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Sample records for memory alloy produced

  1. Investigations of a nanostructured FeMnSi shape memory alloy produced via severe plastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurau, Gheorghe; Gurau, Carmela; Sampath, Vedamanickam; Bujoreanu, Leandru Gheorghe

    2016-11-01

    Low-cost iron-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) show great potential for engineering applications. The developments of new processing techniques have recently enabled the production of nanocrystalline materials with improved properties. These developments have opened avenues for newer applications for SMAs. The influence of severe plastic deformation induced by the high-speed high-pressure torsion (HSHPT) process on the microstructural evolution of an Fe-Mn-Si-Cr alloy was investigated. Transmission electron microscopic analysis of the alloy revealed the existence of nanoscale grains with an abundance of stacking faults. The high density of dislocations characteristic of severe plastic deformation was not observed in this alloy. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the presence of ɛ-martensite with an HCP crystal structure and γ-phase with an FCC structure.

  2. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  3. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  4. Shape memory alloy actuator

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Venugopal K.

    2001-01-01

    An actuator for cycling between first and second positions includes a first shaped memory alloy (SMA) leg, a second SMA leg. At least one heating/cooling device is thermally connected to at least one of the legs, each heating/cooling device capable of simultaneously heating one leg while cooling the other leg. The heating/cooling devices can include thermoelectric and/or thermoionic elements.

  5. Structure and properties of nitrided surface layer produced on NiTi shape memory alloy by low temperature plasma nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnowska, Elżbieta; Borowski, Tomasz; Sowińska, Agnieszka; Lelątko, Józef; Oleksiak, Justyna; Kamiński, Janusz; Tarnowski, Michał; Wierzchoń, Tadeusz

    2015-04-01

    NiTi shape memory alloys are used for bone and cardiological implants. However, on account of the metallosis effect, i.e. the release of the alloy elements into surrounding tissues, they are subjected to various surface treatment processes in order to improve their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility without influencing the required shape memory properties. In this paper, the microstructure, topography and morphology of TiN surface layer on NiTi alloy, and corrosion resistance, both before and after nitriding in low-temperature plasma at 290 °C, are presented. Examinations with the use of the potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods were carried out and show an increase of corrosion resistance in Ringer's solution after glow-discharge nitriding. This surface titanium nitride layer also improved the adhesion of platelets and the proliferation of osteoblasts, which was investigated in in vitro experiments with human cells. Experimental data revealed that nitriding NiTi shape memory alloy under low-temperature plasma improves its properties for bone implant applications.

  6. Hybrid a-CNH+TiO2+TiN-type surface layers produced on NiTi shape memory alloy for cardiovascular applications.

    PubMed

    Witkowska, Justyna; Sowińska, Agnieszka; Czarnowska, Elżbieta; Płociński, Tomasz; Kamiński, Janusz; Wierzchoń, Tadeusz

    2017-09-01

    The goal was to improve the properties of NiTi shape memory alloy to make it suitable for cardiac applications. For this purpose, a hybrid a-CNH+TiO2+TiN-type surface layer was produced on NiTi alloy and characterized. The NiTi alloy subjected to hybrid process combining low-temperature oxynitriding under glow discharge conditions and radio frequency chemical vapor deposition process was examined for microstructure, surface topography, corrosion resistance, wettability and surface-free energy, Ni ion release and platelets adhesion, aggregation and activation. The hybrid surface layers showed slightly increased surface roughness, better corrosion resistance, a more hydrophobic nature, decreased surface free energy, smaller release of nickel ions and reduced platelets activation. The produced layers could expand the range of NiTi medical applications.

  7. Shape memory alloy thaw sensors

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Martinez, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the Austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states.

  8. Technical Seminar "Shape Memory Alloys"

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Shape memory alloys are a unique group of materials that remember their original shape and return to that shape after being strained. How could the aerospace, automotive, and energy exploration ind...

  9. Shape memory alloy thaw sensors

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, M.; Martinez, D.R.

    1998-04-07

    A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states. 16 figs.

  10. A bidirectional shape memory alloy folding actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, Jamie K.; Wood, Robert J.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a low-profile bidirectional folding actuator based on annealed shape memory alloy sheets applicable for meso- and microscale systems. Despite the advantages of shape memory alloys—high strain, silent operation, and mechanical simplicity—their application is often limited to unidirectional operation. We present a bidirectional folding actuator that produces two opposing 180° motions. A laser-patterned nickel alloy (Inconel 600) heater localizes actuation to the folding sections. The actuator has a thin ( < 1 mm) profile, making it appropriate for use in robotic origami. Various design parameters and fabrication variants are described and experimentally explored in the actuator prototype.

  11. Shape memory alloys. Ultralow-fatigue shape memory alloy films.

    PubMed

    Chluba, Christoph; Ge, Wenwei; Lima de Miranda, Rodrigo; Strobel, Julian; Kienle, Lorenz; Quandt, Eckhard; Wuttig, Manfred

    2015-05-29

    Functional shape memory alloys need to operate reversibly and repeatedly. Quantitative measures of reversibility include the relative volume change of the participating phases and compatibility matrices for twinning. But no similar argument is known for repeatability. This is especially crucial for many future applications, such as artificial heart valves or elastocaloric cooling, in which more than 10 million transformation cycles will be required. We report on the discovery of an ultralow-fatigue shape memory alloy film system based on TiNiCu that allows at least 10 million transformation cycles. We found that these films contain Ti2Cu precipitates embedded in the base alloy that serve as sentinels to ensure complete and reproducible transformation in the course of each memory cycle. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Processing and characterization of Ni-Al-Fe-B shape-memory alloy wires produced by rapid solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Easton, D.S.; Liu, C.T.; Horton, J.A.; George, E.P.; Campbell, J.J.

    1993-12-31

    This work describes net-shape ductile wires of Ni-Al-Fe doped with boron produced directly from the melt by in-rotating-liquid (IRL) melt spinning, thus avoiding the difficult and costly problem of fabricating bulk castings. This method produces wires of 0.1 to 0.5 mm dia and lengths to 2 m. X-ray diffraction scans showed that the as-spun wires consist of B2, Ll{sub 2}, and bct martensite phases and that the B2 phase further transforms to bct martensite upon cold working. Shape-memory behavior showed an Ap temperature of {approximately} 180C as measured by bend recovery tests and by tensile cycling tests. Effects on the wires of IRL processing parameters are discussed.

  13. Porous NiTi shape memory alloys produced by SHS: microstructure and biocompatibility in comparison with Ti2Ni and TiNi3.

    PubMed

    Bassani, Paola; Panseri, Silvia; Ruffini, Andrea; Montesi, Monica; Ghetti, Martina; Zanotti, Claudio; Tampieri, Anna; Tuissi, Ausonio

    2014-10-01

    Shape memory alloys based on NiTi have found their main applications in manufacturing of new biomedical devices mainly in surgery tools, stents and orthopedics. Porous NiTi can exhibit an engineering elastic modulus comparable to that of cortical bone (12-17 GPa). This condition, combined with proper pore size, allows good osteointegration. Open cells porous NiTi was produced by self propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), starting from Ni and Ti mixed powders. The main NiTi phase is formed during SHS together with other Ni-Ti compounds. The biocompatibility of such material was investigated by single culture experiment and ionic release on small specimen. In particular, NiTi and porous NiTi were evaluated together with elemental Ti and Ni reference metals and the two intermetallic TiNi3, Ti2Ni phases. This approach permitted to clearly identify the influence of secondary phases in porous NiTi materials and relation with Ni-ion release. The results indicated, apart the well-known high toxicity of Ni, also toxicity of TiNi3, whilst phases with higher Ti content showed high biocompatibility. A slightly reduced biocompatibility of porous NiTi was ascribed to combined effect of TiNi3 presence and topography that requires higher effort for the cells to adapt to the surface.

  14. Production of Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloys by Mechanical Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Goegebakan, Musa; Soguksu, Ali Kemal; Uzun, Orhan; Dogan, Ali

    2007-04-23

    The mechanical alloying technique has been used to produce shape memory Cu83Al13Ni4 alloy. The structure and thermal properties were examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The morphology of the surface suggests the presence of martensite.

  15. Shape memory alloy/shape memory polymer tools

    DOEpatents

    Seward, Kirk P.; Krulevitch, Peter A.

    2005-03-29

    Micro-electromechanical tools for minimally invasive techniques including microsurgery. These tools utilize composite shape memory alloy (SMA), shape memory polymer (SMP) and combinations of SMA and SMP to produce catheter distal tips, actuators, etc., which are bistable. Applications for these structures include: 1) a method for reversible fine positioning of a catheter tip, 2) a method for reversible fine positioning of tools or therapeutic catheters by a guide catheter, 3) a method for bending articulation through the body's vasculature, 4) methods for controlled stent delivery, deployment, and repositioning, and 5) catheters with variable modulus, with vibration mode, with inchworm capability, and with articulated tips. These actuators and catheter tips are bistable and are opportune for in vivo usage because the materials are biocompatible and convenient for intravascular use as well as other minimal by invasive techniques.

  16. Constitutive Models for Shape Memory Alloy Polycrystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, R. J., Jr.; Somerday, M.; Wert, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) exhibiting the superelastic or one-way effects can produce large recoverable strains upon application of a stress. In single crystals this stress and resulting strain are very orientation dependent. We show experimental stress/strain curves for a Ni-Al single crystal for various loading orientations. Also shown are model predictions; the open and closed circles indicate recoverable strains obtained at various stages in the transformation process. Because of the strong orientation dependence of shape memory properties, crystallographic texture can be expected to play an important role in the mechanical behavior of polycrystalline SMA. It is desirable to formulate a constitutive model to better understand and exploit the unique properties of SMA.

  17. Constitutive Models for Shape Memory Alloy Polycrystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, R. J., Jr.; Somerday, M.; Wert, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) exhibiting the superelastic or one-way effects can produce large recoverable strains upon application of a stress. In single crystals this stress and resulting strain are very orientation dependent. We show experimental stress/strain curves for a Ni-Al single crystal for various loading orientations. Also shown are model predictions; the open and closed circles indicate recoverable strains obtained at various stages in the transformation process. Because of the strong orientation dependence of shape memory properties, crystallographic texture can be expected to play an important role in the mechanical behavior of polycrystalline SMA. It is desirable to formulate a constitutive model to better understand and exploit the unique properties of SMA.

  18. Shape-memory alloy micro-actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch, John D. (Inventor); Johnson, Alfred D. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method of producing an integral piece of thermo-sensitive material, which is responsive to a shift in temperature from below to above a phase transformation temperature range to alter the material's condition to a shape-memory condition and move from one position to another. The method is characterized by depositing a thin film of shape-memory material, such as Nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) onto a substrate by vacuum deposition process such that the alloy exhibits an amorphous non-crystalline structure. The coated substrate is then annealed in a vacuum or in the presence of an inert atmosphere at a selected temperature, time and cool down rate to produce an ordered, partially disordered or fully disordered BCC structure such that the alloy undergoes thermoelastic, martinsetic phase transformation in response to alteration in temperature to pass from a martinsetic phase when at a temperature below a phase transformation range and capable of a high level of recoverable strain to a parent austenitic phase in a memory shape when at a temperature above the phase transformation range. Also disclosed are actuator devices employing shape-memory material actuators that deform from a set shape toward an original shape when subjected to a critical temperature level after having been initially deformed from the original shape into the set shape while at a lower temperature. The actuators are mechanically coupled to one or more movable elements such that the temperature-induce deformation of the actuators exerts a force or generates a motion of the mechanical element(s).

  19. Rapidly solidified ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciunescu, C. M.; Ercuta, A.; Mitelea, I.; Valeanu, M.; Teodorescu, V. S.; Lupu, N.; Chiriac, H.

    2008-05-01

    Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys have been manufactured by various techniques involving rapid solidification. Bulk alloys have been obtained by extracting the melted alloy in especially designed copper molds; glass coated wires have been obtained by drawing the melt from glass recipients followed by water cooling and ribbons have been fabricated by melt-spinning. Microstructural observations show particular solidification aspects of fractured areas, while ferromagnetic behavior has been detected in glass coated wires obtained by rapid solidification. The martensitic microstructure was observed on Co-Ni-Ga rapid solidified bulk alloys and Fe-Pd ribbons. The memory effect was detected using a Vibran system that allows the detection of the phase transition for the ribbons and by visual observation for other specimens. The conclusions of the observations are related to the comparison between the ferromagnetic behaviors of shape memory alloys solidified using different techniques.

  20. Shape Memory Alloy Rock Splitters (SMARS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benafan, Othmane (Inventor); Noebe, Ronald D. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) may be used for static rock splitting. The SMAs may be used as high-energy multifunctional materials, which have a unique ability to recover large deformations and generate high stresses in response to thermal loads.

  1. A lightweight shape-memory magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yukiko; Ando, Daisuke; Sutou, Yuji; Koike, Junichi

    2016-07-22

    Shape-memory alloys (SMAs), which display shape recovery upon heating, as well as superelasticity, offer many technological advantages in various applications. Those distinctive behaviors have been observed in many polycrystalline alloy systems such as nickel titantium (TiNi)-, copper-, iron-, nickel-, cobalt-, and Ti-based alloys but not in lightweight alloys such as magnesium (Mg) and aluminum alloys. Here we present a Mg SMA showing superelasticity of 4.4% at -150°C and shape recovery upon heating. The shape-memory properties are caused by reversible martensitic transformation. This Mg alloy includes lightweight scandium, and its density is about 2 grams per cubic centimeter, which is one-third less than that of practical TiNi SMAs. This finding raises the potential for development and application of lightweight SMAs across a number of industries. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. A lightweight shape-memory magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yukiko; Ando, Daisuke; Sutou, Yuji; Koike, Junichi

    2016-07-01

    Shape-memory alloys (SMAs), which display shape recovery upon heating, as well as superelasticity, offer many technological advantages in various applications. Those distinctive behaviors have been observed in many polycrystalline alloy systems such as nickel titantium (TiNi)-, copper-, iron-, nickel-, cobalt-, and Ti-based alloys but not in lightweight alloys such as magnesium (Mg) and aluminum alloys. Here we present a Mg SMA showing superelasticity of 4.4% at -150°C and shape recovery upon heating. The shape-memory properties are caused by reversible martensitic transformation. This Mg alloy includes lightweight scandium, and its density is about 2 grams per cubic centimeter, which is one-third less than that of practical TiNi SMAs. This finding raises the potential for development and application of lightweight SMAs across a number of industries.

  3. Shape-Memory-Alloy Release Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinnis, Darin

    1993-01-01

    Release-nut mechanism activated by electric current applied to shape-memory alloy. Separates attached objects quickly by remote control. Does not create hazard or cause damage. Shape-memory release-nut mechanism unaffected by moisture or vacuum. Requires sustained current lasting 5 seconds or longer, and insensitive to electromagnetic interference. Mechanism can be reused.

  4. Shape-Memory-Alloy Release Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinnis, Darin

    1993-01-01

    Release-nut mechanism activated by electric current applied to shape-memory alloy. Separates attached objects quickly by remote control. Does not create hazard or cause damage. Shape-memory release-nut mechanism unaffected by moisture or vacuum. Requires sustained current lasting 5 seconds or longer, and insensitive to electromagnetic interference. Mechanism can be reused.

  5. A jumping shape memory alloy under heat

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuiyuan; Omori, Toshihiro; Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Yong; Nagasako, Makoto; Ruan, Jingjing; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Ishida, Kiyohito; Liu, Xingjun

    2016-01-01

    Shape memory alloys are typical temperature-sensitive metallic functional materials due to superelasticity and shape recovery characteristics. The conventional shape memory effect involves the formation and deformation of thermally induced martensite and its reverse transformation. The shape recovery process usually takes place over a temperature range, showing relatively low temperature-sensitivity. Here we report novel Cu-Al-Fe-Mn shape memory alloys. Their stress-strain and shape recovery behaviors are clearly different from the conventional shape memory alloys. In this study, although the Cu-12.2Al-4.3Fe-6.6Mn and Cu-12.9Al-3.8Fe-5.6Mn alloys possess predominantly L21 parent before deformation, the 2H martensite stress-induced from L21 parent could be retained after unloading. Furthermore, their shape recovery response is extremely temperature-sensitive, in which a giant residual strain of about 9% recovers instantly and completely during heating. At the same time, the phenomenon of the jumping of the sample occurs. It is originated from the instantaneous completion of the reverse transformation of the stabilized 2H martensite. This novel Cu-Al-Fe-Mn shape memory alloys have great potentials as new temperature-sensitive functional materials. PMID:26880700

  6. A jumping shape memory alloy under heat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuiyuan; Omori, Toshihiro; Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Yong; Nagasako, Makoto; Ruan, Jingjing; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Ishida, Kiyohito; Liu, Xingjun

    2016-02-16

    Shape memory alloys are typical temperature-sensitive metallic functional materials due to superelasticity and shape recovery characteristics. The conventional shape memory effect involves the formation and deformation of thermally induced martensite and its reverse transformation. The shape recovery process usually takes place over a temperature range, showing relatively low temperature-sensitivity. Here we report novel Cu-Al-Fe-Mn shape memory alloys. Their stress-strain and shape recovery behaviors are clearly different from the conventional shape memory alloys. In this study, although the Cu-12.2Al-4.3Fe-6.6Mn and Cu-12.9Al-3.8Fe-5.6Mn alloys possess predominantly L2(1) parent before deformation, the 2H martensite stress-induced from L2(1) parent could be retained after unloading. Furthermore, their shape recovery response is extremely temperature-sensitive, in which a giant residual strain of about 9% recovers instantly and completely during heating. At the same time, the phenomenon of the jumping of the sample occurs. It is originated from the instantaneous completion of the reverse transformation of the stabilized 2H martensite. This novel Cu-Al-Fe-Mn shape memory alloys have great potentials as new temperature-sensitive functional materials.

  7. A jumping shape memory alloy under heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuiyuan; Omori, Toshihiro; Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Yong; Nagasako, Makoto; Ruan, Jingjing; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Ishida, Kiyohito; Liu, Xingjun

    2016-02-01

    Shape memory alloys are typical temperature-sensitive metallic functional materials due to superelasticity and shape recovery characteristics. The conventional shape memory effect involves the formation and deformation of thermally induced martensite and its reverse transformation. The shape recovery process usually takes place over a temperature range, showing relatively low temperature-sensitivity. Here we report novel Cu-Al-Fe-Mn shape memory alloys. Their stress-strain and shape recovery behaviors are clearly different from the conventional shape memory alloys. In this study, although the Cu-12.2Al-4.3Fe-6.6Mn and Cu-12.9Al-3.8Fe-5.6Mn alloys possess predominantly L21 parent before deformation, the 2H martensite stress-induced from L21 parent could be retained after unloading. Furthermore, their shape recovery response is extremely temperature-sensitive, in which a giant residual strain of about 9% recovers instantly and completely during heating. At the same time, the phenomenon of the jumping of the sample occurs. It is originated from the instantaneous completion of the reverse transformation of the stabilized 2H martensite. This novel Cu-Al-Fe-Mn shape memory alloys have great potentials as new temperature-sensitive functional materials.

  8. Ultralow-fatigue shape memory alloy films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chluba, Christoph; Ge, Wenwei; Lima de Miranda, Rodrigo; Strobel, Julian; Kienle, Lorenz; Quandt, Eckhard; Wuttig, Manfred

    2015-05-01

    Functional shape memory alloys need to operate reversibly and repeatedly. Quantitative measures of reversibility include the relative volume change of the participating phases and compatibility matrices for twinning. But no similar argument is known for repeatability. This is especially crucial for many future applications, such as artificial heart valves or elastocaloric cooling, in which more than 10 million transformation cycles will be required. We report on the discovery of an ultralow-fatigue shape memory alloy film system based on TiNiCu that allows at least 10 million transformation cycles. We found that these films contain Ti2Cu precipitates embedded in the base alloy that serve as sentinels to ensure complete and reproducible transformation in the course of each memory cycle.

  9. Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys

    DOEpatents

    Dunning, John S.; Alman, David E.

    2002-11-05

    A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800.degree. C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800.degree. C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700.degree. C. at a low cost

  10. Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys

    DOEpatents

    Dunning, John S.; Alman, David E.

    2002-11-05

    A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800 C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800 C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700 C. at a low cost

  11. Method of producing superplastic alloys and superplastic alloys produced by the method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troeger, Lillianne P. (Inventor); Starke, Jr., Edgar A. (Inventor); Crooks, Roy (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method for producing new superplastic alloys by inducing in an alloy the formation of precipitates having a sufficient size and homogeneous distribution that a sufficiently refined grain structure to produce superplasticity is obtained after subsequent PSN processing. An age-hardenable alloy having at least one dispersoid phase is selected for processing. The alloy is solution heat-treated and cooled to form a supersaturated solid solution. The alloy is plastically deformed sufficiently to form a high-energy defect structure useful for the subsequent heterogeneous nucleation of precipitates. The alloy is then aged, preferably by a multi-stage low and high temperature process, and precipitates are formed at the defect sites. The alloy then is subjected to a PSN process comprising plastically deforming the alloy to provide sufficient strain energy in the alloy to ensure recrystallization, and statically recrystallizing the alloy. A grain structure exhibiting new, fine, equiaxed and uniform grains is produced in the alloy. An exemplary 6xxx alloy of the type capable of being produced by the present invention, and which is useful for aerospace, automotive and other applications, is disclosed and claimed. The process is also suitable for processing any age-hardenable aluminum or other alloy.

  12. Final Technical Report: Nanostructured Shape Memory ALloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wendy Crone; Walter Drugan; Arthur Ellis; John Perepezko

    2005-07-28

    With this grant we explored the properties that result from combining the effects of nanostructuring and shape memory using both experimental and theoretical approaches. We developed new methods to make nanostructured NiTi by melt-spinning and cold rolling fabrication strategies, which elicited significantly different behavior. A template synthesis method was also used to created nanoparticles. In order to characterize the particles we created, we developed a new magnetically-assisted particle manipulation technique to manipulate and position nanoscale samples for testing. Beyond characterization, this technique has broader implications for assembly of nanoscale devices and we demonstrated promising applications for optical switching through magnetically-controlled scattering and polarization capabilities. Nanoparticles of nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy were also produced using thin film deposition technology and nanosphere lithography. Our work revealed the first direct evidence that the thermally-induced martensitic transformation of these films allows for partial indent recovery on the nanoscale. In addition to thoroughly characterizing and modeling the nanoindentation behavior in NiTi thin films, we demonstrated the feasibility of using nanoindentation on an SMA film for write-read-erase schemes for data storage.

  13. Shape memory alloys for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Gil, F J; Planell, J A

    1998-01-01

    The shape memory alloys exhibit a number of remarkable properties, which open new possibilities in engineering and more specifically in biomedical engineering. The most important alloy used in biomedical applications is NiTi. This alloy combines the characteristics of the shape memory effect and superelasticity with excellent corrosion resistance, wear characteristics, mechanical properties and a good biocompatibility. These properties make it an ideal biological engineering material, especially in orthopaedic surgery and orthodontics. In this work the basis of the memory effect lies in the fact that the materials exhibiting such a property undergo a thermoelastic martensitic transformation. In order to understand even the most elementary engineering aspects of the shape memory effect it is necessary to review some basic principles of the formation and the characteristics of the martensitic phase. The different properties of shape memory, superelasticity, two-way shape memory, rubber-like behaviour and a high damping capacity are reviewed. Some applications proposed in recent years are described and classified according to different medical fields.

  14. Shape-Memory-Alloy Actuator For Flight Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Report proposes use of shape-memory-alloy actuators, instead of hydraulic actuators, for aerodynamic flight-control surfaces. Actuator made of shape-memory alloy converts thermal energy into mechanical work by changing shape as it makes transitions between martensitic and austenitic crystalline phase states of alloy. Because both hot exhaust gases and cryogenic propellant liquids available aboard launch rockets, shape-memory-alloy actuators exceptionally suited for use aboard such rockets.

  15. Shape-Memory-Alloy Actuator For Flight Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Report proposes use of shape-memory-alloy actuators, instead of hydraulic actuators, for aerodynamic flight-control surfaces. Actuator made of shape-memory alloy converts thermal energy into mechanical work by changing shape as it makes transitions between martensitic and austenitic crystalline phase states of alloy. Because both hot exhaust gases and cryogenic propellant liquids available aboard launch rockets, shape-memory-alloy actuators exceptionally suited for use aboard such rockets.

  16. Bioperformance of shape memory alloy single crystals.

    PubMed

    Yahia, L'h; Manceur, A; Chaffraix, P

    2006-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) represent a large family of alloys that show unique characteristics. They have been exploited in several fields for diverse applications. For the last 20 years, these alloys and more particularly Ni-Ti alloys have revolutionized the field of metallic biomaterials. Applications in the biomedical area are multiple and these materials improve significantly the quality of the diagnostics, treatments and surgeries. To our knowledge, most devices are made of SMAs in the polycrystalline form. Nevertheless, the single crystal form shows several promising advantages especially concerning its mechanical performances. In this paper we describe the advantages, advances and limits of using different SMA single crystals for biomedical applications, including biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. We also discuss the low response time of classical thermal SMAs as well as the new advances in research on magnetic SMA single crystals.

  17. Sleep Loss Produces False Memories

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., “night”, “dark”, “coal”,…), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: “black”). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss. PMID:18946511

  18. Sleep loss produces false memories.

    PubMed

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal",...), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss.

  19. Recent developments in TiNi-based shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Shuichi; Kohl, Manfred

    1998-07-01

    Recently, a variety of manufacturing methods have enabled us to produce fine or thin shapes or unique structure of TiNi-based shape memory alloys: e.g., (a) rolled thin plates with a thickness less than 100 μm, (b) drawn fine wires with a diameter less than 50 μm, (c) drawn microtubes with an outer diameter less than 350 μm, (d) sputter-deposited thin films with a thickness less than 1 μm, (e) rapidly solidified ribbons of several tens μm thickness and (f) sintered porous structured materials. The characteristics and applications of these TiNi-based alloys are reviewed.

  20. Dynamic Characterization of Shape Memory Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, V. S.; Imam, M. A.

    2004-07-01

    Evaluation of high strain rate behavior of materials at pre-fracture strains is very important where the materials are considered for ballistic applications. High compression strain rate response of shape memory titanium alloy including a typical titanium alloy are determined using the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). The conventional SHPB technique has been routinely used for measuring high strain rate properties of high strength materials. A split Hopkinson bar consisting of 10-mm diameter Maraging 350 alloy incident, transmitter, and striker bars was used to determine the compressive response of these alloys. Attempts are underway to use this technique to extract useful information required to design a material for improving its impact resistance. Initial test results performed on these different titanium alloys show an interesting trend with change of composition. Attempts were made to compare the stress-strain data of these alloys with the published data for titanium alloys. Stress-strain data and changes resulting in the microstructure from strain rates in the regime 1800-4000/s are presented.

  1. High Work Output Ni-Ti-Pt High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys and Associated Processing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noebe, Ronald D. (Inventor); Draper, Susan L. (Inventor); Nathal, Michael V. (Inventor); Garg, Anita (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    According to the invention, compositions of Ni-Ti-Pt high temperature, high force, shape memory alloys are disclosed that have transition temperatures above 100 C.; have narrow hysteresis; and produce a high specific work output.

  2. Flow Caster Produces Custom Alloy Magnetic Ribbon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-21

    NASA Glenn’s large-scale, 5 kg planar flow caster cools a vat of molten metallic alloy, producing a magnetic ribbon that spouts into a collection bin. The caster has the ability to produce a magnetized ribbon that measures up to one mile long and 50 mm wide to support NASA’s hybrid electric aircraft propulsion and power management work.

  3. Precipitation Hardenable High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noebe, Ronald Dean (Inventor); Draper, Susan L. (Inventor); Nathal, Michael V. (Inventor); Crombie, Edwin A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A composition of the invention is a high temperature shape memory alloy having high work output, and is made from (Ni+Pt+Y),Ti(100-x) wherein x is present in a total amount of 49-55 atomic % Pt is present in a total amount of 10-30 atomic %, Y is one or more of Au, Pd. and Cu and is present in a total amount of 0 to 10 atomic %. The alloy has a matrix phase wherein the total concentration of Ni, Pt, and the one or more of Pd. Au, and Cu is greater than 50 atomic %.

  4. Shape Memory Alloy Isolation Valves: Public Quad Chart

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-12

    NUMBER (Include area code) 12 May 2017 Briefing Charts 12 April 2017 - 12 May 2017 Shape Memory Alloy Isolation Valves: Public Quad Chart William...spacecraft (15+ yrs) • Shaped memory alloy isolation valves provide an intrinsically safe isolation system that increases lifetime >5x over SOTA and...Shape Memory Alloy Isolation Valves POC: W. Hargus, Ph.D., AFRL/RQRC B-52 Teardrop Antenna Depolymerization WC-130J Leading Edge Erosion Distribution

  5. Characterization and design of antagonistic shape memory alloy actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georges, T.; Brailovski, V.; Terriault, P.

    2012-03-01

    Antagonistic shape memory actuators use opposing shape memory alloy (SMA) elements to create devices capable of producing differential motion paths and two-way mechanical work in a very efficient manner. There is no requirement for additional bias elements to ‘re-arm’ the actuators and allow repetitive actuation. The work generation potential of antagonistic shape memory actuators is determined by specific SMA element characteristics and their assembly conditions. In this study, the selected SMA wires are assembled in antagonistic configuration and characterized using a dedicated test bench to evaluate their stress-strain characteristics as a function of the number of cycles. Using these functional characteristics, a so-called ‘working envelope’ is built to assist in the design of such an actuator. Finally, the test bench is used to simulate a real application of an antagonistic actuator (case study).

  6. Mechanocaloric effects in shape memory alloys

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) are a class of ferroic materials which undergo a structural (martensitic) transition where the associated ferroic property is a lattice distortion (strain). The sensitiveness of the transition to the conjugated external field (stress), together with the latent heat of the transition, gives rise to giant mechanocaloric effects. In non-magnetic SMA, the lattice distortion is mostly described by a pure shear and the martensitic transition in this family of alloys is strongly affected by uniaxial stress, whereas it is basically insensitive to hydrostatic pressure. As a result, non-magnetic alloys exhibit giant elastocaloric effects but negligible barocaloric effects. By contrast, in a number of magnetic SMA, the lattice distortion at the martensitic transition involves a volume change in addition to the shear strain. Those alloys are affected by both uniaxial stress and hydrostatic pressure and they exhibit giant elastocaloric and barocaloric effects. The paper aims at providing a critical survey of available experimental data on elastocaloric and barocaloric effects in magnetic and non-magnetic SMA. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials’. PMID:27402931

  7. Mechanocaloric effects in shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Mañosa, Lluís; Planes, Antoni

    2016-08-13

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) are a class of ferroic materials which undergo a structural (martensitic) transition where the associated ferroic property is a lattice distortion (strain). The sensitiveness of the transition to the conjugated external field (stress), together with the latent heat of the transition, gives rise to giant mechanocaloric effects. In non-magnetic SMA, the lattice distortion is mostly described by a pure shear and the martensitic transition in this family of alloys is strongly affected by uniaxial stress, whereas it is basically insensitive to hydrostatic pressure. As a result, non-magnetic alloys exhibit giant elastocaloric effects but negligible barocaloric effects. By contrast, in a number of magnetic SMA, the lattice distortion at the martensitic transition involves a volume change in addition to the shear strain. Those alloys are affected by both uniaxial stress and hydrostatic pressure and they exhibit giant elastocaloric and barocaloric effects. The paper aims at providing a critical survey of available experimental data on elastocaloric and barocaloric effects in magnetic and non-magnetic SMA.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Shape memory alloy seals for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Friske, Warren H.; Schwartzbart, Harry

    1982-10-08

    Rockwell International's Energy Systems Group, under contract to Brookhaven National Laboratory, has completed a 2-year program to develop a novel temperature-actuated seal concept for geothermal applications. This seal concept uses the unique properties of a shape memory alloy (Nitinol) to perform the sealing function. The several advantages of the concept are discussed in the paper. Demonstration tests of both face and shaft seals have shown that leaktight seals are feasible. Supporting materials studies have included corrosion tests in geothermal fluids, elevated temperature tensile tests, experimental electroplating and metallographic evaluations of microstructures.

  9. Recoverable strains in composite shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peigney, Michaël

    New upper bounds are proposed for a generic problem of geometric compatibility, which covers the problem of bounding the effective recoverable strains in composite shape memory alloys (SMAs), such as polycrystalline SMAs or rigidly reinforced SMAs. Both the finite deformation and infinitesimal strain frameworks are considered. The methodology employed is a generalization of a homogenization approach introduced by Milton and Serkov [2000. Bounding the current in nonlinear conducting composites. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 48, 1295-1324] for nonlinear composites in infinitesimal strains. Some analytical and numerical examples are given to illustrate the method.

  10. Fastening apparatus having shape memory alloy actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinnis, Darin N. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A releasable fastening apparatus is presented. The device includes a connecting member and a housing. The housing supports a gripping mechanism that is adapted to engage the connecting member. A triggering member is movable within the housing between a first position in which it constrains the gripping mechanism in locked engagement with the connecting member, and a second position in which the gripping mechanism is disengaged from the connecting member. A shaped memory alloy actuator is employed for translating the triggering member from its first to its second position. The actuator is designed to expand longitudinally when transitioned from a martensitic to an austenitic state.

  11. Precipitation-Strengthened, High-Temperature, High-Force Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noebe, Ronald D.; Draper, Susan L.; Nathal, Michael V.; Crombie, Edwin A.

    2008-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are an enabling component in the development of compact, lightweight, durable, high-force actuation systems particularly for use where hydraulics or electrical motors are not practical. However, commercial shape memory alloys based on NiTi are only suitable for applications near room temperature, due to their relatively low transformation temperatures, while many potential applications require higher temperature capability. Consequently, a family of (Ni,Pt)(sub 1-x)Ti(sub x) shape memory alloys with Ti concentrations ranging from about 15 to 25 at.% have been developed for applications in which there are requirements for SMA actuators to exert high forces at operating temperatures higher than those of conventional binary NiTi SMAs. These alloys can be heat treated in the range of 500 C to produce a series of fine precipitate phases that increase the strength of alloy while maintaining a high transformation temperature, even in Ti-lean compositions.

  12. Development of Nano Processing Technology for Shape Memory Alloy Fibers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-30

    Final Report AOARD-09-4037 (FA2386-09-1-4037) Title: Development of nano processing technology for shape memory alloy fibers PI: Hiroyuki...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of nano processing technology for shape memory alloy fibers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA23860914037 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  13. Alloy and method of producing the same

    DOEpatents

    Hufnagel, Todd C.; Ott, Ryan T.; Fan, Cang; Kecskes, Laszlo

    2005-07-19

    In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, an alloy or other composite material is provided formed of a bulk metallic glass matrix with a microstructure of crystalline metal particles. The alloy preferably has a composition of (X.sub.a Ni.sub.b Cu.sub.c).sub.100-d-c Y.sub.d Al.sub.c, wherein the sum of a, b and c equals 100, wherein 40.ltoreq.a.ltoreq.80, 0.ltoreq.b.ltoreq.35, 0.ltoreq.c.ltoreq.40, 4.ltoreq.d.ltoreq.30, and 0.ltoreq.e.ltoreq.20, and wherein preferably X is composed of an early transition metal and preferably Y is composed of a refractory body-centered cubic early transition metal. A preferred embodiment of the invention also provides a method of producing an alloy composed of two or more phases at ambient temperature. The method includes the steps of providing a metastable crystalline phase composed of at least two elements, heating the metastable crystalline phase together with at least one additional element to form a liquid, casting the liquid, and cooling the liquid to form the alloy. In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, the composition and cooling rate of the liquid can be controlled to determine the volume fraction of the crystalline phase and determine the size of the crystalline particles, respectively.

  14. Method of preparing a two-way shape memory alloy

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Alfred D.

    1984-01-01

    A two-way shape memory alloy, a method of training a shape memory alloy, and a heat engine employing the two-way shape memory alloy to do external work during both heating and cooling phases. The alloy is heated under a first training stress to a temperature which is above the upper operating temperature of the alloy, then cooled to a cold temperature below the zero-force transition temperature of the alloy, then deformed while applying a second training stress which is greater in magnitude than the stress at which the alloy is to be operated, then heated back to the hot temperature, changing from the second training stress back to the first training stress.

  15. Method of preparing a two-way shape memory alloy

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, A.D.

    1984-03-06

    A two-way shape memory alloy, a method of training a shape memory alloy, and a heat engine employing the two-way shape memory alloy to do external work during both heating and cooling phases are disclosed. The alloy is heated under a first training stress to a temperature which is above the upper operating temperature of the alloy, then cooled to a cold temperature below the zero-force transition temperature of the alloy, then deformed while applying a second training stress which is greater in magnitude than the stress at which the alloy is to be operated, then heated back to the hot temperature, changing from the second training stress back to the first training stress. 8 figs.

  16. Method for fabricating uranium alloy articles without shape memory effects

    DOEpatents

    Banker, John G.

    1985-01-01

    Uranium-rich niobium and niobium-zirconium alloys possess a characteristic known as shape memory effect wherein shaped articles of these alloys recover their original shape when heated. The present invention circumvents this memory behavior by forming the alloys into the desired configuration at elevated temperatures with "cold" matched dies and maintaining the shaped articles between the dies until the articles cool to ambient temperature.

  17. Method for fabricating uranium alloy articles without shape memory effects

    DOEpatents

    Banker, J.G.

    1980-05-21

    Uranium-rich niobium and niobium-zirconium alloys possess a characteristic known as shape memory effect wherein shaped articles of these alloys recover their original shape when heated. The present invention circumvents this memory behavior by forming the alloys into the desired configuration at elevated temperatures with cold matched dies and maintaining the shaped articles between the dies until the articles cool to ambient temperature.

  18. Nondestructive Evaluation of Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meir, S.; Gordon, S.; Karsh, M.; Wiezman, A.; Ayers, R.; Olson, D. L.

    2011-06-01

    The nondestructive evaluation of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) alloys for applications such as heat treatment for biomaterials applications (dental) and welding was investigated. Ni-Ti alloys and its ternary alloys are valued for mechanical properties in addition to the shape memory effect. Two analytical approaches were perused in this work. Assessment of the microstructure of the alloy that determines the martensitic start temperature (Ms) of Ni-Ti alloy as a function of heat treatment, and secondly, an attempt to evaluate a Friction Stir Welding, which involves thermo-mechanical processing of the alloy.

  19. Nondestructive evaluation of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Meir, S.; Gordon, S.; Karsh, M.; Ayers, R.; Olson, D. L.; Wiezman, A.

    2011-06-23

    The nondestructive evaluation of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) alloys for applications such as heat treatment for biomaterials applications (dental) and welding was investigated. Ni-Ti alloys and its ternary alloys are valued for mechanical properties in addition to the shape memory effect. Two analytical approaches were perused in this work. Assessment of the microstructure of the alloy that determines the martensitic start temperature (Ms) of Ni-Ti alloy as a function of heat treatment, and secondly, an attempt to evaluate a Friction Stir Welding, which involves thermo-mechanical processing of the alloy.

  20. Ferrous polycrystalline shape-memory alloy showing huge superelasticity.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Y; Himuro, Y; Kainuma, R; Sutou, Y; Omori, T; Ishida, K

    2010-03-19

    Shape-memory alloys, such as Ni-Ti and Cu-Zn-Al, show a large reversible strain of more than several percent due to superelasticity. In particular, the Ni-Ti-based alloy, which exhibits some ductility and excellent superelastic strain, is the only superelastic material available for practical applications at present. We herein describe a ferrous polycrystalline, high-strength, shape-memory alloy exhibiting a superelastic strain of more than 13%, with a tensile strength above 1 gigapascal, which is almost twice the maximum superelastic strain obtained in the Ni-Ti alloys. Furthermore, this ferrous alloy has a very large damping capacity and exhibits a large reversible change in magnetization during loading and unloading. This ferrous shape-memory alloy has great potential as a high-damping and sensor material.

  1. Shape memory alloys: New materials for future engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornbogen, E.

    1988-01-01

    Shape memory is a new material property. An alloy which experiences relative severe plastic deformation resumes its original shape again after heating by 10 to 100 C. Besides simple shape memory, in similar alloys there is the second effect where the change in shape is caused exclusively by little temperature change. In pseudo-elasticity, the alloy exhibits a rubber-like behavior, i.e., large, reversible deformation at little change in tension. Beta Cu and beta NiTi alloys have been used in practice. The probability is that soon alloys based on Fe will become available. Recently increasing applications for this alloy were found in various areas of technology, even medical technology. A review with 24 references is given, including properties, production, applications and fundamental principles of the shape memory effect.

  2. Fabrication of a helical coil shape memory alloy actuator

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, R.E.

    1992-02-01

    A fabrication process was developed to form, heat treat, and join NiTi shape memory alloy helical coils for use as mechanical actuators. Tooling and procedures were developed to wind both extension and compression-type coils on a manual lathe. Heat treating fixtures and techniques were used to set the memory'' of the NiTi alloy to the desired configuration. A swaging process was devised to fasten shape memory alloy extension coils to end fittings for use in actuator testing and for potential attachment to mechanical devices. The strength of this mechanical joint was evaluated.

  3. Fabrication of a helical coil shape memory alloy actuator

    SciTech Connect

    O`Donnell, R.E.

    1992-02-01

    A fabrication process was developed to form, heat treat, and join NiTi shape memory alloy helical coils for use as mechanical actuators. Tooling and procedures were developed to wind both extension and compression-type coils on a manual lathe. Heat treating fixtures and techniques were used to set the ``memory`` of the NiTi alloy to the desired configuration. A swaging process was devised to fasten shape memory alloy extension coils to end fittings for use in actuator testing and for potential attachment to mechanical devices. The strength of this mechanical joint was evaluated.

  4. Cellular Shape Memory Alloy Structures: Experiments & Modeling (Part 1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    AFOSR  Grant  #FA9550-­‐08-­‐1-­‐0313 Cellular  Shape  Memory   Alloy  Structures:   Experiments  &  Modeling J.  Shaw  (UM...2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cellular Shape Memory Alloy Structures: Experiments & Modeling (Part 1) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...dense,  0.37  g/cc) Combine benefits of light-weight cellular structures with Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) adaptive behavior CombinaKon •Amplified

  5. Fabrication of a helical coil shape memory alloy actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odonnell, R. E.

    1992-02-01

    A fabrication process was developed to form, heat treat, and join NiTi shape memory alloy helical coils for use as mechanical actuators. Tooling and procedures were developed to wind both extension and compression-type coils on a manual lathe. Heat treating fixtures and techniques were used to set the 'memory' of the NiTi alloy to the desired configuration. A swaging process was devised to fasten shape memory alloy extension coils to end fittings for use in actuator testing and for potential attachment to mechanical devices. The strength of this mechanical joint was evaluated.

  6. Modeling of shape memory alloys and application to porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panico, Michele

    In the last two decades the number of innovative applications for advanced materials has been rapidly increasing. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are an exciting class of these materials which exhibit large reversible stresses and strains due to a thermoelastic phase transformation. SMAs have been employed in the biomedical field for producing cardiovascular stents, shape memory foams have been successfully tested as bone implant material, and SMAs are being used as deployable switches in aerospace applications. The behavior of shape memory alloys is intrinsically complex due to the coupling of phase transformation with thermomechanical loading, so it is critical for constitutive models to correctly simulate their response over a wide range of stress and temperature. In the first part of this dissertation, we propose a macroscopic phenomenological model for SMAs that is based on the classical framework of thermodynamics of irreversible processes and accounts for the effect of multiaxial stress states and non-proportional loading histories. The model is able to account for the evolution of both self-accommodated and oriented martensite. Moreover, reorientation of the product phase according to loading direction is specifically accounted for. Computational tests demonstrate the ability of the model to simulate the main aspects of the shape memory response in a one-dimensional setting and some of the features that have been experimentally found in the case of multi-axial non-proportional loading histories. In the second part of this dissertation, this constitutive model has been used to study the mesoscopic behavior of porous shape memory alloys with particular attention to the mechanical response under cyclic loading conditions. In order to perform numerical simulations, the model was implemented into the commercial finite element code ABAQUS. Due to stress concentrations in a porous microstructure, the constitutive law was enhanced to account for the development of

  7. Martensite transformation and shape memory effect on NiTi-Zr high temperature shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Pu, Z.; Tseng, H.; Wu, K.

    1995-10-17

    NiTi-Zr high temperature alloys possess relatively poor shape memory properties and ductility in comparison with NiTi-Hf and NiTi-Pd alloys. During martensite transformation of the newly-developed NiTi-Zr high temperature shape memory alloys (SMAs) the temperature increases along with Zr content when the Zr content is more than 10 at%. As the Zr content increases, the fully reversible strain of the alloys decreases. However, complete strain recovery behavior is exhibited by all the alloys studied in this paper, even those with a Zr content of 20 at%. Stability of the NiTi-Zr alloys during thermal cycling was also tested and results indicate that the NiTi-Zr alloys have poor stability against thermal cycling. The reasons for the deterioration of the shape memory effect and stability have yet to be determined.

  8. Nonhysteretic superelasticity of shape memory alloys at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Ding, Xiangdong; Sun, Jun; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Lookman, Turab; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Ren, Xiaobing

    2013-10-04

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations to show that shape memory alloy nanoparticles below the critical size not only demonstrate superelasticity but also exhibit features such as absence of hysteresis, continuous nonlinear elastic distortion, and high blocking force. Atomic level investigations show that this nonhysteretic superelasticity results from a continuous transformation from the parent phase to martensite under external stress. This aspect of shape memory alloys is attributed to a surface effect; i.e., the surface locally retards the formation of martensite and then induces a critical-end-point-like behavior when the system is below the critical size. Our work potentially broadens the application of shape memory alloys to the nanoscale. It also suggests a method to achieve nonhysteretic superelasticity in conventional bulk shape memory alloys.

  9. Multi-range force sensors utilizing shape memory alloys

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Venugopal K.

    2003-04-15

    The present invention provides a multi-range force sensor comprising a load cell made of a shape memory alloy, a strain sensing system, a temperature modulating system, and a temperature monitoring system. The ability of the force sensor to measure contact forces in multiple ranges is effected by the change in temperature of the shape memory alloy. The heating and cooling system functions to place the shape memory alloy of the load cell in either a low temperature, low strength phase for measuring small contact forces, or a high temperature, high strength phase for measuring large contact forces. Once the load cell is in the desired phase, the strain sensing system is utilized to obtain the applied contact force. The temperature monitoring system is utilized to ensure that the shape memory alloy is in one phase or the other.

  10. Memory alloy heat engine and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Alfred Davis

    1977-01-01

    A heat engine and method of operation employing an alloy having a shape memory effect. A memory alloy element such as one or more wire loops are cyclically moved through a heat source, along a path toward a heat sink, through the heat sink and then along another path in counter-flow heat exchange relationship with the wire in the first path. The portion of the wire along the first path is caused to elongate to its trained length under minimum tension as it is cooled. The portion of the wire along the second path is caused to contract under maximum tension as it is heated. The resultant tension differential between the wires in the two paths is applied as a force through a distance to produce mechanical work. In one embodiment a first set of endless memory alloy wires are reeved in non-slip engagement between a pair of pulleys which are mounted for conjoint rotation within respective hot and cold reservoirs. Another set of endless memory alloy wires are reeved in non-slip engagement about another pair of pulleys which are mounted in the respective hot and cold reservoirs. The pulleys in the cold reservoir are of a larger diameter than those in the hot reservoir and the opposite reaches of the wires between the two sets of pulleys extend in closely spaced-apart relationship in counter-flow heat regenerator zones. The pulleys are turned to move the two sets of wires in opposite directions. The wires are stretched as they are cooled upon movement through the heat regenerator toward the cold reservoirs, and the wires contract as they are heated upon movement through the regenerator zones toward the hot reservoir. This contraction of wires exerts a larger torque on the greater diameter pulleys for turning the pulleys and supplying mechanical power. Means is provided for applying a variable tension to the wires. Phase change means is provided for controlling the angular phase of the pulleys of each set for purposes of start up procedure as well as for optimizing engine

  11. A Shape Memory Alloy Based Cryogenic Thermal Conduction Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Krishnan, V. B.; Singh, J. D.; Woodruff, T. R.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2005-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) can produce large strains when deformed (e.g., up to 8%). Heating results in a phase transformation and associated recovery of all the accumulated strain. This strain recovery can occur against large forces, resulting in their use as actuators. Thus an SMA element can integrate both sensory and actuation functions, by inherently sensing a change in temperature and actuating by undergoing a shape change as a result of a temperature-induced phase transformation. Two aspects of our work on cryogenic SMAs are addressed here. First - a shape memory alloy based cryogenic thermal conduction switch for operation between dewars of liquid methane and liquid oxygen in a common bulkhead arrangement is discussed. Such a switch integrates the sensor element and the actuator element and can be used to create a variable thermal sink to other cryogenic tanks for liquefaction, densification, and zero boil-off systems for advanced spaceport applications. Second - fabrication via arc-melting and subsequent materials testing of SMAs with cryogenic transformation temperatures for use in the aforementioned switch is discussed.

  12. Shape-Memory Alloy Tactical Feedback Actuator. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    AAMRL-TR-90-039 00 " SHAPE-MEMORY ALLOY N TACTICAL FEEDBACK ACTUATOR I A. DAVID JOHNSON TIN! ALLOY COMPANY, INC. DTIC 1144 65th STREET ELECTE OAKLAND...DATES COVERED 1 Sep 89 Final 1 Feb 89 - 1Aug 89 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS PE - 65502F Shape-Memory Alloy Tactile Feedback Actuator PR...pad size arrays and that computer control is feasible. Actuation profiles and design techniques are discussed. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES

  13. Hybrid Shape Memory Alloy Composites for Extreme Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Shape Memory Alloys in Oil Well Applications,” Sintef Petroleum Research, 1999, Trondheim, Norway. 5. Hartl, D. J., Lagoudas, D., Mabe, J., Calkins ...Materials and Structures, Vol. 19, No. 1., 2009. 6. Hartl, D. J., Lagoudas, D., Mabe, J., Calkins , F., and Mooney, J., “Use of Ni60Ti Shape Memory

  14. Shape memory alloy seals for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-15

    A shape memory radial seal was fabricated with a ''U'' cross section. Upon heating the seal recovered its original ''V'' shape and produced a high pressure seal. The sealing pressure which can be developed is approximately 41 MPa (60,000 psi), well in excess of the pressure which can be produced in conventional elastomeric seals. The low modulus martensite can conform readily to the sealing surface, and upon recovery produce a seal capable of high pressure fluid or gas confinement. The corrosion resistance of nickel-titanium in a broad range of aggressive fluids has been well established and, as such, there is little doubt that, had time permitted, a geothermal pump of flange fluid tried would have been successful.

  15. Thermomechanical fatigue of shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagoudas, D. C.; Miller, D. A.; Rong, L.; Kumar, P. K.

    2009-08-01

    As shape memory alloys (SMAs) gain popularity as high energy density actuators, one characteristic that becomes particularly important is the thermomechanical transformation fatigue life, in addition to maximum transformation strain and stability of actuation cycles. In this paper, a novel test frame design and testing protocol are discussed, for investigating the thermally activated transformation fatigue characteristics of SMAs under various applied loads for both complete and partial phase transformation. A Ni50Ti40Cu10 (at.%) SMA was chosen for this investigation and the effects of various heat treatments on the transformation temperatures and the transformation fatigue lives of actuators were studied. For selected heat treatments, the evolution of recoverable and irrecoverable strains up to failure under different applied stress levels was studied in detail. The influence of complete and partial transformation on the fatigue life is also presented. The irrecoverable strain accumulation as a function of the number of cycles to failure for different stress levels is presented by a relationship similar to the Manson-Coffin law for both partial and complete transformations.

  16. Biaxial Fatigue Behavior of Niti Shape Memory Alloy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    M06 Abstract Nitinol is a shape memory alloy (SMA) capable of martensite-to-austenite phase transformations enabling shape-memory behavior. Shape...memory properties make Nitinol a strong candidate material for use in aircraft applications such as actuators. Structural integrity and reliability...torsion fatigue behavior of Nitinol at room temperature. Monotonic tests in tension and torsion were conducted to typify uni-directional stress-strain

  17. Actuation curvature limits for a composite beam with embedded shape memory alloy wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghashian, S.; Fox, B. L.; Barnett, M. R.

    2014-06-01

    Shape memory alloy composites were manufactured using NiTi wires and woven glass fiber pre-impregnated fabrics. A closed form analytical model was developed to investigate the curvature achievable during actuation. The experimental results of actuation showed reasonable agreement with the model. Actuation temperatures were between ˜55 and 110 °C, curvatures of 0.25-0.5 m-1 were obtained and the stresses in the wires were estimated to have reached 265 MPa during actuation. An actuation curvature map was produced, which shows the actuation limits and approximate temperature-curvature curves for the general case of a composite containing shape memory alloy wires.

  18. Producing Low-Oxygen Samarium/Cobalt Magnet Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Dilip K.; Kumar, Kaplesh; Frost, Robert T.; Chang, C. W.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments aimed at producing SmCo5 alloy with low oxygen contamination described in report. Two methods of alloying by melting without contact with crucible walls tested. Lowest oxygen contamination, 70 parts per million achieved by dc arc melting on water-cooled, tantalum-clad copper hearth in purified quiescent argon atmosphere. Report includes photographs of equipment, photomicrographs of alloy samples, detailed descriptions of procedures tried, and tables of oxygen contamination and intrinsic coercivities of samples produced.

  19. Producing Low-Oxygen Samarium/Cobalt Magnet Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Dilip K.; Kumar, Kaplesh; Frost, Robert T.; Chang, C. W.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments aimed at producing SmCo5 alloy with low oxygen contamination described in report. Two methods of alloying by melting without contact with crucible walls tested. Lowest oxygen contamination, 70 parts per million achieved by dc arc melting on water-cooled, tantalum-clad copper hearth in purified quiescent argon atmosphere. Report includes photographs of equipment, photomicrographs of alloy samples, detailed descriptions of procedures tried, and tables of oxygen contamination and intrinsic coercivities of samples produced.

  20. Damping capacity of TiNi-based shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, L. J.; Jiang, H. C.; Liu, S. W.; Zhao, X. Q.

    2007-07-01

    Damping capacity is another primary characteristic of shape memory alloys (SMA) besides shape memory effect and superelasticity. Damping behavior of Ti-riched TiNi SMA, porous TiNi SMA and a novel TiNi/AlSi composite have been investigated using dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) in this investigation. All these alloys are in martensitic state at room temperature and thus possess the high potential application value. Ti 50.2Ni 49.8 SMA has better damping capacity in pure martensitic state and phase transformation region due to the motion of martensite twin interface. As a kind of promising material for effective dampers and shock absorbing devices, porous TiNi SMA can exhibit higher damping capacity than the dense one due to the existence of the three-dimensioned connecting pore structure. It is found that the internal friction of porous TiNi SMA mainly originates from microplastic deformation and mobility of martensite interface and increases with the increase of the porosity. A novel TiNi/AlSi composite has been developed successfully by infiltrating AlSi alloy into the open pores of porous TiNi alloy with 60% porosity through compression casting. It shows the same phase transformation characteristics as the porous TiNi alloy. The damping capacity of the composite has been increased and the compressive strength has been also promoted remarkably. Suggestions for developing higher damping alloys based on TiNi shape memory alloy are proposed in this paper.

  1. Fabrication and modeling of shape memory alloy springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari, B.; Kadkhodaei, M.; Barati, M.; Karimzadeh, F.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, shape memory alloy (SMA) helical springs are produced by shape setting two sets of NiTi (Ti-55.87 at% Ni) wires, one of which showing shape memory effect and another one showing pseudoelasticity at the ambient temperature. Different pitches as well as annealing temperatures are tried to investigate the effect of such parameters on the thermomechanical characteristics of the fabricated springs. Phase transformation temperatures of the products are measured by differential scanning calorimetry and are compared with those of the original wires. Compression tests are also carried out, and stiffness of each spring is determined. The desired pitches are so that a group of springs experiences phase transition during loading while the other does not. The former shows a varying stiffness upon the application of compression, but the latter acts as passive springs with a predetermined stiffness. Based on the von-Mises effective stress and strain, an enhanced one-dimensional constitutive model is further proposed to describe the shear stress-strain response within the coils of an SMA spring. The theoretically predicted force-displacement responses of the produced springs are shown to be in a reasonable agreement with the experimental results. Finally, effects of variations in geometric parameters on the axial force-displacement response of an SMA spring are investigated.

  2. Damping in Ferrous Shape Memory Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    time it has been proposed that the solution lies in the approach of energy dissipation by using metallic structural materials which have inherent...and automotive manufacturing plants, has never achieved commercial producton . 1-b. Ferromagnetic alloys, such as Fe-Cr alloys High damping Fe-Cr alloys...Pre-exsiring mar~en-si,ýe worms orwie treenred orieL a ion ! A Lr cow s SL AL 14- L AL Figure 26. Schematic illustration of various processes involved

  3. Structural Acoustic Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    1996-01-01

    A method has been developed to predict the structural acoustic response of shape memory alloy hybrid composite panels subjected to acoustic excitation. The panel is modeled by a finite element analysis and the radiated field is predicted using Rayleigh's integral. Transmission loss predictions for the case of an aluminum panel excited by a harmonic acoustic pressure are shown to compare very well with a classical analysis. Predictions of the normal velocity response and transmitted acoustic pressure for a clamped aluminum panel show excellent agreement with experimental measurements. Predicted transmission loss performance for a composite panel with and without shape memory alloy reinforcement are also presented. The preliminary results demonstrate that the transmission loss can be significantly increased with shape memory alloy reinforcement.

  4. Structural Acoustic Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    1996-01-01

    A method has been developed to predict the structural acoustic response of shape memory alloy hybrid composite panels subjected to acoustic excitation. The panel is modeled by a finite element analysis and the radiated field is predicted using Rayleigh's integral. Transmission loss predictions for the case of an aluminum panel excited by a harmonic acoustic pressure are shown to compare very well with a classical analysis. Predictions of the normal velocity response and transmitted acoustic pressure for a clamped aluminum panel show excellent agreement with experimental measurements. Predicted transmission loss performance for a composite panel with and without shape memory alloy reinforcement are also presented. The preliminary results demonstrate that the transmission loss can be significantly increased with shape memory alloy reinforcement.

  5. Periodic Cellular Structure Technology for Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Edward Y.

    2015-01-01

    Shape memory alloys are being considered for a wide variety of adaptive components for engine and airframe applications because they can undergo large amounts of strain and then revert to their original shape upon heating or unloading. Transition45 Technologies, Inc., has developed an innovative periodic cellular structure (PCS) technology for shape memory alloys that enables fabrication of complex bulk configurations, such as lattice block structures. These innovative structures are manufactured using an advanced reactive metal casting technology that offers a relatively low cost and established approach for constructing near-net shape aerospace components. Transition45 is continuing to characterize these structures to determine how best to design a PCS to better exploit the use of shape memory alloys in aerospace applications.

  6. Preisach modeling of piezoceramic and shape memory alloy hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Declan C.; Wen, John T.

    1996-05-01

    Smart materials such as piezoceramics, magnetostrictive materials, and shape memory alloys exhibit significant hysteresis, especially when driven with large input signals. Hysteresis can lead to unwanted harmonics, inaccuracy in open loop control, and instability in closed loop control. The Preisach independent domain hysteresis model has been shown to capture the major features of hysteresis arising in ferromagnetic materials. Noting the similarity between the microscopic domain kinematics that generate static hysteresis effects in ferromagnetics, piezoceramics, and shape memory alloys, we apply the Preisach model for the hysteresis in piezoceramic and shape memory alloy materials. This paper reviews the basic properties of the Preisach model, discusses control-theoretic issues such as identification, simulation, and inversion, and presents experimental results for piezoceramic sheet actuators bonded to a flexible aluminum beam, and a Nitinol SMA wire muscle that applies a bending force to the end of a beam.

  7. Preisach modeling of piezoceramic and shape memory alloy hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Declan; Wen, John T.

    1997-06-01

    Smart materials such as piezoceramics, magnetostrictive materials, and shape memory alloys exhibit hysteresis, and the larger the input signal the larger the effect. Hysteresis can lead to unwanted harmonics, inaccuracy in open loop control, and instability in closed loop control. The Preisach independent domain hysteresis model has been shown to capture the major features of hysteresis arising in ferromagnetic materials. Noting the similarity between the microscopic domain kinematics that generate static hysteresis effects in ferromagnetics, piezoceramics, and shape memory alloys (SMAs), we apply the Preisach model for the hysteresis in piezoceramic and shape memory alloy materials. This paper reviews the basic properties of the Preisach model, discusses control-theoretic issues such as identification, simulation, and inversion, and presents experimental results for piezoceramic sheet actuators bonded to a flexible aluminum beam, and a Nitinol SMA wire muscle that applies a bending force to the end of a beam.

  8. Thermomechanical Methodology for Stabilizing Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, II, Santo A (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatuses for stabilizing the strain-temperature response for a shape memory alloy are provided. To perform stabilization of a second sample of the shape memory alloy, a first sample of the shape memory alloy is selected for isobaric treatment and the second sample is selected for isothermal treatment. When applying the isobaric treatment to the first sample, a constant stress is applied to the first sample. Temperature is also cycled from a minimum temperature to a maximum temperature until a strain on the first sample stabilizes. Once the strain on the first sample stabilizes, the isothermal treatment is performed on the second sample. During isothermal treatment, different levels of stress on the second sample are applied until a strain on the second sample matches the stabilized strain on the first sample.

  9. Thermomechanical Methodology for Stabilizing Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Santo A., II (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Methods and apparatuses for stabilizing the strain-temperature response for a shape memory alloy are provided. To perform stabilization of a second sample of the shape memory alloy, a first sample of the shape memory alloy is selected for isobaric treatment and the second sample is selected for isothermal treatment. When applying the isobaric treatment to the first sample, a constant stress is applied to the first sample. Temperature is also cycled from a minimum temperature to a maximum temperature until a strain on the first sample stabilizes. Once the strain on the first sample stabilizes, the isothermal treatment is performed on the second sample. During isothermal treatment, different levels of stress on the second sample are applied until a strain on the second sample matches the stabilized strain on the first sample.

  10. Fatigue Resistance of Liquid-assisted Self-repairing Aluminum Alloys Reinforced with Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. Clara; Manuel, Michele; Wallace, Terryl

    2013-01-01

    A self-repairing aluminum-based composite system has been developed using a liquid-assisted healing theory in conjunction with the shape memory effect of wire reinforcements. The metal-metal composite was thermodynamically designed to have a matrix with a relatively even dispersion of a low-melting eutectic phase, allowing for repair of cracks at a predetermined temperature. Additionally, shape memory alloy (SMA) wire reinforcements were used within the composite to provide crack closure. Investigators focused the research on fatigue cracks propagating through the matrix in order to show a proof-of-concept Shape Memory Alloy Self-Healing (SMASH) technology for aeronautical applications.

  11. Hot Workability of CuZr-Based Shape Memory Alloys for Potential High-Temperature Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biffi, Carlo Alberto; Tuissi, Ausonio

    2014-07-01

    The research on high-temperature shape memory alloys has been growing because of the interest of several potential industrial fields, such as automotive, aerospace, mechanical, and control systems. One suitable candidate is given by the CuZr system, because of its relative low price in comparison with others, like the NiTi-based one. In this context, the goal of this work is the study of hot workability of some CuZr-based shape memory alloys. In particular, this study addresses on the effect of hot rolling process on the metallurgical and calorimetric properties of the CuZr system. The addition of some alloying elements (Cr, Co, Ni, and Ti) is taken into account and their effect is also put in comparison with each other. The alloys were produced by means of an arc melting furnace in inert atmosphere under the shape of cigars. Due to the high reactivity of these alloys at high temperature, the cigars were sealed in a stainless steel can before the processing and two different procedures of hot rolling were tested. The characterization of the rolled alloys is performed using discrete scanning calorimetry in terms of evolution of the martensitic transformation and scanning electron microscopy for the microstructural investigations. Additionally, preliminary tests of laser interaction has been also proposed on the alloy more interesting for potential applications, characterized by high transformation temperatures and its good thermal stability.

  12. Heat engine based on shape-memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, D.

    1989-12-01

    This patent application discloses a tubular gear made of shape memory alloy in sheet form, having longitudinal corrugations and being floating supported for rotation about an axis fixedly spaced from the rotational axis of a roller gear in meshing engagement with the corrugations. The tubular gear is sequentially deformed by exposure to radiated heat causing the shape memory alloy to expand circumferentially and by said meshing engagement with roller gear. Such deformation of the tubular gear within differential temperature regions established by restricted exposure to the radiated heat, induces and sustains rotation of the tubular gear to convert the heat energy into mechanical energy.

  13. A rotating arm using shape-memory alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Phillip P.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Mars Pathfinder mission, to be launched in 1996, reflects a new philosophy of exploiting new technologies to reduce mission cost and accelerate the pace of space exploration. One of the experiments on board Pathfinder will demonstrate the first use in space of a multi-cycle, electrically-activated, shape-memory alloy (SMA) actuator. SMA's are metal alloys which, when heated, undergo a crystalline phase change. This change in phase alters the alloy lattice-constant, resulting in a change of dimension. Upon cooling, the alloy returns to its original lattice formation. Wire drawn from an SMA contracts in length when heated. The reversible change in length is 3 percent to 5 percent. The wire used in this actuator is a nickel-titanium alloy known as nitinol.

  14. Spooled packaging of shape memory alloy actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmond, John A.

    A vast cross-section of transportation, manufacturing, consumer product, and medical technologies rely heavily on actuation. Accordingly, progress in these industries is often strongly coupled to the advancement of actuation technologies. As the field of actuation continues to evolve, smart materials show significant promise for satisfying the growing needs of industry. In particular, shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuators present an opportunity for low-cost, high performance actuation, but until now, they have been limited or restricted from use in many otherwise suitable applications by the difficulty in packaging the SMA wires within tight or unusually shaped form constraints. To address this packaging problem, SMA wires can be spool-packaged by wrapping around mandrels to make the actuator more compact or by redirecting around multiple mandrels to customize SMA wire pathways to unusual form factors. The goal of this dissertation is to develop the scientific knowledge base for spooled packaging of low-cost SMA wire actuators that enables high, predictable performance within compact, customizable form factors. In developing the scientific knowledge base, this dissertation defines a systematic general representation of single and multiple mandrel spool-packaged SMA actuators and provides tools for their analysis, understanding, and synthesis. A quasi-static analytical model distills the underlying mechanics down to the three effects of friction, bending, and binding, which enables prediction of the behavior of generic spool-packaged SMA actuators with specifiable geometric, loading, frictional, and SMA material parameters. An extensive experimental and simulation-based parameter study establishes the necessary understanding of how primary design tradeoffs between performance, packaging, and cost are governed by the underlying mechanics of spooled actuators. A design methodology outlines a systematic approach to synthesizing high performance SMA wire actuators

  15. Shape Memory Behavior of Porous NiTi Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Mehmet; Çakmak, Ömer

    2016-04-01

    Shape memory behavior of porous NiTi alloy is dependent on the phases, and mechanical or thermal background. The phases change with solution heat treatment and aging. Fully reversible shape memory behavior was observed during thermal cycling, and recoverable strains increased with the increasing stress from 2 to 50 MPa. The porous NiTi sample shows recoverable transformation strain response under lower constant load.

  16. Surface form memory by indentation-planarization training of nickel titanium shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xueling

    Shape memory alloys respond to deformation by indentation with strong two-way cyclic displacements on heating and cooling. Shallow indents can vanish on heating, and deeper indents will change depth when thermally cycled. In the present work, following indentation by an added step of surface planarization can furthermore produce what has been termed "Surface Form Memory" or SFM. The term SFM describes an effect that causes one surface form to reversibly transform to another, under thermal excitation. The term surface form is meant to distinguish between say, flat and "bumpy" surfaces, on a scale much larger than the intrinsic surface roughness. Surface protrusions, or 'exdents' may reach an amplitude near 20% of the initial indent depth, and may be created on nano to macroscopic size scales. The surface form memory effect may have special applications into novel optical, microelectromechanical, and tribological systems. Surface deformation of a NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) was accomplished using spherical, cylindrical, pyramidal, and flat punch indenters. Single indents and indent arrays have been made. The amplitude of SFM after planarization was found to be related to the size of the subsurface deformation zone and can be maximized by thermal cycling, multiple indentations, by changing indent depth and spacing, and by varying indentation temperature parameters. The spatial extent of the subsurface deformation zone was studied by both experimental methods and finite element modeling. Methods such as successive front and back thinning probed the size of the deformation zone directly, while finite element modeling provided stress-strain information supporting the conclusion that the deformation zone responsible for the two-way effect was a slip zone that had plastic strains larger than 7%. NiTi SFM, when studied in constrained recovery experiments, showed an energy density up to 10 MJ/m3, which is about the same as that of a conventional NiTi actuator. This proves

  17. Shape memory alloys: a state of art review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naresh, C.; Bose, P. S. C.; Rao, C. S. P.

    2016-09-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are the special materials that have the ability to return to a predetermined shape when heated. When this alloy is in below transformation temperature it undergoes low yield strength and will deform easily into any new shape which it will retain, if this alloy is heated above its transformation temperature it changes its crystal lattice structure which returns to its real shape. SMAs are remarkably different from other materials are primarily due to shape memory effect (SME) and pseudoelasticity which are related with the specific way the phase transformation occurs, biocompatibility, high specific strength, high corrosion resistance, high wear resistance and high anti-fatigue property. SMA are used in many applications such as aerospace, medical, automobile, tubes, controllers for hot water valves in showers, petroleum industry, vibration dampers, ball bearings, sensors, actuators, miniature grippers, micro valves, pumps, landing gears, eye glass frames, Material for helicopter blades, sprinklers in fine alarm systems packaging devices for electronic materials, dental materials, etc. This paper focuses on introducing shape memory alloy and their applications in past, present and in future, also revealed the concept and mechanism of shape memory materials for a particular requirement. Properties of SMAs, behaviour and characteristics of SMA, summary of recent advances and new application opportunities are also discussed.

  18. Switchable Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) Thermal Materials Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, John; Zeitlin, Nancy; Williams, Martha; Fesmire, James

    2014-01-01

    Develop 2-way switchable thermal systems for use in systems that function in cold to hot temperature ranges using different alloy designs for SMA system concepts. In this project, KSC will specifically address designs of two proof of concept SMA systems with transition temperatures in the 65-95 C range and investigate cycle fatigue and "memory loss" due to thermal cycling.

  19. Shape control of solar collectors using torsional shape memory alloy actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Lobitz, D.W.; Rice, T.M.; Grossman, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    Solar collectors that are focused on a central receiver are designed with a mechanism for defocusing the collector or disabling it by turning it out of the path of the sun`s rays. This is required to avoid damaging the receiver during periods of inoperability. In either of these two cases a fail-safe operation is very desirable where during power outages the collector passively goes to its defocused or deactivated state. This paper will be principally concerned with focusing and defocusing the collector in a fail-safe manner using shape memory alloy actuators. Shape memory alloys are well suited to this application in that once calibrated the actuators can be operated in an on/off mode using a small amount of electric power. Also, in contrast to other smart materials that were investigated for this application, shape memory alloys are capable of providing enough stroke at the appropriate force levels to focus the collector. In order to accommodate the large, nonlinear deformations required in the solar collector plate to obtain desired focal lengths, a torsional shape memory alloy actuator was developed that produces a stroke of 0.5 inches. Design and analysis details presented, along with comparisons to test data taken from an actual prototype, demonstrate that the collector can be repeatedly focused and defocused within accuracies required by typical solar energy systems.

  20. Producing titanium-niobium alloy by high energy beam

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkeev, Yu. P.; Golkovski, M. G.; Glukhov, I. A. Eroshenko, A. Yu. Fortuna, S. V.

    2016-01-15

    The research is involved in producing a Ti-Nb alloy surface layer on titanium substrate by high energy beam method, as well as in examining their structures and mechanical properties. Applying electron-beam cladding it was possible to produce a Ti-Nb alloy surface layer of several millimeters, where the niobium concentration was up to 40% at. and the structure itself could be related to martensite quenching structure. At the same time, a significant microhardness increase of 3200-3400 MPa was observed, which, in its turn, is connected with the formation of martensite structure. Cladding material of Ti-Nb composition could be the source in producing alloys of homogeneous microhardness and desired concentration of alloying niobium element.

  1. Production of Ni100-x-yMnxGay magnetic shape memory alloys by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatchard, T. D.; Thorne, J. S.; Farrell, S. P.; Dunlap, R. A.

    2008-11-01

    Powdered samples of a variety of compositions of the off-stoichiometric magnetic shape memory alloy Ni2MnGa have been prepared by mechanical alloying from elemental precursors. As-milled powders are highly disordered and show very weak ferromagnetic order. Annealing produces a well-ordered L21 Heusler phase with high saturation magnetization. Annealing results in a consistent loss of Ga of about 1-4 at.% (of total sample composition). Structural and magnetic properties of a range of compositions have been measured and are reported in the present work. A magnetically oriented metal-polymer composite has been prepared by mixing the powdered sample in epoxy and curing under an externally applied magnetic field. The magnetic anisotropy energy of the composite sample has been measured and found to be about 20% of the value expected for a single crystal of similar composition. Possibilities for increasing the magnetic anisotropy of metal-polymer composites are discussed. Results are discussed in terms of the effects of structural and chemical order on the resulting magnetic properties in the context of a model based on indirect exchange interactions.

  2. Shape memory alloys: metallurgy, biocompatibility, and biomechanics for neurosurgical applications.

    PubMed

    Hoh, Daniel J; Hoh, Brian L; Amar, Arun P; Wang, Michael Y

    2009-05-01

    SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS possess distinct dynamic properties with particular applications in neurosurgery. Because of their unique physical characteristics, these materials are finding increasing application where resiliency, conformation, and actuation are needed. Nitinol, the most frequently manufactured shape memory alloy, responds to thermal and mechanical stimuli with remarkable mechanical properties such as shape memory effect, super-elasticity, and high damping capacity. Nitinol has found particular use in the biomedical community because of its excellent fatigue resistance and biocompatibility, with special interest in neurosurgical applications. The properties of nitinol and its diffusionless phase transformations contribute to these unique mechanical capabilities. The features of nitinol, particularly its shape memory effect, super-elasticity, damping capacity, as well as its biocompatibility and biomechanics are discussed herein. Current and future applications of nitinol and other shape memory alloys in endovascular, spinal, and minimally invasive neurosurgery are introduced. An understanding of the metallurgic properties of nitinol provides a foundation for further exploration of its use in neurosurgical implant design.

  3. Understanding the Shape-Memory Alloys Used in Orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Daniel J.; Peres, Rafael V.; Mendes, Alvaro M.; Elias, Carlos N.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape-memory alloys (SMAs) have been used in the manufacture of orthodontic wires due to their shape memory properties, super-elasticity, high ductility, and resistance to corrosion. SMAs have greater strength and lower modulus of elasticity when compared with stainless steel alloys. The pseudoelastic behavior of NiTi wires means that on unloading they return to their original shape by delivering light continuous forces over a wider range of deformation which is claimed to allow dental displacements. The aim of this paper is to discuss the physical, metallurgical, and mechanical properties of NiTi used in Orthodontics in order to analyze the shape memory properties, super-elasticity, and thermomechanical characteristics of SMA. PMID:21991455

  4. Multilevel Charge Storage in a Multiple Alloy Nanodot Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gae-Hun; Lee, Jung-Min; Heub Song, Yun; Bea, Ji Chel; Tanaka, Tetsu; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa

    2011-09-01

    A multilevel charge storage in a multiple FePt alloy nanodot memory is investigated for the first time. It is demonstrated that the memory structure with multiple FePt nanodot layers effectively realizes a multilevel state by the adjustment of gate voltage. Metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with four FePt nanodot layers as a floating gate are fabricated to evaluate the multilevel cell characteristic and reliability. Here, the effect of memory window for a nanodot diameter is also investigated, and it is found that a smaller dot size gives a larger window. From the results showing good endurance and retention characteristics for the multilevel states, it is expected that a multiple FePt nanodot memory using Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunneling can be a candidate structure for the future multilevel NAND flash memory.

  5. High-Speed Behavior of Some Shape Memory Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Bragov, Anatoly M.; Lomunov, Andrey K.; Sergeichev, Ivan V.

    2006-07-28

    The results of dynamic tests of shape memory alloys Ti-Ni and Cu-Al-Ni are given. Compressive tests of Ti-Ni alloy were carried out at temperatures 293-573K. Considerable influence of temperature on module of elasticity prior to the dislocation plastic flow and dislocation yield limit has been mentioned in temperature interval of reverse martensitic transformation. For Cu-Al-Ni alloy a strain rate influence on phase yield limit, module of elasticity prior to the phase unelastic flow, module of elasticity prior to the dislocation plastic flow was negligible. The method of determination of duration of reverse martensitic transformation has been realized by the example of Cu-Al-Ni alloy.

  6. Corrosion resistance tests on NiTi shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Rondelli, G

    1996-10-01

    The corrosion performances of NiTi shape memory alloys (SMA) in human body simulating fluids were evaluated in comparison with other implant materials. As for the passivity current in potentiostatic conditions, taken as an index of ion release, the values are about three times higher for NiTi than for Ti6Al4V and austenitic stainless steels. Regarding the localized corrosion, while plain potentiodynamic scans indicated for NiTi alloy good resistance to pitting attack similar to Ti6Al4V, tests in which the passive film is abruptly damaged (i.e. potentiostatic scratch test and modified ASTM F746) pointed out that the characteristics of the passive film formed on NiTi alloy (whose strength can be related to the alloy's biocompatibility) are not as good as those on Ti6Al4V but are comparable or inferior to those on austenitic stainless steels.

  7. Damping of High-temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.; Padula, Santo A., II; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center have been investigating high temperature shape memory alloys as potential damping materials for turbomachinery rotor blades. Analysis shows that a thin layer of SMA with a loss factor of 0.04 or more would be effective at reducing the resonant response of a titanium alloy beam. Two NiTiHf shape memory alloy compositions were tested to determine their loss factors at frequencies from 0.1 to 100 Hz, at temperatures from room temperature to 300 C, and at alternating strain levels of 34-35x10(exp -6). Elevated damping was demonstrated between the M(sub s) and M(sub f) phase transformation temperatures and between the A(sub s) and A(sub f) temperatures. The highest damping occurred at the lowest frequencies, with a loss factor of 0.2-0.26 at 0.1 Hz. However, the peak damping decreased with increasing frequency, and showed significant temperature hysteresis in heating and cooling. Keywords: High-temperature, shape memory alloy, damping, aircraft engine blades, NiTiHf

  8. On the Potentials of Shape Memory Alloy Valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czechowicz, A.; Lygin, K.; Langbein, S.

    2014-07-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) can be utilized as thermal and electrical-activated drives for valve applications. By using the high actuation forces and medium strokes in combination with SMA intrinsic sensor functions, smart and versatile valve elements for multi-purpose applications can be designed. The sensoric functions, based on the change of the electrical characteristics of the SMA drive, allow to detect the system's condition as well as the system's fatigue. The paper systematizes the usability of the intrinsic sensor function with particular emphasis on service potentials. A methodical overview over the design-options of different applications is presented in the first part of the publications. This is followed by a methodical analysis of the potentials of SMA in service applications. Since the product development process is not only a mechanical engineering matter, the production and the service options according to such valves have to be regarded. Besides this publication presents an innovative production process based on a fused deposition production process (FDPP) of valves which contains the installation of SMA actuators during production. The publications present several demonstrator systems which have been produced with FDPP and analyzed in applications.

  9. [Shape memory titanium alloy clip for female sterilization].

    PubMed

    Xue, P

    1992-06-01

    Between 1982-87, shape memory titanium alloy clips were employed for female sterilization by minilaparotomy in 1002 cases. This clip was noncorrosive and had high histocompatibility. The clip was designed to open in ice water between 0 degrees-4 degrees Celsius and close a t between 30 degrees-40 degrees Celsius spontaneously. It was placed vertically over the isthmus 3 cm away from the uterine cornus to avoid blood vessels in the mesosalpinx. Clip application was painless and without complication. On followup, only 6.3% had mild menstrual disturbances. The failure rate was 0.89%. Midluteal progesterone (P) and estradiol (E2) were determined in 91 clip patients; 21 normal worn and 27 tubal ligation cases served as controls. The serum P levels were similar in cases and normal controls. There were significant differences in serum P between clip and tubal ligation groups, scanning electron microscopy examination of rabbit tube with clip showed limited destruction of the tubal mucosa with normal cilia and cells at the border. The clip produced little disturbances in the ovarian blood supply and the least destruction of the tubal mucosa. (author's modified)

  10. Characterization of a shape memory alloy interference coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, William M.; Newman, James H.; Romano, Marcello

    2014-10-01

    A versatile and heretofore unutilized coupling is obtained by press-fitting a hollow nickel titanium shape memory alloy (SMA) shaft into a steel hub. This produces an SMA interference coupling that is distinct from other SMA actuators by the method in which the SMA is used. Press-fitting the hollow SMA shaft in its detwinned martensitic phase into a steel hub creates a joint capable of holding parts such as emergency doors, satellite solar panels, or tamper locks securely together until commanded release. Release is accomplished by heating the SMA to its activation temperature. The resulting decrease in diameter of the hollow SMA shaft allows it to easily slip out of the hub, releasing the part. Load testing of the SMA interference coupling showed ultimate strengths about twice that of traditional press-fit coupling strength calculations. The coupling can be designed to be a simple mechanism of very small size, on the order of one cubic centimeter, capable of achieving coupling strengths in excess of 4000 N (900 lbf).

  11. A novel inertial energy harvester using magnetic shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askari Farsangi, Mohammad Amin; Sayyaadi, Hassan; Zakerzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    This paper studies the output voltage from a novel inertial energy harvester using magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs). The MSMA elements are attached to the root of a cantilever beam by means of two steps. In order to get electrical voltage, two coils are wound around the MSMAs and a shock load is applied to a tip mass at the end of the beam to have vibration in it. The beam vibration causes strain in the MSMAs along their longitudinal directions and as a result the magnetic flux alters in the coils. The change of magnetic flux in the surrounding coil produces an AC voltage. In order to predict the output voltage, the nonlinear governing equations of beam motion based on Euler-Bernoulli model and von Kármán theory are derived. A thermodynamics-based constitutive model is used to predict the nonlinear strain and magnetization response of the MSMAs. Also, the induced voltage during martensite variant reorientation in MSMAs is investigated with the help of Faraday’s law of induction. Finally, the effect of different parameters including bias magnetic field, pre-strain and number of MSMA elements are investigated in details. The results show that this novel energy harvester has the capability of using as an alternative to the current piezoelectric and magnetostrictive ones for harvesting energy from ambient vibration.

  12. Self-repairing joints employing shape-memory alloy actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Gyuhae; Muntges, Daniel E.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2003-12-01

    This article describes self-sensing and self-repairing bolted joints that employ piezoelectric and shape-memory alloy elements. The piezoelectric materials use electrical impedance analysis to assess the conditions of joints. When damage occurs, the shape-memory washers can automatically regain lost torque. The actuator is a cylindrical Nitinol washer that expands axially when heated. The stress generated by the axial strain compresses the joint members and creates a force, generating a preload and restoring lost torque. Due to the complexity of constitutive modeling, a qualitative analysis by the impedance method is used to illustrate the success of this experiment.

  13. Tungsten-nickel-cobalt alloy and method of producing same

    DOEpatents

    Dickinson, James M.; Riley, Robert E.

    1977-03-15

    An improved tungsten alloy having a tungsten content of approximately 95 weight percent, a nickel content of about 3 weight percent, and the balance being cobalt of about 2 weight percent is described. A method for producing said tungsten-nickel-cobalt alloy is further described and comprises (a) coating the tungsten particles with a nickel-cobalt alloy, (b) pressing the coated particles into a compact shape, (c) heating said compact in hydrogen to a temperature in the range of 1400.degree. C and holding at this elevated temperature for a period of about 2 hours, (d) increasing this elevated temperature to about 1500.degree. C and holding for 1 hour at this temperature, (e) cooling to about 1200.degree. C and replacing the hydrogen atmosphere with an inert argon atmosphere while maintaining this elevated temperature for a period of about 1/2 hour, and (f) cooling the resulting alloy to room temperature in this argon atmosphere.

  14. Electrochemical method of producing eutectic uranium alloy and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Horton, James A.; Hayden, H. Wayne

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and molten electrolyte in the reservoir comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride. The method of the invention produces an eutectic uranium alloy by creating an electrolyte reservoir defined by a container comprising an anode, placing an electrolyte in the reservoir, the electrolyte comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride in molten form, positioning a cathode in the reservoir where the cathode comprises a metal capable of forming an uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and applying a current between the cathode and the anode.

  15. Properties of Porous TiNbZr Shape Memory Alloy Fabricated by Mechanical Alloying and Hot Isostatic Pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L. W.; Chung, C. Y.; Tong, Y. X.; Zheng, Y. F.

    2011-07-01

    In the past decades, systematic researches have been focused on studying Ti-Nb-based SMAs by adding ternary elements, such as Mo, Sn, Zr, etc. However, only arc melting or induction melting methods, with subsequent hot or cold rolling, were used to fabricate these Ni-free SMAs. There is no work related to powder metallurgy and porous structures. This study focuses on the fabrication and characterization of porous Ti-22Nb-6Zr (at.%) shape memory alloys produced using elemental powders by means of mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing. It is found that the porous Ti-22Nb-6Zr alloys prepared by the HIP process exhibit a homogenous pore distribution with spherical pores, while the pores have irregular shape in the specimen prepared by conventional sintering. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the solid solution-treated Ti-22Nb-6Zr alloy consists of both β phase and α″ martensite phase. Morphologies of martensite were observed. Finally, the porous Ti-22Nb-6Zr SMAs produced by both MA and HIP exhibit good mechanical properties, such as superior superelasticity, with maximum recoverable strain of ~3% and high compressive strength.

  16. Three-Dimensional Cellular Structures Enhanced By Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, Michael V.; Krause, David L.; Wilmoth, Nathan G.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Baker, Eric H.

    2014-01-01

    This research effort explored lightweight structural concepts married with advanced smart materials to achieve a wide variety of benefits in airframe and engine components. Lattice block structures were cast from an aerospace structural titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V and a NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA), and preliminary properties have been measured. A finite element-based modeling approach that can rapidly and accurately capture the deformation response of lattice architectures was developed. The Ti-6-4 and SMA material behavior was calibrated via experimental tests of ligaments machined from the lattice. Benchmark testing of complete lattice structures verified the main aspects of the model as well as demonstrated the advantages of the lattice structure. Shape memory behavior of a sample machined from a lattice block was also demonstrated.

  17. Mechanical design of a shape memory alloy actuated prosthetic hand.

    PubMed

    De Laurentis, Kathryn J; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the mechanical design for a new five fingered, twenty degree-of-freedom dexterous hand patterned after human anatomy and actuated by Shape Memory Alloy artificial muscles. Two experimental prototypes of a finger, one fabricated by traditional means and another fabricated by rapid prototyping techniques, are described and used to evaluate the design. An important aspect of the Rapid Prototype technique used here is that this multi-articulated hand will be fabricated in one step, without requiring assembly, while maintaining its desired mobility. The use of Shape Memory Alloy actuators combined with the rapid fabrication of the non-assembly type hand, reduce considerably its weight and fabrication time. Therefore, the focus of this paper is the mechanical design of a dexterous hand that combines Rapid Prototype techniques and smart actuators. The type of robotic hand described in this paper can be utilized for applications requiring low weight, compactness, and dexterity such as prosthetic devices, space and planetary exploration.

  18. Low Temperature Shape Memory Alloys for Adaptive, Autonomous Systems Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, John; Zeitlin, Nancy; Williams, Martha; Benafan, Othmane; Fesmire, James

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this joint activity between Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Glenn Research Center (GRC) is to develop and evaluate the applicability of 2-way SMAs in proof-of-concept, low-temperature adaptive autonomous systems. As part of this low technology readiness (TRL) activity, we will develop and train low-temperature novel, 2-way shape memory alloys (SMAs) with actuation temperatures ranging from 0 C to 150 C. These experimental alloys will also be preliminary tested to evaluate their performance parameters and transformation (actuation) temperatures in low- temperature or cryogenic adaptive proof-of-concept systems. The challenge will be in the development, design, and training of the alloys for 2-way actuation at those temperatures.

  19. Shape Control of Solar Collectors Using Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobitz, D. W.; Grossman, J. W.; Allen, J. J.; Rice, T. M.; Liang, C.; Davidson, F. M.

    1996-01-01

    Solar collectors that are focused on a central receiver are designed with a mechanism for defocusing the collector or disabling it by turning it out of the path of the sun's rays. This is required to avoid damaging the receiver during periods of inoperability. In either of these two cases a fail-safe operation is very desirable where during power outages the collector passively goes to its defocused or deactivated state. This paper is principally concerned with focusing and defocusing the collector in a fail-safe manner using shape memory alloy actuators. Shape memory alloys are well suited to this application in that once calibrated the actuators can be operated in an on/off mode using a minimal amount of electric power. Also, in contrast to other smart materials that were investigated for this application, shape memory alloys are capable of providing enough stroke at the appropriate force levels to focus the collector. Design and analysis details presented, along with comparisons to test data taken from an actual prototype, demonstrate that the collector can be repeatedly focused and defocused within accuracies required by typical solar energy systems. In this paper the design, analysis and testing of a solar collector which is deformed into its desired shape by shape memory alloy actuators is presented. Computations indicate collector shapes much closer to spherical and with smaller focal lengths can be achieved by moving the actuators inward to a radius of approximately 6 inches. This would require actuators with considerably more stroke and some alternate SMA actuators are currently under consideration. Whatever SMA actuator is finally chosen for this application, repeatability and fatigue tests will be required to investigate the long term performance of the actuator.

  20. Shape Control of Solar Collectors Using Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobitz, D. W.; Grossman, J. W.; Allen, J. J.; Rice, T. M.; Liang, C.; Davidson, F. M.

    1996-01-01

    Solar collectors that are focused on a central receiver are designed with a mechanism for defocusing the collector or disabling it by turning it out of the path of the sun's rays. This is required to avoid damaging the receiver during periods of inoperability. In either of these two cases a fail-safe operation is very desirable where during power outages the collector passively goes to its defocused or deactivated state. This paper is principally concerned with focusing and defocusing the collector in a fail-safe manner using shape memory alloy actuators. Shape memory alloys are well suited to this application in that once calibrated the actuators can be operated in an on/off mode using a minimal amount of electric power. Also, in contrast to other smart materials that were investigated for this application, shape memory alloys are capable of providing enough stroke at the appropriate force levels to focus the collector. Design and analysis details presented, along with comparisons to test data taken from an actual prototype, demonstrate that the collector can be repeatedly focused and defocused within accuracies required by typical solar energy systems. In this paper the design, analysis and testing of a solar collector which is deformed into its desired shape by shape memory alloy actuators is presented. Computations indicate collector shapes much closer to spherical and with smaller focal lengths can be achieved by moving the actuators inward to a radius of approximately 6 inches. This would require actuators with considerably more stroke and some alternate SMA actuators are currently under consideration. Whatever SMA actuator is finally chosen for this application, repeatability and fatigue tests will be required to investigate the long term performance of the actuator.

  1. Interfacial Modulus Mapping during Structural Transformation in Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Jianfeng; Cui, Shushan; Zhang, Jihua; Rong, Yonghua

    2017-10-01

    Through the modified phase-field model the local soft mode mechanism of nucleation during martensitic transformation was confirmed in shape memory alloys. It was discovered that the modulus loss (8 pct) depended on the martensitic nucleation exceeding the loss (1 pct) during the martensitic growth. The elastic modulus and the stress across the martensite/parent interface differed from those across the martensitic twin boundary. The modulus losses in systems with three variants, two variants, and one variant were compared.

  2. Shape Memory Alloys Application: Trailing Edge Shape Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing...data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this...PVDF PMN (electro- strictive) Terfenol D (magneto- strictive) Nitinol Shape memory alloy Density 7.5 1.8 9.2 6.5 Young’s modulus (GPa) 70 2-3 120 50

  3. Giant magnetoresistance of Co-Ni-Cu alloys produced by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Q.; Zhang, Z. D.; Xiao, Q. F.; Geng, D. Y.; Zhao, X. G.; Zhang, W. S.; You, C. Y.

    2003-05-01

    The structure, magnetic properties and magnetoresistance (MR) effect of Co20NixCu80-x alloys produced by mechanical alloying and subsequent annealing have been investigated. After milling for 5 h, a supersaturated solid solution forms for all the alloys. Co20NixCu80-x alloys annealed at 973 K for 30 min segregated into two-phases of fcc-Co and fcc-Cu. The maximum value for MR ratio, at room temperature is 4.7% at a field of 1.2 T, and at 5 K is 15% at a field of 2 T for Co20Cu80 annealed at 718 K for 30 min. The MR ratio of Co-Ni-Cu alloys decreases monotonically with increasing Ni content. The MR and its dependence on particle size are discussed.

  4. Cyclic response of shape memory alloy smart composite beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, Clifford M.; Morgan, Neil B.

    1994-09-01

    'Smart' structure are an emerging technology which will provide the possibility of engineering structures with enhanced functionality for a wide range of applications. In most current Smart Structural Concepts a mechatronic or 'Frankenstein' approach is adopted where separate sensors, signal processing and actuators are 'bolted-together' to produce a 'Smart' system response. In the majority of these concepts the sensors and actuators are integrated within the host structure itself, and many of the sensor and actuator materials are familiar from other more conventional sensing/actuation applications. Amongst the materials used/proposed for actuators are Shape- Memory Alloys (SMAs) since these materials offer a range of attractive properties, including the possibility of high strain/stress actuation. The literature-base on the integration of SMA actuators into composite structures is not extensive. However, their use has been investigated for vibration [1], acoustic radiation [1,2], damage [3], buckling [1,2], and shape [1] control. An interesting feature of this work has been a heavy bias towards modelling, with only limited attempts to experimentally verify the calculated results. Previous work has also failed to produce a systematic database on one other key issue. This is the durability of SPA hybrid composites. The present work was therefore undertaken to provide a preliminary appraisal of the durability issues associated with the use of SMA hybrid composites. This work addressed a number of issues including (i) the effect of actuator fraction on strain outputs, (ii) the effect of actuator fraction and maximum strain on the cyclic stability of shape changes, and (iii) the effect of these variables on damage accumulation within the hybrid structures.

  5. Characterization of the laser gas nitrided surface of NiTi shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Z. D.; Man, H. C.; Yang, X. J.

    2003-03-01

    Owing to its unique properties such as shape memory effects, superelasticity and radiopacity, NiTi alloy is a valuable biomaterial for fabricating implants. The major concern of this alloy for biological applications is the high atomic percentage of nickel in the alloy and the deleterious effects to the body by the corrosion and/or wears products. In this study, a continuous wave Nd-YAG laser was used to conduct laser gas nitriding on the substrate of NiTi alloy. The results show that a continuous and crack-free thin TiN layer was produced in situ on the NiTi substrate. The characteristics of the nitrided surface layer were investigated using SEM, XRD, XPS and AAS. No nickel signal was detected on the top surface of the laser gas nitrided layer. As compared with the mechanical polished NiTi alloy, the nickel ion release rate out of the nitrided NiTi alloy decreased significantly in Hanks' solution at 37 °C, especially the initial release rate.

  6. Modelling the phase diagram of magnetic shape memory Heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entel, P.; Buchelnikov, V. D.; Khovailo, V. V.; Zayak, A. T.; Adeagbo, W. A.; Gruner, M. E.; Herper, H. C.; Wassermann, E. F.

    2006-03-01

    We have modelled the phase diagram of magnetic shape memory alloys of the Heusler type by using the phenomenological Ginzburg-Landau theory. When fixing the parameters by realistic values taken from experiment we are able to reproduce most details of, for example, the phase diagram of Ni2+xMn1-xGa in the (T, x) plane. We present the results of ab initio calculations of the electronic and phonon properties of several ferromagnetic Heusler alloys, which allow one to characterize the structural changes associated with the martensitic instability leading to the modulated and tetragonal phases. From the ab initio investigations emerges a complex pattern of the interplay of magic valence electron per atom numbers (Hume-Rothery rules for magnetic ternary alloys), Fermi surface nesting and phonon instability. As the main result, we find that the driving force for structural transformations is considerably enhanced by the extremely low lying optical modes of Ni in the Ni-based Heusler alloys, which interfere with the acoustical modes enhancing phonon softening of the TA2 mode. In contrast, the ferromagnetic Co-based Heusler alloys show no tendency for phonon softening.

  7. Precipitate Phases in Several High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan

    Initiated by the aerospace industry, there has been a great interest to develop high temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) for actuator type of application at elevated temperatures. Several NiTi based ternary systems have been shown to be potential candidates for HTSMAs and this work focuses on one or more alloys in the TiNiPt, TiNiPd, NiTiHf, NiPdTiHf systems. The sheer scope of alloys of varying compositions across all four systems suggests that the questions raised and addressed in this work are just the tip of the iceberg. This work focuses on materials characterization and aims to investigate microstructural evolution of these alloys as a function of heat treatment. The information gained through the study can serve as guidance for future alloy processing. The emphasis of this work is to describe novel precipitate phases that are formed under aging in the ternary systems and one quaternary system. Employing conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution high angle annular dark field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), 3D atom probe tomography (3D APT), as well as ab initio calculations, the complete description of the unit cell for the new precipitates was determined. The methodology is summarized in the appendix to help elucidate some basics of such a process.

  8. The shape memory capability and life of Cu-Al-Be-X alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Y.Y.; Dar, K.Z. ); Wang, T.M. ); Zin, S.J. )

    1994-09-01

    The shape memory capacity and the shape memory life of three alloys of the Cu-11.6Al-0.4Be-X type have been investigated using the strain angle restoration method and compared with the alloy Cu-25Zn-4Al. The alloys were subjected to various normalizing and normalizing plus aging treatments, and all were found to possess excellent shape memory properties. The alloy Cu-11.6Al-0.4Be-0.2Cr demonstrated the best shape memory capacity and life.

  9. Thermally activated retainer means utilizing shape memory alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimaldi, Margaret E. (Inventor); Hartz, Leslie S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A retainer member suitable for retaining a gap filler placed in gaps between adjacent tile members is presented. One edge of the retainer member may be attached to the gap filler and another edge may be provided with a plurality of tab members which in an intermediate position do not interfere with placement or removal of the gap filler between tile members. The retainer member may be fabricated from a shape memory alloy which when heated to a specified memory temperature will thermally activate the tab members to predetermined memory positions engaging the tile members to retain the gap filler in the gap. This invention has particular application to the thermal tiles on space vehicles such as the Space Shuttle Orbiter.

  10. A Study of the Damping Capacity of Mechanically Processed Cu - 9.2Al - 5.3Mn - 0.6Fe Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimpoeşu, N.; Stanciu, S.; Tesloianu, D.; Cimpoeşu, R.; Popa, R. F.; Moraru, E.

    2017-03-01

    The effect of deformation on the damping capacity of a copper-base shape memory alloy produced by standard methods is studied. The metallographic analysis is performed with the help of scanning electron microscopy. The internal friction is measured at different temperatures. The damping capacity of the alloy is analyzed and its relation to the mechanical and physical properties is determined.

  11. Deformation and Failure Mechanisms of Shape Memory Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, Samantha Hayes

    2015-04-15

    The goal of this research was to understand the fundamental mechanics that drive the deformation and failure of shape memory alloys (SMAs). SMAs are difficult materials to characterize because of the complex phase transformations that give rise to their unique properties, including shape memory and superelasticity. These phase transformations occur across multiple length scales (one example being the martensite-austenite twinning that underlies macroscopic strain localization) and result in a large hysteresis. In order to optimize the use of this hysteretic behavior in energy storage and damping applications, we must first have a quantitative understanding of this transformation behavior. Prior results on shape memory alloys have been largely qualitative (i.e., mapping phase transformations through cracked oxide coatings or surface morphology). The PI developed and utilized new approaches to provide a quantitative, full-field characterization of phase transformation, conducting a comprehensive suite of experiments across multiple length scales and tying these results to theoretical and computational analysis. The research funded by this award utilized new combinations of scanning electron microscopy, diffraction, digital image correlation, and custom testing equipment and procedures to study phase transformation processes at a wide range of length scales, with a focus at small length scales with spatial resolution on the order of 1 nanometer. These experiments probe the basic connections between length scales during phase transformation. In addition to the insights gained on the fundamental mechanisms driving transformations in shape memory alloys, the unique experimental methodologies developed under this award are applicable to a wide range of solid-to-solid phase transformations and other strain localization mechanisms.

  12. Solid state engine using nitinol memory alloy

    DOEpatents

    Golestaneh, Ahmad A.

    1981-01-01

    A device for converting heat energy to mechanical energy includes a reservoir of a hot fluid and a rotor assembly mounted thereabove so a portion of it dips into the hot fluid. The rotor assembly may include a shaft having four spokes extending radially outwardly therefrom at right angles to each other, a floating ring and four flexible elements composed of a thermal memory material having a critical temperature between the temperature of the hot fluid and that of the ambient atmosphere extending between the ends of the spokes and the floating ring. Preferably, the flexible elements are attached to the floating ring through curved leaf springs. Energetic shape recovery of the flexible elements in the hot fluid causes the rotor assembly to rotate.

  13. Solid state engine using nitinol memory alloy

    DOEpatents

    Golestaneh, A.A.

    1980-01-21

    A device for converting heat energy to mechanical energy includes a reservoir of a hot fluid and a rotor assembly mounted thereabove so a portion of it dips into the hot fluid. The rotor assembly may include a shaft having four spokes extending radially outwardly therefrom at right angles to each other, a floating ring and four flexible elements composed of a thermal memory material having a critical temperature between the temperature of the hot fluid and that of the ambient atmosphere extending between the ends of the spokes and the floating ring. Preferably, the flexible elements are attached to the floating ring through curved leaf springs. Energetic shape recovery of the flexible elements in the hot fluid causes the rotor assembly to rotate.

  14. Thermoelectric control of shape memory alloy microactuators: a thermal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadie, J.; Chaillet, Nicolas; Lexcellent, Christian; Bourjault, Alain

    1999-06-01

    Microtechnologies and microsystems engineering use new active materials. These materials are interesting to realize microactuators and microsensors. In this category of materials, Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) are good candidates for microactuation. SMA wires, or thin plates, can be used as active material in microfingers. These microstructures are able to provide very important forces, but have low dynamic response, especially for cooling, in confined environment. The control of the SMA phase transformations, and then the mechanical power generation, is made by the temperature. The Joule effect is an easy and efficiency way to heat the SMA wires, but cooling is not so easy. The dynamic response of the actuator depends on cooling capabilities. The thermal convection and conduction are the traditional ways to cool the SMA, but have limitations for microsystems. We are looking for a reversible way of heating and cooling SMA microactuators, based on the thermoelectric effects. Using Peltier effect, a positive or a negative electrical courant is able to pump or produce heat, in the SMA actuator. A physical model based on thermal exchanges between a Nickel/Titanium (NiTi) SMA, and Bismuth/Telluride (Te3Bi2) thermoelectric material has been developed. For simulation, we use a numerical resolution of our model, with finite elements, which takes into account the Peltier effect, the Joule effect, the convection, the conduction and the phase transformation of the SMA. We have also developed the corresponding experimental system, with two thermoelectric junctions, where the SMA actuator is one of the element of each junction. In this paper, the physical model and its numerical resolution are given, the experimental system used to validate the model is described, and experimental results are shown.

  15. Transformation Temperatures, Shape Memory and Magnetic Properties of Hafnium Modified Ti-Ta Based High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, W. Q.; Wang, Q.; Jin, X.

    2017-02-01

    In this study the modification effect of Hf content on the shape memory properties and magnetic permeability of a 75.5-77Ti-20Ta-3-4.5Hf alloy system has been systematically studied by DSC, three-point bend test, vector network analyzer and XRD. The martensitic transformation temperature, heat of reaction and recovery strain increases with the increase of hafnium and tantalum content. A stable high temperature shape memory effect was observed (Ms = 385-390 °C) during the two thermal cycles between 20 °C and 725 °C. Transformation temperatures and heats of reaction were determined by DSC measurements. Recovery strain was determined by three-point bend testing. Also an alloy, 70Ti-26Ta-4Hf, with higher tantalum content was produced to observe the effect of Ta on the shape memory properties. Permeability increases gradually from 1.671 to 1.919 with increasing content of hafnium modification and remains stable in the frequency range of 450 MHz to 1 GHz.

  16. Recent breakthrough development of the magnetic shape memory effect in Ni Mn Ga alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderberg, O.; Ge, Y.; Sozinov, A.; Hannula, S.-P.; Lindroos, V. K.

    2005-10-01

    Magnetic shape memory (MSM) alloys or ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) materials discovered by Ullakko et al (1996 Appl. Phys. Lett. 69 1966-8) have received increasing interest, since they can produce a large strain with rather high frequencies without a change in the external temperature. These materials have potential for actuator and sensor applications. MSM materials exhibit giant magnetic field induced strain (MFIS) based on the rearrangements of the crystallographic domains (twin variants). The magnetization energy of the material is lowered when such twin variants that have the easy axis of magnetization along the field start to grow due to twin boundary motion. Currently, the best working MSM materials are the near-stoichiometric Ni2MnGa Heusler alloys in which the properties are highly composition dependent. Their modulated martensitic structures, 5M and 7M, show 6% or 10% response respectively in a magnetic field less than 800 kA m-1. The MSM service temperature of the 5M alloys is between 150 and 333 K, and the optimal frequency region is up to 500 Hz. The fatigue life of the MSM elements has been shown to be at least 50 × 106 shape change cycles. This paper reviews the research work carried out at Helsinki University of Technology on MSM materials since 1998.

  17. Properties and medical applications of shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Tarniţă, Daniela; Tarniţă, D N; Bîzdoacă, N; Mîndrilă, I; Vasilescu, Mirela

    2009-01-01

    One of the most known intelligent material is nitinol, which offers many functional advantages over conventional implantable alloys. Applications of SMA to the biomedical field have been successful because of their functional qualities, enhancing both the possibility and the execution of less invasive surgeries. The biocompatibility of these alloys is one of their most important features. Different applications exploit the shape memory effect (one-way or two-way) and the super elasticity, so that they can be employed in orthopedic and cardiovascular applications, as well as in the manufacture of new surgical tools. Therefore, one can say that smart materials, especially SMA, are becoming noticeable in the biomedical field. Super elastic NiTi has become a material of strategic importance as it allows to overcome a wide range of technical and design issues relating to the miniaturization of medical devices and the increasing trend for less invasive and therefore less traumatic procedures. This paper will consider just why the main properties of shape memory alloys hold so many opportunities for medical devices and will review a selection of current applications.

  18. Multifunctional devices combining shape-memory alloy and piezoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    We succeeded in the deposition of piezoelectric thin film on a titanium substrate and on nickel-titanium alloy (shapememory alloy) by employing the hydrothermal synthesis method for the direct deposition of PZT thin film, which is a piezoelectric material, on a titanium substrate. The formed film is quite thin (tens of micrometers), and the density is low (theoretical density of ~70%). As the thin piezoelectric film is formed by the layering of many crystals, it is capable of responding to large deformations (up to 5%), which would have been inconceivable with the existing piezoelectric materials without any structural damages. The hydrothermal synthesis method was used in this research study to form films of PZT piezoelectric films on the surfaces of nickel-titanium shape-memory alloy wires to fabricate and evaluate a new multifunctional device that features a combination of four effects, namely, the shape-memory effect, super-elasticity effect, piezoelectric effect, and pyroelectric effect. The fabricated fiber was subjected to a tensile test in the super-elastic state, and the amount of deformation thereof was read from the piezoelectric effect to show the functioning of both the super-elastic effect and the piezoelectric effect.

  19. Design and development of novel antibacterial Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloys for biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. F.; Qiu, K. J.; Zhou, F. Y.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y. F.

    2016-11-01

    In the case of medical implants, foreign materials are preferential sites for bacterial adhesion and microbial contamination, which can lead to the development of prosthetic infections. Commercially biomedical TiNi shape memory alloys are the most commonly used materials for permanent implants in contact with bone and dental, and the prevention of infections of TiNi biomedical shape memory alloys in clinical cases is therefore a crucial challenge for orthopaedic and dental surgeons. In the present study, copper has been chosen as the alloying element for design and development novel ternary biomedical Ti‒Ni‒Cu shape memory alloys with antibacterial properties. The effects of copper alloying element on the microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion behaviors, cytocompatibility and antibacterial properties of biomedical Ti‒Ni‒Cu shape memory alloys have been systematically investigated. The results demonstrated that Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys have good mechanical properties, and remain the excellent shape memory effects after adding copper alloying element. The corrosion behaviors of Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys are better than the commercial biomedical Ti‒50.8Ni alloys. The Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys exhibit excellent antibacterial properties while maintaining the good cytocompatibility, which would further guarantee the potential application of Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys as future biomedical implants and devices without inducing bacterial infections.

  20. Design and development of novel antibacterial Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloys for biomedical application

    PubMed Central

    Li, H. F.; Qiu, K. J.; Zhou, F. Y.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y. F.

    2016-01-01

    In the case of medical implants, foreign materials are preferential sites for bacterial adhesion and microbial contamination, which can lead to the development of prosthetic infections. Commercially biomedical TiNi shape memory alloys are the most commonly used materials for permanent implants in contact with bone and dental, and the prevention of infections of TiNi biomedical shape memory alloys in clinical cases is therefore a crucial challenge for orthopaedic and dental surgeons. In the present study, copper has been chosen as the alloying element for design and development novel ternary biomedical Ti‒Ni‒Cu shape memory alloys with antibacterial properties. The effects of copper alloying element on the microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion behaviors, cytocompatibility and antibacterial properties of biomedical Ti‒Ni‒Cu shape memory alloys have been systematically investigated. The results demonstrated that Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys have good mechanical properties, and remain the excellent shape memory effects after adding copper alloying element. The corrosion behaviors of Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys are better than the commercial biomedical Ti‒50.8Ni alloys. The Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys exhibit excellent antibacterial properties while maintaining the good cytocompatibility, which would further guarantee the potential application of Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys as future biomedical implants and devices without inducing bacterial infections. PMID:27897182

  1. Design and development of novel antibacterial Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloys for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Li, H F; Qiu, K J; Zhou, F Y; Li, L; Zheng, Y F

    2016-11-29

    In the case of medical implants, foreign materials are preferential sites for bacterial adhesion and microbial contamination, which can lead to the development of prosthetic infections. Commercially biomedical TiNi shape memory alloys are the most commonly used materials for permanent implants in contact with bone and dental, and the prevention of infections of TiNi biomedical shape memory alloys in clinical cases is therefore a crucial challenge for orthopaedic and dental surgeons. In the present study, copper has been chosen as the alloying element for design and development novel ternary biomedical Ti‒Ni‒Cu shape memory alloys with antibacterial properties. The effects of copper alloying element on the microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion behaviors, cytocompatibility and antibacterial properties of biomedical Ti‒Ni‒Cu shape memory alloys have been systematically investigated. The results demonstrated that Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys have good mechanical properties, and remain the excellent shape memory effects after adding copper alloying element. The corrosion behaviors of Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys are better than the commercial biomedical Ti‒50.8Ni alloys. The Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys exhibit excellent antibacterial properties while maintaining the good cytocompatibility, which would further guarantee the potential application of Ti‒Ni‒Cu alloys as future biomedical implants and devices without inducing bacterial infections.

  2. Efficient Utilization of Nickel Laterite to Produce Master Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaodong; Cui, Zhixiang; Zhao, Baojun

    2016-12-01

    To lower the smelting temperature associated with the carbothermic reduction processing of laterite, the optimization of slag and alloy systems was investigated to enable the reduction of laterite ore in the molten state at 1723 K. The master Fe-Ni-Mo alloy was successfully produced at a lower temperature (1723 K). The liquidus of the slag decreased with the addition of oxide flux (Fe2O3 and CaO) and that of the ferronickel alloy decreased with the addition of Mo/MoO3. More effective metal-slag separation was achieved at 1723 K, which reduces the smelting temperature by 100 K compared with the current electric furnace process. A small addition of Mo/MoO3 not only decreased the melting point of ferronickel alloys but also served as a collector to aggregate the ferronickel sponges allowing them to grow larger. The FeO concentration in the slag and the nickel grade of the alloy decreased with increasing graphite reductant addition.

  3. Novel tribological systems using shape memory alloys and thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yijun

    Shape memory alloys and thin films are shown to have robust indentation-induced shape memory and superelastic effects. Loading conditions that are similar to indentations are very common in tribological systems. Therefore novel tribological systems that have better wear resistance and stronger coating to substrate adhesion can be engineered using indentation-induced shape memory and superelastic effects. By incorporating superelastic NiTi thin films as interlayers between chromium nitride (CrN) and diamond-like carbon (DLC) hard coatings and aluminum substrates, it is shown that the superelasticity can improve tribological performance and increase interfacial adhesion. The NiTi interlayers were sputter deposited onto 6061 T6 aluminum and M2 steel substrates. CrN and DLC coatings were deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputter deposition. Temperature scanning X-ray diffraction and nanoindentation were used to characterize NiTi interlayers. Temperature scanning wear and scratch tests showed that superelastic NiTi interlayers improved tribological performance on aluminum substrates significantly. The two-way shape memory effect under contact loading conditions is demonstrated for the first time, which could be used to make novel tribological systems. Spherical indents in NiTi shape memory alloys and thin films had reversible depth changes that were driven by temperature cycling, after thermomechanical cycling, or one-cycle slip-plasticity deformation training. Reversible surface topography was realized after the indents were planarized. Micro- and nano- scale circular surface protrusions arose from planarized spherical indents in bulk and thin film NiTi alloy; line surface protrusions appeared from planarized scratch tracks. Functional surfaces with reversible surface topography can potentially result in novel tribological systems with reversible friction coefficient. A three dimensional constitutive model was developed to describe shape memory effects with slip

  4. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator Design: CASMART Collaborative Best Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benafan, Othmane; Brown, Jeff; Calkins, F. Tad; Kumar, Parikshith; Stebner, Aaron; Turner, Travis; Vaidyanathan, Raj; Webster, John; Young, Marcus L.

    2011-01-01

    Upon examination of shape memory alloy (SMA) actuation designs, there are many considerations and methodologies that are common to them all. A goal of CASMART's design working group is to compile the collective experiences of CASMART's member organizations into a single medium that engineers can then use to make the best decisions regarding SMA system design. In this paper, a review of recent work toward this goal is presented, spanning a wide range of design aspects including evaluation, properties, testing, modeling, alloy selection, fabrication, actuator processing, design optimization, controls, and system integration. We have documented each aspect, based on our collective experiences, so that the design engineer may access the tools and information needed to successfully design and develop SMA systems. Through comparison of several case studies, it is shown that there is not an obvious single, linear route a designer can adopt to navigate the path of concept to product. SMA engineering aspects will have different priorities and emphasis for different applications.

  5. Several Issues in the Development of Ti-Nb-Based Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hee Young; Miyazaki, Shuichi

    2016-12-01

    Ni-free Ti-based shape memory alloys, particularly Ti-Nb-based alloys, have attracted increasing attraction since the early 2000s due to their wide application potentials in biomedical fields. Recently, there has been significant progress in understanding the martensitic transformation behavior of Ti-Nb-based alloys and many novel superelastic alloys have been developed. The superelastic properties of Ti-Nb-based alloys have been remarkably improved through the optimization of alloying elements and microstructure control. In this paper, in order to explore and establish the alloy design strategy, several important issues in the development of Ti-Nb-based shape memory alloys are reviewed. Particularly, the effects of alloying elements on the martensitic transformation temperature and the transformation strain are analyzed. The effects of omega phase and texture on the superelastic properties are also discussed.

  6. Texture memory and strain-texture mapping in a NiTi shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, B.; Majumdar, B. S.; Dutta, I.

    2007-08-06

    The authors report on the near-reversible strain hysteresis during thermal cycling of a polycrystalline NiTi shape memory alloy at a constant stress that is below the yield strength of the martensite. In situ neutron diffraction experiments are used to demonstrate that the strain hysteresis occurs due to a texture memory effect, where the martensite develops a texture when it is cooled under load from the austenite phase and is thereafter ''remembered.'' Further, the authors quantitatively relate the texture to the strain by developing a calculated strain-texture map or pole figure for the martensite phase, and indicate its applicability in other martensitic transformations.

  7. High-corrosion-resistance Fe-Mn-Si-based alloys exhibiting nearly perfect shape memory effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhizhong; Kajiwara, Setsuo; Kikuchi, Takehiko; Shinya, Norio

    2004-07-01

    Recently our group has succeeded, by producing very small particles of NbC carbides in austenite, in improvement of shape memory effect (SME) of the low-cost conventional Fe-Mn-Si based SMAs to such an extent that the so-called "training" treatment is no longer necessary. It was also found that the shape memory properties of the Fe-Mn-Si based SMAs were further improved by pre-rolling at 870K. The present paper describes similar improvement of shape memory properties of an Fe-15Mn-5Si-9Cr-5Ni-0.5NbC (mass %) by more convenient way of pre-extension at room temperature. This alloy is high corrosion-resistant (equivalent to SUS430) as well as low cost material, which is also one of the important requisites for industry application in various fields. A nearly perfect shape recover (90%) of an initial 4% strain was achieved when the alloy was pre-extended 12% at room temperature and then aged at 1070K for 10min. The origin of this improvement of SME has been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and trasmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is concluded that uniform distribution of fine martensite plates with the same variant on the primary system is the key factor to obtain a perfect shape memory recovery.

  8. Shape memory alloy heat engines and energy harvesting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, Alan L; Johnson, Nancy L; Keefe, Andrew C; Alexander, Paul W; Sarosi, Peter Maxwell; Herrera, Guillermo A; Yates, James Ryan

    2013-12-17

    A heat engine includes a first rotatable pulley and a second rotatable pulled spaced from the first rotatable pulley. A shape memory alloy (SMA) element is disposed about respective portions of the pulleys at an SMA pulley ratio. The SMA element includes first spring coil and a first fiber core within the first spring coil. A timing cable is disposed about disposed about respective portions of the pulleys at a timing pulley ratio, which is different than the SMA pulley ratio. The SMA element converts a thermal energy gradient between the hot region and the cold region into mechanical energy.

  9. On phase transformation behavior of porous Shape Memory Alloys.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingfei; Dui, Guansuo; Zhu, Yuping

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned on the phase transformation mechanism of porous Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs). A unit-cell model is adopted to establish the constitutive relation for porous SMAs, the stress distributions, the phase distributions and the martensitic volume fractions for the model are then derived under both pure hydrostatic stress and uniaxial compression. Further, an example for the uniaxial response under compression for a porous Ni-Ti SMA material considering hydrostatic stress is supplied. Good agreement between the theoretical prediction of the proposed model and published experimental data is observed. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Applications of memory alloy stent in vertebral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Yimin, Yang; Zhi, Zhang; ZhiWei, Ren; Wei, Ma; Jha, Rajiv Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of treating vertebral compression fractures using an autonomously developed nitinol memory alloy vertebral stent. Material/Methods Thoracolumbar vertebral specimens from adult human cadavers were made into models of compression fractures. The models were divided into group A, which received percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP), balloon dilation, and nitinol memory alloy vertebral stent implantation (PKP + nitinol stent group); group B, which received percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and direct implantation of a nitinol memory alloy vertebral stent (PVP + nitinol stent group); and group C, which received PKP, balloon dilation, and bone cement vertebroplasty (PKP + polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) group). Vertebral heights were measured before and after the surgery and the water bath incubation to compare the impact of the 3 different surgical approaches on reducing vertebral compression. Results The 3 surgical groups could all significantly restore the heights of compressed vertebral bodies. The vertebral heights of the PKP + nitinol stent group, PVP + nitinol stent group, and PKP + PMMA group were changed from the preoperative levels of (1.59±0.08) cm, (1.68±0.08) cm, and (1.66±0.11) cm to the postoperative levels of (2.00±0.09) cm, (1.87±0.04) cm, and (1.99±0.09) cm, respectively. After the water bath, the vertebral heights of each group were changed to (2.10±0.07) cm, (1.98±0.09) cm, and (2.00±0.10) cm, respectively. Pairwise comparison of the differences between the preoperative and postoperative vertebral heights showed that group A and group B differed significantly (P=0.000); group B and group C differed significantly (P=0.003); and group A and group C had no significant difference (P=0.172). Pairwise comparison of the differences in the vertebral heights before and after the water bath showed that group A and group C differed significantly (P=0.000); group B and group C differed significantly

  11. Characterization of shape memory alloys for safety mechanisms.

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, Jarred T.; Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Massad, Jordan Elias

    2008-03-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are metals that exhibit large recoverable strains and exert large forces with tremendous energy densities. The behavior of SMAs is thermomechanically coupled. Their response to temperature is sensitive to their loading condition and their response to loading is sensitive to their thermal condition. This coupled behavior is not to be circumvented, but to be confronted and understood, since it is what manifests SMA's superior clamping performance. To reasonably characterize the coupled behavior of SMA clamping rings used in safety mechanisms, we conduct a series of experiments on SMA samples. The results of the tests will allow increased fidelity in modeling and failure analysis of parts.

  12. Applications of the directional solidification in magnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. J.; Liu, J.; Hu, Q. D.; Liu, Q. H.; Karaman, I.; Li, J. G.

    2016-03-01

    A zone melting liquid metal cooling (ZMLMC) method of directional solidification was applied to prepare highly-oriented Ni52Fe17Ga27Co4 magnetic shape memory alloys. At high temperature gradient and low growth velocity, the well-developed preferred orientation for coarse columnar crystals was obtained. Such a structure leads to a large complete pseudoelastic recovery of 5% at 348 K. Moreover, the pseudoelastic behaviours and the kinetics of the martensitic transformation (MT) are significantly affected by the intersection angle between the loading direction and the grain boundaries.

  13. Stability of the magnetomechanical problem in magnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzigeorgiou, George; Haldar, Krishnendu; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2010-04-01

    In this work we study the unstable phenomena that occur on Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys (MSMAs) during compression tests. Solving the coupled magnetomechanical problem we observe that during the reorientation process the material presents strong non-uniformity, in the form of localized zones, in the distribution of the magnetic, the stress and the strain field. This non-uniformity is due to loss of ellipticity of the coupled problem during the martensitic reorientation and affects significantly the reorientation process. The identification of the stability conditions of the magnetomechanical problem is achieved by performing stability analysis.

  14. Thermo-Mechanical Methodology for Stabilizing Shape Memory Alloy Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Santo

    2013-01-01

    This innovation is capable of significantly reducing the amount of time required to stabilize the strain-temperature response of a shape memory alloy (SMA). Unlike traditional stabilization processes that take days to weeks to achieve stabilized response, this innovation accomplishes stabilization in a matter of minutes, thus making it highly useful for the successful and practical implementation of SMA-based technologies in real-world applications. The innovation can also be applied to complex geometry components, not just simple geometries like wires or rods.

  15. Fabrication of silicon-based shape memory alloy micro-actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, A. David; Busch, John D.; Ray, Curtis A.; Sloan, Charles L.

    1992-01-01

    Thin film shape memory alloy has been integrated with silicon in a new actuation mechanism for microelectromechanical systems. This paper compares nickel-titanium film with other actuators, describes recent results of chemical milling processes developed to fabricate shape memory alloy microactuators in silicon, and describes simple actuation mechanisms which have been fabricated and tested.

  16. Space Qualification Testing of a Shape Memory Alloy Deployable CubeSat Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-15

    SPACE QUALIFICATION TESTING OF A SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY DEPLOYABLE CUBESAT ANTENNA THESIS Carl R. Kobza, USAF AFIT-ENY-MS... SPACE QUALIFICATION TESTING OF A SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY DEPLOYABLE CUBESAT ANTENNA THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Aeronautics...In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Space Systems Carl R. Kobza, BS Civilian, USAF September

  17. Porous shape memory alloy scaffolds for biomedical applications: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, C. E.; Xiong, J. Y.; Li, Y. C.; Hodgson, P. D.

    2010-05-01

    The interest in using porous shape memory alloy (SMA) scaffolds as implant materials has been growing in recent years due to the combination of their unique mechanical and functional properties, i.e. shape memory effect and superelasticity, low elastic modulus combined with new bone tissue ingrowth ability and vascularization. These attractive properties are of great benefit to the healing process for implant applications. This paper reviews current state-of-the art on the processing, porous characteristics and mechanical properties of porous SMAs for biomedical applications, with special focus on the most widely used SMA nickel-titanium (NiTi), including (i) microstructural features, mechanical and functional properties of NiTi SMAs; (ii) main processing methods for the fabrication of porous NiTi SMAs and their mechanical properties and (iii) new-generation Ni-free, biocompatible porous SMA scaffolds.

  18. Electrochemical method of producing eutectic uranium alloy and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Horton, J.A.; Hayden, H.W.

    1995-01-10

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and molten electrolyte in the reservoir comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride. The method of the invention produces an eutectic uranium alloy by creating an electrolyte reservoir defined by a container comprising an anode, placing an electrolyte in the reservoir, the electrolyte comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride in molten form, positioning a cathode in the reservoir where the cathode comprises a metal capable of forming an uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and applying a current between the cathode and the anode. 2 figures.

  19. Shape memory effect and superelasticity of titanium nickelide alloys implanted with high ion doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogrebnjak, A. D.; Bratushka, S. N.; Beresnev, V. M.; Levintant-Zayonts, N.

    2013-12-01

    The state of the art in ion implantation of superelastic NiTi shape memory alloys is analyzed. Various technological applications of the shape memory effect are outlined. The principles and techiques of ion implantation are described. Specific features of its application for modification of surface layers in surface engineering are considered. Key properties of shape memory alloys and problems in utilization of ion implantation to improve the surface properties of shape memory alloys, such as corrosion resistance, friction coefficient, wear resistance, etc. are discussed. The bibliography includes 162 references.

  20. Characterization of Nanocrystalline Aluminum Alloy 5083 Powders Produced by Cryogenic Attrition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Characterization of Nanocrystalline Aluminum Alloy 5083 Powders Produced by Cryogenic Attrition by Tiffany Ngo ARL-TN-0643...November 2014 Characterization of Nanocrystalline Aluminum Alloy 5083 Powders Produced by Cryogenic Attrition Tiffany Ngo Weapons and...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) August 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Characterization of Nanocrystalline Aluminum Alloy 5083 Powders Produced by

  1. Modeling the Cyclic Behavior of Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waimann, Johanna; Junker, Philipp; Hackl, Klaus

    2017-06-01

    The phenomenon of functional fatigue occurs during cyclic loading of pseudoelastic shape memory alloys. We model this effect by considering an irreversible martensitic volume fraction in addition to the reversible amounts of austenite and martensite based on variational principles. The inclusion of irreversible martensitic volume fractions coincides with experimental observations and enables the model to be easily calibrated without any fitting functions. In our previous studies, we modeled the polycrystalline material structure by static discretization of a relatively large number of randomly chosen grain orientations, which required much numerical effort. In contrast, we now apply a dynamic representation of the orientation distribution function to the modeling of functional fatigue which has proven to be beneficial regarding the numerical performance. To this end, we take into account an averaged grain orientation parameterized by three Euler angles that serve as additional internal variables. This results in an extremely reduced numerical effort. The model derivation is given along with the numerical implementation and computer experiments on the cyclic behavior of shape memory alloys.

  2. Fatigue Crack Growth Fundamentals in Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Ojha, A.; Patriarca, L.; Sehitoglu, H.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, based on a regression of the crack tip displacements, the stress intensity range in fatigue is quantitatively determined for the shape memory alloy Ni2FeGa. The results are compared to the calculated stress intensity ranges with a micro-mechanical analysis accounting for the transformation-induced tractions. The effective stress intensity ranges obtained with both methods are in close agreement. Also, the fatigue crack closure levels were measured as 30 % of the maximum load using virtual extensometers along the crack flanks. This result is also in close agreement with the regression and micro-mechanical modeling findings. The current work pointed to the importance of elastic moduli changes and the residual transformation strains playing a role in the fatigue crack growth behavior. Additional simulations are conducted for two other important shape memory alloys, NiTi and CuZnAl, where the reductions in stress intensity range were found to be lower than Ni2FeGa.

  3. A shape memory alloy actuator for solar array deployments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbet, Vincent; D'Abrigeon, Laurent; Champandard, Fabrice; Jacopini, Cedric

    2005-07-01

    The interest in the development of low-cost, reliable, lightweight actuators is high. The implementation of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuator technologies, such as torsion mechanism is also required. SMA technologies are lighter more simple and more robust than current mechanical actuators. A SMA actuator might allow a significant reduction in the space mechanisms and overall system costs and mass for standard LEO missions as well as for medium and large GEO missions. SMA rod is made from Nickel Titanium alloy with high austenitic transition temperature. The unique behavior of NiTi alloy is based on the temperature-dependent austenite-to-martensite phase transformation on an atomic scale, which is also called thermoelastic martensitic transformation. The thermoelastic martensitic transformation causing the shape recovery is a result of the need of the crystal lattice structure to accommodate to the minimum energy state for a given temperature. NiTi alloy senses a change in ambient temperature and is able to convert its shape to a preprogrammed structure. In the first step, Alcatel Space analysed new mechanical electrical and thermal design for lightweight solar arrays application to fully benefit of the favourable reliability/mass of SMA actuator mechanisms. Alcatel Space has an excellent heritage in shape memory alloy mechanisms for scientific missions. Flight operation was successful. This activity aims at identifying, developing, and characterising a simple, reliable and low mass mechanism. The development and qualification activities of SMA actuator is realised in the frame work of mechanisms improvement studies for lightweight solar array development. The SMA Actuator is used to motorize and speed regulate the deployment of the solar array at root hinge level. The SMA Actuator is then submitted to motorization torques from Solar Array hinge line or resisting torque from Solar Array hinge line. Alcatel Space organised the program of work according to the

  4. Effects of magnetic field on the shape memory behavior of single and polycrystalline magnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turabi, Ali Sadi

    Shape memory alloys and polymers have been extensively researched recently because of their unique ability to recover large deformations. Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are able to recover large deformations compared to shape memory alloys (SMAs), although SMAs have higher strength and are able to generate more stress during recovery. This project focuses on procedure for fabrication and Finite Element Modeling (FEM) of a shape memory composite actuator. First, SMP was characterized to reveal its mechanical properties. Specifically, glass transition temperature, the effects of temperature and strain rate on compressive response and recovery properties of shape memory polymer were studied. Then, shape memory properties of a NiTi wire, including transformation temperatures and stress generation, were investigated. SMC actuator was fabricated by using epoxy based SMP and NiTi SMA wire. Experimental tests confirmed the reversible behavior of fabricated shape memory composites. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  5. Thermal response of novel shape memory polymer-shape memory alloy hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Takashima, Kazuto; Mukai, Toshiharu

    2014-03-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMP) and shape memory alloys (SMA) have both been proven important smart materials in their own fields. Shape memory polymers can be formed into complex three-dimensional structures and can undergo shape programming and large strain recovery. These are especially important for deployable structures including those for space applications and micro-structures such as stents. Shape memory alloys on the other hand are readily exploitable in a range of applications where simple, silent, light-weight and low-cost repeatable actuation is required. These include servos, valves and mobile robotic artificial muscles. Despite their differences, one important commonality between SMPs and SMAs is that they are both typically activated by thermal energy. Given this common characteristic it is important to consider how these two will behave when in close environmental proximity, and hence exposed to the same thermal stimulus, and when they are incorporated into a hybrid SMA-SMP structure. In this paper we propose and examine the operation of SMA-SMP hybrids. The relationship between the two temperatures Tg, the glass transition temperature of the polymer, and Ta, the nominal austenite to martensite transition temperature of the alloy is considered. We examine how the choice of these two temperatures affects the thermal response of the hybrid. Electrical stimulation of the SMA is also considered as a method not only of actuating the SMA but also of inducing heating in the surrounding polymer, with consequent effects on actuator behaviour. Likewise by varying the rate and degree of thermal stimulation of the SMA significantly different actuation and structural stiffness can be achieved. Novel SMP-SMA hybrid actuators and structures have many ready applications in deployable structures, robotics and tuneable engineering systems.

  6. Functional Characterization of a Novel Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collado, M.; Cabás, R.; San Juan, J.; López-Ferreño, I.

    2014-07-01

    A novel shape memory alloy (SMA) has been developed as an alternative to currently available alloys. This alloy, commercially known by its proprietary brand SMARQ, shows a higher working range of temperatures with respect to the SMA materials used until now in actuators, limited to environment temperatures below 90 °C. SMARQ is a high temperature SMA (HTSMA) based on a fully European material technology and production processes, which allows the manufacture of high quality products, with tuneable transformation temperatures up to 200 °C. Both, material and production processes have been evaluated for its use in space applications. A full characterization test campaign has been completed in order to obtain the material properties and check its suitability to be used as active material in space actuators. In order to perform the functional characterization of the material, it has been considered as the key element of a basic SMA actuator, consisting in the SMA wire and the mechanical and electrical interfaces. The functional tests presented in this work have been focused on the actuator behavior when heated by means of an electrical current. Alloy composition has been adjusted in order to match a transition temperature (As) of +145 °C, which satisfies the application requirements of operating temperatures in the range of -70 and +125 °C. Details of the tests and results of the characterization test campaign, focused in the material unique properties for their use in actuators, will be presented in this work. Some application examples in the field of space mechanisms and actuators, currently under development, will be summarized as part of this work, demonstrating the technology suitability as active material for space actuators.

  7. Radioactive material package closures with the use of shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Bronowski, D.R.

    1997-11-01

    When heated from room temperature to 165 C, some shape memory metal alloys such as titanium-nickel alloys have the ability to return to a previously defined shape or size with dimensional changes up to 7%. In contrast, the thermal expansion of most metals over this temperature range is about 0.1 to 0.2%. The dimension change of shape memory alloys, which occurs during a martensite to austenite phase transition, can generate stresses as high as 700 MPa (100 kspi). These properties can be used to create a closure for radioactive materials packages that provides for easy robotic or manual operations and results in reproducible, tamper-proof seals. This paper describes some proposed closure methods with shape memory alloys for radioactive material packages. Properties of the shape memory alloys are first summarized, then some possible alternative sealing methods discussed, and, finally, results from an initial proof-of-concept experiment described.

  8. a Study on Fatigue Damage of Shape Memory Alloy Composite Using Nde Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young-Chul; Lee, Jin-Kyung; Lee, Sang-Pill; Lee, Gyu-Chang; Lee, Joon-Hyun; Cho, Youn-Ho; Lee, Jong-Back

    TiNi shape memory alloy was used to recover the shape of transformed objects using its shape memory effect. This shape memory effect plays an important role inside metal matrix composite. A composite using shape memory alloy has a large advantage that can control crack initiation and propagation, when compared with other composites due to the shape memory effect of shape memory alloy under high temperature. In this study, TiNi/Al6061 and TiNi/2024 shape memory composites were fabricated by the hot press method, and a fatigue test was performed to evaluate the fatigue damage for the shape memory composites under room temperature and high temperature. The relationship of the crack growth rate and the stress intensity factor for these shape memory composites were clarified at both temperature conditions. The delay effect of crack propagation due to shape memory alloy was also evaluated under high temperature. In addition, an acoustic emission technique was used to evaluate the crack initiation and the control of crack propagation by shape memory effect under fatigue test nondestructively. The relationship between AE parameter and the degree of fatigue damage of the shape memory composites was discussed.

  9. Multiscale Characterization of Nickel Titanium Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, Keith

    Shape memory alloys were characterized by a variety of methods to investigate the relationship between microstructural phase transformation, macroscale deformation due to mechanical loading, material geometry, and initial material state. The major portion of the work is application of digital image correlation at several length scales to SMAs under mechanical loading. In addition, the connection between electrical resistance, stress, and strain was studied in NiTi wires. Finally, a new processing method was investigated to develop porous NiTi samples, which can be examined under DIC in future work. The phase transformation temperatures of a Nickel-Titanium based shape memory alloy (SMA) were initially evaluated under stress-free conditions by the differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) technique. Results show that the phase transformation temperature is significantly higher for transition from de-twinned martensite to austenite than from twinned martensite or R phase to austenite. To further examine transformation temperatures as a function of initial state a tensile test apparatus with in-situ electrical resistance (ER) measurements was used to evaluate the transformation properties of SMAs at a variety of stress levels and initial compositions. The results show that stress has a significant influence on the transformation of detwinned martensite, but a small influence on R phase and twinned martensite transformations. Electrical resistance changes linearly with strain during the transformations from both kinds of martensite to austenite. The linearity between ER and strain during the transformation from de-twinned martensite to austenite is not affected by the stress, facilitating application to control algorithms. A revised phase diagram is drawn to express these results. To better understand the nature of the local and global strain fields that accompany phase transformation in shape memory alloys (SMAs), here we use high resolution imaging together with image

  10. Shape memory alloy actuated adaptive exhaust nozzle for jet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Gangbing (Inventor); Ma, Ning (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The proposed adaptive exhaust nozzle features an innovative use of the shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for actively control of the opening area of the exhaust nozzle for jet engines. The SMA actuators remotely control the opening area of the exhaust nozzle through a set of mechanism. An important advantage of using SMA actuators is the reduction of weight of the actuator system for variable area exhaust nozzle. Another advantage is that the SMA actuator can be activated using the heat from the exhaust and eliminate the need of other energy source. A prototype has been designed and fabricated. The functionality of the proposed SMA actuated adaptive exhaust nozzle is verified in the open-loop tests.

  11. Yield surfaces of shape memory alloys and their applications

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, W. . School of Mechanical and Production Engineering)

    1999-07-09

    The yield (transformation start stress in stress induced martensitic transformation) surfaces of shape memory alloys (SMAs) are investigated. It is assumed that the driving energy (or driving force) for phase transformation is approximately a constant. By using the lattice structure and correspondence of a SMA in phase transformation, the yield surfaces of the following polycrystalline SMAs are calculated: NiTi, NiAl, CuZnGa, and CuAlNi. It is also found that all these yield surfaces can be described roughly by a general formula. In this formula, the parameters can be decided by using the yield stresses of a particular SMA in uni-axial tension and compression. The yield surface of NiTi is compared with the experimental results reported in the literature. The possibility of applying such a yield surface in predicting the behavior of a SMA under other stress conditions based on the tensile result is also studied.

  12. Simulation of Payload Vibration Protection by Shape Memory Alloy Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, Aleksandr E.; Evard, Margarita E.; Red'kina, Kristina V.; Vikulenkov, Andrey V.; Makarov, Vyacheslav P.; Moisheev, Aleksandr A.; Markachev, Nikolay A.; Uspenskiy, Evgeniy S.

    2014-07-01

    A system of vibroisolation under consideration consists of a payload connected to a vibrating housing by plane shape memory alloy (SMA) slotted elements. The calculation of the mechanical behavior of the SMA is based on a microstructural theory. Simulations of harmonic and of impact excitations are carried out. The results have shown that protective properties of this system depend on the SMA state. The maximum reduction of the acceleration amplitude for harmonic excitation is reached when the SMA is in the martensitic (pseudo-plastic) state or in the two-phase state. A variation of temperature allows changing the resonance frequency and thus escaping from the resonance and controlling a mode of vibration.

  13. Crystallography of Martensite in TiAu Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamura, T.; Hosoda, H.

    2011-01-01

    The twin structure, habit plane orientation, and morphology of B19 martensite in TiAu, which is a candidate shape memory alloy (SMA) for high-temperature and biomedical applications, were investigated by conventional transmission electron microscopy. Almost all internal twins were {111} type I twins as lattice-invariant deformation (LID). The <211> type II twin was scarcely observed in TiAu, unlike in TiPd and TiPt SMAs. The habit plane roughly corresponded to the twinning plane ( K 1 plane) of the <211> type II twin because of the superb lattice parameter ratio of TiAu. As a result, an energy-minimizing microstructure referred to as "twins within twins" appears as the major microstructure. The selection rules for the twinning of LID are also discussed considering the results of extensive studies on LID in SMAs.

  14. Shape memory alloy heat engines and energy harvesting systems

    DOEpatents

    Browne, Alan L; Johnson, Nancy L; Shaw, John Andrew; Churchill, Christopher Burton; Keefe, Andrew C; McKnight, Geoffrey P; Alexander, Paul W; Herrera, Guillermo A; Yates, James Ryan; Brown, Jeffrey W

    2014-09-30

    A heat engine includes a first rotatable pulley and a second rotatable pulley spaced from the first rotatable pulley. A shape memory alloy (SMA) element is disposed about respective portions of the pulleys at an SMA pulley ratio. The SMA element includes a first wire, a second wire, and a matrix joining the first wire and the second wire. The first wire and the second wire are in contact with the pulleys, but the matrix is not in contact with the pulleys. A timing cable is disposed about respective portions of the pulleys at a timing pulley ratio, which is different than the SMA pulley ratio. The SMA element converts a thermal energy gradient between the hot region and the cold region into mechanical energy.

  15. Shape memory alloy resetable spring lift for pedestrian protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Brian M.; Brei, Diann E.; Luntz, Jonathan E.; Strom, Kenneth; Browne, Alan L.; Johnson, Nancy

    2008-03-01

    Pedestrian protection has become an increasingly important aspect of automotive safety with new regulations taking effect around the world. Because it is increasingly difficult to meet these new regulations with traditional passive approaches, active lifts are being explored that increase the "crush zone" between the hood and rigid under-hood components as a means of mitigating the consequences of an impact with a non-occupant. Active lifts, however, are technically challenging because of the simultaneously high forces, stroke and quick timing resulting in most of the current devices being single use. This paper introduces the SMArt (Shape Memory Alloy ReseTable) Spring Lift, an automatically resetable and fully reusable device, which couples conventional standard compression springs to store the energy required for a hood lift, with Shape Memory Alloys actuators to achieve both an ultra high speed release of the spring and automatic reset of the system for multiple uses. Each of the four SMArt Device subsystems, lift, release, lower and reset/dissipate, are individually described. Two identical complete prototypes were fabricated and mounted at the rear corners of the hood, incorporated within a full-scale vehicle testbed at the SMARTT (Smart Material Advanced Research and Technology Transfer) lab at University of Michigan. Full operational cycle testing of a stationary vehicle in a laboratory setting confirms the ultrafast latch release, controlled lift profile, gravity lower to reposition the hood, and spring recompression via the ratchet engine successfully rearming the device for repeat cycles. While this is only a laboratory demonstration and extensive testing and development would be required for transition to a fielded product, this study does indicate that the SMArt Lift has promise as an alternative approach to pedestrian protection.

  16. Simulation of grain size effects in nanocrystalline shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, Rajeev; Quek, Siu Sin; Wu, David T.

    2015-06-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that martensitic transformation in nanocrystalline shape memory alloys can be suppressed for small grain sizes. Motivated by these results, we study the grain size dependence of martensitic transformations and stress-strain response of nanocrystalline shape memory alloys within the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory. A GL model for a square to rectangle transformation in polycrystals is extended to account for grain boundary effects. We propose that an inhibition of the transformation in grain boundary regions can occur, if the grain boundary energy of the martensite is higher than that of the austenite phase. We show that this inhibition of transformation in grain boundary regions has a strong influence on domain patterns inside grains. Although the transformation is inhibited only at the grain boundaries, it leads to a suppression of the transformation even inside the grains as grain size is decreased. In fact, below a critical grain size, the transformation can be completely suppressed. We explain these results in terms of the extra strain gradient cost associated with grain boundaries, when the transformation is inhibited at grain boundaries. On the other hand, no significant size effects are observed when transformation is not inhibited at grain boundaries. We also study the grain size dependence of the stress strain curve. It is found that when the transformation is inhibited at grain boundaries, a significant reduction in the hysteresis associated with stress-strain curves during the loading-unloading cycles is observed. The hysteresis for this situation reduces even further as the grain size is reduced, which is consistent with recent experiments. The simulations also demonstrate that the mechanical behavior is influenced by inter-granular interactions and the local microstructural neighbourhood of a grain has a stronger influence than the orientation of the grain itself.

  17. Understanding Phase-Change Memory Alloys from a Chemical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kolobov, A.V.; Fons, P.; Tominaga, J.

    2015-01-01

    Phase-change memories (PCM) are associated with reversible ultra-fast low-energy crystal-to-amorphous switching in GeTe-based alloys co-existing with the high stability of the two phases at ambient temperature, a unique property that has been recently explained by the high fragility of the glass-forming liquid phase, where the activation barrier for crystallisation drastically increases as the temperature decreases from the glass-transition to room temperature. At the same time the atomistic dynamics of the phase-change process and the associated changes in the nature of bonding have remained unknown. In this work we demonstrate that key to this behavior is the formation of transient three-center bonds in the excited state that is enabled due to the presence of lone-pair electrons. Our findings additionally reveal previously ignored fundamental similarities between the mechanisms of reversible photoinduced structural changes in chalcogenide glasses and phase-change alloys and offer new insights into the development of efficient PCM materials. PMID:26323962

  18. Understanding Phase-Change Memory Alloys from a Chemical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kolobov, A V; Fons, P; Tominaga, J

    2015-09-01

    Phase-change memories (PCM) are associated with reversible ultra-fast low-energy crystal-to-amorphous switching in GeTe-based alloys co-existing with the high stability of the two phases at ambient temperature, a unique property that has been recently explained by the high fragility of the glass-forming liquid phase, where the activation barrier for crystallisation drastically increases as the temperature decreases from the glass-transition to room temperature. At the same time the atomistic dynamics of the phase-change process and the associated changes in the nature of bonding have remained unknown. In this work we demonstrate that key to this behavior is the formation of transient three-center bonds in the excited state that is enabled due to the presence of lone-pair electrons. Our findings additionally reveal previously ignored fundamental similarities between the mechanisms of reversible photoinduced structural changes in chalcogenide glasses and phase-change alloys and offer new insights into the development of efficient PCM materials.

  19. Control of shape memory alloy actuator using pulse width modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, N.; Song, G.

    2003-10-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA), in particular nickel-titanium alloy (or nitinol), have been used as actuators in some astronautic, aeronautic and industrial applications. The future will see more SMA application if less energy is required for actuation. This paper presents the design and experimental results of control of an SMA actuator using pulse width modulation (PWM) to reduce the energy consumption by the SMA actuator. A SMA wire test stand is used in this research. Open-loop testing of the SMA wire actuator is conducted to study the effect of the PWM parameters. Based on test results and parameter analysis of the pulse width (PW) modulator, a PW modulator is designed to modulate a proportional plus derivative (PD) controller. Experiments demonstrate that control of the SMA actuator using PWM effectively saves actuation energy while maintaining the same control accuracy as compared to continuous PD control. PWM also demonstrates robustness to external disturbances. A comparison with a pulse width pulse frequency modulator is also presented.

  20. Development of Shape Memory Alloys- Challenges and Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benafan, Othmane

    2016-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a unique class of multifunctional materials that have the ability to recover large deformations or generate high stresses in response to thermal, mechanical andor electromagnetic stimuli. These abilities have made them a viable option for actuation systems in aerospace, medical, and automotive applications, amongst others. However, despite many advantages and the fact that SMA actuators have been developed and used for many years, so far they have only found service in a limited range of applications. In order to expand their applications, further developments are needed to increase their reliability and stability and to address processing, testing and qualification needed for large-scale commercial application of SMA actuators. In this seminar, historical inhibitors of SMA applications and current research efforts by NASA Glenn Research Center and collaborators will be discussed. Relationships between fundamental physicalscientific understanding, and the direct transition to engineering and design of mechanisms using these novel materials will be highlighted. Examples will be presented related to targeted alloy development, microstructural control, and bulk-scale testing as a function of stresses, temperatures and harsh environments. The seminar will conclude with a summary of SMA applications under development and current advances.

  1. Shape memory properties and microstructural evolution of rapidly solidified CuAlBe alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ergen, Semra; Uzun, Orhan; Yilmaz, Fikret; Kiliçaslan, M. Fatih

    2013-06-15

    In this work, the effects of Be addition on the microstructure and phase transformation temperatures of Cu–12Al–xBe (x = 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 wt.%) shape memory alloys fabricated by using the arc-melting and melt-spinning techniques have been investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the arc-melted alloys consisted of austenitic β{sub 1}, martensitic β{sub 1}′ and γ{sub 2} precipitate phases, whereas melt-spun ribbons were composed of a fully martensitic phase. The average grain size of martensitic phases in melt-spun ribbons was determined by electron microscopy images, showing a decrease with increasing Beryllium (Be) amount. Moreover, it was found that the Be addition in the arc-melted alloys had a distinct effect on the morphology of the γ{sub 2} precipitate phase. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the thickness of martensitic plates in the melt-spun ribbons reduced with increasing Be addition. In a differential scanning calorimeter analysis, no martensitic transformation (M{sub s}) peak was observed in arc-melted alloys, but it was clearly detected in melt-spun ribbons, in which M{sub s} decreased dramatically with increasing Be addition. The improvement in the shape memory ability of melt-spun ribbons was explained in terms of the refinement in grain size and martensitic plates. - Highlights: • The CuAlBe SMAs were produced by means of arc-melter and melt-spinner techniques. • MT was directly obtained in melt-spuns without any intermediate process. • The transformation temperatures decreased with increasing Be amount. • The thickness of martensitic plates in the ribbons reduced with increasing Be. • SMP of CuAl was improved by the addition of Be together with rapid solidification.

  2. Fiber laser drilling of Ni46Mn27Ga27 ferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biffi, C. A.; Tuissi, A.

    2014-11-01

    The interest in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (SMAs), such as NiMnGa, is increasing, thanks to the functional properties of these smart and functional materials. One of the most evident properties of these systems is their brittleness, which makes attractive the study of unconventional manufacturing processes, such as laser machining. In this work the interaction of laser beam, once focalized on the surface of Ni46Mn27Ga27 [at%] alloy, has been studied. The experiments were performed with a single laser pulse, using a 1 kW continuous wave fiber laser. The morphology of the laser machined surfaces was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, coupled with energetic dispersion spectroscopy for the measurement of the chemical composition. The results showed that the high quality of the laser beam, coupled with great irradiances available, allow for blind or through holes to be machined on 1.8 mm plates with a single pulse in the order of a few ms. Holes were produced with size in the range of 200-300 μm; despite the long pulse duration, low amount of melted material is produced around the hole periphery. No significant variation of the chemical composition has been detected on the entrance surfaces while the exit ones have been characterized by the loss of Ga content, due to its melting point being significantly lower with respect to the other alloying elements.

  3. Microstructure and Shape Memory Behavior of Ti-Nb Shape Memory Alloy Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, X. L.; Sun, B.; Sun, J. Y.; Gao, Z. Y.; Cai, W.; Zhao, L. C.

    2017-06-01

    Ti-Nb shape memory alloy (SMA) thin film is a promising candidate applied as microactuator in biomedical field. In this study, the microstructure and shape memory behavior of Ti-Nb SMA thin films in different heat treatment conditions have been investigated. Fine ω phases embedded in the β phase matrix suppress the martensitic transformation of the films. As a result, the as-deposited and most of the annealed films consist of the β and α″ dual phases. The annealed Ti-Nb thin film shows excellent superelasticity effect when deformed above the reverse martensitic transformation temperature, that is 3.5% total recovery strain can be obtained when 4% pre-strain is loaded.

  4. Applications of Shape Memory Alloys for Neurology and Neuromuscular Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Pittaccio, Simone; Garavaglia, Lorenzo; Ceriotti, Carlo; Passaretti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a very promising class of metallic materials that display interesting nonlinear properties, such as pseudoelasticity (PE), shape memory effect (SME) and damping capacity, due to high mechanical hysteresis and internal friction. Our group has applied SMA in the field of neuromuscular rehabilitation, designing some new devices based on the mentioned SMA properties: in particular, a new type of orthosis for spastic limb repositioning, which allows residual voluntary movement of the impaired limb and has no predetermined final target position, but follows and supports muscular elongation in a dynamic and compliant way. Considering patients in the sub-acute phase after a neurological lesion, and possibly bedridden, the paper presents a mobiliser for the ankle joint, which is designed exploiting the SME to provide passive exercise to the paretic lower limb. Two different SMA-based applications in the field of neuroscience are then presented, a guide and a limb mobiliser specially designed to be compatible with diagnostic instrumentations that impose rigid constraints in terms of electromagnetic compatibility and noise distortion. Finally, the paper discusses possible uses of these materials in the treatment of movement disorders, such as dystonia or hyperkinesia, where their dynamic characteristics can be advantageous. PMID:26023790

  5. Modeling of thermomechanical response of porous shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagoudas, Dimitris C.; Entchev, Pavlin B.; Vandygriff, Eric L.; Qidwai, Muhammad A.; DeGiorgi, Virginia G.

    2000-06-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have emerged as a class of materials with unique thermal and mechanical properties that have found numerous applications in various engineering areas. While the shape memory and pseudoelasticity effects have been extensively studied, only a few studies have been done on the high capacity of energy dissipation of SMAs. Because of this property, SMAs hold the promise of making high-efficiency damping devices that are superior to those made of conventional materials. In addition to the energy absorption capability of the dense SMA material, porous SMAs offer the possibility of higher specific damping capacity under dynamic loading conditions, du to scattering of waves. Porous SMAs also offer the possibility of impedance matching by grading the porosity at connecting joints with other structural materials. As a first step, the focus of this work, is on establishing the static properties of porous SMA material. To accomplish this, a micromechanics-based analysis of the overall behavior of porous SMA is carried out. The porous SMA is modeled as a composite with SMA matrix, which is modeled using an incremental formulation, and pores as inhomogeneities of zero stiffness. The macroscopic constitutive behavior of the effective medium is established using the incremental More-Tanaka averaging method for a random distribution of pores, and a FEM analysis of a unit cell for a periodic arrangement of pores. Results form both analyses are compared under various loading conditions.

  6. Study on hemocompatibility and corrosion behavior of ion implanted TiNi shape memory alloy and Co-based alloys.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chenghao; Huang, Naibao

    2007-10-01

    Biomedical TiNi shape memory alloy and Co-based alloys were ion implanted, and corrosion resistance and hemocompatibility of these had been investigated with electrochemical method, dynamic clotting time, and hemolysis rate tests. The results indicated that the electrochemical stability and anodic polarization behavior of the materials were improved significantly after ion implantation. When TiNi, Co-based alloys were implanted Mo + C and Ti + C, respectively, the corrosion potentials were enhanced more than 200 mV, passive current densities decreased, and passive ranges were broadened. Dynamic clotting time of the ion implanted substances was prolonged and hemolysis rate decreased. All the results pointed out that corrosion resistance and hemocompatibility of the alloys were improved by ion implantation, and effects of dual implantation was better than that of C single implantation. X-ray diffraction analysis of the alloys after dual implantation revealed that TiC, Mo(2)C, Mo(9)Ti(4), and Mo appeared on the surface of TiNi alloy, and CoC(x), Co(3)Ti, TiC, and TiO on the surface of Co-based alloys. These phases dispersing on the alloy surface formed amorphous film, prevented dissolving of alloy elements and improved the corrosion resistance and hemocompatibility of the alloys.

  7. Precision instrument for characterizing shape memory alloy wires in bias spring actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikkamaranahalli, Sumanth; Vallance, R. Ryan; Khan, Afzal; Marsh, Eric R.; Rawashdeh, Osamah A.; Lumpp, J. E.; Walcott, Bruce L.

    2005-06-01

    Some metallic alloys such as Nitinol (NiTi) exhibit the shape memory effect, which is suitable for generating force and displacement when the alloy changes phase during a heating and cooling cycle. These shape memory alloys are often formed into one-dimensional wires, tubes, and ribbons that are preloaded by bias springs to create inexpensive actuators for electromechanical devices. This article describes a new instrument for measuring the quasistatic characteristics of the alloy and the transient performance of bias-spring actuators when resistively heated and convectively cooled. The instrument achieves more accurate measurements by eliminating rolling friction and by sensing force and displacement in line with the bias spring and shape memory alloy wire. Data from the instrument enables calculation of stress and strain at constant temperatures and during actuation cycles.

  8. Shape memory alloy seals for geothermal applications. Final report. Report ESG-82-14

    SciTech Connect

    Friske, Warren H.; Schwartzbart, Harry

    1982-07-30

    A novel temperature-actuated seal for geothermal applications is under development. This program uses the shape memory property of nickel-titanium (Nitinol) alloys to achieve an improved seal in geothermal downhole pumps. Nitinol flange face seals and pump shaft seals have been designed, fabricated, and tested. It has been demonstrated that the shape memory effect of Nitinol alloys can be utilized to activate and maintain a leaktight seal in geothermal environments.

  9. Stability of NiTi-Pd and NiTi-Hf high temperature shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y.R.; Pu, Z.J.; Li, C.; Wu, K.H.

    1994-09-28

    The thermal cycling tests and high temperature aging tests were performed to characterize the stability of NiTi-Pd and NiTi-Hf high temperature shape memory alloys. These alloys have better stability than NiTi during thermal cycling. In addition, it also found that the NiTi-Pd and NiTi-Hf alloy have a very good stability in high temperature aging.

  10. The microstructure of an Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni stainless steel shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, Bikas C.; Krishnan, Madangopal; Rama Rao, V. V.

    2003-05-01

    The microstructure and phase stability of the Fe-15Mn-7Si-9Cr-5Ni stainless steel shape memory alloy in the temperature range of 600 °C to 1200 °C was investigated using optical and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and chemical analysis techniques. The microstructural studies show that an austenite single-phase field exists in the temperature range of 1000 °C to 1100 °C, above 1100 °C, there exists a three-phase field consisting of austenite, δ-ferrite, and the (Fe,Mn)3Si intermetallic phase; within the temperature range of 700 °C to 1000 °C, a two-phase field consisting of austenite and the Fe5Ni3Si2 type intermetallic phase exists; and below 700 °C, there exists a single austenite phase field. Apart from these equilibrium phases, the austenite grains show the presence of athermal ɛ martensite. The athermal α' martensite has also been observed for the first time in these stainless steel shape memory alloys and is produced through the γ-ɛ-α' transformation sequence.

  11. Measurement and Prediction of the Thermomechanical Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Brian; Turner, Travis L.; Seelecke, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Previous work at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) involved fabrication and testing of composite beams with embedded, pre-strained shape memory alloy (SMA) ribbons within the beam structures. That study also provided comparison of experimental results with numerical predictions from a research code making use of a new thermoelastic model for shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures. The previous work showed qualitative validation of the numerical model. However, deficiencies in the experimental-numerical correlation were noted and hypotheses for the discrepancies were given for further investigation. The goal of this work is to refine the experimental measurement and numerical modeling approaches in order to better understand the discrepancies, improve the correlation between prediction and measurement, and provide rigorous quantitative validation of the numerical analysis/design tool. The experimental investigation is refined by a more thorough test procedure and incorporation of higher fidelity measurements such as infrared thermography and projection moire interferometry. The numerical results are produced by a recently commercialized version of the constitutive model as implemented in ABAQUS and are refined by incorporation of additional measured parameters such as geometric imperfection. Thermal buckling, post-buckling, and random responses to thermal and inertial (base acceleration) loads are studied. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of SMAHC structures in controlling static and dynamic responses by adaptive stiffening. Excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured results of the static and dynamic thermomechanical response, thereby providing quantitative validation of the numerical tool.

  12. Measurement and Prediction of the Thermomechanical Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Brian; Turner, Travis L.; Seelecke, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Previous work at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) involved fabrication and testing of composite beams with embedded, pre-strained shape memory alloy (SMA) ribbons within the beam structures. That study also provided comparison of experimental results with numerical predictions from a research code making use of a new thermoelastic model for shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures. The previous work showed qualitative validation of the numerical model. However, deficiencies in the experimental-numerical correlation were noted and hypotheses for the discrepancies were given for further investigation. The goal of this work is to refine the experimental measurement and numerical modeling approaches in order to better understand the discrepancies, improve the correlation between prediction and measurement, and provide rigorous quantitative validation of the numerical analysis/design tool. The experimental investigation is refined by a more thorough test procedure and incorporation of higher fidelity measurements such as infrared thermography and projection moire interferometry. The numerical results are produced by a recently commercialized version of the constitutive model as implemented in ABAQUS and are refined by incorporation of additional measured parameters such as geometric imperfection. Thermal buckling, post-buckling, and random responses to thermal and inertial (base acceleration) loads are studied. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of SMAHC structures in controlling static and dynamic responses by adaptive stiffening. Excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured results of the static and dynamic thermomechanical response, thereby providing quantitative validation of the numerical tool.

  13. Mechanical behaviour and functional properties of porous Ti-45 at. % Ni alloy produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resnina, N.; Belyaev, S.; Voronkov, A.; Gracheva, A.

    2016-05-01

    The mechanical behaviour and shape memory effects were studied in the porous Ti-45.0 at. % Ni alloy produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis. It is shown that the porous Ti-45.0 at % Ni alloy is deformed by the same mechanisms as a cast Ti50Ni50 alloy. At low temperatures, the deformation of the porous alloy is realised via martensite reorientation at a low yield limit and by dislocation slip at a high yield limit. At high temperatures (in the austenite B2 phase) the porous Ti-45.0 at % Ni alloy is deformed by the stress-induced martensite at a low yield limit and by dislocation slip at a high yield limit. The pseudoelasticity effect is not found in this alloy, while the transformation plasticity and the shape memory effects are observed on cooling and heating under a constant load. The values of the transformation plasticity, and the shape memory effects, depend linearly on the stress acting on cooling and heating. The temperatures of the martensitic transformation increase linearly when the stress rises up to 80 MPa. The porous Ti-45.0 at % Ni alloy accumulates an irreversible strain on cooling and heating and demonstrates unstable functional behaviour during thermal cycling.

  14. Entropic stabilization of austenite in shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Ryan S.; Karls, Daniel S.

    2013-12-01

    Martensitic transformations (MTs) are the key phenomena responsible for the remarkable properties of Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs). Recent Density Functional Theory (DFT) electronic structure calculations have revealed that the austenite structure of many SMAs is a saddle-point of the material's potential energy landscape. Correspondingly, the austenite is unstable and thus unobservable at zero temperature. Thus, the observable high temperature austenite structure in many SMAs is entropically stabilized by nonlinear dynamic effects. This paper discusses the phenomenon of entropic stabilization of the austenite phase in SMAs and explicitly demonstrates it using Molecular Dynamics (MD) and a three-dimensional all-atom potential energy model whose equilibria crystal structures correspond to commonly observed SMA phases. A new technique is used to carefully select a model so that it is likely to lead to entropic stabilization of a B2 cubic austenite from a B19 orthorhombic martensite. This is accomplished by using a detailed branch-following and bifurcation (BFB) parametric study of the Morse pair potential binary alloy model. The results of the MD simulation clearly demonstrate the entropic stabilization of the B2 austenite phase at high temperature. Analysis of the dynamics of the B2 austenite phase indicates that its stabilization may be viewed as a result of individual atoms randomly visiting the B19 and αIrV phases (with only occasional visits to the B2 and L10 phases). This occurs without long-range correlations in such a way that each atom's time-average configuration corresponds to the B2 structure.

  15. Phase Composition and Microstructure of Ti-Nb Alloy Produced by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkeev, Yu P.; Eroshenko, A. Yu; Kovalevskaya, Zh G.; Saprykin, A. A.; Ibragimov, E. A.; Glukhov, I. A.; Chimich, M. A.; Uvarkin, P. V.; Babakova, E. V.

    2016-07-01

    The phase composition and microstructure of Ti-Nb alloy produced from composite titanium and niobium powder by selective laser melting (SLM) was studied. Produced monolayered Ti-Nb alloy enhanced the formation of fine-grained and medium-grained zones with homogeneous element composition of 36-38% Nb mass interval. Alloy phase composition responded to β-alloy substrate phase (grain size was 5-7 pm) and non-equilibrium martensite α"- phase (grain size was 0.1-0.7 µm). α"-phase grains were found along β-phase grain boundaries and inside grains, including decreased niobium content. Alloy microhardness varied within 4200-5500 MPa.

  16. Thermomechanical response of shape memory alloy hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2000-10-01

    This study examines the use of embedded shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for adaptive control of the themomechanical response of composite structures. Control of static and dynamic responses are demonstrated including thermal buckling, thermal post-buckling, vibration, sonic fatigue, and acoustic transmission. A thermomechanical model is presented for analyzing such shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures exposed to thermal and mechanical loads. Also presented are (1) fabrication procedures for SMAHC specimens, (2) characterization of the constituent materials for model quantification, (3) development of the test apparatus for conducting static and dynamic experiments on specimens with and without SMA, (4) discussion of the experimental results, and (5) validation of the analytical and numerical tools developed in the study. The constitutive model developed to describe the mechanics of a SMAHC lamina captures the material nonlinearity with temperature of the SMA and matrix material if necessary. It is in a form that is amenable to commercial finite element (FE) code implementation. The model is valid for constrained, restrained, or free recovery configurations with appropriate measurements of fundamental engineering properties. This constitutive model is used along with classical lamination theory and the FE method to formulate the equations of motion for panel-type structures subjected to steady-state thermal and dynamic mechanical loads. Mechanical loads that are considered include acoustic pressure, inertial (base acceleration), and concentrated forces. Four solution types are developed from the governing equations including thermal buckling, thermal post-buckling, dynamic response, and acoustic transmission/radiation. These solution procedures are compared with closed-form and/or other known solutions to benchmark the numerical tools developed in this study. Practical solutions for overcoming fabrication issues and obtaining repeatable

  17. Scale up of NiTi shape memory alloy production by EBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otubo, J.; Rigo, O. D.; Moura Neto, C.; Kaufman, M. J.; Mei, P. R.

    2003-10-01

    The usual process to produce NiTi shape memory alloy is by vacuum induction melting (VIM) using a graphite crucible, which causes contamination of the melt with carbon. Contamination with oxygen originates from the residual oxygen inside the melting chamber. An alternative process to produce NiTi alloys is by electron beam melting (EBM) using a water-cooled copper crucible that eliminates carbon contamination, and the oxygen contamination would be minimal due to operation in a vacuum of better than 10^{-2} Pa. In a previous work, it was demonstrated that the technique is feasible for button shaped samples weighing around 30g. The present work presents the results on the scale up program that enables the production of larger samples/ingots. The results are very promising in terms of chemical composition homogeneity as well as in terms of carbon contamination, the latter being four to ten times lower than the commercially-produced VIM products, and in terms of final oxygen content which is shown to depend primarily on the starting raw materials.

  18. Structural, vibrational and optical studies on an amorphous Se90P10 alloy produced by mechanical alloying.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, E C; Deflon, E; Machado, K D; Silva, T G; Mangrich, A S

    2012-03-21

    We investigated some physicochemical properties of an amorphous Se(90)P(10) alloy produced by mechanical alloying through x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy and EXAFS techniques. The total structure factor obtained from x-ray diffraction and the EXAFS χ(k) oscillations on the Se K edge were used in reverse Monte Carlo simulations to obtain structural information such as average coordination numbers and interatomic distances and the distribution of structural units present in the alloy. In addition, we also determined the vibrational modes and the optical band gap energy of the alloy. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd

  19. Producing Foils From Direct Cast Titanium Alloy Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, T. A.; Gaspar, T. A.; Sukonnik, I. M.; Semiatan, S. L.; Batawi, E.; Peters, J. A.; Fraser, H. L.

    1996-01-01

    This research was undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of producing high-quality, thin-gage, titanium foil from direct cast titanium strip. Melt Overflow Rapid Solidification Technology (MORST) was used to cast several different titanium alloys into 500 microns thick strip, 10 cm wide and up to 3 m long. The strip was then either ground, hot pack rolled or cold rolled, as appropriate, into foil. Gamma titanium aluminide (TiAl) was cast and ground to approximately 100 microns thick foil and alpha-2 titanium aluminide (Ti3AI) was cast and hot pack rolled to approximately 70 microns thick foil. CP Ti, Ti6Al2Sn4Zr2Mo, and Ti22AI23Nb (Orthorhombic), were successfully cast and cold-rolled into good quality foil (less than 125 microns thick). The foils were generally fully dense with smooth surfaces, had fine, uniform microstructures, and demonstrated mechanical properties equivalent to conventionally produced titanium. By eliminating many manufacturing steps, this technology has the potential to produce thin gage, titanium foil with good engineering properties at significantly reduced cost relative to conventional ingot metallurgy processing.

  20. Magnetoelastic coupling in nickel manganese gallium ferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng

    NiMnGa alloys have attracted extensive attention because their ferromagnetic characteristic provides an additional degree of freedom to control both the shape memory effect and the multi-stage phase transformations in this Heusler system. Technically, along with the large magnetic-field-induced strains, NiMnGa alloys exhibit giant magnetocaloric effect due to their magnetic entropy changes associated with the coupled magnetostructural transitions. Fundamentally, a sequence of phase transformations, manifesting itself by a rich variety of physical anomalies on cooling to the martensitic transformation (MT) temperature TM, has been established. However, in comparison to the intensive studies of structural transformations, the magnetic properties of NiMnGa premartensite were hardly touched. The purpose of this research is to (i) investigate the temperature dependence of the magnetic driving force of martensitic NiMnGa, which is a critical factor to determine the actuation temperature window of this material; and (ii) understand the magnetoelastic coupling enhanced precursor effects, especially the unique magnetic behavior of NiMnGa premartensite. The singular point detection technique has been applied to determine the magnetic anisotropy constant K1 of a martensitic Ni49.0 Mn23.5Ga27.5 (wt%) crystal. As expected, K 1 increases with decreasing temperatures below TM of 276 K, following a magnetization power law K1(T)/K1(0)=(M s(T)/Ms(0))3. However, the force required to initiate twin boundary motion increases exponentially with decreasing temperature. The combination of both temperature dependences leads to a very restricted temperature window for magnetic actuation using this alloy. The premartensitic transformation has been established by means of neutron powder diffraction and measurements of elastic constants of C44 and C'. The premartensitic phase has been verified by the stiffening of C 44 prior to the MT. The slope change of C' at TC positively confirms that the

  1. Characterization of varied geometry shape memory alloy beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravatt, Lynn M.; Mabe, James H.; Calkins, Frederick T.; Hartl, Darren J.

    2010-04-01

    Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) have proven to be a lightweight, low cost alternative to conventional actuators for a number of commercial applications. Future applications will require a more complex shape changes and a detailed understanding of the performance of more complex SMA actuators is required. The purpose of this study is to validate engineering models and design practices for SMA beams of various configurations for future applications. Until now, SMA actuators have been fabricated into relatively simple beam shapes. Boeing is now fabricating beams with more complicated geometries in order to determine their strength and shape memory characteristics. These more complicated shapes will allow for lighter and more compact SMA actuators as well as provide more complex shape control. Some of the geometries evaluated include vertical and horizontal I-beams, sine wave and linear wave beams, a truss, and a beam perforated with circular holes along the length. A total of six beams were tested; each was a complex shape made from 57% Nickel by weight with the remainder composed of Titanium (57NiTi). Each sample was put through a number of characterization tests. These include a 3-point bend tests to determine force/displacement properties, and thermal cycling under a range of isobaric loads to determine actuator properties. Experimental results were then compared to modeled results. Test results for one representative beam were used to calibrate a 3-D constitutive model implemented in an finite element framework. It is shown that the calibrated analysis tool is accurate in predicting the response of the other beams. Finally, the actuation work capabilities of the beams are compared using a second round of finite element anaylysis.

  2. Potential High-Temperature Shape-Memory Alloys Identified in the Ti(Ni,Pt) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noebe, Ronald D.; Biles, Tiffany A.; Garg, Anita; Nathal, Michael V.

    2004-01-01

    "Shape memory" is a unique property of certain alloys that, when deformed (within certain strain limits) at low temperatures, will remember and recover to their original predeformed shape upon heating. It occurs when an alloy is deformed in the low-temperature martensitic phase and is then heated above its transformation temperature back to an austenitic state. As the material passes through this solid-state phase transformation on heating, it also recovers its original shape. This behavior is widely exploited, near room temperature, in commercially available NiTi alloys for connectors, couplings, valves, actuators, stents, and other medical and dental devices. In addition, there are limitless applications in the aerospace, automotive, chemical processing, and many other industries for materials that exhibit this type of shape-memory behavior at higher temperatures. But for high temperatures, there are currently no commercial shape-memory alloys. Although there are significant challenges to the development of high-temperature shape-memory alloys, at the NASA Glenn Research Center we have identified a series of alloy compositions in the Ti-Ni-Pt system that show great promise as potential high-temperature shape-memory materials.

  3. Stable Crack Growth During Thermal Actuation of Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jape, S.; Baxevanis, T.; Lagoudas, D. C.

    2016-03-01

    A finite element analysis of crack growth is carried out in shape memory alloys subjected to thermal variations under plane strain, mode I, constant applied loading. The crack is assumed to propagate at a critical level of the crack-tip energy release rate which is modeled using the virtual crack closure technique. The load level, applied at a high temperature at which the austenite phase is stable, is assumed sufficiently low so that the resulting crack-tip energy release rate is smaller than the critical value but sufficiently high so that the critical value is reached during cooling, initiating crack growth (Baxevanis and Lagoudas in Int J Fract 191:191-213, 2015). Stable crack growth is observed, mainly associated with the shielding effect of the transformed material left in the wake of the advancing crack. Results pertaining to the near-tip mechanical fields and fracture toughness are presented and their sensitivity to phase transformation metrics and bias load levels is investigated.

  4. Experimental characterization of shape memory alloy actuator cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, Daniel B.; Shaw, John A.

    2016-04-01

    Wire rope (or cables) are a fundamental structural element in many engineering applications. Recently, there has been growing interest in stranding NiTi wires into cables to scale up the adaptive properties of NiTi tension elements and to make use of the desirable properties of wire rope. Exploratory experiments were performed to study the actuation behavior of two NiTi shape memory alloy cables and straight monofilament wire of the same material. The specimens were held under various dead loads ranging from 50 MPa to 400 MPa and thermally cycled 25 times from 140°C to 5°C at a rate of 12°C/min. Performance metrics of actuation stroke, residual strain, and work output were measured and compared between specimen types. The 7x7 cable exhibited similar actuation to the single straight wire, but with slightly longer stroke and marginally more shakedown, while maintaining equivalent specific work output. This leads to the conclusion that the 7x7 cable effectively scaled up the adaptive properties the straight wire. Under loads below 150 MPa, the 1x27 cable had up to double the actuation stroke and work output, but exhibited larger shakedown and poorer performance when loaded higher.

  5. A cycloidal wobble motor driven by shape memory alloy wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Donghyun; Higuchi, Toshiro

    2014-05-01

    A cycloidal wobble motor driven by shape memory alloy (SMA) wires is proposed. In realizing a motor driving mechanism well known as a type of reduction system, a cycloidal gear mechanism is utilized. It facilitates the achievement of bidirectional continuous rotation with high-torque capability, based on its high efficiency and high reduction ratio. The applied driving mechanism consists of a pin/roller based annular gear as a wobbler, a cycloidal disc as a rotor, and crankshafts to guide the eccentric wobbling motion. The wobbling motion of the annular gear is generated by sequential activation of radially phase-symmetrically placed SMA wires. Consequently the cycloidal disc is rotated by rolling contact based cycloidal gearing between the wobbler and the rotor. In designing the proposed motor, thermomechanical characterization of an SMA wire biased by extension springs is experimentally performed. Then, a simplified geometric model for the motor is devised to conduct theoretical assessment of design parametric effects on structural features and working performance. With consideration of the results from parametric analysis, a functional prototype three-phase motor is fabricated to carry out experimental verification of working performance. The observed experimental results including output torque, rotational speed, bidirectional positioning characteristic, etc obviously demonstrate the practical applicability and potentiality of the wobble motor.

  6. Shape memory alloy wire for self-sensing servo actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josephine Selvarani Ruth, D.; Dhanalakshmi, K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a straightforward approach to realise self-sensing shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuated control. A differential electrical resistance measurement circuit (the sensorless signal conditioning (SSC) circuit) is designed; this sensing signal is directly used as the feedback for control. Antagonistic SMA wire actuators designed for servo actuation is realized in self-sensing actuation (SSA) mode for direct control with the differential electrical resistance feedback. The self-sensing scheme is established on a 1-DOF manipulator with the discrete time sliding mode controls which demonstrates good control performance, whatever be the disturbance and loading conditions. The uniqueness of this work is the design of the generic electronic SSC circuit for SMA actuated system, for measurement and control. With a concern to the implementation of self-sensing technique in SMA, this scheme retains the systematic control architecture by using the sensing signal (self-sensed, electrical resistance corresponding to the system position) for feedback, without requiring any processing as that of the methods adopted and reported previously for SSA techniques of SMA.

  7. Pseudo-creep in Shape Memory Alloy Wires and Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russalian, V. R.; Bhattacharyya, A.

    2017-10-01

    Interruption of loading during reorientation and isothermal pseudoelasticity in shape memory alloys with a strain arrest ( i.e., holding strain constant) results in a time-dependent evolution in stress or with a stress arrest ( i.e., holding stress constant) results in a time-dependent evolution in strain. This phenomenon, which we term as pseudo-creep, is similar to what was reported in the literature three decades ago for some traditional metallic materials undergoing plastic deformation. In a previous communication, we reported strain arrest of isothermal pseudoelastic loading, isothermal pseudoelastic unloading, and reorientation in NiTi wires as well as a rate-independent phase diagram. In this paper, we provide experimental results of the pseudo-creep phenomenon during stress arrest of isothermal pseudoelasticity and reorientation in NiTi wires as well as strain arrest of isothermal pseudoelasticity and reorientation in NiTi sheets. Stress arrest in NiTi wires accompanied by strain accumulation or recovery is studied using the technique of multi-video extensometry. The experimental results were used to estimate the amount of mechanical energy needed to evolve the wire from one microstructural state to another during isothermal pseudoelastic deformation and the difference in energies between the initial and the final rest state between which the aforementioned evolution has occurred.

  8. Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)-Based Launch Lock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2014-01-01

    Most NASA missions require the use of a launch lock for securing moving components during the launch or securing the payload before release. A launch lock is a device used to prevent unwanted motion and secure the controlled components. The current launch locks are based on pyrotechnic, electro mechanically or NiTi driven pin pullers and they are mostly one time use mechanisms that are usually bulky and involve a relatively high mass. Generally, the use of piezoelectric actuation provides high precession nanometer accuracy but it relies on friction to generate displacement. During launch, the generated vibrations can release the normal force between the actuator components allowing shaft's free motion which could result in damage to the actuated structures or instruments. This problem is common to other linear actuators that consist of a ball screw mechanism. The authors are exploring the development of a novel launch lock mechanism that is activated by a shape memory alloy (SMA) material ring, a rigid element and an SMA ring holding flexure. The proposed design and analytical model will be described and discussed in this paper.

  9. Thermal responses of shape memory alloy artificial anal sphincters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yun; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Matsuzawa, Kenichi

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation of the thermal behavior of an artificial anal sphincter using shape memory alloys (SMAs) proposed by the authors. The SMA artificial anal sphincter has the function of occlusion at body temperature and can be opened with a thermal transformation induced deformation of SMAs to solve the problem of severe fecal incontinence. The investigation of its thermal behavior is of great importance in terms of practical use in living bodies as a prosthesis. In this work, a previously proposed phenomenological model was applied to simulate the thermal responses of SMA plates that had undergone thermally induced transformation. The numerical approach for considering the thermal interaction between the prosthesis and surrounding tissues was discussed based on the classical bio-heat equation. Numerical predictions on both in vitro and in vivo cases were verified by experiments with acceptable agreements. The thermal responses of the SMA artificial anal sphincter were discussed based on the simulation results, with the values of the applied power and the geometric configuration of thermal insulation as parameters. The results obtained in the present work provided a framework for the further design of SMA artificial sphincters to meet demands from the viewpoint of thermal compatibility as prostheses.

  10. Energy harvesting from structural vibrations of magnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farsangi, Mohammad Amin Askari; Cottone, Francesco; Sayyaadi, Hassan; Zakerzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Orfei, Francesco; Gammaitoni, Luca

    2017-03-01

    This letter presents the idea of scavenging energy from vibrating structures through magnetic shape memory alloy (MSMA). To this end, a MSMA specimen made of Ni50Mn28Ga22 is coupled to a cantilever beam through a step. Two permanent magnets installed at the top and bottom of the beam create a bias field perpendicular to the magnetization axis of the specimen. When vibrating the device, a longitudinal axial load applies on the MSMA, which in turn changes the magnetization, due to the martensitic variant reorientation mechanism. A pick-up coil wounded around the MSMA converts this variation into voltage according to the Faraday's law. Experimental test confirms the possibility of generating voltage in a vibrating MSMA. In particular, 15 μW power is harvested for acceleration of 0.3 g RMS at a frequency of 19.1 Hz, which is comparable with piezoelectric energy harvesters. It is also found that the optimum bias magnetic field for maximum voltage is lower than the starting field of pseudo elastic behavior.

  11. Modiolus-hugging intracochlear electrode array with shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyou Sik; Jun, Sang Beom; Lim, Yoon Seob; Park, Se-Ik; Kim, Sung June

    2013-01-01

    In the cochlear implant system, the distance between spiral ganglia and the electrodes within the volume of the scala tympani cavity significantly affects the efficiency of the electrical stimulation in terms of the threshold current level and spatial selectivity. Because the spiral ganglia are situated inside the modiolus, the central axis of the cochlea, it is desirable that the electrode array hugs the modiolus to minimize the distance between the electrodes and the ganglia. In the present study, we propose a shape-memory-alloy-(SMA-) embedded intracochlear electrode which gives a straight electrode a curved modiolus-hugging shape using the restoration force of the SMA as triggered by resistive heating after insertion into the cochlea. An eight-channel ball-type electrode array is fabricated with an embedded titanium-nickel SMA backbone wire. It is demonstrated that the electrode array changes its shape in a transparent plastic human cochlear model. To verify the safe insertion of the electrode array into the human cochlea, the contact pressures during insertion at the electrode tip and the contact pressures over the electrode length after insertion were calculated using a 3D finite element analysis. The results indicate that the SMA-embedded electrode is functionally and mechanically feasible for clinical applications.

  12. Modiolus-Hugging Intracochlear Electrode Array with Shape Memory Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Min, Kyou Sik; Lim, Yoon Seob; Park, Se-Ik; Kim, Sung June

    2013-01-01

    In the cochlear implant system, the distance between spiral ganglia and the electrodes within the volume of the scala tympani cavity significantly affects the efficiency of the electrical stimulation in terms of the threshold current level and spatial selectivity. Because the spiral ganglia are situated inside the modiolus, the central axis of the cochlea, it is desirable that the electrode array hugs the modiolus to minimize the distance between the electrodes and the ganglia. In the present study, we propose a shape-memory-alloy-(SMA-) embedded intracochlear electrode which gives a straight electrode a curved modiolus-hugging shape using the restoration force of the SMA as triggered by resistive heating after insertion into the cochlea. An eight-channel ball-type electrode array is fabricated with an embedded titanium-nickel SMA backbone wire. It is demonstrated that the electrode array changes its shape in a transparent plastic human cochlear model. To verify the safe insertion of the electrode array into the human cochlea, the contact pressures during insertion at the electrode tip and the contact pressures over the electrode length after insertion were calculated using a 3D finite element analysis. The results indicate that the SMA-embedded electrode is functionally and mechanically feasible for clinical applications. PMID:23762181

  13. Shape-Memory-Alloy-Based Deicing System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Ice buildup on aircraft leading edge surfaces has historically been a problem. Most conventional deicing systems rely either on surface heating to melt the accreted ice or pneumatic surface inflation to mechanically debond the ice. Deicers that rely solely on surface heating require large amounts of power. Pneumatic deicers usually cannot remove thin layers of ice and lack durability. Thus, there is a need for an advanced, low-power ice protection system. As part of the NASA Small Business and Innovation Research (SBIR) program, Innovative Dynamics, Inc., developed an aircraft deicing system that utilizes the properties of Shape Memory Alloys (SMA). The SMA-based system has achieved promising improvements in energy efficiency and durability over more conventional deicers. When they are thermally activated, SMA materials change shape; this is analogous to a conventional thermal expansion. The thermal input is currently applied via conventional technology, but there are plans to implement a passive thermal input that is supplied from the energy transfer due to the formation of the ice itself. The actively powered deicer was tested in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel on a powered rotating rig in early 1995. The system showed promise, deicing both rime and glaze ice shapes as thin as 1/8 in. The first prototype SMA deicer reduced power usage by 45 percent over existing electrothermal systems. This prototype system was targeted for rotorcraft system development. However, there are current plans underway to develop a fixed-wing version of the deicer.

  14. Electro-mechanical behavior of a shape memory alloy actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausley, Matthew E.; Furst, Stephen J.; Talla, Vamsi; Seelecke, Stefan

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents experimental study and numerical simulation of the electro-thermo-mechanical behavior of a commercially available Flexinol shape memory alloy (SMA) wire [1]. Recently, a novel driver device has been presented [2], which simultaneously controls electric power and measures resistance of an SMA wire actuator. This application of a single wire as both actuator and sensor will fully exploit the multifunctional nature of SMA materials and minimize system complexity by avoiding extra sensors. Though the subject is not new [3-6], comprehensive resistance data under controlled conditions for time-resolved and hysteresis-based experiments is not readily available from the literature. A simple experimental setup consisting of a Flexinol wire mounted in series with the tip of a compliant cantilever beam is used to systematically study the SMA behavior. A Labview-based data acquisition system measures actuator displacement and SMA wire stress and resistance and controls the power passed through the SMA actuator wire. The experimental setup is carefully insulated from ambient conditions, as the thermal response of a 50-micron diameter Flexinol wire is extremely sensitive to temperature fluctuation due to convective heat transfer. Actuator performance is reported for a range of actuation frequencies and input power levels. The effect of varying actuator pre-stress is reported as well. All of the experimental data is compared with simulated behavior that is derived from a numerical model for SMA material [7-10].

  15. Texture in CuZnAl shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, No-Jin

    1996-06-01

    The pseudoelastic elongation and the Young's modulus were estimated using lexture and orientation dependent properties in the 95.5% hot-rolled Cu-14.0 wt% Zn-8.0 wt% Al, in the 96.7% extruded Cu -17.7 wt% Zn-7.0 wt% Al-0.5 wt%Ti and in the 95% cold drawn Cu-27.1 wt% Zn-4.6 wt% Al shape-memory-alloys. The textures were measured in martensitic phases, and the austenitic textures were calculated using texture transformation, which gave rise to the maximum possible shape change for a particular application. The maximum value of the pseudoelastic elongation (6.55%) was found at the normal direction in the sheet and a minimum value of 2.23% at 35° from the normal direction to the rolling direction. In the rod and wire the maximum value 4.80% and 5.28% were found at 45 and 90° from the axis direction. The anisotropic constant 1.5, 1.2 and 1.3 of the Young's modulus were found in the sheet, rod and wire, respectively. These values enabled us to estimate the optimum texture for a technological application.

  16. Modeling of ferroelastic behavior of shape-memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Tadashige

    2005-05-01

    A simple yet accurate model of shape memory alloys (SMAs) is proposed, which can consider asymmetric tension-compression ferroelastic behavior. Features of this model are (1) energy-based transformation criterion, (2) partial transformation rule based on the micromechanical viewpoint, (3) required transformation energy in the form of a sum of two exponential functions in terms of phase volume fraction, and (4) energy balance equation including thermoelastic effect and dissipated energy due to interaction between the phases. In this ferroelastic model, three phases are considered, namely, an austenitic phase, a tensile stress induced martensitic phase, and a compressive stress induced martensitic phase. The tension-compression asymmetry is expressed by using different required transformation energy functions in different transformation directions and by using different intrinsic strains and Young's moduli in different phases. Stress-strain hysteresis loops for a SMA bar under tensile-compressive cyclic loading are simulated. The obtained result shows that the proposed model can well capture the asymmetric stress-strain loops for tension and compression, minor loops, and effects of temperature and strain rate. This indicates that this model would be a useful tool for understanding the mechanism of SMA behavior and designing smart structures with SMA elements.

  17. Medical and welfare applications of shape memory alloy microcoil actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haga, Y.; Mizushima, M.; Matsunaga, T.; Esashi, M.

    2005-10-01

    We have successfully developed several mechanisms using Ti-Ni shape memory alloy (SMA) microcoil actuators, for example, a bending mechanism, an extension/contraction mechanism, a torsional mechanism and a stiffness control mechanism. The principles involved in these mechanisms and the structure of each mechanism are detailed, and medical and welfare applications are presented. One of the devices which has been developed is an active bending soft tube using an SMA microcoil actuator. Doctors can control the bending motion of the tip of the tube from outside the body. One application of this tube is the treatment of intestinal obstruction. The tube consists of a bending tip (external diameter, 6 mm length, 40 mm) and a 3 m long silicone rubber tube. It enables easier and more reliable passage at the lower end of the stomach (pylorus). The maximum bending angle is 110°. Another device we have developed using SMA microcoil actuators is a dynamic tactile pin display which displays Braille characters and graphic information by dynamic up-and-down movement of an array of pins. SMA microcoil actuators enable up-and-down movement of the pins and a magnetic latch mechanism keeps the pins in an up or down state. This two-dimensional pin display consists of 100 (10 × 10) pins with a pin pitch of 2.5 mm, the actuation length of each pin being 2 mm. The tactile information can be displayed sequentially every 0.3 s.

  18. Shape memory alloy-based active chiral composite cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapati, Maulik; Roy Mahapatra, D.

    2014-04-01

    Wing morphing is one of the emerging methodology towards improving aerodynamic efficiency of flight vehicle structures. In this paper a morphing structural element is designed and studied which has its origin in the well known chiral structures. The new aspect of design and functionality explored in this paper is that the chiral cell is actuated using thermal Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuator wires to provide directional motion. Such structure utilizes the potential of different actuations concepts based on actuator embedded in the chiral structure skin. This paper describes a new class of chiral cell structure with integrated SMA wire for actuation. Chiral topological constructs are obtained by considering passive and active load path decoupling and sub-optimal shape changes. Single cell of chiral honeycomb with actuators are analyzed using finite element simulation results and experiments. To this end, a multi-cell plan-form is characterized showing interesting possibilities in structural morphing applications. The applicability of the developed chiral cell to flexible wing skin, variable stiffness based design and controlling longitudinal-to-transverse stiffness ratio are discussed.

  19. Flutter of buckled shape memory alloy reinforced laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Shih-Yao; Shiau, Le-Chung; Lai, Chin-Hsin

    2012-03-01

    The effect of shape memory alloys (SMA) on the linear and nonlinear flutter behaviors of buckled cross-ply and angle-ply laminates was investigated in the frequency and time domains using the finite element method. In particular, this study takes the first move toward examining the effect of varying the SMA fiber spacing. Von Karman large deformation assumptions and quasi-steady aerodynamic theory were employed. The flutter boundary, stability boundary, time history response, and phase plane plots of SMA reinforced cross-ply and angle-ply laminates are presented. The numerical results show that increase in the SMA fiber volume fraction and prestrain may generate more recovery stress, and increase the stiffness of the SMA reinforced laminates. Therefore, the flutter boundary and critical load of the plate may be increased significantly. All five types of panel behavior, namely flat, buckled, limit-cycle, periodic, and chaotic motion, are clearly displayed and successively identified. This study sheds light on improving the flutter boundary efficiently by increasing the SMA fiber volume fraction to reinforce the center of the plate.

  20. Frequency-dependent energy harvesting via magnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayyaadi, Hassan; Askari Farsangi, Mohammad Amin

    2015-11-01

    This paper is focused on presenting an accurate framework to describe frequency-dependent energy harvesting via magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs). Modeling strategy incorporates the phenomenological constitutive model developed formerly together with the magnetic diffusion equation. A hyperbolic hardening function is employed to define reorientation-induced strain hardening in the material, and the diffusion equation is used to add dynamic effects to the model. The MSMA prismatic specimen is surrounded by a pickup coil, and the induced voltage during martensite-variant reorientation is investigated with the help of Faraday’s law of magnetic field induction. It has been shown that, in order to harvest the maximum RMS voltage in the MSMA-based energy harvester, an optimum value of bias magnetic field exists, which is the corresponding magnetic field for the start of pseudoelasticity behavior. In addition, to achieve a more compact energy harvester with higher energy density, a specimen with a lower aspect ratio can be chosen. As the main novelty of the paper, it is found that the dynamic effects play a major role in determining the harvested voltage and power, especially for high excitation frequency or specimen thickness.

  1. Active Bending Electric Endoscope Using Shape Memory Alloy Coil Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makishi, Wataru; Matsunaga, Tadao; Esashi, Masayoshi; Haga, Yoichi

    Bending motions of the tip of a conventional endoscope are controlled from outside the body by wire traction. A shaft of an endoscope should be relatively hard to avoid buckling by wire traction. Therefore, precise operation of the endoscope is difficult in complex shape areas such as the intestine. Furthermore, patients suffer pain during a procedure with an endoscope. An active bending electric endoscope using shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators has been developed. A CCD camera (410,000 pixels) is mounted at the end of the endoscope and the tip has an omni-directional bending mechanism using three SMA coil actuators. The SMA coil actuators contract by supplying electrical current and bend the endoscope. The external diameter of the fabricated endoscope is 5.5 mm. The maximum bending angle of the fabricated endoscope is 90° (Curvature radius: 29 mm). The observation of the inside of a blood vessel model by the CCD imager of a fabricated endoscope was confirmed. The active bending shaft of the fabricated endoscope, which is realized using SMA coil actuators instead of wire traction, is soft. Therefore, using this endoscope, it may be possible to perform precise observations and treatment of deep areas of the human body.

  2. Interfacial stresses in shape memory alloy-reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiremath, S. R.; Prajapati, Maulik; Rakesh, S.; Roy Mahapatra, D.

    2014-03-01

    Debonding of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) wires in SMA reinforced polymer matrix composites is a complex phenomenon compared to other fabric fiber debonding in similar matrix composites. This paper focuses on experimental study and analytical correlation of stress required for debonding of thermal SMA actuator wire reinforced composites. Fiber pull-out tests are carried out on thermal SMA actuator at parent state to understand the effect of stress induced detwinned martensites. An ASTM standard is followed as benchmark method for fiber pull-out test. Debonding stress is derived with the help of non-local shear-lag theory applied to elasto-plastic interface. Furthermore, experimental investigations are carried out to study the effect of Laser shot peening on SMA surface to improve the interfacial strength. Variation in debonding stress due to length of SMA wire reinforced in epoxy are investigated for non-peened and peened SMA wires. Experimental results of interfacial strength variation due to various L/d ratio for non-peened and peened SMA actuator wires in epoxy matrix are discussed.

  3. Smart structures for deformable mirrors actuated by shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, M.; Bettini, P.; Di Landro, L.; Sala, G.; Zerbi, F. M.

    2010-07-01

    Deformable mirrors actuated by smart structures are promising devices for next generation astronomical instrumentation. Thermal activated Shape Memory Alloys are materials able to recover their original shape, after an external deformation, if heated above a characteristic temperature. If the recovery of the shape is completely or partially prevented by the presence of constraints, the material can generate recovery stress. Thanks to this feature, these materials can be positively exploited in Smart Structures if properly embedded into host materials. This paper will show the technological processes developed for an efficient use of SMA-based actuators embedded in smart structures tailored to astronomical instrumentation. In particular the analysis of the interface with the host material. Some possible modeling approaches to the actuators behavior will be addressed taking into account trade-offs between detailed analysis and overall performance prediction as a function of the computational time. We developed a combined Finite Element and Raytracing analysis devoted to a parametric performance predictions of a SMA based substrate applicable to deformable mirrors. We took in detail into account the possibility to change the focal length of the mirror keeping a satisfactory image quality. Finally a possible approach with some preliminary results for an efficient control system for the strongly non-linear SMA actuators will be presented.

  4. Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)-Based Launch Lock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2014-01-01

    Most NASA missions require the use of a launch lock for securing moving components during the launch or securing the payload before release. A launch lock is a device used to prevent unwanted motion and secure the controlled components. The current launch locks are based on pyrotechnic, electro mechanically or NiTi driven pin pullers and they are mostly one time use mechanisms that are usually bulky and involve a relatively high mass. Generally, the use of piezoelectric actuation provides high precession nanometer accuracy but it relies on friction to generate displacement. During launch, the generated vibrations can release the normal force between the actuator components allowing shaft's free motion which could result in damage to the actuated structures or instruments. This problem is common to other linear actuators that consist of a ball screw mechanism. The authors are exploring the development of a novel launch lock mechanism that is activated by a shape memory alloy (SMA) material ring, a rigid element and an SMA ring holding flexure. The proposed design and analytical model will be described and discussed in this paper.

  5. MOSFET Switching Circuit Protects Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gummin, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    A small-footprint, full surface-mount-component printed circuit board employs MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor) power switches to switch high currents from any input power supply from 3 to 30 V. High-force shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators generally require high current (up to 9 A at 28 V) to actuate. SMA wires (the driving element of the actuators) can be quickly overheated if power is not removed at the end of stroke, which can damage the wires. The new analog driver prevents overheating of the SMA wires in an actuator by momentarily removing power when the end limit switch is closed, thereby allowing complex control schemes to be adopted without concern for overheating. Either an integral pushbutton or microprocessor-controlled gate or control line inputs switch current to the actuator until the end switch line goes from logic high to logic low state. Power is then momentarily removed (switched off by the MOSFET). The analog driver is suited to use with nearly any SMA actuator.

  6. A Gradient-Based Constitutive Model for Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabesh, Majid; Boyd, James; Lagoudas, Dimitris

    2017-06-01

    Constitutive models are necessary to design shape memory alloy (SMA) components at nano- and micro-scales in NEMS and MEMS. The behavior of small-scale SMA structures deviates from that of the bulk material. Unfortunately, this response cannot be modeled using conventional constitutive models which lack an intrinsic length scale. At small scales, size effects are often observed along with large gradients in the stress or strain. Therefore, a gradient-based thermodynamically consistent constitutive framework is established. Generalized surface and body forces are assumed to contribute to the free energy as work conjugates to the martensite volume fraction, transformation strain tensor, and their spatial gradients. The rates of evolution of these variables are obtained by invoking the principal of maximum dissipation after assuming a transformation surface, which is a differential equation in space. This approach is compared to the theories that use a configurational force (microforce) balance law. The developed constitutive model includes energetic and dissipative length scales that can be calibrated experimentally. Boundary value problems, including pure bending of SMA beams and simple torsion of SMA cylindrical bars, are solved to demonstrate the capabilities of this model. These problems contain the differential equation for the transformation surface as well as the equilibrium equation and are solved analytically and numerically. The simplest version of the model, containing only the additional gradient of martensite volume fraction, predicts a response with greater transformation hardening for smaller structures.

  7. Potential High-Temperature Shape-Memory-Alloy Actuator Material Identified

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noebe, Ronald D.; Gaydosh, Darrell J.; Biles, Tiffany A.; Garg, Anita

    2005-01-01

    Shape-memory alloys are unique "smart materials" that can be used in a wide variety of adaptive or "intelligent" components. Because of a martensitic solid-state phase transformation in these materials, they can display rather unusual mechanical properties including shape-memory behavior. This phenomenon occurs when the material is deformed at low temperatures (below the martensite finish temperature, Mf) and then heated through the martensite-to-austenite phase transformation. As the material is heated to the austenite finish temperature Af, it is able to recover its predeformed shape. If a bias is applied to the material as it tries to recover its original shape, work can be extracted from the shape-memory alloy as it transforms. Therefore, shape-memory alloys are being considered for compact solid-state actuation devices to replace hydraulic, pneumatic, or motor-driven systems.

  8. Shape memory behavior of single and polycrystalline nickel rich nickel titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Irfan

    NiTi is the most commonly used shape memory alloy (SMA) and has been widely used for bio-medical, electrical and mechanical applications. Nickel rich NiTi shape memory alloys are coming into prominence due to their distinct superelasticity and shape memory properties as compared to near equi-atomic NiTi shape memory alloys. Besides, their lower density and higher work output than steels makes these alloys an excellent candidate for aerospace and automotive industry. Shape memory properties and phase transformation behavior of high Ni-rich Ni54Ti46 (at.%) polycrystals and Ni-rich Ni 51Ti49 (at.%) single-crystals are determined. Their properties are sensitive to heat treatments that affect the phase transformation behavior of these alloys. Phase transformation properties and microstructure were investigated in aged Ni54Ti46 alloys with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to reveal the precipitation characteristics and R-phase formation. It was found that Ni54Ti46 has the ability to exhibit perfect superelasticity under high stress levels (~2 GPa) with 4% total strain after 550°C-3h aging. Stress independent R-phase transformation was found to be responsible for the change in shape memory behavior with stress. The shape memory responses of [001], [011] and [111] oriented Ni 51Ti49 single-crystals alloy were reported under compression to reveal the orientation dependence of their shape memory behavior. It has been found that transformation strain, temperatures and hysteresis, Classius-Clapeyron slopes, critical stress for plastic deformation are highly orientation dependent. The effects of precipitation formation and compressive loading at selected temperatures on the two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) properties of a [111]- oriented Ni51Ti49 shape memory alloy were revealed. Additionally, aligned Ni4Ti3 precipitates were formed in a single crystal of Ni51Ti49 alloy by aging under applied compression stress along the

  9. Mg-Ca Alloys Produced by Reduction of CaO: Understanding of ECO-Mg Alloy Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, In-Ho; Lee, Jin Kyu; Kim, Shae K.

    2017-04-01

    There have been long debates about the environment conscious (ECO) Mg technology which utilizes CaO to produce Ca-containing Mg alloys. Two key process technologies of the ECO-Mg process are the chemical reduction of CaO by liquid Mg and the maintenance of melt cleanliness during the alloying of Ca. Thermodynamic calculations using FactSage software were performed to explain these two key issues. In addition, an experimental study was performed to compare the melt cleanliness of the Ca-containing Mg alloys produced by the conventional route with metallic Ca and the ECO-Mg route with CaO.

  10. Mg-Ca Alloys Produced by Reduction of CaO: Understanding of ECO-Mg Alloy Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, In-Ho; Lee, Jin Kyu; Kim, Shae K.

    2016-12-01

    There have been long debates about the environment conscious (ECO) Mg technology which utilizes CaO to produce Ca-containing Mg alloys. Two key process technologies of the ECO-Mg process are the chemical reduction of CaO by liquid Mg and the maintenance of melt cleanliness during the alloying of Ca. Thermodynamic calculations using FactSage software were performed to explain these two key issues. In addition, an experimental study was performed to compare the melt cleanliness of the Ca-containing Mg alloys produced by the conventional route with metallic Ca and the ECO-Mg route with CaO.

  11. Research to Develop Process Models for Producing a Dual Property Titanium Alloy Compressor Disk.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    81 -4130 - RESEARCH TO DEVELOP PROCESS MODELS FOR PRODUCING A DUAL PROPERTY TITANIUM ALLOY COMPRESSOR DISK G. D. Lahoti T. Altan Battelle’s Columbus...COVERED INTERIM ANNUAL TECHNICAL RESEARCH TO DEVELOP PROCESS MODELS FOR PRODUCING A DUAL PROPERTY TITANIUM ALLOY REPORT, 8/1/80 to 7/31/81 COMPRESSOR DISK...validity and application of this approach will be demonstrated by developing forging process for a compressor disk from Ti-6242 alloy, as an example. VD

  12. Tribology and surface topography of Al–10Cu–Fe alloy produced by rheocasting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankara Rao, L.; Jha, A. K.; Ojha, S. N.

    2017-09-01

    In the present investigation, Al–10Cu–Fe alloys were produced by rheocasting process at different mechanical stirring speeds. These castings were poured into a metallic mould at a temperature of 620 °C i.e. in the semi-solid state. The resultant microstructures and wear properties were compared with a conventional metal mould cast alloy. The rheocast alloys have shown better mechanical (ultimate tensile strength and hardness) and wear properties as compared to metal mould cast alloy. Moreover, rheocast alloy which was produced at 1200 rpm stirring speed exhibited enhanced wear and mechanical properties as compared to other rheocast alloys. The improved wear rate for this alloy may be attributed to finer grain size and the nearly-spherical morphology of the primary α-phase. The metal mould cast and rheocast alloy at 400 rpm have shown adhesive wear. Whereas, other rheocast alloys have displayed microcutting abrasion. The noticeable decrease in the average roughness for 3 m s‑1 sliding velocity was observed as compared to the 1 m s‑1. In addition, the average roughness value of the 1200 rpm stirred alloy is lower than that of the alloy produced at 800 rpm stirring speed.

  13. Shape memory behavior of single crystal and polycrystalline Ni-rich NiTiHf high temperature shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghaian, Sayed M.

    NiTiHf shape memory alloys have been receiving considerable attention for high temperature and high strength applications since they could have transformation temperatures above 100 °C, shape memory effect under high stress (above 500 MPa) and superelasticity at high temperatures. Moreover, their shape memory properties can be tailored by microstructural engineering. However, NiTiHf alloys have some drawbacks such as low ductility and high work hardening in stress induced martensite transformation region. In order to overcome these limitations, studies have been focused on microstructural engineering by aging, alloying and processing. Shape memory properties and microstructure of four Ni-rich NiTiHf alloys (Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20, Ni50.7Ti 29.3Hf20, Ni51.2Ti28.8Hf20, and Ni52Ti28Hf20 (at. %)) were systematically characterized in the furnace cooled condition. H-phase precipitates were formed during furnace cooling in compositions with greater than 50.3Ni and the driving force for nucleation increased with Ni content. Alloy strength increased while recoverable strain decreased with increasing Ni content due to changes in precipitate characteristics. The effects of the heat treatments on the transformation characteristics and microstructure of the Ni-rich NiTiHf shape memory alloys have been investigated. Transformation temperatures are found to be highly annealing temperature dependent. Generation of nanosize precipitates (˜20 nm in size) after three hours aging at 450 °C and 550 °C improved the strength of the material, resulting in a near perfect dimensional stability under high stress levels (> 1500 MPa) with a work output of 20-30 J cm- 3. Superelastic behavior with 4% recoverable strain was demonstrated at low and high temperatures where stress could reach to a maximum value of more than 2 GPa after three hours aging at 450 and 550 °C for alloys with Ni great than 50.3 at. %. Shape memory properties of polycrystalline Ni50.3Ti29.7 Hf20 alloys were studied via

  14. Effects of Stoichiometry on Transformation Temperatures and Actuator-Type Performance of NiTiPd and NiTiPdX High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, Glen S.; Gaydosh, Darrell; Garg, Anita; Padula, Santo A., II; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2007-01-01

    High-temperature shape memory NiTiPd and NiTiPdX (X=Au, Pt, Hf) alloys were produced with titanium equivalent (Ti+Hf) compositions of 50.5, 50.0, 49.5, and 49.0 at.%. Thermo-mechanical testing in compression was used to evaluate the transformation temperatures, transformation strain, work output, and permanent deformation behavior of each alloy to study the effects of quaternary alloying and stoichiometry on high-temperature shape memory alloy behavior. Microstructural evaluation showed the presence of second phases for all alloy compositions. No load transformation temperatures in the stoichiometric alloys were relatively unchanged by Au and Pt substitutions, while the substitution of Hf for Ti causes a drop in transformation temperatures. The NiTiPd, NiTiPdAu and NiTiPdHf alloys exhibited transformation temperatures that were highest in the Ti-rich compositions, slightly lower at stoichiometry, and significantly reduced when the Ti equivalent composition was less than 50 at.%. For the NiTiPdPt alloy, transformation temperatures were highest for the Ti-rich compositions, lowest at stoichiometry, and slightly higher in the Ni-rich composition. When thermally cycled under constant stresses of up to 300 MPa, all of the alloys had transformation strains, and therefore work outputs, which increased with increasing stress. In each series of alloys, the transformation strain and thus work output was highest for stoichiometric or Ti-rich compositions while permanent strain associated with the constant-load thermal cycling was lowest for alloys with Ni-equivalent-rich compositions. Based on these results, basic rules for optimizing the composition of NiTiPd alloys for actuator performance will be discussed.

  15. PATH OPTIMIZATION AND CONTROL OF A SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY ACTUATED CATHETER FOR ENDOCARDIAL RADIOFREQUENCY ABLATION

    PubMed Central

    Wiest, Jennifer H.; Buckner, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a real-time path optimization and control strategy for shape memory alloy (SMA) actuated cardiac ablation catheters, potentially enabling the creation of more precise lesions with reduced procedure times and improved patient outcomes. Catheter tip locations and orientations are optimized using parallel genetic algorithms to produce continuous ablation paths with near normal tissue contact through physician-specified points. A nonlinear multivariable control strategy is presented to compensate for SMA hysteresis, bandwidth limitations, and coupling between system inputs. Simulated and experimental results demonstrate efficient generation of ablation paths and optimal reference trajectories. Closed-loop control of the SMA-actuated catheter along optimized ablation paths is validated experimentally. PMID:25684857

  16. Measurement and Prediction of the Thermomechanical Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Brian; Turner, Travis L.; Seelecke, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    An experimental and numerical investigation into the static and dynamic responses of shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) beams is performed to provide quantitative validation of a recently commercialized numerical analysis/design tool for SMAHC structures. The SMAHC beam specimens consist of a composite matrix with embedded pre-strained SMA actuators, which act against the mechanical boundaries of the structure when thermally activated to adaptively stiffen the structure. Numerical results are produced from the numerical model as implemented into the commercial finite element code ABAQUS. A rigorous experimental investigation is undertaken to acquire high fidelity measurements including infrared thermography and projection moire interferometry for full-field temperature and displacement measurements, respectively. High fidelity numerical results are also obtained from the numerical model and include measured parameters, such as geometric imperfection and thermal load. Excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured results of the static and dynamic thermomechanical response, thereby providing quantitative validation of the numerical tool.

  17. Measurement and Prediction of the Thermomechanical Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Brian; Turner, Travis L.; Seelecke, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    An experimental and numerical investigation into the static and dynamic responses of shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) beams is performed to provide quantitative validation of a recently commercialized numerical analysis/design tool for SMAHC structures. The SMAHC beam specimens consist of a composite matrix with embedded pre-strained SMA actuators, which act against the mechanical boundaries of the structure when thermally activated to adaptively stiffen the structure. Numerical results are produced from the numerical model as implemented into the commercial finite element code ABAQUS. A rigorous experimental investigation is undertaken to acquire high fidelity measurements including infrared thermography and projection moire interferometry for full-field temperature and displacement measurements, respectively. High fidelity numerical results are also obtained from the numerical model and include measured parameters, such as geometric imperfection and thermal load. Excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured results of the static and dynamic thermomechanical response, thereby providing quantitative validation of the numerical tool.

  18. A Review of TiNiPdCu Alloy System for High Temperature Shape Memory Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Imran; Kim, Hee Young; Miyazaki, Shuichi

    2015-06-01

    High temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) are important smart materials and possess a significant potential to improve many engineering systems. Many TiNi-based high temperature ternary alloy systems have been reported in literature including TiNiPd, TiNiPt, TiNiZr, TiNiAu, TiNiHf, etc. Some quaternary additions of certain elements in the above systems have been successful to further improve many important shape memory and mechanical properties. The success criteria for an HTSMA become strict in terms of its cyclic stability, maximum recoverable strain, creep resistance, and corrosion resistance at high temperatures. TiNiPdCu alloy system has been recently proposed as a promising HTSMA. Unique nanoscaled precipitates formed in TiNiPdCu-based HTSMAs are found to be stable at temperatures above 773 K, while keeping the benefits of ease of fabrication. It is expected that this alloy system possesses significant potential especially for the high temperature shape memory applications. Till now many research reports have been published on this alloy system. In the present work, a comprehensive review of the TiNiPdCu system is presented in terms of thermomechanical behavior, nanoscale precipitation mechanism, microstructural features, high temperature shape memory and mechanical properties, and the important parameters to control the high temperature performance of these alloys.

  19. THORIUM-BERYLLIUM ALLOYS AND METHOD OF PRODUCING SAME

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F.H.; Wilhelm, H.A.; Keller, W.H.

    1959-09-01

    >The preparation is described of thorium-berylium alloys from halides of the metals by stmultaneously reducing thorium fluoride and beryllium fluoride with calcium at approximately 650 deg C and maintaining the temperature until the thorium-beryhltum alloy separates from the slag.

  20. [Effects of imagery instructions on false memories produced on implicit and explicit memory tests].

    PubMed

    Tajika, Hidetsugu; Hamajima, Hideki

    2002-10-01

    In two experiments, we investigated whether the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm using implicit and explicit memory tests would produce critical lure (CL) words. Participants studied lists of semantic associates (e.g., newspaper, book, write) to induce memories for CL words (e.g., read). Afterwards, participants participated in implicit and explicit memory tests in each experiment. The level of priming of the CL words was quite high and similar to that of the presented words when participants were instructed to image the interword relation on lists during study. Participants explicitly recognized many CL words as having been presented on the lists in Experiment 1 and recalled many CL words in Experiment 2. The results are discussed in light of Underwood's (1965) implicit associative response hypothesis.

  1. Transformation-Induced Creep and Creep Recovery of Shape Memory Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kohei; Tobushi, Hisaaki; Pieczyska, Elzbieta A.

    2012-01-01

    If the shape memory alloy is subjected to the subloop loading under the stress-controlled condition, creep and creep recovery can appear based on the martensitic transformation. In the design of shape memory alloy elements, these deformation properties are important since the deflection of shape memory alloy elements can change under constant stress. The conditions for the progress of the martensitic transformation are discussed based on the kinetics of the martensitic transformation for the shape memory alloy. During loading under constant stress rate, temperature increases due to the stress-induced martensitic transformation. If stress is held constant during the martensitic transformation stage in the loading process, temperature decreases and the condition for the progress of the martensitic transformation is satisfied, resulting in the transformation-induced creep deformation. If stress is held constant during the reverse transformation stage in the unloading process, creep recovery appears due to the reverse transformation. The details for these thermomechanical properties are investigated experimentally for TiNi shape memory alloy, which is most widely used in practical applications. The volume fraction of the martensitic phase increases in proportion to an increase in creep strain. PMID:28817016

  2. Transformation-Induced Creep and Creep Recovery of Shape Memory Alloy.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kohei; Tobushi, Hisaaki; Pieczyska, Elzbieta A

    2012-05-22

    If the shape memory alloy is subjected to the subloop loading under the stress-controlled condition, creep and creep recovery can appear based on the martensitic transformation. In the design of shape memory alloy elements, these deformation properties are important since the deflection of shape memory alloy elements can change under constant stress. The conditions for the progress of the martensitic transformation are discussed based on the kinetics of the martensitic transformation for the shape memory alloy. During loading under constant stress rate, temperature increases due to the stress-induced martensitic transformation. If stress is held constant during the martensitic transformation stage in the loading process, temperature decreases and the condition for the progress of the martensitic transformation is satisfied, resulting in the transformation-induced creep deformation. If stress is held constant during the reverse transformation stage in the unloading process, creep recovery appears due to the reverse transformation. The details for these thermomechanical properties are investigated experimentally for TiNi shape memory alloy, which is most widely used in practical applications. The volume fraction of the martensitic phase increases in proportion to an increase in creep strain.

  3. Thermomechanical Behavior of Shape Memory Alloy Cables and Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedlunn, Benjamin

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are well known for their substantial power density in shape memory mode and their large recoverable strains in superelastic mode. NiTi, the most popular SMA, has been studied extensively in pure tension, but studies of more complex structural forms and other deformation modes are rare in the published literature. Therefore, the first purpose of this research was to characterize and understand the superelastic thermomechanical behavior of one such structural form, cables (or wire ropes). The second purpose was to understand the superelastic tension, compression, and bending behavior of cylindrical NiTi tubes. Cables made from SMA wires are relatively new and unexplored structural elements that combine many of the advantages of conventional cables with the unique properties of SMAs, leading to a number of potential applications. An extensive set of uniaxial tension experiments were performed on two SMA cable constructions, a 7x7 right regular lay, and a 1x27 alternating lay, to characterize their superelastic behavior in room temperature air. Details of the evolution of strain and temperature fields were captured by simultaneous stereo digital image correlation (DIC) and infrared imaging, respectively. Different aspects of the SMA cable responses were considered. First, the nearly isothermal, yet quite different, superelastic responses of the two cable designs were examined. Second, selected subcomponents excised from the two cable constructions were studied to determine the individual contributions of the cables hierarchical construction. Third, the elongation rate sensitivity of the cables and their subcomponents were inspected to compare and quantify their thermomechanical coupling. The tube experiments in the second part of this research should serve to calibrate and validate material models used to simulate SMA cables in the future. Tubes were studied instead of wires to avoid experimental difficulties, but even using tubes, custom

  4. Improved Damage Resistant Composite Materials Incorporating Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, Jeffrey S. N.; Rogers, Craig A.

    1996-01-01

    Metallic shape memory alloys (SMA) such as nitinol have unique shape recovery behavior and mechanical properties associated with a material phase change that have been used in a variety of sensing and actuation applications. Recent studies have shown that integrating nitinol-SMA actuators into composite materials increases the composite material's functionality. Hybrid composites of conventional graphite/epoxy or glass/epoxy and nitinol-SMA elements can perform functions in applications where monolithic composites perform inadequately. One such application is the use of hybrid composites to function both in load bearing and armor capacities. While monolithic composites with high strength-to-weight ratios function efficiently as loadbearing structures, because of their brittle nature, impact loading can cause significant catastrophic damage. Initial composite failure modes such as delamination and matrix cracking dissipate some impact energy, but when stress exceeds the composite's ultimate strength, fiber fracture and material perforation become dominant. One of the few methods that has been developed to reduce material perforation is hybridizing polymer matrix composites with tough kevlar or high modulus polyethynylene plies. The tough fibers increase the impact resistance and the stiffer and stronger graphite fibers carry the majority of the load. Similarly, by adding nitinol-SMA elements that absorb impact energy through the stress-induced martensitic phase transformation, the composites' impact perforation resistance can be greatly enhanced. The results of drop-weight and high velocity gas-gun impact testing of various composite materials will be presented. The results demonstrate that hybridizing composites with nitinol-SMA elements significantly increases perforation resistance compared to other traditional toughening elements. Inspection of the composite specimens at various stages of perforation by optical microscope illustrates the mechanisms by which

  5. Shape memory alloy actuation for a variable area fan nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Nancy; Tillman, Gregory; Miller, Robin M.; Wynosky, Thomas; Larkin, Michael J.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Bangert, Linda S.

    2001-06-01

    The ability to control fan nozzle exit area is an enabling technology for next generation high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. Performance benefits for such designs are estimated at up to 9% in thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC) relative to current fixed-geometry engines. Conventionally actuated variable area fan nozzle (VAN) concepts tend to be heavy and complicated, with significant aircraft integration, reliability and packaging issues. The goal of this effort was to eliminate these undesirable features and formulate a design that meets or exceeds leakage, durability, reliability, maintenance and manufacturing cost goals. A Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) bundled cable actuator acting to move an array of flaps around the fan nozzle annulus is a concept that meets these requirements. The SMA bundled cable actuator developed by the United Technologies Corporation (Patents Pending) provides significant work output (greater than 2200 in-lb per flap, through the range of motion) in a compact package and minimizes system complexity. Results of a detailed design study indicate substantial engine performance, weight, and range benefits. The SMA- based actuation system is roughly two times lighter than a conventional mechanical system, with significant aircraft direct operating cost savings (2-3%) and range improvements (5-6%) relative to a fixed-geometry nozzle geared turbofan. A full-scale sector model of this VAN system was built and then tested at the Jet Exit Test Facility at NASA Langley to demonstrate the system's ability to achieve 20% area variation of the nozzle under full scale aerodynamic loads. The actuator exceeded requirements, achieving repeated actuation against full-scale loads representative of typical cruise as well as greater than worst-case (ultimate) aerodynamic conditions. Based on these encouraging results, work is continuing with the goal of a flight test on a C-17 transport aircraft.

  6. A Constitutive Description for Shape Memory Alloys with the Growth of Martensite Band

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiguo; Shen, Xueliang; Peng, Xianghe

    2014-01-01

    Based on the experimental results and the finite element analysis, a constitutive model is proposed for two phase shape memory alloys by introducing a compensative volumetric strain into a constrained relationship between the two phases, accounting for the reduced constraint due to the growth of martensite band. The pseudoelasticity of NiTi shape memory alloy micro-tube, subjected to pure tension, is analyzed and compared with the experimental results. It can be seen that the pseudoelastic behavior, especially the phenomena of a stress drop during tension processes, can be well described with the proposed model. The proposed model separates the complicated constitutive behavior of a shape memory alloy (SMA) into simple responses arising respectively from its two phases, taking into account laminar microstructure, the thickness of martensite phase and the interaction between the two phases, and provides an easy but comprehensive method for the description of the constitutive behavior of SMAs under complex thermomechanical loading. PMID:28788476

  7. A Constitutive Description for Shape Memory Alloys with the Growth of Martensite Band.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiguo; Shen, Xueliang; Peng, Xianghe

    2014-01-20

    Based on the experimental results and the finite element analysis, a constitutive model is proposed for two phase shape memory alloys by introducing a compensative volumetric strain into a constrained relationship between the two phases, accounting for the reduced constraint due to the growth of martensite band. The pseudoelasticity of NiTi shape memory alloy micro-tube, subjected to pure tension, is analyzed and compared with the experimental results. It can be seen that the pseudoelastic behavior, especially the phenomena of a stress drop during tension processes, can be well described with the proposed model. The proposed model separates the complicated constitutive behavior of a shape memory alloy (SMA) into simple responses arising respectively from its two phases, taking into account laminar microstructure, the thickness of martensite phase and the interaction between the two phases, and provides an easy but comprehensive method for the description of the constitutive behavior of SMAs under complex thermomechanical loading.

  8. Shape memory alloy fixator system for suturing tissue in minimal access surgery.

    PubMed

    Xu, W; Frank, T G; Stockham, G; Cuschieri, A

    1999-01-01

    A new technique for suturing human tissue is described in which tissue closure is achieved by means of small fixators made from shape memory alloy. The aim of the development is to provide an alternative to thread suturing in minimal access surgery, which is quicker and requires less skill to achieve the required suturing quality. The design of the fixators is described in terms of the thermal shape recovery of shape memory alloy and a novel form of finite element analysis, which uses a nonlinear elastic element for the material property. Thermal analysis of the fixators and surrounding tissue is used to predict the temperature distribution during and after the application of electric current heating. This was checked in an in vitro experiment, which confirmed that deployment caused no detectable collateral damage to surrounding tissue. In vivo animal studies on the use of the shape memory alloy fixator for suturing tissue are ongoing to establish safety and healing effects.

  9. Development and Verification of Sputtered Thin-Film Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) by Cory R Knick and Christopher J Morris Approved for public release; distribution unlimited...Laboratory Development and Verification of Sputtered Thin-Film Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) by Cory R Knick and Christopher...

  10. Investigation of the martensitic transformation of (Cu-Zn-Ni) shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naat, N. A.; Mohammed, M. A.

    2017-02-01

    (Cu-Zn-Ni) shape memory alloy with different percent have been prepared by using high frequency induction furnace under argon atmosphere. All of the specimens obtained from this alloys were heated in furnace for (15 minutes at 865°C) for homogenization and quenched in iced-water. Comparisons has been made with data obtained via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The metallographic analyses were carried out by using optical microscopy (OM).

  11. Development of Deployable Elastic Composite Shape Memory Alloy Reinforced (DECSMAR) Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    battens nest. To mitigate the compromise of deployed performance due to the hinge cross-section, Nitinol SMA wires can be embedded in the composite...proportional limit by slip or conventional plastic deformation. As a logistics example, the particular Nitinol alloy used for proto-typing has...Memory Alloys,” Johnson Matthey, 2004. 10Cross, WB, Kariotis, AH, & Stimler, FJ, “ Nitinol Characterization Study,” NASA CR-1433, 1970. 11Proft, JL

  12. LACBED characterization of dislocations in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys processed by powder metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, P. P.; Ibarra, A.; San Jean, J.; Morniro, J. P.; No, M. L.

    2003-10-01

    Powder metallurgy Cu-AI-Ni shape memory alloys show excellent thermomechanical properties, being the fracture behavior close to the one observed in single crystals. However, the microstructural mechanisms responsible of such behavior are still under study. In this paper we present the characterization of the dislocations present in these alloys by Large Angle Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction (LACBED) in two different stages of the elaboration process: after HIP compaction and after hot rolling.

  13. Shape memory alloy adaptive control of gas turbine engine compressor blade tip clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schetky, Lawrence M.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    1998-06-01

    The ambient air ingested through the inlet of a gas turbine is first compressed by an axial compressor followed by further compression in a centrifugal compressor and then fed into the combustion chamber where ignition and expansion take place to produce the engine thrust. The axial compressor typically has five or more stages which consist of revolving blades and stators and the overall performance of the turbine is strongly affected by the compressor efficiency. When the turbine is turned on, to accommodate the rapid initial increase in the compressor blade length due to centrifugal force, the cold turbine has a built in clearance between the turbine blade tip and the casing. As the turbine reached its operating temperature there is a further increase in the blade length due to thermal expansion and, at the same time, the diameter of the casing increases. The net result is that when these various components have reached their equilibrium temperatures, the initial cold build clearance is reduced, but there remains a residual clearance. The magnitude of this clearance has a direct effect on the compressor efficiency and can be stated as: Δη/Δ CLR equals 0.5 where η is efficiency and CLR is the tip clearance. The concept of adaptive tip clearance control is based on the ability of a shape memory alloy ring to shrink to a predetermined diameter when heated to the temperature of a particular stage, and thus reducing the tip clearance. The ring is fabricated from a CuAlNi shape memory alloy and is mounted in the casing so as to be coaxial with the rotating blades of the particular stage. When cold, the ring dimensions are such as to provide the required cold build clearance, but when at operating temperature the reduced diameter creates a very small tip clearance. The clearance provided by this concept is much smaller than the clearance normally obtained for a turbine of the size being studied.

  14. Closed-loop control of a shape memory alloy actuation system for variable area fan nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barooah, Prabir; Rey, Nancy

    2002-07-01

    Shape Memory Alloys have been used in a wide variety of actuation applications. A bundled shape memory alloy cable actuator, capable of providing large force and displacement has been developed by United Technologies Corporation (patents pending) for actuating a Variable Area fan Nozzle (VAN). The ability to control fan nozzle exit area is an enabling technology for the next generation turbofan engines. Performance benefits for VAN engines are estimated to be up to 9% in Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption (TSFC) compared to traditional fixed geometry designs. The advantage of SMA actuated VAN design is light weight and low complexity compared to conventionally actuated designs. To achieve the maximum efficiency from a VAN engine, the nozzle exit area has to be continuously varied for a certain period of time during climb, since the optimum nozzle exit area is a function of several flight variables (flight Mach number, altitude etc). Hence, the actuator had to be controlled to provide the time varying desired nozzle area. A new control algorithm was developed for this purpose, which produced the desired flap area by metering the resistive heating of the SMA actuator. Since no active cooling was used, reducing overshoot was a significant challenge of the controller. A full scale, 2 flap model of the VAN system was built, which was capable of simulating a 20% nozzle area variation, and tested under full scale aerodynamic load in NASA Langley Jet Exit Test facility. The controller met all the requirements of the actuation system and was able to drive the flap position to the desired position with less than 2% overshoot in step input tests. The controller is based on a adaptive algorithm formulation with logical switches that reduces its overshoot error. Although the effectiveness of the controller was demonstrated in full scale model tests, no theoretical results as to its stability and robustness has been derived. Stability of the controller will have to be investigated

  15. Optimal Performance of Buildings Isolated By Shape-Memory-Alloy-Rubber-Bearing (SMARB) Under Random Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sumanta; Mishra, Sudib K.

    2014-05-01

    Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)-based bearing has been proposed recently for improved base isolation by optimal choice of its transformation strength. Presently, superior performances of the Shape-Memory-Alloy-Rubber-Bearing (SMARB) over the elastomeric bearing are established in mitigating seismic vibration under constraint on maximum isolator displacement. The optimal transformation strengths are proposed through constrained optimization based on stochastic responses. Numerical simulation reveals that Lead Rubber Bearings (LRB) either fails to provide feasible parameters or leads to large floor acceleration, compromising the isolation efficiency. Contrarily, optimal SMARB can efficiently enforce such constraint without greatly affecting the isolation efficiency. Evidence of robustness of SMARB over LRB is also established.

  16. Microstructural Analysis of Ti-Based Shape Memory Alloys Following the Electrochemical Corrosion in Artificial Saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baciu, C.; Baciu, E. R.; Cimpoeșu, R.; Levente, C. G.; Bosinceanu, D. G.; Baciu, M.; Bejinariu, C.

    2017-06-01

    The investigations carried out aimed to highlight the structural modifications occurred in the Ti-based shape memory alloys subject to electrocorrosion in Afnor artificial saliva. The behavior to corrosion was highlighted by fast electrochemical tests, mainly by dynamic potentiometry. From the microstructural analysis we noticed that the specimens of the two Ti-based shape memory alloys show traces of “pitting” corrosion on their surface of diverse sizes, a fact that will raise issues in terms of cytotoxicity due to the corrosion products released.

  17. Properties of Cu-Based Shape-Memory Alloys Prepared by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustmann, T.; dos Santos, J. M.; Gargarella, P.; Kühn, U.; Van Humbeeck, J.; Pauly, S.

    2017-03-01

    Two shape-memory alloys with the nominal compositions (in wt.%) Cu-11.85Al-3.2Ni-3Mn and Cu-11.35Al-3.2Ni-3Mn-0.5Zr were prepared by selective laser melting (SLM). The parameters were optimised to identify the process window, in which almost fully dense samples can be obtained. Their microstructures were analysed and correlated with the shape-memory behaviour as well as the mechanical properties. Suction-cast specimens were also produced for comparison. Mainly, β 1' martensite forms in all samples, but 0.5 wt.% of Zr stabilises the Y phase (Cu2AlZr), and its morphology depends on the thermal history and cooling rate. After annealing, the Y phase is primarily found at the grain boundaries hampering grain coarsening. Due to the relative high cooling rates applied here, Zr is mostly dissolved in the martensite in the as-prepared samples and it has a grain-refining effect only up to a critical cooling rate. The Zr-containing samples have increased transformation temperatures, and the Y phase seems to be responsible for the jerky martensite-to-austenite transformation. All the samples are relatively ductile because they mostly fracture in a transgranular manner, exhibiting the typical double yielding. Selective laser melting allows the adjustment of the transformation temperatures and the mechanical properties already during processing without the need of a subsequent heat treatment.

  18. Properties of Cu-Based Shape-Memory Alloys Prepared by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustmann, T.; dos Santos, J. M.; Gargarella, P.; Kühn, U.; Van Humbeeck, J.; Pauly, S.

    2016-12-01

    Two shape-memory alloys with the nominal compositions (in wt.%) Cu-11.85Al-3.2Ni-3Mn and Cu-11.35Al-3.2Ni-3Mn-0.5Zr were prepared by selective laser melting (SLM). The parameters were optimised to identify the process window, in which almost fully dense samples can be obtained. Their microstructures were analysed and correlated with the shape-memory behaviour as well as the mechanical properties. Suction-cast specimens were also produced for comparison. Mainly, β 1' martensite forms in all samples, but 0.5 wt.% of Zr stabilises the Y phase (Cu2AlZr), and its morphology depends on the thermal history and cooling rate. After annealing, the Y phase is primarily found at the grain boundaries hampering grain coarsening. Due to the relative high cooling rates applied here, Zr is mostly dissolved in the martensite in the as-prepared samples and it has a grain-refining effect only up to a critical cooling rate. The Zr-containing samples have increased transformation temperatures, and the Y phase seems to be responsible for the jerky martensite-to-austenite transformation. All the samples are relatively ductile because they mostly fracture in a transgranular manner, exhibiting the typical double yielding. Selective laser melting allows the adjustment of the transformation temperatures and the mechanical properties already during processing without the need of a subsequent heat treatment.

  19. Fixation of external drainage device with injectable shape-memory alloy clips.

    PubMed

    Olson, Jeffrey L; Erlanger, Michael

    2013-09-01

    To describe a novel surgical technique and novel surgical instrumentation for fixating an extraocular drainage device used for glaucoma-filtering surgery. The technique was performed in a laboratory setting using ex-vivo porcine eyes. We describe the surgical technique of using injectable, 25-gauge shape-memory clip system to fixate an Ahmed drainage device. The use of an injectable, shape-memory alloy clip provides the advantages of rapid, easy deployment and decreased risk of late suture failure. Importantly, the injectable, shape-memory clips can be used in surgical situations where suturing is difficult and time intensive, such as those encountered during glaucoma drainage device placement. The use of an injectable, shape-memory alloy clip is a promising new surgical tool and technique for fixating an extraocular drainage device used for glaucoma surgery.

  20. Calorimetric analysis of the two way memory effect in a NiTi alloy -- Experiments and calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, E.P. da

    1999-04-23

    In addition to the well known one-way memory effect in heating, some shape memory alloys may also exhibit a shape recovery upon cooling, i.e. they show the two-way memory effect (TWME). This is not an inherent property of such alloys, and to obtain it, the alloy must be trained. Besides the two-way memory effect, the training processes can also cause changes such as a shift of the transformation temperatures. In this work a calorimetric investigation of a one-way and two-way NiTi memory alloy is presented. The heat flow was measured by use of a Differential Scanning Calorimeter. The differences in the temperatures and enthalpy of transformations between one-way and two-way memory samples are presented, compared and discussed. A mathematical prediction of the heat and temperatures of transformation is presented.

  1. Parametric analysis of a shape memory alloy actuated arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Cody; Bilgen, Onur

    2016-04-01

    Using a pair of antagonistic Shape Memory Allow (SMA) wires, it may be possible to produce a mechanism that replicates human musculoskeletal movement. The movement of interest is the articulation of the elbow joint actuated by the biceps brachii muscle. In an effort to understand the bio-mechanics of the arm, a single degree of freedom crankslider mechanism is used to model the movement of the arm induced by the biceps brachii muscle. First, a purely kinematical analysis is performed on a rigid body crank-slider. Force analysis is also done modeling the muscle as a simple linear spring. Torque, rocking angle, and energy are calculated for a range of crank-slider geometries. The SMA wire characteristics are experimentally determined for the martensite detwinned and full austenite phases. Using the experimental data, an idealized actuator characteristic curve is produced for the SMA wire. Kinematic and force analyses are performed on the nonlinear wire characteristic curve and a linearized wire curve; both cases are applied to the crankslider mechanism. Performance metrics for both cases are compared, followed by discussion.

  2. Tension, compression, and bending of superelastic shape memory alloy tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedlunn, Benjamin; Churchill, Christopher B.; Nelson, Emily E.; Shaw, John A.; Daly, Samantha H.

    2014-02-01

    While many uniaxial tension experiments of shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been published in the literature, relatively few experimental studies address their behavior in compression or bending, despite the prevalence of this latter deformation mode in applications. In this study, superelastic NiTi tubes from a single lot of material were characterized in tension, compression, and pure bending, which allowed us to make direct comparisons between the deformation modes for the first time. Custom built fixtures were used to overcome some long-standing experimental difficulties with performing well-controlled loading and accurate measurements during uniaxial compression (avoiding buckling) and large-rotation bending. In all experiments, the isothermal, global, mechanical responses were measured, and stereo digital image correlation (DIC) was used to measure the evolution of the strain fields on the tube's outer surface.As is characteristic of textured NiTi, our tubes exhibited significant tension-compression asymmetry in their uniaxial responses. Stress-induced transformations in tension exhibited flat force plateaus accompanied by strain localization and propagation. No such localization, however, was observed in compression, and the stress "plateaus" during compression always maintained a positive tangent modulus. While our uniaxial results are similar to the observations of previous researchers, the DIC strain measurements provided details of localized strain behavior with more clarity and allowed more quantitative measurements to be made. Consistent with the tension-compression asymmetry, our bending experiments showed a significant shift of the neutral axis towards the compression side. Furthermore, the tube exhibited strain localization on the tension side, but no localization on the compression side during bending. This is a new observation that has not been explored before. Detailed analysis of the strain distribution across the tube diameter revealed that the

  3. Data-driven Techniques to Estimate Parameters in the Homogenized Energy Model for Shape Memory Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    sensor. volume 79781K. Proceedings of the SPIE 7978, 2011. [9] D.J. Hartl, D.C. Lagoudas, F.T. Calkins , and J.H. Mabe. Use of a ni60ti shape memory...D.C. Lagoudas, F.T. Calkins , and J.H. Mabe. Use of a ni60ti shape memory alloy for active jet engine chevron application: II. experimentally validated

  4. Comparative Study by MS and XRD of Fe50Al50 Alloys Produced by Mechanical Alloying, Using Different Ball Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas Martínez, Y.; Pérez Alcázar, G. A.; Bustos Rodríguez, H.; Oyola Lozano, D.

    2005-02-01

    In this work we report a comparative study of the magnetic and structural properties of Fe50Al50 alloys produced by mechanical alloying using two different planetary ball mills with the same ball mass to powder mass relation. The Fe50Al50 sample milled during 48 h using the Fritsch planetary ball mill pulverisette 5 and balls of 20 mm, presents only a bcc alloy phase with a majority of paramagnetic sites, whereas that sample milled during the same time using the Fritsch planetary ball mill pulverisette 7 with balls of 15 mm, presents a bcc alloy phase with paramagnetic site (doublet) and a majority of ferromagnetic sites which include pure Fe. However for 72 h of milling this sample presents a bcc paramagnetic phase, very similar to that prepared with the first system during 48 h. These results show that the conditions used in the first ball mill equipment make more efficient the milling process.

  5. Long-term superelastic cycling at nano-scale in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy micropillars

    SciTech Connect

    San Juan, J. Gómez-Cortés, J. F.

    2014-01-06

    Superelastic behavior at nano-scale has been studied along cycling in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy micropillars. Arrays of square micropillars were produced by focused ion beam milling, on slides of [001] oriented Cu-Al-Ni single crystals. Superelastic behavior of micropillars, due to the stress-induced martensitic transformation, has been studied by nano-compression tests during thousand cycles, and its evolution has been followed along cycling. Each pillar has undergone more than thousand cycles without any detrimental evolution. Moreover, we demonstrate that after thousand cycles they exhibit a perfectly reproducible and completely recoverable superelastic behavior.

  6. Compressive Response of Polycrystalline NiCoMnGa High-Temperature Meta-magnetic Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaca, H. E.; Turabi, A. S.; Basaran, B.; Pathak, A. K.; Dubenko, I.; Ali, N.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.; Li, P.

    2013-10-01

    The effects of the addition of quaternary element, Co, to polycrystalline NiMnGa alloys on their magnetic and shape memory properties have been investigated. NiCoMnGa polycrystalline alloys have been found to demonstrate good shape memory and superelasticity behavior under compression at temperatures greater than 100 °C with about 3% transformation strain and low-temperature hysteresis. It is also possible to train the material to demonstrate a large two-way shape memory effect.

  7. A new look at biomedical Ti-based shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Biesiekierski, Arne; Wang, James; Gepreel, Mohamed Abdel-Hady; Wen, Cuie

    2012-05-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are materials that exhibit a distinct thermomechanical coupling, one that gives rise to a wide variety of applications across a broad range of fields. One of the most successful roles is in the construction of novel medical implants. Unfortunately, concerns have been raised about the biocompatibility of the most popular SMA, nitinol (NiTi), due to the known toxic, allergenic and carcinogenic properties of nickel. Given the unique capabilities of SMAs, it is apparent that there is a need for a new class of alloys - alloys that exhibit the full range of shape memory abilities yet are also free of any undesirable side effects. This article reviews the literature surrounding SMAs and identifies the metals Ti, Au, Sn, Ta, Nb, Ru and Zr as candidates for the production of thoroughly biocompatible SMAs. Hf and Re are also promising, though more research is necessary before a definitive statement can be made. Further, the Ti-(Ta,Nb)-(Zr,Hf) alloy system is particularly suited for orthopaedic implants due to a reduced Young's modulus. However, concerns over this system's shape memory properties exist, and should be taken into consideration. Alternate alloy systems that demonstrate higher bulk moduli may still be considered, however, if they are formed into a porous structure. Due to the nature of the alloying components, blended elemental powder metallurgy is recommended for the manufacture of these alloys, particularly due to the ease with which it may be adapted to the formation of porous alloys. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Microstructure–property relationships in a high-strength 51Ni–29Ti–20Hf shape memory alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Coughlin, D. R.; Casalena, L.; Yang, F.; ...

    2015-09-18

    NiTiHf alloys exhibit remarkable shape memory and pseudoelastic properties that are of fundamental interest to a growing number of industries. In this study, differential scanning calorimetry and isothermal compression tests have revealed that the 51Ni–29Ti–20Hf alloy has useful shape memory properties that include a wide range of transformation temperatures as well as highly stable pseudoelastic behavior. These properties are governed by short-term aging conditions, which may be tailored to control transformation temperatures while giving rise to exceptionally high austenite yield strengths which aid transformation stability. The yield strength of the austenite phase can reach 2.1 GPa by aging for 3hrsmore » at 500°C, while aging for 3hrs at 700°C produced an alloy with an austenite finish temperature (A f ) of 146°C. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy has revealed a new precipitate phase, H-phase, under the homogenized and extruded condition and the aged 3 hrs at 500°C condition, but only the previously identified H-phase precipitate was observed after aging at temperatures of 600°C and 700°C for 3 hrs. Finally, dislocation analysis indicated that plastic deformation of the austenite phase occurred by <100> type slip, similar to that observed in binary NiTi.« less

  9. Microstructure–property relationships in a high-strength 51Ni–29Ti–20Hf shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, D. R.; Casalena, L.; Yang, F.; Noebe, R. D.; Mills, M. J.

    2015-09-18

    NiTiHf alloys exhibit remarkable shape memory and pseudoelastic properties that are of fundamental interest to a growing number of industries. In this study, differential scanning calorimetry and isothermal compression tests have revealed that the 51Ni–29Ti–20Hf alloy has useful shape memory properties that include a wide range of transformation temperatures as well as highly stable pseudoelastic behavior. These properties are governed by short-term aging conditions, which may be tailored to control transformation temperatures while giving rise to exceptionally high austenite yield strengths which aid transformation stability. The yield strength of the austenite phase can reach 2.1 GPa by aging for 3hrs at 500°C, while aging for 3hrs at 700°C produced an alloy with an austenite finish temperature (A f ) of 146°C. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy has revealed a new precipitate phase, H-phase, under the homogenized and extruded condition and the aged 3 hrs at 500°C condition, but only the previously identified H-phase precipitate was observed after aging at temperatures of 600°C and 700°C for 3 hrs. Finally, dislocation analysis indicated that plastic deformation of the austenite phase occurred by <100> type slip, similar to that observed in binary NiTi.

  10. Characterization of Ternary NiTiPd High-Temperature Shape-Memory Alloys under Load-Biased Thermal Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, Glen S.; Padula, Santo A.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Garg, Anita; Gaydosh, Darrell

    2010-01-01

    While NiTiPd alloys have been extensively studied for proposed use in high-temperature shape-memory applications, little is known about the shape-memory response of these materials under stress. Consequently, the isobaric thermal cyclic responses of five (Ni,Pd)49.5Ti50.5 alloys with constant stoichiometry and Pd contents ranging from 15 to 46 at. pct were investigated. From these tests, transformation temperatures, transformation strain (which is proportional to work output), and unrecovered strain per cycle (a measure of dimensional instability) were determined as a function of stress for each alloy. It was found that increasing the Pd content over this range resulted in a linear increase in transformation temperature, as expected. At a given stress level, work output decreased while the amount of unrecovered strain produced during each load-biased thermal cycle increased with increasing Pd content, during the initial thermal cycles. However, continued thermal cycling at constant stress resulted in a saturation of the work output and nearly eliminated further unrecovered strain under certain conditions, resulting in stable behavior amenable to many actuator applications.

  11. Characterization of Ternary NiTiPd High-Temperature Shape-Memory Alloys under Load-Biased Thermal Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, Glen S.; Padula, Santo A.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Garg, Anita; Gaydosh, Darrell

    2010-01-01

    While NiTiPd alloys have been extensively studied for proposed use in high-temperature shape-memory applications, little is known about the shape-memory response of these materials under stress. Consequently, the isobaric thermal cyclic responses of five (Ni,Pd)49.5Ti50.5 alloys with constant stoichiometry and Pd contents ranging from 15 to 46 at. pct were investigated. From these tests, transformation temperatures, transformation strain (which is proportional to work output), and unrecovered strain per cycle (a measure of dimensional instability) were determined as a function of stress for each alloy. It was found that increasing the Pd content over this range resulted in a linear increase in transformation temperature, as expected. At a given stress level, work output decreased while the amount of unrecovered strain produced during each load-biased thermal cycle increased with increasing Pd content, during the initial thermal cycles. However, continued thermal cycling at constant stress resulted in a saturation of the work output and nearly eliminated further unrecovered strain under certain conditions, resulting in stable behavior amenable to many actuator applications.

  12. Investigation of the Enthalpy/Entropy Variation and Structure of Cu-Al-Mn-Fe Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canbay, C. Aksu; Gudeloglu, S.; Genc, Z. Karagoz

    2015-04-01

    Cu-based Cu-Al-Mn-Fe shape memory alloys were produced in an arc melter under vacuum. The crystal structure of the fabricated alloys were determined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD analysis results indicated that the martensitic phase of the samples have an M18R structure. The characteristic transformation temperatures, thermodynamic parameters, and the activation energy values of the samples according to Kissinger and Ozawa methods were determined by differential scanning calorimetry measurements. The austenite transformation temperatures of the samples were found as , respectively. Also, the calculated activation energy values of the samples according to Kissinger and Ozawa methods are compared with each other. The effect of the presence of Al and Fe in the samples on the thermodynamic parameters is studied in this work.

  13. Method for producing La/Ce/MM/Y base alloys, resulting alloys and battery electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Schmidt, Frederick A.

    2016-12-20

    A carbothermic reduction method is provided for reducing a La-, Ce-, MM-, and/or Y-containing oxide in the presence of carbon and a source of a reactant element comprising Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, and/or P to form an intermediate alloy material including a majority of La, Ce, MM, and/or Y and a minor amount of the reactant element. The intermediate material is useful as a master alloy for in making negative electrode materials for a metal hydride battery, as hydrogen storage alloys, as master alloy additive for addition to a melt of commercial Mg and Al alloys, steels, cast irons, and superalloys; or in reducing Sm.sub.2O.sub.3 to Sm metal for use in Sm--Co permanent magnets.

  14. High-strength, creep-resistant molybdenum alloy and process for producing the same

    DOEpatents

    Bianco, R.; Buckman, R.W. Jr.; Geller, C.B.

    1999-02-09

    A wet-doping process for producing an oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS), creep-resistant molybdenum alloy is disclosed. The alloy is made by adding nitrate or acetate salts of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium to molybdenum oxide to produce a slurry, heating the slurry in a hydrogen atmosphere to produce a powder, mixing and cold isostatically pressing the powder, sintering in a hydrogen atmosphere, and thermomechanically processing (swaging, extruding, cold drawing) the product. The ODS molybdenum alloy produced by the process contains 2--4% by volume (ca. 1--4% by weight) of an oxide of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium. The alloy has high strength and improved creep-resistance at temperatures greater than 0.55T{sub m} of molybdenum. 10 figs.

  15. High-strength, creep-resistant molybdenum alloy and process for producing the same

    DOEpatents

    Bianco, Robert; Buckman, Jr., R. William; Geller, Clint B.

    1999-01-01

    A wet-doping process for producing an oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS), creep-resistant molybdenum alloy is disclosed. The alloy is made by adding nitrate or acetate salts of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium to molybdenum oxide to produce a slurry, heating the slurry in a hydrogen atmosphere to produce a powder, mixing and cold isostatically pressing the powder, sintering in a hydrogen atmosphere, and thermomechanically processing (swaging, extruding, cold drawing) the product. The ODS molybdenum alloy produced by the process contains 2-4% by volume (.about.1-4% by weight) of an oxide of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium. The alloy has high strength and improved creep-resistance at temperatures greater than 0.55T.sub.m of molybdenum.

  16. High-strength, creep-resistant molybdenum alloy and process for producing the same

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, Robert; Buckman, Jr. William R.; Geller, Clint B.

    1997-12-01

    A wet-doping process for producing an oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS), creep-resistant molybdenum alloy is disclosed. The alloy is made by adding nitrate or acetate salts of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium to molybdenum oxide to produce a slurry, heating the slurry in a hydrogen atmosphere to produce a powder, mixing and cold isostatically pressing the powder, sintering in a hydrogen atmosphere, and thermomechanically processing (swaging, extruding, cold drawing) the product. The ODS molybdenum alloy produced by the process contains 2--4% by volume ({approximately}1--4% by weight) of an oxide of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium. The alloy has high strength and improved creep-resistance at temperatures greater than 0.55T{sub m} of molybdenum.

  17. Influence of volume magnetostriction on the thermodynamic properties of Ni-Mn-Ga shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kosogor, Anna; L'vov, Victor A.; Cesari, Eduard

    2015-10-07

    In the present article, the thermodynamic properties of Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys exhibiting the martensitic transformations (MTs) above and below Curie temperature are compared. It is shown that when MT goes below Curie temperature, the elastic and thermal properties of alloy noticeably depend on magnetization value due to spontaneous volume magnetostriction. However, the separation of magnetic parts from the basic characteristics of MT is a difficult task, because the volume magnetostriction does not qualitatively change the transformational behaviour of alloy. This problem is solved for several Ni-Mn-Ga alloys by means of the quantitative theoretical analysis of experimental data obtained in the course of stress-strain tests. For each alloy, the entropy change and the transformation heat evolved in the course of MT are evaluated, first, from the results of stress-strain tests and, second, from differential scanning calorimetry data. For all alloys, a quantitative agreement between the values obtained in two different ways is observed. It is shown that the magnetic part of transformation heat exceeds the non-magnetic one for the Ni-Mn-Ga alloys undergoing MTs in ferromagnetic state, while the elevated values of transformation heat measured for the alloys undergoing MTs in paramagnetic state are caused by large MT strains.

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of a pseudoelastic shape memory alloy system—theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enemark, S.; Savi, M. A.; Santos, I. F.

    2014-08-01

    In this work, a helical spring made from a pseudoelastic shape memory alloy was embedded in a dynamic system also composed of a mass, a linear spring and an excitation system. The mechanical behaviour of shape memory alloys is highly complex, involving hysteresis, which leads to damping capabilities and varying stiffness. Besides, these properties depend on the temperature and pretension conditions. Because of these capabilities, shape memory alloys are interesting in relation to engineering design of dynamic systems. A theoretical model based on a modification of the 1D Brinson model was established. Basically, the hardening and the sub-loop behaviour were altered. The model parameters were extracted from force-displacement tests of the spring at different constant temperatures as well as from differential scanning calorimetry. Model predictions were compared with experimental results of free and forced vibrations of the system setup under different temperature conditions. The experiments give a thorough insight into dynamic systems involving pseudoelastic shape memory alloys. Comparison between experimental results and the proposed model shows that the model is able to explain and predict the overall nonlinear behaviour of the system.

  19. Airfoil-based piezoelectric energy harvesting by exploiting the pseudoelastic hysteresis of shape memory alloy springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa, Vagner Candido; De Marqui Junior, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    The modeling and analysis of an electromechanically coupled typical aeroelastic section with shape memory alloy springs for wind energy harvesting is addressed in this paper. An airfoil with two-degrees-of-freedom, namely pitch and plunge, is considered and piezoelectric coupling is added to the plunge degree-of-freedom. A load resistance is assumed in the electrical domain of the problem in order to estimate the electrical power output. Shape memory alloy coil springs are modeled in the pitch degree-of-freedom of the typical section. A nickel-titanium alloy that exhibits pseudoelasticity at room temperature is assumed. The constitutive model for the shape memory alloy is based on classical phenomenological models. The unsteady aerodynamic loads are obtained by Jones’ approximation to Wagner’s indicial function. The resulting nonlinear electroaeroelastic model is cast into a state-space representation and solved with a Runge-Kutta method. The effects of preload values of the shape memory springs and resistive power generation on the aeroelastic behavior of the wind energy harvester are investigated at the flutter boundary and in a post-flutter regime. The nonlinear kinetics of the austenite-to-martensite phase transformation changes the typical linear flutter behavior to stable limit-cycle oscillations over a range of airflow speeds. Such nonlinear aeroelastic behavior introduced by the hysteretic behavior of the SMA springs provides an important source of persistent electrical power.

  20. Smart beam shape control using shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maari, Sami Mikhail

    The thermoelastic martensitic transformation of Nitinol was utilized to control the shape of a metal beam. Nitinol strips were bonded at an inclination angle on the surface of a beam to produce both bending and torsion. The Nitinol strips were thermally trained to provide the shape memory effect upon heating above the austenite start temperature. A set of differential equations describing beam equilibrium conditions during the heating of the Nitinol strips to a temperature in the martensite-austenite domain were developed. This set of equations was solved numerically using a finite difference method. The solution provided the beam strain distribution as a function of Nitinol temperature and the spatial coordinate along the beam neutral axis. The beam neutral axis slope and twist were then calculated form the strain distribution of the beam. The displacement and twist for beams with multiple strips were computed by superimposing the solutions for individual Nitinol strips. The predictions of the mathematical model were used to generate the solution for several benchmark problems of a cantilevered beam with different arrangements and volume fractions of Nitinol strips. The results were compared with those for the comparable experimental configuration.

  1. Smart Material Demonstrators Based on Shape Memory Alloys and Electroceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Arther V.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the development and characterization of two technology demonstrators that were produced under the auspices of an ARPA sponsored smart materials synthesis and processing effort. The ARPA Smart Materials and Synthesis (SMS) Program was a 2 year, $10M partnership led by Martin Marietta Laboratories - Baltimore and included Lockheed Missiles & Space Co., NRL, AVX Corp., Martin Marietta Astronautics Groups, BDM Federal, Inc., Virginia Tech, Clemson, University of Maryland, Denver University, and The Johns Hopkins University. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of magnetron sputtered shape memory foil and the manufacturability of reliable, reproducible electrostrictive actuators, the team designed a broadband active vibration cancellation device for suppressing the vibration load on delicate instruments and precision pointing devices mounted on orbiting satellites and spacecraft. The results of extensive device characterization and bench testing are discussed. Initial simulation results show excellent control authority and amplitude attenuation over the range of anticipated disturbance frequencies. The SMS Team has also developed an active 1-3 composite comprising micro-electrostrictive actuators embedded in a polymeric matrix suitable for underwater applications such as sonar quieting and listening arrays, and for medical imaging. Follow-on programs employing these technologies are also described.

  2. Smart Material Demonstrators Based on Shape Memory Alloys and Electroceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Arther V.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the development and characterization of two technology demonstrators that were produced under the auspices of an ARPA sponsored smart materials synthesis and processing effort. The ARPA Smart Materials and Synthesis (SMS) Program was a 2 year, $10M partnership led by Martin Marietta Laboratories - Baltimore and included Lockheed Missiles & Space Co., NRL, AVX Corp., Martin Marietta Astronautics Groups, BDM Federal, Inc., Virginia Tech, Clemson, University of Maryland, Denver University, and The Johns Hopkins University. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of magnetron sputtered shape memory foil and the manufacturability of reliable, reproducible electrostrictive actuators, the team designed a broadband active vibration cancellation device for suppressing the vibration load on delicate instruments and precision pointing devices mounted on orbiting satellites and spacecraft. The results of extensive device characterization and bench testing are discussed. Initial simulation results show excellent control authority and amplitude attenuation over the range of anticipated disturbance frequencies. The SMS Team has also developed an active 1-3 composite comprising micro-electrostrictive actuators embedded in a polymeric matrix suitable for underwater applications such as sonar quieting and listening arrays, and for medical imaging. Follow-on programs employing these technologies are also described.

  3. Shape memory characteristics of Ti-Ni alloys with several specimen sizes from micrometer to millimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Shuichi; Kitamura, Kazuhiro; Nomura, Kuniaki; Fang, Dong; Tobushi, Hisaaki

    1996-02-01

    Ti-Ni shape memory alloys with nearly equiatomic compositions were made by three types of production methods, i.e., rolling, drawing and sputtering methods. These methods were used for making thin plates 0.1 mm thick, thick and thin wires 1.0 mm and 0.08 mm in diameter, and thin films 0.007 mm thick, respectively. These specimens were annealed at 673 K, 773 K, and 873 K in order to investigate the affect of annealing temperature on the shape memory characteristics in each specimen. The shape memory characteristics were compared among these specimens in order to investigate the effect of the production method.

  4. Shape memory alloy actuation effect on subsonic static aeroelastic deformation of composite cantilever plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, A. M. H.; Majid, D. L. Abdul; Abdullah, E. J.

    2016-10-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) is one of the smart materials that have unique properties and used recently in several aerospace applications. SMAs are metallic alloys that can recover permanent strains when they are heated above a certain temperature. In this study, the effects of SMA actuation on the composite plate under subsonic aeroelastic conditions are examined. The wind tunnel test is carried out for two configurations of a cantilever shape memory alloy composite plate with a single SMA wire fixed eccentrically. Strain gage data for both bending and torsional strain are recorded and demonstrated during the aeroelastic test for active and non-active SMA wire in two locations. The cyclic actuation of the SMA wire embedded inside the composite plate is also investigated during the aeroelastic test. The results show reduction in both bending and torsional strain of the composite plate after activation of the SMA wire during the wind tunnel test.

  5. Spray Forming of NiTi and NiTiPd Shape-Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabe, James; Ruggeri, Robert; Noebe, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    In the work to be presented, vacuum plasma spray forming has been used as a process to deposit and consolidate prealloyed NiTi and NiTiPd powders into near net shape actuators. Testing showed that excellent shape memory behavior could be developed in the deposited materials and the investigation proved that VPS forming could be a means to directly form a wide range of shape memory alloy components. The results of DSC characterization and actual actuation test results will be presented demonstrating the behavior of a Nitinol 55 alloy and a higher transition temperature NiTiPd alloy in the form of torque tube actuators that could be used in aircraft and aerospace controls.

  6. Void formation in NiTi shape memory alloys by medium-voltage electron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossmacher, P.; Stober, T.

    1995-12-15

    In-situ electron irradiation experiments of NiTi shape memory alloys, using high-voltage transmission electron microscopes, result in amorphization of the intermetallic compound. In all of these experiments high-voltages more than 1.0 MeV had to be applied in order to induce the crystalline-to-amorphous transformation. To their knowledge no irradiation effects of medium-voltage electrons of e.g. 0.5 MeV have been reported in the literature. In this contribution, the authors describe void formation in two different NiTi shape memory alloys, resulting from in-situ electron irradiation, using a 300 kV electron beam in a transmission electron microscope. First evidence is presented that void formation is correlated with the total oxygen content of the alloys.

  7. Apparatus and method for low-temperature training of shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanger, A. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Trigwell, S.; Gibson, T. L.; Williams, M. K.; Benafan, O.

    2015-12-01

    An apparatus and method for the low-temperature thermo-mechanical training of shape memory alloys (SMA) has been developed. The experimental SMA materials are being evaluated as prototypes for applicability in novel thermal management systems for future cryogenic applications. Alloys providing two-way actuation at cryogenic temperatures are the chief target. The mechanical training regimen was focused on the controlled movement of rectangular strips, with S-bend configurations, at temperatures as low as 30 K. The custom holding fixture included temperature sensors and a low heat-leak linear actuator with a magnetic coupling. The fixture was mounted to a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler providing up to 25 W of cooling power at 20 K and housed within a custom vacuum chamber. Operations included both training cycles and verification of shape memory movement. The system design and operation are discussed. Results of the training for select prototype alloys are presented.

  8. Spray Forming of NiTi and NiTiPd Shape-Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabe, James; Ruggeri, Robert; Noebe, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    In the work to be presented, vacuum plasma spray forming has been used as a process to deposit and consolidate prealloyed NiTi and NiTiPd powders into near net shape actuators. Testing showed that excellent shape memory behavior could be developed in the deposited materials and the investigation proved that VPS forming could be a means to directly form a wide range of shape memory alloy components. The results of DSC characterization and actual actuation test results will be presented demonstrating the behavior of a Nitinol 55 alloy and a higher transition temperature NiTiPd alloy in the form of torque tube actuators that could be used in aircraft and aerospace controls.

  9. Apparatus and Method for Low-Temperature Training of Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanger, A. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Trigwell, S.; Gibson, T. L.; Williams, M. K.; Benafan, O.

    2015-01-01

    An apparatus and method for the low-temperature thermo-mechanical training of shape memory alloys (SMA) has been developed. The experimental SMA materials are being evaluated as prototypes for applicability in novel thermal management systems for future cryogenic applications. Alloys providing two-way actuation at cryogenic temperatures are the chief target. The mechanical training regimen was focused on the controlled movement of rectangular strips, with S-bend configurations, at temperatures as low as 30 K. The custom holding fixture included temperature sensors and a low heat-leak linear actuator with a magnetic coupling. The fixture was mounted to a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler providing up to 25 W of cooling power at 20 K and housed within a custom vacuum chamber. Operations included both training cycles and verification of shape memory movement. The system design and operation are discussed. Results of the training for select prototype alloys are presented.

  10. Embedded Shape Memory Alloy Particles for the Self-Sensing of Fatigue Crack Growth in an Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leser, William Paul

    Future aerospace vehicles will be built using novel materials for mission conditions that are difficult to replicate in a laboratory. Structural health monitoring and condition-based maintenance will be critical to ensure the reliability of such vehicles. A multi-functional aluminum alloy containing embedded shape memory alloy (SMA) particles to detect fatigue crack growth is proposed. The regions of intensified strain near the tip of a growing fatigue crack cause the SMA particles to undergo a solid-to-solid phase transformation from austenite to martensite, releasing a detectable and identifiable acoustic emission (AE) signal that can be used to locate the crack in the affected component. This study investigates the AE response of two SMA systems, Ni-Ti, and Co-Ni-Al. Tensile (Ni-Ti) and compressive (Co-Ni-Al) tests were conducted to study the strain-induced transformation response in both of the alloy systems. It was found that the critical stress for transformation in both SMA systems was easily identified by a burst of AE activity during both transformation and reverse transformation. AE signals from these experiments were collected for use as training data for a Bayesian classifier to be used to identify transformation signals in a Al7050 matrix with embedded SMA particles. The Al/SMA composite was made by vacuum hot pressing SMA powder between aluminum plates. The effect of hot pressing temperature and subsequent heat treatments (solutionizing and peak aging) on the SMA particles was studied. It was found that, at the temperatures required, Co-Ni-Al developed a second phase that restricted the transformation from austenite to martensite, thus rendering it ineffective as a candidate for the embedded particles. Conversely, Ni-Ti did survive the embedding process and it was found that the solutionizing heat treatment applied after hot pressing was the main driver in determining the final transformation temperatures for the Ni-Ti particles. The effect of hot

  11. Analysis of hybrid electric/thermofluidic inputs for wet shape memory alloy actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flemming, Leslie; Mascaro, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    A wet shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator is characterized by an SMA wire embedded within a compliant fluid-filled tube. Heating and cooling of the SMA wire produces a linear contraction and extension of the wire. Thermal energy can be transferred to and from the wire using combinations of resistive heating and free/forced convection. This paper analyzes the speed and efficiency of a simulated wet SMA actuator using a variety of control strategies involving different combinations of electrical and thermofluidic inputs. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is used in conjunction with a temperature-strain model of the SMA wire to simulate the thermal response of the wire and compute strains, contraction/extension times and efficiency. The simulations produce cycle rates of up to 5 Hz for electrical heating and fluidic cooling, and up to 2 Hz for fluidic heating and cooling. The simulated results demonstrate efficiencies up to 0.5% for electric heating and up to 0.2% for fluidic heating. Using both electric and fluidic inputs concurrently improves the speed and efficiency of the actuator and allows for the actuator to remain contracted without continually delivering energy to the actuator, because of the thermal capacitance of the hot fluid. The characterized speeds and efficiencies are key requirements for implementing broader research efforts involving the intelligent control of electric and thermofluidic networks to optimize the speed and efficiency of wet actuator arrays.

  12. Identification of epsilon martensite in a Fe-based shape memory alloy by means of EBSD.

    PubMed

    Verbeken, K; Van Caenegem, N; Raabe, D

    2009-01-01

    Ferrous shape memory alloys (SMAs) are often thought to become a new, important group of SMAs. The shape memory effect in these alloys is based on the reversible, stress-induced martensitic transformation of austenite to epsilon martensite. The identification and quantification of epsilon martensite is crucial when evaluating the shape memory behaviour of this material. Previous work displayed that promising results were obtained when studying the evolution of the amount of epsilon martensite after different processing steps with Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD). The present work will discuss in detail, on the one hand, the challenges and opportunities arising during the identification of epsilon martensite by means of EBSD and, on the other hand, the possible interpretations that might be given to these findings. It will be illustrated that although the specific nature of the austenite to epsilon martensite transformation can still cause some points of discussion, EBSD has a high potential for identifying epsilon martensite.

  13. Surface corrosion enhancement of passive films on NiTi shape memory alloy in different solutions.

    PubMed

    Jinlong, Lv; Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang; Limin, Dong

    2016-06-01

    The corrosion behaviors of NiTi shape memory alloy in NaCl solution, H2SO4 solution and borate buffer solution were investigated. It was found that TiO2 in passive film improved the corrosion resistance of NiTi shape memory. However, low corrosion resistance of passive film was observed in low pH value acidic solution due to TiO2 dissolution. Moreover, the corrosion resistance of NiTi shape memory alloy decreased with the increasing of passivated potential in the three solutions. The donor density in passive film increased with the increasing of passivated potential. Different solutions affect the semiconductor characteristics of the passive film. The reducing in the corrosion resistance was attributed to the more donor concentrations in passive film and thinner thickness of the passive film. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrafast optical manipulation of atomic arrangements in chalcogenide alloy memory materials.

    PubMed

    Makino, Kotaro; Tominaga, Junji; Hase, Muneaki

    2011-01-17

    A class of chalcogenide alloy materials that shows significant changes in optical properties upon an amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition has lead to development of large data capacities in modern optical data storage. Among chalcogenide phase-change materials, Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) is most widely used because of its reliability. We use a pair of femtosecond light pulses to demonstrate the ultrafast optical manipulation of atomic arrangements from tetrahedral (amorphous) to octahedral (crystalline) Ge-coordination in GST superlattices. Depending on the parameters of the second pump-pulse, ultrafast nonthermal phase-change occurred within only few-cycles (≈1 picosecond) of the coherent motion corresponding to a GeTe4 local vibration. Using the ultrafast switch in chalcogenide alloy memory could lead to a major paradigm shift in memory devices beyond the current generation of silicon-based flash-memory.

  15. Reverse Shape Memory Effect Related to α → γ Transformation in a Fe-Mn-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Huabei; Huang, Pan; Zhou, Tiannan; Wang, Shanling; Wen, Yuhua

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the shape memory behavior and phase transformations of solution-treated Fe43.61Mn34.74Al13.38Ni8.27 alloy between room temperature and 1173 K (900 °C). This alloy exhibits the reverse shape memory effect resulting from the phase transformation of α (bcc) → γ (fcc) between 673 K and 1073 K (400 °C and 800 °C) in addition to the shape memory effect resulting from the martensitic reverse transformation of γ' (fcc) → α (bcc) below 673 K (400 °C). There is a high density of hairpin-shaped dislocations in the α phase undergoing the martensitic reverse transformation of γ' → α. The lath γ phase, which preferentially nucleates and grows in the reversed α phase, has the same crystal orientation with the reverse-transformed γ' martensite. However, the vermiculate γ phase, which is precipitated in the α phase between lath γ phase, has different crystal orientations. The lath γ phase is beneficial to attaining better reverse shape memory effect than the vermiculate γ phase.

  16. Reverse Shape Memory Effect Related to α → γ Transformation in a Fe-Mn-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Huabei; Huang, Pan; Zhou, Tiannan; Wang, Shanling; Wen, Yuhua

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the shape memory behavior and phase transformations of solution-treated Fe43.61Mn34.74Al13.38Ni8.27 alloy between room temperature and 1173 K (900 °C). This alloy exhibits the reverse shape memory effect resulting from the phase transformation of α (bcc) → γ (fcc) between 673 K and 1073 K (400 °C and 800 °C) in addition to the shape memory effect resulting from the martensitic reverse transformation of γ' (fcc) → α (bcc) below 673 K (400 °C). There is a high density of hairpin-shaped dislocations in the α phase undergoing the martensitic reverse transformation of γ' → α. The lath γ phase, which preferentially nucleates and grows in the reversed α phase, has the same crystal orientation with the reverse-transformed γ' martensite. However, the vermiculate γ phase, which is precipitated in the α phase between lath γ phase, has different crystal orientations. The lath γ phase is beneficial to attaining better reverse shape memory effect than the vermiculate γ phase.

  17. Nanoscale nickel-titanium shape memory alloys thin films fabricated by using biased target ion beam deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Huilong

    Shape memory alloys offer the highest work output per unit volume among smart materials and have both high actuation stress and large recoverable strain. Miniaturization of materials and devices requires shape memory actuation which is uncompromised at a small scale. However, size effects need to be understood in order to scale shape memory actuation with the minimum size critical to device design. Controlling material quality and properties is essential in fabrication of shape memory alloys into nanometer regime. This work demonstrates a novel fabrication technique, biased target ion beam deposition (BTIBD), which uses additional adatom energy in order to fabricate high-quality nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys thin films with nanometer thickness. These fabricated ultrathin NiTi films provide insight into the size scale dependence of shape memory functionality at nanoscale regime. BTIBD provides additional adatom energy to the growing film in order to fundamentally tailor the film growth mode for quality and properties. An independent ion beam source is customized in BTIBD to provide low-energy ions (tens of eV) during growth of films on substrates. Pure Ti and pure Ni targets are co-sputtering in BTIBD to fabricate NiTi thin films. The prepared NiTi films are continuous, and the thickness ranges from several tens to a few hundreds nanometers. The composition is controllable over the range of Ni-rich (>50.5 at% Ni), near-equiatomic, and Ti-rich (<49.5 at% Ni). The film surfaces are consistently ultra-smooth --- twice as smooth as conventional NiTi thin films fabricated by magnetron sputtering --- over all the composition ranges and over wide surface areas. The substrate/film interface is smooth and the interfacial diffusion is a minimal portion of the film thickness. Crystallographic phases and grain size in BTIBD NiTi films with thickness on the order of 100 nm are tunable via heat treatment. The as-deposited BTIBD films are amorphous. A pure B2 phase (without other

  18. Investigation of interfacial shear stresses, shape fixity, and actuation strain in composites incorporating shape memory polymers and shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jungkyu; Headings, Leon; Dapino, Marcelo; Baur, Jeffery; Tandon, Gyaneshwar

    2015-03-01

    Shape memory composites (SMCs) based on shape memory alloys (SMAs) and shape memory polymers (SMPs) allow many design possibilities due to their controllable temperature-dependent mechanical properties. The complementary characteristics of SMAs and SMPs can be utilized in systems with shape recovery created by the SMA and shape fixity provided by the SMP. In this research, three SMC operating regimes are identified and the behavior of SMC structures is analyzed by focusing on composite shape fixity and interfacial stresses. Analytical models show that SMPs can be used to adequately fix the shape of SMA actuators and springs. COMSOL finite element simulations are in agreement with analytical expressions for shape fixity and interfacial stresses. Analytical models are developed for an end-coupled linear SMP-SMA two-way actuator and the predicted strain is shown to be in good agreement with experimental test results.

  19. An investigation of wear behaviors of different Monel alloys produced by powder metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esgin, U.; Özyürek, D.; Kaya, H.

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, wear behaviors of Monel 400, Monel 404, Monel R-405 and Monel K-500 alloys produced by Powder Metallurgy (P/M) method were investigated. These compounds prepared from elemental powders were cold-pressed (600 MPa) and then, sintered at 1150°C for 2 hours and cooled down to the room temperature in furnace environment. Monel alloys produced by the P/M method were characterized through scanning electron microscope (SEM+EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), hardness and density measurements. In wear tests, standard pin-on-disk type device was used. Specimens produced within four different Monel Alloys were tested under 1ms-1 sliding speed, under three different loads (20N, 30N and 40N) and five different sliding distances (400-2000 m). The results show that Monel Alloys have γ matrix and that Al0,9Ni4,22 intermetallic phase was formed in the structure. Also, the highest hardness value was measured with the Monel K-500 alloy. In wear tests, the maximum weight loss according to the sliding distance, was observed in Monel 400 and Monel 404 alloys while the minimum weight loss was achieved by the Monel K-500 alloy.

  20. An investigation of wear behaviors of different Monel alloys produced by powder metallurgy

    SciTech Connect

    Esgin, U.; Özyürek, D.

    2016-04-21

    In the present study, wear behaviors of Monel 400, Monel 404, Monel R-405 and Monel K-500 alloys produced by Powder Metallurgy (P/M) method were investigated. These compounds prepared from elemental powders were cold-pressed (600 MPa) and then, sintered at 1150°C for 2 hours and cooled down to the room temperature in furnace environment. Monel alloys produced by the P/M method were characterized through scanning electron microscope (SEM+EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), hardness and density measurements. In wear tests, standard pin-on-disk type device was used. Specimens produced within four different Monel Alloys were tested under 1ms{sup −1} sliding speed, under three different loads (20N, 30N and 40N) and five different sliding distances (400-2000 m). The results show that Monel Alloys have γ matrix and that Al{sub 0,9}Ni{sub 4,22} intermetallic phase was formed in the structure. Also, the highest hardness value was measured with the Monel K-500 alloy. In wear tests, the maximum weight loss according to the sliding distance, was observed in Monel 400 and Monel 404 alloys while the minimum weight loss was achieved by the Monel K-500 alloy.

  1. Nonequiatomic NiTi Alloy Produced by Self Propagating High Temperature Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassani, P.; Bassani, E.; Tuissi, A.; Giuliani, P.; Zanotti, C.

    2014-07-01

    Shape memory alloy NiTi in porous form is of high interest as implantable material, as low apparent elastic modulus, comparable to that of bone, can be achieved. This condition, combined with proper pore size, allows good osteointegration. Porous NiTi can be produced by self propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), starting from mixed powders of pure Ni and Ti. Process parameters, among which powder compaction degree and preheating temperature, strongly influence the reaction temperature and the resulting product: at low reaction temperatures, high quantity of secondary phases are formed, which are generally considered detrimental for biocompatibility. On the contrary, at higher reaction temperatures, the powders melt and crystallize in ingots. The porous structure is lost and huge pores are formed. Mechanical activation of powders through ball milling and addition of TiH x are investigated as means to reduce reaction temperature and overheating, in order to preserve high porosity and limit secondary phases content. Both processes affect SHS reaction, and require adjustment of parameters such as heating rate. Changes in porous shape and size were observed especially for TiH x additions: the latter could be a promising route to obtain shaped porous products of improved quality.

  2. Photothermal depth profiles of mechanically and electrolytically polished NiTi shape memory alloys (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgadillo-Holtfort, I.; Gibkes, J.; Kaack, M.; Dietzel, D.; Bein, B. K.; Pelzl, J.; Buschka, M.; Weinert, K.; Bram, M.; Buchkremer, H. P.; Stöver, D.

    2003-01-01

    Machining of NiTi shape memory alloys (SMA) is difficult due to the required special tools, techniques, and the wear of cutting tools. Thus metal injection molding (MIM) of NiTi powders followed by polishing processes may be an alternative fabrication process for SMA components. Transient heat input across the surface and heat transport inside SMA components are important aspects for their functional efficiency. In this work the influence of polishing processes on the thermal depth profiles of SMA materials and the thermal bulk properties of MIM samples are analyzed with the help of photothermal IR radiometry. The effects of polishing have been studied both for polycrystalline nearly equiatomic NiTi alloy and MIM samples. Bulk samples, cut from a polycrystalline ingot of nearly equiatomic NiTi, had first been heat treated and flash cooled to reduce the concentration of nonequiatomic precipitations. In the second step, sample 1 was polished mechanically with a plane grinder, sample 2 was polished electrochemically in an electrolytic bath, and sample 3 was first polished electrolytically and then mechanically. The thermal depth profiles have been measured by frequency dependent photothermal radiometry using an intensity modulated argon-ion laser pump beam. The PTR amplitudes and phases have been calibrated with the signals recorded for glassy carbon. We will show the frequency variation of the inversely normalized amplitudes which correspond to the effusivity depth profile. The polished samples exhibit different depth profiles: that of electrolytic polishing (2) is most distinct from any other, while that after mechanical polishing (1) and that of combined electrolytic and mechanical polishing (3) are similar. The depth dependence of the effusivity can roughly be approximated by a three-layer model consisting of a surface layer of about 10 μm, a subsurface layer extending about 100 μm into the sample, followed by the bulk material at large penetration depths. In

  3. Characterization of Ternary NiTiPt High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rios, Orlando; Noebe, Ronald; Biles, Tiffany; Garg, Anita; Palczer, Anna; Scheiman, Daniel; Seifert, Hans Jurgen; Kaufman, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Pt additions substituted for Ni in NiTi alloys are known to increase the transformation temperature of the alloy but only at fairly high Pt levels. However, until now only ternary compositions with a very specific stoichiometry, Ni50-xPtxTi50, have been investigated and then only to very limited extent. In order to learn about this potential high-temperature shape memory alloy system, a series of over twenty alloys along and on either side of a line of constant stoichiometry between NiTi and TiPt were arc melted, homogenized, and characterized in terms of their microstructure, transformation temperatures, and hardness. The resulting microstructures were examined by scanning electron microscopy and the phase compositions quantified by energy dispersive spectroscopy."Stoichiometric" compositions along a line of constant stoichiometry between NiTi to TiPt were essentially single phase but by any deviations from a stoichiometry of (Ni,Pt)50Ti50 resulted in the presence of at least two different intermetallic phases, depending on the overall composition of the alloy. Essentially all alloys, whether single or two-phase, still under went a martensitic transformation. It was found that the transformation temperatures were depressed with initial Pt additions but at levels greater than 10 at.% the transformation temperature increased linearly with Pt content. Also, the transformation temperatures were relatively insensitive to alloy stoichiometry within the range of alloys examined. Finally, the dependence of hardness on Pt content for a series of Ni50-xPtxTi50 alloys showed solution softening at low Pt levels, while hardening was observed in ternary alloys containing more than about 10 at.% Pt. On either side of these "stoichiometric" compositions, hardness was also found to increase significantly.

  4. Surface structure and properties of biomedical NiTi shape memory alloy after Fenton's oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chu, C L; Hu, T; Wu, S L; Dong, Y S; Yin, L H; Pu, Y P; Lin, P H; Chung, C Y; Yeung, K W K; Chu, Paul K

    2007-09-01

    Fenton's oxidation is traditionally used to remove inorganic and organic pollutants from water in waster water treatment. It is an advanced oxidation process in which H2O2 is catalytically decomposed by ferrous irons into hydroxyl radicals (*OH) which have a higher oxidation potential (2.8V) than H2O2. In the work reported here, we for the first time use Fenton's oxidation to modify the surface of biomedical NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA). The influences of Fenton's oxidation on the surface microstructure, blood compatibility, leaching of harmful Ni ions and corrosion resistance in simulated body fluids is assessed using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, electrochemical tests, hemolysis analysis and the blood platelet adhesion test. The mechanical stability of the surface titania film produced by Fenton's oxidation as well as their effects on the shape memory behavior of the SMA are studied by bending tests. Our results show that Fenton's oxidation produces a novel nanostructured titania gel film with a graded structure on the NiTi substrate without an intermediate Ni-rich layer that is typical of high-temperature oxidation. Moreover, there is a clear Ni-free zone near the top surface of the titania film. The surface structural changes introduced by Fenton's oxidation improve the electrochemical corrosion resistance and mitigate Ni release. The latter effects are comparable to those observed after oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation reported previously and better than those of high-temperature oxidation. Aging in boiling water improves the crystallinity of the titania film and further reduces Ni leaching. Blood platelet adhesion is remarkably reduced after Fenton's oxidation, suggesting that the treated SMA has improved thrombo resistance. Enhancement of blood compatibility is believed to stem from the improved hemolysis resistance, the surface wettability and the

  5. Size effects on magnetic actuation in Ni-Mn-Ga shape-memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Dunand, David C; Müllner, Peter

    2011-01-11

    The off-stoichiometric Ni(2)MnGa Heusler alloy is a magnetic shape-memory alloy capable of reversible magnetic-field-induced strains (MFIS). These are generated by twin boundaries moving under the influence of an internal stress produced by a magnetic field through the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. While MFIS are very large (up to 10%) for monocrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga, they are near zero (<0.01%) in fine-grained polycrystals due to incompatibilities during twinning of neighboring grains and the resulting internal geometrical constraints. By growing the grains and/or shrinking the sample, the grain size becomes comparable to one or more characteristic sample sizes (film thickness, wire or strut diameter, ribbon width, particle diameter, etc), and the grains become surrounded by free space. This reduces the incompatibilities between neighboring grains and can favor twinning and thus increase the MFIS. This approach was validated recently with very large MFIS (0.2-8%) measured in Ni-Mn-Ga fibers and foams with bamboo grains with dimensions similar to the fiber or strut diameters and in thin plates where grain diameters are comparable to plate thickness. Here, we review processing, micro- and macrostructure, and magneto-mechanical properties of (i) Ni-Mn-Ga powders, fibers, ribbons and films with one or more small dimension, which are amenable to the growth of bamboo grains leading to large MFIS, and (ii) "constructs" from these structural elements (e.g., mats, laminates, textiles, foams and composites). Various strategies are proposed to accentuate this geometric effect which enables large MFIS in polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga by matching grain and sample sizes.

  6. Cerebellar Damage Produces Selective Deficits in Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravizza, Susan M.; Mccormick, Cristin A.; Schlerf, John E.; Justus, Timothy; Ivry, Richard B.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    The cerebellum is often active in imaging studies of verbal working memory, consistent with a putative role in articulatory rehearsal. While patients with cerebellar damage occasionally exhibit a mild impairment on standard neuropsychological tests of working memory, these tests are not diagnostic for exploring these processes in detail. The…

  7. Cerebellar Damage Produces Selective Deficits in Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravizza, Susan M.; Mccormick, Cristin A.; Schlerf, John E.; Justus, Timothy; Ivry, Richard B.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    The cerebellum is often active in imaging studies of verbal working memory, consistent with a putative role in articulatory rehearsal. While patients with cerebellar damage occasionally exhibit a mild impairment on standard neuropsychological tests of working memory, these tests are not diagnostic for exploring these processes in detail. The…

  8. Nanoscale design of Ni-Al shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Subramaniyan, Arun K; Sun, C T

    2009-02-25

    Nanoscale design of Ni-Al alloys was performed to optimize the phase transformation behavior. The distribution of nickel and aluminum atoms was identified as a key parameter in the phase transformation process. A design criterion based on thermal expansion asymmetry was proposed. The effectiveness of the design criterion was validated using molecular dynamics simulations.

  9. Structural study of an amorphous CuTi alloy produced by mechanical alloying using XRD, EXAFS and RMC simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, K. D.; Maciel, G. A.; Sanchez, D. F.; de Lima, J. C.; Jóvári, P.

    2010-09-01

    The structure of an amorphous Cu 64Ti 36 alloy produced by mechanical alloying was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy techniques and modeled through reverse Monte Carlo simulations using the total structure factor S(K) and the EXAFS χ(k) oscillations on Cu K edge as input data. From the simulations the partial pair distribution functions g(r) and the bond-angle distribution functions Θ(cosθ) were determined and, from these functions, average coordination numbers and average interatomic distances for the first neighbors were calculated. We also obtained information about the three-dimensional structures present in the alloy.

  10. The nanoscale mechanical properties of nickel-titanium shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Gordon A., III

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a class of metal alloys which can recover large amounts of strain through a solid-state phase change known as a martensitic transformation. Nickel titanium is the most well-known of these alloys, and although it is widely used, relatively little is known about its potential for use in nanotechnology. This thesis contains research designed to examine the mechanical properties of nickel titanium at the nanometer scale, and determine its suitability for use in nanotechnology applications. Results from nanoindentation-atomic force microscopy experiments show indentations in the surface of nickel titanium thin films can recover by the thermally induced shape memory effect. This process is explained in the context of a new model based on the expanding spherical cavity model, which can also be used to predict the onset of substrate effects during indentation. A new digital information storage device based on this phenomenon will also be discussed. Finally, the fabrication and characterization of mechanically active nickel titanium nanoparticles is presented. The research presented indicates that nickel titanium shape memory alloy is quite suitable for nanotechnology applications.

  11. Micro pulling down growth of very thin shape memory alloys single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Ferreño, I.; Juan, J. San; Breczewski, T.; López, G. A.; Nó, M. L.

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have attracted much attention in the last decades due to their thermo-mechanical properties such as superelasticity and shape memory effect. Among the different families of SMAs, Cu-Al-Ni alloys exhibit these properties in a wide range of temperatures including the temperature range of 100-200∘C, where there is a technological demand of these functional materials, and exhibit excellent behavior at small scale making them more competitive for applications in Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, polycrystalline alloys of Cu-based SMAs are very brittle so that they show their best thermo-mechanical properties in single-crystal state. Nowadays, conventional Bridgman and Czochralski methods are being applied to elaborate single-crystal rods up to a minimum diameter of 1mm, but no works have been reported for smaller diameters. With the aim of synthesizing very thin single-crystals, the Micro-Pulling Down (μ-PD) technique has been applied, for which the capillarity and surface tension between crucible and the melt play a critical role. The μ-PD method has been successfully applied to elaborate several cylindrical shape thin single-crystals down to 200μm in diameter. Finally, the martensitic transformation, which is responsible for the shape memory properties of these alloys, has been characterized for different single-crystals. The experimental results evidence the good quality of the grown single-crystals.

  12. Corrosion Behavior of Ti-55Ni-1.2Co High Stiffness Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu; Norwich, Dennis W.; Ehrlinspiel, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The corrosion behavior of high stiffness nominal Ti-55Ni-1.2Co (wt.%) shape memory alloys (SMAs) was systematically investigated in the present study including straight wires, wire-formed stents, and laser-cut stents. It was found that the corrosion behavior of Ti-55Ni-1.2Co alloys is comparable with those of binary NiTiNol counterparts, which is attributed to the small alloying amount of cobalt. Additionally, the corrosion resistance of high stiffness Ti-55Ni-1.2Co SMAs is independent of the stent-forming method. To explore the galvanic corrosion susceptibility between Ti-55Ni-1.2Co and binary NiTiNol alloys, a NiTiNol sleeve was laser welded to the Ti-55Ni-1.2Co stent. Interestingly, there is no galvanic corrosion observed in this NiTiCo-NiTiNol component, even after immersion of the component in phosphate-buffered saline solution at 37 °C for three months. This study will shed some light on the industrial applications of high stiffness Ti-55Ni-1.2Co shape memory alloys.

  13. Thermomechanical behavior of NiTiPdPt high temperature shape memory alloy springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, D. E.; Padula, S. A., II; Noebe, R. D.; Benafan, O.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2014-12-01

    Transformation strains in high temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) are generally smaller than for conventional NiTi alloys and can be purposefully limited in cases where stability and repeatability at elevated temperatures are desired. Yet such alloys can still be used in actuator applications that require large strokes when used in the form of springs. Thus there is a need to understand the thermomechanical behavior of shape memory alloy spring actuators, particularly those consisting of alternative alloys. In this work, a modular test setup was assembled with the objective of acquiring stroke, stress, temperature, and moment data in real time during joule heating and forced convective cooling of Ni19.5Ti50.5Pd25Pt5 HTSMA springs. The spring actuators were subjected to both monotonic axial loading and thermomechanical cycling. The role of rotational constraints (i.e., by restricting rotation or allowing for free rotation at the ends of the springs) on stroke performance was also assessed. Finally, recognizing that evolution in the material microstructure can result in changes in HTSMA spring geometry, the effect of material microstructural evolution on spring performance was examined. This was done by taking into consideration the changes in geometry that occurred during thermomechanical cycling. This work thus provides insight into designing with HTSMA springs and predicting their thermomechanical performance.

  14. Behavior of the shape memory alloy NiTi during one-dimensional shock loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millett, J. C. F.; Bourne, N. K.; Gray, G. T., III

    2002-09-01

    The response of alloys based on the intermetallic compound NiTi to high-strain-rate and shock loading conditions has recently attracted attention. In particular, similarities between it, and other shape memory materials such as the alloy U-6%Nb in the propagation of the plastic wave in Taylor cylinders are of significant interest. In this article, the Hugoniot is measured using multiple manganin stress gauges, either embedded between plates of the NiTi alloy, or supported with blocks of polymethylmethacrylate. In this way, the shock stress, shock velocity, and details of the shock wave profile have been gathered. An inflection at lower stresses has been found in the Hugoniot curve (stress-particle velocity), and has been ascribed to the martensitic phase transformation that is characteristic of the shape memory effect in this alloy. In a similar way, the variation of shock velocity with particle velocity has been found to be nonlinear, contrary to other pure metal and alloy systems. Finally, a break in slope in the rising part of the shock profile has been identified as the Hugoniot elastic limit in NiTi. Conversion to the one-dimensional stress equivalent, and comparison to quasistatic data indicates that NiTi exhibits significant strain-rate sensitivity.

  15. Static critical phenomena in Co-Ni-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Sethi, Brahmananda Sarma, S. Srinivasan, A. Santra, S. B.

    2014-04-24

    Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys are smart materials because they exhibit temperature driven shape memory effect and magnetic field induced strain. Thus two types of energy, i.e. thermal and magnetic, are used to control their shape memory behaviour. Study of critical phenomenon in such materials has received increased experimental and theoretical attention for better understanding of the magnetic phase transition behavior as well as further development of ferromagnetic shape memory materials. In the present study we report the preparation and characterization of bulk Co{sub 45}Ni{sub 25}Ga{sub 30} alloy, prepared by a sequence of arc melting technique followed by homogenization at 1150 °C for 24 hours and ice-water quenching. Structural and magnetic properties of the alloys were studied by means of X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer in an applied field range of ±18 kOe equipped with a high temperature oven. We have determined the critical temperature T{sub C} (∼375.5 K) and the critical exponents viz; β=0.40, γ=1.68 and δ=5.2. Asymptotic critical exponents β, γ, and δ obey Widom scaling relation, γ+β=βδ, and the magnetization data satisfy the scaling equation of state for second-order phase transition in the asymptotic critical region.

  16. An Implicit Algorithm for the Numerical Simulation of Shape-Memory Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, R; Stolken, J; Jannetti, C; Bassani, J

    2003-10-16

    Shape-memory alloys (SMA) have the potential to be used in a variety of interesting applications due to their unique properties of pseudoelasticity and the shape-memory effect. However, in order to design SMA devices efficiently, a physics-based constitutive model is required to accurately simulate the behavior of shape-memory alloys. The scope of this work is to extend the numerical capabilities of the SMA constitutive model developed by Jannetti et. al. (2003), to handle large-scale polycrystalline simulations. The constitutive model is implemented within the finite-element software ABAQUS/Standard using a user defined material subroutine, or UMAT. To improve the efficiency of the numerical simulations, so that polycrystalline specimens of shape-memory alloys can be modeled, a fully implicit algorithm has been implemented to integrate the constitutive equations. Using an implicit integration scheme increases the efficiency of the UMAT over the previously implemented explicit integration method by a factor of more than 100 for single crystal simulations.

  17. Optimizing Magnetocaloric Properties of Heusler-Type Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys by Tuning Magnetostructural Transformation Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lian; Qu, Yuhai; Cong, Daoyong; Sun, Xiaoming; Wang, Yandong

    2017-08-01

    Heusler-type magnetic shape memory alloys show a magnetostructural transformation from the low-magnetization phase to the high-magnetization phase upon the application of external magnetic fields. As a result, these alloys exhibit fascinating multifunctional properties, such as magnetic shape memory effect, magnetocaloric effect, magnetoresistance, and magnetic superelasticity. All these functional properties are intimately related to the coupling of the structural and magnetic transitions. Therefore, deliberate tuning of the magnetostructural transformation parameters is essential for obtaining optimal multifunctional properties. Here, we show that by tuning the magnetostructural transformation parameters, we are able to achieve a variety of novel magnetocaloric properties with different application potentials: (1) large magnetic entropy change of 31.9 J kg-1 K-1 under a magnetic field of 5 T; (2) giant effective magnetic refrigeration capacity (251 J kg-1) with a broad operating temperature window (33 K) under a magnetic field of 5 T; (3) large reversible field-induced entropy change (about 15 J kg-1 K-1) and large reversible effective magnetic refrigeration capacity (77 J kg-1) under a magnetic field of 5 T. The balanced tuning of magnetostructural transformation parameters of magnetic shape memory alloys may provide an instructive reference to the shape memory and magnetic refrigeration communities.

  18. Martensite aging effect in a Ti{sub 50}Pd{sub 50} high temperature shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, W.; Otsuka, Kazuhiro

    1999-11-19

    Ti-Pd alloy system is one of the potential high temperature shape memory alloys due to its high martensitic transformation temperatures. Thus, many researches including shape memory characteristics, martensitic transformations and mechanical behavior of the alloys have been done in recent yeas. However, martensite aging effect in the alloy, which is an important issue as to the stability of martensite at high temperature, has not been reported yet. Ti{sub 50}Pd{sub 50} transforms from B2 parent phase to B19 martensite upon cooling, and M{sub s} is 823 K (25) and T{sub m} is 1,673 K (26). Thus M{sub s}/T{sub m} ratio of the alloy is about 0.49, and the alloy may show strong martensite aging effect according to the above proposal. It is now of interest to examine whether the Ti{sub 50}Pd{sub 50} alloy show martensite aging effect. As will be shown, the Ti{sub 50}Pd{sub 50} alloy indeed shows the aging effect, as expected; however, the aging effect of this alloy exhibits a unique feature, which is not found in other shape memory alloys.

  19. Phase diagram of FeNiCoAlTaB ferrous shape memory alloy on aging time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhijian; Cui, Jian; Ren, Xiaobing

    2017-04-01

    Ferrous shape memory alloy, Fe41Ni28Co17Al11.5Ta2.5B0.05, has shown large superelastic strain and strength in previous study. In the fabrication of this alloy, aging process is crucial for the formation of shape memory effect/superelasticity. However, its phase evolution on aging time is not clearly known. In this study, we systematically studied the phase diagram of this alloy on aging time. It is found that the unaged alloy shows a strain glass transition. With the aging time proceeding, the martensitic transformation gradually emerges. The phase diagram can be explained by the formation of coherent precipitates induced by aging. The heterogeneous strain between coherent precipitates and matrix is the driving force responsible for the emerging martensitic transformation. The generic explanation is supposed to be useful in martensitic transformation engineering for developing novel shape memory alloys from non-transforming materials.

  20. Tribological characteristics of ceramic conversion treated NiTi shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, X.; Dong, H.

    2007-09-01

    NiTi shape memory alloys are very attractive for medical implants and devices (such as orthopaedic and orthodontic implants) and various actuators. However, wear is a major concern for such applications and a novel surface engineering process, ceramic conversion treatment, has recently been developed to address this problem. In this study, the tribological characteristics of ceramic conversion treated NiTi alloy have been systematically investigated under dry unidirectional wear, reciprocating-corrosion wear and fretting-corrosion wear condition. Based on the experimental results, the wear behaviour under different conditions is compared and wear mechanisms involved are discussed.

  1. The applications and research progresses of nickel-titanium shape memory alloy in reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Zeng, Yanjun; Tang, Xiaoying

    2010-06-01

    In spite of some good successes and excellent researches of nickel-titanium shape memory alloy (NiTi-SMA) in reconstructive surgery, there are still serious limitations to the clinical applications of NiTi alloy today. The potential leakage of elements and ions could be toxic to cells, tissues and organs. This review discussed the properties, clinical applications, corrosion performance, biocompatibility, the possible preventive measures to improve corrosion resistance by surface/structure modifications and the long-term challenges of using SMAs.

  2. Theoretical description of magnetocaloric effect in the shape memory alloy exhibiting metamagnetic behavior

    SciTech Connect

    L'vov, Victor A.; Kosogor, Anna; Barandiaran, Jose M.

    2016-01-07

    A simple thermodynamic theory is proposed for the quantitative description of giant magnetocaloric effect observed in metamagnetic shape memory alloys. Both the conventional magnetocaloric effect at the Curie temperature and the inverse magnetocaloric effect at the transition from the ferromagnetic austenite to a weakly magnetic martensite are considered. These effects are evaluated from the Landau-type free energy expression involving exchange interactions in a system of a two magnetic sublattices. The findings of the thermodynamic theory agree with first-principles calculations and experimental results from Ni-Mn-In-Co and Ni-Mn-Sn alloys, respectively.

  3. Dynamic-Data Driven Modeling of Uncertainties and 3D Effects of Porous Shape Memory Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-03

    heating the SMA. The cooling time is still an issue. SMAs have a limited life span due to naturally occurring fatigue in the alloy. Micro scale crystal...mathematical model for Joule heated SMAs. In Section 3 we describe the virtual shaker device and the DDDAS. In Section 4 we discuss personnel and...properties of SMAs (Sec. 2.1) and a mathematical model for Joule heated SMAs (Sec. 2.2). 2.1. Properties of SMAs Shape memory alloys (SMAs) and

  4. Martensitic transformation and shape memory effect in ferromagnetic Heusler alloy Ni2FeGa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. H.; Zhang, M.; Cui, Y. T.; Zhou, Y. Q.; Wang, W. H.; Wu, G. H.; Zhang, X. X.; Xiao, Gang

    2003-01-01

    We have synthesized ferromagnetic Heusler alloy Ni2FeGa using the melt-spinning technique. The Ni2FeGa ribbon, having a high chemical ordering L21 structure, exhibits a thermoelastic martensitic transformation from cubic to orthorhombic structure at 142 K and a premartensitic transformation. The alloy has a relatively high Curie temperature of 430 K, a magnetization of 73 Am2/kg, and a low saturated field of 0.6 T. The textured samples with preferentially oriented grains show a completely recoverable two-way shape memory effect with a strain of 0.3% upon the thermoelastic martensitic transformation.

  5. Martensitic transformations and morphology studies of NiTi shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murari, M. S.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2017-05-01

    The forward transformation temperatures Martensite Start (Ms) and Martensite Finish (Mf) during cooling, reverse transformation temperatures Austenite Start (As) and Austenite Finish (Af) during heating are very sensitive to the thermal and mechanical history of the Shape Memory Alloy (SMA). Heat treatments, cold and hot roll, thermal and mechanical cycling have great influence on the transformation temperatures. Different characterizing techniques like Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Electrical Resistivity (ER) and Thermo Mechanical Analyzer (TMA) were employed to study the phase transformation temperatures of NiTi alloy. The microstructure of the samples was studied with Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Optical Microscope (OM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM).

  6. Treatment of patella fracture by claw-like shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Hao, Wei; Zhou, Lugang; Sun, Yujie; Shi, Peng; Liu, Hongzhi; Wang, Xin

    2015-07-01

    Titanium-nickel shape memory alloy (Ti-Ni SMA) is characterized by shape-memory effect, super-elasticity, excellent fatigue behavior, corrosion resistance, acceptable biocompatibility and high damping capacity. Claw-like Ti-Ni SMA fixator (SMA-claw) has been used to treat transverse fracture of patella. 29 patients (19 males, 10 females) aged from 21 to 71 years old (averaged 43.0 years old) have been received open reduction and internal fixation with SMA-claw from January 2011 to December 2011. After operation, patients have been received gradual knee function exercises, followed by radiographic analysis and Lysholm Knee Score at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months postoperation. The mean follow-up time was 11.48 months (25 patients finished, 1 lost after 6 months and 3 lost after 9 months). Radiographic bone union occurred at 2 months (7 patients) or 3 months (22 patients). Satisfied range of motion for the knee joint has been observed with 1.90/141.72° (hyperextension/flexion) at 3 months, 4.83/143.97° at 6 months, 4.82/144.82° at 9 months and 5.2/145° at 12 months postsurgery. The Ti-Ni SMA-claw fixator produced good osteosynthesis effect by continuous recovery stress with relatively simple and minimally invasive handling process, which can be introduced as an alternative to traditional tension band technique for treatment of patellar transverse fracture.

  7. Ti Ni shape memory alloy film-actuated microstructures for a MEMS probe card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namazu, Takahiro; Tashiro, Youichi; Inoue, Shozo

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a novel silicon (Si) cantilever beam device actuated by titanium-nickel (Ti-Ni) shape memory alloy (SMA) films. A Ti-Ni SMA film can yield high work output per unit volume, so a Ti-Ni film-actuated Si cantilever beam device is a prospective tool for use as a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) probe card that provides a relatively large contact force between the probe and electrode pad in spite of its minute size. Before fabrication of the device, the thermomechanical deformation behavior of Ti-Ni SMA films with various compositions was investigated in order to determine a sufficient constituent film for a MEMS actuator. As a result, Ti-Ni films having a Ti content of 50.2 to 52.6 atomic% (at%) were found to be usable for operation as a room temperature actuator. We have developed a Ti-Ni film-actuated Si cantilever beam device, which can produce a contact force by the cantilever bending when in contact, and also by the shape memory effect (SME) of the Ti-Ni film arising from Joule heating. The SME of the Ti-Ni film can generate an additional average contact force of 200 µN with application of 500 mW to the film. In addition to physical contact, a dependable electric contact between the Au film-coated probe tip and the Al film electrode was achieved. However, the contact resistance exhibited an average value of 25 Ω, which would have to be reduced for practical use. Reliability tests confirmed the durability of the Ti-Ni film-actuated Si cantilever-beam, in that the contact resistance was constant throughout a large number of physical contacts (>104 times).

  8. Development of high temperature two-way shape memory alloys. Final report, 1 October 1991-31 March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.H.

    1995-10-17

    This report concludes a nearly 4-year study of Shape Memory Alloys and development of new high temperature two-way shape memory alloys. New alloys were characterized in terms of their phase transformation temperatures, shape memory effect and mechanical properties. The work encompassed investigations of smart structures including NiTi-aluminum metal-metal composite materials. Development of high temperature SMAs extend use of applications to areas in which they are most needed, i.e., in defense and industrial fields that employ shape controlling and vibration depression in high temperature environments. Most of the research focused on the Ti and Ni Mn-Ti systems, and investigation and training of NiTi-Fd, NiTi-Hf and NiTi--Zr two-way shape memory alloys.

  9. Relationship among grain size, annealing twins and shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaixia; Peng, Huabei; Zhang, Chengyan; Wang, Shanling; Wen, Yuhua

    2016-07-01

    In order to clarify the relationship among grain size, annealing twins and the shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys, the Fe-21.63Mn-5.60Si-9.32Cr-5.38Ni (weight %) alloy with a grain size ranging from 48.9 μm-253.6 μm was obtained by adjusting the heating temperature or heating time after 20% cold-rolling. The densities of grain boundaries and annealing twins increase with a decrease in grain size, whereas the volume fraction and width of stress-induced ɛ martensite after 9% deformation at Ms + 10 K decrease. This result indicates that grain refinement raises the constraint effects of grain boundaries and annealing twins upon martensitic transformation. In this case, the ability to suppress the plastic deformation and facilitate the stress-induced ɛ martensite transformation deteriorates after grain refinement owing to the enhancement of the constraint effects. It is demonstrated by the result that the difference at Ms + 10 K between the critical stress for plastic yielding and that for inducing martensitic transformation is smaller for the specimen with a grain size of 48.9 μm than for the specimen with a grain size of 253.6 μm. Therefore, the shape memory effect declined by decreasing the grain size.

  10. Superelastic and shape memory properties of TixNb3Zr2Ta alloys.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongfeng; Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Minmin; Liu, Zhongtang; Qin, Jining; Zhang, Di; Lu, Weijie

    2012-08-01

    The microstructure and phase constitutions of TixNb3Zr2Ta alloys (x=35, 31, 27, 23) (wt%) were studied. With a lower niobium content the grain size of β phase in TixNb3Zr2Ta alloys increased significantly, and the TixNb3Zr2Ta system was more likely to form α″ phase and even α phase. Tensile tests showed that UTS of TixNb3Zr2Ta alloys improved as the Nb content was decreased. Cyclic loading-unloading tensile tests were carried on TixNb3Zr2Ta alloys. Ti23Nb3Zr2Ta and Ti27Nb3Zr2Ta alloys featured the best superelasticity among the alloys studied. The pseudoelastic strain ratio of Ti35Nb3Zr2Ta alloy decreased a lot as the cycle number increased. Ti31Nb3Zr2Ta alloy showed only minimum superelasticity. This is because Ti23Nb3Zr2Ta and Ti27Nb3Zr2Ta alloys had higher yield strength than Ti31Nb3Zr2Ta did, which allowed martensite phase to be induced. On the contrary, Ti31Nb3Zr2Ta alloy exhibited better shape memory property than Ti27Nb3Zr2Ta, Ti23Nb3Zr2Ta and Ti35Nb3Zr2Ta titanium alloys. β phase, α phase and α″ phase were found in Ti23Nb3Zr2Ta alloy by TEM observation. The dislocation density of α phase was much lower than that of β phase due to their crystal structure difference. This may explained why Ti23Nb3Zr2Ta with α phase possessed higher tensile strength. The incomplete shape recovery of Ti23Nb3Zr2Ta alloy after unloading resulted from two sources. Plastic deformation occurred in β phase, α phase and even α″ phase under dislocation slip mechanism, and incomplete decomposition of α″ martensitic phase resulted in unrecovered strain as well.

  11. Design and testing of a shape memory alloy buoyancy engine for unmanned underwater vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angilella, Alex J.; Gandhi, Farhan S.; Miller, Timothy F.

    2015-11-01

    The US Navy’s 2004 Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) Master Plan outlines the Navy’s aim to expand the role of UUVs, and one of the key areas of interest is the increase in UUV range and endurance. A class of UUVs known as underwater gliders achieves this objective by cyclically modifying its buoyancy and covering horizontal distance with a climb/dive pattern. The present study proposes the use of shape memory alloys (SMAs) in a buoyancy heat engine where the oceanic thermocline would be exploited to produce martensite-austenite phase transformations that in turn change the buoyancy of a piston-cylinder prototype. The working principle of the device involves transitioning between the following two states. At low temperature (at depth) the SMA wires are tensioned into a detwinned martensitic state by a parallel compressed spring. This moves the piston within the cylinder to increase the chamber dry volume and device buoyancy. At higher temperatures (near the surface) the SMA wires undergo a martensite-to-austenite phase transformation, recover part of the applied strain, and reduce the volume and buoyancy of the piston-cylinder. This paper presents the analysis, design, fabrication, and testing of a prototype device. The prototype was immersed in a water bath, and it was demonstrated that its volume would change, as expected, with change in temperature of the water bath. Simulation results showed good correlation with test data.

  12. Mechanical properties identification and design optimization of nitinol shape memory alloy microactuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, M.; Hamedi, M.; Salmani Nohouji, H.; Arghavani, J.

    2014-02-01

    Microactuators are essential elements of MEMS and are widely used in these devices. Microgrippers, micropositioners, microfixtures, micropumps and microvalves are well-known applications of microstructures. In this paper, the design optimization of shape memory alloy microactuators is discussed. Four different configurations of microactuator with variable geometrical parameters, generating different levels of displacement and force, are designed and analysed. In order to determine the optimum values of parameters for each microactuator, statistical design of experiments (DOE) is used. For this purpose, the Souza et al constitutive model (1988 Eur. J. Mech. A 17 789-806) is adapted for use in finite element analysis software. Mechanical properties of the SMA are identified by performing experimental tests on Ti-49.8%Ni. Finally, the specific energy of each microactuator is determined using the calibrated model and regression analysis. Moreover, the characteristic curve of each microactuator is obtained and with this virtual tool one can choose a microactuator with the desired force and displacement. The methodology discussed in this paper can be used as a reference to design appropriate microactuators for different MEMS applications producing various ranges of displacement and force.

  13. New design for a rotatory joint actuator made with shape memory alloy contractile wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guoping; Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    1996-05-01

    A design approach for a rotatory joint actuator using a contractile shape memory alloy (SMA) wire is presented and an example design is followed. In this example, the output torque of the actuator is 18 Newton-meters, and its angular range is 30 degrees. Compared with a SMA spring type actuating component, a SMA wire type actuating component uses less SMA material and uses less electrical energy when it is electrically powered. On the other hand, a SMA wire type actuating component must have a large SMA wire length to produce a required amount of angular rotation of the joint. When pulleys are used to arrange a lengthy SMA wire in a small space, the friction between pulleys and pins is introduced and the performance of the joint actuator is degenerated to some degree. The investigated joint actuator provides a good chance for developing powered orthoses with SMA actuators for disabled individuals. It can relieve the weight concern with hydraulic and motor-powered orthoses and the safety concern with motor-powered orthoses. When electrically powered, a SMA actuator has the disadvantage of low energy efficiency.

  14. Shape memory alloy-based moment connections with superior self-centering properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmani, Mohammad Amin; Ghassemieh, Mehdi

    2016-07-01

    Superelastic shape memory alloys (SMAs) have the potential to create a spontaneous recentering mechanism on the connections of a structural system under seismic actions, which results in mitigation of the damage in the main structural members. In this article, innovative types of steel beam-to-column moment connections incorporating SMA bolts and plates are introduced and studied through a numerical approach. First, SMA bolted end-plate connection model is produced and analyzed by means of the finite element method to validate the numerical analysis against the prior experimental results. Then, the performance of eleven different end-plate moment connection models subjected to cyclic loading is investigated. By selecting the lower values for the moment capacity based on bolts strength in comparison to the flexural resistance of the beam, the plastic hinge is transferred from the beam section to the beam-column interface. Hence, employing superelastic materials at the connection interface could be potentially effective in providing the desired self-centering effect in the connection. To this end, the impact of utilizing superelastic SMA bolts and end-plates instead of using the conventional structural steel on the overall cyclic response of the connections is evaluated in this study. Results show that extended end-plate connections equipped with SMA bolts and end-plates, if properly proportioned and detailed, not only exhibit a clear reduction in the residual drifts after a seismic event, but also can meet the ductility requirements with good energy dissipation and sufficient stiffness.

  15. Treatment of Clavicular Nonunions with Shape Memory Ni-Ti Alloy Swan-Like Bone Connector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin-Wei; Xu, Shuo-Gui; Wang, Pan-Feng; Zhang, Chun-Cai

    2011-07-01

    Disability caused by nonunited fracture of the clavicle is a rare condition that is expressed by local pain. This condition is usually treated by reduction of the fracture and stable fixation with augmentation by autogenous bone graft. This is a retrospective study to assess outcome of the treatment of clavicular nonunion with a novel shape memory Ni-Ti alloy swan-like bone connector (SMC). August, 2003 to December, 2006, 5 consecutive patients with clavicular nonunion were treated using SMC in our hospital. The SMC device was cooled with ice before implantation and then warmed to 40-50 °C after implantation, to produce balanced axial and compression forces that would stabilize the fracture. We have used cancellous bone grafting in all our cases to obtain solid healing. Average follow-up was 37 months (range 25-58). In all patients, satisfactory osseous union was achieved. There was no complication from the hardware. The average Constant score which is for evaluating function of injured shoulder after operation was 86 points (average Constant score for the unaffected shoulder was 95). All patients were very satisfied with the treatment and outcome. The SMC provides a new effective method for fracture fixation and treatment of bone nonunion for clavicle.

  16. Characteristics of spaceborne cooler passive vibration isolator by using a compressed shape memory alloy mesh washer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyun-Ung; Kwon, Seong-Cheol; Youn, Se-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic coolers produce undesirable micro-vibrations during on-orbit operation, which may seriously affect the image quality of high-resolution observation satellites. Micro-vibrations can be easily isolated by mounting the cooler on a vibration isolator with low stiffness to attenuate the vibration transmitted to the satellite structure. However, the structural safety of a cooler supported by an isolator with low stiffness cannot be guaranteed under the much more severe vibration condition of a launch environment. In this study, to guarantee vibration isolation performance in a launch environment while effectively isolating the micro-vibrations from the cooler on-orbit, a new type of passive vibration isolation system by using a compressed shape memory alloy mesh washer was proposed and investigated. The basic characteristics of the isolator were measured in static and free vibration tests of the isolator, and a simple equivalent model of the isolator was proposed. The effectiveness of the isolator design in a launch environment was demonstrated through sine vibration, random vibration, and shock tests.

  17. Improvement in the Shape Memory Response of Ti50.5Ni24.5Pd25 High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloy with Scandium Microalloying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atli, K. C.; Karaman, I; Noebe, R. D.; Garg, A.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.; Kireeva, I. V.

    2010-01-01

    A Ti(50.5)Ni(24.5)Pd25 high-temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) is microalloyed with 0.5 at. pct scandium (Sc) to enhance its shape-memory characteristics, in particular, dimensional stability under repeated thermomechanical cycles. For both Ti(50.5)Ni(24.5)Pd25 and the Sc-alloyed material, differential scanning calorimetry is conducted for multiple cycles to characterize cyclic stability of the transformation temperatures. The microstructure is evaluated using electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. Isobaric thermal cycling experiments are used to determine transformation temperatures, dimensional stability, and work output as a function of stress. The Sc-doped alloy displays more stable shape memory response with smaller irrecoverable strain and narrower thermal hysteresis than the baseline ternary alloy. This improvement in performance is attributed to the solid solution hardening effect of Sc.

  18. Improvement in the Shape Memory Response of Ti50.5Ni24.5Pd25 High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloy with Scandium Microalloying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atli, K. C.; Karaman, I; Noebe, R. D.; Garg, A.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.; Kireeva, I. V.

    2010-01-01

    A Ti(50.5)Ni(24.5)Pd25 high-temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) is microalloyed with 0.5 at. pct scandium (Sc) to enhance its shape-memory characteristics, in particular, dimensional stability under repeated thermomechanical cycles. For both Ti(50.5)Ni(24.5)Pd25 and the Sc-alloyed material, differential scanning calorimetry is conducted for multiple cycles to characterize cyclic stability of the transformation temperatures. The microstructure is evaluated using electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. Isobaric thermal cycling experiments are used to determine transformation temperatures, dimensional stability, and work output as a function of stress. The Sc-doped alloy displays more stable shape memory response with smaller irrecoverable strain and narrower thermal hysteresis than the baseline ternary alloy. This improvement in performance is attributed to the solid solution hardening effect of Sc.

  19. Investigation of the Microstructure of Joints of Aluminum Alloys Produced by Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolubaev, E. A.

    2015-02-01

    Special features of the microstructure of joints of aluminum-magnesium and aluminum-copper alloys produced by friction stir welding are analyzed. It is demonstrated that a layered structure with ultradisperse grains is produced by friction stir welding at the center of the weld joint. An analogy is drawn between the microstructures of joints produced by friction stir welding and surface layer produced by sliding friction.

  20. Microstructure and shape memory behavior of [111]-oriented NiTiHfPd alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, E.; Tobe, H.; Karaca, H. E.; Noebe, R. D.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between the microstructure and shape memory properties of [111]-oriented Ni45.3Ti29.7Hf20Pd5 (at%) single crystals was explored. In this precipitation-strengthened alloy, the size and volume fraction of precipitates and interparticle distances govern the martensite morphology and the ensuing shape memory responses. Aging of the solution-treated material, leading to a microstructure of fine, closely spaced precipitates, resulted in a material capable of a shape memory strain of 2.15% at 1000 MPa in compression. Larger precipitates formed after aging the as-grown single crystals (without a prior solution treatment) resulting in a shape memory strain of 2.5% at this same stress level in constant-stress thermal cycling experiments. Superelastic strains of 4% in compression without any residual strain were possible under various microstructural conditions and the stress hysteresis could be varied between nearly 500 and 1000 MPa depending on the microstructure.

  1. Development of Ultra-High Mechanical Damping Structures Based on the Nano-Scale Properties of Shape Memory Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-29

    Memory Alloys Professor José San Juan Professor Maria L. Nó University of the Basque Country & Fundación EUSKOIKER Dpt. Física Materia ...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of the Basque Country & Fundación EUSKOIKER Dpt. Física Materia Condensada Facultad de...Memory Alloys. J. San Juan and M.L. Nó University of the Basque Country & Fundación EUSKOIKER Dpt. Física Materia Condensada, Facultad de

  2. Fabrication and Characterization of novel W80Ni10Nb10 alloy produced by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, R.; Patra, A.; Karak, S. K.; Pattanaik, A.; Mishra, S. C.

    2016-02-01

    Nanostructured tungsten (W) based alloy with nominal composition of W80Ni10Nb10 (in wt. %) was synthesized by mechanical alloying of elemental powders of tungsten (W), nickel (Ni), niobium (Nb) in a high energy planetary ball-mill for 20 h using chrome steel as grinding media and toluene as process control agent followed by compaction at 500 MPa pressure for 5 mins and sintering at 1500°C for 2 h in Ar atmosphere. The phase evolution and the microstructure of the milled powder and consolidated product were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystallite size of W in W80Ni10Nb10 powder was reduced from 100 μm at 0 h to 45.6 nm at 10 h and 34.1 nm at 20 h of milling whereas lattice strain increases to 35% at 20 h of milling. The dislocation density shows sharp increase up to 5 h of milling and the rate of increase drops beyond 5 to 20 h of milling. The lattice parameter of tungsten in W80Ni10Nb10 expanded upto 0.04% at 10 h of milling and contracted upto 0.02% at 20 h of milling. The SEM micrograph revealed the presence of spherical and elongated particles in W80Ni10Nb10 powders at 20 h of milling. The particle size decreases from 100 μm to 2 μm with an increase in the milling time from 0 to 20 hours. The crystallite size of W in milled W80Ni10Nb10 alloy as evident from bright field TEM image was in well agreement with the measured crystallite size from XRD. Structure of W in 20 h milled W80Ni10Nb10 alloy was identified by indexing of selected area diffraction (SAD) pattern. Formation of NbNi intermetallic was evident from XRD pattern and SEM micrograph of sintered alloy. Maximum sinterability of 90.8% was achieved in 20 h milled sintered alloy. Hardness and wear study was also conducted to investigate the mechanical behaviour of the sintered product. Hardness of W80Ni10Nb10 alloy reduces with increasing load whereas wear rate increases with increasing load. The evaluated

  3. Feedforward-Feedback Hybrid Control for Magnetic Shape Memory Alloy Actuators Based on the Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Miaolei; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Jingyuan

    2014-01-01

    As a new type of smart material, magnetic shape memory alloy has the advantages of a fast response frequency and outstanding strain capability in the field of microdrive and microposition actuators. The hysteresis nonlinearity in magnetic shape memory alloy actuators, however, limits system performance and further application. Here we propose a feedforward-feedback hybrid control method to improve control precision and mitigate the effects of the hysteresis nonlinearity of magnetic shape memory alloy actuators. First, hysteresis nonlinearity compensation for the magnetic shape memory alloy actuator is implemented by establishing a feedforward controller which is an inverse hysteresis model based on Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii operator. Secondly, the paper employs the classical Proportion Integration Differentiation feedback control with feedforward control to comprise the hybrid control system, and for further enhancing the adaptive performance of the system and improving the control accuracy, the Radial Basis Function neural network self-tuning Proportion Integration Differentiation feedback control replaces the classical Proportion Integration Differentiation feedback control. Utilizing self-learning ability of the Radial Basis Function neural network obtains Jacobian information of magnetic shape memory alloy actuator for the on-line adjustment of parameters in Proportion Integration Differentiation controller. Finally, simulation results show that the hybrid control method proposed in this paper can greatly improve the control precision of magnetic shape memory alloy actuator and the maximum tracking error is reduced from 1.1% in the open-loop system to 0.43% in the hybrid control system. PMID:24828010

  4. Feedforward-feedback hybrid control for magnetic shape memory alloy actuators based on the Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Miaolei; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Jingyuan

    2014-01-01

    As a new type of smart material, magnetic shape memory alloy has the advantages of a fast response frequency and outstanding strain capability in the field of microdrive and microposition actuators. The hysteresis nonlinearity in magnetic shape memory alloy actuators, however, limits system performance and further application. Here we propose a feedforward-feedback hybrid control method to improve control precision and mitigate the effects of the hysteresis nonlinearity of magnetic shape memory alloy actuators. First, hysteresis nonlinearity compensation for the magnetic shape memory alloy actuator is implemented by establishing a feedforward controller which is an inverse hysteresis model based on Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii operator. Secondly, the paper employs the classical Proportion Integration Differentiation feedback control with feedforward control to comprise the hybrid control system, and for further enhancing the adaptive performance of the system and improving the control accuracy, the Radial Basis Function neural network self-tuning Proportion Integration Differentiation feedback control replaces the classical Proportion Integration Differentiation feedback control. Utilizing self-learning ability of the Radial Basis Function neural network obtains Jacobian information of magnetic shape memory alloy actuator for the on-line adjustment of parameters in Proportion Integration Differentiation controller. Finally, simulation results show that the hybrid control method proposed in this paper can greatly improve the control precision of magnetic shape memory alloy actuator and the maximum tracking error is reduced from 1.1% in the open-loop system to 0.43% in the hybrid control system.

  5. In vitro corrosion behaviour of Ti-Nb-Sn shape memory alloys in Ringer's physiological solution.

    PubMed

    Rosalbino, F; Macciò, D; Scavino, G; Saccone, A

    2012-04-01

    The nearly equiatomic Ni-Ti alloy (Nitinol) has been widely employed in the medical and dental fields owing to its shape memory or superelastic properties. The main concern about the use of this alloy derives form the fact that it contains a large amount of nickel (55% by mass), which is suspected responsible for allergic, toxic and carcinogenic reactions. In this work, the in vitro corrosion behavior of two Ti-Nb-Sn shape memory alloys, Ti-16Nb-5Sn and Ti-18Nb-4Sn (mass%) has been investigated and compared with that of Nitinol. The in vitro corrosion resistance was assessed in naturally aerated Ringer's physiological solution at 37°C by corrosion potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements as a function of exposure time, and potentiodynamic polarization curves. Corrosion potential values indicated that both Ni-Ti and Ti-Nb-Sn alloys undergo spontaneous passivation due to spontaneously formed oxide film passivating the metallic surface, in the aggressive environment. It also indicated that the tendency for the formation of a spontaneous oxide is greater for the Ti-18Nb-5Sn alloy. Significantly low anodic current density values were obtained from the polarization curves, indicating a typical passive behaviour for all investigated alloys, but Nitinol exhibited breakdown of passivity at potentials above approximately 450 mV(SCE), suggesting lower corrosion protection characteristics of its oxide film compared to the Ti-Nb-Sn alloys. EIS studies showed high impedance values for all samples, increasing with exposure time, indicating an improvement in corrosion resistance of the spontaneous oxide film. The obtained EIS spectra were analyzed using an equivalent electrical circuit representing a duplex structure oxide film, composed by an outer and porous layer (low resistance), and an inner barrier layer (high resistance) mainly responsible for the alloys corrosion resistance. The resistance of passive film present on the metals' surface

  6. Thermal and mechanical considerations in using shape memory alloys to control vibrations in flexible structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, A. V.; Cutts, D. G.; Schetky, L. M.

    1991-03-01

    Laboratory tests have been performed illustrating the potential for control of vibration in a driven cantilever beam by using a shape memory member driven at an out-of-phase amplitude to cause significant attenuation of the forced vibration. The paper explores the basic properties of shape memory alloys (SMAs) which are suitable for active control devices. Heat transfer, strain rate, force output, and coupling factors involved in engineering the interface between the damping element and the structure are discussed in the context of vibration control. Methods of incorporating SMAs as control elements in composite structures are discussed.

  7. Complex transformation field created by geometrical gradient design of NiTi shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhtiari, Reza; Shariat, Bashir S.; Motazedian, Fakhrodin; Wu, Zhigang; Zhang, Junsong; Yang, Hong; Liu, Yinong

    Owing to geometrical non-uniformity, geometrically graded shape memory alloy (SMA) structures by design have the ability to exhibit different and novel thermal and mechanical behaviors compared to geometrically uniform conventional SMAs. This paper reports a study of the pseudoelastic behavior of geometrically graded NiTi plates. This geometrical gradient creates partial stress gradient over stress-induced martensitic transformation, providing enlarged stress controlling interval for shape memory actuation. Finite element modeling framework has been established to predict the deformation behavior of such structures in tensile loading cycles, which was validated by experiments. The modeling results show that the transformation mostly propagates along the gradient direction as the loading level increases.

  8. Shape Memory Alloys and Their Applications in Power Generation and Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Jun

    2013-03-27

    The shape memory effect is closely related to the reversible martensitic phase transformation, which is diffusionless and involves shear deformation. The recoverable transformation between the two phases with different crystalline symmetry results in reversible changes in physical properties such as electrical conductivity, magnetization, and elasticity. Accompanying the transformation is a change of entropy. Fascinating applications are developed based on these changes. In this paper, the history, fundamentals and technical challenges of both thermoelastic and ferromagnetic shape memory alloys are briefly reviewed; applications related to energy conversion such as power generation and refrigeration as well as recent developments will be discussed.

  9. Shape Memory Alloys and their Applications in Power Generation and Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Jun

    2013-07-01

    The shape memory effect is closely related to the reversible martensitic phase transformation, which is diffusionless and involves shear deformation. The recoverable transformation between the two phases with different crystalline symmetry results in reversible changes in physical properties such as electrical conductivity, magnetization, and elasticity. Accompanying the transformation is a change of entropy. Fascinating applications are developed based on these changes. In this paper, the history, fundamentals and technical challenges of both thermoelastic and ferromagnetic shape memory alloys are briefly reviewed; applications related to energy conversion such as power generation and refrigeration as well as recent developments will be discussed.

  10. Investigation of the Thermomechanical Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Brian A.

    2005-01-01

    Previous work at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) involved fabrication and testing of composite beams with embedded, pre-strained shape memory alloy (SMA) ribbons. That study also provided comparison of experimental results with numerical predictions from a research code making use of a new thermoelastic model for shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures. The previous work showed qualitative validation of the numerical model. However, deficiencies in the experimental-numerical correlation were noted and hypotheses for the discrepancies were given for further investigation. The goal of this work is to refine the experimental measurement and numerical modeling approaches in order to better understand the discrepancies, improve the correlation between prediction and measurement, and provide rigorous quantitative validation of the numerical model. Thermal buckling, post-buckling, and random responses to thermal and inertial (base acceleration) loads are studied. Excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured results, thereby quantitatively validating the numerical tool.

  11. Development of a shape memory alloy actuator for a robotic eye prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunton, T. B. Wolfe; Faulkner, M. G.; Wolfaardt, J.

    2005-08-01

    The quality of life of patients who wear an orbital prosthesis would be vastly improved if their prostheses were also able to execute vertical and horizontal motion. This requires appropriate actuation and control systems to create an intelligent prosthesis. A method of actuation that meets the demanding design criteria is currently not available. The present work considers an activation system that follows a design philosophy of biomimicry, simplicity and space optimization. While several methods of actuation were considered, shape memory alloys were chosen for their high power density, high actuation forces and high displacements. The behaviour of specific shape memory alloys as an actuator was investigated to determine the force obtained, the transformation temperatures and details of the material processing. In addition, a large-scale prototype was constructed to validate the response of the proposed system.

  12. Variational prediction of the mechanical behavior of shape memory alloys based on thermal experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junker, Philipp; Jaeger, Stefanie; Kastner, Oliver; Eggeler, Gunther; Hackl, Klaus

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we present simulations of shape memory alloys which serve as first examples demonstrating the predicting character of energy-based material models. We begin with a theoretical approach for the derivation of the caloric parts of the Helmholtz free energy. Afterwards, experimental results for DSC measurements are presented. Then, we recall a micromechanical model based on the principle of the minimum of the dissipation potential for the simulation of polycrystalline shape memory alloys. The previously determined caloric parts of the Helmholtz free energy close the set of model parameters without the need of parameter fitting. All quantities are derived directly from experiments. Finally, we compare finite element results for tension tests to experimental data and show that the model identified by thermal measurements can predict mechanically induced phase transformations and thus rationalize global material behavior without any further assumptions.

  13. The alloy with a memory, 55-Nitinol: Its physical metallurgy, properties, and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, C. M.; Wagner, H. J.; Wasilewski, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    A series of nickel titanium alloys (55-Nitinol), which are unique in that they possess a shape memory, are described. Components made of these materials that are altered in their shapes by deformation under proper conditions return to predetermined shapes when they are heated to the proper temperature range. The shape memory, together with the force exerted and the ability of the material to do mechanical work as it returns to its predetermined shape, suggest a wide variety of industrial applications for the alloy. Also included are discussions of the physical metallurgy and the mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of 55-Nitinol; procedures for melting and processing the material into useful shapes; and a summary of applications.

  14. Investigation on actuation and thermo-mechanical behaviour of Shape Memory Alloy spring using hot water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouhan, Priya; Nath, Tameshwer; Lad, B. K.; Palani, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, hot water is used as an actuation media for Shape memory alloy and its impact on the morphology of structure of Nitinol Shape Memory Alloy (SMA), is presented. With hot water actuation as the temperature reaches 70-80°C, spring gets fully compressed for the first few cycles followed by a displacement loss in actuation. This actuation loss is then studied with different characterization methods such as Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). With SEM results, it can be inferred that the energy source is not deteriorating the structure. Results observed from TGA shows high oxygen content at lower temperature limits with hot water actuation which suggest the need of conducting experiments in inert atmosphere. As a possible mechanism, a new actuation medium is introduced and various results can be seen in the paper discussed below.

  15. Performance of Integrated Fiber Optic, Piezoelectric, and Shape Memory Alloy Actuators/Sensors in Thermoset Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trottier, C. Michael

    1996-01-01

    Recently, scientists and engineers have investigated the advantages of smart materials and structures by including actuators in material systems for controlling and altering the response of structural environments. Applications of these materials systems include vibration suppression/isolation, precision positioning, damage detection and tunable devices. Some of the embedded materials being investigated for accomplishing these tasks include piezoelectric ceramics, shape memory alloys, and fiber optics. These materials have some benefits and some shortcomings; each is being studied for use in active material design in the SPICES (Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost Effective Structures) Consortium. The focus of this paper concerns the manufacturing aspects of smart structures by incorporating piezoelectric ceramics, shape memory alloys and fiber optics in a reinforced thermoset matrix via resin transfer molding (RTM).

  16. Load carrying capacity of RCC beams by replacing steel reinforcement bars with shape memory alloy bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajoria, Kamal M.; Kaduskar, Shreya S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper the structural behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams with smart rebars under two point loading system has been numerically studied, using Finite Element Method. The material used in this study is Super-elastic Shape Memory Alloys (SE SMAs) which contains nickel and titanium. In this study, different quantities of steel and SMA rebars have been used for reinforcement and the behavior of these models under two point bending loading system is studied. A comparison of load carrying capacity for the model between steel reinforced concrete beam and the beam reinforced with S.M.A and steel are performed. The results show that RC beams reinforced with combination of shape memory alloy and steel show better performance.

  17. Two-way indent depth recovery in a NiTi shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yijun; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Grummon, David S.

    2006-03-01

    Controlled reversible changes in surface texture and topography are of interest to many applications, including information storage, optical communication devices, micro-fluidic instruments for drug delivery, and smart tribological surfaces for friction and wear control. Here, we demonstrate a method of inducing two-way reversible changes in an indentation made on the surface of a shape memory NiTi alloy. The two-way indent shape change is accomplished by thermomechanical training of spherical indents in NiTi shape memory alloy. After training, spherical indents exhibit two-way depth recovery: Shallow indent depth at high temperature and deep indent depth at low temperature. The reversible depth change is about 45% of the total indent depth and is stable over many cycles. The reversible depth change can have a wide range of engineering applications.

  18. Design of a Shape Memory Alloy deployment hinge for reflector facets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, W. S.; Rogers, C. A.

    1991-01-01

    A design concept for a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuated hinge mechanism for deploying segmented facet-type reflector surfaces on antenna truss structures is presented. The mechanism uses nitinol, a nickel-titanium shape memory alloy, as a displacement-force micro-actuator. An electrical current is used to resistively heat a 'plastically' elongated SMA actuator wire, causing it to contract in response to a thermally-induced phase transformation. The resulting tension creates a moment, imparting rotary motion between two adjacent panels. Mechanical stops are designed into the device to limit its range of motion and to establish positioning accuracy at the termination of deployment. The concept and its operation are discussed in detail, and an analytical dynamic simulation model is presented. The model has been used to perform nondimensionalized parametric design studies.

  19. Performance of Integrated Fiber Optic, Piezoelectric, and Shape Memory Alloy Actuators/Sensors in Thermoset Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trottier, C. Michael

    1996-01-01

    Recently, scientists and engineers have investigated the advantages of smart materials and structures by including actuators in material systems for controlling and altering the response of structural environments. Applications of these materials systems include vibration suppression/isolation, precision positioning, damage detection and tunable devices. Some of the embedded materials being investigated for accomplishing these tasks include piezoelectric ceramics, shape memory alloys, and fiber optics. These materials have some benefits and some shortcomings; each is being studied for use in active material design in the SPICES (Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost Effective Structures) Consortium. The focus of this paper concerns the manufacturing aspects of smart structures by incorporating piezoelectric ceramics, shape memory alloys and fiber optics in a reinforced thermoset matrix via resin transfer molding (RTM).

  20. Design of an improved shape memory alloy actuator for rotor blade tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kiran; Chopra, Inderjit

    2002-07-01

    A shape memory alloy actuated tab deflection mechanism for in-flight rotor blade tracking was designed, fabricated and tested. The design, comprises of dual SMA wire actuation device, passive lock and on-blade sensors. The system is integrated with a feedback position controller. Improvements, over the previous design, in shape memory alloy wire clamping mechanism, locking mechanism and controller operation were examined. An analytical model, incorporating Brinson's thermomechanical model was developed to predict actuator behavior. A design methodology, based on this model, was applied to identify the relationship between actuator design parameters and actuator target goals. The actuation system integrated into an NACA0012 blade section was tested on the bench-top. Tracking capability of +/- 6 degree(s) with a resolution of +/- 0.1 degree(s) was demonstrated.

  1. Design of membrane actuators based on ferromagnetic shape memory alloy composite for the synthetic jet actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yuanchang; Taya, Minoru; Kuga, Yasuo

    2004-07-01

    A new membrane actuator based on our previous diaphragm actuator was designed and constructed to improve the dynamic performance. The finite element analysis was used to estimate the frequency response of the composite membrane which will be driven close to its resonance to obtain a large stroke. The membrane is made of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) composite including a ferromagnetic soft iron pad and a superelastic grade of NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA). The actuation mechanism for the FSMA composite membrane of the actuator is the hybrid mechanism that we proposed previously. This membrane actuator is designed for a new synthetic jet actuator package that will be used for active flow control technology on airplane wings. Based on the FEM results, the new membrane actuator system was assembled and its static and dynamic performance was experimentally evaluated including the dynamic magnetic response of the hybrid magnet.

  2. Optical driving of a miniature machine composed of temperature-sensitive ferrite and shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizawa, Toru; Hayashi, Daisuke; Otani, Yukitoshi

    2001-02-01

    12 Optically driven small machines have such features as easily miniaturized in fabrication and as controlled by optical energy supplied remotely in wireless. We report on an optically controlled machine which moves like a caterpillar on the basis of optomechatronic principle. This miniaturized machine consists of two parts; a body made of shape memory alloys and springs and feet made of a magnet, a temperature- sensitive ferrite. The feet can hold the steel-made floor using magnetic force balance caused by projected beam, and the body repeats expansion and contraction using deformation of shape memory alloys caused by switching of projected beam. A prototype is fabricated in trial with a size of 35 mm X 12 mm. As an experimental result, it proved that they could move at the speed of 8.7 mm per cycle on a ceiling as well as a horizontal steel floor and it could ascend a slope as steep as 50 degree.

  3. Design of a Shape Memory Alloy deployment hinge for reflector facets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, W. S.; Rogers, C. A.

    1991-01-01

    A design concept for a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuated hinge mechanism for deploying segmented facet-type reflector surfaces on antenna truss structures is presented. The mechanism uses nitinol, a nickel-titanium shape memory alloy, as a displacement-force micro-actuator. An electrical current is used to resistively heat a 'plastically' elongated SMA actuator wire, causing it to contract in response to a thermally-induced phase transformation. The resulting tension creates a moment, imparting rotary motion between two adjacent panels. Mechanical stops are designed into the device to limit its range of motion and to establish positioning accuracy at the termination of deployment. The concept and its operation are discussed in detail, and an analytical dynamic simulation model is presented. The model has been used to perform nondimensionalized parametric design studies.

  4. Evaluation of a Shape Memory Alloy Reinforced Annuloplasty Band for Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Repair

    PubMed Central

    Purser, Molly F.; Richards, Andrew L.; Cook, Richard C.; Osborne, Jason A.; Cormier, Denis R.; Buckner, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose An in vitro study using explanted porcine hearts was conducted to evaluate a novel annuloplasty band, reinforced with a two-phase, shape memory alloy, designed specifically for minimally invasive mitral valve repair. Description In its rigid (austenitic) phase, this band provides the same mechanical properties as the commercial semi-rigid bands. In its compliant (martensitic) phase, this band is flexible enough to be introduced through an 8-mm trocar and is easily manipulated within the heart. Evaluation In its rigid phase, the prototype band displayed similar mechanical properties to commercially available semi-rigid rings. Dynamic flow testing demonstrated no statistical differences in the reduction of mitral valve regurgitation. In its flexible phase, the band was easily deployed through an 8-mm trocar, robotically manipulated and sutured into place. Conclusions Experimental results suggest that the shape memory alloy reinforced band could be a viable alternative to flexible and semi-rigid bands in minimally invasive mitral valve repair. PMID:19766827

  5. Modeling of a reinforced concrete beam using shape memory alloy as reinforcement bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajoria, Kamal M.; Kaduskar, Shreya S.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper the structural behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams with smart rebars under three point loading system has been numerically studied, using Finite Element Method. The material used in this study is Superelastic Shape Memory Alloy (SE SMA) which contains nickel and titanium. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a unique class of materials which have ability to undergo large deformation and also regain their un-deformed shape by removal of stress or by heating. In this study, a uniaxial SMA model is able to reproduce the pseudo-elastic behavior for the reinforcing SMA wires. Finite element simulation is developed in order to study the load-deflection behavior of smart concrete beams subjected to three-point bending tests.

  6. [Design and biomechanical analysis of nickel-titanium open shape memory alloy artificial vertebral body].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Lian, Kejian; Liao, Lijun; Zhai, Wenliang; Ding, Zhenqi

    2010-10-01

    To design an open shape memory alloy artificial vertebral body that can be used to reconstruct the vertebral body in spine diseases, such as thoracic-lumbar spine tumors, burst fracture of the vertebrae, kyphosis and scoliosis, and to evaluate the biomechanical stability of lumbar functional segment unit after insertion with the shape memory alloy artificial vertebral body. The open shape memory alloy artificial vertebral body with nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy was made. Eight fresh spine specimens (T14-L5) from normal adult porcine were used to detect the range of motion (ROM) in 4 models and were divided into 4 groups: intact vertebrae served as group A; pedicle screw fixation of T15, L1, L3, and L4 was given in group B; after total resection of L2, it was reconstructed by open shape memory alloy artificial vertebral body combined with pedicle screw fixation of T15, L1, L3, and L4 in group C; and after total resection of L2, it was reconstructed by titanium cage vertebral body combined with pedicle screw fixation of T15, L1, L3, and L4 in group D. The three-dimensional ROM of flexion, extension, left/right lateral bending, and left/right rotation in T15-L1, L1-3, and L3,4 segments were detected in turn by the spinal three-dimensional test machine MTS-858 (load 0-8 N x m). Compared with group A, groups B, C, and D had good stability in flexion, extension, left/right lateral bending, and left/right rotation, showing significant differences (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the degree of each motion between group B and group C (P > 0.05). Group C had less degree of motion in T15-L1 and L3,4 segments than group D, showing significant differences (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in L1-3 segment (P > 0.05). The open shape memory alloy artificial vertebral body has a reasonable structure and good biomechanical stability, it can be used to stabilize the spinal segment with pedicle screw fixation.

  7. Assessment of Shape Memory Alloys - From Atoms To Actuators - Via In Situ Neutron Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benafan, Othmane

    2014-01-01

    As shape memory alloys (SMAs) become an established actuator technology, it is important to identify the fundamental mechanisms responsible for their performance by understanding microstructure performance relationships from processing to final form. Yet, microstructural examination of SMAs at stress and temperature is often a challenge since structural changes occur with stress and temperature and microstructures cannot be preserved through quenching or after stress removal, as would be the case for conventional materials. One solution to this dilemma is in situ neutron diffraction, which has been applied to the investigation of SMAs and has offered a unique approach to reveal the fundamental micromechanics and microstructural aspects of bulk SMAs in a non-destructive setting. Through this technique, it is possible to directly correlate the micromechanical responses (e.g., internal residual stresses, lattice strains), microstructural evolutions (e.g., texture, defects) and phase transformation properties (e.g., phase fractions, kinetics) to the macroscopic actuator behavior. In this work, in situ neutron diffraction was systematically employed to evaluate the deformation and transformation behavior of SMAs under typical actuator conditions. Austenite and martensite phases, yield behavior, variant selection and transformation temperatures were characterized for a polycrystalline NiTi (49.9 at. Ni). As the alloy transforms under thermomechanical loading, the measured textures and lattice plane-level variations were directly related to the cyclic actuation-strain characteristics and the dimensional instability (strain ratcheting) commonly observed in this alloy. The effect of training on the shape memory characteristics of the alloy and the development of two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) were also assessed. The final conversion from a material to a useful actuator, typically termed shape setting, was also investigated in situ during constrained heatingcooling and

  8. Surface characteristics, mechanical properties, and cytocompatibility of oxygen plasma-implanted porous nickel titanium shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Wu, S L; Chu, Paul K; Liu, X M; Chung, C Y; Ho, J P Y; Chu, C L; Tjong, S C; Yeung, K W K; Lu, W W; Cheung, K M C; Luk, K D K

    2006-10-01

    Good surface properties and biocompatibility are crucial to porous NiTi shape memory alloys (SMA) used in medical implants, as possible nickel release from porous NiTi may cause deleterious effects in the human body. In this work, oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation (O-PIII) was used to reduce the amount of nickel leached from porous NiTi alloys with a porosity of 42% prepared by capsule-free hot isostatic pressing. The mechanical properties, surface properties, and biocompatibility were studied by compression tests, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cell culturing. The O-PIII porous NiTi SMAs have good mechanical properties and excellent superelasticity, and the amount of nickel leached from the O-PIII porous NiTi is much less than that from the untreated samples. XPS results indicate that a nickel-depleted surface layer predominantly composed of TiO(2) is produced by O-PIII and acts as a barrier against out-diffusion of nickel. The cell culturing tests reveal that both the O-PIII and untreated porous NiTi alloys have good biocompatibility.

  9. Characterization of Polylactide Layer Deposited on Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryczka, Tomasz; Szaraniec, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    Polylactide (PLA) thin layer was deposited on the surface of the as-quenched NiTi shape memory alloy. First, NiTi alloy was quenched from the 850°C, then its surface was covered with PLA. Deposited PLA is in an amorphous state, whereas the as-quenched NiTi alloy stays in the B2 structure. PLA deposition caused smoothing of the surface and changed its hydrophilic character to hydrophobic one. In general, procedure of PLA deposition does not influence the course of the reversible martensitic transformation. After deformation of NiTi sample covered with PLA up to 4%, its surface does not reveal any cracks and still remains continuous.

  10. Martensitic and magnetic transformation in Mn50Ni50-xSnx ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Wang, S. Q.; Li, Y. Z.; Zhen, C. M.; Hou, D. L.; Wang, W. H.; Chen, J. L.; Wu, G. H.

    2012-10-01

    A martensitic transformation (MT) from a body-centered-cubic austenitic phase to a tetragonal martensitic phase has been found in Mn50Ni50-xSnx (0 ≤ x ≤ 11) alloys. The martensitic transformation temperature can be decreased by about 71.6 K by increasing the Sn concentration by 1 at. %. For 9 ≤ x ≤ 11, Mn50Ni50-xSnx ferromagnetic shape memory alloys are obtained. Due to the large magnetization difference (ΔM = 60 emu/g) and small thermal hysteresis (ΔT = 6 K) in the Mn50Ni40Sn10 alloy, a two-way magnetic-field-induced martensitic transformation is observed with dT/dH = 2 K/T.

  11. Investigation on microstructure and martensitic transformation of neodymium-added NiTi shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maashaa, Dovchinvanchig; Dorj, Ulzii-Orshikh; Lee, Malrey; Lee, Min Hi; Zhao, Chunwang; Dashjav, Munguntsetseg; Woo, Seon-Mi

    2016-10-01

    The effect of rare earth element neodymium (Nd) addition on the microstructure and martensitic transformation behavior of Ni50Ti50-xNdx (x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 at.%) shape memory alloy was investigated by scanning electronic microscope, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The results show that the microstructure of Ni-Ti-Nd ternary alloy consists of NiNd phase, NiTi2 and the NiTi matrix. A one-step martensitic transformation is observed in the alloys. The martensitic transformation temperature Ms increases sharply increasing 0.1-0.7 at.% Nd content is added.

  12. Multi-stage martensitic transformation in Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiebin; Verlinden, Bert; Kustov, Sergey

    Precipitation hardening is an effective way to improve the functional stability of NiTi shape memory alloys. The precipitates, mainly Ni4Ti3, could be introduced by aging treatment in Ni-rich NiTi alloys. However, the presence of Ni4Ti3 precipitates could disturb the transformation behavior, resulting in the multi-stage martensitic transformation (MMT). With the presence of MMT, it is difficult to control the transformation behavior, and thus limits the applicability of NiTi alloys. In this work, previous efforts on explaining the observed MMT are summarized. The difficulties in developing a unified explanation are discussed, and a possible way to avoid the MMT is proposed.

  13. Note: A novel curvature-driven shape memory alloy torsional actuator.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaojun; Huang, Dawei; Zhang, Xiaoyong

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a novel, extremely simple torsional actuator which employs a special shape setting treated shape memory alloy coil. The actuator works with a so-called curvature-driven principle and can directly generate a rotary motion without any motion converting mechanism. Experiments were performed to study the output performances of several actuators with different geometry parameters. The test results show the actuator can output a rotary motion fluently, and the output torque is about several mN mm.

  14. X-ray diffraction study of the phase transformations in NiTi shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Uchil, J.; Fernandes, F.M. Braz . E-mail: kkmahesh@rediffmail.com

    2007-03-15

    The phase transformations occurring in heat-treated NiTi shape memory alloys have been studied through the analysis of variation in integrated peak area (integrated intensity) with temperature, under the XRD peak profiles in the transformation temperature range. For this purpose, integrated peak area under the prominent peak corresponding to (110) plane of the austenitic phase has been chosen. The results so obtained are compared with those got from the DSC method. The XRD method is found to be more sensitive.

  15. Constitutive modelling of magnetic shape memory alloys with discrete and continuous symmetries

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, K.; Lagoudas, D. C.

    2014-01-01

    A free energy-based constitutive formulation is considered for magnetic shape memory alloys. Internal state variables are introduced whose evolution describes the transition from reference state to the deformed and transformed one. We impose material symmetry restrictions on the Gibbs free energy and on the evolution equations of the internal state variables. Discrete symmetry is considered for single crystals, whereas continuous symmetry is considered for polycrystalline materials. PMID:25197247

  16. Wireless and passive temperature indicator utilizing the large hysteresis of magnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmair, Bernhard; Liu, Jian; Huber, Thomas; Gutfleisch, Oliver; Suess, Dieter

    2012-07-01

    An ultra-low cost, wireless magnetoelastic temperature indicator is presented. It comprises a magnetostrictive amorphous ribbon, a Ni-Mn-Sn-Co magnetic shape memory alloy with a highly tunable transformation temperature, and a bias magnet. It allows to remotely detect irreversible changes due to transgressions of upper or lower temperature thresholds. Therefore, the proposed temperature indicator is particularly suitable for monitoring the temperature-controlled supply chain of, e.g., deep frozen and chilled food or pharmaceuticals.

  17. Influence of grain growth on the martensitic transformation in. beta. -Cu-Zn-Al memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Muntasell, J.; Tamarit, J.L. ); Cesari, E. ); Guilemany, J.M. )

    1989-04-01

    The effect of grain size on martensitic transformation in Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys subjected to two thermal treatments in order to retain {beta} phase has been studied by means of calorimetry and acoustic emission. The dependence of transformation temperatures and thermal hysteresis on grain size is interpreted from a thermodynamic model in terms of elastic enthalpy and frictional work contributions; these are non-chemical terms present in thermoelastic martensitic transformation.

  18. Shape memory and superelastic alloys: the new medical materials with growing demand.

    PubMed

    Van Moorleghem, W; Chandrasekaran, M; Reynaerts, D; Peirs, J; Van Brussel, H

    1998-01-01

    Shape memory and superelasticity are novel properties not exhibited by common materials. In recent years, these properties and the alloys exhibiting them have found widespread use as new medical materials, in devices such as diagnostic and therapeutic catheters of different kinds, stents, needle wire localisers, orthodontic arch wires, implantable drug delivery system etc. The reasons for this trend and the future potential of these materials in medical applications will be explained in this presentation.

  19. Plasma Arc Melting (PAM) and Corrosion Resistance of Pure NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuissi, A.; Rondelli, G.; Bassani, P.

    2015-03-01

    Plasma arc melting (PAM) as a suitable non-contaminating melting route for manufacturing high-quality NiTi alloy was successfully examined. The corrosion resistance of PAM Nitinol was evaluated by both potentiodynamic and potentiostatic tests and compared with lower purity NiTi produced by vacuum induction melting (VIM). For the electro-polished surfaces, excellent corrosion resistance of NiTi comparable with the Ti alloys was found with no pitting up to 800 mV versus saturated calomel electrode in simulated body fluid at 37 °C. Potentiostatic results of PAM Nitinol indicate slightly better corrosion resistance than the lower quality VIM alloy.

  20. High intraocular pressure produces learning and memory impairments in rats.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuxiang; Chen, Zhiqi; Li, Lu; Li, Xing; Xia, Qian; Zhang, Hong; Duan, Qiming; Zhao, Yin

    2017-11-15

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Previous MRI studies have revealed that POAG can be associated with alterations in hippocampal function. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate a relationship between chronic high intraocular pressure (IOP) and hippocampal changes in a rat model. We used behavioural tests to assess learning and memory ability, and additionally investigated the hippocampal expression of pathological amyloid beta (Aβ), phospho-tau, and related pathway proteins. Chronic high IOP impaired learning and memory in rats and concurrently increased Aβ and phospho-tau expression in the hippocampus by altering the activation of different kinase (GSK-3β, BACE1) and phosphatase (PP2A) proteins in the hippocampus. This study provides novel evidence for the relationship between high IOP and hippocampal alterations, especially in the context of learning and memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reversible Martensitic Transformation under Low Magnetic Fields in Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, N. M.; Wang, S.; Karaman, I.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic field-induced, reversible martensitic transformations in NiCoMnIn meta-magnetic shape memory alloys were studied under constant and varying mechanical loads to understand the role of coupled magneto-mechanical loading on the transformation characteristics and the magnetic field levels required for reversible phase transformations. The samples with two distinct microstructures were tested along the [001] austenite crystallographic direction using a custom designed magneto-thermo-mechanical characterization device while carefully controlling their thermodynamic states through isothermal constant stress and stress-varying magnetic field ramping. Measurements revealed that these meta-magnetic shape memory alloys were capable of generating entropy changes of 14 J kg−1 K−1 or 22 J kg −1 K−1, and corresponding magnetocaloric cooling with reversible shape changes as high as 5.6% under only 1.3 T, or 3 T applied magnetic fields, respectively. Thus, we demonstrate that this alloy is suitable as an active component in near room temperature devices, such as magnetocaloric regenerators, and that the field levels generated by permanent magnets can be sufficient to completely transform the alloy between its martensitic and austenitic states if the loading sequence developed, herein, is employed. PMID:28091551

  2. Reversible Martensitic Transformation under Low Magnetic Fields in Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys.

    PubMed

    Bruno, N M; Wang, S; Karaman, I; Chumlyakov, Y I

    2017-01-16

    Magnetic field-induced, reversible martensitic transformations in NiCoMnIn meta-magnetic shape memory alloys were studied under constant and varying mechanical loads to understand the role of coupled magneto-mechanical loading on the transformation characteristics and the magnetic field levels required for reversible phase transformations. The samples with two distinct microstructures were tested along the [001] austenite crystallographic direction using a custom designed magneto-thermo-mechanical characterization device while carefully controlling their thermodynamic states through isothermal constant stress and stress-varying magnetic field ramping. Measurements revealed that these meta-magnetic shape memory alloys were capable of generating entropy changes of 14 J kg(-1) K(-1) or 22 J kg (-1) K(-1), and corresponding magnetocaloric cooling with reversible shape changes as high as 5.6% under only 1.3 T, or 3 T applied magnetic fields, respectively. Thus, we demonstrate that this alloy is suitable as an active component in near room temperature devices, such as magnetocaloric regenerators, and that the field levels generated by permanent magnets can be sufficient to completely transform the alloy between its martensitic and austenitic states if the loading sequence developed, herein, is employed.

  3. The response of macrophages to a Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Colić, Miodrag; Tomić, Sergej; Rudolf, Rebeka; Anzel, Ivan; Lojen, Gorazd

    2010-09-01

    Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been investigated as materials for medical devices, but little is known about their biocompatibility. The aim of this work was to study the response of rat peritoneal macrophages (PMØ) to a Cu-Al-Ni SMA in vitro, by measuring the functional activity of mitochondria, necrosis, apoptosis, and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Rapidly solidified (RS) thin ribbons were used for the tests. The control alloy was a permanent mold casting of the same composition, but without the shape memory effect. Our results showed that the control alloy was severely cytotoxic, whereas RS ribbons induced neither necrosis nor apoptosis of PMØ. These findings correlated with the data that RS ribbons are significantly more resistant to corrosion compared to the control alloy, as judged by the lesser release of Cu and Ni in the conditioning medium. However, the ribbons generated intracellular reactive oxygen species and upregulated the production of IL-6 by PMØ. These effects were almost completely abolished by conditioning the RS ribbons for 5 weeks. In conclusion, RS significantly improves the corrosion stability and biocompatibility of Cu-Al-Ni SMA. The biocompatibility of this functional material could be additionally enhanced by conditioning the ribbons in cell culture medium.

  4. Reversible Martensitic Transformation under Low Magnetic Fields in Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, N. M.; Wang, S.; Karaman, I.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic field-induced, reversible martensitic transformations in NiCoMnIn meta-magnetic shape memory alloys were studied under constant and varying mechanical loads to understand the role of coupled magneto-mechanical loading on the transformation characteristics and the magnetic field levels required for reversible phase transformations. The samples with two distinct microstructures were tested along the [001] austenite crystallographic direction using a custom designed magneto-thermo-mechanical characterization device while carefully controlling their thermodynamic states through isothermal constant stress and stress-varying magnetic field ramping. Measurements revealed that these meta-magnetic shape memory alloys were capable of generating entropy changes of 14 J kg‑1 K‑1 or 22 J kg ‑1 K‑1, and corresponding magnetocaloric cooling with reversible shape changes as high as 5.6% under only 1.3 T, or 3 T applied magnetic fields, respectively. Thus, we demonstrate that this alloy is suitable as an active component in near room temperature devices, such as magnetocaloric regenerators, and that the field levels generated by permanent magnets can be sufficient to completely transform the alloy between its martensitic and austenitic states if the loading sequence developed, herein, is employed.

  5. Shape-Memory Effect and Pseudoelasticity in Fe-Mn-Based Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Roca, P.; Baruj, A.; Sade, M.

    2016-12-01

    Several Fe-based alloys are being considered as potential candidates for applications which require shape-memory behavior or superelastic properties. The possibility of using fabrication methods which are well known in the steel industry is very attractive and encourages a large amount of research in the field. In the present article, Fe-Mn-based alloys are mainly addressed. On the one hand, attention is paid to the shape-memory effect where the alloys contain (a) a maximum amount of Mn up to around 30 wt%, (b) several possible substitutional elements like Si, Cr, Ni, Co, and Nb and (c) some possible interstitial elements like C. On the other hand, superelastic alloys are analyzed, mainly the Fe-Mn-Al-Ni system discovered a few years ago. The most noticeable properties resulting from the martensitic transformations which are responsible for the mentioned properties, i.e., the fcc-hcp in the first case and the bcc-fcc in the latter are discussed. Selected potential applications are also analyzed.

  6. Shape-Memory Effect and Pseudoelasticity in Fe-Mn-Based Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Roca, P.; Baruj, A.; Sade, M.

    2017-03-01

    Several Fe-based alloys are being considered as potential candidates for applications which require shape-memory behavior or superelastic properties. The possibility of using fabrication methods which are well known in the steel industry is very attractive and encourages a large amount of research in the field. In the present article, Fe-Mn-based alloys are mainly addressed. On the one hand, attention is paid to the shape-memory effect where the alloys contain (a) a maximum amount of Mn up to around 30 wt%, (b) several possible substitutional elements like Si, Cr, Ni, Co, and Nb and (c) some possible interstitial elements like C. On the other hand, superelastic alloys are analyzed, mainly the Fe-Mn-Al-Ni system discovered a few years ago. The most noticeable properties resulting from the martensitic transformations which are responsible for the mentioned properties, i.e., the fcc-hcp in the first case and the bcc-fcc in the latter are discussed. Selected potential applications are also analyzed.

  7. Dynamic mechanical analyze of superelastic CuMnAl shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    (Dragoș Ursanu, A. I.; Stanciu, S.; Pricop, B.; Săndulache, F.; Cimpoeșu, N.

    2016-08-01

    A new shape memory alloy was obtain from high purity Cu, Mn and Al elements using a induce furnace. The intelligent material present negative transformation temperatures and an austenite like state at room temperature. The austenite state of CuMnAl shape memory alloy present superelasticity property. Five kilograms ingot was obtain of Cu10Mn10Al alloy. From the base material (melted state) were cut samples with 6 mm thickness using a mechanical saw. After an homogenization heat treatment the samples were hot rolled through four passes with a reduction coefficient of 20%. Experimental lamellas were obtained with 1.5 mm thickness and 90x10 mm length and width. After the hot rolled treatment the materials were heat treated at 800°C for 20 minutes and chilled in water. Four samples, one just laminated and three heat treated by aging, were analyzed with a Netzsch DMA equipment to establish the elastic modulus and the internal friction values of the materials. Metallic materials microstructure was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope Vega Tescan LMH II type. After the aging heat treatment a decrease of internal friction is observed on the entire analyze range which is assigned to formation of Al-based precipitates that block the internal movement of the alloy characteristic phases.

  8. Relationship between microstructure, cytotoxicity and corrosion properties of a Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Colić, Miodrag; Rudolf, Rebeka; Stamenković, Dragoslav; Anzel, Ivan; Vucević, Dragana; Jenko, Monika; Lazić, Vojkan; Lojen, Gorazd

    2010-01-01

    Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been investigated as materials for medical devices, but their biomedical application is still limited. The aim of this work was to compare the microstructure, corrosion and cytotoxicity in vitro of a Cu-Al-Ni SMA. Rapidly solidified (RS) thin ribbons, manufactured via melt spinning, were used for the tests. The control alloy was a permanent mould casting of the same composition, but without shape memory effect. The results show that RS ribbons are significantly more resistant to corrosion compared with the control alloy, as judged by the lesser release of Cu and Ni into the conditioning medium. These results correlate with the finding that RS ribbons were not cytotoxic to L929 mouse fibroblasts and rat thymocytes. In addition, the RS ribbon conditioning medium inhibited cellular proliferation and IL-2 production by activated rat splenocytes to a much lesser extent. The inhibitory effects were almost completely abolished by conditioning the RS ribbons in culture medium for 4 weeks. Microstructural analysis showed that RS ribbons are martensitic, with boron particles as a minor phase. In contrast, the control Cu-Al-Ni alloy had a complex multiphase microstructure. Examination of the alloy surfaces after conditioning by energy dispersive X-ray and Auger electron spectroscopy showed the formation of Cu and Al oxide layers and confirmed that the metals in RS ribbons are less susceptible to oxidation and corrosion compared with the control alloy. In conclusion, these results suggest that rapid solidification significantly improves the corrosion stability and biocompatibility in vitro of Cu-Al-Ni SMA ribbons.

  9. Experimental evaluation of shape memory alloy actuation technique in adaptive antenna design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kefauver, W. Neill; Carpenter, Bernie F.

    1994-01-01

    Creation of an antenna system that could autonomously adapt contours of reflecting surfaces to compensate for structural loads induced by a variable environment would maximize performance of space-based communication systems. Design of such a system requires the comprehensive development and integration of advanced actuator, sensor, and control technologies. As an initial step in this process, a test has been performed to assess the use of a shape memory alloy as a potential actuation technique. For this test, an existing, offset, cassegrain antenna system was retrofit with a subreflector equipped with shape memory alloy actuators for surface contour control. The impacts that the actuators had on both the subreflector contour and the antenna system patterns were measured. The results of this study indicate the potential for using shape memory alloy actuation techniques to adaptively control antenna performance; both variations in gain and beam steering capabilities were demonstrated. Future development effort is required to evolve this potential into a useful technology for satellite applications.

  10. Titanium-nickel shape memory alloy foams for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Xiong, J Y; Li, Y C; Wang, X J; Hodgson, P D; Wen, C E

    2008-07-01

    Titanium-nickel (TiNi) shape memory alloy (SMA) foams with an open-cell porous structure were fabricated by space-holder sintering process and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The mechanical properties and shape memory properties of the TiNi foam samples were investigated using compressive test. Results indicate that the plateau stresses and elastic moduli of the foams under compression decrease with the increase of their porosities. The plateau stresses and elastic moduli are measured to be from 1.9 to 38.3 MPa and from 30 to 860 MPa for the TiNi foam samples with porosities ranged from 71% to 87%, respectively. The mechanical properties of the TiNi alloy foams can be tailored to match those of bone. The TiNi alloy foams exhibit shape memory effect (SME), and it is found that the recoverable strain due to SME decreases with the increase of foam porosity.

  11. Experimental evaluation of shape memory alloy actuation technique in adaptive antenna design concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefauver, W. Neill; Carpenter, Bernie F.

    1994-09-01

    Creation of an antenna system that could autonomously adapt contours of reflecting surfaces to compensate for structural loads induced by a variable environment would maximize performance of space-based communication systems. Design of such a system requires the comprehensive development and integration of advanced actuator, sensor, and control technologies. As an initial step in this process, a test has been performed to assess the use of a shape memory alloy as a potential actuation technique. For this test, an existing, offset, cassegrain antenna system was retrofit with a subreflector equipped with shape memory alloy actuators for surface contour control. The impacts that the actuators had on both the subreflector contour and the antenna system patterns were measured. The results of this study indicate the potential for using shape memory alloy actuation techniques to adaptively control antenna performance; both variations in gain and beam steering capabilities were demonstrated. Future development effort is required to evolve this potential into a useful technology for satellite applications.

  12. Shake table tests and analytical simulations of a steel structure with shape memory alloy dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parulekar, Y. M.; Kiran, A. Ravi; Reddy, G. R.; Singh, R. K.; Vaze, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    This study uses the pseudoelastic properties of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy wires for attenuation of the seismic response of a steel structure and evaluates its effectiveness and applicability in seismic response control. In this paper, shake table tests, carried out on a model of a steel structure with and without wire-based shape memory alloy dampers, are discussed in detail. Shake table tests, comprised of free vibration tests and spectrum compatible time history tests, were carried out. The former were used for the evaluation of the frequency and damping, and the later were used to prove the efficacy of the shape memory alloy dampers. Further analytical simulations are carried out using detailed time history analysis utilizing a thermomechanical model of an SMA and taking into account the residual martensite accumulation, which is irreversibly due to cyclic forward/reverse martensitic transformation. Moreover, a simple iterative response spectrum (IRS) method with equivalent damping and stiffness is also used to evaluate the response of the structure with SMA dampers, and it is proved that the method can be conservatively used by designers.

  13. Transmissibility of Nickel-Titanium Shape Memory Alloy Springs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    loss factor between 0.02 and 0.04) and a capability for force actuation . The mechanical characteristics and related microstructural phenomena of these...memory) phase, and the inelastic residual strain is recovered. It is by this action that actuation forces can be developed. Now, again starting with the...sensing and/or actuation capabilities. These are advanced concepts worthy of focused study. CARDEROCKDIV-MRD-93/25 11 CONCLUSIONS It is emphasized that a

  14. In Situ Neutron Diffraction Study of NiTi-21Pt High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benafan, O.; Gaydosh, D. J.; Noebe, R. D.; Qiu, S.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2016-12-01

    In situ neutron diffraction was used to investigate the microstructural features of stoichiometric and Ti-rich NiTiPt high-temperature shape memory alloys with target compositions of Ni29Ti50Pt21 and Ni28.5Ti50.5Pt21 (in atomic percent), respectively. The alloys' isothermal and thermomechanical properties (i.e., moduli, thermal expansion, transformation strains, and dimensional stability) were correlated to the lattice strains, volume-averaged elastic moduli, and textures as determined by neutron diffraction. In addition, the unique aspects of this technique when applied to martensitic transformations in shape memory alloys are highlighted throughout the paper.

  15. Computational design of precipitation-strengthened titanium-nickel-based shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Matthew D.

    Motivated by performance requirements of future medical stent applications, experimental research addresses the design of novel TiNi-based, superelastic shape-memory alloys employing nanoscale precipitation strengthening to minimize accommodation slip for cyclic stability and to increase output stress capability for smaller devices. Using a thermodynamic database describing the B2 and L21 phases in the Al-Ni-Ti-Zr system, Thermo-Calc software was used to assist modeling the evolution of phase composition during 600°C isothermal evolution of coherent L21 Heusler phase precipitation from supersaturated TiNi-based B2 phase matrix in an alloy experimentally characterized by atomic-scale Local Electrode Atom Probe (LEAP) microanalysis. Based on measured evolution of the alloy hardness (under conditions stable against martensitic transformation) a model for the combined effects of solid solution strengthening and precipitation strengthening was calibrated, and the optimum particle size for efficient strengthening was identified. Thermodynamic modeling of the evolution of measured phase fractions and compositions identified the interfacial capillary energy enabling thermodynamic design of alloy microstructure with the optimal strengthening particle size. Extension of alloy designs to incorporate Pt and Pd for reducing Ni content, enhancing radiopacity, and improving manufacturability were considered using measured Pt and Pd B2/L2 1 partitioning coefficients. After determining that Pt partitioning greatly increases interphase misfit, full attention was devoted to Pd alloy designs. A quantitative approach to radiopacity was employed using mass attenuation as a metric. Radiopacity improvements were also qualitatively observed using x-ray fluoroscopy. Transformation temperatures were experimentally measured as a function of Al and Pd content. Redlich-Kister polynomial modeling was utilized for the dependence of transformation reversion Af temperature on B2 matrix phase

  16. Flexible Retrieval: When True Inferences Produce False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Alexis C.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Episodic memory involves flexible retrieval processes that allow us to link together distinct episodes, make novel inferences across overlapping events, and recombine elements of past experiences when imagining future events. However, the same flexible retrieval and recombination processes that underpin these adaptive functions may also leave…

  17. Microstructure and mechanical behaviour of Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy produced by selective laser melting

    SciTech Connect

    Chlebus, Edward; Kuznicka, Bogumila Kurzynowski, Tomasz; Dybala, Bogdan

    2011-05-15

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an advanced manufacturing technology providing alternative method of producing complex components directly from 3D computer models. The purpose of this work is to determine the influence of the SLM manufacturing strategy on mechanical properties and microstructure of the as-built Ti-Al-Nb alloy. Specimens of Ti-6Al-7Nb were produced in three versions of the specimen axis orientation with respect to its build direction. Mechanical characteristics of the alloy were determined by tensile and compression testing, as well as hardness measurements. Microstructures were characterised utilising optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found that the as-built Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy has microstructure of {alpha}' martensite hardened by dispersive precipitates of the second phase, which results in higher tensile and compressive strengths, but lower ductility in comparison to those of an alloy manufactured by conventional methods. The layered microstructure of the material gives it a significant anisotropy of Young's modulus, moderate anisotropy of mechanical properties, but strong anisotropy of sensitivity to the build porosity. The paper develops understanding of the relationships between the strategy of layered manufacturing of the Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy and its microstructural and mechanical characteristics. This is important for future applications of the SLM technology for producing Ti-6Al-7Nb parts, e.g. the custom medical implants. - Research Highlights: {yields} The as-built SLM Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy has a layered microstructure of {alpha}' martensite. {yields} Size and orientation of the {alpha}' plates are determined by the SLM building strategy. {yields} The layered microstructure gives the alloy an anisotropy of Young's modulus. {yields} The building strategy influences anisotropy of material sensitivity to the built porosity.

  18. Characterization of Sputtered Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) Stress and Thermally Actuated Cantilever Bimorphs Based on NiTi Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    Actuated Cantilever Bimorphs Based on NiTi Shape Memory Alloy ( SMA ) by Merric D Srour, Cory R Knick, and Christopher J Morris...Actuated Cantilever Bimorphs Based on NiTi Shape Memory Alloy ( SMA ) by Merric D Srour, Cory R Knick, and Christopher J Morris Sensors and...Shape Memory Alloy ( SMA ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Merric D Srour, Cory R Knick, and

  19. Flexible retrieval: When true inferences produce false memories.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Alexis C; Schacter, Daniel L

    2017-03-01

    Episodic memory involves flexible retrieval processes that allow us to link together distinct episodes, make novel inferences across overlapping events, and recombine elements of past experiences when imagining future events. However, the same flexible retrieval and recombination processes that underpin these adaptive functions may also leave memory prone to error or distortion, such as source misattributions in which details of one event are mistakenly attributed to another related event. To determine whether the same recombination-related retrieval mechanism supports both successful inference and source memory errors, we developed a modified version of an associative inference paradigm in which participants encoded everyday scenes comprised of people, objects, and other contextual details. These scenes contained overlapping elements (AB, BC) that could later be linked to support novel inferential retrieval regarding elements that had not appeared together previously (AC). Our critical experimental manipulation concerned whether contextual details were probed before or after the associative inference test, thereby allowing us to assess whether (a) false memories increased for successful versus unsuccessful inferences, and (b) any such effects were specific to after compared with before participants received the inference test. In each of 4 experiments that used variants of this paradigm, participants were more susceptible to false memories for contextual details after successful than unsuccessful inferential retrieval, but only when contextual details were probed after the associative inference test. These results suggest that the retrieval-mediated recombination mechanism that underlies associative inference also contributes to source misattributions that result from combining elements of distinct episodes. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. In vitro investigation of NiTiW shape memory alloy as potential biomaterial with enhanced radiopacity.

    PubMed

    Li, Huafang; Cong, Ying; Zheng, Yufeng; Cui, Lishan

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, a novel kind of NiTiW shape memory alloy with chemical composition of Ni43.5Ti45.5W11 (at.%) has been successfully developed with excellent X-ray radiopacity by the introduction of pure W precipitates into the NiTi matrix phase. Its microstructure, X-ray radiopacity, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid, hemocompatibility and in vitro cytocompatibility were systematically investigated. The typical microstructural feature of NiTiW alloy at room temperature was tiny pure W particles randomly distributing in the NiTi matrix phase. The presence of W precipitates was found to result in enhanced radiopacity and microhardness of NiTiW alloy in comparison to that of NiTi binary alloy. NiTiW alloy exhibits excellent shape memory effect, and a maximum shape recovery ratio of about 30% was obtained with a total prestrain of 8% for the NiTiW alloy sample. In the electrochemical test, NiTiW alloy presented an excellent corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid, comparable to that of NiTi alloy. Hemocompatibility tests indicated that the NiTiW alloy has quite low hemolysis (lower than 0.5%) and the adherent platelet showed round shape without pseudopod. Besides, in vitro cell viability tests demonstrated that the cell viability is all above 90%, and the cells spread well on the NiTiW alloy, having polygon or spindle healthy morphology. The hemocompatibility tests, in vitro cell viability tests and morphology observation indicated that the NiTiW shape memory alloys have excellent biocompatibility. The excellent X-ray radiopacity makes the NiTiW alloys show obvious advantages in orthopedic, stomatological, neurological and cardiovascular domains where radiopacity is quite important factor in order to guarantee successful implantation.

  1. Ferromagnetic interactions and martensitic transformation in Fe doped Ni-Mn-In shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, D. N.; Priolkar, K. R.; Emura, S.; Nigam, A. K.

    2014-11-14

    The structure, magnetic, and martensitic properties of Fe doped Ni-Mn-In magnetic shape memory alloys have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry, magnetization, resistivity, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and EXAFS. While Ni{sub 2}MnIn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6) alloys are ferromagnetic and non martensitic, the martensitic transformation temperature in Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.5}In{sub 1−y}Fe{sub y} and Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.6}In{sub 1−y}Fe{sub y} increases for lower Fe concentrations (y ≤ 0.05) before decreasing sharply for higher Fe concentrations. XRD analysis reveals presence of cubic and tetragonal structural phases in Ni{sub 2}MnIn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} at room temperature with tetragonal phase content increasing with Fe doping. Even though the local structure around Mn and Ni in these Fe doped alloys is similar to martensitic Mn rich Ni-Mn-In alloys, presence of ferromagnetic interactions and structural disorder induced by Fe affect Mn-Ni-Mn antiferromagnetic interactions resulting in suppression of martensitic transformation in these Fe doped alloys.

  2. Monolithic shape memory alloy microgripper for 3D assembly of tissue engineering scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Han; Bellouard, Yves; Sidler, Thomas C.; Burdet, Etienne; Poo, Aun-Neow; Clavel, Reymond

    2001-10-01

    This paper describes a microgripper used for the micro-assembly of an artificial scaffold for tissue engineering. The porous sponge-like scaffold is a three dimensional construct built by tiny unit parts of biodegradable polymer. This application requires the assembly of several parts by applying a suitable level of force. In this framework, a monolithic shape memory alloy (SMA) microgripper was developed. It consists of two small fingers for grasping, an active part that changes its shape when heated and a parallel elastic structure used as a bias spring. The main aspect of the design is that all these elements are included within a single piece of material, but have different mechanical properties and serve as different functions. Using a new technology of Shape Memory Alloy laser annealing developed at EPFL, a local shape memory effect is introduced on the active part while leaving the remaining areas in a state where no shape memory effect occurs, i.e., in a cold-worked state. The parallel elastic structure is used to provide a pullback force on cooling as well as to guide the finger movement. An electrical path is integrated to heat the active part and drive the gripper by Joule effect. This paper focuses on the principle of the micro-gripper, its design, calculations and describes the fabrication process. Some first experimental results are also presented.

  3. [Study of blood compatibility on TiO2 coated biomedical Ni-Ti shape memory alloy].

    PubMed

    Gao, Shuchun; Zhai, Yuchun; Hu, Jinling

    2011-10-01

    We coated a thin TiO2 film on the surface of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy by activated sputter method in the present work. The blood platelet adherence and antithrombogenicity of the TiO2-coated Ni-Ti alloy were evaluated. The results showed that the platelets on the TiO2-coated Ni-Ti alloy were fewer than those on 316L stainless steel, and no agglomeration or distortion for the platelets on the coated alloy was found, which means less probability of blood coagulation for the alloy. The coagulation time on the coated Ni-Ti shape memory alloy was longer than that on the 316L. Compared with that on the 316L stainless steel, the TiO2 coated Ni-Ti shape memory alloy showed better blood compatibility, indicating that the Ni-Ti alloy with TiO2 coating is a kind of ideal biomedical materials with high clinical value.

  4. Effects of gas produced by degradation of Mg-Zn-Zr Alloy on cancellous bone tissue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingbo; Jiang, Hongfeng; Bi, Yanze; Sun, Jin e; Chen, Minfang; Liu, Debao

    2015-10-01

    Mg-Zn-Zr alloy cylinders were implanted into the femoral condyles of Japanese big-ear white rabbits. X-ray showed that by 12 weeks following implantation the implant became obscure, around which the low-density area appeared and enlarged. By 24 weeks, the implant was more obscure and the density of the surrounding cancellous bone increased. Scanning electron microscopy examination showed bone tissue on the surface of the alloy attached by living fibers at 12 weeks. Micro-CT confirmed that new bone tissue on the surface of the residual alloy implant increased from 12 weeks to 24 weeks. By 12 weeks, many cavities in the cancellous bone tissue around the implant were noted with a CT value, similar to gas value, and increasing by 24 weeks (P<0.01). Histological examination of hard tissue slices showed that bone tissue was visibly attached to the alloy in the femoral condyle at 12 weeks. The trabecular bone tissues became more intact and dense, and the cavities were filled with soft tissue at 24 weeks. In general, gas produced by the degradation of the Mg-Zn-Zr alloy can cause cavitation within cancellous bone, which does not affect osteogenesis of Mg alloy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A review of modeling techniques for advanced effects in shape memory alloy behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisse, Cheikh; Zaki, Wael; Ben Zineb, Tarak

    2016-10-01

    micro, micro-macro and macro scales focusing pseudoelastic and shape memory effects. The paper reviews and discusses various techniques used in the literature for modeling complex behaviors observed in shape memory alloys (SMAs) that go beyond the core pseudoelastic and shape memory effects. These behaviors, which will be collectively referred to herein as ‘secondary effects’, include mismatch between austenite and martensite moduli, martensite reorientation under nonproportional multiaxial loading, slip and transformation-induced plasticity and their influence on martensite transformation, strong thermomechanical coupling and the influence of loading rate, tensile-compressive asymmetry, and the formation of internal loops due to incomplete phase transformation. In addition, because of their importance for practical design considerations, the paper discusses functional and structural fatigue, and fracture mechanics of SMAs.

  6. Polymorphic MnAs nanowires of a magnetic shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Echeverría-Arrondo, C; Pérez-Conde, J; Ayuela, A

    2014-03-28

    We describe a magnetic shape memory alloy, in which it is the nanostructural confinement that influences both the crystal geometry and the electronic and magnetic properties. We use calculations from first-principles on shape memory MnAs nanowires to study the influence of strain on the resulting crystallographic phases, which arise at their surfaces. We show that MnAs nanowires as thin as two nanometers can be stable in a new crystal geometry which is induced by one-dimensionality and hence is unknown in the bulk, typically hexagonal. The changes between phases caused by differences in strain require the existence of twin domains. Our analysis suggests that the strain-induced structural transition - which is here described for MnAs compounds - could be applied to other (magnetic) shape memory nanowire systems for applications in a range of devices from mechanical to magneto-electronic.

  7. Narrow thermal hysteresis of NiTi shape memory alloy thin films with submicrometer thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Huilong; Hamilton, Reginald F. Horn, Mark W.

    2016-09-15

    NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) thin films were fabricated using biased target ion beam deposition (BTIBD), which is a new technique for fabricating submicrometer-thick SMA thin films, and the capacity to exhibit shape memory behavior was investigated. The thermally induced shape memory effect (SME) was studied using the wafer curvature method to report the stress-temperature response. The films exhibited the SME in a temperature range above room temperature and a narrow thermal hysteresis with respect to previous reports. To confirm the underlying phase transformation, in situ x-ray diffraction was carried out in the corresponding phase transformation temperature range. The B2 to R-phase martensitic transformation occurs, and the R-phase transformation is stable with respect to the expected conversion to the B19′ martensite phase. The narrow hysteresis and stable R-phase are rationalized in terms of the unique properties of the BTIBD technique.

  8. Experimental Validation of Condition Monitoring for Electrically Activated Shape Memory Alloys for an Unlocking Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathmann, Christian; Theren, Benedict; Fleczok, Benjamin; Kuhlenkötter, Bernd

    2017-06-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) belong to the group functional materials which can be activated thermally. Along with a phase transformation, they can remember a previously imprinted shape and have a special resistance behavior. Therefore, they can also be used as a sensor and may be capable of detecting various system states in technical systems. This paper makes a contribution by evaluating the measurability of measured variables by SMA elements. Furthermore, it investigates the technically relevant states of “blockade” and “activation” of electrically activated shape memory actuators. It develops and validates an algorithm which is able to detect a possible “blockade”. Moreover, this work presents a hardware concept for a condition monitoring system of shape memory actuators.

  9. The effects of sleep restriction and sleep deprivation in producing false memories.

    PubMed

    Chatburn, Alex; Kohler, Mark J; Payne, Jessica D; Drummond, Sean P A

    2017-01-01

    False memory has been claimed to be the result of an associative process of generalisation, as well as to be representative of memory errors. These can occur at any stage of memory encoding, consolidation, or retrieval, albeit through varied mechanisms. The aim of this paper is to experimentally determine: (i) if cognitive dysfunction brought about by sleep loss at the time of stimulus encoding can influence false memory production; and (ii) whether this relationship holds across sensory modalities. Subjects undertook both the Deese-Roedigger-McDermott (DRM) false memory task and a visual task designed to produce false memories. Performance was measured while subjects were well-rested (9h Time in Bed or TIB), and then again when subjects were either sleep restricted (4h TIB for 4 nights) or sleep deprived (30h total SD). Results indicate (1) that partial and total sleep loss produced equivalent effects in terms of false and veridical verbal memory, (2) that subjects performed worse after sleep loss (regardless of whether this was partial or total sleep loss) on cued recognition-based false and veridical verbal memory tasks, and that sleep loss interfered with subjects' ability to recall veridical, but not false memories under free recall conditions, and (3) that there were no effects of sleep loss on a visual false memory task. This is argued to represent the dysfunction and slow repair of an online verbal associative process in the brain following inadequate sleep.

  10. Comparative study using MS and XRD of Fe80Al20 alloy produced by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadef, F.; Otmani, A.; Grenèche, J. M.

    2013-08-01

    An X-ray diffraction and 57Fe Mössbauer effect study of mechanically alloyed Fe80Al20 is presented. X-ray measurements indicate that the disordered bcc α-Fe(Al) solid solution was formed after 2 h of milling, while the analysis of Mössbauer spectra suggested that total dissolution of aluminium is achieved after 10 h of milling. These differences can be attributed to: (i) rapid nanocrystallization of aluminium and/or (ii) small particles with small amounts of aluminium cannot be detected by the X-ray diffraction technique.

  11. Effects of Al2O3 Nanopowders on the Wear Behavior of NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Y.; Öksüz, K. Emre

    2014-01-01

    TiNi shape memory alloy and its composite using δ-Al2O3 nanosize particles were prepared by the powder metallurgy method, and some mechanical properties like hardness, wear, and corrosion behavior were investigated. The experimental results exhibited that the lower wear rate was obtained for the nano-Al2O3-reinforced Ti alloy composite due to increased hardness, but the wear rate increased considerably with increasing the load over 25 N for Ti alloy. However, the best corrosion resistance was obtained for the base alloy, which is very important for implant applications.

  12. Surface structure and corrosion resistance of short-time heat-treated NiTi shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojtěch, D.; Voděrová, M.; Fojt, J.; Novák, P.; Kubásek, T.

    2010-12-01

    NiTi alloys are attractive materials that are used for medicine, however, Ni-release may cause allergic reactions in an organism. The Ni-release rate is strongly affected by the surface state of the NiTi alloy that is mainly determined by its processing route. In this study, a NiTi shape memory alloy (50.9 at.% Ni) was heat-treated by several regimes simulating the shape setting procedure, the last step in the manufacture of implants. Heating temperatures were between 500 and 550 °C and durations from 5 to 10 min. Heat treatments were performed in air at normal and low pressure and in a salt bath. The purpose of the treatments was to obtain and compare different surface states of the Ni-Ti alloy. The surface state and chemistry of heat-treated samples were investigated by electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectrometry. The amount of nickel released into a model physiological solution of pH 2 and into concentrated HCl was taken as a measure of the corrosion rate. It was found that the heat treatments produced surface TiO 2 layers measuring 15-50 nm in thickness that were depleted in nickel. The sample covered by the 15-nm thick oxide that was treated at 500 °C/5 min in a low pressure air showed the best corrosion performance in terms of Ni-release. As the oxide thickness increased, due to either temperature or oxygen activity change, Ni-release into the physiological solution accelerated. This finding is discussed in relation to the internal structure of the oxide layers.

  13. Experimental Studies on Dynamic Vibration Absorber using Shape Memory Alloy (NiTi) Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, V. Raj; Kumar, M. B. Bharathi Raj; Kumar, M. Senthil

    2011-10-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) springs have been used as actuators in many applications although their use in the vibration control area is very recent. Since shape memory alloys differ from conventional alloy materials in many ways, the traditional design approach for springs is not completely suitable for designing SMA springs. Some vibration control concepts utilizing unique characteristics of SMA's will be presented in this paper. A dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) using shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator is developed for attenuation of vibration in a cantilever beam. The design procedure of the DVA is presented. The system consists of a cantilever beam which is considered to generate the real-time vibration using shaker. A SMA spring is used with a mass attached to its end. The stiffness of the SMA spring is dynamically varied in such a way to attenuate the vibration. Both simulation and experimentation are carried out using PID controller. The experiments were carried out by interfacing the experimental setup with a computer using LabVIEW software, Data acquisition and control are implemented using a PCI data acquisition card. Standard PID controllers have been used to control the vibration of the beam. Experimental results are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the controllers designed and the usefulness of the proposed test platform by exciting the structure at resonance. In experimental setup, an accelerometer is used to measure the vibration which is fed to computer and correspondingly the SMA spring is actuated to change its stiffness to control the vibration. The results obtained illustrate that the developed DVA using SMA actuator is very effective in reducing structural response and have great potential to be an active vibration control medium.

  14. Experimental Studies on Dynamic Vibration Absorber using Shape Memory Alloy (NiTi) Springs

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, V. Raj; Kumar, M. B. Bharathi Raj; Kumar, M. Senthil

    2011-10-20

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) springs have been used as actuators in many applications although their use in the vibration control area is very recent. Since shape memory alloys differ from conventional alloy materials in many ways, the traditional design approach for springs is not completely suitable for designing SMA springs. Some vibration control concepts utilizing unique characteristics of SMA's will be presented in this paper.A dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) using shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator is developed for attenuation of vibration in a cantilever beam. The design procedure of the DVA is presented. The system consists of a cantilever beam which is considered to generate the real-time vibration using shaker. A SMA spring is used with a mass attached to its end. The stiffness of the SMA spring is dynamically varied in such a way to attenuate the vibration. Both simulation and experimentation are carried out using PID controller. The experiments were carried out by interfacing the experimental setup with a computer using LabVIEW software, Data acquisition and control are implemented using a PCI data acquisition card. Standard PID controllers have been used to control the vibration of the beam. Experimental results are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the controllers designed and the usefulness of the proposed test platform by exciting the structure at resonance. In experimental setup, an accelerometer is used to measure the vibration which is fed to computer and correspondingly the SMA spring is actuated to change its stiffness to control the vibration. The results obtained illustrate that the developed DVA using SMA actuator is very effective in reducing structural response and have great potential to be an active vibration control medium.

  15. Development of novel implant abutments using the shape memory alloy nitinol: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Pautke, Christoph; Kolk, Andreas; Brokate, Martin; Wehrstedt, Jan Christoph; Kneissl, Felix; Miethke, Thomas; Steinhauser, Erwin; Horch, Hans-Henning; Deppe, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    The development of gap-free abutments is a challenging problem, because the gap between the implant and the abutment, which is a consequence of current manufacturing limitations, can serve as a reservoir for pathogens. This may lead to peri-implantitis, a major cause of implant failure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to design and fabricate a gap-free abutment using a shape memory alloy with improved ability to prevent microleakage at the implant-abutment gap. The abutment was designed using the shape memory alloy nitinol and based on mathematical calculations considering the temperature-related, reversible changes to its crystalline alloy structure. The abutment prototypes were tested for their susceptibility to microbes in vitro, under static and dynamic conditions, by contaminating the abutments before assembly using a bacterial solution. Microbacterial tests were performed after cultivation of the implants for 1 week. The results were tested for statistically significant differences using the chi-square test. The mathematical calculations met the clinical requirements using a contact pressure of 2 3 108 Nm2 with a preload of 1.9 kN on cooled abutments. After recooling, the contact pressure was 1.3 Nm2, allowing for easy disassembly. Microbacterial analysis revealed no penetration of Escherichia coli under static conditions either in the control group or in the prototypes. Under dynamic conditions, however, the prototypes showed significantly reduced bacterial leakage compared to the controls. The data presented here demonstrate that dental implants fabricated with gap-free abutments using a shape memory alloy showed significantly reduced bacterial leakage versus conventional implants. This improvement could minimize clinical problems such as peri-implantitis and consequently enhance the long-term success of dental implants.

  16. Characterization of Transformation-Induced Defects in Nickel Titanium Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Matthew L.

    Shape memory alloys have remarkable strain recovery properties that make them ideal candidates for many applications that include devices in the automotive, aerospace, medical, and MEMS industries. Although these materials are widely used today, their performance is hindered by poor dimensional stability resulting from cyclic degradation of the martensitic transformation behavior. This functional fatigue results in decreased work output and cyclic accumulation of permanent strain. To date, few studies have taken a fundamental approach to investigating the interaction between plasticity and martensite growth and propagation, which is vitally important to mitigating functional fatigue in future alloy development. The current work focuses on understanding the interplay of these deformation mechanisms in NiTi-based shape memory alloys under a variety of different thermomechanical test conditions. Micron-scale compression testing of NiTi shape memory alloy single crystals is undertaken in an effort to probe the mechanism of austenite dislocation generation. Mechanical testing is paired with post mortem defect analysis via diffraction contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Accompanied by micromechanics-based modeling of local stresses surrounding a martensite plate, these results demonstrate that the previously existing martensite and resulting austenite dislocation substructure are intimately related. A mechanism of transformation-induced dislocation generation is described in detail. A study of pure and load-biased thermal cycling of bulk polycrystalline NiTi is done for comparison of the transformation behavior and resultant defects to the stress-induced case. Post mortem and in situ STEM characterization demonstrate unique defect configurations in this test mode and STEM-based orientation mapping reveals local crystal rotation with increasing thermal cycles. Changes in both martensite and austenite microstructures are explored. The results for

  17. Characterization of Stoichiometric and Aging Effects on NiTiHf High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, Daniel Robert

    NiTiHf ternary alloys exhibit attractive high temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) properties. Material properties include moderate transformation strain, relatively high transformation temperature, stable pseudoelastic (PE) behavior, and very small irrecoverable strain during load biased tests. The addition of Hf is more attractive than Pt and Pd due to the fact that Hf has a lower cost. Four NiTiHf alloys with different chemical compositions spanning stoichiometry were used to analyze microstructure and mechanical behavior. Research will mainly be focused on the Ni-rich alloys based on that the Ni-lean alloys do not exhibit the previously mentioned HTSMA material properties. The alloys analyzed all had 20(at.)% Hf with varying Ti concentrations (29(at.)%, 29.7(at.)%, 30(at.)%, and 30.5(at.)%). All of the alloys were formed by induction melting, homogenized at 1050C for 72hrs, and then hot extruded with a diameter reduction of 7:1 at a temperature of 900C. In addition to the homogenized and extruded condition, several short-term aging cycles above 400C were completed on each of the alloys. Certain microstructure and mechanical properties are obtained when Hf is added to NiTi and a proper aging cycle is used. Results from isothermal compression tests that were executed above the austenite finish temperature determined that the Ni-rich NiTiHf alloys exhibited all the necessary properties to be considered for HTSMA applications. The test temperature range of the isothermal compression tests were chosen to characterize the transition from PE behavior to austenite plasticity and to examine the deformation behavior of the B2 phase at high temperatures. Results from compression tests showed a strengthening effect when the test temperature was increased through the PE test region. The strengthening effect is due to the yield stress and plasticity being related to the stress induced martensite that is created during the compression test executed above the austenite

  18. A new mechanical characterization method for thin film microactuators and its application to NiTiCi shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Seward, Kirk P.

    1999-06-01

    In an effort to develop a more full characterization tool of shape memory alloys, a new technique is presented for the mechanical characterization of microactuators and applied to SMA thin films. A test instrument was designed to utilize a spring-loaded transducer in measuring displacements with resolution of 1.5 pm and forces with resolution of 0.2 mN. Employing an out-of-plane loading method for freestanding SMA thin films, strain resolution of 30με and stress resolution of 2.5 MPa were achieved. This new testing method is presented against previous SMA characterization methods for purposes of comparison. Four mm long, 2 μm thick NiTiCu ligaments suspended across open windows were bulk micromachined for use in the out-of-plane stress and strain measurements. The fabrication process used to micromachine the ligaments is presented step-by-step, alongside methods of fabrication that failed to produce testable ligaments. Static analysis showed that 63% of the applied strain was recovered while ligaments were subjected to tensile stresses of 870 MPa. In terms of recoverable stress and recoverable strain, the ligaments achieved maximum recovery of 700 MPa and 3.0% strain. No permanent deformations were seen in any ligament during deflection measurements. Maximum actuation forces and displacements produced by the 4 mm ligaments situated on 1 cm square test chips were 56 mN and 300 μm, respectively. Fatigue analysis of the ligaments showed degradation in recoverable strain from 0.33% to 0.24% with 200,000 cycles, corresponding to deflections of 90 μm and forces of 25 mN. Cycling also produced a wavering shape memory effect late in ligament life, leading to broad inconsistencies of as much as 35% deviation from average. Unexpected phenomena like stress-induced martensitic twinning that leads to less recoverable stress and the shape memory behavior of long life devices are addressed. Finally, a model for design of microactuators using shape memory alloys is presented

  19. Degradation of the shape memory effect in copper-base alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Stalmans, R.; Van Humbeeck, J.; Delaey, L. . Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science)

    1994-12-01

    The reversible transformation of the parent phase (austenite) to the product phase (martensite) is the basis of several shape memory properties in specific Cu-base alloys. In this respect, the two-way memory effect (TWME) refers the reversible, spontaneous shape change from a hot austenitic shape to a cold martensitic shape during cooling and heating without the application of external stresses. It is known that the magnitude of the TWME decrease during thermal or thermomechanical cycling, in particular in Cu-base shape memory alloys. It is however important to remark that this decrease, indicated as degradation of the TWME, can be caused as well by a decrease of the spontaneous martensitic strain, i.e. a degradation of the cold shape, as by an increase of the residual austenitic strain, i.e. a degradation of the hot shape, or by a combination of both. The degradation of the TWME, and of the hot and cold shape is influenced by a number of factors including the alloy composition, the processing, the heat treatment, the training procedure and the parameters of the thermal or thermomechanical cycling. The knowledge of the degradation phenomena is still limited. In a subsequent study of the relationships between training and the two-way memory behavior, the authors have shown that the degradation of the hot shape already starts during training. It was found that the residual austenitic strain [gamma][sub a] increases gradually during training cycling; [gamma][sub a] is also in the case of training composed of a recoverable residual strain [gamma][sub ar] and a non-recoverable residual strain [gamma][sub anr]. The present paper reports the results of the specific experiments which were designed based upon the results described above. The evolutions during thermal cycling of the TWME, of the martensitic strain and austenitic strain, and of the recoverable and non-recoverable austenitic strain are presented and discussed.

  20. Influence of Tin Additions on the Phase-Transformation Characteristics of Mechanical Alloyed Cu-Al-Ni Shape-Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saud, Safaa N.; Hamzah, E.; Abubakar, T.; Bakhsheshi-Rad, H. R.; Mohammed, M. N.

    2016-10-01

    The influence of the addition of Sn to Cu-Al-Ni alloy as a fourth element with different percentages of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 wt pct on the microstructure, phase-transformation temperatures, mechanical properties, and corrosion behaviors was investigated. The modified and unmodified alloys were fabricated by mechanical alloying followed by microwave sintering. The sintered and homogenized alloys of Cu-Al-Ni- xSn shape-memory alloys had a refined particle structure with an average particle size of 40 to 50 µm associated with an improvement in the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. With the addition of Sn, the porosity density tends to decrease, which can also lead to improvements in the properties of the modified alloys. The minimum porosity percentage was observed in the Cu-Al-Ni-1.0 wt pct Sn alloy, which resulted in enhancing the ductility, strain recovery, and corrosion resistance. Further increasing the Sn addition to 1.5 wt pct, the strength of the alloy increased because the highest volume fraction of precipitates was formed. Regarding the corrosion behavior, addition of Sn up to 1 wt pct increased the corrosion resistance of the base SMA from 2.97 to 19.20 kΩ cm2 because of formation of a protective film that contains hydrated tin oxyhydroxide, aluminum dihydroxychloride, and copper chloride on the alloy. However, further addition of Sn reduced the corrosion resistance.

  1. Structure-Property Relationship of Cu-Al-Ni-Fe Shape Memory Alloys in Different Quenching Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saud, Safaa N.; Hamzah, E.; Abubakar, T.; Farahany, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of heat treatments using various quenching media on the phase transformation parameters and microstructure parameters. The effects of different quenching methods, step-quenched and up-quenched, in various media were evaluated by using differential scanning calorimetry, field emission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Vicker's hardness. The variations of the structure and properties of Cu-Al-Ni-Fe shape memory alloys were linked to the variations of morphology, type, and stabilization of the obtained phase. From the DSC results, the use of ice water as a quenching medium produced the highest transformation temperatures, while a brine solution-quenching medium resulted in the highest change of the entropy and enthalpy. Additionally, it was found that the best grain refinement was observed through the use of an oil-quenching medium, due to its high cooling rate.

  2. Development of magnetic shape memory alloy actuators for a swashplateless helicopter rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couch, Ronald Newton

    Actuator concepts utilizing NiMnGa, ferromagnetic shape memory alloy are investigated for potential use on a smart rotor for trailing edge flap actuation. With their high energy density, large dynamic stroke, and wide operating bandwidth, ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMA) like NiMnGa, seem like attractive candidates for smart rotor actuators, potentially able to fulfill the requirements for both primary rotor control and vibration suppression. However, because of the recent discovery of the material, current experimental data and analytical tools are limited. To rectify these shortcomings, an extensive set of detailed experiments were conducted on samples of NiMnGa to characterize the response of the alloy for a wide variety of mechanical and magnetic loading conditions. Measurements of the material performance parameters such as power density, damping properties, magneto-mechanical coupling, and transduction efficiency were included. Once characterized, the experimental data were used to develop a series of analytical tools to predict the behavior of the material. A model, developed in parallel to thermal shape memory alloy models is proposed to predict the quasi-static stress-strain behavior. A simple, low frequency, parameter based model was also developed to predict the alloy's dynamic strain response. A method for developing conceptual actuators utilizing NiMnGa as the actuation element was proposed. This approach incorporates experimental data into a process that down-selects a series of possible actuator configurations to obtain a single configuration optimized for volumetric and weight considerations. The proposed actuator was designed to deliver 2 mm of stroke and 60 N of force at an actuation frequency of 50 Hz. However, to generate the 1.0 T magnetic field, the actuator mass was determined to be 2.8 kg and required a minimum of 320 Watts of power for operation. The mass of the NiMnGa element was only 18.3 g. It was concluded that although the Ni

  3. Fatigue strength of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy produced by selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerov, M. V.; Vladislavskaya, E. Yu.; Terent'ev, V. F.; Prosvirnin, D. V.; Kolmakov, A. G.; Antonova, O. S.

    2016-10-01

    The fatigue properties and the fracture mechanisms of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy produced by selective laser melting (SLM) from a powder of an CL41TiELI titanium alloy have been studied. Cylindrical blanks were grown at angles of 90° and 45° to a platform. The best fatigue strength is observed in the samples the blanks of which were grown at an angle of 45°. It is found that the structure of the SLM material can contain portions with unmelted powder particles, which are the places of initiation of fatigue cracks.

  4. A smart soft actuator using a single shape memory alloy for twisting actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Jae-Eul; Quan, Ying-Jun; Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Song, Sung-Hyuk; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2015-12-01

    Recently, robots have become a topic of interest with regard to their functionality as they need to complete a large number of diverse tasks in a variety of environments. When using traditional mechanical components, many parts are needed to realize complex deformations, such as motors, hinges, and cranks. To produce complex deformations, this work introduces a smart soft composite torsional actuator using a single shape memory alloy (SMA) wire without any additional elements. The proposed twisting actuator is composed of a torsionally prestrained SMA wire embedded at the center of a polydimethylsiloxane matrix that twists by applying an electric current upon joule heating of the SMA wire. This report shows the actuator design, fabrication method, and results for the twisting angle and actuation moment. Results show that a higher electric current helps reach the maximum twisting angle faster, but that if the current is too low or too high, it will not be able to reach its maximum deformation. Also, both the twisting angle and the twisting moment increase with a large applied twisting prestrain, but this increase has an asymptotic behavior. However, results for both the width and the thickness of the actuator show that a larger width and thickness reduce the maximum actuation angle of the actuator. This paper also presents a new mechanism for an SMA-actuated active catheter using only two SMA wires with a total length of 170 mm to bend the tip of the catheter in multiple directions. The fabricated active catheter’s maximum twisting angle is 270°, and the maximum bending curvature is 0.02 mm-1.

  5. Thermodynamic constitutive model for load-biased thermal cycling test of shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Sung; Nam, Tae-Hyun

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Thermodynamic calculation model for martensitic transformation of shape memory alloy was proposed. • Evolution of the self-accommodation was considered independently by a rate-dependent kinetic equation. • Finite element calculation was conducted for B2–B19′ transformation of Ti–44.5Ni–5Cu–0.5 V (at.%). • Three-dimensional numerical results predict the macroscopic strain under bias loading accurately. - Abstract: This paper presents a three-dimensional calculation model for martensitic phase transformation of shape memory alloy. Constitutive model based on thermodynamic theory was provided. The average behavior was accounted for by considering the volume fraction of each martensitic variant in the material. Evolution of the volume fraction of each variant was determined by a rate-dependent kinetic equation. We assumed that nucleation rate is faster for the self-accommodation than for the stress-induced variants. Three-dimensional finite element analysis was conducted and the results were compared with the experimental data of Ti–44.5Ni–5Cu–0.5 V (at.%) alloy under bias loading.

  6. Application of a shape-memory alloy internal fixator for treatment of acetabular fractures with a follow-up of two to nine years in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinwei; Xu, Shuogui; Su, Jiacan; Yu, Baoqing

    2009-01-01

    Displaced acetabular fractures should be treated surgically. Over the past decade, surgical approaches to the acetabulum and the surgical technique for repair of common fracture patterns have advanced. Excellent outcomes after repair of these injuries can be achieved. The aim of this study was to assess the medium-term results of reconstruction of acetabular fractures by using shape-memory alloy designed by the authors. This is a retrospective review conducted at a level 1 trauma centre. From October 1999 to July 2009, 19 patients with acetabular fractures were treated with our patented Ni-Ti shape-memory alloy acetabular tridimensional memory alloy-fixation system (ATMFS). The ATMFS device was cooled with ice before implantation and then warmed to 40–50°C after implantation to produce balanced axial and compression forces that would stabilise the fracture three dimensionally. Our results are as follows; according to the D’Aubigne−Postel scoring system: Fifteen cases out of 19 (79%) achieved excellent or good clinical results. In two patients, late complications included avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) associated with posterior dislocation of the hip joint two years after the operation. We also observed two cases of grade II or III ectopic ossification, with good hip function, and one case of traumatic arthritis. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the effectiveness of the ATMFS device for the management of acetabular fracture. The device provides continuous compression of the fracture with minimal disruption to the local blood supply. PMID:20012433

  7. Application of a shape-memory alloy internal fixator for treatment of acetabular fractures with a follow-up of two to nine years in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinwei; Xu, Shuogui; Zhang, Chuncai; Su, Jiacan; Yu, Baoqing

    2010-10-01

    Displaced acetabular fractures should be treated surgically. Over the past decade, surgical approaches to the acetabulum and the surgical technique for repair of common fracture patterns have advanced. Excellent outcomes after repair of these injuries can be achieved. The aim of this study was to assess the medium-term results of reconstruction of acetabular fractures by using shape-memory alloy designed by the authors. This is a retrospective review conducted at a level 1 trauma centre. From October 1999 to July 2009, 19 patients with acetabular fractures were treated with our patented Ni-Ti shape-memory alloy acetabular tridimensional memory alloy-fixation system (ATMFS). The ATMFS device was cooled with ice before implantation and then warmed to 40-50°C after implantation to produce balanced axial and compression forces that would stabilise the fracture three dimensionally. Our results are as follows; according to the D'Aubigne-Postel scoring system: Fifteen cases out of 19 (79%) achieved excellent or good clinical results. In two patients, late complications included avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) associated with posterior dislocation of the hip joint two years after the operation. We also observed two cases of grade II or III ectopic ossification, with good hip function, and one case of traumatic arthritis. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the effectiveness of the ATMFS device for the management of acetabular fracture. The device provides continuous compression of the fracture with minimal disruption to the local blood supply.

  8. Similar phenomena, different mechanisms: semantic and phonological false memories are produced by independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ballou, McKenzie R; Sommers, Mitchell S

    2008-12-01

    The Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm can produce high levels of false remembering for lists of both semantic and phonological associates. The present study investigated whether similar mechanisms mediate false memories with these two types of lists. Experiment 1 measured the relationship between levels of false memory obtained with lists of semantic and phonological associates. The results indicated little correlation between false memories generated with the two types of associates. Experiment 2 used a between-subjects design to determine whether the absence of a significant correlation in Experiment 1 was a consequence of the relatively low levels of false memory observed in that experiment. The results indicated similar proportions of false memories in Experiments 1 and 2, suggesting that the within-subjects design in Experiment 1 did not reduce the overall levels of false recall or recognition. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the independence of the mechanisms mediating different types of false memories.

  9. Enhanced photomechanical response of a Ni–Ti shape memory alloy coated with polymer-based photothermal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Zúñiga, M. G.; Sánchez-Arévalo, F. M.; Hernández-Cordero, J.

    2017-10-01

    A simple way to enhance the activation of shape memory effects with light in a Ni–Ti alloy is demonstrated. Using polydimethylsiloxane-carbon nanopowder (PDMS+CNP) composites as coatings, the one-way shape memory effect (OWSME) of the alloy can be triggered using low power IR light from a laser diode. The PDMS+CNP coatings serve as photothermal materials capable to absorb light, and subsequently generate and dissipate heat in a highly efficient manner, thereby reducing the optical powers required for triggering the OWSME in the Ni–Ti alloy. Experimental results with a cantilever flexural test using both, bare Ni–Ti and coated samples, show that the PDMS+CNP coatings perform as thermal boosters, and therefore the temperatures required for phase transformation in the alloy can be readily obtained with low laser powers. It is also shown that the two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) can be set in the Ni–Ti alloy through cycling the TWSME by simply modulating the laser diode signal. This provides a simple means for training the material, yielding a light driven actuator capable to provide forces in the mN range. Hence, the use of photothermal coatings on Ni–Ti shape memory alloys may offer new possibilities for developing light-controlled smart actuators.

  10. Modeling the coupling between martensitic phase transformation and plasticity in shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchiraju, Sivom

    The thermo-mechanical response of NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) is predominantly dictated by two inelastic deformation processes---martensitic phase transformation and plastic deformation. This thesis presents a new microstructural finite element (MFE) model that couples these processes and anisotropic elasticity. The coupling occurs via the stress redistribution induced by each mechanism. The approach includes three key improvements to the literature. First, transformation and plasticity are modeled at a crystallographic level and can occur simultaneously. Second, a rigorous large-strain finite element formulation is used, thereby capturing texture development (crystal rotation). Third, the formulation adopts recent first principle calculations of monoclinic martensite stiffness. The model is calibrated to experimental data for polycrystalline NiTi (49.9 at% Ni). Inputs include anisotropic elastic properties, texture, and DSC data as well as a subset of pseudoelastic and load-biased thermal cycling data. This calibration process provides updated material values---namely, larger self-hardening between similar martensite plates. It is then assessed against additional pseudoelastic and load-biased thermal cycling experimental data and neutron diffraction measurements of martensite texture evolution. Several experimental trends are captured---in particular, the transformation strain during thermal cycling monotonically increases with increasing bias stress, reaching a peak and then decreasing due to intervention of plasticity---a trend which existing MFE models are unable to capture. Plasticity is also shown to enhance stress-induced martensite formation during loading and generate retained martensite upon unloading. The simulations even enable a quantitative connection between deformation processing and two-way shape memory effect. Some experimental trends are not captured---in particular, the ratcheting of macrostrain with repeated thermal cycling. This may

  11. Radiopaque Shape Memory Alloys: NiTi-Er with Stable Superelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuissi, Ausonio; Carr, Shane; Butler, James; Gandhi, Abbasi A.; O'Donoghue, Lisa; McNamara, Karrina; Carlson, James M.; Lavelle, Shay; Tiernan, Peter; Biffi, Carlo A.; Bassani, Paola; Tofail, Syed A. M.

    2016-06-01

    Binary NiTi alloy is one of the most important biomaterials currently used in minimally invasive procedures and indwelling devices. The poor visibility of intermetallic NiTi under X-ray could be an unsatisfactory feature especially for developing low-dimensional implantable devices for the body. It is a matter of fact that the alloying of a third radiopaque element, such as noble or heavy metals, in NiTi can significantly enhance the alloy's radiopacity. Recently, it was demonstrated that the addition of a rare earth element such as Erbium has led to an equivalent radiopacity at a much lower cost than the equivalent addition of noble metals. This work reviews the main physical aspects related to the radiopacity of NiTi alloys and compares the radiopacity of NiTi-Er compositions with other NiTi-based alloys containing Pd, Pt, W and Cr. Furthermore, a NiTi-6Er alloy is produced by spark plasma sintering, and successfully processed by conventional hot and cold working procedures to a continuous wire showing stable superelastic behaviour (up to 4 % in strain), suitable for developing biomedical devices.

  12. A local quasicontinuum method for 3D multilattice crystalline materials: Application to shape-memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorkin, V.; Elliott, R. S.; Tadmor, E. B.

    2014-07-01

    The quasicontinuum (QC) method, in its local (continuum) limit, is applied to materials with a multilattice crystal structure. Cauchy-Born (CB) kinematics, which accounts for the shifts of the crystal motif, is used to relate atomic motions to continuum deformation gradients. To avoid failures of CB kinematics, QC is augmented with a phonon stability analysis that detects lattice period extensions and identifies the minimum required periodic cell size. This approach is referred to as Cascading Cauchy-Born kinematics (CCB). In this paper, the method is described and developed. It is then used, along with an effective interaction potential (EIP) model for shape-memory alloys, to simulate the shape-memory effect and pseudoelasticity in a finite specimen. The results of these simulations show that (i) the CCB methodology is an essential tool that is required in order for QC-type simulations to correctly capture the first-order phase transitions responsible for these material behaviors, and (ii) that the EIP model adopted in this work coupled with the QC/CCB methodology is capable of predicting the characteristic behavior found in shape-memory alloys.

  13. A microplane constitutive model for shape memory alloys considering tension-compression asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamooz Ravari, M. R.; Kadkhodaei, M.; Ghaei, A.

    2015-07-01

    Shape memory alloys are a group of advanced materials that have found several industrial applications due to their interesting mechanical properties including a shape memory effect and superelasticity. In order to optimize the use of such materials in manufacturing different devices, appropriate advanced constitutive models are required. Recent experiments show that shape memory alloys exhibit an asymmetric response during tension and compression loading. In this paper, a new three-dimensional constitutive law is proposed based on microplane theory with the purpose of describing the tension-compression asymmetry. The model utilizes an equivalent stress on the foundation of second and third invariants of the deviatoric stress tensor in combination with two internal variables to distinguish between martensite volume fraction as well as martensite elastic modulus during tension and compression. The proposed model is then used to simulate uniaxial tension-compression loading in superelasticity as well as ferroelasticity regimes. The simulation results are compared with the corresponding results obtained by experiment and previous models reported in the literature, and a good agreement is observed. In addition, a four-point bending test is simulated for NiTi tubes in several cases. The predicted moment-curvature response and variations in the position of the neutral axis correlate fairly well with the experimental findings reported in the literature.

  14. The relationship between alloying elements and biologically produced ennoblement in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Eashwar, M; Lakshman Kumar, A; Hariharasuthan, R; Sreedhar, G

    2015-01-01

    A range of stainless steels, nickel-chromium and nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys were exposed to coastal seawater from Mandapam (Indian Ocean) and freshwater from a perennial pond. Biofilms from both test waters produced an ennoblement of the open circuit potential (OCP) on all alloys as expected, which was slower but substantially larger in freshwater. In both waters an interesting relationship was perceived between the plateau OCP (Emax) and the mass percentage of the major alloying elements. In particular, iron exhibited strong positive correlations with Emax (r(2) ≥ 0.77; p < 0.0005), while the sum of chromium, nickel and molybdenum presented significant negative correlations (r(2) ≤ -0.81; p = 0.0002). Consistent with the regression analyses, Euclidean distance clustering yielded patterns where Inconel-600 and the nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys had the smallest similarities of OCP with other alloys. The results emphatically reinforce a key role for surface passive films in the ennoblement phenomenon in natural waters.

  15. Effects of Palladium Content, Quaternary Alloying, and Thermomechanical Processing on the Behavior of Ni-Ti-Pd Shape Memory Alloys for Actuator Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, Glen

    2008-01-01

    The need for compact, solid-state actuation systems for use in the aerospace, automotive, and other transportation industries is currently driving research in high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMA) having transformation temperatures above 100 C. One of the basic high temperature systems under investigation to fill this need is NiTiPd. Prior work on this alloy system has focused on phase transformations and respective temperatures, no-load shape memory behavior (strain recovery), and tensile behavior for selected alloys. In addition, a few tests have been done to determine the effect of boron additions and thermomechanical treatment on the aforementioned properties. The main properties that affect the performance of a solid state actuator, namely work output, transformation strain, and permanent deformation during thermal cycling under load have mainly been neglected. There is also no consistent data representing the mechanical behavior of this alloy system over a broad range of compositions. For this thesis, ternary NiTiPd alloys containing 15 to 46 at.% palladium were processed and the transformation temperatures, basic tensile properties, and work characteristics determined. However, testing reveals that at higher levels of alloying addition, the benefit of increased transformation temperature begins to be offset by lowered work output and permanent deformation or "walking" of the alloy during thermal cycling under load. In response to this dilemma, NiTiPd alloys have been further alloyed with gold, platinum, and hafnium additions to solid solution strengthen the martensite and parent austenite phases in order to improve the thermomechanical behavior of these materials. The tensile properties, work behavior, and dimensional stability during repeated thermal cycling under load for the ternary and quaternary alloys were compared and discussed. In addition, the benefits of more advanced thermomechanical processing or training on the dimensional stability of

  16. Carbothermic reduction and prereduced charge for producing aluminum-silicon alloys

    DOEpatents

    Stevenson, David T.; Troup, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for the carbothermic reduction of aluminum oxide to form an aluminum alloy including producing silicon carbide by heating a first mix of carbon and silicon oxide in a combustion reactor to an elevated temperature sufficient to produce silicon carbide at an accelerated rate, the heating being provided by an in situ combustion with oxygen gas, and then admixing the silicon carbide with carbon and aluminum oxide to form a second mix and heating the second mix in a second reactor to an elevated metal-forming temperature sufficient to produce aluminum-silicon alloy. The prereduction step includes holding aluminum oxide substantially absent from the combustion reactor. The metal-forming step includes feeding silicon oxide in a preferred ratio with silicon carbide.

  17. Carbothermic reduction and prereduced charge for producing aluminum-silicon alloys

    DOEpatents

    Stevenson, D.T.; Troup, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for the carbothermic reduction of aluminum oxide to form an aluminum alloy including producing silicon carbide by heating a first mix of carbon and silicon oxide in a combustion reactor to an elevated temperature sufficient to produce silicon carbide at an accelerated rate, the heating being provided by an in situ combustion with oxygen gas, and then admixing the silicon carbide with carbon and aluminum oxide to form a second mix and heating the second mix in a second reactor to an elevated metal-forming temperature sufficient to produce aluminum-silicon alloy. The prereduction step includes holding aluminum oxide substantially absent from the combustion reactor. The metal-forming step includes feeding silicon oxide in a preferred ratio with silicon carbide. 1 fig.

  18. Combinatorial search of thermoelastic shape-memory alloys with extremely small hysteresis width.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jun; Chu, Yong S; Famodu, Olugbenga O; Furuya, Yasubumi; Hattrick-Simpers, Jae; James, Richard D; Ludwig, Alfred; Thienhaus, Sigurd; Wuttig, Manfred; Zhang, Zhiyong; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2006-04-01

    Reversibility of structural phase transformations has profound technological implications in a wide range of applications from fatigue life in shape-memory alloys (SMAs) to magnetism in multiferroic oxides. The geometric nonlinear theory of martensite universally applicable to all structural transitions has been developed. It predicts the reversibility of the transitions as manifested in the hysteresis behaviour based solely on crystal symmetry and geometric compatibilities between phases. In this article, we report on the verification of the theory using the high-throughput approach. The thin-film composition-spread technique was devised to rapidly map the lattice parameters and the thermal hysteresis of ternary alloy systems. A clear relationship between the hysteresis and the middle eigenvalue of the transformation stretch tensor as predicted by the theory was observed for the first time. We have also identified a new composition region of titanium-rich SMAs with potential for improved control of SMA properties.

  19. Vacancy dynamic in Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Merida, D.; Sánchez-Alarcos, V.; Pérez-Landazábal, J. I.; Recarte, V.; Plazaola, F.

    2014-06-09

    Vacancies control any atomic ordering process and consequently most of the order-dependent properties of the martensitic transformation in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. Positron annihilation spectroscopy demonstrates to be a powerful technique to study vacancies in NiMnGa alloys quenched from different temperatures and subjected to post-quench isothermal annealing treatments. Considering an effective vacancy type the temperature dependence of the vacancy concentration has been evaluated. Samples quenched from 1173 K show a vacancy concentration of 1100 ± 200 ppm. The vacancy migration and formation energies have been estimated to be 0.55 ± 0.05 eV and 0.90 ± 0.07 eV, respectively.

  20. Temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility in the vicinity of martensitic transformation in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Zablotskii, V; Pérez-Landazábal, J I; Recarte, V; Gómez-Polo, C

    2010-08-11

    Temperature dependences of low-field quasistatic magnetic susceptibility in the vicinity of martensitic transitions in an NiFeGa alloy are studied both by experiment and analytically. Pronounced reversible jumps of the magnetic susceptibility were observed near the martensitic transition temperature. A general description of the temperature dependences of the susceptibility in ferromagnetic austenite and martensite phases and the susceptibility jump at the transition is suggested. As a result, the main factors governing the temperature dependences of the magnetic susceptibility in the magnetic shape memory alloys are revealed. The magnetic susceptibility jump value is found to be related to changes of: (i) magnetic anisotropy; (ii) magnetic domain wall geometrical constraints (those determined by the alignment and size of twin variants) and (iii) mean magnetic domain spacing.

  1. Design of a two degree of freedom shape memory alloy actuator for mirror positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Eric A.; Elahinia, Mohammad H.

    2006-03-01

    Due to improvements in material properties through research, actuation mechanisms utilizing shape memory alloys (SMA) have been attracting more attention. Many actuation mechanisms have utilized the phase transformation of SMA's to generate motion. One new arena for the application of the alloys is the automotive industry, where they can reduce size and cost of the actuator in current models. The three major types of actuators employing SMA wires will be discussed. One such type, the antagonistic actuator, has begun to find applications where position can be controlled through the use of SMA wire. Based on this antagonistic actuator, a novel two degree of freedom SMA actuator is proposed which controls the position of an external rear view mirror. This design would replace the current DC motor design with a cheaper and more compact mechanism. The prototype concept is implemented using an antagonistic actuator based on an SMA wire, a joystick and a microcontroller.

  2. Cytocompatibility evaluation of NiMnSn meta-magnetic shape memory alloys for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Guiza-Arguello, Viviana R; Monroe, James A; Karaman, Ibrahim; Hahn, Mariah S

    2016-07-01

    Recently, magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) have emerged as an interesting extension to conventional shape memory alloys (SMAs) due to their capacity to undergo reversible deformation in response to an externally applied magnetic field. Meta-magnetic SMAs (M-MSMAs) are a class of MSMAs that are able to transform magnetic energy to mechanical work by harnessing a magnetic-field induced phase transformation, and thus have the capacity to impose up to 10 times greater stress than conventional MSMAs. As such, M-MSMAs may hold substantial promise in biomedical applications requiring extracorporeal device activation. In the present study, the cytotoxicity and ion release from an Ni50 Mn36 Sn14 atomic percent composition M-MSMA were evaluated using NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. Initial studies showed that the viability of cells exposed to NiMnSn ion leachants was 60 to 67% of tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) controls over 10 to 14 days of culture. This represents a significant improvement in cytocompatibility relative to NiMnGa alloys, one of the most extensively studied MSMA systems, which have been reported to induce 80% cell death in only 48 h. Furthermore, NiMnSn M-MSMA associated cell viability was increased to 80% of TCP controls following layer-by-layer alloy coating with poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/poly(acrylic acid) [PAH/PAA]. Ion release measures revealed that the PAH/PAA coatings decreased total Sn and Mn ion release by 50% and 25%, respectively, and optical microscopy evaluation indicated that the coatings reduced NiMnSn surface oxidation. To our knowledge, this study presents the first cytotoxicity evaluation of NiMnSn M-MSMAs and lays the groundwork for their further biological evaluation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 853-863, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A new type of Cu-Al-Ta shape memory alloy with high martensitic transformation temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. P.; Su, Y.; Y Yang, S.; Shi, Z.; Liu, X. J.

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a new type of Cu-Al-Ta (Cu86Al12Ta2 wt%) shape memory alloy with high martensitic transformation temperature is explored. The microstructure, reversible martensitic transformation and shape memory properties are investigated by means of optical microscopy, back-scattered electron, electron probe microanalysis, x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and tensile tests. It is proposed that Cu86Al12Ta2 alloy consists of a mixture of primarily {\\beta }_{1}^{\\prime} martensite and a little {\\gamma }_{1}^{\\prime} martensite and some different precipitates. The tiny thin-striped Ta2(Al,Cu)3 precipitate is predominant in the as-quenched condition, whereas the particle-shaped Cu(Al, Ta) precipitate is dominant after hot-rolling. Additionally, the dendritic-shaped γ1(Cu9Al4) phase begins to appear after hot-rolling, but it disappears when the sample is re-quenched. All studied samples have reversible martensitic transformation temperatures higher than 450 ° C. The results show that two-step martensitic transformation behavior is observed for Cu86Al12Ta2 alloy in all three different conditions due to the transformations between ({\\beta }_{1}^{\\prime}+{\\gamma }_{1}^{\\prime}) martensites and the austenite parent phase. The results further show that the recovery ratios are almost 100% when the pre-strains are ≤2.5%, then they gradually decrease with further increase of the pre-strains. The shape memory effects clearly increase as a result of increase of the pre-strains, up to a maximum value of 3.2%.

  4. Effects of interface treatment on the fatigue behaviour of shape memory alloy reinforced polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiremath, S. R.; Harish, K.; Vasireddi, Ramakrishna; Benal, M. M.; Mahapatra, D. R.

    2015-04-01

    Interfacial properties of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) reinforced polymer matrix composites can be enhanced by improving the interfacial bonding. This paper focuses on studying the interfacial stresses developed in the SMAepoxy interface due to various laser shot penning conditions. Fiber-pull test-setup is designed to understand the role of mechanical bias stress cycling and thermal actuation cycling. Phase transformation is tracked over mechanical and thermal fatigue cycles. A micromechanics based model developed earlier based on shear lag in SMA and energy based consistent homogenization is extended here to incorporate the stress-temperature phase diagram parameters for modeling fatigue.

  5. Mobile Interfacial Microstructures in Single Crystals of Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiner, Hanuš

    2015-06-01

    This paper summarizes the main properties of the microstructures formed during reverse (austenite → martensite) transitions in single crystals of the Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy, and discusses the relation between these properties and the mechanical stabilization effect. It is shown that all experimentally observed interfacial microstructures ( X- and λ-interfaces and their non-classical equivalents) are not local minimizers of the quasi-static energy, and their formation is probably governed by requirements on mobility and dissipation. This conclusion is supported by finite elements models, and acoustic emission measurements.

  6. Nitride coating enhances endothelialization on biomedical NiTi shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Ion, Raluca; Luculescu, Catalin; Cimpean, Anisoara; Marx, Philippe; Gordin, Doina-Margareta; Gloriant, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    Surface nitriding was demonstrated to be an effective process for improving the biocompatibility of implantable devices. In this study, we investigated the benefits of nitriding the NiTi shape memory alloy for vascular stent applications. Results from cell experiments indicated that, compared to untreated NiTi, a superficial gas nitriding treatment enhanced the adhesion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), cell spreading and proliferation. This investigation provides data to demonstrate the possibility of improving the rate of endothelialization on NiTi by means of nitride coating.

  7. Improvement in performance of reinforced concrete structures using shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajoria, Kamal M.; Kaduskar, Shreya S.

    2015-04-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) are a unique class of materials which have ability to undergo large deformation and also regain its undeformed shape by removal of stress or by heating. This unique property could be effectively utilized to enhance the safety of a structure. This paper presents the pushover analysis performance of a Reinforced Concrete moment resistance frame with the traditional steel reinforcement replaced partially with Nickel-Titanium (Nitinol) SMA. The results are compared with the RC structure reinforced with conventional steel. Partial replacement of traditional steel reinforcement by SMA shows better performance.

  8. Multiscale twin hierarchy in NiMnGa shape memory alloys with Fe and Cu

    DOE PAGES

    Barabash, Rozaliya I.; Barabash, Oleg M.; Popov, Dmitry; ...

    2015-01-31

    X-ray microdiffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies reveal 10 M martensitic structure with a highly correlated multiscale twin hierarchy organization in NiMnGaFeCu shape memory alloys. In this paper, high compatibility is found at the twin interfaces resulting in a highly correlated twinned lattice orientation across several laminate levels. The lattice unit cell is described as monoclinic I-centered with a = 4.28 Å, b = 4.27 Å, c = 5.40 Å, γ = 78.5°. The modulation is found parallel to the b axis. Finally, thin tapered needle-like lamellae and branching are observed near the twin boundaries.

  9. Active Vibration Control of Elastic Beam by Means of Shape Memory Alloy Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Q.; Levy, C.

    1996-01-01

    The mathematical model of a flexible beam covered with shape memory alloy (SMA) layers is presented. The SMA layers are used as actuators, which are capable of changing their elastic modulus and recovery stress, thus changing the natural frequency of, and adjusting the excitation to, the vibrating beam. The frequency factor variation as a function of SMA Young's modulus, SMA layer thickness and beam thickness is discussed. Also control of the beam employing an optimal linear control law is evaluated. The control results indicate how the system reacts to various levels of excitation input through the non-homogeneous recovery shear term of the governing differential equation.

  10. [Design of minimally invasive surgery wrist institution actuated by shape memory alloy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Cao, Tong; Chen, Hua; Liu, Da; Shi, Zhenyun; Ma, Chen

    2013-06-01

    The rapid development of minimally invasive surgery technology requires higher flexibility of surgical treatment and small volume of medical instrument. This paper proposed a new type of minimally invasive surgery wrist institution actuated by TiNi shape memory alloy (SMA) wire. The wrist institution has some advantages such as compact structure, flexible function, light weight, big movement space, and high output position precision. The paper briefly introduces the properties of TiNi SMA and describes the configuration of wrist institution. We also carried out mechanism simulation analysis to the mechanics model and set up kinematics equations, and finally presented the workspace of the institution.

  11. Application of Laguerre based adaptive predictive control to Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) Actuator.

    PubMed

    Kannan, S; Giraud-Audine, C; Patoor, E

    2013-07-01

    This paper discusses the use of an existing adaptive predictive controller to control some Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) linear actuators. The model consists in a truncated linear combination of Laguerre filters identified online. The controller stability is studied in details. It is proven that the tracking error is asymptotically stable under some conditions on the modelling error. Moreover, the tracking error converge toward zero for step references, even if the identified model is inaccurate. Experimental results obtained on two different kind of actuator validate the proposed control. They also show that it is robust with regard to input constraints. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Converse magnetoelectric effect in ferromagnetic shape memory alloy/piezoelectric laminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. Y.; Wang, D. H.; Han, Z. D.; Zhang, C. L.; Du, Y. W.; Huang, Z. G.

    2009-07-01

    In laminates, the converse magnetoelectric (CME) effect is often achieved by an elastic coupling between magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers. Here the authors report on an alternative mechanism for obtaining CME. In a transition-metals-based ferromagnetic shape memory alloy/piezoelectric ceramic laminated composite, the stress-induced martensitic transformation is utilized to gain the magnetic changes, which gives rise to a giant CME effect consequently. The strong CME is observed at room temperature over a broad bandwidth, under weak magnetic bias and electric field.

  13. Multiscale twin hierarchy in NiMnGa shape memory alloys with Fe and Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, Rozaliya I.; Barabash, Oleg M.; Popov, Dmitry; Shen, Guoyin; Park, Changyong; Yang, Wenge

    2015-01-31

    X-ray microdiffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies reveal 10 M martensitic structure with a highly correlated multiscale twin hierarchy organization in NiMnGaFeCu shape memory alloys. In this paper, high compatibility is found at the twin interfaces resulting in a highly correlated twinned lattice orientation across several laminate levels. The lattice unit cell is described as monoclinic I-centered with a = 4.28 Å, b = 4.27 Å, c = 5.40 Å, γ = 78.5°. The modulation is found parallel to the b axis. Finally, thin tapered needle-like lamellae and branching are observed near the twin boundaries.

  14. Variable area nozzle for gas turbine engines driven by shape memory alloy actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rey, Nancy M. (Inventor); Miller, Robin M. (Inventor); Tillman, Thomas G. (Inventor); Rukus, Robert M. (Inventor); Kettle, John L. (Inventor); Dunphy, James R. (Inventor); Chaudhry, Zaffir A. (Inventor); Pearson, David D. (Inventor); Dreitlein, Kenneth C. (Inventor); Loffredo, Constantino V. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine engine includes a variable area nozzle having a plurality of flaps. The flaps are actuated by a plurality of actuating mechanisms driven by shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators to vary fan exist nozzle area. The SMA actuator has a deformed shape in its martensitic state and a parent shape in its austenitic state. The SMA actuator is heated to transform from martensitic state to austenitic state generating a force output to actuate the flaps. The variable area nozzle also includes a plurality of return mechanisms deforming the SMA actuator when the SMA actuator is in its martensitic state.

  15. The Effect of Cold Work on Martensitic Transformations in CU-ZN-AL Shape Memory Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    has been reported to occur in many binary and ternary systems including: Ni-Ti ( Nitinol ), Fe-Pt, Mn-Cu, In-Tl, Cu-Zn, Cu-Zn-Sn, Cu-Ni-Al and Cu-Zn-Al...describe several different kinds of alloy behavior. To avoid confusion, a brief review of terminology follows [Refs. 12-14]. Shape memory (SM), also known...data follows: 1.) brief review and summary of the structural and " , .~substructural conditions prevailing in the as received and as homogenized

  16. A Study of Free Recovery in a Fe - Mn - Si - Cr Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridon, I.-P.; Lohan, N.-M.; Suru, M.-G.; Mihalache, E.; Bujoreanu, L.-G.; Pricop, B.

    2016-01-01

    Video recording of the free recovery of "hot shape" (typical for the austenitic domain) in shape-memory alloy Fe - 28% Mn - 6% Si - 5% Cr during heating of specimens with a "cold shape" typical for the martensitic domain is performed. Prior to each measurement the specimens are deformed by caliber bending at room temperature in martensitic condition. The thermomechanical training consists in 10 cycles of bending - heating - cooling. Displacements of the free ends of the specimens are plotted as a function of the temperature and the plots are used to determine the critical temperatures of the reverse martensitic transformation.

  17. The shape memory alloy actuator controlled by the Sun’s radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riad, Amine; Alhamany, Abdelilah; Benzohra, Mouna

    2017-07-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have many thermo-mechanical characteristics which can return to their original value once exposed to a specific temperature. These materials are able to change their mechanical features such as shape, displacement or frequency in response to stress or heating; this may be useful for actuators in many fields such as aircraft, robotics and microsystems. In order to know the effect of the Sun’s radiation on SMAs we have conducted a numerical study that simulates a SMA actuator.

  18. Development of a shape memory alloy actuator for transanal endoscopic microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhigang; Hewit, Jim; Abel, Eric; Slade, Alan; Steele, Bob

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes problems in traditional transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM), and proposes a mechatronics approach in new design. As one of several actuation mechanisms to expose rectal cavity, a compression coil spring made of shape memory alloy (SMA) has been studied. A custom SMA spring actuator was designed to displace 12 mm with 45 N driving force. This actuator was embedded with our new TEM tubular structure and can be used to expose a rectal site up to 60 mm wide and 80 mm long. This exposure is considered to be sufficient for treating many tumors.

  19. Reliability and accuracy for actuation of devices using R-phase transition of a NiTi shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Charbonnier, P.; Robin, R.

    1995-11-01

    Shape memory alloys actuators find their most effective use in devices such as the valve developed by IMAGO for EDF (Electricite de France). To fulfill the need for a very simple, reliable and accurate valve for EDF an actuator based on the R phase transition of a NiTi shape memory alloy was chosen. The actuator has to open or close strengthfully a valve in a water heating equipment in order to limit the existing gradient of temperature. This function allows it to save electrical energy and to distribute hot water with a more constant temperature. Results of fatigue life and corrosion characterization of NiTi shape memory alloy will be shown, followed by tests completed on the device itself, which show a very good accuracy and reliability.

  20. Phase diagram kinetics for shape memory alloys: a robust finite element implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiujie; Qiao, Rui; Brinson, L. Catherine

    2007-12-01

    A physically based one-dimensional shape memory alloy (SMA) model is implemented into the finite element software ABAQUS via a user interface. Linearization of the SMA constitutive law together with complete transformation kinetics is performed and tabulated for implementation. Robust rules for transformation zones of the phase diagram are implemented and a new strategy for overlapping transformation zones is developed. The iteration algorithm, switching point updates and solution strategies are developed and are presented in detail. The code is validated via baseline simulations including the shape memory effect and pseudoelasticity and then further tested with complex loading paths. A hybrid composite with self-healing function is then simulated using the developed code. The example demonstrates the usefulness of the methods for the design and simulation of materials or structures actuated by SMA wires or ribbons.

  1. Additive Manufacturing of NiTiHf High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benafan, Othmane; Bigelow, Glen S.; Elahinia, Mohammad; Moghaddam, Narges Shayesteh; Amerinatanzi, Amirhesam; Saedi, Soheil; Toker, Guher Pelin; Karaca, Haluk

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing of a NiTi-20Hf high temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) was investigated. A selective laser melting (SLM) process by Phenix3D Systems was used to develop components from NiTiHf powder (of approximately 25-75 m particle fractions), and the thermomechanical response was compared to the conventionally vacuum induction skull melted counterpart. Transformation temperatures of the SLM material were found to be slightly lower due to the additional oxygen pick up from the gas atomization and melting process. The shape memory response in compression was measured for stresses up to 500 MPa, and transformation strains were found to be very comparable (Up to 1.26 for the as-extruded; up to 1.52 for SLM).

  2. Thermomechanical response of NiTi shape-memory nanoprecipitates in TiV alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maisel, S. B.; Ko, W.-S.; Zhang, J.-L.; Grabowski, B.; Neugebauer, J.

    2017-08-01

    We study the properties of NiTi shape-memory nanoparticles coherently embedded in TiV matrices using three-dimensional atomistic simulations based on the modified embedded-atom method. To this end, we develop and present a suitable NiTiV potential for our simulations. Employing this potential, we identify the conditions under which the martensitic phase transformation of such a nanoparticle is triggered—specifically, how these conditions can be tuned by modifying the size of the particle, the composition of the surrounding matrix, or the temperature and strain state of the system. Using these insights, we establish how the transformation temperature of such particles can be influenced and discuss the practical implications in the context of shape-memory strengthened alloys.

  3. Thermomechanical characterization of nickel-titanium-copper shape memory alloy films

    SciTech Connect

    Seward, K P; Ramsey, P B; Krulevitch, P

    2000-10-31

    In an effort to develop a more extensive model for the thermomechanical behavior of shape memory alloy (SMA) films, a novel characterization method has been developed. This automated test has been tailored to characterize films for use in micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) actuators. The shape memory effect in NiTiCu is seen in the solid-state phase transformation from an easily deformable low-temperature state to a 'shape remembering' high-temperature state. The accurate determination of engineering properties for these films necessitates measurements of both stress and strain in microfabricated test structures over the full range of desired deformation. Our various experimental methods (uniaxial tensile tests, bimorph curvature tests and diaphragm bulge tests) provide recoverable stress and strain data and the stress-strain relations for these films. Tests were performed over a range of temperatures by resistive heating or ambient heating. These measurements provide the results necessary for developing active SMA structural film design models.

  4. Carbon plasma immersion ion implantation of nickel-titanium shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Poon, R W Y; Yeung, K W K; Liu, X Y; Chu, P K; Chung, C Y; Lu, W W; Cheung, K M C; Chan, D

    2005-05-01

    Nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloys possess super-elasticity in addition to the well-known shape memory effect and are potentially suitable for orthopedic implants. However, a critical concern is the release of harmful Ni ions from the implants into the living tissues. We propose to enhance the corrosion resistance and other surface and biological properties of NiTi using carbon plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D). Our corrosion and simulated body fluid tests indicate that either an ion-mixed amorphous carbon coating fabricated by PIII&D or direct carbon PIII can drastically improve the corrosion resistance and block the out-diffusion of Ni from the materials. Our tribological tests show that the treated surfaces are mechanically more superior and cytotoxicity tests reveal that both sets of plasma-treated samples favor adhesion and proliferation of osteoblasts.

  5. Wearless scratch on NiTi shape memory alloy due to phase transformational shakedown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xi-Qiao; Qian, Linmao; Yan, Wenyi; Sun, Qingping

    2008-03-01

    Cyclic microscratch tests were performed to examine the scratching behavior of NiTi shape memory alloy. It shows a superior wear resistance within the temperature range of 22-120°C, but the corresponding physical mechanisms are different at low and high temperatures. We introduced the concept of phase transformational shakedown to interpret the wear-resistant behavior. At room temperature, a scratch groove may be caused by repeated scratching, but its depth stops increasing after a certain number of scratching cycles once the phase transformational shakedown state has been achieved. The groove will be self-healed upon heating as a result of the shape memory effect. At 60 and 120°C, however, no evident scratch groove is observed under the same load due to the pseudoelastic effect and the increase in the phase transition stress with temperature.

  6. Improvement of the functional properties of nanostructured Ti-Ni shape memory alloys by means of thermomechanical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreitcberg, Alena

    knowledge in the field of Ti-Ni SMAs' processing-structure-properties interactions, and the main conclusions of this study can be summed-up as follows: • Nanocrystalline Ti-Ni alloys significantly outperform nanosubgrain Ti-Ni alloys in terms of the absolute values and stability of their single- and multiple-cycle functional properties (superelasticity and shape memory characteristics). The main factor limiting the number of cycles to failure of the nanocrystalline alloys is the processingrelated damage. • The structure of Ti-Ni alloys plays significantly higher role in the realization of their functional potential that does their texture. • In terms of fatigue life, the nanocrystalline structure has lower small-crack sensitivity than does the nanosubgrained structure. • Grain refinement makes it possible to improve deformability of Ti-Ni alloys at any temperature. • To produce nanocrystalline Ti-Ni SMAs free of processing-induced-defects, a novel three-step processing is proposed (ECAP+CR+PDA): grain-refining severe plastic deformation at elevated temperatures (ECAP), followed-up by amorphizing SPD at low temperatures (CR), and ended-up by nanocrystallizing post-deformation heat treatment (PDA).

  7. Surface hardening of NiTi shape memory alloy induced by the nanostructured layer after surface mechanical attrition treatment.

    PubMed

    Hu, T; Chu, C L; Wu, S L; Xin, Y C; Lu, J; Chu, Paul K

    2011-12-01

    To conduct grain refinement induced by plastic deformation, NiTi shape memory alloy is processed by surface mechanical attrition treatment. The process leads to surface nanocrystallization and consequently surface hardening. The cross sectional microhardness of the treated NiTi is measured and compared to those of annealed NiTi specimens with residual stress relaxation and recrystallization. Our results show that surface nanocrystallization induced by surface mechanical attrition treatment is an effective method to enhance the surface hardness and anti-wear properties of NiTi shape memory alloy for the biomedical application.

  8. Narrowing of hysteresis of cubic-tetragonal martensitic transformation by weak axial stressing of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosogor, Anna

    2016-06-01

    An influence of axial mechanical stress on the hysteresis of martensitic transformation and ordinary magnetostriction of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy has been described in the framework of a Landau-type theory of phase transitions. It has been shown that weak stress can noticeably reduce the hysteresis of martensitic transformation. Moreover, the anhysteretic deformation can be observed when the applied mechanical stress exceeds a critical stress value. The main theoretical results were compared with recent experimental data. It is argued that shape memory alloys with extremely low values of shear elastic modulus are the candidates for the experimental observation of large anhysteretic deformations.

  9. Microstructural Evolution and Functional Properties of Fe-Mn-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy Processed by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niendorf, Thomas; Brenne, Florian; Krooß, Philipp; Vollmer, Malte; Günther, Johannes; Schwarze, Dieter; Biermann, Horst

    2016-06-01

    In the current study, a Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloy is processed by additive manufacturing for the first time. Microstructural evolution upon processing is strongly affected by thermal gradients and solidification velocity and, thus, by processing parameters and the actual specimen geometry. By single-step solutionizing heat treatment pronounced grain growth is initiated leading to microstructures showing good reversibility. The compressive stress-strain response revealed maximum reversible pseudo-elastic strain of about 7.5 pct. Critical steps toward further optimization of additively manufactured Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloys are discussed.

  10. Experimental Analysis and Numerical Simulation of Tensile Behaviour of TiNi Shape Memory Alloy Fibres Reinforced Epoxy Matrix Composite at High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Sahli, M. L.; Necib, B.

    2011-05-04

    The shape memory alloys (SMA) possess both sensing and actuating functions due to their shape memory effect, pseudo-elasticity, high damping capability and other remarkable properties. Combining the SMA with other materials can create intelligent or smart composites. The epoxy resin composites filled with TiNi alloys fibres were fabricated and their mechanical properties have been investigated. In this study, stress/strain relationships for a composite with embedded shape memory materials (SMA) fibres are presented. The paper illustrates influence of the SMA fibres upon changes in mechanical behaviour of a composite plate with the SMA components, firstly and secondly, the actuating ability and reliability of shape memory alloy hybrid composites.

  11. Jahn-Teller-like origin of the tetragonal distortion in disordered Fe-Pd magnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opahle, Ingo; Koepernik, Klaus; Nitzsche, Ulrike; Richter, Manuel

    2009-02-01

    The electronic structure and magnetic properties of disordered FexPd100-x alloys (50memory alloys is found to be a Jahn-Teller-like effect, which allows the system to reduce its band energy in a narrow composition range. Prospects for an optimization of the alloys' properties by adding third elements are discussed.

  12. Shape memory Ni-Ti alloy swan-like bone connector for treatment of humeral shaft nonunion

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jia-can; Liu, Xin-wei; Yu, Bao-qing; Li, Zhuo-dong

    2009-01-01

    From August 1990 to December 2007, 156 patients with humeral shaft nonunion were treated with our patented Ni-Ti shape memory alloy swan-like memory pressure connector (SMC). The SMC device cooled with ice before implantation was warmed to 40–50°C after implantation to produce balanced axial and compression forces to stabilise the fracture three-dimensionally. This combined with autologous bone grafting achieved bone tissue regeneration in the fracture and promoted smooth recovery of joint function, with a nonunion healing rate of 98.7% after a single SMC implantation. Failure of nonunion healing occurred in only two cases but was successfully managed by a further operation. Complications were not found in any of these patients apart from four with pre-existing radial nerve injuries. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the SMC device for the management of humeral shaft nonunion. The device provides continuous compression of the fracture with minimal trauma to the local blood supply. PMID:19198838

  13. Effect of Aging Treatment on the Compressibility and Recovery of NiTi Shape Memory Alloys as Static Seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Li, Gang; Liu, Luwei; Zhu, Xiaolei; Tu, Shan-Tung

    2017-07-01

    The improvement of the compressibility and recovery of the gaskets can decrease the leakage occurrence in bolted flange connections. In this study, the effect of aging treatment on the compressibility and recovery of NiTi shape memory alloys is investigated as static seals together with thermal analysis. The experimental results indicate that different phase transformations of NiTi alloys are exhibited in the DSC curves during aging treatment. The recovery coefficient of NiTi alloys aged at 500 °C for 2 h is quite low accompanied with a large residual strain. With increasing aging time at the aging temperature of 400 °C, the residual strain and area of hysteresis loop of NiTi alloys are both increased, whereas the recovery coefficient is decreased. Since the deformation associates the phase transformation behavior, aging treatment could improve the compressibility and recovery of NiTi alloys as static seals.

  14. Superelasticity and compression behavior of porous TiNi alloys produced using Mg spacers.

    PubMed

    Aydoğmuş, Tarık; Bor, Sakir

    2012-11-01

    In the scope of the present study, Ni-rich TiNi (Ti-50.6 at %Ni) foams with porosities in the range 38-59% were produced by space holder technique using spherical magnesium powders as space formers. Single phase porous TiNi alloys produced with spherical pores were subjected to loading-unloading cycles in compression up to 250 MPa stress levels at different temperatures in as-processed and aged conditions. It has been observed that strength, elastic modulus and critical stress for inducing martensite decrease with increasing porosity. Partial superelasticity was observed for all porosity levels at different test temperatures and conditions employed. Irrecoverable strain was found to decrease with pre-straining and with increasing test temperature. Unlike in bulk TiNi alloys a constant stress plateau has not been observed during the compression testing of porous TiNi alloys. Instead linear superelasticity with a quite steep slope allowing 5% applied strain to be recovered after pre-straining or aging was observed. Even at test temperatures higher than austenite finish temperature in as-sintered and aged condition, strain applied could not be recovered fully due to martensite stabilization resulting from heavy deformation of macro-pore walls and sintering necks. TiNi foams produced with porosities in the range of 38-51% meet the main requirements of biomaterials in terms of mechanical properties for use as bone implant.

  15. Role of Si in Improving the Shape Recovery of FeMnSiCrNi Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, Bikas C.; Krishnan, Madangopal; Gouthama; Ray, R. K.

    2011-08-01

    The effect of Si addition on the microstructure and shape recovery of FeMnSiCrNi shape memory alloys has been studied. The microstructural observations revealed that in these alloys the microstructure remains single-phase austenite ( γ) up to 6 pct Si and, beyond that, becomes two-phase γ + δ ferrite. The Fe5Ni3Si2 type intermetallic phase starts appearing in the microstructure after 7 pct Si and makes these alloys brittle. Silicon addition does not affect the transformation temperature and mechanical properties of the γ phase until 6 pct, though the amount of shape recovery is observed to increase monotonically. Alloys having more than 6 pct Si show poor recovery due to the formation of δ-ferrite. The shape memory effect (SME) in these alloys is essentially due to the γ to stress-induced ɛ martensite transformation, and the extent of recovery is proportional to the amount of stress-induced ɛ martensite. Alloys containing less than 4 pct and more than 6 pct Si exhibit poor recovery due to the formation of stress-induced α' martensite through γ- ɛ- α' transformation and the large volume fraction of δ-ferrite, respectively. Silicon addition decreases the stacking fault energy (SFE) and the shear modulus of these alloys and results in easy nucleation of stress-induced ɛ martensite; consequently, the amount of shape recovery is enhanced. The amount of athermal ɛ martensite formed during cooling is also observed to decrease with the increase in Si.

  16. Shape memory alloys for astronomical instrumentation: space and ground-based applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, M.; Rigamonti, D.; Zanetti, F.; Passaretti, F.; Villa, E.; Zerbi, F. M.

    2012-09-01

    This paper wants to illustrate possible applications of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) as functional devices for space and ground based application in Instrumentations for Astronomy. Thermal activated Shape Memory Alloys are materials able to recover their original shape, after an external deformation, if heated above a characteristic temperature. If the recovery of the shape is completely or partially prevented by the presence of constraints, the material can generate recovery stress. Thanks to this feature, these materials can be positively exploited in Smart Structures if properly embedded into host materials. Some technological processes developed for an ecient use of SMA-based actuators embedded in smart structures tailored to astronomical instrumentation will be presented here. Some possible modeling approaches of the actuators behavior will be addressed taking into account trade- offs between detailed analysis and overall performance prediction as a function of the computational time. The Material characterization procedure adopted for the constitutive laws implementation will be described as well. Deformable composite mirrors,1 opto-mechanical mounting with superelastic kinematic behavior and damping of launch loads onto optical element2 are feasible applications that will be deeply investigated in this paper.

  17. Experimental investigation on a novel 3D isolator made of shape memory alloy pseudo-rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Su-chao; Guo, An-xin; Mao, Chen-xi; Li, Hui; Zhao, Yagebai

    2015-04-01

    Base isolation technology has been widely theoretically and experimentally investigated, and it has also been verified through many severe earthquakes. Three dimensional (3-D) isolation technology was proposed several years ago, and the 3-D isolation theory has well developed till now. However, the development of 3-D isolation technology was deeply affected by the 3-D isolator devices. Many presented 3-D isolators are generally made up of complicated components, such as rubber, springs, dampers or theirs combinations. These isolators have some problem in certain extent, such as difficult fabrication process or little energy dissipation ability along the vertical direction. This paper presents a novel 3- D isolator which is made up of martensitic shape memory alloy wires through weaving, rolling, and punching. Mechanical properties of 3-D shape memory alloy pseudo-rubber isolator (SMAPRI) are investigated including compression, shear, and compression-shear loading with different frequencies and amplitudes. The mechanical behavior of isolators with different parameters is also compared. Accordingly, the mechanism resulting in the above differences is also analyzed. Experimental results indicated that 3-D SMAPRI has good mechanical properties and energy dissipation ability along both of horizontal and vertical direction. The fabrication process of the proposed 3-D isolator is relatively easy and the mechanism of isolation is clearer than the traditional 3-D isolators. Therefore, this new kind of 3-D isolator has good potentiality in both of seismic isolation for civil infrastructures and industrial isolation for important or precision equipment.

  18. Static rock splitters based on high temperature shape memory alloys for planetary explorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benafan, O.; Noebe, R. D.; Halsmer, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    A static rock splitter device based on high-force, high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) was developed for space related applications requiring controlled geologic excavation in planetary bodies such as the moon, Mars, and near-Earth asteroids. The device, hereafter referred to as the shape memory alloy rock splitter (SMARS), consisted of active (expanding) elements made of Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 (at%) that generate extremely large forces in response to thermal input. The pre-shaping (training) of these elements was accomplished using isothermal, isobaric and cyclic training methods, which resulted in active components capable of generating stresses in excess of 1.5 GPa. The corresponding strains (or displacements) were also evaluated and were found to be 2-3%, essential to rock fracturing and/or splitting when placed in a borehole. SMARS performance was evaluated using a testbed consisting of a temperature controller, custom heaters and heater holders, and an enclosure for rock placement and breakage. The SMARS system was evaluated using various rock types including igneous rocks (e.g., basalt, quartz, granite) and sedimentary rocks (e.g., sandstone, limestone).

  19. An improved tuned mass damper (SMA-TMD) assisted by a shape memory alloy spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sudib K.; Gur, Sourav; Chakraborty, Subrata

    2013-09-01

    The tuned mass damper (TMD) is a well acclaimed passive control device for vibration control of structures. However, the requirement of a higher mass ratio restricts its applicability for seismic vibration control of civil engineering structures. Improving the performance of TMDs has been attempted by supplementing them with nonlinear restoring devices. In this regard, the ability of shape memory alloy (SMA) in dissipating energy through a hysteretic phase transformation of its microstructure triggered by cyclic loading is notable. An improved version of TMD assisted by a nonlinear shape memory alloy (SMA) spring, referred as SMA-TMD, is studied here for seismic vibration mitigation. Extensive numerical simulations are conducted based on nonlinear random vibration analysis via stochastic linearization of the nonlinear force-deformation hysteresis of the SMA. A design optimization based on minimizing the root mean square displacement of the main structure is also carried out to postulate the optimal design parameters for the proposed system. The viability of the optimal design is verified with respect to its performance under recorded earthquake motions. Significant improvements of the control efficiency and a reduction of the TMD displacement at a much reduced mass ratio are shown to be achieved in the proposed SMA-TMD over those in the linear TMD.

  20. Micromechanics of composites with shape memory alloy fibers in uniform thermal fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Victor; Saravanos, Dimitris A.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1995-01-01

    Analytical procedures are developed for a composite system consisting of shape memory alloy fibers within an elastic matrix subject to uniform temperature fluctuations. Micromechanics for the calculation of the equivalent properties of the composite are presented by extending the multi-cell model to incorporate shape memory alloy fibers. A three phase concentric cylinder model is developed for the analysis of local stresses which includes the fiber, the matrix, and the surrounding homogenized composite. The solution addresses the complexities induced by the nonlinear dependence of the in-situ martensite fraction of the fibers to the local stresses and temperature, and the local stresses developed from interactions between the fibers and matrix during the martensitic and reverse phase transformations. Results are presented for a nitinol/epoxy composite. The applications illustrate the response of the composite in isothermal longitudinal loading and unloading, and in temperature induced actuation. The local stresses developed in the composite under various stages of the martensitic and reverse phase transformation are also shown.

  1. Twinning-Induced Elasticity in NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birk, Thorsten; Biswas, Somjeet; Frenzel, Jan; Eggeler, Gunther

    2016-06-01

    Pseudoelasticity (PE) in shape memory alloys relies on the formation of stress-induced martensite during loading and on the reverse transformation during unloading. PE yields reversible strains of up to 8 % and is applied in applications such as medical implants, flexible eye glass frames, damping elements, and others. Unfortunately, PE shows a strong temperature dependence and thus can only be exploited within a relatively narrow temperature window. The present work focuses on a related process, which we refer to as twinning-induced elasticity (TIE). It involves the growth and shrinkage of martensite variants which are stabilized by dislocations, which are introduced by appropriate cold work. TIE yields reversible strains of the order of 3 %. The TIE effect does not suffer from the strong temperature dependence of PE. The weak temperature dependence of mechanical TIE properties makes TIE attractive for applications where temperature fluctuations are large. In the present work, we study the TIE effect focusing on Ni50Ti50 shape memory alloy wires. The degree of plastic pre-deformation of the initial material represents a key parameter of the ingot metallurgy processing route. It governs the exploitable recoverable strain, the apparent Young's modulus, and the widths of the mechanical hysteresis. Dynamic mechanical analysis is used to study the effects of pre-deformation on elementary microstructural processes which govern TIE.

  2. Experimental study for electrovaporization of renal cell carcinoma using a new shape memory alloy probe.

    PubMed

    Naitoh, Yasuyuki; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Soh, Jintetsu; Kamoi, Kazumi; Miki, Tsunaharu

    2010-06-01

    To develop a new shape memory alloy probe for percutaneous treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by electrovaporization, and investigate its efficacy and safety in experimental models. The shape memory alloy electrode can be manipulated to any shape at room temperature and regains its original shape at >or=65 degrees C. By adding a high-frequency electric current to the probe, the electrodes quickly regain their original shape and vaporize tissues into a spherical defect. The performance of this probe was tested using agar, dog kidney, and rat RCC models. The treatment effect was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and histologic examination. In the agar model, the electrovaporization inside the spherical electrode was successfully achieved in several seconds, with all power outputs tested. The area of >or=60 degrees C extended about 5 mm beyond the periphery of the vaporized part and corresponded with the histologic findings on the dog kidney that an irreversible heat denaturation occurred to the same extent. The study on the RCC model also confirmed that about 5-mm extent of heat denaturation was seen in the muscular tissue adjacent to the tumor. In the study using the RCC model, some remaining tissues close to the tumor were observed after vaporization. However, dynamic magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated no enhancement in this area and no viable tumor cells were documented by histologic examination. This novel tissue ablation system has potential as a viable option for percutaneous treatment of renal tumors. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An x-ray absorption spectroscopy study of Ni-Mn-Ga shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Sathe, V G; Dubey, Aditi; Banik, Soma; Barman, S R; Olivi, L

    2013-01-30

    The austenite to martensite phase transition in Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys was studied by extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The spectra at all the three elements', namely, Mn, Ga and Ni, K-edges in several Ni-Mn-Ga samples (with both Ni and Mn excess) were analyzed at room temperature and low temperatures. The EXAFS analysis suggested a displacement of Mn and Ga atoms in opposite direction with respect to the Ni atoms when the compound transforms from the austenite phase to the martensite phase. The first coordination distances around the Mn and Ga atoms remained undisturbed on transition, while the second and subsequent shells showed dramatic changes indicating the presence of a modulated structure. The Mn rich compounds showed the presence of antisite disorder of Mn and Ga. The XANES results showed remarkable changes in the unoccupied partial density of states corresponding to Mn and Ni, while the electronic structure of Ga remained unperturbed across the martensite transition. The post-edge features in the Mn K-edge XANES spectra changed from a double peak like structure to a flat peak like structure upon phase transition. The study establishes strong correlation between the crystal structure and the unoccupied electronic structure in these shape memory alloys.

  4. A comprehensive energy approach to predict fatigue life in CuAlBe shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameallah, S.; Legrand, V.; Saint-Sulpice, L.; Kadkhodaei, M.; Arbab Chirani, S.

    2015-02-01

    Stabilized dissipated energy is an effective parameter on the fatigue life of shape memory alloys (SMAs). In this study, a formula is proposed to directly evaluate the stabilized dissipated energy for different values of the maximum and minimum applied stresses, as well as the loading frequency, under cyclic tensile loadings. To this aim, a one-dimensional fully coupled thermomechanical constitutive model and a cycle-dependent phase diagram are employed to predict the uniaxial stress-strain response of an SMA in a specified cycle, including the stabilized one, with no need of obtaining the responses of the previous cycles. An enhanced phase diagram in which different slopes are defined for the start and finish of a backward transformation strip is also proposed to enable the capture of gradual transformations in a CuAlBe shape memory alloy. It is shown that the present approach is capable of reproducing the experimental responses of CuAlBe specimens under cyclic tensile loadings. An explicit formula is further presented to predict the fatigue life of CuAlBe as a function of the maximum and minimum applied stresses as well as the loading frequency. Fatigue tests are also carried out, and this formula is verified against the empirically predicted number of cycles for failure.

  5. Functional evaluation of an artificial anal sphincter using shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yun; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Okuyama, Takeshi; Amae, Shintaro; Wada, Motoshi; Nishi, Kotaro; Kamiyama, Takamichi; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Matsuki, Hidetoshi

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an implantable artificial anal sphincter using shape memory alloys and its in vivo assessment in porcine models. The new design was developed as a low invasive prosthesis with a simple structure to solve the problem of severe fecal incontinence in patients with hypoplastic sphincters or without anal sphincters and especially for ostomates. The artificial anal sphincter consists of two shape memory alloy (SMA) plates as the main functional parts to perform two basic functions when the SMA artificial sphincter is fitted around intestines (i.e., an occlusion at body temperature and an opening function on heating). Our previous assessments with short-term animal experiments revealed promising properties with the occlusion function of the device, although some complications, such as overpressure induced ischemia, heat burn, and infections, remained. This article addresses the concerns related to the practical use of the device, the power supplement to drive the actuator, and overheating protection of the device inside bodies. Results of chronic animal experiments of up to 4 weeks suggested great potential for the improved device.

  6. Electroactive polymer and shape memory alloy actuators in biomimetics and humanoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadesse, Yonas

    2013-04-01

    There is a strong need to replicate natural muscles with artificial materials as the structure and function of natural muscle is optimum for articulation. Particularly, the cylindrical shape of natural muscle fiber and its interconnected structure promote the critical investigation of artificial muscles geometry and implementation in the design phase of certain platforms. Biomimetic robots and Humanoid Robot heads with Facial Expressions (HRwFE) are some of the typical platforms that can be used to study the geometrical effects of artificial muscles. It has been shown that electroactive polymer and shape memory alloy artificial muscles and their composites are some of the candidate materials that may replicate natural muscles and showed great promise for biomimetics and humanoid robots. The application of these materials to these systems reveals the challenges and associated technologies that need to be developed in parallel. This paper will focus on the computer aided design (CAD) models of conductive polymer and shape memory alloys in various biomimetic systems and Humanoid Robot with Facial Expressions (HRwFE). The design of these systems will be presented in a comparative manner primarily focusing on three critical parameters: the stress, the strain and the geometry of the artificial muscle.

  7. [Histocompatibility of porous hydroxyapatite coating NiTi shape memory alloy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijun; Wang, Shuanke; Zhao, Bin

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the histocompatibility of porous hydroxyapatite (HAP) coating NiTi shape memory alloy and to provide a theoretical basis for its clinical application in bone defect repair. Twenty-four Chinchilla rabbits weighing 2.0-2.5 kg were randomized into experimental group and control group (n=12). HAP coating NiTi shape memory alloy was implanted into the distal part of left femur of 12 rabbits in the experimental group, while holes without alloy implantation were performed on the control group. At 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after implantation, the animals were killed (3 rabbits in each group at a time). Gross observation, histology observation, BMP-2 immunohistochemistry observation and image grey scale analysis were performed. And the histology observation was evaluated by GB/T16886.6-1997 in terms of inflammation, capsule wall of fibrous tissue, materials degradation and the response of peripheral tissue. All of the animals survived until being killed. The implants reached a peak embedded in bone tissue wholly, without loosening and bone absorption. The inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrous hyperplasia were at 7 days after implantation, with the formation of cyst wall of fibrous tissue and the implant wrapped by the cyst wall. The response of connective tissue proliferation was still obvious in partial samples of experimental group at 56 days after implantation, which was wrose than the control group but consistent with the in vivo implantation standard of GB/T16886.6-1997. Immunohistochemistry observation displayed the endogenous BMP-2 were in the cytoplasm of MSCs and osteoblast. The result of image analysis showed the expression of BMP-2 were staged in line with the repair of bone defect, two groups witnessed the peak expression of the BMP-2 at 14 days after implantation. There were no significant differences among different time points in the staining gray scale of BMP-2 (P > 0.05). HAP coating NiTi shape memory alloy, as a biomedical material, has

  8. Insulator coating for high temperature alloys method for producing insulator coating for high temperature alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, Jong Hee

    1998-01-01

    A method for fabricating an electrically insulating coating on a surface is disclosed comprising coating the surface with a metal, and reacting the metal coated surface with a nonmetal so as to create a film on the metal-coated surface. Alternatively, the invention provides for a method for producing a noncorrosive, electrically insulating coating on a surface saturated with a nonmetal comprising supplying a molten fluid, dissolving a metal in the molten fluid to create a mixture, and contacting the mixture with the saturated surface. Lastly, the invention provides an electrically insulative coating comprising an underlying structural substrate coated with an oxide or nitride compound

  9. Insulator coating for high temperature alloys method for producing insulator coating for high temperature alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, J.H.

    1998-06-23

    A method for fabricating an electrically insulating coating on a surface is disclosed comprising coating the surface with a metal, and reacting the metal coated surface with a nonmetal so as to create a film on the metal-coated surface. Alternatively, the invention provides for a method for producing a noncorrosive, electrically insulating coating on a surface saturated with a nonmetal comprising supplying a molten fluid, dissolving a metal in the molten fluid to create a mixture, and contacting the mixture with the saturated surface. Lastly, the invention provides an electrically insulative coating comprising an underlying structural substrate coated with an oxide or nitride compound. 2 figs.

  10. Mechanical and functional behavior of high-temperature Ni-Ti-Pt shape memory alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Buchheit, Thomas E.; Susan, Donald F.; Massad, Jordan E.; ...

    2016-01-22

    A series of Ti-rich Ni-Ti-Pt ternary alloys with 13 to 18 at. pct Pt were processed by vacuum arc melting and characterized for their transformation behavior to identify shape memory alloys (SMA) that undergo transformation between 448 K and 498 K (175 °C and 225 °C) and achieve recoverable strain exceeding 2 pct. From this broader set of compositions, three alloys containing 15.5 to 16.5 at. pct Pt exhibited transformation temperatures in the vicinity of 473 K (200 °C), thus were targeted for more detailed characterization. Preliminary microstructural evaluation of these three compositions revealed a martensitic microstructure with small amountsmore » of Ti2(Ni,Pt) particles. Room temperature mechanical testing gave a response characteristic of martensitic de-twinning followed by a typical work-hardening behavior to failure. Elevated mechanical testing, performed while the materials were in the austenitic state, revealed yield stresses of approximately 500 MPa and 3.5 pct elongation to failure. Thermal strain recovery characteristics were more carefully investigated with unbiased incremental strain-temperature tests across the 1 to 5 pct strain range, as well as cyclic strain-temperature tests at 3 pct strain. As a result, the unbiased shape recovery results indicated a complicated strain recovery path, dependent on prestrain level, but overall acceptable SMA behavior within the targeted temperature and recoverable strain range.« less

  11. Oxidation Kinetics of a NiPtTi High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Humphrey, Donald L.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2007-01-01

    A high temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA), Ni30Pt50Ti, with an M(sub s) near 600 C, was isothermally oxidized in air for 100 hr over the temperature range of 500 to 900 C. Parabolic kinetics were confirmed by log-log and parabolic plots and showed no indication of fast transient oxidation. The overall behavior could be best described by the Arrhenius relationship: k(sub p) = 1.64 x 10(exp 12)[(-250 kJ/mole)/RT] mg(sup 2)/cm(sup 4)hr. This is about a factor of 4 reduction compared to values measured here for a binary Ni47Ti commercial SMA. The activation energy agreed with most literature values for TiO2 scale growth measured for elemental Ti and other NiTi alloys. Assuming uniform alloy depletion of a 20 mil (0.5 mm) dia. HTSMA wire, approx. 1 percent Ti reduction is predicted after 20,000 hr oxidation at 500 C, but becomes much more serious at higher temperatures.

  12. Mechanical and functional behavior of high-temperature Ni-Ti-Pt shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Buchheit, Thomas E.; Susan, Donald F.; Massad, Jordan E.; McElhanon, James R.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2016-01-22

    A series of Ti-rich Ni-Ti-Pt ternary alloys with 13 to 18 at. pct Pt were processed by vacuum arc melting and characterized for their transformation behavior to identify shape memory alloys (SMA) that undergo transformation between 448 K and 498 K (175 °C and 225 °C) and achieve recoverable strain exceeding 2 pct. From this broader set of compositions, three alloys containing 15.5 to 16.5 at. pct Pt exhibited transformation temperatures in the vicinity of 473 K (200 °C), thus were targeted for more detailed characterization. Preliminary microstructural evaluation of these three compositions revealed a martensitic microstructure with small amounts of Ti2(Ni,Pt) particles. Room temperature mechanical testing gave a response characteristic of martensitic de-twinning followed by a typical work-hardening behavior to failure. Elevated mechanical testing, performed while the materials were in the austenitic state, revealed yield stresses of approximately 500 MPa and 3.5 pct elongation to failure. Thermal strain recovery characteristics were more carefully investigated with unbiased incremental strain-temperature tests across the 1 to 5 pct strain range, as well as cyclic strain-temperature tests at 3 pct strain. As a result, the unbiased shape recovery results indicated a complicated strain recovery path, dependent on prestrain level, but overall acceptable SMA behavior within the targeted temperature and recoverable strain range.

  13. Mechanical and Functional Behavior of High-Temperature Ni-Ti-Pt Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchheit, Thomas E.; Susan, Donald F.; Massad, Jordan E.; McElhanon, James R.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2016-04-01

    A series of Ti-rich Ni-Ti-Pt ternary alloys with 13 to 18 at. pct Pt were processed by vacuum arc melting and characterized for their transformation behavior to identify shape memory alloys (SMA) that undergo transformation between 448 K and 498 K (175 °C and 225 °C) and achieve recoverable strain exceeding 2 pct. From this broader set of compositions, three alloys containing 15.5 to 16.5 at. pct Pt exhibited transformation temperatures in the vicinity of 473 K (200 °C), thus were targeted for more detailed characterization. Preliminary microstructural evaluation of these three compositions revealed a martensitic microstructure with small amounts of Ti2(Ni,Pt) particles. Room temperature mechanical testing gave a response characteristic of martensitic de-twinning followed by a typical work-hardening behavior to failure. Elevated mechanical testing, performed while the materials were in the austenitic state, revealed yield stresses of approximately 500 MPa and 3.5 pct elongation to failure. Thermal strain recovery characteristics were more carefully investigated with unbiased incremental strain-temperature tests across the 1 to 5 pct strain range, as well as cyclic strain-temperature tests at 3 pct strain. The unbiased shape recovery results indicated a complicated strain recovery path, dependent on prestrain level, but overall acceptable SMA behavior within the targeted temperature and recoverable strain range.

  14. Modeling thermally induced martensitic transformations in nickel titanium shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Stefanie; Eggeler, Gunther; Kastner, Oliver

    2015-05-01

    During stress-free thermal analysis with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), nickel titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloys show a thermal hysteresis which is affected by cooling/heating rates. Moreover, the Ni content of near equiatomic alloys governs the phase transition temperatures. This contribution aims at establishing a constitutive equation which can account for these effects, building on earlier work by Müller, Achenbach and Seelecke (MAS). To be specific, we discuss our new method with a focus on NiTi alloys. As in the original MAS model, our approach is rooted in a non-convex free energy representation and rate equations are utilized to incorporate history dependence during non-equilibrium processes. The relaxation times of these rate equations are determined by characteristic transformation probabilities which in turn are governed by the free energy landscape of our system. We show how the model can be parameterized to rationalize experimental DSC data observed for NiTi samples of variable composition and measured at variable cooling/heating rates. The good agreement between model predictions and experimental results suggests that thermal hystereses are not only related to interfacial strain energy effects but also affected by the transient character of the transformation process incorporating specific thermal relaxation times. Our analysis shows that we observe strong hysteretic effects when the cooling/heating rates exceed these characteristic relaxation rates.

  15. Nanocrystallization of the Ti50Ni48Co2 Shape Memory Alloy by Thermomechanical Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad Sharifi, E.; Karimzadeh, F.; Kermanpur, A.

    2015-01-01

    The microstructural evolution during nanostructuring of the Ti50Ni48Co2 shape memory alloy by thermomechanical processing is investigated. The high purity ingots were fabricated by a copper boat vacuum induction melting technique. The differential scanning calorimetry measurements showed that the homogenized Ti50Ni48Co2 specimen have two-stage transformation during cooling including the austenite to R phase and the R phase to martensite. The homogenized specimens were then hot rolled and annealed to prepare the initial microstructure. Thereafter, annealed specimens were subjected to cold rolling with various thickness reductions up to 70 %. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the severe cold rolling led to the formation of a mixed microstructure consisting of amorphous and nanocrystalline phases in Ti50Ni48Co2 alloy. After annealing at 400 °C, the amorphous phase formed in the 70 % cold-rolled specimen was completely crystallized and an entire nanocrystalline structure with the grain size between 10 and 60 nm was achieved. The nanocrystalline Ti50Ni48Co2 alloy exhibited about 12 % of recoverable strain and very high plateau stress (about 730 MPa) which was significantly higher than that of the coarse-grained state.

  16. Energy-dispersive neutron imaging and diffraction of magnetically driven twins in a Ni2MnGa single crystal magnetic shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabra, Saurabh; Kelleher, Joe; Kockelmann, Winfried; Gutmann, Matthias; Tremsin, Anton

    2016-09-01

    Single crystals of a partially twinned magnetic shape memory alloy, Ni2MnGa, were imaged using neutron diffraction and energy-resolved imaging techniques at the ISIS spallation neutron source. Single crystal neutron diffraction showed that the crystal produces two twin variants with a specific crystallographic relationship. Transmission images were captured using a time of flight MCP/Timepix neutron counting detector. The twinned and untwinned regions were clearly distinguishable in images corresponding to narrow-energy transmission images. Further, the spatially-resolved transmission spectra were used to elucidate the orientations of the crystallites in the different volumes of the crystal.

  17. A Study of Thermo-mechanically Processed High Stiffness NiTiCo Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjeri, R. M.; Norwich, D.; Sczerzenie, F.; Huang, X.; Long, M.; Ehrlinspiel, M.

    2016-03-01

    This work investigates a vacuum induction melted-vacuum arc re-melted (VIM-VAR) and thermo-mechanically processed ternary NiTiCo shape memory alloy. The NiTiCo ingot was hot processed to 6.35-mm-diameter coiled wire. The coiled wire was subsequently cold drawn to a final wire diameter of 0.53 mm, with interpass anneals. The wires were shape set at 450 °C for 3.5 min. After electropolishing, the wires were subjected to microstructural, thermal, and mechanical characterization studies. Microstructural analysis was performed by transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermal analyses by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and bend-free recovery and mechanical testing by uniaxial tensile testing. TEM did not reveal Ni-rich precipitates—either at the grain boundary or in the grain interior. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed a uniform distribution of Ni, Ti, and Co in the sample. The DSC results on the shape set wire showed a single-step transformation between the austenite and the R-phase, in the forward and reverse directions. Cyclic tensile tests of the shape set wire, processed under optimum conditions, showed minimum residual strain and a stable upper plateau stress. Further, the fatigue behavior of NiTi and NiTiCo alloys was studied by rotating beam testing. The results showed that the fatigue properties of NiTiCo, under zero mean strain, are equivalent to that of binary NiTi in the high-cycle and medium-cycle regimes, taking into account the higher stiffness of NiTiCo. The above analyses helped in establishing the processing-structure-property correlation in a VIM-VAR-melted NiTiCo shape memory alloy.

  18. Mathematical Modeling and Control of Nonlinear Oscillators with Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendame, Mohamed

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) belong to an interesting type of materials that have attracted the attention of scientists and engineers over the last few decades. They have some interesting properties that made them the subject of extensive research to find the best ways to utilize them in different engineering, biomedical, and scientific applications. In this thesis, we develop a mathematical model and analyze the behavior of SMAs by considering a one degree of freedom nonlinear oscillator consisting of a mass connected to a fixed frame through a viscous damping and a shape memory alloy device. Due to the nonlinear and dissipative nature of shape memory alloys, optimal control and Lyapunov stability theories are used to design a controller to stabilize the response of the one degree of freedom nonlinear oscillator. Since SMAs exist in two phases, martensite and austenite, and their phase transformations are dependent on stress and temperature, this work is presented in two parts. The first part deals with the nonlinear oscillator system in its two separate phases by considering a temperature where the SMA exists in only one of the phases. A model for each phase is developed based on Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory that defines the free energy in a polynomial form enabling us to describe the SMAs shape memory effect and pseudoelasticity. However, due to the phenomenon of hysteresis in SMAs, the response of the nonlinear oscillator with a SMA element, in either phase, is chaotic and unstable. In order to stabilize the chaotic behavior, an optimal linear quadratic regulator controller is designed around a stable equilibrium for the martensitic and the austenitic phases. The closed-loop response for each phase is then simulated and computational results are presented. The second part of the thesis deals with the entire system in its dynamics by combining the two phases and taking into account the effect of temperature on the response of the system. Governing equations

  19. Insulator coating for high temperature alloys method for producing insulator coating for high temperature alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.

    1994-12-31

    A method for fabricating an electrically insulating coating on a surface is disclosed comprising coating the surface with a metal, and reacting the metal coated surface with a nonmetal so as to create a film on the metal-coated surface. Alternatively, the invention provides for a method for producing a noncorrosive, electrically insulating coating on a surface saturated with a nonmetal comprising supplying a molten fluid, dissolving a metal in the molten fluid to create a mixture, and contacting the mixture with the saturated surface. Lastly, the invention provides an electrically insulative coating comprising an underlying structural substrate coated with an oxide or nitride compound. This invention has applications to breeding blankets for fusion reactors as well as to alkali metal thermal to electric converters.

  20. Microstructural characterization of low and high carbon CoCrMo alloy nanoparticles produced by mechanical milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoes, T. A.; Goode, A. E.; Porter, A. E.; Ryan, M. P.; Milne, S. J.; Brown, A. P.; Brydson, R. M. D.

    2014-06-01

    CoCrMo alloys are utilised as the main material in hip prostheses. The link between this type of hip prosthesis and chronic pain remains unclear. Studies suggest that wear debris generated in-vivo may be related to post-operative complications such as inflammation. These alloys can contain different amounts of carbon, which improves the mechanical properties of the alloy. However, the formation of carbides could become sites that initiate corrosion, releasing ions and/or particles into the human body. This study analysed the mechanical milling of alloys containing both high and low carbon levels in relevant biological media, as an alternative route to generate wear debris. The results show that low carbon alloys produce significantly more nanoparticles than high carbon alloys. During the milling process, strain induces an fcc to hcp phase transformation. Evidence for cobalt and molybdenum dissolution in the presence of serum was confirmed by ICP-MS and TEM EDX techniques.