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Sample records for memory alloy based

  1. Damping capacity of TiNi-based shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, L. J.; Jiang, H. C.; Liu, S. W.; Zhao, X. Q.

    2007-07-01

    Damping capacity is another primary characteristic of shape memory alloys (SMA) besides shape memory effect and superelasticity. Damping behavior of Ti-riched TiNi SMA, porous TiNi SMA and a novel TiNi/AlSi composite have been investigated using dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) in this investigation. All these alloys are in martensitic state at room temperature and thus possess the high potential application value. Ti 50.2Ni 49.8 SMA has better damping capacity in pure martensitic state and phase transformation region due to the motion of martensite twin interface. As a kind of promising material for effective dampers and shock absorbing devices, porous TiNi SMA can exhibit higher damping capacity than the dense one due to the existence of the three-dimensioned connecting pore structure. It is found that the internal friction of porous TiNi SMA mainly originates from microplastic deformation and mobility of martensite interface and increases with the increase of the porosity. A novel TiNi/AlSi composite has been developed successfully by infiltrating AlSi alloy into the open pores of porous TiNi alloy with 60% porosity through compression casting. It shows the same phase transformation characteristics as the porous TiNi alloy. The damping capacity of the composite has been increased and the compressive strength has been also promoted remarkably. Suggestions for developing higher damping alloys based on TiNi shape memory alloy are proposed in this paper.

  2. A Shape Memory Alloy Based Cryogenic Thermal Conduction Switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, V. B.; Singh, J. D.; Woodruff, T. R.; Notardonato, W. U.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2004-06-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) can produce large strains when deformed (e.g., up to 8%). Heating results in a phase transformation and associated recovery of all the accumulated strain. This strain recovery can occur against large forces, resulting in their use as actuators. Thus an SMA element can integrate both sensory and actuation functions, by inherently sensing a change in temperature and actuating by undergoing a shape change as a result of a temperature-induced phase transformation. Two aspects of our work on cryogenic SMAs are addressed here. First — a shape memory alloy based cryogenic thermal conduction switch for operation between dewars of liquid methane and liquid oxygen in a common bulkhead arrangement is discussed. Such a switch integrates the sensor element and the actuator element and can be used to create a variable thermal sink to other cryogenic tanks for liquefaction, densification, and zero boil-off systems for advanced spaceport applications. Second — fabrication via arc-melting and subsequent materials testing of SMAs with cryogenic transformation temperatures for use in the aforementioned switch is discussed.

  3. A Shape Memory Alloy Based Cryogenic Thermal Conduction Switch

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, V.B.; Singh, J.D.; Woodruff, T.R.; Vaidyanathan, R.; Notardonato, W.U.

    2004-06-28

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) can produce large strains when deformed (e.g., up to 8%). Heating results in a phase transformation and associated recovery of all the accumulated strain. This strain recovery can occur against large forces, resulting in their use as actuators. Thus an SMA element can integrate both sensory and actuation functions, by inherently sensing a change in temperature and actuating by undergoing a shape change as a result of a temperature-induced phase transformation. Two aspects of our work on cryogenic SMAs are addressed here. First - a shape memory alloy based cryogenic thermal conduction switch for operation between dewars of liquid methane and liquid oxygen in a common bulkhead arrangement is discussed. Such a switch integrates the sensor element and the actuator element and can be used to create a variable thermal sink to other cryogenic tanks for liquefaction, densification, and zero boil-off systems for advanced spaceport applications. Second - fabrication via arc-melting and subsequent materials testing of SMAs with cryogenic transformation temperatures for use in the aforementioned switch is discussed.

  4. A Shape Memory Alloy Based Cryogenic Thermal Conduction Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Krishnan, V. B.; Singh, J. D.; Woodruff, T. R.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2005-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) can produce large strains when deformed (e.g., up to 8%). Heating results in a phase transformation and associated recovery of all the accumulated strain. This strain recovery can occur against large forces, resulting in their use as actuators. Thus an SMA element can integrate both sensory and actuation functions, by inherently sensing a change in temperature and actuating by undergoing a shape change as a result of a temperature-induced phase transformation. Two aspects of our work on cryogenic SMAs are addressed here. First - a shape memory alloy based cryogenic thermal conduction switch for operation between dewars of liquid methane and liquid oxygen in a common bulkhead arrangement is discussed. Such a switch integrates the sensor element and the actuator element and can be used to create a variable thermal sink to other cryogenic tanks for liquefaction, densification, and zero boil-off systems for advanced spaceport applications. Second - fabrication via arc-melting and subsequent materials testing of SMAs with cryogenic transformation temperatures for use in the aforementioned switch is discussed.

  5. Shape memory alloy-based active chiral composite cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapati, Maulik; Roy Mahapatra, D.

    2014-04-01

    Wing morphing is one of the emerging methodology towards improving aerodynamic efficiency of flight vehicle structures. In this paper a morphing structural element is designed and studied which has its origin in the well known chiral structures. The new aspect of design and functionality explored in this paper is that the chiral cell is actuated using thermal Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuator wires to provide directional motion. Such structure utilizes the potential of different actuations concepts based on actuator embedded in the chiral structure skin. This paper describes a new class of chiral cell structure with integrated SMA wire for actuation. Chiral topological constructs are obtained by considering passive and active load path decoupling and sub-optimal shape changes. Single cell of chiral honeycomb with actuators are analyzed using finite element simulation results and experiments. To this end, a multi-cell plan-form is characterized showing interesting possibilities in structural morphing applications. The applicability of the developed chiral cell to flexible wing skin, variable stiffness based design and controlling longitudinal-to-transverse stiffness ratio are discussed.

  6. Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)-Based Launch Lock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2014-01-01

    Most NASA missions require the use of a launch lock for securing moving components during the launch or securing the payload before release. A launch lock is a device used to prevent unwanted motion and secure the controlled components. The current launch locks are based on pyrotechnic, electro mechanically or NiTi driven pin pullers and they are mostly one time use mechanisms that are usually bulky and involve a relatively high mass. Generally, the use of piezoelectric actuation provides high precession nanometer accuracy but it relies on friction to generate displacement. During launch, the generated vibrations can release the normal force between the actuator components allowing shaft's free motion which could result in damage to the actuated structures or instruments. This problem is common to other linear actuators that consist of a ball screw mechanism. The authors are exploring the development of a novel launch lock mechanism that is activated by a shape memory alloy (SMA) material ring, a rigid element and an SMA ring holding flexure. The proposed design and analytical model will be described and discussed in this paper.

  7. Shape-Memory-Alloy-Based Deicing System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Ice buildup on aircraft leading edge surfaces has historically been a problem. Most conventional deicing systems rely either on surface heating to melt the accreted ice or pneumatic surface inflation to mechanically debond the ice. Deicers that rely solely on surface heating require large amounts of power. Pneumatic deicers usually cannot remove thin layers of ice and lack durability. Thus, there is a need for an advanced, low-power ice protection system. As part of the NASA Small Business and Innovation Research (SBIR) program, Innovative Dynamics, Inc., developed an aircraft deicing system that utilizes the properties of Shape Memory Alloys (SMA). The SMA-based system has achieved promising improvements in energy efficiency and durability over more conventional deicers. When they are thermally activated, SMA materials change shape; this is analogous to a conventional thermal expansion. The thermal input is currently applied via conventional technology, but there are plans to implement a passive thermal input that is supplied from the energy transfer due to the formation of the ice itself. The actively powered deicer was tested in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel on a powered rotating rig in early 1995. The system showed promise, deicing both rime and glaze ice shapes as thin as 1/8 in. The first prototype SMA deicer reduced power usage by 45 percent over existing electrothermal systems. This prototype system was targeted for rotorcraft system development. However, there are current plans underway to develop a fixed-wing version of the deicer.

  8. Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)-based launch lock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2014-04-01

    Most NASA missions require the use of a launch lock for securing moving components during the launch or securing the payload before release. A launch lock is a device used to prevent unwanted motion and secure the controlled components. The current launch locks are based on pyrotechnic, electro mechanically or NiTi driven pin pullers and they are mostly one time use mechanisms that are usually bulky and involve a relatively high mass. Generally, the use of piezoelectric actuation provides high precession nanometer accuracy but it relies on friction to generate displacement. During launch, the generated vibrations can release the normal force between the actuator components allowing free motion of the shaft, which could result in damage to the actuated structures or instruments. This problem is common to other linear actuators that consist of a ball screw mechanism. The authors are exploring the development of a novel launch lock mechanism that is activated by a shape memory alloy (SMA) material ring, a rigid element and an SMA ring holding flexure. The proposed design and analytical model will be described and discussed in this paper.

  9. Hot Workability of CuZr-Based Shape Memory Alloys for Potential High-Temperature Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biffi, Carlo Alberto; Tuissi, Ausonio

    2014-07-01

    The research on high-temperature shape memory alloys has been growing because of the interest of several potential industrial fields, such as automotive, aerospace, mechanical, and control systems. One suitable candidate is given by the CuZr system, because of its relative low price in comparison with others, like the NiTi-based one. In this context, the goal of this work is the study of hot workability of some CuZr-based shape memory alloys. In particular, this study addresses on the effect of hot rolling process on the metallurgical and calorimetric properties of the CuZr system. The addition of some alloying elements (Cr, Co, Ni, and Ti) is taken into account and their effect is also put in comparison with each other. The alloys were produced by means of an arc melting furnace in inert atmosphere under the shape of cigars. Due to the high reactivity of these alloys at high temperature, the cigars were sealed in a stainless steel can before the processing and two different procedures of hot rolling were tested. The characterization of the rolled alloys is performed using discrete scanning calorimetry in terms of evolution of the martensitic transformation and scanning electron microscopy for the microstructural investigations. Additionally, preliminary tests of laser interaction has been also proposed on the alloy more interesting for potential applications, characterized by high transformation temperatures and its good thermal stability.

  10. Airfoil-based piezoelectric energy harvesting by exploiting the pseudoelastic hysteresis of shape memory alloy springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa, Vagner Candido; De Marqui Junior, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    The modeling and analysis of an electromechanically coupled typical aeroelastic section with shape memory alloy springs for wind energy harvesting is addressed in this paper. An airfoil with two-degrees-of-freedom, namely pitch and plunge, is considered and piezoelectric coupling is added to the plunge degree-of-freedom. A load resistance is assumed in the electrical domain of the problem in order to estimate the electrical power output. Shape memory alloy coil springs are modeled in the pitch degree-of-freedom of the typical section. A nickel-titanium alloy that exhibits pseudoelasticity at room temperature is assumed. The constitutive model for the shape memory alloy is based on classical phenomenological models. The unsteady aerodynamic loads are obtained by Jones’ approximation to Wagner’s indicial function. The resulting nonlinear electroaeroelastic model is cast into a state-space representation and solved with a Runge-Kutta method. The effects of preload values of the shape memory springs and resistive power generation on the aeroelastic behavior of the wind energy harvester are investigated at the flutter boundary and in a post-flutter regime. The nonlinear kinetics of the austenite-to-martensite phase transformation changes the typical linear flutter behavior to stable limit-cycle oscillations over a range of airflow speeds. Such nonlinear aeroelastic behavior introduced by the hysteretic behavior of the SMA springs provides an important source of persistent electrical power.

  11. Identification of epsilon martensite in a Fe-based shape memory alloy by means of EBSD.

    PubMed

    Verbeken, K; Van Caenegem, N; Raabe, D

    2009-01-01

    Ferrous shape memory alloys (SMAs) are often thought to become a new, important group of SMAs. The shape memory effect in these alloys is based on the reversible, stress-induced martensitic transformation of austenite to epsilon martensite. The identification and quantification of epsilon martensite is crucial when evaluating the shape memory behaviour of this material. Previous work displayed that promising results were obtained when studying the evolution of the amount of epsilon martensite after different processing steps with Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD). The present work will discuss in detail, on the one hand, the challenges and opportunities arising during the identification of epsilon martensite by means of EBSD and, on the other hand, the possible interpretations that might be given to these findings. It will be illustrated that although the specific nature of the austenite to epsilon martensite transformation can still cause some points of discussion, EBSD has a high potential for identifying epsilon martensite.

  12. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  13. Shape memory alloy actuator

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Venugopal K.

    2001-01-01

    An actuator for cycling between first and second positions includes a first shaped memory alloy (SMA) leg, a second SMA leg. At least one heating/cooling device is thermally connected to at least one of the legs, each heating/cooling device capable of simultaneously heating one leg while cooling the other leg. The heating/cooling devices can include thermoelectric and/or thermoionic elements.

  14. Relationship among grain size, annealing twins and shape memory effect in Fe–Mn–Si based shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaixia; Peng, Huabei; Zhang, Chengyan; Wang, Shanling; Wen, Yuhua

    2016-07-01

    In order to clarify the relationship among grain size, annealing twins and the shape memory effect in Fe–Mn–Si based shape memory alloys, the Fe–21.63Mn–5.60Si–9.32Cr–5.38Ni (weight %) alloy with a grain size ranging from 48.9 μm–253.6 μm was obtained by adjusting the heating temperature or heating time after 20% cold-rolling. The densities of grain boundaries and annealing twins increase with a decrease in grain size, whereas the volume fraction and width of stress-induced ε martensite after 9% deformation at Ms + 10 K decrease. This result indicates that grain refinement raises the constraint effects of grain boundaries and annealing twins upon martensitic transformation. In this case, the ability to suppress the plastic deformation and facilitate the stress-induced ε martensite transformation deteriorates after grain refinement owing to the enhancement of the constraint effects. It is demonstrated by the result that the difference at Ms + 10 K between the critical stress for plastic yielding and that for inducing martensitic transformation is smaller for the specimen with a grain size of 48.9 μm than for the specimen with a grain size of 253.6 μm. Therefore, the shape memory effect declined by decreasing the grain size.

  15. Relationship among grain size, annealing twins and shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaixia; Peng, Huabei; Zhang, Chengyan; Wang, Shanling; Wen, Yuhua

    2016-07-01

    In order to clarify the relationship among grain size, annealing twins and the shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys, the Fe-21.63Mn-5.60Si-9.32Cr-5.38Ni (weight %) alloy with a grain size ranging from 48.9 μm-253.6 μm was obtained by adjusting the heating temperature or heating time after 20% cold-rolling. The densities of grain boundaries and annealing twins increase with a decrease in grain size, whereas the volume fraction and width of stress-induced ɛ martensite after 9% deformation at Ms + 10 K decrease. This result indicates that grain refinement raises the constraint effects of grain boundaries and annealing twins upon martensitic transformation. In this case, the ability to suppress the plastic deformation and facilitate the stress-induced ɛ martensite transformation deteriorates after grain refinement owing to the enhancement of the constraint effects. It is demonstrated by the result that the difference at Ms + 10 K between the critical stress for plastic yielding and that for inducing martensitic transformation is smaller for the specimen with a grain size of 48.9 μm than for the specimen with a grain size of 253.6 μm. Therefore, the shape memory effect declined by decreasing the grain size.

  16. Degradation of the shape memory effect in copper-base alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Stalmans, R.; Van Humbeeck, J.; Delaey, L. . Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science)

    1994-12-01

    The reversible transformation of the parent phase (austenite) to the product phase (martensite) is the basis of several shape memory properties in specific Cu-base alloys. In this respect, the two-way memory effect (TWME) refers the reversible, spontaneous shape change from a hot austenitic shape to a cold martensitic shape during cooling and heating without the application of external stresses. It is known that the magnitude of the TWME decrease during thermal or thermomechanical cycling, in particular in Cu-base shape memory alloys. It is however important to remark that this decrease, indicated as degradation of the TWME, can be caused as well by a decrease of the spontaneous martensitic strain, i.e. a degradation of the cold shape, as by an increase of the residual austenitic strain, i.e. a degradation of the hot shape, or by a combination of both. The degradation of the TWME, and of the hot and cold shape is influenced by a number of factors including the alloy composition, the processing, the heat treatment, the training procedure and the parameters of the thermal or thermomechanical cycling. The knowledge of the degradation phenomena is still limited. In a subsequent study of the relationships between training and the two-way memory behavior, the authors have shown that the degradation of the hot shape already starts during training. It was found that the residual austenitic strain [gamma][sub a] increases gradually during training cycling; [gamma][sub a] is also in the case of training composed of a recoverable residual strain [gamma][sub ar] and a non-recoverable residual strain [gamma][sub anr]. The present paper reports the results of the specific experiments which were designed based upon the results described above. The evolutions during thermal cycling of the TWME, of the martensitic strain and austenitic strain, and of the recoverable and non-recoverable austenitic strain are presented and discussed.

  17. Smart Material Demonstrators Based on Shape Memory Alloys and Electroceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Arther V.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the development and characterization of two technology demonstrators that were produced under the auspices of an ARPA sponsored smart materials synthesis and processing effort. The ARPA Smart Materials and Synthesis (SMS) Program was a 2 year, $10M partnership led by Martin Marietta Laboratories - Baltimore and included Lockheed Missiles & Space Co., NRL, AVX Corp., Martin Marietta Astronautics Groups, BDM Federal, Inc., Virginia Tech, Clemson, University of Maryland, Denver University, and The Johns Hopkins University. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of magnetron sputtered shape memory foil and the manufacturability of reliable, reproducible electrostrictive actuators, the team designed a broadband active vibration cancellation device for suppressing the vibration load on delicate instruments and precision pointing devices mounted on orbiting satellites and spacecraft. The results of extensive device characterization and bench testing are discussed. Initial simulation results show excellent control authority and amplitude attenuation over the range of anticipated disturbance frequencies. The SMS Team has also developed an active 1-3 composite comprising micro-electrostrictive actuators embedded in a polymeric matrix suitable for underwater applications such as sonar quieting and listening arrays, and for medical imaging. Follow-on programs employing these technologies are also described.

  18. Mechanical behavior and phase stability of NiAl-based shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    George, E.P.; Liu, C.T.; Horton, J.A.; Kunsmann, H.; King, T.; Kao, M.

    1993-12-31

    NiAl-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) can be made ductile by alloying with 100--300 wppm B and 14--20 at.% Fe. The addition of Fe has the undesirable effect that it lowers the temperature (A{sub p}) of the martensite {yields} austenite phase transformation. Fortunately, however, A can be raised by lowering the ``equivalent`` amount of Al in the alloy. In this way a high A{sub p} temperature of {approximately}190 C has been obtained without sacrificing ductility. Furthermore, a recoverable strain of 0.7% has been obtained in a Ni-Al-Fe alloy with A{sub p} temperature of {approximately}140 C. Iron additions do not suppress the aging-induced embrittlement that occurs in NiAl alloys at 300--500 C as a result of Ni{sub 5}Al{sub 3} precipitation. Manganese additions (up to 10 at.%) have the effect of lowering A{sub p}, degrading hot workability, and decreasing room-temperature ductility.

  19. Shape memory alloy thaw sensors

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Martinez, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the Austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states.

  20. Shape memory alloys for astronomical instrumentation: space and ground-based applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, M.; Rigamonti, D.; Zanetti, F.; Passaretti, F.; Villa, E.; Zerbi, F. M.

    2012-09-01

    This paper wants to illustrate possible applications of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) as functional devices for space and ground based application in Instrumentations for Astronomy. Thermal activated Shape Memory Alloys are materials able to recover their original shape, after an external deformation, if heated above a characteristic temperature. If the recovery of the shape is completely or partially prevented by the presence of constraints, the material can generate recovery stress. Thanks to this feature, these materials can be positively exploited in Smart Structures if properly embedded into host materials. Some technological processes developed for an ecient use of SMA-based actuators embedded in smart structures tailored to astronomical instrumentation will be presented here. Some possible modeling approaches of the actuators behavior will be addressed taking into account trade- offs between detailed analysis and overall performance prediction as a function of the computational time. The Material characterization procedure adopted for the constitutive laws implementation will be described as well. Deformable composite mirrors,1 opto-mechanical mounting with superelastic kinematic behavior and damping of launch loads onto optical element2 are feasible applications that will be deeply investigated in this paper.

  1. Static rock splitters based on high temperature shape memory alloys for planetary explorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benafan, O.; Noebe, R. D.; Halsmer, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    A static rock splitter device based on high-force, high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) was developed for space related applications requiring controlled geologic excavation in planetary bodies such as the moon, Mars, and near-Earth asteroids. The device, hereafter referred to as the shape memory alloy rock splitter (SMARS), consisted of active (expanding) elements made of Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 (at%) that generate extremely large forces in response to thermal input. The pre-shaping (training) of these elements was accomplished using isothermal, isobaric and cyclic training methods, which resulted in active components capable of generating stresses in excess of 1.5 GPa. The corresponding strains (or displacements) were also evaluated and were found to be 2-3%, essential to rock fracturing and/or splitting when placed in a borehole. SMARS performance was evaluated using a testbed consisting of a temperature controller, custom heaters and heater holders, and an enclosure for rock placement and breakage. The SMARS system was evaluated using various rock types including igneous rocks (e.g., basalt, quartz, granite) and sedimentary rocks (e.g., sandstone, limestone).

  2. A lightweight shape-memory magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yukiko; Ando, Daisuke; Sutou, Yuji; Koike, Junichi

    2016-07-01

    Shape-memory alloys (SMAs), which display shape recovery upon heating, as well as superelasticity, offer many technological advantages in various applications. Those distinctive behaviors have been observed in many polycrystalline alloy systems such as nickel titantium (TiNi)–, copper-, iron-, nickel-, cobalt-, and Ti-based alloys but not in lightweight alloys such as magnesium (Mg) and aluminum alloys. Here we present a Mg SMA showing superelasticity of 4.4% at –150°C and shape recovery upon heating. The shape-memory properties are caused by reversible martensitic transformation. This Mg alloy includes lightweight scandium, and its density is about 2 grams per cubic centimeter, which is one-third less than that of practical TiNi SMAs. This finding raises the potential for development and application of lightweight SMAs across a number of industries.

  3. A lightweight shape-memory magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yukiko; Ando, Daisuke; Sutou, Yuji; Koike, Junichi

    2016-07-22

    Shape-memory alloys (SMAs), which display shape recovery upon heating, as well as superelasticity, offer many technological advantages in various applications. Those distinctive behaviors have been observed in many polycrystalline alloy systems such as nickel titantium (TiNi)-, copper-, iron-, nickel-, cobalt-, and Ti-based alloys but not in lightweight alloys such as magnesium (Mg) and aluminum alloys. Here we present a Mg SMA showing superelasticity of 4.4% at -150°C and shape recovery upon heating. The shape-memory properties are caused by reversible martensitic transformation. This Mg alloy includes lightweight scandium, and its density is about 2 grams per cubic centimeter, which is one-third less than that of practical TiNi SMAs. This finding raises the potential for development and application of lightweight SMAs across a number of industries. PMID:27463668

  4. A lightweight shape-memory magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yukiko; Ando, Daisuke; Sutou, Yuji; Koike, Junichi

    2016-07-01

    Shape-memory alloys (SMAs), which display shape recovery upon heating, as well as superelasticity, offer many technological advantages in various applications. Those distinctive behaviors have been observed in many polycrystalline alloy systems such as nickel titantium (TiNi)-, copper-, iron-, nickel-, cobalt-, and Ti-based alloys but not in lightweight alloys such as magnesium (Mg) and aluminum alloys. Here we present a Mg SMA showing superelasticity of 4.4% at -150°C and shape recovery upon heating. The shape-memory properties are caused by reversible martensitic transformation. This Mg alloy includes lightweight scandium, and its density is about 2 grams per cubic centimeter, which is one-third less than that of practical TiNi SMAs. This finding raises the potential for development and application of lightweight SMAs across a number of industries.

  5. Technical Seminar "Shape Memory Alloys"

    NASA Video Gallery

    Shape memory alloys are a unique group of materials that remember their original shape and return to that shape after being strained. How could the aerospace, automotive, and energy exploration ind...

  6. Shape memory alloy thaw sensors

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, M.; Martinez, D.R.

    1998-04-07

    A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states. 16 figs.

  7. Calibration and Finite Element Implementation of an Energy-Based Material Model for Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junker, Philipp; Hackl, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    Numerical simulations are a powerful tool to analyze the complex thermo-mechanically coupled material behavior of shape memory alloys during product engineering. The benefit of the simulations strongly depends on the quality of the underlying material model. In this contribution, we discuss a variational approach which is based solely on energetic considerations and demonstrate that unique calibration of such a model is sufficient to predict the material behavior at varying ambient temperature. In the beginning, we recall the necessary equations of the material model and explain the fundamental idea. Afterwards, we focus on the numerical implementation and provide all information that is needed for programing. Then, we show two different ways to calibrate the model and discuss the results. Furthermore, we show how this model is used during real-life industrial product engineering.

  8. Development of shape memory alloy (SMA)-based actuator for remotely piloted vehicles (RPVs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, M. Hari

    2003-10-01

    While the experimental use of shape memory alloys (SMAs) is widespread in aerospace integrated actuation systems, much of the practical value of SMA technology is realized in linear and rotary actuators. This report will introduce an attempt to develop a full-scaled SMA based actuator to replace electro-mechanical actuator for flap actuation of a Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV). At the heart of this actuator there is thermally sensitive wire that, when heated, contracts and provides useable mechanical energy. This linear actuation is converted into rotary, for the required actuation of flap. The actuator configurations were sized to fit inside the wing of the RPV where presently the electro-mechanical actuator is housed. The torque supplied to the flap is similarly calculated from full-scale requirements. Using common engineering principles, this design will demonstrate how to design a typical SMA actuator. Test of the actuator performance (stroke, force movement) is done on special test fixture.

  9. Energy-based fatigue model for shape memory alloys including thermomechanical coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yahui; Zhu, Jihong; Moumni, Ziad; Van Herpen, Alain; Zhang, Weihong

    2016-03-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a low cycle fatigue criterion for pseudoelastic shape memory alloys to take into account thermomechanical coupling. To this end, fatigue tests are carried out at different loading rates under strain control at room temperature using NiTi wires. Temperature distribution on the specimen is measured using a high speed thermal camera. Specimens are tested to failure and fatigue lifetimes of specimens are measured. Test results show that the fatigue lifetime is greatly influenced by the loading rate: as the strain rate increases, the fatigue lifetime decreases. Furthermore, it is shown that the fatigue cracks initiate when the stored energy inside the material reaches a critical value. An energy-based fatigue criterion is thus proposed as a function of the irreversible hysteresis energy of the stabilized cycle and the loading rate. Fatigue life is calculated using the proposed model. The experimental and computational results compare well.

  10. Shakedown based model for high-cycle fatigue of shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiaojun; Moumni, Ziad; Zaki, Wael; Zhang, Weihong

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents a high-cycle fatigue criterion for shape memory alloys (SMAs) based on shakedown analysis. The analysis accounts for phase transformation as well as reorientation of martensite variants as possible sources of fatigue damage. In the case of high-cycle fatigue, once the structure has reached an asymptotic state, damage is assumed to become confined at the mesoscopic scale, or the scale of the grain, with no discernable inelasticity at the macroscopic scale. Using a multiscale approach, a high-cycle fatigue criterion analogous to the Dang Van model (Dang Van 1973) for elastoplastic metals is derived for SMAs obeying the Zaki–Moumni model for SMAs (Zaki and Moumni 2007a). For these alloys, a safe domain is established in stress deviator space, consisting of a hypercylinder with axis parallel to the direction of martensite orientation at the mesoscopic scale. Safety with regard to high-cycle fatigue, upon elastic shakedown, is conditioned by the persistence of the macroscopic stress path at every material point within the hypercylinder, whose size depends on the volume fraction of martensite. The proposed criterion computes a fatigue factor at each material point, indicating its degree of safeness with respect to high cycle fatigue.

  11. Critical Stresses for Twinning, Slip, and Transformation in Ti-Based Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, A.; Sehitoglu, H.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the effect of Nb and Ta contents on the (i) critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) for the β - α″ transformation, (ii) the CRSS for austenite slip, and (iii) the CRSS for twin nucleation in martensite ( α″ phase) that govern shape memory and superelasticity in Ti-based alloys. The critical stresses for slip and twinning are achieved with a modified Peierls Nabarro formalism utilizing generalized stacking fault energy and the generalized planar fault energy (GPFE), respectively, obtained from first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. During the calculation of the twinning stress, we show the importance of the shuffling process in stabilizing and lowering the GPFE curve. Similarly, the transformation stress is obtained with heterogeneous martensite nucleation mechanism incorporating the energy barriers associated with the transformation process. Here, we point to the role of dislocations in the shuffling process during the early stage of transformation. We show that the increase of Ta content raises the CRSS more effectively for the case of slip compared to twinning or transformation. The slip stress and twin stress magnitudes increase with an increase in the unstable fault energy ( {γ_{{us}} } ) and unstable twinning fault energy ( {γ_{{ut}} } ), respectively. In summary, as the Ta composition increases, the difference between martensite/austenite slip resistance and the transformation/twinning stress widens showing the efficacy of Ta alloying additions.

  12. Electro-bending characterization of adaptive 3D fiber reinforced plastics based on shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashir, Moniruddoza; Hahn, Lars; Kluge, Axel; Nocke, Andreas; Cherif, Chokri

    2016-03-01

    The industrial importance of fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs) is growing steadily in recent years, which are mostly used in different niche products, has been growing steadily in recent years. The integration of sensors and actuators in FRP is potentially valuable for creating innovative applications and therefore the market acceptance of adaptive FRP is increasing. In particular, in the field of highly stressed FRP, structural integrated systems for continuous component parts monitoring play an important role. This presented work focuses on the electro-mechanical characterization of adaptive three-dimensional (3D)FRP with integrated textile-based actuators. Here, the friction spun hybrid yarn, consisting of shape memory alloy (SMA) in wire form as core, serves as an actuator. Because of the shape memory effect, the SMA-hybrid yarn returns to its original shape upon heating that also causes the deformation of adaptive 3D FRP. In order to investigate the influences of the deformation behavior of the adaptive 3D FRP, investigations in this research are varied according to the structural parameters such as radius of curvature of the adaptive 3D FRP, fabric types and number of layers of the fabric in the composite. Results show that reproducible deformations can be realized with adaptive 3D FRP and that structural parameters have a significant impact on the deformation capability.

  13. A Low Hysteresis NiTiFe Shape Memory Alloy Based Thermal Conduction Switch

    SciTech Connect

    Lemanski, J. L.; Krishnan, V. B.; Manjeri, R. Mahadevan; Vaidyanathan, R.; Notardonato, W. U.

    2006-03-31

    Shape memory alloys possess the ability to return to a preset shape by undergoing a solid state phase transformation at a particular temperature. This work reports on the development and testing of a low temperature thermal conduction switch that incorporates a NiTiFe shape memory element for actuation. The switch was developed to provide a variable conductive pathway between liquid methane and liquid oxygen dewars in order to passively regulate the temperature of methane. The shape memory element in the switch undergoes a rhombohedral or R-phase transformation that is associated with a small hysteresis (typically 1-2 deg. C) and offers the advantage of precision control over a set temperature range. For the NiTiFe alloy used, its thermomechanical processing, subsequent characterization using dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry and implementation in the conduction switch configuration are addressed.

  14. Design, modelling and control of a micro-positioning actuator based on magnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minorowicz, Bartosz; Leonetti, Giuseppe; Stefanski, Frederik; Binetti, Giulio; Naso, David

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an actuator based on magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) suitable for precise positioning in a wide range (up to 1 mm). The actuator is based on the spring returned operating mode and uses a Smalley wave spring to maintain the same operating parameters of a classical coil spring, while being characterized by a smaller dimension. The MSMA element inside the actuator provides a deformation when excited by an external magnetic field, but its behavior is characterized by an asymmetric and saturated hysteresis. Thus, two models are exploited in this work to represent such a non-linear behavior, i.e., the modified and generalized Prandtl–Ishlinskii models. These models are particularly suitable for control purposes due to the existence of their analytical inversion that can be easily exploited in real time control systems. To this aim, this paper investigates three closed-loop control strategies, namely a classical PID regulator, a PID regulator with direct hysteresis compensation, and a combined PID and feedforward compensation strategy. The effectiveness of both modelling and control strategies applied to the designed MSMA-based actuator is illustrated by means of experimental results.

  15. Design, modelling and control of a micro-positioning actuator based on magnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minorowicz, Bartosz; Leonetti, Giuseppe; Stefanski, Frederik; Binetti, Giulio; Naso, David

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an actuator based on magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) suitable for precise positioning in a wide range (up to 1 mm). The actuator is based on the spring returned operating mode and uses a Smalley wave spring to maintain the same operating parameters of a classical coil spring, while being characterized by a smaller dimension. The MSMA element inside the actuator provides a deformation when excited by an external magnetic field, but its behavior is characterized by an asymmetric and saturated hysteresis. Thus, two models are exploited in this work to represent such a non-linear behavior, i.e., the modified and generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii models. These models are particularly suitable for control purposes due to the existence of their analytical inversion that can be easily exploited in real time control systems. To this aim, this paper investigates three closed-loop control strategies, namely a classical PID regulator, a PID regulator with direct hysteresis compensation, and a combined PID and feedforward compensation strategy. The effectiveness of both modelling and control strategies applied to the designed MSMA-based actuator is illustrated by means of experimental results.

  16. An innovative seismic bracing system based on a superelastic shape memory alloy ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Nan; Jeon, Jong-Su; Hodgson, Darel E.; DesRoches, Reginald

    2016-05-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have great potential in seismic applications because of their remarkable superelasticity. Seismic bracing systems based on SMAs can mitigate the damage caused by earthquakes. The current study investigates a bracing system based on an SMA ring which is capable of both re-centering and energy dissipation. This lateral force resisting system is a cross-braced system consisting of an SMA ring and four tension-only cable assemblies, which can be applied to both new construction and seismic retrofit. The performance of this bracing system is examined through a quasi-static cyclic loading test and finite element (FE) analysis. This paper describes the experimental design in detail, discusses the experimental results, compares the performance with other bracing systems based on SMAs, and presents an Abaqus FE model calibrated on the basis of experimental results to simulate the superelastic behavior of the SMA ring. The experimental results indicate that the seismic performance of this system is promising in terms of damping and re-centering. The FE model can be used in the simulation of building structures using the proposed bracing system.

  17. Formation of the thermodeformational properties of Mn-Cu-based alloys having the two-way shape memory effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosova, G. I.

    2008-08-01

    The specific features of the thermodeformational behavior of Mn-Cu-based alloys with the two-way shape memory effect are revealed, and their connection with the diffusionless fcc → fct phase transition and the forming structure is discussed. The mechanism of the reversible thermal deformation caused by directed internal stresses is considered. The factors that affect the temperature interval of the highest thermal sensitivity and the value of reversible and specific thermal deformation are found, and the possibilities of their change by additional alloying and heat treatment are studied.

  18. Finite Element Analysis of a Copper Single Crystal Shape Memory Alloy-Based Endodontic Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Marin; Thiebaud, Frédéric; Bel Haj Khalifa, Saifeddine; Engels-Deutsch, Marc; Ben Zineb, Tarak

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present paper is the development of endodontic Cu-based single crystal Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) instruments in order to eliminate the antimicrobial and mechanical deficiencies observed with the conventional Nickel-Titane (NiTi) SMA files. A thermomechanical constitutive law, already developed and implemented in a finite element code by our research group, is adopted for the simulation of the single crystal SMA behavior. The corresponding material parameters were identified starting from experimental results for a tensile test at room temperature. A computer-aided design geometry has been achieved and considered for a finite element structural analysis of the endodontic Cu-based single crystal SMA files. They are meshed with tetrahedral continuum elements to improve the computation time and the accuracy of results. The geometric parameters tested in this study are the length of the active blade, the rod length, the pitch, the taper, the tip diameter, and the rod diameter. For each set of adopted parameters, a finite element model is built and tested in a combined bending-torsion loading in accordance with ISO 3630-1 norm. The numerical analysis based on finite element procedure allowed purposing an optimal geometry suitable for Cu-based single crystal SMA endodontic files. The same analysis was carried out for the classical NiTi SMA files and a comparison was made between the two kinds of files. It showed that Cu-based single crystal SMA files are less stiff than the NiTi files. The Cu-based endodontic files could be used to improve the root canal treatments. However, the finite element analysis brought out the need for further investigation based on experiments.

  19. Shape memory alloy-based moment connections with superior self-centering properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmani, Mohammad Amin; Ghassemieh, Mehdi

    2016-07-01

    Superelastic shape memory alloys (SMAs) have the potential to create a spontaneous recentering mechanism on the connections of a structural system under seismic actions, which results in mitigation of the damage in the main structural members. In this article, innovative types of steel beam-to-column moment connections incorporating SMA bolts and plates are introduced and studied through a numerical approach. First, SMA bolted end-plate connection model is produced and analyzed by means of the finite element method to validate the numerical analysis against the prior experimental results. Then, the performance of eleven different end-plate moment connection models subjected to cyclic loading is investigated. By selecting the lower values for the moment capacity based on bolts strength in comparison to the flexural resistance of the beam, the plastic hinge is transferred from the beam section to the beam–column interface. Hence, employing superelastic materials at the connection interface could be potentially effective in providing the desired self-centering effect in the connection. To this end, the impact of utilizing superelastic SMA bolts and end-plates instead of using the conventional structural steel on the overall cyclic response of the connections is evaluated in this study. Results show that extended end-plate connections equipped with SMA bolts and end-plates, if properly proportioned and detailed, not only exhibit a clear reduction in the residual drifts after a seismic event, but also can meet the ductility requirements with good energy dissipation and sufficient stiffness.

  20. Shape memory alloy-based moment connections with superior self-centering properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmani, Mohammad Amin; Ghassemieh, Mehdi

    2016-07-01

    Superelastic shape memory alloys (SMAs) have the potential to create a spontaneous recentering mechanism on the connections of a structural system under seismic actions, which results in mitigation of the damage in the main structural members. In this article, innovative types of steel beam-to-column moment connections incorporating SMA bolts and plates are introduced and studied through a numerical approach. First, SMA bolted end-plate connection model is produced and analyzed by means of the finite element method to validate the numerical analysis against the prior experimental results. Then, the performance of eleven different end-plate moment connection models subjected to cyclic loading is investigated. By selecting the lower values for the moment capacity based on bolts strength in comparison to the flexural resistance of the beam, the plastic hinge is transferred from the beam section to the beam-column interface. Hence, employing superelastic materials at the connection interface could be potentially effective in providing the desired self-centering effect in the connection. To this end, the impact of utilizing superelastic SMA bolts and end-plates instead of using the conventional structural steel on the overall cyclic response of the connections is evaluated in this study. Results show that extended end-plate connections equipped with SMA bolts and end-plates, if properly proportioned and detailed, not only exhibit a clear reduction in the residual drifts after a seismic event, but also can meet the ductility requirements with good energy dissipation and sufficient stiffness.

  1. Energy-efficient miniature-scale heat pumping based on shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossmer, Hinnerk; Wendler, Frank; Gueltig, Marcel; Lambrecht, Franziska; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Kohl, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Cooling and thermal management comprise a major part of global energy consumption. The by far most widespread cooling technology today is vapor compression, reaching rather high efficiencies, but promoting global warming due to the use of environmentally harmful refrigerants. For widespread emerging applications using microelectronics and micro-electro-mechanical systems, thermoelectrics is the most advanced technology, which however hardly reaches coefficients of performance (COP) above 2.0. Here, we introduce a new approach for energy-efficient heat pumping using the elastocaloric effect in shape memory alloys. This development is mainly targeted at applications on miniature scales, while larger scales are envisioned by massive parallelization. Base materials are cold-rolled textured Ti49.1Ni50.5Fe0.4 foils of 30 μm thickness showing an adiabatic temperature change of +20/-16 K upon superelastic loading/unloading. Different demonstrator layouts consisting of mechanically coupled bridge structures with large surface-to-volume ratios are developed allowing for control by a single actuator as well as work recovery. Heat transfer times are in the order of 1 s, being orders of magnitude faster than for bulk geometries. Thus, first demonstrators achieve values of specific heating and cooling power of 4.5 and 2.9 W g-1, respectively. A maximum temperature difference of 9.4 K between heat source and sink is reached within 2 min. Corresponding COP on the device level are 4.9 (heating) and 3.1 (cooling).

  2. Energy-efficient miniature-scale heat pumping based on shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossmer, Hinnerk; Wendler, Frank; Gueltig, Marcel; Lambrecht, Franziska; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Kohl, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Cooling and thermal management comprise a major part of global energy consumption. The by far most widespread cooling technology today is vapor compression, reaching rather high efficiencies, but promoting global warming due to the use of environmentally harmful refrigerants. For widespread emerging applications using microelectronics and micro-electro-mechanical systems, thermoelectrics is the most advanced technology, which however hardly reaches coefficients of performance (COP) above 2.0. Here, we introduce a new approach for energy-efficient heat pumping using the elastocaloric effect in shape memory alloys. This development is mainly targeted at applications on miniature scales, while larger scales are envisioned by massive parallelization. Base materials are cold-rolled textured Ti49.1Ni50.5Fe0.4 foils of 30 μm thickness showing an adiabatic temperature change of +20/‑16 K upon superelastic loading/unloading. Different demonstrator layouts consisting of mechanically coupled bridge structures with large surface-to-volume ratios are developed allowing for control by a single actuator as well as work recovery. Heat transfer times are in the order of 1 s, being orders of magnitude faster than for bulk geometries. Thus, first demonstrators achieve values of specific heating and cooling power of 4.5 and 2.9 W g‑1, respectively. A maximum temperature difference of 9.4 K between heat source and sink is reached within 2 min. Corresponding COP on the device level are 4.9 (heating) and 3.1 (cooling).

  3. Novel far infrared imaging sensor based on the use of titanium-nickel shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Ho-Pui; Chung, Jonathan C. Y.; Ng, Ki-Cheong; Cheng, K. L.; Wu, Shu-Yuen

    2002-11-01

    In this paper we describe a novel imaging sensor design1 that uses the thermo-mechanical properties of nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloys (SMAs) for detecting far infrared radiation (FIR). A thin NiTi SMA cantilever is coated with a FIR absorbing layer on one surface, while the other is coated with a highly reflecting metallic layers such as gold. Upon absorption of FIR, the temperature of the cantilever changes. This causes the tilt angle of the cantilever to change as well. The deflection is very large if the temperature change coincides with the temperature range of the phase transformation of the NiTi SMA. The detection of the mechanical movements in the cantilever is achieved by illuminating the reflective side using a visible laser beam. A Michelson interferometer is used to covert the reflected light into optical modulation. In doing this, very small displacement in the cantilever can be visualized as laser intensity variation. A single element device has been fabricated for this purpose and our initial experimental results have demonstrated the successful detection of FIR. An estimation of angular deflection per unit change of temperature suggests that our approach can offer sensitivity higher than the reported design based on the use of bi-material strips. We envisage that a two-dimensional array of such devices can lead to the possibility of realizing a practical low-cost infrared imaging device operating under room temperature conditions.

  4. Pulse width modulation-based temperature tracking for feedback control of a shape memory alloy actuator

    PubMed Central

    Ayvali, Elif; Desai, Jaydev P.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a temperature-feedback approach to control the radius of curvature of an arc-shaped shape memory alloy (SMA) wire. The nonlinear properties of the SMA such as phase transformation and its dependence on temperature and stress make SMA actuators difficult to control. Tracking a desired trajectory is more challenging than controlling just the position of the SMA actuator since the desired path is continuously changing. Consequently, tracking the desired strain directly or tracking the parameters such as temperature and electrical resistance that are related to strain with a model is a challenging task. Temperature-feedback is an attractive approach when direct measurement of strain is not practical. Pulse width modulation (PWM) is an effective method for SMA actuation and it can be used along with a compensator to control the temperature of the SMA. Using the constitutive model of the SMA, the desired temperature profile can be obtained for a given strain trajectory. A PWM-based nonlinear PID controller with a feed-forward heat transfer model is proposed to use temperature-feedback for tracking a desired temperature trajectory. The proposed controller is used during the heating phase of the SMA actuator. The controller proves to be effective in tracking step-wise and continuous trajectories. PMID:24791130

  5. Modelling and control of an adaptive tuned mass damper based on shape memory alloys and eddy currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berardengo, M.; Cigada, A.; Guanziroli, F.; Manzoni, S.

    2015-08-01

    Tuned mass dampers have long since been used to attenuate vibrations. The need to make them adaptive in order to function even after changes of the dynamic characteristics of the system to be controlled has led to using many different technologies with the aim of improving adaptation performances. Shape memory alloys have already been proven to have properties suitable for creating adaptive tuned mass dampers for light structures. However, the literature has evidenced a number of issues concerning tuned mass dampers based on shape memory alloys, for instance the limited range of adaptation for the eigenfrequency of the damper. The present paper proposes a new layout for adaptive tuned mass dampers based on shape memory alloys, which allows to overcome many of the limitations and to reach a wide range of adaptation for the eigenfrequency. This layout relies on the use of shape memory alloy wires, so that the change of eigenfrequency is achieved by changing the axial load acting on these wires. The new tuned mass damper is then made fully adaptive by including a device that uses the principle of eddy currents, which allows also to change the damping of the tuned mass damper. Indeed, this new kind of damper is designed to dampen vibrations in systems excited by a random disturbance. The paper illustrates the layout and the model of the whole damper and validates it. This model moreover evidences all the advantages allowed by the new layout proposed. Finally, two different strategies to control the dynamic characteristics of the new adaptive tuned mass damper are presented and compared, both numerically as well as experimentally, so to illustrate strengths and drawbacks of each. The experiments and the simulations show that this new damper is fully capable of functioning when random excitation acts as disturbance on the system to control.

  6. Development of NiMnGa-based ferromagnetic shape memory alloy by rapid solidification route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, A. K.; Kumar, Arvind; Ghosh, M.; Mitra, A.

    The ferromagnetic shape memory alloy with nominal composition of Ni 52.5Mn 24.5Ga 23(at%) was developed by the melt-spinning technique. The as-spun ribbon showed dominant L2 1 austenitic (cubic) structure with splitting of primary peak in the X-ray diffractogram indicating existence of a martensitic feature. The quenched-in martensitic plates were revealed from Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Increase of magnetisation at low-temperature rise indicates martensite to austenite transformation and its reverse with a drop in magnetisation during cooling cycle. The martensite to austenite transformation can be made spontaneous at higher magnetic field.

  7. Tracking control of shape-memory-alloy actuators based on self-sensing feedback and inverse hysteresis compensation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Hung; Huang, Tse-Shih; Yen, Jia-Yush

    2010-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) offer a high power-to-weight ratio, large recovery strain, and low driving voltages, and have thus attracted considerable research attention. The difficulty of controlling SMA actuators arises from their highly nonlinear hysteresis and temperature dependence. This paper describes a combination of self-sensing and model-based control, where the model includes both the major and minor hysteresis loops as well as the thermodynamics effects. The self-sensing algorithm uses only the power width modulation (PWM) signal and requires no heavy equipment. The method can achieve high-accuracy servo control and is especially suitable for miniaturized applications.

  8. Tracking Control of Shape-Memory-Alloy Actuators Based on Self-Sensing Feedback and Inverse Hysteresis Compensation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shu-Hung; Huang, Tse-Shih; Yen, Jia-Yush

    2010-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) offer a high power-to-weight ratio, large recovery strain, and low driving voltages, and have thus attracted considerable research attention. The difficulty of controlling SMA actuators arises from their highly nonlinear hysteresis and temperature dependence. This paper describes a combination of self-sensing and model-based control, where the model includes both the major and minor hysteresis loops as well as the thermodynamics effects. The self-sensing algorithm uses only the power width modulation (PWM) signal and requires no heavy equipment. The method can achieve high-accuracy servo control and is especially suitable for miniaturized applications. PMID:22315530

  9. Tunable elastic modulus in Mn-based antiferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, S. S.; Shi, S.; Zhao, Z. M.; Cui, Y. G.; Liu, C.; Yuan, F.; Hou, J. W.; Wan, J. F.; Zhang, J. H.; Rong, Y. H.

    2016-07-01

    Compared with the normal relation between temperature (T) and elastic modulus (E) in most materials, martensitic transformation (MT) and magnetic transition could result in the softening of elastic modulus (dE/dT > 0) within a narrow range of T (<100 °C). It becomes possible in MnFeCu alloys to tune this range and broaden it to about 200 °C through combining MT and paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic (P-A) transition. The alloying elements and their contents play a key role in making MT separate from P-A transition, in which first-order MT made a greater contribution to this maximum value than second-order P-A transition. The intrinsic mechanism is that MT can continue causing the modulus to soften even after the P-A transition ends. This wide range keeps stable under different cooling/heating rates. An expression for dE/dT is deduced based on the proposed free energy model and the corresponding theoretical curve (dE/dT-T) gives a reasonable explanation on the experimental results in MnFeCu alloys. A modulus–temperature–composition phase diagram is obtained to describe such critical behaviors and it is found that there exists a specific triangle zone in which dE/dT > 0. The present results may enrich approaches to designing new functional materials, e.g. the elastic and Elinvar alloys.

  10. Tunable elastic modulus in Mn-based antiferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, S. S.; Shi, S.; Zhao, Z. M.; Cui, Y. G.; Liu, C.; Yuan, F.; Hou, J. W.; Wan, J. F.; Zhang, J. H.; Rong, Y. H.

    2016-07-01

    Compared with the normal relation between temperature (T) and elastic modulus (E) in most materials, martensitic transformation (MT) and magnetic transition could result in the softening of elastic modulus (dE/dT > 0) within a narrow range of T (<100 °C). It becomes possible in MnFeCu alloys to tune this range and broaden it to about 200 °C through combining MT and paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic (P-A) transition. The alloying elements and their contents play a key role in making MT separate from P-A transition, in which first-order MT made a greater contribution to this maximum value than second-order P-A transition. The intrinsic mechanism is that MT can continue causing the modulus to soften even after the P-A transition ends. This wide range keeps stable under different cooling/heating rates. An expression for dE/dT is deduced based on the proposed free energy model and the corresponding theoretical curve (dE/dT-T) gives a reasonable explanation on the experimental results in MnFeCu alloys. A modulus-temperature-composition phase diagram is obtained to describe such critical behaviors and it is found that there exists a specific triangle zone in which dE/dT > 0. The present results may enrich approaches to designing new functional materials, e.g. the elastic and Elinvar alloys.

  11. Shape memory alloys: New materials for future engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornbogen, E.

    1988-01-01

    Shape memory is a new material property. An alloy which experiences relative severe plastic deformation resumes its original shape again after heating by 10 to 100 C. Besides simple shape memory, in similar alloys there is the second effect where the change in shape is caused exclusively by little temperature change. In pseudo-elasticity, the alloy exhibits a rubber-like behavior, i.e., large, reversible deformation at little change in tension. Beta Cu and beta NiTi alloys have been used in practice. The probability is that soon alloys based on Fe will become available. Recently increasing applications for this alloy were found in various areas of technology, even medical technology. A review with 24 references is given, including properties, production, applications and fundamental principles of the shape memory effect.

  12. Design and development of a shape memory alloy activated heat pipe-based thermal switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benafan, O.; Notardonato, W. U.; Meneghelli, B. J.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2013-10-01

    This work reports on the design, fabrication and testing of a thermal switch wherein the open and closed states were actuated by shape memory alloy (SMA) elements while heat was transferred by a two-phase heat pipe. The motivation for such a switch comes from NASA’s need for thermal management in advanced spaceport applications associated with future lunar and Mars missions. As the temperature can approximately vary between -233 and 127 ° C during lunar day/night cycles, the switch was designed to reject heat from a cryogen tank into space during the night cycle while providing thermal isolation during the day cycle. A Ni47.1Ti49.6Fe3.3 (at.%) alloy that exhibited a reversible phase transformation between a trigonal R-phase and a cubic austenite phase was used as the sensing and actuating elements. Thermomechanical actuation, accomplished through an antagonistic spring system, resulted in strokes up to 7 mm against bias forces of up to 45 N. The actuation system was tested for more than thirty cycles, equivalent to one year of operation. The thermal performance, accomplished via a variable length, closed two-phase heat pipe, was evaluated, resulting in heat transfer rates of 13 W using pentane and 10 W using R-134a as working fluids. Experimental data were also compared to theoretical predictions where possible. Direct comparisons between different design approaches of SMA helical actuators, highlighting the effects of the helix angle, were carried out to give a layout of more accurate design methodologies.

  13. GA-based optimum design of a shape memory alloy device for seismic response mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbulut, O. E.; Roschke, P. N.; Y Lin, P.; Loh, C. H.

    2010-06-01

    Damping systems discussed in this work are optimized so that a three-story steel frame structure and its shape memory alloy (SMA) bracing system minimize response metrics due to a custom-tailored earthquake excitation. Multiple-objective numerical optimization that simultaneously minimizes displacements and accelerations of the structure is carried out with a genetic algorithm (GA) in order to optimize SMA bracing elements within the structure. After design of an optimal SMA damping system is complete, full-scale experimental shake table tests are conducted on a large-scale steel frame that is equipped with the optimal SMA devices. A fuzzy inference system is developed from data collected during the testing to simulate the dynamic material response of the SMA bracing subcomponents. Finally, nonlinear analyses of a three-story braced frame are carried out to evaluate the performance of comparable SMA and commonly used steel braces under dynamic loading conditions and to assess the effectiveness of GA-optimized SMA bracing design as compared to alternative designs of SMA braces. It is shown that peak displacement of a structure can be reduced without causing significant acceleration response amplification through a judicious selection of physical characteristics of the SMA devices. Also, SMA devices provide a recentering mechanism for the structure to return to its original position after a seismic event.

  14. Computational Thermodynamics and Kinetics-Based ICME Framework for High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arróyave, Raymundo; Talapatra, Anjana; Johnson, Luke; Singh, Navdeep; Ma, Ji; Karaman, Ibrahim

    2015-11-01

    Over the last decade, considerable interest in the development of High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys (HTSMAs) for solid-state actuation has increased dramatically as key applications in the aerospace and automotive industry demand actuation temperatures well above those of conventional SMAs. Most of the research to date has focused on establishing the (forward) connections between chemistry, processing, (micro)structure, properties, and performance. Much less work has been dedicated to the development of frameworks capable of addressing the inverse problem of establishing necessary chemistry and processing schedules to achieve specific performance goals. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) has emerged as a powerful framework to address this problem, although it has yet to be applied to the development of HTSMAs. In this paper, the contributions of computational thermodynamics and kinetics to ICME of HTSMAs are described. Some representative examples of the use of computational thermodynamics and kinetics to understand the phase stability and microstructural evolution in HTSMAs are discussed. Some very recent efforts at combining both to assist in the design of HTSMAs and limitations to the full implementation of ICME frameworks for HTSMA development are presented.

  15. Experimental Evaluation of a Device Prototype Based on Shape Memory Alloys for the Retrofit of Historical Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardone, Donatello; Sofia, Salvatore

    2012-12-01

    Metallic tie-rods are currently used in many historical buildings for absorbing the out-of-plane horizontal forces of arches, vaults and roof trusses, despite they exhibit several limitations under service and seismic conditions. In this paper, a post-tensioned system based on the superelastic properties of Ni-Ti shape memory alloys is proposed for improving the structural performances of traditional metallic tie-rods. First, the thermal behavior under service conditions is investigated based on the results of numerical and experimental studies. Subsequently, the seismic performances under strong earthquakes are verified trough a number of shaking table tests on a 1:4-scale timber roof truss model. The outcomes of these studies fully confirm the achievement of the design objectives of the proposed prototype device.

  16. Shape memory alloy consortium (SMAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacot, A. Dean

    1999-07-01

    The application of smart structures to helicopter rotors has received widespread study in recent years. This is one of the major thrusts of the Shape Memory Alloy Consortium (SMAC) program. SMAC includes 3 companies and 4 Universities in a cost sharing consortium funded under DARPA Smart Materials and Structures program. This paper describes the objective of the SMAC effort, and its relationship to a previous DARPA smart structure rotorcraft program from which it originated. The SMAC program includes NiTinol fatigue/characterization studies, SMA actuator development, and ferromagnetic SMA material development. The paper summarizes the SMAC effort, and includes background and details on Boeing's development of a SMA torsional actuator for rotorcraft applications. SMA actuation is used to retwist the rotorcraft blade in flight, and result in a significant payload increase for either helicopters or tiltrotors. This paper is also augmented by several other papers in this conference with specific results from other SMAC consortium members.

  17. Thermodynamics-based models for the magneto-mechanical response of magnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMaster, Douglas H.

    Magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) are a relatively new class of smart material that exhibit large recoverable strain (up to 10%) [1] and fast response time (higher than 1 kilohertz) [2]. MSMAs are comprised of martensitic variants arranged as tetragonal unit cells with one short side, denoted by c, and two longer sides, denoted by a. With single crystal MSMAs, these variants align with one of the three Cartesian directions, and the volume fraction of variants with short side aligned in the i-direction is given by ξi. The boundary between two variants, called the twin boundary, moves as one variant volume fraction grows at the expense of the other. Under an applied compressive stress in the i-direction, variants will reorient into the ξi configuration to align the short side of the unit cell with the compressive stress. Each variant has an internal magnetization vector of length Msat that is approximately [3] aligned with the short length of the unit cell in the absence of an external applied magnetic field. This internal magnetization vector tends to align with an externally applied field to minimize the energy in the MSMA. The magnetization vector may align with the external field by: 1) changing internal magnetic domains, 2) rotating magneti- zation vectors away from the easy axis, or 3) variant reorientation . The fraction of the magnetic domains in the ξi variant with easy-axis in the i-direction is denoted by αi, and the domain fraction of the ξi variants with easy axis in the direction opposite to the i-direction is given by (1 - αi). Under an applied field in the i-direction, the αi domain will grow at the expense of the (1 - αi) domain, and vice versa for an applied field in the -i-direction. When the volume fraction αi reaches either 1 or 0, this domain wall motion ceases and the domains are said to be saturated. After domains in ξi have saturated, increasing the magnetic field further may rotate the magnetization vectors in other variants

  18. Shape memory alloys. December 1986-December 1987 (citations from the INSPEC: Information Services for the Physics and Engineering Communities data base). Report for December 1986-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning experiments on shape-memory effects of various alloys. Alloys studied include nickel, tin, indium, lead, copper, and titanium. Studies include crystallography, properties, processing, alloying, and mechanisms that result in shape memory effects. (This updated bibliography contains 79 citations, all of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  19. Shape-memory alloys. January 1975-November 1986 (citations from the INSPEC: Information Services for the Physics and Engineering Communities data base). Report for January 1975-November 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning experiments on shape-memory effects of various alloys. Alloys studied include nickel, tin, indium, lead, copper, and titanium. Studies include crystallography, properties, processing, alloying, and mechanisms that result in shape-memory effects. (This updated bibliography contains 327 citations, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  20. A shape-memory alloy for high-temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Duerig, T.W.; Albrecht, J.; Gessinger, G.H.

    1982-12-01

    An alloy based on the Cu-Al-Ni ternary system has been developed at the research center of Brown, Boveri and Co., Baden, Switzerland, which provides a fully reversible (two-way) shape memory effect at significantly higher temperatures than those afforded by commercial memory alloys such as NiTi and Cu-Zn-Al. The higher temperature capability of this alloy could open new fields for the application of the shape memory effect, particularly in thermal switching and protection devices. After suitable deformation and processing, a shape change is observed while heating the alloy through the temperature interval from 175 to 190/sup 0/C. This shape change can be completely reversed during subsequent cooling from 155 to 125/sup 0/C. The magnitude of the reversible strain produced by this alloy is 1.5%; somewhat higher strains can be achieved if lower memory temperatures can be accepted, and conversely, better high temperature capabilities can be achieved by accepting smaller reversible strains. The memory effects in this alloy have been found to be unaffected by short overheatings to temperatures as high as 300/sup 0/C.

  1. Challenges and Progress in the Development of High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys Based on NiTiX Compositions for High-Force Actuator Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Santo, II; Bigelow, Glen; Noebe, Ronald; Gaydosh, Darrell; Garg, Anita

    2006-01-01

    Interest in high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMA) has been growing in the aerospace, automotive, process control, and energy industries. However, actual materials development has seriously lagged component design, with current commercial NiTi alloys severely limited in their temperature capability. Additions of Pd, Pt, Au, Hf, and Zr at levels greater than 10 at.% have been shown to increase the transformation temperature of NiTi alloys, but with few exceptions, the shape memory behavior (strain recovery) of these NiTiX systems has been determined only under stress free conditions. Given the limited amount of basic mechanical test data and general lack of information regarding the work attributes of these materials, a program to investigate the mechanical behavior of potential HTSMAs, with transformation temperatures between 100 and 500 C, was initiated. This paper summarizes the results of studies, focusing on both the practical temperature limitations for ternary TiNiPd and TiNiPt systems based on the work output of these alloys and the ability of these alloys to undergo repeated thermal cycling under load without significant permanent deformation or "walking". These issues are ultimately controlled by the detwinning stress of the martensite and resistance to dislocation slip of the individual martensite and austenite phases. Finally, general rules that govern the development of useful, high work output, next-generation HTSMA materials, based on the lessons learned in this work, will be provided

  2. A jumping shape memory alloy under heat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuiyuan; Omori, Toshihiro; Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Yong; Nagasako, Makoto; Ruan, Jingjing; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Ishida, Kiyohito; Liu, Xingjun

    2016-02-16

    Shape memory alloys are typical temperature-sensitive metallic functional materials due to superelasticity and shape recovery characteristics. The conventional shape memory effect involves the formation and deformation of thermally induced martensite and its reverse transformation. The shape recovery process usually takes place over a temperature range, showing relatively low temperature-sensitivity. Here we report novel Cu-Al-Fe-Mn shape memory alloys. Their stress-strain and shape recovery behaviors are clearly different from the conventional shape memory alloys. In this study, although the Cu-12.2Al-4.3Fe-6.6Mn and Cu-12.9Al-3.8Fe-5.6Mn alloys possess predominantly L2(1) parent before deformation, the 2H martensite stress-induced from L2(1) parent could be retained after unloading. Furthermore, their shape recovery response is extremely temperature-sensitive, in which a giant residual strain of about 9% recovers instantly and completely during heating. At the same time, the phenomenon of the jumping of the sample occurs. It is originated from the instantaneous completion of the reverse transformation of the stabilized 2H martensite. This novel Cu-Al-Fe-Mn shape memory alloys have great potentials as new temperature-sensitive functional materials.

  3. A jumping shape memory alloy under heat

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuiyuan; Omori, Toshihiro; Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Yong; Nagasako, Makoto; Ruan, Jingjing; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Ishida, Kiyohito; Liu, Xingjun

    2016-01-01

    Shape memory alloys are typical temperature-sensitive metallic functional materials due to superelasticity and shape recovery characteristics. The conventional shape memory effect involves the formation and deformation of thermally induced martensite and its reverse transformation. The shape recovery process usually takes place over a temperature range, showing relatively low temperature-sensitivity. Here we report novel Cu-Al-Fe-Mn shape memory alloys. Their stress-strain and shape recovery behaviors are clearly different from the conventional shape memory alloys. In this study, although the Cu-12.2Al-4.3Fe-6.6Mn and Cu-12.9Al-3.8Fe-5.6Mn alloys possess predominantly L21 parent before deformation, the 2H martensite stress-induced from L21 parent could be retained after unloading. Furthermore, their shape recovery response is extremely temperature-sensitive, in which a giant residual strain of about 9% recovers instantly and completely during heating. At the same time, the phenomenon of the jumping of the sample occurs. It is originated from the instantaneous completion of the reverse transformation of the stabilized 2H martensite. This novel Cu-Al-Fe-Mn shape memory alloys have great potentials as new temperature-sensitive functional materials. PMID:26880700

  4. A jumping shape memory alloy under heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuiyuan; Omori, Toshihiro; Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Yong; Nagasako, Makoto; Ruan, Jingjing; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Ishida, Kiyohito; Liu, Xingjun

    2016-02-01

    Shape memory alloys are typical temperature-sensitive metallic functional materials due to superelasticity and shape recovery characteristics. The conventional shape memory effect involves the formation and deformation of thermally induced martensite and its reverse transformation. The shape recovery process usually takes place over a temperature range, showing relatively low temperature-sensitivity. Here we report novel Cu-Al-Fe-Mn shape memory alloys. Their stress-strain and shape recovery behaviors are clearly different from the conventional shape memory alloys. In this study, although the Cu-12.2Al-4.3Fe-6.6Mn and Cu-12.9Al-3.8Fe-5.6Mn alloys possess predominantly L21 parent before deformation, the 2H martensite stress-induced from L21 parent could be retained after unloading. Furthermore, their shape recovery response is extremely temperature-sensitive, in which a giant residual strain of about 9% recovers instantly and completely during heating. At the same time, the phenomenon of the jumping of the sample occurs. It is originated from the instantaneous completion of the reverse transformation of the stabilized 2H martensite. This novel Cu-Al-Fe-Mn shape memory alloys have great potentials as new temperature-sensitive functional materials.

  5. Fatigue Resistance of Liquid-assisted Self-repairing Aluminum Alloys Reinforced with Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. Clara; Manuel, Michele; Wallace, Terryl

    2013-01-01

    A self-repairing aluminum-based composite system has been developed using a liquid-assisted healing theory in conjunction with the shape memory effect of wire reinforcements. The metal-metal composite was thermodynamically designed to have a matrix with a relatively even dispersion of a low-melting eutectic phase, allowing for repair of cracks at a predetermined temperature. Additionally, shape memory alloy (SMA) wire reinforcements were used within the composite to provide crack closure. Investigators focused the research on fatigue cracks propagating through the matrix in order to show a proof-of-concept Shape Memory Alloy Self-Healing (SMASH) technology for aeronautical applications.

  6. Development and wind tunnel evaluation of a shape memory alloy based trim tab actuator for a civil aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, P.; Jayasankar, S.; Satisha; Sateesh, V. L.; Kamaleshaiah, M. S.; Dayananda, G. N.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents the development and wind tunnel evaluation of a shape memory alloy (SMA) based smart trim tab for a typical two seater civil aircraft. The SMA actuator was housed in the port side of the elevator for the purpose of actuating the trim tab. Wind tunnel tests were conducted on a full scale horizontal tail model with elevator and trim tab at free stream speeds of 25, 35 and 45 m s-1, and also for a number of deflections of the elevator (30° up, 0° neutral and 25° down) and trim tab (11° and 21° up and 15° and 31° down). To measure the hinge moment experienced by the trim tab under various test conditions, two miniaturized balances were designed and fabricated. A gain scheduled proportional integral (GSPI) controller was developed to control the SMA actuated smart trim tab. It was confirmed during the tests that the trim tab could be controlled at the desired position against the aerodynamic loads acting on it for the various test conditions.

  7. Slip Resistance of Ti-Based High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, A.; Sehitoglu, H.

    2016-03-01

    Titanium with Nb, Zr, and Ta alloying substitutions possesses high plastic slip resistance and high transformation strains upon bcc (β) to orthorhombic (α^'') transformation. In the current study, we determine the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) for slip in Ti alloyed for a wide composition range of Nb, Ta, and Zr. The CRSS is obtained with a proposed Peierls-Nabarro formalism incorporating the generalized stacking fault energy barrier profile for slip obtained from the first-principles Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The CRSS for slip of the orthorhombic martensite increases from 80 to 280 MPa linearly with increasing unstable fault energy. The addition of tantalum is most effective in raising the energy barriers. We also demonstrate the composition dependence of the lattice parameters of both β and α^'' crystal structures as a function of Nb, Ta, and Zr additions showing agreement with experiments. Using the lattice constants, the transformation strain is determined as high as 11 % in the [011] pole and its magnitude increases mainly with Zr addition.

  8. High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biffi, C. A.; Tuissi, A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, an experimental study of laser micro-processing on a Cu-Zr-based shape memory alloy (SMA), which is suitable for high-temperature (HT) applications, is discussed. A first evaluation of the interaction between a laser beam and Zr50Cu28Ni7Co15 HT SMA is highlighted. Single laser pulses at various levels of power and pulse duration were applied to evaluate their effect on the sample surfaces. Blind and through microholes were produced with sizes on the order of a few hundreds of microns; the results were characterized from the morphological viewpoint using a scanning electron microscope. The high beam quality allows the holes to be created with good circularity and little melted material around the hole periphery. An analysis of the chemical composition was performed using energy dispersive spectroscopy, revealing that compositional changes were limited, while important oxidation occurred on the hole surfaces. Additionally, laser micro-cutting tests were also proposed to evaluate the cut edge morphology and dimensions. The main result of this paper concerned the good behavior of the material upon interaction with the laser beam, which suggests that microfeatures can be successfully produced in this alloy.

  9. Design of two-way reversible bending actuator based on a shape memory alloy/shape memory polymer composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taya, Minoru; Liang, Yuanchang; Namli, Onur C.; Tamagawa, Hirohisa; Howie, Tucker

    2013-10-01

    The design of a reversible bending actuator based on a SMA/SMP composite is presented. The SMA/SMP composite is made of SMA NiTi wires with a bent ‘U’-shape in the austenite phase embedded in an epoxy SMP matrix which has a memorized flat shape. The bending motion is caused by heating the composite above TAf to activate the NiTi recovery. Upon cooling, the softening from the austenite to R-phase transformation results in a relaxation of the composite towards its original flat shape. In the three-point bending measurement the composite was able to exhibit a reversible deflection of 1.3 mm on a support with a 10 mm span. In addition, a material model for predicting the composite’s deflection is presented and predicts the experimental results reasonably well. The model also estimates the in-plane internal force and the degree of the SMA phase transformation.

  10. Shape-Memory-Alloy Actuator For Flight Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Report proposes use of shape-memory-alloy actuators, instead of hydraulic actuators, for aerodynamic flight-control surfaces. Actuator made of shape-memory alloy converts thermal energy into mechanical work by changing shape as it makes transitions between martensitic and austenitic crystalline phase states of alloy. Because both hot exhaust gases and cryogenic propellant liquids available aboard launch rockets, shape-memory-alloy actuators exceptionally suited for use aboard such rockets.

  11. Hysteresis model of shape memory alloy wire-based laminated rubber bearing under compression and unidirectional shear loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedayati Dezfuli, F.; Shahria Alam, M.

    2015-06-01

    Smart lead rubber bearings (LRBs), in which a shape memory alloy (SMA) is used in the form of wires, are a new generation of elastomeric isolators with improved performance in terms of recentering capability and energy dissipation capacity. It is of great interest to implement SMA wire-based lead rubber bearings (SMA-LRBs) in bridges; however, currently there is no appropriate hysteresis model for accurately simulating the behavior of such isolators. A constitutive model for SMA-LRBs is proposed in this study. An LRB is equipped with a double cross configuration of SMA wires (DC-SMAW) and subjected to compression and unidirectional shear loadings. Due to the complexity of the shear behavior of the SMA-LRB, a hysteresis model is developed for the DC-SMAWs and then combined with the bilinear kinematic hardening model, which is assumed for the LRB. Comparing the hysteretic response of decoupled systems with that of the SMA-LRB shows that the high recentering capability of the DC-SMAW model with zero residual deformation could noticeably reduce the residual deformation of the LRB. The developed constitutive model for DC-SMAWs is characterized by three stiffnesses when the shear strain exceeds a starting limit at which the SMA wires are activated due to phase transformation. An important point is that the shear hysteresis of the DC-SMAW model looks different from the flag-shaped hysteresis of the SMA because of the specific arrangement of wires and its effect on the resultant forces transferred from the wires to the rubber bearing.

  12. Design of Fatigue Resistant Heusler-strengthened PdTi-based Shape Memory Alloys for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Dana J.

    The development of non-surgical transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) techniques, which utilize collapsible artificial heart valves with shape memory alloy (SMA)-based frames, pushes performance requirements for biomedical SMAs beyond those for well-established vascular stent applications. Fatigue life for these devices must extend into the ultra-high cycle fatigue (UHCF) regime (>600M cycles) with zero probability of failure predicted at applied strain levels. High rates of Ni-hypersensitivity raise biocompatibility concerns, driving the development of low-Ni and Ni-free SMAs. This work focuses on the development of biocompatible, precipitation-strengthened, fatigue-resistant PdTi-based SMAs for biomedical applications. Functional and structural fatigue are both manifestations of cyclic instability resulting in accumulation of slip and eventual structural damage. While functional fatigue is easily experimentally evaluated, structural fatigue is more difficult to measure without the proper equipment. Therefore, in this work a theoretical approach using a model well validated in steels is utilized to investigate structural fatigue behavior in NiTi in the UHCF regime, while low cycle functional fatigue is evaluated in order to monitor the core phenomena of the cyclic instability. Results from fatigue simulations modeling crack nucleation at non-metallic inclusions in commercial NiTi underscore the importance of increasing yield strength for UHCF performance. Controlled precipitation of nanoscale, low-misfit, L21 Heusler aluminides can provide effective strengthening. Phase relations, precipitation kinetics, transformation temperature, transformation strain, cyclic stability, and mechanical properties are characterized in both Ni-free (Pd,Fe)(Ti,Al) and low-Ni high-strength "hybrid" (Pd,Ni)(Ti,Zr,Al) systems. Atom probe tomography is employed to measure phase compositions and particle sizes used to calibrate LSW models for coarsening kinetics and Gibbs

  13. Excess Ni-doping induced enhanced room temperature magneto-functionality in Ni-Mn-Sn based shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Pramanick, S.; Giri, S.; Majumdar, S.; Chatterjee, S.

    2014-09-15

    Present work reports on the observation of large magnetoresistance (∼−30% at 80 kOe) and magnetocaloric effect (∼12 J·kg{sup −1}·K{sup −1} for 0–50 kOe) near room temperature (∼290 K) on the Ni-excess ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni{sub 2.04}Mn{sub 1.4}Sn{sub 0.56}. The sample can be thought of being derived from the parent Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.4}Sn{sub 0.6} alloy, where excess Ni was doped at the expense of Sn. Such Ni doping enhances the martensitic transition temperature and for the Ni{sub 2.04}Mn{sub 1.4}Sn{sub 0.56} it is found to be optimum (288 K). The doped alloy shows enhanced magneto-functional properties as well as reduced saturation magnetization as compared to the undoped counterpart at low temperature. A probable increment of antiferromagnetic correlation between Mn-atoms on Ni substitution can be accounted for the enhanced magneto-functional properties as well as reduction in saturation moment.

  14. Precipitation Hardenable High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noebe, Ronald Dean (Inventor); Draper, Susan L. (Inventor); Nathal, Michael V. (Inventor); Crombie, Edwin A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A composition of the invention is a high temperature shape memory alloy having high work output, and is made from (Ni+Pt+Y),Ti(100-x) wherein x is present in a total amount of 49-55 atomic % Pt is present in a total amount of 10-30 atomic %, Y is one or more of Au, Pd. and Cu and is present in a total amount of 0 to 10 atomic %. The alloy has a matrix phase wherein the total concentration of Ni, Pt, and the one or more of Pd. Au, and Cu is greater than 50 atomic %.

  15. SUPERCONDUCTING VANADIUM BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, H.J.

    1958-10-21

    A new vanadium-base alloy which possesses remarkable superconducting properties is presented. The alloy consists of approximately one atomic percent of palladium, the balance being vanadium. The alloy is stated to be useful in a cryotron in digital computer circuits.

  16. Development of Superelastic Effect in Ferrous Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Scott

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) with high levels of superelasticity are used where there is a need for the application of large levels of force, or high damping. Current commercially available SMAs require expensive fabrication and lack sufficient ductility for many applications. There is a need for a superelastic material with better properties and easier processing. Y. Tanaka et al. have developed a novel iron based shape memory alloy, NCATB. This alloy still requires complex thermomechanical processing, and does not utilize lessons learned in optimizing Nitinol. To develop the properties of this alloy, it was synthesized in lab from its constituent elements, and thermomechanically processed. Samples were prepared for analysis using conventional metallographic techniques, and investigated with light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mechanical testing. The recrystallization following cold rolling, as well as aging heat treatments, were determined to be critical to increasing the hardness of the NCATB. Overall, smaller grains and longer aging times increased the hardness. The as-cast microstructure exhibits significant tantalum segregation along the dendrite boundaries. Incomplete homogenization of the as-cast microstructure leads to a propensity for a Tarich phase to form along subsequent recrystallized grain boundaries. This phase lead to alloy embrittlement, preventing the NCATB as processed from having the desired superelasticity. An additional high temperature thermomechanical treatment following casting solutionized the tantalum from the dendrite boundaries, and further improved the NCATB hardenability.

  17. Effects of magnetic field on the shape memory behavior of single and polycrystalline magnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turabi, Ali Sadi

    Shape memory alloys and polymers have been extensively researched recently because of their unique ability to recover large deformations. Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are able to recover large deformations compared to shape memory alloys (SMAs), although SMAs have higher strength and are able to generate more stress during recovery. This project focuses on procedure for fabrication and Finite Element Modeling (FEM) of a shape memory composite actuator. First, SMP was characterized to reveal its mechanical properties. Specifically, glass transition temperature, the effects of temperature and strain rate on compressive response and recovery properties of shape memory polymer were studied. Then, shape memory properties of a NiTi wire, including transformation temperatures and stress generation, were investigated. SMC actuator was fabricated by using epoxy based SMP and NiTi SMA wire. Experimental tests confirmed the reversible behavior of fabricated shape memory composites. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  18. Mechanocaloric effects in shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Mañosa, Lluís; Planes, Antoni

    2016-08-13

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) are a class of ferroic materials which undergo a structural (martensitic) transition where the associated ferroic property is a lattice distortion (strain). The sensitiveness of the transition to the conjugated external field (stress), together with the latent heat of the transition, gives rise to giant mechanocaloric effects. In non-magnetic SMA, the lattice distortion is mostly described by a pure shear and the martensitic transition in this family of alloys is strongly affected by uniaxial stress, whereas it is basically insensitive to hydrostatic pressure. As a result, non-magnetic alloys exhibit giant elastocaloric effects but negligible barocaloric effects. By contrast, in a number of magnetic SMA, the lattice distortion at the martensitic transition involves a volume change in addition to the shear strain. Those alloys are affected by both uniaxial stress and hydrostatic pressure and they exhibit giant elastocaloric and barocaloric effects. The paper aims at providing a critical survey of available experimental data on elastocaloric and barocaloric effects in magnetic and non-magnetic SMA.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'.

  19. Shape memory alloy/shape memory polymer tools

    DOEpatents

    Seward, Kirk P.; Krulevitch, Peter A.

    2005-03-29

    Micro-electromechanical tools for minimally invasive techniques including microsurgery. These tools utilize composite shape memory alloy (SMA), shape memory polymer (SMP) and combinations of SMA and SMP to produce catheter distal tips, actuators, etc., which are bistable. Applications for these structures include: 1) a method for reversible fine positioning of a catheter tip, 2) a method for reversible fine positioning of tools or therapeutic catheters by a guide catheter, 3) a method for bending articulation through the body's vasculature, 4) methods for controlled stent delivery, deployment, and repositioning, and 5) catheters with variable modulus, with vibration mode, with inchworm capability, and with articulated tips. These actuators and catheter tips are bistable and are opportune for in vivo usage because the materials are biocompatible and convenient for intravascular use as well as other minimal by invasive techniques.

  20. Three-Dimensional Cellular Structures Enhanced By Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, Michael V.; Krause, David L.; Wilmoth, Nathan G.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Baker, Eric H.

    2014-01-01

    This research effort explored lightweight structural concepts married with advanced smart materials to achieve a wide variety of benefits in airframe and engine components. Lattice block structures were cast from an aerospace structural titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V and a NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA), and preliminary properties have been measured. A finite element-based modeling approach that can rapidly and accurately capture the deformation response of lattice architectures was developed. The Ti-6-4 and SMA material behavior was calibrated via experimental tests of ligaments machined from the lattice. Benchmark testing of complete lattice structures verified the main aspects of the model as well as demonstrated the advantages of the lattice structure. Shape memory behavior of a sample machined from a lattice block was also demonstrated.

  1. Fastening apparatus having shape memory alloy actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnis, Darin N.

    1992-11-01

    A releasable fastening apparatus is presented. The device includes a connecting member and a housing. The housing supports a gripping mechanism that is adapted to engage the connecting member. A triggering member is movable within the housing between a first position in which it constrains the gripping mechanism in locked engagement with the connecting member, and a second position in which the gripping mechanism is disengaged from the connecting member. A shaped memory alloy actuator is employed for translating the triggering member from its first to its second position. The actuator is designed to expand longitudinally when transitioned from a martensitic to an austenitic state.

  2. Fastening apparatus having shape memory alloy actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinnis, Darin N. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A releasable fastening apparatus is presented. The device includes a connecting member and a housing. The housing supports a gripping mechanism that is adapted to engage the connecting member. A triggering member is movable within the housing between a first position in which it constrains the gripping mechanism in locked engagement with the connecting member, and a second position in which the gripping mechanism is disengaged from the connecting member. A shaped memory alloy actuator is employed for translating the triggering member from its first to its second position. The actuator is designed to expand longitudinally when transitioned from a martensitic to an austenitic state.

  3. Shape memory alloy seals for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Friske, Warren H.; Schwartzbart, Harry

    1982-10-08

    Rockwell International's Energy Systems Group, under contract to Brookhaven National Laboratory, has completed a 2-year program to develop a novel temperature-actuated seal concept for geothermal applications. This seal concept uses the unique properties of a shape memory alloy (Nitinol) to perform the sealing function. The several advantages of the concept are discussed in the paper. Demonstration tests of both face and shaft seals have shown that leaktight seals are feasible. Supporting materials studies have included corrosion tests in geothermal fluids, elevated temperature tensile tests, experimental electroplating and metallographic evaluations of microstructures.

  4. Constitutive Models for Shape Memory Alloy Polycrystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, R. J., Jr.; Somerday, M.; Wert, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) exhibiting the superelastic or one-way effects can produce large recoverable strains upon application of a stress. In single crystals this stress and resulting strain are very orientation dependent. We show experimental stress/strain curves for a Ni-Al single crystal for various loading orientations. Also shown are model predictions; the open and closed circles indicate recoverable strains obtained at various stages in the transformation process. Because of the strong orientation dependence of shape memory properties, crystallographic texture can be expected to play an important role in the mechanical behavior of polycrystalline SMA. It is desirable to formulate a constitutive model to better understand and exploit the unique properties of SMA.

  5. Characterization Results of a Novel Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collado, M.; Nava, N.; Herranz, S.; Ramiro, C.; San Juan, J. M.; Patti, S.; Lautier, J.-M.

    2012-07-01

    A novel Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) has been developed as an alternative to currently available alloys. This material, called SMARQ, shows a higher working range of temperatures with respect to the SMA materials used until now, mainly NiTi based alloys. SMARQ is a fully European material technology and production processes, which allows the manufacture of high quality products, with tuneable transformation temperatures up to 200oC. A full Characterization test campaign has been completed in order to obtain the material properties and check its suitability to be used as active material in space actuators. Details of the tests and results of the characterization test campaign, focused in the material unique properties for their use in actuators, will be presented in this work. Some application examples of space mechanisms and actuators, currently under development, will be summarized as part of this work, demonstrating the technology suitability for the development of space actuators.

  6. Shape-memory alloy micro-actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch, John D. (Inventor); Johnson, Alfred D. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method of producing an integral piece of thermo-sensitive material, which is responsive to a shift in temperature from below to above a phase transformation temperature range to alter the material's condition to a shape-memory condition and move from one position to another. The method is characterized by depositing a thin film of shape-memory material, such as Nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) onto a substrate by vacuum deposition process such that the alloy exhibits an amorphous non-crystalline structure. The coated substrate is then annealed in a vacuum or in the presence of an inert atmosphere at a selected temperature, time and cool down rate to produce an ordered, partially disordered or fully disordered BCC structure such that the alloy undergoes thermoelastic, martinsetic phase transformation in response to alteration in temperature to pass from a martinsetic phase when at a temperature below a phase transformation range and capable of a high level of recoverable strain to a parent austenitic phase in a memory shape when at a temperature above the phase transformation range. Also disclosed are actuator devices employing shape-memory material actuators that deform from a set shape toward an original shape when subjected to a critical temperature level after having been initially deformed from the original shape into the set shape while at a lower temperature. The actuators are mechanically coupled to one or more movable elements such that the temperature-induce deformation of the actuators exerts a force or generates a motion of the mechanical element(s).

  7. Method of preparing a two-way shape memory alloy

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, A.D.

    1984-03-06

    A two-way shape memory alloy, a method of training a shape memory alloy, and a heat engine employing the two-way shape memory alloy to do external work during both heating and cooling phases are disclosed. The alloy is heated under a first training stress to a temperature which is above the upper operating temperature of the alloy, then cooled to a cold temperature below the zero-force transition temperature of the alloy, then deformed while applying a second training stress which is greater in magnitude than the stress at which the alloy is to be operated, then heated back to the hot temperature, changing from the second training stress back to the first training stress. 8 figs.

  8. Method of preparing a two-way shape memory alloy

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Alfred D.

    1984-01-01

    A two-way shape memory alloy, a method of training a shape memory alloy, and a heat engine employing the two-way shape memory alloy to do external work during both heating and cooling phases. The alloy is heated under a first training stress to a temperature which is above the upper operating temperature of the alloy, then cooled to a cold temperature below the zero-force transition temperature of the alloy, then deformed while applying a second training stress which is greater in magnitude than the stress at which the alloy is to be operated, then heated back to the hot temperature, changing from the second training stress back to the first training stress.

  9. Method for fabricating uranium alloy articles without shape memory effects

    DOEpatents

    Banker, John G.

    1985-01-01

    Uranium-rich niobium and niobium-zirconium alloys possess a characteristic known as shape memory effect wherein shaped articles of these alloys recover their original shape when heated. The present invention circumvents this memory behavior by forming the alloys into the desired configuration at elevated temperatures with "cold" matched dies and maintaining the shaped articles between the dies until the articles cool to ambient temperature.

  10. Method for fabricating uranium alloy articles without shape memory effects

    DOEpatents

    Banker, J.G.

    1980-05-21

    Uranium-rich niobium and niobium-zirconium alloys possess a characteristic known as shape memory effect wherein shaped articles of these alloys recover their original shape when heated. The present invention circumvents this memory behavior by forming the alloys into the desired configuration at elevated temperatures with cold matched dies and maintaining the shaped articles between the dies until the articles cool to ambient temperature.

  11. Damage-based life prediction model for uniaxial low-cycle stress fatigue of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy microtubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Di; Kang, Guozheng; Kan, Qianhua; Yu, Chao; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2015-08-01

    Based on the experimental observations for the uniaxial low-cycle stress fatigue failure of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy microtubes (Song et al 2015 Smart Mater. Struct. 24 075004) and a new definition of damage variable corresponding to the variation of accumulated dissipation energy, a phenomenological damage model is proposed to describe the damage evolution of the NiTi microtubes during cyclic loading. Then, with a failure criterion of Dc = 1, the fatigue lives of the NiTi microtubes are predicted by the damage-based model, the predicted lives are in good agreement with the experimental ones, and all of the points are located within an error band of 1.5 times.

  12. Investigations on the influence of composition in the development of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy using laser based additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiva, S.; Palani, I. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Paul, C. P.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2015-06-01

    Among the various shaped memory alloys (SMA), nitinol (Ni-Ti alloy) finds applications in automotive, aerospace, biomedical and robotics. The conventional route of fabrication of SMA has several limitations, like formation of stable secondary phases, fabrication of simple geometries, etc. This paper reports a novel method of fabricating SMA using a laser based additive manufacturing technique. Three different compositions of Ni and Ti powders (Ni-45% Ti-55%; Ni-50% Ti-50%; Ni-55% Ti45%) were pre-mixed using ball-milling and laser based additive manufacturing system was employed to fabricate circular rings. The material properties of fabricated rings were evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) system and micro-hardness test. All the characterized results showed that SMA could be manufactured using the laser based additive manufacturing process. The properties of laser additive manufactured SMA (Ni-50% Ti-50%) were found to be close to that of conventionally processed SMA.

  13. NICKEL-BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Inouye, H.; Manly, W.D.; Roche, T.K.

    1960-01-19

    A nickel-base alloy was developed which is particularly useful for the containment of molten fluoride salts in reactors. The alloy is resistant to both salt corrosion and oxidation and may be used at temperatures as high as 1800 deg F. Basically, the alloy consists of 15 to 22 wt.% molybdenum, a small amount of carbon, and 6 to 8 wt.% chromium, the balance being nickel. Up to 4 wt.% of tungsten, tantalum, vanadium, or niobium may be added to strengthen the alloy.

  14. Nondestructive evaluation of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Meir, S.; Gordon, S.; Karsh, M.; Ayers, R.; Olson, D. L.; Wiezman, A.

    2011-06-23

    The nondestructive evaluation of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) alloys for applications such as heat treatment for biomaterials applications (dental) and welding was investigated. Ni-Ti alloys and its ternary alloys are valued for mechanical properties in addition to the shape memory effect. Two analytical approaches were perused in this work. Assessment of the microstructure of the alloy that determines the martensitic start temperature (Ms) of Ni-Ti alloy as a function of heat treatment, and secondly, an attempt to evaluate a Friction Stir Welding, which involves thermo-mechanical processing of the alloy.

  15. Precipitate Phases in Several High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan

    Initiated by the aerospace industry, there has been a great interest to develop high temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) for actuator type of application at elevated temperatures. Several NiTi based ternary systems have been shown to be potential candidates for HTSMAs and this work focuses on one or more alloys in the TiNiPt, TiNiPd, NiTiHf, NiPdTiHf systems. The sheer scope of alloys of varying compositions across all four systems suggests that the questions raised and addressed in this work are just the tip of the iceberg. This work focuses on materials characterization and aims to investigate microstructural evolution of these alloys as a function of heat treatment. The information gained through the study can serve as guidance for future alloy processing. The emphasis of this work is to describe novel precipitate phases that are formed under aging in the ternary systems and one quaternary system. Employing conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution high angle annular dark field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), 3D atom probe tomography (3D APT), as well as ab initio calculations, the complete description of the unit cell for the new precipitates was determined. The methodology is summarized in the appendix to help elucidate some basics of such a process.

  16. Fabrication of magnetic shape memory alloy/polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham-Su, R.; Healey, J. P.; Underhill, R. S.; Farrell, S. P.; Cheng, L. M.; Hyatt, C. V.; Rogge, R.; Gharghouri, M. A.

    2005-05-01

    NiMnGa-based magnetic shape memory (MSM) alloys have attained magnetic-field-induced strains up to approximately 10%, making them very attractive for a variety of applications. However, for applications that require the use of an alternating magnetic field, eddy current losses can be significant. Also, NiMnGa-based MSM alloys' fracture toughness is relatively low. Using these materials in the form of particles embedded in a polymer matrix composite could mitigate these limitations. Since the MSM effect is anisotropic, the crystallographic texture of the particles in the composites is of great interest. In this work, a procedure for fabricating NiMnGa-based MSMA/elastomer composites is described. Processing routes for optimizing the crystallographic texture in the composites are considered.

  17. Precipitation-Strengthened, High-Temperature, High-Force Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noebe, Ronald D.; Draper, Susan L.; Nathal, Michael V.; Crombie, Edwin A.

    2008-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are an enabling component in the development of compact, lightweight, durable, high-force actuation systems particularly for use where hydraulics or electrical motors are not practical. However, commercial shape memory alloys based on NiTi are only suitable for applications near room temperature, due to their relatively low transformation temperatures, while many potential applications require higher temperature capability. Consequently, a family of (Ni,Pt)(sub 1-x)Ti(sub x) shape memory alloys with Ti concentrations ranging from about 15 to 25 at.% have been developed for applications in which there are requirements for SMA actuators to exert high forces at operating temperatures higher than those of conventional binary NiTi SMAs. These alloys can be heat treated in the range of 500 C to produce a series of fine precipitate phases that increase the strength of alloy while maintaining a high transformation temperature, even in Ti-lean compositions.

  18. Effects of hafnium, heat treatment and cycling under an applied stress on the transformations of cold worked NiTi-based shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C.; Zee, R.H.; Thoma, P.E.; Boehm, J.J.

    1998-12-31

    The effect of thermal cycling under a constant tensile load on the transformation temperatures (TTs) of NiTi-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) is investigated. Three SMAs are examined in this study: a near equiatomic binary Ni{sub 49}Ti{sub 51} alloy and two ternary Ni{sub 49}Ti{sub 51{minus}x}Hf{sub x} alloys with 1 at% and 3 at% Hf. The SMAs are in the form of wires with 40% cold work (reduction in area) and heat treated between 300 C and 600 C. These SMA wires are thermally cycled between their martensite (M) and austenite (A) phases for 100 cycles under an axial tensile stress of 206.8 MPa (30K{sub is}) in air. Results show that the effect of thermal cycling on the M and A TTs depends on heat treatment (HT) temperature and composition in a complex manner. For example, the M TT, of the binary NiTi SMA heat treated between 300 C and 450 C, increases during thermal cycling. However, with HT temperatures between 500 C and 600 C, the M TT decreases slightly during thermal cycling for HT temperatures up to 500 C, and the M TT decreases during thermal cycling when heat treated at 600 C. These results are due to changes in internal stress and structure, such as dislocation density and arrangement, which are affected by HT temperature and thermal cycling. The influence of Hf content on the changes in the M and A TTs during thermal cycling is also shown.

  19. Martensite transformation and shape memory effect on NiTi-Zr high temperature shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Pu, Z.; Tseng, H.; Wu, K.

    1995-10-17

    NiTi-Zr high temperature alloys possess relatively poor shape memory properties and ductility in comparison with NiTi-Hf and NiTi-Pd alloys. During martensite transformation of the newly-developed NiTi-Zr high temperature shape memory alloys (SMAs) the temperature increases along with Zr content when the Zr content is more than 10 at%. As the Zr content increases, the fully reversible strain of the alloys decreases. However, complete strain recovery behavior is exhibited by all the alloys studied in this paper, even those with a Zr content of 20 at%. Stability of the NiTi-Zr alloys during thermal cycling was also tested and results indicate that the NiTi-Zr alloys have poor stability against thermal cycling. The reasons for the deterioration of the shape memory effect and stability have yet to be determined.

  20. Final Technical Report: Nanostructured Shape Memory ALloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wendy Crone; Walter Drugan; Arthur Ellis; John Perepezko

    2005-07-28

    With this grant we explored the properties that result from combining the effects of nanostructuring and shape memory using both experimental and theoretical approaches. We developed new methods to make nanostructured NiTi by melt-spinning and cold rolling fabrication strategies, which elicited significantly different behavior. A template synthesis method was also used to created nanoparticles. In order to characterize the particles we created, we developed a new magnetically-assisted particle manipulation technique to manipulate and position nanoscale samples for testing. Beyond characterization, this technique has broader implications for assembly of nanoscale devices and we demonstrated promising applications for optical switching through magnetically-controlled scattering and polarization capabilities. Nanoparticles of nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy were also produced using thin film deposition technology and nanosphere lithography. Our work revealed the first direct evidence that the thermally-induced martensitic transformation of these films allows for partial indent recovery on the nanoscale. In addition to thoroughly characterizing and modeling the nanoindentation behavior in NiTi thin films, we demonstrated the feasibility of using nanoindentation on an SMA film for write-read-erase schemes for data storage.

  1. Damping capacity in shape memory alloy honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, M.-A.; Smith, C. W.; Scarpa, F.; Miller, W.; Hassan, M. R.

    2010-04-01

    SMA honeycombs have been recently developed by several Authors [1, 2] as innovative cellular structures with selfhealing capability following mechanical indentation, unusual deformation (negative Poisson's ratio [3]), and possible enhanced damping capacity due to the natural vibration dissipation characteristics of SMAs under pseudoelastic and superelastic regime. In this work we describe the nonlinear damping effects of novel shape memory alloy honeycomb assemblies subjected to combine mechanical sinusoidal and thermal loading. The SMA honeycomb structures made with Ni48Ti46Cu6 are designed with single and two-phase polymeric components (epoxy), to enhance the damping characteristics of the base SMA for broadband frequency vibration.

  2. Thermo-Mechanical Methodology for Stabilizing Shape Memory Alloy Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Santo

    2013-01-01

    This innovation is capable of significantly reducing the amount of time required to stabilize the strain-temperature response of a shape memory alloy (SMA). Unlike traditional stabilization processes that take days to weeks to achieve stabilized response, this innovation accomplishes stabilization in a matter of minutes, thus making it highly useful for the successful and practical implementation of SMA-based technologies in real-world applications. The innovation can also be applied to complex geometry components, not just simple geometries like wires or rods.

  3. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator Design: CASMART Collaborative Best Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benafan, Othmane; Brown, Jeff; Calkins, F. Tad; Kumar, Parikshith; Stebner, Aaron; Turner, Travis; Vaidyanathan, Raj; Webster, John; Young, Marcus L.

    2011-01-01

    Upon examination of shape memory alloy (SMA) actuation designs, there are many considerations and methodologies that are common to them all. A goal of CASMART's design working group is to compile the collective experiences of CASMART's member organizations into a single medium that engineers can then use to make the best decisions regarding SMA system design. In this paper, a review of recent work toward this goal is presented, spanning a wide range of design aspects including evaluation, properties, testing, modeling, alloy selection, fabrication, actuator processing, design optimization, controls, and system integration. We have documented each aspect, based on our collective experiences, so that the design engineer may access the tools and information needed to successfully design and develop SMA systems. Through comparison of several case studies, it is shown that there is not an obvious single, linear route a designer can adopt to navigate the path of concept to product. SMA engineering aspects will have different priorities and emphasis for different applications.

  4. Multi-range force sensors utilizing shape memory alloys

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Venugopal K.

    2003-04-15

    The present invention provides a multi-range force sensor comprising a load cell made of a shape memory alloy, a strain sensing system, a temperature modulating system, and a temperature monitoring system. The ability of the force sensor to measure contact forces in multiple ranges is effected by the change in temperature of the shape memory alloy. The heating and cooling system functions to place the shape memory alloy of the load cell in either a low temperature, low strength phase for measuring small contact forces, or a high temperature, high strength phase for measuring large contact forces. Once the load cell is in the desired phase, the strain sensing system is utilized to obtain the applied contact force. The temperature monitoring system is utilized to ensure that the shape memory alloy is in one phase or the other.

  5. Nonhysteretic superelasticity of shape memory alloys at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Ding, Xiangdong; Sun, Jun; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Lookman, Turab; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Ren, Xiaobing

    2013-10-01

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations to show that shape memory alloy nanoparticles below the critical size not only demonstrate superelasticity but also exhibit features such as absence of hysteresis, continuous nonlinear elastic distortion, and high blocking force. Atomic level investigations show that this nonhysteretic superelasticity results from a continuous transformation from the parent phase to martensite under external stress. This aspect of shape memory alloys is attributed to a surface effect; i.e., the surface locally retards the formation of martensite and then induces a critical-end-point-like behavior when the system is below the critical size. Our work potentially broadens the application of shape memory alloys to the nanoscale. It also suggests a method to achieve nonhysteretic superelasticity in conventional bulk shape memory alloys.

  6. TUNGSTEN BASE ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schell, D.H.; Sheinberg, H.

    1959-12-15

    A high-density quaternary tungsten-base alloy having high mechanical strength and good machinability composed of about 2 wt.% Ni, 3 wt.% Cu, 5 wt.% Pb, and 90wt.% W is described. This alloy can be formed by the powder metallurgy technique of hot pressing in a graphite die without causing a reaction between charge and the die and without formation of a carbide case on the final compact, thereby enabling re-use of the graphite die. The alloy is formable at hot- pressing temperatures of from about 1200 to about 1350 deg C. In addition, there is little component shrinkage, thereby eliminating the necessity of subsequent extensive surface machining.

  7. The Possibility of Muscle Tissue Reconstruction Using Shape Memory Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Masaru; Amae, Shintaro; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Okuyama, Takeshi; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Matsuki, Hidetoshi

    2005-01-01

    Severe dysfunction of muscle tissues can be treated by transplantation but the success rate is still not high enough. One possibility instead is to replace the dysfunctional muscle with artificial muscles. This article introduces a unique approach using shape memory alloys (SMAs) to replace the anal sphincter muscle for solving the problem of fecal incontinence. The use of SMAs that exhibit a two-way shape memory effect allows the device to function like a sphincter muscle and facilitates simple design. In this article, we will give a brief introduction to the functional material—SMA—together with its medical applications, and will follow this with a description of the recent progress in research and development of an SMA-based artificial sphincter. The possibility of its commercialization will also be discussed. PMID:19521522

  8. Studies on the effect of grain refinement and thermal processing on shape memory characteristics of Cu Al Ni alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, V.

    2005-10-01

    Though Ni-Ti shape memory alloys are used extensively in a variety of engineering and medical applications because of their attractive shape memory characteristics, they still suffer from certain drawbacks, such as low transformation temperatures, difficulty in production and processing and high cost of raw materials. Copper-based alloys have, therefore, come as an alternative to Ni-Ti shape memory alloys. They are easier to produce and process and are also less expensive. They are used where Ni-Ti alloys cannot be used. But Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys also pose problems since they are brittle and possess lower shape recovery strains and stresses. With a view to increasing the shape memory characteristics and ductility of Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys, they were subjected to grain refinement and thermomechanical processing. The present study establishes that grain-refining additions result in considerable reduction in the grain size of the alloys. In addition, grain refinement and alloying cause an increase in the transformation temperatures. The results are analysed in the light of the explanations/theories put forth in recent papers related to Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys, and an attempt has been made to compare the results.

  9. Shape memory effect of the Ni-Ti-Hf high temperature shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.H.; Pu, Z.; Tseng, H.K.; Biancaniello, F.S.

    1995-11-17

    The one-way shape memory effect of the newly-developed TiNi-Hf high temperature shape memory alloys has been investigated. The results of the study show that TiNi-Hf high temperature alloys possess a relatively high shape memory effect. All the alloys, even those with an Hf content as high as 30at%, exhibit complete strain recovery behavior. However, as the Hf content increases, the fully reversible strain of the alloys decreases. The increase of the second phase as the Hf content increases is the primary reason for the deterioration of the shape memory effect and ductility. The shape memory properties also deteriorate as the deformation temperature increases.

  10. Phenomenological modeling of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Bjorn; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2004-07-01

    A thermodynamically consistent phenomenological model is presented which captures the ferromagnetic shape memory effect, i. e. the large macroscopically observable shape change of magnetic shape memory materials under the application of external magnetic fields. In its most general form the model includes the influence of the microstructure for both the volume fraction of different martensitic variants and magnetic domains on the described macroscopic constitutive behavior. A phase diagram based approach is taken to postulate functions governing the onset and termination of the reorientation process. A numerical example is given for an experiment on a NiMnGa single crystal specimen reported in the literature, for which the model is reduced to a two-dimensional case of an assumed magnetic domain structure.

  11. Shape memory in nanostructured metallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guda Vishnu, Karthik

    slabs with such orientations are predicted to exhibit a decrease in martensite transition temperature with decreasing thickness. It has been predicted that a thickness of 2 nm is critical for the transition to occur, below which there will be no shape memory in thin NiTi slabs. The opposite trend is observed in slabs with atomic displacements along the surface normal; the phase transformation temperature increases with decreasing size. Finally, it has also been demonstrated via large scale molecular dynamics simulations that the austenite — martensite energy landscapes of NiAl based thermo-elastic shape memory superlattice structures can be engineered via epitaxial integration. This allows for tuning their thermal hysteresis and transition temperatures. This resulted in materials with very low thermal hysteresis and with minimal degradation in phase transition strain thereby making them ideal for actuating applications.

  12. Optimal Performance of Buildings Isolated By Shape-Memory-Alloy-Rubber-Bearing (SMARB) Under Random Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sumanta; Mishra, Sudib K.

    2014-05-01

    Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)-based bearing has been proposed recently for improved base isolation by optimal choice of its transformation strength. Presently, superior performances of the Shape-Memory-Alloy-Rubber-Bearing (SMARB) over the elastomeric bearing are established in mitigating seismic vibration under constraint on maximum isolator displacement. The optimal transformation strengths are proposed through constrained optimization based on stochastic responses. Numerical simulation reveals that Lead Rubber Bearings (LRB) either fails to provide feasible parameters or leads to large floor acceleration, compromising the isolation efficiency. Contrarily, optimal SMARB can efficiently enforce such constraint without greatly affecting the isolation efficiency. Evidence of robustness of SMARB over LRB is also established.

  13. A Review of TiNiPdCu Alloy System for High Temperature Shape Memory Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Imran; Kim, Hee Young; Miyazaki, Shuichi

    2015-06-01

    High temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) are important smart materials and possess a significant potential to improve many engineering systems. Many TiNi-based high temperature ternary alloy systems have been reported in literature including TiNiPd, TiNiPt, TiNiZr, TiNiAu, TiNiHf, etc. Some quaternary additions of certain elements in the above systems have been successful to further improve many important shape memory and mechanical properties. The success criteria for an HTSMA become strict in terms of its cyclic stability, maximum recoverable strain, creep resistance, and corrosion resistance at high temperatures. TiNiPdCu alloy system has been recently proposed as a promising HTSMA. Unique nanoscaled precipitates formed in TiNiPdCu-based HTSMAs are found to be stable at temperatures above 773 K, while keeping the benefits of ease of fabrication. It is expected that this alloy system possesses significant potential especially for the high temperature shape memory applications. Till now many research reports have been published on this alloy system. In the present work, a comprehensive review of the TiNiPdCu system is presented in terms of thermomechanical behavior, nanoscale precipitation mechanism, microstructural features, high temperature shape memory and mechanical properties, and the important parameters to control the high temperature performance of these alloys.

  14. Production of Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloys by Mechanical Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Goegebakan, Musa; Soguksu, Ali Kemal; Uzun, Orhan; Dogan, Ali

    2007-04-23

    The mechanical alloying technique has been used to produce shape memory Cu83Al13Ni4 alloy. The structure and thermal properties were examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The morphology of the surface suggests the presence of martensite.

  15. Thermomechanical Methodology for Stabilizing Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Santo A., II (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Methods and apparatuses for stabilizing the strain-temperature response for a shape memory alloy are provided. To perform stabilization of a second sample of the shape memory alloy, a first sample of the shape memory alloy is selected for isobaric treatment and the second sample is selected for isothermal treatment. When applying the isobaric treatment to the first sample, a constant stress is applied to the first sample. Temperature is also cycled from a minimum temperature to a maximum temperature until a strain on the first sample stabilizes. Once the strain on the first sample stabilizes, the isothermal treatment is performed on the second sample. During isothermal treatment, different levels of stress on the second sample are applied until a strain on the second sample matches the stabilized strain on the first sample.

  16. Thermomechanical Methodology for Stabilizing Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, II, Santo A (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatuses for stabilizing the strain-temperature response for a shape memory alloy are provided. To perform stabilization of a second sample of the shape memory alloy, a first sample of the shape memory alloy is selected for isobaric treatment and the second sample is selected for isothermal treatment. When applying the isobaric treatment to the first sample, a constant stress is applied to the first sample. Temperature is also cycled from a minimum temperature to a maximum temperature until a strain on the first sample stabilizes. Once the strain on the first sample stabilizes, the isothermal treatment is performed on the second sample. During isothermal treatment, different levels of stress on the second sample are applied until a strain on the second sample matches the stabilized strain on the first sample.

  17. Periodic Cellular Structure Technology for Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Edward Y.

    2015-01-01

    Shape memory alloys are being considered for a wide variety of adaptive components for engine and airframe applications because they can undergo large amounts of strain and then revert to their original shape upon heating or unloading. Transition45 Technologies, Inc., has developed an innovative periodic cellular structure (PCS) technology for shape memory alloys that enables fabrication of complex bulk configurations, such as lattice block structures. These innovative structures are manufactured using an advanced reactive metal casting technology that offers a relatively low cost and established approach for constructing near-net shape aerospace components. Transition45 is continuing to characterize these structures to determine how best to design a PCS to better exploit the use of shape memory alloys in aerospace applications.

  18. Functional Characterization of a Novel Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collado, M.; Cabás, R.; San Juan, J.; López-Ferreño, I.

    2014-07-01

    A novel shape memory alloy (SMA) has been developed as an alternative to currently available alloys. This alloy, commercially known by its proprietary brand SMARQ, shows a higher working range of temperatures with respect to the SMA materials used until now in actuators, limited to environment temperatures below 90 °C. SMARQ is a high temperature SMA (HTSMA) based on a fully European material technology and production processes, which allows the manufacture of high quality products, with tuneable transformation temperatures up to 200 °C. Both, material and production processes have been evaluated for its use in space applications. A full characterization test campaign has been completed in order to obtain the material properties and check its suitability to be used as active material in space actuators. In order to perform the functional characterization of the material, it has been considered as the key element of a basic SMA actuator, consisting in the SMA wire and the mechanical and electrical interfaces. The functional tests presented in this work have been focused on the actuator behavior when heated by means of an electrical current. Alloy composition has been adjusted in order to match a transition temperature (As) of +145 °C, which satisfies the application requirements of operating temperatures in the range of -70 and +125 °C. Details of the tests and results of the characterization test campaign, focused in the material unique properties for their use in actuators, will be presented in this work. Some application examples in the field of space mechanisms and actuators, currently under development, will be summarized as part of this work, demonstrating the technology suitability as active material for space actuators.

  19. High-transition-temperature shape memory alloy film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. David; Martynov, Valery V.; Shahoian, Erik J.

    1995-05-01

    Using conventional magnetron sputtering deposition processes three different types of shape memory alloys (FeNi based, CuAl based and TiNi based) were examined as potential candidates for the production of high temperature SMA thin film. CuAlNi and TiNiHf SMA were successfully deposited on silicon wafers and thin films of 4 - 20 micrometers were produced. After annealing at approximately equals 500 degree(s)C both CuAlNi and TiNiHf films exhibited reversible high temperature martensitic transition. For CuAlNi thin films, annealing itself was found to be inadequate for obtaining transformation intervals corresponding to that of the target. To deal with the problem it is expected that additional quenching after solid solution heat treatment will be necessary. Of the three alloys examined, the most promising candidate for high temperature thin film microactuators is TiNiHf. It was found that by changing the Hf content in the target, the transformation start temperature of thin films can be easily adjusted in a temperature range from 100 degree(s)C to 200 degree(s)C.

  20. Biocorrosion investigation of two shape memory nickel based alloys: Ni-Mn-Ga and thin film NiTi.

    PubMed

    Stepan, L L; Levi, D S; Gans, E; Mohanchandra, K P; Ujihara, M; Carman, G P

    2007-09-01

    Thin film nitinol and single crystal Ni-Mn-Ga represent two new shape memory materials with potential to be used as percutaneously placed implant devices. However, the biocompatibility of these materials has not been adequately assessed. Immersion tests were conducted on both thin film nitinol and single crystal Ni-Mn-Ga in Hank's balanced salt solution at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4. After 12 h, large pits were found on the Ni-Mn-Ga samples while thin film nitinol displayed no signs of corrosion. Further electrochemical tests on thin film nitinol samples revealed breakdown potentials superior to a mechanically polished nitinol disc. These results suggest that passivation or electropolishing of thin film nitinol maybe unnecessary to promote corrosion resistance.

  1. Simulation of Payload Vibration Protection by Shape Memory Alloy Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, Aleksandr E.; Evard, Margarita E.; Red'kina, Kristina V.; Vikulenkov, Andrey V.; Makarov, Vyacheslav P.; Moisheev, Aleksandr A.; Markachev, Nikolay A.; Uspenskiy, Evgeniy S.

    2014-07-01

    A system of vibroisolation under consideration consists of a payload connected to a vibrating housing by plane shape memory alloy (SMA) slotted elements. The calculation of the mechanical behavior of the SMA is based on a microstructural theory. Simulations of harmonic and of impact excitations are carried out. The results have shown that protective properties of this system depend on the SMA state. The maximum reduction of the acceleration amplitude for harmonic excitation is reached when the SMA is in the martensitic (pseudo-plastic) state or in the two-phase state. A variation of temperature allows changing the resonance frequency and thus escaping from the resonance and controlling a mode of vibration.

  2. A rotating arm using shape-memory alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Phillip P.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Mars Pathfinder mission, to be launched in 1996, reflects a new philosophy of exploiting new technologies to reduce mission cost and accelerate the pace of space exploration. One of the experiments on board Pathfinder will demonstrate the first use in space of a multi-cycle, electrically-activated, shape-memory alloy (SMA) actuator. SMA's are metal alloys which, when heated, undergo a crystalline phase change. This change in phase alters the alloy lattice-constant, resulting in a change of dimension. Upon cooling, the alloy returns to its original lattice formation. Wire drawn from an SMA contracts in length when heated. The reversible change in length is 3 percent to 5 percent. The wire used in this actuator is a nickel-titanium alloy known as nitinol.

  3. Applications of shape memory alloys for neurology and neuromuscular rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Pittaccio, Simone; Garavaglia, Lorenzo; Ceriotti, Carlo; Passaretti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a very promising class of metallic materials that display interesting nonlinear properties, such as pseudoelasticity (PE), shape memory effect (SME) and damping capacity, due to high mechanical hysteresis and internal friction. Our group has applied SMA in the field of neuromuscular rehabilitation, designing some new devices based on the mentioned SMA properties: in particular, a new type of orthosis for spastic limb repositioning, which allows residual voluntary movement of the impaired limb and has no predetermined final target position, but follows and supports muscular elongation in a dynamic and compliant way. Considering patients in the sub-acute phase after a neurological lesion, and possibly bedridden, the paper presents a mobiliser for the ankle joint, which is designed exploiting the SME to provide passive exercise to the paretic lower limb. Two different SMA-based applications in the field of neuroscience are then presented, a guide and a limb mobiliser specially designed to be compatible with diagnostic instrumentations that impose rigid constraints in terms of electromagnetic compatibility and noise distortion. Finally, the paper discusses possible uses of these materials in the treatment of movement disorders, such as dystonia or hyperkinesia, where their dynamic characteristics can be advantageous. PMID:26023790

  4. Applications of Shape Memory Alloys for Neurology and Neuromuscular Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Pittaccio, Simone; Garavaglia, Lorenzo; Ceriotti, Carlo; Passaretti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a very promising class of metallic materials that display interesting nonlinear properties, such as pseudoelasticity (PE), shape memory effect (SME) and damping capacity, due to high mechanical hysteresis and internal friction. Our group has applied SMA in the field of neuromuscular rehabilitation, designing some new devices based on the mentioned SMA properties: in particular, a new type of orthosis for spastic limb repositioning, which allows residual voluntary movement of the impaired limb and has no predetermined final target position, but follows and supports muscular elongation in a dynamic and compliant way. Considering patients in the sub-acute phase after a neurological lesion, and possibly bedridden, the paper presents a mobiliser for the ankle joint, which is designed exploiting the SME to provide passive exercise to the paretic lower limb. Two different SMA-based applications in the field of neuroscience are then presented, a guide and a limb mobiliser specially designed to be compatible with diagnostic instrumentations that impose rigid constraints in terms of electromagnetic compatibility and noise distortion. Finally, the paper discusses possible uses of these materials in the treatment of movement disorders, such as dystonia or hyperkinesia, where their dynamic characteristics can be advantageous. PMID:26023790

  5. Applications of shape memory alloys for neurology and neuromuscular rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Pittaccio, Simone; Garavaglia, Lorenzo; Ceriotti, Carlo; Passaretti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a very promising class of metallic materials that display interesting nonlinear properties, such as pseudoelasticity (PE), shape memory effect (SME) and damping capacity, due to high mechanical hysteresis and internal friction. Our group has applied SMA in the field of neuromuscular rehabilitation, designing some new devices based on the mentioned SMA properties: in particular, a new type of orthosis for spastic limb repositioning, which allows residual voluntary movement of the impaired limb and has no predetermined final target position, but follows and supports muscular elongation in a dynamic and compliant way. Considering patients in the sub-acute phase after a neurological lesion, and possibly bedridden, the paper presents a mobiliser for the ankle joint, which is designed exploiting the SME to provide passive exercise to the paretic lower limb. Two different SMA-based applications in the field of neuroscience are then presented, a guide and a limb mobiliser specially designed to be compatible with diagnostic instrumentations that impose rigid constraints in terms of electromagnetic compatibility and noise distortion. Finally, the paper discusses possible uses of these materials in the treatment of movement disorders, such as dystonia or hyperkinesia, where their dynamic characteristics can be advantageous.

  6. Understanding Phase-Change Memory Alloys from a Chemical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolobov, A. V.; Fons, P.; Tominaga, J.

    2015-09-01

    Phase-change memories (PCM) are associated with reversible ultra-fast low-energy crystal-to-amorphous switching in GeTe-based alloys co-existing with the high stability of the two phases at ambient temperature, a unique property that has been recently explained by the high fragility of the glass-forming liquid phase, where the activation barrier for crystallisation drastically increases as the temperature decreases from the glass-transition to room temperature. At the same time the atomistic dynamics of the phase-change process and the associated changes in the nature of bonding have remained unknown. In this work we demonstrate that key to this behavior is the formation of transient three-center bonds in the excited state that is enabled due to the presence of lone-pair electrons. Our findings additionally reveal previously ignored fundamental similarities between the mechanisms of reversible photoinduced structural changes in chalcogenide glasses and phase-change alloys and offer new insights into the development of efficient PCM materials.

  7. Understanding Phase-Change Memory Alloys from a Chemical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kolobov, A.V.; Fons, P.; Tominaga, J.

    2015-01-01

    Phase-change memories (PCM) are associated with reversible ultra-fast low-energy crystal-to-amorphous switching in GeTe-based alloys co-existing with the high stability of the two phases at ambient temperature, a unique property that has been recently explained by the high fragility of the glass-forming liquid phase, where the activation barrier for crystallisation drastically increases as the temperature decreases from the glass-transition to room temperature. At the same time the atomistic dynamics of the phase-change process and the associated changes in the nature of bonding have remained unknown. In this work we demonstrate that key to this behavior is the formation of transient three-center bonds in the excited state that is enabled due to the presence of lone-pair electrons. Our findings additionally reveal previously ignored fundamental similarities between the mechanisms of reversible photoinduced structural changes in chalcogenide glasses and phase-change alloys and offer new insights into the development of efficient PCM materials. PMID:26323962

  8. Understanding Phase-Change Memory Alloys from a Chemical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kolobov, A V; Fons, P; Tominaga, J

    2015-01-01

    Phase-change memories (PCM) are associated with reversible ultra-fast low-energy crystal-to-amorphous switching in GeTe-based alloys co-existing with the high stability of the two phases at ambient temperature, a unique property that has been recently explained by the high fragility of the glass-forming liquid phase, where the activation barrier for crystallisation drastically increases as the temperature decreases from the glass-transition to room temperature. At the same time the atomistic dynamics of the phase-change process and the associated changes in the nature of bonding have remained unknown. In this work we demonstrate that key to this behavior is the formation of transient three-center bonds in the excited state that is enabled due to the presence of lone-pair electrons. Our findings additionally reveal previously ignored fundamental similarities between the mechanisms of reversible photoinduced structural changes in chalcogenide glasses and phase-change alloys and offer new insights into the development of efficient PCM materials. PMID:26323962

  9. Switchable Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) Thermal Materials Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, John; Zeitlin, Nancy; Williams, Martha; Fesmire, James

    2014-01-01

    Develop 2-way switchable thermal systems for use in systems that function in cold to hot temperature ranges using different alloy designs for SMA system concepts. In this project, KSC will specifically address designs of two proof of concept SMA systems with transition temperatures in the 65-95 C range and investigate cycle fatigue and "memory loss" due to thermal cycling.

  10. Shape memory alloys: a state of art review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naresh, C.; Bose, P. S. C.; Rao, C. S. P.

    2016-09-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are the special materials that have the ability to return to a predetermined shape when heated. When this alloy is in below transformation temperature it undergoes low yield strength and will deform easily into any new shape which it will retain, if this alloy is heated above its transformation temperature it changes its crystal lattice structure which returns to its real shape. SMAs are remarkably different from other materials are primarily due to shape memory effect (SME) and pseudoelasticity which are related with the specific way the phase transformation occurs, biocompatibility, high specific strength, high corrosion resistance, high wear resistance and high anti-fatigue property. SMA are used in many applications such as aerospace, medical, automobile, tubes, controllers for hot water valves in showers, petroleum industry, vibration dampers, ball bearings, sensors, actuators, miniature grippers, micro valves, pumps, landing gears, eye glass frames, Material for helicopter blades, sprinklers in fine alarm systems packaging devices for electronic materials, dental materials, etc. This paper focuses on introducing shape memory alloy and their applications in past, present and in future, also revealed the concept and mechanism of shape memory materials for a particular requirement. Properties of SMAs, behaviour and characteristics of SMA, summary of recent advances and new application opportunities are also discussed.

  11. Thermomechanical Modeling of Shape Memory Alloys and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lexcellent, C.; Leclercq, S.

    The aim of the present paper is a general macroscopic description of the thermomechanical behavior of shape memory alloys (SMA). We use for framework the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. This model is efficient for describing the behavior of "smart" structures as a bronchial, a tentacle element and an prosthesis hybrid structure made of Ti Ni SMA wires embedded in a resin epoxy matrix.

  12. Multiscale Characterization of Nickel Titanium Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, Keith

    Shape memory alloys were characterized by a variety of methods to investigate the relationship between microstructural phase transformation, macroscale deformation due to mechanical loading, material geometry, and initial material state. The major portion of the work is application of digital image correlation at several length scales to SMAs under mechanical loading. In addition, the connection between electrical resistance, stress, and strain was studied in NiTi wires. Finally, a new processing method was investigated to develop porous NiTi samples, which can be examined under DIC in future work. The phase transformation temperatures of a Nickel-Titanium based shape memory alloy (SMA) were initially evaluated under stress-free conditions by the differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) technique. Results show that the phase transformation temperature is significantly higher for transition from de-twinned martensite to austenite than from twinned martensite or R phase to austenite. To further examine transformation temperatures as a function of initial state a tensile test apparatus with in-situ electrical resistance (ER) measurements was used to evaluate the transformation properties of SMAs at a variety of stress levels and initial compositions. The results show that stress has a significant influence on the transformation of detwinned martensite, but a small influence on R phase and twinned martensite transformations. Electrical resistance changes linearly with strain during the transformations from both kinds of martensite to austenite. The linearity between ER and strain during the transformation from de-twinned martensite to austenite is not affected by the stress, facilitating application to control algorithms. A revised phase diagram is drawn to express these results. To better understand the nature of the local and global strain fields that accompany phase transformation in shape memory alloys (SMAs), here we use high resolution imaging together with image

  13. Nanoscale shape-memory alloys for ultrahigh mechanical damping.

    PubMed

    San Juan, Jose; Nó, Maria L; Schuh, Christopher A

    2009-07-01

    Shape memory alloys undergo reversible transformations between two distinct phases in response to changes in temperature or applied stress. The creation and motion of the internal interfaces between these phases during such transformations dissipates energy, making these alloys effective mechanical damping materials. Although it has been shown that reversible phase transformations can occur in nanoscale volumes, it is not known whether these transformations have a sample size dependence. Here, we demonstrate that the two phases responsible for shape memory in Cu-Al-Ni alloys are more stable in nanoscale pillars than they are in the bulk. As a result, the pillars show a damping figure of merit that is substantially higher than any previously reported value for a bulk material, making them attractive for damping applications in nanoscale and microscale devices. PMID:19581892

  14. Shape memory alloys: metallurgy, biocompatibility, and biomechanics for neurosurgical applications.

    PubMed

    Hoh, Daniel J; Hoh, Brian L; Amar, Arun P; Wang, Michael Y

    2009-05-01

    SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS possess distinct dynamic properties with particular applications in neurosurgery. Because of their unique physical characteristics, these materials are finding increasing application where resiliency, conformation, and actuation are needed. Nitinol, the most frequently manufactured shape memory alloy, responds to thermal and mechanical stimuli with remarkable mechanical properties such as shape memory effect, super-elasticity, and high damping capacity. Nitinol has found particular use in the biomedical community because of its excellent fatigue resistance and biocompatibility, with special interest in neurosurgical applications. The properties of nitinol and its diffusionless phase transformations contribute to these unique mechanical capabilities. The features of nitinol, particularly its shape memory effect, super-elasticity, damping capacity, as well as its biocompatibility and biomechanics are discussed herein. Current and future applications of nitinol and other shape memory alloys in endovascular, spinal, and minimally invasive neurosurgery are introduced. An understanding of the metallurgic properties of nitinol provides a foundation for further exploration of its use in neurosurgical implant design.

  15. Understanding the Shape-Memory Alloys Used in Orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Daniel J.; Peres, Rafael V.; Mendes, Alvaro M.; Elias, Carlos N.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape-memory alloys (SMAs) have been used in the manufacture of orthodontic wires due to their shape memory properties, super-elasticity, high ductility, and resistance to corrosion. SMAs have greater strength and lower modulus of elasticity when compared with stainless steel alloys. The pseudoelastic behavior of NiTi wires means that on unloading they return to their original shape by delivering light continuous forces over a wider range of deformation which is claimed to allow dental displacements. The aim of this paper is to discuss the physical, metallurgical, and mechanical properties of NiTi used in Orthodontics in order to analyze the shape memory properties, super-elasticity, and thermomechanical characteristics of SMA. PMID:21991455

  16. The influence of ageing on martensite ordering and stabilization in shape memory Cu-Al-Ni alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Aydogdu, A.; Aydogdu, Y.; Adiguzel, O.

    1997-05-01

    The martensitic transformation and the associated mechanical shape reversibility in copper-based shape memory alloys is strongly influenced by quenching and ageing treatments. Ageing of martensite in as-quenched Cu-Al-Ni alloys can result in loss of memory behavior. Structural studies have been carried out to measure the changes in the degree of order that develop during martensitic ageing of two Cu-Al-Ni alloys. Stabilization is directly related to disordering in martensitic state and the spacing differences ({Delta}d) between selected pairs of diffraction planes reflect the degree of ordering in martensite. The changes in degree of order are shown to be similar in as-quenched and post-quenched {beta}-phase annealed alloys, thereby leading to the conclusion that loss of memory in as-quenched alloys is not solely attributable to any extra changes in degree of order brought about by excess vacancies during martensitic ageing.

  17. The Investigation of a Shape Memory Alloy Micro-Damper for MEMS Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qiang; Cho, Chongdu

    2007-01-01

    Some shape memory alloys like NiTi show noticeable high damping property in pseudoelastic range. Due to its unique characteristics, a NiTi alloy is commonly used for passive damping applications, in which the energy may be dissipated by the conversion from mechanical to thermal energy. This study presents a shape memory alloy based micro-damper, which exploits the pseudoelasticity of NiTi wires for energy dissipation. The mechanical model and functional principle of the micro-damper are explained in detail. Moreover, the mechanical behavior of NiTi wires subjected to various temperatures, strain rates and strain amplitudes is observed. Resulting from those experimental results, the damping properties of the micro-damper involving secant stiffness, energy dissipation and loss factor are analyzed. The result indicates the proposed NiTi based micro-damper exhibits good energy dissipation ability, compared with conventional materials damper.

  18. High-Speed Behavior of Some Shape Memory Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Bragov, Anatoly M.; Lomunov, Andrey K.; Sergeichev, Ivan V.

    2006-07-28

    The results of dynamic tests of shape memory alloys Ti-Ni and Cu-Al-Ni are given. Compressive tests of Ti-Ni alloy were carried out at temperatures 293-573K. Considerable influence of temperature on module of elasticity prior to the dislocation plastic flow and dislocation yield limit has been mentioned in temperature interval of reverse martensitic transformation. For Cu-Al-Ni alloy a strain rate influence on phase yield limit, module of elasticity prior to the phase unelastic flow, module of elasticity prior to the dislocation plastic flow was negligible. The method of determination of duration of reverse martensitic transformation has been realized by the example of Cu-Al-Ni alloy.

  19. Investigation of residual stresses in shape memory alloy (SMA) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Justin Bradley

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) composites are a class of smart materials in which SMA actuators are embedded in a host matrix. The shape memory effect allows for stress induced phase transformations and large recoverable strains that make SMA composites promising candidates for structural shape/vibration control, impact absorption, aircraft deicing or in-flight airfoil shape control systems. However, the difference in thermal expansion between the SMA and the host material leads to residual stresses during processing. In addition, the SMA transformation from martensite to austenite, or the reverse, also generate stresses. These stresses acting in combination can lead to SMA/polymer interfacial debonding or microcracking of the host matrix. The present work was undertaken to study the behavior of nitinol shape memory alloys embedded in epoxy and glass/epoxy matrices and to investigate the development of residual stresses during their manufacture and actuation. A three-phase concentric cylinder micromechanics model and an SMA composite thermoelastic beam theory were developed to analyze the micromechanical and structural-level thermal and transformational stresses for nitinol composites induced by nitinol wires embedded in a host matrix. A series of warpage experiments were conducted on nitinol composite beams during heating cycles to provide experimental validation of model predictions and to assess their thermoelastic structural behavior under non-mechanical loading. Micromechanical model results indicate that excessive residual hoop stresses in nitino/graphite/epoxy composites leads to radial cracking around the embedded nitinol wires. Based on modeling results, the most important factor in reducing residual stresses (and thereby preventing radial cracking) is increasing the level of recovery strain for the nitinol wire. The SMA composite beam model agrees well with experimental data captured for the nitinol/epoxy beam series. Warpage experiments on nitinol

  20. Damping of High-temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.; Padula, Santo A., II; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center have been investigating high temperature shape memory alloys as potential damping materials for turbomachinery rotor blades. Analysis shows that a thin layer of SMA with a loss factor of 0.04 or more would be effective at reducing the resonant response of a titanium alloy beam. Two NiTiHf shape memory alloy compositions were tested to determine their loss factors at frequencies from 0.1 to 100 Hz, at temperatures from room temperature to 300 C, and at alternating strain levels of 34-35x10(exp -6). Elevated damping was demonstrated between the M(sub s) and M(sub f) phase transformation temperatures and between the A(sub s) and A(sub f) temperatures. The highest damping occurred at the lowest frequencies, with a loss factor of 0.2-0.26 at 0.1 Hz. However, the peak damping decreased with increasing frequency, and showed significant temperature hysteresis in heating and cooling. Keywords: High-temperature, shape memory alloy, damping, aircraft engine blades, NiTiHf

  1. A reversibly deployable air dam: a bending approach based on embedded shape memory alloy actuators, Part II: technology demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, Geoffrey P.; Browne, Alan L.; Johnson, Nancy L.

    2009-03-01

    Airflow over/under/around a vehicle can affect many important aspects of vehicle performance including vehicle drag (and through this vehicle fuel economy), vehicle lift and downforce (and through these vehicle stability and handling), and cooling/heat exchange for the vehicle powertrain and air conditioning systems. Known devices in current use to control airflow over/under/around the vehicle are all of fixed geometry, location, orientation, and stiffness. Such devices can thus not be relocated, reoriented, reshaped, etc. as driving conditions change and thus airflow over/under/around the vehicle body cannot be adjusted to better suit the changed driving condition. Additionally, under-vehicle airflow control devices, such as air dams, also reduce ground clearance and thus present a constant challenge to designers to provide the needed control of airflow while maintaining sufficient ground clearance to avoid damage. The research project whose second phase is described herein had its genesis in brainstorming on ways in which the field activated shape and stiffness changing attributes of several classes of active materials could be utilized to produce on-demand deploying/stowing of an air dam. During this second phase, bench top working models were developed, constructed, and successfully exercised this demonstrating the feasibility of an SMA actuator based approach to reversibly deploying an air dam through bending of its flexible structure. Beyond feasibility, the bench top working models demonstrated an active materials based approach which would add little weight to the existing stationary system, and could potentially perform well in the harsh under vehicle environment due to a lack of bearings and pivots. This demonstration showed that actuation speed, force, and cyclic stability all could meet the application requirements.

  2. Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys for positioning with nanometric resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuchtwanger, Jorge; Asua, Estibalitz; García-Arribas, Alfredo; Etxebarria, Victor; Barandiaran, Jose M.

    2009-08-01

    Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys are promising active elements for actuators. Our work centered on achieving and maintaining an intermediate fixed deformation so that they can be used as precision positioning actuators. For this purpose, a custom actuator was built using a single crystal of NiMnGa. The results show that these alloys can be controlled within less than 5 nm for both precision and accuracy, a result comparable to piezoelectric ceramics. Interestingly, the defect structure plays a fundamental role in achieving such performance. The stochastically distributed defects determine a progressive diminution of the magnetic field strength required to achieve the control.

  3. Shape memory alloys. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning theories and experiments on shape memory effects of various alloys. Alloys studied include nickel, tin, indium, lead, copper, and titanium. Citations discuss shape memory crystallography, properties, processing, alloying, and mechanisms. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Shape Control of Solar Collectors Using Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobitz, D. W.; Grossman, J. W.; Allen, J. J.; Rice, T. M.; Liang, C.; Davidson, F. M.

    1996-01-01

    Solar collectors that are focused on a central receiver are designed with a mechanism for defocusing the collector or disabling it by turning it out of the path of the sun's rays. This is required to avoid damaging the receiver during periods of inoperability. In either of these two cases a fail-safe operation is very desirable where during power outages the collector passively goes to its defocused or deactivated state. This paper is principally concerned with focusing and defocusing the collector in a fail-safe manner using shape memory alloy actuators. Shape memory alloys are well suited to this application in that once calibrated the actuators can be operated in an on/off mode using a minimal amount of electric power. Also, in contrast to other smart materials that were investigated for this application, shape memory alloys are capable of providing enough stroke at the appropriate force levels to focus the collector. Design and analysis details presented, along with comparisons to test data taken from an actual prototype, demonstrate that the collector can be repeatedly focused and defocused within accuracies required by typical solar energy systems. In this paper the design, analysis and testing of a solar collector which is deformed into its desired shape by shape memory alloy actuators is presented. Computations indicate collector shapes much closer to spherical and with smaller focal lengths can be achieved by moving the actuators inward to a radius of approximately 6 inches. This would require actuators with considerably more stroke and some alternate SMA actuators are currently under consideration. Whatever SMA actuator is finally chosen for this application, repeatability and fatigue tests will be required to investigate the long term performance of the actuator.

  5. Smart structures for deformable mirrors actuated by shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, M.; Bettini, P.; Di Landro, L.; Sala, G.; Zerbi, F. M.

    2010-07-01

    Deformable mirrors actuated by smart structures are promising devices for next generation astronomical instrumentation. Thermal activated Shape Memory Alloys are materials able to recover their original shape, after an external deformation, if heated above a characteristic temperature. If the recovery of the shape is completely or partially prevented by the presence of constraints, the material can generate recovery stress. Thanks to this feature, these materials can be positively exploited in Smart Structures if properly embedded into host materials. This paper will show the technological processes developed for an efficient use of SMA-based actuators embedded in smart structures tailored to astronomical instrumentation. In particular the analysis of the interface with the host material. Some possible modeling approaches to the actuators behavior will be addressed taking into account trade-offs between detailed analysis and overall performance prediction as a function of the computational time. We developed a combined Finite Element and Raytracing analysis devoted to a parametric performance predictions of a SMA based substrate applicable to deformable mirrors. We took in detail into account the possibility to change the focal length of the mirror keeping a satisfactory image quality. Finally a possible approach with some preliminary results for an efficient control system for the strongly non-linear SMA actuators will be presented.

  6. A novel inertial energy harvester using magnetic shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askari Farsangi, Mohammad Amin; Sayyaadi, Hassan; Zakerzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    This paper studies the output voltage from a novel inertial energy harvester using magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs). The MSMA elements are attached to the root of a cantilever beam by means of two steps. In order to get electrical voltage, two coils are wound around the MSMAs and a shock load is applied to a tip mass at the end of the beam to have vibration in it. The beam vibration causes strain in the MSMAs along their longitudinal directions and as a result the magnetic flux alters in the coils. The change of magnetic flux in the surrounding coil produces an AC voltage. In order to predict the output voltage, the nonlinear governing equations of beam motion based on Euler-Bernoulli model and von Kármán theory are derived. A thermodynamics-based constitutive model is used to predict the nonlinear strain and magnetization response of the MSMAs. Also, the induced voltage during martensite variant reorientation in MSMAs is investigated with the help of Faraday’s law of induction. Finally, the effect of different parameters including bias magnetic field, pre-strain and number of MSMA elements are investigated in details. The results show that this novel energy harvester has the capability of using as an alternative to the current piezoelectric and magnetostrictive ones for harvesting energy from ambient vibration.

  7. On the Potentials of Shape Memory Alloy Valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czechowicz, A.; Lygin, K.; Langbein, S.

    2014-07-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) can be utilized as thermal and electrical-activated drives for valve applications. By using the high actuation forces and medium strokes in combination with SMA intrinsic sensor functions, smart and versatile valve elements for multi-purpose applications can be designed. The sensoric functions, based on the change of the electrical characteristics of the SMA drive, allow to detect the system's condition as well as the system's fatigue. The paper systematizes the usability of the intrinsic sensor function with particular emphasis on service potentials. A methodical overview over the design-options of different applications is presented in the first part of the publications. This is followed by a methodical analysis of the potentials of SMA in service applications. Since the product development process is not only a mechanical engineering matter, the production and the service options according to such valves have to be regarded. Besides this publication presents an innovative production process based on a fused deposition production process (FDPP) of valves which contains the installation of SMA actuators during production. The publications present several demonstrator systems which have been produced with FDPP and analyzed in applications.

  8. Low Temperature Shape Memory Alloys for Adaptive, Autonomous Systems Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, John; Zeitlin, Nancy; Williams, Martha; Benafan, Othmane; Fesmire, James

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this joint activity between Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Glenn Research Center (GRC) is to develop and evaluate the applicability of 2-way SMAs in proof-of-concept, low-temperature adaptive autonomous systems. As part of this low technology readiness (TRL) activity, we will develop and train low-temperature novel, 2-way shape memory alloys (SMAs) with actuation temperatures ranging from 0 C to 150 C. These experimental alloys will also be preliminary tested to evaluate their performance parameters and transformation (actuation) temperatures in low- temperature or cryogenic adaptive proof-of-concept systems. The challenge will be in the development, design, and training of the alloys for 2-way actuation at those temperatures.

  9. Thermomechanical response of shape memory alloy hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2000-10-01

    This study examines the use of embedded shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for adaptive control of the themomechanical response of composite structures. Control of static and dynamic responses are demonstrated including thermal buckling, thermal post-buckling, vibration, sonic fatigue, and acoustic transmission. A thermomechanical model is presented for analyzing such shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures exposed to thermal and mechanical loads. Also presented are (1) fabrication procedures for SMAHC specimens, (2) characterization of the constituent materials for model quantification, (3) development of the test apparatus for conducting static and dynamic experiments on specimens with and without SMA, (4) discussion of the experimental results, and (5) validation of the analytical and numerical tools developed in the study. The constitutive model developed to describe the mechanics of a SMAHC lamina captures the material nonlinearity with temperature of the SMA and matrix material if necessary. It is in a form that is amenable to commercial finite element (FE) code implementation. The model is valid for constrained, restrained, or free recovery configurations with appropriate measurements of fundamental engineering properties. This constitutive model is used along with classical lamination theory and the FE method to formulate the equations of motion for panel-type structures subjected to steady-state thermal and dynamic mechanical loads. Mechanical loads that are considered include acoustic pressure, inertial (base acceleration), and concentrated forces. Four solution types are developed from the governing equations including thermal buckling, thermal post-buckling, dynamic response, and acoustic transmission/radiation. These solution procedures are compared with closed-form and/or other known solutions to benchmark the numerical tools developed in this study. Practical solutions for overcoming fabrication issues and obtaining repeatable

  10. Nickel base coating alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, C. A. (Inventor); Lowell, C. E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    Zirconium is added to a Ni-30 Al (beta) intermetallic alloy in the range of 0.05 w/o to 0.25 w/o. This addition is made during melting or by using metal powders. The addition of zirconium improves the cyclic oxidation resistance of the alloys at temperatures above 1100 C.

  11. Thermally activated retainer means utilizing shape memory alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimaldi, Margaret E. (Inventor); Hartz, Leslie S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A retainer member suitable for retaining a gap filler placed in gaps between adjacent tile members is presented. One edge of the retainer member may be attached to the gap filler and another edge may be provided with a plurality of tab members which in an intermediate position do not interfere with placement or removal of the gap filler between tile members. The retainer member may be fabricated from a shape memory alloy which when heated to a specified memory temperature will thermally activate the tab members to predetermined memory positions engaging the tile members to retain the gap filler in the gap. This invention has particular application to the thermal tiles on space vehicles such as the Space Shuttle Orbiter.

  12. Frequency-dependent energy harvesting via magnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayyaadi, Hassan; Askari Farsangi, Mohammad Amin

    2015-11-01

    This paper is focused on presenting an accurate framework to describe frequency-dependent energy harvesting via magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs). Modeling strategy incorporates the phenomenological constitutive model developed formerly together with the magnetic diffusion equation. A hyperbolic hardening function is employed to define reorientation-induced strain hardening in the material, and the diffusion equation is used to add dynamic effects to the model. The MSMA prismatic specimen is surrounded by a pickup coil, and the induced voltage during martensite-variant reorientation is investigated with the help of Faraday’s law of magnetic field induction. It has been shown that, in order to harvest the maximum RMS voltage in the MSMA-based energy harvester, an optimum value of bias magnetic field exists, which is the corresponding magnetic field for the start of pseudoelasticity behavior. In addition, to achieve a more compact energy harvester with higher energy density, a specimen with a lower aspect ratio can be chosen. As the main novelty of the paper, it is found that the dynamic effects play a major role in determining the harvested voltage and power, especially for high excitation frequency or specimen thickness.

  13. Solid state engine using nitinol memory alloy

    DOEpatents

    Golestaneh, Ahmad A.

    1981-01-01

    A device for converting heat energy to mechanical energy includes a reservoir of a hot fluid and a rotor assembly mounted thereabove so a portion of it dips into the hot fluid. The rotor assembly may include a shaft having four spokes extending radially outwardly therefrom at right angles to each other, a floating ring and four flexible elements composed of a thermal memory material having a critical temperature between the temperature of the hot fluid and that of the ambient atmosphere extending between the ends of the spokes and the floating ring. Preferably, the flexible elements are attached to the floating ring through curved leaf springs. Energetic shape recovery of the flexible elements in the hot fluid causes the rotor assembly to rotate.

  14. Solid state engine using nitinol memory alloy

    DOEpatents

    Golestaneh, A.A.

    1980-01-21

    A device for converting heat energy to mechanical energy includes a reservoir of a hot fluid and a rotor assembly mounted thereabove so a portion of it dips into the hot fluid. The rotor assembly may include a shaft having four spokes extending radially outwardly therefrom at right angles to each other, a floating ring and four flexible elements composed of a thermal memory material having a critical temperature between the temperature of the hot fluid and that of the ambient atmosphere extending between the ends of the spokes and the floating ring. Preferably, the flexible elements are attached to the floating ring through curved leaf springs. Energetic shape recovery of the flexible elements in the hot fluid causes the rotor assembly to rotate.

  15. Shape memory alloy seals for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-15

    A shape memory radial seal was fabricated with a ''U'' cross section. Upon heating the seal recovered its original ''V'' shape and produced a high pressure seal. The sealing pressure which can be developed is approximately 41 MPa (60,000 psi), well in excess of the pressure which can be produced in conventional elastomeric seals. The low modulus martensite can conform readily to the sealing surface, and upon recovery produce a seal capable of high pressure fluid or gas confinement. The corrosion resistance of nickel-titanium in a broad range of aggressive fluids has been well established and, as such, there is little doubt that, had time permitted, a geothermal pump of flange fluid tried would have been successful.

  16. Deformation and Failure Mechanisms of Shape Memory Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, Samantha Hayes

    2015-04-15

    The goal of this research was to understand the fundamental mechanics that drive the deformation and failure of shape memory alloys (SMAs). SMAs are difficult materials to characterize because of the complex phase transformations that give rise to their unique properties, including shape memory and superelasticity. These phase transformations occur across multiple length scales (one example being the martensite-austenite twinning that underlies macroscopic strain localization) and result in a large hysteresis. In order to optimize the use of this hysteretic behavior in energy storage and damping applications, we must first have a quantitative understanding of this transformation behavior. Prior results on shape memory alloys have been largely qualitative (i.e., mapping phase transformations through cracked oxide coatings or surface morphology). The PI developed and utilized new approaches to provide a quantitative, full-field characterization of phase transformation, conducting a comprehensive suite of experiments across multiple length scales and tying these results to theoretical and computational analysis. The research funded by this award utilized new combinations of scanning electron microscopy, diffraction, digital image correlation, and custom testing equipment and procedures to study phase transformation processes at a wide range of length scales, with a focus at small length scales with spatial resolution on the order of 1 nanometer. These experiments probe the basic connections between length scales during phase transformation. In addition to the insights gained on the fundamental mechanisms driving transformations in shape memory alloys, the unique experimental methodologies developed under this award are applicable to a wide range of solid-to-solid phase transformations and other strain localization mechanisms.

  17. An Implicit Algorithm for the Numerical Simulation of Shape-Memory Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, R; Stolken, J; Jannetti, C; Bassani, J

    2003-10-16

    Shape-memory alloys (SMA) have the potential to be used in a variety of interesting applications due to their unique properties of pseudoelasticity and the shape-memory effect. However, in order to design SMA devices efficiently, a physics-based constitutive model is required to accurately simulate the behavior of shape-memory alloys. The scope of this work is to extend the numerical capabilities of the SMA constitutive model developed by Jannetti et. al. (2003), to handle large-scale polycrystalline simulations. The constitutive model is implemented within the finite-element software ABAQUS/Standard using a user defined material subroutine, or UMAT. To improve the efficiency of the numerical simulations, so that polycrystalline specimens of shape-memory alloys can be modeled, a fully implicit algorithm has been implemented to integrate the constitutive equations. Using an implicit integration scheme increases the efficiency of the UMAT over the previously implemented explicit integration method by a factor of more than 100 for single crystal simulations.

  18. Shape Memory Alloys and their Applications in Power Generation and Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Jun

    2013-07-01

    The shape memory effect is closely related to the reversible martensitic phase transformation, which is diffusionless and involves shear deformation. The recoverable transformation between the two phases with different crystalline symmetry results in reversible changes in physical properties such as electrical conductivity, magnetization, and elasticity. Accompanying the transformation is a change of entropy. Fascinating applications are developed based on these changes. In this paper, the history, fundamentals and technical challenges of both thermoelastic and ferromagnetic shape memory alloys are briefly reviewed; applications related to energy conversion such as power generation and refrigeration as well as recent developments will be discussed.

  19. Shape Memory Alloys and Their Applications in Power Generation and Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Jun

    2013-03-27

    The shape memory effect is closely related to the reversible martensitic phase transformation, which is diffusionless and involves shear deformation. The recoverable transformation between the two phases with different crystalline symmetry results in reversible changes in physical properties such as electrical conductivity, magnetization, and elasticity. Accompanying the transformation is a change of entropy. Fascinating applications are developed based on these changes. In this paper, the history, fundamentals and technical challenges of both thermoelastic and ferromagnetic shape memory alloys are briefly reviewed; applications related to energy conversion such as power generation and refrigeration as well as recent developments will be discussed.

  20. Simultaneous probing of phase transformations in Ni-Ti thin film shape memory alloy by synchrotron radiation-based X-ray diffraction and electrical resistivity

    SciTech Connect

    Braz Fernandes, F.M.; Silva, R.J.C.

    2013-02-15

    Nickel–Titanium (Ni–Ti) thin film shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been widely projected as novel materials which can be utilized in microdevices. Characterization of their physical properties and its correlation with phase transformations has been a challenging issue. In the present study, X-ray beam diffraction has been utilized to obtain the structural information at different temperatures while cooling. Simultaneously, electrical resistivity (ER) was measured in the phase transformation temperature range. The variation of ER and integral area of the individual diffraction peaks of the different phases as a function of temperature have been compared. A mismatch between the conventional interpretation of ER variation and the results of the XRD data has been clearly identified. - Highlights: ► Phase transformation characterization of Ni–Ti thin film SMA has been carried out. ► Simultaneous monitoring of the XRD and ER with temperature is performed. ► The variation of ER and integral area of the diffraction peaks have been compared. ► A shift of the transformation temperatures obtained by two techniques is discussed.

  1. Microstructural observation of elastic domains in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciunescu, Corneliu M.; Mitelea, Ion; Sgavardea, Gheorghe

    2012-08-01

    The microstructure of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys belonging to the Co-Ni-Ga and Ni-Mn-Ga system is analyzed in the martensitic state and during the martensitic phase transition, in order to explore the influence of the composition on the occurrence of the shape memory properties. The compositional range of the Co-Ni-Ga alloys investigated is associated with a two-phase microstructure, where the matrix shows the martensitic structure and a transformation into austenite on heating. The microstructure in the Co-Ni-Ga system shows a phase transition between the B2 austenite and L10 martensite, but the γ (disordered fcc A1) and the ordered γ' (fcc L12) can also be present - depending on the composition, and state, and influence the phase transition in as-cast, quenched and aged alloys. The exploration of the microstructural aspects reveals typical elastic domains that form in the martensitic phase, but also precipitates that can influence the overall martensitic transformation, thus hindering the total output. Compared to the NiMnGa system, the CoNiGa shows significantly less brittleness when deformed in the martensitic state.

  2. Properties and medical applications of shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Tarniţă, Daniela; Tarniţă, D N; Bîzdoacă, N; Mîndrilă, I; Vasilescu, Mirela

    2009-01-01

    One of the most known intelligent material is nitinol, which offers many functional advantages over conventional implantable alloys. Applications of SMA to the biomedical field have been successful because of their functional qualities, enhancing both the possibility and the execution of less invasive surgeries. The biocompatibility of these alloys is one of their most important features. Different applications exploit the shape memory effect (one-way or two-way) and the super elasticity, so that they can be employed in orthopedic and cardiovascular applications, as well as in the manufacture of new surgical tools. Therefore, one can say that smart materials, especially SMA, are becoming noticeable in the biomedical field. Super elastic NiTi has become a material of strategic importance as it allows to overcome a wide range of technical and design issues relating to the miniaturization of medical devices and the increasing trend for less invasive and therefore less traumatic procedures. This paper will consider just why the main properties of shape memory alloys hold so many opportunities for medical devices and will review a selection of current applications. PMID:19221641

  3. Constitutive modelling of magnetic shape memory alloys with discrete and continuous symmetries

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, K.; Lagoudas, D. C.

    2014-01-01

    A free energy-based constitutive formulation is considered for magnetic shape memory alloys. Internal state variables are introduced whose evolution describes the transition from reference state to the deformed and transformed one. We impose material symmetry restrictions on the Gibbs free energy and on the evolution equations of the internal state variables. Discrete symmetry is considered for single crystals, whereas continuous symmetry is considered for polycrystalline materials. PMID:25197247

  4. Texture memory and strain-texture mapping in a NiTi shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, B.; Majumdar, B. S.; Dutta, I.

    2007-08-06

    The authors report on the near-reversible strain hysteresis during thermal cycling of a polycrystalline NiTi shape memory alloy at a constant stress that is below the yield strength of the martensite. In situ neutron diffraction experiments are used to demonstrate that the strain hysteresis occurs due to a texture memory effect, where the martensite develops a texture when it is cooled under load from the austenite phase and is thereafter ''remembered.'' Further, the authors quantitatively relate the texture to the strain by developing a calculated strain-texture map or pole figure for the martensite phase, and indicate its applicability in other martensitic transformations.

  5. Novel tribological systems using shape memory alloys and thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yijun

    Shape memory alloys and thin films are shown to have robust indentation-induced shape memory and superelastic effects. Loading conditions that are similar to indentations are very common in tribological systems. Therefore novel tribological systems that have better wear resistance and stronger coating to substrate adhesion can be engineered using indentation-induced shape memory and superelastic effects. By incorporating superelastic NiTi thin films as interlayers between chromium nitride (CrN) and diamond-like carbon (DLC) hard coatings and aluminum substrates, it is shown that the superelasticity can improve tribological performance and increase interfacial adhesion. The NiTi interlayers were sputter deposited onto 6061 T6 aluminum and M2 steel substrates. CrN and DLC coatings were deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputter deposition. Temperature scanning X-ray diffraction and nanoindentation were used to characterize NiTi interlayers. Temperature scanning wear and scratch tests showed that superelastic NiTi interlayers improved tribological performance on aluminum substrates significantly. The two-way shape memory effect under contact loading conditions is demonstrated for the first time, which could be used to make novel tribological systems. Spherical indents in NiTi shape memory alloys and thin films had reversible depth changes that were driven by temperature cycling, after thermomechanical cycling, or one-cycle slip-plasticity deformation training. Reversible surface topography was realized after the indents were planarized. Micro- and nano- scale circular surface protrusions arose from planarized spherical indents in bulk and thin film NiTi alloy; line surface protrusions appeared from planarized scratch tracks. Functional surfaces with reversible surface topography can potentially result in novel tribological systems with reversible friction coefficient. A three dimensional constitutive model was developed to describe shape memory effects with slip

  6. Shape memory alloy actuation for a variable area fan nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Nancy; Tillman, Gregory; Miller, Robin M.; Wynosky, Thomas; Larkin, Michael J.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Bangert, Linda S.

    2001-06-01

    The ability to control fan nozzle exit area is an enabling technology for next generation high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. Performance benefits for such designs are estimated at up to 9% in thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC) relative to current fixed-geometry engines. Conventionally actuated variable area fan nozzle (VAN) concepts tend to be heavy and complicated, with significant aircraft integration, reliability and packaging issues. The goal of this effort was to eliminate these undesirable features and formulate a design that meets or exceeds leakage, durability, reliability, maintenance and manufacturing cost goals. A Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) bundled cable actuator acting to move an array of flaps around the fan nozzle annulus is a concept that meets these requirements. The SMA bundled cable actuator developed by the United Technologies Corporation (Patents Pending) provides significant work output (greater than 2200 in-lb per flap, through the range of motion) in a compact package and minimizes system complexity. Results of a detailed design study indicate substantial engine performance, weight, and range benefits. The SMA- based actuation system is roughly two times lighter than a conventional mechanical system, with significant aircraft direct operating cost savings (2-3%) and range improvements (5-6%) relative to a fixed-geometry nozzle geared turbofan. A full-scale sector model of this VAN system was built and then tested at the Jet Exit Test Facility at NASA Langley to demonstrate the system's ability to achieve 20% area variation of the nozzle under full scale aerodynamic loads. The actuator exceeded requirements, achieving repeated actuation against full-scale loads representative of typical cruise as well as greater than worst-case (ultimate) aerodynamic conditions. Based on these encouraging results, work is continuing with the goal of a flight test on a C-17 transport aircraft.

  7. Thermomechanical testing of FeNiCoTi shape memory alloy for active confinement of concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiwen; Andrawes, Bassem; Sehitoglu, Huseyin

    2014-05-01

    The thermomechanical properties of a new type of shape memory alloy (SMA), FeNiCoTi, are explored in this paper with the aim of examining the feasibility of using this new material as transverse reinforcement for concrete structures subjected to earthquake loading. One advantage of using FeNiCoTi alloy is its cost effectiveness compared to commonly studied NiTi alloy. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests are conducted to investigate the transformation temperatures of FeNiCoTi alloy under different heat treatment methods and prestrain schemes. First, a heat treatment method is established to produce FeNiCoTi alloy with wide thermal hysteresis that is pertinent to civil structural applications. Next, recovery stress tests are conducted to explore the effect of parameters including heating method, heating temperature, heating rate, heating protocol and prestrain level on the recovery stress. An optimum prestrain level is determined based on the recovery stress results. Moreover, cyclic tests are carried out to examine the cyclic response of FeNiCoTi alloy after stress recovery. Thermal cyclic tests are also carried out on the FeNiCoTi alloy to better understand the effect of temperature variation on the recovery stress. In addition, reheating of the FeNiCoTi alloy after deformation is conducted to examine the reusability of the material after being subjected to excessive deformation. Test results of the FeNiCoTi alloy indicate that this cost-effective SMA can potentially be a promising new material for civil structural applications.

  8. Investigation of the Thermomechanical Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Brian A.

    2005-01-01

    Previous work at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) involved fabrication and testing of composite beams with embedded, pre-strained shape memory alloy (SMA) ribbons. That study also provided comparison of experimental results with numerical predictions from a research code making use of a new thermoelastic model for shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures. The previous work showed qualitative validation of the numerical model. However, deficiencies in the experimental-numerical correlation were noted and hypotheses for the discrepancies were given for further investigation. The goal of this work is to refine the experimental measurement and numerical modeling approaches in order to better understand the discrepancies, improve the correlation between prediction and measurement, and provide rigorous quantitative validation of the numerical model. Thermal buckling, post-buckling, and random responses to thermal and inertial (base acceleration) loads are studied. Excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured results, thereby quantitatively validating the numerical tool.

  9. Effect of Quarterly Element Addition of Cobalt on Phase Transformation Characteristics of Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saud, Safaa Najah; Abu Bakar, Tuty Asma; Hamzah, Esah; Ibrahim, Mustafa Khaleel; Bahador, Abollah

    2015-08-01

    In the current study, a new type of Cu-based shape memory alloys with the function of shape memory effect was successfully produced with the introduction of high-purity Co precipitates between the phases of Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy. The microstructure, transformation characteristics, and mechanical properties were systematically investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), a tensile test, a hardness test, and a shape memory effect test. The typical microstructures show that a new phase was formed, known as the γ 2 phase, and the volume friction and the size of this phase were gradually increased with the increasing Co content. According to the results of the XRD and EDS, it was confirmed that the γ 2 phase represents a compound of Al75Co22Ni3. However, the presence of γ 2 phase in the modified alloys was found to result in an increase of the transformation temperatures in comparison with the unmodified alloy. Nevertheless, it was found that with 1 wt pct of Co addition, a maximum ductility of 7 pct was achieved, corresponding to an increase in the strain recovery by the shape memory effect to 95 pct with respect to the unmodified alloy of 50 pct.

  10. Shape memory alloy heat engines and energy harvesting systems

    DOEpatents

    Browne, Alan L; Johnson, Nancy L; Keefe, Andrew C; Alexander, Paul W; Sarosi, Peter Maxwell; Herrera, Guillermo A; Yates, James Ryan

    2013-12-17

    A heat engine includes a first rotatable pulley and a second rotatable pulled spaced from the first rotatable pulley. A shape memory alloy (SMA) element is disposed about respective portions of the pulleys at an SMA pulley ratio. The SMA element includes first spring coil and a first fiber core within the first spring coil. A timing cable is disposed about disposed about respective portions of the pulleys at a timing pulley ratio, which is different than the SMA pulley ratio. The SMA element converts a thermal energy gradient between the hot region and the cold region into mechanical energy.

  11. Memory alloy heat engine and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Alfred Davis

    1977-01-01

    A heat engine and method of operation employing an alloy having a shape memory effect. A memory alloy element such as one or more wire loops are cyclically moved through a heat source, along a path toward a heat sink, through the heat sink and then along another path in counter-flow heat exchange relationship with the wire in the first path. The portion of the wire along the first path is caused to elongate to its trained length under minimum tension as it is cooled. The portion of the wire along the second path is caused to contract under maximum tension as it is heated. The resultant tension differential between the wires in the two paths is applied as a force through a distance to produce mechanical work. In one embodiment a first set of endless memory alloy wires are reeved in non-slip engagement between a pair of pulleys which are mounted for conjoint rotation within respective hot and cold reservoirs. Another set of endless memory alloy wires are reeved in non-slip engagement about another pair of pulleys which are mounted in the respective hot and cold reservoirs. The pulleys in the cold reservoir are of a larger diameter than those in the hot reservoir and the opposite reaches of the wires between the two sets of pulleys extend in closely spaced-apart relationship in counter-flow heat regenerator zones. The pulleys are turned to move the two sets of wires in opposite directions. The wires are stretched as they are cooled upon movement through the heat regenerator toward the cold reservoirs, and the wires contract as they are heated upon movement through the regenerator zones toward the hot reservoir. This contraction of wires exerts a larger torque on the greater diameter pulleys for turning the pulleys and supplying mechanical power. Means is provided for applying a variable tension to the wires. Phase change means is provided for controlling the angular phase of the pulleys of each set for purposes of start up procedure as well as for optimizing engine

  12. Applications of the directional solidification in magnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. J.; Liu, J.; Hu, Q. D.; Liu, Q. H.; Karaman, I.; Li, J. G.

    2016-03-01

    A zone melting liquid metal cooling (ZMLMC) method of directional solidification was applied to prepare highly-oriented Ni52Fe17Ga27Co4 magnetic shape memory alloys. At high temperature gradient and low growth velocity, the well-developed preferred orientation for coarse columnar crystals was obtained. Such a structure leads to a large complete pseudoelastic recovery of 5% at 348 K. Moreover, the pseudoelastic behaviours and the kinetics of the martensitic transformation (MT) are significantly affected by the intersection angle between the loading direction and the grain boundaries.

  13. Characterization of shape memory alloys for safety mechanisms.

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, Jarred T.; Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Massad, Jordan Elias

    2008-03-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are metals that exhibit large recoverable strains and exert large forces with tremendous energy densities. The behavior of SMAs is thermomechanically coupled. Their response to temperature is sensitive to their loading condition and their response to loading is sensitive to their thermal condition. This coupled behavior is not to be circumvented, but to be confronted and understood, since it is what manifests SMA's superior clamping performance. To reasonably characterize the coupled behavior of SMA clamping rings used in safety mechanisms, we conduct a series of experiments on SMA samples. The results of the tests will allow increased fidelity in modeling and failure analysis of parts.

  14. Dynamic mechanical analyze of superelastic CuMnAl shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    (Dragoș Ursanu, A. I.; Stanciu, S.; Pricop, B.; Săndulache, F.; Cimpoeșu, N.

    2016-08-01

    A new shape memory alloy was obtain from high purity Cu, Mn and Al elements using a induce furnace. The intelligent material present negative transformation temperatures and an austenite like state at room temperature. The austenite state of CuMnAl shape memory alloy present superelasticity property. Five kilograms ingot was obtain of Cu10Mn10Al alloy. From the base material (melted state) were cut samples with 6 mm thickness using a mechanical saw. After an homogenization heat treatment the samples were hot rolled through four passes with a reduction coefficient of 20%. Experimental lamellas were obtained with 1.5 mm thickness and 90x10 mm length and width. After the hot rolled treatment the materials were heat treated at 800°C for 20 minutes and chilled in water. Four samples, one just laminated and three heat treated by aging, were analyzed with a Netzsch DMA equipment to establish the elastic modulus and the internal friction values of the materials. Metallic materials microstructure was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope Vega Tescan LMH II type. After the aging heat treatment a decrease of internal friction is observed on the entire analyze range which is assigned to formation of Al-based precipitates that block the internal movement of the alloy characteristic phases.

  15. Cyclic response of shape memory alloy smart composite beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, Clifford M.; Morgan, Neil B.

    1994-09-01

    'Smart' structure are an emerging technology which will provide the possibility of engineering structures with enhanced functionality for a wide range of applications. In most current Smart Structural Concepts a mechatronic or 'Frankenstein' approach is adopted where separate sensors, signal processing and actuators are 'bolted-together' to produce a 'Smart' system response. In the majority of these concepts the sensors and actuators are integrated within the host structure itself, and many of the sensor and actuator materials are familiar from other more conventional sensing/actuation applications. Amongst the materials used/proposed for actuators are Shape- Memory Alloys (SMAs) since these materials offer a range of attractive properties, including the possibility of high strain/stress actuation. The literature-base on the integration of SMA actuators into composite structures is not extensive. However, their use has been investigated for vibration [1], acoustic radiation [1,2], damage [3], buckling [1,2], and shape [1] control. An interesting feature of this work has been a heavy bias towards modelling, with only limited attempts to experimentally verify the calculated results. Previous work has also failed to produce a systematic database on one other key issue. This is the durability of SPA hybrid composites. The present work was therefore undertaken to provide a preliminary appraisal of the durability issues associated with the use of SMA hybrid composites. This work addressed a number of issues including (i) the effect of actuator fraction on strain outputs, (ii) the effect of actuator fraction and maximum strain on the cyclic stability of shape changes, and (iii) the effect of these variables on damage accumulation within the hybrid structures.

  16. Properties of Porous TiNbZr Shape Memory Alloy Fabricated by Mechanical Alloying and Hot Isostatic Pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L. W.; Chung, C. Y.; Tong, Y. X.; Zheng, Y. F.

    2011-07-01

    In the past decades, systematic researches have been focused on studying Ti-Nb-based SMAs by adding ternary elements, such as Mo, Sn, Zr, etc. However, only arc melting or induction melting methods, with subsequent hot or cold rolling, were used to fabricate these Ni-free SMAs. There is no work related to powder metallurgy and porous structures. This study focuses on the fabrication and characterization of porous Ti-22Nb-6Zr (at.%) shape memory alloys produced using elemental powders by means of mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing. It is found that the porous Ti-22Nb-6Zr alloys prepared by the HIP process exhibit a homogenous pore distribution with spherical pores, while the pores have irregular shape in the specimen prepared by conventional sintering. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the solid solution-treated Ti-22Nb-6Zr alloy consists of both β phase and α″ martensite phase. Morphologies of martensite were observed. Finally, the porous Ti-22Nb-6Zr SMAs produced by both MA and HIP exhibit good mechanical properties, such as superior superelasticity, with maximum recoverable strain of ~3% and high compressive strength.

  17. Influence of Tin Additions on the Phase-Transformation Characteristics of Mechanical Alloyed Cu-Al-Ni Shape-Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saud, Safaa N.; Hamzah, E.; Abubakar, T.; Bakhsheshi-Rad, H. R.; Mohammed, M. N.

    2016-07-01

    The influence of the addition of Sn to Cu-Al-Ni alloy as a fourth element with different percentages of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 wt pct on the microstructure, phase-transformation temperatures, mechanical properties, and corrosion behaviors was investigated. The modified and unmodified alloys were fabricated by mechanical alloying followed by microwave sintering. The sintered and homogenized alloys of Cu-Al-Ni-xSn shape-memory alloys had a refined particle structure with an average particle size of 40 to 50 µm associated with an improvement in the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. With the addition of Sn, the porosity density tends to decrease, which can also lead to improvements in the properties of the modified alloys. The minimum porosity percentage was observed in the Cu-Al-Ni-1.0 wt pct Sn alloy, which resulted in enhancing the ductility, strain recovery, and corrosion resistance. Further increasing the Sn addition to 1.5 wt pct, the strength of the alloy increased because the highest volume fraction of precipitates was formed. Regarding the corrosion behavior, addition of Sn up to 1 wt pct increased the corrosion resistance of the base SMA from 2.97 to 19.20 kΩ cm2 because of formation of a protective film that contains hydrated tin oxyhydroxide, aluminum dihydroxychloride, and copper chloride on the alloy. However, further addition of Sn reduced the corrosion resistance.

  18. Influence of Tin Additions on the Phase-Transformation Characteristics of Mechanical Alloyed Cu-Al-Ni Shape-Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saud, Safaa N.; Hamzah, E.; Abubakar, T.; Bakhsheshi-Rad, H. R.; Mohammed, M. N.

    2016-10-01

    The influence of the addition of Sn to Cu-Al-Ni alloy as a fourth element with different percentages of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 wt pct on the microstructure, phase-transformation temperatures, mechanical properties, and corrosion behaviors was investigated. The modified and unmodified alloys were fabricated by mechanical alloying followed by microwave sintering. The sintered and homogenized alloys of Cu-Al-Ni- xSn shape-memory alloys had a refined particle structure with an average particle size of 40 to 50 µm associated with an improvement in the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. With the addition of Sn, the porosity density tends to decrease, which can also lead to improvements in the properties of the modified alloys. The minimum porosity percentage was observed in the Cu-Al-Ni-1.0 wt pct Sn alloy, which resulted in enhancing the ductility, strain recovery, and corrosion resistance. Further increasing the Sn addition to 1.5 wt pct, the strength of the alloy increased because the highest volume fraction of precipitates was formed. Regarding the corrosion behavior, addition of Sn up to 1 wt pct increased the corrosion resistance of the base SMA from 2.97 to 19.20 kΩ cm2 because of formation of a protective film that contains hydrated tin oxyhydroxide, aluminum dihydroxychloride, and copper chloride on the alloy. However, further addition of Sn reduced the corrosion resistance.

  19. Experimental evaluation of shape memory alloy actuation technique in adaptive antenna design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kefauver, W. Neill; Carpenter, Bernie F.

    1994-01-01

    Creation of an antenna system that could autonomously adapt contours of reflecting surfaces to compensate for structural loads induced by a variable environment would maximize performance of space-based communication systems. Design of such a system requires the comprehensive development and integration of advanced actuator, sensor, and control technologies. As an initial step in this process, a test has been performed to assess the use of a shape memory alloy as a potential actuation technique. For this test, an existing, offset, cassegrain antenna system was retrofit with a subreflector equipped with shape memory alloy actuators for surface contour control. The impacts that the actuators had on both the subreflector contour and the antenna system patterns were measured. The results of this study indicate the potential for using shape memory alloy actuation techniques to adaptively control antenna performance; both variations in gain and beam steering capabilities were demonstrated. Future development effort is required to evolve this potential into a useful technology for satellite applications.

  20. Transformation-induced plasticity in high-temperature shape memory alloys: a one-dimensional continuum model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhaei, Amir Hosein; Lim, Kian-Meng

    2016-07-01

    A constitutive model based on isotropic plasticity consideration is presented in this work to model the thermo-mechanical behavior of high-temperature shape memory alloys. In high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs), both martensitic transformation and rate-dependent plasticity (creep) occur simultaneously at high temperatures. Furthermore, transformation-induced plasticity is another deformation mechanism during martensitic transformation. All these phenomena are considered as dissipative processes to model the mechanical behavior of HTSMAs in this study. The constitutive model was implemented for one-dimensional cases, and the results have been compared with experimental data from thermal cycling test for actuator applications.

  1. Structural transformations in NiTi shape memory alloy nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaeifar, Reza; Gall, Ken; Zhu, Ting; Yavari, Arash; DesRoches, Reginald

    2014-05-01

    Martensitic phase transformation in bulk Nickle-Titanium (NiTi)—the most widely used shape memory alloy—has been extensively studied in the past. However, the structures and properties of nanostructured NiTi remain poorly understood. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations to study structural transformations in NiTi nanowires. We find that the tendency to reduce the surface energy in NiTi nanowires can lead to a new phase transformation mechanism from the austenitic B2 to the martensitic B19 phase. We further show that the NiTi nanowires exhibit the pseudoelastic effects during thermo-mechanical cycling of loading and unloading via the B2 and B19 transformations. Our simulations also reveal the unique formation of compound twins, which are expected to dominate the patterning of the nanostructured NiTi alloys at high loads. This work provides the novel mechanistic insights into the martensitic phase transformations in nanostructured shape memory alloy systems.

  2. Strategies for Self-Repairing Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langbein, Sven; Czechowicz, Alexander Jaroslaw; Meier, Horst

    2011-07-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are thermally activated smart materials. Due to their ability to change into a previously imprinted actual shape by the means of thermal activation, they are suitable as actuators for microsystems and, within certain limitations, macroscopic systems. A commonly used shape memory actuator type is an alloy of nickel and titanium (NiTi), which starts to transform its inner phase from martensitic to austenitic structure at a certain austenite start temperature. Retransformation starts at martensitic start temperature after running a hysteresis cycle. Most SMA-systems use straight wire actuators because of their simple integration, the occurring cost reduction and the resulting miniaturization. Unfortunately, SMA-actuators are only seldom used by constructors and system developers. This is due to occurring functional fatigue effects which depend on boundary conditions like system loads, strains, and number of cycles. The actuating stroke does not reduce essentially during the first thousand cycles. Striking is the elongation of the wire while maintaining the stroke during cycling (walking). In order to create a system which adjusts and repairs itself, different concepts to solve this problem are presented. They vary from smart control methods to constructive solutions with calibration systems. The systems are analyzed due to their effective, life cycle, and system costs showing outstanding advantages in comparison to commonly used SMA actuators.

  3. Ferroelectric memory based on nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the past decades, ferroelectric materials have attracted wide attention due to their applications in nonvolatile memory devices (NVMDs) rendered by the electrically switchable spontaneous polarizations. Furthermore, the combination of ferroelectric and nanomaterials opens a new route to fabricating a nanoscale memory device with ultrahigh memory integration, which greatly eases the ever increasing scaling and economic challenges encountered in the traditional semiconductor industry. In this review, we summarize the recent development of the nonvolatile ferroelectric field effect transistor (FeFET) memory devices based on nanostructures. The operating principles of FeFET are introduced first, followed by the discussion of the real FeFET memory nanodevices based on oxide nanowires, nanoparticles, semiconductor nanotetrapods, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. Finally, we present the opportunities and challenges in nanomemory devices and our views on the future prospects of NVMDs. PMID:22655750

  4. Thermal response of novel shape memory polymer-shape memory alloy hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Takashima, Kazuto; Mukai, Toshiharu

    2014-03-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMP) and shape memory alloys (SMA) have both been proven important smart materials in their own fields. Shape memory polymers can be formed into complex three-dimensional structures and can undergo shape programming and large strain recovery. These are especially important for deployable structures including those for space applications and micro-structures such as stents. Shape memory alloys on the other hand are readily exploitable in a range of applications where simple, silent, light-weight and low-cost repeatable actuation is required. These include servos, valves and mobile robotic artificial muscles. Despite their differences, one important commonality between SMPs and SMAs is that they are both typically activated by thermal energy. Given this common characteristic it is important to consider how these two will behave when in close environmental proximity, and hence exposed to the same thermal stimulus, and when they are incorporated into a hybrid SMA-SMP structure. In this paper we propose and examine the operation of SMA-SMP hybrids. The relationship between the two temperatures Tg, the glass transition temperature of the polymer, and Ta, the nominal austenite to martensite transition temperature of the alloy is considered. We examine how the choice of these two temperatures affects the thermal response of the hybrid. Electrical stimulation of the SMA is also considered as a method not only of actuating the SMA but also of inducing heating in the surrounding polymer, with consequent effects on actuator behaviour. Likewise by varying the rate and degree of thermal stimulation of the SMA significantly different actuation and structural stiffness can be achieved. Novel SMP-SMA hybrid actuators and structures have many ready applications in deployable structures, robotics and tuneable engineering systems.

  5. Effects of interface treatment on the fatigue behaviour of shape memory alloy reinforced polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiremath, S. R.; Harish, K.; Vasireddi, Ramakrishna; Benal, M. M.; Mahapatra, D. R.

    2015-04-01

    Interfacial properties of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) reinforced polymer matrix composites can be enhanced by improving the interfacial bonding. This paper focuses on studying the interfacial stresses developed in the SMAepoxy interface due to various laser shot penning conditions. Fiber-pull test-setup is designed to understand the role of mechanical bias stress cycling and thermal actuation cycling. Phase transformation is tracked over mechanical and thermal fatigue cycles. A micromechanics based model developed earlier based on shear lag in SMA and energy based consistent homogenization is extended here to incorporate the stress-temperature phase diagram parameters for modeling fatigue.

  6. Microstructure and solidification behavior of Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Gharghouri, Michael A.; Hyatt, Calvin V.

    2004-07-01

    In order to understand the solidification behavior of Ni-Mn-Ga alloys, ingots with different compositions were prepared by arc melting. Two series of compositions were investigated: Ni100-2xMnxGax (15<=x <=30) and Ni50Mn50-yGay (0<=y<=50). The microstructures obtained were observed and the compositions of the phases occurring in the ingots were identified by energy dispersive spectroscopy in the scanning electron microscope. Based on these observations, three solidification paths were identified: direct solidification of γ-Ni from the liquid, direct solidification of β-NiMnGa from the liquid, and solidification of β-NiMnGa phase via a peritectic reaction. It was found that the γ-Ni liquidus surface covers a large area of the ternary phase diagram. The γ-Ni liquidus boundary is located between Ni50Mn25Ga25 and Ni45Mn27.5Ga27.5 in the equal Mn and Ga alloy series, and between Ni50Mn5Ga45 and Ni50Mn10Ga40 in the 50 at.% Ni alloy series. The alloys with compositions close to the stoichiometric Ni2MnGa composition that show the magnetic shape memory effect are all covered by the γ-Ni liquidus surface. The β-NiMnGa liquidus surface covers the remaining alloy compositions.

  7. Radioactive material package closures with the use of shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Bronowski, D.R.

    1997-11-01

    When heated from room temperature to 165 C, some shape memory metal alloys such as titanium-nickel alloys have the ability to return to a previously defined shape or size with dimensional changes up to 7%. In contrast, the thermal expansion of most metals over this temperature range is about 0.1 to 0.2%. The dimension change of shape memory alloys, which occurs during a martensite to austenite phase transition, can generate stresses as high as 700 MPa (100 kspi). These properties can be used to create a closure for radioactive materials packages that provides for easy robotic or manual operations and results in reproducible, tamper-proof seals. This paper describes some proposed closure methods with shape memory alloys for radioactive material packages. Properties of the shape memory alloys are first summarized, then some possible alternative sealing methods discussed, and, finally, results from an initial proof-of-concept experiment described.

  8. High strength forgeable tantalum base alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckman, R. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Increasing tungsten content of tantalum base alloy to 12-15% level will improve high temperature creep properties of existing tantalum base alloys while retaining their excellent fabrication and welding characteristics.

  9. Shape memory alloy actuated adaptive exhaust nozzle for jet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Gangbing (Inventor); Ma, Ning (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The proposed adaptive exhaust nozzle features an innovative use of the shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for actively control of the opening area of the exhaust nozzle for jet engines. The SMA actuators remotely control the opening area of the exhaust nozzle through a set of mechanism. An important advantage of using SMA actuators is the reduction of weight of the actuator system for variable area exhaust nozzle. Another advantage is that the SMA actuator can be activated using the heat from the exhaust and eliminate the need of other energy source. A prototype has been designed and fabricated. The functionality of the proposed SMA actuated adaptive exhaust nozzle is verified in the open-loop tests.

  10. Thermal and damping behaviour of magnetic shape memory alloy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glock, Susanne; Michaud, Véronique

    2015-06-01

    Single crystals of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (MSMA) exhibit magnetic field and stress induced strains via energy dissipating twinning. Embedding single crystalline MSMA particles into a polymer matrix could thus produce composites with enhanced energy dissipation, suitable for damping applications. Composites of ferromagnetic, martensitic or austenitic Ni-Mn-Ga powders embedded in a standard epoxy matrix were produced by casting. The martensitic powder composites showed a crystal structure dependent damping behaviour that was more dissipative than that of austenitic powder or Cu-Ni reference powder composites and than that of the pure matrix. The loss ratio also increased with increasing strain amplitude and decreasing frequency, respectively. Furthermore, Ni-Mn-Ga powder composites exhibited an increased damping behaviour at the martensite/austenite transformation temperature of the Ni-Mn-Ga particles in addition to that at the glass transition temperature of the epoxy matrix, creating possible synergetic effects.

  11. Electromagnetic heating of a shape memory alloy translator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giroux, E.-A.; Maglione, M.; Gueldry, A.; Mantoux, J.-L.

    1996-03-01

    The active part of a linear translator is a shape memory alloy (SMA) made of nickel and titanium (NiTi) wire which is to be thermally cycled. We have achieved heating using electromagnetic radiation with a magnetic sheath and low-frequency waves at 8 kHz and without magnetic sheath and radio frequency waves at 28 MHz. The heating is equivalent for these two arrangements. In vitro experiments have been confirmed by computer simulations of the radiation distribution within the implant. We thus show that electromagnetic radiation could specifically heat a NiTi wire inside a stainless steel tube without heating the tube. An application could be a femoral prosthesis for the lengthening of the bone.

  12. Shape memory alloy heat engines and energy harvesting systems

    DOEpatents

    Browne, Alan L; Johnson, Nancy L; Shaw, John Andrew; Churchill, Christopher Burton; Keefe, Andrew C; McKnight, Geoffrey P; Alexander, Paul W; Herrera, Guillermo A; Yates, James Ryan; Brown, Jeffrey W

    2014-09-30

    A heat engine includes a first rotatable pulley and a second rotatable pulley spaced from the first rotatable pulley. A shape memory alloy (SMA) element is disposed about respective portions of the pulleys at an SMA pulley ratio. The SMA element includes a first wire, a second wire, and a matrix joining the first wire and the second wire. The first wire and the second wire are in contact with the pulleys, but the matrix is not in contact with the pulleys. A timing cable is disposed about respective portions of the pulleys at a timing pulley ratio, which is different than the SMA pulley ratio. The SMA element converts a thermal energy gradient between the hot region and the cold region into mechanical energy.

  13. Simulation of grain size effects in nanocrystalline shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, Rajeev; Quek, Siu Sin; Wu, David T.

    2015-06-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that martensitic transformation in nanocrystalline shape memory alloys can be suppressed for small grain sizes. Motivated by these results, we study the grain size dependence of martensitic transformations and stress-strain response of nanocrystalline shape memory alloys within the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory. A GL model for a square to rectangle transformation in polycrystals is extended to account for grain boundary effects. We propose that an inhibition of the transformation in grain boundary regions can occur, if the grain boundary energy of the martensite is higher than that of the austenite phase. We show that this inhibition of transformation in grain boundary regions has a strong influence on domain patterns inside grains. Although the transformation is inhibited only at the grain boundaries, it leads to a suppression of the transformation even inside the grains as grain size is decreased. In fact, below a critical grain size, the transformation can be completely suppressed. We explain these results in terms of the extra strain gradient cost associated with grain boundaries, when the transformation is inhibited at grain boundaries. On the other hand, no significant size effects are observed when transformation is not inhibited at grain boundaries. We also study the grain size dependence of the stress strain curve. It is found that when the transformation is inhibited at grain boundaries, a significant reduction in the hysteresis associated with stress-strain curves during the loading-unloading cycles is observed. The hysteresis for this situation reduces even further as the grain size is reduced, which is consistent with recent experiments. The simulations also demonstrate that the mechanical behavior is influenced by inter-granular interactions and the local microstructural neighbourhood of a grain has a stronger influence than the orientation of the grain itself.

  14. Shape memory alloy resetable spring lift for pedestrian protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Brian M.; Brei, Diann E.; Luntz, Jonathan E.; Strom, Kenneth; Browne, Alan L.; Johnson, Nancy

    2008-03-01

    Pedestrian protection has become an increasingly important aspect of automotive safety with new regulations taking effect around the world. Because it is increasingly difficult to meet these new regulations with traditional passive approaches, active lifts are being explored that increase the "crush zone" between the hood and rigid under-hood components as a means of mitigating the consequences of an impact with a non-occupant. Active lifts, however, are technically challenging because of the simultaneously high forces, stroke and quick timing resulting in most of the current devices being single use. This paper introduces the SMArt (Shape Memory Alloy ReseTable) Spring Lift, an automatically resetable and fully reusable device, which couples conventional standard compression springs to store the energy required for a hood lift, with Shape Memory Alloys actuators to achieve both an ultra high speed release of the spring and automatic reset of the system for multiple uses. Each of the four SMArt Device subsystems, lift, release, lower and reset/dissipate, are individually described. Two identical complete prototypes were fabricated and mounted at the rear corners of the hood, incorporated within a full-scale vehicle testbed at the SMARTT (Smart Material Advanced Research and Technology Transfer) lab at University of Michigan. Full operational cycle testing of a stationary vehicle in a laboratory setting confirms the ultrafast latch release, controlled lift profile, gravity lower to reposition the hood, and spring recompression via the ratchet engine successfully rearming the device for repeat cycles. While this is only a laboratory demonstration and extensive testing and development would be required for transition to a fielded product, this study does indicate that the SMArt Lift has promise as an alternative approach to pedestrian protection.

  15. A candidate Zr-doped Sb2Te alloy for phase change memory application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yonghui; Cheng, Yan; Zhu, Min; Ji, Xinglong; Wang, Qing; Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang; Liu, Weili; Feng, Songlin

    2016-02-01

    Here, Zr-doped Sb2Te alloy is proposed for phase change memory (PCM). Zr-doping enhances the crystallization temperature and thermal stability of Sb2Te alloy effectively. Crystalline Zr2(Sb2Te)98 film is manifested as a single phase without phase separation and the growth of crystal grain is dramatically suppressed. The density change of Zr2(Sb2Te)98 material between amorphous and crystalline is ˜2.65 ± 0.03%, which is much smaller than that of Ge2Sb2Te5 (6.5%). Phase change memory cells based on Zr2(Sb2Te)98 material can be reversibly switched by applying 40-400 ns width voltage pulses, and the reset current is relatively small when comparing with the prototypical Ge2Sb2Sb5 material. The resistance ON-OFF ratio of about 1.3 orders of magnitude is enough for figuring "0" and "1" out. Besides, endurance up to 4.1 × 104 cycles makes Zr-doped Sb2Te alloy a potential candidate for PCM.

  16. Thermodynamic constitutive model for load-biased thermal cycling test of shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Sung; Nam, Tae-Hyun

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Thermodynamic calculation model for martensitic transformation of shape memory alloy was proposed. • Evolution of the self-accommodation was considered independently by a rate-dependent kinetic equation. • Finite element calculation was conducted for B2–B19′ transformation of Ti–44.5Ni–5Cu–0.5 V (at.%). • Three-dimensional numerical results predict the macroscopic strain under bias loading accurately. - Abstract: This paper presents a three-dimensional calculation model for martensitic phase transformation of shape memory alloy. Constitutive model based on thermodynamic theory was provided. The average behavior was accounted for by considering the volume fraction of each martensitic variant in the material. Evolution of the volume fraction of each variant was determined by a rate-dependent kinetic equation. We assumed that nucleation rate is faster for the self-accommodation than for the stress-induced variants. Three-dimensional finite element analysis was conducted and the results were compared with the experimental data of Ti–44.5Ni–5Cu–0.5 V (at.%) alloy under bias loading.

  17. Processing of Ni30Pt20Ti50 High-Temperature Shape-Memory Alloy Into Thin Rod Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noebe, Ronald D.; Draper, Susan L.; Biles, Tiffany A.; Leonhardt, Todd

    2005-01-01

    High-temperature shape-memory alloys (HTSMAs) based on nickel-titanium (NiTi) with significant ternary additions of palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), gold (Au), or hafnium (Hf) have been identified as potential high-temperature actuator materials for use up to 500 C. These materials provide an enabling technology for the development of "smart structures" used to control the noise, emissions, or efficiency of gas turbine engines. The demand for these high-temperature versions of conventional shape-memory alloys also has been growing in the automotive, process control, and energy industries. However these materials, including the NiPtTi alloys being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, will never find widespread acceptance unless they can be readily processed into useable forms.

  18. Development of magnetic shape memory alloy actuators for a swashplateless helicopter rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couch, Ronald Newton

    Actuator concepts utilizing NiMnGa, ferromagnetic shape memory alloy are investigated for potential use on a smart rotor for trailing edge flap actuation. With their high energy density, large dynamic stroke, and wide operating bandwidth, ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMA) like NiMnGa, seem like attractive candidates for smart rotor actuators, potentially able to fulfill the requirements for both primary rotor control and vibration suppression. However, because of the recent discovery of the material, current experimental data and analytical tools are limited. To rectify these shortcomings, an extensive set of detailed experiments were conducted on samples of NiMnGa to characterize the response of the alloy for a wide variety of mechanical and magnetic loading conditions. Measurements of the material performance parameters such as power density, damping properties, magneto-mechanical coupling, and transduction efficiency were included. Once characterized, the experimental data were used to develop a series of analytical tools to predict the behavior of the material. A model, developed in parallel to thermal shape memory alloy models is proposed to predict the quasi-static stress-strain behavior. A simple, low frequency, parameter based model was also developed to predict the alloy's dynamic strain response. A method for developing conceptual actuators utilizing NiMnGa as the actuation element was proposed. This approach incorporates experimental data into a process that down-selects a series of possible actuator configurations to obtain a single configuration optimized for volumetric and weight considerations. The proposed actuator was designed to deliver 2 mm of stroke and 60 N of force at an actuation frequency of 50 Hz. However, to generate the 1.0 T magnetic field, the actuator mass was determined to be 2.8 kg and required a minimum of 320 Watts of power for operation. The mass of the NiMnGa element was only 18.3 g. It was concluded that although the Ni

  19. A condensed variational model for thermo-mechanically coupled phase transformations in polycrystalline shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junker, Philipp; Hackl, Klaus

    2013-11-01

    We derive an energy-based material model for thermomechanically coupled phase transformations in polycrystalline shape memory alloys. For the variational formulation of the model, we use the principle of the minimum of the dissipation potential for nonisothermal processes for which only a minimal number of constitutive assumptions has to be made. By introducing a condensed formulation for the representative orientation distribution function, the resulting material model is numerically highly efficient. For a first analysis, we present the results of material point calculations, where the evolution of temperature as well as its influence on the mechanical material response is investigated.

  20. Magnetocaloric effect and its relation to shape-memory properties in ferromagnetic Heusler alloys.

    PubMed

    Planes, Antoni; Mañosa, Lluís; Acet, Mehmet

    2009-06-10

    Magnetic Heusler alloys which undergo a martensitic transition display interesting functional properties. In the present review, we survey the magnetocaloric effects of Ni-Mn-based Heusler alloys and discuss their relation with the magnetic shape-memory and magnetic superelasticity reported in these materials. We show that all these effects are a consequence of a strong coupling between structure and magnetism which enables a magnetic field to rearrange martensitic variants as well as to provide the possibility to induce the martensitic transition. These two features are respectively controlled by the magnetic anisotropy of the martensitic phase and by the difference in magnetic moments between the structural phases. The relevance of each of these contributions to the magnetocaloric properties is analysed.

  1. Combinatorial search of thermoelastic shape-memory alloys with extremely small hysteresis width.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jun; Chu, Yong S; Famodu, Olugbenga O; Furuya, Yasubumi; Hattrick-Simpers, Jae; James, Richard D; Ludwig, Alfred; Thienhaus, Sigurd; Wuttig, Manfred; Zhang, Zhiyong; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2006-04-01

    Reversibility of structural phase transformations has profound technological implications in a wide range of applications from fatigue life in shape-memory alloys (SMAs) to magnetism in multiferroic oxides. The geometric nonlinear theory of martensite universally applicable to all structural transitions has been developed. It predicts the reversibility of the transitions as manifested in the hysteresis behaviour based solely on crystal symmetry and geometric compatibilities between phases. In this article, we report on the verification of the theory using the high-throughput approach. The thin-film composition-spread technique was devised to rapidly map the lattice parameters and the thermal hysteresis of ternary alloy systems. A clear relationship between the hysteresis and the middle eigenvalue of the transformation stretch tensor as predicted by the theory was observed for the first time. We have also identified a new composition region of titanium-rich SMAs with potential for improved control of SMA properties.

  2. Sign reversal of transformation entropy change in Co2Cr(Ga,Si) shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao; Omori, Toshihiro; Nagasako, Makoto; Kanomata, Takeshi; Kainuma, Ryosuke

    2015-11-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and compression tests were performed on Co2Cr(Ga,Si) shape memory alloys. The reentrant martensitic transformation behavior was directly observed during the in situ XRD measurements. The high-temperature parent phase and low-temperature reentrant parent phase were found to have a continuous temperature dependence of lattice parameter, therefore suggesting that they are the same phase in nature. Moreover, compression tests were performed on a parent-phase single crystal sample; an evolution from normal to inverse temperature dependence of critical stress for martensitic transformation was directly observed. Based on the Clausius-Clapeyron analysis, a sign reversal of entropy change can be expected on the same alloy.

  3. High Work Output Ni-Ti-Pt High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys and Associated Processing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noebe, Ronald D. (Inventor); Draper, Susan L. (Inventor); Nathal, Michael V. (Inventor); Garg, Anita (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    According to the invention, compositions of Ni-Ti-Pt high temperature, high force, shape memory alloys are disclosed that have transition temperatures above 100 C.; have narrow hysteresis; and produce a high specific work output.

  4. Use of shape memory alloys in the robust control of smart structures. Final report, February 1990-June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, V.S.; O'Keefe, T.J.; Koval, L.R.

    1993-08-01

    This report details an integrated interdisciplinary approach for designing and implementing robust controllers on smart structures. The application of shape memory alloy materials as actuators and sensors in the active control of smart structures has been investigated. A process was developed for the electrodeposition of In-Tl alloys in a composition range where this system exhibits the shape memory effect. Cu-Zn, Au-Ca, and In-Cd alloy films were produced using the electrolytic techniques and their shape memory properties evaluated. To demonstrate some of the capabilities of smart structures and to determine the limitations imposed by hardware realizations, we have designed and fabricated experimental test articles incorporating flexible structures with SMA actuators, strain gauge sensors, signal processing circuits and digital controllers. Structural identification techniques have been employed in determining mathematical models of test articles from experimental data. A modified robust control design methodology was developed to accommodate the limited control force provided by the SMA actuators. The robustness properties of closed loop structural systems were verified experimentally. Adaptive control methods were implemented. Neural network based identification and control algorithms were developed. Smart structures, Shape memory alloys, Electrodeposition process, Robust control, Control using neural networks.

  5. Shape memory alloys. (Latest citations from the INSPEC: Information services for the physics and engineering communities database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning theories and experiments on shape memory effects of various alloys. Alloys studied include nickel, tin, indium, lead, copper, and titanium. Citations discuss shape memory crystallography, properties, processing, alloying, and mechanisms. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Shape memory alloy seals for geothermal applications. Final report. Report ESG-82-14

    SciTech Connect

    Friske, Warren H.; Schwartzbart, Harry

    1982-07-30

    A novel temperature-actuated seal for geothermal applications is under development. This program uses the shape memory property of nickel-titanium (Nitinol) alloys to achieve an improved seal in geothermal downhole pumps. Nitinol flange face seals and pump shaft seals have been designed, fabricated, and tested. It has been demonstrated that the shape memory effect of Nitinol alloys can be utilized to activate and maintain a leaktight seal in geothermal environments.

  7. Cell memory-based therapy.

    PubMed

    Anjamrooz, Seyed Hadi

    2015-11-01

    Current cell therapies, despite all of the progress in this field, still faces major ethical, technical and regulatory hurdles. Because these issues possibly stem from the current, restricted, stereotypical view of cell ultrastructure and function, we must think radically about the nature of the cell. In this regard, the author's theory of the cell memory disc offers 'memory-based therapy', which, with the help of immune system rejuvenation, nervous system control and microparticle-based biodrugs, may have substantial therapeutic potential. In addition to its potential value in the study and prevention of premature cell aging, age-related diseases and cell death, memory therapy may improve the treatment of diseases that are currently limited by genetic disorders, risk of tumour formation and the availability and immunocompatibility of tissue transplants. PMID:26256679

  8. Cell memory-based therapy

    PubMed Central

    Anjamrooz, Seyed Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Current cell therapies, despite all of the progress in this field, still faces major ethical, technical and regulatory hurdles. Because these issues possibly stem from the current, restricted, stereotypical view of cell ultrastructure and function, we must think radically about the nature of the cell. In this regard, the author's theory of the cell memory disc offers ‘memory-based therapy’, which, with the help of immune system rejuvenation, nervous system control and microparticle-based biodrugs, may have substantial therapeutic potential. In addition to its potential value in the study and prevention of premature cell aging, age-related diseases and cell death, memory therapy may improve the treatment of diseases that are currently limited by genetic disorders, risk of tumour formation and the availability and immunocompatibility of tissue transplants. PMID:26256679

  9. Magnetic-field-induced strain in Ni2MnGa shape-memory alloy (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullakko, K.; Huang, J. K.; Kanter, C.; Kokorin, V. V.; O'Handley, R. C.

    1997-04-01

    Rare-earth/transition-metal alloys can exhibit magnetostrictive strains of order 0.17% in modest fields. Larger strains are of interest for many actuator applications. Certain alloys that undergo martensitic transformations exhibit a shape-memory effect that can yield strains up to 20% upon heating the deformed martensitic phase and they can show superelasticity upon application of a small stress. These methods of activation can be a disadvantage for many applications; magnetic activation of a shape-memory effect is desired. Several magnetic shape-memory alloys exist, among them intermetallics based on Ni2MnGa, which are the subject of this work. These materials experience a 6.6% c-axis contraction on cooling through the martensitic transition temperature, which is near 273 K; this strain is accommodated by formation of an ensemble of strained twin crystals separated by twin boundaries. Strains of several percent could be produced magnetically if the twin boundaries could be moved under application of a magnetic field. We report observations of strains of nearly 0.2% induced along [001] in unstressed crystals of Ni2MnGa with magnetic fields of 8 kOe applied at 265 K (Fig. 1). (This strain is an order of magnitude larger than the magnetostrictive strain we measure in the parent Heusler phase at 283 K.) Our data suggest that these giant strains are associated with the superelastic motion of twin boundaries in the martensitic phase, which is stable below about 274 K; the strength of the measured anisotropy energy density, MSHa/2 is comparable to the elastic energy density, eσ/2, needed for superelastic twin boundary motion.1 The strains we observe are equivalent to those achieved in terfenol-D and represent only a small fraction of the strain available if the twin variants of the martensitic phase can be oriented prior to application of a field.

  10. Magnetoelastic coupling in nickel manganese gallium ferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng

    NiMnGa alloys have attracted extensive attention because their ferromagnetic characteristic provides an additional degree of freedom to control both the shape memory effect and the multi-stage phase transformations in this Heusler system. Technically, along with the large magnetic-field-induced strains, NiMnGa alloys exhibit giant magnetocaloric effect due to their magnetic entropy changes associated with the coupled magnetostructural transitions. Fundamentally, a sequence of phase transformations, manifesting itself by a rich variety of physical anomalies on cooling to the martensitic transformation (MT) temperature TM, has been established. However, in comparison to the intensive studies of structural transformations, the magnetic properties of NiMnGa premartensite were hardly touched. The purpose of this research is to (i) investigate the temperature dependence of the magnetic driving force of martensitic NiMnGa, which is a critical factor to determine the actuation temperature window of this material; and (ii) understand the magnetoelastic coupling enhanced precursor effects, especially the unique magnetic behavior of NiMnGa premartensite. The singular point detection technique has been applied to determine the magnetic anisotropy constant K1 of a martensitic Ni49.0 Mn23.5Ga27.5 (wt%) crystal. As expected, K 1 increases with decreasing temperatures below TM of 276 K, following a magnetization power law K1(T)/K1(0)=(M s(T)/Ms(0))3. However, the force required to initiate twin boundary motion increases exponentially with decreasing temperature. The combination of both temperature dependences leads to a very restricted temperature window for magnetic actuation using this alloy. The premartensitic transformation has been established by means of neutron powder diffraction and measurements of elastic constants of C44 and C'. The premartensitic phase has been verified by the stiffening of C 44 prior to the MT. The slope change of C' at TC positively confirms that the

  11. Effect of Pore Structure Regulation on the Properties of Porous TiNbZr Shape Memory Alloys for Biomedical Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Ming; Gao, Yan; Yuan, Bin; Zhu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Recently, porous Ti-Nb-based shape memory alloys have been considered as promising implants for biomedical application, because of their non-toxic elements, low elastic modulus, and stable superelasticity. However, the inverse relationship between pore characteristics and superelasticity of porous SMAs will strongly affect their clinical application. Until now, there have been few works specifically focusing on the effect of pore structure on the mechanical properties and superelasticity of porous Ti-Nb-based SMAs. In this study, the pore structure, including porosity and pore size, of porous Ti-22Nb-6Zr alloys was successfully regulated by adjusting the amount and size of space-holder particles. XRD and SEM investigation showed that all these porous alloys had homogeneous composition. Compression tests indicated that porosity played an important role in the mechanical properties and superelasticity of these porous alloys. Those alloys with porosity in the range of 38.5%-49.7% exhibited mechanical properties approaching to cortical bones, with elastic modulus, compressive strength, and recoverable strain in the range of 7.2-11.4 GPa, 188-422 MPa, and 2.4%-2.6%, respectively. Under the same porosity, the alloys with larger pores exhibited lower elastic modulus, while the alloys with smaller pores presented higher compressive strength.

  12. Potential High-Temperature Shape-Memory Alloys Identified in the Ti(Ni,Pt) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noebe, Ronald D.; Biles, Tiffany A.; Garg, Anita; Nathal, Michael V.

    2004-01-01

    "Shape memory" is a unique property of certain alloys that, when deformed (within certain strain limits) at low temperatures, will remember and recover to their original predeformed shape upon heating. It occurs when an alloy is deformed in the low-temperature martensitic phase and is then heated above its transformation temperature back to an austenitic state. As the material passes through this solid-state phase transformation on heating, it also recovers its original shape. This behavior is widely exploited, near room temperature, in commercially available NiTi alloys for connectors, couplings, valves, actuators, stents, and other medical and dental devices. In addition, there are limitless applications in the aerospace, automotive, chemical processing, and many other industries for materials that exhibit this type of shape-memory behavior at higher temperatures. But for high temperatures, there are currently no commercial shape-memory alloys. Although there are significant challenges to the development of high-temperature shape-memory alloys, at the NASA Glenn Research Center we have identified a series of alloy compositions in the Ti-Ni-Pt system that show great promise as potential high-temperature shape-memory materials.

  13. Improvement of the shape memory characteristics of a Cu-Zn-Al alloy with manganese and zirconium addition

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, W.H.; Lam, C.W.H.; Chung, C.Y.; Lai, J.K.L.

    1997-04-15

    Cu-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) possess good shape memory effect (SME) and have the advantage of lower price than Ti-Ni SMA. However, there are still some problems which should be solved before they can be used widely. Addition of suitable alloying elements can improve the mechanical properties, stabilization of martensitic transformations and also the SME of Cu-based SMAs significantly. Cu-Zn-Al is an important Cu-based SMA that suffers from the martensite stabilization and intergranular cracking in the processing procedures and service. As a modification of Cu-Zn-Al SMAs, the effects of Mn and Zr addition on the structure and martensite transformation behavior of different heat treated Cu-21Zn-6Al-1Mn-0.5Zr (wt%) SMA have been studied and compared to that of Cu-21Zn-6Al (wt%) SMA in the present paper.

  14. Interfacial stresses in shape memory alloy-reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiremath, S. R.; Prajapati, Maulik; Rakesh, S.; Roy Mahapatra, D.

    2014-03-01

    Debonding of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) wires in SMA reinforced polymer matrix composites is a complex phenomenon compared to other fabric fiber debonding in similar matrix composites. This paper focuses on experimental study and analytical correlation of stress required for debonding of thermal SMA actuator wire reinforced composites. Fiber pull-out tests are carried out on thermal SMA actuator at parent state to understand the effect of stress induced detwinned martensites. An ASTM standard is followed as benchmark method for fiber pull-out test. Debonding stress is derived with the help of non-local shear-lag theory applied to elasto-plastic interface. Furthermore, experimental investigations are carried out to study the effect of Laser shot peening on SMA surface to improve the interfacial strength. Variation in debonding stress due to length of SMA wire reinforced in epoxy are investigated for non-peened and peened SMA wires. Experimental results of interfacial strength variation due to various L/d ratio for non-peened and peened SMA actuator wires in epoxy matrix are discussed.

  15. MOSFET Switching Circuit Protects Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gummin, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    A small-footprint, full surface-mount-component printed circuit board employs MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor) power switches to switch high currents from any input power supply from 3 to 30 V. High-force shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators generally require high current (up to 9 A at 28 V) to actuate. SMA wires (the driving element of the actuators) can be quickly overheated if power is not removed at the end of stroke, which can damage the wires. The new analog driver prevents overheating of the SMA wires in an actuator by momentarily removing power when the end limit switch is closed, thereby allowing complex control schemes to be adopted without concern for overheating. Either an integral pushbutton or microprocessor-controlled gate or control line inputs switch current to the actuator until the end switch line goes from logic high to logic low state. Power is then momentarily removed (switched off by the MOSFET). The analog driver is suited to use with nearly any SMA actuator.

  16. Modiolus-hugging intracochlear electrode array with shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyou Sik; Jun, Sang Beom; Lim, Yoon Seob; Park, Se-Ik; Kim, Sung June

    2013-01-01

    In the cochlear implant system, the distance between spiral ganglia and the electrodes within the volume of the scala tympani cavity significantly affects the efficiency of the electrical stimulation in terms of the threshold current level and spatial selectivity. Because the spiral ganglia are situated inside the modiolus, the central axis of the cochlea, it is desirable that the electrode array hugs the modiolus to minimize the distance between the electrodes and the ganglia. In the present study, we propose a shape-memory-alloy-(SMA-) embedded intracochlear electrode which gives a straight electrode a curved modiolus-hugging shape using the restoration force of the SMA as triggered by resistive heating after insertion into the cochlea. An eight-channel ball-type electrode array is fabricated with an embedded titanium-nickel SMA backbone wire. It is demonstrated that the electrode array changes its shape in a transparent plastic human cochlear model. To verify the safe insertion of the electrode array into the human cochlea, the contact pressures during insertion at the electrode tip and the contact pressures over the electrode length after insertion were calculated using a 3D finite element analysis. The results indicate that the SMA-embedded electrode is functionally and mechanically feasible for clinical applications. PMID:23762181

  17. Experimental characterization of shape memory alloy actuator cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, Daniel B.; Shaw, John A.

    2016-04-01

    Wire rope (or cables) are a fundamental structural element in many engineering applications. Recently, there has been growing interest in stranding NiTi wires into cables to scale up the adaptive properties of NiTi tension elements and to make use of the desirable properties of wire rope. Exploratory experiments were performed to study the actuation behavior of two NiTi shape memory alloy cables and straight monofilament wire of the same material. The specimens were held under various dead loads ranging from 50 MPa to 400 MPa and thermally cycled 25 times from 140°C to 5°C at a rate of 12°C/min. Performance metrics of actuation stroke, residual strain, and work output were measured and compared between specimen types. The 7x7 cable exhibited similar actuation to the single straight wire, but with slightly longer stroke and marginally more shakedown, while maintaining equivalent specific work output. This leads to the conclusion that the 7x7 cable effectively scaled up the adaptive properties the straight wire. Under loads below 150 MPa, the 1x27 cable had up to double the actuation stroke and work output, but exhibited larger shakedown and poorer performance when loaded higher.

  18. Stable Crack Growth During Thermal Actuation of Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jape, S.; Baxevanis, T.; Lagoudas, D. C.

    2016-03-01

    A finite element analysis of crack growth is carried out in shape memory alloys subjected to thermal variations under plane strain, mode I, constant applied loading. The crack is assumed to propagate at a critical level of the crack-tip energy release rate which is modeled using the virtual crack closure technique. The load level, applied at a high temperature at which the austenite phase is stable, is assumed sufficiently low so that the resulting crack-tip energy release rate is smaller than the critical value but sufficiently high so that the critical value is reached during cooling, initiating crack growth (Baxevanis and Lagoudas in Int J Fract 191:191-213, 2015). Stable crack growth is observed, mainly associated with the shielding effect of the transformed material left in the wake of the advancing crack. Results pertaining to the near-tip mechanical fields and fracture toughness are presented and their sensitivity to phase transformation metrics and bias load levels is investigated.

  19. Thermomechanical Modeling of Stress Relaxation in Shape Memory Alloy Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Fateme; Kadkhodaei, Mahmoud; Salafian, Iman

    2015-04-01

    When a shape memory alloy (SMA) is subjected to a mechanical load, especially at high strain rates, its temperature varies due to thermomechanical coupling in the response of these materials. Thus, if strain is kept constant during the transformation, temperature change will cause stress to decrease during loading and to increase during unloading. A decrease in stress under constant strain indicates stress relaxation, and an increase in stress indicates stress recovery, i.e., reverse stress relaxation. In this paper, a fully coupled thermomechanical model is developed in a continuum framework to study stress relaxation and stress recovery in SMA wires. Numerical simulations at different ambient temperatures, applied strain rates, wire radii, and relaxation intervals are done to show the abilities of the proposed model in predicting relaxation phenomena in various conditions where strain remains constant during loading or unloading. Relaxation experiments were also performed on NiTi wires, and the numerical and empirical results are shown to be in a good agreement.

  20. Improvement of needle type applicator made of shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Y; Kato, K; Yabuhara, T; Uzuka, T; Takahashi, H; Fujii, Y

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses radio frequency (RF) interstitial hyperthermia for brain tumors with a developed needle type applicator made of a shape memory alloy (SMA). The problem with the heating method of interstitial hyperthermia is the small heating area. So, we proposed a new heating method using a needle type electrode made of SMA which consists of nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and titanium (Ti) for expanding the heating area. Here, we proposed the heating method that the leading end of needle type electrode was divided into four parts and the leading end spreads in four directions with a temperature rise. First, the proposed RF interstitial hyperthermia system with the SMA needle was presented. Second, the results obtained by the experimental heating of the agar phantom by using the developed SMA needle type applicator were presented. Third, comparing experimental results, we discussed the heating properties of the developed system. Finally, from these results, it is confirmed that the developed needle type applicator made of SMA is useful for wide heating by invasive hyperthermia.

  1. Tailored processing of epoxy with embedded shape memory alloy wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, E. L.; O'Keane, J.; de Oliveira, R.; Michaud, V. J.; Månson, J.-A. E.

    2009-09-01

    We present the development of a low-temperature liquid composite moulding cure schedule that is compatible with the fabrication of shape memory alloy (SMA)-epoxy composite materials. With this process, the SMA wires do not need to be maintained in place with an external frame, even though the peak post-cure temperature exceeds the activation temperature of the SMA wires. The intrinsic interfacial shear strength of the final material is experimentally determined from single wire pull-out tests, and is compared with the shear stress exerted at the interface by an activated SMA wire. These measurements show that the interface is strong enough to withstand the maximum activation stress. This is confirmed through tests involving the cyclic activation of SMA wires embedded in epoxy samples. The paper successfully demonstrates that, by careful tailoring of the processing schedule, an SMA-epoxy composite that maintains a strong interfacial bond during both processing and subsequent activation of the embedded wires can be fabricated using standard composite processing methods.

  2. Flutter of buckled shape memory alloy reinforced laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Shih-Yao; Shiau, Le-Chung; Lai, Chin-Hsin

    2012-03-01

    The effect of shape memory alloys (SMA) on the linear and nonlinear flutter behaviors of buckled cross-ply and angle-ply laminates was investigated in the frequency and time domains using the finite element method. In particular, this study takes the first move toward examining the effect of varying the SMA fiber spacing. Von Karman large deformation assumptions and quasi-steady aerodynamic theory were employed. The flutter boundary, stability boundary, time history response, and phase plane plots of SMA reinforced cross-ply and angle-ply laminates are presented. The numerical results show that increase in the SMA fiber volume fraction and prestrain may generate more recovery stress, and increase the stiffness of the SMA reinforced laminates. Therefore, the flutter boundary and critical load of the plate may be increased significantly. All five types of panel behavior, namely flat, buckled, limit-cycle, periodic, and chaotic motion, are clearly displayed and successively identified. This study sheds light on improving the flutter boundary efficiently by increasing the SMA fiber volume fraction to reinforce the center of the plate.

  3. Directions for High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys' Improvement: Straight Way to High-Entropy Materials?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstov, G. S.; Kosorukova, T. A.; Koval, Yu N.; Verhovlyuk, P. A.

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, all thermo-mechanical effects, associated with the martensitic structural phase transitions, are still in the focus of scientists and engineers, especially once these phenomena are taking place at elevated temperatures. The list of the materials, undergoing high-temperature martensitic transformation, is constantly widening. Still, industrial application of these materials, called high-temperature shape memory alloys, is far enough due to the lack of understanding of the peculiarities of the high-temperature martensitic transformation and shape memory effect. The present work attempts to show how the development of the proper directions for high-temperature shape memory alloys' improvement might lead to the creation of essentially new functional materials.

  4. Potential High-Temperature Shape-Memory-Alloy Actuator Material Identified

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noebe, Ronald D.; Gaydosh, Darrell J.; Biles, Tiffany A.; Garg, Anita

    2005-01-01

    Shape-memory alloys are unique "smart materials" that can be used in a wide variety of adaptive or "intelligent" components. Because of a martensitic solid-state phase transformation in these materials, they can display rather unusual mechanical properties including shape-memory behavior. This phenomenon occurs when the material is deformed at low temperatures (below the martensite finish temperature, Mf) and then heated through the martensite-to-austenite phase transformation. As the material is heated to the austenite finish temperature Af, it is able to recover its predeformed shape. If a bias is applied to the material as it tries to recover its original shape, work can be extracted from the shape-memory alloy as it transforms. Therefore, shape-memory alloys are being considered for compact solid-state actuation devices to replace hydraulic, pneumatic, or motor-driven systems.

  5. Shape memory effect associated with a deformation at a temperature just below A[sub S] in a Fe-Mn-Cr-Si-Ni shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Federzoni, L.; Guenin, G. )

    1994-07-01

    The shape memory effect of Fe-Mn based shape memory alloys is due to the formation of stress-induced [var epsilon]-martensite by deformation and to its reversion by heating over A[sub f], which permit it to recover a part of the original shape. The shape memory effect is directly associated with the [gamma][yields][var epsilon] transformation. For this reason, the authors have established the best conditions to induce the [var epsilon]-martensite inside an austenitic matrix: the deformation must take place at a temperature close to the M[sub s]. It has been established that a deformation made at a higher temperature degrades the shape memory effect. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the shape memory effect in the case of a deformation applied at a relatively high temperature (just below A[sub s]) on samples containing a high volume fraction of [var epsilon]-martensite before the deformation. It is shown that an other mechanism of shape memory effect occurs in these conditions and allows to reach an interesting shape memory effect ([approximately]2%).

  6. Measurement and Prediction of the Thermomechanical Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Brian; Turner, Travis L.; Seelecke, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Previous work at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) involved fabrication and testing of composite beams with embedded, pre-strained shape memory alloy (SMA) ribbons within the beam structures. That study also provided comparison of experimental results with numerical predictions from a research code making use of a new thermoelastic model for shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures. The previous work showed qualitative validation of the numerical model. However, deficiencies in the experimental-numerical correlation were noted and hypotheses for the discrepancies were given for further investigation. The goal of this work is to refine the experimental measurement and numerical modeling approaches in order to better understand the discrepancies, improve the correlation between prediction and measurement, and provide rigorous quantitative validation of the numerical analysis/design tool. The experimental investigation is refined by a more thorough test procedure and incorporation of higher fidelity measurements such as infrared thermography and projection moire interferometry. The numerical results are produced by a recently commercialized version of the constitutive model as implemented in ABAQUS and are refined by incorporation of additional measured parameters such as geometric imperfection. Thermal buckling, post-buckling, and random responses to thermal and inertial (base acceleration) loads are studied. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of SMAHC structures in controlling static and dynamic responses by adaptive stiffening. Excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured results of the static and dynamic thermomechanical response, thereby providing quantitative validation of the numerical tool.

  7. Nickel-base alloys combat corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, D.C.; Herda, W.

    1995-06-01

    The modern chemical process industry must increase production efficiency to remain competitive. Manufacturers typically meet this challenge by utilizing higher temperatures and pressures, and more-corrosive catalysts. At the same time, the industry has to solve the technical and commercial problems resulting from rigid environmental regulations. To overcome these obstacles, new alloys having higher levels of corrosion resistance have been developed. These materials are based on increased understanding of the physical metallurgy of nickel-base alloys, especially the role of alloying elements. Results of many studies have led to innovations in nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys containing both high and low amounts of nickel. Higher molybdenum and chromium contents, together with nitrogen additions, have opened up an entirely new class of alloys having unique properties. In addition, a new chromium-base, fully wrought super stainless steel shows excellent promise in solving many corrosion problems. These newer alloys have the ability to combat uniform corrosion, localized corrosion, and stress-corrosion cracking in the harsh halogenic environment of the chemical process industry. This article briefly lists some of the major highlights and corrosion data on recent nickel-chromium-molybdenum and nickel-molybdenum alloys, and the development of a chromium-base, wrought super-austenitic alloy known as Nicrofer 3033 (Alloy 33). Some comparisons with existing alloys are presented, along with a few commercial applications.

  8. Mathematical Modeling and Control of Nonlinear Oscillators with Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendame, Mohamed

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) belong to an interesting type of materials that have attracted the attention of scientists and engineers over the last few decades. They have some interesting properties that made them the subject of extensive research to find the best ways to utilize them in different engineering, biomedical, and scientific applications. In this thesis, we develop a mathematical model and analyze the behavior of SMAs by considering a one degree of freedom nonlinear oscillator consisting of a mass connected to a fixed frame through a viscous damping and a shape memory alloy device. Due to the nonlinear and dissipative nature of shape memory alloys, optimal control and Lyapunov stability theories are used to design a controller to stabilize the response of the one degree of freedom nonlinear oscillator. Since SMAs exist in two phases, martensite and austenite, and their phase transformations are dependent on stress and temperature, this work is presented in two parts. The first part deals with the nonlinear oscillator system in its two separate phases by considering a temperature where the SMA exists in only one of the phases. A model for each phase is developed based on Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory that defines the free energy in a polynomial form enabling us to describe the SMAs shape memory effect and pseudoelasticity. However, due to the phenomenon of hysteresis in SMAs, the response of the nonlinear oscillator with a SMA element, in either phase, is chaotic and unstable. In order to stabilize the chaotic behavior, an optimal linear quadratic regulator controller is designed around a stable equilibrium for the martensitic and the austenitic phases. The closed-loop response for each phase is then simulated and computational results are presented. The second part of the thesis deals with the entire system in its dynamics by combining the two phases and taking into account the effect of temperature on the response of the system. Governing equations

  9. Fast Preisach modeling method for shape memory alloy actuators using major hysteresis loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung-Jun; Lee, Yun-Jung; Choi, Bong-Yeol

    2004-10-01

    The control accuracy of smart actuators, such as a shape memory alloy (SMA) or piezoceramic actuator, is limited due to their inherent hysteresis nonlinearities with a local memory, resulting from the influence of a previous input on subsequent behavior. In addition, the existence of minor loops in the major loop because of a local memory also makes the mathematical modeling and design of a controller difficult for SMA actuators. Therefore, to enhance the controllability of a smart actuator, the Preisach hysteresis model has emerged as an appropriate behavioral model, yet the modeling is difficult and the model equation complex. Accordingly, to resolve these difficulties, the current paper proposes a simple method based on applying the proportional relationship between the major loop and the FOD curves of an SMA actuator to the Preisach model. As such, using only data for the major hysteresis loop, the proposed method enables the FOD curves to be easily approximated and the output length rapidly computed. The efficacy of the proposed Preisach modeling method is confirmed based on comparative experiments with the classical Preisach model.

  10. Improved Damage Resistant Composite Materials Incorporating Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, Jeffrey S. N.; Rogers, Craig A.

    1996-01-01

    Metallic shape memory alloys (SMA) such as nitinol have unique shape recovery behavior and mechanical properties associated with a material phase change that have been used in a variety of sensing and actuation applications. Recent studies have shown that integrating nitinol-SMA actuators into composite materials increases the composite material's functionality. Hybrid composites of conventional graphite/epoxy or glass/epoxy and nitinol-SMA elements can perform functions in applications where monolithic composites perform inadequately. One such application is the use of hybrid composites to function both in load bearing and armor capacities. While monolithic composites with high strength-to-weight ratios function efficiently as loadbearing structures, because of their brittle nature, impact loading can cause significant catastrophic damage. Initial composite failure modes such as delamination and matrix cracking dissipate some impact energy, but when stress exceeds the composite's ultimate strength, fiber fracture and material perforation become dominant. One of the few methods that has been developed to reduce material perforation is hybridizing polymer matrix composites with tough kevlar or high modulus polyethynylene plies. The tough fibers increase the impact resistance and the stiffer and stronger graphite fibers carry the majority of the load. Similarly, by adding nitinol-SMA elements that absorb impact energy through the stress-induced martensitic phase transformation, the composites' impact perforation resistance can be greatly enhanced. The results of drop-weight and high velocity gas-gun impact testing of various composite materials will be presented. The results demonstrate that hybridizing composites with nitinol-SMA elements significantly increases perforation resistance compared to other traditional toughening elements. Inspection of the composite specimens at various stages of perforation by optical microscope illustrates the mechanisms by which

  11. A 3-D constitutive model for pressure-dependent phase transformation of porous shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, M J; Arghavani, J; Naghdabadi, R; Sohrabpour, S

    2015-02-01

    Porous shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit the interesting characteristics of porous metals together with shape memory effect and pseudo-elasticity of SMAs that make them appropriate for biomedical applications. In this paper, a 3-D phenomenological constitutive model for the pseudo-elastic behavior and shape memory effect of porous SMAs is developed within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. Comparing to micromechanical and computational models, the proposed model is computationally cost effective and predicts the behavior of porous SMAs under proportional and non-proportional multiaxial loadings. Considering the pressure dependency of phase transformation in porous SMAs, proper internal variables, free energy and limit functions are introduced. With the aim of numerical implementation, time discretization and solution algorithm for the proposed model are also presented. Due to lack of enough experimental data on multiaxial loadings of porous SMAs, we employ a computational simulation method (CSM) together with available experimental data to validate the proposed constitutive model. The method is based on a 3-D finite element model of a representative volume element (RVE) with random pores pattern. Good agreement between the numerical predictions of the model and CSM results is observed for elastic and phase transformation behaviors in various thermomechanical loadings.

  12. Computational modeling of size-dependent superelasticity of shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Lei; Radovitzky, Raul

    2016-08-01

    We propose a nonlocal continuum model to describe the size-dependent superelastic responses observed in recent experiments of shape memory alloys. The modeling approach extends a superelasticity formulation based on the martensitic volume fraction, and combines it with gradient plasticity theories. Size effects are incorporated through two internal length scales, an energetic length scale and a dissipative length scale, which correspond to the gradient terms in the free energy and the dissipation, respectively. We also propose a computational framework based on a variational formulation to solve the coupled governing equations resulting from the nonlocal superelastic model. Within this framework, a robust and scalable algorithm is implemented for large scale three-dimensional problems. A numerical study of the grain boundary constraint effect shows that the model is able to capture the size-dependent stress hysteresis and strain hardening during the loading and unloading cycles in polycrystalline SMAs.

  13. LACBED characterization of dislocations in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys processed by powder metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, P. P.; Ibarra, A.; San Jean, J.; Morniro, J. P.; No, M. L.

    2003-10-01

    Powder metallurgy Cu-AI-Ni shape memory alloys show excellent thermomechanical properties, being the fracture behavior close to the one observed in single crystals. However, the microstructural mechanisms responsible of such behavior are still under study. In this paper we present the characterization of the dislocations present in these alloys by Large Angle Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction (LACBED) in two different stages of the elaboration process: after HIP compaction and after hot rolling.

  14. Iron-based amorphous alloys and methods of synthesizing iron-based amorphous alloys

    DOEpatents

    Saw, Cheng Kiong; Bauer, William A.; Choi, Jor-Shan; Day, Dan; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2016-05-03

    A method according to one embodiment includes combining an amorphous iron-based alloy and at least one metal selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, chromium, tungsten, boron, gadolinium, nickel phosphorous, yttrium, and alloys thereof to form a mixture, wherein the at least one metal is present in the mixture from about 5 atomic percent (at %) to about 55 at %; and ball milling the mixture at least until an amorphous alloy of the iron-based alloy and the at least one metal is formed. Several amorphous iron-based metal alloys are also presented, including corrosion-resistant amorphous iron-based metal alloys and radiation-shielding amorphous iron-based metal alloys.

  15. Ion beam sputter deposition of TiNi shape memory alloy thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Sam T.; Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi

    1999-08-01

    The development of functional or smart materials for integration into microsystem is of increasing interest. An example is the shape memory effect exhibited by certain metal alloys which, in principle, can be exploited in the fabrication of micro-scale manipulators or actuators, thereby providing on-chip micromechanical functionality. We have investigated an ion beam sputter deposition process for the growth of TiNi shape memory alloy thin films and demonstrated the required control to produce equiatomic composition, uniform coverage and atomic layer-by-layer growth rates on engineering surfaces. The process uses argon ions at intermediate energy produced by a Kaufman-type ion source to sputter non-alloyed targets of high purity titanium and nickel. Precise measurements of deposition rates allows compositional control during thin film growth. As the sputtering targets and substrates are remote from the discharge plasma, deposition occurs under good vacuum of approximately 10-6 mtorr thus promoting high quality films. Furthermore, the ion beam energetics allow deposition at relatively low substrate temperatures of < 150 degrees C with as-deposited films exhibiting shape memory properties without post-process high temperature annealing. Thermal imagin is used to monitor changes which are characteristic of the shape memory effect and is indicative of changes in specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity as the TiNi shape memory alloy undergoes martensitic to austenitic phase transformations.

  16. Effects of Stoichiometry on Transformation Temperatures and Actuator-Type Performance of NiTiPd and NiTiPdX High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, Glen S.; Gaydosh, Darrell; Garg, Anita; Padula, Santo A., II; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2007-01-01

    High-temperature shape memory NiTiPd and NiTiPdX (X=Au, Pt, Hf) alloys were produced with titanium equivalent (Ti+Hf) compositions of 50.5, 50.0, 49.5, and 49.0 at.%. Thermo-mechanical testing in compression was used to evaluate the transformation temperatures, transformation strain, work output, and permanent deformation behavior of each alloy to study the effects of quaternary alloying and stoichiometry on high-temperature shape memory alloy behavior. Microstructural evaluation showed the presence of second phases for all alloy compositions. No load transformation temperatures in the stoichiometric alloys were relatively unchanged by Au and Pt substitutions, while the substitution of Hf for Ti causes a drop in transformation temperatures. The NiTiPd, NiTiPdAu and NiTiPdHf alloys exhibited transformation temperatures that were highest in the Ti-rich compositions, slightly lower at stoichiometry, and significantly reduced when the Ti equivalent composition was less than 50 at.%. For the NiTiPdPt alloy, transformation temperatures were highest for the Ti-rich compositions, lowest at stoichiometry, and slightly higher in the Ni-rich composition. When thermally cycled under constant stresses of up to 300 MPa, all of the alloys had transformation strains, and therefore work outputs, which increased with increasing stress. In each series of alloys, the transformation strain and thus work output was highest for stoichiometric or Ti-rich compositions while permanent strain associated with the constant-load thermal cycling was lowest for alloys with Ni-equivalent-rich compositions. Based on these results, basic rules for optimizing the composition of NiTiPd alloys for actuator performance will be discussed.

  17. Effect of CO2 laser welding on the shape-memory and corrosion characteristics of TiNi alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Y. T.; Wang, Y. R.; Wu, S. K.; Chen, C.

    2001-03-01

    A CO2 laser has been employed to join binary Ti50Ni50 and Ti49.5Ni50.5 shape-memory alloys (SMAs), with an emphasis on the shape-memory and corrosion characteristics. Experimental results showed that a slightly lowered martensite start ( M S) temperature and no deterioration in shape-memory character of both alloys were found after laser welding. The welded Ti50Ni50, with an increased amount of B2 phase in the weld metal (WM), had higher strength and considerably lower elongation than the base metal (BM). Potentiodynamic tests revealed the satisfactory performance of laser-welded Ti50Ni50 in 1.5 M H2SO4 and 1.5 M HNO3 solutions. However, the WM exhibited a significantly higher corrosion rate and a less stable passivity than the BM in artificial saliva. On the other hand, the pseudoelastic behavior of the laser weld was investigated only for the Ti49.5Ni50.5 alloy, to facilitate tension cycling at room temperature. The cyclic deformation of Ti49.5Ni50.5 indicated that the stress required to form stress-induced martensite ( σ m) and the permanent residual strain ( ɛ p) were higher after welding at a given number of cycles ( N), which were certainly related to the more inhomogeneous nature of the WM.

  18. A Shape-Memory Alloy Thermal Conduction Switch for Use at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Raj

    2004-01-01

    The following summarizes the activities performed under NASA grant NAG10-323 from September 1, 2002 through September 30, 2004 at the. Univ ersity of Central Florida. A version of this has already been submitt ed for publication in the international journal Swart Materials and S tructures in December 2004. Additionally, a version of this has alrea dy appeared in print in Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, American Institute of Physics, (2004) 50A 26-3; in an article entitled "A Shape Memory Alloy Based Cryogenic Thermal Conduction Switch" by V.B. Krish nan. J.D. Singh. T.R. Woodruff. W.U. Notardonato and R. Vaidyanathan (article is attached at the end of this report).

  19. Fiber-optic nonlinear endomicroscopy with focus scanning by using shape memory alloy actuation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yicong; Zhang, Yuying; Xi, Jiefeng; Li, Ming-Jun; Li, Xingde

    2010-01-01

    A miniature fiber optic endomicroscope with built-in dynamic focus scanning capability is developed for the first time for 3-D two-photon fluorescence (TPF) imaging of biological samples. Fast 2-D lateral beam scanning is realized by resonantly vibrating a double-clad fiber cantilever with a tubular piezoactuator. Slow axial scanning is achieved by moving the distal end of the imaging probe with an extremely compact electrically driven shape memory alloy (SMA). The 10-mm-long SMA allows 150-μm contractions with a driving voltage varying only from 50 to 100 mV. The response of the SMA contraction with the applied voltage is nonlinear, but repeatable and can be accurately calibrated. Depth-resolved imaging of acriflavine-stained biological tissues and unstained white paper with the endomicroscope is performed, and the results demonstrate the feasibility of 3-D nonlinear optical imaging with the SMA-based scanning fiber-optic endomicroscope. PMID:21198147

  20. A novel shape memory alloy microactuator for large in-plane strokes and forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabla, M.; Ben-David, E.; Shilo, D.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes a novel concept for in-plane actuators based on a thin free-standing shape memory alloy (SMA) film. The presented guidelines can be used to design a variety of actuators that can provide a combination of large strokes and forces for linear and rotary motions. A prototype actuator demonstrated a displacement of 45 μm related to 4.5% of the SMA film length, and a force of up to 115 mN related to a stress of 230 MPa in the SMA film without plastic deformations. These capabilities allow the actuator to work against the stiff springs that are essential for the devices’ ability to sustain vibrations, impacts, and accelerations.

  1. Coupling of metals and biominerals: characterizing the interface between ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys and hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Allenstein, Uta; Selle, Susanne; Tadsen, Meike; Patzig, Christian; Höche, Thomas; Zink, Mareike; Mayr, Stefan G

    2015-07-22

    Durable, mechanically robust osseointegration of metal implants poses one of the largest challenges in contemporary orthopedics. The application of biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings as mediators for enhanced mechanical coupling to natural bone constitutes a promising approach. Motivated by recent advances in the field of smart metals that might open the venue for alternate therapeutic concepts, we explore their mechanical coupling to sputter-deposited HAp layers in a combined experimental-theoretical study. While experimental delamination tests and comprehensive structural characterization, including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, are utilized to establish structure-property relationships, density functional theory based total energy calculations unravel the underlying physics and chemistry of bonding and confirm the experimental findings. Experiments and modeling indicate that sputter-deposited HAp coatings are strongly adherent to the exemplary ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys, Ni-Mn-Ga and Fe-Pd, with delamination stresses and interface bonding strength exceeding the physiological scales by orders of magnitude.

  2. Design of a shape adaptive airfoil actuated by a Shape Memory Alloy strip for airplane tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirzadeh, R.; Raissi Charmacani, K.; Tabesh, M.

    2011-04-01

    Of the factors that mainly affect the efficiency of the wing during a special flow regime, the shape of its airfoil cross section is the most significant. Airfoils are generally designed for a specific flight condition and, therefore, are not fully optimized in all flight conditions. It is very desirable to have an airfoil with the ability to change its shape based on the current regime. Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators activate in response to changes in the temperature and can recover their original configuration after being deformed. This study presents the development of a method to control the shape of an airfoil using SMA actuators. To predict the thermomechanical behaviors of an SMA thin strip, 3D incremental formulation of the SMA constitutive model is implemented in FEA software package ABAQUS. The interactions between the airfoil structure and SMA thin strip actuator are investigated. Also, the aerodynamic performance of a standard airfoil with a plain flap is compared with an adaptive airfoil.

  3. A thermomechanical model accounting for the behavior of shape memory alloys in finite deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haller, Laviniu; Nedjar, Boumedienne; Moumni, Ziad; Vedinaş, Ioan; Trană, Eugen

    2016-07-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) comport an interesting behavior. They can undertake large strains and then recover their undeformed shape by heating. In this context, one of the aspects that challenged many researchers was the development of a mathematical model to predict the behavior of a known SMA under real-life conditions, or finite strain. This paper is aimed at working out a finite strain mathematical model for a Ni-Ti SMA, under the superelastic experiment conditions and under uniaxial mechanical loading, based on the Zaki-Moumni 3D mathematical model developed under the small perturbations assumption. Within the current article, a comparison between experimental findings and calculated results is also investigated. The proposed finite strain mathematical model shows good agreement with experimental data.

  4. The effects of alloying elements Al and In on Ni-Mn-Ga shape memory alloys, from first principles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Li, Yan; Shang, Jia-Xiang; Xu, Hui-Bin

    2009-01-28

    The electronic structures and formation energies of the Ni(9)Mn(4)Ga(3-x)Al(x) and Ni(9)Mn(4)Ga(3-x)In(x) alloys have been investigated using the first-principles pseudopotential plane-wave method based on density functional theory. The results show that both the austenite and martensite phases of Ni(9)Mn(4)Ga(3) alloy are stabilized by Al alloying, while they become unstable with In alloying. According to the partial density of states and structural energy analysis, different effects of Al and In alloying on the phase stability are mainly attributed to their chemical effects. The formation energy difference between the austenite and martensite phases decreases with Al or In alloying, correlating with the experimentally reported changes in martensitic transformation temperature. The shape factor plays an important role in the decrease of the formation energy difference.

  5. Thermal Stabilization of NiTiCuV Shape Memory Alloys: Observations During Elastocaloric Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Marvin; Ullrich, Johannes; Wieczorek, André; Frenzel, Jan; Schütze, Andreas; Eggeler, Gunther; Seelecke, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents novel findings observed during the training process of superelastic, elastocalorically optimized Ni-Ti-based shape memory alloys (SMA). NiTiCuV alloys exhibit large latent heats and a small mechanical hysteresis, which may potentially lead to the development of efficient solid-state-based cooling processes. The paper starts with a brief introduction to the underlying principles of elastocaloric cooling, illustrating the effect by means of a typical thermodynamic cycle. It proceeds with the description of a custom-built testing platform that allows observation of temperature profiles and heat transfer between SMA and heat source/sink during high-loading-rate tensile tests. Similar to other SMA applications, a training process is necessary in order to guarantee stable performance. This well-known mechanical stabilization affects the stress-strain hysteresis and the cycle-dependent evolution of differential scanning calorimetry results. In addition, it can be shown here that the training is also accompanied by a cycle-dependent evolution of temperature profiles on the surface of an SMA ribbon. The applied training leads to local temperature peaks with intensity, number, and distribution of the temperature fronts showing a cycle dependency. The homogeneity of the elastocaloric effect has a significant influence on the efficiency of elastocaloric cooling process and is a key aspect of the specific material characterization.

  6. Long-Time Stability of Ni-Ti-Shape Memory Alloys for Automotive Safety Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strittmatter, Joachim; Gümpel, Paul

    2011-07-01

    In automotive a lot of electromagnetically, pyrotechnically or mechanically driven actuators are integrated to run comfort systems and to control safety systems in modern passenger cars. Using shape memory alloys (SMA) the existing systems could be simplified, performing the same function through new mechanisms with reduced size, weight, and costs. A drawback for the use of SMA in safety systems is the lack of materials knowledge concerning the durability of the switching function (long-time stability of the shape memory effect). Pedestrian safety systems play a significant role to reduce injuries and fatal casualties caused by accidents. One automotive safety system for pedestrian protection is the bonnet lifting system. Based on such an application, this article gives an introduction to existing bonnet lifting systems for pedestrian protection, describes the use of quick changing shape memory actuators and the results of the study concerning the long-time stability of the tested NiTi-wires. These wires were trained, exposed up to 4 years at elevated temperatures (up to 140 °C) and tested regarding their phase change temperatures, times, and strokes. For example, it was found that A P-temperature is shifted toward higher temperatures with longer exposing periods and higher temperatures. However, in the functional testing plant a delay in the switching time could not be detected. This article gives some answers concerning the long-time stability of NiTi-wires that were missing till now. With this knowledge, the number of future automotive applications using SMA can be increased. It can be concluded, that the use of quick changing shape memory actuators in safety systems could simplify the mechanism, reduce maintenance and manufacturing costs and should be insertable also for other automotive applications.

  7. Reversible surface morphology in shape-memory alloy thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, M. J.; Huang, W. M.; Fu, Y. Q.; Chollet, F.; Hu, Y. Y.; Cai, M.

    2009-02-01

    Reversible surface morphology can be used for significantly changing many surface properties such as roughness, friction, reflection, surface tension, etc. However, it is not easy to realize atop metals at micron scale around ambient temperature. In this paper, we demonstrate that TiNi and TiNi based (e.g., TiNiCu) shape-memory thin films, which are sputter-deposited atop a silicon wafer, may have different types of thermally-induced reversible surface morphologies. Apart from the well-known surface relief phenomenon, irregular surface trenches may appear in the fully crystallized thin films, but disappear upon heating. On the other hand, in partially crystallized thin films, the crystalline structures (islands) appear in chrysanthemum-shape at high temperature; while at room temperature, the surface morphology within the islands changes to standard martensite striations. Both phenomena are fully repeatable upon thermal cycling. The mechanisms behind these phenomena are investigated.

  8. Compressive Response of Polycrystalline NiCoMnGa High-Temperature Meta-magnetic Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaca, H. E.; Turabi, A. S.; Basaran, B.; Pathak, A. K.; Dubenko, I.; Ali, N.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.; Li, P.

    2013-10-01

    The effects of the addition of quaternary element, Co, to polycrystalline NiMnGa alloys on their magnetic and shape memory properties have been investigated. NiCoMnGa polycrystalline alloys have been found to demonstrate good shape memory and superelasticity behavior under compression at temperatures greater than 100 °C with about 3% transformation strain and low-temperature hysteresis. It is also possible to train the material to demonstrate a large two-way shape memory effect.

  9. Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy in Co-Based Full Heusler Alloy Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Xu, X. G.; Miao, J.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Half-metallic Co-based full Heusler alloys have been qualified as promising functional materials in spintronic devices due to their high spin polarization. The lack of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is one of the biggest obstacles restricting their application in next generation ultrahigh density storage such as magnetic random access memory (MARM). How to induce the PMA in Co-based full Heusler alloy thin films has attracted much research interest of scientists. This paper presents an overview of recent progress in this research area. We hope that this paper would provide some guidance and ideas to develop highly spin-polarized Co-based Heusler alloy thin films with PMA.

  10. Infrared Brazing of Ti50Ni50 Shape Memory Alloy and 316L Stainless Steel with Two Sliver-Based Fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiue, Ren-Kae; Chen, Chia-Pin; Wu, Shyi-Kaan

    2015-06-01

    Dissimilar infrared brazing Ti50Ni50 and AISI 316L stainless steel using two silver-based fillers, Cusil-ABA and Ticusil, was evaluated. The shear strength of the Ticusil brazed joint is higher than that of the Cusil-ABA brazed one due to the formation of better fillet. The maximum shear strength of 237 MPa is obtained for the Ticusil joint brazed at 1223 K (950 °C) for 60 seconds. The presence of interfacial Ti-Fe-(Cu) layer is detrimental to the shear strength of all joints.

  11. Design and analysis of variable-twist tiltrotor blades using shape memory alloy hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae-Sang; Kim, Seong-Hwan; Jung, Sung Nam; Lee, Myeong-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    The tiltrotor blade, or proprotor, acts as a rotor in the helicopter mode and as a propeller in the airplane mode. For a better performance, the proprotor should have different built-in twist distributions along the blade span, suitable for each operational mode. This paper proposes a new variable-twist proprotor concept that can adjust the built-in twist distribution for given flight modes. For a variable-twist control, the present proprotor adopts shape memory alloy hybrid composites (SMAHC) containing shape memory alloy (SMA) wires embedded in the composite matrix. The proprotor of the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) Smart Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV), which is based on the tiltrotor concept, is used as a baseline proprotor model. The cross-sectional properties of the variable-twist proprotor are designed to maintain the cross-sectional properties of the original proprotor as closely as possible. However, the torsion stiffness is significantly reduced to accommodate the variable-twist control. A nonlinear flexible multibody dynamic analysis is employed to investigate the dynamic characteristics of the proprotor such as natural frequency and damping in the whirl flutter mode, the blade structural loads in a transition flight and the rotor performance in hover. The numerical results show that the present proprotor is designed to have a strong similarity to the baseline proprotor in dynamic and load characteristics. It is demonstrated that the present proprotor concept could be used to improve the hover performance adaptively when the variable-twist control using the SMAHC is applied appropriately.

  12. Closed-loop control of a shape memory alloy actuation system for variable area fan nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barooah, Prabir; Rey, Nancy

    2002-07-01

    Shape Memory Alloys have been used in a wide variety of actuation applications. A bundled shape memory alloy cable actuator, capable of providing large force and displacement has been developed by United Technologies Corporation (patents pending) for actuating a Variable Area fan Nozzle (VAN). The ability to control fan nozzle exit area is an enabling technology for the next generation turbofan engines. Performance benefits for VAN engines are estimated to be up to 9% in Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption (TSFC) compared to traditional fixed geometry designs. The advantage of SMA actuated VAN design is light weight and low complexity compared to conventionally actuated designs. To achieve the maximum efficiency from a VAN engine, the nozzle exit area has to be continuously varied for a certain period of time during climb, since the optimum nozzle exit area is a function of several flight variables (flight Mach number, altitude etc). Hence, the actuator had to be controlled to provide the time varying desired nozzle area. A new control algorithm was developed for this purpose, which produced the desired flap area by metering the resistive heating of the SMA actuator. Since no active cooling was used, reducing overshoot was a significant challenge of the controller. A full scale, 2 flap model of the VAN system was built, which was capable of simulating a 20% nozzle area variation, and tested under full scale aerodynamic load in NASA Langley Jet Exit Test facility. The controller met all the requirements of the actuation system and was able to drive the flap position to the desired position with less than 2% overshoot in step input tests. The controller is based on a adaptive algorithm formulation with logical switches that reduces its overshoot error. Although the effectiveness of the controller was demonstrated in full scale model tests, no theoretical results as to its stability and robustness has been derived. Stability of the controller will have to be investigated

  13. Review of properties of magnetic shape memory (MSM) alloys and MSM actuator designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabdullin, N.; Khan, S. H.

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic shape memory alloys are a new group of "smart" materials that exhibit large strain of 6-12% when subjected to magnetic fields. This indicates their enormous potential to be used in different electromagnetic (EM) devices such as actuators, sensors, energy harvesters and dampers. Shape change in MSM materials is controlled by magnetic field and doesn't involve phase transformation, allowing it to overcome a number of disadvantages of conventional shape memory alloys (SMAs). MSM devices are capable of producing large force and stroke output in considerably small dimensions. At the same time they can have fast response and potentially very long lifetime. This paper discusses different modern designs and approaches to MSM actuator design with their advantages and disadvantages. An overview on characteristics of MSM alloys is also presented in order to highlight how different properties of the material influence the total output of a device.

  14. Apparatus and method for low-temperature training of shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanger, A. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Trigwell, S.; Gibson, T. L.; Williams, M. K.; Benafan, O.

    2015-12-01

    An apparatus and method for the low-temperature thermo-mechanical training of shape memory alloys (SMA) has been developed. The experimental SMA materials are being evaluated as prototypes for applicability in novel thermal management systems for future cryogenic applications. Alloys providing two-way actuation at cryogenic temperatures are the chief target. The mechanical training regimen was focused on the controlled movement of rectangular strips, with S-bend configurations, at temperatures as low as 30 K. The custom holding fixture included temperature sensors and a low heat-leak linear actuator with a magnetic coupling. The fixture was mounted to a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler providing up to 25 W of cooling power at 20 K and housed within a custom vacuum chamber. Operations included both training cycles and verification of shape memory movement. The system design and operation are discussed. Results of the training for select prototype alloys are presented.

  15. Apparatus and Method for Low-Temperature Training of Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanger, A. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Trigwell, S.; Gibson, T. L.; Williams, M. K.; Benafan, O.

    2015-01-01

    An apparatus and method for the low-temperature thermo-mechanical training of shape memory alloys (SMA) has been developed. The experimental SMA materials are being evaluated as prototypes for applicability in novel thermal management systems for future cryogenic applications. Alloys providing two-way actuation at cryogenic temperatures are the chief target. The mechanical training regimen was focused on the controlled movement of rectangular strips, with S-bend configurations, at temperatures as low as 30 K. The custom holding fixture included temperature sensors and a low heat-leak linear actuator with a magnetic coupling. The fixture was mounted to a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler providing up to 25 W of cooling power at 20 K and housed within a custom vacuum chamber. Operations included both training cycles and verification of shape memory movement. The system design and operation are discussed. Results of the training for select prototype alloys are presented.

  16. Magnetic and calorimetric investigations of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni54Fe19Ga27

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, V. K.; Chattopadhyay, M. K.; Kumar, Ravi; Ganguli, Tapas; Kaul, Rakesh; Majumdar, S.; Roy, S. B.

    2007-06-01

    We report results of magnetization and differential scanning calorimetry measurements in the ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni54Fe19Ga27. This alloy undergoes an austenite-martensite phase transition in its ferromagnetic state. The nature of the ferromagnetic state, both in the austenite and the martensite phase, is studied in detail. The ferromagnetic state in the martensite phase is found to have higher anisotropy energy as compared with the austenite phase. The estimated anisotropy constant is comparable to that of a well-studied ferromagnetic shape memory alloy system NiMnGa. Further, the present study highlights various interesting features accompanying the martensitic transition (MT). These features suggest the possibility of either a premartensitic transition and/or an inter-MT in this system.

  17. Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy Study of Ni-Mn-Ga Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merida, David; Garcia, Jose Angel; Apiñaniz, Estibaliz; Plazaola, Fernando; Sanchez-Alarcos, Vicente; Pérez-Landazábal, Jose Ignacio; Recarte, Vicente

    We have studied the role that vacancy type defects play in the martensitic transformation of Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys by means of positron lifetime spectroscopy. The measurements presented in this work have been performed in five ternary alloys. Three of them transform to modulated and two to non-modulated martensitic phases. With these five samples we cover a large range in composition. Positron experiments have been performed at room temperature after subsequent isochronal annealing at different temperatures and up to a maximum temperature of 600°C. Results show a large variation of the average positron lifetime value with the isochronal annealing temperature in non-modulated samples. However, the response in the modulated samples is quite different. The results are discussed in term of different type of positron trapping defects and their evolution with the annealing temperature. The present work shows a correlation between vacancy concentration and martensitic transformation temperature of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys.

  18. Spray Forming of NiTi and NiTiPd Shape-Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabe, James; Ruggeri, Robert; Noebe, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    In the work to be presented, vacuum plasma spray forming has been used as a process to deposit and consolidate prealloyed NiTi and NiTiPd powders into near net shape actuators. Testing showed that excellent shape memory behavior could be developed in the deposited materials and the investigation proved that VPS forming could be a means to directly form a wide range of shape memory alloy components. The results of DSC characterization and actual actuation test results will be presented demonstrating the behavior of a Nitinol 55 alloy and a higher transition temperature NiTiPd alloy in the form of torque tube actuators that could be used in aircraft and aerospace controls.

  19. Influence of volume magnetostriction on the thermodynamic properties of Ni-Mn-Ga shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosogor, Anna; L'vov, Victor A.; Cesari, Eduard

    2015-10-01

    In the present article, the thermodynamic properties of Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys exhibiting the martensitic transformations (MTs) above and below Curie temperature are compared. It is shown that when MT goes below Curie temperature, the elastic and thermal properties of alloy noticeably depend on magnetization value due to spontaneous volume magnetostriction. However, the separation of magnetic parts from the basic characteristics of MT is a difficult task, because the volume magnetostriction does not qualitatively change the transformational behaviour of alloy. This problem is solved for several Ni-Mn-Ga alloys by means of the quantitative theoretical analysis of experimental data obtained in the course of stress-strain tests. For each alloy, the entropy change and the transformation heat evolved in the course of MT are evaluated, first, from the results of stress-strain tests and, second, from differential scanning calorimetry data. For all alloys, a quantitative agreement between the values obtained in two different ways is observed. It is shown that the magnetic part of transformation heat exceeds the non-magnetic one for the Ni-Mn-Ga alloys undergoing MTs in ferromagnetic state, while the elevated values of transformation heat measured for the alloys undergoing MTs in paramagnetic state are caused by large MT strains.

  20. Influence of volume magnetostriction on the thermodynamic properties of Ni-Mn-Ga shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kosogor, Anna; L'vov, Victor A.; Cesari, Eduard

    2015-10-07

    In the present article, the thermodynamic properties of Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys exhibiting the martensitic transformations (MTs) above and below Curie temperature are compared. It is shown that when MT goes below Curie temperature, the elastic and thermal properties of alloy noticeably depend on magnetization value due to spontaneous volume magnetostriction. However, the separation of magnetic parts from the basic characteristics of MT is a difficult task, because the volume magnetostriction does not qualitatively change the transformational behaviour of alloy. This problem is solved for several Ni-Mn-Ga alloys by means of the quantitative theoretical analysis of experimental data obtained in the course of stress-strain tests. For each alloy, the entropy change and the transformation heat evolved in the course of MT are evaluated, first, from the results of stress-strain tests and, second, from differential scanning calorimetry data. For all alloys, a quantitative agreement between the values obtained in two different ways is observed. It is shown that the magnetic part of transformation heat exceeds the non-magnetic one for the Ni-Mn-Ga alloys undergoing MTs in ferromagnetic state, while the elevated values of transformation heat measured for the alloys undergoing MTs in paramagnetic state are caused by large MT strains.

  1. Surface corrosion enhancement of passive films on NiTi shape memory alloy in different solutions.

    PubMed

    Jinlong, Lv; Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang; Limin, Dong

    2016-06-01

    The corrosion behaviors of NiTi shape memory alloy in NaCl solution, H2SO4 solution and borate buffer solution were investigated. It was found that TiO2 in passive film improved the corrosion resistance of NiTi shape memory. However, low corrosion resistance of passive film was observed in low pH value acidic solution due to TiO2 dissolution. Moreover, the corrosion resistance of NiTi shape memory alloy decreased with the increasing of passivated potential in the three solutions. The donor density in passive film increased with the increasing of passivated potential. Different solutions affect the semiconductor characteristics of the passive film. The reducing in the corrosion resistance was attributed to the more donor concentrations in passive film and thinner thickness of the passive film.

  2. On the effects of geometry, defects, and material asymmetry on the mechanical response of shape memory alloy cellular lattice structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamooz Ravari, M. R.; Nasr Esfahani, S.; Taheri Andani, M.; Kadkhodaei, M.; Ghaei, A.; Karaca, H.; Elahinia, M.

    2016-02-01

    Shape memory alloy (such as NiTi) cellular lattice structures are a new class of advanced materials with many potential applications. The cost of fabrication of these structures however is high. It is therefore necessary to develop modeling methods to predict the functional behavior of these alloys before fabrication. The main aim of the present study is to assess the effects of geometry, microstructural imperfections and material asymmetric response of dense shape memory alloys on the mechanical response of cellular structures. To this end, several cellular and dense NiTi samples are fabricated using a selective laser melting process. Both cellular and dense specimens were tested in compression in order to obtain their stress-strain response. For modeling purposes, a three -dimensional (3D) constitutive model based on microplane theory which is able to describe the material asymmetry was employed. Five finite element models based on unit cell and multi-cell methods were generated to predict the mechanical response of cellular lattices. The results show the considerable effects of the microstructural imperfections on the mechanical response of the cellular lattice structures. The asymmetric material response of the bulk material also affects the mechanical response of the corresponding cellular structure.

  3. Stabilization of martensite in Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys: Effects of {gamma} precipitates and thermal cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia R, J.

    2000-02-01

    The applications of copper based shape memory alloys requiring a prolonged use in the martensitic state have been restricted due to their aging behavior which results in the increase of the reverse martensitic transformation temperatures with time, effect known as stabilization of martensite. The shift of reverse transformation temperatures is only present in the first retransformation after quench and/or aging. When the material reverts to the high temperature (beta) phase a rapid recovering process takes place in such a way that for the following transformations cycles, the normal transformation temperatures are re-established. The effects of thermal cycling (repetition of the temperature induced martensitic transformation) on the transformation characteristics of Cu-based shape memory alloys have been studied by several authors. On the other hand, it is known that the presence of {gamma} precipitates inside the parent {beta}-Cu-Zn-Al phase can produce strong modifications on the transformation temperatures and its thermal hysteresis. In this work the authors present results on the martensite stabilization, produced by aging at room temperature, in Cu-Zn-Al alloys with different distributions of {gamma} phase precipitates with and without thermal cycling, which are compared to the stabilization behavior found in precipitate-free samples.

  4. Modeling the dynamical response of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy actuators using a dissipative Euler-Lagrange equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weetman, Philip; Akhras, George

    2009-01-01

    A phenomenological dynamical model of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy based actuators is developed. The parameters of effective mass density, viscosity, and elasticity are defined and used in a dissipative Euler-Lagrange equation to determine the martensite variant fraction and strain as a function of time. These three parameters are determined by fitting our simulations to recent experiments on a NiMnGa based actuator. In addition to the simplicity of only three fitting parameters to model martensite variant evolution, the present model is a convenient formulation of the problem because it incorporates self-consistently all stresses and loads in the system.

  5. Embedded Shape Memory Alloy Particles for the Self-Sensing of Fatigue Crack Growth in an Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leser, William Paul

    Future aerospace vehicles will be built using novel materials for mission conditions that are difficult to replicate in a laboratory. Structural health monitoring and condition-based maintenance will be critical to ensure the reliability of such vehicles. A multi-functional aluminum alloy containing embedded shape memory alloy (SMA) particles to detect fatigue crack growth is proposed. The regions of intensified strain near the tip of a growing fatigue crack cause the SMA particles to undergo a solid-to-solid phase transformation from austenite to martensite, releasing a detectable and identifiable acoustic emission (AE) signal that can be used to locate the crack in the affected component. This study investigates the AE response of two SMA systems, Ni-Ti, and Co-Ni-Al. Tensile (Ni-Ti) and compressive (Co-Ni-Al) tests were conducted to study the strain-induced transformation response in both of the alloy systems. It was found that the critical stress for transformation in both SMA systems was easily identified by a burst of AE activity during both transformation and reverse transformation. AE signals from these experiments were collected for use as training data for a Bayesian classifier to be used to identify transformation signals in a Al7050 matrix with embedded SMA particles. The Al/SMA composite was made by vacuum hot pressing SMA powder between aluminum plates. The effect of hot pressing temperature and subsequent heat treatments (solutionizing and peak aging) on the SMA particles was studied. It was found that, at the temperatures required, Co-Ni-Al developed a second phase that restricted the transformation from austenite to martensite, thus rendering it ineffective as a candidate for the embedded particles. Conversely, Ni-Ti did survive the embedding process and it was found that the solutionizing heat treatment applied after hot pressing was the main driver in determining the final transformation temperatures for the Ni-Ti particles. The effect of hot

  6. Vertically Integrated Nanowire-Based Unified Memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Kang, Min-Ho; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-09-14

    A vertically integrated nanowire-based device for multifunctional unified memory that combine dynamic random access memory (DRAM) and flash memory in a single transistor is demonstrated for the first time. The device utilizes a gate-all-around (GAA) structure that completely surrounds the nanowire; the structure is built on a bulk silicon wafer. A vertically integrated unified memory (VIUM) device composed of five-story channels was fabricated via the one-route all-dry etching process (ORADEP) with reliable reproducibility, stiction-free stability, and high uniformity. In each DRAM and flash memory operation, the five-story VIUM showed a remarkably enhanced sensing current drivability compared with one-story unified memory (UM) characteristics. In addition to each independent memory mode, the switching endurance of the VIUM was evaluated in the unified mode, which alternatively activates two memory modes, resulting in an even higher sensing memory window than that of the UM. In addition to our previous work on a logic transistor joining high performance with good scalability, this work describes a novel memory hierarchy design with high functionality for system-on-chip (SoC) architectures, demonstrating the practicality and versatility of the vertically integrated nanowire configuration for use in various applications.

  7. Vertically Integrated Nanowire-Based Unified Memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Kang, Min-Ho; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-09-14

    A vertically integrated nanowire-based device for multifunctional unified memory that combine dynamic random access memory (DRAM) and flash memory in a single transistor is demonstrated for the first time. The device utilizes a gate-all-around (GAA) structure that completely surrounds the nanowire; the structure is built on a bulk silicon wafer. A vertically integrated unified memory (VIUM) device composed of five-story channels was fabricated via the one-route all-dry etching process (ORADEP) with reliable reproducibility, stiction-free stability, and high uniformity. In each DRAM and flash memory operation, the five-story VIUM showed a remarkably enhanced sensing current drivability compared with one-story unified memory (UM) characteristics. In addition to each independent memory mode, the switching endurance of the VIUM was evaluated in the unified mode, which alternatively activates two memory modes, resulting in an even higher sensing memory window than that of the UM. In addition to our previous work on a logic transistor joining high performance with good scalability, this work describes a novel memory hierarchy design with high functionality for system-on-chip (SoC) architectures, demonstrating the practicality and versatility of the vertically integrated nanowire configuration for use in various applications. PMID:27579769

  8. Corrosion of nickel-base alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Scarberry, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The volume consists of three tutorial lectures and 18 contributed papers. The three tutorial lectures provide state-of-the-art background on the physical metallurgy of nickel-base alloys as it relates to corrosion. Also featured are the mechanisms and applications of these alloys and an insight into the corrosion testing techniques. The three tutorial lecture papers will help acquaint newcomers to this family of alloys with a thorough overview. The contributed papers are categorized into four major topics: general corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, fatigue and localized corrosion. Each topic is key-noted by one invited lecture followed by several contributed papers. The papers in the general corrosion section are wide ranging and cover the aspects of material selection, development of galvanic series in corrosive environments, corrosion resistance characteristics, hydrogen permeation and hydrogen embrittlement of nickel and some nickel-base alloys.

  9. Characterization of Ternary NiTiPt High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rios, Orlando; Noebe, Ronald; Biles, Tiffany; Garg, Anita; Palczer, Anna; Scheiman, Daniel; Seifert, Hans Jurgen; Kaufman, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Pt additions substituted for Ni in NiTi alloys are known to increase the transformation temperature of the alloy but only at fairly high Pt levels. However, until now only ternary compositions with a very specific stoichiometry, Ni50-xPtxTi50, have been investigated and then only to very limited extent. In order to learn about this potential high-temperature shape memory alloy system, a series of over twenty alloys along and on either side of a line of constant stoichiometry between NiTi and TiPt were arc melted, homogenized, and characterized in terms of their microstructure, transformation temperatures, and hardness. The resulting microstructures were examined by scanning electron microscopy and the phase compositions quantified by energy dispersive spectroscopy."Stoichiometric" compositions along a line of constant stoichiometry between NiTi to TiPt were essentially single phase but by any deviations from a stoichiometry of (Ni,Pt)50Ti50 resulted in the presence of at least two different intermetallic phases, depending on the overall composition of the alloy. Essentially all alloys, whether single or two-phase, still under went a martensitic transformation. It was found that the transformation temperatures were depressed with initial Pt additions but at levels greater than 10 at.% the transformation temperature increased linearly with Pt content. Also, the transformation temperatures were relatively insensitive to alloy stoichiometry within the range of alloys examined. Finally, the dependence of hardness on Pt content for a series of Ni50-xPtxTi50 alloys showed solution softening at low Pt levels, while hardening was observed in ternary alloys containing more than about 10 at.% Pt. On either side of these "stoichiometric" compositions, hardness was also found to increase significantly.

  10. Elastocaloric effect in CuAlZn and CuAlMn shape memory alloys under compression.

    PubMed

    Qian, Suxin; Geng, Yunlong; Wang, Yi; Pillsbury, Thomas E; Hada, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Fujimoto, Kenjiro; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Cui, Jun; Yuki, Yoji; Toyotake, Koutaro; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2016-08-13

    This paper reports the elastocaloric effect of two Cu-based shape memory alloys: Cu68Al16Zn16 (CuAlZn) and Cu73Al15Mn12 (CuAlMn), under compression at ambient temperature. The compression tests were conducted at two different rates to approach isothermal and adiabatic conditions. Upon unloading at a strain rate of 0.1 s(-1) (adiabatic condition) from 4% strain, the highest adiabatic temperature changes (ΔTad) of 4.0 K for CuAlZn and 3.9 K for CuAlMn were obtained. The maximum stress and hysteresis at each strain were compared. The stress at the maximum recoverable strain of 4.0% for CuAlMn was 120 MPa, which is 70% smaller than that of CuAlZn. A smaller hysteresis for the CuAlMn alloy was also obtained, about 70% less compared with the CuAlZn alloy. The latent heat, determined by differential scanning calorimetry, was 4.3 J g(-1) for the CuAlZn alloy and 5.0 J g(-1) for the CuAlMn alloy. Potential coefficients of performance (COPmat) for these two alloys were calculated based on their physical properties of measured latent heat and hysteresis, and a COPmat of approximately 13.3 for CuAlMn was obtained.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'. PMID:27402936

  11. Elastocaloric effect in CuAlZn and CuAlMn shape memory alloys under compression.

    PubMed

    Qian, Suxin; Geng, Yunlong; Wang, Yi; Pillsbury, Thomas E; Hada, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Fujimoto, Kenjiro; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Cui, Jun; Yuki, Yoji; Toyotake, Koutaro; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2016-08-13

    This paper reports the elastocaloric effect of two Cu-based shape memory alloys: Cu68Al16Zn16 (CuAlZn) and Cu73Al15Mn12 (CuAlMn), under compression at ambient temperature. The compression tests were conducted at two different rates to approach isothermal and adiabatic conditions. Upon unloading at a strain rate of 0.1 s(-1) (adiabatic condition) from 4% strain, the highest adiabatic temperature changes (ΔTad) of 4.0 K for CuAlZn and 3.9 K for CuAlMn were obtained. The maximum stress and hysteresis at each strain were compared. The stress at the maximum recoverable strain of 4.0% for CuAlMn was 120 MPa, which is 70% smaller than that of CuAlZn. A smaller hysteresis for the CuAlMn alloy was also obtained, about 70% less compared with the CuAlZn alloy. The latent heat, determined by differential scanning calorimetry, was 4.3 J g(-1) for the CuAlZn alloy and 5.0 J g(-1) for the CuAlMn alloy. Potential coefficients of performance (COPmat) for these two alloys were calculated based on their physical properties of measured latent heat and hysteresis, and a COPmat of approximately 13.3 for CuAlMn was obtained.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'.

  12. Static critical phenomena in Co-Ni-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Sethi, Brahmananda Sarma, S. Srinivasan, A. Santra, S. B.

    2014-04-24

    Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys are smart materials because they exhibit temperature driven shape memory effect and magnetic field induced strain. Thus two types of energy, i.e. thermal and magnetic, are used to control their shape memory behaviour. Study of critical phenomenon in such materials has received increased experimental and theoretical attention for better understanding of the magnetic phase transition behavior as well as further development of ferromagnetic shape memory materials. In the present study we report the preparation and characterization of bulk Co{sub 45}Ni{sub 25}Ga{sub 30} alloy, prepared by a sequence of arc melting technique followed by homogenization at 1150 °C for 24 hours and ice-water quenching. Structural and magnetic properties of the alloys were studied by means of X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer in an applied field range of ±18 kOe equipped with a high temperature oven. We have determined the critical temperature T{sub C} (∼375.5 K) and the critical exponents viz; β=0.40, γ=1.68 and δ=5.2. Asymptotic critical exponents β, γ, and δ obey Widom scaling relation, γ+β=βδ, and the magnetization data satisfy the scaling equation of state for second-order phase transition in the asymptotic critical region.

  13. Shape Memory Effect in Cast Versus Deformation-Processed NiTiNb Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Reginald F.; Lanba, Asheesh; Ozbulut, Osman E.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2015-06-01

    The shape memory effect (SME) response of a deformation-processed NiTiNb shape memory alloy is benchmarked against the response of a cast alloy. The insoluble Nb element ternary addition is known to widen the hysteresis with respect to the binary NiTi alloy. Cast microstructures naturally consist of a cellular arrangement of characteristic eutectic microconstituents surrounding primary matrix regions. Deformation processing typically aligns the microconstituents such that the microstructure resembles discontinuous fiber-reinforced composites. Processed alloys are typically characterized for heat-to-recover applications and thus deformed at constant temperature and subsequently heated for SME recovery, and the critical stress levels are expected to facilitate plastic deformation of the microconstituents. The current work employs thermal cycling under constant bias stresses below those critical levels. This comparative study of cast versus deformation-processed NiTiNb alloys contrasts the strain-temperature responses in terms of forward Δ T F = M s - M f and reverse Δ T R = A f - A s temperature intervals, the thermal hysteresis, and the recovery ratio. The results underscore that the deformation-processed microstructure inherently promotes irreversibility and differential forward and reverse transformation pathways.

  14. Thermomechanical behavior of NiTiPdPt high temperature shape memory alloy springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, D. E.; Padula, S. A., II; Noebe, R. D.; Benafan, O.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2014-12-01

    Transformation strains in high temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) are generally smaller than for conventional NiTi alloys and can be purposefully limited in cases where stability and repeatability at elevated temperatures are desired. Yet such alloys can still be used in actuator applications that require large strokes when used in the form of springs. Thus there is a need to understand the thermomechanical behavior of shape memory alloy spring actuators, particularly those consisting of alternative alloys. In this work, a modular test setup was assembled with the objective of acquiring stroke, stress, temperature, and moment data in real time during joule heating and forced convective cooling of Ni19.5Ti50.5Pd25Pt5 HTSMA springs. The spring actuators were subjected to both monotonic axial loading and thermomechanical cycling. The role of rotational constraints (i.e., by restricting rotation or allowing for free rotation at the ends of the springs) on stroke performance was also assessed. Finally, recognizing that evolution in the material microstructure can result in changes in HTSMA spring geometry, the effect of material microstructural evolution on spring performance was examined. This was done by taking into consideration the changes in geometry that occurred during thermomechanical cycling. This work thus provides insight into designing with HTSMA springs and predicting their thermomechanical performance.

  15. Single-crystal growth of NiMnGa magnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingmin; Jiang, Chengbao

    2008-02-01

    The crystal growth of NiMnGa magnetic shape memory alloys was investigated by the optical zone melting method. Slightly macroscopic convex and planar solid-liquid interfaces were achieved by controlling the molten zone morphologies. Single crystals were successfully prepared in three typical series of NiMnGa magnetic shape memory alloys, including stoichiometric Ni 50Mn 25Ga 25, Ni-rich NiMnGa and Mn-rich NiMnGa alloys. Studies on the solute partition during crystal growth revealed the enrichment of Mn and deficiency of both Ni and Ga in front of the solid-liquid interface for both stoichiometric and Mn-rich NiMnGa alloys, while a slight enrichment of Ni for Ni-rich NiMnGa alloys. An initial transient stage was determined to be about 20 mm, and a uniform composition distribution existed along the axis of the crystals in the stable growth parts, which matches well with the proposed mathematic model.

  16. Corrosion Behavior of Ti-55Ni-1.2Co High Stiffness Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu; Norwich, Dennis W.; Ehrlinspiel, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The corrosion behavior of high stiffness nominal Ti-55Ni-1.2Co (wt.%) shape memory alloys (SMAs) was systematically investigated in the present study including straight wires, wire-formed stents, and laser-cut stents. It was found that the corrosion behavior of Ti-55Ni-1.2Co alloys is comparable with those of binary NiTiNol counterparts, which is attributed to the small alloying amount of cobalt. Additionally, the corrosion resistance of high stiffness Ti-55Ni-1.2Co SMAs is independent of the stent-forming method. To explore the galvanic corrosion susceptibility between Ti-55Ni-1.2Co and binary NiTiNol alloys, a NiTiNol sleeve was laser welded to the Ti-55Ni-1.2Co stent. Interestingly, there is no galvanic corrosion observed in this NiTiCo-NiTiNol component, even after immersion of the component in phosphate-buffered saline solution at 37 °C for three months. This study will shed some light on the industrial applications of high stiffness Ti-55Ni-1.2Co shape memory alloys.

  17. Role of carbon in improving the shape memory effect of Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni alloys by thermo-mechanical treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Huabei; Song, Fan; Wang, Shanling; Zhang, Chengyan; Wen, Yuhua

    2015-05-01

    To clarify the role of carbon in improving the shape memory effect of Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory alloys by thermomechanical treatments, we investigated the effect of optimum thermomechanical treatments on shape memory effect and microstructures of Fe-14Mn-5Si-8Cr-4Ni and Fe-14Mn-5Si-8Cr-4Ni-0.12C alloys. The Cr23C6 particles in optimum thermomechanical-treated Fe-14Mn-5S-8Cr-4Ni-0.12C more effectively prevented collisions between stress-induced ɛ martensite bands than the residual α‧ martensite in optimum thermomechanical-treated Fe-14Mn-5Si-8Cr-4Ni. This result is attributed to the thinner width of stress-induced ɛ martensite bands in optimum thermomechanical-treated Fe-14Mn-5S-8Cr-4Ni-0.12C compared to optimum thermomechanical-treated Fe-14Mn-5Si-8Cr-4Ni. In addition, the Cr23C6 particles formed at more sites and provided more obstacles as compared with the residual α‧ martensite. Accordingly, the recovery strain of Fe-14Mn-5Si-8Cr-4Ni-0.12C was higher than that of Fe-14Mn-5Si-8Cr-4Ni. It is concluded that carbon addition is beneficial to further improving the shape memory effect of Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory alloys by thermomechanical treatments.

  18. Transient oxidation of multiphase Ni-Cr base alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Baran, G.; Meraner, M.; Farrell, P.

    1988-06-01

    Four commercially available Ni-Cr-based alloys used with porcelain enamels were studied. Major alloying elements were Al, Be, Si, B, Nb, and Mo. All alloys were multiphase. During heat treatments simulating enameling conditions, phase changes occurred in most alloys and were detected using hardness testing, differential thermal analysis (DTA), and microscopy. Oxidation of these alloys at 1000/degrees/C for 10 min produced an oxide layer consisting principally of chromium oxide, but the oxide morphology varied with each alloy depending on the alloy microstructure. Controlling alloy microstructure while keeping the overall composition unchanged may be a means of preventing wrinkled poorly adherent scales from forming.

  19. Elevated Temperature, In Situ Micromechanical Characterization of a High Temperature Ternary Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, J. M.; Niederberger, C.; Raghavan, R.; Thompson, G.; Weaver, M.; Michler, J.

    2015-12-01

    The microthermomechanical behavior of a precipitation-hardenable Ni-48Ti-25Pd (at.%) shape memory alloy has been investigated as a function of temperature. Micropillars were fabricated within a large <145>-oriented grain and compressed in situ in the SEM at elevated temperatures corresponding to the martensite and austenite phase transformation temperatures. The precipitation-strengthened alloys exhibited stable pseudoelastic behavior with little or no residual strains when near the transformation temperatures. In the plastic regime, slip was observed to occur via pencil glide, circumventing the fine scale precipitates along multiple slip planes.

  20. Improvement in the Shape Memory Response of Ti50.5Ni24.5Pd25 High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloy with Scandium Microalloying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atli, K. C.; Karaman, I; Noebe, R. D.; Garg, A.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.; Kireeva, I. V.

    2010-01-01

    A Ti(50.5)Ni(24.5)Pd25 high-temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) is microalloyed with 0.5 at. pct scandium (Sc) to enhance its shape-memory characteristics, in particular, dimensional stability under repeated thermomechanical cycles. For both Ti(50.5)Ni(24.5)Pd25 and the Sc-alloyed material, differential scanning calorimetry is conducted for multiple cycles to characterize cyclic stability of the transformation temperatures. The microstructure is evaluated using electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. Isobaric thermal cycling experiments are used to determine transformation temperatures, dimensional stability, and work output as a function of stress. The Sc-doped alloy displays more stable shape memory response with smaller irrecoverable strain and narrower thermal hysteresis than the baseline ternary alloy. This improvement in performance is attributed to the solid solution hardening effect of Sc.

  1. Sign reversal of transformation entropy change in Co{sub 2}Cr(Ga,Si) shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xiao Omori, Toshihiro; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Nagasako, Makoto; Kanomata, Takeshi

    2015-11-02

    In situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and compression tests were performed on Co{sub 2}Cr(Ga,Si) shape memory alloys. The reentrant martensitic transformation behavior was directly observed during the in situ XRD measurements. The high-temperature parent phase and low-temperature reentrant parent phase were found to have a continuous temperature dependence of lattice parameter, therefore suggesting that they are the same phase in nature. Moreover, compression tests were performed on a parent-phase single crystal sample; an evolution from normal to inverse temperature dependence of critical stress for martensitic transformation was directly observed. Based on the Clausius-Clapeyron analysis, a sign reversal of entropy change can be expected on the same alloy.

  2. Martensite aging effect in a Ti{sub 50}Pd{sub 50} high temperature shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, W.; Otsuka, Kazuhiro

    1999-11-19

    Ti-Pd alloy system is one of the potential high temperature shape memory alloys due to its high martensitic transformation temperatures. Thus, many researches including shape memory characteristics, martensitic transformations and mechanical behavior of the alloys have been done in recent yeas. However, martensite aging effect in the alloy, which is an important issue as to the stability of martensite at high temperature, has not been reported yet. Ti{sub 50}Pd{sub 50} transforms from B2 parent phase to B19 martensite upon cooling, and M{sub s} is 823 K (25) and T{sub m} is 1,673 K (26). Thus M{sub s}/T{sub m} ratio of the alloy is about 0.49, and the alloy may show strong martensite aging effect according to the above proposal. It is now of interest to examine whether the Ti{sub 50}Pd{sub 50} alloy show martensite aging effect. As will be shown, the Ti{sub 50}Pd{sub 50} alloy indeed shows the aging effect, as expected; however, the aging effect of this alloy exhibits a unique feature, which is not found in other shape memory alloys.

  3. Effects of twin boundary mobility on domain microstructure evolution in magnetic shape memory alloys: Phase field simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Yongmei M.

    2009-02-09

    Effects of twin boundary mobility on domain microstructure evolution during magnetic field-induced deformation in magnetic shape memory alloys are studied by phase field micromagnetic microelastic modeling. The simulations show that different twin boundary mobilities lead to drastically different domain microstructures and evolution pathways, yielding very different magnetization and strain responses, even with opposite signs. The study also reveals complex domain phenomena in magnetic shape memory alloys.

  4. Laser-Machined Shape Memory Alloy Sensors for Position Feedback in Active Catheters

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Alexander T.; Park, Byong-Ho; Liang, David H.; Niemeyer, Günter

    2008-01-01

    Catheter-based interventions are a form of minimally invasive surgery that can decrease hospitalization time and greatly lower patient morbidity compared to traditional methods. However, percutaneous catheter procedures are hindered by a lack of precise tip manipulation when actuation forces are transmitted over the length of the catheter. Active catheters with local shape-memory-alloy (SMA) actuation can potentially provide the desired manipulation of a catheter tip, but hysteresis makes it difficult to control the actuators. A method to integrate small-volume, compliant sensors on an active catheter to provide position feedback for control would greatly improve the viability of SMA-based active catheters. In this work, we describe the design, fabrication, and performance of resistance-based position sensors that are laser-machined from superelastic SMA tubing. Combining simple material models and rapid prototyping, we can develop sensors of appropriate stiffness and sensitivity with simple modifications in sensor geometry. The sensors exhibit excellent linearity over the operating range and are designed to be easily integrated onto an active catheter substrate. PMID:19759806

  5. Hysteresis phenomena in shape memory alloys by non-isothermal Ginzburg-Landau models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhote, R. P.; Fabrizio, M.; Melnik, R. N. V.; Zu, J.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we propose the new one- and three- dimensional models for the description of hysteretic phenomena in shape memory alloys (SMAs). These thermodynamic models are non-isothermal and allow to account for the thermo-mechanical material properties of both austenite and martensite phases based on the local phase value of the order parameter. They are based on the Ginzburg-Landau free energy and the phase field theory. The core of the models is a phase evolution governed by the time dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equation and the conservation balance laws with nonlinear coupling between stress, strain and the phase order parameter. The models account for the gradient energy and have been tested in the study of material properties evolution under harmonic stress loading for all important practical cases. The representative numerical simulations have been carried out here without the gradient energy term. The developed models account for the phase dependent properties based on the compliance tensor as a function of the order parameter and stress. We also compared the results obtained with these models and observed differences in homogeneous and inhomogeneous situations due to the change in compliance. In this way, the description of quasiplastic and pseudoelastic behaviors in SMA specimens is improved and becomes in an agreement with existing experiments.

  6. Computational design of multifunctional composites made of shape memory alloys and fiber reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senf, Björn; Eppler, Christoph; Bucht, André; Navarro y de Sosa, Iñaki; Kunze, Holger

    2013-04-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) like Nickel-Titanium possess a very high mechanical energy density in relation to conventional drives. Fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) will be increasingly applied to create lightweight structures. Combining both innovative materials will evolve synergy effects. Due to functional integration of SMA sheets into a base of FRP it is possible to realize adaptive composites for resource-efficient constructions as for instance flaps or spoilers on cars. For this purpose the interaction between SMA as an actuator and FRP as a return spring need to be designed in a suitable way. The computation of such structures is complex because of its non-linear (SMA) and anisotropic (FRP) mechanical behavior. Therefore, a structural simulation model based on the finite element method was developed by means of the software ANSYS. Based on that simulation model it is possible to determine proper geometrical parameters for a composite made of SMA and FRP to perform a certain mechanism. The material properties of SMA or FRP could also be varied to investigate their influence. For exemplary components it could be shown that the stress-strain behavior is computable.

  7. Self-Repairing Fatigue Damage in Metallic Structures for Aerospace Vehicles Using Shape Memory Alloy Self-healing (SMASH) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. Clara; Manuel, Michele; Wallace, Terryl; Newman, Andy; Brinson, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This DAA is for the Phase II webinar presentation of the ARMD-funded SMASH technology. A self-repairing aluminum-based composite system has been developed using liquid-assisted healing theory in conjunction with the shape memory effect of wire reinforcements. The metal matrix composite was thermodynamically designed to have a matrix with a relatively even dispersion of low-melting phase, allowing for repair of cracks at a pre-determined temperature. Shape memory alloy wire reinforcements were used within the composite to provide crack closure. Investigators focused the research on fatigue cracks propagating through the matrix in order to optimize and computer model the SMASH technology for aeronautical applications.

  8. Load carrying capacity of RCC beams by replacing steel reinforcement bars with shape memory alloy bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajoria, Kamal M.; Kaduskar, Shreya S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper the structural behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams with smart rebars under two point loading system has been numerically studied, using Finite Element Method. The material used in this study is Super-elastic Shape Memory Alloys (SE SMAs) which contains nickel and titanium. In this study, different quantities of steel and SMA rebars have been used for reinforcement and the behavior of these models under two point bending loading system is studied. A comparison of load carrying capacity for the model between steel reinforced concrete beam and the beam reinforced with S.M.A and steel are performed. The results show that RC beams reinforced with combination of shape memory alloy and steel show better performance.

  9. Development of a shape memory alloy actuator for a robotic eye prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunton, T. B. Wolfe; Faulkner, M. G.; Wolfaardt, J.

    2005-08-01

    The quality of life of patients who wear an orbital prosthesis would be vastly improved if their prostheses were also able to execute vertical and horizontal motion. This requires appropriate actuation and control systems to create an intelligent prosthesis. A method of actuation that meets the demanding design criteria is currently not available. The present work considers an activation system that follows a design philosophy of biomimicry, simplicity and space optimization. While several methods of actuation were considered, shape memory alloys were chosen for their high power density, high actuation forces and high displacements. The behaviour of specific shape memory alloys as an actuator was investigated to determine the force obtained, the transformation temperatures and details of the material processing. In addition, a large-scale prototype was constructed to validate the response of the proposed system.

  10. Performance of Integrated Fiber Optic, Piezoelectric, and Shape Memory Alloy Actuators/Sensors in Thermoset Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trottier, C. Michael

    1996-01-01

    Recently, scientists and engineers have investigated the advantages of smart materials and structures by including actuators in material systems for controlling and altering the response of structural environments. Applications of these materials systems include vibration suppression/isolation, precision positioning, damage detection and tunable devices. Some of the embedded materials being investigated for accomplishing these tasks include piezoelectric ceramics, shape memory alloys, and fiber optics. These materials have some benefits and some shortcomings; each is being studied for use in active material design in the SPICES (Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost Effective Structures) Consortium. The focus of this paper concerns the manufacturing aspects of smart structures by incorporating piezoelectric ceramics, shape memory alloys and fiber optics in a reinforced thermoset matrix via resin transfer molding (RTM).

  11. The alloy with a memory, 55-Nitinol: Its physical metallurgy, properties, and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, C. M.; Wagner, H. J.; Wasilewski, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    A series of nickel titanium alloys (55-Nitinol), which are unique in that they possess a shape memory, are described. Components made of these materials that are altered in their shapes by deformation under proper conditions return to predetermined shapes when they are heated to the proper temperature range. The shape memory, together with the force exerted and the ability of the material to do mechanical work as it returns to its predetermined shape, suggest a wide variety of industrial applications for the alloy. Also included are discussions of the physical metallurgy and the mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of 55-Nitinol; procedures for melting and processing the material into useful shapes; and a summary of applications.

  12. Assessment of Shape Memory Alloys - From Atoms To Actuators - Via In Situ Neutron Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benafan, Othmane

    2014-01-01

    As shape memory alloys (SMAs) become an established actuator technology, it is important to identify the fundamental mechanisms responsible for their performance by understanding microstructure performance relationships from processing to final form. Yet, microstructural examination of SMAs at stress and temperature is often a challenge since structural changes occur with stress and temperature and microstructures cannot be preserved through quenching or after stress removal, as would be the case for conventional materials. One solution to this dilemma is in situ neutron diffraction, which has been applied to the investigation of SMAs and has offered a unique approach to reveal the fundamental micromechanics and microstructural aspects of bulk SMAs in a non-destructive setting. Through this technique, it is possible to directly correlate the micromechanical responses (e.g., internal residual stresses, lattice strains), microstructural evolutions (e.g., texture, defects) and phase transformation properties (e.g., phase fractions, kinetics) to the macroscopic actuator behavior. In this work, in situ neutron diffraction was systematically employed to evaluate the deformation and transformation behavior of SMAs under typical actuator conditions. Austenite and martensite phases, yield behavior, variant selection and transformation temperatures were characterized for a polycrystalline NiTi (49.9 at. Ni). As the alloy transforms under thermomechanical loading, the measured textures and lattice plane-level variations were directly related to the cyclic actuation-strain characteristics and the dimensional instability (strain ratcheting) commonly observed in this alloy. The effect of training on the shape memory characteristics of the alloy and the development of two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) were also assessed. The final conversion from a material to a useful actuator, typically termed shape setting, was also investigated in situ during constrained heatingcooling and

  13. Wireless and passive temperature indicator utilizing the large hysteresis of magnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmair, Bernhard; Liu, Jian; Huber, Thomas; Gutfleisch, Oliver; Suess, Dieter

    2012-07-01

    An ultra-low cost, wireless magnetoelastic temperature indicator is presented. It comprises a magnetostrictive amorphous ribbon, a Ni-Mn-Sn-Co magnetic shape memory alloy with a highly tunable transformation temperature, and a bias magnet. It allows to remotely detect irreversible changes due to transgressions of upper or lower temperature thresholds. Therefore, the proposed temperature indicator is particularly suitable for monitoring the temperature-controlled supply chain of, e.g., deep frozen and chilled food or pharmaceuticals.

  14. Design of a shape-memory alloy actuated macro-scale morphing aircraft mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzo, Justin; Garcia, Ephrahim; Wickenheiser, Adam; Horner, Garnett C.

    2005-05-01

    As more alternative, lightweight actuators have become available, the conventional fixed-wing configuration seen on modern aircraft is under investigation for efficiency on a broad scale. If an aircraft could be designed with multiple functional equilibria of drastically varying aerodynamic parameters, one craft capable of 'morphing' its shape could be used to replace two or three designed with particular intentions. One proposed shape for large-scale (geometry change on the same order of magnitude as wingspan) morphing is the Hyper-Elliptical Cambered Span (HECS) wing, designed at NASA Langley to be implemented on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Proposed mechanisms to accomplish the spanwise curvature (in the y-z plane of the craft) that allow near-continuous bending of the wing are narrowed to a tendon-based DC motor actuated system, and a shape memory alloy-based (SMA) mechanism. At Cornell, simulations and wind tunnel experiments assess the validity of the HECS wing as a potential shape for a blended-wing body craft with the potential to effectively serve the needs of two conventional UAVs, and analyze the energetics of actuation associated with a morphing maneuver accomplished with both a DC motor and SMA wire.

  15. Study on CO2 laser weldability of Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chaoyu; Lin, Chengxin; Liu, Linlin

    2012-04-01

    In this study, a cross-flow laser with maximum out power of 5kW was applied to the welding of Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloys (SMA). The optimal welding processing parameters of 1mm thick Fe-Mn-Si SMA were established by orthogonal experiment. With the optimal processing parameters, power 1600W, welding speed 2.2m/min, defocusing distance 0.6mm, the tensile strength of the welded joint can achieve 93.5% of the base material, and the weld undercut and reinforcement transfer smoothly on the surface of the welding seam and the cross-section of the welding seam morphology presents "X" shape. The fracture appears in the weld fusion zone, so this area is weak during the laser welding. By the metallographic observation, the weld center structure is small equated, and the region of fusion zone is thick cellular crystal that decreases the strength of the welded joint, and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) test proves that the laser welding promotes the grain refinement. The micro-hardness analysis shows that the hardness of the fusion zone is lower than the other area clearly which is also associated to the weld structure. By the fracture scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, it is found that the fracture of Fe-Mn-Si SMA shows many small dimples with the optimal parameters, and the result is accorded with the base material which belongs to plastic fracture.

  16. Study on CO2 laser weldability of Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chaoyu; Lin, Chengxin; Liu, Linlin

    2011-11-01

    In this study, a cross-flow laser with maximum out power of 5kW was applied to the welding of Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloys (SMA). The optimal welding processing parameters of 1mm thick Fe-Mn-Si SMA were established by orthogonal experiment. With the optimal processing parameters, power 1600W, welding speed 2.2m/min, defocusing distance 0.6mm, the tensile strength of the welded joint can achieve 93.5% of the base material, and the weld undercut and reinforcement transfer smoothly on the surface of the welding seam and the cross-section of the welding seam morphology presents "X" shape. The fracture appears in the weld fusion zone, so this area is weak during the laser welding. By the metallographic observation, the weld center structure is small equated, and the region of fusion zone is thick cellular crystal that decreases the strength of the welded joint, and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) test proves that the laser welding promotes the grain refinement. The micro-hardness analysis shows that the hardness of the fusion zone is lower than the other area clearly which is also associated to the weld structure. By the fracture scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, it is found that the fracture of Fe-Mn-Si SMA shows many small dimples with the optimal parameters, and the result is accorded with the base material which belongs to plastic fracture.

  17. A stabilized, high stress self-biasing shape memory alloy actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panton, B.; Zhou, Y. N.; Khan, M. I.

    2016-09-01

    A shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator that is biased internally would not need an external bias to achieve multiple actuation cycles. This would reduce cost, complexity and weight compared to standard one-way SMAs. The self-biasing actuators that have been developed to date have a lack of geometric and actuation stability. The current study developed a self-biasing NiTi actuator using a laser based vaporization process to alter the bulk composition of different regions. The martensitic laser processed NiTi region was the actuator, and un-processed austenitic base metal region was the internal bias. It was discovered that the laser processed region of the self-biasing actuator was unstable during high stress thermomechanical cycling due to the coarse grained microstructure. Cold-working of the half martensitic and half austenitic component resulted in similar deformation characteristics to single phase NiTi, which enabled the formation of a uniform nanocrystalline microstructure in both regions. When thermomechanically cycled 6000 times under stresses ranging from 180 to 400 MPa, it was discovered that this treated self-biasing actuator exhibited the stabilization behavior of traditional one-way actuators. This behavior was due to the uniform nanocrystalline microstructure, which impeded dislocation activity and ensured minimal plastic deformation.

  18. Design of an antagonistic shape memory alloy actuator for flap type control surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dönmez, Burcu; Özkan, Bülent

    2011-03-01

    This paper deals with the flap control of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) using shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators in an antagonistic configuration. The use of SMA actuators has the advantage of significant weight and cost reduction over the conventional actuation of the UAV flaps by electric motors or hydraulic actuators. In antagonistic configuration, two SMA actuators are used: one to rotate the flap clockwise and the other to rotate the flap counterclockwise. In this content, mathematical modeling of strain and power dissipation of SMA wire is obtained through characterization tests. Afterwards, the model of the antagonistic flap mechanism is derived. Later, based on these models both flap angle and power dissipation of the SMA wire are controlled in two different loops employing proportional-integral type and neural network based control schemes. The angle commands are converted to power commands through the outer loop controller later, which are updated using the error in the flap angle induced because of the indirect control and external effects. In this study, power consumption of the wire is introduced as a new internal feedback variable. Constructed simulation models are run and performance specifications of the proposed control systems are investigated. Consequently, it is shown that proposed controllers perform well in terms of achieving small tracking errors.

  19. Thermal Behavior of Mechanically Alloyed Powders Used for Producing an Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pricop, B.; Söyler, U.; Lohan, N. M.; Özkal, B.; Bujoreanu, L. G.; Chicet, D.; Munteanu, C.

    2012-11-01

    In order to produce shape memory rings for constrained-recovery pipe couplings, from Fe-14 Mn-6 Si-9 Cr-5 Ni (mass%) powders, the main technological steps were (i) mechanical alloying, (ii) sintering, (iii) hot rolling, (iv) hot-shape setting, and (v) thermomechanical training. The article generally describes, within its experimental-procedure section, the last four technological steps of this process the primary purpose of which has been to accurately control both chemical composition and the grain size of shape memory rings. Details of the results obtained in the first technological step, on raw powders employed both in an initial commercial state and in a mixture state of commercial and mechanically alloyed (MA) powders, which were subjected to several heating-cooling cycles have been reported and discussed. By means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), the thermal behaviors of the two sample powders have been analyzed. The effects of the heating-cooling cycles, on raw commercial powders and on 50% MA powders, respectively, were argued from the point of view of specific temperatures and heat variations, of elemental diffusion after thermal cycling and of crystallographic parameters, determined by DSC, SEM, and XRD, respectively.

  20. Comparative In Vitro Study of Ti-12V-9Sn Shape Memory Alloy with C.P. Ti and Ti-12V Alloy for Potential Biomedical Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, K. J.; Wang, B. L.; Zhou, F. Y.; Lin, W. J.; Li, L.; Lin, J. P.; Zheng, Y. F.

    2012-12-01

    The microstructure, mechanical properties, and electrochemical behavior of Ti-12V-9Sn shape memory alloy were investigated, with commercial pure titanium (C.P. Ti) and Ti-12V alloy as controls. The metastable β phase was partially retained and α″ martensite phase was obtained in Ti-12V-9Sn alloy, whereas only martensitic phases (α' and α″) existed in Ti-12V alloy at room temperature. Ti-12V-9Sn alloy exhibited a good combination of strength and elongation, which showed a "double yield" feature, along with a complete shape recovery strain of 4%. The electrochemical measurements indicated that all of the experimental samples exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in the artificial saliva with and without 0.2% NaF, among which Ti-12V-9Sn alloy possessed the lowest corrosion current density in both kinds of simulated body fluids.

  1. Irradiation creep of vanadium-base alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Billone, M.C.; Strain, R.V.; Smith, D.L.; Matsui, H.

    1998-03-01

    A study of irradiation creep in vanadium-base alloys is underway with experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in the United States. Test specimens are thin-wall sealed tubes with internal pressure loading. The results from the initial ATR irradiation at low temperature (200--300 C) to a neutron damage level of 4.7 dpa show creep rates ranging from {approx}0 to 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}/dpa/MPa for a 500-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy. These rates were generally lower than reported from a previous experiment in BR-10. Because both the attained neutron damage levels and the creep strains were low in the present study, however, these creep rates should be regarded as only preliminary. Substantially more testing is required before a data base on irradiation creep of vanadium alloys can be developed and used with confidence.

  2. Rapid solidification of Nb-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokhale, A. B.; Javed, K. R.; Abbaschian, G. J.; Lewis, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    New Nb-base alloys are of interest for aerospace structural applications at high temperatures, viz, 800 to 1650 C. Fundamental information regarding the effects of rapid solidification in achieving greatly refined microstructures, extended solid solubility, suppression of embrittling equilibrium phases, and formation of new phases is desired in a number of Nb-X alloys. The microstructures and selected properties of Nb-Si and other Nb-base alloys are presented for materials both rapidly quenched from the equilibrium liquidus and rapidly solidified following deep supercooling. Electromagnetic levitation was used to achieve melting and supercooling in a containerless inert gas environment. A variety of solidification conditions were employed including splatting or drop casting of supercooled samples. The morphology and composition of phases formed are discussed in terms of both solidification history and bulk composition.

  3. 21 CFR 872.3710 - Base metal alloy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Base metal alloy. 872.3710 Section 872.3710 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3710 Base metal alloy. (a) Identification. A base metal alloy is a device composed primarily of base metals, such as nickel, chromium, or cobalt, that...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3710 - Base metal alloy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Base metal alloy. 872.3710 Section 872.3710 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3710 Base metal alloy. (a) Identification. A base metal alloy is a device composed primarily of base metals, such as nickel, chromium, or cobalt, that...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3710 - Base metal alloy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Base metal alloy. 872.3710 Section 872.3710 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3710 Base metal alloy. (a) Identification. A base metal alloy is a device composed primarily of base metals, such as nickel, chromium, or cobalt, that...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3710 - Base metal alloy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Base metal alloy. 872.3710 Section 872.3710 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3710 Base metal alloy. (a) Identification. A base metal alloy is a device composed primarily of base metals, such as nickel, chromium, or cobalt, that...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3710 - Base metal alloy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Base metal alloy. 872.3710 Section 872.3710 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3710 Base metal alloy. (a) Identification. A base metal alloy is a device composed primarily of base metals, such as nickel, chromium, or cobalt, that...

  8. Welding and brazing of nickel and nickel-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortland, J. E.; Evans, R. M.; Monroe, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The joining of four types of nickel-base materials is described: (1) high-nickel, nonheat-treatable alloys, (2) solid-solution-hardening nickel-base alloys, (3) precipitation-hardening nickel-base alloys, and (4) dispersion-hardening nickel-base alloys. The high-nickel and solid-solution-hardening alloys are widely used in chemical containers and piping. These materials have excellent resistance to corrosion and oxidation, and retain useful strength at elevated temperatures. The precipitation-hardening alloys have good properties at elevated temperature. They are important in many aerospace applications. Dispersion-hardening nickel also is used for elevated-temperature service.

  9. A three-dimensional model of magneto-mechanical behaviors of martensite reorientation in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xue; Moumni, Ziad; He, Yongjun; Zhang, Weihong

    2014-03-01

    The large strain in Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloys (FSMA) is due to the martensite reorientation driven by mechanical stresses and/or magnetic fields. Although most experiments studying the martensite reorientation in FSMA are under 1D condition (uniaxial stress plus a perpendicular magnetic field), it has been shown that the 2D/3D configurations can improve the working stress and give much flexibility of the material's applications [He, Y.J., Chen, X., Moumni, Z., 2011. Two-dimensional analysis to improve the output stress in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. Journal of Applied Physics 110, 063905]. To predict the material's behaviors in 3D loading conditions, a constitutive model is developed in this paper, based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes with internal variables. All the martensite variants are considered in the model and the temperature effect is also taken into account. The model is able to describe all the behaviors of martensite reorientation in FSMA observed in the existing experiments: rotating/non-rotating magnetic-field-induced martensite reorientation, magnetic-field-assisted super-elasticity, super-elasticity under biaxial compressions and temperature-dependence of martensite reorientation. The model is further used to study the nonlinear bending behaviors of FSMA beams and provides some basic guidelines for designing the FSMA-based bending actuators.

  10. Binary synaptic connections based on memory switching in a-Si:H for artificial neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Lamb, J. L.; Moopenn, A.; Khanna, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    A scheme for nonvolatile associative electronic memory storage with high information storage density is proposed which is based on neural network models and which uses a matrix of two-terminal passive interconnections (synapses). It is noted that the massive parallelism in the architecture would require the ON state of a synaptic connection to be unusually weak (highly resistive). Memory switching using a-Si:H along with ballast resistors patterned from amorphous Ge-metal alloys is investigated for a binary programmable read only memory matrix. The fabrication of a 1600 synapse test array of uniform connection strengths and a-Si:H switching elements is discussed.

  11. The martensitic transformation and magnetic properties in Ni50- x Fe x Mn32Al18 ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, H. C.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Li, H.; Han, P. D.; Wang, D. H.; Du, Y. W.

    2015-05-01

    The martensitic transformation (MT) and magnetic properties have been investigated in a series of Ni50- x Fe x Mn32Al18 ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. The substitution of Fe for Ni reduces the MT temperature of Ni-Fe-Mn-Al alloys effectively, and the magnetization of the austenite was significantly enhanced in these high-doped alloys. The Fe introduction converts antiferromagnetic austenite to ferrimagnetic state, and therefore, the unique MT occurs between ferrimagnetic and antiferromagnetic state in these alloys. The MT temperatures decreased by about 15 K under the magnetic field of 30 kOe for x = 8 alloy. The positive value of magnetic entropy change was determined to 3.35 J/kg K around the MT in the field change of 30 kOe for x = 6 alloy. These results suggest that Ni50- x Fe x Mn32Al18 alloys would be the promising candidates for magnetic multifunctional materials.

  12. A review of modeling techniques for advanced effects in shape memory alloy behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisse, Cheikh; Zaki, Wael; Ben Zineb, Tarak

    2016-10-01

    micro, micro-macro and macro scales focusing pseudoelastic and shape memory effects. The paper reviews and discusses various techniques used in the literature for modeling complex behaviors observed in shape memory alloys (SMAs) that go beyond the core pseudoelastic and shape memory effects. These behaviors, which will be collectively referred to herein as ‘secondary effects’, include mismatch between austenite and martensite moduli, martensite reorientation under nonproportional multiaxial loading, slip and transformation-induced plasticity and their influence on martensite transformation, strong thermomechanical coupling and the influence of loading rate, tensile-compressive asymmetry, and the formation of internal loops due to incomplete phase transformation. In addition, because of their importance for practical design considerations, the paper discusses functional and structural fatigue, and fracture mechanics of SMAs.

  13. Effect of Deformation Mode on the Wear Behavior of NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lina; Liu, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Owing to good biocompatibility, good fatigue resistance, and excellent superelasticity, various types of bio-medical devices based on NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) have been developed. Due to the complexity in deformation mode in service, for example NiTi implants, accurate assessment/prediction of the surface wear process is difficult. This study aims at providing a further insight into the effect of deformation mode on the wear behavior of NiTi SMA. In the present study, two types of wear testing modes were used, namely sliding wear mode and reciprocating wear mode, to investigate the effect of deformation mode on the wear behavior of NiTi SMA in both martensitic and austenitic states. It was found that, when in martensitic state and under high applied loads, sliding wear mode resulted in more surface damage as compared to that under reciprocating wear mode. When in austenitic state, although similar trends in the coefficient of friction were observed, the coefficient of friction and surface damage in general is less under reciprocating mode than under sliding mode. These observations were further discussed in terms of different deformation mechanisms involved in the wear tests, in particular, the reversibility of martensite variant reorientation and stress-induced phase transformation, respectively.

  14. Analysis of interfacial debonding in shape memory alloy wire-reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miramini, A.; Kadkhodaei, M.; Alipour, A.; Mashayekhi, M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the common types of failure in shape memory alloy (SMA) wire-reinforced composites is interfacial debonding between the fiber and the matrix. In this paper, a three dimensional finite element model for an SMA wire-reinforced composite is developed based on cohesive zone modeling to predict interfacial debonding between the SMA wire and the surrounding matrix. The interfacial debonding is also experimentally investigated by conducting a number of pull-out tests on steel as well as Nitinol wires embedded in an epoxy matrix. To evaluate the presented method, the developed finite element analysis is employed to simulate a single wire pull-out test for ordinary (e.g. steel) wires. In order to simulate SMA wire pull-out, a 3D SMA constitutive model is implemented into the commercial finite element software ABAQUS using a user material subroutine (UMAT). An acceptable agreement is shown to exist between the theoretical results and the experimental data, indicating the efficiency of the proposed approach to model interfacial debonding in SMA wire-reinforced composites.

  15. Wear mechanism and tribological characteristics of porous NiTi shape memory alloy for bone scaffold.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuilin; Liu, Xiangmei; Wu, Guosong; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Zheng, Dong; Chung, C Y; Xu, Z S; Chu, Paul K

    2013-09-01

    The abraded debris might cause osteocytic osteolysis on the interface between implants and bone tissues, thus inducing the subsequent mobilization of implants gradually and finally resulting in the failure of bone implants, which imposes restrictions on the applications of porous NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. In this work, the effects of the annealing temperature, applied load, and porosity on the tribological behavior and wear resistance of three-dimensional porous NiTi SMA are investigated systematically. The porous structure and phase transformation during the exothermic process affect the tribological properties and wear mechanism significantly. In general, a larger porosity leads to better tribological resistance but sometimes, SMAs with small porosity possess better wear resistance than ones with higher porosity during the initial sliding stage. It can be ascribed to the better superelasticity of the former at the test temperature. The porous NiTi phase during the exothermic reaction also plays an important role in the wear resistance. Generally, porous NiTi has smaller friction coefficients under high loads due to stress-induced superelasticity. The wear mechanism is discussed based on plastic deformation and microcrack propagation.

  16. A biomimetic robotic jellyfish (Robojelly) actuated by shape memory alloy composite actuators.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Alex; Smith, Colin; Priya, Shashank

    2011-09-01

    An analysis is conducted on the design, fabrication and performance of an underwater vehicle mimicking the propulsion mechanism and physical appearance of a medusa (jellyfish). The robotic jellyfish called Robojelly mimics the morphology and kinematics of the Aurelia aurita species. Robojelly actuates using bio-inspired shape memory alloy composite actuators. A systematic fabrication technique was developed to replicate the essential structural features of A. aurita. Robojelly's body was fabricated from RTV silicone having a total mass of 242 g and bell diameter of 164 mm. Robojelly was able to generate enough thrust in static water conditions to propel itself and achieve a proficiency of 0.19 s(-1) while the A. aurita achieves a proficiency of around 0.25 s(-1). A thrust analysis based on empirical measurements for a natural jellyfish was used to compare the performance of the different robotic configurations. The configuration with best performance was a Robojelly with segmented bell and a passive flap structure. Robojelly was found to consume an average power on the order of 17 W with the actuators not having fully reached a thermal steady state. PMID:21852714

  17. Analysis of shape memory alloy sensory particles for damage detection via substructure and continuum damage modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielefeldt, Brent R.; Benzerga, A. Amine; Hartl, Darren J.

    2016-04-01

    The ability to monitor and predict the structural health of an aircraft is of growing importance to the aerospace industry. Currently, structural inspections and maintenance are based upon experiences with similar aircraft operating in similar conditions. While effective, these methods are time-intensive and unnecessary if the aircraft is not in danger of structural failure. It is imagined that future aircraft will utilize non-destructive evaluation methods, allowing for the near real-time monitoring of structural health. A particularly interesting method involves utilizing the unique transformation response of shape memory alloy (SMA) particles embedded in an aircraft structure. By detecting changes in the mechanical and/or electromagnetic responses of embedded particles, operators could detect the formation or propagation of fatigue cracks in the vicinity of these particles. This work focuses on a finite element model of SMA particles embedded in an aircraft wing using a substructure modeling approach in which degrees of freedom are retained only at specified points of connection to other parts or the application of boundary conditions, greatly reducing computational cost. Previous work evaluated isolated particle response to a static crack to numerically demonstrate and validate this damage detection method. This paper presents the implementation of a damage model to account for crack propagation and examine for the first time the effect of particle configuration and/or relative placement with respect to the ability to detect damage.

  18. Optimal design of a shape memory alloy actuated composite structure with iterative finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widdle, Richard D., Jr.; Grimshaw, Matthew T.; Shome, Moushumi

    2009-03-01

    A method is described for solving an inverse design problem to find the unassembled, stress-free component shapes of a structure thatis integrally actuated with shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators. Morphing and multifunctional structures are of interest in the aerospace industry becasue of the potential for improving structural and aerodynamic performance across multiple operating conditions. The focus of this work is on structures that are morphed with SMA flexural actuators. For the case where the geometry is known for unassembled components, assembly can be simulated to find the assembled shapes of the morphing structure. In the usual design case, however, only the desired shapes as assembled are known in multiple actuation states, and the corresponding unassembled shapes must be determined by an iterative solution process. An iterative finite element analysis approach to this problem is reported here. First an initial guess for the unassembled shapes is made and assembly is simulated with the finite element method. The resulting shapes are found for both SMA phases and compared with the desired shapes. A gradient-based optimization method is employed to update the initial geometry and iteration continues until the desired shapes are achieved. A simplified method of modeling the SMA material behavior is used for computational efficiently. It is found that this approach provides a practical way to solve the inverse design problem for structures that are integrally actuated with SMA material.

  19. Saddle-shaped, bistable morphing panel with shape memory alloy spring actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Gu; Ryu, Junghyun; Lee, Hyeok; Cho, Maenghyo

    2014-07-01

    Bistable structures are attractive morphing components because they can transform from one stable state to another simply through the application of an external force or moment. Each stable state is preserved despite the absence of a continuous energy supply. However, its competency is quite limited because most bistable composites (unsymmetric laminated bistable composites) have limited equilibrium shape configurations after curing. Most of them are cylindrical in shape. In this paper, for the first time, we present a saddle-shaped bistable panel that can be used for various soft-morphing applications. The mechanics of the saddle-shaped, bistable panel are investigated using the Rayleigh-Ritz approximation. A simple analytical model is proposed to obtain saddle bistability and deformations. Finite element (FE) numerical analysis is also performed to validate the analytical model approach. The numerical FE analysis shows good correlation with simple analytical solutions. Furthermore, for practical, smart-structure applications of the saddle-shaped bistable panel, the FE method simulated a snap-through action induced by a shape memory alloy (SMA) spring actuator. A simple design criterion for the snap-through action of a saddle composite panel actuated by an SMA spring component is suggested, based on the FE analysis.

  20. Dynamic fast terminal sliding mode control of a shape memory alloy actuated system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marathe, Meeshawn S.; Srinivasan, S. M.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we address the chattering phenomenon which is a common drawback associated with the normal Sliding Mode Control (SMC) law for a basic shape memory alloy (SMA) actuated system. A new method has been proposed to counter this effect by combining the concepts of Fast Terminal SMC and Dynamic controller. A phenomenological model is developed for the SMA which incorporates a piecewise linear hysteresis behavior. This model is used for both open loop as well as closed loop simulations for a linear motion control system. Based on this model, a dynamic terminal sliding mode control law is derived and applied to the system. A normal SMC law with saturation function which is known to reduce chattering is compared with the proposed control law for its effectiveness to curb the issue of chattering versus its ability to faithfully track a desired trajectory. Numerical Simulations indicate that the proposed law is able to reduce the chattering effect sufficiently and at par with the control technique involving saturation function.

  1. [New type titan alloy with shape memory for use in dental implantology].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ian, A S; Filonov, M R; Arkhipov, A V; Selezneva, I I; Zhukova, Iu S

    2013-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results of in vitro and in vivo studies that have proved biocompatibility and medical safety of Ta and Ti-Nb-Ta-bases alloys. According to some in vitro data Ti-Nb-Ta-based alloy possesses certain advantages when comparing to Ta-based. In particular, it contributes to elevation of viability of cellular elements and to definite increase of their adhesive potential.

  2. Lowering the power consumption of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Alex; Gupta, Shashaak; Priya, Shashank

    2012-04-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) wires are capable of providing contractile strain mimicking the functionality of muscle fibers. They are promising for the development of biomimetic robots due to their high power density and desired form factor. However, they suffer from significantly high power consumption. The focus of this paper was to address this drawback associated with SMAs. Two different parameters were investigated in this study: i) lowering of the martensite to austentite phase transition temperatures and ii) the reduction of the thermal hysteresis. For an equiatomic Ni-Ti alloy, replacing nickel with 10 at% copper reduces the thermal hysteresis by 50% or more. For Ni- Ti alloys with nickel content greater than 50 at%, transition temperature decreases linearly at a rate of 100 °C/Ni at%. Given these two power reducing factors, an alloy with composition of Ni40+xTi50-xCu10 was synthesized with x = 0, +/-1, +/-2, +/-3, +/-4, +/-5. Metal powders were melted in an argon atmosphere using an RF induction furnace to produce ingots. All the synthesized samples were characterized by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis to reveal martensite to austenite and austenite to martensite transition temperatures during heating and cooling cycles respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was conducted to identify the density and microstructure of the fractured samples. The alloy composition and synthesis method presented in this preliminary work shows the possibility of achieving low power consuming, high performance SMAs.

  3. Ferromagnetic interactions and martensitic transformation in Fe doped Ni-Mn-In shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, D. N.; Priolkar, K. R.; Emura, S.; Nigam, A. K.

    2014-11-14

    The structure, magnetic, and martensitic properties of Fe doped Ni-Mn-In magnetic shape memory alloys have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry, magnetization, resistivity, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and EXAFS. While Ni{sub 2}MnIn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6) alloys are ferromagnetic and non martensitic, the martensitic transformation temperature in Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.5}In{sub 1−y}Fe{sub y} and Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.6}In{sub 1−y}Fe{sub y} increases for lower Fe concentrations (y ≤ 0.05) before decreasing sharply for higher Fe concentrations. XRD analysis reveals presence of cubic and tetragonal structural phases in Ni{sub 2}MnIn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} at room temperature with tetragonal phase content increasing with Fe doping. Even though the local structure around Mn and Ni in these Fe doped alloys is similar to martensitic Mn rich Ni-Mn-In alloys, presence of ferromagnetic interactions and structural disorder induced by Fe affect Mn-Ni-Mn antiferromagnetic interactions resulting in suppression of martensitic transformation in these Fe doped alloys.

  4. In vitro investigation of NiTiW shape memory alloy as potential biomaterial with enhanced radiopacity.

    PubMed

    Li, Huafang; Cong, Ying; Zheng, Yufeng; Cui, Lishan

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, a novel kind of NiTiW shape memory alloy with chemical composition of Ni43.5Ti45.5W11 (at.%) has been successfully developed with excellent X-ray radiopacity by the introduction of pure W precipitates into the NiTi matrix phase. Its microstructure, X-ray radiopacity, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid, hemocompatibility and in vitro cytocompatibility were systematically investigated. The typical microstructural feature of NiTiW alloy at room temperature was tiny pure W particles randomly distributing in the NiTi matrix phase. The presence of W precipitates was found to result in enhanced radiopacity and microhardness of NiTiW alloy in comparison to that of NiTi binary alloy. NiTiW alloy exhibits excellent shape memory effect, and a maximum shape recovery ratio of about 30% was obtained with a total prestrain of 8% for the NiTiW alloy sample. In the electrochemical test, NiTiW alloy presented an excellent corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid, comparable to that of NiTi alloy. Hemocompatibility tests indicated that the NiTiW alloy has quite low hemolysis (lower than 0.5%) and the adherent platelet showed round shape without pseudopod. Besides, in vitro cell viability tests demonstrated that the cell viability is all above 90%, and the cells spread well on the NiTiW alloy, having polygon or spindle healthy morphology. The hemocompatibility tests, in vitro cell viability tests and morphology observation indicated that the NiTiW shape memory alloys have excellent biocompatibility. The excellent X-ray radiopacity makes the NiTiW alloys show obvious advantages in orthopedic, stomatological, neurological and cardiovascular domains where radiopacity is quite important factor in order to guarantee successful implantation. PMID:26706563

  5. In vitro investigation of NiTiW shape memory alloy as potential biomaterial with enhanced radiopacity.

    PubMed

    Li, Huafang; Cong, Ying; Zheng, Yufeng; Cui, Lishan

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, a novel kind of NiTiW shape memory alloy with chemical composition of Ni43.5Ti45.5W11 (at.%) has been successfully developed with excellent X-ray radiopacity by the introduction of pure W precipitates into the NiTi matrix phase. Its microstructure, X-ray radiopacity, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid, hemocompatibility and in vitro cytocompatibility were systematically investigated. The typical microstructural feature of NiTiW alloy at room temperature was tiny pure W particles randomly distributing in the NiTi matrix phase. The presence of W precipitates was found to result in enhanced radiopacity and microhardness of NiTiW alloy in comparison to that of NiTi binary alloy. NiTiW alloy exhibits excellent shape memory effect, and a maximum shape recovery ratio of about 30% was obtained with a total prestrain of 8% for the NiTiW alloy sample. In the electrochemical test, NiTiW alloy presented an excellent corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid, comparable to that of NiTi alloy. Hemocompatibility tests indicated that the NiTiW alloy has quite low hemolysis (lower than 0.5%) and the adherent platelet showed round shape without pseudopod. Besides, in vitro cell viability tests demonstrated that the cell viability is all above 90%, and the cells spread well on the NiTiW alloy, having polygon or spindle healthy morphology. The hemocompatibility tests, in vitro cell viability tests and morphology observation indicated that the NiTiW shape memory alloys have excellent biocompatibility. The excellent X-ray radiopacity makes the NiTiW alloys show obvious advantages in orthopedic, stomatological, neurological and cardiovascular domains where radiopacity is quite important factor in order to guarantee successful implantation.

  6. Experimental Studies on Dynamic Vibration Absorber using Shape Memory Alloy (NiTi) Springs

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, V. Raj; Kumar, M. B. Bharathi Raj; Kumar, M. Senthil

    2011-10-20

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) springs have been used as actuators in many applications although their use in the vibration control area is very recent. Since shape memory alloys differ from conventional alloy materials in many ways, the traditional design approach for springs is not completely suitable for designing SMA springs. Some vibration control concepts utilizing unique characteristics of SMA's will be presented in this paper.A dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) using shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator is developed for attenuation of vibration in a cantilever beam. The design procedure of the DVA is presented. The system consists of a cantilever beam which is considered to generate the real-time vibration using shaker. A SMA spring is used with a mass attached to its end. The stiffness of the SMA spring is dynamically varied in such a way to attenuate the vibration. Both simulation and experimentation are carried out using PID controller. The experiments were carried out by interfacing the experimental setup with a computer using LabVIEW software, Data acquisition and control are implemented using a PCI data acquisition card. Standard PID controllers have been used to control the vibration of the beam. Experimental results are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the controllers designed and the usefulness of the proposed test platform by exciting the structure at resonance. In experimental setup, an accelerometer is used to measure the vibration which is fed to computer and correspondingly the SMA spring is actuated to change its stiffness to control the vibration. The results obtained illustrate that the developed DVA using SMA actuator is very effective in reducing structural response and have great potential to be an active vibration control medium.

  7. Smart wing shape memory alloy actuator design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, A. Peter; Flanagan, John S.; Martin, Christopher A.; Carpenter, Bernie F.

    1997-05-01

    Shape Memory Effect TiNi torque tubes were fabricated, tested and installed to supply 2500 in.lbs and 500 in.lbs of torque for inboard and outboard sections, respectively, of the DARPA smart wing wind tunnel model. Structural connections to the tubes were designed so that the entire assembly would fit within the interior of the wing, whose maximum dimensions of depth ranged from 1.125' to 0.375', depending on the position along the wing span. The torque tubes themselves were made by the gun drilling a TiNi ingot and ElectroSpark Discharge Machining to the required dimensions, which were calculated from a simple model described in a previous paper. The torque tubes were placed into the wing and twist deflections were measured. Deflections on the wing were measured at 1.3 degree(s), which provided a significant increase (approximately 8%) in the wing rolling moment.

  8. Shape Memory Alloy Rock Splitters (SMARS) - A Non-Explosive Method for Fracturing Planetary Rocklike Materials and Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benafan, Othmane; Noebe, Ronald D.; Halsmer, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    A static rock splitter device based on high-force, high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) was developed for space related applications requiring controlled geologic excavation in planetary bodies such as the Moon, Mars, and near-Earth asteroids. The device, hereafter referred to as the shape memory alloy rock splitter (SMARS), consisted of active (expanding) elements made of Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 (at.%) that generate extremely large forces in response to thermal input. The preshaping (training) of these elements was accomplished using isothermal, isobaric and cyclic training methods, which resulted in active components capable of generating stresses in excess of 1.5 GPa. The corresponding strains (or displacements) were also evaluated and were found to be 2 to 3 percent, essential to rock fracturing and/or splitting when placed in a borehole. SMARS performance was evaluated using a test bed consisting of a temperature controller, custom heaters and heater holders, and an enclosure for rock placement and breakage. The SMARS system was evaluated using various rock types including igneous rocks (e.g., basalt, quartz, granite) and sedimentary rocks (e.g., sandstone, limestone).

  9. Memory-based parallel data output controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A memory-based parallel data output controller employs associative memories and memory mapping to decommutate multiple channels of telemetry data. The output controller contains a random access memory (RAM) which has at least as many address locations as there are channels. A word counter addresses the RAM which provides as it outputs an encoded peripheral device number and a MSB/LSB-first flag. The encoded device number and a bit counter address a second RAM which contains START and STOP flags to pick out the required bits from the specified word number. The LSB/MSB, START and STOP flags, along with the serial input digital data go to a control block which selectively fills a shift register used to drive the parallel data output bus.

  10. Thermomechanical Characterization and Modeling of Superelastic Shape Memory Alloy Beams and Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Ryan

    Of existing applications, the majority of shape memory alloy (SMA) devices consist of beam (orthodontic wire, eye glasses frames, catheter guide wires) and framed structures (cardiovascular stents, vena cava filters). Although uniaxial tension data is often sufficient to model basic beam behavior (which has been the main focus of the research community), the tension-compression asymmetry and complex phase transformation behavior of SMAs suggests more information is necessary to properly model higher complexity states of loading. In this work, SMA beams are experimentally characterized under general loading conditions (including tension, compression, pure bending, and buckling); furthermore, a model is developed with respect to general beam deformation based on the relevant phenomena observed in the experimental characterization. Stress induced phase transformation within superelastic SMA beams is shown to depend on not only the loading mode, but also kinematic constraints imposed by beam geometry (such as beam cross-section and length). In the cases of tension and pure bending, the structural behavior is unstable and corresponds to phase transformation localization and propagation. This unstable behavior is the result of a local level up--down--up stress/strain response in tension, which is measured here using a novel composite-based experimental technique. In addition to unstable phase transformation, intriguing post-buckling straightening is observed in short SMA columns during monotonic loading (termed unbuckling here). Based on this phenomenological understanding of SMA beam behavior, a trilinear based material law is developed in the context of a Shanley column model and is found to capture many of the relevant features of column buckling, including the experimentally observed unbuckling behavior. Due to the success of this model, it is generalized within the context of beam theory and, in conjunction with Bloch wave stability analysis, is used to model and

  11. Large magnetic entropy change and magnetoresistance in a Ni41Co9Mn40Sn10 magnetic shape memory alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, L.; Cong, D. Y.; Ma, L.; Nie, Z. H.; Wang, M. G.; Wang, Z. L.; Suo, H. L.; Ren, Y.; Wang, Y. D.

    2015-07-02

    A polycrystalline Ni41Co9Mn40Sn10 (at. %) magnetic shape memory alloy was prepared by arc melting and characterized mainly by magnetic measurements, in-situ high-energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD), and mechanical testing. A large magnetoresistance of 53.8% (under 5 T) and a large magnetic entropy change of 31.9 J/(kg K) (under 5 T) were simultaneously achieved. Both of these values are among the highest values reported so far in Ni-Mn-Sn-based Heusler alloys. The large magnetic entropy change, closely related to the structural entropy change, is attributed to the large unit cell volume change across martensitic transformation as revealed by our in-situ HEXRD experiment. Furthermore,more » good compressive properties were also obtained. Lastly, the combination of large magnetoresistance, large magnetic entropy change, and good compressive properties, as well as low cost makes this alloy a promising candidate for multifunctional applications.« less

  12. Stability and optimization of P-phase precipitates in nickel-titanium-palladium shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppa, Anne Catherine

    The motivation for this research is the understanding of phase transformations that lead to an increase in the shape memory effect (SME) transformation temperature in a Ni-Ti-Pd shape memory alloy (SMA). The research addressed three major parts of this transformation---(1) The phase stability of the P-phase precipitate previously discovered with an emphasis on its stoichiometric limits by changing the Ni and Pd content with the Ti11(Ni,Pd)13 ratio; (2) The effects of P-phase precipitation on the martensitic transformation temperature in near-equiatomic Ti(Ni,Pd) alloys; and (3) The effects of dilute additions of Hf (0.1-1 at.%) to the precipitation and shape memory transformation temperature in Ni-Ti-Pd. P-phase stabilization: The compositional limits of the P-phase have been systematically studied by varying the Pd and Ni content in the P-phase's Ti11(Ni+Pd)13 stoichiometry. Each alloy was solutionized at 1050°C followed by water quenching, and aging at 400°C for 100 hours. Four distinct phases were identified---Ti 2Pd3, B2 Ni-Ti, P- and P1-phases dependent on alloy composition---by electron and x-ray diffraction. The latter precipitate phases become more stable with increasing Ni at the expense of Pd content. Atom probe tomography revealed the P-phase composition to be 45.8Ti-29.2Ni-25Pd (at.%) or Ti 11(Ni7Pd6) as compared to the P1-phase 44.7Ti- 45.8Ni-9.4Pd (at.%) or Ti5Ni5Pd. Optimization of P-phase precipitation: The effect of aging time and temperature on precipitation and subsequent martensitic transformation temperatures for a series of Ni-(50.5-49.2)Ti-32Pd (at.%) shape memory alloys has been studied. Structure-property relationships were developed through detailed microstructural characterization involving transmission electron microscopy, diffraction analysis, and atom probe tomography with links to microhardness measurements and transformation temperatures established by differential scanning calorimetry. The Ti-rich alloy contained relatively coarse

  13. Parametric analysis of a shape memory alloy actuated arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Cody; Bilgen, Onur

    2016-04-01

    Using a pair of antagonistic Shape Memory Allow (SMA) wires, it may be possible to produce a mechanism that replicates human musculoskeletal movement. The movement of interest is the articulation of the elbow joint actuated by the biceps brachii muscle. In an effort to understand the bio-mechanics of the arm, a single degree of freedom crankslider mechanism is used to model the movement of the arm induced by the biceps brachii muscle. First, a purely kinematical analysis is performed on a rigid body crank-slider. Force analysis is also done modeling the muscle as a simple linear spring. Torque, rocking angle, and energy are calculated for a range of crank-slider geometries. The SMA wire characteristics are experimentally determined for the martensite detwinned and full austenite phases. Using the experimental data, an idealized actuator characteristic curve is produced for the SMA wire. Kinematic and force analyses are performed on the nonlinear wire characteristic curve and a linearized wire curve; both cases are applied to the crankslider mechanism. Performance metrics for both cases are compared, followed by discussion.

  14. Vanadium-base alloys for fusion reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Loomis, B.A.; Diercks, D.R.

    1984-10-01

    Vanadium-base alloys offer potentially significant advantages over other candidate alloys as a structural material for fusion reactor first wall/blanket applications. Although the data base is more limited than that for the other leading candidate structural materials, viz., austenitic and ferritic steels, vanadium-base alloys exhibit several properties that make them particularly attractive for the fusion reactor environment. This paper presents a review of the structural material requirements, a summary of the materials data base for selected vanadium-base alloys, and a comparison of projected performance characteristics compared to other candidate alloys. Also, critical research and development (R and D) needs are defined.

  15. Feasibility study of shape memory alloy ring spring systems for self-centring seismic resisting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Cheng; Yam, Michael C. H.; Lam, Angus C. C.; Zhang, Yanyang

    2015-07-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have recently emerged as promising material candidates for structural seismic resisting purposes. Most of the existing SMA-based strategies, however, are based on the wire or rod form of SMAs, where issues such as gripping complexity and fracture may exist. This paper presents a proof-of-concept study on an innovative type of SMA-based self-centring system, namely, a superelastic SMA ring spring system. The proposed system includes a series of inner high-strength steel (HSS) rings and outer superelastic SMA rings stacked in alternation with mating taper faces, where the resisting load is provided by the wedging action which tends to expand the outer rings and concurrently to squeeze the inner rings. The superelastic effect of the SMA offers energy dissipation and a driving force for recentring, and the frictional effect over the taper face further contributes to the overall resisting load and energy dissipation. The feasibility of the new system is carefully examined via numerical studies considering the parameters of ring thickness, taper angle, and coefficient of friction. The key hysteretic responses, including resisting load, stiffness, stress distributions, source of residual deformation, energy dissipation, and equivalent viscous damping, are discussed in detail. The behaviour of the SMA ring springs is also studied via analytical models, and the analytical predictions are found to agree well with the numerical results. Finally, two practical applications of the new system, namely self-centring HS-SMA ring spring connections, and self-centring SMA ring spring dampers, are discussed via comprehensive numerical studies.

  16. NiTiCu Shape Memory Alloy Characterization Through Microhardness Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabregat-Sanjuan, Albert; Ferrando, Francesc; De la Flor, Silvia

    2014-07-01

    NiTiCu alloys are one of the most investigated shape memory alloys (SMAs) because of their better performance as SMA actuators in a variety of industrial and engineering applications. However, NiTiCu alloys are strongly influenced by thermomechanical cycling (TMC), which causes degradation depending on the stress and strain level applied. Since heat treatment (HT) and TMC are essential for NiTiCu alloys, understanding how hardness evolves at different levels of TMC and different HT temperatures is a useful tool for characterizing the material. The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between hardness and different HT temperatures and different TMCs. All the microhardness tests were done below martensite finish temperature (Mf) because the apparent material hardness measured below Mf fairly reflects the relative strengthening of SMAs without involving martensitic transformation artifacts. Resistivity and break tensile tests were carried out as a first step in order to understand the effect of different HT temperatures. Microstructure was also examined to provide a basis for a mechanistic understanding of the effect of different HT temperatures. Next, the degradation of mechanical properties (functional fatigue) at different levels of TMC was evaluated to assess their relationship to the evolution of hardness. Finally, an attempt was made to establish a link between the increase in hardness and different HT temperatures with different levels of TMC.

  17. Improving the bioactivity of NiTi shape memory alloy by heat and alkali treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Wei; Zhen-duo, Cui; Xian-jin, Yang; Jie, Shi

    2008-11-01

    TiO 2 films were formed on an NiTi alloy surface by heat treatment in air at 600 °C. Heat treated NiTi shape memory alloys were subsequently alkali treated with 1 M, 3 M and 5 M NaOH solutions respectively, to improve their bioactivity. Then treated NiTi samples were soaked in 1.5SBF to evaluate their in vitro performance. The results showed that the 3 M NaOH treatment is the most appropriate method. A large amount of apatite formed within 1 day's soaking in 1.5SBF, after 7 day's soaking TiO 2/HA composite layer formed on the NiTi surface. SEM, XRD, FT-IR and TEM results showed that the morphology and microstructure are similar to the human bone apatite.

  18. Martensitic and magnetic transformation in Ni-Mn-Ga-Co ferromagnetic shape memory alloys.

    SciTech Connect

    Cong, D. Y.; Wang, S.; Wang, Y. D.; Ren, Y.; Zuo, L.; Esling, C.; X-Ray Science Division; Northeastern Univ.; Univ. of Metz

    2008-01-01

    The effect of Co addition on crystal structure, martensitic transformation, Curie temperature and compressive properties of Ni{sub 53-x}Mn{sub 25}Ga{sub 22}Co{sub x} alloys with the Co content up to 14 at% was investigated. An abrupt decrease of martensitic transformation temperature was observed when the Co content exceeded 6 at.%, which can be attributed to the atomic disorder resulting from the Co addition. Substitution of Co for Ni proved efficient in increasing the Curie temperature. Compression experiments showed that the substitution of 4 at.% Co for Ni did not change the fracture strain, but lead to the increase in the compressive strength and the decrease in the yield stress. This study may offer experimental data for developing high performance ferromagnetic shape memory alloys.

  19. Vacancy dynamic in Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merida, D.; García, J. A.; Sánchez-Alarcos, V.; Pérez-Landazábal, J. I.; Recarte, V.; Plazaola, F.

    2014-06-01

    Vacancies control any atomic ordering process and consequently most of the order-dependent properties of the martensitic transformation in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. Positron annihilation spectroscopy demonstrates to be a powerful technique to study vacancies in NiMnGa alloys quenched from different temperatures and subjected to post-quench isothermal annealing treatments. Considering an effective vacancy type the temperature dependence of the vacancy concentration has been evaluated. Samples quenched from 1173 K show a vacancy concentration of 1100 ± 200 ppm. The vacancy migration and formation energies have been estimated to be 0.55 ± 0.05 eV and 0.90 ± 0.07 eV, respectively.

  20. Histomorphometric analysis of the response of rat tibiae to shape memory alloy (nitinol).

    PubMed

    Takeshita, F; Takata, H; Ayukawa, Y; Suetsugu, T

    1997-01-01

    The bone reaction to nitinol (Ni-Ti), a metal with shape memory, and other materials inserted transcortically and extending into the medullary canal of rat tibiae was quantitatively assessed using an image processing system. The materials examined were implants, all of the same shape and size, composed of nitinol, pure titanium (Ti), anodic oxidized Ti (AO-Ti), a titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) and pure nickel (Ni). While the other four implant materials were progressively encapsulated with bone tissues, Ni was encapsulated with connective tissues through the 168-day experimental period, and the Ni implants showed no bone contact at any time during the experimental period. Histometric analysis revealed no significant difference among the tissue reactions to Ti, AO-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V, but Ni-Ti implants showed significantly (P < 0.01) lower percentage bone contact and bone contact area than any of the other titanium or titanium alloy materials.

  1. Temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility in the vicinity of martensitic transformation in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Zablotskii, V; Pérez-Landazábal, J I; Recarte, V; Gómez-Polo, C

    2010-08-11

    Temperature dependences of low-field quasistatic magnetic susceptibility in the vicinity of martensitic transitions in an NiFeGa alloy are studied both by experiment and analytically. Pronounced reversible jumps of the magnetic susceptibility were observed near the martensitic transition temperature. A general description of the temperature dependences of the susceptibility in ferromagnetic austenite and martensite phases and the susceptibility jump at the transition is suggested. As a result, the main factors governing the temperature dependences of the magnetic susceptibility in the magnetic shape memory alloys are revealed. The magnetic susceptibility jump value is found to be related to changes of: (i) magnetic anisotropy; (ii) magnetic domain wall geometrical constraints (those determined by the alignment and size of twin variants) and (iii) mean magnetic domain spacing.

  2. Vacancy dynamic in Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Merida, D.; Sánchez-Alarcos, V.; Pérez-Landazábal, J. I.; Recarte, V.; Plazaola, F.

    2014-06-09

    Vacancies control any atomic ordering process and consequently most of the order-dependent properties of the martensitic transformation in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. Positron annihilation spectroscopy demonstrates to be a powerful technique to study vacancies in NiMnGa alloys quenched from different temperatures and subjected to post-quench isothermal annealing treatments. Considering an effective vacancy type the temperature dependence of the vacancy concentration has been evaluated. Samples quenched from 1173 K show a vacancy concentration of 1100 ± 200 ppm. The vacancy migration and formation energies have been estimated to be 0.55 ± 0.05 eV and 0.90 ± 0.07 eV, respectively.

  3. Magnetic ordering in magnetic shape memory alloy Ni-Mn-In-Co

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollefs, K.; Schöppner, Ch.; Titov, I.; Meckenstock, R.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.; Liu, J.; Gutfleisch, O.; Farle, M.; Wende, H.; Acet, M.

    2015-12-01

    Structural and magnetic properties across the martensite-austenite phase transitions in the shape memory alloy Ni-Mn-In-Co are studied using complementary experimental techniques: ferromagnetic resonance, macroscopic magnetization measurements, and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in the temperature range from 5 to 450 K. Ferromagnetic resonance experiments show coexisting antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic correlations for the martensite phase and ferromagnetic and paramagnetic correlations in the austenite phase. Magnetization measurements reveal spin-glass-like behavior for T <30 K and Ni and Co K -edge x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements confirm an assignment of a ferromagnetic resonance line purely to Ni (and Co) for a wide temperature range from 125 to 225 K. Hence a combined analysis of ferromagnetic resonance and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism allows us to attribute particular magnetic resonance signals to individual elemental species in the alloy.

  4. Variational formulation and stability analysis of a three dimensional superelastic model for shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, Roberto; Pham, Kim

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a variational framework for the three-dimensional macroscopic modelling of superelastic shape memory alloys in an isothermal setting. Phase transformation is accounted through a unique second order tensorial internal variable, acting as the transformation strain. Postulating the total strain energy density as the sum of a free energy and a dissipated energy, the model depends on two material scalar functions of the norm of the transformation strain and a material scalar constant. Appropriate calibration of these material functions allows to render a wide range of constitutive behaviours including stress-softening and stress-hardening. The quasi-static evolution problem of a domain is formulated in terms of two physical principles based on the total energy of the system: a stability criterion, which selects the local minima of the total energy, and an energy balance condition, which ensures the consistency of the evolution of the total energy with respect to the external loadings. The local phase transformation laws in terms of Kuhn-Tucker relations are deduced from the first-order stability condition and the energy balance condition. The response of the model is illustrated with a numerical traction-torsion test performed on a thin-walled cylinder. Evolutions of homogeneous states are given for proportional and non-proportional loadings. Influence of the stress-hardening/softening properties on the evolution of the transformation domain is emphasized. Finally, in view of an identification process, the issue of stability of homogeneous states in a multi-dimensional setting is answered based on the study of second-order derivative of the total energy. Explicit necessary and sufficient conditions of stability are provided.

  5. Shape memory alloy micro-actuator performance prediction using a hybrid constitutive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Franklin C.; Boissonneault, Olivier

    2006-03-01

    The volume and weight budgets in missiles and gun-launched munitions have decreased with the military forces' emphasis on soldier-centric systems and rapid deployability. Reduction in the size of control actuation systems employed in today's aerospace vehicles would enhance overall vehicle performance as long as there is no detrimental impact on flight performance. Functional materials such as shape memory alloys (SMA's) offer the opportunity to create compact, solid-state actuation systems for flight applications. A hybrid SMA model was developed for designing micro-actuated flow effectors. It was based on a combination of concepts originally presented by Likhatchev for microstructural modelling and Brinson for modelling of transformation kinetics. The phase diagram for a 0.1mm SMA wire was created by carrying out tensile tests in a Rheometrics RSA-II solids analyser over a range of temperatures from 30°C to 130°C. The characterization parameters were used in the hybrid model to predict the displacement-time trajectories for the wire. Experimental measurements were made for a SMA wire that was subjected to a constant 150g load and short, intense 4.5 to 10V pulses. Actuation frequency was limited by the cooling rate rather than the heating rate. A second set of experiments studied the performance of SMA wires in an antagonistic micro-actuator set-up. A series of 2 or 3V step inputs were alternately injected into each wire to characterize the peak to peak displacement and the motion time constant. A maximum frequency of 0.25Hz was observed. An antagonistic actuator model based on the hybrid SMA model predicted reasonably well the displacement-time results.

  6. Numerical Evaluation Of Shape Memory Alloy Recentering Braces In Reinforced Concrete Buildings Subjected To Seismic Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Winsbert Curt

    Seismic protective techniques utilizing specialized energy dissipation devices within the lateral resisting frames have been successfully used to limit inelastic deformation in reinforced concrete buildings by increasing damping and/or altering the stiffness of these structures. However, there is a need to investigate and develop systems with self-centering capabilities; systems that are able to assist in returning a structure to its original position after an earthquake. In this project, the efficacy of a shape memory alloy (SMA) based device, as a structural recentering device is evaluated through numerical analysis using the OpenSees framework. OpenSees is a software framework for simulating the seismic response of structural and geotechnical systems. OpenSees has been developed as the computational platform for research in performance-based earthquake engineering at the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER). A non-ductile reinforced concrete building, which is modelled using OpenSees and verified with available experimental data is used for the analysis in this study. The model is fitted with Tension/Compression (TC) SMA devices. The performance of the SMA recentering device is evaluated for a set of near-field and far-field ground motions. Critical performance measures of the analysis include residual displacements, interstory drift and acceleration (horizontal and vertical) for different types of ground motions. The results show that the TC device's performance is unaffected by the type of ground motion. The analysis also shows that the inclusion of the device in the lateral force resisting system of the building resulted in a 50% decrease in peak horizontal displacement, and inter-story drift elimination of residual deformations, acceleration was increased up to 110%.

  7. Fabric cutting application of FeAl-based alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Blue, C.A.; Sklad, S.P.; Deevi, S.C.; Shih, H.R.

    1998-11-01

    Four intermetallic-based alloys were evaluated for cutting blade applications. These alloys included Fe{sub 3}Al-based (FAS-II and FA-129), FeAl-based (PM-60), and Ni{sub 3}Al-based (IC-50). These alloys were of interest because of their much higher work-hardening rates than the conventionally used carbon and stainless steels. The FeAl-based PM-60 alloy was of further interest because of its hardening possibility through retention of vacancies. The vacancy retention treatment is much simpler than the heat treatments used for hardening of steel blades. Blades of four intermetallic alloys and commercially used M2 tool steel blades were evaluated under identical conditions to cut two-ply heavy paper. Comparative results under identical conditions revealed that the FeAl-based alloy PM-60 outperformed the other intermetallic alloys and was equal to or somewhat better than the commercially used M2 tool steel.

  8. Cytocompatibility evaluation of NiMnSn meta-magnetic shape memory alloys for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Guiza-Arguello, Viviana R; Monroe, James A; Karaman, Ibrahim; Hahn, Mariah S

    2016-07-01

    Recently, magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) have emerged as an interesting extension to conventional shape memory alloys (SMAs) due to their capacity to undergo reversible deformation in response to an externally applied magnetic field. Meta-magnetic SMAs (M-MSMAs) are a class of MSMAs that are able to transform magnetic energy to mechanical work by harnessing a magnetic-field induced phase transformation, and thus have the capacity to impose up to 10 times greater stress than conventional MSMAs. As such, M-MSMAs may hold substantial promise in biomedical applications requiring extracorporeal device activation. In the present study, the cytotoxicity and ion release from an Ni50 Mn36 Sn14 atomic percent composition M-MSMA were evaluated using NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. Initial studies showed that the viability of cells exposed to NiMnSn ion leachants was 60 to 67% of tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) controls over 10 to 14 days of culture. This represents a significant improvement in cytocompatibility relative to NiMnGa alloys, one of the most extensively studied MSMA systems, which have been reported to induce 80% cell death in only 48 h. Furthermore, NiMnSn M-MSMA associated cell viability was increased to 80% of TCP controls following layer-by-layer alloy coating with poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/poly(acrylic acid) [PAH/PAA]. Ion release measures revealed that the PAH/PAA coatings decreased total Sn and Mn ion release by 50% and 25%, respectively, and optical microscopy evaluation indicated that the coatings reduced NiMnSn surface oxidation. To our knowledge, this study presents the first cytotoxicity evaluation of NiMnSn M-MSMAs and lays the groundwork for their further biological evaluation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 853-863, 2016. PMID:25953682

  9. Shape memory properties and microstructural evolution of rapidly solidified CuAlBe alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ergen, Semra; Uzun, Orhan; Yilmaz, Fikret; Kiliçaslan, M. Fatih

    2013-06-15

    In this work, the effects of Be addition on the microstructure and phase transformation temperatures of Cu–12Al–xBe (x = 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 wt.%) shape memory alloys fabricated by using the arc-melting and melt-spinning techniques have been investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the arc-melted alloys consisted of austenitic β{sub 1}, martensitic β{sub 1}′ and γ{sub 2} precipitate phases, whereas melt-spun ribbons were composed of a fully martensitic phase. The average grain size of martensitic phases in melt-spun ribbons was determined by electron microscopy images, showing a decrease with increasing Beryllium (Be) amount. Moreover, it was found that the Be addition in the arc-melted alloys had a distinct effect on the morphology of the γ{sub 2} precipitate phase. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the thickness of martensitic plates in the melt-spun ribbons reduced with increasing Be addition. In a differential scanning calorimeter analysis, no martensitic transformation (M{sub s}) peak was observed in arc-melted alloys, but it was clearly detected in melt-spun ribbons, in which M{sub s} decreased dramatically with increasing Be addition. The improvement in the shape memory ability of melt-spun ribbons was explained in terms of the refinement in grain size and martensitic plates. - Highlights: • The CuAlBe SMAs were produced by means of arc-melter and melt-spinner techniques. • MT was directly obtained in melt-spuns without any intermediate process. • The transformation temperatures decreased with increasing Be amount. • The thickness of martensitic plates in the ribbons reduced with increasing Be. • SMP of CuAl was improved by the addition of Be together with rapid solidification.

  10. Laser welding of NiTi shape memory alloy wires and tubes for multi-functional design applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhi; Yang, Mao; Oliveira, João Pedro; Song, Di; Peng, Bei

    2016-08-01

    Welding and joining of NiTi shape memory alloys is essential for their integration into an increasing variety of applications. Almost all manufacturers and a significant number of researchers focus their investigation on welding NiTi, which can present both pseudoelasticity (PE) and shape memory effect. Integration of these materials would provide increased flexibility in terms of smart design, in particular for multi-functional systems. The current work investigates the mechanical, physical and phase transformation properties of similar (base materials (BMs) with the same composition) and dissimilar (BMs with different compositions) NiTi welded shape memory wires. The similar and dissimilar welded joints were successfully achieved by laser welding, which can reach up to 88.4% and 67.5% of the wire BM ductility. The joint break force of the similar and dissimilar joints were of 77.2% and 71.4% of the wire BM, respectively. Moreover, laser welding was found to effectively preserve the PE on the similar welded structures. The residual plastic strain variation of the dissimilar welded specimens at different temperatures during the cycling test may be helpful for design of multi-functional or flexible monolithic structures.

  11. One-dimensional constitutive model of stress-induced transitions between Ms and Mf in shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yun; Okuyama, Takeshi; Takagi, Toshiyuki

    2002-07-01

    Traditionally smart material actuation has been reserved for high technology industries such as space and aerospace; however, as the field matures more and more instances are found in low-cost, high production areas. This paper describes one such instance - the application of shape memory alloys to auxiliary functions in appliances. This investigation focused on lid locks for washing machines because it is representative of several other applications found in appliances including valves, dispensers, locks, brakes, etc. Several competing concepts for SMA actuated lid locks are discussed including simple analytical design models and experimental characterization of proof-of-concept prototypes. A comparison of these designs based on performance (force, response times), energy (power requirements) and economic metrics is given. From this study, a final concept was developed based upon the best attributes of the different concepts. The resulting proof-of-concept prototype demonstrated improved performance over the current state with a potential for cost reduction.

  12. Multiscale twin hierarchy in NiMnGa shape memory alloys with Fe and Cu

    DOE PAGES

    Barabash, Rozaliya I.; Barabash, Oleg M.; Popov, Dmitry; Shen, Guoyin; Park, Changyong; Yang, Wenge

    2015-01-31

    X-ray microdiffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies reveal 10 M martensitic structure with a highly correlated multiscale twin hierarchy organization in NiMnGaFeCu shape memory alloys. In this paper, high compatibility is found at the twin interfaces resulting in a highly correlated twinned lattice orientation across several laminate levels. The lattice unit cell is described as monoclinic I-centered with a = 4.28 Å, b = 4.27 Å, c = 5.40 Å, γ = 78.5°. The modulation is found parallel to the b axis. Finally, thin tapered needle-like lamellae and branching are observed near the twin boundaries.

  13. Elastic Constants of Ni-Mn-Ga Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Stipcich, M.; Manosa, L.; Planes, A.; Morin, M.; Zarestky, Jerel L; Lograsso, Tom; Stassis, C.

    2004-01-01

    We have measured the adiabatic second order elastic constants of two Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory crystals with different martensitic transition temperatures, using ultrasonic methods. The temperature dependence of the elastic constants has been followed across the ferromagnetic transition and down to the martensitic transition temperature. Within experimental errors no noticeable change in any of the elastic constants has been observed at the Curie point. The temperature dependence of the shear elastic constant C' has been found to be very different for the two alloys. Such a different behavior is in agreement with recent theoretical predictions for systems undergoing multi-stage structural transitions.

  14. Variable area nozzle for gas turbine engines driven by shape memory alloy actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rey, Nancy M. (Inventor); Miller, Robin M. (Inventor); Tillman, Thomas G. (Inventor); Rukus, Robert M. (Inventor); Kettle, John L. (Inventor); Dunphy, James R. (Inventor); Chaudhry, Zaffir A. (Inventor); Pearson, David D. (Inventor); Dreitlein, Kenneth C. (Inventor); Loffredo, Constantino V. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine engine includes a variable area nozzle having a plurality of flaps. The flaps are actuated by a plurality of actuating mechanisms driven by shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators to vary fan exist nozzle area. The SMA actuator has a deformed shape in its martensitic state and a parent shape in its austenitic state. The SMA actuator is heated to transform from martensitic state to austenitic state generating a force output to actuate the flaps. The variable area nozzle also includes a plurality of return mechanisms deforming the SMA actuator when the SMA actuator is in its martensitic state.

  15. Development of a shape memory alloy actuator for transanal endoscopic microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhigang; Hewit, Jim; Abel, Eric; Slade, Alan; Steele, Bob

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes problems in traditional transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM), and proposes a mechatronics approach in new design. As one of several actuation mechanisms to expose rectal cavity, a compression coil spring made of shape memory alloy (SMA) has been studied. A custom SMA spring actuator was designed to displace 12 mm with 45 N driving force. This actuator was embedded with our new TEM tubular structure and can be used to expose a rectal site up to 60 mm wide and 80 mm long. This exposure is considered to be sufficient for treating many tumors.

  16. Mobile Interfacial Microstructures in Single Crystals of Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiner, Hanuš

    2015-06-01

    This paper summarizes the main properties of the microstructures formed during reverse (austenite → martensite) transitions in single crystals of the Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy, and discusses the relation between these properties and the mechanical stabilization effect. It is shown that all experimentally observed interfacial microstructures ( X- and λ-interfaces and their non-classical equivalents) are not local minimizers of the quasi-static energy, and their formation is probably governed by requirements on mobility and dissipation. This conclusion is supported by finite elements models, and acoustic emission measurements.

  17. Thermodynamics of shape memory alloy wire: Modeling, experimental calibration, and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Bi-Chiau

    A thermomechanical model for a shape memory alloy (SMA) wire under uniaxial loading is implemented in a finite element framework, and simulation results are compared with mechanical and infrared experimental data. The constitutive model is a one-dimensional strain-gradient continuum model of an SMA wire element, including two internal field variables, possible unstable mechanical behavior, and the relevant thermomechanical couplings resulting from latent heat effects. The model is calibrated to recent and new experiments of typical commercially available polycrystalline NiTi wire. The shape memory effect and pseudoelastic behaviors are demonstrated numerically as a function of applied displacement rate and environmental parameters, and the results compare favorably to experimental data. The model is then used to simulate a simple SMA actuator device, and its performance is assessed for different thermal boundary conditions.

  18. Low-cycle fatigue of TiNi shape memory alloy and formulation of fatigue life

    SciTech Connect

    Tobushi, Hisaaki; Nakahara, Takafumi; Shimeno, Yoshirou; Hashimoto, Takahiro

    2000-04-01

    The low-cycle fatigue of a TiNi shape memory alloy was investigated by the rotating-bending fatigue tests in air, in water and in silicone oil. (1) The influence of corrosion fatigue in water does not appear in the region of low-cycle fatigue. (2) The temperature rise measured through an infrared thermograph during the fatigue test in air is four times as large as that measured through a thermocouple. (3) The fatigue life at an elevated temperature in air coincides with the fatigue life at the same elevated temperature in water. (4) The shape memory processing temperature does not affect the fatigue life. (5) The fatigue equation is proposed to describe the fatigue life depending on strain amplitude, temperature and frequency. The fatigue life is estimated well by the proposed equation.

  19. Thermomechanical characterization of nickel-titanium-copper shape memory alloy films

    SciTech Connect

    Seward, K P; Ramsey, P B; Krulevitch, P

    2000-10-31

    In an effort to develop a more extensive model for the thermomechanical behavior of shape memory alloy (SMA) films, a novel characterization method has been developed. This automated test has been tailored to characterize films for use in micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) actuators. The shape memory effect in NiTiCu is seen in the solid-state phase transformation from an easily deformable low-temperature state to a 'shape remembering' high-temperature state. The accurate determination of engineering properties for these films necessitates measurements of both stress and strain in microfabricated test structures over the full range of desired deformation. Our various experimental methods (uniaxial tensile tests, bimorph curvature tests and diaphragm bulge tests) provide recoverable stress and strain data and the stress-strain relations for these films. Tests were performed over a range of temperatures by resistive heating or ambient heating. These measurements provide the results necessary for developing active SMA structural film design models.

  20. Effects of Palladium Content, Quaternary Alloying, and Thermomechanical Processing on the Behavior of Ni-Ti-Pd Shape Memory Alloys for Actuator Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, Glen

    2008-01-01

    The need for compact, solid-state actuation systems for use in the aerospace, automotive, and other transportation industries is currently driving research in high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMA) having transformation temperatures above 100 C. One of the basic high temperature systems under investigation to fill this need is NiTiPd. Prior work on this alloy system has focused on phase transformations and respective temperatures, no-load shape memory behavior (strain recovery), and tensile behavior for selected alloys. In addition, a few tests have been done to determine the effect of boron additions and thermomechanical treatment on the aforementioned properties. The main properties that affect the performance of a solid state actuator, namely work output, transformation strain, and permanent deformation during thermal cycling under load have mainly been neglected. There is also no consistent data representing the mechanical behavior of this alloy system over a broad range of compositions. For this thesis, ternary NiTiPd alloys containing 15 to 46 at.% palladium were processed and the transformation temperatures, basic tensile properties, and work characteristics determined. However, testing reveals that at higher levels of alloying addition, the benefit of increased transformation temperature begins to be offset by lowered work output and permanent deformation or "walking" of the alloy during thermal cycling under load. In response to this dilemma, NiTiPd alloys have been further alloyed with gold, platinum, and hafnium additions to solid solution strengthen the martensite and parent austenite phases in order to improve the thermomechanical behavior of these materials. The tensile properties, work behavior, and dimensional stability during repeated thermal cycling under load for the ternary and quaternary alloys were compared and discussed. In addition, the benefits of more advanced thermomechanical processing or training on the dimensional stability of

  1. Precipitation Behavior of Thermo-Mechanically Treated Ti50Ni20Au20Cu10 High-Temperature Shape-Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayani, Saif Haider; Imran Khan, M.; Khalid, Fazal Ahmad; Kim, Hee Young; Miyazaki, Shuichi

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, precipitation behavior of TiNiAuCu-based high-temperature shape-memory alloys is studied. Two alloys with compositions Ti50Ni30Au20 and Ti50Ni20Au20Cu10 were prepared. After 30 % cold rolling, both alloys were then annealed at different temperatures. Formation of Cu-rich TiAuCu and Ti-rich Ti3Au precipitates was observed in Ti50Ni20Au20Cu10 alloy when annealed at different temperatures after cold deformation. It was noticed that prior cold deformation has significant effect on the precipitation behavior. A similar kind of precipitation behavior has been previously reported in TiNiPdCu alloys. Both TiAuCu and Ti3Au type precipitates were found to be deficient in Ni content which causes an increase in Ni content of the matrix and a small decrease in transformation temperatures of the Ti50Ni20Au20Cu10 alloy.

  2. Design optimization of structures with shape memory alloy member actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachikara, Michele

    A capability was developed to build a perform mass-minimization of a truss with SMA actuation to determine optimal element diameters and actuator applied temperature changes. The Nonlinear Programming/Approximation Concepts (NLP/AC) approach was used. This method is based on using a sequence of approximate optimization problems rather than optimizing with the full nonlinear analyses. Some special approximations based on new intermediate variables were used. Results are presented and analyzed.

  3. Modeling the coupling between martensitic phase transformation and plasticity in shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchiraju, Sivom

    The thermo-mechanical response of NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) is predominantly dictated by two inelastic deformation processes---martensitic phase transformation and plastic deformation. This thesis presents a new microstructural finite element (MFE) model that couples these processes and anisotropic elasticity. The coupling occurs via the stress redistribution induced by each mechanism. The approach includes three key improvements to the literature. First, transformation and plasticity are modeled at a crystallographic level and can occur simultaneously. Second, a rigorous large-strain finite element formulation is used, thereby capturing texture development (crystal rotation). Third, the formulation adopts recent first principle calculations of monoclinic martensite stiffness. The model is calibrated to experimental data for polycrystalline NiTi (49.9 at% Ni). Inputs include anisotropic elastic properties, texture, and DSC data as well as a subset of pseudoelastic and load-biased thermal cycling data. This calibration process provides updated material values---namely, larger self-hardening between similar martensite plates. It is then assessed against additional pseudoelastic and load-biased thermal cycling experimental data and neutron diffraction measurements of martensite texture evolution. Several experimental trends are captured---in particular, the transformation strain during thermal cycling monotonically increases with increasing bias stress, reaching a peak and then decreasing due to intervention of plasticity---a trend which existing MFE models are unable to capture. Plasticity is also shown to enhance stress-induced martensite formation during loading and generate retained martensite upon unloading. The simulations even enable a quantitative connection between deformation processing and two-way shape memory effect. Some experimental trends are not captured---in particular, the ratcheting of macrostrain with repeated thermal cycling. This may

  4. Aging effects in a Cu-12Al-5Ni-2Mn-1Ti shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Z.G.; Peng, H.Y.; Yang, D.Z.; Zou, W.H.

    1997-04-01

    The isothermal aging effects in an as-quenched Cu-11.88Al-5.06Ni-1.65Mn-0.96Ti (wt pct) shape memory alloy at temperatures in the range 250 C to 400 C were investigated. The changes in the state of atomic order and microstructural evolutions were traced by means of in situ X-ray diffraction and electrical resistivity measurements, as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and optical observations. The kinetics of the aging process, i.e., the temperature and time dependence of the properties including hardness, resistivity, martensitic transformation temperatures, and shape memory capacity were characterized, and at least three temperature-dependent aging stages were distinguished: (1) D0{sub 3} or L2{sub 1} atomic reordering, which causes the martensic transformation temperatures to shift upward and leads the M18R martensite to tend to be a N18R type structure; (2) formation of solute-depleted bainite which results in a drastic depression in martensitic transformation temperatures and loss of the shape memory capacity, accompanied by the atomic disordering in both the remaining parent phase and bainite; and (3) precipitation of the equilibrium {alpha} and {gamma}{sub 2} phases and destruction of the shape memory capacity.

  5. Optoelectronic Terminal-Attractor-Based Associative Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Barhen, Jacob; Farhat, Nabil H.

    1994-01-01

    Report presents theoretical and experimental study of optically and electronically addressable optical implementation of artificial neural network that performs associative recall. Shows by computer simulation that terminal-attractor-based associative memory can have perfect convergence in associative retrieval and increased storage capacity. Spurious states reduced by exploiting terminal attractors.

  6. Memory-Based Approaches and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Anthony J.; Garrod, Simon C.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we discuss 2 issues that we believe any theory of discourse comprehension has to take account of-accessing irrelevant information and granularity. Along the lines that have been suggested as demonstrating the memory-based account, we describe some work in favor of the recruitment of apparently irrelevant information from memory…

  7. Mechanical properties and theoretical modeling of self-centering shape memory alloy pseudo-rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Suchao; Mao, Chenxi; Li, Hui; Zhao, Yagebai

    2011-11-01

    Pounding between adjacent components and structures has become an important cause of structural damage or even collapse under large excitations such as earthquakes and ship collisions. Shock absorber devices (SAD) are often used to connect the separation gap to reduce the pounding force. However, some shock absorber devices may have residual deformation and need to be repaired or replaced after strong impact. A novel energy absorbing material with residual deformation self-recovery ability, martensitic nickel titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy pseudo-rubber (SMAPR), is fabricated using three methods in this study. The mechanical properties of SMAPR at room temperature and deformation self-recovery ability of SMAPR material are investigated. After that, the deformation recovery ability of SMAPR specimens even with residual deformation is further tested through heating the specimens in a thermo-control stove. The subsequent mechanical properties after deformation recovery are further investigated to investigate whether degradation in mechanical properties occurs for all kinds of specimens. The experimental results indicate that SMAPR is a kind of material with good potential to develop novel shock absorber devices for engineering applications. Furthermore, theoretical modeling of SMAPR is conducted. Micro-variable-pitch springs in parallel and series, in parallel with a friction component, are employed to model the mechanical behavior of SMAPR. The hysteretic rules are presented and the parameters of this model are derived and identified. Finally, based on micro-variable-pitch springs (MVPS) in parallel and series, a parametric analysis is carried out and the effects of nominal densities, diameters of metal wires, diameters of micro-springs and generalized coefficients of friction of SMAPR are analyzed and discussed.

  8. Nonvolatile Memory Based on Nonlinear Magnetoelectric Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jianxin; Cong, Junzhuang; Chai, Yisheng; Shang, Dashan; Shen, Shipeng; Zhai, Kun; Tian, Ying; Sun, Young

    2016-08-01

    The magnetoelectric effects in multiferroics have a great potential in creating next-generation memory devices. We use an alternative concept of nonvolatile memory based, on a type of nonlinear magnetoelectric effects showing a butterfly-shaped hysteresis loop. The principle is to utilize the states of the magnetoelectric coefficient, instead of magnetization, electric polarization, or resistance, to store binary information. Our experiments in a device made of the PMN-PT/Terfenol-D multiferroic heterostructure clearly demonstrate that the sign of the magnetoelectric coefficient can be repeatedly switched between positive and negative by applying electric fields, confirming the feasibility of this principle. This kind of nonvolatile memory has outstanding practical virtues such as simple structure, easy operation in writing and reading, low power, fast speed, and diverse materials available.

  9. The Development of Time-Based Prospective Memory in Childhood: The Role of Working Memory Updating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voigt, Babett; Mahy, Caitlin E. V.; Ellis, Judi; Schnitzspahn, Katharina; Krause, Ivonne; Altgassen, Mareike; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    This large-scale study examined the development of time-based prospective memory (PM) across childhood and the roles that working memory updating and time monitoring play in driving age effects in PM performance. One hundred and ninety-seven children aged 5 to 14 years completed a time-based PM task where working memory updating load was…

  10. Narrowing of hysteresis of cubic-tetragonal martensitic transformation by weak axial stressing of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosogor, Anna

    2016-06-01

    An influence of axial mechanical stress on the hysteresis of martensitic transformation and ordinary magnetostriction of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy has been described in the framework of a Landau-type theory of phase transitions. It has been shown that weak stress can noticeably reduce the hysteresis of martensitic transformation. Moreover, the anhysteretic deformation can be observed when the applied mechanical stress exceeds a critical stress value. The main theoretical results were compared with recent experimental data. It is argued that shape memory alloys with extremely low values of shear elastic modulus are the candidates for the experimental observation of large anhysteretic deformations.

  11. Microstructural Evolution and Functional Properties of Fe-Mn-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy Processed by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niendorf, Thomas; Brenne, Florian; Krooß, Philipp; Vollmer, Malte; Günther, Johannes; Schwarze, Dieter; Biermann, Horst

    2016-06-01

    In the current study, a Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloy is processed by additive manufacturing for the first time. Microstructural evolution upon processing is strongly affected by thermal gradients and solidification velocity and, thus, by processing parameters and the actual specimen geometry. By single-step solutionizing heat treatment pronounced grain growth is initiated leading to microstructures showing good reversibility. The compressive stress-strain response revealed maximum reversible pseudo-elastic strain of about 7.5 pct. Critical steps toward further optimization of additively manufactured Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloys are discussed.

  12. Metal dusting and carburization resistance of nickel-base alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kloewer, J.; Grabke, H.J.; Mueller-Lorenz, E.M.; Agarwal, D.C.

    1997-08-01

    Severe material failures caused by so-called metal dusting have been reported during recent years. The reason for these failures were strongly carburizing CO-H{sub 2} gas mixtures such as encountered in chemical plants for the synthesis of hydrocarbons, methanol, ammonia etc. as well as in plants for the reduction of iron ores. The carburization behavior of nine commercial nickel-base alloys and four iron-nickel-chromium alloys was investigated at 650 C in a carburizing H{sub 2}-CO-H{sub 2}O-gas with a carbon activity of a{sub c} {much_gt} 1. The iron-nickel-chromium alloys suffered severe metal dusting after a very short test period. Nickel base alloys were generally less susceptible to metal dusting than iron-base alloys. However, their corrosion behavior was found to depend sensitively on the chromium concentration of the respective alloys. Alloys like alloy 600H, with a chromium concentration of only 16%, suffered wastage rates which were similar to those of the more resistant iron-base alloys. Nickel-base alloys with chromium concentrations of 25% and above, on the other hand, showed no significant evidence of metal dusting even after 10,000 hours of exposure. It was found that these alloys are protected against metal dusting by the formation of a dense, self-healing chromia scale, which prevents the penetration of carbon into the base metal.

  13. Experimental Analysis and Numerical Simulation of Tensile Behaviour of TiNi Shape Memory Alloy Fibres Reinforced Epoxy Matrix Composite at High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Sahli, M. L.; Necib, B.

    2011-05-04

    The shape memory alloys (SMA) possess both sensing and actuating functions due to their shape memory effect, pseudo-elasticity, high damping capability and other remarkable properties. Combining the SMA with other materials can create intelligent or smart composites. The epoxy resin composites filled with TiNi alloys fibres were fabricated and their mechanical properties have been investigated. In this study, stress/strain relationships for a composite with embedded shape memory materials (SMA) fibres are presented. The paper illustrates influence of the SMA fibres upon changes in mechanical behaviour of a composite plate with the SMA components, firstly and secondly, the actuating ability and reliability of shape memory alloy hybrid composites.

  14. Radiopaque Shape Memory Alloys: NiTi-Er with Stable Superelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuissi, Ausonio; Carr, Shane; Butler, James; Gandhi, Abbasi A.; O'Donoghue, Lisa; McNamara, Karrina; Carlson, James M.; Lavelle, Shay; Tiernan, Peter; Biffi, Carlo A.; Bassani, Paola; Tofail, Syed A. M.

    2016-06-01

    Binary NiTi alloy is one of the most important biomaterials currently used in minimally invasive procedures and indwelling devices. The poor visibility of intermetallic NiTi under X-ray could be an unsatisfactory feature especially for developing low-dimensional implantable devices for the body. It is a matter of fact that the alloying of a third radiopaque element, such as noble or heavy metals, in NiTi can significantly enhance the alloy's radiopacity. Recently, it was demonstrated that the addition of a rare earth element such as Erbium has led to an equivalent radiopacity at a much lower cost than the equivalent addition of noble metals. This work reviews the main physical aspects related to the radiopacity of NiTi alloys and compares the radiopacity of NiTi-Er compositions with other NiTi-based alloys containing Pd, Pt, W and Cr. Furthermore, a NiTi-6Er alloy is produced by spark plasma sintering, and successfully processed by conventional hot and cold working procedures to a continuous wire showing stable superelastic behaviour (up to 4 % in strain), suitable for developing biomedical devices.

  15. Tetragonal Heusler-Like Mn-Ga Alloys Based Perpendicular Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qinli; Sugihara, Atsushi; Suzuki, Kazuya; Zhang, Xianmin; Miyazaki, Terunobu; Mizukami, Shigemi

    2014-10-01

    Films of the Mn-based tetragonal Heusler-like alloys, such as Mn-Ga, exhibit a large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), small damping constant, small saturation magnetization and large spin polarizations. These properties are attractive for the application to the next generation high density spin-transfer-torque (STT) magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM). We reviewed the structure, magnetic properties and Gilbert damping of the alloy films with large PMA, and the current status of research on tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) based on Mn-based tetragonal Heusler-like alloy electrode, and also discuss the issues for the application of those to STT-MRAM.

  16. Effect of Heat-Treatment on the Phases of Ni-Mn-Ga Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Huq, Ashfia; Ari-Gur, Pnina; Kimmel, Giora; Richardson, James W; Sharma, Kapil

    2009-01-01

    The Heusler alloys Ni50Mn25+xGa25-x display magnetic shape memory effect (MSM) with very fast and large reversible strain under magnetic fields. This large strain and the speed of reaction make MSM alloys attractive as smart materials. Our crystallographic investigation of these alloys, focused on non-stoichiometric composition with excess of manganese. Using neutron diffraction, we revealed the necessary processing parameters to achieve and preserve the homogeneous metastable one-phase martensitic structure that is needed for an MSM effect at room temperature.

  17. Twinning-Induced Elasticity in NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birk, Thorsten; Biswas, Somjeet; Frenzel, Jan; Eggeler, Gunther

    2016-06-01

    Pseudoelasticity (PE) in shape memory alloys relies on the formation of stress-induced martensite during loading and on the reverse transformation during unloading. PE yields reversible strains of up to 8 % and is applied in applications such as medical implants, flexible eye glass frames, damping elements, and others. Unfortunately, PE shows a strong temperature dependence and thus can only be exploited within a relatively narrow temperature window. The present work focuses on a related process, which we refer to as twinning-induced elasticity (TIE). It involves the growth and shrinkage of martensite variants which are stabilized by dislocations, which are introduced by appropriate cold work. TIE yields reversible strains of the order of 3 %. The TIE effect does not suffer from the strong temperature dependence of PE. The weak temperature dependence of mechanical TIE properties makes TIE attractive for applications where temperature fluctuations are large. In the present work, we study the TIE effect focusing on Ni50Ti50 shape memory alloy wires. The degree of plastic pre-deformation of the initial material represents a key parameter of the ingot metallurgy processing route. It governs the exploitable recoverable strain, the apparent Young's modulus, and the widths of the mechanical hysteresis. Dynamic mechanical analysis is used to study the effects of pre-deformation on elementary microstructural processes which govern TIE.

  18. Force-displacement characteristics of simply supported beam laminated with shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Zhen-Hua

    2011-12-01

    As a preliminary step in the nonlinear design of shape memory alloy (SMA) composite structures, the force-displacement characteristics of the SMA layer are studied. The bilinear hysteretic model is adopted to describe the constitutive relationship of SMA material. Under the assumption that there is no point of SMA layer finishing martensitic phase transformation during the loading and unloading process, the generalized restoring force generated by SMA layer is deduced for the case that the simply supported beam vibrates in its first mode. The generalized force is expressed as piecewise-nonlinear hysteretic function of the beam transverse displacement. Furthermore the energy dissipated by SMA layer during one period is obtained by integration, then its dependencies are discussed on the vibration amplitude and the SMA's strain (Ms-Strain) value at the beginning of martensitic phase transformation. It is shown that SMA's energy dissipating capacity is proportional to the stiffness difference of bilinear model and nonlinearly dependent on Ms-Strain. The increasing rate of the dissipating capacity gradually reduces with the amplitude increasing. The condition corresponding to the maximum dissipating capacity is deduced for given value of the vibration amplitude. The obtained results are helpful for designing beams laminated with shape memory alloys.

  19. Sensorless control for a sophisticated artificial myocardial contraction by using shape memory alloy fibre.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Y; Yambe, T; Saijo, Y; Sato, F; Tanaka, A; Yoshizawa, M; Sugai, T K; Sakata, R; Luo, Y; Park, Y; Uematsu, M; Umezu, M; Fujimoto, T; Masumoto, N; Liu, H; Baba, A; Konno, S; Nitta, S; Imachi, K; Tabayashi, K; Sasada, H; Homma, D

    2008-01-01

    The authors have been developing an artificial myocardium, which is capable of supporting natural contractile function from the outside of the ventricle. The system was originally designed by using sophisticated covalent shape memory alloy fibres, and the surface did not implicate blood compatibility. The purpose of our study on the development of artificial myocardium was to achieve the assistance of myocardial functional reproduction by the integrative small mechanical elements without sensors, so that the effective circulatory support could be accomplished. In this study, the authors fabricated the prototype artificial myocardial assist unit composed of the sophisticated shape memory alloy fibre (Biometal), the diameter of which was 100 microns, and examined the mechanical response by using pulse width modulation (PWM) control method in each unit. Prior to the evaluation of dynamic characteristics, the relationship between strain and electric resistance and also the initial response of each unit were obtained. The component for the PWM control was designed in order to regulate the myocardial contractile function, which consisted of an originally-designed RISC microcomputer with the input of displacement, and its output signal was controlled by pulse wave modulation method. As a result, the optimal PWM parameters were confirmed and the fibrous displacement was successfully regulated under the different heat transfer conditions simulating internal body temperature as well as bias tensile loading. Then it was indicated that this control theory might be applied for more sophisticated ventricular passive or active restraint by the artificial myocardium on physiological demand.

  20. Micromechanics of composites with shape memory alloy fibers in uniform thermal fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Victor; Saravanos, Dimitris A.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1995-01-01

    Analytical procedures are developed for a composite system consisting of shape memory alloy fibers within an elastic matrix subject to uniform temperature fluctuations. Micromechanics for the calculation of the equivalent properties of the composite are presented by extending the multi-cell model to incorporate shape memory alloy fibers. A three phase concentric cylinder model is developed for the analysis of local stresses which includes the fiber, the matrix, and the surrounding homogenized composite. The solution addresses the complexities induced by the nonlinear dependence of the in-situ martensite fraction of the fibers to the local stresses and temperature, and the local stresses developed from interactions between the fibers and matrix during the martensitic and reverse phase transformations. Results are presented for a nitinol/epoxy composite. The applications illustrate the response of the composite in isothermal longitudinal loading and unloading, and in temperature induced actuation. The local stresses developed in the composite under various stages of the martensitic and reverse phase transformation are also shown.

  1. Composition, Compatibility, and the Functional Performances of Ternary NiTiX High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucsek, Ashley N.; Hudish, Grant A.; Bigelow, Glen S.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Stebner, Aaron P.

    2016-03-01

    A general procedure to optimize shape memory alloys (SMAs) for specific engineering performance metrics is outlined and demonstrated through a study of ternary, NiTiX high-temperature SMAs, where X = Pd, Hf, Zr. Transformation strains are calculated using the crystallographic theory of martensite and compared to the cofactor conditions, both requiring only lattice parameters as inputs. Measurements of transformation temperatures and hysteresis provide additional comparisons between microstructural-based and transformation properties. The relationships between microstructural-based properties and engineering performance metrics are then thoroughly explored. Use of this procedure demonstrates that SMAs can be tuned for specific applications using relatively simple, fast, and inexpensive measurements and theoretical calculations. The results also indicate an overall trade-off between compatibility and strains, suggesting that alloys may be optimized for either minimal hysteresis or large transformation strains and work output. However, further analysis of the effects of aging shows that better combinations of uncompromised properties are possible through solid solution strengthening.

  2. Mechanical and functional behavior of high-temperature Ni-Ti-Pt shape memory alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Buchheit, Thomas E.; Susan, Donald F.; Massad, Jordan E.; McElhanon, James R.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2016-01-22

    A series of Ti-rich Ni-Ti-Pt ternary alloys with 13 to 18 at. pct Pt were processed by vacuum arc melting and characterized for their transformation behavior to identify shape memory alloys (SMA) that undergo transformation between 448 K and 498 K (175 °C and 225 °C) and achieve recoverable strain exceeding 2 pct. From this broader set of compositions, three alloys containing 15.5 to 16.5 at. pct Pt exhibited transformation temperatures in the vicinity of 473 K (200 °C), thus were targeted for more detailed characterization. Preliminary microstructural evaluation of these three compositions revealed a martensitic microstructure with small amountsmore » of Ti2(Ni,Pt) particles. Room temperature mechanical testing gave a response characteristic of martensitic de-twinning followed by a typical work-hardening behavior to failure. Elevated mechanical testing, performed while the materials were in the austenitic state, revealed yield stresses of approximately 500 MPa and 3.5 pct elongation to failure. Thermal strain recovery characteristics were more carefully investigated with unbiased incremental strain-temperature tests across the 1 to 5 pct strain range, as well as cyclic strain-temperature tests at 3 pct strain. As a result, the unbiased shape recovery results indicated a complicated strain recovery path, dependent on prestrain level, but overall acceptable SMA behavior within the targeted temperature and recoverable strain range.« less

  3. Fiber laser drilling of Ni46Mn27Ga27 ferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biffi, C. A.; Tuissi, A.

    2014-11-01

    The interest in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (SMAs), such as NiMnGa, is increasing, thanks to the functional properties of these smart and functional materials. One of the most evident properties of these systems is their brittleness, which makes attractive the study of unconventional manufacturing processes, such as laser machining. In this work the interaction of laser beam, once focalized on the surface of Ni46Mn27Ga27 [at%] alloy, has been studied. The experiments were performed with a single laser pulse, using a 1 kW continuous wave fiber laser. The morphology of the laser machined surfaces was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, coupled with energetic dispersion spectroscopy for the measurement of the chemical composition. The results showed that the high quality of the laser beam, coupled with great irradiances available, allow for blind or through holes to be machined on 1.8 mm plates with a single pulse in the order of a few ms. Holes were produced with size in the range of 200-300 μm; despite the long pulse duration, low amount of melted material is produced around the hole periphery. No significant variation of the chemical composition has been detected on the entrance surfaces while the exit ones have been characterized by the loss of Ga content, due to its melting point being significantly lower with respect to the other alloying elements.

  4. Mechanical and Functional Behavior of High-Temperature Ni-Ti-Pt Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchheit, Thomas E.; Susan, Donald F.; Massad, Jordan E.; McElhanon, James R.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2016-04-01

    A series of Ti-rich Ni-Ti-Pt ternary alloys with 13 to 18 at. pct Pt were processed by vacuum arc melting and characterized for their transformation behavior to identify shape memory alloys (SMA) that undergo transformation between 448 K and 498 K (175 °C and 225 °C) and achieve recoverable strain exceeding 2 pct. From this broader set of compositions, three alloys containing 15.5 to 16.5 at. pct Pt exhibited transformation temperatures in the vicinity of 473 K (200 °C), thus were targeted for more detailed characterization. Preliminary microstructural evaluation of these three compositions revealed a martensitic microstructure with small amounts of Ti2(Ni,Pt) particles. Room temperature mechanical testing gave a response characteristic of martensitic de-twinning followed by a typical work-hardening behavior to failure. Elevated mechanical testing, performed while the materials were in the austenitic state, revealed yield stresses of approximately 500 MPa and 3.5 pct elongation to failure. Thermal strain recovery characteristics were more carefully investigated with unbiased incremental strain-temperature tests across the 1 to 5 pct strain range, as well as cyclic strain-temperature tests at 3 pct strain. The unbiased shape recovery results indicated a complicated strain recovery path, dependent on prestrain level, but overall acceptable SMA behavior within the targeted temperature and recoverable strain range.

  5. Oxidation Kinetics of a NiPtTi High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Humphrey, Donald L.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2007-01-01

    A high temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA), Ni30Pt50Ti, with an M(sub s) near 600 C, was isothermally oxidized in air for 100 hr over the temperature range of 500 to 900 C. Parabolic kinetics were confirmed by log-log and parabolic plots and showed no indication of fast transient oxidation. The overall behavior could be best described by the Arrhenius relationship: k(sub p) = 1.64 x 10(exp 12)[(-250 kJ/mole)/RT] mg(sup 2)/cm(sup 4)hr. This is about a factor of 4 reduction compared to values measured here for a binary Ni47Ti commercial SMA. The activation energy agreed with most literature values for TiO2 scale growth measured for elemental Ti and other NiTi alloys. Assuming uniform alloy depletion of a 20 mil (0.5 mm) dia. HTSMA wire, approx. 1 percent Ti reduction is predicted after 20,000 hr oxidation at 500 C, but becomes much more serious at higher temperatures.

  6. A Study of Thermo-mechanically Processed High Stiffness NiTiCo Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjeri, R. M.; Norwich, D.; Sczerzenie, F.; Huang, X.; Long, M.; Ehrlinspiel, M.

    2016-03-01

    This work investigates a vacuum induction melted-vacuum arc re-melted (VIM-VAR) and thermo-mechanically processed ternary NiTiCo shape memory alloy. The NiTiCo ingot was hot processed to 6.35-mm-diameter coiled wire. The coiled wire was subsequently cold drawn to a final wire diameter of 0.53 mm, with interpass anneals. The wires were shape set at 450 °C for 3.5 min. After electropolishing, the wires were subjected to microstructural, thermal, and mechanical characterization studies. Microstructural analysis was performed by transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermal analyses by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and bend-free recovery and mechanical testing by uniaxial tensile testing. TEM did not reveal Ni-rich precipitates—either at the grain boundary or in the grain interior. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed a uniform distribution of Ni, Ti, and Co in the sample. The DSC results on the shape set wire showed a single-step transformation between the austenite and the R-phase, in the forward and reverse directions. Cyclic tensile tests of the shape set wire, processed under optimum conditions, showed minimum residual strain and a stable upper plateau stress. Further, the fatigue behavior of NiTi and NiTiCo alloys was studied by rotating beam testing. The results showed that the fatigue properties of NiTiCo, under zero mean strain, are equivalent to that of binary NiTi in the high-cycle and medium-cycle regimes, taking into account the higher stiffness of NiTiCo. The above analyses helped in establishing the processing-structure-property correlation in a VIM-VAR-melted NiTiCo shape memory alloy.

  7. [Mechanical studies on casting titanium alloy denture base].

    PubMed

    Ito, M

    1990-03-01

    The mechanical properties of the Akers type clasp, bar and frame made by the newly developed Ti-20Cr-0.2Si alloy were studied in order to obtain the indices for designing the cast partial denture base. In the case of the clasp, the bending strength of the Ti-20Cr-0.2Si alloy and pure Ti was lower than that of the Co-Cr alloy. The Ti-20Cr-0.2Si alloy and pure Ti may have the same retentive force as the gold type IV alloy because its bending behavior was similar to that of the gold alloy. In the cyclic bending test, the permanent deflection of the Ti-20Cr-0.2Si alloy was lower than that of the pure Ti and Co-Cr alloy. It had almost the same value as that of the gold alloy. Considering the permanent deflection and fracture, it is preferable that the undercut of the abutment tooth for the Ti-20Cr-0.02Si alloy clasp is 0.50mm or less. The Ti-20Cr-0.2Si alloy bars and frame showed the same bending behavior and strain distribution as the gold alloy. In the case of the Ti-20Cr-0.2Si alloy bar thickened about 30%, the strain was decreased and close to that of the Co-Cr alloy. It was suggested that the Ti-20Cr-0.2Si alloy bar or frame should be designed like the gold alloy. PMID:2196313

  8. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  9. Direct in situ measurement of coupled magnetostructural evolution in a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy and its theoretical modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Pramanick, Abhijit; Shapiro, Steve M.; Glavic, Artur; Samolyuk, German; Aczel, Adam A.; Lauter, Valeria; Ambaye, Haile; Gai, Zheng; Ma, Jie; Stoica, Alexandru D.; et al

    2015-10-14

    In this study, ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMAs) have shown great potential as active components in next generation smart devices due to their exceptionally large magnetic-field-induced strains and fast response times. During application of magnetic fields in FSMAs, as is common in several magnetoelastic smart materials, there occurs simultaneous rotation of magnetic moments and reorientation of twin variants, resolving which, although critical for design of new materials and devices, has been difficult to achieve quantitatively with current characterization methods. At the same time, theoretical modeling of these phenomena also faced limitations due to uncertainties in values of physical properties suchmore » as magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MCA), especially for off-stoichiometric FSMA compositions. Here, in situ polarized neutron diffraction is used to measure directly the extents of both magnetic moments rotation and crystallographic twin-reorientation in an FSMA single crystal during the application of magnetic fields. Additionally, high-resolution neutron scattering measurements and first-principles calculations based on fully relativistic density functional theory are used to determine accurately the MCA for the compositionally disordered alloy of Ni2Mn1.14Ga0.86. The results from these state-of-the-art experiments and calculations are self-consistently described within a phenomenological framework, which provides quantitative insights into the energetics of magnetostructural coupling in FSMAs. Based on the current model, the energy for magnetoelastic twin boundaries propagation for the studied alloy is estimated to be ~150kJ/m3.« less

  10. New type of Schottky diode-based Cu-Al-Mn-Cr shape memory material films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksu Canbay, C.; Dere, A.; Mensah-Darkwa, Kwadwo; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Karagoz Genç, Z.; Gupta, R. K.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2016-07-01

    Cr-doped CuAlMn shape memory alloys were produced by arc melting method. The effects of Cr content on microstructure and transformation parameters of were investigated. The alloys were characterized by X-ray analysis, optical microscope observations and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. The grain size of the alloys was decreased by the addition of Cr into CuAlMn alloy system. The martensite transformation temperature was shifted both the lower temperature and higher temperature with the addition of chromium. This change was explained on the basis of the change in the thermodynamics such as enthalpy, entropy and activation energy values. The obtained results indicate that the phase transformation temperatures of the CuAlMn alloy system can be controlled by addition of Cr. We fabricated a Schottky barrier diode and observed that ideality factor and barrier height increase with increasing temperature. The diodes exhibited a thermal sensor behavior. This indicates that Schottky diode-based Cu-Al-Mn-Cr shape memory material films can be used as a sensor in high-temperature measurement applications.

  11. Cast Fe-base cylinder/regenerator housing alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, F.; Kindlimann, L.

    1980-01-01

    The development of an iron-base alloy that can meet the requirements of automotive Stirling engine cylinders and regenerator housings is described. Alloy requirements are as follows: a cast alloy, stress for 5000-hr rupture life of 200 MPa (29 ksi) at 775 C (1427 F), oxidation/corrosion resistance comparable to that of N-155, compatibility with hydrogen, and an alloy cost less than or equal to that of 19-9DL. The preliminary screening and evaluation of ten alloys are described.

  12. Improvement of the functional properties of nanostructured Ti-Ni shape memory alloys by means of thermomechanical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreitcberg, Alena

    Severe plastic deformation (SPD) is commonly used for nanostructure formation in Ti-Ni shape memory alloys (SMAs), but it increases the risk of damage during processing and, consequently, negatively affects functional fatigue resistance of these materials. The principal objective of this project is, therefore, to study the interrelations between the processing conditions, damageability during processing, microstructure and the functional properties of Ti-Ni SMAs with the aim of improving long-term functional performances of these materials by optimizing their processing conditions. First, microstructure and fatigue properties of Ti-Ni SMAs were studied after thermomechanical treatment (TMT) with different combinations of severe cold and warm rolling (CR and WR), as well as intermediate and post-deformation annealing (IA and PDA) technological steps. It was shown that either when WR and IA were introduced into the TMT schedule, or CR intensity was decreased, the fatigue life was improved as a consequence of less processing-induced damage and higher density of the favorable B2-austenite texture. This improvement was reached, however, at a price of a lower multi-cycle functional stability of these materials, the latter being a direct consequence of the microstructure coarsening after higher-temperature lower-intensity processing. At the end of this study, however, it was not possible to distinguish between contributions to the functional performances of Ti-Ni SMAs from different processing-related features: a) grain/subgrain size; b) texture; and c) level of rolling-induced defects. To be capable of separating contributions to the functional properties of Ti-Ni alloys from grain/subgrain size and from texture, the theoretical crystallographic resource of recovery strain after different TMTs and, therefore, different textures, were calculated and compared with the experiment. The comparative analysis showed that the structural factors (grain/subgrain size) strongly

  13. Oxide Scales Formed on NiTi and NiPtTi Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Garg, Anita; Rogers, Richard B.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    Ni-49Ti and Ni-30Pt-50Ti (at.%) shape memory alloys were oxidized isothermally in air over the temperature range of 500 to 900 C. The microstructure, composition, and phase content of the scales were studied by SEM, EDS, XRD, and metallography. Extensive plan view SEM/EDS identified various features of intact or spalled scale surfaces. The outer surface of the scale was a relatively pure TiO2 rutile structure, typified by a distinct highly striated and faceted crystal morphology. Crystal size increased significantly with temperature. Spalled regions exhibited some porosity and less distinct features. More detailed information was obtained by correlation of SEM/EDS studies of 700 C/100 hr cross-sections with XRD analyses of serial or taper-polishing of plan surfaces. Overall, multiple layers exhibited graded mixtures of NiO, TiO2, NiTiO3, Ni(Ti) or Pt(Ni,Ti) metal dispersoids, Ni3Ti or Pt3Ti depletion zones, and substrate, in that order. The NiTi alloy contained a 3 at.% Fe impurity that appeared in embedded localized Fe-Ti-rich oxides, while the NiPtTi alloy contained a 2 v/o dispersion of TiC that appeared in lower layers. The oxidation kinetics of both alloys (in a previous report) indicated parabolic growth and an activation energy (250 kJ/mole) near those reported in other Ti and NiTi studies. This is generally consistent with TiO2 existing as the primary scale constituent, as described here.

  14. Microstructure of cryogenically treated martensitic shape memory nickel-titanium alloy

    PubMed Central

    Vinothkumar, Thilla Sekar; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Prabhakaran, Gopalakrishnan; Rajadurai, Arunachalam

    2015-01-01

    Context: Recent introduction of shape memory (SM) nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy into endodontics is a major breakthrough. Although the flexibility of these instruments was enhanced, fracture of rotary endodontic instruments during instrumentation is an important challenge for the operator. Implementation of supplementary manufacturing methods that would improve the fatigue life of the instrument is desirable. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of dry cryogenic treatment (CT) conditions on the microstructure of martensitic SM NiTi alloy. Materials and Methods: Experiments were conducted on Ni-51 wt% Ti-49 wt% SM alloy. Five cylindrical specimens and five sheet specimens were subjected to different CT conditions: Deep CT (DCT) 24 group: −185°C; 24 h, DCT 6 group: −185°C; 6 h, shallow CT (SCT) 24 group: −80°C, 24 h, SCT 6 group: −80°C, 6 h and control group. Microstructure of surface was observed on cylindrical specimens with an optical microscope and scanning electron microscope at different magnifications. Subsurface structure was analyzed on sheet specimens using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results: Microstructures of all SM NiTi specimens had equiaxed grains (approximately 25 μm) with well-defined boundaries and precipitates. XRD patterns of cryogenically treated specimens revealed accentuation of austenite and martensite peaks. The volume of martensite and its crystallite size was relatively more in DCT 24 specimen. Conclusions: DCT with 24 h soaking period increases the martensite content of the SM NiTi alloy without altering the grain size. PMID:26180413

  15. Quasi-static modeling of NiMnGa magnetic shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couch, Ronald N.; Chopra, Inderjit

    2004-07-01

    A quasi-static model for NiMnGa magnetic shape memory alloy (MSMA) is formulated on the basis of NiTi SMA constitutive models such as the Brinson model, because of the similarities that exist in the behavior of both materials. NiMnGa shows a magnetically induced shape memory effect as well as a pseudoelastic behavior. Quasi-static tests at constant applied magnetic field and stress were conducted to identify the model parameters. The material parameters include free strain, Young's modulus, critical threshold fields and stress-influence coefficients. The Young's moduli of the material in its field preferred and stress preferred states were determined to be 450 MPa and 820 MPa respectively. Critical threshold fields as a function of stress were determined from constant stress testing. These test data were used to assemble a critical stress-temperature profile that is useful in predicting the various states of the material for a wide range of magnetic or mechanical loading conditions. Although the constant applied field and constant stress data have yet to be fully correlated, the model parameters identified from the experiments were used to implement an initial version of the quasi-static model. The model shows good correlation with test data and captures both the magnetic shape memory effect and pseudoelasticity. This introductory model provides a sound basis for further refinements of a quasi-static NiMnGa model.

  16. Polyalkene-based shape-memory polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, J.; Cuevas, J. M.; Dios, J. R.; Vilas, J. L.; León, L. M.

    2007-07-01

    A series of polymers showing shape memory properties were developed based on polyalkenes derived from cyclooctene and related structures. These polymeric systems were synthesized via ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) using a well-defined ruthenium catalyst (Grubbs' type) by varying reaction conditions and proportions. Control over molecular weight was achieved by the inclusion of a chain transfer agent (CTA) and its influence on the behaviour of the obtained materials was evaluated. In order to provide them with shape memory behaviour the compounds were subjected to suitable chemical-thermal treatments and its characterization was accomplished by means of several techniques: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), etc. Thus polymers developed herein could become a different alternative to the most studied and commercially available polyurethane based systems.

  17. High temperature strain glass in Ti50(Pd50-xCrx) alloy and the associated shape memory effect and superelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yumei; Xue, Dezhen; Ding, Xiangdong; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Sun, Jun; Ren, Xiaobing

    2009-10-01

    Strain glass has recently been reported in Ti50-xNi50+x (x≥1.5 at %) alloys and caused by the existence of point defects. This strain glass alloy, being nonmartensitic, exhibits shape memory effect (SME) and superelasticity (SE) around the freezing temperature T0. However, the T0 of Ti50-xNi50+x (x≥1.5 at %) strain glass alloy is very low (˜160 K), thus restricting its potential applications. In the present letter, we report a strain glass system, Ti50(Pd50-xCrx) (x≥9 at %), which has a significantly higher freezing temperature. It is based on a high-temperature martensitic system TiPd (with Ms˜810 K) and dopant Cr (as point defect). For Ti50(Pd40Cr10) strain glass, the freezing transition occurs at T0˜250 K, being close to the room temperature. Correspondingly, it exhibits SME and SE around its high T0. We further clarified that T0 of strain glass alloy is controlled by the martensitic transformation temperature Ms (i.e., martensite stability) of its corresponding host alloy without point defect. Our work provides insight into how to develop strain glass with desired T0 and the associated SME and SE for applications.

  18. Constitutive model for the dynamic response of a NiTi shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaohong; Zeng, Xiangguo; Chen, Huayan

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, based on irreversible thermodynamic theory, the Helmholtz free energy function, was selected to deduce both the master equations and evolution equations of the constitutive model of a NiTi alloy under high strain. The Helmholtz free energy function contains the parameters of the reflecting phase transition and plastic property. The constitutive model for a NiTi alloy was implemented using a semi-implicit stress integration algorithm. Four successive stages can be differentiated and simulated: parent phase elasticity, martensitic phase transition, martensitic elasticity, and dislocation yield. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  19. Micro-processing of NiMnGa shape memory alloy by using a nanosecond fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biffi, C. A.; Tuissi, A.

    2016-04-01

    The interest on Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloys (FSMAs), such as NiMnGa, is growing up, thanks to their functional properties to be employed in a new class of micro-devices. The most evident critical issue, limiting the use of these systems in the production of industrial devices, is the brittleness of the bulk material; its workability by using convectional processing methods is very limited. Thus, alternative processing methods, including laser processing, are encouraged for the manufacture of FSMAs based new devices. In this work, the effect of the nanosecond laser microprocessing on Ni45Mn33Ga22 [at%] has been studied. Linear grooves were realized by a nanosecond 30 W fiber laser; the machined surfaces were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy, coupled with energetic dispersion spectroscopy for the composition analysis. The morphology of the grooves was affected by the laser scanning velocity and the number of laser pulses while the measured material removal rate appeared to be influenced mainly by the number of laser pulses. Compositional modification, associated to the loss of Ga content, was detected only for the lower scanning velocity, because of the high fluence. On the contrary, by increasing the velocity up to 1000 mm/s no Ga loss can be seen, making possible the laser processing of this functional alloy without its chemical modification. The use of short pulses allowed also to reduce the amount of recast material and the compositional change with respect to long pulses. Finally, the calorimetric analysis indicated that laser nanosecond microprocessing could affect the functional properties of this alloy: a larger decrease of the characteristic temperatures of the martensitic transformation was observed in correspondence of the low scanning velocity.

  20. Goal-Directed Modulation of Neural Memory Patterns: Implications for fMRI-Based Memory Detection.

    PubMed

    Uncapher, Melina R; Boyd-Meredith, J Tyler; Chow, Tiffany E; Rissman, Jesse; Wagner, Anthony D

    2015-06-01

    Remembering a past event elicits distributed neural patterns that can be distinguished from patterns elicited when encountering novel information. These differing patterns can be decoded with relatively high diagnostic accuracy for individual memories using multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data. Brain-based memory detection--if valid and reliable--would have clear utility beyond the domain of cognitive neuroscience, in the realm of law, marketing, and beyond. However, a significant boundary condition on memory decoding validity may be the deployment of "countermeasures": strategies used to mask memory signals. Here we tested the vulnerability of fMRI-based memory detection to countermeasures, using a paradigm that bears resemblance to eyewitness identification. Participants were scanned while performing two tasks on previously studied and novel faces: (1) a standard recognition memory task; and (2) a task wherein they attempted to conceal their true memory state. Univariate analyses revealed that participants were able to strategically modulate neural responses, averaged across trials, in regions implicated in memory retrieval, including the hippocampus and angular gyrus. Moreover, regions associated with goal-directed shifts of attention and thought substitution supported memory concealment, and those associated with memory generation supported novelty concealment. Critically, whereas MVPA enabled reliable classification of memory states when participants reported memory truthfully, the ability to decode memory on individual trials was compromised, even reversing, during attempts to conceal memory. Together, these findings demonstrate that strategic goal states can be deployed to mask memory-related neural patterns and foil memory decoding technology, placing a significant boundary condition on their real-world utility. PMID:26041920

  1. In Situ Photoelectron Emission Microscopy of a Thermally Induced Martensitic Transformation in a CuZnAI Shape Memory Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Gang; Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Hess, Wayne P.; Cai, Mingdong; Langford, Stephen C.; Dickinson, J T.

    2006-02-27

    Photoemission electron microscopy, in conjunction with photoemission spectroscopy, reflectivity, and surface roughness measurements, is used to study the thermally-induced martensitic transformation in a CuZnAI shape memory alloy. Real-time phase transformation is observed as a nearly instantaneous change of photoelectron intensity, accompanied by microstructural deformation and displacement due to the shape memory effect. The difference in the photoelectron intensity before and after the phase transformation is attributed to the concomitant change of work function as measured by photoelectron spectroscopy. Photoemission electron microscopy is shown to be a valuable new technique facilitating the study of phase transformations in shape memory alloys, and provides real-time information on microstructural changes and phase-dependent electronic properties.

  2. Investigations into the physical mechanisms that facilitate transformation hysteresis in shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Reginald F.

    Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) undergo a reversible martensitic transformation (MT) that may be thermal- or stress-induced enabling the recovery of large deformations, up to 12% strain, can be fully recovered, albeit a hysteresis exists. Characterizing the hysteresis for classes of SMAs is essential for their practical application. It is well known that the hysteresis is due to energy dissipative mechanisms, with the primary mechanisms being frictional resistance to interfacial motion and partial plastic accommodation of shape and volume changes. In previous work, however, the origins of potential dissipative mechanisms have not been clarified, and the factors that influence these mechanisms (i.e. external stress fields, matrix strength properties, precipitate microstructure, plastic accommodation, detwinning, etc.) have not been investigated with rigorous experimentation. In this study, an experimental program is designed to address this issue. This comprehensive experimental program, including stress-free thermal cycling, constant load thermal cycling, and constant temperature stress/strain cycling, is undertaken for NiTi, CoNiAl, NiFeGa, and NiMnGa SMAs in the aged and unaged states. The NiFeGa and NiMnGa classes of SMAs undergo martensite to martensite inter-martensitic transformations. The experimental findings characterize the effect of second-phase particles and inter-martensitic transformations on the level of hysteresis. To ascertain physical mechanisms responsible for the hysteresis, in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis provides insight into microstructure features. The results expose the role of frictional resistance and partial plastic accommodation on the observed differential magnitudes of thermal and stress hysteresis. In particular, larger hysteresis magnitudes are mainly attributed to dislocation emissions at the austenite/martensite phase boundary, designated micro-scale plasticity, that lower coherent interface strains, and thus

  3. Shape memory alloy nanostructures with coupled dynamic thermo-mechanical effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhote, R. P.; Gomez, H.; Melnik, R. N. V.; Zu, J.

    2015-07-01

    Employing the Ginzburg-Landau phase-field theory, a new coupled dynamic thermo-mechanical 3D model has been proposed for modeling the cubic-to-tetragonal martensitic transformations in shape memory alloy (SMA) nanostructures. The stress-induced phase transformations and thermo-mechanical behavior of nanostructured SMAs have been investigated. The mechanical and thermal hysteresis phenomena, local non-uniform phase transformations and corresponding non-uniform temperatures and deformations' distributions are captured successfully using the developed model. The predicted microstructure evolution qualitatively matches with the experimental observations. The developed coupled dynamic model has provided a better understanding of underlying martensitic transformation mechanisms in SMAs, as well as their effect on the thermo-mechanical behavior of nanostructures.

  4. Magneto-optical spectroscopy of ferromagnetic shape-memory Ni-Mn-Ga alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Veis, M. Beran, L.; Zahradnik, M.; Antos, R.; Straka, L.; Kopecek, J.; Fekete, L.; Heczko, O.

    2014-05-07

    Magneto-optical properties of single crystal of Ni{sub 50.1}Mn{sub 28.4}Ga{sub 21.5} magnetic shape memory alloy in martensite and austenite phase were systematically studied. Crystal orientation was approximately along (100) planes of parent cubic austenite. At room temperature, the sample was in modulated 10M martensite phase and transformed to cubic austenite at 323 K. Spectral dependence of polar magneto-optical Kerr effect was obtained by generalized magneto-optical ellipsometry with rotating analyzer in the photon energy range from 1.2 to 4 eV, and from room temperature to temperature above the Curie point. The Kerr rotation spectra exhibit prominent features typical for complexes containing Mn atoms. Significant spectral changes during transformation to austenite can be explained by different optical properties caused by changes in density of states near the Fermi energy.

  5. PATH OPTIMIZATION AND CONTROL OF A SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY ACTUATED CATHETER FOR ENDOCARDIAL RADIOFREQUENCY ABLATION

    PubMed Central

    Wiest, Jennifer H.; Buckner, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a real-time path optimization and control strategy for shape memory alloy (SMA) actuated cardiac ablation catheters, potentially enabling the creation of more precise lesions with reduced procedure times and improved patient outcomes. Catheter tip locations and orientations are optimized using parallel genetic algorithms to produce continuous ablation paths with near normal tissue contact through physician-specified points. A nonlinear multivariable control strategy is presented to compensate for SMA hysteresis, bandwidth limitations, and coupling between system inputs. Simulated and experimental results demonstrate efficient generation of ablation paths and optimal reference trajectories. Closed-loop control of the SMA-actuated catheter along optimized ablation paths is validated experimentally. PMID:25684857

  6. Issues Concerning the Oxidation of Ni(Pt)Ti Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James

    2011-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of the Ni-30Pt-50Ti high temperature shape memory alloy is compared to that of conventional NiTi nitinol SMAs. The oxidation rates were 1/4 those of NiTi under identical conditions. Ni-Ti-X SMAs are dominated by TiO2 scales, but, in some cases, the activation energy diverges for unexplained reasons. Typically, islands of metallic Ni or Pt(Ni) particles are embedded in lower scale layers due to rapid selective growth of TiO2 and low oxygen potential within the scale. The blocking effect of Pt-rich particles and lower diffusivity of Pt-rich depletion zones are proposed to account for the reduction in oxidation rates.

  7. Shape Memory Alloy Research and Development at NASA Glenn - Current and Future Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benafan, Othmane

    2015-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a unique class of multifunctional materials that have the ability to recover large deformations or generate high stresses in response to thermal, mechanical and or electromagnetic stimuli. These abilities have made them a viable option for actuation systems in aerospace, medical, and automotive applications, amongst others. However, despite many advantages and the fact that SMA actuators have been developed and used for many years, so far they have only found service in a limited range of applications. In order to expand their applications, further developments are needed to increase their reliability and stability and to address processing, testing and qualification needed for large-scale commercial application of SMA actuators.

  8. Fatigue properties of NiTi shape-memory alloy thin plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Taya, Minoru; Liang, Yuanchang; Namli, Onur C.; Saito, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    The mechanical and fatigue characteristics of superelastic NiTi thin plates in the large strain area were obtained by tensile and pulsating 4-point bending tests to establish the design guidelines for the ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) composite actuator and its fatigue life. The stress-strain curves of NiTi thin plates were found to be strain rate dependent. The finite element analysis (FEA) result using the stress-strain curve measured by tensile test is in good agreement with the experimental results of the 4-point bending tests. The relationship between the maximum bending strain and the number of cycles to failure in pulsating 4-point bending fatigue tests was obtained as well as an analysis of the fatigue fracture surfaces of NiTi thin plates.

  9. Structural Acoustic Response of a Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Panel (Lessons Learned)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2002-01-01

    This study presents results from an effort to fabricate a shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) panel specimen and test the structure for dynamic response and noise transmission characteristics under the action of thermal and random acoustic loads. A method for fabricating a SMAHC laminate with bi-directional SMA reinforcement is described. Glass-epoxy unidirectional prepreg tape and Nitinol ribbon comprise the material system. Thermal activation of the Nitinol actuators was achieved through resistive heating. The experimental hardware required for mechanical support of the panel/actuators and for establishing convenient electrical connectivity to the actuators is presented. Other experimental apparatus necessary for controlling the panel temperature and acquiring structural acoustic data are also described. Deficiency in the thermal control system was discovered in the process of performing the elevated temperature tests. Discussion of the experimental results focuses on determining the causes for the deficiency and establishing means for rectifying the problem.

  10. Vibration suppression by modulation of elastic modulus using shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, D.J.; Parker, G.G.; Inman, D.J.

    1993-03-01

    The first portion of this paper proposes a method of fabricating a material whose modulus can be changed substantially through the application of a specified stimulus. The particular implementation presented here indirectly exploits the large deformation associated with shape memory alloys to achieve the desired modulation of stiffness. The next portion of this paper discusses a class of vibration problems for which such materials have a serious potential for vibration suppression. These are problems, such as the spinning up of rotating machinery, in which the excitation at any time lies within a narrow frequency band, and that band moves through the frequency spectrum in a predictable manner. Finally, an example problem is examined and the utility of this approach is discussed.

  11. High thermal stable and fast switching Ni-Ge-Te alloy for phase change memory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Liangliang; Wu, Liangcai; Zhu, Wenqing; Ji, Xinglong; Zheng, Yonghui; Song, Zhitang; Rao, Feng; Song, Sannian; Ma, Zhongyuan; Xu, Ling

    2015-12-01

    Ni-Ge-Te phase change material is proposed and investigated for phase change memory (PCM) applications. With Ni addition, the crystallization temperature, the data retention ability, and the crystallization speed are remarkably improved. The Ni-Ge-Te material has a high crystallization temperature (250 °C) and good data retention ability (149 °C). A reversible switching between SET and RESET state can be achieved by an electrical pulse as short as 6 ns. Up to ˜3 × 104 SET/RESET cycles are obtained with a resistance ratio of about two orders of magnitude. All of these demonstrate that Ni-Ge-Te alloy is a promising material for high speed and high temperature PCM applications.

  12. Measurement and Prediction of the Thermomechanical Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Brian; Turner, Travis L.; Seelecke, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    An experimental and numerical investigation into the static and dynamic responses of shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) beams is performed to provide quantitative validation of a recently commercialized numerical analysis/design tool for SMAHC structures. The SMAHC beam specimens consist of a composite matrix with embedded pre-strained SMA actuators, which act against the mechanical boundaries of the structure when thermally activated to adaptively stiffen the structure. Numerical results are produced from the numerical model as implemented into the commercial finite element code ABAQUS. A rigorous experimental investigation is undertaken to acquire high fidelity measurements including infrared thermography and projection moire interferometry for full-field temperature and displacement measurements, respectively. High fidelity numerical results are also obtained from the numerical model and include measured parameters, such as geometric imperfection and thermal load. Excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured results of the static and dynamic thermomechanical response, thereby providing quantitative validation of the numerical tool.

  13. Lattice dynamics of the high-temperature shape-memory alloy Nb-Ru

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, S. M.; Xu, G.; Gu, G.; Fonda, R. W.

    2006-06-01

    Nb-Ru is a high-temperature shape-memory alloy that undergoes a martensitic transformation from a parent cubic {beta}-phase into a tetragonal {beta}{sup '} phase at T{sub M}{approx}900 deg. C. Measurements of the phonon dispersion curves on a single crystal show that the [110]-TA{sub 2} phonon branch, corresponding in the q=0 limit to the elastic constant C{sup '}=1/2(C{sub 11}-C{sub 12}) has an anomalous temperature dependence. Nearly the entire branch softens with decreasing temperature as T{sub M} is approached. The temperature dependence of the low-q phonon energies suggests that the elastic constants would approach 0 as T approaches T{sub M}, indicating a second-order transition. No additional lattice modulation is observed in the cubic phase.

  14. Shape recovery of shape memory alloy fiber embedded resin matrix smart composite after crack repair.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Kenichi; Kawano, Fumiaki; Asaoka, Kenzo

    2003-06-01

    Ni-Ti shape memory alloy fiber embedded resin matrix composites were produced for evaluation of "smart denture", a newly developing denture with the function to close its own crack. Their bending strength and shape recovery after instant crack repair was estimated. The embedded fibers did not decrease the bending strength of the composite after repair. The crack closure of the composites was performed well simply by heating at 80 degrees C. Nevertheless, they showed apparent deflection after crack repair. The following two phenomena were supposed to be the main cause of it: the polymerization shrinkage of matrix resin with heating, and the coefficient of the thermal expansion mismatch between the fiber and the matrix. The embedded fibers could close the crack of the matrix with enough high accuracy for specimen repair, but they turned out to change the specimen shape after repair.

  15. Tuning the vibration of a rotor with shape memory alloy metal rubber supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yanhong; Zhang, Qicheng; Zhang, Dayi; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Liu, Baolong; Hong, Jie

    2015-09-01

    The paper describes a novel smart rotor support damper with variable stiffness made with a new multifunctional material - the shape memory alloy metal rubber (SMA-MR). SMA-MR gives high load bearing capability (yield limit up to 100 MPa and stiffness exceeding 1e8 N/m), high damping (loss factor between 0.15 and 0.3) and variable stiffness (variation of 2.6 times between martensite and austenite phases). The SMA-MR has been used to replace a squeeze film damper and combined with an elastic support. The mechanical performance of the smart support damper has been investigated at room and high temperatures on a rotor test rig. The vibration tuning capabilities of the SMA-MR damper have been evaluated through FEM simulations and experimental tests. The study shows the feasibility of using the SMA-MR material for potential applications of active vibration control at different temperatures in rotordynamics systems.

  16. Photofabrication of the third dimension of NiTi shape memory alloy microactuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, David M.; Leong, Tony; Lim, Siang H.; Kohl, Manfred

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes experimental results of using various microlithography techniques to fabricate a range of microactuator devices from NiTi shape memory alloys. The range of products includes: planar double-beams form rolled foils etched form both sides; tapered double-beams; planar double beams from sputter-deposited films etched rom one side; a tubular test piece. Such photofabrication in not easily achieved and problems discussed in this paper include: achieving acceptable edge profiles through the thickness of the materials while maintaining high etch factors; tapering foil microactuators by means of chemical micro milling; coating NiTi tubes with electrophoretic photoresist; imaging a curved surface with a small radius of curvature; control of etching parameters for a constant rate of etch; the influence of NiTi oxide coatings on etching and; technical comparisons with other potential manufacturing processes.

  17. Direct observation of hierarchical nucleation of martensite and size-dependent superelasticity in shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lifeng; Ding, Xiangdong; Li, Ju; Lookman, Turab; Sun, Jun

    2014-02-21

    Martensitic transformation usually creates hierarchical internal structures beyond mere change of the atomic crystal structure. Multi-stage nucleation is thus required, where nucleation (level-1) of the underlying atomic crystal lattice does not have to be immediately followed by the nucleation of higher-order superstructures (level-2 and above), such as polysynthetic laths. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we directly observe the nucleation of the level-2 superstructure in a Cu-Al-Ni single crystal under compression, with critical super-nuclei size L2c around 500 nm. When the sample size D decreases below L2c, the superelasticity behavior changes from a flat stress plateau to a continuously rising stress-strain curve. Such size dependence definitely would impact the application of shape memory alloys in miniaturized MEMS/NEMS devices.

  18. On the driving force for crack growth during thermal actuation of shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxevanis, T.; Parrinello, A. F.; Lagoudas, D. C.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of thermomechanically induced phase transformation on the driving force for crack growth in polycrystalline shape memory alloys is analyzed in an infinite center-cracked plate subjected to a thermal actuation cycle under mechanical load in plain strain. Finite element calculations are carried out to determine the mechanical fields near the static crack and the crack-tip energy release rate using the virtual crack closure technique. A substantial increase of the energy release rate - an order of magnitude for some material systems - is observed during the thermal cycle due to the stress redistribution induced by large scale phase transformation. Thus, phase transformation occurring due to thermal variations under mechanical load may result in crack growth if the crack-tip energy release rate reaches a material specific critical value.

  19. Active control of sound radiation from panels using embedded shape memory alloy fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, C. A.; Fuller, C. R.; Liang, C.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamental relations and techniques demonstrating active structural-acoustic control using shape memory alloy (SMA) reinforced composites are discussed. A symmetric SMA reinforced laminate is described by the governing equation, then the Rayleigh-Ritz method is used to obtain an approximate solution to the governing equation, and the assumed solution is employed for the necessary energy expression. Transmission of sound through the composite plates is analyzed, the calculated natural frequencies for the first ten natural frequencies of the inactivated and fully activated plate are presented, and the transmission loss for the SMA reinforced composite plates is calculated for both the activated and inactivated cases. It is shown that acoustically excited SMA reinforced composite plates have the ability to adaptively change radiation efficiency, transmission loss, and directivity patterns of transmitted sound.

  20. Modeling the dynamic behavior of a shape memory alloy actuated catheter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veeramani, Arun S.; Buckner, Gregory D.; Owen, Stephen B.; Cook, Richard C.; Bolotin, Gil

    2008-02-01

    In this paper we investigate the transient behavior of a simple active catheter: a central tube actuated by a single nitinol tendon enclosed by an outer sleeve. Dynamic models are developed to characterize the transient behavior and optimize the design of an experimental prototype. The bending mechanics are derived using a circular arc model and are experimentally validated. Nitinol actuation is described using the Seelecke-Muller-Achenbach model for single-crystal shape memory alloys using experimentally determined parameters. The dynamic characteristics of this active catheter system are simulated and compared with experimental results. Joule heating is used to generate tip deflections, which are computed in real time using a dual-camera imaging system. The effects of outer sleeve thickness on heat transfer and transient response characteristics are studied.

  1. Modeling and Bayesian parameter estimation for shape memory alloy bending actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crews, John H.; Smith, Ralph C.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we employ a homogenized energy model (HEM) for shape memory alloy (SMA) bending actuators. Additionally, we utilize a Bayesian method for quantifying parameter uncertainty. The system consists of a SMA wire attached to a flexible beam. As the actuator is heated, the beam bends, providing endoscopic motion. The model parameters are fit to experimental data using an ordinary least-squares approach. The uncertainty in the fit model parameters is then quantified using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. The MCMC algorithm provides bounds on the parameters, which will ultimately be used in robust control algorithms. One purpose of the paper is to test the feasibility of the Random Walk Metropolis algorithm, the MCMC method used here.

  2. Actuator lifetime predictions for Ni60Ti40 shape memory alloy plate actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Robert; Ottmers, Cade; Hewling, Brett; Lagoudas, Dimitris

    2016-04-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs), due to their ability to repeatedly recover substantial deformations under applied mechanical loading, have the potential to impact the aerospace, automotive, biomedical, and energy industries as weight and volume saving replacements for conventional actuators. While numerous applications of SMA actuators have been flight tested and can be found in industrial applications, these actuators are generally limited to non-critical components, are not widely implemented and frequently one-off designs, and are generally overdesigned due to a lack of understanding of the effect of the loading path on the fatigue life and the lack of an accurate method of predicting actuator lifetimes. Previous efforts have been effective at predicting actuator lifetimes for isobaric dogbone test specimens. This study builds on previous work and investigates the actuation fatigue response of plate actuators with various stress concentrations through the use of digital image correlation and finite element simulations.

  3. Experimental Investigation on the Mechanical Instability of Superelastic NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yao; Zeng, Pan; Lei, Liping

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, primary attention is paid to the mechanical instability of superelastic NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) during localized forward transformation at different temperatures. By inhibiting the localized phase transformation, we can obtain the up-down-up mechanical response of NiTi SMA, which is closely related to the intrinsic material softening during localized martensitic transformation. Furthermore, the material parameters of the up-down-up stress-strain curve are extracted, in such a way that this database can be utilized for simulation and validation of the theoretical analysis. It is found that during forward transformation, the upper yield stress, lower yield stress, Maxwell stress, and nucleation stress of NiTi SMA exhibit linear dependence on temperature. The relation between nucleation stress and temperature can be explained by the famous Clausius-Clapeyron equation, while the relation between upper/lower yield stress and temperature lacks theoretical study, which needs further investigation.

  4. Fracture toughness of shape memory alloy actuators: effect of transformation-induced plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jape, Sameer; Solomou, Alexandros; Baxevanis, Theocharis; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2016-04-01

    Numerical analysis of static cracks in a plane strain center-cracked infinite medium shape memory alloy (SMA) panel subjected to cyclic thermal variations and a constant mechanical load is conducted using the finite element method. In solid-state SMA actuators, permanent changes in the material's microstructure in the form of dislocations are caused during cyclic thermomechanical loading, leading to macroscopic irreversible strains, known as transformation induced plastic (TRIP) strains. The influence of these accumulated TRIP strains on mechanical fields close to the crack tip is investigated in the present paper. Virtual crack growth technique (VCCT) in ABAQUS FEA suite is employed to calculate the crack tip energy release rate and crack is assumed to be stationary (or static) so that the crack tip energy release rate never reaches the material specific critical value. Increase in the crack tip energy release rate is observed during cooling and its relationship with accumulation of TRIP due to cyclic transformation is studied.

  5. Wear Properties of Porous NiTi Orthopedic Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shuilin; Liu, Xiangmei; Yeung, K. W. K.; Xu, Z. S.; Chung, C. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2012-12-01

    Porous NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) scaffolds have great potential to be used as orthopedic implants because of their porous structure and superior physical properties. Its metallic nature provides it with better mechanical properties and Young's modulus close to that of natural bones. Besides allowing tissue ingrowth and transfer of nutrients, porous SMA possesses unique pseudoelastic properties compatible to natural hard tissues like bones and tendons, thus expediting in vivo osseointegration. However, the nickel release from debris and the metal surface may cause osteocytic osteolysis at the interface between the artificial implants and bone tissues. Subsequent mobilization may finally lead to implant failure. In this study, the wear properties of porous NiTi with different porosities processed at different treatment temperatures are determined. The results of the study show that the porosity, phase transformation temperature, and annealing temperature are major factors influencing the wear characteristics of porous NiTi SMA.

  6. Direct observation of hierarchical nucleation of martensite and size-dependent superelasticity in shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lifeng; Ding, Xiangdong; Li, Ju; Lookman, Turab; Sun, Jun

    2014-02-21

    Martensitic transformation usually creates hierarchical internal structures beyond mere change of the atomic crystal structure. Multi-stage nucleation is thus required, where nucleation (level-1) of the underlying atomic crystal lattice does not have to be immediately followed by the nucleation of higher-order superstructures (level-2 and above), such as polysynthetic laths. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we directly observe the nucleation of the level-2 superstructure in a Cu-Al-Ni single crystal under compression, with critical super-nuclei size L2c around 500 nm. When the sample size D decreases below L2c, the superelasticity behavior changes from a flat stress plateau to a continuously rising stress-strain curve. Such size dependence definitely would impact the application of shape memory alloys in miniaturized MEMS/NEMS devices. PMID:24384687

  7. Stress corrosion crack tip microstructure in nickel-based alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Shei, S.A.; Yang, W.J.

    1994-04-01

    Stress corrosion cracking behavior of several nickel-base alloys in high temperature caustic environments has been evaluated. The crack tip and fracture surfaces were examined using Auger/ESCA and Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) to determine the near crack tip microstructure and microchemistry. Results showed formation of chromium-rich oxides at or near the crack tip and nickel-rich de-alloying layers away from the crack tip. The stress corrosion resistance of different nickel-base alloys in caustic may be explained by the preferential oxidation and dissolution of different alloying elements at the crack tip. Alloy 600 (UNS N06600) shows good general corrosion and intergranular attack resistance in caustic because of its high nickel content. Thermally treated Alloy 690 (UNS N06690) and Alloy 600 provide good stress corrosion cracking resistance because of high chromium contents along grain boundaries. Alloy 625 (UNS N06625) does not show as good stress corrosion cracking resistance as Alloy 690 or Alloy 600 because of its high molybdenum content.

  8. Weldability of Fe3Al based iron aluminide alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharia, T.; Maziasz, P. J.; David, S. A.; McKamey, C. G.

    An investigation was carried out to determine the weldability of Fe3Al type alloys. Sigmajig tests of a commercial heat of FA-129 alloy indicate that hot-cracking may not be a problem for this alloy. Additionally, several new Fe3Al based iron aluminides were evaluated for weldability. The preliminary results are encouraging and suggest that some of these alloys have comparable or better weldability than FA-129 based iron-aluminides. For the first time, successful welds, without hot or cold cracking, were made on 13 mm (0.5 in.) thick plates from a commercial heat of FA-129 using the proper choice of welding conditions and parameters.

  9. Electronic implementation of associative memory based on neural network models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moopenn, A.; Lambe, John; Thakoor, A. P.

    1987-01-01

    An electronic embodiment of a neural network based associative memory in the form of a binary connection matrix is described. The nature of false memory errors, their effect on the information storage capacity of binary connection matrix memories, and a novel technique to eliminate such errors with the help of asymmetrical extra connections are discussed. The stability of the matrix memory system incorporating a unique local inhibition scheme is analyzed in terms of local minimization of an energy function. The memory's stability, dynamic behavior, and recall capability are investigated using a 32-'neuron' electronic neural network memory with a 1024-programmable binary connection matrix.

  10. Thermal control of shape memory alloy artificial anal sphincters for complete implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yun; Okuyama, Takeshi; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Kamiyama, Takamichi; Nishi, Kotaro; Yambe, Tomoyuki

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents an approach for the thermal control of an artificial anal sphincter using shape memory alloys. An artificial anal sphincter has been proposed by the authors to resolve problems of severe fecal incontinence in patients. The basic design of the artificial sphincter consists of two all-round shape memory alloy plates as the main functional parts, and heaters that are attached to the SMA plates for generating the thermal cycles required for the phase transformation accompanied shape changes of the plates. The SMA artificial sphincter could be fitted around intestines, performing an occlusion function at body temperature and a release function upon heating. Thermal compatibility of such prostheses is most important and is critical for practical use. Since a temperature rise of approximately 20 °C from body temperature is needed to activate a complete transformation of SMA plates, an earlier model of ours allowed only a short period of heating, resulting in incomplete evacuation. In this work, a thermal control approach using a temperature-responsive reed switch has been incorporated into the device to prevent the SMA plates from overheating. Then, with thermal insulation the artificial anal sphincter is expected to allow a long enough opening period for fecal continence; without any thermal impact to the surrounding tissues that would be in contact with the artificial sphincter. Thermal control was confirmed in both in vitro and in vivo experiments, suggesting the effectiveness of the present approach. The modified SMA artificial anal sphincter has been implanted into animal models for chronic experiments of up to 4 weeks, and has exhibited good performance by maintaining occlusion and release functions. At autopsy, no anomaly due to thermal impact was found on the surfaces of intestines that had been in contact with the artificial anal sphincter.

  11. Cast iron-base alloy for cylinder/regenerator housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witter, Stewart L.; Simmons, Harold E.; Woulds, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    NASACC-1 is a castable iron-base alloy designed to replace the costly and strategic cobalt-base X-40 alloy used in the automotive Stirling engine cylinder/generator housing. Over 40 alloy compositions were evaluated using investment cast test bars for stress-rupture testing. Also, hydrogen compatibility and oxygen corrosion resistance tests were used to determine the optimal alloy. NASACC-1 alloy was characterized using elevated and room temperature tensile, creep-rupture, low cycle fatigue, heat capacity, specific heat, and thermal expansion testing. Furthermore, phase analysis was performed on samples with several heat treated conditions. The properties are very encouraging. NASACC-1 alloy shows stress-rupture and low cycle fatigue properties equivalent to X-40. The oxidation resistance surpassed the program goal while maintaining acceptable resistance to hydrogen exposure. The welding, brazing, and casting characteristics are excellent. Finally, the cost of NASACC-1 is significantly lower than that of X-40.

  12. Memory hierarchy using row-based compression

    DOEpatents

    Loh, Gabriel H.; O'Connor, James M.

    2016-10-25

    A system includes a first memory and a device coupleable to the first memory. The device includes a second memory to cache data from the first memory. The second memory includes a plurality of rows, each row including a corresponding set of compressed data blocks of non-uniform sizes and a corresponding set of tag blocks. Each tag block represents a corresponding compressed data block of the row. The device further includes decompression logic to decompress data blocks accessed from the second memory. The device further includes compression logic to compress data blocks to be stored in the second memory.

  13. Nano-hardness, wear resistance and pseudoelasticity of hafnium implanted NiTi shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tingting; Li, Yan; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Xinqing

    2012-09-01

    NiTi shape memory alloy was modified by Hf ion implantation to improve its wear resistance and surface integrity against deformation. The Auger electron spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the oxide thickness of NiTi alloy was increased by the formation of TiO₂/HfO₂ nanofilm on the surface. The nano-hardness measured by nano-indentation was decreased even at the depth larger than the maximum reach of the implanted Hf ion. The lower coefficient of friction with much longer fretting time indicated the remarkable improvement of wear resistance of Hf implanted NiTi, especially for the sample with a moderate incident dose. The formation of TiO₂/HfO₂ nanofilm with larger thickness and decrease of the nano-hardness played important roles in the improvement of wear resistance. Moreover, Hf implanted NiTi exhibited larger pseudoelastic recovery strain and retained better surface integrity even after being strained to 10% as demonstrated by in situ scanning electron microscope observation.

  14. Gradation of Nanostructures in Cold-Rolled and Annealed Ti-Ni Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoshkin, S.; Brailovski, V.; Dubinskiy, S.; Inaekyan, K.; Kreitcberg, A.

    2016-03-01

    Nanostructures formed in Ti-50.26 at.%Ni shape memory alloy as a result of post-deformation annealing (PDA) at 400 °C (1 h) after cold rolling (CR) in the e = 0.3-1.9 true strain range are classified and quantitatively studied. The statistical quantitative transmission electron microscopy analysis of bright and dark field images and selected area diffraction patterns reveal the following regularities. Two types of nanostructure form in B2-austenite as a result of PDA after CR: (a) a nanosubgrained structure, which consists of subgrains formed as a result of polygonization of the initially highly dislocated substructure; (b) a nanocrystalline structure, which represents a combination of the deformation-induced nano-grains grown during PDA and new nano-grains formed during crystallization of the amorphous phase. After moderate CR (e = 0.3), mainly nanosubgrained structure forms as a result of PDA. After CR of moderate-to-high intensity (e = 0.5-1.0) followed by PDA, the structure is mixed (nanosubgrained+nanocrystalline). After high-intensity CR (e = 1.2-1.9) and PDA, the structure is mainly nanocrystalline. This nanostructure identification allows adequate analysis of the nature of the parent phase boundaries in the thermomechanically processed Ti-Ni alloys and of their effect on the transformation and mechanical behaviors.

  15. Determination of strain fields in porous shape memory alloys using micro-computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, Therese; Friess, Sebastian; de Wild, Michael; Schumacher, Ralf; Schulz, Georg; Müller, Bert

    2010-09-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) belong to 'intelligent' materials since the metal alloy can change its macroscopic shape as the result of the temperature-induced, reversible martensite-austenite phase transition. SMAs are often applied for medical applications such as stents, hinge-less instruments, artificial muscles, and dental braces. Rapid prototyping techniques, including selective laser melting (SLM), allow fabricating complex porous SMA microstructures. In the present study, the macroscopic shape changes of the SMA test structures fabricated by SLM have been investigated by means of micro computed tomography (μCT). For this purpose, the SMA structures are placed into the heating stage of the μCT system SkyScan 1172™ (SkyScan, Kontich, Belgium) to acquire three-dimensional datasets above and below the transition temperature, i.e. at room temperature and at about 80°C, respectively. The two datasets were registered on the basis of an affine registration algorithm with nine independent parameters - three for the translation, three for the rotation and three for the scaling in orthogonal directions. Essentially, the scaling parameters characterize the macroscopic deformation of the SMA structure of interest. Furthermore, applying the non-rigid registration algorithm, the three-dimensional strain field of the SMA structure on the micrometer scale comes to light. The strain fields obtained will serve for the optimization of the SLM-process and, more important, of the design of the complex shaped SMA structures for tissue engineering and medical implants.

  16. Development of a Numerical Model for High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Melcher, Kevin J.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Gaydosh, Darrell J.

    2006-01-01

    A thermomechanical hysteresis model for a high-temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) actuator material is presented. The model is capable of predicting strain output of a tensile-loaded HTSMA when excited by arbitrary temperature-stress inputs for the purpose of actuator and controls design. Common quasi-static generalized Preisach hysteresis models available in the literature require large sets of experimental data for model identification at a particular operating point, and substantially more data for multiple operating points. The novel algorithm introduced here proposes an alternate approach to Preisach methods that is better suited for research-stage alloys, such as recently-developed HTSMAs, for which a complete database is not yet available. A detailed description of the minor loop hysteresis model is presented in this paper, as well as a methodology for determination of model parameters. The model is then qualitatively evaluated with respect to well-established Preisach properties and against a set of low-temperature cycled loading data using a modified form of the one-dimensional Brinson constitutive equation. The computationally efficient algorithm demonstrates adherence to Preisach properties and excellent agreement to the validation data set.

  17. Control of Thermal Deflection, Panel Flutter and Acoustic Fatigue at Elevated Temperatures Using Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Chuh; Huang, Jen-Kuang

    1996-01-01

    The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) will have to be designed to withstand high aerodynamic load at supersonic speeds (panel flutter) and high acoustic load (acoustic or sonic fatigue) due to fluctuating boundary layer or jet engine acoustic pressure. The thermal deflection of the skin panels will also alter the vehicle's configuration, thus it may affect the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle and lead to poor performance. Shape memory alloys (SMA) have an unique ability to recover large strains completely when the alloy is heated above the characteristic transformation (austenite finish T(sub f)) temperature. The recovery stress and elastic modulus are both temperature dependent, and the recovery stress also depends on the initial strain. An innovative concept is to utilize the recovery stress by embedding the initially strained SMA wire in a graphite/epoxy composite laminated panel. The SMA wires are thus restrained and large inplane forces are induced in the panel at elevated temeperatures. By embedding SMA in composite panel, the panel becomes much stiffer at elevated temperatures. That is because the large tensile inplane forces induced in the panel from the SMA recovery stress. A stiffer panel would certainly yield smaller dynamic responses.

  18. Magnetic properties of single crystals of Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Shannon P.; Dunlap, Richard A.; Cheng, Leon M.; Ham-Su, Rosaura; Gharghouri, Michael A.; Hyatt, Calvin V.

    2004-07-01

    The magnetic shape memory (MSM) effect occurs in some ferromagnetic martensitic alloys at temperatures below the martensite finish temperature and involves the re-orientation of martensite variants by twin boundary motion, in response to an applied stress and/or magnetic field. The driving force for twin boundary motion is the magnetic anisotropy. In this study, magnetization measurements as a function of magnetic field were made on several oriented single crystals of Ni-Mn-Ga alloys using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The magnetization versus magnetic field curves were characteristic of magnetically soft materials with magnetic anisotropy consistent with literature estimates for the different martensite structures observed in Ni-Mn-Ga alloys. Differences in the slope of the curves were due to the martensite structure, the relative proportion of martensite variants present, and their respective easy and hard axis orientations. Thermo-magneto-mechanical training was applied in an attempt to transform multi-variant specimens to single variant martensite. Training of the orthorhombic 7M martensites was sufficient to produce a near single variant of martensite, while the tetragonal 5M martensite responded well to training and produced a single-variant state. The strength of the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy constant for single-variant tetragonal 5M martensite, Ni52.9Mn27.3Ga19.8, was calculated to be Ku=1.8 x 105 J/m3, consistent with literature values. To obtain single-variant martensites, heat-treatment of the specimens prior to thermo-magneto-mechanical training is necessary.

  19. Spin Transfer Torque Switching and Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy in Full Heusler Alloy Co2FeAl-BASED Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukegawa, H.; Wen, Z. C.; Kasai, S.; Inomata, K.; Mitani, S.

    2014-12-01

    Some of Co-based full Heusler alloys have remarkable properties in spintronics, that is, high spin polarization of conduction electrons and low magnetic damping. Owing to these properties, magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) using Co-based full Heusler alloys are potentially of particular importance for spintronic application such as magnetoresistive random access memories (MRAMs). Recently, we have first demonstrated spin transfer torque (STT) switching and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), which are required for developing high-density MRAMs, in full-Heusler Co2FeAl alloy-based MTJs. In this review, the main results of the experimental demonstrations are shown with referring to related issues, and the prospect of MTJs using Heusler alloys is also discussed.

  20. Study of the transformation sequence on a high temperature martensitic transformation Ni-Mn-Ga-Co shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recarte, V.; Pérez-Landazábal, J. I.; Sánchez-Alarcos, V.; Rodríguez-Velamazán, J. A.

    2014-11-01

    Ni-Mn-Ga alloys show the highest magnetic-field-induced strain among ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. A great effort is being done in this alloy system to increase the application temperature range. In this sense, the addition of small amounts of Cobalt to NiMnGa alloys has been proved to increase the MT temperatures through the increase of the electron per atom relation (e/a). In this work, the analysis of the crystal structure of the present phases and the phase transformations has been performed on a Ni-Mn-Ga-Co alloy by neutron diffraction measurements from 10 K to 673 K. The study has been completed by means of calorimetric and magnetic measurements. On cooling the alloy undergoes a martensitic transformation from a face centered cubic structure to a nonmodulated tetragonal martensite. The appearance of intermartensite transformations can be disregarded in the whole temperature range below the martensitic transformation. However, a jump in the unit-cell volume of the tetragonal martensite has been observed at 325 K. Since this temperature is close to the Curie temperature of the alloy both, the structural and magnetic contributions are taken into account to explain the results.

  1. Stress-Induced Martensite in Front of Crack Tips in NiTi Shape Memory Alloys: Modeling Versus Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maletta, C.; Young, M. L.

    2011-07-01

    NiTi-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit an unusual stress distribution at the crack tip as compared to common engineering materials, due to a stress-induced martensitic transformation resulting from highly localized stresses. Understanding the fracture mechanics of NiTi-based SMAs is critical to many of their applications. Here, we develop an analytical model, which predicts the boundaries of the transformation region in the crack tip vicinity of NiTi-based SMAs. The proposed model is based on a recent analytical approach which uses modified linear elastic fracture mechanics concepts to predict the crack tip stress distribution and transformation region in SMAs but, unfortunately, it applies only to the plane stress condition. To overcome this limitation, the proposed model accounts for stress triaxiality, which plays an important role in restricting crack tip plastic deformations in common ductile metals as well as the stress-induced martensite in NiTi SMAs. The effects of triaxial stress at the crack tip are taken into account by including a new parameter, the transformation constraint factor, which is based on the plastic constraint factor of elasto-plastic materials. The predictions of the model are compared with synchrotron x-ray micro-diffraction observations and satisfactory agreement is observed between the two results. Finally, the evolution of crack tip transformation boundaries during fracture tests of miniature compact tension specimens is predicted and the effects of applied load and crack length are discussed.

  2. Structure and properties of nitrided surface layer produced on NiTi shape memory alloy by low temperature plasma nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnowska, Elżbieta; Borowski, Tomasz; Sowińska, Agnieszka; Lelątko, Józef; Oleksiak, Justyna; Kamiński, Janusz; Tarnowski, Michał; Wierzchoń, Tadeusz

    2015-04-01

    NiTi shape memory alloys are used for bone and cardiological implants. However, on account of the metallosis effect, i.e. the release of the alloy elements into surrounding tissues, they are subjected to various surface treatment processes in order to improve their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility without influencing the required shape memory properties. In this paper, the microstructure, topography and morphology of TiN surface layer on NiTi alloy, and corrosion resistance, both before and after nitriding in low-temperature plasma at 290 °C, are presented. Examinations with the use of the potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods were carried out and show an increase of corrosion resistance in Ringer's solution after glow-discharge nitriding. This surface titanium nitride layer also improved the adhesion of platelets and the proliferation of osteoblasts, which was investigated in in vitro experiments with human cells. Experimental data revealed that nitriding NiTi shape memory alloy under low-temperature plasma improves its properties for bone implant applications.

  3. Nanodot-based organic memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhengchun

    2006-04-01

    In this study, resistor-type, diode-type, and transistor-type organic memory devices were investigated, aiming at the low-cost plastic integrated circuit applications. A series of solution-processing techniques including spin-coating, inkjet printing, and self-assembly were employed to fabricate these devices. The organic resistive memory device is based on a novel molecular complex film composed of tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) and a soluble methanofullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). It has an Al/molecules/Al sandwich structure. The molecular layer was formed by spin-coating technique instead of expensive vacuum deposition method. The current-voltage characteristics show that the device switches from the initial 'low' conduction state to 'high' conduction state upon application of external electric field at room temperature and return to 'low' conduction state when a high current pulse is applied. The on/off ratio is over 106. Each state has been found to remain stable for more than five months, even after the external electric field is removed. The PCBM nanodots wrapped by TCNQ molecules can form potential wells for charge trapping, and are believed to be responsible for the memory effects. A rewritable diode memory device was achieved in an improved configuration, i.e., ITO-PEDOT:PSS-PCBM/TCNQ-Al, where a semiconductor polymer PEDOT:PSS is used to form p+-N heterojunction with PCBM/TCNQ. It exhibits a diode characteristic (low conductive) before switching to a high-conductive Poole-Frenkel regime upon applying a positive external bias to ITO. The on/off ratio at +1.0 V is up to 105. Simulation results from Taurus-Medici are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results and the proposed charge storage model. The transistor-type memory device is fabricated on a heavily doped n-type silicon (n+-Si) substrate with a 100 nm thick thermally-grown oxide layer. The n+-Si serves as the gate electrode, while the oxide layer

  4. A Multinomial Model of Event-Based Prospective Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rebekah E.; Bayen, Ute J.

    2004-01-01

    Prospective memory is remembering to perform an action in the future. The authors introduce the 1st formal model of event-based prospective memory, namely, a multinomial model that includes 2 separate parameters related to prospective memory processes. The 1st measures preparatory attentional processes, and the 2nd measures retrospective memory…

  5. Predictors of Time-Based Prospective Memory in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackinlay, Rachael J.; Kliegel, Matthias; Mantyla, Timo

    2009-01-01

    This study identified age differences in time-based prospective memory performance in school-aged children and explored possible cognitive correlates of age-related performance. A total of 56 7- to 12-year-olds performed a prospective memory task in which prospective memory accuracy, ongoing task performance, and time monitoring were assessed.…

  6. Episodic memories predict adaptive value-based decision-making.

    PubMed

    Murty, Vishnu P; FeldmanHall, Oriel; Hunter, Lindsay E; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Davachi, Lila

    2016-05-01

    Prior research illustrates that memory can guide value-based decision-making. For example, previous work has implicated both working memory and procedural memory (i.e., reinforcement learning) in guiding choice. However, other types of memories, such as episodic memory, may also influence decision-making. Here we test the role for episodic memory-specifically item versus associative memory-in supporting value-based choice. Participants completed a task where they first learned the value associated with trial unique lotteries. After a short delay, they completed a decision-making task where they could choose to reengage with previously encountered lotteries, or new never before seen lotteries. Finally, participants completed a surprise memory test for the lotteries and their associated values. Results indicate that participants chose to reengage more often with lotteries that resulted in high versus low rewards. Critically, participants not only formed detailed, associative memories for the reward values coupled with individual lotteries, but also exhibited adaptive decision-making only when they had intact associative memory. We further found that the relationship between adaptive choice and associative memory generalized to more complex, ecologically valid choice behavior, such as social decision-making. However, individuals more strongly encode experiences of social violations-such as being treated unfairly, suggesting a bias for how individuals form associative memories within social contexts. Together, these findings provide an important integration of episodic memory and decision-making literatures to better understand key mechanisms supporting adaptive behavior. PMID:26999046

  7. A Biomechanical Research of Growth Control of Spine by Shape Memory Alloy Staples

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Guoquan; Zhang, Ruyi; Wang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) staples in nickel titanium with shape memory effect are effective for spinal growth control. This study was designed to evaluate the biomechanical properties of the staples and observe the stability of the fixed segments spine after the staples were implanted. According to the vertical distance of the vertebrae, SMA staples of 5, 6.5, and 8 mm were designed. The recovery stress of 24 SMA staples in three groups was measured. The pullout strength of SMA staples and stainless steel staples in each functional spinal unit was measured. Each of the six fresh specimens was divided into three conditions: normal, single staple, and double staples. Under each condition, the angle and torque of spinal movements in six directions were tested. Results show that the differences in recovery stress and maximum pullout strength between groups were statistically significant. In left and right bending, flextion, and extention, the stability of spine was decreased in conditions of single staple and double staples. Biomechanical function of SMA staples was superior to stainless steel staple. SMA staples have the function of hemiepiphyseal compression and kyphosis and scoliosis model of thoracic vertebrae in goat could be successfully created by the fusionless technique. PMID:24350265

  8. Smart composite shell structures with shape memory alloy wires and thin foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Taek; Kim, Cheol; Lee, Sang-Ryong

    2005-02-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) find many applications in smart composite structural systems as the active components. Their ability to provide a high force and large displacement makes them an excellent candidate for an actuator for controlling the shape of smart structures. In this paper, using a macroscopic model that captures the thermo-mechanical behaviors and the two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) of SMAs smart morphing polymeric composite shell structures like shape-changeable UAV wings is demonstrated and analyzed numerically and experimentally when subjected to various kinds of pressure loads. The controllable shapes of the morphing shells to that thin SMA strip actuator are attached are investigated depending on various phase transformation temperatures. SMA strips start to transform from the martensitic into the austenitic state upon actuation through resistive heating, simultaneously recover the prestrain, and thus cause the shell structures to deform three dimensionally. The behaviors of composite shells attached with SMA strip actuators are analyzed using the finite element methods and 3-D constitutive equations of SMAs. Several morphing composite shell structures are fabricated and their experimental shape changes depending on temperatures are compared to the numerical results. That two results show good correlations indicates the finite element analysis and 3-D constitutive equations are accurate enough to utilize them for the design of smart composite shell structures for various applications.

  9. Shape memory alloy actuated accumulator for ultra-deepwater oil and gas exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Devendra; Song, Gangbing

    2016-04-01

    As offshore oil and gas exploration moves further offshore and into deeper waters to reach hydrocarbon reserves, it is becoming essential for the industry to develop more reliable and efficient hydraulic accumulators to supply pressured hydraulic fluid for various control and actuation operations, such as closing rams of blowout preventers and controlling subsea valves on the seafloor. By utilizing the shape memory effect property of nitinol, which is a type of shape memory alloy (SMA), an innovative SMA actuated hydraulic accumulator prototype has been developed and successfully tested at Smart Materials and Structure Laboratory at the University of Houston. Absence of gas in the developed SMA accumulator prototype makes it immune to hydrostatic head loss caused by water depth and thus reduces the number of accumulators required in deep water operations. Experiments with a feedback control have demonstrated that the proposed SMA actuated accumulator can provide precisely regulated pressurized fluids. Furthermore the potential use of ultracapacitors along with an embedded system to control the electric power supplied to SMA allows this accumulator to be an autonomous device for deployment. The developed SMA accumulator will make deepwater oil extraction systems more compact and cost effective.

  10. Precipitation Effects on the Martensitic Transformation in a Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suru, Marius-Gabriel; Lohan, Nicoleta-Monica; Pricop, Bogdan; Mihalache, Elena; Mocanu, Mihai; Bujoreanu, Leandru-Gheorghe

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the effects of precipitation of α-phase on a Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy (SMA) with chemical composition bordering on β region. By differential scanning calorimetry, a series of reproducible heat flow fluctuations was determined on heating a hot-rolled martensitic Cu-Al-Ni SMA, which was associated with the precipitation of α-phase. Two heat treatments were given to the SMA so as to "freeze" its states before and after the thermal range for precipitation, respectively. The corresponding microstructures of the two heat-treated states were observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy and were compared with the initial martensitic state. Energy dispersive spectroscopy experiments were carried out to determine the chemical compositions of the different phases formed in heat-treated specimens. The initial as well as the heat-treated specimens with a lamellar shape were further comparatively investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis and two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) tests comprising heating-cooling cycles under a bending load. Temperature scans were applied to the three types of specimens (initial and heat-treated states), so as to bring out the effects of heat treatment. The storage modulus increased, corresponding to the reversion of thermoelastic martensite and disappeared with the formation of precipitates. These features are finally discussed in association with TWSME under bending.

  11. Research about Memory Detection Based on the Embedded Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Chu, Jian

    As is known to us all, the resources of memory detection of the embedded systems are very limited. Taking the Linux-based embedded arm as platform, this article puts forward two efficient memory detection technologies according to the characteristics of the embedded software. Especially for the programs which need specific libraries, the article puts forwards portable memory detection methods to help program designers to reduce human errors,improve programming quality and therefore make better use of the valuable embedded memory resource.

  12. Resistive switching memory based on bioinspired natural solid polymer electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Raeis Hosseini, Niloufar; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2015-01-27

    A solution-processed, chitosan-based resistive-switching memory device is demonstrated with Pt/Ag-doped chitosan/Ag structure. The memory device shows reproducible and reliable bipolar resistive switching characteristics. A memory device based on natural organic material is a promising device toward the next generation of nonvolatile nanoelectronics. The memory device based on chitosan as a natural solid polymer electrolyte can be switched reproducibly between high and low resistance states. In addition, the data retention measurement confirmed the reliability of the chitosan-based nonvolatile memory device. The transparent Ag-embedded chitosan film showed an acceptable and comparable resistive switching behavior on the flexible plastic substrate as well. A cost-effective, environmentally benign memory device using chitosan satisfies the functional requirements of nonvolatile memory operations.

  13. Effect of micro-arc oxidation surface modification on the properties of the NiTi shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Xu, J L; Zhong, Z C; Yu, D Z; Liu, F; Luo, J M

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the effects of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) surface modification (alumina coatings) on the phase transformation behavior, shape memory characteristics, in vitro haemocopatibility and cytocompatibility of the biomedical NiTi alloy were investigated respectively by differential scanning calorimetry, bending test, hemolysis ratio test, dynamic blood clotting test, platelet adhesion test and cytotoxicity testing by human osteoblasts (Hobs). The results showed that there were no obvious changes of the phase transformation temperatures and shape memory characteristics of the NiTi alloy after the MAO surface modification and the coating could withstand the thermal shock and volume change caused by martensite-austenite phase transformation. Compared to the uncoated NiTi alloys, the MAO surface modification could effectively improve the haemocopatibility of the coated NiTi alloys by the reduced hemolysis ratio, the prolonged dynamic clotting time and the decreased number of platelet adhesion; and the rough and porous alumina coatings could obviously promote the adherence, spread and proliferation of the Hobs with the significant increase of proliferation number of Hobs adhered on the surface of the coated NiTi alloys (P < 0.05).

  14. Quasi-static modeling of NiMnGa magnetic shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couch, Ronald N.; Chopra, Inderjit

    2005-05-01

    A quasi-static model for NiMnGa magnetic shape memory alloy (MSMA) is formulated in parallel to the Brinson and Tanaka thermal SMA constitutive models. Since the shape memory effect (SME) and pseudoelasticity exist in both NiTi and NiMnGa, constitutive models for SMAs can serve as a basis for MSMA behavioral modeling. The quasi-static model for NiMnGa was characterized by nine material parameters identified by conducting a series of uniaxial compression tests in a constant field environment. These model parameters include free strain, Young"s modulus, fundamental critical stresses, fundamental threshold fields, and stress-influence coefficients. The Young"s moduli of the material in both its field and stress preferred configurations were determined to be 450 MPa and 820 MPa respectively, while the free strain was measured to be 5.8%. These test data were used to assemble a critical stress profile that is useful for determining model parameters and for understanding the dependence of critical stresses on magnetic fields. Once implemented, the analytical model shows good correlation with test data for all modes of NiMnGa quasi-static behavior, capturing both the magnetic shape memory effect and pseudoelasticity. Furthermore, the model is also capable of predicting partial pseudoelasticity, minor hysteretic loops and stress-strain behaviors. To correct for the effects of magnetic saturation, a series of stress influence functions were developed from the critical stress profile. Although requiring further refinement, the model"s results are encouraging, indicating that the model is a useful analytical tool for predicting NiMnGa actuator behavior.

  15. A quasi-static model for NiMnGa magnetic shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couch, Ronald N.; Chopra, Inderjit

    2007-02-01

    A quasi-static model for NiMnGa magnetic shape memory alloy (MSMA) is formulated in parallel to the Brinson and Tanaka thermal SMA constitutive models. Since the shape memory effect (SME) and pseudoelasticity exist in both NiTi and NiMnGa, constitutive models for SMAs can serve as a basis for MSMA behavioral modeling. The simplified, linear, quasi-static model for NiMnGa was characterized by nine material parameters identified by conducting a series of uniaxial compression tests in a constant field environment. These model parameters include free strain, Young's modulus, fundamental critical stresses, fundamental threshold fields, and stress-influence coefficients. The Young's moduli of the material in both its field and stress preferred configurations were determined to be 450 MPa and 820 MPa respectively, while the free strain was measured to be 5.8%. These test data were used to assemble a critical stress profile that is useful for determining model parameters and for understanding the dependence of critical stresses on magnetic fields. Once implemented, the analytical model shows good correlation with test data for all modes of NiMnGa quasi-static behavior, capturing both the magnetic shape memory effect and pseudoelasticity. Furthermore, the model is also capable of predicting partial pseudoelasticity, minor hysteretic loops and stress-strain behaviors. To correct for the effects of magnetic saturation, a series of stress influence functions were developed from the critical stress profile. Although requiring further refinement, the model's results are encouraging, indicating that the model is a useful analytical tool for predicting NiMnGa actuator behavior.

  16. Effects of microstructure and deformation conditions on the hot formability of Ni-Ti-Hf shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeoung Han; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Seong Woong; Hong, Jae Keun; Oh, Chang-Seok; Jeon, Yeong Min; Kim, Kyong Min; Yeom, Jong Taek

    2014-12-01

    Ingots of Ni-Ti-Hf shape memory alloys were prepared by vacuum arc re-melting. Isothermal hot compression tests were conducted at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1000 degrees C and at strain rates from 10(-2) s(-1) to 1.0 s(-1). A decrease in the Ni content below 50.2 at.% significantly deteriorated the hot workability due to the formation of a brittle second phase. Also, the low Ni content alloy showed poor workability when the temperature exceeded 900 degrees C. Additional compression tests were conducted under various conditions to clarify the effects of the chemical composition, solidification anisotropy, and the strain rate.

  17. Addressable parallel cavity-based quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetlugin, Anton N.; Sokolov, Ivan V.

    2014-09-01

    We elaborate theoretically a model of addressable parallel cavity-based quantum memory for light able to store multiple transverse spatial modes of the input light signal of finite duration and, at the same time, a time sequence of the signals by side illumination. Having in mind possible applications for, e.g., quantum repeaters, we reveal the addressability of our memory, that is, its handiness for the read-out on demand of a given transverse quantized signal mode and of a given signal from the time sequence. The addressability is achieved by making use of different spatial configurations of pump wave during the write-in and the readout. We also demonstrate that for the signal durations of the order of few cavity decay times, better efficiency is achieved when one excites the cavity with zero light-matter coupling and finally performs fast excitation transfer from the intracavity field to the collective spin. On the other hand, the light-matter coupling control in time, based on dynamical impedance matching, allows to store and retrieve time restricted signals of the on-demand smooth time shape.

  18. Development of a novel shape memory alloy-actuated resettable locking device for magnetic bearing reaction wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyong; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Shaowei; Nie, Jingxu

    2014-01-01

    The current investigation proposes a shape memory alloy (SMA)-actuated resettable locking device for magnetic bearing reaction wheel. The device employed two SMA wire-based actuators to realize locking and unlocking. Dual-slope mating surfaces were used on one hand to transmit the motion between a moving part and a clamp, and on the other hand to achieve a self-locking linkage in the locking state. Moreover, geometric parameters of the two SMA wires and corresponding bias springs were also designed. Based on the proposed design scheme, four locking devices were manufactured and assembled. Performance and environmental tests were performed to verify the proposed locking device. Test results show that the locking device can protect the magnetic bearing reaction wheel from launch vibration damage, and can withstand the thermal environment in the launch and on-orbit stage. Moreover, the device can be successfully operated for 76 times, and the response time for the locking and unlocking processes under 7 V power supply is 0.9 s and 5.6 s, respectively. Considering the results obtained from these tests, we conclude that the proposed resettable locking device is an attractive alternative technology to conventional motor-driven or pyrotechnics-based technologies, and can be applied reliably in the magnetic bearing reaction wheel.

  19. Development of a novel shape memory alloy-actuated resettable locking device for magnetic bearing reaction wheel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyong; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Shaowei; Nie, Jingxu

    2014-01-01

    The current investigation proposes a shape memory alloy (SMA)-actuated resettable locking device for magnetic bearing reaction wheel. The device employed two SMA wire-based actuators to realize locking and unlocking. Dual-slope mating surfaces were used on one hand to transmit the motion between a moving part and a clamp, and on the other hand to achieve a self-locking linkage in the locking state. Moreover, geometric parameters of the two SMA wires and corresponding bias springs were also designed. Based on the proposed design scheme, four locking devices were manufactured and assembled. Performance and environmental tests were performed to verify the proposed locking device. Test results show that the locking device can protect the magnetic bearing reaction wheel from launch vibration damage, and can withstand the thermal environment in the launch and on-orbit stage. Moreover, the device can be successfully operated for 76 times, and the response time for the locking and unlocking processes under 7 V power supply is 0.9 s and 5.6 s, respectively. Considering the results obtained from these tests, we conclude that the proposed resettable locking device is an attractive alternative technology to conventional motor-driven or pyrotechnics-based technologies, and can be applied reliably in the magnetic bearing reaction wheel.

  20. Shape Memory Alloy Modeling and Applications to Porous and Composite Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Pingping

    There has been a growing concern about an exciting class of advanced material -- shape memory alloys (SMAs) since their discovery several decades ago. SMAs exhibit large reversible stresses and strains owing to a thermoelastic phase transformation. They have been widely used in many engineering fields including aerospace, biomedical, and automotive engineering, especially as sensors, actuators, bone implants and deployable switches. The behavior of SMAs is very complex due to the coupling between thermal and mechanical effects. Theoretical and computational tools are used in this dissertation to investigate the mechanical behavior of SMA and its related structures for seeking better and wider application of this material. In the first part of this dissertation, we proposed an improved macroscopic phenomenological constitutive model of SMA that accounts for all major mechanical behaviors including elasticity, phase transformation, reorientation and plasticity. The model is based on some previous work developed in the Brinson group, and the current efforts are focused on plasticity, the application of a pre-defined strain, unification of notations, and other coding-related work. A user subroutine script VUMAT is developed to implement the constitutive model to the commercial finite element software Abaqus. Typical simulation results based on the model are presented, as well as verification with some experimental results. In the second part, we apply the developed constitutive model to a series of two-dimensional SMA plates with structured arrays of pores to investigate the structural response, especially the stress, strain, phase transformation, and plastic fields. Results are documented about the coupling of the elastic, transformation and plastic fields about the arrays of pores. Theoretical and experimental DIC results are also utilized to validate some simulation results. Conclusions are then drawn to provide understanding in the effect of pores and the

  1. Design and thermo-mechanical analysis of a new NiTi shape memory alloy fixing clip.

    PubMed

    Nespoli, Adelaide; Dallolio, Villiam; Stortiero, Francesco; Besseghini, Stefano; Passaretti, Francesca; Villa, Elena

    2014-04-01

    In this work, a new NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) bone fixator is proposed. Thanks to the shape memory effect, this device does not need any external tool for the fixation, as the anchorage is obtained only by the self-accommodation of the clip during the parent transformation. Calorimetry and thermo-mechanical tests were used to evaluate the phase transformation temperatures and to estimate the forces generated both during the fixing surgical procedure and after the surgical operation. An application on animal anatomical sample was also performed; an appropriate mechanical tightness as well as a good handiness has been found.

  2. Tantalum modified ferritic iron base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldrieve, R. E.; Blankenship, C. P. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Strong ferritic alloys of the Fe-CR-Al type containing 0.4% to 2% tantalum were developed. These alloys have improved fabricability without sacrificing high temperature strength and oxidation resistance in the 800 C (1475 F) to 1040 C (1900 F) range.

  3. On the cytocompatibility of biodegradable Fe-based alloys.

    PubMed

    Schinhammer, Michael; Gerber, Isabel; Hänzi, Anja C; Uggowitzer, Peter J

    2013-03-01

    Biodegradable iron-based alloys are potential candidates for application as temporary implant material. This study summarizes the design strategy applied in the development of biodegradable Fe-Mn-C-Pd alloys and describes the key factors which make them suitable for medical applications. The study's in vitro cytotoxicity tests using human umbilical vein endothelial cells revealed acceptable cytocompatibility based on the alloys' eluates. An analysis of the eluates revealed that Fe is predominantly bound in insoluble degradation products, whereas a considerable amount of Mn is in solution. The investigation's results are discussed using dose-response curves for the main alloying elements Fe and Mn. They show that it is mainly Mn which limits the cytocompatibility of the alloys. The study also supplies a summary of the alloying elements' influence on metabolic processes. The results and discussion presented are considered important and instructive for future alloy development. The Fe-based alloys developed show an advantageous combination of microstructural, mechanical and biological properties, which makes them interesting as degradable implant material.

  4. Influence of aging and thermomechanical cycling on the magnetostriction and magnetic shape memory effect in martensitic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'vov, Victor A.; Kosogor, Anna; Barandiaran, Jose M.; Chernenko, Volodymyr A.

    2015-10-01

    An influence of internal stress created by the crystal defects on the magnetically induced reorientation (MIR) of martensite variants in the ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) has been analyzed. Using the internal stress conception, a noticeable influence of the spatial reconfiguration of crystal defects on the ordinary magnetostriction of FSMA and magnetic shape memory (MSM) effect has been predicted. It has been shown that the defect reconfiguration, which stabilizes the martensitic phase during martensite aging, increases the shear elastic modulus. The increase of shear modulus reduces the magnetostriction value and in this way suppresses the MSM effect. The magneto-thermo-mechanical training of aged alloys destabilizes the martensitic phase, restores the initial magnetostriction value, and promotes the MSM effect.

  5. Study of Martensitic Phase transformation in a NiTiCu Thin Film Shape Memory Alloy Using Photoelectron Emission Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Mingdong; Langford, Stephen C.; Wu, Maggie J.; Huang, W. M.; Xiong, Gang; Droubay, Timothy C.; Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth; Hess, Wayne P.; Dickinson, J. T.

    2007-01-01

    The thermally-induced martensitic phase transformation in a polycrystalline NiTiCu thin film shape memory alloy was probed by photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM). In situ PEEM images reveal distinct changes in microstructure and photoemission intensity at the phase transition temperatures. In particular, images of the low temperature, martensite phase are brighter than that of the high temperature, austenite phase, due to the relatively lower work function of the martensite. Ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the effective work function changes by about 0.16 eV during thermal cycling. In situ PEEM images also show that the network of trenches observed on the room temperature film disappear suddenly during heating and reappear suddenly during subsequent cooling. These trenches are also characterized by atomic force microscopy at selected temperatures. We describe implications of these observations with respect to the spatial distribution of phases during thermal cycling in this thin film shape memory alloy.

  6. Extended investigation of intermartensitic transitions in Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloys: A detailed phase diagram determination

    SciTech Connect

    Çakir, Asli; Aktürk, Selçuk; Righi, Lara

    2013-11-14

    Martensitic transitions in shape memory Ni-Mn-Ga Heusler alloys take place between a high temperature austenite and a low temperature martensite phase. However, intermartensitic transformations have also been encountered that occur from one martensite phase to another. To examine intermartensitic transitions in magnetic shape memory alloys in detail, we carried out temperature dependent magnetization, resistivity, and x-ray diffraction measurements to investigate the intermartensitic transition in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 50–x}Ga{sub x} in the composition range 12≤x≤25 at. %. Rietveld refined x-ray diffraction results are found to be consistent with magnetization and resistivity data. Depending on composition, we observe that intermartensitic transitions occur in the sequences 7M→L1{sub 0}, 5M→7M, and 5M→7M→L1{sub 0} with decreasing temperature. The L1{sub 0} non-modulated structure is most stable at low temperature.

  7. Infrared thermography videos of the elastocaloric effect for shape memory alloys NiTi and Ni2FeGa

    PubMed Central

    Pataky, Garrett J.; Ertekin, Elif; Sehitoglu, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    Infrared thermogrpahy was utilized to record the temperature change during tensile loading cycles of two shape memory alloy single crystals with pseudoelastic behavior. During unloading, a giant temperature drop was measured in the gage section due to the elastocaloric effect. This data article provides a video of a [001] oriented Ni2FeGa single crystal, including the corresponding stress–strain curve, shows the temperature drop over one cycle. The second video of a [148] oriented NiTi single crystal depicts the repeatability of the elastocaloric effect by showing two consecutive cycles. The videos are supplied in this paper. For further analysis and enhanced discussion of large temperature change in shape memory alloys, see Pataky et al. [1] PMID:26380838

  8. Infrared thermography videos of the elastocaloric effect for shape memory alloys NiTi and Ni2FeGa.

    PubMed

    Pataky, Garrett J; Ertekin, Elif; Sehitoglu, Huseyin

    2015-12-01

    Infrared thermogrpahy was utilized to record the temperature change during tensile loading cycles of two shape memory alloy single crystals with pseudoelastic behavior. During unloading, a giant temperature drop was measured in the gage section due to the elastocaloric effect. This data article provides a video of a [001] oriented Ni2FeGa single crystal, including the corresponding stress-strain curve, shows the temperature drop over one cycle. The second video of a [148] oriented NiTi single crystal depicts the repeatability of the elastocaloric effect by showing two consecutive cycles. The videos are supplied in this paper. For further analysis and enhanced discussion of large temperature change in shape memory alloys, see Pataky et al. [1].

  9. Closed chamber pupilloplasty with an injectable shape memory alloy clip in enucleated porcine eyes in the laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Erlanger, Michael S; Olson, Jeffrey L

    2012-01-01

    A novel surgical technique and novel surgical instrumentation for closing a pupil defect in a closed chamber eye is described. The technique was performed in a laboratory setting using ex-vivo porcine eyes using a 30-gauge deployment system to repair iris defects. Given the difficulty of suturing in a closed chamber eye, the use of an injectable, shape memory alloy clip offers the advantages of rapid, easy deployment and increased strength over conventional suture techniques. PMID:22767338

  10. Characterization of Ni19.5Ti50.5Pd25Pt5 High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloy Springs and their Potential Application in Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebner, Aaron; Padula, Santo A.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2008-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been used as actuators in many different industries since the discovery of the shape memory effect, but the use of SMAs as actuation devices in aeronautics has been limited due to the temperature constraints of commercially available materials. Consequently, work is being done at NASA's Glenn Research Center to develop new SMAs capable of being used in high temperature environments. One of the more promising high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) is Ni19.5Ti50.5Pd25Pt5. Recent work has shown that this material is capable of being used in operating environments of up to 250 C. This material has been shown to have very useful actuation capabilities, demonstrating repeatable strain recoveries up to 2.5% in the presence of an externally applied load. Based on these findings, further work has been initiated to explore potential applications and alternative forms of this alloy, such as springs. Thus, characterization of Ni19.5Ti50.5Pd25Pt5 springs, including their mechanical response and how variations in this response correlate to changes in geometric parameters, are discussed. The effects of loading history, or training, on spring behavior were also investigated. A comparison of the springs with wire actuators is made and the benefits of using one actuator form as opposed to the other discussed. These findings are used to discuss design considerations for a surge-control mechanism that could be used in the centrifugal compressor of a T-700 helicopter engine.

  11. Characterization of Ni 19.5Ti 50.5Pd 25Pt 5 high-temperature shape memory alloy springs and their potential applications in aeronautics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebner, Aaron; Padula, Santo A., II; Noebe, Ronald D.; Quinn, D. Dane

    2008-03-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been used as actuators in many different industries since the discovery of the shape memory effect, but the use of SMAs as actuation devices in aeronautics has been limited due to the temperature constraints of commercially available materials. Consequently, work is being done at NASA's Glenn Research Center to develop new SMAs capable of being used in high temperature environments. One of the more promising high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) is Ni 19.5Ti 50.5Pd 25Pt 5. Recent work has shown that this material is capable of being used in operating environments of up to 250°C. This material has been shown to have very useful actuation capabilities, demonstrating repeatable strain recoveries up to 2.5% in the presence of an externally applied load. Based on these findings, further work has been initiated to explore potential applications and alternative forms of this alloy, such as springs. Thus, characterization of Ni 19.5Ti 50.5Pd 25Pt 5 springs, including their mechanical response and how variations in this response correlate to changes in geometric parameters, are discussed. The effects of loading history, or training, on spring behavior were also investigated. A comparison of the springs with wire actuators is made and the benefits of using one actuator form as opposed to the other discussed. These findings are used to discuss design considerations for a surge-control mechanism that could be used in the centrifugal compressor of a T-700 helicopter engine.

  12. Effect of shock-wave loading on mechanical and thermomechanical characteristics of shape-memory alloys 45Ti-45Ni-10Nb and 43Ti-46Ni-8Nb-3Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, N. N.; Lar'kin, V. F.; Ogorodnikov, V. A.; Presnyakov, D. V.; Lar'kina, Yu. A.; Aushev, A. A.; Sysoyeva, T. I.; Suvorova, E. B.; Kostyleva, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    This work was performed to study the behavior of 45Ti-45Ni-10Nb and 43Ti-46Ni-8Nb-3Zr (at %) shape-memory alloys (SMAs) under the effect of severe dynamic deformation to use the obtained results to develop technologies based on SMAs. Cast alloys were used for the tests. The elemental and phase compositions of the alloys in the initial state, as well as the phase composition, kinetics, and temperatures of phase transformations after heat treatment (annealing in a vacuum at 850°C for 4 h, furnace cooling) have been determined. The mechanical and thermomechanical characteristics of these alloys before and after shock-wave loading have been determined.

  13. Surface modification of nickel based alloys for improved oxidation resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Alman, David E.

    2005-02-01

    The present research is aimed at the evaluation of a surface modification treatment to enhance the high temperature stability of nickel-base superalloys. A low Coefficient Thermal Expansion (CTE ~12.5x10-6/°C) alloy based on the composition (in weight %) of Ni-22Mo-12.5Cr was produced by Vacuum Induction Melting and Vacuum Arc Melting and reduced to sheet by conventional thermal-mechanical processing. A surface treatment was devised to enhance the oxidation resistance of the alloys at high temperature. Oxidation tests (in dry and wet air; treated and untreated) were conducted 800°C to evaluate the oxidation resistance of the alloys. The results were compared to the behavior of Haynes 230 (Ni-22Cr) in the treated and untreated conditions. The treatment was not very effective for Haynes 230, as this alloy had similar oxidation behavior in both the treated and untreated conditions. However, the treatment had a significant effect on the behavior of the low CTE alloy. At 800°C, the untreated Ni-12.5Cr alloy was 5 times less oxidation resistant than Haynes 230. However, in the treated condition, the Ni-12.5Cr alloy had comparable oxidation resistance to the Haynes 230 alloy.

  14. Size effects on magnetic actuation in Ni-Mn-Ga shape-memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Dunand, David C; Müllner, Peter

    2011-01-11

    The off-stoichiometric Ni(2)MnGa Heusler alloy is a magnetic shape-memory alloy capable of reversible magnetic-field-induced strains (MFIS). These are generated by twin boundaries moving under the influence of an internal stress produced by a magnetic field through the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. While MFIS are very large (up to 10%) for monocrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga, they are near zero (<0.01%) in fine-grained polycrystals due to incompatibilities during twinning of neighboring grains and the resulting internal geometrical constraints. By growing the grains and/or shrinking the sample, the grain size becomes comparable to one or more characteristic sample sizes (film thickness, wire or strut diameter, ribbon width, particle diameter, etc), and the grains become surrounded by free space. This reduces the incompatibilities between neighboring grains and can favor twinning and thus increase the MFIS. This approach was validated recently with very large MFIS (0.2-8%) measured in Ni-Mn-Ga fibers and foams with bamboo grains with dimensions similar to the fiber or strut diameters and in thin plates where grain diameters are comparable to plate thickness. Here, we review processing, micro- and macrostructure, and magneto-mechanical properties of (i) Ni-Mn-Ga powders, fibers, ribbons and films with one or more small dimension, which are amenable to the growth of bamboo grains leading to large MFIS, and (ii) "constructs" from these structural elements (e.g., mats, laminates, textiles, foams and composites). Various strategies are proposed to accentuate this geometric effect which enables large MFIS in polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga by matching grain and sample sizes.

  15. Utilization of nickel-titanium shape memory alloy for stapes prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Kasano, F; Morimitsu, T

    1997-04-01

    A new type of stapes prosthesis made of nickel-titanium shape memory alloy wire was developed and its biocompatibility was examined in 24 ears of 12 cats. The prosthesis was implanted at the long crus of the incus. The incus was examined 27-355 days after operation. In 23 ears, the prosthesis was found macroscopically well implanted at the aimed position. In one ear the prosthesis was found to be dislocated and in another the prosthesis was slightly loosened. The incudes were removed and five specimens were prepared for scanning electron microscopy and the other specimens were observed under light microscopy. Histological studies revealed severe bone resorption of the long crus in the dislocated case and moderate bone resorption in the slightly loosened case. These bone resorptions were found to be caused by the inadvertent removal of the mucosal membrane during the implant operations. In seven ears under a light microscope and in one ear under a scanning electron microscope, slight bone resorption as bone erosion was seen at the contact area of the prosthesis. This bone resorption was induced by the mechanical pressure of the prosthesis and was not progressive due to fading of the pressure of the prosthesis. With the exception of pressure induced bone erosions, there was no progressive bone resorption which was prosthesis induced. The biocompatibility of the nickel-titanium alloy stapes prosthesis with the long crus of the incus was proved. The prosthesis should be implanted loosely at the long crus of the incus without removal of the mucosal membrane. PMID:9134135

  16. Contactless and selective energy transfer to a bistable micro-actuator using laser heated shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, S.; Lamarque, F.; Prelle, C.; Carton, O.; Zeinert, A.

    2012-11-01

    Contactless energy transfer (CET) methods offer great flexibility in the design of complex micro-systems. This paper reports a laser based contactless and selective energy transfer method. A compliant bistable micro-actuator (curved beam of size 25 mm × 1.5 mm × 0.508 mm) is actuated between its two stable positions using the laser heated shape memory alloy (SMA) active elements (size: 3 mm × 1 mm × 0.1 mm). The switching time of the actuator turns out to be 0.5 s for d0 equal to 700 μm and a laser power of 90 mW (d0 is half of the total stroke length). The paper also demonstrates the selective energy transfer technique to the SMA active elements by depositing silver based optical filters directly onto the SMA active elements. A successful demonstration is presented for four wavelengths, 532, 660, 785, and 980 nm, using different values of d0 for the bistable micro-actuator. Finally, a long-term test is performed to highlight the thermo-mechanical effect on the selective addressing capability of the optical filters.

  17. Testing and modeling of NiMnGa ferromagnetic shape memory alloy for static and dynamic loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couch, Ronald N.; Sirohi, Jayant; Chopra, Inderjit

    2006-03-01

    The response of NiMnGa ferromagnetic shape memory alloy to static and dynamic magnetic fields was studied. Tests involving excitation of the samples up to 10 Hz for constant stress and constant strain conditions were conducted. Based on these results, performance parameters were measured and discussed including power density, total power output and electromechanical efficiency. The effects of strain rate and material damping were also measured. It was shown that both power density and total power output were strong functions of applied stress. A maximum volumetric power density of 31 MW/m 3 was measured. Once the NiMnGa behavior was characterized, an analytical model based on four experimentally measured parameters was formulated to predict the induced strain in response to a dynamic magnetic field. Comparison of the analytical model to experimental data showed good correlation for applied stresses below 0.6 MPa and above 1.33 MPa. Although requiring further refinement, the model's results are encouraging, indicating that it could be developed into a useful analytical tool for predicting NiMnGa actuator behavior.

  18. Simulating Solid-Solid Phase Transition in Shape-Memory Alloy Microstructure by Face-Offsetting Method

    SciTech Connect

    Bellur Ramaswamy, Ravi S.; Tortorelli, Daniel A.; Fried, Eliot; Jiao Xiangmin

    2008-02-15

    Advances in the understanding of martensitic transformations (diffusionless, solid-solid phase transformations) have been instrumental to the recent discovery of new low hysteresis alloys. However, some key fundamental issues must be better understood to design still better alloys. Restricting attention to antiplane shear, we use finite element analysis to model the shape-memory alloy microstructure within the Abeyaratne-Knowles continuum thermomechanical framework and use an interface kinetic relation of the kind proposed by Rosakis and Tsai. Geometric singularities and topological changes associated with microstructural evolution pose significant numerical challenges. We address such challenges with a recently developed front-tracking scheme called the face-offsetting method (FOM) to explicitly model phase interfaces. Initial results demonstrate the effectiveness of FOM in resolving needle-like twinned microstructures.

  19. The Working Memory Rating Scale: A Classroom-Based Behavioral Assessment of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth; Kirkwood, Hannah; Elliott, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS), an observer-based rating scale that reflects behavioral difficulties of children with poor working memory. The findings indicate good internal reliability and adequate psychometric properties for use as a screening tool by teachers. Higher…

  20. Effect of Cold Rolling on Phase Transformation Temperatures of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattabi, Manjunatha; Murari, M. S.

    2015-02-01

    The effect of cold rolling and heat treatment on the phase transformation behavior of NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) heat treated at 660 °C has been investigated. Four sets of samples were cold rolled after heat treatment. The austenite-to-martensite and martensite-to-austenite transformation temperatures for samples without any cold rolling are determined through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The austenitic start temperature gets shifted to the higher temperature side with increase in the percentage of the cold rolling up to 12.5%. Austenitic finish temperature could not be detected in cold-rolled samples. Martensitic start temperature increases slightly with increased cold rolling while martensitc finish temperature slightly decreases. Beyond 12.5% cold work, the shape memory effect (SME) is completely lost. The evolution of austenitic phase in SMA subjected to cold rolling was studied through powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) at different temperatures in the range 25 to 160 °C at intervals of 10 °C, during heating and cooling. The XRD results agree with those of DSC. Two sets of cold-rolled samples were again heat treated to 300 and 500 °C and the transformation behavior was studied using DSC. Heat treatment at 300 °C brings back the SME, but with the presence of an intermediate R-Phase due to the additional dislocations present. Even with a heat treatment at 500 °C, the effect of cold work is not completely removed and a single-step transformation is not observed. Another set of samples subjected to cold work were heat treated at 660 °C and the transformation is studied. The effect of cold work even up to 25% is completely removed with this heat treatment as indicated by DSC. The complete regaining of the SME is further confirmed by electrical resistivity measurements also.

  1. Novel High-Speed High Pressure Torsion Technology for Obtaining Fe-Mn-Si-Cr Shape Memory Alloy Active Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurău, Gheorghe; Gurău, Carmela; Potecaşu, Octavian; Alexandru, Petrică; Bujoreanu, Leandru-Gheorghe

    2014-07-01

    This paper introduces an adapted high-speed high pressure torsion (HS-HPT) method of severe plastic deformation applied for obtaining shape memory alloy (SMA) active elements with revolution symmetry, able to develop axial displacement/force. Billets with circular crown forms were cut from Fe-28Mn-6Si-5Cr (mass%) SMA ingots and, by means of HS-HPT technology, were directly turned into modules, with truncated cone shell configurations. This process was performed, during time intervals of seconds, under the effect of high pressure (up to 1 GPa) cumulated with high rotation speed (hundreds of rotations per minute) applied on the active surfaces of sintered-carbide anvils, specially designed for this purpose. Due to pressure and friction, generated by rotation, the entire sample volume is heated and simultaneously deformed to final shape. During the process, microstructure fragmentation occurred enabling to obtain (ultra)fine grains and nanocrystalline areas, in spite of the heat developed by friction, which was removed by conduction at the contact surface between sample and anvils, before the occurrence of any recrystallization phenomena. When compressed between flat surfaces, the truncated cone modules developed a superelastic-like response, unique among Fe -Mn-Si base SMAs and, when heated in compressed state, they were able to develop either axial strokes or recovery forces by either free or constrained recovery shape memory effect (SME), respectively. By means of optical (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) marked structural changes caused by HT-HPT were revealed, along with fine and ultrafine crystalline grains. The presence of stress-induced ɛ-hexagonal close-packed ( hcp) martensite, together with nanocrystalline areas were confirmed by x-ray diffraction.

  2. Cr{sub 2}Nb-based alloy development

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Horton, J.A.

    1996-08-01

    Alloys of Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb with exceptionally high strength at 1200{degrees}C have been developed. However, these compositions suffer from limited ductility and toughness at room temperature. Despite improvements from processing modifications, as-fabricated defects still limit room temperature mechanical behavior. In contrast, an alloy system with only a small mismatch of the coefficients of thermal expansion of the two phases, Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr, showed good fabricability. However, these alloys are weaker than Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb compositions at high temperatures and have poor oxidation resistance. Silicide coatings can provide high-temperature oxidation and sulfidation protection of these alloys. Improvements in room temperature mechanical properties of Laves-phase-strengthened alloys will rely on further development based on increasing the ductility of the matrix phase by impurity control and compositional modifications.

  3. Influence of roll and solution treatment processing on shape memory effect of Fe-14Mn-5Si-9Cr-5Ni alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.L.; Jin, Z.H.

    1998-10-01

    The shape memory effect was studied in an Fe-14Mn-5Si-9Cr-5Ni alloy rerolled at 1123 K after hot rolling at 1423 K, followed by solution treatment at different temperatures. It was found that the alloy exhibits a maximum degree of shape recovery in a bending test and a complete recovery tensile strain of 2.2% in samples that were solution heated at 973 K for 600 s and then quenched in water. The rerolled processing at 1123 K after hot rolling at 1423 K and the microstructure under solution treatment state are important for obtaining a good shape memory effect in the alloy.

  4. Lignin-Based Triple Shape Memory Polymers.

    PubMed

    Sivasankarapillai, Gopakumar; Li, Hui; McDonald, Armando G

    2015-09-14

    Lignin-based triple shape memory polymers comprised of both permanent covalent cross-links and physical cross-links have been synthesized. A mixing phase with poly(ester-amine) and poly(ester-amide) network having two distinct glass transitions was hot mixed with more structurally homogenized methanol soluble lignin fraction by one-pot, two-step method. Triple shape properties arise from the combined effect of the glass transition of polyester copolymers and lignin and the dissociation of self-complementary hydrogen bonding and cross-link density. The percentage of recovery in each stage was investigated and it was proved that the first recovery is related with lignin-poly(ester-amine) rich network and the second recovery stage is related with lignin-poly(ester-amide) rich network. The thermal and mechanical properties of the lignin-copolymer networks were also investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis.

  5. Neural bases of orthographic long-term memory and working memory in dysgraphia.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Brenda; Purcell, Jeremy; Hillis, Argye E; Capasso, Rita; Miceli, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Spelling a word involves the retrieval of information about the word's letters and their order from long-term memory as well as the maintenance and processing of this information by working memory in preparation for serial production by the motor system. While it is known that brain lesions may selectively affect orthographic long-term memory and working memory processes, relatively little is known about the neurotopographic distribution of the substrates that support these cognitive processes, or the lesions that give rise to the distinct forms of dysgraphia that affect these cognitive processes. To examine these issues, this study uses a voxel-based mapping approach to analyse the lesion distribution of 27 individuals with dysgraphia subsequent to stroke, who were identified on the basis of their behavioural profiles alone, as suffering from deficits only affecting either orthographic long-term or working memory, as well as six other individuals with deficits affecting both sets of processes. The findings provide, for the first time, clear evidence of substrates that selectively support orthographic long-term and working memory processes, with orthographic long-term memory deficits centred in either the left posterior inferior frontal region or left ventral temporal cortex, and orthographic working memory deficits primarily arising from lesions of the left parietal cortex centred on the intraparietal sulcus. These findings also contribute to our understanding of the relationship between the neural instantiation of written language processes and spoken language, working memory and other cognitive skills.

  6. Neural bases of orthographic long-term memory and working memory in dysgraphia.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Brenda; Purcell, Jeremy; Hillis, Argye E; Capasso, Rita; Miceli, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Spelling a word involves the retrieval of information about the word's letters and their order from long-term memory as well as the maintenance and processing of this information by working memory in preparation for serial production by the motor system. While it is known that brain lesions may selectively affect orthographic long-term memory and working memory processes, relatively little is known about the neurotopographic distribution of the substrates that support these cognitive processes, or the lesions that give rise to the distinct forms of dysgraphia that affect these cognitive processes. To examine these issues, this study uses a voxel-based mapping approach to analyse the lesion distribution of 27 individuals with dysgraphia subsequent to stroke, who were identified on the basis of their behavioural profiles alone, as suffering from deficits only affecting either orthographic long-term or working memory, as well as six other individuals with deficits affecting both sets of processes. The findings provide, for the first time, clear evidence of substrates that selectively support orthographic long-term and working memory processes, with orthographic long-term memory deficits centred in either the left posterior inferior frontal region or left ventral temporal cortex, and orthographic working memory deficits primarily arising from lesions of the left parietal cortex centred on the intraparietal sulcus. These findings also contribute to our understanding of the relationship between the neural instantiation of written language processes and spoken language, working memory and other cognitive skills. PMID:26685156

  7. Memory Benchmarks for SMP-Based High Performance Parallel Computers

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, A B; de Supinski, B; Mueller, F; Mckee, S A

    2001-11-20

    As the speed gap between CPU and main memory continues to grow, memory accesses increasingly dominates the performance of many applications. The problem is particularly acute for symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) systems, where the shared memory may be accessed concurrently by a group of threads running on separate CPUs. Unfortunately, several key issues governing memory system performance in current systems are not well understood. Complex interactions between the levels of the memory hierarchy, buses or switches, DRAM back-ends, system software, and application access patterns can make it difficult to pinpoint bottlenecks and determine appropriate optimizations, and the situation is even more complex for SMP systems. To partially address this problem, we formulated a set of multi-threaded microbenchmarks for characterizing and measuring the performance of the underlying memory system in SMP-based high-performance computers. We report our use of these microbenchmarks on two important SMP-based machines. This paper has four primary contributions. First, we introduce a microbenchmark suite to systematically assess and compare the performance of different levels in SMP memory hierarchies. Second, we present a new tool based on hardware performance monitors to determine a wide array of memory system characteristics, such as cache sizes, quickly and easily; by using this tool, memory performance studies can be targeted to the full spectrum of performance regimes with many fewer data points than is otherwise required. Third, we present experimental results indicating that the performance of applications with large memory footprints remains largely constrained by memory. Fourth, we demonstrate that thread-level parallelism further degrades memory performance, even for the latest SMPs with hardware prefetching and switch-based memory interconnects.

  8. Permeation characteristics of some iron and nickel based alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, D.J.; Edge, E.M.

    1985-06-15

    The permeation characteristics of deuterium in several iron and nickel based alloys were measured by the gas phase breakthrough technique in the temperature range 100 to 500 /sup 0/C with applied pressures ranging from 10 Pa to 100 kPa. The restriction of the gas flux imposed by surface oxides was modeled in order to evaluate the effects of surface oxide retardation of the gas flux on the effective values of the deuterium permeabilities and diffusivities in the alloys. The most permeable alloys were 430 and 431 stainless steels. The next most permeable alloy was Monel K-500, which exceeded the permeability of pure Ni by more than a factor of five at room temperature. The alloys with permeabilities less than pure Ni were, in order of decreasing permeability: the Inconels 625, 718, and 750, the Fe-Ni-Co glass-sealing alloys Kovar and Ceramvar, and the 300-series stainless steels. Deuterium trapping within the alloys appeared to influence the values of bulk diffusivities, which were not correlated with either the permeabilities or the chemical compositions of the alloys.

  9. Smart surgical needle actuated by shape memory alloys for percutaneous procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konh, Bardia

    Background: Majority of cancer interventions today are performed percutaneously using needle-based procedures, i.e. through the skin and soft tissue. Insufficient accuracy using conventional surgical needles motivated researchers to provide actuation forces to the needle's body for compensating the possible errors of surgeons/physicians. Therefore, active needles were proposed recently where actuation forces provided by shape memory alloys (SMAs) are utilized to assist the maneuverability and accuracy of surgical needles. This work also aims to introduce a novel needle insertion simulation to predict the deflection of a bevel tip needle inside the tissue. Methods: In this work first, the actuation capability of a single SMA wire was studied. The complex response of SMAs was investigated via a MATLAB implementation of the Brinson model and verified via experimental tests. The material characteristics of SMAs were simulated by defining multilinear elastic isothermal stress-strain curves. Rigorous experiments with SMA wires were performed to determine the material properties as well as to show the capability of the code to predict a stabilized SMA transformation behavior with sufficient accuracy. The isothermal stress-strain curves of SMAs were simulated and defined as a material model for the Finite Element Analysis of the active needle. In the second part of this work, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of the active steerable needle was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of using SMA wires as actuators to bend the surgical needle. In the FE model, birth and death method of defining boundary conditions, available in ANSYS, was used to achieve the pre-strain condition on SMA wire prior to actuation. This numerical model was validated with needle deflection experiments with developed prototypes of the active needle. The third part of this work describes the design optimization of the active using genetic algorithm aiming for its maximum flexibility

  10. Phase transformations in nickel-rich nickel-titanium alloys: Influence of strain-rate, temperature, thermomechanical treatment and nickel composition on the shape memory and superelastic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adharapurapu, Raghavendra R.

    Nearly four decades of academic research and industrial interest on Nitinol has largely focused on the superelastic applications in the bio-medical sector and in the development of 'smart' shape-memory based sensors involving the low-strain rate (˜0.001/s) response of NiTi. It is only within the last decade that there has been a growing interest in the exploitation of Nitinol towards high-strain rate applications such as seismic damping, blast-mitigation or energy-absorbing applications. However, a systematic study of the influence of high-strain rate and temperature on the shape memory characteristics of NiTi is severely lacking. The current research program reports the findings on: (1) The phase-transformation mechanisms in Ni-rich Ni-Ti alloys. These include (a) diffusionless multiple-stage martensitic transformations and (b) diffusion-based phase transformations that govern the precipitation reactions in Ni-rich alloys and the overall time-temperature-transformation (TTT) curves. (2) The systematic study of the high-strain rate response of Ni-rich NiTi alloys as a function of temperature (between -196°C and 400°C) and thermomechanical treatment, viz., fully annealed, work-hardened and precipitation hardened conditions. Two Ni-rich Nitinol alloys, a commercial 50.8-NiTi (at.%) and a new 55-NiTi (at.%), were selected for the study, since the Ni composition determines the precipitation processes and, critically, the transformation temperatures in NiTi alloys. It was observed that the presence of dislocations (through work-hardening) and the presence of Ni-rich precipitates (through age-hardening) contribute to a more complex two-stage or multiple-stage transformations and also improve the overall strength of the NiTi alloy. Based on the microstructural changes, such as recovery, recrystallization and precipitation formation in 50.8-NiTi alloys, the current work uniquely provides a unified and general understanding of the various multiple-stage transformations

  11. Surface structure and properties of biomedical NiTi shape memory alloy after Fenton's oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chu, C L; Hu, T; Wu, S L; Dong, Y S; Yin, L H; Pu, Y P; Lin, P H; Chung, C Y; Yeung, K W K; Chu, Paul K

    2007-09-01

    Fenton's oxidation is traditionally used to remove inorganic and organic pollutants from water in waster water treatment. It is an advanced oxidation process in which H2O2 is catalytically decomposed by ferrous irons into hydroxyl radicals (*OH) which have a higher oxidation potential (2.8V) than H2O2. In the work reported here, we for the first time use Fenton's oxidation to modify the surface of biomedical NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA). The influences of Fenton's oxidation on the surface microstructure, blood compatibility, leaching of harmful Ni ions and corrosion resistance in simulated body fluids is assessed using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, electrochemical tests, hemolysis analysis and the blood platelet adhesion test. The mechanical stability of the surface titania film produced by Fenton's oxidation as well as their effects on the shape memory behavior of the SMA are studied by bending tests. Our results show that Fenton's oxidation produces a novel nanostructured titania gel film with a graded structure on the NiTi substrate without an intermediate Ni-rich layer that is typical of high-temperature oxidation. Moreover, there is a clear Ni-free zone near the top surface of the titania film. The surface structural changes introduced by Fenton's oxidation improve the electrochemical corrosion resistance and mitigate Ni release. The latter effects are comparable to those observed after oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation reported previously and better than those of high-temperature oxidation. Aging in boiling water improves the crystallinity of the titania film and further reduces Ni leaching. Blood platelet adhesion is remarkably reduced after Fenton's oxidation, suggesting that the treated SMA has improved thrombo resistance. Enhancement of blood compatibility is believed to stem from the improved hemolysis resistance, the surface wettability and the

  12. A comparison of methods for the training of NiTi two-way shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, H. Y.; Abel, E. W.

    2007-12-01

    The creation of an effective two-way shape memory alloy (TWSMA) requires appropriate heat treatment and optimal training considerations. In particular, the training method used plays a key role. This work investigates different training methods for producing NiTi TWSMA wires with the hot shape of an arc and the cold shape of a straight line. These methods are shape memory cycling, constrained cycling of deformed martensite, pseudoelastic cycling and combined shape memory and pseudoelastic cycling. In order to give a meaningful evaluation of their performance that is relevant to training TWSMA for practical applications, these training methods are assessed in terms of maximum two-way strain, changes in the original hot shape together with the transformation temperatures after the training process, and the effective production of the cold shape. It was found that only the combined shape memory and pseudoelastic cycling provides an effective training method for creating NiTi TWSMA with a non-uniaxial two-way shape change. The undesirable side effects of training are that the NiTi TWSMA wire loses partial memory of the original hot shape and its transformation temperatures shift to lower values. There also exists an optimal number of training cycles, and possibly an optimal training load for obtaining the best cold shape memory and the greatest two-way recoverable strain. These findings give future directions to advance the training technology for TWSMA.

  13. A two-degrees-of-freedom miniature manipulator actuated by antagonistic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chih-Ming; Chu, Cheng-Yu; Lan, Chao-Chieh

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a miniature manipulator that can provide rotations around two perpendicularly intersecting axes. Each axis is actuated by a pair of shape memory alloy (SMA) wires. SMA wire actuators are known for their large energy density and ease of actuation. These advantages make them ideal for applications that have stringent size and weight constraints. SMA actuators can be temperature-controlled to contract and relax like muscles. When correctly designed, antagonistic SMA actuators have a faster response and larger range of motion than bias-type SMA actuators. This paper proposes an antagonistic actuation model to determine the manipulator parameters that are required to generate sufficient workspace. Effects of SMA prestrain and spring stiffness on the manipulator are investigated. Taking advantage of proper prestrain, the actuator size can be made much smaller while maintaining the same motion. The use of springs in series with SMA can effectively reduce actuator stress. A controller and an anti-slack algorithm are developed to ensure fast and accurate motion. Speed, stress, and loading experiments are conducted to demonstrate the performance of the manipulator.

  14. A validated model for induction heating of shape memory alloy actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Robert N.; Boyd, James G.; Hartl, Darren J.; Brown, Jonathan K.; Calkins, Frederick T.; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2016-04-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators deliver high forces while being compact and reliable, making them ideal for consideration in aerospace applications. One disadvantage of these thermally driven actuators is their slow cyclic time response compared to conventional actuators. Induction heating has recently been proposed to quickly heat SMA components. However efforts to date have been purely empirical. The present work approachs this problem in a computational manner by developing a finite element model of induction heating in which the time-harmonic electromagnetic equations are solved for the Joule heat power field, the energy equation is solved for the temperature field, and the linear momentum equations are solved to find the stress, displacement, and internal state variable fields. The combined model was implemented in Abaqus using a Python script approach and applied to SMA torque tube and beam actuators. The model has also been used to examine magnetic flux concentrators to improve the induction systems performance. Induction heating experiments were performed using the SMA torque tube, and the model agreed well with the experiments.

  15. TiNi shape memory alloy coated with tungsten: a novel approach for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Huafang; Zheng, Yufeng; Pei, Y T; De Hosson, J Th M

    2014-05-01

    This study explores the use of DC magnetron sputtering tungsten thin films for surface modification of TiNi shape memory alloy (SMA) targeting for biomedical applications. SEM, AFM and automatic contact angle meter instrument were used to determine the surface characteristics of the tungsten thin films. The hardness of the TiNi SMA with and without tungsten thin films was measured by nanoindentation tests. It is demonstrated that the tungsten thin films deposited at different magnetron sputtering conditions are characterized by a columnar microstructure and exhibit different surface morphology and roughness. The hardness of the TiNi SMA was improved significantly by tungsten thin films. The ion release, hemolysis rate, cell adhesion and cell proliferation have been investigated by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, CCK-8 assay and alkaline phosphatase activity test. The experimental findings indicate that TiNi SMA coated with tungsten thin film shows a substantial reduction in the release of nickel. Therefore, it has a better in vitro biocompatibility, in particular, reduced hemolysis rate, enhanced cell adhesion and differentiation due to the hydrophilic properties of the tungsten films. PMID:24481534

  16. Design and implementation of shape memory alloy-actuated nanotweezers for nanoassembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hao; Chang, Ming; Liu, Xiaojun; Gabayno, Jacque Lynn; Chen, Hsieh Tsun

    2014-09-01

    Reliable and accurate tools for nanoscale manipulation are constantly sought to complement new breakthroughs in nanomaterials and nanotechnology. In this study, a new design of electrically actuated nanotweezers was developed for manipulation of individual nanowires. The design featured two chemically etched tungsten tips attached to a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer and two shape memory alloy actuators. The shape recovery effect of the spring actuators was exploited as a control mechanism for the bending and relaxation modes of the nanotweezers. This was activated by driving a potential difference of less than 1 V across the coils, which was considerably lower than for electromechanical micro/nanotweezers previously developed. To demonstrate the pick-and-place capability of the system, experiments were implemented inside the vacuum chamber of a JEOL-JSM 6300 SEM. Individual Au nanowires averaging 5-10 µm in length and 200 nm in diameter were assembled on silicon substrates using the tungsten tips to draw initials out of various nanowire shapes such as curls, loops, crosses, and zigzags. With such capability, the nanotweezers may find applications in the manufacturing of complex nanostructures or modification of surface properties of materials.

  17. Texture and Strain Measurements from Bending of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carl, Matthew; Zhang, Baozhuo; Young, Marcus L.

    2016-07-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a new generation of materials that exhibit unique nonlinear deformations due to a phase transformation which allows the material to return to its original shape after removal of stress or a change in temperature. These unique properties are the result of a martensitic/austenitic phase transformation through the application of temperature changes or applied stress. Many technological applications of austenitic SMAs involve cyclical mechanical loading and unloading in order to take advantage of pseudoelasticity, but are limited due to poor fatigue life. In this paper, commercial pseudoelastic NiTi SMA wires (50.7 at.% Ni) were placed under different bending strains and examined using scanning electron microscopy and high-energy synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD). By observing the microstructure, phase transformation temperatures, surface texture and diffraction patterns along the wire, it is shown that the wire exhibits a strong anisotropic behavior whether on the tensile or compressive side of the bending axis and that the initiation of micro-cracks in the wires is localized on the compression side, but that crack propagation will still happen if the wire is reloaded in the opposite direction. In addition, lattice strains are examined for both the austenite and martensite phases.

  18. Pulsed-mode operation and performance of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asua, E.; García-Arribas, A.; Etxebarria, V.; Feuchtwanger, J.

    2014-02-01

    The actuation capabilities and positioning performance of a single crystal ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) operated in pulsed mode are evaluated in a prototype device. It consists of two orthogonal coil pairs that produce the magnetic fields necessary for the non-contact deformation of the material. The position of the top of the crystal after actuation is measured by a capacitive sensor. A specifically designed power module drives the discharge of a set of capacitors through the coils, producing fast current pulses of large amplitudes (about 250 A), the coil pairs are driven independently to control the direction of actuation. Open-loop experiments demonstrate that successive pulses of increasing magnitude successfully produced the desired expansion and contraction of the crystal, depending on the pair of coils that is activated. The deformation achieved is maintained after the pulses, highlighting the advantageous set-and-forget operation of the device. Closed-loop experiments are performed using a double proportional-integral-derivative controller, designed to take advantage of the energy-saving quality of the set-and-forget operation. Despite the nonlinear response and hysteric response of FSMA materials, a reference position can be reached and maintained with a maximum error of 0.5 μm.

  19. Applicability of Shape Memory Alloy Wire for an Active, Soft Orthotic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirling, Leia; Yu, Chih-Han; Miller, Jason; Hawkes, Elliot; Wood, Robert; Goldfield, Eugene; Nagpal, Radhika

    2011-07-01

    Current treatments for gait pathologies associated with neuromuscular disorders may employ a passive, rigid brace. While these provide certain benefits, they can also cause muscle atrophy. In this study, we examined NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) wires that were annealed into springs to develop an active, soft orthotic (ASO) for the knee. Actively controlled SMA springs may provide variable assistances depending on factors such as when, during the gait cycle, the springs are activated; ongoing muscle activity level; and needs of the wearer. Unlike a passive brace, an active orthotic may provide individualized control, assisting the muscles so that they may be used more appropriately, and possibly leading to a re-education of the neuro-motor system and eventual independence from the orthotic system. A prototype was tested on a suspended, robotic leg to simulate the swing phase of a typical gait. The total deflection generated by the orthotic depended on the knee angle and the total number of actuators triggered, with a max deflection of 35°. While SMA wires have a high energy density, they require a significant amount of power. Furthermore, the loaded SMA spring response times were much longer than the natural frequency of an average gait for the power conditions tested. While the SMA wires are not appropriate for correction of gait pathologies as currently implemented, the ability to have a soft, actuated material could be appropriate for slower timescale applications.

  20. Mechanical properties identification and design optimization of nitinol shape memory alloy microactuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, M.; Hamedi, M.; Salmani Nohouji, H.; Arghavani, J.

    2014-02-01

    Microactuators are essential elements of MEMS and are widely used in these devices. Microgrippers, micropositioners, microfixtures, micropumps and microvalves are well-known applications of microstructures. In this paper, the design optimization of shape memory alloy microactuators is discussed. Four different configurations of microactuator with variable geometrical parameters, generating different levels of displacement and force, are designed and analysed. In order to determine the optimum values of parameters for each microactuator, statistical design of experiments (DOE) is used. For this purpose, the Souza et al constitutive model (1988 Eur. J. Mech. A 17 789-806) is adapted for use in finite element analysis software. Mechanical properties of the SMA are identified by performing experimental tests on Ti-49.8%Ni. Finally, the specific energy of each microactuator is determined using the calibrated model and regression analysis. Moreover, the characteristic curve of each microactuator is obtained and with this virtual tool one can choose a microactuator with the desired force and displacement. The methodology discussed in this paper can be used as a reference to design appropriate microactuators for different MEMS applications producing various ranges of displacement and force.