluation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... evaluation is an annual review and evaluation of trust functions performed by a Tribe/Consortium to ensure that the functions are performed in accordance with trust standards as defined by Federal law. Trust evaluations address trust functions performed by the Tribe/Consortium on its own behalf as well as...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.354 - What is a trust evaluation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... evaluation is an annual review and evaluation of trust functions performed by a Tribe/Consortium to ensure that the functions are performed in accordance with trust standards as defined by Federal law. Trust evaluations address trust functions performed by the Tribe/Consortium on its own behalf as well as...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.354 - What is a trust evaluation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... evaluation is an annual review and evaluation of trust functions performed by a Tribe/Consortium to ensure that the functions are performed in accordance with trust standards as defined by Federal law. Trust evaluations address trust functions performed by the Tribe/Consortium on its own behalf as well as...

  3. The Nature and Function of Trust in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2009-01-01

    Our purpose was to advance and test a theoretical model of the nature and function of trust in schools. Unlike other studies, ours specified school trust as a latent construct manifested through parent and teacher trust perceptions. We hypothesized that trust would have a larger direct effect on collective teacher efficacy and achievement…

  4. An Investigation of Teacher Trust in the Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makiewicz, Monica Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to understand the concept of trust, its meaning, antecedents, and outcomes as they applied to teacher trust in principals. Since there are very few in-depth studies specifically on trust in a school principal, research on trust from an organizational perspective was consulted. This body of research has numerous and…

  5. The Nature and Function of Trust in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2009-01-01

    Our purpose was to advance and test a theoretical model of the nature and function of trust in schools. Unlike other studies, ours specified school trust as a latent construct manifested through parent and teacher trust perceptions. We hypothesized that trust would have a larger direct effect on collective teacher efficacy and achievement…

  6. 12 CFR 745.9-1 - Trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trust accounts. 745.9-1 Section 745.9-1 Banks... AND APPENDIX Clarification and Definition of Account Insurance Coverage § 745.9-1 Trust accounts. (a) For purposes of this section, “trust” refers to an irrevocable trust. (b) All trust interests...

  7. 26 CFR 1.47-5 - Estates and trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Estates and trusts. 1.47-5 Section 1.47-5... Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.47-5 Estates and trusts. (a) In general—(1) Disposition or cessation in hands of estate or trust. If an estate or trust disposes of...

  8. 26 CFR 8.1 - Charitable remainder trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Charitable remainder trusts. 8.1 Section 8.1... Charitable remainder trusts. (a) Certain wills and trusts in existence on September 21, 1974. In the case of a will executed before September 21, 1974, or a trust created (within the meaning of...

  9. 24 CFR 92.500 - The HOME Investment Trust Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The HOME Investment Trust Fund. 92... Investment Trust Fund. (a) General. A HOME Investment Trust Fund consists of the accounts described in this... Investment Trust Fund United States Treasury account for each participating jurisdiction. Each...

  10. How Much Do You Trust Me? Learning a Case-Based Model of Inverse Trust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    learn from previous adaptations so it can perform trustworthy behaviors more quickly. We use case-based reasoning ( CBR ) to allow the robot to learn...interruption because the robot injured a human). 4 Trust-guided Behavior Adaptation Using CBR The robot uses the inverse trust estimate to infer if its...the other requires expert-authored rules [12]. The topic of trust models in CBR is generally examined in the context of recommendation systems [13] or

  11. Emerging memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Livio; Bez, Roberto; Sandhu, Gurtej

    2014-12-01

    Memory is a key component of any data processing system. Following the classical Turing machine approach, memories hold both the data to be processed and the rules for processing them. In the history of microelectronics, the distinction has been rather between working memory, which is exemplified by DRAM, and storage memory, exemplified by NAND. These two types of memory devices now represent 90% of all memory market and 25% of the total semiconductor market, and have been the technology drivers in the last decades. Even if radically different in characteristics, they are however based on the same storage mechanism: charge storage, and this mechanism seems to be near to reaching its physical limits. The search for new alternative memory approaches, based on more scalable mechanisms, has therefore gained new momentum. The status of incumbent memory technologies and their scaling limitations will be discussed. Emerging memory technologies will be analyzed, starting from the ones that are already present for niche applications, and which are getting new attention, thanks to recent technology breakthroughs. Maturity level, physical limitations and potential for scaling will be compared to existing memories. At the end the possible future composition of memory systems will be discussed.

  12. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  13. Can We Trust Measures of Political Trust? Assessing Measurement Equivalence in Diverse Regime Types.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Irena

    2017-01-01

    Do standard "trust in government" survey questions deliver measures which are reliable and equivalent in meaning across diverse regime types? I test for the measurement equivalence of political trust in a sample of 35 former Soviet and European countries using the 2010 Life in Transition Survey II conducted by the World Bank and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Employing multiple group confirmatory factor analysis, I find that trust perceptions in central political institutions differ from (1) trust in regional and local political institutions, (2) trust in protective institutions like the armed forces and police and (3) trust in order institutions like the courts and police. Four measurement models achieve partial metric invariance and two reach partial scalar invariance in most countries, allowing for comparisons of correlates using latent factors from each model. I also found some clustering of measurement error and variation in the dimensionality of political trust between democratic and autocratic portions of the sample. On some measurement parameters, therefore, respondents in diverse cultures and regime types do not have equivalent understandings of political trust. The findings offer both optimism and a note of caution for researchers using political trust measures in cross-regime contexts.

  14. Trust in health care providers: factors predicting trust among homeless veterans over time.

    PubMed

    van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; McGuire, James

    2014-08-01

    We examined whether a combination of predisposing, enabling, need, and primary care experience variables would predict trust in medical health care providers for homeless veterans over 18 months. Linear mixed model analysis indicated that, among these variables, race, social support, service-connected disability status, and satisfaction and continuity with providers predicted trust in provider over time. Trust in providers improved during the initial stages of the relationship between patient and provider and then declined to slightly below baseline levels over time. Further research is needed to determine generalizability and effects of provider trust on patient health care status over longer periods of time.

  15. Online trust building through third party trust transfer and third party protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandoko, Wanda; Saleh Abbas, Bahtiar; Budiastuti, Dyah; Kosala, Raymond

    2017-03-01

    The primary objective of this research is to develop an online trust building mechanism for SME (Small Medium Enterprise). Trust is very important in e-commerce. The nature of online shopping has a greater uncertainty than offline shopping. Seeing as there is an uncertainty that can produce risks, a prospective buyer’s trust is needed. A lot of people’s unwillingness to shop online is caused by their lack of trust toward e-commerce. E-commerce is said to be one of the ways for SME to compete with bigger companies. However, building trust requires immense time and cost. SME with limited resources may experience difficulties in building trust just with their own resources. Base on literature research that needs to be validated in next research, we found that trust can be built through trust transfer from the reputable and well-known trust-mark issuer, and third party protection such as escrow account service and credit card issuer.

  16. Trust in technology-mediated collaborative health encounters: constructing trust in passive user interactions with technologies.

    PubMed

    Montague, Enid; Asan, Onur

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated factors that explain patient trust in health technology and the relationship between patient trust in technology and trust in their care provider. Sociotechnical systems theory states that changes in one part of the system are likely related to other parts of the system. Therefore, attitudes about technologies, like trust, are likely related to other aspects of the system. Contributing to appropriate trust at the technological, interpersonal, and system levels can potentially lead to positive health outcomes. The study described in this manuscript used data collected from 101 patients with a Trust in Medical Technology instrument. The instrument measured patients' trust in (1) their providers, (2) the technology, and (3) how their providers used the technology. Measure 3 was positively associated with measures 1 and 2, while measures 1 and 2 were not positively or negatively associated with one another. These results may indicate that patient assessments of the trustworthiness of care providers and technologies are based on their observations of how providers use technologies. Though patients are not active users of technologies in health care, the results of this study show that their perceptions of how providers use technology are related to their trust in both technology and the care provider. Study findings have implications for how trust is conceptualised and measured in interpersonal relationships and in technologies.

  17. Testosterone inhibits trust but promotes reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Boksem, Maarten A S; Mehta, Pranjal H; Van den Bergh, Bram; van Son, Veerle; Trautmann, Stefan T; Roelofs, Karin; Smidts, Ale; Sanfey, Alan G

    2013-11-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone has been associated with behavior intended to obtain or maintain high social status. Although such behavior is typically characterized as aggressive and competitive, it is clear that high social status is achieved and maintained not only through antisocial behavior but also through prosocial behavior. In the present experiment, we investigated the impact of testosterone administration on trust and reciprocity using a double-blind randomized control design. We found that a single dose of 0.5 mg of testosterone decreased trust but increased generosity when repaying trust. These findings suggest that testosterone may mediate different types of status-seeking behavior. It may increase competitive, potentially aggressive, and antisocial behavior when social challenges and threats (i.e., abuse of trust and betrayal) need to be considered; however, it may promote prosocial behavior in the absence of these threats, when high status and good reputation may be best served by prosocial behavior.

  18. Environmental Education at The Wildfowl Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadsby, Brian

    1975-01-01

    Describes the work of Wildfowl Trust in the areas of research, education, recreation and conservation. Presents the advantages of the wetland habitat for biological study and describes the facilities available to educational bodies at Martin Mere. (Author/GS)

  19. Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 1986, Congress created the Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund to address releases from federally regulated underground storage tanks (USTs) by amending Subtitle I of the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

  20. Environmental Education at The Wildfowl Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadsby, Brian

    1975-01-01

    Describes the work of Wildfowl Trust in the areas of research, education, recreation and conservation. Presents the advantages of the wetland habitat for biological study and describes the facilities available to educational bodies at Martin Mere. (Author/GS)

  1. Trust and communicated attributions in close relationships.

    PubMed

    Rempel, J K; Ross, M; Holmes, J G

    2001-07-01

    The attributional statements intimate partners communicate to one another were examined as a function of trust. In discussions by 35 married couples, 850 attributions and corresponding events were coded on dimensions of valence, globality, and locus. Results of regression and contingency analyses indicate that attributional statements expressed in high-trust relationships emphasized positive aspects of the relationship. Medium-trust couples actively engaged issues but focused more on negative events and explanations. Low-trust couples expressed more specific, less affectively extreme attributional statements that minimized the potential for increased conflict. Results could not be accounted for by relationship satisfaction. These findings also highlight the importance of focusing on features of the events for which attributions are expressed.

  2. Trust Based Routing in Ad Hoc Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talati, Mikita V.; Valiveti, Sharada; Kotecha, K.

    Ad Hoc network often termed as an infrastructure-less, self- organized or spontaneous network.The execution and survival of an ad-hoc network is solely dependent upon the cooperative and trusting nature of its nodes. However, this naive dependency on intermediate nodes makes the ad-hoc network vulnerable to passive and active attacks by malicious nodes and cause inflict severe damage. A number of protocols have been developed to secure ad-hoc networks using cryptographic schemes, but all rely on the presence of trust authority. Due to mobility of nodes and limitation of resources in wireless network one interesting research area in MANET is routing. This paper offers various trust models and trust based routing protocols to improve the trustworthiness of the neighborhood.Thus it helps in selecting the most secure and trustworthy route from the available ones for the data transfer.

  3. Primary care trust commissioning of varicose vein intervention--new guidance needed?

    PubMed

    Griffin, Kathryn Jane; Cousins, Simon; Bailey, Marc Aaron; Berridge, David; Scott, David Julian Ashbridge

    2014-09-01

    In light of evidence of national variability in service commissioning of varicose vein intervention, our aim was to evaluate the current state of primary care trust commissioning for all forms of varicose vein intervention in England. We also sought to clarify the extent to which access to endovenous and surgical varicose vein services is being restricted. Under the Freedom of Information Act (2001), a structured email survey was sent to 108 primary care trusts in England. Trusts were asked how many elective endovenous laser therapy and open procedures were commissioned from 2008 to 2011 and they were asked to submit their commissioning policy for analysis. The 'qualifying criteria' expressed in each policy were analysed by theme and geographical region. Of 108 surveys, 95 (88%) were completed and returned. Of these, 91 (96%) stated that varicose vein interventions were actively commissioned. Eighty-eight (97%) of primary care trusts that commissioned varicose vein interventions stated that access was restricted. Qualifying criteria varied considerably between regions. Access to varicose vein intervention appears to be restricted, with national variation in commissioning across England. This might have an impact on patient care and surgical training. We propose that a national decision be made about which varicose vein patients should be offered funding for treatment on the National Health Service. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Trust in government and support for governmental regulation: the case of electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Herian, Mitchel N; Shank, Nancy C; Abdel-Monem, Tarik L

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents results from a public engagement effort in Nebraska, USA, which measured public opinions about governmental involvement in encouraging the use of electronic health records (EHRs). We examine the role of trust in government in contributing to public support for government involvement in the development of EHR technologies. We hypothesize that trust in government will lead to support for federal and state governmental encouragement of the use of EHRs among doctors and insurance companies. Further, because individual experiences with health-care professionals will reduce perceptions of risk, we expect that support for governmental involvement will be tempered by greater personal experience with the health-care industry. Examining a small survey of individuals on the issue, we find general support for both of our hypotheses. The findings suggest that trust in government does have a positive relationship with support for government involvement in the policy domain, but that the frequency of personal experiences with health-care providers reduces the extent to which the public supports governmental involvement in the development of EHR technology. This inquiry contributes to our understanding of public attitudes towards government involvement in EHRs in the United States specifically and contributes to social science examining links between trust in government and support for governmental activity in the emerging policy domain regarding electronic health records systems. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended.

  6. Does trust in health care influence the use of complementary and alternative medicine by chronically ill people?

    PubMed Central

    van den Brink-Muinen, A; Rijken, PM

    2006-01-01

    Background People's trust in health care and health care professionals is essential for the effectiveness of health care, especially for chronically ill people, since chronic diseases are by definition (partly) incurable. Therefore, it may be understandable that chronically ill people turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), often in addition to regular care. Chronically ill people use CAM two to five times more often than non-chronically ill people. The trust of chronically ill people in health care and health care professionals and the relationship of this with CAM use have not been reported until now. In this study, we examine the influence of chronically ill people's trust in health care and health care professionals on CAM use. Methods The present sample comprises respondents of the 'Panel of Patients with Chronic Diseases' (PPCD). Patients (≥25 years) were selected by GPs. A total of 1,625 chronically ill people were included. Trust and CAM use was measured by a written questionnaire. Statistical analyses were t tests for independent samples, Chi-square and one-way analysis of variance, and logistic regression analysis. Results Chronically ill people have a relatively low level of trust in future health care. They trust certified alternative practitioners less than regular health care professionals, and non-certified alternative practitioners less still. The less trust patients have in future health care, the more they will be inclined to use CAM, when controlling for socio-demographic and disease characteristics. Conclusion Trust in future health care is a significant predictor of CAM use. Chronically ill people's use of CAM may increase in the near future. Health policy makers should, therefore, be alert to the quality of practising alternative practitioners, for example by insisting on professional certification. Equally, good quality may increase people's trust in public health care. PMID:16848897

  7. More Anonymous Onion Routing Through Trust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    attempt to compromise his anonymity . How should he take this trust into account when he selects his paths? 2.1. The model To make this question concrete...It also does not take into account the total effect of an adversary’s actions on a user’s anonymity , such as the analysis performed in [24]. The...More Anonymous Onion Routing Through Trust Aaron Johnson Computer Science Department Yale University New Haven, CT 06520 USA aaron.johnson@yale.edu

  8. Patient care: Is interpersonal trust missing?

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Paul A.; Francis, Cynthia G.; Kerr-Campbell, Maureen D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health statistics and studies in the Caribbean have omitted interpersonal trust in their investigations. Aims: This study will examine the effect of interpersonal trust and other conditions on psychosocial subjective wellbeing and self-reported health, in order to assess the significance of interpersonal trust, as well as other socio-demographic factors on health. Materials and Method: The current study utilized primary data commissioned by the Centre of Leadership and Governance, Department of Government, the University of West Indies, Mona, Jamaica, between July and August 2006. It was a nationally representative probability sampling survey. A sample of 1,338 respondents was interviewed with a detailed 166-item questionnaire. Results: Generally, the psychosocial subjective wellbeing of Jamaicans was high (mean = 6.8 ± 1.8), and self-reported health was moderately high (mean = 6.3 ± 2.6). The current study has revealed that income, political system, subjective social class, employment status, and interpersonal trust determine psychosocial subjective wellbeing as well as self-reported health. Interpersonal trust accounted for between 9.4 to 10.4% of the explanatory power of the wellbeing and self-reported health of Jamaicans. Conclusion: The current study highlights that the determinants of health include interpersonal trust. It is critical to point out here that trust must be taken into consideration in any evaluation of health statistics, as it is a factor of subjective wellbeing and health. It is within this context that clinicians need to incorporate interpersonal trust along with other conditions, as it is a part of the psychosocial determinants of health, subjective wellbeing, and health treatment. PMID:22624126

  9. Assessing Interpersonal Trust in Networked Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    was made possible by the Mission Command Battle Lab and facilitated by Ms. Diane Ungvarsky, Mr. Jeff From, Mr. Ralph Reed, Ms. Mary Welborn, and Mr...for their support in developing role play exercise scenario materials for our trust experiments. The technical expertise of Ms. Susan Potter , Mrs...31 REFERENCES Adams, B . D. (2005). Trust vs. confidence (Report No. CR-2005-203). Toronto, Canada: Defence Research and Development

  10. Building Trust-Based Sustainable Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-05

    Linking the definitions of sus- tainability with trust, economists or engineers have discussed the rela- tionship between these two concepts...Thesis, university of Stirling , 1994. [13] J. McNamara, P. Stephens, S. Dall, and A. Houston, “Evolution of trust and trustwor- thiness: social...Science and Engineering , Scottsdale, AZ, uSA, Sept. 22–25, 2007. [16] r. Trivers, “The evolution of reciprocal altruism,” Quart. Rev. Biology, vol

  11. Oxytocin and enhancement of the positive valence of social affiliation memories: an autobiographical memory study.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Christopher; Orlando, Mark Anthony; Brown, Christopher A; Ellenbogen, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Intranasal oxytocin has been shown to alter self-perceptions of personality (e.g., more trusting, increased extraversion). To follow up these findings, we examined the acute effects of two doses of intranasal oxytocin (24 IU and 48 IU) on another form of self-referential cognition: autobiographical memory. Changes in autobiographical memory (personal memories for the past) could conceivably effect change in self-perception and consequently alter social behaviors. We predicted that oxytocin would increase the number of specific personal memories recalled, and promote the recall of positive social affiliation memories. Seventeen male participants self-administered a placebo or oxytocin (24 IU, 48 IU) using a nasal spray on three separate occasions in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, and within-subject experiment. Participants completed the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) 110 minutes later. Analyses revealed a quadratic dose-response curve for the effects of intranasal oxytocin on autobiographical memory recall. The 24 IU dose, relative to the 48 IU dose and placebo, increased the number of specific personal memories recalled and promoted the recall of social affiliation memories that were rated more positively. The lack of effect with the 48 IU dose could be due to saturation of the oxytocin receptors at higher doses. Changes in autobiographical memory may be one mechanism by which oxytocin alters prosocial worldviews.

  12. A General Framework of Human Trust in Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    information dominance and complete mission objectives. Soldiers must possess a sufficient amount of trust in networks for adequate mission performance. We are investigating human trust in tactical networks by establishing a theoretical framework for analysis and an approach for validation of the framework. We identify reliability and availability as network parameters that define the relationship between quality of service performance and human trust in networks. A general framework is being developed for human trust in networks, which combines singular elements of trust

  13. Establishing trust in decentralized smart sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagts, H.; Cosar, T.; Beyerer, J.

    2011-06-01

    Smart sensors can gather all kind of information and process it. Cameras are still dominating and smart cameras can offer services for face recognition or person tracking. Operators are building collaborations to cover a larger area, to save costs and to add more and different sensors. Cryptographic methods may achieve integrity and confidentiality between operators, but not trust. Even if a partner or one of his sensors is authenticated, no statements can be made about the quality of the sensor data. Hence, trust must be established between the partners and their sensors. Trust can be built based on past experience. A reputation system collects opinions of operators about the behavior of sensors and calculates trust based on these opinions. Many reputation systems have been proposed, e.g., for authentication of files in peer-topeer networks. This work presents a new reputation system, which is designed to calculate the trustworthiness of smart sensors and smart sensor systems. A new trust model, including functions to calculate and update trust on past experiences, is proposed. When fusing information of multiple sensors, it cannot always be reconstructed, which information led to a bad result. Hence, an approach for fair rating is shown. The proposed system has been realized in a Service-Oriented Architecture for easy integration in existing smart sensor systems, e.g., smart surveillance systems. The model itself can be used in every decentralized heterogeneous smart sensor network.

  14. 25 CFR 115.813 - Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will disburse from a tribal trust account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Investing and Managing Tribal Trust Funds § 115.813 Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will... a tribal trust account. If a tribe's trust funds are invested in securities that have not matured...

  15. 25 CFR 115.813 - Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will disburse from a tribal trust account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Investing and Managing Tribal Trust Funds § 115.813 Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will... a tribal trust account. If a tribe's trust funds are invested in securities that have not matured...

  16. 25 CFR 115.813 - Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will disburse from a tribal trust account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Investing and Managing Tribal Trust Funds § 115.813 Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will... a tribal trust account. If a tribe's trust funds are invested in securities that have not matured...

  17. 25 CFR 115.813 - Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will disburse from a tribal trust account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Investing and Managing Tribal Trust Funds § 115.813 Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will... a tribal trust account. If a tribe's trust funds are invested in securities that have not matured...

  18. 25 CFR 115.813 - Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will disburse from a tribal trust account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Investing and Managing Tribal Trust Funds § 115.813 Is there a limit to the amount of trust funds OTFM will... a tribal trust account. If a tribe's trust funds are invested in securities that have not matured...

  19. Interpersonal Trust across Six Asia-Pacific Countries: Testing and Extending the ‘High Trust Society’ and ‘Low Trust Society’ Theory

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Paul R.; Mamerow, Loreen; Meyer, Samantha B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Trust is regarded as a necessary component for the smooth running of society, although societal and political modernising processes have been linked to an increase in mistrust, potentially signalling social and economic problems. Fukuyama developed the notion of ‘high trust’ and ‘low trust’ societies, as a way of understanding trust within different societies. The purpose of this paper is to empirically test and extend Fukuyama’s theory utilising data on interpersonal trust in Taiwan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan, Australia and Thailand. This paper focuses on trust in family, neighbours, strangers, foreigners and people with a different religion. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in 2009–10, with an overall sample of 6331. Analyses of differences in overall levels of trust between countries were undertaken using Chi square analyses. Multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis was undertaken to identify socio-demographic predictors of trust in each country. Results Our data indicate a tripartite trust model: ‘high trust’ in Australia and Hong Kong; ‘medium trust’ in Japan and Taiwan; and ‘low trust’ in South Korea and Thailand. Trust in family and neighbours were very high across all countries, although trust in people with a different religion, trust in strangers and trust in foreigners varied considerably between countries. The regression models found a consistent group of subpopulations with low trust across the countries: people on low incomes, younger people and people with poor self-rated health. The results were conflicting for gender: females had lower trust in Thailand and Hong Kong, although in Australia, males had lower trust in strangers, whereas females had lower trust in foreigners. Conclusion This paper identifies high, medium and low trust societies, in addition to high and low trusting population subgroups. Our analyses extend the seminal work of Fukuyama, providing both corroboration and

  20. Flashbulb Memories

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, William; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    We review and analyze the key theories, debates, findings, and omissions of the existing literature on flashbulb memories (FBMs), including what factors affect their formation, retention, and degree of confidence. We argue that FBMs do not require special memory mechanisms and are best characterized as involving both forgetting and mnemonic distortions, despite a high level of confidence. Factual memories for FBM-inducing events generally follow a similar pattern. Although no necessary and sufficient factors straightforwardly account for FBM retention, media attention particularly shapes memory for the events themselves. FBMs are best characterized in term of repetitions, even of mnemonic distortions, whereas event memories evidence corrections. The bearing of this literature on social identity and traumatic memories is also discussed. PMID:26997762

  1. The Influence of Trust in Physicians and Trust in the Healthcare System on Linkage, Retention, and Adherence to HIV Care

    PubMed Central

    Graham, James L.; Shahani, Lokesh; Grimes, Richard M.; Hartman, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lack of trust by the patient in the physicians or the healthcare system has been associated with poorer health outcomes. The present study was designed to determine if trust in physicians and the healthcare system among persons newly diagnosed with HIV infection was predictive of patients' subsequent linkage, retention, and adherence to HIV care. 178 newly diagnosed HIV infected patients were administered the trust-in-physicians and trust-in-healthcare system scales. Median trust-in-physicians and trust-in-healthcare system scores were compared for all the mentioned subsequent linkage, retention, and adherence to HIV care. Univariate logistic regression using the trust-in-physician scale confirmed significant association with retention in care (p = 0.04), which persisted in multivariate analyses (p = 0.04). No significant association was found between trust-in-physicians and linkage to care or adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Trust in the healthcare system was not associated with any of the outcomes. Patients with higher trust in physicians were more likely to be retained in HIV care. Trust at diagnosis may not be a barrier to better clinical outcomes, either because trust changes based on subsequent interactions, or because trust is not a determining feature. Interventions to improve retention in care could include improving trust in physicians or target persons with low trust in physicians. PMID:26669793

  2. The Influence of Trust in Physicians and Trust in the Healthcare System on Linkage, Retention, and Adherence to HIV Care.

    PubMed

    Graham, James L; Shahani, Lokesh; Grimes, Richard M; Hartman, Christine; Giordano, Thomas P

    2015-12-01

    Lack of trust by the patient in the physicians or the healthcare system has been associated with poorer health outcomes. The present study was designed to determine if trust in physicians and the healthcare system among persons newly diagnosed with HIV infection was predictive of patients' subsequent linkage, retention, and adherence to HIV care. 178 newly diagnosed HIV infected patients were administered the trust-in-physicians and trust-in-healthcare system scales. Median trust-in-physicians and trust-in-healthcare system scores were compared for all the mentioned subsequent linkage, retention, and adherence to HIV care. Univariate logistic regression using the trust-in-physician scale confirmed significant association with retention in care (p = 0.04), which persisted in multivariate analyses (p = 0.04). No significant association was found between trust-in-physicians and linkage to care or adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Trust in the healthcare system was not associated with any of the outcomes. Patients with higher trust in physicians were more likely to be retained in HIV care. Trust at diagnosis may not be a barrier to better clinical outcomes, either because trust changes based on subsequent interactions, or because trust is not a determining feature. Interventions to improve retention in care could include improving trust in physicians or target persons with low trust in physicians.

  3. 12 CFR 330.12 - Accounts held by a depository institution as the trustee of an irrevocable trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounts held by a depository institution as the trustee of an irrevocable trust. 330.12 Section 330.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY DEPOSIT INSURANCE COVERAGE § 330.12 Accounts held...

  4. An Analysis of the Relationship between Teacher Trust and Achievement for Students of Latino and White Ethnicities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukko, Debra

    2014-01-01

    As educational leaders navigate change initiatives inherent in implementing Common Core academic standards and the Local Control Funding Formula, a focus on research-based practices through which leaders mediate policy and create and support environments in which teachers trust the principal, colleagues, and clients may contribute to academic…

  5. 17 CFR 274.11d - Form N-6, registration statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance... variable life insurance policies. Form N-6 shall be used as the registration statement to be filed pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by separate accounts that offer variable life...

  6. 17 CFR 274.11d - Form N-6, registration statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance... variable life insurance policies. Form N-6 shall be used as the registration statement to be filed pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by separate accounts that offer variable life...

  7. 17 CFR 274.11d - Form N-6, registration statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance... variable life insurance policies. Form N-6 shall be used as the registration statement to be filed pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by separate accounts that offer variable life...

  8. 17 CFR 274.11d - Form N-6, registration statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance... variable life insurance policies. Form N-6 shall be used as the registration statement to be filed pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by separate accounts that offer variable life...

  9. 17 CFR 274.11d - Form N-6, registration statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance... variable life insurance policies. Form N-6 shall be used as the registration statement to be filed pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by separate accounts that offer variable life...

  10. Skilled Memory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-06

    Morse code (Bryan & Harter , 1899). In every case, memory performance of the expert seems to violate the established limits of short- term memory. How is...of immediate memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental psychology, 1958, 10, 12-21. Bryan, W. L., & Harter N. psychological Review, 1899, 6, 345-375...16, 1980 Page 5 Civil Govt Non Govt Dr. Susan Chipman 1 Dr. John R. Anderson Learning and Development Department of Psychology National Institute of

  11. Virtual memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Virtual memory was conceived as a way to automate overlaying of program segments. Modern computers have very large main memories, but need automatic solutions to the relocation and protection problems. Virtual memory serves this need as well and is thus useful in computers of all sizes. The history of the idea is traced, showing how it has become a widespread, little noticed feature of computers today.

  12. Can one trust quantum simulators?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauke, Philipp; Cucchietti, Fernando M.; Tagliacozzo, Luca; Deutsch, Ivan; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2012-08-01

    Various fundamental phenomena of strongly correlated quantum systems such as high-Tc superconductivity, the fractional quantum-Hall effect and quark confinement are still awaiting a universally accepted explanation. The main obstacle is the computational complexity of solving even the most simplified theoretical models which are designed to capture the relevant quantum correlations of the many-body system of interest. In his seminal 1982 paper (Feynman 1982 Int. J. Theor. Phys. 21 467), Richard Feynman suggested that such models might be solved by ‘simulation’ with a new type of computer whose constituent parts are effectively governed by a desired quantum many-body dynamics. Measurements on this engineered machine, now known as a ‘quantum simulator,’ would reveal some unknown or difficult to compute properties of a model of interest. We argue that a useful quantum simulator must satisfy four conditions: relevance, controllability, reliability and efficiency. We review the current state of the art of digital and analog quantum simulators. Whereas so far the majority of the focus, both theoretically and experimentally, has been on controllability of relevant models, we emphasize here the need for a careful analysis of reliability and efficiency in the presence of imperfections. We discuss how disorder and noise can impact these conditions, and illustrate our concerns with novel numerical simulations of a paradigmatic example: a disordered quantum spin chain governed by the Ising model in a transverse magnetic field. We find that disorder can decrease the reliability of an analog quantum simulator of this model, although large errors in local observables are introduced only for strong levels of disorder. We conclude that the answer to the question ‘Can we trust quantum simulators?’ is … to some extent.

  13. Can one trust quantum simulators?

    PubMed

    Hauke, Philipp; Cucchietti, Fernando M; Tagliacozzo, Luca; Deutsch, Ivan; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2012-08-01

    Various fundamental phenomena of strongly correlated quantum systems such as high-T(c) superconductivity, the fractional quantum-Hall effect and quark confinement are still awaiting a universally accepted explanation. The main obstacle is the computational complexity of solving even the most simplified theoretical models which are designed to capture the relevant quantum correlations of the many-body system of interest. In his seminal 1982 paper (Feynman 1982 Int. J. Theor. Phys. 21 467), Richard Feynman suggested that such models might be solved by 'simulation' with a new type of computer whose constituent parts are effectively governed by a desired quantum many-body dynamics. Measurements on this engineered machine, now known as a 'quantum simulator,' would reveal some unknown or difficult to compute properties of a model of interest. We argue that a useful quantum simulator must satisfy four conditions: relevance, controllability, reliability and efficiency. We review the current state of the art of digital and analog quantum simulators. Whereas so far the majority of the focus, both theoretically and experimentally, has been on controllability of relevant models, we emphasize here the need for a careful analysis of reliability and efficiency in the presence of imperfections. We discuss how disorder and noise can impact these conditions, and illustrate our concerns with novel numerical simulations of a paradigmatic example: a disordered quantum spin chain governed by the Ising model in a transverse magnetic field. We find that disorder can decrease the reliability of an analog quantum simulator of this model, although large errors in local observables are introduced only for strong levels of disorder. We conclude that the answer to the question 'Can we trust quantum simulators?' is … to some extent.

  14. 26 CFR 26.2654-1 - Certain trusts treated as separate trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of a trust is not a separate share unless such share exists from and at all times after the creation... share will be paid to the child during the child's life, with the remainder passing on the child's death... testamentary trust providing that income is to be paid to T's spouse for life. At the spouse's death, one-half...

  15. Trust and Its Role in Principal Succession: A Preliminary Examination of a Continuum of Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macmillan, Robert B.; Meyer, Matthew J.; Northfield, Shawn

    2004-01-01

    Trust is a critical factor in determining whether principal-teacher working relationships are positive or negative. This article begins to explore the concept of trust and its development in twelve Canadian secondary schools that experienced frequent principal turnover in a period of eight years. The authors found that the development of trust…

  16. Building a Culture of Trust: Trust in the Use of Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkman, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the place of trust in a school context and its importance in achieving the aims of schooling, "namely high academic performance and positive affects among members of the school community" (Forsyth, 2008). The role of trust in the use of technology and technological change is examined. Literature is surveyed in the…

  17. Developing a Climate of Trust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    the contemporary world and ancient Greece, and lays the groundwork for the powerful bond between a policy of strategic engagement and the philosophy ...9283 14. ABSTRACT Mission command is the leadership philosophy that will allow the U.S. Army to operate successfully in the future security...environment, and remain strategically relevant. The philosophy of mission command is vital to the development of Joint Force 2020, and provides the Army

  18. Internet health resources: from quality to trust.

    PubMed

    Lampe, K; Doupi, P; van den Hoven, M Jeroen

    2003-01-01

    Quality of online health resources remains a much debated topic, despite considerable international efforts. The lack of a systematic and comprehensive conceptual analysis is hindering further progress. Therefore we aim at clarifying the origins, nature and interrelations of pertinent concepts. Further, we claim that quality is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for Internet health resources to produce an effect offline. As users' trust is also required, we examine the relation of quality aspects to trust building online. We reviewed and analyzed the key documentation and deliverables of quality initiatives, as well as relevant scientific publications. Using the insights of philosophy, we identified the elementary dimensions which underlie the key concepts and theories presented so far in the context of online health information quality. We examined the interrelations of various perspectives and explored how trust as a phenomenon relates to these dimensions of quality. Various aspects associated with the quality of online health resources originate from four conceptual dimensions: epistemic, ethical, economic and technological. We propose a conceptual framework that incorporates all these perspectives. We argue that total quality exists only if all four dimensions have been addressed adequately and that high total quality is conducive to warranted trust. Quality and trust are intertwined, but distinct concepts, and their relation is not always straightforward. Ideally, trust should track quality. Apprehending the composition of these concepts will help to understand and guide the behavior of both users and providers of online information, as well as to foster warranted trust in online resources. The framework we propose provides a conceptual starting point for further deliberations and empirical work.

  19. Trust in online prescription drug information among internet users: the impact on information search behavior after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising.

    PubMed

    Menon, Ajit M; Deshpande, Aparna D; Perri, Matthew; Zinkhan, George M

    2002-01-01

    The proliferation of both manufacturer-controlled and independent medication-related websites has aroused concern among consumers and policy-makers concerning the trustworthiness of Web-based drug information. The authors examine consumers' trust in on-line prescription drug information and its influence on information search behavior. The study design involves a retrospective analysis of data from a 1998 national survey. The findings reveal that trust in drug information from traditional media sources such as television and newspapers transfers to the domain of the Internet. Furthermore, a greater trust in on-line prescription drug information stimulates utilization of the Internet for information search after exposure to prescription drug advertising.

  20. Power, trust, and Science of Unitary Human Beings influence political leadership: a celebration of Barrett's power theory.

    PubMed

    Wright, Barbara W

    2010-01-01

    The importance of nurses' participation in health policy leadership is discussed within the context of Rogers' science of unitary human beings, Barrett's power theory, and one nurse-politician's experience. Nurses have a major role to play in resolving public policy issues that influence the health of people. A brief review of the history of nurses in the political arena is presented. Research related to power and trust is reviewed. Suggested strategies for success in political situations are offered.

  1. Trust in health information websites: A systematic literature review on the antecedents of trust.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeolib

    2016-06-01

    Health websites are important sources of information for consumers. In choosing websites, trust in websites largely determines which website to access and how to best utilize the information. Thus, it is critical to understand why consumers trust certain websites and distrust others. A systematic literature review was conducted with the goal of identifying the antecedents of trust in health information websites. After four rounds of screening process, 20 articles between 2000 and 2013 were harvested. Factors that determine trust are classified into individual difference antecedents, website-related antecedents, and consumer-to-website interaction-related antecedents. The most frequently studied antecedents were socio-demographics, information quality, appearance, and perceived reputation of the website. Each antecedent of trust are discussed in detail and future research directions are proposed.

  2. Effect of relationship experience on trust recovery following a breach.

    PubMed

    Schilke, Oliver; Reimann, Martin; Cook, Karen S

    2013-09-17

    A violation of trust can have quite different consequences, depending on the nature of the relationship in which the trust breach occurs. In this article, we identify a key relationship characteristic that affects trust recovery: the extent of relationship experience before the trust breach. Across two experiments, this investigation establishes the behavioral effect that greater relationship experience before a trust breach fosters trust recovery. A neuroimaging experiment provides initial evidence that this behavioral effect is possible because of differential activation of two brain systems: while decision making after early trust breaches engages structures of a controlled social cognition system (C-system), specifically the anterior cingulate cortex and lateral frontal cortex, decision making after later trust breaches engages structures of an automatic social cognition system (X-system), specifically the lateral temporal cortex. The present findings make contributions to both social psychological theory and the neurophysiology of trust.

  3. Effect of relationship experience on trust recovery following a breach

    PubMed Central

    Schilke, Oliver; Reimann, Martin; Cook, Karen S.

    2013-01-01

    A violation of trust can have quite different consequences, depending on the nature of the relationship in which the trust breach occurs. In this article, we identify a key relationship characteristic that affects trust recovery: the extent of relationship experience before the trust breach. Across two experiments, this investigation establishes the behavioral effect that greater relationship experience before a trust breach fosters trust recovery. A neuroimaging experiment provides initial evidence that this behavioral effect is possible because of differential activation of two brain systems: while decision making after early trust breaches engages structures of a controlled social cognition system (C-system), specifically the anterior cingulate cortex and lateral frontal cortex, decision making after later trust breaches engages structures of an automatic social cognition system (X-system), specifically the lateral temporal cortex. The present findings make contributions to both social psychological theory and the neurophysiology of trust. PMID:24003151

  4. Workplace bullying in NHS community trust: staff questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    Quine, Lyn

    1999-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of workplace bullying in an NHS community trust; to examine the association between bullying and occupational health outcomes; and to investigate the relation between support at work and bullying. Design Questionnaire survey. Setting NHS community trust in the south east of England. Subjects Trust employees. Main outcome measures Measures included a 20 item inventory of bullying behaviours designed for the study, the job induced stress scale, the hospital anxiety and depression scale, the overall job satisfaction scale, the support at work scale, and the propensity to leave scale. Results 1100 employees returned questionnaires—a response rate of 70%. 421 (38%) employees reported experiencing one or more types of bullying in the previous year. 460 (42%) had witnessed the bullying of others. When bullying occurred it was most likely to be by a manager. Two thirds of the victims of bullying had tried to take action when the bullying occurred, but most were dissatisfied with the outcome. Staff who had been bullied had significantly lower levels of job satisfaction (mean 10.5 (SD 2.7) v 12.2 (2.3), P<0.001) and higher levels of job induced stress (mean 22.5 (SD 6.1) v 16.9 (5.8), P<0.001), depression (8% (33) v 1% (7), P<0.001), anxiety (30% (125) v 9% (60), P<0.001), and intention to leave the job (8.5 (2.9) v 7.0 (2.7), P<0.001). Support at work seemed to protect people from some of the damaging effects of bullying. Conclusions Bullying is a serious problem. Setting up systems for supporting staff and for dealing with interpersonal conflict may have benefits for both employers and staff. Key messages38% of staff in a community NHS trust reported being subjected to bullying behaviours in the workplace in the previous year and 42% had witnessed the bullying of othersStaff who had been bullied had lower levels of job satisfaction and higher levels of job induced stress, depression, anxiety, and intention to leaveSupport at work

  5. Zoning: focused support: a trust wide implementation project.

    PubMed

    Gamble, C; Dodd, G; Grellier, J; Hever, M; O'Conner, C; Clarke, T; Chipere, R; Mellor, M; Ness, M

    2010-02-01

    Applying pragmatic risk management procedures to facilitate the sharing of clinical knowledge in and across mental health teams. Abstract Zoning: focused support is pragmatic risk management support procedure that enhances adherence to operational policies, provides a forum in which staff can receive support and visually facilitates the sharing of clinical knowledge. This paper presents a 3-year multi-method management project that sought to introduce zoning principles into all teams of an inner city Mental Health NHS Trust. By changing the language and culture of the organization findings indicate that there has been a positive attitudinal shift in how the approach is perceived. It is considered to be of value to staff, service users and their families and 73% of teams are now using it routinely.

  6. Trust and Reputation Management for Critical Infrastructure Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, Filipe; Monteiro, Edmundo; Simões, Paulo

    Today's Critical Infrastructures (CI) depend of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to deliver their services with the required level of quality and availability. ICT security plays a major role in CI protection and risk prevention for single and also for interconnected CIs were cascading effects might occur because of the interdependencies that exist among different CIs. This paper addresses the problem of ICT security in interconnected CIs. Trust and reputation management using the Policy Based Management paradigm is the proposed solution to be applied at the CI interconnection points for information exchange. The proposed solution is being applied to the Security Mediation Gateway being developed in the European FP7 MICIE project, to allow for information exchange among interconnected CIs.

  7. Ethics and technology transfer: patients, patents, and public trust.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Deborah

    2011-06-01

    Universities and academic medical centers have been increasing their focus on technology transfer and research commercialization. With this shift in focus, academic-industry ties have become prevalent. These relationships can benefit academic researchers and help then to transform their research into tangible societal benefits. However, there also are concerns that these ties and the greater academic focus on commercialization might lead to conflicts of interest, especially financial conflicts of interest. This paper briefly explores some of these conflicts of interest, particularly relating to research and training. This paper also discusses some of the policies that have been, and are being, developed to try to mitigate and manage these conflicts so that academic involvement in technology transfer and commercialization can continue without jeopardizing academic work or the public's trust in them.

  8. The Refusal: Teachers Making Policy in NYC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malsbary, Christine Brigid

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on empirical sources, I argue that teachers' actions to remove district-mandated testing from their classrooms are a form of teacher policy-making. Analysis of interviews with teacher activists and records of teachers' activism meetings show that teachers perceive belonging, trust, and community as critical to their efforts to provide…

  9. 13 CFR 120.350 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... a qualified employee trust (“ESOP”) to: (a) Help finance the growth of its employer's small business... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 120.350 Section 120.350 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special Purpose Loans Qualified...

  10. The Refusal: Teachers Making Policy in NYC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malsbary, Christine Brigid

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on empirical sources, I argue that teachers' actions to remove district-mandated testing from their classrooms are a form of teacher policy-making. Analysis of interviews with teacher activists and records of teachers' activism meetings show that teachers perceive belonging, trust, and community as critical to their efforts to provide…

  11. 42 CFR 137.2 - Congressional policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in improving Indian health care, it has failed to fully meet its trust responsibilities and to... Indian Tribe to seek recovery from third parties section 206 of the Indian Health Care Improvement Act... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Congressional policy. 137.2 Section 137.2 Public...

  12. Building Trust in Natural Resource Management Within Local Communities: A Case Study of the Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, Mae A.; Leahy, Jessica E.; Anderson, Dorothy H.; Jakes, Pamela J.

    2007-03-01

    Communities neighboring federally protected natural areas regularly weigh the costs and benefits of the administering agency’s programs and policies. While most agencies integrate public opinion into decision making, efforts to standardize and formalize public involvement have left many local communities feeling marginalized, spurring acrimony and opposition. A significant body of research has examined barriers to effective public participation as well as strategies for relationship building in planning processes; many of which point to trust as a key factor. Trust is especially tenuous in local communities. This paper explores perceptions of trust, expectations for management, as well as constraints to building trust. In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 community members and USDA Forest Service personnel at the Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie in northeastern Illinois. The interviews revealed that trust is perceived as important to effective management. Distinct expectations for management outcomes and processes emerged, including the values, knowledge, and capacity demonstrated in management decisions and actions and opportunities provided for communication, collaboration, and cooperation within the agency-community relationship. The case study identified several constraints to building trust, including competing values, knowledge gaps, limited community engagement, and staff turnover.

  13. WDS Trusted Data Services in Support of International Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokrane, M.; Minster, J. B. H.

    2014-12-01

    Today's research is international, transdisciplinary, and data-enabled, which requires scrupulous data stewardship, full and open access to data, and efficient collaboration and coordination. New expectations on researchers based on policies from governments and funders to share data fully, openly, and in a timely manner present significant challenges but are also opportunities to improve the quality and efficiency of research and its accountability to society. Researchers should be able to archive and disseminate data as required by many institutions or funders, and civil society to scrutinize datasets underlying public policies. Thus, the trustworthiness of data services must be verifiable. In addition, the need to integrate large and complex datasets across disciplines and domains with variable levels of maturity calls for greater coordination to achieve sufficient interoperability and sustainability. The World Data System (WDS) of the International Council for Science (ICSU) promotes long-term stewardship of, and universal and equitable access to, quality-assured scientific data and services across a range of disciplines in the natural and social sciences. WDS aims at coordinating and supporting trusted scientific data services for the provision, use, and preservation of relevant datasets to facilitate scientific research, in particular under the ICSU umbrella, while strengthening their links with the research community. WDS certifies it Members, holders and providers of data or data products, using internationally recognized standards. Thus, providing the building blocks of a searchable common infrastructure, from which a data system that is both interoperable and distributed can be formed. This presentation will describe the coordination role of WDS and more specifically activities developed by its Scientific Committee to: Improve and stimulate basic level Certification for Scientific Data Services, in particular through collaboration with the Data Seal of

  14. Predictors and Extent of Institutional Trust in Government, Banks, the Media and Religious Organisations: Evidence from Cross-Sectional Surveys in Six Asia-Pacific Countries.

    PubMed

    Ward, Paul R; Miller, Emma; Pearce, Alex R; Meyer, Samantha B

    2016-01-01

    their judicial/legal system (89%), followed by religious organisations (75%) and banks (77%). Australian respondents reported the least amount of trust in TV/media (24%) and press/newspapers (28%). South Korea put the least trust in their political leaders (25%), their legal system (43%) and religious organisations (45%). The key predictors of lower trust in institutions across all countries were males, people under 44 years and people unsatisfied with the health and standard of living. We interpreted our data using Fukuyama's theory of 'high/low trust' societies. The levels of institutional trust in each society did not conform to our hypothesis, with Thailand exhibiting the highest trust (predicted to be medium level), Hong Kong and Japan exhibiting medium trust (predicted to be low and high respectively) and Australia and South Korea exhibiting low trust (predicted to be high and medium respectively). Taiwan was the only country where the actual and predicted trust was the same, namely low trust. Given the fact that these predictors crossed national boundaries and institutional types, further research and policy should focus specifically on improving trust within these groups in order that they can be empowered to play a more central role in democratic vitality.

  15. Energy, manpower, and the highway trust fund.

    PubMed

    Bezdek, R; Hannon, B

    1974-08-23

    If energy conservation were a goal of a federal budget policy maker, such conservation could be achieved by reinvesting the highway trust fund in any of several other alternative federal programs (except criminal justice), especially in railroad and mass transit construction and national health insurance (see Table 1). Total employment would increase in each alternative program examined. For example, if construction monies were shifted from highways to railroads, the energy required for construction would be reduced by about 62 percent and employment would increase by 3.2 percent. By comparing the dollar, energy, and employment requirements of a highway transportation system with such requirements for a railroad transportation system, we obtained detailed information from which we concluded the following: 1) Passenger transport by railroad was much less dollar and energy demanding and required more labor than car transport in 1963. If the dollar savings had been respent in an average way by consumers, the net impact would have been to reduce the energy savings and further increase employment. A similar conclusion was reached in a study of bus substitution for automobiles in urban areas (20). If the marginal substitution effects would have held over the whole range of change, and the dollar savings had been spent on the construction of railways, then about 3.0 billion gallons of gasoline could have been saved annually and 1.2 million new jobs created. 2) Freight transport by railroad was less expensive, in terms of dollar, energy, and labor requirements, than was truck transportation in 1963. If, under a national shift to rail freight, the dollar savings had been absorbed as personal consumption expenditures, a net increase of labor and energy would have ensued. If the dollar savings had been absorbed as a tax and respent on railroad and mass transit construction, about 0.3 billion more gallons of gasoline (energy equivalent) would have been consumed annually and 1

  16. Braving a faceless new world? Conceptualizing trust in the pharmaceutical industry and its products.

    PubMed

    Brown, Patrick; Calnan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products are commonly relied upon by professionals, and correspondingly patients, within a wide range of healthcare contexts. This dependence, combined with the inherent risk and uncertainty surrounding both medical practice and the drugs it harnesses, points towards the importance of trust in the pharmaceutical industry--a subject which has been much neglected by researchers. This article begins to address this deficiency by mapping out a conceptual framework which may form a useful basis for future research into this important topic. The often negative portrayal of the pharmaceutical industry in the public sphere belies a state of apparent confidence in its products. The role of prescribing professionals as 'mediators of trust' amid a faceless system of production and, alongside regulators, as bases of assurance in the quality of drugs goes some way towards explaining this contradiction. Recent policy moves towards fostering increased patient 'expertise' and responsibility for illness management, a widening of over-the-counter medication availability and a growing market of products (mainstream and illicit) via the Internet suggest this role of 'facework' in facilitating trust may be becoming more marginal. This heightened requirement for trusting amid the unfamiliar, and an apparent willingness to do so, underlines the need for further research into trust in the industry--both mainstream and underground--and its products. Within this discussion an agenda for furthering our understandings of the political-economy of the pharmaceutical industry becomes apparent, one which might be most effectively approached by way of a broader political-economy of hope and trust.

  17. 25 CFR 151.3 - Land acquisition policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Land acquisition policy. 151.3 Section 151.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LAND ACQUISITIONS § 151.3 Land acquisition policy. Land not held in trust or restricted status may only be acquired for an individual Indian...

  18. 25 CFR 151.3 - Land acquisition policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Land acquisition policy. 151.3 Section 151.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LAND ACQUISITIONS § 151.3 Land acquisition policy. Land not held in trust or restricted status may only be acquired for an individual Indian...

  19. The motivation and behaviour of hospital Trusts.

    PubMed

    Crilly, Tessa; Le Grand, J Julian

    2004-05-01

    This paper explores the motivation and behaviour of hospitals, using data from UK hospital Trusts. Managers and consultants (hospital specialists) are identified as the main alternative sources of power within Trusts. It is hypothesised that consultants are interested in production or service (volume and quality) while managers are interested primarily in financial break-even, and that in the long run consultants will dominate. A survey of 1500 consultants and managers and a statistical analysis of the behaviour of 100 Trusts over 3 years yielded the empirical results that were largely but not entirely consistent with these hypotheses. Consultants did indeed consider production goals to be more important than financial breakeven, but within those goals, considered quality to be more important than service volume. While the break-even target was found to be the primary goal of managers on average, they proved to be a heterogeneous group with quality ranking as the main priority among those managers who are closest to service delivery. This is at odds with the apparent objective of Trusts, which both groups perceive as being the single-minded pursuit of financial targets, consistent with the formal, government-set requirements. We find that this strong and unequivocal financial driver is not owned or acted upon by either consultants or managers and it is inferred that, in accordance with the dominant motivation of consultants, the Trust's primary objective is to maintain service quality.

  20. Power decreases trust in social exchange.

    PubMed

    Schilke, Oliver; Reimann, Martin; Cook, Karen S

    2015-10-20

    How does lacking vs. possessing power in a social exchange affect people's trust in their exchange partner? An answer to this question has broad implications for a number of exchange settings in which dependence plays an important role. Here, we report on a series of experiments in which we manipulated participants' power position in terms of structural dependence and observed their trust perceptions and behaviors. Over a variety of different experimental paradigms and measures, we find that more powerful actors place less trust in others than less powerful actors do. Our results contradict predictions by rational actor models, which assume that low-power individuals are able to anticipate that a more powerful exchange partner will place little value on the relationship with them, thus tends to behave opportunistically, and consequently cannot be trusted. Conversely, our results support predictions by motivated cognition theory, which posits that low-power individuals want their exchange partner to be trustworthy and then act according to that desire. Mediation analyses show that, consistent with the motivated cognition account, having low power increases individuals' hope and, in turn, their perceptions of their exchange partners' benevolence, which ultimately leads them to trust.

  1. Power decreases trust in social exchange

    PubMed Central

    Schilke, Oliver; Reimann, Martin; Cook, Karen S.

    2015-01-01

    How does lacking vs. possessing power in a social exchange affect people’s trust in their exchange partner? An answer to this question has broad implications for a number of exchange settings in which dependence plays an important role. Here, we report on a series of experiments in which we manipulated participants’ power position in terms of structural dependence and observed their trust perceptions and behaviors. Over a variety of different experimental paradigms and measures, we find that more powerful actors place less trust in others than less powerful actors do. Our results contradict predictions by rational actor models, which assume that low-power individuals are able to anticipate that a more powerful exchange partner will place little value on the relationship with them, thus tends to behave opportunistically, and consequently cannot be trusted. Conversely, our results support predictions by motivated cognition theory, which posits that low-power individuals want their exchange partner to be trustworthy and then act according to that desire. Mediation analyses show that, consistent with the motivated cognition account, having low power increases individuals’ hope and, in turn, their perceptions of their exchange partners’ benevolence, which ultimately leads them to trust. PMID:26438869

  2. Decision solution, data manipulation and trust: The (un-)willingness to donate organs in Germany in critical times.

    PubMed

    Schwettmann, Lars

    2015-07-01

    In 2011 and 2012 a change of rules and a data-manipulation scandal focused German public attention on organ donation. This increased citizens' background knowledge as well as their willingness to respond to surveys. The present study is an effort to seize this research opportunity and to create evidence on which policy recommendations can be conceivably based. It uses data from two major representative surveys from 2011 to 2012 to address four central questions: Which characteristics, experiences and attitudes correlate with the written or unwritten willingness of individuals to donate (WTD) their own organs post-mortem? How has the WTD changed over time? To what extent does the WTD depend on normative trust? Which factors correlate with trust? The data is analyzed through summary statistics and regression models. Several hypotheses regarding factors connected with the WTD are confirmed in the survey results. Altruistic motives, relevant knowledge and trust are decisive. The special role of trust is corroborated by the data. As current German politics prevents the introduction of post-mortem donation incentives, potential policy making proposals are restricted to institutional changes to regain trust including the implementation of an organ donor registry and the advancement of counselling talks with general practitioners.

  3. Perceptions of risk from nanotechnologies and trust in stakeholders: a cross sectional study of public, academic, government and business attitudes.

    PubMed

    Capon, Adam; Gillespie, James; Rolfe, Margaret; Smith, Wayne

    2015-04-26

    Policy makers and regulators are constantly required to make decisions despite the existence of substantial uncertainty regarding the outcomes of their proposed decisions. Understanding stakeholder views is an essential part of addressing this uncertainty, which provides insight into the possible social reactions and tolerance of unpredictable risks. In the field of nanotechnology, large uncertainties exist regarding the real and perceived risks this technology may have on society. Better evidence is needed to confront this issue. We undertook a computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) survey of the Australian public and a parallel survey of those involved in nanotechnology from the academic, business and government sectors. Analysis included comparisons of proportions and logistic regression techniques. We explored perceptions of nanotechnology risks both to health and in a range of products. We examined views on four trust actors. The general public's perception of risk was significantly higher than that expressed by other stakeholders. The public bestows less trust in certain trust actors than do academics or government officers, giving its greatest trust to scientists. Higher levels of public trust were generally associated with lower perceptions of risk. Nanotechnology in food and cosmetics/sunscreens were considered riskier applications irrespective of stakeholder, while familiarity with nanotechnology was associated with a reduced risk perception. Policy makers should consider the disparities in risk and trust perceptions between the public and influential stakeholders, placing greater emphasis on risk communication and the uncertainties of risk assessment in these areas of higher concern. Scientists being the highest trusted group are well placed to communicate the risks of nanotechnologies to the public.

  4. Not all trust is created equal: dispositional and history-based trust in human-automation interactions.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Stephanie M; Ilgen, Daniel R

    2008-04-01

    We provide an empirical demonstration of the importance of attending to human user individual differences in examinations of trust and automation use. Past research has generally supported the notions that machine reliability predicts trust in automation, and trust in turn predicts automation use. However, links between user personality and perceptions of the machine with trust in automation have not been empirically established. On our X-ray screening task, 255 students rated trust and made automation use decisions while visually searching for weapons in X-ray images of luggage. We demonstrate that individual differences affect perceptions of machine characteristics when actual machine characteristics are constant, that perceptions account for 52% of trust variance above the effects of actual characteristics, and that perceptions mediate the effects of actual characteristics on trust. Importantly, we also demonstrate that when administered at different times, the same six trust items reflect two types of trust (dispositional trust and history-based trust) and that these two trust constructs are differentially related to other variables. Interactions were found among user characteristics, machine characteristics, and automation use. Our results suggest that increased specificity in the conceptualization and measurement of trust is required, future researchers should assess user perceptions of machine characteristics in addition to actual machine characteristics, and incorporation of user extraversion and propensity to trust machines can increase prediction of automation use decisions. Potential applications include the design of flexible automation training programs tailored to individuals who differ in systematic ways.

  5. Distributed learning enhances relational memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Litman, Leib; Davachi, Lila

    2008-09-01

    It has long been known that distributed learning (DL) provides a mnemonic advantage over massed learning (ML). However, the underlying mechanisms that drive this robust mnemonic effect remain largely unknown. In two experiments, we show that DL across a 24 hr interval does not enhance immediate memory performance but instead slows the rate of forgetting relative to ML. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this savings in forgetting is specific to relational, but not item, memory. In the context of extant theories and knowledge of memory consolidation, these results suggest that an important mechanism underlying the mnemonic benefit of DL is enhanced memory consolidation. We speculate that synaptic strengthening mechanisms supporting long-term memory consolidation may be differentially mediated by the spacing of memory reactivation. These findings have broad implications for the scientific study of episodic memory consolidation and, more generally, for educational curriculum development and policy.

  6. NASA's EOSDIS, Trust and Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been in operation since August 1994, managing most of NASA's Earth science data from satellites, airborne sensors, filed campaigns and other activities. Having been designated by the Federal Government as a project responsible for production, archiving and distribution of these data through its Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), the Earth Science Data and Information System Project (ESDIS) is responsible for EOSDIS, and is legally bound by the Office of Management and Budgets circular A-130, the Federal Records Act. It must follow the regulations of the National Institute of Standards and Technologies (NIST) and National Archive and Records Administration (NARA). It must also follow the NASA Procedural Requirement 7120.5 (NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management). All these ensure that the data centers managed by ESDIS are trustworthy from the point of view of efficient and effective operations as well as preservation of valuable data from NASA's missions. Additional factors contributing to this trust are an extensive set of internal and external reviews throughout the history of EOSDIS starting in the early 1990s. Many of these reviews have involved external groups of scientific and technological experts. Also, independent annual surveys of user satisfaction that measure and publish the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI), where EOSDIS has scored consistently high marks since 2004, provide an additional measure of trustworthiness. In addition, through an effort initiated in 2012 at the request of NASA HQ, the ESDIS Project and 10 of 12 DAACs have been certified by the International Council for Science (ICSU) World Data System (WDS) and are members of the ICSUWDS. This presentation addresses questions such as pros and cons of the certification process, key outcomes and next steps regarding certification. Recently, the ICSUWDS and Data Seal of Approval (DSA) organizations

  7. Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  8. Collaging Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

  9. Memory Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Thomas G.; Nowak, Norman

    This paper outlines several "tricks" that aid students in improving their memories. The distinctions between operational and figural thought processes are noted. Operational memory is described as something that allows adults to make generalizations about numbers and the rules by which they may be combined, thus leading to easier memorization.…

  10. Collaging Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

  11. Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  12. Redefining Genomic Privacy: Trust and Empowerment

    PubMed Central

    Erlich, Yaniv; Williams, James B.; Glazer, David; Yocum, Kenneth; Farahany, Nita; Olson, Maynard; Narayanan, Arvind; Stein, Lincoln D.; Witkowski, Jan A.; Kain, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Fulfilling the promise of the genetic revolution requires the analysis of large datasets containing information from thousands to millions of participants. However, sharing human genomic data requires protecting subjects from potential harm. Current models rely on de-identification techniques in which privacy versus data utility becomes a zero-sum game. Instead, we propose the use of trust-enabling techniques to create a solution in which researchers and participants both win. To do so we introduce three principles that facilitate trust in genetic research and outline one possible framework built upon those principles. Our hope is that such trust-centric frameworks provide a sustainable solution that reconciles genetic privacy with data sharing and facilitates genetic research. PMID:25369215

  13. Distributed Trust Management for Validating SLA Choreographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, Irfan Ul; Alnemr, Rehab; Paschke, Adrian; Schikuta, Erich; Boley, Harold; Meinel, Christoph

    For business workflow automation in a service-enriched environment such as a grid or a cloud, services scattered across heterogeneous Virtual Organizations (VOs) can be aggregated in a producer-consumer manner, building hierarchical structures of added value. In order to preserve the supply chain, the Service Level Agreements (SLAs) corresponding to the underlying choreography of services should also be incrementally aggregated. This cross-VO hierarchical SLA aggregation requires validation, for which a distributed trust system becomes a prerequisite. Elaborating our previous work on rule-based SLA validation, we propose a hybrid distributed trust model. This new model is based on Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and reputation-based trust systems. It helps preventing SLA violations by identifying violation-prone services at service selection stage and actively contributes in breach management at the time of penalty enforcement.

  14. Trust--can it be controlled?

    PubMed

    Box, Debra; Pottas, Dalenca

    2010-01-01

    Trust is an important component in the security of an information system. The advent of the electronic health record (EHR) and the health information system (HIS) have raised it to greater prominence. These systems and their intended benefits are rendered less effective through a low level of trust between the stakeholders. The potential reciprocal relationship between accountability and trust is investigated. A literature study examines both concepts and their interrelationship. The accountability and audit controls provided by the NIST SP 800-53 security guide and the ISO 27799 security standard are extracted, collated and expanded to strengthen the accountability mechanisms within an HIS security program. A dedicated set of accountability controls (NIM) which is specific to the healthcare environment is produced. It is proposed that through the strengthening of the accountability function of the HIS, its level of trustworthiness may be improved.

  15. Memory conformity affects inaccurate memories more than accurate memories.

    PubMed

    Wright, Daniel B; Villalba, Daniella K

    2012-01-01

    After controlling for initial confidence, inaccurate memories were shown to be more easily distorted than accurate memories. In two experiments groups of participants viewed 50 stimuli and were then presented with these stimuli plus 50 fillers. During this test phase participants reported their confidence that each stimulus was originally shown. This was followed by computer-generated responses from a bogus participant. After being exposed to this response participants again rated the confidence of their memory. The computer-generated responses systematically distorted participants' responses. Memory distortion depended on initial memory confidence, with uncertain memories being more malleable than confident memories. This effect was moderated by whether the participant's memory was initially accurate or inaccurate. Inaccurate memories were more malleable than accurate memories. The data were consistent with a model describing two types of memory (i.e., recollective and non-recollective memories), which differ in how susceptible these memories are to memory distortion.

  16. Trust and health: testing the reverse causality hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Giuseppe Nicola; Lindström, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Social capital research has consistently shown positive associations between generalised trust and health outcomes over 2 decades. Longitudinal studies attempting to test causal relationships further support the theory that trust is an independent predictor of health. However, as the reverse causality hypothesis has yet to be empirically tested, a knowledge gap remains. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate if health status predicts trust. Methods Data employed in this study came from 4 waves of the British Household Panel Survey between years 2000 and 2007 (N=8114). The sample was stratified by baseline trust to investigate temporal relationships between prior self-rated health (SRH) and changes in trust. We used logistic regression models with random effects, as trust was expected to be more similar within the same individuals over time. Results From the ‘Can trust at baseline’ cohort, poor SRH at time (t−1) predicted low trust at time (t) (OR=1.38). Likewise, good health predicted high trust within the ‘Cannot’ trust cohort (OR=1.30). These patterns of positive association remained after robustness checks, which adjusted for misclassification of outcome (trust) status and the existence of other temporal pathways. Conclusions This study offers empirical evidence to support the circular nature of trust/health relationship. The stability of association between prior health status and changes in trust over time differed between cohorts, hinting at the existence of complex pathways rather than a simple positive feedback loop. PMID:26546287

  17. Integrity Management Infrastructure for Trusted Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munetoh, Seiji; Nakamura, Megumi; Yoshihama, Sachiko; Kudo, Michiharu

    Computer security concerns have been rapidly increasing because of repeated security breaches and leakages of sensitive personal information. Such security breaches are mainly caused by an inappropriate management of the PCs, so maintaining integrity of the platform configuration is essential, and, verifying the integrity of the computer platform and software becomes more significant. To address these problems, the Trusted Computing Group (TCG) has developed various specifications that are used to measure the integrity of the platform based on hardware trust. In the trusted computing technology, the integrity data of each component running on the platform is recorded in the security chip and they are securely checked by a remote attestation. The infrastructure working group in the TCG is trying to define an Integrity Management Infrastructure in which the Platform Trust Services (PTS) is a new key component which deals with an Integrity Report. When we use the PTS in the target platform, it is a service component that collects and measures the runtime integrity of the target platform in a secure way. The PTS can also be used to validate the Integrity Reports. We introduce the notion of the Platform Validation Authority, a trusted third party, which verifies the composition of the integrity measurement of the target platform in the Integrity Reports. The Platform Validation Authority complements the role of the current Certificate Authority in the Public Key Infrastructure which attests to the integrity of the user identity as well as to related artifacts such as digital signatures. In this paper, we cover the research topics in this new area, the relevant technologies and open issues of the trusted computing, and the detail of our PTS implementation.

  18. Trust and managerialism: exploring discourses of care.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Tony P

    2005-11-01

    This paper reports a study that explored the relationship between trust and managerialism through an analysis of professional discourse. Managerialism is a distinct set of discourses and practices related to managerial effectiveness, flexibility and consumer responsiveness that have come to characterize debates over the provision of health and welfare services across the developed world. At the same time, trust has attracted increasing academic and political interest. Managerial discourses are critical of healthcare professions and the way they operate. Professional opinions are challenged as representing the interests of professions rather than service users; as a consequence trust is contested. However, where practitioners are both professionals and managers, the boundaries between these discourses become blurred. Moreover, paradoxical development occurs where increasing autonomy for practitioners is accompanied by a strengthening of managerial controls over their activity. Discourse analysis was used to explore the text from two genres, academic literature and interviews (n = 17), in the context of community residential services for people with learning disabilities. The study was conducted in 2001. Two broad themes were identified, each with a number of sub-themes. The first focuses on the relationship between managerialism and trust located around the management of expectations. The second, 'the politics of care', explores the way professional and managerial discourse articulate to produce complementary and contradictory positions. The colonization of professional activity by managerial discourse has produced a context where professional activity is defined by a series of managerial imperatives; trust, which was once the product of intimate social activity is now shaped through techniques based on distrust such as audits and quality monitoring. Nevertheless, the persistence of tensions between trust and managerialism suggest an ongoing struggle for

  19. Savings in its sights for Somerset Trust.

    PubMed

    Russell, Colin

    2011-10-01

    Colin Russell, healthcare specialist at Schneider Electric (pictured), explains how the company has recently worked with Taunton and Somerset NHS Foundation Trust to implement a major energy-saving project at the Trust's Musgrove Park Hospital in Taunton. He argues that, at a time when all areas of the service are being asked to reduce costs, such partnerships can potentially save the institution millions of pounds and significantly reduce carbon emissions, while "revitalising" parts of the NHS estate, and ensuring continuity of vital hospital services for facilities managers.

  20. Swift Trust in Distributed Ad Hoc Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-04

    team at risk. Questionnaires assessed the impact of regimental identity and potential trust violations on levels of team trust before the mission...personnellement. Cette notion est de plus en plus utilisée dans les ouvrages spécialisés pour expliquer comment les membres des équipes spéciales... questionnaires distribués aux participants ont permis d’évaluer l’impact de l’identité régimentaire et des abus de confiance sur le niveau de confiance