Science.gov

Sample records for memorial trust policy

  1. Pew Memorial Trust policy synthesis: 2. Postretirement health benefits.

    PubMed Central

    Dopkeen, J C

    1987-01-01

    One-fourth of all those over 65 have some form of employer-provided retirement medical benefits. For these retirees and dependents, having this medical coverage may mean the difference between retirement security and ruin; but for employers, providing it could mean serious financial strain or even a threat to survival. The unfunded liability for retirement medical coverage has been variously projected from +100 billion to nearly +2 trillion. Continuing corporate concerns over the costs of health care, and recent changes in federal policies regarding Medicare and the taxation of employee benefit funds, threaten to alter the system of postretirement health benefits substantially and perhaps irrevocably for many. Employers are being forced to reassess their retiree commitments. Some corporations have undertaken to modify and even eliminate postretirement medical coverage for those over 65. These changes will affect not only the corporations involved and their retirees, but also the national and state governments to whom retirees may turn for additional assistance in meeting their health care needs. The purpose of this synthesis is to explain the issue of postretirement health benefits (PRHBs) for both public and private sector policymakers who will be most involved with this issue over the next five years. The analysis identifies the issues involved, considers the dimensions of the problem, and attempts to assess the implications for the future. PMID:3106266

  2. The Winston Churchill Memorial Trust of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Nicolette

    2013-01-01

    The Churchill Trust was established in 1965 to honour the memory of Sir Winston Churchill by awarding overseas research Fellowships known as "Churchill Fellowships". Since its inception, The Churchill Trust has awarded Churchill Fellowships to more than 3,700 Australians who, like Churchill, are innovative, filled with a spirit of…

  3. Trust and Public Participation in Risk Policy Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, Judith A. ); Branch, Kristi M. ); Focht, Will; Ragnar E. Lofstedt and George Cvetkovich

    1999-12-01

    Recent social science literature has paid increasing attention to the concept of trust, albeit with differing definitions and constituents and also with differing emphases on societal origins, functions, and implications. Recently, discussion has shifted to the role of trust in hazard management and, more broadly, to the fundamental role of trust in modern society. In this paper, we provide answers to the following questions, in an attempt to refocus the discussion and identify a more productive research approach to the relationship of trust and public participation in risk policy issues: -What is trust? What are the differing conceptions and dimensions of trust that have been identified in the literature? -What are the social functions of trust? -What is the relationship between trust and public participation in risk policy issues? Why is trust particularly important for agencies such as the Department of Energy (DOE) that are responsible for development and implementation of policies involving technological risk? -How should we define the research problem in examining the relationship between trust and public participation in risk policy issues? What are the key research questions to be addressed? Federal agencies have introduced public participation as a means of addressing public distrust and enhancing their ability to make decisions that can be implemented. In some cases, such as the Secretary of Energy's Advisory Board, public participation was explicitly identified as an organizational response that was needed to re-establish public trust and confidence in the Department of Energy (DOE). However, our review of the literature on both trust and public participation and our experience in developing criteria for evaluating public participation initiatives have resulted in our questioning the wisdom of establishing trust as a goal of public participation and caused us to examine the relationship between trust and public participation.

  4. Security policies and trust in ubiquitous computing.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Anupam; Finin, Tim; Kagal, Lalana; Parker, Jim; Patwardhan, Anand

    2008-10-28

    Ubiquitous environments comprise resource-constrained mobile and wearable devices and computational elements embedded in everyday artefacts. These are connected to each other using both infrastructure-based as well as short-range ad hoc networks. Limited Internet connectivity limits the use of conventional security mechanisms such as public key infrastructures and other forms of server-centric authentication. Under these circumstances, peer-to-peer interactions are well suited for not just information interchange, but also managing security and privacy. However, practical solutions for protecting mobile devices, preserving privacy, evaluating trust and determining the reliability and accuracy of peer-provided data in such interactions are still in their infancy. Our research is directed towards providing stronger assurances of the reliability and trustworthiness of information and services, and the use of declarative policy-driven approaches to handle the open and dynamic nature of such systems. This paper provides an overview of some of the challenges and issues, and points out directions for progress.

  5. [Public health policies in Chile: seeking to regain trust].

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Cristóbal

    2016-09-07

    Healthcare represents a key area in the public agenda. In the case of Chile, this central part of citizen demands has emerged with an increasing criticism of the health system, its actors and institutions, while a major democratic and legitimacy crisis in Chilean society unfolds. The starting point of this analysis is the link between the critical and widespread societal dissatisfaction with the legitimacy crisis in the health sector. There is an interdependence and parallelism between these two different aspects of the crisis. The analysis is built around the dimensions of trust and legitimacy as a potential driver of the conflict, taking as an analytical framework the socio-political matrix. Conceptual elements around the ideas of trust and legitimacy in public policies are reviewed. This article focuses on recent situations surrounding the dynamics of the Chilean health system such as the rise of the Instituciones de Salud Previsional (ISAPRE) and the market-driven health system, the failed health care reform of the last decade, conflicts of interest in the formulation of public policies, loss of legitimacy of healthcare authorities, and the role of the health professionals in this process. Finally, a discussion arises seeking to regain public trust as a central issue for the future development and sustainability of health policies.

  6. 36 CFR 1012.2 - What is the Presidio Trust's policy on granting requests for employee testimony or Presidio Trust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... through 1012.11. United States ex rel. Touhy v. Ragen, 340 U.S. 462 (1951). Responsibilities of Requesters ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Presidio Trust's policy on granting requests for employee testimony or Presidio Trust records? 1012.2 Section 1012.2...

  7. Value importance and value congruence as determinants of trust in health policy actors.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, Susan M; Ponting, J Rick

    2003-09-01

    The paper examines levels and determinants of trust in a health care system and in key actors in the health policy community. Talcott Parsons theorizes that the sharing of common values is a necessary condition for interpersonal trust to exist; this paper tests that notion at the level of systemic (institutional) trust. The paper reports findings of a 1999 survey of 493 randomly selected residents of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. It uses multiple regression analysis to identify the determinants of three different types of trust-generalized systemic trust, fiduciary trust, and generalized trust in particular actors' input to health system changes. Among the numerous independent variables, special attention is devoted to the degree of congruence or incongruence between the importance which respondents attach to one of the values enunciated in the Canada Health Act-namely, 'accessibility' (equal access to quality health care)-and the importance which respondents believe is attached to that value by the Regional Health Authority and by the Premier of the province. Both value importance and value congruence on equal accessibility are found to be important factors explaining variation in all three types of trust. In explaining levels of trust in the Premier on the issue of health care system reform, congruence on equal accessibility proved to be even more important than such factors as political partisanship, political cynicism, and personal experience as a patient in the health care system. Findings also suggest that there is an emotional component to systemic trust.

  8. Exposing Trust Assumptions in Distributed Policy Enforcement (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-04

    506. September 2009, Pisa , Italy. – "Path-based Access Control for Enterprise Networks” Matthew Burnside and Angelos D. Keromytis. In Proceedings of...assumptions? 11/04/09 ONR MURI Review 14 Summary • Exploring systems that allow (and require) explicit assumption (trust) declarations • All

  9. Charitable Remainder Trusts and Pooled Income Funds: Internal Revenue Service Ruling Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, J. Patrick

    1975-01-01

    An examination of Internal Revenue Service administrative policies regarding Internal Revenue Code and Treasury regulations on charitable remainder trusts and pooled income funds concludes that rulings on the former have been few and results unexpected while those on the latter reflect the legal complexities, some being substantively and…

  10. Insights from socio-hydrology modelling on dealing with flood risk: roles of collective memory, risk-taking attitude and trust (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viglione, A.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Brandimarte, L.; Kuil, L.; Carr, G.; Salinas, J.; Scolobig, A.

    2013-12-01

    The risk coping culture of a community plays a major role in decision making in urban flood plains. While flood awareness is not necessarily linked to being prepared to face flooding at an individual level, the connection at the community level seems to be stronger through creating policy and initiating protection works. In this work we analyse, in a conceptual way, the interplay of community risk coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth. We particularly focus on three aspects: (i) collective memory, i.e., the capacity of the community to keep the awareness of flooding high; (ii) risk-taking attitude, i.e., the amount of risk a community is collectively willing to expose themselves to; and (iii) trust of people in risk protection measures. We use a dynamic model that represents the feedbacks between the hydrological and social system components. The model results indicate that, on one hand, by under perceiving the risk of flooding (because of short collective memory and too much trust in flood protection structures) in combination with a high risk-attitude, community survival is severely limited because of destruction caused by flooding. On the other hand, high perceived risk (long memory and lack of trust in flood protection structures) relative to the actual risk leads to lost economic opportunities and recession. There are many optimal scenarios for survival and economic growth, but greater certainty of survival plus economic growth can be achieved by ensuring community has accurate risk perception (memory neither too long nor too short and trust in flood protection neither too great nor too low) combined with a low to moderate risk-taking attitude. Interestingly, the model gives rise to situations in which the development of the community in the floodplain is path dependent, i.e., the history of flooding may lead to its growth or recession. Schematic of human adjustments to flooding: (a) settling away from the river; (b) raising levees/dikes.

  11. A Limited-Memory BFGS Algorithm Based on a Trust-Region Quadratic Model for Large-Scale Nonlinear Equations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Yuan, Gonglin; Wei, Zengxin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a trust-region algorithm is proposed for large-scale nonlinear equations, where the limited-memory BFGS (L-M-BFGS) update matrix is used in the trust-region subproblem to improve the effectiveness of the algorithm for large-scale problems. The global convergence of the presented method is established under suitable conditions. The numerical results of the test problems show that the method is competitive with the norm method. PMID:25950725

  12. From 'trust us' to participatory governance: Deliberative publics and science policy.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    The last 20 years have seen a shift from the view that publics need to be educated so that they trust science and its governance to the recognition that publics possess important local knowledge and the capacity to understand technical information sufficiently to participate in policy decisions. There are now a variety of approaches to increasing the role of publics and advocacy groups in the policy and governance of science and biotechnology. This article considers recent experiences that demonstrate that it is possible to bring together those with policy making responsibility and diverse publics to co-produce policy and standards of practice that are technically informed, incorporate wide social perspectives and explicitly involve publics in key decisions. Further, the process of deliberation involving publics is capable of being incorporated into governance structures to enhance the capacity to respond to emerging issues with levels of public engagement that are proportionate to the issues.

  13. Content-addressable memory based enforcement of configurable policies

    DOEpatents

    Berg, Michael J

    2014-05-06

    A monitoring device for monitoring transactions on a bus includes content-addressable memory ("CAM") and a response policy unit. The CAM includes an input coupled to receive a bus transaction tag based on bus traffic on the bus. The CAM stores data tags associated with rules of a security policy to compare the bus transaction tag to the data tags. The CAM generates an output signal indicating whether one or more matches occurred. The response policy unit is coupled to the CAM to receive the output signal from the CAM and to execute a policy action in response to the output signal.

  14. Building trust and confidence in laboratory ES and H policy and practices

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, J.

    2000-08-01

    This report describes a successful pilot event among LANL employees that can see as a model for employee involvement and community input. The conference was designed to begin building trust and confidence in Laboratory policy and practices in the area of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H). It represents a concrete step toward fostering better relationships among Lab employees and creating a new, innovative approach to communication that can also be used to build trust in the larger community. Based on the proven methods of the National Issues Forums and the Jefferson Center Citizen Jury Process, this conference enabled management to learn more about the thoughts and advice of LANL employees, During the course of the day, a random sample of Lab employees representing the LANL workforce learned about issues of health, safety and the environment, and some of the options available to increase trustworthiness in these areas. These Employee Advisors then discussed the options at some length and presented recommendations to senior Lab managers in the role of Decision Makers. At the end of the day, the participants offered their reflections and discussed what they learned during the conference, and Decision Makers responded to what they heard. The most common view expressed by the Employee Advisors was that a bottom-up approach was necessary to develop more relevant ES and H policies. They were unanimous in their desire for more employee inclusion into the decision making process. All Employee Advisors were in support of a Lab wide survey to determine employee concerns about ES and H issues. After listening to the deliberation, the Decision Makers responded with several commitments. The most significant was the pledge to meet with Employee Advisors by the end of February to discuss the status of their recommendations on ES and H policy and practices. The ensuing follow-up meeting explored employee concerns in greater depth resulting in forward-looking action steps

  15. Universal Preschool: Policy Change, Stability, and the Pew Charitable Trusts. SUNY Series in Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushouse, Brenda K.

    2009-01-01

    The spectacular recent success of state-funded preschool education is revealed and explained in this absorbing study. A quiet revolution has been underway in American education policy since 1995, with forty-one states and the District of Columbia creating some form of state-funded preschool learning. Brenda K. Bushouse tells why it became…

  16. 25 CFR 1200.3 - What is the Department's policy on tribal management of trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... trust funds? 1200.3 Section 1200.3 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE FOR AMERICAN INDIANS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT General Provisions § 1200.3 What... II of the American Indian Trust Fund Management Reform Act, implemented by these regulations,...

  17. 25 CFR 1200.3 - What is the Department's policy on tribal management of trust funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... trust funds? 1200.3 Section 1200.3 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE FOR AMERICAN INDIANS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT General Provisions § 1200.3 What... II of the American Indian Trust Fund Management Reform Act, implemented by these regulations,...

  18. Blood donation and institutional trust: risk, policy rhetoric, and the men who have sex with men lifetime deferral policy in Canada.

    PubMed

    Smith, André; Fiddler, Jay; Walby, Kevin; Hier, Sean

    2011-11-01

    This article examines the process of rebuilding institutional trust in the Canadian blood system in the aftermath of the tainted blood scandal. Our focus is the policy of lifetime deferral from donating blood for men who have sex with men. Drawing on findings from interviews with representatives of Health Canada's Expert Advisory Committee on Blood Regulation, the National Liaison Committee, Canadian Blood Services, and blood consumer groups, we demonstrate how claims making about rights, discrimination, science, and risk contribute to policy continuity. We also examine the link between policy continuity and the management of reputational risk.

  19. Does Variation in the Extent of Generalized Trust, Does Variation in the Extent of Generalized Trust, Individual Education and Extensiveness of Social Security Policies Matter for Maximization of Subjective Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeeva, Rania F.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine whether generalized trust and education, as well as social security policies of welfare state institutions matter for cross-national differences in subjective well-being (SWB), because knowledge on this issue is still lacking. For this purpose I integrated the insights of two sociological theories: Social Function…

  20. The Origin and Role of Trust in Local Policy Elites' Perceptions of High-Voltage Power Line Installations in the State of Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Tumlison, Creed; Moyer, Rachael M; Song, Geoboo

    2016-12-20

    The debate over an installation of high-voltage power lines (HVPLs) has been intense, particularly in northwest Arkansas. Detractors claim that the installation will negatively affect both the natural environment and the local economy, which contains a large tourism component. By contrast, those in favor of installing HVPLs claim that the installation is necessary in order to reliably support the increasing demand for electric power. Using original data collected from a recent statewide Internet survey of 420 local policy elites in Arkansas, this article focuses on two key aspects. First, we examine how local policy elites' perceptions of risks versus benefits of HVPL installation in their communities are influenced by their levels of trust toward information provided by various sources (e.g., energy industry, environmental groups, and government). Second, we utilize cultural theory to explain how the cultural worldviews of policy elites--specifically, egalitarianism, individualism, hierarchism, and fatalism--shape these levels of trust and HVPL benefit-risk perceptions, while controlling for other factors claimed by previous literature, including levels of knowledge on energy-related issues and demographic characteristics. In general, our analysis indicates that policy elites' value-oriented formation of HVPL benefit-risk perceptions is partially due to the influence cultural values have on trust in information sources. We conclude this article by discussing broader implications for the origin and role of trust in policy elites' decisions throughout the policy-making process.

  1. Impact of signals and experience on trust and trusting behavior.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Hueih; Chien, Shu-Hua; Wu, Jyh-Jeng; Tsai, Pei-Yin

    2010-10-01

    Trust is an essential factor that drives virtual interaction and transactions on the Internet. Researchers have investigated the trust development process, and identified several important factors that form the basis for trust. This research combines the signal perspective and trust theory to examine the impact of market signals and past experience on trust formation and trusting behavior. Three market signals, including brand image, Web-site investment, and privacy policies, are identified and empirically tested to determine their impact on consumer trust. Based on 322 active Web users, the quantitative results suggest that brand image, Web-site investment, privacy policies, and past experience all positively impact trust formation. Furthermore, trust shows a positive effect on Web-site stickiness. Both theoretical and practical implications of the results are also offered.

  2. Fees on health insurance policies and self-insured plans for the patient-centered outcomes research trust fund. Final regulations.

    PubMed

    2012-12-06

    This document contains final regulations that implement and provide guidance on the fees imposed by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on issuers of certain health insurance policies and plan sponsors of certain self-insured health plans to fund the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Trust Fund. These final regulations affect the issuers and plan sponsors that are directed to pay those fees.

  3. Cassandra and the Politicians: Higher Education and Policy Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, David

    2011-01-01

    Beginning with an analysis of the manifesto commitments of the two Coalition partners the author proceeds to set their subsequent policies as they are understood by June 2011 in the context of successive new "frameworks" for UK higher education since the Robbins Report of 1963. This analysis is developed in relation to: the relative…

  4. "Doing Trust".

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn; Barnard, Emma; Stewart, Paul; Walker, Hannah; Rosenthal, Doreen

    2016-10-01

    Trust in research is important but not well understood. We examine the ways that researchers understand and practice trust in research. Using a qualitative research design, we interviewed 19 researchers, including eight researchers involved in Australian Indigenous research. The project design focused on sensitive research including research involving vulnerable participants and sensitive research topics. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. We found that researchers' understanding of trust integrates both the conceptual and concrete; researchers understand trust in terms of how it relates to other similar concepts and how they practice trust in research. This provides a sound basis to better understand trust in research, as well as identifying mechanisms to regain trust when it is lost in research.

  5. Rethinking trust.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Roderick M

    2009-06-01

    Will we ever learn? We'd barely recovered from Enron and WorldCom before we faced the subprime mortgage meltdown and more scandals that shook our trust in businesspeople. Which raises the question: Do we trust too much? In this article, Stanford professor and social psychologist Kramer explores the reasons we trust so easily--and, often, so unwisely. He explains that genetics and childhood learning make us predisposed to trust and that it's been a good survival mechanism. That said, our willingness to trust makes us vulnerable. Our sense of trust kicks in on remarkably simple cues, such as when people look like us or are part of our social group. We also rely on third parties to verify the character of others, sometimes to our detriment (as the victims of Bernard Madoff learned). Add in our illusions of invulnerability and our tendencies to see what we want to see and to overestimate our own judgment, and the bottom line is that we're often easily fooled. We need to develop tempered trust. For those who trust too much, that means reading cues better; for the distrustful, it means developing more receptive behaviors. Everyone should start with small acts of trust that encourage reciprocity and build up. Having a hedge against potential abuses also helps. Hollywood scriptwriters, for instance, register their treatments with the Writers Guild of America to prevent their ideas from being stolen by the executives they pitch. To attract the right relationships, people must strongly signal their own honesty, proactively allay concerns, and, if their trust is abused, retaliate. Trusting individuals in certain roles, which essentially means trusting the system that selects and trains them, also works but isn't foolproof. And don't count on due diligence alone for protection; constant vigilance is needed to make sure the landscape hasn't changed.

  6. Memory

    MedlinePlus

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  7. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  8. A Unified Theory of Trust and Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Guoray; Squicciarini, Anna

    We consider a type of applications where collaboration and trust are tightly coupled with the need to protect sensitive information. Existing trust management technologies have been limited to offering generic mechanisms for enforcing access control policies based on exchanged credentials, and rarely deal with the situated meaning of trust in a specific collaborative context. Towards trust management for highly dynamic and collaborative activities, this paper describes a theory of trust intention and semantics that makes explicit connections between collaborative activities and trust. The model supports inferring trust state based on knowledge about state of collaborative activity. It is the first step towards a unified approach for computer-mediated trust communication in the context of collaborative work.

  9. Effects of Cognitive Load on Trust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    27 5. Operational Processes ...the person’s benevolence. 3.1. Cognitive Load and Trust Cognitive load is a key component of the four-stage model of human information processing ...capacity of working memory and processing of novel information (Baddeley, 2003; Paas et al., 2003). It is clear that, like trust, cognitive load plays

  10. 36 CFR 401.10 - Monument Trust Fund Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monument Trust Fund Program... MONUMENTS AND MEMORIALS § 401.10 Monument Trust Fund Program. Pursuant to the provisions of 36 U.S.C. 2106(d), the Commission operates a Monument Trust Fund Program (MTFP) in countries where there is a...

  11. Trust and Influence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-05

    DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Program Trends •Trust in Autonomous Systems •Cross- cultural Trust... Cultural Trust – Identify the antecedents of trust in different cultures •Trust in Autonomous Systems/Autonomy – identify the factors that shape...Trust & trustworthiness are independent (Mayer et al, 1995) •Trust is relational •Humans in cross- cultural interactions •Complex human-machine

  12. 12 CFR 330.13 - Irrevocable trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Irrevocable trust accounts. 330.13 Section 330... POLICY DEPOSIT INSURANCE COVERAGE § 330.13 Irrevocable trust accounts. (a) General rule. Funds representing the “non-contingent trust interest(s)” (as defined in § 330.1(l)) of a beneficiary deposited...

  13. Trust, Respect, and Reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Phong, Tran Viet; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Dung, Nguyen Thanh; Ngan, Ta Thi Dieu; Kinh, Nguyen Van; Parker, Michael; Bull, Susan

    2015-01-01

    International science funders and publishers are driving a growing trend in data sharing. There is mounting pressure on researchers in low- and middle-income settings to conform to new sharing policies, despite minimal empirically grounded accounts of the ethical challenges of implementing the policies in these settings. This study used in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 48 stakeholders in Vietnam to explore the experiences, attitudes, and expectations that inform ethical and effective approaches to sharing clinical research data. Distinct views on the role of trust, respect, and reciprocity were among those that emerged to inform culturally appropriate best practices. We conclude by discussing the challenges that authors of data-sharing policies should consider in this unique context. PMID:26297747

  14. Trusted Objects

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  15. The Sutton Trust: Mobility Manifesto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton Trust, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Ahead of the party conference season, the Sutton Trust is urging fairer admissions to comprehensives, grammar schools and independent schools as part of a 10-point Mobility Manifesto setting out ten practical policy steps designed to put social mobility at the heart of the 2015 election campaign. The manifesto urges greater use of ballots (random…

  16. Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  17. In Public Education Expenditures We Trust: Does Trust Increase Support for Public Education Expenditures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur, Nurullah; Boyaci, Israfil; Ozcan, Yunus

    2015-01-01

    Trust is one crucial prerequisite for the welfare state. However, very few empirical studies exist that help us understand the mechanisms through which trust affects the welfare state. Influencing public support for developing friendly public policies might be one of these mechanisms. In this study, we use unique micro data from 34 countries to…

  18. Scientific research and the public trust.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2011-09-01

    This essay analyzes the concept of public trust in science and offers some guidance for ethicists, scientists, and policymakers who use this idea defend ethical rules or policies pertaining to the conduct of research. While the notion that public trusts science makes sense in the abstract, it may not be sufficiently focused to support the various rules and policies that authors have tried to derive from it, because the public is not a uniform body with a common set of interests. Well-focused arguments that use public trust to support rules or policies for the conduct of research should specify (a) which public is being referred to (e.g. the general public or a specific public, such as a particular community or group); (b) what this public expects from scientists; (c) how the rule or policy will ensure that these expectations are met; and (d) why is it important to meet these expectations.

  19. Scientific Research and the Public Trust

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2011-01-01

    This essay analyzes the concept of public trust in science and offers some guidance for ethicists, scientists, and policymakers who use this idea defend ethical rules or policies pertaining to the conduct of research. While the notion the public trusts science makes sense in the abstract, it may not be sufficiently focused to support the various rules and policies that authors have tried to derive from it, because the public is not a uniform body with a common set of interests. Well-focused arguments that use public trust to support rules or policies for the conduct of research should specify a) which public is being referred to (e.g. the general public or a specific public, such as a particular community or group); b) what this public expects from scientists; c) how the rule or policy will ensure that these expectations are met; and d) why is it important to meet these expectations. PMID:20803259

  20. Trust in Social Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-07

    T. Schlosser, and H. Garcia-Molina. The eigentrust algorithm for reputation management in p2p networks . In Proceedings of the 12th international...demonstrate real-world applications where trust is explicitly used. As a new 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12...Mining, TrustModeling, Trust Measurements, Trust Applications , Dis-trust REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10

  1. Trust and Influence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-06

    how humans establish, maintain, and repair trust of humans and technological systems) and the science of influence (i.e., understanding how to shape...factors that shape reliance in complex human -machine interactions • Cross-Cultural Trust – identify the antecedents of trust in different cultures...actions of others with little ability to monitor their actions (Mayer et al., 1995) Assumptions: •Trust as a human phenomenon •Trust

  2. 36 CFR 401.10 - Monument Trust Fund Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Monument Trust Fund Program. 401.10 Section 401.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION MONUMENTS AND MEMORIALS § 401.10 Monument Trust Fund Program. Pursuant to the provisions of 36 U.S.C....

  3. Trust makers, breakers and brokers: building trust in the Australian food system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of consumer trust in the food supply has previously been identified, and dimensions of consumer trust in food—who they trust and the type of trust that they exhibit—has been explored. However, there is a lack of research about the mechanisms through which consumer trust in the food supply is developed, maintained, broken and repaired. This study seeks to address this gap by exploring if, and how, consumer trust in the food supply is considered by the media, food industry and governments when responding to food scares. The aim of the research is to develop models of trust building that can be implemented following food scares. Methods Semi-structured interviews will be undertaken with media, public relations officials and policy makers in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Participants will be recruited through purposive sampling and will be asked to discuss a hypothetical case study outlining a food incident, and any experiences of specific food scares. Models of trust development, maintenance and repair will be developed from interview data. Comment on these models will be sought from experts in food-related organizations through a Delphi study, where participants will be asked to consider the usefulness of the models. Participants’ comments will be used to revise the models until consensus is reached on the suitability and usability of the models. Discussion This study will contribute to the literature about systems-based trust, and explore trust as a social and regulatory process. The protocol and results will be of interest and use to the food industry, food regulators, consumer advocate groups, media seeking to report food-related issues and policy makers concerned with public health and consumer health and well-being. This research represents an important contribution to the translation of the theoretical conceptualizations of trust into practical use in the context of food. PMID:23496819

  4. Predators and the public trust.

    PubMed

    Treves, Adrian; Chapron, Guillaume; López-Bao, Jose V; Shoemaker, Chase; Goeckner, Apollonia R; Bruskotter, Jeremy T

    2017-02-01

    Many democratic governments recognize a duty to conserve environmental resources, including wild animals, as a public trust for current and future citizens. These public trust principles have informed two centuries of U.S.A. Supreme Court decisions and environmental laws worldwide. Nevertheless numerous populations of large-bodied, mammalian carnivores (predators) were eradicated in the 20th century. Environmental movements and strict legal protections have fostered predator recoveries across the U.S.A. and Europe since the 1970s. Now subnational jurisdictions are regaining management authority from central governments for their predator subpopulations. Will the history of local eradication repeat or will these jurisdictions adopt public trust thinking and their obligation to broad public interests over narrower ones? We review the role of public trust principles in the restoration and preservation of controversial species. In so doing we argue for the essential roles of scientists from many disciplines concerned with biological diversity and its conservation. We look beyond species endangerment to future generations' interests in sustainability, particularly non-consumptive uses. Although our conclusions apply to all wild organisms, we focus on predators because of the particular challenges they pose for government trustees, trust managers, and society. Gray wolves Canis lupus L. deserve particular attention, because detailed information and abundant policy debates across regions have exposed four important challenges for preserving predators in the face of interest group hostility. One challenge is uncertainty and varied interpretations about public trustees' responsibilities for wildlife, which have created a mosaic of policies across jurisdictions. We explore how such mosaics have merits and drawbacks for biodiversity. The other three challenges to conserving wildlife as public trust assets are illuminated by the biology of predators and the interacting

  5. Trust vs. Confidence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    both cognitive and affective factors can be implicated in trust judgements. Moreover, unlike confidence judgements (which can occur in many...occurs in situations without risks. A trust judgement, on the other hand, uses a variety of information beyond the merely cognitive , occurs only when...defined. Although there are many different definitions of trust, our definition (Adams and Webb, 2003) is as follows: Trust is a psychological state

  6. Reliable Design Versus Trust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?

  7. Children's Conceptions of Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; Turiel, Elliot

    Aware that children conceive of different types of trust, a study examined 60 children's conception of trust. The subjects comprised three age groups: 6-7 years old, 8-9 years old, and 10-11 years old. Each subject was interviewed on the basis of three stories. The stories depicted a hypothesized violation of trust in a moral context (lying),…

  8. Usability and trust in e-banking.

    PubMed

    Pravettoni, Gabriella; Leotta, Salvatore Nuccio; Lucchiari, Claudio; Misuraca, Raffaella

    2007-12-01

    This study assessed the role of usability in trust of e-banking services. A questionnaire was administered to 185 Italian undergraduate working students who volunteered for the experiment (M age = 30.5 yr., SD = 3.1). Participants were differentiated on computer ability (Expert, n = 104; Nonexpert, n = 81) and e-banking use (User, n = 93; Nonusers, n = 92). Analysis showed that the website usability of e-banking services did not play a very important role for the User group. Instead, institution-based trust, e.g., the trust in the security policy of the Web merchant, customers, and the overall trust of the bank were the crucial factors in the adoption of e-banking.

  9. The primary care trust handbook Peter Smith The primary care trust handbook Radcliffe Medical Press £19.95 1 85775 467 0 1857754670 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2001-11-01

    Nurses wishing to find out more about the new English primary care organisations, but looking for an easier read than Trust in Experience, may find that The Primary Care Trust Handbook, edited by Peter Smith, will meet their needs. Although repetitive in some areas, The Primary Care Trust Handbook does provide the reader with a condensed overview of the shift which has taken place in healthcare policy, the emergence of primary care trusts, and the issues that face these new organisations.

  10. Water law - Public Trust Doctrine

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, E.S.

    1984-07-01

    In a case involving California's Mono Lake, the State Supreme Court held that infringement of the values protected by the Public Trust Doctrine is a separate ground for challenging water appropriations, and that the continuing nature of the state's duty as trustee prevents the acquisition of a vested right to appropriations that injure navigation, commerce, and fisheries. The author summarizes the history and the competing claims of the Doctrine and the California Appropriative Water Rights System. The National Audubon suit now makes it possible for any member of the public to challenge any surface water diversion as injurious to the public trust, but it also offers the California courts an opportunity to redirect the state's water policies. 130 references.

  11. Trust-based information system architecture for personal wellness.

    PubMed

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka; Nykänen, Pirkko; Seppälä, Antto; Blobel, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Modern eHealth, ubiquitous health and personal wellness systems take place in an unsecure and ubiquitous information space where no predefined trust occurs. This paper presents novel information model and an architecture for trust based privacy management of personal health and wellness information in ubiquitous environment. The architecture enables a person to calculate a dynamic and context-aware trust value for each service provider, and using it to design personal privacy policies for trustworthy use of health and wellness services. For trust calculation a novel set of measurable context-aware and health information-sensitive attributes is developed. The architecture enables a person to manage his or her privacy in ubiquitous environment by formulating context-aware and service provider specific policies. Focus groups and information modelling was used for developing a wellness information model. System analysis method based on sequential steps that enable to combine results of analysis of privacy and trust concerns and the selection of trust and privacy services was used for development of the information system architecture. Its services (e.g. trust calculation, decision support, policy management and policy binding services) and developed attributes enable a person to define situation-aware policies that regulate the way his or her wellness and health information is processed.

  12. 5 CFR 2634.403 - Qualified blind trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... proposed trust instruments which do not contain language conforming to this policy, except in unusual cases..., unless the following four conditions are met: (i) When any interested party learns about such...

  13. 5 CFR 2634.404 - Qualified diversified trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... proposed trust instruments which do not contain language conforming to this policy, except in unusual cases... following four conditions are met: (i) When an interested party learns about such employment or...

  14. Validating the Trust in Teams and Trust in Leaders Scales

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Work Scale trust scale ( Cook , Hepworth, Wall and Warr , 1981). This scale measures interpersonal trust in the organizational context. The full version...2005) scale .....................................................................30 Table 16: Team Trust Scale and Cook and Wall ...a whole fairly similarly. Another analysis compared the Team Trust Scale with two subscales from the Cook and Wall (1980) Interpersonal Trust at

  15. Personal Trust Increases Cooperation beyond General Trust

    PubMed Central

    Acedo-Carmona, Cristina; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a new methodology which, while allowing for anonymous interaction, it also makes possible to compare decisions of cooperating or defecting when playing games within a group, according to whether or not players personally trust each other. The design thus goes beyond standard approaches to the role of trust in fostering cooperation, which is restricted to general trust. It also allows considering the role of the topology of the social network involved may play in the level of cooperation found. The results of this work support the idea that personal trust promotes cooperation beyond the level of general trust. We also found that this effect carries over to the whole group, making it more cohesive, but that higher levels of cohesion rely on a particular topology. As a conclusion, we hypothesize that personal trust is a psychological mechanism evolved to make human social life possible in the small groups our ancestors lived in, and that this mechanism persists and plays a role in sustaining cooperation and social cohesion. PMID:25144539

  16. The Dimensionality of Trust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    undesired events. Several trust theorists have characterized distrust as that which is feared, and trust as that which is hoped (e.g., Deutsch , 1958...earliest trust theorist, Morton Deutsch (1958, p. 267) defines suspicion (a concept Deutsch has used interchangeably with the distrust concept) as...theorists have conceptualised distrust as a psychological state as well as a choice behaviour. Theorists such as Deutsch (1958) have equated non

  17. Trust in interprofessional collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Paul A. M.; Austin, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trust is integral to effective interprofessional collaboration. There has been scant literature characterizing how trust between practitioners is formed, maintained or lost. The objective of this study was to characterize the cognitive model of trust that exists between pharmacists and family physicians working in collaborative primary care settings. Methods: Pharmacists and family physicians who work collaboratively in primary care were participants in this study. Family health teams were excluded from this study because of the distinct nature of these settings. Through a snowball convenience sampling method, a total of 11 pharmacists and 8 family physicians were recruited. A semistructured interview guide was used to guide discussion around trust, relationships and collaboration. Constant-comparative coding was used to identify themes emerging from these data. Results: Pharmacists and family physicians demonstrate different cognitive models of trust in primary care collaboration. For pharmacists, trust appears to be conferred on physicians based on title, degree, status and positional authority. For family physicians, trust appears to be earned based on competency and performance. These differences may lead to interprofessional tension when expectations of reciprocal trust are not met. Conclusions: Further work in characterizing how trust is developed in interprofessional relationships is needed to support effective team formation and functioning. PMID:27540406

  18. In regulation we trust.

    PubMed

    Wiig, Siri; Tharaldsen, Jorunn Elise

    2012-01-01

    The role of trust has been argued to play an increasingly important role in modern, complex, and ambivalent risk societies. Trust within organizational research is anticipated to have a general strategic impact on aspects such as organizational performance, communication and knowledge exchange, and learning from accidents. Trust is also an important aspect related to regulation of risk. Diverse regulatory regimes, their contexts and risks influence regulators use of trust and distrust in regulatory practice. The aim of this paper is to discuss the relationship between risk regulation and trust across diverse risk regulation regimes. By drawing from studies of risk regulation, risk perception, and trust the purpose is to discuss how regulation and trust are linked and used in practice to control risk across system levels in socio-technical systems in high risk industries. This paper provides new knowledge on 1) how functional and dysfunctional trust and distrust are grounded in the empirical realities of high risk industries, 2) how different perspectives on trust and distrust act together and bring new knowledge on how society control risk.

  19. Trust but verify: the interactive effects of trust and autonomy preferences on health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yin-Yang; Lin, Julia L

    2009-09-01

    Patients' trust in their physicians improves their health outcomes because of better compliance, more disclosure, stronger placebo effect, and more physicians' trustworthy behaviors. Patients' autonomy may also impact on health outcomes and is increasingly being emphasized in health care. However, despite the critical role of trust and autonomy, patients that naïvely trust their physicians may become overly dependent and lack the motivation to participate in medical care. In this article, we argue that increased trust does not necessarily imply decreased autonomy. Furthermore, patients with high levels of trust and autonomy preferences are most likely to have the best health outcomes. We propose a framework for understanding simultaneous trust and autonomy preferences and for recognizing their interactive effects on health outcomes in the dynamic medical encounter. This framework argues that policy makers and health care providers should make efforts to foster not only patients' trust but also their preferences for autonomy and thus gain the best position for achieving health-related goals.

  20. Signaling When (and When Not) to Be Cautious and Self-Protective: Impulsive and Reflective Trust in Close Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Sandra L.; Pinkus, Rebecca T.; Holmes, John G.; Harris, Brianna; Gomillion, Sarah; Aloni, Maya; Derrick, Jaye L.; Leder, Sadie

    2011-01-01

    A dual process model is proposed to explain how automatic evaluative associations to the partner (i.e., impulsive trust) and deliberative expectations of partner caring (i.e., reflective trust) interact to govern self-protection in romantic relationships. Experimental and correlational studies of dating and marital relationships supported the model. Subliminally conditioning more positive evaluative associations to the partner increased confidence in the partner’s caring, suggesting that trust has an impulsive basis. Being high on impulsive trust (i.e., more positive evaluative associations to the partner on the IAT) also reduced the automatic inclination to distance in response to doubts about the partner’s trustworthiness. It similarly reduced self-protective behavioral reactions to these reflective trust concerns. The studies further revealed that the effects of impulsive trust depend on working memory capacity: Being high on impulsive trust inoculated against reflective trust concerns for people low on working memory capacity. PMID:21443370

  1. Security and Trust Management for Virtual Organisations: GridTrust Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, Syed; Mori, Paolo

    The GridTrust Security Framework (GSF) offers security and trust management for the next generation Grids (NGG). It follows a vertical approach for Grid security from requirements level right down to application and middleware levels. New access control models for collaborative computing, such as the usage control model (UCON), are implemented for securing the Grid systems. The GSF is composed of security and trust services and tools provided at the middleware and Grid foundation middleware layers. GSF addresses three layers of the NGG architecture: the Grid application layer, the Grid service middleware layer, and the Grid foundation layer. The framework is composed of security and trust services and tools provided at the middleware and Grid foundation middleware layers. GSF provides policy-driven autonomic access control solutions that provide a continuous monitoring of the usage of resources by users.

  2. The trust formula: Trust = fairness + leadership

    SciTech Connect

    Lovenheim, R.

    1995-11-01

    Many state and compact LLW siting processes have been characterized by slippage and failure. The paper focuses on two major {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes} regarding public interaction and trust, and how these lessons are being applied to current siting efforts. The relationship of environmental idealism and trust will be explored further in this paper. Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer concludes his 1994 book, Breaking the Vicious Circle by stating: {open_quotes}Finally, this book also reflects a belief that trust in institutions arises not simply as a result of openness in government, responses to local interest groups, or priorities emphasized in the press -- though these attitudes and actions play an important role -- but also from those institutions doing a difficult job well.{close_quotes}

  3. Dimensionality of Organizational Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Samuel H.; Wiswell, Albert K.

    2007-01-01

    Trust facilitates individual and organizational learning, and is often misunderstood by organizations although they must continuously learn in order to attain organizational goals and survive. Leaders of organizations often view trust defensively and their reactions may impede organizational learning This paper builds on prior research concerning…

  4. National Education Trust Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapp, Milton J.

    1975-01-01

    A proposal from the governor of Pennsylvania for financing all levels of education through a National Education Trust Fund (NETF) that would operate as the present Federal Highway Trust Fund does on a revolving, self-liquidating basis with the cost of an individual's education repaid through a progressive education tax on income. (JT)

  5. Trust, trustworthiness and health.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Trust is an essential component of good healthcare. If patients trust their physicians, then the relationship between them can be a richer and more meaningful one. The patient is more likely to feel confident and able to disclose symptoms, helping diagnosis and future care. If public health and community workers are trusted, not only is it likely that their work will be easier, in that their actions will be respected and accepted, but their advice will also be sought spontaneously. Trust, can, therefore, be thought of as something that is of benefit to all: healthcare workers, individuals and communities. Trust is, generally, something to be prized and we need to do anything we can to strengthen it.

  6. Social trust and grassroots governance in rural China.

    PubMed

    Huhe, Narisong; Chen, Jie; Tang, Min

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between social trust and governance has been one of the focal points of the academic and policy-making communities. Empirical studies on this relationship, however, have focused mostly on democracies. The scarcity of such studies in authoritarian countries has left many important questions unanswered: Is social trust associated with effective governance only in democratic settings? Can social trust improve the quality of governance in non-democracies as well? Drawing on data from 2005 China General Social Survey-a representative survey conducted nationwide at both the individual- and village-level in rural China, this paper attempts to answer these questions empirically by examining the relationship between social trust and the quality of governance in rural China. The findings reveal that different types of social trust-particularized trust and generalized trust-correspond with different effects in rural governance: whereas villagers' trust in people whom they knew personally was positively and significantly associated with the provision of various public goods and services, their trust in strangers had virtually no impact on rural governance.

  7. Whom should we trust? Trust yourselves!

    SciTech Connect

    Fentiman, A.W.; Mancl, K.M.; Hajek, B.K.

    1995-11-01

    Members of the public, and their elected officials, often feel at a disadvantage when faced with decisions on technical issues such as those related to low-level radioactive waste management. Many have little or no knowledge of the underlying scientific concepts and often lack a clear understanding of the problems or possible solutions. In the case of controversial, highly emotional topics, facts presented by opposing groups often appear contradictory. People ask, {open_quotes}Whom should we trust?{close_quotes} While advocates of various positions shout, {open_quotes}Trust us!{close_quotes} members of the Ohio State University (OSU) Statewide Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program are saying, {open_quotes}Trust yourselves!{close_quotes} The goal of the OSU program is to provide Ohio`s citizens and their elected officials with accurate, easy-to-understand, unbiased information they need to prepare themselves to participate in discussions and decisions related to low-level waste. The faculty members on the project team want to encourage people to learn enough about the topic to feel confident in making their own decisions. For such a program to be successful, however, people must first trust the educational materials they are given. Over the past three years, the OSU team has developed materials that have won wide acceptance. Several factors that appear to have contributed to the acceptance are outlined.

  8. Macroeconomic Dynamics of Assets, Leverage and Trust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozendaal, Jeroen C.; Malevergne, Yannick; Sornette, Didier

    A macroeconomic model based on the economic variables (i) assets, (ii) leverage (defined as debt over asset) and (iii) trust (defined as the maximum sustainable leverage) is proposed to investigate the role of credit in the dynamics of economic growth, and how credit may be associated with both economic performance and confidence. Our first notable finding is the mechanism of reward/penalty associated with patience, as quantified by the return on assets. In regular economies where the EBITA/Assets ratio is larger than the cost of debt, starting with a trust higher than leverage results in the highest long-term return on assets (which can be seen as a proxy for economic growth). Therefore, patient economies that first build trust and then increase leverage are positively rewarded. Our second main finding concerns a recommendation for the reaction of a central bank to an external shock that affects negatively the economic growth. We find that late policy intervention in the model economy results in the highest long-term return on assets. However, this comes at the cost of suffering longer from the crisis until the intervention occurs. The phenomenon that late intervention is most effective to attain a high long-term return on assets can be ascribed to the fact that postponing intervention allows trust to increase first, and it is most effective to intervene when trust is high. These results are derived from two fundamental assumptions underlying our model: (a) trust tends to increase when it is above leverage; (b) economic agents learn optimally to adjust debt for a given level of trust and amount of assets. Using a Markov Switching Model for the EBITA/Assets ratio, we have successfully calibrated our model to the empirical data of the return on equity of the EURO STOXX 50 for the time period 2000-2013. We find that dynamics of leverage and trust can be highly nonmonotonous with curved trajectories, as a result of the nonlinear coupling between the variables. This

  9. Autonomy, Trust, and Respect

    PubMed Central

    Nys, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to explore and analyze the relationship between autonomy and trust, and to show how these findings could be relevant to medical ethics. First, I will argue that the way in which so-called “relational autonomy theories” tie the notions of autonomy and trust together is not entirely satisfying Then, I will introduce the so-called Encapsulated Interest Account as developed by Russell Hardin. This will bring out the importance of the reasons for trust. What good reasons do we have for trusting someone? I will criticize Hardin’s business model as insufficiently robust, especially in the context of health care, and then turn to another source of trust, namely, love. It may seem that trust-through-love is much better suited for the vulnerability that is often involved in health care, but I will also show that it has its own deficiencies. Good health care should therefore pay attention to both models of trust, and I will offer some tentative remarks on how to do this. PMID:26668168

  10. Autonomy, Trust, and Respect.

    PubMed

    Nys, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    This article seeks to explore and analyze the relationship between autonomy and trust, and to show how these findings could be relevant to medical ethics. First, I will argue that the way in which so-called "relational autonomy theories" tie the notions of autonomy and trust together is not entirely satisfying Then, I will introduce the so-called Encapsulated Interest Account as developed by Russell Hardin. This will bring out the importance of the reasons for trust. What good reasons do we have for trusting someone? I will criticize Hardin's business model as insufficiently robust, especially in the context of health care, and then turn to another source of trust, namely, love. It may seem that trust-through-love is much better suited for the vulnerability that is often involved in health care, but I will also show that it has its own deficiencies. Good health care should therefore pay attention to both models of trust, and I will offer some tentative remarks on how to do this.

  11. Winston Churchill Memorial Trust Fellowship Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramsen, Neil

    2014-01-01

    In March and April 2014, the author travelled overseas on a 2013 Churchill Fellowship to study education programs that successfully engage and enthuse primary and middle school students in maths, engineering and science (MES) or science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) learning in schools, universities and institutions in the United…

  12. Trusting Crowdsourced Geospatial Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodhue, P.; McNair, H.; Reitsma, F.

    2015-08-01

    The degree of trust one can place in information is one of the foremost limitations of crowdsourced geospatial information. As with the development of web technologies, the increased prevalence of semantics associated with geospatial information has increased accessibility and functionality. Semantics also provides an opportunity to extend indicators of trust for crowdsourced geospatial information that have largely focused on spatio-temporal and social aspects of that information. Comparing a feature's intrinsic and extrinsic properties to associated ontologies provides a means of semantically assessing the trustworthiness of crowdsourced geospatial information. The application of this approach to unconstrained semantic submissions then allows for a detailed assessment of the trust of these features whilst maintaining the descriptive thoroughness this mode of information submission affords. The resulting trust rating then becomes an attribute of the feature, providing not only an indication as to the trustworthiness of a specific feature but is able to be aggregated across multiple features to illustrate the overall trustworthiness of a dataset.

  13. Trust and Fertility Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Billari, Francesco C.; Pessin, Léa

    2016-01-01

    We argue that the divergence in fertility trends in advanced societies is influenced by the interaction of long-standing differences in generalized trust with the increase in women’s educational attainment. Our argument builds on the idea that trust enhances individuals’ and couples’ willingness to outsource childcare to outside their extended family. This becomes critically important as women’s increased education enhances the demand for combining work and family life. We test our hypothesis using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study on 36 industrialized countries between the years 1981 and 2009. Multilevel statistical analyses reveal that the interaction between national-level generalized trust and cohort-level women’s education is positively associated with completed fertility. As education among women expands, high levels of generalized trust moderate fertility decline. PMID:28003707

  14. Trusting Beliefs: A Functional Measurement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidotto, Giulio; Massidda, Davide; Noventa, Stefano; Vicentini, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Trust is a fundamental aspect of everyday life. Several authors define trust as the wish to depend on another entity and split the concept of trust into several interconnected components such as trusting beliefs (e.g., benevolence, competence, honesty, and predictability), trusting intentions, trusting behaviors, disposition to trust, and…

  15. Trusted Computing Technologies, Intel Trusted Execution Technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Guise, Max Joseph; Wendt, Jeremy Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We describe the current state-of-the-art in Trusted Computing Technologies - focusing mainly on Intel's Trusted Execution Technology (TXT). This document is based on existing documentation and tests of two existing TXT-based systems: Intel's Trusted Boot and Invisible Things Lab's Qubes OS. We describe what features are lacking in current implementations, describe what a mature system could provide, and present a list of developments to watch. Critical systems perform operation-critical computations on high importance data. In such systems, the inputs, computation steps, and outputs may be highly sensitive. Sensitive components must be protected from both unauthorized release, and unauthorized alteration: Unauthorized users should not access the sensitive input and sensitive output data, nor be able to alter them; the computation contains intermediate data with the same requirements, and executes algorithms that the unauthorized should not be able to know or alter. Due to various system requirements, such critical systems are frequently built from commercial hardware, employ commercial software, and require network access. These hardware, software, and network system components increase the risk that sensitive input data, computation, and output data may be compromised.

  16. 25 CFR 900.3 - Policy statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... autonomy and flexibility in the administration of such programs. (2) It is the policy of the Secretary to... activities funded under the contract. The Secretary will continue to discharge the trust responsibilities to protect and conserve the trust resources of Indian tribes and the trust resources of individual...

  17. 25 CFR 900.3 - Policy statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... autonomy and flexibility in the administration of such programs. (2) It is the policy of the Secretary to... activities funded under the contract. The Secretary will continue to discharge the trust responsibilities to protect and conserve the trust resources of Indian tribes and the trust resources of individual...

  18. 36 CFR 1002.62 - Memorialization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Memorialization. 1002.62 Section 1002.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.62 Memorialization. (a) The installation of a monument, memorial, tablet, structure,...

  19. 36 CFR 1002.62 - Memorialization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Memorialization. 1002.62 Section 1002.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.62 Memorialization. (a) The installation of a monument, memorial, tablet, structure,...

  20. 36 CFR 1002.62 - Memorialization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Memorialization. 1002.62 Section 1002.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.62 Memorialization. (a) The installation of a monument, memorial, tablet, structure,...

  1. 36 CFR 1002.62 - Memorialization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Memorialization. 1002.62 Section 1002.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.62 Memorialization. (a) The installation of a monument, memorial, tablet, structure,...

  2. Stochastic models of the Social Security trust funds.

    PubMed

    Burdick, Clark; Manchester, Joyce

    Each year in March, the Board of Trustees of the Social Security trust funds reports on the current and projected financial condition of the Social Security programs. Those programs, which pay monthly benefits to retired workers and their families, to the survivors of deceased workers, and to disabled workers and their families, are financed through the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) Trust Funds. In their 2003 report, the Trustees present, for the first time, results from a stochastic model of the combined OASDI trust funds. Stochastic modeling is an important new tool for Social Security policy analysis and offers the promise of valuable new insights into the financial status of the OASDI trust funds and the effects of policy changes. The results presented in this article demonstrate that several stochastic models deliver broadly consistent results even though they use very different approaches and assumptions. However, they also show that the variation in trust fund outcomes differs as the approach and assumptions are varied. Which approach and assumptions are best suited for Social Security policy analysis remains an open question. Further research is needed before the promise of stochastic modeling is fully realized. For example, neither parameter uncertainty nor variability in ultimate assumption values is recognized explicitly in the analyses. Despite this caveat, stochastic modeling results are already shedding new light on the range and distribution of trust fund outcomes that might occur in the future.

  3. Trust Transitivity in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected “fringe” nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its “fringe” peers. PMID:21483683

  4. Trusted Translation Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atif, Yacine; Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Campbell, Piers; Mathew, Sujith Samuel

    Administering multilingual Web sites and applications reliably, involves interconnected and multipart tasks, where trust in the involved parties and content translation sources is paramount. Published Web sites may reflect content from databases, content management systems and other repositories to manage related Web content. But a Web site mirrored wholly or selectively onto a target language version requires streamlined trusted processes. Traditionally, files are translated and transferred via FTP, e-mail, or other communication means. Similarly, translation instructions are communicated between involved parties through verbal instruction, e-mail, and instruction files lead to a variety of inconsistencies and lack of trust in the translation process. This paper proposes a Web service approach to streamline the translation processes and an integration of trust properties in the proposed translation Web services. Web Services have been instrumental in handling problems inherent to systems integration, allowing web-based systems to converse and communicate data automatically. The OASIS Translation Web Services Technical Committee has released a standard way for Web Services to serve the translation and localization business. This article proposes a framework to centralize translation services at a reputable source providing a workflow and a mechanism to quantify service trust. An implementation of the framework is also described in the context of a localization case study.

  5. Contaminated salmon and the public's trust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, Samuel N.; Löfstedt, Ragnar E.

    2007-01-01

    Scientific uncertainties often make it difficult for environmental policy makers to determine how to communicate risks to the public. A constructive, holistic, multisectoral dialogue about an issue can improve understanding of uncertainties from different perspectives and clarify options for risk communication. Many environmental issues could benefit from explicit promotion of such a dialogue. When issues are complex, unconstructive advocacy, narrow focus, and exclusion of selected parties from decision making can erode public trust in science and lead to cynicism about the policies of government and the private sector.

  6. Trust Development in Small Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    distinction between trust as a psychological state and as choice behaviour appears to be waning somewhat in favour of trust being conceptualised as a... psychological state. A recent review, for example, selectively excluded articles that focused on trust as only a behaviour in favour of those that involved...the conceptualisation of trust as both a psychological state and a behaviour (Dirks and Ferrin, 2002). This shift will perhaps accommodate some of

  7. Four Essential Practices for Building Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Julie Peterson; Harris, Sandra; Edmonson, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The presence of trust can enhance an organization's efforts to fulfill its mission, and the lack of trust can constrict those efforts. The authors offer four essential guidelines to help school leaders communicate in a way that builds trust. Build trust by understanding trust. Trusted leaders demonstrate care, character, and competence in their…

  8. Trust It or Trash It?

    MedlinePlus

    Trust It or Trash It? About | Contact | Español Tab 1 Tab 2 What is Trust It or Trash It? This is a tool to help you think ... here for the developer version. Home Who Said It? Who wrote it? Think about TRUSTING IT if: ...

  9. Trust Development in Outdoor Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shooter, Wynn; Paisley, Karen; Sibthorp, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Establishing trusting relationships between leaders and participants is one way that outdoor leaders can create an emotionally safe and productive milieu that supports the attainment of desirable outcomes. Multidisciplinary literature offers considerable insight into leader trust development and the outcomes that are linked to trust in a leader.…

  10. Why Teachers Trust School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handford, Victoria; Leithwood, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Trust among teachers in schools is significantly related to student achievement and trust in school leaders is an important influence on such trust. The purpose of this study is to identify leadership practices which teachers interpret as signs of trustworthiness on the part of their principals. Design/methodology/approach: Evidence for…

  11. Iranian public trust in health services: evidence from Tabriz, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, J S; Saadati, M; Sadeghi-Bazargani, H; Abedi, L; Alibabayee, R

    2017-01-23

    This study investigated public trust in health services in Tabriz, Islamic Republic of Iran. A crosssectional household study was conducted in 2014, using random cluster sampling. A total of 1050 households were enrolled in the study and a valid questionnaire was used to collect data through interviews. The mean score for public trust in health services in Tabriz (out of 100) was 53.91 ± 13.7. People had most trust in professional expertise and lowest in macro-level policy. Specialists, pharmacy doctors and nurses were the health providers that enjoyed the highest levels of trust. It is concluded that public trust in health services in Tabriz is low and policy-makers need to employ appropriate policies to improve patients' experience of health services.

  12. Human Trust in Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Robert and Bertrand David (Eds.):  Proceedings of the 18th International Conference of the Association Francophone d’Interaction Homme ‐ Machine ...provides us with an avenue of approach; that is, to understand how trust is mediated by technology interfaces and connections. Salamacha and

  13. Homo economicus belief inhibits trust.

    PubMed

    Xin, Ziqiang; Liu, Guofang

    2013-01-01

    As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners' benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals' homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people's increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust.

  14. 49 CFR 387.307 - Property broker surety bond or trust fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Property broker surety bond or trust fund. 387.307... MINIMUM LEVELS OF FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR MOTOR CARRIERS Surety Bonds and Policies of Insurance for Motor Carriers and Property Brokers § 387.307 Property broker surety bond or trust fund. (a) Security....

  15. Implementing a Portable Trusted Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zic, John; Nepal, Surya

    The development of trusted systems, as envisaged by the Trusted Computing Group, assumed that the computing environments are uniform in terms of their operational environment, including hardware configuration, execution of a standard set of applications, operating system and facilities and procedures that allow the issue, revocation and maintenance of critical encryption keys and authorization certificates. These assumptions may be applicable to a single managed enterprise infrastructure. However, in situations where the users are mobile, or the computing environment is heterogeneous and the Internet provides the connectivity, the management of trust between enterprises becomes overwhelmingly difficult, if not impossible. As a result, deployment and uptake of trusted secure systems based on Trusted Platform Module have not been as successful as first envisaged. In this paper, we report on our experiences in designing and implementing a prototype personal trusted device called the Trust Extension Device, or TED, that provides users with a portable trustworthy environment for conducting transactions on any Internet connected computer.

  16. Social Trust of Virtual Identities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seigneur, Jean-Marc

    Most other chapters of this book discuss computational models of trust in broader terms, giving definitions of trust, explaining how trust should evolve over time, surveying the different facets of trust .On the other hand, this chapter has a clear focus on the important element of identity in computational trust mechanisms. Trust and reputation are easier to form in face-to-face situations than in situations involving the use of computers and networks because the identity of the trustee is more difficult to verify. In this chapter, the different means to recognise virtual identities are surveyed. Next, their integration into computational trust engines is discussed, especially according to four main requirements: Adaptability, Security, Usability and Privacy (ASUP).

  17. The Condition for Generous Trust

    PubMed Central

    Shinya, Obayashi; Yusuke, Inagaki; Hiroki, Takikawa

    2016-01-01

    Trust has been considered the “cement” of a society and is much studied in sociology and other social sciences. Most studies, however, have neglected one important aspect of trust: it involves an act of forgiving and showing tolerance toward another’s failure. In this study, we refer to this concept as “generous trust” and examine the conditions under which generous trust becomes a more viable option when compared to other types of trust. We investigate two settings. First, we introduce two types of uncertainties: uncertainty as to whether trustees have the intention to cooperate, and uncertainty as to whether trustees have enough competence to accomplish the entrusted tasks. Second, we examine the manner in which trust functions in a broader social context, one that involves matching and commitment processes. Since we expect generosity or forgiveness to work differently in the matching and commitment processes, we must differentiate trust strategies into generous trust in the matching process and that in the commitment process. Our analytical strategy is two-fold. First, we analyze the “modified” trust game that incorporates the two types of uncertainties without the matching process. This simplified setting enables us to derive mathematical results using game theory, thereby giving basic insight into the trust mechanism. Second, we investigate socially embedded trust relationships in contexts involving the matching and commitment processes, using agent-based simulation. Results show that uncertainty about partner’s intention and competence makes generous trust a viable option. In contrast, too much uncertainty undermines the possibility of generous trust. Furthermore, a strategy that is too generous cannot stand alone. Generosity should be accompanied with moderate punishment. As for socially embedded trust relationships, generosity functions differently in the matching process versus the commitment process. Indeed, these two types of generous

  18. Position Paper: Applying Machine Learning to Software Analysis to Achieve Trusted, Repeatable Scientific Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Prowell, Stacy J; Symons, Christopher T

    2015-01-01

    Producing trusted results from high-performance codes is essential for policy and has significant economic impact. We propose combining rigorous analytical methods with machine learning techniques to achieve the goal of repeatable, trustworthy scientific computing.

  19. Technology, Intelligence, and TRUST

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    single email or message. The collections team does not have to make an either/or decision about whom to send its intercept or interrogation report...International security studies at the George C. Marshall Center for european security studies in Garmisch- Partenkirchen, Germany. he is a career ... career as an intelligence officer, I was told on numerous occasions, “Trust us, when the balloon goes up, you’ll get all the intelligence you need

  20. Retrospective: Ivy Lee and the German Dye Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hainsworth, Brad E.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the relationship between public relations trailblazer Ivy Lee and the German Dye Trust, which became an agent for the policies of Adolf Hitler. Discusses how Lee's efforts to use this relationship to persuade his contacts to influence the Nazi leadership failed because of his formal connection with this group. (JD)

  1. Optimal Distinctiveness Signals Membership Trust.

    PubMed

    Leonardelli, Geoffrey J; Loyd, Denise Lewin

    2016-07-01

    According to optimal distinctiveness theory, sufficiently small minority groups are associated with greater membership trust, even among members otherwise unknown, because the groups are seen as optimally distinctive. This article elaborates on the prediction's motivational and cognitive processes and tests whether sufficiently small minorities (defined by relative size; for example, 20%) are associated with greater membership trust relative to mere minorities (45%), and whether such trust is a function of optimal distinctiveness. Two experiments, examining observers' perceptions of minority and majority groups and using minimal groups and (in Experiment 2) a trust game, revealed greater membership trust in minorities than majorities. In Experiment 2, participants also preferred joining minorities over more powerful majorities. Both effects occurred only when minorities were 20% rather than 45%. In both studies, perceptions of optimal distinctiveness mediated effects. Discussion focuses on the value of relative size and optimal distinctiveness, and when membership trust manifests.

  2. Towards a politics of trust.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, T

    1998-05-01

    This paper draws upon sociological theory to demonstrate that the manufacture and deployment of trust is an integral part of the function of complex systems such as health care. The discussion begins by identifying the error within the nursing literature which arises from a rather technical conceptualization of trust. This tends to limit the dimensions to trust which is established, and fails to recognize that trust may be subject to competition and conflict. The paper continues by drawing upon the work of two theorists, Niklas Luhmann and Susan P. Shapiro, to demonstrate how trust functions within systems such as health care and the mechanisms through which it is controlled. The title of this paper, 'Towards a politics of trust', identifies that this is merely the first stage in the analysis. Further stages are necessary which analyse the ways in which power is exercised in the conflict for control within discrete elements of the system.

  3. A Requisite for Employee Trust: Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kerry Marshall

    1988-01-01

    Provides background on organizational trust as product of need satisfaction and presents framework for understanding organizational trust with regard to theoretical differentiation of personal trust and system trust. Defines three factors of organizational trust: openness/congruity, shared values, and autonomy/feedback. Discusses how supervisors…

  4. Capturing Young American Trust in National Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Lauren A.

    2011-01-01

    A pattern of decreasing trusting proportions in each consecutive decade and increasing trusting proportions with age was revealed in data. Although trust levels were lower in younger adults and the 2000s, findings did not support hypotheses of more rapidly falling trust levels or a college degree procuring less trust in the 2000s. A hypothesis of…

  5. Only the Carrot, Not the Stick: Incorporating Trust into the Enforcement of Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Juan P.; Wielhouwer, Jacco L.

    2015-01-01

    New enforcement strategies allow agents to gain the regulator’s trust and consequently face a lower audit probability. Prior research suggests that, in order to prevent lower compliance, a reduction in the audit probability (the “carrot”) must be compensated with the introduction of a higher penalty for non-compliance (the “stick”). However, such carrot-and-stick strategies reflect neither the concept of trust nor the strategies observed in practice. In response to this, we define trust-based regulation as a strategy that incorporates rules that allow trust to develop, and using a generic (non-cooperative) game of tax compliance, we examine whether trust-based regulation is feasible (i.e., whether, in equilibrium, a reduction in the audit probability, without ever increasing the penalty for non-compliance, does not lead to reduced compliance). The model shows that trust-based regulation is feasible when the agent sufficiently values the future. In line with the concept of trust, this strategy is feasible when the regulator is uncertain about the agent’s intentions. Moreover, the model shows that (i) introducing higher penalties makes trust-based regulation less feasible, and (ii) combining trust and forgiveness can lead to a lower audit probability for both trusted and distrusted agents. Policy recommendations often point toward increasing deterrence. This model shows that the opposite can be optimal. PMID:25705898

  6. Only the carrot, not the stick: incorporating trust into the enforcement of regulation.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Juan P; Wielhouwer, Jacco L

    2015-01-01

    New enforcement strategies allow agents to gain the regulator's trust and consequently face a lower audit probability. Prior research suggests that, in order to prevent lower compliance, a reduction in the audit probability (the "carrot") must be compensated with the introduction of a higher penalty for non-compliance (the "stick"). However, such carrot-and-stick strategies reflect neither the concept of trust nor the strategies observed in practice. In response to this, we define trust-based regulation as a strategy that incorporates rules that allow trust to develop, and using a generic (non-cooperative) game of tax compliance, we examine whether trust-based regulation is feasible (i.e., whether, in equilibrium, a reduction in the audit probability, without ever increasing the penalty for non-compliance, does not lead to reduced compliance). The model shows that trust-based regulation is feasible when the agent sufficiently values the future. In line with the concept of trust, this strategy is feasible when the regulator is uncertain about the agent's intentions. Moreover, the model shows that (i) introducing higher penalties makes trust-based regulation less feasible, and (ii) combining trust and forgiveness can lead to a lower audit probability for both trusted and distrusted agents. Policy recommendations often point toward increasing deterrence. This model shows that the opposite can be optimal.

  7. Trusting in the New NHS: instrumental versus communicative action.

    PubMed

    Brown, Patrick R

    2008-04-01

    Recent reforms within the UK National Health Service, particularly the introduction of clinical governance, have been enacted with the apparent aim of rebuilding patient trust. This paper analyses the approach taken by policy makers, arguing that it is based very much on an instrumental conception of trust. The assumptions and limitations of this model are discussed and in so doing, a communicative understanding of trust is proposed as an alternative. It is argued that the instrumental rationality and institutional focus inherent to instrumental trust neglect the importance of the communication between patient and medical professional and its affective dimensions. Communicative trust goes beyond a mere cognitive appreciation of the system and rather is dependent on the qualitative interaction at the access point, where the patient comes to believe that the communicative rationality of their best interests is mirrored by the professional's instrumental rationality. Whilst recent challenges to the confidence of patients in professionals and medical knowledge make some approximation of an ideal speech situation more imperative than previously, the application of an instrumental concept of trust in the NHS makes such interactions less likely, as well as facilitating a divergence between instrumental and communicative rationality in healthcare provision.

  8. Building and Understanding Trust Relationships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-17

    interdependence. To meet these challenges, senior military leaders must understand and build internal and external trust. The Ken Blanchard Company, one...Military Review: The Profession of Arms, September 30, 2011, 16. 2 The Ken Blanchard Company, “Building Trust,” 2010,pdf, http...www.kenblanchard.com/img/pub/ Blanchard -Building-Trust.pdf (accessed November 27, 2011). 3 Richard H. Kohn, “The Early Retirement of Gen. Ronald Fogleman, Chief of

  9. The Need to Trust and to Trust More Wisely in Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Where trust is an issue, there is no trust. Trust in diverse organizations has never been lower. A shadow of doubt stalks one's every decision to trust collegially and institutionally. Still, colleagues sense intuitively that institutions cannot function optimally without a bedrock level of trust. In academic life, trust is a form of social…

  10. Generalized Trust and Trust in Institutions in Confucian Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Soo Jiuan; Tambyah, Siok Kuan

    2011-01-01

    This study examines generalized trust and trust in institutions in Confucian Asia, covering six countries namely, China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam, and one dependent region, Hong Kong. Using data from the 2006 AsiaBarometer Survey, our study affirms the reliability and validity of using a two-item scale to measure…

  11. Influence of trust in the spreading of information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hongrun; Arenas, Alex; Gómez, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The understanding and prediction of information diffusion processes on networks is a major challenge in network theory with many implications in social sciences. Many theoretical advances occurred due to stochastic spreading models. Nevertheless, these stochastic models overlooked the influence of rational decisions on the outcome of the process. For instance, different levels of trust in acquaintances do play a role in information spreading, and actors may change their spreading decisions during the information diffusion process accordingly. Here, we study an information-spreading model in which the decision to transmit or not is based on trust. We explore the interplay between the propagation of information and the trust dynamics happening on a two-layer multiplex network. Actors' trustable or untrustable states are defined as accumulated cooperation or defection behaviors, respectively, in a Prisoner's Dilemma setup, and they are controlled by a memory span. The propagation of information is abstracted as a threshold model on the information-spreading layer, where the threshold depends on the trustability of agents. The analysis of the model is performed using a tree approximation and validated on homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. The results show that the memory of previous actions has a significant effect on the spreading of information. For example, the less memory that is considered, the higher is the diffusion. Information is highly promoted by the emergence of trustable acquaintances. These results provide insight into the effect of plausible biases on spreading dynamics in a multilevel networked system.

  12. Trusted computing strengthens cloud authentication.

    PubMed

    Ghazizadeh, Eghbal; Zamani, Mazdak; Ab Manan, Jamalul-lail; Alizadeh, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM). Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO) and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model.

  13. Trusted Computing Strengthens Cloud Authentication

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM). Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO) and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model. PMID:24701149

  14. Building Trust, Forging Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Scott Andrews was a former guidance counselor with no experience in school administration when he became Amityville Memorial High School's principal in 2004, but he brought a wealth of knowledge and experience in psychology--including a doctorate--to the position. He also quickly recruited Peter Hutchison, a special education teacher, to be an…

  15. The Business of Trust.

    PubMed

    Frisse, Mark E

    2016-04-01

    New mobile devices, social networks, analytics, and communications technologies are emerging at an unparalleled rate. As a result, academic health centers will face both new opportunities and formidable challenges. Unlike previous transitions from paper-based systems to networked computer systems, these new technologies are the product of new entrepreneurial and commercial interests driven by consumers. As these new commercial products and services are more widely adopted, the likelihood grows that data will be used in unanticipated ways inconsistent with societal norms. Academic health centers will have to understand the implications of these technologies and engage more actively in processes governing the collection, aggregation, and use of health data produced in a new era of consumer-driven health care technology. Maintaining public trust should be a paramount concern.

  16. Trust in performance indicators?

    PubMed Central

    Davies, H. T.; Lampel, J.

    1998-01-01

    The 1980s and 90s have seen the proliferation of all forms of performance indicators as part of attempts to command and control health services. The latest area to receive attention is health outcomes. Published league tables of mortality and other health outcomes have been available in the United States for some time and in Scotland since the early 1990s; they have now been developed for England and Wales. Publication of these data has proceeded despite warnings as to their limited meaningfulness and usefulness. The time has come to ask whether the remedy is worse than the malady: are published health outcomes contributing to quality efforts or subverting more constructive approaches? This paper argues that attempts to force improvements through publishing health outcomes can be counterproductive, and outlines an alternative approach which involves fostering greater trust in professionalism as a basis for quality enhancements. PMID:10185142

  17. Never trust a croup…

    PubMed Central

    Nickinson, Andrew; Minhas, Jatinder Singh; Bhalla, Minak; Anwuzia-Iwegbu, Charles; Chapman, John

    2011-01-01

    A 2-year-old girl presented to the James Paget University Hospitals Trust with croup-like symptoms and was later discharged with dexamethasone syrup. The patient re-presented 6 h later following maternal concern with signs of acute respiratory distress. After a period of clinical stability, she acutely decompensated without any prior signs of a life-threatening deterioration. She was managed using nebulised epinephrine and showed signs of clinical improvement. Although improvement persisted, the child showed signs of exhaustion following the preceding events and was later intubed with an endotracheal tube and transferred to the paediatric intensive care unit at Addenbrooke’s University Hospital, Cambridge. Endotracheal aspiration later grew parainfluenza virus, rhinovirus and Staphylococcus aureus and the patient was diagnosed with the exceptionally rare life threatening complications of croup, bacterial tracheitis. The patient was discharged from intensive care 7 days later and has since made a full recovery. PMID:22689599

  18. 17 CFR 239.17c - Form N-6, registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance..., registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life... of separate accounts that offer variable life insurance policies and that register under...

  19. 17 CFR 239.17c - Form N-6, registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance..., registration statement for separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life... of separate accounts that offer variable life insurance policies and that register under...

  20. Race, healthcare access and physician trust among prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Do, Young Kyung; Spain, Pamela; Clark, Jack A.; Hamilton, Robert J.; Galanko, Joseph A.; Jackman, Anne; Talcott, James A.; Godley, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of healthcare access and other characteristics on physician trust among black and white prostate cancer patients. Methods A three-timepoint follow-up telephone survey after cancer diagnosis was conducted. This study analyzed data on 474 patients and their 1,320 interviews over three time periods. Results Among other subpopulations, black patients who delayed seeking care had physician trust levels that were far lower than that of both Caucasians as well as that of the black patients overall. Black patients had greater variability in their levels of physician trust compared to their white counterparts. Conclusions Both race and access are important in explaining overall lower levels and greater variability in physician trust among black prostate cancer patients. Access barriers among black patients may spill over to the clinical encounter in the form of less physician trust, potentially contributing to racial disparities in treatment received and subsequent outcomes. Policy efforts to address the racial disparities in prostate cancer should prioritize improving healthcare access among minority groups. PMID:19777359

  1. Trust and Dialogue in the Army Profession

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    foundational concept, trust, from an organizational perspective, facilitates the lasting commitment to meet strategic aims. Trust involves the expectation...core of the professional military ethi As a foundational concept, trust, from an organizational perspective, facilitates the lasting commitment to meet...forms the core of the professional military ethic. As a foundational concept, trust, from an organizational perspective, facilitates the lasting

  2. Trust, Behavior, and High School Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Lisa S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on student trust and to examine the relationship between student trust, behavior, and academic outcomes in high school. It asks, first, does trust have a positive effect on high school outcomes? Second, does trust influence student behavior, exerting an indirect effect on…

  3. 43 CFR 426.7 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trusts. 426.7 Section 426.7 Public Lands... LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.7 Trusts. (a) Definitions for purposes of this section: Grantor revocable trust means a trust that holds irrigable land or irrigation land that may be revoked at...

  4. 12 CFR 7.2022 - Voting trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting trusts. 7.2022 Section 7.2022 Banks and... Practices § 7.2022 Voting trusts. The shareholders of a national bank may establish a voting trust under the applicable law of a state selected by the participants and designated in the trust agreement, provided...

  5. 7 CFR 1400.100 - Revocable trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revocable trust. 1400.100 Section 1400.100... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Limitation § 1400.100 Revocable trust. A revocable trust and the grantor of the trust will be considered to be the same person....

  6. TRUST: TDRSS Resource User Support Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparn, Thomas P.; Gablehouse, R. Daniel

    1991-01-01

    TRUST-TDRSS (Tracking Data and Relay Satellite System) Resource User Support Tool is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: TRUST development cycle; the TRUST system; scheduling window; ODM/GCMR window; TRUST architecture; surpass; and summary.

  7. 14 CFR 47.8 - Voting trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting trusts. 47.8 Section 47.8... REGISTRATION General § 47.8 Voting trusts. (a) If a voting trust is used to qualify a domestic corporation as a... the fully executed voting trust agreement, which must identify each voting interest of the...

  8. Trust Management Considerations For the Cooperative Infrastructure Defense Framework: Trust Relationships, Evidence, and Decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Maiden, Wendy M.

    2009-12-01

    Cooperative Infrastructure Defense (CID) is a hierarchical, agent-based, adaptive, cyber-security framework designed to collaboratively protect multiple enclaves or organizations participating in a complex infrastructure. CID employs a swarm of lightweight, mobile agents called Sensors designed to roam hosts throughout a security enclave to find indications of anomalies and report them to host-based Sentinels. The Sensors’ findings become pieces of a larger puzzle, which the Sentinel puts together to determine the problem and respond per policy as given by the enclave-level Sergeant agent. Horizontally across multiple enclaves and vertically within each enclave, authentication and access control technologies are necessary but insufficient authorization mechanisms to ensure that CID agents continue to fulfill their roles in a trustworthy manner. Trust management fills the gap, providing mechanisms to detect malicious agents and offering more robust mechanisms for authorization. This paper identifies the trust relationships throughout the CID hierarchy, the types of trust evidence that could be gathered, and the actions that the CID system could take if an entity is determined to be untrustworthy.

  9. Trust and Privacy in Healthcare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, Peter; Kalra, Dipak

    This paper considers issues of trust and privacy in healthcare around increased data-sharing through Electronic Health Records (EHRs). It uses a model structured around different aspects of trust in the healthcare organisation’s reasons for greater data-sharing and their ability to execute EHR projects, particularly any associated confidentiality controls. It reflects the individual’s personal circumstances and attitude to use of health records.

  10. Trust and Online Reputation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Ming; Ramachandran, Deepak

    Web 2.0 technologies provide organizations with unprecedented opportunities to expand and solidify relationships with their customers, partners, and employees—while empowering firms to define entirely new business models focused on sharing information in online collaborative environments. Yet, in and of themselves, these technologies cannot ensure productive online interactions. Leading enterprises that are experimenting with social networks and online communities are already discovering this fact and along with it, the importance of establishing trust as the foundation for online collaboration and transactions. Just as today's consumers must feel secure to bank, exchange personal information and purchase products and services online; participants in Web 2.0 initiatives will only accept the higher levels of risk and exposure inherent in e-commerce and Web collaboration in an environment of trust. Indeed, only by attending to the need to cultivate online trust with customers, partners and employees will enterprises ever fully exploit the expanded business potential posed by Web 2.0. But developing online trust is no easy feat. While various preliminary attempts have occurred, no definitive model for establishing or measuring it has yet been established. To that end, nGenera has identified three, distinct dimensions of online trust: reputation (quantitative-based); relationship (qualitative-based) and process (system-based). When considered together, they form a valuable model for understanding online trust and a toolbox for cultivating it to support Web 2.0 initiatives.

  11. Consumer trust to a Web site: moderating effect of attitudes toward online shopping.

    PubMed

    San Martín, Sonia; Camarero, Carmen

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, authors suggest a model that reflects the role played by the Web site characteristics and the previous level of satisfaction as determinant factors of trust in the Web site. Also, authors consider the moderating effects of consumers' motives and inhibitors to purchase online. Results show that satisfaction with previous purchases, the Web site security and privacy policies, and service quality are the main determinants of trust. Also, the motives and inhibitors the individuals perceive when buying online determine the type of signals they consider to trust.

  12. A Conceptual Framework and Principles for Trusted Pervasive Health

    PubMed Central

    Blobel, Bernd Gerhard; Seppälä, Antto Veikko; Sorvari, Hannu Olavi; Nykänen, Pirkko Anneli

    2012-01-01

    Background Ubiquitous computing technology, sensor networks, wireless communication and the latest developments of the Internet have enabled the rise of a new concept—pervasive health—which takes place in an open, unsecure, and highly dynamic environment (ie, in the information space). To be successful, pervasive health requires implementable principles for privacy and trustworthiness. Objective This research has two interconnected objectives. The first is to define pervasive health as a system and to understand its trust and privacy challenges. The second goal is to build a conceptual model for pervasive health and use it to develop principles and polices which can make pervasive health trustworthy. Methods In this study, a five-step system analysis method is used. Pervasive health is defined using a metaphor of digital bubbles. A conceptual framework model focused on trustworthiness and privacy is then developed for pervasive health. On that model, principles and rules for trusted information management in pervasive health are defined. Results In the first phase of this study, a new definition of pervasive health was created. Using this model, differences between pervasive health and health care are stated. Reviewed publications demonstrate that the widely used principles of predefined and static trust cannot guarantee trustworthiness and privacy in pervasive health. Instead, such an environment requires personal dynamic and context-aware policies, awareness, and transparency. A conceptual framework model focused on information processing in pervasive health is developed. Using features of pervasive health and relations from the framework model, new principles for trusted pervasive health have been developed. The principles propose that personal health data should be under control of the data subject. The person shall have the right to verify the level of trust of any system which collects or processes his or her health information. Principles require that

  13. Trust and disclosure of sexual orientation in gay males' mother-son relationships.

    PubMed

    Miller, R J; Boon, S D

    2000-01-01

    This study explored the possibility that changes in feelings of trust for mother are associated with gay males' decisions to disclose (or withhold) their sexual orientation in their mother-son relationships. Fifty gay and bisexual males completed a questionnaire about their coming out experiences in the context of their relationships with their mothers. As part of this questionnaire, they completed a retrospective graphical trust history task that involved plotting the degree of trust they felt for their mothers over time and across important events (such as disclosure). Results are discussed in terms of gay men's expectations about their mothers' responses to disclosure, the evidence for stability versus change in their memories regarding the nature of their feelings of maternal trust over time, the complexity of the trust histories participants drew, similarity between disclosers and non-disclosers in the shape of their trust curves, and the types of events and experiences that constituted the timeline or "plot" in the stories participants told about their mother-son relationships. This study offers the first empirical evidence to support speculations linking disclosure of sexual orientation to the climate of trust that exists in the relationship between discloser and target (e.g., Holtzen, Kenny & Mahalik, 1995).

  14. System reliability, performance and trust in adaptable automation.

    PubMed

    Chavaillaz, Alain; Wastell, David; Sauer, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of reduced system reliability on operator performance and automation management in an adaptable automation environment. 39 operators were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: low (60%), medium (80%), and high (100%) reliability of automation support. The support system provided five incremental levels of automation which operators could freely select according to their needs. After 3 h of training on a simulated process control task (AutoCAMS) in which the automation worked infallibly, operator performance and automation management were measured during a 2.5-h testing session. Trust and workload were also assessed through questionnaires. Results showed that although reduced system reliability resulted in lower levels of trust towards automation, there were no corresponding differences in the operators' reliance on automation. While operators showed overall a noteworthy ability to cope with automation failure, there were, however, decrements in diagnostic speed and prospective memory with lower reliability.

  15. The fair factor in matters of trust.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lauren L

    2006-01-01

    Communities are bound together by trust among their members. Trust thrives when a pervasive sense of fairness exists. Evidence suggests that trust has social, professional, and economic value for today's organizations, making it worthy of attention. Matters of trust and justice are important and timely for nurse leaders to consider given the challenge to improve practice settings in a manner that enhances nurse satisfaction. The aim of this article is to make explicit the value in building organizational justice and trust within an organization's nursing community. Nursing leadership strategies are integrated, thus offering practical guidance in creating a culture of justice, making trust explicit, and establishing trustworthiness.

  16. Disaggregating ethnoracial disparities in physician trust.

    PubMed

    Sewell, Abigail A

    2015-11-01

    Past research yields mixed evidence regarding whether ethnoracial minorities trust physicians less than Whites. Using the 2002 and 2006 General Social Surveys, variegated ethnoracial differences in trust in physicians are identified by disaggregating a multidimensional physician trust scale. Compared to Whites, Blacks are less likely to trust the technical judgment and interpersonal competence of doctors. Latinos are less likely than Whites to trust the fiduciary ethic, technical judgment, and interpersonal competence of doctors. Black-Latino differences in physician trust are a function of ethnoracial differences in parental nativity. The ways ethnoracial hierarchies are inscribed into power-imbalanced clinical exchanges are discussed.

  17. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-08-15

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  18. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-05-16

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  19. 25 CFR 1000.355 - How are trust evaluations conducted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review Annual Trust Evaluations § 1000.355 How are trust evaluations... required by § 1000.365. (b) This section describes the general framework for trust reviews. However,...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.355 - How are trust evaluations conducted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review Annual Trust Evaluations § 1000.355 How are trust evaluations... required by § 1000.365. (b) This section describes the general framework for trust reviews. However,...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.355 - How are trust evaluations conducted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review Annual Trust Evaluations § 1000.355 How are trust evaluations... required by § 1000.365. (b) This section describes the general framework for trust reviews. However,...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.355 - How are trust evaluations conducted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review Annual Trust Evaluations § 1000.355 How are trust evaluations... required by § 1000.365. (b) This section describes the general framework for trust reviews. However,...

  3. Nature's Trust: A Paradigm for Natural Resources Stewardship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, M. C.; Whitelaw, E.; Doppelt, B.; Burchell, A.

    2007-12-01

    Climate change uncertainty puts a premium on all remaining natural resources. Farmland, air, water, wetlands, wildlife, soils, mineral resources and forests must be protected to ensure that Americans - present citizens and future generations - have the fundamental survival resources they need in a future that holds many unknowns. Moreover, in light of the need to manage resources given climate and particle forcing, government must mitigate dangerous carbon loading of the atmosphere. Confronting climate change and protecting natural resources requires a clear sense of government obligation that is inherent to sovereignty, not a matter of political choice. Our government representatives can and must reframe government's discretion into a trustee obligation to protect Nature and ensure natural resource stewardship. Drawing upon enduring legal principles and court decisions, government can be characterized as a trustee of the natural resources essential to human survival. A trust is a fundamental type of ownership whereby one manages property for the benefit of another. Viewed as a trust, the environment consists of a portfolio of quantified natural assets that government manages. As beneficiaries, citizens hold a common property interest in defined, bounded assets that make up Nature's Trust. Such trust principles form the bedrock of statutory law. Trustees have a fiduciary obligation to protect trust assets and may not allow destruction of property they manage. This session will provide a policy frame for current scientific efforts to address climate change and natural resources loss. Under the Nature's Trust frame, U.S. government leaders and agencies at every level inherit a strict fiduciary obligation to protect our collective natural resources, including our water and the atmosphere, as assets in the trust. Their fiduciary standard of care consists of a proportionate responsibility, which ties directly to "Nature's Mandate" as defined by current climate

  4. Adequate trust avails, mistaken trust matters: on the moral responsibility of doctors as proxies for patients' trust in biobank research.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, Linus; Helgesson, Gert; Hansson, Mats G; Eriksson, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    In Sweden, most patients are recruited into biobank research by non-researcher doctors. Patients' trust in doctors may therefore be important to their willingness to participate. We suggest a model of trust that makes sense of such transitions of trust between domains and distinguishes adequate trust from mistaken trust. The unique position of doctors implies, we argue, a Kantian imperfect duty to compensate for patients' mistaken trust. There are at least three kinds of mistaken trust, each of which requires a different set of countermeasures. First, trust is mistaken when necessary competence is lacking; the competence must be developed or the illusion dispelled. Second, trust is irrational whenever the patient is mistaken about his actual reasons for trusting. Care must therefore be taken to support the patient's reasoning and moral agency. Third, some patients inappropriately trust doctors to recommend only research that will benefit them directly. Such trust should be counteracted by nurturing a culture where patients expect to be asked occasionally to contribute to the common good.

  5. A Trusted Portable Computing Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming-wei, Fang; Jun-jun, Wu; Peng-fei, Yu; Xin-fang, Zhang

    A trusted portable computing device and its security mechanism were presented to solve the security issues, such as the attack of virus and Trojan horse, the lost and stolen of storage device, in mobile office. It used smart card to build a trusted portable security base, virtualization to create a secure virtual execution environment, two-factor authentication mechanism to identify legitimate users, and dynamic encryption to protect data privacy. The security environment described in this paper is characteristic of portability, security and reliability. It can meet the security requirement of mobile office.

  6. Barometer. Acute trusts February 2005.

    PubMed

    2005-03-17

    Almost two thirds of acute trusts rate the quality of commissioning from their PCTs at three out of 10 or less, according to the latest HSJ Barometer survey. This is the lowest score since we began the survey a year ago. Confidence in their performance against the 98 per cent four-hour A&E target fell sharply from a December high to an average of 6.87. The survey also found that fewer than one in seven trusts were confident of winning foundation status by the end of 2006-07.

  7. Building trusting relationships in online health communities.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Ha, Sejin; Widdows, Richard

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates consumers' use of online health communities (OHCs) for healthcare from a relationship building perspective based on the commitment-trust theory of relationships. The study proposes that perspective taking, empathic concern, self-efficacy, and network density affect the development of both cognitive and affective trust, which together determine OHC members' membership continuance intention (MCI) and knowledge contribution. Data collected from eight existing OHCs (N=255) were utilized to test the hypothesized model. Results show that perspective taking and self-efficacy can increase cognitive trust and affective trust, respectively. Network density contributes to cognitive and affective trust. Both cognitive trust and affective trust influence MCI, while only affective trust impacts members' knowledge contribution behaviors.

  8. Applying Machine Trust Models to Forensic Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, Marika; Venter, Hein; Eloff, Jan; Olivier, Martin

    Digital forensics involves the identification, preservation, analysis and presentation of electronic evidence for use in legal proceedings. In the presence of contradictory evidence, forensic investigators need a means to determine which evidence can be trusted. This is particularly true in a trust model environment where computerised agents may make trust-based decisions that influence interactions within the system. This paper focuses on the analysis of evidence in trust-based environments and the determination of the degree to which evidence can be trusted. The trust model proposed in this work may be implemented in a tool for conducting trust-based forensic investigations. The model takes into account the trust environment and parameters that influence interactions in a computer network being investigated. Also, it allows for crimes to be reenacted to create more substantial evidentiary proof.

  9. 77 FR 5065 - Preservation Trust Advisors, LLC and Northern Lights Fund Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Preservation Trust Advisors, LLC and Northern Lights Fund Trust; Notice of Application January 26...'') and Northern Lights Fund Trust (the ``Trust''). FILING DATES: The application was filed on...

  10. An Investigation of Children's Peer Trust across Culture: Is the Composition of Peer Trust Universal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Lucy R.; Rotenberg, Ken J.; Petrocchi, Serena; Lecciso, Flavia; Sakai, Atsushi; Maeshiro, Kazumi; Judson, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The components of children's trust in same-gender peers (trust beliefs, ascribed trustworthiness, and dyadic reciprocal trust) were examined in samples of 8-11-year-olds from the UK, Italy, and Japan. Trust was assessed by children's ratings of the extent to which same-gender classmates kept promises and kept secrets. Social relations analyses…

  11. Trust or Consequences: The Relationship between Faculty Trust and Faculty Learning Communities in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Gaye R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between FLC membership and faculty trust in higher education colleagues and faculty trust in higher education administration in public and private universities in the United States. This quantitative study examines trust in colleagues and trust in administration in higher education, two…

  12. Inferring Trust Based on Similarity with TILLIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakolifard, Mozhgan; Herrmann, Peter; Knapskog, Svein J.

    A network of people having established trust relations and a model for propagation of related trust scores are fundamental building blocks in many of today’s most successful e-commerce and recommendation systems. However, the web of trust is often too sparse to predict trust values between non-familiar people with high accuracy. Trust inferences are transitive associations among users in the context of an underlying social network and may provide additional information to alleviate the consequences of the sparsity and possible cold-start problems. Such approaches are helpful, provided that a complete trust path exists between the two users. An alternative approach to the problem is advocated in this paper. Based on collaborative filtering one can exploit the like-mindedness resp. similarity of individuals to infer trust to yet unknown parties which increases the trust relations in the web. For instance, if one knows that with respect to a specific property, two parties are trusted alike by a large number of different trusters, one can assume that they are similar. Thus, if one has a certain degree of trust to the one party, one can safely assume a very similar trustworthiness of the other one. In an attempt to provide high quality recommendations and proper initial trust values even when no complete trust propagation path or user profile exists, we propose TILLIT — a model based on combination of trust inferences and user similarity. The similarity is derived from the structure of the trust graph and users’ trust behavior as opposed to other collaborative-filtering based approaches which use ratings of items or user’s profile. We describe an algorithm realizing the approach based on a combination of trust inferences and user similarity, and validate the algorithm using a real large-scale data-set.

  13. Research of trust model in P2P network based on trusted computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rong; Li, Lei

    2013-03-01

    In order to strengthen the security of P2P networks, it is necessary to build trust relationships between nodes of networks. However, the traditional trust evaluation models can't resist the attacks of Pseudospoofing and Pseudostheft effectively. To resolve the problems, in this paper, the trusted computing method is introduced into P2P networks, and an idea of group trust model based on trusted computing methods is proposed. In the process of trust evaluation, the model can realize the anonymous attestation of the node body, which improves the creditability of trust relationships between nodes and resolves the security problems of P2P networks.

  14. The Role of Trust in Information Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Stephen; Dibben, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the notion of trust as it relates to information science and technology, specifically user interfaces, autonomous agents, and information systems. Highlights include theoretical meaning of trust; trust and levels of analysis, including organizational trust; electronic commerce, user interfaces, and static trust; dynamic trust; and trust…

  15. The Relationship between Collective Student Trust and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casper, David Carl

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between collective student trust and student achievement was tested in a sample of 1,748 5th grade students in 34 Title I elementary schools in an urban and urban fringe district. Trust was defined, the conditions of trust described, and the facets of trust discussed. Collective trust was distinguished from relational trust and…

  16. 40 CFR 280.102 - Trust fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trust fund. 280.102 Section 280.102...) Financial Responsibility § 280.102 Trust fund. (a) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of § 280.93 by establishing a trust fund that conforms to the requirements of this section. The...

  17. 14 CFR 47.8 - Voting trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Voting trusts. 47.8 Section 47.8 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION General § 47.8 Voting trusts. (a) If a voting trust is used to qualify a domestic corporation as...

  18. Trust and Relationship Building in Electronic Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulou, Panagiota; Andreou, Andreas; Kanellis, Panagiotis; Martakos, Drakoulis

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need for trust in electronic commerce to build customer relationships focuses on a model drawn from established theoretical work on trust and relationship marketing that highlights differences between traditional and electronic commerce. Considers how trust can be built into virtual environments. (Contains 50 references.)…

  19. Trust, Conflict and Performance in Scientific Collaborations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrum, Wesley; Chompalov, Ivan; Genuth, Joel

    2001-01-01

    Examines 53 collaborations in physics and related sciences with two unexpected findings: (1) trust is no higher in projects formed through pre-existing relationships than those without such ties; and (2) there is no relationship between trust and performance. Concludes that more important than trust for an understanding of large scientific…

  20. Animal Behaviour: Friendship Enhances Trust in Chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Silk, Joan

    2016-01-25

    Individuals that participate in exchanges with delayed rewards can be exploited if their partners don't reciprocate. In humans, friendships are built on trust, and trust enhances cooperation. New evidence suggests that close social bonds also enhance trust in chimpanzees.

  1. 46 CFR 67.36 - Trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trust. 67.36 Section 67.36 Shipping COAST GUARD... Citizenship Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.36 Trust. (a) For the purpose of obtaining a registry or recreational endorsement, a trust arrangement meets citizenship requirements if: (1) Each of...

  2. Understanding factors that influence stakeholder trust of natural resource science and institutions.

    PubMed

    Gray, Steven; Shwom, Rachael; Jordan, Rebecca

    2012-03-01

    Building trust between resource users and natural resource institutions is essential when creating conservation policies that rely on stakeholders to be effective. Trust can enable the public and agencies to engage in cooperative behaviors toward shared goals and address shared problems. Despite the increasing attention that trust has received recently in the environmental management literature, the influence that individual cognitive and behavioral factors may play in influencing levels of trust in resource management institutions, and their associated scientific assessments, remains unclear. This paper uses the case of fisheries management in the northeast to explore the relationships between an individual's knowledge of the resource, perceptions of resource health, and participatory experience on levels of trust. Using survey data collected from 244 avid recreational anglers in the Northeast U.S., we test these relationships using structural equation modeling. Results indicate that participation in fisheries management is associated with increased trust across all aspects of fisheries management. In addition, higher ratings of resource health by anglers are associated with higher levels of trust of state and regional institutions, but not federal institutions or scientific methods.

  3. Public Trust in Health Information Sharing: Implications for Biobanking and Electronic Health Record Systems

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Jodyn; Kardia, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks are made all the more valuable when the biological samples they hold can be linked to health information collected in research, electronic health records, or public health practice. Public trust in such systems that share health information for research and health care practice is understudied. Our research examines characteristics of the general public that predict trust in a health system that includes researchers, health care providers, insurance companies and public health departments. We created a 119-item survey of predictors and attributes of system trust and fielded it using Amazon’s MTurk system (n = 447). We found that seeing one’s primary care provider, having a favorable view of data sharing and believing that data sharing will improve the quality of health care, as well as psychosocial factors (altruism and generalized trust) were positively and significantly associated with system trust. As expected, privacy concern, but counterintuitively, knowledge about health information sharing were negatively associated with system trust. We conclude that, in order to assure the public’s trust, policy makers charged with setting best practices for governance of biobanks and access to electronic health records should leverage critical access points to engage a diverse public in joint decision making. PMID:25654300

  4. Trust as a Teaching Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon-Weil, Anica; Hewitt, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Should I stop the conflict or narrate it? Do I redirect or reassure? Two infant/toddler teachers explain how they use trust as a teaching tool, "teaching" less and involving the toddlers in their classroom in the decisions that affect them. They took to heart the philosophy of Magda Gerber, who urged parents to "observe more, do less." The author…

  5. Taxability of Educational Benefits Trusts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Law Quarterly, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Corporations have found the promise of providing a college education to the children of employees--without the recognition of income to the parent-employee--to be a popular fringe benefit. The Internal Revenue Service has attacked educational benefit trusts in Revenue Ruling 75-448. Implications are discussed. (LBH)

  6. Education and the National Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Gareth

    1995-01-01

    Defines the British National Trust as it marks its centenary. Known for its work in protecting historic buildings and places of natural beauty, a major focus is now education. Schoolchildren may attend curriculum-based special programs when visiting historic houses and the countryside. Others use open-space sites with no specific education…

  7. Trust enhances IT service management.

    PubMed

    2007-08-01

    ITIL process adoption may be a prerequisite for the National Programme for IT (NPfIT), but implementation is far from straightforward. IT services company Plan-Net has been assisting Barts and The London NHS Trust with implementing its ambitious ITIL processes deployment.

  8. 25 CFR 1000.360 - Is the trust evaluation standard or process different when the trust asset is held in trust for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Is the trust evaluation standard or process different... EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review Annual Trust Evaluations § 1000.360 Is the trust evaluation standard... allottee? No, Tribes/Consortia are under the same obligation as the Secretary to perform trust...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.360 - Is the trust evaluation standard or process different when the trust asset is held in trust for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Is the trust evaluation standard or process different... EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review Annual Trust Evaluations § 1000.360 Is the trust evaluation standard... allottee? No, Tribes/Consortia are under the same obligation as the Secretary to perform trust...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.360 - Is the trust evaluation standard or process different when the trust asset is held in trust for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Is the trust evaluation standard or process different... EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review Annual Trust Evaluations § 1000.360 Is the trust evaluation standard... allottee? No, Tribes/Consortia are under the same obligation as the Secretary to perform trust...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.360 - Is the trust evaluation standard or process different when the trust asset is held in trust for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Is the trust evaluation standard or process different... EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review Annual Trust Evaluations § 1000.360 Is the trust evaluation standard... allottee? No, Tribes/Consortia are under the same obligation as the Secretary to perform trust...

  12. Optimal Foraging in Semantic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Thomas T.; Jones, Michael N.; Todd, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Do humans search in memory using dynamic local-to-global search strategies similar to those that animals use to forage between patches in space? If so, do their dynamic memory search policies correspond to optimal foraging strategies seen for spatial foraging? Results from a number of fields suggest these possibilities, including the shared…

  13. Sinking slowly: Diversity in propensity to trust predicts downward trust spirals in small groups.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Amanda J; Peterson, Randall S

    2015-07-01

    This paper examines the phenomenon of trust spirals in small groups. Drawing on literature on the spiral reinforcement of trust, we theorize that diversity in propensity to trust has affective and cognitive consequences related to trust (i.e., feelings of frustration and perceptions of low similarity), reducing the level of experienced intragroup trust early in a group's development. Reduced experienced trust then fuels relationship conflict and lowers trust even further over time, ultimately having a negative effect on group performance. These ideas are tested using a sample of MBA student groups surveyed at 3 time periods over 4 months. Results confirm our hypothesis that diversity in propensity to trust is sufficient to trigger a downward trust spiral and poor performance in small groups.

  14. Memory Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... different parts. Some of them are important for memory. The hippocampus (say: hih-puh-KAM-pus) is one of the more important parts of the brain that processes memories. Old information and new information, or memories, are ...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.360 - Is the trust evaluation standard or process different when the trust asset is held in trust for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review Annual Trust Evaluations § 1000.360 Is the trust evaluation standard... 1000.360 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  16. Calibration of Trust and Distrust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    entrenched beliefs and behaviours, regardless of whether they are positive or negative ( Deutsch , 1973). Any proclivity toward either an exaggerated...Trust in Organizations: Frontiers of Theory and Research (pp. 246-260). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. DEUTSCH , M. (1973). The...Bunker, B., & Rubin, J. (Eds.). Conflict, cooperation, and justice: Essays inspired by the work of Morton Deutsch . (pp.133-173). San Francisco, CA, US

  17. Money and trust among strangers.

    PubMed

    Camera, Gabriele; Casari, Marco; Bigoni, Maria

    2013-09-10

    What makes money essential for the functioning of modern society? Through an experiment, we present evidence for the existence of a relevant behavioral dimension in addition to the standard theoretical arguments. Subjects faced repeated opportunities to help an anonymous counterpart who changed over time. Cooperation required trusting that help given to a stranger today would be returned by a stranger in the future. Cooperation levels declined when going from small to large groups of strangers, even if monitoring and payoffs from cooperation were invariant to group size. We then introduced intrinsically worthless tokens. Tokens endogenously became money: subjects took to reward help with a token and to demand a token in exchange for help. Subjects trusted that strangers would return help for a token. Cooperation levels remained stable as the groups grew larger. In all conditions, full cooperation was possible through a social norm of decentralized enforcement, without using tokens. This turned out to be especially demanding in large groups. Lack of trust among strangers thus made money behaviorally essential. To explain these results, we developed an evolutionary model. When behavior in society is heterogeneous, cooperation collapses without tokens. In contrast, the use of tokens makes cooperation evolutionarily stable.

  18. Social Collaborative Filtering by Trust.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Lei, Yu; Liu, Jiming; Li, Wenjie

    2016-09-01

    Recommender systems are used to accurately and actively provide users with potentially interesting information or services. Collaborative filtering is a widely adopted approach to recommendation, but sparse data and cold-start users are often barriers to providing high quality recommendations. To address such issues, we propose a novel method that works to improve the performance of collaborative filtering recommendations by integrating sparse rating data given by users and sparse social trust network among these same users. This is a model-based method that adopts matrix factorization technique that maps users into low-dimensional latent feature spaces in terms of their trust relationship, and aims to more accurately reflect the users reciprocal influence on the formation of their own opinions and to learn better preferential patterns of users for high-quality recommendations. We use four large-scale datasets to show that the proposed method performs much better, especially for cold start users, than state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms for social collaborative filtering based on trust.

  19. Trust me, I'm a researcher!: The role of trust in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Kerasidou, Angeliki

    2017-03-01

    In biomedical research lack of trust is seen as a great threat that can severely jeopardise the whole biomedical research enterprise. Practices, such as informed consent, and also the administrative and regulatory oversight of research in the form of research ethics committees and Institutional Review Boards, are established to ensure the protection of future research subjects and, at the same time, restore public trust in biomedical research. Empirical research also testifies to the role of trust as one of the decisive factors in research participation and lack of trust as a barrier for consenting to research. However, what is often missing is a clear definition of trust. This paper seeks to address this gap. It starts with a conceptual analysis of the term trust. It compares trust with two other related terms, those of reliance and trustworthiness, and offers a defence of Baier's attribute of 'good will' a basic characteristic of trust. It, then, proceeds to consider trust in the context of biomedical research by examining two questions: First, is trust necessary in biomedical research?; and second, do increases in regulatory oversight of biomedical research also increase trust in the field? This paper argues that regulatory oversight is important for increasing reliance in biomedical research, but it does not improve trust, which remains important for biomedical research. It finishes by pointing at professional integrity as a way of promoting trust and trustworthiness in this field.

  20. From the general to the specific: How social trust motivates relational trust.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Blaine G

    2016-01-01

    When people form beliefs about the trustworthiness of others with respect to particular matters (i.e., when individuals trust), theory suggests that they rely on preexistent cognitive schemas regarding the general cooperativeness of individuals and organizations (i.e., social trust). In spite of prior work, the impact of social trust on relational trust-or what Russell Hardin (2002) calls trust as a three-part relation where actor A trusts actor B with reference to matter Y-is not well established. Four vignette experiments were administered to Amazon.com Mechanical Turk workers (N = 1388 and N = 1419) and to public university undergraduate students (N = 995 and N = 956) in order to investigate the relationship between social trust and relational trust. Measures of general social trust and particular social trust produced statistically equivalent effects that were positively associated with relational trust. Political trust, however, was statistically unrelated to relational trust. These results support the idea that people rely on schemas and stereotypes concerned with the general cooperativeness and helpfulness of others when forming beliefs about another person's trustworthiness with respect to a particular matter at hand.

  1. Consumer Trust in the U.S. Food System: An Examination of the Recreancy Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Stephen G.; Arnot, Charlie; Fallon, James; Fleck, Terry; Soorholtz, David; Sutton-Vermeulen, Matt; Wilson, Jannette J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Because consumer opinions to an increasing extent affect the structure and management of the U.S. food system, it is important for social scientists to accurately model consumer trust in this system so they can better understand and anticipate public responses to existing or proposed food-related regulatory policies and facilitate effective…

  2. For the Public Good?: Land-Grant Schools Straying from Public Missions, Education Trust Reports Say

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jamal Eric

    2011-01-01

    While many land-grant flagships strive to keep costs low for students, they have not been as successful in yielding high graduation rates, and, as a result, many students--including high numbers of Blacks and Latinos--fall through the cracks. Dr. Jose Cruz, the vice president for higher education, policy and practice at the Education Trust, a…

  3. 17 CFR 210.3-15 - Special provisions as to real estate investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 General Instructions As to... estate investment trusts. 210.3-15 Section 210.3-15 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...

  4. The Value of Trust to Nursing.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Marcella M

    2014-01-01

    Trust, one of nursing's intangible assets, impacts nurses' ability to form meaningful relationships with patients and this connection positively impacts health outcomes. Linking trust to the fabric of nursing and investing in its measurement will become essential to nursing's valuation and the resulting investment in nursing. Trust, as nursing's core value, should be fostered by nurse educators as they prepare the next generation of nurses. Nurse administrators should connect the trust a patient has for his or her nurse and patient cooperation and honest transparent communication between providers and the patient. Banking trust as a valuable nursing asset will substantiate nursing's marketing and support its worth. Nursing's trustworthiness is an intangible asset that warrants protection, as trust once lost is hard to recapture.

  5. Social information influences trust behaviour in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nikki C; Jolles, Jelle; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Trust plays an integral role in daily interactions within adolescents' social environment. Using a trust game paradigm, this study investigated the modulating influence of social information about three interaction partners on trust behaviour in adolescents aged 12-18 (N = 845). After receiving information about their interaction partners prior to the task, participants were most likely to share with a 'good' partner and rate this partner as most trustworthy. Over the course of the task all interaction partners showed similar levels of trustworthy behaviour, but overall participants continued to trust and view the good partner as more trustworthy than 'bad' and 'neutral' partners throughout the game. However, with age the ability to overcome prior social information and adapt trust behaviour improved: middle and late adolescents showed a larger decrease in trust of the good partner than early adolescents, and late adolescents were more likely to reward trustworthy behaviour from the negative partner.

  6. 17 CFR 240.16a-8 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trusts. 240.16a-8 Section 240...-8 Trusts. (a) Persons subject to section 16—(1) Trusts. A trust shall be subject to section 16 of the Act with respect to securities of the issuer if the trust is a beneficial owner, pursuant to §...

  7. Trust-Building in Electronic Markets: Relative Importance and Interaction Effects of Trust-Building Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tams, Stefan

    We examine the relative and complementary effectiveness of trust-building strategies in online environments. While prior research has examined various antecedents to trust, we investigated two trust-building mechanisms more in depth: Web site trust and vendor reputation. We tried to understand the relative effectiveness of these two important mechanisms to provide online businesses with a clear recommendation of how to establish trust in an effective and efficient manner. Drawing from the literature on trust, we proposed vendor reputation to be more effective than Web site trust. Moreover, we examined a potential complementary effect of these mechanisms so as to provide online businesses with a deeper understanding of how to derive superior trust. We hypothesize a small such effect. The study proposes a laboratory experiment to test the model.

  8. Representing Trust in Cognitive Social Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Shawn S.; Alt, Jonathan K.; Darken, Christian J.

    Trust plays a critical role in communications, strength of relationships, and information processing at the individual and group level. Cognitive social simulations show promise in providing an experimental platform for the examination of social phenomena such as trust formation. This paper describes the initial attempts at representation of trust in a cognitive social simulation using reinforcement learning algorithms centered around a cooperative Public Commodity game within a dynamic social network.

  9. Exploring a Dynamic Model of Trust Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    factors affecting different trust indicators during trust development and acquisition is limited. The goal of this research is to provide a broad view on...how these factors affect trust. The overall goal of the larger research study is to evaluate the relative strength of Mayer’s trustworthiness...distribution unlimited. 88ABW-2014-4087; Cleared 29 August 2014 4.4.6. Positive Affect Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) The 20-item self- report , PANAS

  10. Does corruption undermine trust in health care? Results from public opinion polls in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Radin, Dagmar

    2013-12-01

    Health and health care provision are one of the most important topics in public policy, and often a highly debated topic in the political arena. The importance of considering trust in the health care sector is highlighted by studies showing that trust is associated, among others, with poor self-related health, and poorer health outcomes. Similarly, corruption has shown to create economic costs and inefficiencies in the health care sector. This is particularly important for a newly democratized country such as Croatia, where a policy responsive government indicates a high level of quality of democracy (Roberts, 2009) and where a legacy of corruption in the health care sector has been carried over from the previous regime. In this study, I assess the relationship between health care corruption and trust in public health care and hypothesize that experience with health care corruption as well as perception of corruption has a negative effect on trust in public care facilities. Data were collected in two surveys, administered in 2007 and 2009 in Croatia. Experience with corruption and salience with corruption has a negative effect on trust in public health care in the 2007 survey, but not in the 2009 survey. While the results are mixed, they point to the importance of further studying this relationship.

  11. On Propagating Interpersonal Trust in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Cai-Nicolas

    The age of information glut has fostered the proliferation of data and documents on the Web, created by man and machine alike. Hence, there is an enormous wealth of minable knowledge that is yet to be extracted, in particular, on the Semantic Web. However, besides understanding information stated by subjects, knowing about their credibility becomes equally crucial. Hence, trust and trust metrics, conceived as computational means to evaluate trust relationships between individuals, come into play. Our major contribution to Semantic Web trust management through this work is twofold. First, we introduce a classification scheme for trust metrics along various axes and discuss advantages and drawbacks of existing approaches for Semantic Web scenarios. Hereby, we devise an advocacy for local group trust metrics, guiding us to the second part, which presents Appleseed, our novel proposal for local group trust computation. Compelling in its simplicity, Appleseed borrows many ideas from spreading activation models in psychology and relates their concepts to trust evaluation in an intuitive fashion. Moreover, we provide extensions for the Appleseed nucleus that make our trust metric handle distrust statements.

  12. 25 CFR 1000.352 - What are “trust resources” for the purposes of the trust evaluation process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... assets, trust revenue, royalties, or rental, including natural resources, land, water, minerals, funds... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review § 1000.352 What are “trust resources” for the purposes of the trust evaluation process? (a) Trust resources include property and...

  13. Drawing on a Knowledge-Based Trust Perspective to Examine and Conceptualize within-School Trust Development by Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosner, Shelby

    2010-01-01

    Research has revealed the importance of trust to schools and pointed to the central role that principals play in cultivating within-school trust, yet less is known about the ways that principals cultivate such trust. Moreover, divergent perspectives and varied contexts for examining trust have limited the transfer of trust scholarship to practice…

  14. A Model of Trust for Developing Trustworthy Systems From Untrustworthy Actors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    Major components of the trust management system in- clude a database engine to store and manage trust data, a trust specification engine for defining and...managing trust relationships, a trust analysis engine to process results of a trust query, a trust eval- uation engine for evaluating trust...expressions and a trust monitor for updating trust relationship information in the database engine . We have also developed an SQL like language, called TrustQL

  15. Toward a Better Union: Improving the Effectiveness of Foreign Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    relationship between foreign policy communication and foreign entity response can be drawn. Understood in this sense as a feedback loop, there...very narrow sense of the word, when foreign policies are made “explicit” through “quantization,” they are codified in a written form that explicates...two ways, but it is my opinion that both uses are fundamentally the same. In one sense , Trust means “predictability” in that some amount of trust

  16. Trust in Culturally Diverse Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    DRDC Toronto CR 2008-097 Trust in Culturally Diverse Teams by: Andrea L. Brown, Barbara D. Adams, Julie J. Famewo and Cheryl L. Karthaus...prendre des risques ont été évaluées uniquement après la mission. D’après les résultats, une culture commune a une incidence sur la confiance et les...attentes dès avant une mission; autrement dit , les participants ont manifesté une plus grande confiance envers leur coéquipier et une confiance

  17. Keys to Heart Disease Care: Communication and Trust

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_164421.html Keys to Heart Disease Care: Communication and Trust These factors linked to patients' greater ... trusted the medical profession. It's no secret that communication and trust are important in any doctor-patient ...

  18. Privacy as an enabler, not an impediment: building trust into health information exchange.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Deven; Dempsey, James X; Harris, Leslie; Goldman, Janlori

    2009-01-01

    Building privacy and security protections into health information technology systems will bolster trust in such systems and promote their adoption. The privacy issue, too long seen as a barrier to electronic health information exchange, can be resolved through a comprehensive framework that implements core privacy principles, adopts trusted network design characteristics, and establishes oversight and accountability mechanisms. The public policy challenges of implementing this framework in a complex and evolving environment will require improvements to existing law, new rules for entities outside the traditional health care sector, a more nuanced approach to the role of consent, and stronger enforcement mechanisms.

  19. A Strategic Model of Trust Management in Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junqing; Sun, Zhaohao; Li, Yuanzhe; Zhao, Shuliang

    This article examines trust and trust management in web services and proposes a multiagent model of trust relationship in web services. It looks at the hierarchical structure of trust management in web services and proposes a strategic model of trust management in web services. The proposed approach in this article will facilitate research and development of trust management in e-commerce, web services and social networking.

  20. Price transparency: building community trust.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    With the push from policymakers, payers, and consumers for hospitals to make their prices public, healthcare executives need to recognize two central issues related to price transparency: 1) meaningful price transparency involves helping patients and consumers understand their financial obligation for an episode of care, and 2) price transparency is key to the most critical success strategy for healthcare providers: building trust. This article reviews the history of pricing and billing practices and explores why price transparency is not easily achieved in today's environment. Pricing is a mystery even to those of us who work in the field, yet despite its complexity, the call for price transparency is not going to go away. For transparency, the goal should be to establish a rational pricing system that is easily explainable and justified to all stakeholders. Healthcare executives must make pricing a priority, understand cost, develop a pricing philosophy, understand the overall revenue requirements, examine market conditions and prices, and set up systems for review. A rational process of price setting should enhance community trust. In this matter there is nothing less at stake than the hearts of our community members.

  1. Young Children and Trust in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alat, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine differences in children's generalised trust and the maternal behaviour, child temperament, and demographic factors on the levels of trust in children. A total of 314 mothers and their children participated in the study. Results showed no evidence of sex differences in children's beliefs. Children living in urban…

  2. Further Exploration of Organizational Trust Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Samuel H.; Wiswell, Albert K.

    2008-01-01

    Trust facilitates individual and organizational learning, and is often misunderstood by organizations although they must continuously learn in order to attain strategic goals and survive. Furthermore, leaders of organizations often view trust defensively and their reactions may impede organizational learning. This paper builds on prior research…

  3. 12 CFR 7.2022 - Voting trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voting trusts. 7.2022 Section 7.2022 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Corporate... applicable law of a state selected by the participants and designated in the trust agreement, provided...

  4. New Superintendents: Trust, Networking, and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripley, Joan; Mitchell, Roxanne M.; Richman, John A.

    2013-01-01

    This instrumental case study explored how five newly appointed superintendents identified key stakeholders and built trust and social capital with stakeholders in their districts. Stakeholder, trust, and social capital theory were the lenses that guided this study. We utilized a pragmatic research design and thematic data analysis to interpret our…

  5. The Importance of Trust in Electronic Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnasingham, Pauline

    1998-01-01

    Introduces the new concept of trust and how it influences the process of managing the security of an organization operating in an electronic commerce environment. Theoretically, the study aims to develop a framework of trust and security to provide a set of guidelines for secure electronic commerce. (Author/LRW)

  6. Development of Trust and Reciprocity in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bos, Wouter; Westenberg, Michiel; van Dijk, Eric; Crone, Eveline A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the development of two types of prosocial behavior, trust and reciprocity, as defined using a game-theoretical task that allows investigation of real-time social interaction, among 4 age groups from 9 to 25 years. By manipulating the possible outcome alternatives, we could distinguish among important determinants of trust and…

  7. 26 CFR 301.7701-4 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... federal, state, or local environmental laws; all contributors to the trust have (at the time of... federal, state, or local environmental laws for environmental remediation of the waste site; and the trust... environmental laws for remediation of the existing waste site if there is authority under a federal, state,...

  8. 26 CFR 301.7701-4 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... federal, state, or local environmental laws; all contributors to the trust have (at the time of... federal, state, or local environmental laws for environmental remediation of the waste site; and the trust... environmental laws for remediation of the existing waste site if there is authority under a federal, state,...

  9. 26 CFR 301.7701-4 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... federal, state, or local environmental laws; all contributors to the trust have (at the time of... federal, state, or local environmental laws for environmental remediation of the waste site; and the trust... environmental laws for remediation of the existing waste site if there is authority under a federal, state,...

  10. 26 CFR 301.7701-4 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... federal, state, or local environmental laws; all contributors to the trust have (at the time of... federal, state, or local environmental laws for environmental remediation of the waste site; and the trust... environmental laws for remediation of the existing waste site if there is authority under a federal, state,...

  11. 76 FR 60757 - Executive Branch Qualified Trusts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... make a few minor substantive changes, but would primarily put the regulation in a more logical order... most universally adaptable qualified trust. An interested party may put most types of assets (such as... may put only readily marketable securities into a qualified diversified trust. In addition,...

  12. 77 FR 39143 - Executive Branch Qualified Trusts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... put the regulation in a more logical order, make it more readable, and eliminate redundant provisions... qualified trust. An interested party may put most types of assets (such as cash, stocks, bonds, mutual funds... duties by those interests. (b) Qualified diversified trust. (1) An interested party may put only...

  13. Explaining Math Achievement: Personality, Motivation, and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic-Bebek, Ebru

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the statistical significance of student trust next to the well-tested constructs of personality and motivation to determine whether trust is a significant predictor of course achievement in college math courses. Participants were 175 students who were taking undergraduate math courses in an urban public university. The…

  14. Social capital and trust in providers.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Melissa M; Hendryx, Michael S

    2003-10-01

    Trust in providers has been in decline in recent decades. This study attempts to identify sources of trust in characteristics of health care systems and the wider community. The design is cross-sectional. Data are from (1) the 1996 Household Survey of the Community Tracking Study, drawn from 24 Metropolitan Statistical Areas; (2) a 1996 multi-city broadcast media marketing database including key social capital indicators; (3) Interstudy; (4) the American Hospital Association; and (5) the American Medical Association. Independent variables include individual socio-demographic variables, HMO enrollment, community-level health sector variables, and social capital. The dependent variable is self-reported trust in physicians. Data are merged from the various sources and analyzed using SUDAAN. Subjects include adults in the Household Survey who responded to the items on trust in physicians (N=17,653). Trust in physicians is independently predicted by community social capital (p<0.001). Trust is also negatively related to HMO enrollment and to many individual characteristics. The effect of HMOs is not uniform across all communities. Social capital plays a role in how health care is perceived by citizens, and how health care is delivered by providers. Efforts to build trust and collaboration in a community may improve trust in physicians, health care quality, access, and preserve local health care control.

  15. Perceptions of Trust in Public Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Lucy; Baird, Jo-Anne

    2013-01-01

    Over recent years, the credibility of public examinations in England has increasingly come to the fore. Government agencies have invested time and money into researching public perceptions of the reliability and validity of examinations. Whilst such research overlaps into the conceptual domain of trust, trust in examinations remains an elusive…

  16. Trusting Facebook in Crisis Situations: The Role of General Use and General Trust Toward Facebook.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Hermann; Kücükbalaban, Pinar; Lemanski, Sandra; Knuth, Daniela; Schmidt, Silke

    2016-01-01

    An important concept that has been rather neglected in research on social media is the concept of trust. Although there is a considerable amount of research on online trust in general, little has been done in the area of social media. As a situation of risk is necessary for trust, the perceived trustworthiness of Facebook in crisis situations was examined in this study. A sample of 340 European Facebook users were questioned as part of a large European study about social media in the context of emergency situations. We found that participants' general trust toward Facebook as a medium predicted to a significant degree how much they would trust Facebook in a crisis situation. General use of Facebook and dispositional trust were also significantly associated with trust toward Facebook in a crisis situation.

  17. Trust in the workplace: factors affecting trust formation between team members.

    PubMed

    Spector, Michele D; Jones, Gwen E

    2004-06-01

    The authors used survey data from 127 professional-level employees working in 8 industries to assess the effects of respondent's trusting stance and (a) the trustee's organization membership (internal or external), (b) the hierarchical relationship (supervisor or peer), and (c) the gender of the trustee, on initial trust level for a new project team member. The authors found that trusting stance was positively related to initial trust level. The authors also found an interaction effect between respondent gender and trustee gender on initial trust. Specifically, male initial trust level was higher for a new male team member and lower for a new female team member. The present study provided additional understanding of the formation of initial trust levels and its importance for team functioning.

  18. DualTrust: A Distributed Trust Model for Swarm-Based Autonomic Computing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maiden, Wendy M.; Dionysiou, Ioanna; Frincke, Deborah A.; Fink, Glenn A.; Bakken, David E.

    2011-02-01

    For autonomic computing systems that utilize mobile agents and ant colony algorithms for their sensor layer, trust management is important for the acceptance of the mobile agent sensors and to protect the system from malicious behavior by insiders and entities that have penetrated network defenses. This paper examines the trust relationships, evidence, and decisions in a representative system and finds that by monitoring the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers rather than the swarming sensors, the trust management problem becomes much more scalable and still serves to protect the swarm. We then propose the DualTrust conceptual trust model. By addressing the autonomic manager’s bi-directional primary relationships in the ACS architecture, DualTrust is able to monitor the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers, protect the sensor swarm in a scalable manner, and provide global trust awareness for the orchestrating autonomic manager.

  19. Memory Efficient Sequence Analysis Using Compressed Data Structures (Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    ScienceCinema

    Simpson, Jared [Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute

    2016-07-12

    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute's Jared Simpson on "Memory efficient sequence analysis using compressed data structures" at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011

  20. Memory Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood vessel (which carries the blood) bursts. continue Brain Injuries Affect Memory At any age, an injury to ... with somebody's memory. Some people who recover from brain injuries need to learn old things all over again, ...

  1. Perceptions of climate change and trust in information providers in rural Australia.

    PubMed

    Buys, Laurie; Aird, Rosemary; van Megen, Kimberley; Miller, Evonne; Sommerfeld, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    Disagreement within the global science community about the certainty and causes of climate change has led the general public to question what to believe and whom to trust on matters related to this issue. This paper reports on qualitative research undertaken with Australian residents from two rural areas to explore their perceptions of climate change and trust in information providers. While overall, residents tended to agree that climate change is a reality, perceptions varied in terms of its causes and how best to address it. Politicians, government, and the media were described as untrustworthy sources of information about climate change, with independent scientists being the most trusted. The vested interests of information providers appeared to be a key reason for their distrust. The findings highlight the importance of improved transparency and consultation with the public when communicating information about climate change and related policies.

  2. Trust build up and break down between stakeholders in water resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Gemma

    2015-04-01

    Trust is a word that is often heard in discussions about stakeholder participation in water management programmes and projects. A break down in trust between participants is often attributed to the failure of a project reaching its objectives. In contrast, the development of trust is often described as a success in itself, and is thought to lead to positive water management outcomes. To explore how trust impacts water management, this research explores the factors that led to trust development and break-down, and the implications of this, in a major stakeholder engagement project in water management in North America. A major review of the Lake Ontario and St Lawrence River water level operating system (the LOSL Study) was commissioned in 1999 by the International Joint Commission (IJC). The goal of the five-year LOSL Study was to produce an operating policy for the system that was acceptable to everyone impacted by the water levels and flows in the basin. Through public meetings and consultations, the Study aimed to bring together and combine public and scientist input to co-produce an operating policy that met the needs of all interest groups. Freely accessible documentation of the public involvement activities that took place is available, which is used to explore trust and mistrust development. Provisional findings show that some public/interest group representatives mistrusted the Study. This was related to concerns over data quality, whether appropriate indicators were selected by the researchers and whether the models used were producing accurate outputs. Scientist responses to questions at public meetings were able to address some of these concerns and therefore build trust in the methods, but could also lead to further mistrust if public concerns and questions were not addressed adequately (for example, simply dismissed as irrelevant by scientists without due explanation). The impacts of distrust between participants and scientists included apathy and low

  3. Formal Verification of Security Properties in Trust Management Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Security (JCS) in March 2011. †The author is affiliated with Air Force Institute of Technology . The views expressed in this article are those of the...within the model. (Representatives of models that succeeded in this goal include the Take-Grant model of Lipton and Snyder [24], and the TAM model by...analyzed by using currently available model- checking technology . When using this approach, one transforms a given security-analysis problem instance

  4. Memory Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Brandy R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article highlights the dissociable human memory systems of episodic, semantic, and procedural memory in the context of neurologic illnesses known to adversely affect specific neuroanatomic structures relevant to each memory system. Recent Findings: Advances in functional neuroimaging and refinement of neuropsychological and bedside assessment tools continue to support a model of multiple memory systems that are distinct yet complementary and to support the potential for one system to be engaged as a compensatory strategy when a counterpart system fails. Summary: Episodic memory, the ability to recall personal episodes, is the subtype of memory most often perceived as dysfunctional by patients and informants. Medial temporal lobe structures, especially the hippocampal formation and associated cortical and subcortical structures, are most often associated with episodic memory loss. Episodic memory dysfunction may present acutely, as in concussion; transiently, as in transient global amnesia (TGA); subacutely, as in thiamine deficiency; or chronically, as in Alzheimer disease. Semantic memory refers to acquired knowledge about the world. Anterior and inferior temporal lobe structures are most often associated with semantic memory loss. The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) is the paradigmatic disorder resulting in predominant semantic memory dysfunction. Working memory, associated with frontal lobe function, is the active maintenance of information in the mind that can be potentially manipulated to complete goal-directed tasks. Procedural memory, the ability to learn skills that become automatic, involves the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and supplementary motor cortex. Parkinson disease and related disorders result in procedural memory deficits. Most memory concerns warrant bedside cognitive or neuropsychological evaluation and neuroimaging to assess for specific neuropathologies and guide treatment. PMID:26039844

  5. Detroit Jobs Trust Fund Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Clarke, Hansen [D-MI-13

    2011-09-14

    10/03/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations and Procurement Reform . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Hype and Public Trust in Science

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Social scientists have begun elucidating the variables that influence public trust in science, yet little is known about hype in biotechnology and its effects on public trust. Many scholars claim that hyping biotechnology results in a loss of public trust, and possibly public enthusiasm or support for science, because public expectations of the biotechnological promises will be unmet. We argue for the need for empirical research that examines the relationships between hype, public trust, and public enthusiasm/support. We discuss the complexities in designing empirical studies that provide evidence for a causal link between hype, public trust, and public enthusiasm/support, but also illustrate how this may be remedied. Further empirical research on hype and public trust is needed in order to improve public communication of science and to design evidence-based education on the responsible conduct of research for scientists. We conclude that conceptual arguments made on hype and public trust must be nuanced to reflect our current understanding of this relationship. PMID:22045550

  7. Genetic Influences Are Virtually Absent for Trust

    PubMed Central

    Van Lange, Paul A. M.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Posthuma, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, numerous twin studies have revealed moderate to high heritability estimates for individual differences in a wide range of human traits, including cognitive ability, psychiatric disorders, and personality traits. Even factors that are generally believed to be environmental in nature have been shown to be under genetic control, albeit modest. Is such heritability also present in social traits that are conceptualized as causes and consequences of social interactions or in other ways strongly shaped by behavior of other people? Here we examine a population-based sample of 1,012 twins and relatives. We show that the genetic influence on generalized trust in other people (trust-in-others: h2 = 5%, ns), and beliefs regarding other people’s trust in the self (trust-in-self: h2 = 13%, ns), is virtually absent. As test-retest reliability for both scales were found to be moderate or high (r = .76 and r = .53, respectively) in an independent sample, we conclude that all variance in trust is likely to be accounted for by non-shared environmental influences. We show that, relative to cognitive abilities, psychiatric disorders, and classic personality variables, genetic influences are smaller for trust, and propose that experiences with or observations of the behavior of other people shape trust more strongly than other traits. PMID:24709897

  8. Consumer trust in the Australian food system - The everyday erosive impact of food labelling.

    PubMed

    Tonkin, Emma; Webb, Trevor; Coveney, John; Meyer, Samantha B; Wilson, Annabelle M

    2016-08-01

    Consumer trust in food system actors is foundational for ensuring consumer confidence in food safety. As food labelling is a direct communication between consumers and food system actors, it may influence consumer perceptions of actor trustworthiness. This study explores the judgements formed about the trustworthiness of the food system and its actors through labelling, and the expectations these judgements are based on. In-depth, semi-structured interviews with 24 Australian consumers were conducted. Theoretical sampling focussed on shopping location, dietary requirements, rurality, gender, age and educational background. The methodological approach used (adaptive theory) enabled emerging data to be examined through the lens of a set of guiding theoretical concepts, and theory reconsidered in light of emerging data. Food labelling acted as a surrogate for personal interaction with industry and government for participants. Judgements about the trustworthiness of these actors and the broader food system were formed through interaction with food labelling and were based on expectations of both competence and goodwill. Interaction with labelling primarily reduced trust in actors within the food system, undermining trust in the system as a whole. Labelling has a role as an access point to the food system. Access points are points of vulnerability for systems, where trust can be developed, reinforced or broken down. For the participants in this study, in general labelling demonstrates food system actors lack goodwill and violate their fiduciary responsibility. This paper provides crucial insights for industry and policy actors to use this access point to build, rather than undermine, trust in food systems.

  9. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  10. A Novel Trust Service Provider for Internet Based Commerce Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyal, M. Y.; Barkat, B.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a framework for enhancing trust in Internet commerce. Shows how trust can be provided through a network of Trust Service Providers (TSp). Identifies a set of services that should be offered by a TSp. Presents a distributed object-oriented implementation of trust services using CORBA, JAVA and XML. (Author/AEF)

  11. Trust Matters: Leadership for Successful Schools, 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschannen-Moran, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Make your school soar by escalating trust between teachers, students, and families. Trust is an essential element in all healthy relationships, and the relationships that exist in your school are no different. How can your school leaders or teachers cultivate trust? How can your institution maintain trust once it is established? These are the…

  12. 49 CFR 1013.2 - The irrevocability of the trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The irrevocability of the trust. 1013.2 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR THE PROPER USE OF VOTING TRUSTS § 1013.2 The irrevocability of the trust. (a) The trust and the nomination of the...

  13. The Nature and Function of Trust in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2009-01-01

    Our purpose was to advance and test a theoretical model of the nature and function of trust in schools. Unlike other studies, ours specified school trust as a latent construct manifested through parent and teacher trust perceptions. We hypothesized that trust would have a larger direct effect on collective teacher efficacy and achievement…

  14. 26 CFR 1.851-7 - Certain unit investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of $100 and a short- term capital gain of $50, computed as follows: (1) B is treated as owning 110... trust will be treated as directly owning the assets of such trust for taxable years of such holder which... proportionate share of the trust assets in exchange for his interest in the trust. Also, no gain or loss will...

  15. Guide to the Administration of Charitable Remainder Trusts. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David W.; And Others

    This is the third edition of a workbook prepared as a kind of primer for those responsible for the administration of charitable remainder trusts in accordance with the Tax Reform Act of 1969. The topics covered include: trust administration in general; pooled income fund; unitrust; annuity trust; gift annuity; short term income (lead) trust; gift…

  16. 25 CFR 1000.354 - What is a trust evaluation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... evaluation is an annual review and evaluation of trust functions performed by a Tribe/Consortium to ensure that the functions are performed in accordance with trust standards as defined by Federal law. Trust evaluations address trust functions performed by the Tribe/Consortium on its own behalf as well as...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.354 - What is a trust evaluation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... evaluation is an annual review and evaluation of trust functions performed by a Tribe/Consortium to ensure that the functions are performed in accordance with trust standards as defined by Federal law. Trust evaluations address trust functions performed by the Tribe/Consortium on its own behalf as well as...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.354 - What is a trust evaluation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... evaluation is an annual review and evaluation of trust functions performed by a Tribe/Consortium to ensure that the functions are performed in accordance with trust standards as defined by Federal law. Trust evaluations address trust functions performed by the Tribe/Consortium on its own behalf as well as...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.354 - What is a trust evaluation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... evaluation is an annual review and evaluation of trust functions performed by a Tribe/Consortium to ensure that the functions are performed in accordance with trust standards as defined by Federal law. Trust evaluations address trust functions performed by the Tribe/Consortium on its own behalf as well as...

  20. Teacher Trust in District Administration: A Promising Line of Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Miskell, Ryan C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We set out in this study to establish a foundation for a line of inquiry around teacher trust in district administration by (1) describing the role of trust in capacity building, (2) conceptualizing trust in district administration, (3) developing a scale to measure teacher trust in district administration, and (4) testing the…

  1. 49 CFR 1013.2 - The irrevocability of the trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The irrevocability of the trust. 1013.2 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR THE PROPER USE OF VOTING TRUSTS § 1013.2 The irrevocability of the trust. (a) The trust and the nomination of the...

  2. 49 CFR 1013.2 - The irrevocability of the trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The irrevocability of the trust. 1013.2 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR THE PROPER USE OF VOTING TRUSTS § 1013.2 The irrevocability of the trust. (a) The trust and the nomination of the...

  3. Dynamic Trust Management for Mobile Networks and Its Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bao, Fenye

    2013-01-01

    Trust management in mobile networks is challenging due to dynamically changing network environments and the lack of a centralized trusted authority. In this dissertation research, we "design" and "validate" a class of dynamic trust management protocols for mobile networks, and demonstrate the utility of dynamic trust management…

  4. 12 CFR 745.9-1 - Trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trust accounts. 745.9-1 Section 745.9-1 Banks... AND APPENDIX Clarification and Definition of Account Insurance Coverage § 745.9-1 Trust accounts. (a) For purposes of this section, “trust” refers to an irrevocable trust. (b) All trust interests...

  5. 26 CFR 1.47-5 - Estates and trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Estates and trusts. 1.47-5 Section 1.47-5... Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.47-5 Estates and trusts. (a) In general—(1) Disposition or cessation in hands of estate or trust. If an estate or trust disposes of...

  6. 26 CFR 8.1 - Charitable remainder trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Charitable remainder trusts. 8.1 Section 8.1... Charitable remainder trusts. (a) Certain wills and trusts in existence on September 21, 1974. In the case of a will executed before September 21, 1974, or a trust created (within the meaning of...

  7. 24 CFR 92.500 - The HOME Investment Trust Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The HOME Investment Trust Fund. 92... Investment Trust Fund. (a) General. A HOME Investment Trust Fund consists of the accounts described in this... Investment Trust Fund United States Treasury account for each participating jurisdiction. Each...

  8. Do Reputation Systems Undermine Trust? Divergent Effects of Enforcement Type on Generalized Trust and Trustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Ko

    2015-03-01

    Research shows that enforcing cooperation using contracts or tangible sanctions can backfire, undermining people's intrinsic motivation to cooperate: when the enforcement is removed, people are less trusting or trustworthy than when there is no enforcement to begin with. The author examines whether reputation systems have similar consequences for generalized trust and trustworthiness. Using a web-based experiment simulating online market transactions (studies 1 and 2), he shows that reputation systems can reinforce generalized trust and trustworthiness, unlike contractual enforcement or relational enforcement based on repeated interactions. In a survey experiment (study 3), he finds that recalling their eBay feedback scores made participants more trusting and trustworthy. These results are predicated on the diffuse nature of reputational enforcement to reinforce perceptions of trust and trustworthiness. These results have implications for understanding how different forms of governance affect generalized trust and trustworthiness.

  9. DualTrust: A Trust Management Model for Swarm-Based Autonomic Computing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maiden, Wendy M.

    2010-05-01

    Trust management techniques must be adapted to the unique needs of the application architectures and problem domains to which they are applied. For autonomic computing systems that utilize mobile agents and ant colony algorithms for their sensor layer, certain characteristics of the mobile agent ant swarm -- their lightweight, ephemeral nature and indirect communication -- make this adaptation especially challenging. This thesis looks at the trust issues and opportunities in swarm-based autonomic computing systems and finds that by monitoring the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers rather than the swarming sensors, the trust management problem becomes much more scalable and still serves to protect the swarm. After analyzing the applicability of trust management research as it has been applied to architectures with similar characteristics, this thesis specifies the required characteristics for trust management mechanisms used to monitor the trustworthiness of entities in a swarm-based autonomic computing system and describes a trust model that meets these requirements.

  10. Oxytocin and enhancement of the positive valence of social affiliation memories: an autobiographical memory study.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Christopher; Orlando, Mark Anthony; Brown, Christopher A; Ellenbogen, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Intranasal oxytocin has been shown to alter self-perceptions of personality (e.g., more trusting, increased extraversion). To follow up these findings, we examined the acute effects of two doses of intranasal oxytocin (24 IU and 48 IU) on another form of self-referential cognition: autobiographical memory. Changes in autobiographical memory (personal memories for the past) could conceivably effect change in self-perception and consequently alter social behaviors. We predicted that oxytocin would increase the number of specific personal memories recalled, and promote the recall of positive social affiliation memories. Seventeen male participants self-administered a placebo or oxytocin (24 IU, 48 IU) using a nasal spray on three separate occasions in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, and within-subject experiment. Participants completed the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) 110 minutes later. Analyses revealed a quadratic dose-response curve for the effects of intranasal oxytocin on autobiographical memory recall. The 24 IU dose, relative to the 48 IU dose and placebo, increased the number of specific personal memories recalled and promoted the recall of social affiliation memories that were rated more positively. The lack of effect with the 48 IU dose could be due to saturation of the oxytocin receptors at higher doses. Changes in autobiographical memory may be one mechanism by which oxytocin alters prosocial worldviews.

  11. Does trust in health care influence the use of complementary and alternative medicine by chronically ill people?

    PubMed Central

    van den Brink-Muinen, A; Rijken, PM

    2006-01-01

    Background People's trust in health care and health care professionals is essential for the effectiveness of health care, especially for chronically ill people, since chronic diseases are by definition (partly) incurable. Therefore, it may be understandable that chronically ill people turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), often in addition to regular care. Chronically ill people use CAM two to five times more often than non-chronically ill people. The trust of chronically ill people in health care and health care professionals and the relationship of this with CAM use have not been reported until now. In this study, we examine the influence of chronically ill people's trust in health care and health care professionals on CAM use. Methods The present sample comprises respondents of the 'Panel of Patients with Chronic Diseases' (PPCD). Patients (≥25 years) were selected by GPs. A total of 1,625 chronically ill people were included. Trust and CAM use was measured by a written questionnaire. Statistical analyses were t tests for independent samples, Chi-square and one-way analysis of variance, and logistic regression analysis. Results Chronically ill people have a relatively low level of trust in future health care. They trust certified alternative practitioners less than regular health care professionals, and non-certified alternative practitioners less still. The less trust patients have in future health care, the more they will be inclined to use CAM, when controlling for socio-demographic and disease characteristics. Conclusion Trust in future health care is a significant predictor of CAM use. Chronically ill people's use of CAM may increase in the near future. Health policy makers should, therefore, be alert to the quality of practising alternative practitioners, for example by insisting on professional certification. Equally, good quality may increase people's trust in public health care. PMID:16848897

  12. Trust in health care providers: factors predicting trust among homeless veterans over time.

    PubMed

    van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; McGuire, James

    2014-08-01

    We examined whether a combination of predisposing, enabling, need, and primary care experience variables would predict trust in medical health care providers for homeless veterans over 18 months. Linear mixed model analysis indicated that, among these variables, race, social support, service-connected disability status, and satisfaction and continuity with providers predicted trust in provider over time. Trust in providers improved during the initial stages of the relationship between patient and provider and then declined to slightly below baseline levels over time. Further research is needed to determine generalizability and effects of provider trust on patient health care status over longer periods of time.

  13. Online trust building through third party trust transfer and third party protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandoko, Wanda; Saleh Abbas, Bahtiar; Budiastuti, Dyah; Kosala, Raymond

    2017-03-01

    The primary objective of this research is to develop an online trust building mechanism for SME (Small Medium Enterprise). Trust is very important in e-commerce. The nature of online shopping has a greater uncertainty than offline shopping. Seeing as there is an uncertainty that can produce risks, a prospective buyer’s trust is needed. A lot of people’s unwillingness to shop online is caused by their lack of trust toward e-commerce. E-commerce is said to be one of the ways for SME to compete with bigger companies. However, building trust requires immense time and cost. SME with limited resources may experience difficulties in building trust just with their own resources. Base on literature research that needs to be validated in next research, we found that trust can be built through trust transfer from the reputable and well-known trust-mark issuer, and third party protection such as escrow account service and credit card issuer.

  14. Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 1986, Congress created the Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund to address releases from federally regulated underground storage tanks (USTs) by amending Subtitle I of the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

  15. Environmental Education at The Wildfowl Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadsby, Brian

    1975-01-01

    Describes the work of Wildfowl Trust in the areas of research, education, recreation and conservation. Presents the advantages of the wetland habitat for biological study and describes the facilities available to educational bodies at Martin Mere. (Author/GS)

  16. A General Framework of Human Trust in Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    information dominance and complete mission objectives. Soldiers must possess a sufficient amount of trust in networks for adequate mission performance. We are investigating human trust in tactical networks by establishing a theoretical framework for analysis and an approach for validation of the framework. We identify reliability and availability as network parameters that define the relationship between quality of service performance and human trust in networks. A general framework is being developed for human trust in networks, which combines singular elements of trust

  17. Temperament Constructs Related to Betrayal of Trust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    empirical evidence for the use of such tests in identifying potential betrayers within organizations. It is argued that white-collar crimes such as...psychometric instruments provided some empirical evidence for the use of such tests in identifying potential trust betrayers within organizations. This research...workplace attitudes should be included in any empirical design to predict trust betrayal; (e) integrity tests have demonstrated an ability to distinguish

  18. Patient care: Is interpersonal trust missing?

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Paul A.; Francis, Cynthia G.; Kerr-Campbell, Maureen D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health statistics and studies in the Caribbean have omitted interpersonal trust in their investigations. Aims: This study will examine the effect of interpersonal trust and other conditions on psychosocial subjective wellbeing and self-reported health, in order to assess the significance of interpersonal trust, as well as other socio-demographic factors on health. Materials and Method: The current study utilized primary data commissioned by the Centre of Leadership and Governance, Department of Government, the University of West Indies, Mona, Jamaica, between July and August 2006. It was a nationally representative probability sampling survey. A sample of 1,338 respondents was interviewed with a detailed 166-item questionnaire. Results: Generally, the psychosocial subjective wellbeing of Jamaicans was high (mean = 6.8 ± 1.8), and self-reported health was moderately high (mean = 6.3 ± 2.6). The current study has revealed that income, political system, subjective social class, employment status, and interpersonal trust determine psychosocial subjective wellbeing as well as self-reported health. Interpersonal trust accounted for between 9.4 to 10.4% of the explanatory power of the wellbeing and self-reported health of Jamaicans. Conclusion: The current study highlights that the determinants of health include interpersonal trust. It is critical to point out here that trust must be taken into consideration in any evaluation of health statistics, as it is a factor of subjective wellbeing and health. It is within this context that clinicians need to incorporate interpersonal trust along with other conditions, as it is a part of the psychosocial determinants of health, subjective wellbeing, and health treatment. PMID:22624126

  19. More Anonymous Onion Routing Through Trust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    attempt to compromise his anonymity . How should he take this trust into account when he selects his paths? 2.1. The model To make this question concrete...It also does not take into account the total effect of an adversary’s actions on a user’s anonymity , such as the analysis performed in [24]. The...More Anonymous Onion Routing Through Trust Aaron Johnson Computer Science Department Yale University New Haven, CT 06520 USA aaron.johnson@yale.edu

  20. Interpersonal Trust across Six Asia-Pacific Countries: Testing and Extending the ‘High Trust Society’ and ‘Low Trust Society’ Theory

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Paul R.; Mamerow, Loreen; Meyer, Samantha B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Trust is regarded as a necessary component for the smooth running of society, although societal and political modernising processes have been linked to an increase in mistrust, potentially signalling social and economic problems. Fukuyama developed the notion of ‘high trust’ and ‘low trust’ societies, as a way of understanding trust within different societies. The purpose of this paper is to empirically test and extend Fukuyama’s theory utilising data on interpersonal trust in Taiwan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan, Australia and Thailand. This paper focuses on trust in family, neighbours, strangers, foreigners and people with a different religion. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in 2009–10, with an overall sample of 6331. Analyses of differences in overall levels of trust between countries were undertaken using Chi square analyses. Multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis was undertaken to identify socio-demographic predictors of trust in each country. Results Our data indicate a tripartite trust model: ‘high trust’ in Australia and Hong Kong; ‘medium trust’ in Japan and Taiwan; and ‘low trust’ in South Korea and Thailand. Trust in family and neighbours were very high across all countries, although trust in people with a different religion, trust in strangers and trust in foreigners varied considerably between countries. The regression models found a consistent group of subpopulations with low trust across the countries: people on low incomes, younger people and people with poor self-rated health. The results were conflicting for gender: females had lower trust in Thailand and Hong Kong, although in Australia, males had lower trust in strangers, whereas females had lower trust in foreigners. Conclusion This paper identifies high, medium and low trust societies, in addition to high and low trusting population subgroups. Our analyses extend the seminal work of Fukuyama, providing both corroboration and

  1. Flashbulb Memories

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, William; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    We review and analyze the key theories, debates, findings, and omissions of the existing literature on flashbulb memories (FBMs), including what factors affect their formation, retention, and degree of confidence. We argue that FBMs do not require special memory mechanisms and are best characterized as involving both forgetting and mnemonic distortions, despite a high level of confidence. Factual memories for FBM-inducing events generally follow a similar pattern. Although no necessary and sufficient factors straightforwardly account for FBM retention, media attention particularly shapes memory for the events themselves. FBMs are best characterized in term of repetitions, even of mnemonic distortions, whereas event memories evidence corrections. The bearing of this literature on social identity and traumatic memories is also discussed. PMID:26997762

  2. Virtual memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Virtual memory was conceived as a way to automate overlaying of program segments. Modern computers have very large main memories, but need automatic solutions to the relocation and protection problems. Virtual memory serves this need as well and is thus useful in computers of all sizes. The history of the idea is traced, showing how it has become a widespread, little noticed feature of computers today.

  3. Skilled Memory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-06

    Morse code (Bryan & Harter , 1899). In every case, memory performance of the expert seems to violate the established limits of short- term memory. How is...of immediate memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental psychology, 1958, 10, 12-21. Bryan, W. L., & Harter N. psychological Review, 1899, 6, 345-375...16, 1980 Page 5 Civil Govt Non Govt Dr. Susan Chipman 1 Dr. John R. Anderson Learning and Development Department of Psychology National Institute of

  4. 12 CFR 330.12 - Accounts held by a depository institution as the trustee of an irrevocable trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounts held by a depository institution as the trustee of an irrevocable trust. 330.12 Section 330.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY DEPOSIT INSURANCE COVERAGE § 330.12 Accounts held...

  5. 17 CFR 274.11d - Form N-6, registration statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance... variable life insurance policies. Form N-6 shall be used as the registration statement to be filed pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by separate accounts that offer variable...

  6. 17 CFR 274.11d - Form N-6, registration statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... statement of separate accounts organized as unit investment trusts that offer variable life insurance... variable life insurance policies. Form N-6 shall be used as the registration statement to be filed pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by separate accounts that offer variable...

  7. An Analysis of the Relationship between Teacher Trust and Achievement for Students of Latino and White Ethnicities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukko, Debra

    2014-01-01

    As educational leaders navigate change initiatives inherent in implementing Common Core academic standards and the Local Control Funding Formula, a focus on research-based practices through which leaders mediate policy and create and support environments in which teachers trust the principal, colleagues, and clients may contribute to academic…

  8. Trust in online prescription drug information among internet users: the impact on information search behavior after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising.

    PubMed

    Menon, Ajit M; Deshpande, Aparna D; Perri, Matthew; Zinkhan, George M

    2002-01-01

    The proliferation of both manufacturer-controlled and independent medication-related websites has aroused concern among consumers and policy-makers concerning the trustworthiness of Web-based drug information. The authors examine consumers' trust in on-line prescription drug information and its influence on information search behavior. The study design involves a retrospective analysis of data from a 1998 national survey. The findings reveal that trust in drug information from traditional media sources such as television and newspapers transfers to the domain of the Internet. Furthermore, a greater trust in on-line prescription drug information stimulates utilization of the Internet for information search after exposure to prescription drug advertising.

  9. The Influence of Trust in Physicians and Trust in the Healthcare System on Linkage, Retention, and Adherence to HIV Care.

    PubMed

    Graham, James L; Shahani, Lokesh; Grimes, Richard M; Hartman, Christine; Giordano, Thomas P

    2015-12-01

    Lack of trust by the patient in the physicians or the healthcare system has been associated with poorer health outcomes. The present study was designed to determine if trust in physicians and the healthcare system among persons newly diagnosed with HIV infection was predictive of patients' subsequent linkage, retention, and adherence to HIV care. 178 newly diagnosed HIV infected patients were administered the trust-in-physicians and trust-in-healthcare system scales. Median trust-in-physicians and trust-in-healthcare system scores were compared for all the mentioned subsequent linkage, retention, and adherence to HIV care. Univariate logistic regression using the trust-in-physician scale confirmed significant association with retention in care (p = 0.04), which persisted in multivariate analyses (p = 0.04). No significant association was found between trust-in-physicians and linkage to care or adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Trust in the healthcare system was not associated with any of the outcomes. Patients with higher trust in physicians were more likely to be retained in HIV care. Trust at diagnosis may not be a barrier to better clinical outcomes, either because trust changes based on subsequent interactions, or because trust is not a determining feature. Interventions to improve retention in care could include improving trust in physicians or target persons with low trust in physicians.

  10. Power, trust, and Science of Unitary Human Beings influence political leadership: a celebration of Barrett's power theory.

    PubMed

    Wright, Barbara W

    2010-01-01

    The importance of nurses' participation in health policy leadership is discussed within the context of Rogers' science of unitary human beings, Barrett's power theory, and one nurse-politician's experience. Nurses have a major role to play in resolving public policy issues that influence the health of people. A brief review of the history of nurses in the political arena is presented. Research related to power and trust is reviewed. Suggested strategies for success in political situations are offered.

  11. Trust and Its Role in Principal Succession: A Preliminary Examination of a Continuum of Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macmillan, Robert B.; Meyer, Matthew J.; Northfield, Shawn

    2004-01-01

    Trust is a critical factor in determining whether principal-teacher working relationships are positive or negative. This article begins to explore the concept of trust and its development in twelve Canadian secondary schools that experienced frequent principal turnover in a period of eight years. The authors found that the development of trust…

  12. 26 CFR 26.2654-1 - Certain trusts treated as separate trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... death of the grantor if the trust is includible in its entirety in the grantor's gross estate for... of a pecuniary amount at the death of the transferor from an inter vivos trust that is includible in... death $500,000 is payable to T's spouse, S, with the balance of the principal to be held for the...

  13. Building a Culture of Trust: Trust in the Use of Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkman, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the place of trust in a school context and its importance in achieving the aims of schooling, "namely high academic performance and positive affects among members of the school community" (Forsyth, 2008). The role of trust in the use of technology and technological change is examined. Literature is surveyed in the…

  14. The Refusal: Teachers Making Policy in NYC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malsbary, Christine Brigid

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on empirical sources, I argue that teachers' actions to remove district-mandated testing from their classrooms are a form of teacher policy-making. Analysis of interviews with teacher activists and records of teachers' activism meetings show that teachers perceive belonging, trust, and community as critical to their efforts to provide…

  15. 25 CFR 151.3 - Land acquisition policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Land acquisition policy. 151.3 Section 151.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LAND ACQUISITIONS § 151.3 Land acquisition policy. Land not held in trust or restricted status may only be acquired for an individual...

  16. 25 CFR 151.3 - Land acquisition policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Land acquisition policy. 151.3 Section 151.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LAND ACQUISITIONS § 151.3 Land acquisition policy. Land not held in trust or restricted status may only be acquired for an individual...

  17. Trust in health information websites: A systematic literature review on the antecedents of trust.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeolib

    2016-06-01

    Health websites are important sources of information for consumers. In choosing websites, trust in websites largely determines which website to access and how to best utilize the information. Thus, it is critical to understand why consumers trust certain websites and distrust others. A systematic literature review was conducted with the goal of identifying the antecedents of trust in health information websites. After four rounds of screening process, 20 articles between 2000 and 2013 were harvested. Factors that determine trust are classified into individual difference antecedents, website-related antecedents, and consumer-to-website interaction-related antecedents. The most frequently studied antecedents were socio-demographics, information quality, appearance, and perceived reputation of the website. Each antecedent of trust are discussed in detail and future research directions are proposed.

  18. Decision solution, data manipulation and trust: The (un-)willingness to donate organs in Germany in critical times.

    PubMed

    Schwettmann, Lars

    2015-07-01

    In 2011 and 2012 a change of rules and a data-manipulation scandal focused German public attention on organ donation. This increased citizens' background knowledge as well as their willingness to respond to surveys. The present study is an effort to seize this research opportunity and to create evidence on which policy recommendations can be conceivably based. It uses data from two major representative surveys from 2011 to 2012 to address four central questions: Which characteristics, experiences and attitudes correlate with the written or unwritten willingness of individuals to donate (WTD) their own organs post-mortem? How has the WTD changed over time? To what extent does the WTD depend on normative trust? Which factors correlate with trust? The data is analyzed through summary statistics and regression models. Several hypotheses regarding factors connected with the WTD are confirmed in the survey results. Altruistic motives, relevant knowledge and trust are decisive. The special role of trust is corroborated by the data. As current German politics prevents the introduction of post-mortem donation incentives, potential policy making proposals are restricted to institutional changes to regain trust including the implementation of an organ donor registry and the advancement of counselling talks with general practitioners.

  19. Ethics and technology transfer: patients, patents, and public trust.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Deborah

    2011-06-01

    Universities and academic medical centers have been increasing their focus on technology transfer and research commercialization. With this shift in focus, academic-industry ties have become prevalent. These relationships can benefit academic researchers and help then to transform their research into tangible societal benefits. However, there also are concerns that these ties and the greater academic focus on commercialization might lead to conflicts of interest, especially financial conflicts of interest. This paper briefly explores some of these conflicts of interest, particularly relating to research and training. This paper also discusses some of the policies that have been, and are being, developed to try to mitigate and manage these conflicts so that academic involvement in technology transfer and commercialization can continue without jeopardizing academic work or the public's trust in them.

  20. Zoning: focused support: a trust wide implementation project.

    PubMed

    Gamble, C; Dodd, G; Grellier, J; Hever, M; O'Conner, C; Clarke, T; Chipere, R; Mellor, M; Ness, M

    2010-02-01

    Applying pragmatic risk management procedures to facilitate the sharing of clinical knowledge in and across mental health teams. Abstract Zoning: focused support is pragmatic risk management support procedure that enhances adherence to operational policies, provides a forum in which staff can receive support and visually facilitates the sharing of clinical knowledge. This paper presents a 3-year multi-method management project that sought to introduce zoning principles into all teams of an inner city Mental Health NHS Trust. By changing the language and culture of the organization findings indicate that there has been a positive attitudinal shift in how the approach is perceived. It is considered to be of value to staff, service users and their families and 73% of teams are now using it routinely.

  1. Can one trust quantum simulators?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauke, Philipp; Cucchietti, Fernando M.; Tagliacozzo, Luca; Deutsch, Ivan; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2012-08-01

    Various fundamental phenomena of strongly correlated quantum systems such as high-Tc superconductivity, the fractional quantum-Hall effect and quark confinement are still awaiting a universally accepted explanation. The main obstacle is the computational complexity of solving even the most simplified theoretical models which are designed to capture the relevant quantum correlations of the many-body system of interest. In his seminal 1982 paper (Feynman 1982 Int. J. Theor. Phys. 21 467), Richard Feynman suggested that such models might be solved by ‘simulation’ with a new type of computer whose constituent parts are effectively governed by a desired quantum many-body dynamics. Measurements on this engineered machine, now known as a ‘quantum simulator,’ would reveal some unknown or difficult to compute properties of a model of interest. We argue that a useful quantum simulator must satisfy four conditions: relevance, controllability, reliability and efficiency. We review the current state of the art of digital and analog quantum simulators. Whereas so far the majority of the focus, both theoretically and experimentally, has been on controllability of relevant models, we emphasize here the need for a careful analysis of reliability and efficiency in the presence of imperfections. We discuss how disorder and noise can impact these conditions, and illustrate our concerns with novel numerical simulations of a paradigmatic example: a disordered quantum spin chain governed by the Ising model in a transverse magnetic field. We find that disorder can decrease the reliability of an analog quantum simulator of this model, although large errors in local observables are introduced only for strong levels of disorder. We conclude that the answer to the question ‘Can we trust quantum simulators?’ is … to some extent.

  2. Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  3. Collaging Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

  4. Developing a Climate of Trust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    the contemporary world and ancient Greece, and lays the groundwork for the powerful bond between a policy of strategic engagement and the philosophy ...9283 14. ABSTRACT Mission command is the leadership philosophy that will allow the U.S. Army to operate successfully in the future security...environment, and remain strategically relevant. The philosophy of mission command is vital to the development of Joint Force 2020, and provides the Army

  5. WDS Trusted Data Services in Support of International Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokrane, M.; Minster, J. B. H.

    2014-12-01

    Today's research is international, transdisciplinary, and data-enabled, which requires scrupulous data stewardship, full and open access to data, and efficient collaboration and coordination. New expectations on researchers based on policies from governments and funders to share data fully, openly, and in a timely manner present significant challenges but are also opportunities to improve the quality and efficiency of research and its accountability to society. Researchers should be able to archive and disseminate data as required by many institutions or funders, and civil society to scrutinize datasets underlying public policies. Thus, the trustworthiness of data services must be verifiable. In addition, the need to integrate large and complex datasets across disciplines and domains with variable levels of maturity calls for greater coordination to achieve sufficient interoperability and sustainability. The World Data System (WDS) of the International Council for Science (ICSU) promotes long-term stewardship of, and universal and equitable access to, quality-assured scientific data and services across a range of disciplines in the natural and social sciences. WDS aims at coordinating and supporting trusted scientific data services for the provision, use, and preservation of relevant datasets to facilitate scientific research, in particular under the ICSU umbrella, while strengthening their links with the research community. WDS certifies it Members, holders and providers of data or data products, using internationally recognized standards. Thus, providing the building blocks of a searchable common infrastructure, from which a data system that is both interoperable and distributed can be formed. This presentation will describe the coordination role of WDS and more specifically activities developed by its Scientific Committee to: Improve and stimulate basic level Certification for Scientific Data Services, in particular through collaboration with the Data Seal of

  6. Memory conformity affects inaccurate memories more than accurate memories.

    PubMed

    Wright, Daniel B; Villalba, Daniella K

    2012-01-01

    After controlling for initial confidence, inaccurate memories were shown to be more easily distorted than accurate memories. In two experiments groups of participants viewed 50 stimuli and were then presented with these stimuli plus 50 fillers. During this test phase participants reported their confidence that each stimulus was originally shown. This was followed by computer-generated responses from a bogus participant. After being exposed to this response participants again rated the confidence of their memory. The computer-generated responses systematically distorted participants' responses. Memory distortion depended on initial memory confidence, with uncertain memories being more malleable than confident memories. This effect was moderated by whether the participant's memory was initially accurate or inaccurate. Inaccurate memories were more malleable than accurate memories. The data were consistent with a model describing two types of memory (i.e., recollective and non-recollective memories), which differ in how susceptible these memories are to memory distortion.

  7. Power decreases trust in social exchange.

    PubMed

    Schilke, Oliver; Reimann, Martin; Cook, Karen S

    2015-10-20

    How does lacking vs. possessing power in a social exchange affect people's trust in their exchange partner? An answer to this question has broad implications for a number of exchange settings in which dependence plays an important role. Here, we report on a series of experiments in which we manipulated participants' power position in terms of structural dependence and observed their trust perceptions and behaviors. Over a variety of different experimental paradigms and measures, we find that more powerful actors place less trust in others than less powerful actors do. Our results contradict predictions by rational actor models, which assume that low-power individuals are able to anticipate that a more powerful exchange partner will place little value on the relationship with them, thus tends to behave opportunistically, and consequently cannot be trusted. Conversely, our results support predictions by motivated cognition theory, which posits that low-power individuals want their exchange partner to be trustworthy and then act according to that desire. Mediation analyses show that, consistent with the motivated cognition account, having low power increases individuals' hope and, in turn, their perceptions of their exchange partners' benevolence, which ultimately leads them to trust.

  8. The motivation and behaviour of hospital Trusts.

    PubMed

    Crilly, Tessa; Le Grand, J Julian

    2004-05-01

    This paper explores the motivation and behaviour of hospitals, using data from UK hospital Trusts. Managers and consultants (hospital specialists) are identified as the main alternative sources of power within Trusts. It is hypothesised that consultants are interested in production or service (volume and quality) while managers are interested primarily in financial break-even, and that in the long run consultants will dominate. A survey of 1500 consultants and managers and a statistical analysis of the behaviour of 100 Trusts over 3 years yielded the empirical results that were largely but not entirely consistent with these hypotheses. Consultants did indeed consider production goals to be more important than financial breakeven, but within those goals, considered quality to be more important than service volume. While the break-even target was found to be the primary goal of managers on average, they proved to be a heterogeneous group with quality ranking as the main priority among those managers who are closest to service delivery. This is at odds with the apparent objective of Trusts, which both groups perceive as being the single-minded pursuit of financial targets, consistent with the formal, government-set requirements. We find that this strong and unequivocal financial driver is not owned or acted upon by either consultants or managers and it is inferred that, in accordance with the dominant motivation of consultants, the Trust's primary objective is to maintain service quality.

  9. Power decreases trust in social exchange

    PubMed Central

    Schilke, Oliver; Reimann, Martin; Cook, Karen S.

    2015-01-01

    How does lacking vs. possessing power in a social exchange affect people’s trust in their exchange partner? An answer to this question has broad implications for a number of exchange settings in which dependence plays an important role. Here, we report on a series of experiments in which we manipulated participants’ power position in terms of structural dependence and observed their trust perceptions and behaviors. Over a variety of different experimental paradigms and measures, we find that more powerful actors place less trust in others than less powerful actors do. Our results contradict predictions by rational actor models, which assume that low-power individuals are able to anticipate that a more powerful exchange partner will place little value on the relationship with them, thus tends to behave opportunistically, and consequently cannot be trusted. Conversely, our results support predictions by motivated cognition theory, which posits that low-power individuals want their exchange partner to be trustworthy and then act according to that desire. Mediation analyses show that, consistent with the motivated cognition account, having low power increases individuals’ hope and, in turn, their perceptions of their exchange partners’ benevolence, which ultimately leads them to trust. PMID:26438869

  10. Energy, manpower, and the highway trust fund.

    PubMed

    Bezdek, R; Hannon, B

    1974-08-23

    If energy conservation were a goal of a federal budget policy maker, such conservation could be achieved by reinvesting the highway trust fund in any of several other alternative federal programs (except criminal justice), especially in railroad and mass transit construction and national health insurance (see Table 1). Total employment would increase in each alternative program examined. For example, if construction monies were shifted from highways to railroads, the energy required for construction would be reduced by about 62 percent and employment would increase by 3.2 percent. By comparing the dollar, energy, and employment requirements of a highway transportation system with such requirements for a railroad transportation system, we obtained detailed information from which we concluded the following: 1) Passenger transport by railroad was much less dollar and energy demanding and required more labor than car transport in 1963. If the dollar savings had been respent in an average way by consumers, the net impact would have been to reduce the energy savings and further increase employment. A similar conclusion was reached in a study of bus substitution for automobiles in urban areas (20). If the marginal substitution effects would have held over the whole range of change, and the dollar savings had been spent on the construction of railways, then about 3.0 billion gallons of gasoline could have been saved annually and 1.2 million new jobs created. 2) Freight transport by railroad was less expensive, in terms of dollar, energy, and labor requirements, than was truck transportation in 1963. If, under a national shift to rail freight, the dollar savings had been absorbed as personal consumption expenditures, a net increase of labor and energy would have ensued. If the dollar savings had been absorbed as a tax and respent on railroad and mass transit construction, about 0.3 billion more gallons of gasoline (energy equivalent) would have been consumed annually and 1

  11. Trust and health: testing the reverse causality hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Giuseppe Nicola; Lindström, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Social capital research has consistently shown positive associations between generalised trust and health outcomes over 2 decades. Longitudinal studies attempting to test causal relationships further support the theory that trust is an independent predictor of health. However, as the reverse causality hypothesis has yet to be empirically tested, a knowledge gap remains. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate if health status predicts trust. Methods Data employed in this study came from 4 waves of the British Household Panel Survey between years 2000 and 2007 (N=8114). The sample was stratified by baseline trust to investigate temporal relationships between prior self-rated health (SRH) and changes in trust. We used logistic regression models with random effects, as trust was expected to be more similar within the same individuals over time. Results From the ‘Can trust at baseline’ cohort, poor SRH at time (t−1) predicted low trust at time (t) (OR=1.38). Likewise, good health predicted high trust within the ‘Cannot’ trust cohort (OR=1.30). These patterns of positive association remained after robustness checks, which adjusted for misclassification of outcome (trust) status and the existence of other temporal pathways. Conclusions This study offers empirical evidence to support the circular nature of trust/health relationship. The stability of association between prior health status and changes in trust over time differed between cohorts, hinting at the existence of complex pathways rather than a simple positive feedback loop. PMID:26546287

  12. Distributed Trust Management for Validating SLA Choreographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, Irfan Ul; Alnemr, Rehab; Paschke, Adrian; Schikuta, Erich; Boley, Harold; Meinel, Christoph

    For business workflow automation in a service-enriched environment such as a grid or a cloud, services scattered across heterogeneous Virtual Organizations (VOs) can be aggregated in a producer-consumer manner, building hierarchical structures of added value. In order to preserve the supply chain, the Service Level Agreements (SLAs) corresponding to the underlying choreography of services should also be incrementally aggregated. This cross-VO hierarchical SLA aggregation requires validation, for which a distributed trust system becomes a prerequisite. Elaborating our previous work on rule-based SLA validation, we propose a hybrid distributed trust model. This new model is based on Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and reputation-based trust systems. It helps preventing SLA violations by identifying violation-prone services at service selection stage and actively contributes in breach management at the time of penalty enforcement.

  13. Redefining Genomic Privacy: Trust and Empowerment

    PubMed Central

    Erlich, Yaniv; Williams, James B.; Glazer, David; Yocum, Kenneth; Farahany, Nita; Olson, Maynard; Narayanan, Arvind; Stein, Lincoln D.; Witkowski, Jan A.; Kain, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Fulfilling the promise of the genetic revolution requires the analysis of large datasets containing information from thousands to millions of participants. However, sharing human genomic data requires protecting subjects from potential harm. Current models rely on de-identification techniques in which privacy versus data utility becomes a zero-sum game. Instead, we propose the use of trust-enabling techniques to create a solution in which researchers and participants both win. To do so we introduce three principles that facilitate trust in genetic research and outline one possible framework built upon those principles. Our hope is that such trust-centric frameworks provide a sustainable solution that reconciles genetic privacy with data sharing and facilitates genetic research. PMID:25369215

  14. Trust--can it be controlled?

    PubMed

    Box, Debra; Pottas, Dalenca

    2010-01-01

    Trust is an important component in the security of an information system. The advent of the electronic health record (EHR) and the health information system (HIS) have raised it to greater prominence. These systems and their intended benefits are rendered less effective through a low level of trust between the stakeholders. The potential reciprocal relationship between accountability and trust is investigated. A literature study examines both concepts and their interrelationship. The accountability and audit controls provided by the NIST SP 800-53 security guide and the ISO 27799 security standard are extracted, collated and expanded to strengthen the accountability mechanisms within an HIS security program. A dedicated set of accountability controls (NIM) which is specific to the healthcare environment is produced. It is proposed that through the strengthening of the accountability function of the HIS, its level of trustworthiness may be improved.

  15. A Marketing Perspective: Try Looking at Charitable Trusts from the Donor's Point of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoren, Linda J.

    1979-01-01

    Charitable remainder trusts and charitable income trusts are discussed as essentials in any "marketing mix" of gift-giving options. Unitrusts and annuity trusts are described and tax benefits of the charitable income trust are explained. (MLW)

  16. The impact of the adoption of gag laws on trust in the patient-physician relationship.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mitesh S; Chernew, Michael E

    2007-10-01

    Physician organizations, policy makers, and patient advocates have expressed concern that health plans have contractually limited the freedom of physicians to communicate with their patients. In response, many states have adopted gag laws that limit the ability of managed care contracts to restrict patient-physician communication. We examine the impact of these laws on patient trust in the physician. We analyzed patients' ratings of trust in their physicians in states before and after adoption of gag laws. Individuals in states that had such laws throughout the study period were used as the comparison group. The analysis is based on a nationally representative sample of adults obtained from the 1996-1997 and 1998-1999 Community Tracking Study Household Surveys. After adjustment for patient characteristics, it was estimated that the adoption of gag laws had no statistically significant impact on trust in the physician for the average patient. However, the adoption of gag laws is estimated to have increased trust in the physician by a modest amount (25 percent of a standard deviation) for health maintenance organization (HMO) enrollees who did not have a usual source of care. Gag laws may assure HMO enrollees without a usual source of care that their physicians are free to speak candidly about treatment options. This does not necessarily imply that physicians are prohibited from speaking freely in the absence of such laws, but gag laws indicate concerns (justified or not) that patients have about unrestricted communication with their health care providers.

  17. Consumer trust in food safety--a multidisciplinary approach and empirical evidence from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Fang

    2008-12-01

    Food scandals that happened in recent years have increased consumers' risk perceptions of foods and decreased their trust in food safety. A better understanding of the consumer trust in food safety can improve the effectiveness of public policy and allow the development of the best practice in risk communication. This study proposes a research framework from a psychometric approach to investigate the relationships between the consumer's trust in food safety and the antecedents of risk perceptions of foods based on a reflexive modernization perspective and a cultural theory perspective in the hope of benefiting the future empirical study. The empirical results from a structural equation modeling analysis of Taiwan as a case in point reveal that this research framework based on a multidisciplinary perspective can be a valuable tool for a growing understanding of consumer trust in food safety. The antecedents in the psychometric research framework comprised reflexive modernization factors and cultural theory factors have all been supported in this study except the consumer's perception of pessimism toward food. Moreover, the empirical results of repeated measures analysis of variance give more detailed information to grasp empirical implications and to provide some suggestions to the actors and institutions involved in the food supply chain in Taiwan.

  18. Swift Trust in Distributed Ad Hoc Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-04

    team at risk. Questionnaires assessed the impact of regimental identity and potential trust violations on levels of team trust before the mission...personnellement. Cette notion est de plus en plus utilisée dans les ouvrages spécialisés pour expliquer comment les membres des équipes spéciales... questionnaires distribués aux participants ont permis d’évaluer l’impact de l’identité régimentaire et des abus de confiance sur le niveau de confiance

  19. Capturing Trust in Social Web Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donovan, John

    The Social Web constitutes a shift in information flow from the traditional Web. Previously, content was provided by the owners of a website, for consumption by the end-user. Nowadays, these websites are being replaced by Social Web applications which are frameworks for the publication of user-provided content. Traditionally, Web content could be `trusted' to some extent based on the site it originated from. Algorithms such as Google's PageRank were (and still are) used to compute the importance of a website, based on analysis of underlying link topology. In the Social Web, analysis of link topology merely tells us about the importance of the information framework which hosts the content. Consumers of information still need to know about the importance/reliability of the content they are reading, and therefore about the reliability of the producers of that content. Research into trust and reputation of the producers of information in the Social Web is still very much in its infancy. Every day, people are forced to make trusting decisions about strangers on the Web based on a very limited amount of information. For example, purchasing a product from an eBay seller with a `reputation' of 99%, downloading a file from a peer-to-peer application such as Bit-Torrent, or allowing Amazon.com tell you what products you will like. Even something as simple as reading comments on a Web-blog requires the consumer to make a trusting decision about the quality of that information. In all of these example cases, and indeed throughout the Social Web, there is a pressing demand for increased information upon which we can make trusting decisions. This chapter examines the diversity of sources from which trust information can be harnessed within Social Web applications and discusses a high level classification of those sources. Three different techniques for harnessing and using trust from a range of sources are presented. These techniques are deployed in two sample Social Web

  20. Savings in its sights for Somerset Trust.

    PubMed

    Russell, Colin

    2011-10-01

    Colin Russell, healthcare specialist at Schneider Electric (pictured), explains how the company has recently worked with Taunton and Somerset NHS Foundation Trust to implement a major energy-saving project at the Trust's Musgrove Park Hospital in Taunton. He argues that, at a time when all areas of the service are being asked to reduce costs, such partnerships can potentially save the institution millions of pounds and significantly reduce carbon emissions, while "revitalising" parts of the NHS estate, and ensuring continuity of vital hospital services for facilities managers.

  1. Trust and Partnering with the Joint Team

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    ways shown in Figure 1 can improve trust within the Joint team. Notes 1 Barbara D. Adams, Ph.D. and Robert D.G. Webb, Ph.D., Trust in Small Military...decade after Vietnam, (Washington D.C.: Air Force History and Museums Program), 2001, xi. 5 Major Bruce H. McClintock , The Transformation Trinity: A...2002, 15. http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/aupress/saas_Theses/ McClintock /McClintock.pdf 6 David Knott, Stephen Muers and Stephen Aldridge, Achieving

  2. Trust Networks on the Semantic Web

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    to show trust levels for the mail sender either on a general level or with respect to a certain topic. To generate ratings, TrustMail makes a call to...attention to? Since the name is unfamiliar, the message is not distinguishable from other, not-so-important mail in the inbox . This scenario is exactly...the web service, passing in the email address of the sender and the address of the mailbox to where the message was delivered. It is necessary to use

  3. FAQs for Beneficiaries to the VW Mitigation Trust Agreement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The November 2016 partial Volkswagen settlement requires the defendant, Volkswagen, to establish and fund a $2.7 billion environmental mitigation trust. The trust will be administered by an independent trustee.

  4. [Trust and palliative care, the risk of vulnerability].

    PubMed

    Miniac, Véronique

    2013-10-01

    Patients receiving palliative care experience extreme vulnerability reminding them of the fragility of their human condition. How are they to trust nurses bearing bad news in these crucial moments? Trust is built on team coherence and rigorous support.

  5. Memory loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003257.htm Memory loss To use the sharing features on this ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  6. 26 CFR 1.50A-6 - Estates and trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Estates and trusts. 1.50A-6 Section 1.50A-6... Computing Credit for Expenses of Work Incentive Programs § 1.50A-6 Estates and trusts. (a) In general—(1) Termination of employment by an estate or trust. If an estate or trust terminates (in a termination subject...

  7. Predictors and Extent of Institutional Trust in Government, Banks, the Media and Religious Organisations: Evidence from Cross-Sectional Surveys in Six Asia-Pacific Countries

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Emma; Pearce, Alex R.; Meyer, Samantha B.

    2016-01-01

    expressed the highest level of trust in their judicial/legal system (89%), followed by religious organisations (75%) and banks (77%). Australian respondents reported the least amount of trust in TV/media (24%) and press/newspapers (28%). South Korea put the least trust in their political leaders (25%), their legal system (43%) and religious organisations (45%). The key predictors of lower trust in institutions across all countries were males, people under 44 years and people unsatisfied with the health and standard of living. Conclusion We interpreted our data using Fukuyama’s theory of ‘high/low trust’ societies. The levels of institutional trust in each society did not conform to our hypothesis, with Thailand exhibiting the highest trust (predicted to be medium level), Hong Kong and Japan exhibiting medium trust (predicted to be low and high respectively) and Australia and South Korea exhibiting low trust (predicted to be high and medium respectively). Taiwan was the only country where the actual and predicted trust was the same, namely low trust. Given the fact that these predictors crossed national boundaries and institutional types, further research and policy should focus specifically on improving trust within these groups in order that they can be empowered to play a more central role in democratic vitality. PMID:27701439

  8. 26 CFR 1.679-2 - Trusts treated as having a U.S. beneficiary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trusts treated as having a U.S. beneficiary. 1... the trust income. The trust instrument further provides that in 2011, the trust will terminate and the... trust terminates unexpectedly prior to 2011, all trust assets must be distributed to C. Because it...

  9. Any qualified provider: a qualitative case study of one community NHS Trust's response

    PubMed Central

    Walumbe, Jackie; Swinglehurst, Deborah; Shaw, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine how those managing and providing community-based musculoskeletal (MSK) services have experienced recent policy allowing patients to choose any provider that meets certain quality standards from the National Health Service (NHS), private or voluntary sector. Design Intrinsic case study combining qualitative analysis of interviews and field notes. Setting An NHS Community Trust (the main providers of community health services in the NHS) in England, 2013–2014. Participants NHS Community Trust employees involved in delivering MSK services, including clinical staff and managerial staff in senior and mid-range positions. Findings Managers (n=4) and clinicians (n=4) working within MSK services understood and experienced the Any Qualified Provider (AQP) policy as involving: (1) a perceived trade-off between quality and cost in its implementation; (2) deskilling of MSK clinicians and erosion of professional values; and (3) a shift away from interprofessional collaboration and dialogue. These ways of making sense of AQP policy were associated with dissatisfaction with market-based health reforms. Conclusions AQP policy is poorly understood. Clinicians and managers perceive AQP as synonymous with competition and privatisation. From the perspective of clinicians providing MSK services, AQP, and related health policy reforms, tend, paradoxically, to drive down quality standards, supporting reconfiguration of services in which the complex, holistic nature of specialised MSK care may become marginalised by policy concerns about efficiency and cost. Our analysis indicates that the potential of AQP policy to increase quality of care is, at best, equivocal, and that any consideration of how AQP impacts on practice can only be understood by reference to a wider range of health policy reforms. PMID:26908521

  10. 12 CFR 303.242 - Exercise of trust powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exercise of trust powers. 303.242 Section 303... PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.242 Exercise of trust powers. (a) Scope. This section contains the procedures to be followed by a state nonmember bank to seek the FDIC's prior consent to exercise trust...

  11. 12 CFR 303.242 - Exercise of trust powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exercise of trust powers. 303.242 Section 303... PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.242 Exercise of trust powers. (a) Scope. This section contains the procedures to be followed by a state nonmember bank to seek the FDIC's prior consent to exercise trust...

  12. 12 CFR 303.242 - Exercise of trust powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exercise of trust powers. 303.242 Section 303... PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.242 Exercise of trust powers. (a) Scope. This section contains the procedures to be followed by a state nonmember bank to seek the FDIC's prior consent to exercise trust...

  13. 77 FR 67689 - Fidelity Aberdeen Street Trust, et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... COMMISSION Fidelity Aberdeen Street Trust, et al.; Notice of Application November 6, 2012. AGENCY: Securities... certain joint arrangements (``Prior Order'').\\1\\ \\1\\ Colchester Street Trust, et al., Investment Company..., Colchester Street Trust, et al., Investment Company Act Release Nos. 23787 (Apr. 15, 1999) (notice) and...

  14. 26 CFR 1.851-7 - Certain unit investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain unit investment trusts. 1.851-7 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.851-7 Certain unit investment trusts. (a) In general. For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code, a...

  15. Trust in School: A Pathway to Inhibit Teacher Burnout?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Maele, Dimitri; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider trust as an important relational source in schools by exploring whether trust lowers teacher burnout. The authors examine how trust relationships with different school parties such as the principal relate to distinct dimensions of teacher burnout. The authors further analyze whether school-level…

  16. Paying a Price: Culture, Trust, and Negotiation Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunia, Brian C.; Brett, Jeanne M.; Nandkeolyar, Amit K.; Kamdar, Dishan

    2011-01-01

    Three studies contrasting Indian and American negotiators tested hypotheses derived from theory proposing why there are cultural differences in trust and how cultural differences in trust influence negotiation strategy. Study 1 (a survey) documented that Indian negotiators trust their counterparts less than American negotiators. Study 2 (a…

  17. 76 FR 44625 - Northern Lights Variable Trust, et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... COMMISSION Northern Lights Variable Trust, et al.; Notice of Application July 19, 2011. AGENCY: Securities.... APPLICANTS: Northern Lights Variable Trust (the ``Fund'') and Gemini Fund Services, LLC (``Gemini.... Northern Lights Variable Trust, c/o Emile Molineaux, Esquire, Gemini Fund Services, LLC, 450...

  18. Trusting Relationships and Emotional Epistemologies: A Foundational Leadership Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Brenda R.; Brew, Christine R.

    2004-01-01

    The connections among relational trust, learning and development are implicit in transformational leadership theory. They have also been established empirically in recent studies. Leadership preparation programs often endorse the need for leaders to build effective collaborative relationships that rely on trust. Trust is an emotional phenomenon.…

  19. 12 CFR 303.242 - Exercise of trust powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exercise of trust powers. 303.242 Section 303... PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.242 Exercise of trust powers. (a) Scope. This section contains the procedures to be followed by a state nonmember bank to seek the FDIC's prior consent to exercise trust...

  20. Exploring the Antecedents of Trust in Virtual Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Meng-Hsiang; Chang, Chun-Ming; Yen, Chia-Hui

    2011-01-01

    Although previous research has established that interpersonal trust and system trust are critical in shaping individual behaviour in virtual settings, the two perspectives have not been examined by IS researchers in virtual communities (VCs) simultaneously. Drawing from prior literature on trust and VCs, a research model for understanding the…

  1. 7 CFR 3550.72 - Community land trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Community land trusts. 3550.72 Section 3550.72... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.72 Community land trusts. Eligible dwellings located on land owned by a community land trust may be financed if: (a)...

  2. 26 CFR 25.2702-5 - Personal residence trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... governing instrument must provide that the right of the term holder to receive the annuity amount begins on... right to use the condominium during L's lifetime. The trust is a qualified personal residence trust... enclosures for confinement of farm animals. W transfers the farm to an irrevocable trust, retaining the...

  3. 12 CFR 303.242 - Exercise of trust powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise of trust powers. 303.242 Section 303... PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.242 Exercise of trust powers. (a) Scope. This section contains the procedures to be followed by a state nonmember bank to seek the FDIC's prior consent to exercise trust...

  4. A Trust That Can't Be Breached.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penning, Nick

    1990-01-01

    Children's Investment Trust is a proposed trust fund for children's services (nutrition, health, education, and social services) similar in design to Social Security fund. The trust would be funded by a small, progressive payroll tax levied on both employer and employee on wages greater than $5 per hour. The tax would raise $25 billion more every…

  5. Conceptions of Trust: How Designers Approach Usable Privacy and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birge, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Designers who create user interfaces are frequently required to ask users for personal information. For the user, this is a "trust question": Do I, the user, trust the system or entity that is asking me for this information? The creation and management of these trust questions is an important aspect of the research field called usable…

  6. Teachers' Beliefs about the Development of Teacher-Adolescent Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Shannon L.; Wentzel, Kathryn R.; Donlan, Alice E.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined teachers' beliefs concerning the meaning and nature of teacher--student trust in a diverse sample of secondary-school teachers (n = 34). Using a grounded-theory approach, a process model of teacher-adolescent trust emerged based on semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Antecedents of trust could be categorised as…

  7. The Relationship between Loneliness and Interpersonal Trust during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; MacDonald, Keltie J.; King, Emily V.

    2004-01-01

    The authors administered measures of loneliness, generalized trust beliefs in peers, and trust beliefs in specific familiar peers (i.e., opposite-gender peers, same-gender peers, close same-gender peers) to a sample of 63 children (33 girls, 30 boys) from 4th and 5th grades (M age = 10 years, 6 months). They assessed children's trusting behavior…

  8. Investigation of the Relationship between Organizational Trust and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastug, Gülsüm; Pala, Adem; Kumartasli, Mehmet; Günel, Ilker; Duyan, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Organizational trust and organizational commitment are considered as the most important entraining factors for organizational success. The most important factor in the formation of organizational commitment is trust that employees have in their organizations. In this study, the relationship between organizational trust and organizational…

  9. 7 CFR 3550.72 - Community land trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Community land trusts. 3550.72 Section 3550.72... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.72 Community land trusts. Eligible dwellings located on land owned by a community land trust may be financed if: (a)...

  10. 7 CFR 3550.72 - Community land trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Community land trusts. 3550.72 Section 3550.72... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.72 Community land trusts. Eligible dwellings located on land owned by a community land trust may be financed if: (a)...

  11. 77 FR 17091 - Trust Land Consolidation Draft Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Office of the Secretary Trust Land Consolidation Draft Plan AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior... Agreement established a trust land consolidation fund to be used for consolidating Indian trust and restricted lands and acquiring fractional interests in these lands. We are reopening the period...

  12. 7 CFR 3550.72 - Community land trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Community land trusts. 3550.72 Section 3550.72... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.72 Community land trusts. Eligible dwellings located on land owned by a community land trust may be financed if: (a)...

  13. Collective Trust: A Social Indicator of Instructional Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to test the validity of using collective trust as a social indicator of instructional capacity. Design/methodology/approach: A hypothesized model was advanced for the empirical investigation. Collective trust was specified as a latent construct with observable indicators being principal trust in faculty (PTF),…

  14. Revisiting the Trust Effect in Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2013-01-01

    More than a decade after Goddard, Tschannen-Moran, and Hoy (2001) found that collective faculty trust in clients predicts student achievement in urban elementary schools, we sought to identify a plausible link for this relationship. Our purpose in revisiting the trust effect was twofold: (1) to test the main effect of collective faculty trust on…

  15. 9 CFR 201.42 - Custodial accounts for trust funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Custodial accounts for trust funds... STOCKYARDS ACT Proceeds of Sale § 201.42 Custodial accounts for trust funds. (a) Payments for livestock are trust funds. Each payment that a livestock buyer makes to a market agency selling on commission is...

  16. 26 CFR 1.678(c)-1 - Trusts for support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trusts for support. 1.678(c)-1 Section 1.678(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.678(c)-1 Trusts for support... cotrustee, to apply the income of the trust to the support or maintenance of a person whom the holder...

  17. 26 CFR 1.318-3 - Estates, trusts, and options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estates, trusts, and options. 1.318-3 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Definitions; Constructive Ownership of Stock § 1.318-3 Estates, trusts, and options... of section 318(a)(2)(B) stock owned by a trust will be considered as being owned by its...

  18. 24 CFR 203.434 - Declaration of trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declaration of trust. 203.434... Mortgage § 203.434 Declaration of trust. A sale of a beneficial interest in a group of insured mortgages... interest in a specific mortgage shall be made only pursuant to a declaration of trust, which has...

  19. 43 CFR 12.937 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Property trust relationship. 12.937... Requirements § 12.937 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that are acquired or improved with Federal funds shall be held in trust by the recipient...

  20. The Lifecycle of Trust in Educational Leadership: An Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsyuruba, Benjamin; Walker, Keith

    2015-01-01

    As establishing and fostering trust are imperative activities for school leaders, cognizance of the fundamental importance of trust is essential for the leader's moral agency and ethical decision-making. In this article, we use an ecological perspective to uncover the dynamics of the lifecycle of trust as evident from extant literature on…

  1. 78 FR 70959 - Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... Office of the Secretary Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Renewal of the Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform... Secretary of the Interior is renewing the Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform. FOR...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1493-1 - Definition of foreign trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of foreign trust. 1.1493-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Transfers to Avoid Income Tax § 1.1493-1 Definition of foreign trust. For taxable years beginning before January 1, 1967, a trust is to be considered a “foreign trust” within...

  3. 7 CFR 795.9 - Estate or trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Estate or trust. 795.9 Section 795.9 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.9 Estate or trust. (a) An estate or irrevocable trust shall be considered as one person except that, where two or more estates...

  4. 17 CFR 240.16b-8 - Voting trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voting trusts. 240.16b-8... Exchange Act of 1934 Exemption of Certain Transactions from Section 16(b) § 240.16b-8 Voting trusts. Any... deposit or withdrawal from a voting trust or deposit agreement shall be exempt from section 16(b) of...

  5. 26 CFR 1.677(b)-1 - Trusts for support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trusts for support. 1.677(b)-1 Section 1.677(b... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.677(b)-1 Trusts for support. (a) Section 677(b) provides that a grantor is not treated as the owner of a trust merely because...

  6. 24 CFR 203.493 - Declaration of trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declaration of trust. 203.493... Declaration of trust. A sale of a beneficial interest in a group of insured loans, where the interest to be... be made only pursuant to a declaration of trust, which has been approved by the Commissioner prior...

  7. 5 CFR 2634.405 - Certification of trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Qualified Trusts § 2634.405... must be certified by the Director of the Office of Government Ethics. (1) A trust will be certified for purposes of this subpart only if: (i) It is established to the Director's satisfaction that...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.354 - What is a trust evaluation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review Annual Trust Evaluations § 1000.354 What is a trust evaluation? A...

  9. Dimensions of trust: the tensions and challenges in provider--interpreter trust.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Elaine; Ju, Hyejung; Kong, Haiying

    2010-02-01

    In this study we examined the challenges to providers' and interpreters' collaboration in bilingual health care. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with 26 medical interpreters (speaking 17 languages) and 32 providers (from four specialties) in the United States to provide an empirically based framework of provider-interpreter trust. Constant comparative analysis was used for data analysis. We identified four dimensions of trust, theoretical constructs that can strengthen or compromise provider-interpreter trust: interpreter competence, shared goals, professional boundaries, and established patterns of collaboration. In this article we describe how these dimensions highlight tensions and challenges that are unique in provider-interpreter relationships. We conclude with practical guidelines that can enhance provider-interpreter trust, and propose future research directions in bilingual health care.

  10. Study of Trust as an Organizational Contingency, Part II: Examining Four Dimensions of Trust in ELICIT Experimentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    several interrelated cognitive processes and orientations” (p. 571). Zand (1972) is more emphatic, stating that trust “is not a global feeling of warmth ...economic activity overwhelm interpersonal trust relations” (p. 411). Schoorman et al. (2007) take a different view, asserting that the bureaucracy... Interpersonal Trust. Journal of Personality, 35 (4), 651-665. Rotter J. B. (1980). Interpersonal trust, trustworthiness, and gullibility. American Psychology

  11. Improving Access to, Use of, and Outcomes from Public Health Programs: The Importance of Building and Maintaining Trust with Patients/Clients.

    PubMed

    Ward, Paul Russell

    2017-01-01

    The central argument in this paper is that "public trust" is critical for developing and maintaining the health and wellbeing of individuals, communities, and societies. I argue that public health practitioners and policy makers need to take "public trust" seriously if they intend to improve both the public's health and the engagement between members of the public and public health systems. Public health practitioners implement a range of services and interventions aimed at improving health but implicit a requirement for individuals to trust the practitioners and the services/interventions, before they engage with them. I then go on to provide an overview of the theory of trust within sociology and show why it is important to understand this theory in order to promote trust in public health services. I then draw on literature in three classic areas of public health-hospitals, cancer screening, and childhood immunization-to show why trust is vital in terms of understanding and potentially improving uptake of services. The case studies in this paper reveal that public health practitioners need to understand the centrality of building and maintaining trusting relationships with patients/clients because people who distrust public health services are less likely to use them, less likely to follow advice or recommendations, and more likely to have poorer health outcomes.

  12. Principles of Trust for Embedded Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, AS TO ANY MATTER INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, WARRANTY OF FITNESS FOR PURPOSE OR MERCHANTABILITY, EXCLUSIVITY, OR RESULTS... punctual on Wednesdays may say little about their tardiness on Fridays. CMU/SEI-2012-TN-007 | 6 Evidence of trust is only needed for those functions

  13. Trust and Transitions in Modes of Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheshire, Coye; Gerbasi, Alexandra; Cook, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between uncertainty and trust in exogenous shifts in modes of social exchange (i.e., those that are not initiated by the individuals in a given exchange system). We explore how transitions from a high uncertainty environment (reciprocal exchange) to lower-uncertainty environments (nonbinding or…

  14. The Devon NUT Campaign against Trust Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinch, Dave

    2008-01-01

    When the Devon County Council announced that six secondary schools in the South Devon area were to become "Pathfinder Schools" for trust status, the Devon National Union of Teachers set about organising a campaign to defend the county's comprehensive schools. This campaign has proved successful in the case of Tavistock College, causing…

  15. Keeping "Community" in a Community Land Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Karen A.; Galande, Mugdha

    2011-01-01

    This instrumental case study examined the role of grassroots community organizing in a community land trust (CLT) in a southern U.S. city. Twenty-nine homeowners, renters, board members, community members, and current and former CLT employees were interviewed. In addition, two focus groups of 11 and six participants composed of CLT residents and…

  16. Predicting Social Trust with Binary Logistic Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adwere-Boamah, Joseph; Hufstedler, Shirley

    2015-01-01

    This study used binary logistic regression to predict social trust with five demographic variables from a national sample of adult individuals who participated in The General Social Survey (GSS) in 2012. The five predictor variables were respondents' highest degree earned, race, sex, general happiness and the importance of personally assisting…

  17. Do Higher Education Institutes Communicate Trust Well?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Paul; Dean, Aftab

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between trust and information sources for new purchasers of higher education is discussed. A range of sources is evaluated by potential entrants into UK higher education, and indicates that universities tend to be regarded as the most trustworthy when information is directly associated with them and social networks, and friends…

  18. The Importance of Trust in Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mineo, David L.

    2014-01-01

    If one looks at the different philosophies on leadership, each espouses various attributes that are essential to create a bond between the leader and the followers who are being led. This article is intended to focus on how the bond is created that provides the leader with the vehicle for success. Trust is the glue which binds the leader to…

  19. Information Hiding based Trusted Computing System Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-18

    This has also been identified in the Defense Science Board study on High Performance Microchip Supply, “Trust cannot be added to integrated circuits...Science Board Task Force on High Performance Microchip Supply, February 2005. [27] B.S. Cohen. “On Integrated Circuits Supply Chain Issues in a Global

  20. Trust and the Client-Consultant Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomonson, William L.

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to improve the contributions of performance consultants, instructional design consultants, and training consultants by explaining the effect that several variables have on trust as a mediator to relationship commitment within the context of the client-consultant relationship. The participants were 228 college students from two…

  1. The Role of Trust in Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovey, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of trust in the collaborative learning processes that underpin innovation as a competitive strategy in organizations. Design/methodology/approach: As a conceptual paper, the argument is framed by academic perspectives, drawn from the academic literature on the topic and by professional and…

  2. 17 CFR 300.104 - Trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trust accounts. 300.104 Section 300.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of...

  3. 17 CFR 300.104 - Trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trust accounts. 300.104 Section 300.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of...

  4. 17 CFR 300.104 - Trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trust accounts. 300.104 Section 300.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of...

  5. 17 CFR 300.104 - Trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trust accounts. 300.104 Section 300.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of...

  6. 17 CFR 300.104 - Trust accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trust accounts. 300.104 Section 300.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of...

  7. 7 CFR 1400.205 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to be actively engaged in farming with respect to a farming operation if: (a) The trust independently and separately makes a significant contribution to the farming operation of capital, equipment, or... personal labor and active personal management to the farming operation. The combined interest of all...

  8. Cooperation under Indirect Reciprocity and Imitative Trust

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra, Serguei; Smith, David; Reed-Tsochas, Felix

    2010-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating) does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors. PMID:21048950

  9. 7 CFR 46.46 - Statutory trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inventories of food or other products derived from such perishable agricultural commodities, and all... trust benefits. (1) The times for prompt accounting and prompt payment are set out in § 46.2(z) and (aa... payment must be disclosed on invoices, accountings, and other documents relating to the transaction....

  10. 7 CFR 1400.205 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to be actively engaged in farming with respect to a farming operation if: (a) The trust independently and separately makes a significant contribution to the farming operation of capital, equipment, or... personal labor and active personal management to the farming operation. The combined interest of all...

  11. 7 CFR 1400.205 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to be actively engaged in farming with respect to a farming operation if: (a) The trust independently and separately makes a significant contribution to the farming operation of capital, equipment, or... personal labor and active personal management to the farming operation. The combined interest of all...

  12. 7 CFR 1400.205 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to be actively engaged in farming with respect to a farming operation if: (a) The trust independently and separately makes a significant contribution to the farming operation of capital, equipment, or... personal labor and active personal management to the farming operation. The combined interest of all...

  13. 7 CFR 1400.205 - Trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to be actively engaged in farming with respect to a farming operation if: (a) The trust independently and separately makes a significant contribution to the farming operation of capital, equipment, or... personal labor and active personal management to the farming operation. The combined interest of all...

  14. Taking Trust to the Field: Pilot Study on Trust and Communication in Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-23

    The first iteration of the team trust scale seemed to perform relatively well, and we received positive feedback about the scale from participants...tailoring of the experimental context to data collection (e.g. performance data) and the time intensity of content analysis. Recommendations for...Teams Scale seemed to perform relatively well, and we received positive feedback about the scale from participants. More importantly, the Trust in

  15. 25 CFR 1000.353 - What are “trust functions” for the purposes of the trust evaluation process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... management of assets held in trust by the United States for an Indian Tribe or individual Indian. Annual..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review § 1000.353 What are “trust...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.353 - What are “trust functions” for the purposes of the trust evaluation process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... management of assets held in trust by the United States for an Indian Tribe or individual Indian. Annual..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review § 1000.353 What are “trust...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.353 - What are “trust functions” for the purposes of the trust evaluation process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... management of assets held in trust by the United States for an Indian Tribe or individual Indian. Annual..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review § 1000.353 What are “trust...

  18. "Do You Trust Him?" Children's Trust Beliefs and Developmental Trajectories of Aggressive Behavior in an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Averdijk, Margit; Ribeaud, Denis; Rotenberg, Ken J.; Eisner, Manuel P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the role of trust beliefs (i.e., trustworthiness, trustfulness) on aggression trajectories in a four-wave longitudinal study using an ethnically diverse sample of 8- to 11-year-old children (N = 1,028), as well as the risk profiles of low trust beliefs and low socioeconomic status on aggression trajectories. At Time 1 to…

  19. Trust Me, Principal, or Burn Out! The Relationship between Principals' Burnout and Trust in Students and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, Niyazi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the primary school principals' views on trust in students and parents and also, to explore the relationships between principals' levels of professional burnout and their trust in students and parents. To this end, Principal Trust Survey and Friedman Principal Burnout scales were administered on 119…

  20. Partnership as a Product of Trust: Parent-Teacher Relational Trust in a Low-Income Urban School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Heather Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Trust is an important factor affecting parent-teacher relationships. In urban schools, the lack of trust between parents and teachers is exacerbated by racial and social class differences (Bryk and Schneider, 2002). This paper examines how relational trust was both fostered and inhibited between low-income parents and their children's…

  1. Being trusted: How team generational age diversity promotes and undermines trust in cross‐boundary relationships

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary We examine how demographic context influences the trust that boundary spanners experience in their dyadic relationships with clients. Because of the salience of age as a demographic characteristic as well as the increasing prevalence of age diversity and intergenerational conflict in the workplace, we focus on team age diversity as a demographic social context that affects trust between boundary spanners and their clients. Using social categorization theory and theories of social capital, we develop and test our contextual argument that a boundary spanner's experience of being trusted is influenced by the social categorization processes that occur in dyadic interactions with a specific client and, simultaneously, by similar social categorization processes that influence the degree to which the client team as a whole serves as a cooperative resource for demographically similar versus dissimilar boundary spanner–client dyads. Using a sample of 168 senior boundary spanners from the consulting industry, we find that generational diversity among client team members from a client organization undermines the perception of being trusted within homogeneous boundary spanner–client dyads while it enhances the perception of being trusted within heterogeneous dyads. The perception of being trusted is an important aspect of cross‐boundary relationships because it influences coordination and the costs associated with coordination. © 2015 The Author Journal of Organizational Behavior Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd PMID:27721558

  2. Marrying Heterogeneous Circles of Trust: No Silver Bullet Yet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ates, Mikaël; Gravier, Christophe; Fayolle, Jacques; Sauviac, Bruno

    2008-11-01

    Numerous business and state-owned entities assert the need of secured information exchanges on digital identities based on trusted third parties. Entities trusting each other create a federation. At first, it is necessary for them to formalize this alliance with legal documents. In a second time, an architecture of identity federation will allow them to establish technical trust links, creating a circle of trust, most often with a public key infrastructure. The real challenge for the identity federation domain is the interoperability of information systems thanks to normalized and standardized protocols, that is to say, realize interconnection of circles of trust.

  3. Fear Memory.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Ivan; Furini, Cristiane R G; Myskiw, Jociane C

    2016-04-01

    Fear memory is the best-studied form of memory. It was thoroughly investigated in the past 60 years mostly using two classical conditioning procedures (contextual fear conditioning and fear conditioning to a tone) and one instrumental procedure (one-trial inhibitory avoidance). Fear memory is formed in the hippocampus (contextual conditioning and inhibitory avoidance), in the basolateral amygdala (inhibitory avoidance), and in the lateral amygdala (conditioning to a tone). The circuitry involves, in addition, the pre- and infralimbic ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the central amygdala subnuclei, and the dentate gyrus. Fear learning models, notably inhibitory avoidance, have also been very useful for the analysis of the biochemical mechanisms of memory consolidation as a whole. These studies have capitalized on in vitro observations on long-term potentiation and other kinds of plasticity. The effect of a very large number of drugs on fear learning has been intensively studied, often as a prelude to the investigation of effects on anxiety. The extinction of fear learning involves to an extent a reversal of the flow of information in the mentioned structures and is used in the therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder and fear memories in general.

  4. Dynamic Reconfiguration of Security Policies in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Mónica; Gámez, Nadia; Fuentes, Lidia; Amor, Mercedes; Horcas, José Miguel; Ayala, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    Providing security and privacy to wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) is very challenging, due to the heterogeneity of sensor nodes and their limited capabilities in terms of energy, processing power and memory. The applications for these systems run in a myriad of sensors with different low-level programming abstractions, limited capabilities and different routing protocols. This means that applications for WSNs need mechanisms for self-adaptation and for self-protection based on the dynamic adaptation of the algorithms used to provide security. Dynamic software product lines (DSPLs) allow managing both variability and dynamic software adaptation, so they can be considered a key technology in successfully developing self-protected WSN applications. In this paper, we propose a self-protection solution for WSNs based on the combination of the INTER-TRUST security framework (a solution for the dynamic negotiation and deployment of security policies) and the FamiWare middleware (a DSPL approach to automatically configure and reconfigure instances of a middleware for WSNs). We evaluate our approach using a case study from the intelligent transportation system domain. PMID:25746093

  5. Damage to the insula is associated with abnormal interpersonal trust

    PubMed Central

    Belfi, Amy M.; Koscik, Timothy R.; Tranel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal trust is a crucial component of cooperative, mutually beneficial social relationships. Previous research using tasks that require judging and developing interpersonal trust has suggested that the insula may be an important brain region underlying these processes (King-Casas et al., 2008). Here, using a neuropsychological approach, we investigated the role of the insula in reciprocal trust during the Trust Game (TG), an interpersonal economic exchange. Consistent with previous research, we found that neurologically normal adults reciprocate trust in kind, i.e., they increase trust in response to increases from their partners, and decrease trust in response to decreases. In contrast, individuals with damage to the insula displayed abnormal expressions of trust. Specifically, these individuals behaved benevolently (expressing misplaced trust) when playing the role of investor, and malevolently (violating their partner’s trust) when playing the role of the trustee. Our findings lend further support to the idea that the insula is important for expressing normal interpersonal trust, perhaps because the insula helps to recognize risk during decision-making and to identify social norm violations. PMID:25846668

  6. The virtual maze: A behavioural tool for measuring trust.

    PubMed

    Hale, Joanna; Payne, Madeleine E M; Taylor, Kathryn M; Paoletti, Davide; Hamilton, Antonia F De C

    2017-03-17

    Trusting another person may depend on our level of generalised trust in others, as well as perceptions of that specific person's trustworthiness. However, many studies measuring trust outcomes have not discussed generalised versus specific trust. To measure specific trust in others, we developed a novel behavioural task. Participants navigate a virtual maze and make a series of decisions about how to proceed. Before each decision, they may ask for advice from two virtual characters they have briefly interviewed earlier. We manipulated the virtual characters' trustworthiness during the interview phase and measured how often participants approached and followed advice from each character. We also measured trust through ratings and an investment game. Across three studies we found participants followed advice from a trustworthy character significantly more than an untrustworthy character, demonstrating the validity of the maze task. Behaviour in the virtual maze reflected specific trust rather than generalised trust, whereas the investment game picked up on generalised trust as well as specific trust. Our data suggests the virtual maze task may provide an alternative behavioural approach to measuring specific trust in future research, and we demonstrate how the task may be used in traditional laboratories.

  7. Damage to the insula is associated with abnormal interpersonal trust.

    PubMed

    Belfi, Amy M; Koscik, Timothy R; Tranel, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Reciprocal trust is a crucial component of cooperative, mutually beneficial social relationships. Previous research using tasks that require judging and developing interpersonal trust has suggested that the insula may be an important brain region underlying these processes (King-Casas et al., 2008). Here, using a neuropsychological approach, we investigated the role of the insula in reciprocal trust during the Trust Game (TG), an interpersonal economic exchange. Consistent with previous research, we found that neurologically normal adults reciprocate trust in kind, i.e., they increase trust in response to increases from their partners, and decrease trust in response to decreases. In contrast, individuals with damage to the insula displayed abnormal expressions of trust. Specifically, these individuals behaved benevolently (expressing misplaced trust) when playing the role of investor, and malevolently (violating their partner's trust) when playing the role of the trustee. Our findings lend further support to the idea that the insula is important for expressing normal interpersonal trust, perhaps because the insula helps to recognize risk during decision-making and to identify social norm violations.

  8. Trust Management - Building Trust for International Cross Disciplinary Collaboration on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakley, K. V.; Gurney, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Successful communication and collaboration entails mutual understanding, and transfer, of information. The risk of misunderstanding and/or miscommunication between collaborating groups is tackled in different ways around the globe; some are well documented whereas others may be unknown outside particular groups, whether defined geographically or by specialism. For example; in some countries legally binding contracts define the terms of collaboration. Some regions place greater emphasis on developing trust relationships, and sometimes an official agreement is implied, such as many electronic data transfers on the web. International collaboration on climate change increasingly involves electronic data exchange (e.g. open access publications, shared documents, data repositories etc.) and with this increased reliance on electronic data a need has arisen for scientists to collaborate both internationally and cross-disciplinarily particularly with information technology and data management specialists. Trust of data and metadata on the internet (e.g. privacy, legitimacy etc.) varies, possibly due to a lack of internationally agreed standards for data governance and management, leaving many national, regional and institutional practices tailored to the needs of that group only. It is proposed that building trust relationships between cross-disciplinary and international groups could help facilitate further communication, understanding and benefits from the relationship, while still maintaining independence as separate groups. Complex international cross-disciplinary group relationship dynamics are not easily mapped and producing a set of trust building rules that can be applied to any current and future collaboration with equal validity may be unfeasible. An alternative to such a set of rules may be found in a Trust Manager, whose role is to improve mutually beneficial knowledge exchange between groups, build trust and increase future collaborative potential. This

  9. Enforcing Memory Policy Specifications in Reconfigurable Hardware

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    bit-level configurability of these devices can be used to implement specific logic circuits that are highly optimized compared to the processing...required in a general-purpose CPU. Because the logic of the fabricated device is reconfigurable, special-purpose circuits can be developed and deployed at a...fraction of the cost associated with custom fabrication (e.g., ASIC). Furthermore, the logic on an FPGA board can even be changed in the field. These

  10. Chemically Enhanced Trust: Potential Law Enforcement and Military Applications for Oxytocin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    C. TRUST Trust is a fundamental feature of social interaction . The concept of trust is a powerful one, and the importance of trust in society is...human social life and interaction . This would be too obvious.2 Humans are so given to trust that it comprises its own category of knowledge….one...every feature of social interaction depends in some way on trust or distrust. “Basic trust is something we develop in a crude form in infancy and

  11. Trust, Respect, and Reciprocity: Informing Culturally Appropriate Data-Sharing Practice in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Merson, Laura; Phong, Tran Viet; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Dung, Nguyen Thanh; Ngan, Ta Thi Dieu; Kinh, Nguyen Van; Parker, Michael; Bull, Susan

    2015-07-01

    International science funders and publishers are driving a growing trend in data sharing. There is mounting pressure on researchers in low- and middle-income settings to conform to new sharing policies, despite minimal empirically grounded accounts of the ethical challenges of implementing the policies in these settings. This study used in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 48 stakeholders in Vietnam to explore the experiences, attitudes, and expectations that inform ethical and effective approaches to sharing clinical research data. Distinct views on the role of trust, respect, and reciprocity were among those that emerged to inform culturally appropriate best practices. We conclude by discussing the challenges that authors of data-sharing policies should consider in this unique context.

  12. The Integrity of Science: Identifying Logical Fallacies, Deceitful Tactics, and Abuse of the Public Trust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2006-12-01

    Science, government, and society interact in diverse and complex ways, but good scientific information and advice are vital for making sound policy decisions. Recent efforts to discredit or distort science for political agendas raise difficult questions for the scientific community. As a result, there is growing distrust of scientists long held in esteem by the public and a growing misuse of science critical for public policy. This paper will categorize and define more than 20 different kinds of problems that challenge the integrity of science, including logical fallacies, such as Arguments from Ideology, Personal Incredulity, or Ignorance; and deceitful tactics, such as ad hominem attacks, "straw man" mischaracterizations, scientific misconduct, and misuse of facts. Examples from the geophysical sciences and its intersection with the public policy arena will be presented, together with suggestions for strengthening the public trust.

  13. Fueling Memories

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Jonathan D.; Pollizzi, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of the adaptive immune response is rapid and robust activation upon rechallenge. In the current issue of Immunity van der Windt et al. (2012) provide an important link between mitochondrial respiratory capacity and the development of CD8+ T cell memory. PMID:22284413

  14. Childhood Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Lourdes Diaz

    2001-01-01

    Describes how artwork can be a valuable catalyst for discussions in preservice education classes, allowing students to explore how their work as educators relates to their childhood memories and can be shaped by childhood experiences. Examines an art exhibition in which diverse artists depicted autobiographical text in their paintings. Discusses…

  15. Retracing Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David L.

    2005-01-01

    There are plenty of paths to poetry but few are as accessible as retracing ones own memories. When students are asked to write about something they remember, they are given them the gift of choosing from events that are important enough to recall. They remember because what happened was funny or scary or embarrassing or heartbreaking or silly.…

  16. Hollow memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    A hollow-core optical fibre filled with warm caesium atoms can temporarily store the properties of photons. Michael Sprague from the University of Oxford, UK, explains to Nature Photonics how this optical memory could be a useful building block for fibre-based quantum optics.

  17. Trusted Measurement Model Based on Multitenant Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Zhen-Hu; Shen, Chang-Xiang; Zhao, Yong; Liang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    With a fast growing pervasive computing, especially cloud computing, the behaviour measurement is at the core and plays a vital role. A new behaviour measurement tailored for Multitenants in cloud computing is needed urgently to fundamentally establish trust relationship. Based on our previous research, we propose an improved trust relationship scheme which captures the world of cloud computing where multitenants share the same physical computing platform. Here, we first present the related work on multitenant behaviour; secondly, we give the scheme of behaviour measurement where decoupling of multitenants is taken into account; thirdly, we explicitly explain our decoupling algorithm for multitenants; fourthly, we introduce a new way of similarity calculation for deviation control, which fits the coupled multitenants under study well; lastly, we design the experiments to test our scheme. PMID:24987731

  18. Social Trust Prediction Using Heterogeneous Networks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Nie, Feiping; Huang, Heng; Tu, Yi-Cheng; Lei, Yu

    2013-11-01

    Along with increasing popularity of social websites, online users rely more on the trustworthiness information to make decisions, extract and filter information, and tag and build connections with other users. However, such social network data often suffer from severe data sparsity and are not able to provide users with enough information. Therefore, trust prediction has emerged as an important topic in social network research. Traditional approaches are primarily based on exploring trust graph topology itself. However, research in sociology and our life experience suggest that people who are in the same social circle often exhibit similar behaviors and tastes. To take advantage of the ancillary information for trust prediction, the challenge then becomes what to transfer and how to transfer. In this article, we address this problem by aggregating heterogeneous social networks and propose a novel joint social networks mining (JSNM) method. Our new joint learning model explores the user-group-level similarity between correlated graphs and simultaneously learns the individual graph structure; therefore, the shared structures and patterns from multiple social networks can be utilized to enhance the prediction tasks. As a result, we not only improve the trust prediction in the target graph but also facilitate other information retrieval tasks in the auxiliary graphs. To optimize the proposed objective function, we use the alternative technique to break down the objective function into several manageable subproblems. We further introduce the auxiliary function to solve the optimization problems with rigorously proved convergence. The extensive experiments have been conducted on both synthetic and real- world data. All empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  19. Wireless Emergency Alerts: Trust Model Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    service, for- merly known as the Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS). Alert originators (AOs) working at emergency management agencies ( EMAs ...Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the EMAs , and the AOs must all strive to maximize and maintain trust in the WEA ser- vice if it is to be an effective...Alert Service (CMAS), enhances public safety by providing authorized emergency management agen- cies ( EMAs ) with the capability to issue alerts and

  20. Trusted computation through biologically inspired processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Gustave W.

    2013-05-01

    Due to supply chain threats it is no longer a reasonable assumption that traditional protections alone will provide sufficient security for enterprise systems. The proposed cognitive trust model architecture extends the state-of-the-art in enterprise anti-exploitation technologies by providing collective immunity through backup and cross-checking, proactive health monitoring and adaptive/autonomic threat response, and network resource diversity.

  1. We trust in government, just not in yours: race, partisanship, and political trust, 1958-2012.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Rima

    2015-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that political trust is reflective of satisfaction with the performance of the incumbent administration, this is only considered true for White Americans. Because their trust reflects a larger discontent with the political system, Black Americans, it is held, do not respond in the same way in the short term. This argument has yet to be tested with over-time data. Time matters. Not only does the race gap in trust change over time but the impact of partisanship and political winning is, by definition, time-dependent. The results of an analysis of the 1958-2012 American National Election Studies data show that Black Americans and White Americans are equally likely to tie short-term performance to trust in government. However, the relationship between partisanship and political trust and, therefore, system discontent, clearly differs for the two groups. Aggregate models that do not take race-partisan sub-group differences into account will therefore be misleading.

  2. A Secure Trust Establishment Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ishmanov, Farruh; Kim, Sung Won; Nam, Seung Yeob

    2014-01-01

    Trust establishment is an important tool to improve cooperation and enhance security in wireless sensor networks. The core of trust establishment is trust estimation. If a trust estimation method is not robust against attack and misbehavior, the trust values produced will be meaningless, and system performance will be degraded. We present a novel trust estimation method that is robust against on-off attacks and persistent malicious behavior. Moreover, in order to aggregate recommendations securely, we propose using a modified one-step M-estimator scheme. The novelty of the proposed scheme arises from combining past misbehavior with current status in a comprehensive way. Specifically, we introduce an aggregated misbehavior component in trust estimation, which assists in detecting an on-off attack and persistent malicious behavior. In order to determine the current status of the node, we employ previous trust values and current measured misbehavior components. These components are combined to obtain a robust trust value. Theoretical analyses and evaluation results show that our scheme performs better than other trust schemes in terms of detecting an on-off attack and persistent misbehavior. PMID:24451471

  3. Trust-based learning and behaviors for convoy obstacle avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulski, Dariusz G.; Karlsen, Robert E.

    2015-05-01

    In many multi-agent systems, robots within the same team are regarded as being fully trustworthy for cooperative tasks. However, the assumption of trustworthiness is not always justified, which may not only increase the risk of mission failure, but also endanger the lives of friendly forces. In prior work, we addressed this issue by using RoboTrust to dynamically adjust to observed behaviors or recommendations in order to mitigate the risks of illegitimate behaviors. However, in the simulations in prior work, all members of the convoy had knowledge of the convoy goal. In this paper, only the lead vehicle has knowledge of the convoy goals and the follow vehicles must infer trustworthiness strictly from lead vehicle performance. In addition, RoboTrust could only respond to observed performance and did not dynamically learn agent behavior. In this paper, we incorporate an adaptive agent-specific bias into the RoboTrust algorithm that modifies its trust dynamics. This bias is learned incrementally from agent interactions, allowing good agents to benefit from faster trust growth and slower trust decay and bad agents to be penalized with slower trust growth and faster trust decay. We then integrate this new trust model into a trust-based controller for decentralized autonomous convoy operations. We evaluate its performance in an obstacle avoidance mission, where the convoy attempts to learn the best speed and following distances combinations for an acceptable obstacle avoidance probability.

  4. Trying to trust: Brain activity during interpersonal social attitude change.

    PubMed

    Filkowski, Megan M; Anderson, Ian W; Haas, Brian W

    2016-04-01

    Interpersonal trust and distrust are important components of human social interaction. Although several studies have shown that brain function is associated with either trusting or distrusting others, very little is known regarding brain function during the control of social attitudes, including trust and distrust. This study was designed to investigate the neural mechanisms involved when people attempt to control their attitudes of trust or distrust toward another person. We used a novel control-of-attitudes fMRI task, which involved explicit instructions to control attitudes of interpersonal trust and distrust. Control of trust or distrust was operationally defined as changes in trustworthiness evaluations of neutral faces before and after the control-of-attitudes fMRI task. Overall, participants (n = 60) evaluated faces paired with the distrust instruction as being less trustworthy than faces paired with the trust instruction following the control-of-distrust task. Within the brain, both the control-of-trust and control-of-distrust conditions were associated with increased temporoparietal junction, precuneus (PrC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and medial prefrontal cortex activity. Individual differences in the control of trust were associated with PrC activity, and individual differences in the control of distrust were associated with IFG activity. Together, these findings identify a brain network involved in the explicit control of distrust and trust and indicate that the PrC and IFG may serve to consolidate interpersonal social attitudes.

  5. Determinants of public trust in complementary and alternative medicine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the Netherlands, public trust in conventional medicine is relatively high. There is reason to believe that public trust in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is rated lower. The aim of this study is to gain insight into public trust in CAM and the determinants that lie at the root of it. We hypothesized that public trust in CAM is related to (perceived) institutional guarantees, media information on CAM, information from people's social network, personal experiences, the role of general practitioners (GPs) and trust in conventional medicine. Methods A postal questionnaire on public trust in CAM was mailed to 1358 members of the Health Care Consumer Panel. 65% of the questionnaires were returned. Data were analysed using frequencies, ANOVA, post hoc testing and linear regression analyses. Results In the total sample, the level of public trust in CAM was a 5.05 on average on a scale of 1-10. 40.7% was CAM user (current or past) and displayed significantly higher levels of trust toward CAM than CAM non users. In the total sample, public trust in CAM was related to institutional guarantees, negative media information, positive and negative information reported by their social network and people's personal experiences with CAM. For non users, trust is mostly associated with institutional guarantees. For users, personal experiences are most important. For both users and non users, trust levels in CAM are affected by negative media information. Public trust in CAM is for CAM users related to positive information and for non users to negative information from their network. Conclusions In the Netherlands, CAM is trusted less than conventional medicine. The hypotheses on institutional guarantees, media information, information from the network and people's personal experiences are confirmed by our study for the total sample, CAM non users and users. The other hypotheses are rejected. PMID:20226015

  6. Improving the radiologist-CAD interaction: designing for appropriate trust.

    PubMed

    Jorritsma, W; Cnossen, F; van Ooijen, P M A

    2015-02-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has great potential to improve radiologists' diagnostic performance. However, the reported performance of the radiologist-CAD team is lower than what might be expected based on the performance of the radiologist and the CAD system in isolation. This indicates that the interaction between radiologists and the CAD system is not optimal. An important factor in the interaction between humans and automated aids (such as CAD) is trust. Suboptimal performance of the human-automation team is often caused by an inappropriate level of trust in the automation. In this review, we examine the role of trust in the radiologist-CAD interaction and suggest ways to improve the output of the CAD system so that it allows radiologists to calibrate their trust in the CAD system more effectively. Observer studies of the CAD systems show that radiologists often have an inappropriate level of trust in the CAD system. They sometimes under-trust CAD, thereby reducing its potential benefits, and sometimes over-trust it, leading to diagnostic errors they would not have made without CAD. Based on the literature on trust in human-automation interaction and the results of CAD observer studies, we have identified four ways to improve the output of CAD so that it allows radiologists to form a more appropriate level of trust in CAD. Designing CAD systems for appropriate trust is important and can improve the performance of the radiologist-CAD team. Future CAD research and development should acknowledge the importance of the radiologist-CAD interaction, and specifically the role of trust therein, in order to create the perfect artificial partner for the radiologist. This review focuses on the role of trust in the radiologist-CAD interaction. The aim of the review is to encourage CAD developers to design for appropriate trust and thereby improve the performance of the radiologist-CAD team.

  7. Young children's selective trust in informants

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Paul L.; Corriveau, Kathleen H.

    2011-01-01

    Young children readily act on information from adults, setting aside their own prior convictions and even continuing to trust informants who make claims that are manifestly false. Such credulity is consistent with a long-standing philosophical and scientific conception of young children as prone to indiscriminate trust. Against this conception, we argue that children trust some informants more than others. In particular, they use two major heuristics. First, they keep track of the history of potential informants. Faced with conflicting claims, they endorse claims made by someone who has provided reliable care or reliable information in the past. Second, they monitor the cultural standing of potential informants. Faced with conflicting claims, children endorse claims made by someone who belongs to a consensus and whose behaviour abides by, rather than deviating from, the norms of their group. The first heuristic is likely to promote receptivity to information offered by familiar caregivers, whereas the second heuristic is likely to promote a broader receptivity to informants from the same culture. PMID:21357240

  8. The Impact of Trust on Organization Commitment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As the global economy continues to spawn competitive forces, organizations have sought to become more competitive by cutting costs, eliminating non-value added work, and using more automation. Jobs have become broader and more flexible leading to a leaner workforce with higher-level knowledge and skills and more responsibility for day-to-day decisions. More than ever, organizations depend on employees as the innovators and designers of products and processes and as a source of strategic advantage. Therefore employee commitment among knowledge workers is needed to maintain organizational viability. It would seem that stronger relationships due to greater dependency, involvement, and investment would develop between employers and high-technology workers resulting in more committed employees. However, the opposite has been evidenced as key knowledge workers are changing jobs frequently. This may be due to a perceived lack of commitment by management to its employees. The notion of exchange may dominate the development of organizational commitment whereby an individual decides what to give a firm (commitment, extra effort, better performance, etc.) based on what the firm gives them (e.g., trust and security). It is the relationship between an employee's organizational commitment and the responding level of trust in the organization that is examined in this paper. An experiment is described that will seek to identify this relationship. Preliminary results are expected to show a positive relationship whereby employee commitment is positively correlated with organizational trust.

  9. Trust in healthcare settings: Scale development, methods, and preliminary determinants

    PubMed Central

    LoCurto, Jamie; Berg, Gina M

    2016-01-01

    The literature contains research regarding how trust is formed in healthcare settings but rarely discusses trust formation in an emergent care population. A literature review was conducted to determine which of the trust determinants are important for this process as well as how to develop a scale to measure trust. A search generated a total of 155 articles, 65 of which met eligibility criteria. Determinants that were important included the following: honesty, confidentiality, dependability, communication, competency, fiduciary responsibility, fidelity, and agency. The process of developing a scale includes the following: a literature review, qualitative analysis, piloting, and survey validation. Results suggest that physician behaviors are important in influencing trust in patients and should be included in scales measuring trust. Next steps consist of interviewing emergent care patients to commence the process of developing a scale. PMID:27635245

  10. Trust Management in Swarm-Based Autonomic Computing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maiden, Wendy M.; Haack, Jereme N.; Fink, Glenn A.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2009-07-07

    Reputation-based trust management techniques can address issues such as insider threat as well as quality of service issues that may be malicious in nature. However, trust management techniques must be adapted to the unique needs of the architectures and problem domains to which they are applied. Certain characteristics of swarms such as their lightweight ephemeral nature and indirect communication make this adaptation especially challenging. In this paper we look at the trust issues and opportunities in mobile agent swarm-based autonomic systems and find that by monitoring the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers rather than the swarming sensors, the trust management problem becomes much more scalable and still serves to protect the swarms. We also analyze the applicability of trust management research as it has been applied to architectures with similar characteristics. Finally, we specify required characteristics for trust management mechanisms to be used to monitor the trustworthiness of the entities in a swarm-based autonomic computing system.

  11. The social aspects of safety management: trust and safety climate.

    PubMed

    Luria, Gil

    2010-07-01

    This study tested the contribution of trust between leaders and subordinates to safety. It is suggested that leaders who create a relationship of trust with their subordinates are more likely to create a safe working environment, and to achieve higher and stronger safety-climate perceptions among their subordinates. Hence, trust should be negatively related to injuries and positively related to safety climate. Questionnaires distributed among 2524 soldiers in three army brigades tested for trust and safety-climate variables and were then crossed with injury rate according to medical records at the platoon level of analysis (N=105). Trust was found to be negatively related to injuries and positively related both to level and strength of safety climate. Furthermore, safety-climate level was found to mediate the relationship between trust and injury rates. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  12. Paying a price: culture, trust, and negotiation consequences.

    PubMed

    Gunia, Brian C; Brett, Jeanne M; Nandkeolyar, Amit K; Kamdar, Dishan

    2011-07-01

    Three studies contrasting Indian and American negotiators tested hypotheses derived from theory proposing why there are cultural differences in trust and how cultural differences in trust influence negotiation strategy. Study 1 (a survey) documented that Indian negotiators trust their counterparts less than American negotiators. Study 2 (a negotiation simulation) linked American and Indian negotiators' self-reported trust and strategy to their insight and joint gains. Study 3 replicated and extended Study 2 using independently coded negotiation strategy data, allowing for stronger causal inference. Overall, the strategy associated with Indian negotiators' reluctance to extend interpersonal (as opposed to institutional) trust produced relatively poor outcomes. Our data support an expanded theoretical model of negotiation, linking culture to trust, strategies, and outcomes.

  13. 75 FR 16529 - Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust, et al.; Notice of Application March 26, 2010. AGENCY: Securities... group of investment companies. APPLICANTS: Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust (``LMP Equity Trust''), Legg Mason Partners Variable Equity Trust (``LMP Variable Equity Trust,'' and together with LMP Equity...

  14. 78 FR 79519 - IndexIQ ETF Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... COMMISSION IndexIQ ETF Trust, et al.; Notice of Application December 23, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and... invest in certain financial instruments. Applicants: IndexIQ ETF Trust, IndexIQ Active ETF Trust (each, a ``Trust,'' and collectively, the ``Trusts''), IndexIQ Advisors LLC (``IndexIQ Advisors'') and...

  15. 26 CFR 1.58-3 - Estates and trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in § 1.58-2(a). Example 3. Trust C has taxable income of $200,000 computed without regard to... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Estates and trusts. 1.58-3 Section 1.58-3... Preference Regulations § 1.58-3 Estates and trusts. (a) In general. (1) Section 58(c)(1) provides that...

  16. 26 CFR 1.58-3 - Estates and trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in § 1.58-2(a). Example 3. Trust C has taxable income of $200,000 computed without regard to... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Estates and trusts. 1.58-3 Section 1.58-3... Preference Regulations § 1.58-3 Estates and trusts. (a) In general. (1) Section 58(c)(1) provides that...

  17. 26 CFR 1.58-3 - Estates and trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... in § 1.58-2(a). Example 3. Trust C has taxable income of $200,000 computed without regard to... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Estates and trusts. 1.58-3 Section 1.58-3... Preference Regulations § 1.58-3 Estates and trusts. (a) In general. (1) Section 58(c)(1) provides that...

  18. 26 CFR 1.58-3 - Estates and trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in § 1.58-2(a). Example 3. Trust C has taxable income of $200,000 computed without regard to... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Estates and trusts. 1.58-3 Section 1.58-3... Preference Regulations § 1.58-3 Estates and trusts. (a) In general. (1) Section 58(c)(1) provides that...

  19. 26 CFR 1.58-3 - Estates and trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in § 1.58-2(a). Example 3. Trust C has taxable income of $200,000 computed without regard to... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Estates and trusts. 1.58-3 Section 1.58-3... Preference Regulations § 1.58-3 Estates and trusts. (a) In general. (1) Section 58(c)(1) provides that...

  20. Race and trust in the health care system.

    PubMed Central

    Boulware, L. Ebony; Cooper, Lisa A.; Ratner, Lloyd E.; LaVeist, Thomas A.; Powe, Neil R.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A legacy of racial discrimination in medical research and the health care system has been linked to a low level of trust in medical research and medical care among African Americans. While racial differences in trust in physicians have been demonstrated, little is known about racial variation in trust of health insurance plans and hospitals. For the present study, the authors analyzed responses to a cross-sectional telephone survey to assess the independent relationship of self-reported race (non-Hispanic black or non-Hispanic white) with trust in physicians, hospitals, and health insurance plans. METHODS: Respondents ages 18-75 years were asked to rate their level of trust in physicians, health insurance plans, and hospitals. Items from the Medical Mistrust Index were used to assess fear and suspicion of hospitals. RESULTS: Responses were analyzed for 49 (42%) non-Hispanic black and 69 (58%) non-Hispanic white respondents (N=118; 94% of total survey population). A majority of respondents trusted physicians (71%) and hospitals (70%), but fewer trusted their health insurance plans (28%). After adjustment for potential confounders, non-Hispanic black respondents were less likely to trust their physicians than non-Hispanic white respondents (adjusted absolute difference 37%; p=0.01) and more likely to trust their health insurance plans (adjusted absolute difference 28%; p=0.04). The difference in trust of hospitals (adjusted absolute difference 13%) was not statistically significant. Non-Hispanic black respondents were more likely than non-Hispanic white respondents to be concerned about personal privacy and the potential for harmful experimentation in hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Patterns of trust in components of our health care system differ by race. Differences in trust may reflect divergent cultural experiences of blacks and whites as well as differences in expectations for care. Improved understanding of these factors is needed if efforts to enhance

  1. 26 CFR 1.48-6 - Estates and trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Estates and trusts. 1.48-6 Section 1.48-6... Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.48-6 Estates and trusts. (a) In general. (1) In the case of an estate or trust, the basis of “new section 38 property” and the cost of...

  2. 26 CFR 1.691(c)-2 - Estates and trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estates and trusts. 1.691(c)-2 Section 1.691(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Income in Respect of Decedents § 1.691(c)-2 Estates and trusts. (a) In the case of an estate or trust, the deduction prescribed in section 691(c) is determined in the same manner...

  3. 26 CFR 1.50B-3 - Estates and trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Estates and trusts. 1.50B-3 Section 1.50B-3... Computing Credit for Expenses of Work Incentive Programs § 1.50B-3 Estates and trusts. (a) General rule—(1) In general. In the case of an estate or trust, WIN expenses (as defined in paragraph (a) of §...

  4. 29 CFR 549.3 - Distinction between plan and trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinction between plan and trust. 549.3 Section 549.3... REQUIREMENTS OF A âBONA FIDE PROFIT-SHARING PLAN OR TRUSTâ § 549.3 Distinction between plan and trust. As used... profits; (b) Profit-sharing trust means any such program or arrangement as qualifies under this part...

  5. Trust and the 442nd Regimental Combat Team

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    internment and commanding Japanese-American forces. By building trust at the tactical and direct leadership level, key 442nd Regimental Combat Team leaders...executing internment and commanding Japanese-American forces. By building trust at the tactical and direct leadership level, key 442nd Regimental...trust at the tactical and direct leadership level, key 442nd Regimental Combat Team leaders helped Nisei soldiers overcome larger societal and

  6. Scripting for Construction of a Transactive Memory System in Multidisciplinary CSCL Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noroozi, Omid; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Weinberger, Armin; Mulder, Martin; Chizari, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Establishing a Transactive Memory System (TMS) is essential for groups of learners, when they are multidisciplinary and collaborate online. Environments for Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) could be designed to facilitate the TMS. This study investigates how various aspects of a TMS (i.e., specialization, coordination, and trust)…

  7. Formal Language Theoretic Approach to the Disclosure Tree Strategy in Trust Negotiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Yoshiaki; Seki, Hiroyuki

    Trust negotiation is an authorizing technique based on digital credentials, in which both a user and a server gradually establish trust in each other by repeatedly exchanging their credentials. A trust negotiation strategy is a function that answers a set of credentials to disclose to the other party, depending on policies and the set of already disclosed credentials. The disclosure tree strategy (DTS), proposed by Yu et al., is one of the strategies that satisfies preferable properties. DTS in a simple implementation requires exponential time and space; however, neither an efficient algorithm nor the lower-bound of its complexity was known. In this paper, we investigate the computational complexity of DTS. We formulate subproblems of DTS as problems on derivation trees of a context-free grammar (CFG), and analyze the computational complexity of the subproblems using the concepts of CFGs. As a result, we show that two subproblems EVL and MSET of DTS are NP-complete and NP-hard, respectively, while both are solvable in polynomial time if we modify EVLnot to require non-redundancy and MSET not to answer any subset useless for leading the negotiation to success.

  8. Trust-level risk evaluation and risk control guidance in the NHS East of England.

    PubMed

    Card, Alan J; Ward, James R; Clarkson, P John

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, the healthcare sector has adopted the use of operational risk assessment tools to help understand the systems issues that lead to patient safety incidents. But although these problem-focused tools have improved the ability of healthcare organizations to identify hazards, they have not translated into measurable improvements in patient safety. One possible reason for this is a lack of support for the solution-focused process of risk control. This article describes a content analysis of the risk management strategies, policies, and procedures at all acute (i.e., hospital), mental health, and ambulance trusts (health service organizations) in the East of England area of the British National Health Service. The primary goal was to determine what organizational-level guidance exists to support risk control practice. A secondary goal was to examine the risk evaluation guidance provided by these trusts. With regard to risk control, we found an almost complete lack of useful guidance to promote good practice. With regard to risk evaluation, the trusts relied exclusively on risk matrices. A number of weaknesses were found in the use of this tool, especially related to the guidance for scoring an event's likelihood. We make a number of recommendations to address these concerns. The guidance assessed provides insufficient support for risk control and risk evaluation. This may present a significant barrier to the success of risk management approaches in improving patient safety.

  9. A Survey on Trust Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    accumulate between these entities.” Capra [34] proposes to use a human trust model based on human interactions in a trust model for fully distributed...network environments such as MANETs. Capra defines trust as the degree of a belief about the behavior of other entities (or agents). Li and Singhal [35...2004. [34] L. Capra , “Toward a Human Trust Model for Mobile Ad-hoc Net- works,” Proc. 2nd UK-UbiNet Workshop, 5-7 May 2004, Cambridge University

  10. Trust, confidence, and the 2008 global financial crisis.

    PubMed

    Earle, Timothy C

    2009-06-01

    The 2008 global financial crisis has been compared to a "once-in-a-century credit tsunami," a disaster in which the loss of trust and confidence played key precipitating roles and the recovery from which will require the restoration of these crucial factors. Drawing on the analogy between the financial crisis and environmental and technological hazards, recent research on the role of trust and confidence in the latter is used to provide a perspective on the former. Whereas "trust" and "confidence" are used interchangeably and without explicit definition in most discussions of the financial crisis, this perspective uses the TCC model of cooperation to clearly distinguish between the two and to demonstrate how this distinction can lead to an improved understanding of the crisis. The roles of trust and confidence-both in precipitation and in possible recovery-are discussed for each of the three major sets of actors in the crisis, the regulators, the banks, and the public. The roles of trust and confidence in the larger context of risk management are also examined; trust being associated with political approaches, confidence with technical. Finally, the various stances that government can take with regard to trust-such as supportive or skeptical-are considered. Overall, it is argued that a clear understanding of trust and confidence and a close examination of the specific, concrete circumstances of a crisis-revealing when either trust or confidence is appropriate-can lead to useful insights for both recovery and prevention of future occurrences.

  11. Dentist-patient relationship and quality care 2. Trust.

    PubMed

    Yamalik, Nermin

    2005-06-01

    The public in general and individual patients in particular have a high level of trust in the dental profession. As trust is an important moral value and a demand in health care, a better understanding of the multidimensional nature of trust and its impact on the efficiency and quality of care is of utmost importance. The core values and principles of dentistry serve to maintain the professional status and the associated trust in the profession and thus are of particular concern to the individual dentist and to organised dentistry.

  12. Perceived trustworthiness of faces drives trust behaviour in children.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Louise; Caulfield, Frances; Read, Ainsley; Rhodes, Gillian

    2015-03-01

    Facial appearances can powerfully influence adults' trust behaviour, despite limited evidence that these cues constitute honest signals of trustworthiness. It is not clear, however, whether the same is also true for children. The current study investigated whether, like adults, 5-year-olds and 10-year-olds are more likely to place their trust in partners that look trustworthy than those that look untrustworthy. A second, closely related question was whether children also explicitly value the information from face cues when making trust decisions. We investigated these questions using Token Quest: an economic trust game that gave participants the opportunity to make investments with a series of partners who might (or might not) repay their trust with large returns. These interactions occurred under different conditions, including one in which participants were shown the face of each partner and another in which they could 'purchase' access to faces with a portion of their investment capital. Results indicated that, like adults, 10-year-old children selectively placed their trust in those partners they perceived as looking trustworthy and many were willing to 'pay' to purchase access to these face cues during the trust game. We observed a similar profile of trust behaviour in 5-year-olds, with no significant group difference in the impact of face cues on behaviour across the three age groups. Together, these findings indicate that the influence of face cues on trust behaviour emerges early, and highlight a capacity for sophisticated social cognition in young children.

  13. The tendency to trust is reflected in human brain structure.

    PubMed

    Haas, Brian W; Ishak, Alexandra; Anderson, Ian W; Filkowski, Megan M

    2015-02-15

    Trust is an important component of human social life. Within the brain, the function within a neural network implicated in interpersonal and social-cognitive processing is associated with the way trust-based decisions are made. However, it is currently unknown how localized structure within the healthy human brain is associated with the tendency to trust other people. This study was designed to test the prediction that individual differences in the tendency to trust are associated with regional gray matter volume within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), amygdala and anterior insula. Behavioral and neuroimaging data were collected from a sample of 82 healthy participants. Individual differences in the tendency to trust were measured in two ways (self-report and behaviorally: trustworthiness evaluation of faces task). Voxel based morphometry analyses of high-resolution structural images (VBM8-DARTEL) were conducted to test for the association between the tendency to trust and regional gray matter volume. The results provide converging evidence that individuals characterized as trusting others more exhibit increased gray matter volume within the bilateral vmPFC and bilateral anterior insula. Greater right amygdala volume is associated with the tendency to rate faces as more trustworthy and distrustworthy (U-shaped function). A whole brain analysis also shows that the tendency to trust is reflected in the structure of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. These findings advance neural models that associate the structure and function of the human brain with social decision-making and the tendency trust other people.

  14. [Neural correlates of memory].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2013-01-01

    Memory can be divided into several types, although all of them involve three successive processes: encoding, storage, and retrieval. In terms of the duration of retention, neurologists classify memory into immediate, recent, and remote memories, whereas psychologists classify memory into short-term and long-term memories. In terms of the content, episodic, semantic, and procedural memories are considered to be different types of memory. Furthermore, researchers on memory have proposed relatively new concepts of memory, i.e., working memory and prospective memory. This article first provides explanations for these several types of memory. Next, neuropsychological characteristics of amnesic syndrome are briefly outlined. Finally, how several different types of memory are affected (or preserved) in patients with amnesic syndrome is described.

  15. High Speed Oblivious Random Access Memory (HS-ORAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    HIGH SPEED OBLIVIOUS RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (HS-ORAM) PRIVATE MACHINES, INC. SEPTEMBER 2015 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT...REPORT 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) OCT 2013 – MAY 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HIGH SPEED OBLIVIOUS RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (HS-ORAM) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...query policies beyond simple access control. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Oblivious Random Access Memory , Hardware-based Security, Embedded Hardware Roots of

  16. United States Language Policy in Micronesia: A Study in Ambivalence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessow-Hurley, Judith

    Past and current education and language policy in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), which was formerly the U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific, is discussed. Although under U.S. Navy administrative control since 1947, FSM is currently being divided into independent nations. The area has been influenced by colonization by Germany and Spain…

  17. Improving accessibility of trust guidelines and protocols at the Great Western Hospital, Swindon.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Ian; Smith, Abigail; Tucker, Jennifer; Cilia, Erica; Chen, Kangni; Marion, Rose; Nesbitt, Julian; Ramcharitar, Steve; Cathiavadi Greamspet, Mala

    2014-01-01

    Trust guidelines and policies outline recommendations for the management of common clinical and non-clinical situations, serving to standardise best practice. Prior to this project, there was no consolidated location for these documents. Lack of organisational structure and inadequate search functionality within the trust intranet led to time wasted locating information, acting outside of recognised best practice, and ultimately potentially compromising patient safety. We surveyed 55 junior doctors, 95% of respondents were dependent on guidelines on a daily basis. 20% spending greater than 5 minutes to locate protocols and 38% unable to locate some relevant documents at all. We analysed the time taken for junior doctors to locate six randomly selected protocols. Pre-intervention mean time was 133 seconds (on six occasions doctors were unable to locate the guideline). All trust guidelines and protocols currently available on the intranet were collated, consolidated, and renamed according to content. These were then re-alphabetised and new search terms linked to each document. Existing links were then uploaded and a single web page made available via the trust intranet homepage. The new page was publicised by email, posters and interdepartmental presentations. In our post intervention survey, 97% of respondents were aware of the project and had made use of the page. All protocols were located during re-testing with 90% of those resurveyed stating it was easier to locate protocols. Overall, a reduction in the time and number of clicks required to locate protocols was demonstrated: mean time 16 seconds vs 133 seconds pre-intervention (n=60). 53% of guidelines located in <30s and 86% <2 minutes.

  18. Teaching, Tasks, and Trust: Functions of the Public Executive. Russell Sage Foundation Series on Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehm, John; Gates, Scott

    2008-01-01

    The mere word "bureaucracy" brings to mind images of endless lines, piles of paperwork, and frustrating battles over rules and red tape. But some bureaucracies are clearly more efficient and responsive than others. Why? In "Teaching, Tasks, and Trust", distinguished political scientists John Brehm and Scott Gates show that a good part of the…

  19. 26 CFR 26.2654-1 - Certain trusts treated as separate trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF... States Gift (and Generation-Skipping Transfer) Tax Return (Form 709) the transfer and the extent to which... transfers $100,000 to an irrevocable generation-skipping trust; B simultaneously transfers $50,000 to...

  20. 26 CFR 26.2654-1 - Certain trusts treated as separate trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF... States Gift (and Generation-Skipping Transfer) Tax Return (Form 709) the transfer and the extent to which... transfers $100,000 to an irrevocable generation-skipping trust; B simultaneously transfers $50,000 to...

  1. 26 CFR 26.2654-1 - Certain trusts treated as separate trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF... States Gift (and Generation-Skipping Transfer) Tax Return (Form 709) the transfer and the extent to which... transfers $100,000 to an irrevocable generation-skipping trust; B simultaneously transfers $50,000 to...

  2. To Trust or Not to Trust?--Teacher Marking versus External Marking of National Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Jan-Eric; Erickson, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    In the Swedish educational system, teachers have the dual responsibility of assigning final grades and marking their own students' national tests. The Government has mandated the Swedish Schools Inspectorate to remark samples of the national tests to see if teacher marking can be trusted. Reports from this project have concluded that intermarker…

  3. 26 CFR 26.2654-1 - Certain trusts treated as separate trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF... States Gift (and Generation-Skipping Transfer) Tax Return (Form 709) the transfer and the extent to which... transfers $100,000 to an irrevocable generation-skipping trust; B simultaneously transfers $50,000 to...

  4. Towards a Trust Model in E-Learning: Antecedents of a Student's Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wongse-ek, Woraluck; Wills, Gary B.; Gilbert, Lester

    2013-01-01

    When a student is faced with uncertainty in the trustworthiness of a learning activity to meet their intended learning goals, it may cause a student to have a state of anxiety and a lack of confidence in the teaching activity. A student's trust in the teaching agents' ability to provide an appropriate teaching activity is needed to reduce the…

  5. The Right Policy at the Right Time: The Pew Pre-Kindergarten Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Sara D.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, The Pew Charitable Trusts learned of an important strategy that could dramatically improve children's success but had been largely overlooked by policy makers--high-quality early education programs in the years just before kindergarten. Soon after, it launched a new campaign to highlight the evidence and advance policies at the state and…

  6. How to trust a perfect stranger: predicting initial trust behavior from resting-state brain-electrical connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Notebaert, Karolien; Anderl, Christine; Teckentrup, Vanessa; Kaßecker, Anja; Windmann, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal exchanges can be understood as the updating of an initial belief about a partner. This initial level of trust is essential when it comes to establishing cooperation with an unknown partner, as cooperation cannot arise without a minimum of trust not justified by previous successful exchanges with this partner. Here we demonstrate the existence of a representation of the initial trust level before an exchange with a partner has occurred. Specifically, we can predict the Investor’s initial investment—i.e. his initial level of trust toward the unknown trustee in Round 1 of a standard 10-round Trust Game—from resting-state functional connectivity data acquired several minutes before the start of the Trust Game. Resting-state functional connectivity is, however, not significantly associated with the level of trust in later rounds, potentially mirroring the updating of the initial belief about the partner. Our results shed light on how the initial level of trust is represented. In particular, we show that a person’s initial level of trust is, at least in part, determined by brain electrical activity acquired well before the beginning of an exchange. PMID:25274577

  7. African Migrant Patients’ Trust in Chinese Physicians: A Social Ecological Approach to Understanding Patient-Physician Trust

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Megan M.; Simonson, Louis; Zou, Xia; Ling, Li; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient trust in physicians is a critical determinant of health seeking behaviors, medication adherence, and health outcomes. A crisis of interpersonal trust exists in China, extending throughout multiple social spheres, including the healthcare system. At the same time, with increased migration from Africa to China in the last two decades, Chinese physicians must establish mutual trust with an increasingly diverse patient population. We undertook a qualitative study to identify factors affecting African migrants’ trust in Chinese physicians and to identify potential mechanisms for promoting trust. Methods / Principal Findings We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 40 African migrants in Guangzhou, China. A modified version of the social ecological model was used as a theoretical framework. At the patient-physician level, interpersonal treatment, technical competence, perceived commitment and motive, and language concordance were associated with enhanced trust. At the health system level, two primary factors influenced African migrants’ trust in their physicians: the fee-for-service payment system and lack of continuity with any one physician. Patients’ social networks and the broader socio-cultural context of interactions between African migrants and Chinese locals also influenced patients’ trust of their physicians. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the importance of factors beyond the immediate patient-physician interaction and suggest opportunities to promote trust through health system interventions. PMID:25965064

  8. How to trust a perfect stranger: predicting initial trust behavior from resting-state brain-electrical connectivity.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Tim; Notebaert, Karolien; Anderl, Christine; Teckentrup, Vanessa; Kaßecker, Anja; Windmann, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    Reciprocal exchanges can be understood as the updating of an initial belief about a partner. This initial level of trust is essential when it comes to establishing cooperation with an unknown partner, as cooperation cannot arise without a minimum of trust not justified by previous successful exchanges with this partner. Here we demonstrate the existence of a representation of the initial trust level before an exchange with a partner has occurred. Specifically, we can predict the Investor's initial investment--i.e. his initial level of trust toward the unknown trustee in Round 1 of a standard 10-round Trust Game-from resting-state functional connectivity data acquired several minutes before the start of the Trust Game. Resting-state functional connectivity is, however, not significantly associated with the level of trust in later rounds, potentially mirroring the updating of the initial belief about the partner. Our results shed light on how the initial level of trust is represented. In particular, we show that a person's initial level of trust is, at least in part, determined by brain electrical activity acquired well before the beginning of an exchange.

  9. 76 FR 72462 - Bandon Capital Management, LLC and Northern Lights Fund Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Release No. 29864; 812-13936] Bandon Capital Management, LLC and Northern Lights Fund Trust; Notice of... Northern Lights Fund Trust (the ``Trust''). DATES: Filing Dates: The application was filed on August...

  10. Adapting Autonomous Behavior Based on an Estimate of an Operator’s Trust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    teammate’s trust and adapt to it, and also pro- vide directions for this work. 2 Inverse Trust and Behavior Adaptation Traditional trust metrics measure how...looking at an inverse trust metric where an agent (the robot) estimates how much trust another agent has in it. One option would be to get direct feedback...trustworthy behaviors from previous adap- tations (Floyd, Drinkwater, and Aha 2014b). 3 Discussion Our work has focused on an approach for inverse trust

  11. Understanding Alignment of Trust Behaviors and Their Effect on Organizational Trust at the Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command Life Cycle Management Command (TACOM LCMC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-20

    List of Tables Table 1 - Common definitions of trust (Dietz and Hartog (2006)) 11 Table 2 - Low-trust and High-trust Organizations (Covey, 2006...either used different definitions or different subdivisions, based on the component that they were studying at the time. Dietz and Hartog (2006...Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release. Table 1 - Common definitions of trust (Dietz and Hartog (2006)) The first group of trust

  12. IT Governance in SMEs: Trust or Control?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devos, Jan; van Landeghem, Hendrik; Deschoolmeester, Dirk

    It is believed by many scholars that a small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) cannot be seen through the lens of a large firm. Theories which explain IT governance in large organizations and methodologies used by practitioners can therefore not be extrapolated to SMEs, which have a completely different economic, cultural and managerial environment. SMEs suffer from resource poverty, have less IS experience and need more external support. SMEs largely contribute to the failure of many IS projects. We define an outsourced information system failure (OISF) as a failure of IT governance in an SME environment and propose a structure for stating propositions derived from both agency theory and theory of trust. The theoretical question addressed in this paper is: how and why do OISFs occur in SMEs? We have chosen a qualitative and positivistic IS case study research strategy based on multiple cases. Eight cases of IS projects were selected. We found that trust is more important than control issues like output-based contracts and structured controls for eliminating opportunistic behaviour in SMEs. We conclude that the world of SMEs is significantly different from that of large companies. This necessitates extra care to be taken on the part of researchers and practitioners when designing artefacts for SMEs.

  13. Sustainable Urban Water and Wastewater Services: The TRUST Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    The TRUST (Transitions to the Urban Water Services of Tomorrow) Project is a research program funded by the European Union Seventh Framework Programme. The overall objective of TRUST is to help water and wastewater authorities and utilities across Europe to formulate and impleme...

  14. Factors influencing trust and mistrust in health promotion partnerships.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jacky; Barry, Margaret M

    2016-07-27

    Partnerships between sectors can achieve better outcomes than can be achieved by individual partners working alone. Trust is necessary for partnerships to function effectively. Mistrust makes partnership working difficult, if not impossible. There has been little research into partnership functioning factors that influence trust and mistrust. This study aimed to identify these factors in health promotion partnerships. Data were collected from 337 partners in 40 health promotion partnerships using a postal survey. The questionnaire incorporated multi-dimensional scales designed to assess the contribution of factors that influence partnership trust and mistrust. Newly validated scales were developed for trust, mistrust and power. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify the significance of each factor to partnership trust and mistrust. Power was found to be the only predictor of partnership trust. Power, leadership, and efficiency were the most important factors influencing partnership mistrust. Power in partnerships must be shared or partners will not trust each other. Power-sharing and trust-building mechanisms need to be built into partnerships from the beginning and sustained throughout the collaborative process.

  15. Trust, Connectivity, and Thriving: Implications for Innovative Behaviors at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmeli, Abraham; Spreitzer, Gretchen M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how trust, connectivity and thriving drive employees' innovative behaviors in the workplace. Using a sample of one hundred and seventy two employees across a variety of jobs and industries, we investigated the relationship between trust, connectivity (both measured at Time 1), thriving and innovative work behaviors (both…

  16. 26 CFR 1.679-5 - Pre-immigration trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pre-immigration trusts. 1.679-5 Section 1.679-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.679-5 Pre-immigration trusts. (a)...

  17. Facilitating Trust Engenderment in Secondary School Nurse Interactions with Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summach, Anne H. J.

    2011-01-01

    School nurses are involved in a complex framework of interactions with students, other professionals, parents, and administrators. Trust between nurse and student is critical for interaction effectiveness. The goal of this study was to understand through phenomenology the process of engendering trust in school nurse-high school student…

  18. 36 CFR 1010.13 - Trust decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trust decision-making... § 1010.13 Trust decision-making procedures. To ensure that at major decision-making points all relevant... to being prepared at the earliest point in the decision-making process, shall accompany the...

  19. 36 CFR 1010.13 - Trust decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Trust decision-making... § 1010.13 Trust decision-making procedures. To ensure that at major decision-making points all relevant... to being prepared at the earliest point in the decision-making process, shall accompany the...

  20. 36 CFR 1010.13 - Trust decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trust decision-making... § 1010.13 Trust decision-making procedures. To ensure that at major decision-making points all relevant... to being prepared at the earliest point in the decision-making process, shall accompany the...

  1. 36 CFR 1010.13 - Trust decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trust decision-making... § 1010.13 Trust decision-making procedures. To ensure that at major decision-making points all relevant... to being prepared at the earliest point in the decision-making process, shall accompany the...

  2. Trust, Accountability, and Integrity: Board Responsibilities for Intercollegiate Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The financial and legal dimensions of trusteeship stem from the broader conception of trust that emphasizes trustees' responsibility to uphold and protect the integrity of the institution and its programs as a mission-centered institution of higher education. In accepting the mantle of trust, the board pledges the highest degree of responsibility…

  3. 78 FR 21428 - Royce Focus Trust, Inc., et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Royce Focus Trust, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application April 4, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and... prior order (``Prior Order'').\\1\\ \\1\\ Royce Global Trust, Inc., et al., Investment Company Act...

  4. 5 CFR 2634.408 - Administration of a qualified trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....408 Administration of a qualified trust. (a) General rules on communications between the independent fiduciaries and the interested parties. (1) There shall be no direct or indirect communications with respect... trust, the proposed communication is approved in advance by the Director and it relates to: (A)...

  5. How Leaders Communicate Their Vulnerability: Implications for Trust Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Frauke; Le Fevre, Deidre M.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The notion of vulnerability underlies relationships of trust. Trust between leaders and staff is needed to solve concerns that hinder equity and excellence in teaching and learning. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether and how leaders show vulnerability by disclosing own possible contributions to concerns they try to resolve.…

  6. Virtual Environment Interpersonal Trust Scale: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usta, Ertugrul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is in the process of interpersonal communication in virtual environments is available from the trust problem is to develop a measurement tool. Trust in the process of distance education today, and has been a factor to be investigated. People, who take distance education course, they could may remain within the process…

  7. Facilitating Trust in Privacy-Preserving E-Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwar, M.; Greer, J.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores a new model for facilitating trust in online e-learning activities. We begin by protecting the privacy of learners through identity management (IM), where personal information can be protected through some degree of participant anonymity or pseudonymity. In order to expect learners to trust other pseudonymous participants,…

  8. Trust in the medical profession and patient attachment style.

    PubMed

    Klest, Bridget; Philippon, Olivia

    2016-10-01

    Attachment style is a person's approach to interpersonal relationships, which develops from early experiences with primary caregivers and can remain stable into adulthood. Depending on a person's attachment style, the amount of trust one has in others can vary when forming relationships, and trust is important in formation of the patient-physician relationship. The purpose of this study was to see if there is an association between attachment style and trust in physicians in general. Participants were recruited from an emergency department (ED) and an online university participant pool, and completed short questionnaires assessing attachment style and trust in the medical profession. Results revealed that individuals with a fearful attachment style reported significantly lower levels of trust in the medical profession than those with a secure attachment style. ED participants also reported higher levels of trust in the medical profession in comparison to student participants. This study provides a better understanding of trust in the medical profession, and insight into future care for patients who have low trust.

  9. Protecting Public Trust: An Archival Wake-Up Call

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speck, Jason G.

    2010-01-01

    While archivists and their repositories depend a great deal on public trust, they do little to cultivate or protect it. All too often, the archival community is passive where it should be fiercely proactive. This article aims to show archivists how they can build on the trust they have and avoid many of the problems that have plagued the archival…

  10. The Trust Imperative in the School Principalship: The Canadian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsyuruba, Benjamin; Walker, Keith; Noonan, Brian

    2016-01-01

    As a fundamental concept in human interactions, trust is important for understanding and mediating the social structures in schools. The instrumental work of cultivating, brokering, and maintaining trust in schools lies within the role of the school administrator. Our exploratory study examined the Canadian school principals' perceptions of their…

  11. Attributes Effecting Software Testing Estimation; Is Organizational Trust an Issue?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammoud, Wissam

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative correlational research explored the potential association between the levels of organizational trust and the software testing estimation. This was conducted by exploring the relationships between organizational trust, tester's expertise, organizational technology used, and the number of hours, number of testers, and time-coding…

  12. Adolescent Development of Trust. CIRCLE Working Paper 61

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Connie; Gallay, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to gain a better understanding of dimensions of trust and inter-relationships between those dimensions during the adolescent years. Drawing from survey data collected at the beginning and end of a semester in eighty middle- and high-school social studies classes, relationships were assessed between: social trust,…

  13. 10 CFR 600.137 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Property trust relationship. 600.137 Section 600.137 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform..., Hospitals, and Other Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.137 Property trust...

  14. 34 CFR 74.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property trust relationship. 74.37 Section 74.37 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH... Property Standards § 74.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property,...

  15. 22 CFR 145.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Property trust relationship. 145.37 Section 145.37 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF... Standards § 145.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and...

  16. 15 CFR 14.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property trust relationship. 14.37 Section 14.37 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.37 Property trust relationship....

  17. 7 CFR 3019.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Property trust relationship. 3019.37 Section 3019.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... Standards § 3019.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and...

  18. 40 CFR 30.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property trust relationship. 30.37 Section 30.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that...

  19. 36 CFR 1210.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property trust relationship. 1210.37 Section 1210.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Standards § 1210.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and...

  20. 49 CFR 19.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Property trust relationship. 19.37 Section 19.37 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... Requirements Property Standards § 19.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment,...

  1. 10 CFR 600.137 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property trust relationship. 600.137 Section 600.137 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform..., Hospitals, and Other Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.137 Property trust...

  2. 22 CFR 518.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Property trust relationship. 518.37 Section 518.37 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS... Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 518.37 Property trust relationship. Real...

  3. 7 CFR 3019.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property trust relationship. 3019.37 Section 3019.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... Standards § 3019.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and...

  4. 14 CFR 1260.137 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property trust relationship. 1260.137 Section 1260.137 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND... Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that...

  5. 24 CFR 84.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Property trust relationship. 84.37 Section 84.37 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that...

  6. 45 CFR 2543.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Property trust relationship. 2543.37 Section 2543.37 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.37 Property trust...

  7. 36 CFR 1210.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property trust relationship. 1210.37 Section 1210.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Standards § 1210.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and...

  8. 2 CFR 215.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property trust relationship. 215.37 Section 215.37 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM... Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that...

  9. 41 CFR 105-72.407 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property trust relationship. 105-72.407 Section 105-72.407 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... § 105-72.407 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and...

  10. 45 CFR 2543.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Property trust relationship. 2543.37 Section 2543.37 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.37 Property trust...

  11. 22 CFR 518.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Property trust relationship. 518.37 Section 518.37 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS... Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 518.37 Property trust relationship. Real...

  12. 14 CFR 1260.137 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Property trust relationship. 1260.137 Section 1260.137 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND... Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that...

  13. 29 CFR 95.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Property trust relationship. 95.37 Section 95.37 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS... Requirements Property Standards § 95.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment,...

  14. 49 CFR 19.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Property trust relationship. 19.37 Section 19.37 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... Requirements Property Standards § 19.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment,...

  15. 43 CFR 12.937 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Property trust relationship. 12.937 Section 12.937 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT... Requirements § 12.937 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and...

  16. 41 CFR 105-72.407 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Property trust relationship. 105-72.407 Section 105-72.407 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... § 105-72.407 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and...

  17. 29 CFR 95.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property trust relationship. 95.37 Section 95.37 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS... Requirements Property Standards § 95.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment,...

  18. 22 CFR 145.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Property trust relationship. 145.37 Section 145.37 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF... Standards § 145.37 Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and...

  19. 32 CFR 32.37 - Property trust relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Property trust relationship. 32.37 Section 32.37 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT... trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that are...

  20. Organizational Justice in Schools: No Justice without Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, Wayne K.; Tarter, C. John

    2004-01-01

    The concept of organizational justice is defined, and, based on a review of the literature, ten principles of organizational justice are elaborated. Similarly, the elements of faculty trust are conceptualized and discussed. Then, a model of organizational justice and trust is proposed and tested using path analysis. The results underscore the…