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Sample records for meningitis listeria

  1. Sepsis and Meningitis due to Listeria Monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Aygen, Bilgehan; Esel, Duygu; Kayabas, Uner; Alp, Emine; Sumerkan, Bulent; Doganay, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    Purpose This study focused on the effect of immuno-compromising conditions on the clinical presentation of severe listerial infection. Patients and Methods Nine human listeriosis cases seen from 1991-2002 were reviewed. All adult patients, from whose blood, peritoneal fluid or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) the L. monocytogenes was isolated, were included in this retrospective study. Results Listeriosis presented as primary sepsis with positive blood cultures in 5 cases and meningitis with positive CSF cultures in 4 cases. All of these patients had at least one underlying disease, most commonly, hematologic malignancy, diabetes mellitus, amyloidosis and hepatic cirrhosis; 55.6% had received immunosuppressive or corticosteroid therapy within a week before the onset of listeriosis. The patients were adults with a mean age of 60 years. Fever, night sweats, chills and lethargy were the most common symptoms; high temperature (> 38℃), tachycardia, meningeal signs and poor conditions in general were the most common findings on admission. The mortality rate was 33.3% and was strictly associated with the severity of the underlying disease. Mortality differences were significant between sepsis (20%) and meningitis (50%) patients. Conclusion Listeriosis as an uncommon infection in our region and that immuno-suppressive therapy is an important pre-disposing factor of listeriosis. Sepsis and meningitis were more common in this group of patients and had the highest case-fatality rate for food-borne illnesses. PMID:17594151

  2. Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis in Adults: The Czech Republic Experience

    PubMed Central

    Rozsypal, Hanus; Smiskova, Dita; Benes, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Background. Listeria monocytogenes (LM) is currently the third most frequent pathogen of bacterial meningitis in adults. Methods. A prospective study of patients with LM meningitis in a Czech tertiary care hospital, carried out from 1997 to 2012. Results. Thirty-one patients were diagnosed with LM meningitis, which was 7% of a total of 440 adult patients with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) over a 16-year period. Their median age was 63 years, range 26–80 years. Nineteen patients (61%) had underlying immunocompromising comorbidity; 15 patients (48%) were older than 65 years. Fourteen patients (45%) had arterial hypertension. The typical triad of fever, neck stiffness, and altered mental status was present in 21 patients (68%). The median count of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocytes was 680/μL, protein level 2.6 g/L, and glucose ratio 0.28. Four patients (13%) died, and nine (29%) survived with moderate to severe sequelae. Conclusion. LM meningitis is known to affect immunosuppressed and elderly patients. Arterial hypertension seems to be another important predisposing factor. Clinical symptoms, CSF findings, and disease outcomes, did not significantly differ from other community-acquired ABM in our study, although the CSF leukocyte count was lower. Ampicillin showed good clinical and bacteriological efficacy in the majority of patients. PMID:24106719

  3. Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis in an Immunosuppressed Patient with Autoimmune Hepatitis and IgG4 Subclass Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gaini, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    A 51-year-old Caucasian woman with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis was treated and discharged after an uncomplicated course. Her medical history included immunosuppressive treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine for autoimmune hepatitis. A diagnostic work-up after the meningitis episode revealed that she had low levels of the IgG4 subclass. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing a possible association between autoimmune hepatitis and the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes meningitis, describing a possible association between Listeria monocytogenes meningitis and deficiency of the IgG4 subclass and finally describing a possible association between Listeria monocytogenes meningitis and immunosuppressive therapy with prednisolone and azathioprine. PMID:26558118

  4. [Neonatal meningitis due to Listeria monocytogenes after 3 weeks of maternal treatment during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Fayol, L; Beizig, S; Le Monnier, A; Lacroze, V; Simeoni, U

    2009-04-01

    We report the case of a pregnant woman with listeriosis at 26 gestational weeks followed by premature labor at 30 gestational weeks. Bacterial meningitis was suspected in the neonate with ventriculitis on sonography, a high level of protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and an identified specific bacterial genome of Listeria monocytogenes (PCR 16S rDNA and sequencing and specific amplification of L. monocytogenes hly gene) in CSF. Neonatal meningitis was complicated with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and ventriculomegaly. Listeriosis during pregnancy can lead to severe complications in the neonate. Thus, listeriosis should be a diagnostic concern in febrile pregnant women at any stage of pregnancy. First-line treatment is based on high-dose amoxicillin (> or =6g/day) and must be used for at least 3 weeks for treatment of listeriosis during pregnancy. If the fetus survives, longer therapy until delivery can be discussed. PMID:19195853

  5. Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... several types of meningitis. The most common is viral meningitis. You get it when a virus enters the ... meningitis. Antiviral medicines may help some types of viral meningitis. Other medicines can help treat symptoms. There are ...

  6. Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... system, infecting the meninges and causing meningitis. continue Bacteria and Viruses Many viruses can cause viral meningitis. ... examined under a microscope to see if any bacteria, cells, or substances that indicate inflammation or infection ...

  7. [A Case of Hydrocephalus in Listeria Meningitis Treated by Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy].

    PubMed

    Abe, Takatsugu; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Fujimura, Miki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-09-01

    A 69-year-old woman presented with anorexia, fever, and vomiting. The patient was not a compromised host. She was finally diagnosed with Listeria meningitis and treated with ampicillin and gentamicin. However, her condition worsened over time. Non-contrast head CT showed ventricular dilatation. As a result, continuous right ventricular drainage was performed. Non-contrast MRI revealed hydrocephalus due to stenosis of the fourth ventricle. She underwent endoscopic third ventriculostomy(ETV)to improve cerebrospinal fluid circulation. This procedure achieved a good result. The efficacy of ETV for post-infectious hydrocephalus has not been proven, but previous cases suggest that ETV would be effective in non-communicating hydrocephalus, even if it were a result of neuroinfection. PMID:27605478

  8. Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    The most common causes of meningitis are viral infections. These infections usually get better without treatment. But, bacterial meningitis infections are very serious. They may result in death or ...

  9. [Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in immunocompetent children: unpasteurized cheese likely cause of infection].

    PubMed

    Valdivia-Tapia, María Del C; Pinelo-Chumbe, Elizabeth; Carreazo, Nilton Y

    2015-08-01

    Listeria meningoencephalitis is a rare condition, occurring mainly in immunocompromised patients. We present two cases of Listeria monocytogenes meningoencephalitis in immunocompetent children, with successful treatment with betalactam/aminoglycoside combination. Unpasteurized cheese was postulated as the source of infection.

  10. Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications. Viral meningitis is caused by viruses like enteroviruses , which are very common in summer and early ... or when they sneeze without covering their mouths. Enteroviruses begin to multiply in the digestive tract and ...

  11. Culture Negative Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis Resulting in Hydrocephalus and Severe Neurological Sequelae in a Previously Healthy Immunocompetent Man with Penicillin Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Gaini, Shahin; Karlsen, Gunn Hege; Nandy, Anirban; Madsen, Heidi; Christiansen, Debes Hammershaimb; á Borg, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    A previously healthy 74-year-old Caucasian man with penicillin allergy was admitted with evolving headache, confusion, fever, and neck stiffness. Treatment for bacterial meningitis with dexamethasone and monotherapy ceftriaxone was started. The cerebrospinal fluid showed negative microscopy for bacteria, no bacterial growth, and negative polymerase chain reaction for bacterial DNA. The patient developed hydrocephalus on a second CT scan of the brain on the 5th day of admission. An external ventricular catheter was inserted and Listeria monocytogenes grew in the cerebrospinal fluid from the catheter. The patient had severe neurological sequelae. This case report emphasises the importance of covering empirically for Listeria monocytogenes in all patients with penicillin allergy with suspected bacterial meningitis. The case also shows that it is possible to have significant infection and inflammation even with negative microscopy, negative cultures, and negative broad range polymerase chain reaction in cases of Listeria meningitis. Follow-up spinal taps can be necessary to detect the presence of Listeria monocytogenes. PMID:26697245

  12. Neuroinfections due to Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Streharova, A; Babjakova, A; Moravcikova, A; Harnicarova, A; Holeckova, K; Lesnakova, A; Sladeckova, V; Seckova, S; Kisac, P; Beno, P

    2007-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is not a rare pathogen causing meningitis, mainly in small children and in close contacts to livestock. The pathogen is naturally resistant to cephalosporins and some glycopeptides as well, therefore despite of syndromologic diagnosis of meningitis and initial therapy with 3rd generation cephalosporins according to the guidelines therapeutic failures with clinical consequences may occur.

  13. Meningitis - tuberculous

    MedlinePlus

    Tubercular meningitis; TB meningitis ... Tuberculous meningitis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis . This is the bacteria that causes tuberculosis ( TB ). The bacteria spread to the brain and spine from another place in the body. ...

  14. Bacterial Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... group B Streptococcus , Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae , and Listeria monocytogenes . In the United States, about 4,100 ... Newborns Group B Streptococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes Infants and Children Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, ...

  15. Meningitis - cryptococcal

    MedlinePlus

    Most cryptococcal meningitis is caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans . This fungus is found in soil around the world. Another type of Cryptococcus can also cause meningitis, but it will not ...

  16. Meningitis - pneumococcal

    MedlinePlus

    ... opisthotonos ) Pneumococcal meningitis is an important cause of fever in children. ... room if you suspect meningitis in a young child who has the following ... fever Call the local emergency number if you develop ...

  17. Viral Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... especially from late spring to fall when these viruses spread most often. However, only a small number ... infected with enteroviruses will actually develop meningitis. Other viruses that can cause meningitis are Mumps virus Herpesviruses, ...

  18. Viral meningitis.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, David R

    2005-01-01

    Viruses probably account for most cases of acute meningitis. Viral meningitis is often assumed to be a largely benign disease. For the commonest pathogens causing meningitis, enteroviruses, this is usually the case; however, for many of the other pathogens causing viral meningitis, and for common pathogens in the immunocompromised or infants, viral meningitis is frequently associated with substantial neurological complications and a significant mortality. Diagnostic methods for rapid and accurate identification of pathogens have improved over recent years, permitting more precise and earlier diagnoses. There have been fewer developments in therapies for viral meningitis, and there remain no effective therapies for most pathogens, emphasising the importance of prevention and early diagnosis. This review focuses on the presentation, diagnosis and management of viral meningitis and also covers the prevention of meningitis for pathogens where effective vaccines are available. PMID:16474042

  19. Viral meningitis.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, David R

    2005-01-01

    Viruses probably account for most cases of acute meningitis. Viral meningitis is often assumed to be a largely benign disease. For the commonest pathogens causing meningitis, enteroviruses, this is usually the case; however, for many of the other pathogens causing viral meningitis, and for common pathogens in the immunocompromised or infants, viral meningitis is frequently associated with substantial neurological complications and a significant mortality. Diagnostic methods for rapid and accurate identification of pathogens have improved over recent years, permitting more precise and earlier diagnoses. There have been fewer developments in therapies for viral meningitis, and there remain no effective therapies for most pathogens, emphasising the importance of prevention and early diagnosis. This review focuses on the presentation, diagnosis and management of viral meningitis and also covers the prevention of meningitis for pathogens where effective vaccines are available.

  20. Meningitis - staphylococcal

    MedlinePlus

    Staphylococcal meningitis is caused by Staphylococcus bacteria. When it is caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria, it usually develops as a complication of surgery or ...

  1. Listeria (Listeriosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Outcomes Listeria Outbreaks Surveillance Statistics Educational Resources Vital Signs: When Food Bites Back Many germs can be ... food. Some, like Listeria , can be deadly. This Vital Signs Fact Sheet provides key information on what can ...

  2. Treating Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... ways to treat bacterial meningitis. 1 They compared steroids (dexamethasone) with pla- cebo. The doctors gave medication ( ... compared anti- biotics by themselves with antibiotics plus steroids. Dr. Fritz and colleagues compared the mortality (deaths) ...

  3. Meningitis - meningococcal

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most commonly used antibiotics for meningococcal meningitis. Penicillin in high doses is almost always effective, too. If the patient is allergic to penicillin, chloramphenicol may be used. Sometimes corticosteroids may be ...

  4. Meningococcal Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... cord. The extended meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa, stretching from Senegal in the west to Ethiopia ... ampicillin, chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone. Under epidemic conditions in Africa in areas with limited health infrastructure and resources, ...

  5. Eosinophilic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Chotmongkol, Verajit

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis is defined by the presence of at least 10% eosinophils in the total cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocyte count. Although there are several possible causes of eosinophils in the CSF, parasitic infection is the main cause. The three common parasites causing eosinophilic meningitis include Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Gnathostoma spinigerum, and Taenia solium. Even though these parasites are endemic in tropical countries, they are now spreading globally due to extensive traveling, and physicians worldwide should pay more attention to this condition. This chapter will review risk factors, clinical manifestations, and treatment of these three parasites.

  6. Meningitis - gram-negative

    MedlinePlus

    Gram-negative meningitis ... Acute bacterial meningitis can be caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Meningococcal and H. influenzae meningitis are caused by Gram-negative bacteria and are covered in detail in other articles. This article ...

  7. Listeria Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Listeria Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Listeria Infections Print A ... to Call the Doctor en español Listeriosis About Listeria Listeria infections (known as listeriosis ) are rare. When ...

  8. Neuroimaging in tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Jain, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis is a serious infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Early diagnosis is the key to success of treatment. Neuroimaging plays a crucial role in the early and accurate diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis and its disabling complications. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered superior to computed tomography. Neuroimaging characteristics include leptomeningeal and basal cisternal enhancement, hydrocephalus, periventricular infarcts, and tuberculoma. Partially treated pyogenic meningitis, cryptococcal meningitis, viral encephalitis, carcinomatous, and lymphomatous meningitis may have many similar neuroimaging characteristics, and differentiation from tuberculous meningitis at times on the basis of neuroimaging characteristics becomes difficult. PMID:26954796

  9. Meningitis and Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... No. 04-4840 Back to Meningitis and Encephalitis Information Page See a list of all NINDS Disorders Publicaciones en Español Meningitis y Encefalitis Prepared by: Office of Communications and Public Liaison National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  10. Meningitis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cord. Most cases are caused by bacteria or viruses, but some can be due to certain medications or illnesses. Bacterial meningitis is rare, but is usually serious and can be life threatening if not treated right away. Viral meningitis ( ...

  11. Listeria Genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanes, Didier; Sousa, Sandra; Cossart, Pascale

    The opportunistic intracellular foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes has become a paradigm for the study of host-pathogen interactions and bacterial adaptation to mammalian hosts. Analysis of L. monocytogenes infection has provided considerable insight into how bacteria invade cells, move intracellularly, and disseminate in tissues, as well as tools to address fundamental processes in cell biology. Moreover, the vast amount of knowledge that has been gathered through in-depth comparative genomic analyses and in vivo studies makes L. monocytogenes one of the most well-studied bacterial pathogens. This chapter provides an overview of progress in the exploration of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data in Listeria spp. to understand genome evolution and diversity, as well as physiological aspects of metabolism used by bacteria when growing in diverse environments, in particular in infected hosts.

  12. Listeria meningoencephalitis in an immunocompetent person.

    PubMed

    Drnda, Alija; Koluder, Nada; Hadzic, Amir; Bajramovic, Nermina; Baljic, Rusmir; Mulabdic, Velida

    2009-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a small, aerobic or facultative anaerobic, non-sporulating gram positive bacillus that can be isolated from soil, vegetation or animal reservoirs. There are six species of Listeria, and only L. monocytogenes is pathogenic for humans. Human disease occurs mainly in immunocompromised people, neonates and in pregnancy, while the cases in immunocompetent people are rare. CNS manifestations of the disease can be in form of meningitis, encephalitis, and also cerebritis and abscess since L. monocytogenes shows tropism for brain and brain stem as well for the meninges. In this case we presented 55 year old male patient with etiologically confirmed listerial meningoencephalitis, transferred from regional hospital tothe Clinic for Infectious Diseases with diagnosis of acute meningoencephalitis. Disease started 4 days before the admission. Prior to this the patient was completely healthy. In his history he denied any preexisting disease. At admittance he was febrile, with altered consciousness, disoriented, showing ocular deviation, dystaxia, and with completely positive meningeal signs. Neurologist diagnosis was rhombencephalitis. CSF analysis showed mildly opalescent liquor with pleocytosis 546/mm3 and polymorphonuclear cell predominance >70%. CSF culture showed positive isolate of L. monocytogenes. Initial therapy was: Penicillin G and Chloramphenicol, together with all other supportive and symptomatic therapy. After initial therapy and based on antibiogram, ampicillin was administered for4 weeks, followed by imipenemum for 10 days. Control CSF analysis showed pleocytosis and increased protein level and the patient was discharged as recovered with diagnosis of acute meningoencephalitis PMID:19537672

  13. Streptococcus gallolyticus (bovis): a rare presentation of meningitis in the ED.

    PubMed

    Gray, Joshua D; Wilson, Christopher J

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a fairly common and often deadly manifestation of altered mental status in the elderly, carrying a mortality rate of greater than 20% despite antibiotic therapy. Most commonly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We present a case of meningitis caused by Streptococcus gallolyticus in an elderly, otherwise healthy woman. There have been no reports in the emergency medicine literature and only a few reports in the literature of S gallolyticus as a cause of altered mental status and meningitis, specifically of immunocompetent patients.

  14. [Meningitis after spinal anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Mouchrif, Issam; Berdaii, Adnane; Labib, Ismail; Harrandou, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    Meningitis is a rare but serious complication of epidural and spinal anesthesia. Bacterial meningitis is mainly caused by Gram-positive cocci, implying an exogenous contamination which suggests a lack of asepsis. The evolution is usually favorable after treatment, but at the expense of increased health care costs and, sometimes, of significant neurological sequelae. We report a case of bacterial meningitis after spinal anesthesia for caesarean section. PMID:27642477

  15. Clues to diagnosing culture negative Listeria rhombencephalitis.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Marguerite; Mok, Tzehow; Lefter, Stela; Harrington, Hugh

    2012-09-30

    A previously healthy 35-year-old Caucasian woman developed left body (including facial) hemianaesthesia, asymmetrical lower cranial nerve palsies and cerebellar signs after a 4-day history of headache, nausea and vomiting. Serial blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures returned negative for a culprit organism. CSF examination revealed a lymphocytic pleocytosis and an elevated protein count. CSF cytological examination identified plasma cells. MRI of brain showed multiple ring-enhancing 'abscess-like' lesions in the brainstem and upper cervical cord together with abnormal meningeal enhancement. A decision was made to treat her empirically for Listeria rhombencephalitis to which she responded completely. CSF PCR eventually returned positive for Listeria monocytogenes. This case illustrates the utility of clinical features, MRI, CSF cytology and PCR in diagnosis and treatment of culture negative L monocytogenes rhombencephalitis in an immunocompetent individual.

  16. Meninges in cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Mahendru, G; Chong, V

    2009-10-02

    Primary malignant tumours arising from the meninges are distinctly uncommon, and when they occur, they are usually sarcomas. In contrast, metastatic meningeal involvement is increasingly seen as advances in cancer therapy have changed the natural history of malignant disease and prolonged the life span of cancer patients. The meninges can either be infiltrated by contiguous extension of primary tumours of the central nervous system, paranasal sinuses and skull base origin or can be diffusely infiltrated from haematogenous dissemination from distant primary malignancies. Imaging in these patients provides crucial information in planning management. This article reviews the pertinent anatomy that underlies imaging findings, discusses the mechanism of meningeal metastasis and highlights different imaging patterns of meningeal carcinomatosis and the pitfalls.

  17. Viral meningitis and encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Tuppeny, Misti

    2013-09-01

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, whereas encephalitis is inflammation of the parenchymal brain tissue. The single distinguishing element between the 2 diagnoses is the altered state of consciousness, focal deficits, and seizures found in encephalitis. Consequently meningoencephalitis is a term used when both findings are present in the patient. Viral meningitis is not necessarily reported as it is often underdiagnosed, whereas encephalitis cases are on the increase in various areas of North America. Improved imaging and viral diagnostics, as well as enhanced neurocritical care management, have improved patient outcomes to date.

  18. Syphilitic aseptic meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    Syphilitic aseptic meningitis is a complication of untreated syphilis. It involves inflammation of the tissues covering the ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochete bacteria Treponema pallidum . Syphilis has three main ...

  19. Meningitis and Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Meningitis and Encephalitis ... News From NINDS | Find People | Training | Research | Enhancing Diversity Careers@NINDS | FOIA | Accessibility Policy | Contact Us | Privacy ...

  20. DISCUSSION ON MENINGITIS

    PubMed Central

    1929-01-01

    (1) Meningitis: two groups of cases. (2) A method of washing out the subarachnoid space in cases of septic meningitis secondary to infection of the ear. (3) Discussion on the value of maintaining a positive pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid when operating on a septic region communicating with the subarachnoid space. (4) Leaking cerebrospinal fluid from the region of the ear: operative treatment. PMID:19986899

  1. Approach to Chronic Lymphocytic Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Khadilkar, Satish V; Nadkarni, Nilesh

    2015-09-01

    Chronic meningitis is a common clinical problem. Early diagnosis and appropriate therapy is important in improving the overall outcome and to prevent long-lasting sequels. As many etiological agents lead to the development of chronic lymphocytic meningitis, it is important to develop a systematic approach to the diagnosis; taking clues from history, examination and laboratory tests, to make an accurate diagnosis and institute appropriate therapy. This review focuses on the diagnostic approach towards the commonly encountered situation of chronic lymphocytic meningitis. Chronic meningitis is defined as meningeal inflammation that persists for more than 4 weeks. Chronic meningitis accounts for less than 10% of all the cases of meningitis.1 Causes of chronic lymphocytic meningitis are mainly divided into infectious and non-infectious listed in Table 1.2 Due to advancement in investigations, diseases causing chronic meningitis may be diagnosed earlier than 4 weeks and hence the definition should be considered as a rough guideline. PMID:27608867

  2. Cryptococcal meningitis complicating sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Leonhard, Sonja E.; Fritz, Daan; van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cryptococcal meningitis is an uncommon but severe complication of sarcoidosis. Methods: We present 2 patients with cryptococcal meningitis complicating sarcoidosis and compared findings with 38 cases reported in the literature. Results: When analyzing our patients and 38 cases reported in the literature, we found that median age of sarcoidosis patients with cryptococcal meningitis was 39 years (range 30–48); 27 of 33 reported cases (82%) had a history of sarcoidosis. Only 16 of 40 patients (40%) received immunomodulating therapy at the time of diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis. The diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis was delayed in 17 of 40 patients (43%), mainly because of the initial suspicion of neurosarcoidosis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed mildly elevated white blood cell count (range 23–129/mm3). Twenty-nine of 32 cases (91%) had a positive CSF culture for Cryptococcus neoformans and 25 of 27 cases (93%) had a positive CSF C neoformans antigen test. CD4 counts were low in all patients in whom counts were performed (84–228/mL). Twelve patients had an unfavorable outcome (32%), of which 7 died (19%) and 24 patients (65%) had a favorable outcome. The rate of unfavorable outcome in patients with a delayed diagnosis was 7 of 17 (41%) compared to 5 of 28 (21%) in patients in whom diagnosis was not delayed. Conclusion: Cryptococcal meningitis is a rare but life-threatening complication of sarcoidosis. Patients were often initially misdiagnosed as neurosarcoidosis, which resulted in considerable treatment delay and worse outcome. CSF cryptococcal antigen tests are advised in patients with sarcoidosis and meningitis. PMID:27583871

  3. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection with Listeria innocua.

    PubMed

    Karli, Arzu; Sensoy, Gulnar; Unal, Nevzat; Yanik, Keramettin; Cigdem, Halit; Belet, Nursen; Sofuoglu, Ayse

    2014-08-01

    Listeria species may cause life-threatening events including meningitis and invasive infection in newborns, pregnant women, older and immunodeficient people. The most common Listeria species that causes infection is L. monocytogenes. It is known that Listeria innocua has no pathogenicity. A 9-month-old baby had ventriculoperitoneal shunt and was treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone because of infantile spasms. He was brought to hospital with fever and vomiting. Upon physical examination, the patient seemed uncomfortable and had a temperature of 38.6°C. Laboratory results were as follows: hemoglobin, 6.7 g/dL; leukocyte count, 5420/mm(3) ; platelet count, 169,000/mm(3) ; and C-reactive protein, 100 mg/L (normal <5 mg/L). On analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), leukocyte count was 480/mm(3) , protein was 46 mg/dL and CSF glucose was 35 mg/dL. L. innocua was isolated in CSF culture. We describe this unusual case of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection with L. innocua.

  4. Listeria Monocytogenes Infections in Metropolitan Toronto

    PubMed Central

    Sepp, A. H.; Roy, T. E.

    1963-01-01

    The clinical and laboratory findings in 21 patients with listeriosis are described and the subject is reviewed. Eleven of the infections were septicemias of newborns, eight were meningitis in infants or adults, and two other children had unusual manifestations. Neonatal septicemia was rapidly fatal; one of 11 infants survived. The disease often seemed traceable to mild maternal infection during the third trimester usually leading to premature delivery of critically ill babies. Only awareness of the possible presence of listeriosis and early antibiotic therapy seem capable of reducing this high mortality. Tissues from autopsies showed characteristic microscopic necrotic foci with mononuclear infiltration progressing to microabscesses containing small Gram-positive rods. Lesions were found in the one placenta examined. Five infants with meningitis recovered, and one of three affected adults. Specific diagnosis depends on demonstrating Listeria monocytogenes; differentiation from other forms of acute meningitis cannot be made clinically. One older child had septicemia and another had listerial pharyngitis. Both recovered. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14 PMID:13987999

  5. Meninges of the spine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... by 3 connective tissue layers collectively called the meninges. Consisting of the pia mater (closest to the ... the dura mater (farthest from the CNS), the meninges also support blood vessels and contain cerebrospinal fluid. ...

  6. Meninges of the brain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... by 3 connective tissue layers collectively called the meninges. Consisting of the pia mater (closest to the ... the dura mater (farthest from the CNS), the meninges also support blood vessels and contain cerebrospinal fluid. ...

  7. [Rapid identification of meningitis due to bacterial pathogens].

    PubMed

    Ubukata, Kimiko

    2013-01-01

    We constructed a new real-time PCR method to detect causative pathogens in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patient due to bacterial meningitis. The eight pathogens targeted in the PCR are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aurues, Neisseria meningitides, Listeria monocytogenes, Esherichia coli, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The total time from DNA extraction from CSF to PCR analysis was 1.5 hour. The pathogens were detected in 72% of the CSF samples (n=115) by real-time PCR, but in only 48% by culture, although the microorganisms were completely concordant. The detection rate of pathogens with PCR was significantly better than that with cultures in patients with antibiotic administration.In conclusion, detection with real-time PCR is useful for rapidly identifying the causative pathogens of meningitis and for examining the clinical course of chemotherapy.

  8. Biodiversity of the species Listeria monocytogenes and the genus Listeria.

    PubMed

    Buchrieser, Carmen

    2007-08-01

    This review describes the Listeria monocytogenes genome sequences available today and their comparison with that of Listeria innocua and Listeria welshimeri by highlighting their characteristic features and common traits. The diversity present among them is analysed with emphasis on putative virulence and host-pathogen interaction related functions. Then large-scale studies comparing gene content of Listeria and how these studies contributed to typing applications will be discussed. Finally, evolutionary conclusions and future perspectives in Listeria genomics are presented.

  9. Scrub typhus meningitis or meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Min; Chung, Jong-Hoon; Yun, Na-Ra; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jun-Young; Han, Mi Ah; Lee, Yong-Bok

    2013-12-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi induces vasculitis leading to symptoms of systemic organ invasion including meningitis and meningoencephalitis. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of scrub typhus patients to investigate the clinical and laboratory features of patients with scrub typhus meningitis or meningoencephalitis, and the therapeutic outcomes, and to determine the predictor factors. Cases were 22 patients with scrub typhus meningitis or meningoencephalitis, and controls were 303 patients without meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of pneumonitis was associated with the occurrence of scrub typhus meningitis and meningoencephalitis (odds ratio [OR] 8.9; P < 0.001; confidence interval [CI] 2.9-27.2). Although appropriate antimicrobials such as doxycycline agents were administered at an early stage, meningitis or meningoencephalitis still occurred in some cases. Physicians should be aware that meningitis or meningoencephalitis may develop during appropriate drug therapy such as doxycycline. Close observation and great care are essential for patients with risk factors, particularly pneumonitis.

  10. Detection of Listeria spp. using ACTERO listeria enrichment media.

    PubMed

    Claveau, David; Olishevskyy, Sergiy; Giuffre, Michael; Martinez, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    ACTERO Listeria Enrichment Media (ACTERO Listeria) is a selective medium developed for a single-step recovery and enrichment of Listeria spp. from environmental samples. Robustness testing of the ACTERO Listeria medium demonstrated good performance when minor changes were introduced to the incubation temperature and time. All 54 Listeria strains tested, representing the most frequently isolated Listeria species from food (L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii, L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri, and L. grayi), were successfully enriched in ACTERO Listeria. None of the 30 nontarget strains tested in the exclusivity study was recovered after incubation in ACTERO Listeria. Recovery of Listeria was consistent across three independently produced lots of the ACTERO Listeria, and the prepared medium was stable for 45 days when stored at 4 degrees C in the dark. Matrix studies performed with environmental sponge samples from plastic and stainless steel surfaces demonstrated similar recovery of Listeria spp. in a single-step enrichment using ACTERO Listeria from plastic, and significantly better recovery from stainless steel surfaces when compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service reference method. The results of this study prove that ACTERO Listeria Enrichment Media can be effectively used in replacement of the two-step enrichment suggested by the reference method without affecting the recovery of Listeria spp. from environmental samples.

  11. Molecular mechanisms of cryptococcal meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong-Bao; Perlin, David; Xue, Chaoyang

    2012-01-01

    Fungal meningitis is a serious disease caused by a fungal infection of the central nervous system (CNS) mostly in individuals with immune system deficiencies. Fungal meningitis is often fatal without proper treatment, and the mortality rate remains unacceptably high even with antifungal drug interventions. Currently, cryptococcal meningitis is the most common fungal meningitis in HIV-1/AIDS, and its disease mechanism has been extensively studied. The key steps for fungi to infect brain and cause meningitis after establishment of local infection are the dissemination of fungal cells to the bloodstream and invasion through the blood brain barrier to reach the CNS. In this review, we use cryptococcal CNS infection as an example to describe the current molecular understanding of fungal meningitis, including the establishment of the infection, dissemination, and brain invasion. Host and microbial factors that contribute to these infection steps are also discussed. PMID:22460646

  12. Management of neoplastic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Roth, Patrick; Weller, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Leptomeningeal dissemination of tumor cells, also referred to as neoplastic meningitis, is most frequently seen in patients with late-stage cancer and mostly associated with a poor prognosis. Basically, neoplastic meningitis may affect all patients with a malignant tumor but is most common in patients affected by lung cancer, breast carcinoma, melanoma or hematologic neoplasms such as lymphoma and leukemia. Controlled clinical trials are largely lacking which results in various non-standardized treatment regimens. The presence of solid tumor manifestations in the CNS as well as the extracranial tumor load defines the most appropriate treatment approach. Radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy and intrathecal treatment must be considered. For each patient, the individual situation needs to be carefully evaluated to determine the potential benefit as well as putative side effects associated with any therapy. A moderate survival benefit and particularly relief from pain and neurological deficits are the main treatment goals. Here, we summarize the management of patients with neoplastic meningitis and review the available treatment options.

  13. Listeria (Listeriosis) Treatment and Outcomes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Listeria (Listeriosis) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Listeria (Listeriosis) Definition & Symptoms Outbreaks Listeriosis Linked to Frozen ...

  14. Candida lusitaniae causing fatal meningitis.

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, P. S.; Durairaj, P.; Padhye, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    Fatal meningitis due to Candida lusitaniae in a 35 year old previously healthy man is described. C. lusitaniae is an opportunistic fungal pathogen reported infrequently in the English literature. This is the third case report of meningitis and the first fatal infection in an adult from Central India due to C. lusitaniae known to the authors. PMID:8290437

  15. The Meningitis Vaccine Project.

    PubMed

    LaForce, F Marc; Konde, Kader; Viviani, Simonetta; Préziosi, Marie-Pierre

    2007-09-01

    Epidemic meningococcal meningitis is an important public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Current control measures rely on reactive immunizations with polysaccharide (PS) vaccines that do not induce herd immunity and are of limited effectiveness in those under 2 years of age. Conversely, polysaccharide conjugate vaccines are effective in infants and have consistently shown an important effect on decreasing carriage, two characteristics that facilitate disease control. In 2001 the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP) was created as a partnership between PATH and the World Health Organization (WHO) with the goal of eliminating meningococcal epidemics in Africa through the development, licensure, introduction, and widespread use of conjugate meningococcal vaccines. Since group A Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis) is the dominant pathogen causing epidemic meningitis in Africa MVP is developing an affordable (US$ 0.40 per dose) meningococcal A (Men A) conjugate vaccine through an innovative international partnership that saw transfer of a conjugation and fermentation technology to a developing country vaccine manufacturer. A Phase 1 study of the vaccine in India has shown that the product is safe and immunogenic. Phase 2 studies have begun in Africa, and a large demonstration study of the conjugate vaccine is envisioned for 2008-2009. After extensive consultations with African public health officials a vaccine introduction plan has been developed that includes introduction of the Men A conjugate vaccine into standard Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) schedules but also emphasizes mass vaccination of 1-29 years old to induce herd immunity, a strategy that has been shown to be highly effective when the meningococcal C (Men C) conjugate vaccine was introduced in several European countries. The MVP model is a clear example of the usefulness of a "push mechanism" to finance the development of a needed vaccine for the developing world. PMID:17521780

  16. Aseptic meningitis and viral myelitis.

    PubMed

    Irani, David N

    2008-08-01

    Meningitis and myelitis represent common and very infrequent viral infections of the central nervous system, respectively. The number of cases of viral meningitis that occurs annually exceeds the total number of meningitis cases caused by all other etiologies combined. Focal central nervous system infections, such as occur in the spinal cord with viral myelitis, are much less common and may be confused with noninfectious disorders that cause acute flaccid paralysis. This article reviews some of the important clinical features, epidemiology, diagnostic approaches, and management strategies for patients with aseptic meningitis and viral myelitis. Particular focus is placed on the diseases caused by enteroviruses, which as a group account for most aseptic meningitis cases and many focal infections of the spinal cord.

  17. Infectious Meningitis and Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Piquet, Amanda L; Lyons, Jennifer L

    2016-08-01

    The clinician who is evaluating a patient with a suspected central nervous system infection often faces a large differential diagnosis. There are several signs, symptoms, geographical clues, and diagnostic testing, such as cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities, which can be helpful in identifying the etiological agent. By taking a systematic approach, one can often identify life-threatening, common, and/or treatable etiologies. Here the authors describe some of the pearls and pitfalls in diagnosing and treating acute infectious meningitis and encephalitis. PMID:27643906

  18. [Neuropsychiatric sequelae of viral meningitis in adults].

    PubMed

    Damsgaard, Jesper; Hjerrild, Simon; Renvillard, Signe Groth; Leutscher, Peter Derek Christian

    2011-10-10

    Viral meningitis is considered to be a benign illness with only mild symptoms. In contrast to viral encephalitis and bacterial meningitis, the prognosis is usually good. However, retrospective studies have demonstrated that patients suffering from viral meningitis may experience cognitive impairment following the acute course of infection. Larger controlled studies are needed to elucidate the potential neuropsychiatric adverse outcome of viral meningitis.

  19. Concurrent meningitis and vivax malaria

    PubMed Central

    Santra, Tuhin; Datta, Sumana; Agrawal, Neha; Bar, Mita; Kar, Arnab; Adhikary, Apu; Ranjan, Kunal

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is an endemic infectious disease in India. It is often associated with other infective conditions but concomitant infection of malaria and meningitis are uncommon. We present a case of meningitis with vivax malaria infection in a 24-year-old lady. This case emphasizes the importance of high index of clinical suspicion to detect other infective conditions like meningitis when fever does not improve even after anti-malarial treatment in a patient of malaria before switching therapy suspecting drug resistance, which is quite common in this part of world. PMID:26985423

  20. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Noella Maria Delia; Shah, Ira; Ohri, Alpana; Shah, Forum

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) meningitis is rarely known to occur in children. We report an 11-year-old girl with fever, headache and vomiting, right hemiparesis with left-sided upper motor neuron facial nerve palsy and bladder incontinence. On investigation, she was found to have MRSA meningitis with an acute left thalamo-corpuscular infarct. She was treated with vancomycin, linezolid and rifampicin. She recovered successfully with residual right-sided lower limb monoparesis. MRSA meningitis is rare but can occur in children. PMID:26609421

  1. Lethal otogenic Candida meningitis.

    PubMed

    Koch, S; Rudel, B; Tietz, H-J

    2004-10-01

    History revealed a chronic obstructive pulmonary condition which had been treated with prednisolone for a long time. There was a raised temperature with further signs of an acute inflammatory underlying disease and internal hydrocephalus. After performing trepanation, the symptoms of raised intercerebral pressure ceased. Candida albicans could be detected microbiologically in the cerebrospinal fluid. There was no pneumonia at the time of admission. Despite instituting immediate intensive care with administration of antibiotics and antimycotics, the patient died 11 days after inpatient admission. Autopsy revealed a C. albicans mycosis originating from the right middle ear with extensive suppurative meningitis, which was the immediate cause of death. Confluent bronchopneumonia had developed in both lower lung lobes at the time of death, but did not show any signs of mycosis and had contributed indirectly to the death of the patient.

  2. Considering syphilis in aseptic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Tayal, Sarup; Chadwick, David; Chawla, Girish

    2009-12-01

    Clinicians need to consider syphilis in the differential diagnosis of macular or papular rashes with neurological conditions, particularly aseptic meningitis, as early diagnosis and treatment lead to a better prognosis. PMID:20095316

  3. [Hemangiopericytoma of the meninges].

    PubMed

    Ito, H; Hasegawa, T; Kawano, H; Shoin, K; Yamamoto, S; Matsubara, F

    1983-09-01

    A 44-year-old farmer complained blurred vision and disturbance of recent memory. During his driving car traffic accident happened due to his right homonymous hemianopsia. On the 1st admission, neurological examination revealed choked disc(1 D.), hemianopsia, memory disturbance, dyscalculia, dyslexia and dysgraphia. The angiograms showed feeding arteries from left middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery. Tumor vessels looked like cork-screw in the arterial phase and homogeneous tumor shadow was depicted in late venous phase. Contrast enhancement CT scan revealed a nodular homogeneous high dense lesion on the occipital region. Hemorrhage during every craniotomy was too much to remove and at last metastasized to left II rib and right VIII rib and right radius. Their histological examination reveals numerous endothelial-lined vascular channels and atypia of tumor cells with mitoses. Silver impregnation demonstrates networks of reticulum fibers surrounding the capillaries and tumor cells. Hemangiopericytoma in meninges forms entity and our case reports the WHO classification. Total removal should have to be done once for all by means of LASER (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation). PMID:6664454

  4. Laboratory diagnosis of bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, L D; Fedorko, D P

    1992-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is relatively common, can progress rapidly, and can result in death or permanent debilitation. This infection justifiably elicits strong emotional reactions and, hopefully, immediate medical intervention. This review is a brief presentation of the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis and a review of current knowledge, literature, and recommendations on the subject of laboratory diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Those who work in clinical microbiology laboratories should be familiar with the tests used in detecting bacteria and bacterial antigens in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and should always have the utmost appreciation for the fact that results of such tests must always be reported immediately. Academic and practical aspects of the laboratory diagnosis of bacterial meningitis presented in this review include the following: anatomy of the meninges; pathogenesis; changes in the composition of CSF; etiological agents; processing CSF; microscopic examination of CSF; culturing CSF; methods of detecting bacterial antigens and bacterial components in CSF (counter-immunoelectrophoresis, coagglutination, latex agglutination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Limulus amebocyte lysate assay, and gas-liquid chromatography); use of the polymerase chain reaction; and practical considerations for testing CSF for bacterial antigens. PMID:1576585

  5. Bacterial meningitis: new therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Nau, Roland; Djukic, Marija; Spreer, Annette; Eiffert, Helmut

    2013-10-01

    Bacterial meningitis remains a disease with high mortality and long-term morbidity. Outcome critically depends on the rapid initiation of effective antibiotic therapy. Since a further increase of the incidence of pathogens resistant to antibacterials can be expected both in community-acquired and nosocomial bacterial meningitis, the choice of an optimum initial empirical antibiotic regimen will gain significance. In this context, the use of antibiotics which are bactericidal but do not lyse bacteria, may emerge as a therapeutic option. Conversely, the role of corticosteroids, which decrease the entry of hydrophilic antibacterials into the cerebrospinal fluid, as adjunctive therapy will probably decline as a consequence of the increasing antibiotic resistance of bacteria causing meningitis. Consequent vaccination of all children at present is the most efficient manner to reduce disease burden. PMID:24073921

  6. Meningitis, Clinical Presentation of Tetanus

    PubMed Central

    Moniuszko, Anna; Zajkowska, Agata; Tumiel, Ewa; Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Pancewicz, Sławomir; Rutkowski, Ryszard; Zdrodowska, Agnieszka; Zajkowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Background. Tetanus is an acute disease caused by a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani. Tetanus immunization has been available since the late 1930s but sporadic cases still occur, usually in incompletely vaccinated or unvaccinated individuals. Case Report. An elderly previously vaccinated female contracted tetanus following foot injury. Clinically she presented with meningitis causing diagnostic and therapeutic delays. Why Should Physician Be Aware of This? Even in developed countries the differential diagnosis of meningitis, especially in the elderly, should include tetanus. Treatment in intensive care unit is required. General population might benefit from vaccine boosters and education on this potentially fatal disease. PMID:25789186

  7. Neonatal meningitis complicating with pneumocephalus.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Anita; Agrawal, Satish C

    2014-01-01

    Pneumocephalus is a rare condition characterized by the presence of gas within the cranial cavity. This gas may arise either from a trauma, a tumor, a surgical, or a diagnostic procedure or occasionally from an infection. Pneumocephalus as a complication of bacterial meningitis, in absence of trauma or a procedure, is extremely rare, particularly in a newborn. A case of pneumocephalus occurring in a baby, suffering from neonatal meningitis, acquired probably through unsafe cutting and tying of the cord, is reported here. Cutting, tying, and care of the umbilical cord is of utmost importance to prevent neonatal infection as the same is a potential cause of serious anaerobic infections, besides tetanus. PMID:24741257

  8. Listeria monocytogenes, a food-borne pathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Farber, J M; Peterkin, P I

    1991-01-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is an ubiquitous, intracellular pathogen which has been implicated within the past decade as the causative organism in several outbreaks of foodborne disease. Listeriosis, with a mortality rate of about 24%, is found mainly among pregnant women, their fetuses, and immunocompromised persons, with symptoms of abortion, neonatal death, septicemia, and meningitis. Epidemiological investigations can make use of strain-typing procedures such as DNA restriction enzyme analysis or electrophoretic enzyme typing. The organism has a multifactorial virulence system, with the thiol-activated hemolysin, listeriolysin O, being identified as playing a crucial role in the organism's ability to multiply within host phagocytic cells and to spread from cell to cell. The organism occurs widely in food, with the highest incidences being found in meat, poultry, and seafood products. Improved methods for detecting and enumerating the organism in foodstuffs are now available, including those based on the use of monoclonal antibodies, DNA probes, or the polymerase chain reaction. As knowledge of the molecular and applied biology of L. monocytogenes increases, progress can be made in the prevention and control of human infection. PMID:1943998

  9. Outbreak of Listeria Monocytogenes in Pheasants.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yufang; Liang, Xiongyan; Huang, Zhuan; Yang, Yuying

    2015-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is capable of infecting almost all animals. However, outbreaks of listeriosis are infrequent in birds. This report describes an outbreak of listeriosis in a small pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) breeder farm with more than 2,000 pheasants from Hubei province of the People's Republic of China. The affected flock consisted of adult and young birds. Approximately 300 young birds and a few adult birds were found dead within a few days of the onset of clinical signs. Twenty-five dead birds were collected for further examination. Histopathological lesions in the visceral organs were characterized by monocyte infiltration and proliferation. Localized encephalitis and meningitis were detected in the brains of dead birds. Gram-positive organisms were observed in heart blood smear, liver, and brain impression smears. The organisms were isolated from fresh liver and were identified as L. monocytogenes serotype 4b based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and hlyA gene sequence analysis. This is the first report describing outbreak of listeriosis in pheasant flock.

  10. Outbreak of Listeria Monocytogenes in Pheasants.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yufang; Liang, Xiongyan; Huang, Zhuan; Yang, Yuying

    2015-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is capable of infecting almost all animals. However, outbreaks of listeriosis are infrequent in birds. This report describes an outbreak of listeriosis in a small pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) breeder farm with more than 2,000 pheasants from Hubei province of the People's Republic of China. The affected flock consisted of adult and young birds. Approximately 300 young birds and a few adult birds were found dead within a few days of the onset of clinical signs. Twenty-five dead birds were collected for further examination. Histopathological lesions in the visceral organs were characterized by monocyte infiltration and proliferation. Localized encephalitis and meningitis were detected in the brains of dead birds. Gram-positive organisms were observed in heart blood smear, liver, and brain impression smears. The organisms were isolated from fresh liver and were identified as L. monocytogenes serotype 4b based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and hlyA gene sequence analysis. This is the first report describing outbreak of listeriosis in pheasant flock. PMID:26476090

  11. [Laboratory diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis].

    PubMed

    Marí, José María Navarro; Ruiz, Mercedes Pérez; Anza, Diego Vicente

    2010-01-01

    Lymphocytic meningitis, mainly those with an acute and benign course, are caused by viruses. In our area, the most commonly involved agents are enteroviruses, herpes simplex, varicella zoster and Toscana viruses. Nucleic acids amplification techniques (NAAT) are the methods of choice to diagnose viral meningitis from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. They are more rapid and sensitive, and indeed, they are not influenced by the viability of the virus in the clinical specimen as traditional methods are. The development of commercial equipments, the degree of automation, and the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems are the most important premises to choose the molecular method in each laboratory. Recently, commercial kits of real-time PCR are available for the detection of enteroviruses and herpesviruses, which are the most frequently viruses involved in meningitis. Although NAAT from the clinical sample have replaced cell culture for diagnostic purposes, the combination of both methods remain useful. When the detection of the causal agent from the CSF sample is not possible, other specimens (pharyngeal exudates, stools) or serological methods can be used. Serology is the reference method for meningitis caused by West Nile virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, which are less frequently detected in our area.

  12. Streptococcus bovis meningitis and hemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam Hewitt; Sra, Harminder K; Bawa, Sandeep; Stevens, Richard

    2010-07-01

    We report a case of Streptococcus bovis (Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus) meningitis, a rare cause of central nervous system (CNS) infection in an adult, and comment on the importance of investigation of the lower gastrointestinal tract to identify a portal of entry in cases of systemic Streptococcus bovis infection. PMID:20421434

  13. A diagnostic rule for tuberculous meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, R.; Singh, S; Kohli, N.

    1999-01-01

    Diagnostic confusion often exists between tuberculous meningitis and other meningoencephalitides. Newer diagnostic tests are unlikely to be available in many countries for some time. This study examines which clinical features and simple laboratory tests can differentiate tuberculous meningitis from other infections. Two hundred and thirty two children (110 tuberculous meningitis, 94 non-tuberculous meningitis, 28 indeterminate) with suspected meningitis and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis were enrolled. Tuberculous meningitis was defined as positive CSF mycobacterial culture or acid fast bacilli stain, or basal enhancement or tuberculoma on computed tomography (CT) scan with clinical response to antituberculous treatment. Non-tuberculous meningitis was defined as positive CSF bacterial culture or Gram stain, or clinical response without antituberculous treatment. Thirty clinical/laboratory features of patients with tuberculous meningitis and non-tuberculous meningitis were compared by univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. Five features were independently predictive of the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (p < 0.007): prodromal stage ⩾ 7 days, optic atrophy on fundal examination, focal deficit, abnormal movements, and CSF leucocytes < 50% polymorphs. When validated on another set of 128 patients, if at least one feature was present, sensitivity was 98.4% and, if three or more were present, specificity was 98.3%. This simple rule would be useful to physicians working in regions where tuberculosis is prevalent.

 PMID:10451394

  14. Corticosteroids for managing tuberculous meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Kameshwar; Singh, Mamta B; Ryan, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculous meningitis is a serious form of tuberculosis (TB) that affects the meninges that cover a person's brain and spinal cord. It is associated with high death rates and with disability in people who survive. Corticosteroids have been used as an adjunct to antituberculous drugs to treat people with tuberculous meningitis, but their role has been controversial. Objectives To evaluate the effects of corticosteroids as an adjunct to antituberculous treatment on death and severe disability in people with tuberculous meningitis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register up to the 18 March 2016; CENTRAL; MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; and Current Controlled Trials. We also contacted researchers and organizations working in the field, and checked reference lists. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials that compared corticosteroid plus antituberculous treatment with antituberculous treatment alone in people with clinically diagnosed tuberculous meningitis and included death or disability as outcome measures. Data collection and analysis We independently assessed search results and methodological quality, and extracted data from the included trials. We analysed the data using risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and used a fixed-effect model. We performed an intention-to-treat analysis, where we included all participants randomized to treatment in the denominator. This analysis assumes that all participants who were lost to follow-up have good outcomes. We carried out a sensitivity analysis to explore the impact of the missing data. Main results Nine trials that included 1337 participants (with 469 deaths) met the inclusion criteria. At follow-up from three to 18 months, steroids reduce deaths by almost one quarter (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.87; nine trials, 1337 participants, high quality evidence). Disabling neurological deficit is not common in survivors, and steroids may have little or no

  15. Gallium-67 uptake in meningeal sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, J.G.; Hicks, B.H.; Maisey, M.N.

    1986-07-01

    A case of sarcoidosis limited to the central nervous system is described in which the diagnosis was suggested by high Ga-67 uptake in the cranial and spinal meninges. The diagnosis was confirmed by meningeal biopsy. Treatment with oral corticosteroids resulted in clinical improvement and marked reduction in Ga-67 uptake in the meninges. This is the first reported case of the central nervous system sarcoid diagnosed by Ga-67 imaging.

  16. Pathophysiology and Treatment of Bacterial Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency requiring immediate diagnosis and immediate treatment. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are the most common and most aggressive pathogens of meningitis. Emerging antibiotic resistance is an upcoming challenge. Clinical and experimental studies have established a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms resulting in brain damage, sequelae and neuropsychological deficits. We summarize the current pathophysiological concept of acute bacterial meningitis and present current treatment strategies. PMID:21180625

  17. Echovirus 18 meningitis in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Min; Ho, Tzong-Shiann; Shen, Ching-Fen; Wang, Jen-Ren; Liu, Ching-Chuan

    2011-03-01

    Eighty cases of echovirus 18 infection among young children during an outbreak in 2006 in Taiwan were enrolled. Twenty percent of the patients had a comorbid condition. Twenty-five cases (31%) were complicated by aseptic meningitis. The most frequent diagnoses in children without meningitis were pharyngitis/tonsillitis (35%) and vesicular viral exanthem (33%). The case-fatality rate among the children with meningitis was 4%. Echovirus 18 was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of 68% of the children.

  18. Corticosteroids for managing tuberculous meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Kameshwar; Singh, Mamta B; Ryan, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculous meningitis is a serious form of tuberculosis (TB) that affects the meninges that cover a person's brain and spinal cord. It is associated with high death rates and with disability in people who survive. Corticosteroids have been used as an adjunct to antituberculous drugs to treat people with tuberculous meningitis, but their role has been controversial. Objectives To evaluate the effects of corticosteroids as an adjunct to antituberculous treatment on death and severe disability in people with tuberculous meningitis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register up to the 18 March 2016; CENTRAL; MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; and Current Controlled Trials. We also contacted researchers and organizations working in the field, and checked reference lists. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials that compared corticosteroid plus antituberculous treatment with antituberculous treatment alone in people with clinically diagnosed tuberculous meningitis and included death or disability as outcome measures. Data collection and analysis We independently assessed search results and methodological quality, and extracted data from the included trials. We analysed the data using risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and used a fixed-effect model. We performed an intention-to-treat analysis, where we included all participants randomized to treatment in the denominator. This analysis assumes that all participants who were lost to follow-up have good outcomes. We carried out a sensitivity analysis to explore the impact of the missing data. Main results Nine trials that included 1337 participants (with 469 deaths) met the inclusion criteria. At follow-up from three to 18 months, steroids reduce deaths by almost one quarter (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.87; nine trials, 1337 participants, high quality evidence). Disabling neurological deficit is not common in survivors, and steroids may have little or no

  19. Effect of Listeria seeligeri or Listeria welshimeri on Listeria monocytogenes detection in and recovery from buffered Listeria enrichment broth.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Rachel C; Welch, Lacinda J; Hitchins, Anthony D; Smiley, R Derike

    2015-04-01

    The presence of multiple species of Listeria in regulated food products is not uncommon and can complicate the recovery of Listeria monocytogenes particularly on a non-differentiating medium. The potential complications of Listeria seeligeri and Listeria welshimeri on the recovery of L. monocytogenes from inoculated food test samples using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) selective enrichment procedure was investigated. Post-enrichment enumeration, in the absence of food product, indicates that some L. seeligeri and L. monocytogenes pairings may have population differentials as great as 2.7 ± 0.1 logs with L. seeligeri being the predominant species. A similar observation was noted for L. welshimeri and L. monocytogenes pairings which resulted in population differentials as large as 3.7 ± 0.2 logs with L. welshimeri being the predominant species. Select strain pairings were used to inoculate guacamole, crab meat, broccoli, and cheese with subsequent recovery by the FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) method with 10 colonies per sample selected for confirmation. The presence of L. seeligeri had little effect on the recovery of L. monocytogenes. The presence of L. welshimeri resulted in the failure to recover L. monocytogenes in three out of the four food matrices. This work extends the observation that non-pathogenic species of Listeria can complicate the recovery of L. monocytogenes and that competition during selective enrichment is not limited to the presence of just Listeria innocua.

  20. [Hematometra & Listeria monocytogenes].

    PubMed

    Gómez Arzapalo, E; Pérez Mendizábal, A; Herrera Avalos, I; Gorozpe Calvillo, J I

    2001-05-01

    The hematometra is a nosological entity that may not always be attributed to an embryonic defect of the paramesonefros; cervical-vaginal infections such as etiological possibilities due to Listeria monocytogenes (Lm), cervix malignant neoplasias, iatrogenias due to endometrial ablation with Lasser, traumatic bloody uterine curetage and because of cervical cryocoagulation or electrocoagulation are also mentioned. The case to be reported is from a woman in reproductive stage, who is 32 years old, and had menarca at the age of 13, starting her sexual life at 31, not using any method to control her fertility. When having an eight-week amenorrhea after 8 months of marriage, she visited the doctor for assumed pregnancy, within the prenatal analysis a pelvic echographic study was requested, finding out images that we concluded as hematometra, having been drained and demonstrated the presence of LM by anti-Lm antibodies, being administered Azitromicina and Espiramicina.

  1. [Listeria monocytogenes in food].

    PubMed

    Mícková, V

    1992-12-01

    As in recent years laboratory diagnostics of listeria has become part of food microbiology, the frequency of occurrence of the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes has been followed in various kinds of foods for a year. A total of 51 strains of L. monocytogenes (7.2%) was isolated from 700 kinds of samples (raw milk, pasteurized milk, meat surface, poultry, cheeses, thermally not treated meat products, food--industry machinery). As can be seen in Tab. I, the highest number of strains was isolated from meat surfaces (13.5%), followed by meat--industry machinery (12.72%), poultry (10%) and cheeses (5%). The lower numbers of strains were found out in thermally not treated meat products (3.8%) and in raw milk (3.3%). Pasteurized milk did not contain any strains. Our findings in raw milk (3.3%) and in pasteurized milk (0) are in agreement with the data cited e. g. by authors from the USA (Lovett et al., 1987), who mention the value of 4.2% in raw milk and the zero value in pasteurized milk. The percentage of strains monitored in cheeses (5%) can be evaluated as low as the assortment of investigated cheeses was small (all strains were isolated from soft ripening cheeses). German authors (Tham et al., 1988) speak about the 2.5% percentage of L. monocytogenes strains; this is in keeping with our findings. The findings in thermally not treated meat products (3.8%) can be evaluated as low although the number of strains found in raw meat was high.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization for identification of Listeria genus, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Shan; Li, Ke; Shuai, Jiangbing; Dong, Qiang; Fang, Weihuan

    2012-07-01

    A fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method in conjunction with fluorescin-labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes (PNA-FISH) for detection of Listeria species was developed. In silico analysis showed that three PNA probes Lis-16S-1, Lm-16S-2 and Liv-16S-5 were suitable for specific identification of Listeria genus, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii, respectively. These probes were experimentally verified by their reactivity against 19 strains of six Listeria species (excluding newly described species Listeria marthii and Listeria rocourtiae) and eight other bacterial species. The PNA-FISH method was optimized as 30 min of hybridization with 0.2% Triton X-100 in the solution and used to identify 85 Listeria strains from individual putative Listeria colonies on PALCAM agar plates streaked from selectively enriched cultures of 780 food or food-related samples. Of the 85 Listeria strains, thirty-seven were identified as L. monocytogenes with the probe Lm-16S-2 and two as L. ivanovii with the probe Liv-16S-5 which was in agreement with the results obtained by the API LISTERIA method. Thus, the PNA-FISH protocol has the potential for identification of pathogenic Listeria spp. from food or food-related samples.

  3. Keep Listeria Out of Your Kitchen

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Keep Listeria Out of Your Kitchen Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... Updates by E-mail Consumer Updates RSS Feed Listeria Podcast Download PDF (236 K) En Español On ...

  4. Listeria monocytogenes and hemolytic Listeria innocua in poultry.

    PubMed

    Milillo, S R; Stout, J C; Hanning, I B; Clement, A; Fortes, E D; den Bakker, H C; Wiedmann, M; Ricke, S C

    2012-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous, saprophytic, Gram-positive bacterium and occasional food-borne pathogen, often associated with ready-to-eat meat products. Because of the increased consumer interest in organic, all natural, and free range poultry products, it is important to understand L. monocytogenes in the context of such systems. Pasture-reared poultry were surveyed over the course of two 8-wk rearing periods. Cecal, soil, and grass samples were collected for Listeria isolation and characterization. Seven of 399 cecal samples (or 1.75%) were Listeria-positive. All positive cecal samples were obtained from broilers sampled at 2 wk of age. Grass and soil samples were collected from the pasture both before and after introduction of the poultry. Environmental samples collected after introduction of poultry were significantly more likely to contain Listeria (P < 0.001). The results of analytical profile index Listeria, sigB allelic typing, and hlyA PCR tests found that both L. monocytogenes and L. innocua, including hemolytic L. innocua, were recovered from the cecal and environmental (grass/soil) samples. The sigB allelic typing also revealed that (1) positive samples could be composed of 2 or more allelic types; (2) allelic types found in cecal samples could also be found in the environment; and (3) allelic types could persist through the 2 rearing periods. Our data indicate that both pasture-reared poultry and their environment can be contaminated with L. monocytogenes and hemolytic L. innocua.

  5. Listeria floridensis sp. nov., Listeria aquatica sp. nov., Listeria cornellensis sp. nov., Listeria riparia sp. nov. and Listeria grandensis sp. nov., from agricultural and natural environments.

    PubMed

    den Bakker, Henk C; Warchocki, Steven; Wright, Emily M; Allred, Adam F; Ahlstrom, Christina; Manuel, Clyde S; Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Burrell, Angela; Roof, Sherry; Strawn, Laura K; Fortes, Esther; Nightingale, Kendra K; Kephart, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Sampling of agricultural and natural environments in two US states (Colorado and Florida) yielded 18 Listeria-like isolates that could not be assigned to previously described species using traditional methods. Using whole-genome sequencing and traditional phenotypic methods, we identified five novel species, each with a genome-wide average BLAST nucleotide identity (ANIb) of less than 85% to currently described species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and amino acid sequences of 31 conserved loci showed the existence of four well-supported clades within the genus Listeria; (i) a clade representing Listeria monocytogenes, L. marthii, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri and L. ivanovii, which we refer to as Listeria sensu stricto, (ii) a clade consisting of Listeria fleischmannii and two newly described species, Listeria aquatica sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1188(T) = DSM 26686(T) = LMG 28120(T) = BEI NR-42633(T)) and Listeria floridensis sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1187(T) = DSM 26687(T) = LMG 28121(T) = BEI NR-42632(T)), (iii) a clade consisting of Listeria rocourtiae, L. weihenstephanensis and three novel species, Listeria cornellensis sp. nov. (type strain TTU A1-0210(T) = FSL F6-0969(T) = DSM 26689(T) = LMG 28123(T) = BEI NR-42630(T)), Listeria grandensis sp. nov. (type strain TTU A1-0212(T) = FSL F6-0971(T) = DSM 26688(T) = LMG 28122(T) = BEI NR-42631(T)) and Listeria riparia sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1204(T) = DSM 26685(T) = LMG 28119(T) = BEI NR- 42634(T)) and (iv) a clade containing Listeria grayi. Genomic and phenotypic data suggest that the novel species are non-pathogenic.

  6. A multi-target real-time PCR assay for rapid identification of meningitis-associated microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Marco; Savini, Vincenzo; Favalli, Cartesio; Fontana, Carla

    2013-01-01

    A central nervous system (CNS) infection, such as meningitis, is a serious and life-threatening condition. Bacterial meningitis can be severe and may result in brain damage, disability or even death. Rapid diagnosis of CNS infections and identification of the pathogenic microorganisms are needed to improve the patient outcome. Bacterial culture of a patient's cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is currently considered the "gold standard" for diagnosing bacterial meningitis. From the CSF cultures researchers can assess the in vitro susceptibility of the causative microorganism to determine the best antibiotic treatment. However, many of the culture assays, such as microscopy and the latex agglutination test are not sensitive. To enhance pathogen detection in CSF samples we developed a multi-target real-time PCR assay that can rapidly identify six different microorganisms: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Listeria monocytogenes and Cryptococcus neoformans. In this study we applied this PCR analysis to 296 CSF samples from patients who were suspected of having meningitis. Of the 296 samples that were examined, 59 samples were positive according to the CSF culture and/or molecular assays. Forty-six CSF samples were positive for both the CSF culture and our real-time PCR assay, while 13 samples were positive for the real-time PCR but negative for the traditional assays. This discrepancy may have been caused by the fact that these samples were collected from 23 patients who were treated with antimicrobials before CSF sampling.

  7. Cryptococcal Meningitis: Diagnosis and Management Update

    PubMed Central

    Abassi, Mahsa; Boulware, David R; Rhein, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the diagnosis and management of cryptococcal meningitis are promising and have been improving long-term survival. Point of care testing has made diagnosing cryptococcal meningitis rapid, practical, and affordable. Targeted screening and treatment programs for cryptococcal antigenemia are a cost effective method for reducing early mortality on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Optimal initial management with amphotericin and flucytosine improves survival against alternative therapies, although amphotericin is difficult to administer and flucytosine is not available in middle or low income countries, where cryptococcal meningitis is most prevalent. Controlling increased intracranial pressure with serial therapeutic lumbar punctures has a proven survival benefit. Delaying ART initiation for 4 weeks after the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis is associated with improved survival. Fortunately, new approaches have been leading the way toward improving care for cryptococcal meningitis patients. New trials utilizing different combinations of antifungal therapy are reviewed, and we summarize the efficacy of different regimens. PMID:26279970

  8. Two cases of rheumatoid meningitis.

    PubMed

    Magaki, Shino; Chang, Edward; Hammond, Robert R; Yang, Isaac; Mackenzie, Ian R A; Chou, Benedict T; Choi, Soo I; Jen, Joanna C; Pope, Whitney B; Bell, David A; Vinters, Harry V

    2016-02-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the form of rheumatoid meningitis (RM) is rare and most commonly occurs in the setting of longstanding severe RA. Due to a wide range of clinical presentations and nonspecific laboratory findings, it presents a diagnostic challenge often requiring brain biopsy. Only a few histopathologically confirmed cases have been described in the literature. Our aim is to describe two cases of RM and review the literature. The first case is of a previously healthy 37-year-old man who presented with severe headaches and focal neurologic deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated abnormal leptomeningeal enhancement in the left frontal and parietal sulci. The second case is of a 62-year-old woman with a history of mild chronic joint pain who presented with confusion, personality changes and seizures. Both patients ultimately underwent brain biopsy which demonstrated RM on pathologic examination. Administration of corticosteroids resulted in significant clinical improvement in both cases. To our knowledge, our unusual case of RM in the young man is the fifth reported case of rheumatoid meningitis in a patient with no prior history of RA. Such an atypical presentation makes diagnosis even more difficult and highlights the need for awareness of this entity in the diagnostic consideration of a patient presenting with unexplained neurologic symptoms. Our literature review underscores the clinical and pathologic heterogeneity of CNS involvement in RA.

  9. In Brief: Forecasting meningitis threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), in conjunction with a team of health and weather organizations, has launched a project to provide weather forecasts to medical officials in Africa to help reduce outbreaks of meningitis. The forecasts will enable local health care providers to target vaccination programs more effectively. In 2009, meteorologists with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is managed by UCAR, will begin issuing 14-day forecasts of atmospheric conditions in Ghana. Later, UCAR plans to work closely with health experts from several African countries to design and test a decision support system to provide health officials with useful meteorological information. ``By targeting forecasts in regions where meningitis is a threat, we may be able to help vulnerable populations. Ultimately, we hope to build on this project and provide information to public health programs battling weather-related diseases in other parts of the world,'' said Rajul Pandya, director of UCAR's Community Building Program. Funding for the project comes from a $900,000 grant from Google.org, the philanthropic arm of the Internet search company.

  10. Association between facial cutaneous coccidioidomycosis and meningitis.

    PubMed Central

    Arsura, E L; Kilgore, W B; Caldwell, J W; Freeman, J C; Einstein, H E; Johnson, R H

    1998-01-01

    The skin is frequently a site of extrapulmonary dissemination in patients with coccidioidomycosis. Clinical experience in an endemic area suggests an association between facial cutaneous coccidioidomycosis and meningitis. Awareness of this association is important because coccidioidal meningitis is the most ominous site of spread in coccidioidomycosis. In this study, we assess whether cutaneous dissemination involving the face is associated with meningitis to a greater degree than that limited to the body. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 201 patients from 1987 to 1996 with disseminated coccidioidomycosis and found 30 patients with cutaneous involvement. Their mean age was 29.5 +/- 11.6 years; 20 patients were male; 14 were African American, 12 were Hispanic, 3 were white, and 1 was Asian. Nineteen patients had facial involvement, and 11 had isolated body involvement. Meningitis developed in 11 patients, 10 with facial involvement and 1 with only body involvement. Patients with facial lesions were more likely to have meningitis (odds ratio, 11.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 529, P = .023). The identification of a subgroup of patients at significant risk of developing meningitis may allow earlier detection and perhaps improved management of patients with meningeal disease. PMID:9682625

  11. Climate Change and Cerebrospinal Meningitis in the Ghanaian Meningitis Belt

    PubMed Central

    Codjoe, Samuel Nii Ardey; Nabie, Vivian Adams

    2014-01-01

    Cerebrospinal meningitis (CSM) is one of the infectious diseases likely to be affected by climate change. Although there are a few studies on the climate change-CSM nexus, none has considered perceptions of community members. However, understanding public perception in relation to a phenomenon is very significant for the design of effective communication and mitigation strategies as well as coping and adaptation strategies. This paper uses focus group discussions (FGDs) to fill this knowledge lacuna. Results show that although a few elderly participants ascribed fatal causes (disobedience to gods, ancestors, and evil spirits) to CSM infections during FGDs, majority of participants rightly linked CSM infections to dry, very hot and dusty conditions experienced during the dry season. Finally, community members use a suite of adaptation options to curb future CSM epidemics. PMID:25003550

  12. Climate change and cerebrospinal meningitis in the Ghanaian meningitis belt.

    PubMed

    Codjoe, Samuel Nii Ardey; Nabie, Vivian Adams

    2014-07-01

    Cerebrospinal meningitis (CSM) is one of the infectious diseases likely to be affected by climate change. Although there are a few studies on the climate change-CSM nexus, none has considered perceptions of community members. However, understanding public perception in relation to a phenomenon is very significant for the design of effective communication and mitigation strategies as well as coping and adaptation strategies. This paper uses focus group discussions (FGDs) to fill this knowledge lacuna. Results show that although a few elderly participants ascribed fatal causes (disobedience to gods, ancestors, and evil spirits) to CSM infections during FGDs, majority of participants rightly linked CSM infections to dry, very hot and dusty conditions experienced during the dry season. Finally, community members use a suite of adaptation options to curb future CSM epidemics. PMID:25003550

  13. Meningeal fibroma: a rare meningioma mimic.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Aanchal; Sharma, Mehar C; Goyal, Nishant; Sarkar, Chitra; Suri, Vaishali; Garg, Ajay; Kale, Shashank S; Suri, Ashish

    2014-08-01

    Meningeal fibromas are rare intracranial tumors that mimic meningiomas radiologically as well as histologically. The authors report 2 cases of meningeal fibroma with detailed clinical, radiological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features, and discuss the differential diagnosis of this entity. Knowledge of this rare tumor is essential for pathologists to be able distinguish it from more common meningeal tumors, especially in younger patients. This knowledge is also essential for neurosurgeons, as incomplete resection may lead to tumor recurrence, and such patients require close follow-up.

  14. Chronic Meningitis: Simplifying a Diagnostic Challenge.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Kelly; Whiting, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Chronic meningitis can be a diagnostic dilemma for even the most experienced clinician. Many times, the differential diagnosis is broad and encompasses autoimmune, neoplastic, and infectious etiologies. This review will focus on a general approach to chronic meningitis to simplify the diagnostic challenges many clinicians face. The article will also review the most common etiologies of chronic meningitis in some detail including clinical presentation, diagnostic testing, treatment, and outcomes. By using a case-based approach, we will focus on the key elements of clinical presentation and laboratory analysis that will yield the most rapid and accurate diagnosis in these complicated cases.

  15. Lipoteichoic acid from Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Hether, N W; Jackson, L L

    1983-01-01

    A lipoteichoic acid (LTA) was extracted from Listeria monocytogenes (serotype 1) by phenol-water partition and isolated by gel-filtration chromatography. The LTA exhibited amphiphilic properties by changes in gel-filtration mobility in the presence of detergent buffers and after mild base hydrolysis. In a hemagglutination assay, Listeria LTA bound antibody prepared against a known LTA from Streptococcus spp. Listeria LTA inhibited the binding of anti-LTA antibody to a Lactobacillus LTA in a hemagglutination inhibition assay. The Listeria LTA contained glucose, galactose, fatty acids, glycerol, and phosphate with molar ratios of 0.05, 0.07, 0.21, 0.94, and 1.0 to phosphate, respectively. Adjacent glycerols were linked between the C-1 and C-3 positions by phosphodiesters (structural type 1). The average chain length was 19 +/- 2 (standard deviation) glycerol-phosphate repeating units. Approximately one glycosyl side chain was present per LTA molecule. The side chain was a galactose-containing disaccharide. The lipid portion of the LTA was a galactose- and glucose-containing glycolipid which may have been a phosphoglycolipid, but the structure was not confirmed. Major fatty acids of LTA and the glycolipid were 17:anteiso, 15:anteiso, 16:iso, 16:n, and 18:n. L. monocytogenes contained cell wall products typical of gram-positive bacteria which is in contrast to the reports by others of the presence of lipopolysaccharides from L. monocytogenes. PMID:6415040

  16. Listeria monocytogenes Endovascular Graft Infection

    PubMed Central

    Heysell, Scott K.; Hughes, Molly A.

    2016-01-01

    Although best managed by surgical resection, we present a case of Listeria monocytogenes endovascular graft infection alternatively treated with graft retention and antibiotic induction followed by a lifelong suppressive course. The epidemiological, pathological, and clinical features of this unique entity are reviewed. PMID:26835477

  17. NATURAL ATYPICAL LISTERIA INNOCUA STRAINS WITH LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES PATHOGENICITY ISLAND 1 GENES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The detection of the human foodborne pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes, in food, environmental samples and clinical specimens associated with cases of listeriosis, a rare but high mortality-rate disease, requires distinguishing the pathogen from other Listeria species. Speciation...

  18. Deletion of the membrane protein Lmo0412 increases the virulence of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Quereda, Juan José; Pucciarelli, María Graciela

    2014-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes gastroenteritis, meningitis, encephalitis and maternofetal infections. 20-30% of eubacterial ORFs are predicted to encode membrane proteins. The bacterial cytoplasmic membrane is a macromolecular structure, which plays a key role for the pathogenesis. Despite this, little knowledge exists regarding the function of cytoplasmic membrane proteins of Listeria during infection. Here, we investigated a predicted membrane protein of the pathogen L. monocytogenes, Lmo0412, of unknown function. Lmo0412 is only present in the Listeria genus and low conserved in the non-pathogenic species L. innocua. Bacterial fractionation and western blot analyses showed that Lmo0412 was only detectable in the membrane of L. monocytogenes EGDe during logarithmic growth phase. lmo0412 expression in L. monocytogenes was down-regulated during in vitro infection of JEG-3 epithelial cells. An L. monocytogenes mutant deficient in this membrane protein showed increased invasion of Caco-2 and NRK-49F host cells using in vitro infection models. Moreover, the lack of Lmo0412 in this deletion mutant increased the viable bacteria counts in the spleen and liver of mice compared to the wild type strain. Taken together, these data suggest a selective advantage conferred by the absence of Lmo0412 for the virulence of L. monocytogenes.

  19. Characteristics and distribution of Listeria spp., including Listeria species newly described since 2009.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Renato H; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-06-01

    The genus Listeria is currently comprised of 17 species, including 9 Listeria species newly described since 2009. Genomic and phenotypic data clearly define a distinct group of six species (Listeria sensu strictu) that share common phenotypic characteristics (e.g., ability to grow at low temperature, flagellar motility); this group includes the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The other 11 species (Listeria sensu lato) represent three distinct monophyletic groups, which may warrant recognition as separate genera. These three proposed genera do not contain pathogens, are non-motile (except for Listeria grayi), are able to reduce nitrate (except for Listeria floridensis), and are negative for the Voges-Proskauer test (except for L. grayi). Unlike all other Listeria species, species in the proposed new genus Mesolisteria are not able to grow below 7 °C. While most new Listeria species have only been identified in a few countries, the availability of molecular tools for rapid characterization of putative Listeria isolates will likely lead to future identification of isolates representing these new species from different sources. Identification of Listeria sensu lato isolates has not only allowed for a better understanding of the evolution of Listeria and virulence characteristics in Listeria but also has practical implications as detection of Listeria species is often used by the food industry as a marker to detect conditions that allow for presence, growth, and persistence of L. monocytogenes. This review will provide a comprehensive critical summary of our current understanding of the characteristics and distribution of the new Listeria species with a focus on Listeria sensu lato. PMID:27129530

  20. A history of acute bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Uiterwijk, Anouk; Koehler, Peter J

    2012-07-01

    Although meningitis was not yet known as such, its symptoms have been conceptualized in different ways and many theories about its causes have been formulated in the course of time. Terms like hydrocephalus and brain fever were used for different clinical manifestations of what today would be recognized as meningitis. Pathological-anatomical findings led to the emergence of the clinical entity from several old concepts of disease. Initially, diagnostic means were limited and therapeutic methods did not differ much from those that had been applied for centuries, even far into the nineteenth century. Discoveries in bacteriology and the introduction of the lumbar puncture provided a new paradigm for knowledge of the pathophysiology and treatment of what then became known with the term meningitis. The development of new therapeutic methods including antiserum, sulfonamides, and penicillin resulted in a decreasing mortality during the past century. Nowadays, with the use of antibiotics, bacterial meningitis can often be cured. PMID:22724490

  1. [Pasteurella multocida meningitis with cerebral abscesses].

    PubMed

    Nguefack, S; Moifo, B; Chiabi, A; Mah, E; Bogne, J-B; Fossi, M; Fru, F; Mbonda, E; Djientcheu, V-P

    2014-03-01

    Pasteurella multocida is classically responsible for local soft tissue infections secondary to dog bites or cat scratches. It can be responsible for meningitis in infants and elderly persons. We report the case history of a 5-year-old male child admitted to our pediatric unit for meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed an infection with P. multocida. The suspected mode of contamination was either from the saliva of a pet dog or through an unnoticed skull fracture sustained after an accident 1 year prior to the occurrence of meningitis. In spite of the neurologic complication (cerebral abscess), the progression was favorable after drainage of the abscess, 5 weeks of parenteral treatment, and 3 weeks of oral antibiotic therapy. Meningitis due to Pasteurella sp. is rare and can lead to neurologic complications. The notion of bites or scratches can be absent and the mode of contamination is sometimes difficult to unveil. PMID:24457110

  2. Meningitis in service-age personnel.

    PubMed

    Miller, R; Houlberg, K

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of meningitis is declining in the UK population largely due to increased availability of vaccinations against the most common bacterial strains. Acute bacterial meningitis, however, is a life-threatening condition and distinguishing it from more benign causes of headache and fever is difficult in an operational environment due to limited access to diagnostic tests. Despite medical advances, the case fatality rate in the United Kingdom in adults with invasive meningococcal disease is 10.5%. Acute bacterial meningitis presents with the classical triad of fever, neck pain and altered mental state in less than half of adults, and in the initial course of the disease it frequently mimics common viral illnesses. The aim of this article is to discuss the recognition and management of meningitis with special emphasis on the deployed military environment. PMID:26292395

  3. Hemi-meningitis with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kocak, Ozan; Yarar, Coskun; Yimenicioğlu, Sevgi; Ekici, Arzu; Bör, Özcan

    2016-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder. HLH may occur as a complication of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), particularly in patients with immunodeficiencies. Herein, we describe a 16-year-old girl with neurological complications associated EBV-induced HLH. Her cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed contrast-enhanced axial T1-weighted images with enhancement of meningeal surface in the right hemisphere that was consistent with right hemi-meningitis. Hydrocephalus, dilated subdural spaces, delayed myelination, edema, diffuse parenchymal atrophy, calcifications, diffuse/patchy white matter abnormalities have all been previously described with HLH. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hemi-meningitis associated with HLH. We suggest that clinicians should consider HLH with vascular disorders when they determine unilateral meningitis on a brain MRI. PMID:27570395

  4. Meningitis B Vaccine Falls Short of Expectations

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an assistant professor at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health in Minneapolis. The meningitis ... immunity. Researchers at Princeton University, the University of Minnesota and Public Health England tested blood samples collected ...

  5. A Practical Approach to Meningitis and Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Richie, Megan B; Josephson, S Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Meningitis is an inflammatory syndrome involving the meninges that classically manifests with headache and nuchal rigidity and is diagnosed by cerebrospinal fluid examination. In contrast, encephalitis refers to inflammation of the brain parenchyma itself and often results in focal neurologic deficits or seizures. In this article, the authors review the differential diagnosis of meningitis and encephalitis, with an emphasis on infectious etiologies. The recommended practical clinical approach focuses on early high-yield diagnostic testing and empiric antimicrobial administration, given the high morbidity associated with these diseases and the time-sensitive nature of treatment initiation. If the initial workup does not yield a diagnosis, further etiology-specific testing based upon risk factors and clinical characteristics should be pursued. Effective treatment is available for many causes of meningitis and encephalitis, and when possible should address both the primary disease process as well as potential complications.

  6. [The meninges, an anatomical point of view].

    PubMed

    Sakka, L; Chazal, J

    2005-03-01

    The meninges correspond to an anatomical concept. For the morphologist, the microscopic organization, the hypothetical presence of a subdural space, the nature of the interface between the deep meningeal layer and the nervous parenchyma in the perivascular spaces are the central issues. For the clinician, dynamic aspects of cerebrospinal fluid flow, secretion, and resorption are essential factors with practical consequences in terms of disease and patient management. Comparative anatomy, embryology, and organogenesis provide an interesting perspective for the descriptive and functional anatomy of the meninges. Usually considered as protective membranes, the meninges play a prominent role in the development and maintenance of the central nervous system. The meninges are in constant evolution, from their formation to senescence. The meninges present three layers in children and adults: the dura mater, the arachnoid and the pia mater. The cerebrospinal fluid is secreted by the choroid plexuses, flows through the ventricles and the subarachnoid space, and is absorbed by arachnoid granulations. Other sites of secretion and resorption are suggested by comparative anatomy and human embryology and organogenesis.

  7. Extra cellular matrix features in human meninges.

    PubMed

    Montagnani, S; Castaldo, C; Di Meglio, F; Sciorio, S; Giordano-Lanza, G

    2000-01-01

    We collected human fetal and adult normal meninges to relate the age of the tissue with the presence of collagenous and non-collagenous components of Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM). Immunohistochemistry led us to observe some differences in the amount and in the distribution of these proteins between the two sets of specimens. In particular, laminin and tenascin seem to be expressed more intensely in fetal meninges when compared to adult ones. In order to investigate whether the morphofunctional characteristics of fetal meninges may be represented in pathological conditions we also studied meningeal specimens from human meningiomas. Our attention was particularly focused on the expression of those non-collagenous proteins involved in nervous cell migration and neuronal morphogenesis as laminin and tenascin, which were present in lesser amount in normal adult specimens. Microscopical evidences led us to hipothesize that these proteins which are synthesized in a good amount during the fetal development of meninges can be newly produced in tumors. On the contrary, the role of tenascin and laminin in adult meninges is probably only interesting for their biophysical characteristics.

  8. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the meninges.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kumiko; Tada, Toyohiro; Takahashi, Satoru; Sugiyama, Naotake; Inaguma, Shingo; Takahashi, Seishiro S; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2004-05-01

    Increasing numbers of solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) in the meninges have been reported since this entity was first recognized. While most cases previously reported were considered to be benign, the malignant potential of extrathoracic SFTs has not been excluded. The authors report a rare case of a meningeal SFT with malignant behavior occurring in a Japanese female patient, initially resected when she was 44 years old and recurring in the same place four times during a 26-year follow-up period. A metastatic tumor to the right lung arose 25 years after the resection of the first meningeal tumor and focal invasion into the cerebellum was also observed with her last (5th) meningeal tumor. Immunohistochemical analysis showed all tumors to be diffusely positive for CD34 and negative for EMA, with a so-called "patternless" histological pattern, featuring thin collagen fibers between tumor cells. A focal "staghorn" vascular pattern was also observed. Ki67 (MIB-1) labeling indices and mitosis rates were 3.1+/-1.2% and less than 1/10 high power fields (HPF) in the first meningeal tumor and 16.1+/-6.4% and 6/10HPF in the last (5th) one, respectively. Thus, the present case suggests that meningeal SFTs possess malignant potential so that careful long-term follow up is required.

  9. Meditation of the taxonomy of Listeria.

    PubMed

    Ralovich, B

    1991-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes was exactly identified and named in 1924. Since then the name and taxonomic position of listeriae have been changed several times. The last classification was performed on the basis of genetic studies and of some biological properties (haemolytic character, virulence and acid production from sugars). On the basis of the taxonomic validity of these characters, the Listeria genus is proposed to be classified into three species: L. monocytogenes (four subspecies), L. ivanovii and L. grayi (two subspecies).

  10. VIDAS Listeria species Xpress (LSX).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ronald; Mills, John

    2013-01-01

    The AOAC GovVal study compared the VIDAS Listeria species Xpress (LSX) to the Health Products and Food Branch MFHPB-30 reference method for detection of Listeria on stainless steel. The LSX method utilizes a novel and proprietary enrichment media, Listeria Xpress broth, enabling detection of Listeria species in environmental samples with the automated VIDAS in a minimum of 26 h. The LSX method also includes the use of the chromogenic media, chromID Ottaviani Agosti Agar (OAA) and chromID Lmono for confirmation of LSX presumptive results. In previous AOAC validation studies comparing VIDAS LSX to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) reference methods, the LSX method was approved as AOAC Official Method 2010.02 for the detection of Listeria species in dairy products, vegetables, seafood, raw meats and poultry, and processed meats and poultry, and as AOAC Performance Tested Method 100501 in a variety of foods and on environmental surfaces. The GovVal comparative study included 20 replicate test portions each at two contamination levels for stainless steel where fractionally positive results (5-15 positive results/20 replicate portions tested) were obtained by at least one method at one level. Five uncontaminated controls were included. In the stainless steel artificially contaminated surface study, there were 25 confirmed positives by the VIDAS LSX assay and 22 confirmed positives by the standard culture methods. Chi-square analysis indicated no statistical differences between the VIDAS LSX method and the MFHPB-30 standard methods at the 5% level of significance. Confirmation of presumptive LSX results with the chromogenic OAA and Lmono media was shown to be equivalent to the appropriate reference method agars. The data in this study demonstrate that the VIDAS LSX method is an acceptable alternative method to the MFHPB-30 standard

  11. Spontaneous remission of acromegaly: apoplexy mimicking meningitis or meningitis as a cause of apoplexy?

    PubMed

    Villar-Taibo, Rocío; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D; Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Alvarez-San Martín, Rosa M; Kyriakos, Georgios; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro

    2014-02-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is a rare but potentially life-threatening clinical syndrome characterized by ischemic infarction or hemorrhage into a pituitary tumor. The diagnosis of pituitary tumor apoplexy is frequently complicated because of the nonspecific nature of its signs and symptoms, which can mimic different neurological processes, including meningitis. Several factors have been associated with apoplexy, such as dopamine agonists, radiotherapy, or head trauma, but meningitis is a rarely reported cause. We describe the case of a 51-year-old woman with acromegaly due to a pituitary macroadenoma. Before surgical treatment, she arrived at Emergency with fever, nausea, vomiting and meningismus. Symptoms and laboratory tests suggested bacterial meningitis, and antibiotic therapy was initiated, with quick improvement. A computerized tomography (CT) scan at admission did not reveal any change in pituitary adenoma, but a few weeks later, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed data of pituitary apoplexy with complete disappearance of the adenoma. Currently, her acromegaly is cured, but she developed hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus following apoplexy. We question whether she really experienced meningitis leading to apoplexy or whether apoplexy was misinterpreted as meningitis. In conclusion, the relationship between meningitis and pituitary apoplexy may be bidirectional. Apoplexy can mimic viral or bacterial meningitis, but meningitis might cause apoplexy, as well. This fact highlights the importance of differential diagnosis when evaluating patients with pituitary adenomas and acute neurological symptoms.

  12. Antibiotic Resistance in Listeria Species Isolated from Catfish Fillets and Processing Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The susceptibility of 221 Listeria spp. (86 Listeria monocytogenes, 41 Listeria innocua and 94 Listeria seeligeri-Listeria welshimeri-Listeria ivanovii) isolated from catfish fillets and processing environment to 15 antibiotics was determined. Listeria isolates were analysed by disc-diffusion assay...

  13. Diagnostic Accuracy of Procalcitonin in Bacterial Meningitis Versus Nonbacterial Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ting-Ting; Hu, Zhi-De; Qin, Bao-Dong; Ma, Ning; Tang, Qing-Qin; Wang, Li-Li; Zhou, Lin; Zhong, Ren-Qian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several studies have investigated the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT) levels in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in bacterial meningitis (BM), but the results were heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the diagnostic accuracy of PCT as a marker for BM detection. A systematic search of the EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed databases was performed to identify studies published before December 7, 2015 investigating the diagnostic accuracy of PCT for BM. The quality of the eligible studies was assessed using the revised Quality Assessment for Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy method. The overall diagnostic accuracy of PCT detection in CSF or blood was pooled using the bivariate model. Twenty-two studies involving 2058 subjects were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The overall specificities and sensitivities were 0.86 and 0.80 for CSF PCT, and 0.97 and 0.95 for blood PCT, respectively. Areas under the summary receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.90 and 0.98 for CSF PCT and blood PCT, respectively. The major limitation of this systematic review and meta-analysis was the small number of studies included and the heterogeneous diagnostic thresholds adopted by eligible studies. Our meta-analysis shows that PCT is a useful biomarker for BM diagnosis. PMID:26986140

  14. Comparative genomics of Listeria species.

    PubMed

    Glaser, P; Frangeul, L; Buchrieser, C; Rusniok, C; Amend, A; Baquero, F; Berche, P; Bloecker, H; Brandt, P; Chakraborty, T; Charbit, A; Chetouani, F; Couvé, E; de Daruvar, A; Dehoux, P; Domann, E; Domínguez-Bernal, G; Duchaud, E; Durant, L; Dussurget, O; Entian, K D; Fsihi, H; García-del Portillo, F; Garrido, P; Gautier, L; Goebel, W; Gómez-López, N; Hain, T; Hauf, J; Jackson, D; Jones, L M; Kaerst, U; Kreft, J; Kuhn, M; Kunst, F; Kurapkat, G; Madueno, E; Maitournam, A; Vicente, J M; Ng, E; Nedjari, H; Nordsiek, G; Novella, S; de Pablos, B; Pérez-Diaz, J C; Purcell, R; Remmel, B; Rose, M; Schlueter, T; Simoes, N; Tierrez, A; Vázquez-Boland, J A; Voss, H; Wehland, J; Cossart, P

    2001-10-26

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen with a high mortality rate that has also emerged as a paradigm for intracellular parasitism. We present and compare the genome sequences of L. monocytogenes (2,944,528 base pairs) and a nonpathogenic species, L. innocua (3,011,209 base pairs). We found a large number of predicted genes encoding surface and secreted proteins, transporters, and transcriptional regulators, consistent with the ability of both species to adapt to diverse environments. The presence of 270 L. monocytogenes and 149 L. innocua strain-specific genes (clustered in 100 and 63 islets, respectively) suggests that virulence in Listeria results from multiple gene acquisition and deletion events.

  15. Procalcitonin as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Factor for Tuberculosis Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinseung; Kim, Si Eun; Park, Bong Soo; Shin, Kyong Jin; Ha, Sam Yeol; Park, JinSe; Kim, Sung Eun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose We investigated the potential role of serum procalcitonin in differentiating tuberculosis meningitis from bacterial and viral meningitis, and in predicting the prognosis of tuberculosis meningitis. Methods This was a retrospective study of 26 patients with tuberculosis meningitis. In addition, 70 patients with bacterial meningitis and 49 patients with viral meningitis were included as the disease control groups for comparison. The serum procalcitonin level was measured in all patients at admission. Differences in demographic and laboratory data, including the procalcitonin level, were analyzed among the three groups. In addition, we analyzed the predictive factors for a prognosis of tuberculosis meningitis using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) at discharge, and the correlation between the level of procalcitonin and the GCS score at discharge. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that a low level of procalcitonin (≤1.27 ng/mL) independently distinguished tuberculosis meningitis from bacterial meningitis. The sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing tuberculosis meningitis from bacterial meningitis were 96.2% and 62.9%, respectively. However, the level of procalcitonin in patients with tuberculosis meningitis did not differ significantly from that in patients with viral meningitis. In patients with tuberculosis meningitis, a high level of procalcitonin (>0.4 ng/mL) was a predictor of a poor prognosis, and the level of procalcitonin was negatively correlated with the GCS score at discharge (r=-0.437, p=0.026). Conclusions We found that serum procalcitonin is a useful marker for differentiating tuberculosis meningitis from bacterial meningitis and is also valuable for predicting the prognosis of tuberculosis meningitis. PMID:27165424

  16. Meningitis and Climate: From Science to Practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez Garcia-Pando, Carlos; Thomson, Madeleine C.; Stanton, Michelle C.; Diggle, Peter J.; Hopson, Thomas; Pandya, Rajul; Miller, Ron L.; Hugonnet, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    Meningococcal meningitis is a climate sensitive infectious disease. The regional extent of the Meningitis Belt in Africa, where the majority of epidemics occur, was originally defined by Lapeysonnie in the 1960s. A combination of climatic and environmental conditions and biological and social factors have been associated to the spatial and temporal patterns of epidemics observed since the disease first emerged in West Africa over a century ago. However, there is still a lack of knowledge and data that would allow disentangling the relative effects of the diverse risk factors upon epidemics. The Meningitis Environmental Risk Information Technologies Initiative (MERIT), a collaborative research-to-practice consortium, seeks to inform national and regional prevention and control strategies across the African Meningitis Belt through the provision of new data and tools that better determine risk factors. In particular MERIT seeks to consolidate a body of knowledge that provides evidence of the contribution of climatic and environmental factors to seasonal and year-to-year variations in meningococcal meningitis incidence at both district and national scales. Here we review recent research and practice seeking to provide useful information for the epidemic response strategy of National Ministries of Health in the Meningitis Belt of Africa. In particular the research and derived tools described in this paper have focused at "getting science into policy and practice" by engaging with practitioner communities under the umbrella of MERIT to ensure the relevance of their work to operational decision-making. We limit our focus to that of reactive vaccination for meningococcal meningitis. Important but external to our discussion is the development and implementation of the new conjugate vaccine, which specifically targets meningococcus A

  17. The management of bacterial meningitis in children.

    PubMed

    Duke, Trevor; Curtis, Nigel; Fuller, David G

    2003-08-01

    Bacterial meningitis is still a major cause of death and disability in children worldwide. With the advent of conjugate vaccines against the three major pathogens, the burden of disease is increasingly concentrated in developing countries that cannot afford the vaccines. Antibiotic resistance is an increasing problem; in developed countries, high-level resistance to beta-lactams among Streptococcus pneumoniae necessitates the addition of vancomycin to third-generation cephalosporins. In many developing countries, the problems are more fundamental. Increasing resistance of S. pneumoniae to penicillin and chloramphenicol and of Haemophilus influenzae to chloramphenicol means that many children with bacterial meningitis receive ineffective treatments, as third-generation cephalosporins are often unavailable or unaffordable. Case fatality rates are as high as 50% and neurological sequelae occur in one-third of survivors. The use of corticosteroids in meningitis is controversial; the evidence that they protect against neurological complications of childhood meningitis (particularly severe hearing loss) is strongest when: meningitis is caused by H. influenzae type b; dexamethasone is given before the first dose of antibiotics; a bactericidal antibiotic such as a third-generation cephalosporin is used; and in the early stages of the infection. There are few controlled clinical trials on which to base recommendations about other adjuvant therapy for meningitis. Avoidance of secondary brain injury from hypoxia, hypotension, hypo-osmolarity and cerebral oedema, hypoglycaemia or convulsions is essential for a good outcome. The problem of bacterial meningitis will only be solved if protein-conjugate vaccines (or other effective vaccine strategies) against S. pneumonia, H. influenzae and epidemic strains of Neisseria meningitidis are available to all the world's children. Making third-generation cephalosporins affordable in the developing world is also a necessary intervention

  18. Staphylococcus aureus meningitis from osteomyelitis of the spine.

    PubMed Central

    Markus, H. S.; Allison, S. P.

    1989-01-01

    Two cases of vertebral osteomyelitis presenting with secondary Staphylococcus aureus meningitis are described. In staphylococcal meningitis a search for a primary source should include the lower vertebral spine. PMID:2616438

  19. Microbial study of meningitis and encephalitis cases.

    PubMed

    Selim, Heba S; El-Barrawy, Mohamed A; Rakha, Magda E; Yingst, Samuel L; Baskharoun, Magda F

    2007-01-01

    Meningitis and/or encephalitis can pose a serious public health problem especially during outbreaks. A rapid and accurate diagnosis is important for effective earlier treatment. This study aimed to identify the possible microbial causes of meningitis and/or encephalitis cases. CSF and serum samples were collected from 322 patients who had signs and symptoms suggestive of meningitis and/or encephalitis. Out of 250 cases with confirmed clinical diagnosis, 83 (33.2%) were definitely diagnosed as bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis cases (by using CSF culture, biochemical tests, latex agglutination test, and CSF stain), 17 (6.8%) were definitely diagnosed as having viral causes ( by viral isolation on tissue culture, PCR and ELISA), and one (0.4%) was diagnosed as fungal meningitis case (by India ink stain, culture, and biochemical tests). Also, there was one encephalitis case with positive serum ELISA IgM antibodies against Sandfly scilian virus. N. meningitidis, S. pneumonia and M. tuberculosis were the most frequently detected bacterial agents, while Enteroviruses, herpes simplex viruses and varicella zoster viruses were the most common viral agents encountered. Further studies are needed to assess the role of different microbial agents in CNS infections and their effective methods of diagnosis.

  20. Pathogenicity islands and virulence evolution in Listeria.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Boland, J A; Domínguez-Bernal, G; González-Zorn, B; Kreft, J; Goebel, W

    2001-06-01

    As in other bacterial pathogens, the virulence determinants of Listeria species are clustered in genomic islands scattered along the chromosome. This review summarizes current knowledge about the structure, distribution and role in pathogenesis of Listeria virulence loci. Hypotheses about the mode of acquisition and evolution of these loci in this group of Gram-positive bacteria are presented and discussed.

  1. [Clinical, epidemiological and etiological studies of adult aseptic meningitis: Report of 13 cases with mumps meningitis].

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Shinichi; Yoshimoto, Takeshi; Shiga, Yuji; Kanaya, Yuhei; Neshige, Shuichiro; Himeno, Takahiro; Kono, Ryuhei; Takamatsu, Kazuhiro; Shimoe, Yutaka; Kuriyama, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    We experienced 13 cases (29.8 ± 7.0 years) of mumps meningitis and 365 cases of adult aseptic meningitis during 11 years from 2004 to 2014. A small epidemic of mumps occurred for 3-4 years, and the incidence rate of adult mumps meningitis coincided with the epidemic without seasonal fluctuation. Parotitis was observed in 8 of the 13 mumps meningitis patients (61.5%) and orchitis in 2 of 7 male patients (28.6%). There were no differences in clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and outcome between patients with adult mumps meningitis and those with echovirus 9 meningitis (9 patients), except for the low frequency of nausea/vomiting and a high percentage of mononuclear cells of the cerebrospinal fluid in those with mumps. Eight patients had contact with persons with mumps before the symptomatic stage of meningitis. Only one patient had received mumps vaccination in childhood. On the basis of the values of the anti-mumps IgM and IgG antibodies, we speculated primary infection and the re-infection of mumps in 6 and 2 patients, respectively. Moreover, second vaccine failure was suggested in the vaccinated patient.

  2. Surveillance of Bacterial Meningitis, Ethiopia, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Mihret, Wude; Lema, Tsehaynesh; Merid, Yared; Kassu, Afework; Abebe, Workeabeba; Moges, Beyene; Tenna, Admasu; Woldegebriel, Fitsum; Yidnekachew, Melaku; Mekonnen, Wondale; Ahmed, Arslan; Yamuah, Lawrence; Silamsaw, Mezgebu; Petros, Beyene; Oksnes, Jan; Rosenqvist, Einar; Ayele, Samuel; Aseffa, Abraham; Caugant, Dominique A; Norheim, Gunnstein

    2016-01-01

    Among 139 patients with suspected bacterial meningitis in Ethiopia, 2012-2013, meningococci (19.4%) and pneumococci (12.9%) were the major disease-causing organisms. Meningococcal serogroups detected were A (n = 11), W (n = 7), C (n = 1), and X (n = 1). Affordable, multivalent meningitis vaccines for the African meningitis belt are urgently needed.

  3. Surveillance of Bacterial Meningitis, Ethiopia, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Mihret, Wude; Lema, Tsehaynesh; Merid, Yared; Kassu, Afework; Abebe, Workeabeba; Moges, Beyene; Tenna, Admasu; Woldegebriel, Fitsum; Yidnekachew, Melaku; Mekonnen, Wondale; Ahmed, Arslan; Yamuah, Lawrence; Silamsaw, Mezgebu; Petros, Beyene; Oksnes, Jan; Rosenqvist, Einar; Ayele, Samuel; Aseffa, Abraham; Caugant, Dominique A.

    2016-01-01

    Among 139 patients with suspected bacterial meningitis in Ethiopia, 2012–2013, meningococci (19.4%) and pneumococci (12.9%) were the major disease-causing organisms. Meningococcal serogroups detected were A (n = 11), W (n = 7), C (n = 1), and X (n = 1). Affordable, multivalent meningitis vaccines for the African meningitis belt are urgently needed. PMID:26689450

  4. Chromosomal imbalances in meningeal solitary fibrous tumors.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew J; Summersgill, Brenda M; Fisher, Cyril; Shipley, Janet M; Dean, Andrew F

    2002-06-01

    We present the results of a comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis of three meningeal solitary fibrous tumors (SFT). One case showed loss of chromosome 3 and two tumors had deletions of the region 3p21-p26. Other chromosomal losses included 4p15, 8q22-q24, 10, 11q14-q25, 17q11- q23, 20, and 21 in one case each. In addition, there were gains of 18p11-p13 in one case, and 1p11-p36 and 20q11-q13 in another. To our knowledge, there are no previous CGH or cytogenetic data on meningeal SFT, and loss of material on chromosome 3 has not been described in SFT at other sites. Our findings are discussed in relation to published molecular genetic and cytogenetic data on meningioma and hemangiopericytoma, the two lesions with which meningeal SFT are most likely to be confused.

  5. Emergency Neurologic Life Support: Meningitis and Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Gaieski, David F; Nathan, Barnett R; O'Brien, Nicole F

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis, particularly herpes simplex encephalitis, are severe neurological infections that, if not treated promptly and effectively, lead to poor neurological outcome or death. Because treatment is more effective if given early, the topic of meningitis and encephalitis was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. This protocol provides a practical approach to recognition and urgent treatment of bacterial meningitis and encephalitis. Appropriate imaging, spinal fluid analysis, and early empiric treatment is discussed. Though uncommon in its full form, the typical clinical triad of headache, fever, and neck stiffness should alert the clinical practitioner to the possibility of a central nervous system infection. Early attention to the airway and maintaining normotension is crucial in treatment of these patients, as is rapid treatment with anti-infectives and, in some cases, corticosteroids. PMID:26438456

  6. Use of radiologic modalities in coccidioidal meningitis

    SciTech Connect

    Stadalnik, R.C.; Goldstein, E.; Hoeprich, P.D.; McGahan, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    The diagnostic utility of pentetate indium trisodium CSF studies, technetium Tc 99m brain scans, and computerized tomographic (CT) scans was evaluated in eight patients in whom coccidioidal meningitis developed following a dust storm in the Central Valley of California. The 111In flow studies and the CT scans demonstrated hydrocephalus in five patients with clinical findings suggesting this complication. Ventriculitis has not previously been diagnosed before death in patients with coccidioidal meningitis; however, it was demonstrated in two patients by the technetium Tc 99m brain scan. The finding that communicating hydrocephalus occurs early in meningitis and interferes with CSF flow into infected basilar regions has important therapeutic implications in that antifungal agents injected into the lumbar subarachnoid space may not reach these regions.

  7. Emergency Neurologic Life Support: Meningitis and Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Gaieski, David F; Nathan, Barnett R; O'Brien, Nicole F

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis, particularly herpes simplex encephalitis, are severe neurological infections that, if not treated promptly and effectively, lead to poor neurological outcome or death. Because treatment is more effective if given early, the topic of meningitis and encephalitis was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. This protocol provides a practical approach to recognition and urgent treatment of bacterial meningitis and encephalitis. Appropriate imaging, spinal fluid analysis, and early empiric treatment is discussed. Though uncommon in its full form, the typical clinical triad of headache, fever, and neck stiffness should alert the clinical practitioner to the possibility of a central nervous system infection. Early attention to the airway and maintaining normotension is crucial in treatment of these patients, as is rapid treatment with anti-infectives and, in some cases, corticosteroids.

  8. Anatomy and imaging of the normal meninges.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neel; Kirmi, Olga

    2009-12-01

    The meninges are an important connective tissue envelope investing the brain. Their function is to provide a protective coating to the brain and also participate in the formation of blood-brain barrier. Understanding their anatomy is fundamental to understanding the location and spread of pathologies in relation to the layers. It also provides an insight into the characteristics of such pathologies when imaging them. This review aims to describe the anatomy of the meninges, and to demonstrate the imaging findings of specific features.

  9. [Solitary fibrous tumor of the meninges].

    PubMed

    Gentil Perret, A; Mosnier, J F; Duthel, R; Brunon, J; Barral, F; Boucheron, S

    1999-12-01

    We report a case of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the meninges. SFTs have been initially described in the pleura. SFTs show similar histological findings as in other locations. SFTs show a diffuse positive staining for vimentin and CD34. Meningeal SFTs have usually a favourable outcome. These tumors have to be essentially distinguished from hemangiopericytomas and fibrous meningiomas. Immunostaining for CD34 is of value for this purpose. CD34 expression is often patchy and weaker in hemangiopericytomas whereas it is rarely observed in fibrous meningiomas. It is of great interest to isolate SFTs from hemangiopericytomas because of their favourable outcome.

  10. [Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in bacterial meningitis].

    PubMed

    Attout, H; Guez, S; Seriès, C

    2007-10-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage is the most common cause of cerebral salt wasting syndrome. There are few reports of this condition in infectious meningitis. We describe a patient with hyponatremia and bacterial meningitis. Hyponatremia rapidly improved after administration of sodium chloride. The purpose of this report is to alert clinicians to the fact that hyponatremic patients with central nervous system disease do not necessarily have a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), but may have cerebral salt wasting syndrome. By contrast with SIADH, the treatment requires saline administration.

  11. Temporary divergence paralysis in viral meningitis.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Stef L M; Gan, Ivan M

    2008-06-01

    A 43-year-old woman who reported diplopia and headache was found to have comitant esotropia at distance fixation and normal alignment at reading distance (divergence paralysis). Eye movement, including abduction, was normal as was the rest of the neurologic examination. Brain MRI was normal. Lumbar puncture showed an elevated opening pressure and a cerebrospinal fluid formula consistent with viral meningitis. The patient was treated with intravenous fluids and analgesics and with a temporary prism to alleviate diplopia. Within 3 weeks, she had fully recovered. This is the first report of divergence palsy in viral meningitis.

  12. Food Safety for Moms to Be: While You're Pregnant - Listeria

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Moms-To-Be: While You're Pregnant - Listeria Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Page What Is Foodborne Illness? | Listeria | Methylmercury | Toxoplasma Listeria : Frequently Asked Questions "What is Listeria monocytogenes?" It's ...

  13. Meningococcal meningitis: vaccination outbreak response and epidemiological changes in the African meningitis belt.

    PubMed

    Carod Artal, Francisco Javier

    2015-07-01

    The main approach to controlling epidemics of meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt has been reactive vaccination campaigns with serogroup A polysaccharide vaccine once the outbreak reached an incidence threshold. Early reactive vaccination is effective in reducing morbidity and mortality. A recent paper in International Health has shown that earlier reactive vaccination campaigns may be even more effective than increasing the coverage area of vaccination. Monovalent serogroup A conjugate vaccine programs have recently been launched to prevent transmission in endemic areas in the African meningitis belt. Conjugate vaccines can induce immunological memory and have impact on pharyngeal carriage. However, reactive vaccination still has a role to play taking into account the dynamic changes in the epidemiology of meningitis in this area. PMID:25878213

  14. Meningococcal Meningitis Surveillance in the African Meningitis Belt, 2004–2013

    PubMed Central

    Lingani, Clément; Bergeron-Caron, Cassi; Stuart, James M.; Fernandez, Katya; Djingarey, Mamoudou H.; Ronveaux, Olivier; Schnitzler, Johannes C.; Perea, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. An enhanced meningitis surveillance network was established across the meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa in 2003 to rapidly collect, disseminate, and use district weekly data on meningitis incidence. Following 10 years’ experience with enhanced surveillance that included the introduction of a group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT (MenAfriVac), in 2010, we analyzed the data on meningitis incidence and case fatality from countries reporting to the network. Methods. After de-duplication and reconciliation, data were extracted from the surveillance bulletins and the central database held by the World Health Organization Inter-country Support Team in Burkina Faso for countries reporting consistently from 2004 through 2013 (Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Togo). Results. The 10 study countries reported 341 562 suspected and confirmed cases over the 10-year study period, with a marked peak in 2009 due to a large epidemic of group A Neisseria meningitidis (NmA) meningitis. Case fatality was lowest (5.9%) during this year. A mean of 71 and 67 districts annually crossed the alert and epidemic thresholds, respectively. The incidence rate of NmA meningitis fell >10-fold, from 0.27 per 100 000 in 2004–2010 to 0.02 per 100 000 in 2011–2013 (P < .0001). Conclusions. In addition to supporting timely outbreak response, the enhanced meningitis surveillance system provides a global overview of the epidemiology of meningitis in the region, despite limitations in data quality and completeness. This study confirms a dramatic fall in NmA incidence after the introduction of PsA-TT. PMID:26553668

  15. Listeria monocytogenes--which of your patients is not at risk?

    PubMed

    Harris, Joanna

    2008-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an environmental bacterium that is capable of causing infection (known as listeriosis) in vulnerable people who generally acquire the organism following the ingestion of contaminated foods. Pregnant women are a particular risk group, as listeriosis in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, neonatal septicaemia and meningitis. The immunocompromised, and people over the age of 65 to 70 are also at increased risk of listeriosis. Listeriosis can present in a number of ways and may lead to significant morbidity. The mortality rate is between 11% and 60% depending on the age of the patient and the clinical presentation of the infection. There has been wide coverage in both medical and public media of the risk of listeriosis in pregnancy, but little has been published in general nursing journals. The objective of this article is to raise nurses' awareness of listeriosis enabling them to offer optimum advice to vulnerable patients.

  16. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus meningitis in Peru.

    PubMed

    Mori, Nicanor; Guevara, Jose M; Tilley, Drake H; Briceno, Jesus A; Zunt, Joseph R; Montano, Silvia M

    2013-02-01

    A 59-year-old man with a history of fever, unsteadiness, hemiparesis, motor aphasia and consciousness disturbance was hospitalized for Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus meningitis. He denied contact with farm animals, but had a practice of consuming unpasteurized goats' cheese from an uncertain source.

  17. Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology of Pneumococcal Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Mook-Kanamori, Barry B.; Geldhoff, Madelijn; van der Poll, Tom; van de Beek, Diederik

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Pneumococcal meningitis continues to be associated with high rates of mortality and long-term neurological sequelae. The most common route of infection starts by nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae, which must avoid mucosal entrapment and evade the host immune system after local activation. During invasive disease, pneumococcal epithelial adhesion is followed by bloodstream invasion and activation of the complement and coagulation systems. The release of inflammatory mediators facilitates pneumococcal crossing of the blood-brain barrier into the brain, where the bacteria multiply freely and trigger activation of circulating antigen-presenting cells and resident microglial cells. The resulting massive inflammation leads to further neutrophil recruitment and inflammation, resulting in the well-known features of bacterial meningitis, including cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, cochlear damage, cerebral edema, hydrocephalus, and cerebrovascular complications. Experimental animal models continue to further our understanding of the pathophysiology of pneumococcal meningitis and provide the platform for the development of new adjuvant treatments and antimicrobial therapy. This review discusses the most recent views on the pathophysiology of pneumococcal meningitis, as well as potential targets for (adjunctive) therapy. PMID:21734248

  18. Listeria Pathogenesis and Molecular Virulence Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Boland, José A.; Kuhn, Michael; Berche, Patrick; Chakraborty, Trinad; Domínguez-Bernal, Gustavo; Goebel, Werner; González-Zorn, Bruno; Wehland, Jürgen; Kreft, Jürgen

    2001-01-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a highly fatal opportunistic foodborne infection. Pregnant women, neonates, the elderly, and debilitated or immunocompromised patients in general are predominantly affected, although the disease can also develop in normal individuals. Clinical manifestations of invasive listeriosis are usually severe and include abortion, sepsis, and meningoencephalitis. Listeriosis can also manifest as a febrile gastroenteritis syndrome. In addition to humans, L. monocytogenes affects many vertebrate species, including birds. Listeria ivanovii, a second pathogenic species of the genus, is specific for ruminants. Our current view of the pathophysiology of listeriosis derives largely from studies with the mouse infection model. Pathogenic listeriae enter the host primarily through the intestine. The liver is thought to be their first target organ after intestinal translocation. In the liver, listeriae actively multiply until the infection is controlled by a cell-mediated immune response. This initial, subclinical step of listeriosis is thought to be common due to the frequent presence of pathogenic L. monocytogenes in food. In normal indivuals, the continual exposure to listerial antigens probably contributes to the maintenance of anti-Listeria memory T cells. However, in debilitated and immunocompromised patients, the unrestricted proliferation of listeriae in the liver may result in prolonged low-level bacteremia, leading to invasion of the preferred secondary target organs (the brain and the gravid uterus) and to overt clinical disease. L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii are facultative intracellular parasites able to survive in macrophages and to invade a variety of normally nonphagocytic cells, such as epithelial cells, hepatocytes, and endothelial cells. In all these cell types, pathogenic listeriae go through an intracellular life cycle involving early escape from the phagocytic vacuole

  19. Meninges: from protective membrane to stem cell niche

    PubMed Central

    Decimo, Ilaria; Fumagalli, Guido; Berton, Valeria; Krampera, Mauro; Bifari, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Meninges are a three tissue membrane primarily known as coverings of the brain. More in depth studies on meningeal function and ultrastructure have recently changed the view of meninges as a merely protective membrane. Accurate evaluation of the anatomical distribution in the CNS reveals that meninges largely penetrate inside the neural tissue. Meninges enter the CNS by projecting between structures, in the stroma of choroid plexus and form the perivascular space (Virchow-Robin) of every parenchymal vessel. Thus, meninges may modulate most of the physiological and pathological events of the CNS throughout the life. Meninges are present since the very early embryonic stages of cortical development and appear to be necessary for normal corticogenesis and brain structures formation. In adulthood meninges contribute to neural tissue homeostasis by secreting several trophic factors including FGF2 and SDF-1. Recently, for the first time, we have identified the presence of a stem cell population with neural differentiation potential in meninges. In addition, we and other groups have further described the presence in meninges of injury responsive neural precursors. In this review we will give a comprehensive view of meninges and their multiple roles in the context of a functional network with the neural tissue. We will highlight the current literature on the developmental feature of meninges and their role in cortical development. Moreover, we will elucidate the anatomical distribution of the meninges and their trophic properties in adult CNS. Finally, we will emphasize recent evidences suggesting the potential role of meninges as stem cell niche harbouring endogenous precursors that can be activated by injury and are able to contribute to CNS parenchymal reaction. PMID:23671802

  20. Meninges: from protective membrane to stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Decimo, Ilaria; Fumagalli, Guido; Berton, Valeria; Krampera, Mauro; Bifari, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Meninges are a three tissue membrane primarily known as coverings of the brain. More in depth studies on meningeal function and ultrastructure have recently changed the view of meninges as a merely protective membrane. Accurate evaluation of the anatomical distribution in the CNS reveals that meninges largely penetrate inside the neural tissue. Meninges enter the CNS by projecting between structures, in the stroma of choroid plexus and form the perivascular space (Virchow-Robin) of every parenchymal vessel. Thus, meninges may modulate most of the physiological and pathological events of the CNS throughout the life. Meninges are present since the very early embryonic stages of cortical development and appear to be necessary for normal corticogenesis and brain structures formation. In adulthood meninges contribute to neural tissue homeostasis by secreting several trophic factors including FGF2 and SDF-1. Recently, for the first time, we have identified the presence of a stem cell population with neural differentiation potential in meninges. In addition, we and other groups have further described the presence in meninges of injury responsive neural precursors. In this review we will give a comprehensive view of meninges and their multiple roles in the context of a functional network with the neural tissue. We will highlight the current literature on the developmental feature of meninges and their role in cortical development. Moreover, we will elucidate the anatomical distribution of the meninges and their trophic properties in adult CNS. Finally, we will emphasize recent evidences suggesting the potential role of meninges as stem cell niche harbouring endogenous precursors that can be activated by injury and are able to contribute to CNS parenchymal reaction.

  1. Utility of cerebrospinal fluid cortisol level in acute bacterial meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Anish; Mahale, Rohan R.; Sudhir, Uchil; Javali, Mahendra; Srinivasa, Rangasetty

    2015-01-01

    Background: Meningitis remains a serious clinical problem in developing as well as developed countries. Delay in diagnosis and treatment results in significant morbidity and mortality. The role and levels of intrathecal endogenous cortisol is not known. Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol levels and to evaluate its role as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker in acute bacterial meningitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with acute bacterial meningitis with no prior treatment were evaluated. Cortisol levels were compared with 20 patients with aseptic (viral) meningitis and 25 control subjects. Results: Mean CSF cortisol level was 13.85, 3.47, and 1.05 in bacterial meningitis, aseptic meningitis, and controls, respectively. Mean CSF cortisol level in bacterial meningitis was significantly higher as compared to controls (P < 0.001). There was significant difference in CSFcortisol levels in bacterial and aseptic meningitis (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Cortisol levels in CSF are highly elevated in patients with acute bacterial meningitis. This suggests that intrathecalcortisol may serve as a valuable, rapid, relatively inexpensive diagnostic marker in discriminatingbetween bacterial and aseptic meningitis. This helps in earlier institution of appropriate treatment and thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. PMID:26019421

  2. Tuberculous meningitis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Sinha, Manish Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected persons. HIV-infected patients have a high incidence of tuberculous meningitis as well. The exact incidence and prevalence of tuberculous meningitis in HIV-infected patients are not known. HIV infection does not significantly alter the clinical manifestations, laboratory, radiographic findings, or the response to therapy. Still, some differences have been noted. For example, the histopathological examination of exudates in HIV-infected patients shows fewer lymphocytes, epithelioid cells, and Langhan's type of giant cells. Larger numbers of acid-fast bacilli may be seen in the cerebral parenchyma and meninges. The chest radiograph is abnormal in up to 46% of patients with tuberculous meningitis. Tuberculous meningitis is likely to present with cerebral infarcts and mass lesions. Cryptococcal meningitis is important in differential diagnosis. The recommended duration of treatment in HIV-infected patients is 9-12 months. The benefit of adjunctive corticosteroids is uncertain. Antiretroviral therapy and antituberculosis treatment should be initiated at the same time, regardless of CD4 cell counts. Tuberculous meningitis may be a manifestation of paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Some studies have demonstrated a significant impact of HIV co-infection on mortality from tuberculous meningitis. HIV-infected patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculous meningitis have significantly higher mortality. The best way to prevent HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis is to diagnose and isolate infectious cases of tuberculosis promptly and administer appropriate treatment.

  3. [Clinical, epidemiological, and etiological studies of aseptic meningitis in adults].

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Shinichi; Neshige, Shuichiro; Himeno, Takahiro; Hara, Naoyuki; Yoshimoto, Takeshi; Takamatsu, Kazuhiro; Takao, Shinichi; Kuriyama, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    From summer to autumn, we noted the occurrence of a small epidemic of aseptic meningitis in adults. Over the last 10 years, we have encountered 203 male (mean age, 34.6 ± 15.0 years) and 157 female (mean age, 35.6 ± 16.3 years) patients with aseptic meningitis. We could identify the causative virus in 17 (81%) of 21 cases during the abovementioned months in 2012. Identification rates of the virus in the stool, cerebrospinal fluid, throat swab, and serum samples were 71%, 67%, 42%, and 5%, respectively. The etiological viruses included enteroviruses in all cases, such as echovirus type 9 (E9) in 9 cases, echovirus type 6 (E6) in 4 cases, coxsackievirus type A9 in 1 case, and unknown type of enterovirus in 3 cases. No differences in the clinical manifestations and laboratory findings were noted between E9 meningitis and E6 meningitis. In addition, we countered 14 cases of mumps meningitis, 7 cases of varicella-zoster virus meningitis and 6 cases of herpes simplex meningitis during the last 10 years; these cases did not occur as an epidemic, but occurred sporadically. Cases of mumps meningitis were noted in all seasons, and cases of varicella-zoster virus meningitis were only noted from summer to winter. The etiology of epidemic aseptic meningitis in adults could be mainly due to enterovirus infection, and its prognosis was benign.

  4. Detection of Listeria spp. in liquid egg products and in the egg breaking plants environment and tracking of Listeria monocytogenes by PFGE.

    PubMed

    Rivoal, Katell; Fablet, Aurore; Courtillon, Céline; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Chemaly, Marianne; Protais, Jocelyne

    2013-08-16

    Human listeriosis, caused by Listeria monocytogenes, is a severe bacterial infection that can lead to meningitis, cerebromeningitis, bacteremia or septicemia, with acute lethality and potentially leading to death. A study has shown that 29.5% of the caged laying hens in France are contaminated by L. monocytogenes (Chemaly et al., 2008). However, very little information regarding egg and egg product contamination is currently available. The objective of this study is to determine the sanitary status of egg products and egg breaking plants in France regarding Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes contaminations. The sampling scheme performed in five egg breaking plants in Western France during one year have revealed that 8.5% of raw egg products were contaminated by L. monocytogenes. No pasteurized egg products have been shown to be contaminated by L. monocytogenes. However, a high level of contamination by Listeria spp., and particularly by L. innocua, has been shown with 26.2% and 1.8% of raw and pasteurized egg products contaminated, respectively. This work has also revealed the presence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in the environment of egg breaking plants with 65.1% and 8.0% of contaminated samples, respectively. The typing of 253 isolates of L. monocytogenes by PFGE using ApaI and AscI enzymes has revealed a high diversity with 46 different pulsotypes and has shown that the raw material is a source of contamination of egg breaking plants. One L. monocytogenes cluster was dominant in the 5 egg-breaking plants during the four seasons studied. The issue of which strains are better adapted to egg products must be considered and studied in depth by comparing them to pulsotypes from strains of other chains. However, the traceability of L. monocytogenes in plants during the various seasons has also made it possible to highlight the presence of strains that are specific to egg breaking plants. The study of cleaning and disinfection methods in these plants as well

  5. Listeriolysin genes: complete sequence of ilo from Listeria ivanovii and of lso from Listeria seeligeri.

    PubMed

    Haas, A; Dumbsky, M; Kreft, J

    1992-02-28

    The complete DNA sequences coding for the thiol-activated cytolysins from Listeria ivanovii, ivanolysin O (ILO) and for seeligerolysin O (LSO) from Listeria seeligeri have been determined. The deduced amino acid sequences revealed that: (i) the primary translation products comprise 528 (ILO) and 530 (LSO) amino acids, respectively, (ii) ILO contains two cysteines, LSO has a substitution in the conserved cysteine motif.

  6. Relationship between Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. in seafood processing plants.

    PubMed

    Alali, Walid Q; Schaffner, Donald W

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes as an outcome and Listeria spp. as an explanatory variable by food products, food contact surfaces, and nonfood contact surfaces in seafood processing plants by using peer-reviewed published data. Nine sets of prevalence data of L. monocytogenes and Listeria spp. were collected from published studies and used for the analyses. Based on our analysis, the relationship between L. monocytogenes prevalence and Listeria spp. prevalence in food products (incoming raw materials and finish products) was significant (P = 0.04) with (low) R² = 0.36. Furthermore, Listeria spp. were not a good indicator for L. monocytogenes when testing food contact surfaces (R² = 0.10). Listeria spp. were a good indicator for L. monocytogenes only on nonfood contact surfaces (R² = 0.90). On the other hand, the presence of Listeria spp. on food contact surfaces (R² = 0.002) and nonfood contact surfaces (R² = 0.03) was not a good indicator for L. monocytogenes presence in food products. In general, prevalence of Listeria spp. does not seem to be a good indicator for L. monocytogenes prevalence in seafood processing plants.

  7. API Listeria, a new and promising one-day system to identify Listeria isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Bille, J; Catimel, B; Bannerman, E; Jacquet, C; Yersin, M N; Caniaux, I; Monget, D; Rocourt, J

    1992-01-01

    API Listeria is a new 10-test strip for 24-h biochemical identification of Listeria isolates. With this commercial system, 85% of 646 Listeria strains, including atypical isolates selected for this study, were recognized at the species and subspecies level without a complementary test. A new test differentiates Listeria monocytogenes from L. innocua on the basis of the absence of arylamidase from the former. With this system, 97.7% (252 of 258) of the L. monocytogenes strains tested were correctly identified and differentiated from 99.4% (175 of 176) of the L. innocua strains also tested. Gram-positive bacteria other than Listeria spp. gave quite different biochemical patterns. This system considerably reduced the time needed for conventional identification, since results were available within 18 to 24 h. PMID:1622261

  8. An unusual presentation of carcinomatous meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Chuan T.; Burrell, Louise M.; Johnson, Douglas F.

    2016-01-01

    A 67-year old previously well male presented with a 1 week history of confusion on a background of 3 weeks of headache. Past history included two superficial melanomas excised 5 years ago. Treatment for meningoencephalitis was commenced based on lumbar puncture (LP) and non-contrast brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results. Lack of a clinical response to antibiotics resulted in a second LP and contrast brain MRI which demonstrated hydrocephalus and leptomeningeal disease. Ongoing deterioration led to a whole-body computed tomographic and spinal MRI that showed widespread metastatic disease and extensive leptomeningeal involvement of the spinal cord. The diagnosis of metastatic melanoma with carcinomatous meningitis was made based on cytological analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. He died 2 weeks later in a palliative care facility. This case illustrates that the diagnosis of carcinomatous meningitis can be difficult to make as the heterogeneous nature of its presentation often delays the diagnosis. PMID:27574561

  9. An unusual presentation of carcinomatous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Foo, Chuan T; Burrell, Louise M; Johnson, Douglas F

    2016-08-01

    A 67-year old previously well male presented with a 1 week history of confusion on a background of 3 weeks of headache. Past history included two superficial melanomas excised 5 years ago. Treatment for meningoencephalitis was commenced based on lumbar puncture (LP) and non-contrast brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results. Lack of a clinical response to antibiotics resulted in a second LP and contrast brain MRI which demonstrated hydrocephalus and leptomeningeal disease. Ongoing deterioration led to a whole-body computed tomographic and spinal MRI that showed widespread metastatic disease and extensive leptomeningeal involvement of the spinal cord. The diagnosis of metastatic melanoma with carcinomatous meningitis was made based on cytological analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. He died 2 weeks later in a palliative care facility. This case illustrates that the diagnosis of carcinomatous meningitis can be difficult to make as the heterogeneous nature of its presentation often delays the diagnosis. PMID:27574561

  10. Confirmed viral meningitis with normal CSF findings.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Naghum; Desjobert, Edouard; Lumley, Janine; Webster, Daniel; Jacobs, Michael

    2014-07-17

    An 18-year-old woman presented with a progressively worsening headache, photophobia feverishness and vomiting. Three weeks previously she had returned to the UK from a trip to Peru. At presentation, she had clinical signs of meningism. On admission, blood tests showed a mild lymphopenia, with a normal C reactive protein and white cell count. Chest X-ray and CT of the head were normal. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microscopy was normal. CSF protein and glucose were in the normal range. MRI of the head and cerebral angiography were also normal. Subsequent molecular testing of CSF detected enterovirus RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. The patient's clinical syndrome correlated with her virological diagnosis and no other cause of her symptoms was found. Her symptoms were self-limiting and improved with supportive management. This case illustrates an important example of viral central nervous system infection presenting clinically as meningitis but with normal CSF microscopy.

  11. [Duration of antibiotic therapy in bacterial meningitis].

    PubMed

    Pereira, P Ricardo; Borges, Fernando; Mansinho, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    The duration of antibiotic therapy in bacterial meningitis is a controversial issue. Antibiotic regimens have changed over time along with the criteria used to determine the ideal antibiotic therapy duration. The authors aim to make an historical overview on this matter and simultaneously add the evidence of recent studies, pointing out some issues in results interpretation, namely, their design and the associated demographic and epidemiological questions. Clinical assays on this subject, with statistically significant results, are quite recent. Most of the scientific knowledge has been acquired empirically through the times. The actual investigation paradigm, in what concerns to antibiotic therapy in bacterial meningitis, lays on the dichotomy: "short versus long duration regimens". Nevertheless, so far, the existing studies have not completely cleared this doubt. Thus, despite some evidence suggests that short duration antibiotic regimens are effective for some patients, in patients with severe disease presentations or with other morbidities its use may be questioned.

  12. Suspected meningococcal meningitis on an aircraft carrier.

    PubMed

    Farr, Wesley; Gonzalez, Michele J; Garbauskas, Heather; Zinderman, Craig E; LaMar, James E

    2004-09-01

    A suspected case of meningococcal meningitis was diagnosed in a 24-year-old sailor onboard an aircraft carrier at sea in 2003. He was immediately confined to the ship's hospital ward under respiratory isolation precautions and was treated with intravenously administered antibiotics. His illness resolved without sequelae. A total of 99 close contacts from the ship were identified and given antibiotic prophylaxis, with directly observed therapy. British public health authorities were contacted to trace and treat persons identified as close contacts during a port call a few days before presentation. Managing a communicable disease such as meningococcal meningitis in the austere shipboard environment represents a unique challenge to military medical personnel. Successful management is possible through prompt treatment, respiratory isolation, and open communication between primary health care providers and public health officials. The identification of shipboard close contacts and other infection control procedures used by the ship's medical department are reviewed.

  13. Congenital malformations of the skull and meninges.

    PubMed

    Kanev, Paul M

    2007-02-01

    The surgery and management of children who have congenital malformations of the skull and meninges require multidisciplinary care and long-term follow-up by multiple specialists in birth defects. The high definition of three-dimensional CT and MRI allows precise surgery planning of reconstruction and management of associated malformations. The reconstruction of meningoencephaloceles and craniosynostosis are challenging procedures that transform the child's appearance. The embryology, clinical presentation, and surgical management of these malformations are reviewed.

  14. Unusual cause of fatal anthrax meningitis.

    PubMed

    Parlak, Emine; Parlak, Mehmet; Atli, Seval Bilgiç

    2015-03-01

    We report the case of fatal anthrax meningoencephalitis in the province of Muş located in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The organism isolated from cerebrospinal fluid was identified as Bacillus anthracis. The patient was treated with crystallized penicillin G (24 MU/day IV) and ciprofloxacin (2 × 400/day IV), but died 5 days after hospitalization. Although it is a rare case, we consider that the patients who have skin, respiratory and neurological systems might also have hemorrhagic meningitis.

  15. [Benign recurring aseptic meningitis. What requires our attention?].

    PubMed

    Kruis, T; Kredel, L; Nassir, M; Godbersen, M; Schneider, T

    2016-02-01

    Benign recurrent aseptic meningitis (BRAM) or Mollaret's meningitis is a rare disease characterized by recurrent episodes of aseptic meningitis followed by spontaneous recovery. Disease courses over several years have been reported. In most cases, BRAM is caused by HSV-2, less frequently by other viruses or autoimmune diseases. In up to 10 %, the aetiology remains unclear. We present a case of idiopathic BRAM and discuss clinical findings, diagnosis and therapeutic options of this rare illness.

  16. Chemical meningitis: a rare presentation of Rathke's cleft cyst.

    PubMed

    Mrelashvili, Anna; Braksick, Sherri A; Murphy, Lauren L; Morparia, Neha P; Natt, Neena; Kumar, Neeraj

    2014-04-01

    Rathke's cleft cysts (RCC) are usually benign, sellar and/or suprasellar lesions originating from the remnants of Rathke's pouch. Rarely, RCC can present with chemical meningitis, sellar abscess, lymphocytic hypophysitis, or intracystic hemorrhage. We describe an unusual presentation of RCC in which the patient presented with a clinical picture of chemical meningitis consisting of meningeal irritation, inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid profile, and enhancing pituitary and hypothalamic lesions, in addition to involvement of the optic tracts and optic nerve.

  17. The microvasculature of the human cerebellar meninges.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Hiroko; Akima, Michiko; Hatori, Tsutomu; Nagayama, Tadashi; Zhang, Zean; Ihara, Fumie

    2002-12-01

    The vascular architecture of the human cerebellar meninges was investigated. The surface meninges were poor in vasculature. In the sulci, the meninges were highly vascular but had few capillaries. The venous blood vessels gave long side branches at right angles to the parent vessels in a cruciform pattern, running horizontally along the cerebellar sulci. They were situated at the origin of the secondary or tertiary sulci. Anastomoses between these horizontal branches gave a crosshatched appearance. Short branches often extended to the bases of the sulci, terminating in T-shaped bifurcations with numerous tiny branches, like the roots of a tree. The arteries ran perpendicular to venous branches which were parallel to each other exclusively along the sagittal plane. These arteries bifurcated to straddle the horizontally running veins at the origin of the secondary or tertiary sulci. They gave off many small branches like teeth of a fork from each artery in the secondary or tertiary sulci after they bifurcated to straddle the venous branches and penetrated the cerebellar cortex at the bases of sulci. These fork-like ramifications in the bases of the sulci were most likely responsible for the ready development of pronounced ischemic state. They might also play an important role in the occurrence of ischemic damage at the bases of sulci in cases of severe generalized ischemia.

  18. [Infantile meningitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus].

    PubMed

    Shirota, Go; Morozumi, Miyuki; Ubukata, Kimiko; Shiro, Hiroyuki

    2011-11-01

    Respiratory syncytial (RS) virus commonly causes infantile respiratory tract infection causing significant morbidity and mortality, but rarely meningitis. We report a case of meningitis caused by RS virus subgroup B in a 56-day-old boy admitted for high fever who underwent blood examination and lumbar puncture. Empirical chemotherapy was started with intravenous ampicillin, gentamicin, and cefotaxime based on laboratory data on CSF cells (84/microL) and serum CRP (13.8mg/dL) data. RS virus subgroup B was only detected using real-time PCR comprehensive reverse transcription from the first CSF, but no bacterial gene was detected. No bacteria grew from his CSF, urine, or blood. Fever and serum CRP dropped in a few days. He had neither seizures nor disturbance of consciousness and was discharged on day 11 after admission. No evidence of encephalopathy was detected in brain MRI or electroencephalography. RS virus rarely causes meningitis, but a percentage of RS-virus-infected infants exhibit symptoms such as seizure and disturbance of consciousness. We should recognize that the RS virus may cause neurological complications associated with high morbidity and mortality.

  19. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt.

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac(™) ) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere.

  20. Testing for meningitis in children with bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Stefanski, Michael; Williams, Ronald; McSherry, George; Geskey, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Viral bronchiolitis accounts for almost 20% of all-cause hospitalizations of infants (ie, children younger than age 1 year). The annual incidence of fever in viral bronchiolitis has been documented at 23% to 31%. However the incidence of concurrent serious bacterial infections is low (1%-7%), with meningitis occurring in less than 1% to 2% of cases, but lumbar puncture is performed in up to 9% of viral bronchiolitis cases. To our knowledge, no study has examined clinical factors that influence a physician’s decision to perform a lumbar puncture in the setting of viral bronchiolitis. We present a retrospective, case-control study of hospitalized infants younger than one year diagnosed with viral bronchiolitis who underwent lumbar puncture as part of an evaluation for meningitis. The objective of the study was to determine clinical factors that influence a physician’s decision to perform a lumbar puncture in the setting of viral bronchiolitis. Although the presence of apnea, cyanosis, meningeal signs, positive urine culture results, and young age were factors found to be preliminarily associated with the performance of a lumbar puncture in the setting of bronchiolitis, young age was the only significant clinical factor found after multivariable regression; no other demographic, clinical, laboratory, or radiologic variables were found to be significant.

  1. Sub-meninges implantation reduces immune response to neural implants.

    PubMed

    Markwardt, Neil T; Stokol, Jodi; Rennaker, Robert L

    2013-04-15

    Glial scar formation around neural interfaces inhibits their ability to acquire usable signals from the surrounding neurons. To improve neural recording performance, the inflammatory response and glial scarring must be minimized. Previous work has indicated that meningeally derived cells participate in the immune response, and it is possible that the meninges may grow down around the shank of a neural implant, contributing to the formation of the glial scar. This study examines whether the glial scar can be reduced by placing a neural probe completely below the meninges. Rats were implanted with sets of loose microwire implants placed either completely below the meninges or implanted conventionally with the upper end penetrating the meninges, but not attached to the skull. Histological analysis was performed 4 weeks following surgical implantation to evaluate the glial scar. Our results found that sub-meninges implants showed an average reduction in reactive astrocyte activity of 63% compared to trans-meninges implants. Microglial activity was also reduced for sub-meninges implants. These results suggest that techniques that isolate implants from the meninges offer the potential to reduce the encapsulation response which should improve chronic recording quality and stability.

  2. Sub-meninges Implantation Reduces Immune Response to Neural Implants

    PubMed Central

    Markwardt, Neil T.; Stokol, Jodi; Rennaker, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Glial scar formation around neural interfaces inhibits their ability to acquire usable signals from the surrounding neurons. To improve neural recording performance, the inflammatory response and glial scarring must be minimized. Previous work has indicated that meningeally derived cells participate in the immune response, and it is possible that the meninges may grow down around the shank of a neural implant, contributing to the formation of the glial scar. This study examines whether the glial scar can be reduced by placing a neural probe completely below the meninges. Rats were implanted with sets of loose microwire implants placed either completely below the meninges or implanted conventionally with the upper end penetrating the meninges, but not attached to the skull. Histological analysis was performed 4 weeks following surgical implantation to evaluate the glial scar. Our results found that sub-meninges implants showed an average reduction in reactive astrocyte activity of 63% compared to trans-meninges implants. Microglial activity was also reduced for sub-meninges implants. These results suggest that techniques that isolate implants from the meninges offer the potential to reduce the encapsulation response which should improve chronic recording quality and stability. PMID:23370311

  3. Mollaret meningitis: case report with a familial association.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher W; Snyder, Graham E

    2011-09-01

    Mollaret meningitis is a syndrome characterized by recurrent bouts of meningitis that occur over a period of several years in an affected patient. Also known as recurrent lymphocytic meningitis, this entity involves repeated episodes of headache, stiff neck, fever, and cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. Herpes simplex virus type 2 is the most frequently implicated causative agent, and treatment involves the use of antiviral medications. We describe a case of Mollaret meningitis in a 47-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with his eighth episode of meningitis during a period of 20 years. Cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction testing for herpes simplex virus type 2 was positive, and further testing excluded other common viral, bacterial, and inflammatory causes of meningeal irritation. The patient's family history was significant for a brother who also had multiple episodes of aseptic meningitis during a period of several years. This represents the first published report of a possible familial association involving Mollaret meningitis. It is likely that Mollaret meningitis is underrecognized among emergency physicians, and improved recognition of this entity may limit unwarranted antibiotic use and shorten or eliminate unnecessary hospital admission.

  4. [Eosinophllic meningitis, a very rare entity in Europe].

    PubMed

    Tudisco, Jean-Blaise; Fumeaux, Christophe; Petignat, Pierre-Auguste

    2013-11-13

    Eosinophilic meningitis is a rare entity, which is a complication of an underlying disease. Its diagnosis and treatment is always a challenge for the hospital practitioner. The aim of this case report and review is to identify the most important aetiologies, and show the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities of Eosinophilic meningitis. The most frequent causes of Eosinophilic meningitis are parasitic and fungal infections. In Europe Eosinophilic meningitis is essentially seen in travellers returning from endemic areas for these agents. The treatment is directed against the underlying disease and can differ depending on the aetiology and severity of the clinical manifestations.

  5. Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov., isolated from cheese.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, David; Rau, Jörg; Eugster, Marcel R; Haug, Martina C; Lawson, Paul A; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2013-02-01

    A study was performed on three isolates (LU2006-1(T), LU2006-2 and LU2006-3), which were sampled independently from cheese in western Switzerland in 2006, as well as a fourth isolate (A11-3426), which was detected in 2011, using a polyphasic approach. The isolates could all be assigned to the genus Listeria but not to any known species. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data were compatible with the genus Listeria and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that the closest relationships were with members of this genus. However, DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that the isolates did not belong to any currently described species. Cell-wall-binding domains of Listeria monocytogenes bacteriophage endolysins were able to attach to the isolates, confirming their tight relatedness to the genus Listeria. Although PCR targeting the central portion of the flagellin gene flaA was positive, motility was not observed. The four isolates could not be discriminated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This suggests that they represent a single species, which seems to be adapted to the environment in a cheese-ripening cellar as it was re-isolated from the same type of Swiss cheese after more than 5 years. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that the isolates harbour a transferable resistance to clindamycin. The isolates did not exhibit haemolysis or show any indication of human pathogenicity or virulence. The four isolates are affiliated with the genus Listeria but can be differentiated from all described members of the genus Listeria and therefore they merit being classified as representatives of a novel species, for which we propose the name Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov.; the type strain is LU2006-1(T) ( = DSM 24998(T)  = LMG 26584(T)).

  6. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes by using the polymerase chain reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bessesen, M.T.; Luo, Q.; Blaser, M.J.; Ellison, R.T. III.; Rotbart. H.A. )

    1990-09-01

    A method was developed for detection of Listeria monocytogens by polymerase chain reaction amplification followed by agarose gel electrophoresis or dot blot analysis with {sup 32}P-labeled internal probe. The technique identified 95 of 95 L. monocytogenes strains, 0 of 12 Listeria strains of other species, and 0 of 12 non-Listeria strains.

  7. [Electrochemical detection of toxin gene in Listeria monocytogenes].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling-Wei; Liu, Quan-Jun; Wu, Zhong-Wei; Lu, Zu-Hong

    2010-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (LM) is a food-borne pathogen inducing listeriosis, an illness characterized by encephalitis, septicaemia, and meningitis. Listeriolysin O (LLO) is absolutely required for virulence by L. monocytogenes, and is found only in virulent strains of the species. One of the best ways to detect and confirm the pathogen is detection of one of the virulence factors, LLO, produced by the microorganism. This paper focused on the electrical method used to detect the LLO toxin gene in food products and organism without labeling the target DNA. The electrochemical sensor was obtained by immobilizing single-stranded oligonucleotides onto the gold electrode with the mercaptan activated by N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (NHS) and N-(3-dimethylamion)propyl-N'-ethyl carbodiimidehydrochloride (EDC). The hy-bridization reaction that occurred on the electrode surface was evidenced by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) analysis using [Co(phen)3](ClO4)3 as an indicator. The covalently immobilized single-stranded DNA could selectively hybridize to its complementary DNA in solution to form double-stranded DNA on the gold surface. A significant increase of the peak cur-rent of Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) upon hybridization of immobilized ssDNA with PCR amplification products in the solu-tion was observed. This peak current change was used to monitor the amount of PCR amplification products. Factors deter-mining the sensitivity of the electrochemical assay, such as DNA target concentration and hybridization conditions, were investigated. The coupling of DNA to the electrochemical sensors has the potential of the quantitative evaluation of gene.

  8. From Epidemic Meningitis Vaccines for Africa to the Meningitis Vaccine Project

    PubMed Central

    Aguado, M. Teresa; Jodar, Luis; Granoff, Dan; Rabinovich, Regina; Ceccarini, Costante; Perkin, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Polysaccharide vaccines had been used to control African meningitis epidemics for >30 years but with little or modest success, largely because of logistical problems in the implementation of reactive vaccination campaigns that are begun after epidemics are under way. After the major group A meningococcal meningitis epidemics in 1996–1997 (250 000 cases and 25 000 deaths), African ministers of health declared the prevention of meningitis a high priority and asked the World Health Organization (WHO) for help in developing better immunization strategies to eliminate meningitis epidemics in Africa. Methods. WHO accepted the challenge and created a project called Epidemic Meningitis Vaccines for Africa (EVA) that served as an organizational framework for external consultants, PATH, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF). Consultations were initiated with major vaccine manufacturers. EVA commissioned a costing study/business plan for the development of new group A or A/C conjugate vaccines and explored the feasibility of developing these products as a public–private partnership. Representatives from African countries were consulted. They confirmed that the development of conjugate vaccines was a priority and provided information on preferred product characteristics. In parallel, a strategy for successful introduction was also anticipated and discussed. Results. The expert consultations recommended that a group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine be developed and introduced into the African meningitis belt. The results of the costing study indicated that the “cost of goods” to develop a group A – containing conjugate vaccine in the United States would be in the range of US$0.35–$1.35 per dose, depending on composition (A vs A/C), number of doses/vials, and presentation. Following an invitation from BMGF, a proposal was submitted in the spring of 2001. Conclusions. In June 2001

  9. Validation of the ANSR Listeria method for detection of Listeria spp. in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Wendorf, Michael; Feldpausch, Emily; Pinkava, Lisa; Luplow, Karen; Hosking, Edan; Norton, Paul; Biswas, Preetha; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    ANSR Listeria is a new diagnostic assay for detection of Listeria spp. in sponge or swab samples taken from a variety of environmental surfaces. The method is an isothermal nucleic acid amplification assay based on the nicking enzyme amplification reaction technology. Following single-step sample enrichment for 16-24 h, the assay is completed in 40 min, requiring only simple instrumentation. In inclusivity testing, 48 of 51 Listeria strains tested positive, with only the three strains of L. grayi producing negative results. Further investigation showed that L. grayi is reactive in the ANSR assay, but its ability to grow under the selective enrichment conditions used in the method is variable. In exclusivity testing, 32 species of non-Listeria, Gram-positive bacteria all produced negative ANSR assay results. Performance of the ANSR method was compared to that of the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service reference culture procedure for detection of Listeria spp. in sponge or swab samples taken from inoculated stainless steel, plastic, ceramic tile, sealed concrete, and rubber surfaces. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and probability of detection models. Only one surface, stainless steel, showed a significant difference in performance between the methods, with the ANSR method producing more positive results. Results of internal trials were supported by findings from independent laboratory testing. The ANSR Listeria method can be used as an accurate, rapid, and simple alternative to standard culture methods for detection of Listeria spp. in environmental samples.

  10. Listeria: an Australian perspective (2001-2010).

    PubMed

    Popovic, Igor; Heron, Brett; Covacin, Catherine

    2014-06-01

    Despite having a low occurrence rate, Listeria monocytogenes is one of the most prominent foodborne pathogens in Australia. The organism is responsible for severe outbreaks with high case fatality and substantial economic losses due to food recalls. In this study, we analyze the incidence trends of listeriosis in Australia during 2001-2010, discuss the relevance of food recalls, and investigate the pathogen's role in foodborne outbreaks. A significant epidemiological finding was a consistently high national age-specific rate recorded for individuals aged 60 years and over. Analysis of Australian Listeria outbreak and food recall data suggests deficiencies in food safety programs of food manufacturing businesses implicated in Listeria outbreaks and revealed that ready-to-eat foods are high-risk vehicles for transmitting listeriosis. Highlighted is Australia's highly efficient Listeria management and surveillance systems bolstered by the introduction of Listeria molecular subtyping in 2010 coupled with a nationally standardized questionnaire by the "Australian foodborne disease surveillance network (OzFoodNet)." The detection of clusters and therefore outbreaks was now possible, allowing cases to be linked across multiple jurisdictions and enabling timely public health action. Considering current changes in food production and consumption patterns, continuous monitoring and improvement of surveillance systems will provide ongoing public health benefits and be crucial to future development of food safety policy for Australia.

  11. Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in Niamey, Niger, 1981-96.

    PubMed Central

    Campagne, G.; Schuchat, A.; Djibo, S.; Ousséini, A.; Cissé, L.; Chippaux, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    In the African meningitis belt the importance of endemic meningitis is not as well recognized as that of epidemics of meningococcal meningitis that occur from time to time. Using retrospective surveillance, we identified a total of 7078 cases of laboratory-diagnosed bacterial meningitis in Niamey, Niger, from 1981 to 1996. The majority (57.7%) were caused by Neisseria meningitidis, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (13.2%) and Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) (9.5%). The mean annual incidence of bacterial meningitis was 101 per 100,000 population (70 per 100,000 during 11 non-epidemic years) and the average annual mortality rate was 17 deaths per 100,000. Over a 7-year period (including one major epidemic year) for which data were available, S. pneumoniae and Hib together caused more meningitis deaths than N. meningitidis. Meningitis cases were more common among males and occurred mostly during the dry season. Serogroup A caused 85.6% of meningococcal meningitis cases during the period investigated; three-quarters of these occurred among children aged < 15 years, and over 40% among under-5-year-olds. Both incidence and mortality rates were highest among infants aged < 1 year. In this age group, Hib was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, followed by S. pneumoniae. The predominant cause of meningitis in persons aged 1-40 years was N. meningitidis. Use of the available vaccines against meningitis due to N. meningitidis, S. pneumoniae, and Hib could prevent substantial endemic illness and deaths in sub-Saharan Africa, and potentially prevent recurrent meningococcal epidemics. PMID:10427935

  12. Estimation of cerebrospinal fluid cortisol level in tuberculous meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Mahale, Rohan R.; Mehta, Anish; Uchil, Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in tuberculosis is around 5–10%. Of the various manifestations of CNS tuberculosis, meningitis is the most common (70–80%). Delay in diagnosis and treatment results in significant morbidity and mortality. Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol levels in tubercular meningitis and compare the levels with controls. Methods: Cross-sectional, prospective, observational, hospital-based study done in 20 patients of tubercular meningitis, 20 patients of aseptic meningitis (AM) and 25 control subjects without any preexisting neurological disorders who have undergone lumbar puncture for spinal anesthesia. Results: Cortisol was detected in all 40 CSF samples of patients (100%). Mean CSF cortisol level was 8.82, 3.47 and 1.05 in tubercular meningitis, AM and controls, respectively. Mean CSF cortisol level in tubercular meningitis was significantly higher as compared to AM and controls (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Cortisol level estimation in CSF is one of the rapid, relatively inexpensive diagnostic markers in early identification of tubercular meningitis along with CSF findings of elevated proteins, hypoglycorrhachia and lymphocytic pleocytosis. This aids in earlier institution of appropriate treatment and thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. This is the first study on the estimation of CSF cortisol level in tuberculous meningitis. PMID:26752900

  13. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-associated meningitis, southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Navarro-Marí, José-María; Sánchez-Seco, María-Paz; Gegúndez, María-Isabel; Palacios, Gustavo; Savji, Nazir; Lipkin, W Ian; Fedele, Giovanni; de Ory-Manchón, Fernando

    2012-05-01

    Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) was detected in 2 patients with acute meningitis in southern Spain within a 3-year period. Although the prevalence of LCMV infection was low (2 [1.3%] of 159 meningitis patients), it represents 2.9% of all pathogens detected. LCMV is a noteworthy agent of neurologic illness in immunocompetent persons.

  14. Mollaret's meningitis and herpes simplex virus type 2 infections.

    PubMed

    Farazmand, P; Woolley, P D; Kinghorn, G R

    2011-06-01

    Benign recurrent aseptic meningitis is a rare disorder described by Mollaret in 1944. When initially described, this form of aseptic meningitis had no identifiable infecting agent. New sophisticated diagnostic tools have now identified herpes simplex type 2 virus as the most commonly isolated agent. Antiviral treatment has been used successfully for prophylaxis and treatment.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of infectious meningitis and ventriculitis in adults.

    PubMed

    Hazany, Saman; Go, John L; Law, Meng

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging findings of meningitis are usually nonspecific with respect to the causative pathogen because the brain response to these insults is similar in most cases. In this article, we will use a few representative cases to describe the characteristic magnetic resonance findings of meningitis and its complications, including ventriculitis. PMID:25296276

  16. Isolation of Acanthamoeba culbertsoni from a patient with meningitis.

    PubMed

    Lalitha, M K; Anandi, V; Srivastava, A; Thomas, K; Cherian, A M; Chandi, S M

    1985-04-01

    A case of amoebic meningitis, presumably primary, was encountered in the Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore, South India, in November 1983. The patient, a 40-year-old man, had cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea before the meningitis developed. Acanthamoeba culbertsoni was repeatedly demonstrated in and cultured from the cerebrospinal fluid. The patient responded dramatically to a combination therapy of penicillin and chloramphenicol. PMID:3988911

  17. Chronic aseptic meningitis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Lancman, M E; Mesropian, H; Granillo, R J

    1989-08-01

    Chronic aseptic meningitis is a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. It may occur early in the course of the disease and sometimes may be the initial symptom. We report a patient with chronic aseptic meningitis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Magnetic resonance imaging showed several ischemic lesions and an appearance which was compatible with chronic inflammation of the ependyma of the lateral ventricles.

  18. Aseptic Meningitis with Craniopharyngioma Resection: Consideration after Endoscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jenny X.; Alkire, Blake C.; Lam, Allen C.; Curry, William T.; Holbrook, Eric H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives While bacterial meningitis is a concerning complication after endoscopic skull base surgery, the diagnosis can be made without consideration for aseptic meningitis. This article aims to (1) present a patient with recurrent craniopharyngioma and multiple postoperative episodes of aseptic meningitis and (2) discuss the diagnosis and management of aseptic meningitis. Design Case report and literature review. Results A 65-year-old female patient with a symptomatic craniopharyngioma underwent transsphenoidal resection. She returned postoperatively with symptoms concerning for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and bacterial meningitis. Lumbar puncture demonstrated mildly elevated leukocytes with normal glucose levels. Cultures were sterile and she was discharged on antibiotics. She returned 18 days postoperatively with altered mental status and fever. Again, negative CSF cultures suggested aseptic meningitis. Radiological and intraoperative findings were now concerning for widespread cerebrovascular vasospasm due to leaked craniopharyngioma fluids. In the following months, her craniopharyngioma recurred and required multiple surgical resections. Days after her last operation, she returned with mental status changes and a sterile CSF culture. She was diagnosed with recurrent aseptic meningitis and antibiotics were discontinued. The patient experienced near complete resolution of symptoms. Conclusions Consideration of aseptic meningitis following craniopharyngioma resection is critical to avoid unnecessary surgical re-exploration and prolonged courses of antibiotics. PMID:27722072

  19. Etiology of Acute Bacterial Meningitis in Iran: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ghotaslou, Reza; Yeganeh-Sefidan, Fatemeh; Salahi-Eshlaqi, Behnaz; Ebrahimzadeh-Leylabadlo, Hamed

    2015-08-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is one of the most severe infectious diseases, causing neurologic sequel, and a case fatality rate of 20-30%. The aim of this paper was to summarize the main causes of ABM in Iran. We searched the data for relevant articles using meningitis, etiology, and Iran as search terms. We found 23 papers for inclusion in the review that focused specifically on the ABM, addressing etiology and acute meningitis. Finally, during the 23 years, a total of 18163 cases were recorded, and 1074 cases of which met the criteria for bacterial meningitis. The most common agent associated with bacterial meningitis was S. pneumoniae, followed by H. influenzae, Enterobacter spp., N. meningitidis, and group B streptococcus. The total incidence of ABM during 1991 to 2002 was higher than during 2003-2013. S. pneumoniae still remains a main cause of bacterial meningitis. For improved outcomes, studies are needed to further clarify the etiology of meningitis in Iran, explore simple, accurate, and practical diagnostic tools as PCR, and investigate the most appropriate specific and supportive interventions to manage and prevent meningitis as vaccination.

  20. Meningitis admitted to a military hospital: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Harrell, Travis; Hammes, John S

    2012-10-01

    Meningitis is a common admission diagnosis. No case series or descriptive studies on meningitis have recently been published. Additionally, no recent data exist on meningitis in the U.S. Military Health System. We reviewed charts of adult patients admitted to Naval Medical Center San Diego between January 2004 and December 2008 with an admission diagnosis of meningitis. Charts were excluded if they did not meet our case definition of meningitis, if missing data, or if meningitis was nosocomial or iatrogenic. We reviewed results of cerebrospinal fluid cultures during this period. We compared rates and characteristics, and outcomes of bacterial and aseptic meningitis. Two hundred twenty-one cases met our criteria. Of these, 208 were aseptic. Cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction testing was positive for enteroviruses and herpes simplex viruses in 42 (20.2%) and 17 (8.2%) cases, respectively. Of culture/polymerase chain reaction/serologically positive cases, the pathogens were Neisseria meningitidis (3), Streptococcus pneumoniae (3), viridans streptococci (2), Cryptococcus neoformans (2), Coccidioides immitis (2), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (1). Three patients had poor outcomes: one died from S. pneumoniae and two had long-term neurologic deficits. Meningitis is a common admission diagnosis, but serious virulent pathogens are uncommon and adverse outcomes are rare.

  1. Meningitis in a College Student in Connecticut, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Lynn E.; Gupta, Shaili; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; Hadler, James L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe a case of aseptic meningitis in a college student that was ultimately attributed to infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). The authors also provide a review of LCMV infection, epidemiology, and public health implications. Providers should be aware of LCMV as a cause of meningitis in college students,…

  2. Incidence of Listeria spp. in vegetables in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Tang, M Y; Cheong, Y M; Zainuldin, T

    1994-09-01

    From April 1992 to September 1992, 280 samples of 10 different fresh vegetables, bought from four different market outlets in Kuala Lumpur were examined for the presence of Listeria spp. Most of the market produce were locally grown with the exception of carrots. The isolation procedure was based on the Food & Drug Administration method (modified) used for the detection of Listeria spp. Isolation media used were Listeria Selective medium and LiCl- phenylethanol-Moxalactam agars. The identification of isolates was by means of conventional biochemical tests and API Listeria identification system. Five out of the 280 samples showed Listeria contamination, Listeria monocytogenes was isolated in lettuce, sengkuang (Pachyrrhizus erosus) and selom Oenanthe javanica) and Listeria innocua was isolated from sengkuang (Pachyrrhizus erosus) and pegaga (Hydrocotyle asiatica).

  3. Intrathecal chemotherapy with ACNU for meningeal gliomatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, T. K.; Beuls, E.; Shimizu, K.; Koulousakis, A.; Sturm, V.

    1992-01-01

    ACNU [1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl) methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride], one of the chloroethylnitrosoureas (CENUs), is believed to be effective against malignant glioma when intravenously or intrathecally administered. A rat model with meningeal gliomatosis (MG) induced by an intracisternal inoculation of rat C6 or 9L glioma cells was intrathecally and intravenously treated with ACNU in order to test the feasibility of intrathecal chemotherapy with ACNU in the treatment of meningeal gliomatosis. The median survival time (MST) of the animals was significantly prolonged when ACNU was intrathecally administered at dosages of 0.5 to 1.5 mg kg-1 in the early stages of MG, i.e. within 3 days after the tumour inoculation, whereas intravenous therapy with ACNU at a dose of 15 mg kg-1 did not exhibit any efficacy in the rats inoculated with C6 glioma cells (C6-MG). Intrathecal ACNU, however, at dosages of up to 1.5 mg kg-1 failed to demonstrate any therapeutic effect in the late stage of MG, i.e. 5 days after the tumour inoculation, except in the rats inoculated with 9L brain tumour cells (9L-MG). Intravenous chemotherapy with ACNU at a dose of 15 mg kg-1 extended the MST of the 9L-MG rats more significantly in the late stage of MG than in its early stage. This points to the feasibility of intrathecal ACNU in the treatment of meningeal gliomatosis in its early stages, but not in its late stages in which intravenous ACNU might be more effective than intrathecal treatment against MG of which the parenchyma has already been deeply invaded by the tumour. Images Figure 5 PMID:1457369

  4. Retinoic acid from the meninges regulates cortical neuron generation.

    PubMed

    Siegenthaler, Julie A; Ashique, Amir M; Zarbalis, Konstantinos; Patterson, Katelin P; Hecht, Jonathan H; Kane, Maureen A; Folias, Alexandra E; Choe, Youngshik; May, Scott R; Kume, Tsutomu; Napoli, Joseph L; Peterson, Andrew S; Pleasure, Samuel J

    2009-10-30

    Extrinsic signals controlling generation of neocortical neurons during embryonic life have been difficult to identify. In this study we demonstrate that the dorsal forebrain meninges communicate with the adjacent radial glial endfeet and influence cortical development. We took advantage of Foxc1 mutant mice with defects in forebrain meningeal formation. Foxc1 dosage and loss of meninges correlated with a dramatic reduction in both neuron and intermediate progenitor production and elongation of the neuroepithelium. Several types of experiments demonstrate that retinoic acid (RA) is the key component of this secreted activity. In addition, Rdh10- and Raldh2-expressing cells in the dorsal meninges were either reduced or absent in the Foxc1 mutants, and Rdh10 mutants had a cortical phenotype similar to the Foxc1 null mutants. Lastly, in utero RA treatment rescued the cortical phenotype in Foxc1 mutants. These results establish RA as a potent, meningeal-derived cue required for successful corticogenesis.

  5. Cryptococcal meningitis in a goat – a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cryptococcus spp. are saprophytic and opportunistic fungal pathogens that are known to cause severe disease in immunocompromised animals. In goats there are reports of clinical cryptococcal pneumonia and mastitis but not of meningitis. Case presentation The following report describes a case of a five year old buck showing severe neurological signs, including paraplegia and strong pain reaction to touch of the hindquarters region. Treatment with antibiotics was unsuccessful and the animal was euthanized for humanitarian reasons. Postmortem examination revealed lumbar meningitis, lung nodules and caseous lymphadenitis lesions. Encapsulated Cryptococcus neoformans were identified from the lungs and meninges, showing that cryptococcal meningitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of goats showing paresis and hyperesthesia. The possibility of concurrent immunosuppression due to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection is raised. Conclusions Cryptoccocal meningitis should be included in the differential diagnosis list of goat diseases with ataxia and hyperesthesia. PMID:24708822

  6. Telocytes in meninges and choroid plexus.

    PubMed

    Popescu, B O; Gherghiceanu, M; Kostin, S; Ceafalan, L; Popescu, L M

    2012-05-16

    Telocytes (TCs) are a recently identified type of interstitial cells present in a wide variety of organs in humans and mammals (www.telocytes.com). They are characterized by a small cell body, but extremely long cell processes - telopodes (Tp), and a specific phenotype. TCs establish close contacts with blood capillaries, nerve fibers and stem cells. We report here identification of TCs by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence in rat meninges and choroid plexus/subventricular zone, in the vicinity of putative stem cells. The presence of TCs in brain areas involved in adult neurogenesis might indicate that they have a role in modulation of neural stem cell fate.

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid ferritin in children with viral and bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, M; Mamishi, S; Mahmoudi, S; Pourakbari, B; Khotaei, G; Daneshjou, K; Hashemi, N

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that the prognosis of bacterial meningitis has been improved by the influence of antibiotics, this disease is still one of the significant causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Rapid differentiation between bacterial and aseptic meningitis, and the need for immediate antibiotic treatment in the former, is crucial in the prognosis of these patients. Ferritin is one of the most sensitive biochemical markers investigated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the early diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. The present study aims to evaluate the diagnostic capability of CSF ferritin in differentiating bacterial and viral meningitis in the paediatric setting. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the referral Children's Medical Center Hospital, Tehran, during 2008 and 2009. According to the inclusion criteria, CSF samples from 42 patients with suspected meningitis were obtained and divided into two meningitis groups, bacterial (n = 18) and viral (n = 24). Ferritin and other routine determinants (i.e., leucocytes, protein and glucose) were compared between the two groups. Ferritin concentration in the bacterial meningitis group was 106.39 +/- 86.96 ng/dL, which was considerably higher than in the viral meningitis group (10.17 +/- 14.09, P < 0.001). Mean CSF protein concentration and cell count were significantly higher in the bacterial meningitis group and showed a positive correlation with CSF ferritin. In conclusion, this study suggests that CSF ferritin concentration is an accurate test for the early differentiation of bacterial and aseptic meningitis; however, further investigation on a larger cohort of patients is required to confirm this finding.

  8. Validation of the ANSR® Listeria Method for Detection of Listeria spp. in Selected Foods.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Oscar; Alles, Susan; Wendorf, Michael; Gray, R Lucas; Walton, Kayla; Pinkava, Lisa; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    ANSR® Listeria was previously certified as Performance Tested Method(SM) 101202 for detection of Listeria spp. on selected environmental surfaces. This study proposes a matrix extension to the method for detection of Listeria spp. in selected food matrixes. The method is an isothermal nucleic acid amplification assay based on the nicking enzyme amplification reaction technology. Following single-step sample enrichment for 16-24 h, the assay is completed in less than 50 min, requiring only simple instrumentation. Inclusivity testing was performed using a panel of 51 strains of Listeria spp., representing the species L. grayi, L. innocua, L. ivanovii, L. monocytogenes, L. seeligeri, and L. welshimeri. All strains tested were detected by the ANSR assay. Exclusivity testing of 30 strains representing non-Listeria Gram-positive bacteria yielded no evidence of cross-reactivity. Performance of the ANSR method for detection of Listeria spp. was compared to that of reference culture procedures for pasteurized liquid egg, pasteurized 2% milk, Mexican-style cheese, ice cream, smoked salmon, lettuce, cantaloupe, and guacamole. Data obtained in these unpaired studies and analyzed using a probability of detection model demonstrated that there were no statistically significant differences in results between the ANSR and reference culture methods, except for milk at 16 h and cantaloupe. In milk and smoked salmon, ANSR sensitivity was low at 16 h and therefore the recommended incubation time is 24 h. In cantaloupe, ANSR was found to be more sensitive than the reference culture method at both 16 and 24 h in independent laboratory testing. The ANSR Listeria method can be used as an accurate, rapid, and simple alternative to standard culture methods for detection of Listeria spp. in selected food types.

  9. Listeria booriae sp. nov. and Listeria newyorkensis sp. nov., from food processing environments in the USA.

    PubMed

    Weller, Daniel; Andrus, Alexis; Wiedmann, Martin; den Bakker, Henk C

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of seafood and dairy processing facilities in the north-eastern USA produced 18 isolates of Listeria spp. that could not be identified at the species-level using traditional phenotypic and genotypic identification methods. Results of phenotypic and genotypic analyses suggested that the isolates represent two novel species with an average nucleotide blast identity of less than 92% with previously described species of the genus Listeria. Phylogenetic analyses based on whole genome sequences, 16S rRNA gene and sigB gene sequences confirmed that the isolates represented by type strain FSL M6-0635(T) and FSL A5-0209 cluster phylogenetically with Listeria cornellensis. Phylogenetic analyses also showed that the isolates represented by type strain FSL A5-0281(T) cluster phylogenetically with Listeria riparia. The name Listeria booriae sp. nov. is proposed for the species represented by type strain FSL A5-0281(T) ( =DSM 28860(T) =LMG 28311(T)), and the name Listeria newyorkensis sp. nov. is proposed for the species represented by type strain FSL M6-0635(T) ( =DSM 28861(T) =LMG 28310(T)). Phenotypic and genotypic analyses suggest that neither species is pathogenic.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua from meat products and meat-processing environment.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Diego; Azón, Ester; Marco, Noelia; Carramiñana, Juan J; Rota, Carmina; Ariño, Agustín; Yangüela, Javier

    2014-09-01

    A total of 336 Listeria isolates from ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products and meat-processing environments, consisting of 206 Listeria monocytogenes, and 130 Listeria innocua isolates, were characterized by disc diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for antimicrobial susceptibility against twenty antimicrobials. Resistance to one or two antimicrobials was observed in 71 L. monocytogenes isolates (34.5%), and 56 L. innocua isolates (43.1%). Multidrug resistance was identified in 24 Listeria isolates, 18 belonging to L. innocua (13.9%) and 6 to L. monocytogenes (2.9%). Oxacillin resistance was the most common resistance phenotype and was identified in 100% Listeria isolates. A medium prevalence of resistance to clindamycin (39.3% isolates) and low incidence of resistance to tetracycline (3.9% isolates) were also detected. Listeria isolates from RTE meat products displayed higher overall antimicrobial resistance (31.3%) than those from the environment (13.4%). All the strains assayed were sensitive to the preferred antibiotics used to treat listeriosis. Results showed that although antimicrobial resistance in L. monocytogenes still occurs at a low prevalence, L. innocua can form a reservoir of resistance genes which may transfer between bacterial species, including transference to organisms capable of causing disease in humans.

  11. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt in cryptococcal meningitis with hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Tang, L M

    1990-05-01

    Fourteen patients with cryptococcal meningitis were reviewed. All patients had a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus. Early recognitions and prompt relief of hydrocephalus were useful for eight patients who showed rapid deterioration of consciousness or signs of cerebral herniation. There was no surgical response in four patients who had had weeks of confusion or mental change. It seems, therefore, that the duration of disturbance of consciousness or change of mentality before shunting is critical in determination of the outcome of the treatment. Ventricular shunting was effective in relieving papilledema in five patients. However, the surgery did not prevent the development of papilledema to optic atrophy and subsequent blindness in two patients. Hence, in addition to hydrocephalus with increased intracranial pressure, conditions such as direct invasion of the optic pathways by Cryptococcus neoformans or optochiasmatic arachnoiditis may be responsible for the visual failure. Ventricular shunting was also helpful in restoring paraparesis in one patient. Of the cerebrospinal fluid determinations, low protein concentration was a favorable indicator for surgery. Of the seven patients who received the surgical procedure before the start of antifungal therapy, four showed a significant improvement despite active infection of the central nervous system. None of the seven patients deteriorated because of the surgical operation. Thus, active stage of cryptococcal meningitis does not contraindicate the necessity of shunting, and premedication with antifungal drugs is unnecessary. Also, no shunt-related morbidity and mortality was seen in this study.

  12. Rheumatoid Meningitis: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Observations.

    PubMed

    Stretz, Christoph; Song, Xianyuan; Killory, Brendan D; Ollenschleger, Martin D; Nouh, Amre M

    2016-03-01

    A 75-year-old female with untreated rheumatoid arthritis presented with two weeks of behavioral changes and cognitive decline. A neurologic examination showed severe encephalopathy, brisk reflexes, and bilateral Babinski sign. A contrast-enhanced brain MRI demonstrated right meningeal enhancement and periventricular white matter disease. A computed tomographic angiogram (CTA) of the head and neck was negative for vasculitis. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) demonstrated lymphocytic pleocytosis. The patient's serum rheumatoid factor levels were elevated. A biopsy of the leptomeninges and cortex showed lymphocytic vasculitis of the cortical tissue and patchy lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates of dural small vessels consistent with rheumatoid meningitis. The patient received pulse-dose steroids followed by cyclophosphamide infusions. At her three month follow-up appointment, the patient's mental status had improved mildly. A follow-up brain MRI showed resolution of enhancement, but progression of subcortical bihemispheric white matter disease. Subsequently, the patient developed a respiratory infection and passed away. In rheumatoid arthritis, symptoms of encephalopathy, headaches, seizures, or focal neurologic deficits should raise suspicion for CNS involvement. This potentially treatable disease warrants prompt diagnosis.

  13. Ehrlichia Meningitis Mimicking Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Dredla, Brynn

    2015-01-01

    Thunderclap headache is a sudden and severe headache that can occur after an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires prompt attention and hospitalization. Patients with thunderclap headache often undergo a noncontrast head computed tomography (CT) scan to ascertain SAH bleeding and, if the scan is negative, then undergo a lumbar puncture to look for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) red blood cells (RBCs), which would be consistent with an aneurysmal leak. If the initial CT is negative and CSF is positive for RBCs, patients are usually admitted to the hospital for evaluation of intracranial aneurysm. We encountered a patient with thunderclap headache whose initial head CT was negative for SAH and whose CSF tested positive for RBCs. The patient was referred to our center for evaluation and management of aneurysmal SAH. However, on careful review of the patient’s medical history, serum laboratory values, and spinal fluid values, the patient was diagnosed with Ehrlichia chaffeensis meningitis. While Ehrlichia meningitis is rare, it is important to recognize the clinical clues that could help avoid formal cerebral angiography, a costly and potentially unnecessary procedure. We present how this case represented a cognitive framing bias and anchoring heuristic as well as steps that medical providers can use to prevent such cognitive errors in diagnosis. PMID:27053985

  14. Listeria monocytogenes infections in Canada.

    PubMed

    Davies, J W; Ewan, E P; Varughese, P; Acres, S E

    1984-01-01

    Since its first isolation by Murray in 1926 Listeria monocytogenes has become recognized as a significant pathogen occurring worldwide and involving a wide range of wild and domestic animals including man. The first confirmed human listeriosis case in Canada was published by Stoot in 1951. A later survey based on records maintained at the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control, Ottawa showed 101 cases detected over a 21 year period in nine provinces. The overall mortality was 30%. The most frequently isolated serotype was 4b followed by 1 and 1b. Prior to the Nova Scotia epidemic (41 cases) of 1981, fewer than 15 cases per annum had been diagnosed based on hospital discharge records. The Nova Scotia epidemic was unique in that the source and mode of transmission of the organism were determined. Sixty-three strains isolated from this outbreak were typed, and with the exception of one 1a strain, were identified as 4b. These were subsequently classified mainly as phage type 00 042 0000 and 00 002 0000. Listeriosis appears to be a common infection in the animal population in Canada primarily in cattle, sheep, chinchillas, chickens and goats. Outbreaks have been described in rabbits, goats, and chinchillas. Chinchilla farms were affected in one outbreak (serotype 1) in Nova Scotia which was attributed to feeding a new batch of meal containing beet pulp. Many aspects of the epidemiology of listeriosis are obscure. A cycle involving contaminated soil and consumption of raw vegetables has been confirmed as the cause of the Nova Scotia epidemic and could explain a proportion of the sporadic cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6442654

  15. Fatal Case of Listeria innocua Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Monique; Bemer, Michel; Delamare, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    Listeria innocua is widespread in the environment and in food. This species has to date never been described in association with human disease. We report a case of fatal bacteremia caused by L. innocua in a 62-year-old patient. PMID:14605191

  16. Fatal case of Listeria innocua bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Monique; Bemer, Michel; Delamare, Catherine

    2003-11-01

    Listeria innocua is widespread in the environment and in food. This species has to date never been described in association with human disease. We report a case of fatal bacteremia caused by L. innocua in a 62-year-old patient.

  17. Etiology of aseptic meningitis and clinical characteristics in immune-competent adults.

    PubMed

    Han, Su-Hyun; Choi, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Jeong-Min; Park, Kwang-Ryul; Youn, Young Chul; Shin, Hae-Won

    2016-01-01

    Viral meningitis is the most common cause of aseptic meningitis. Use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has increased the ability to determine the etiology of viral meningitis. This study used PCR analysis to evaluate the etiology of aseptic meningitis in 177 previously healthy adults over a 5-year period, as well as analyzing the clinical characteristics, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings, and prognosis according to each etiology. The most frequent cause of aseptic meningitis was enterovirus (EV), followed by varicella zoster virus (VZV). Patients with EV meningitis were significantly younger than those with VZV meningitis. The percentage of lymphocytes in white blood cell counts and protein concentrations in the CSF differed significantly among patients with EV, VZV and meningitis of undetermined etiology. Younger age and lower percentage of lymphocyte and protein level in CSF analysis may be suggestive of EV meningitis. Further prospective studies are warranted to identify the correlations between the clinical characteristics and the etiologies of meningitis.

  18. Epidemiology of Meningitis in an HIV-Infected Ugandan Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Rajasingham, Radha; Rhein, Joshua; Klammer, Kate; Musubire, Abdu; Nabeta, Henry; Akampurira, Andrew; Mossel, Eric C.; Williams, Darlisha A.; Boxrud, Dave J.; Crabtree, Mary B.; Miller, Barry R.; Rolfes, Melissa A.; Tengsupakul, Supatida; Andama, Alfred O.; Meya, David B.; Boulware, David R.

    2015-01-01

    There is limited understanding of the epidemiology of meningitis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected populations in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected adults with suspected meningitis in Uganda, to comprehensively evaluate the etiologies of meningitis. Intensive cerebrospiral fluid (CSF) testing was performed to evaluate for bacterial, viral, fungal, and mycobacterial etiologies, including neurosyphilis,16s ribosomal DNA (rDNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bacteria, Plex-ID broad viral assay, quantitative-PCR for HSV-1/2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), and Toxoplasma gondii; reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for Enteroviruses and arboviruses, and Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Cryptococcal meningitis accounted for 60% (188 of 314) of all causes of meningitis. Of 117 samples sent for viral PCR, 36% were EBV positive. Among cryptococcal antigen negative patients, the yield of Xpert MTB/RIF assay was 22% (8 of 36). After exclusion of cryptococcosis and bacterial meningitis, 61% (43 of 71) with an abnormal CSF profile had no definitive diagnosis. Exploration of new TB diagnostics and diagnostic algorithms for evaluation of meningitis in resource-limited settings remains needed, and implementation of cryptococcal diagnostics is critical. PMID:25385864

  19. Neutrophilic bacterial meningitis: pathology and etiologic diagnosis of fatal cases.

    PubMed

    Guarner, Jeannette; Liu, Lindy; Bhatnagar, Julu; Jones, Tara; Patel, Mitesh; DeLeon-Carnes, Marlene; Zaki, Sherif R

    2013-08-01

    The frequency of fatalities due to acute bacterial meningitis has decreased significantly due to vaccinations, early diagnoses, and treatments. We studied brain tissues of patients with fatal neutrophilic meningitis referred to the Centers for Disease Control for etiologic diagnosis from 2000-2009 to highlight aspects of the disease that may be preventable or treatable. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were extracted from records. Of 117 cases in the database with a diagnosis of meningitis or meningoencephalitis, 39 had neutrophilic inflammation in the meninges. Inflammatory cells infiltrated the superficial cortex in 16 of 39 (41%) cases. Bacteria were found using Gram and bacterial silver stains in 72% of cases, immunohistochemistry in 69% (including two cases where the meningococcus was found outside the meninges), and PCR in 74%. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the cause of the meningitis in 14 patients and Neisseria meningitidis in 9. In addition, Streptococcus spp. were found to be the cause in six cases, while Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., and Fusobacterium were the cause of one case each. There were six cases in which no specific etiological agent could be determined. The mean age of the patients with S. pneumoniae was 39 years (range 0-65), with N. meningitidis was 19 years (range 7-51), whereas that for all others was 31 years (range 0-68). In summary, our study shows that S. pneumoniae continues to be the most frequent cause of fatal neutrophilic bacterial meningitis followed by N. meningitidis, both vaccine preventable diseases. PMID:23558577

  20. Viral etiology of aseptic meningitis among children in southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseininasab, Ali; Alborzi, Abdolvahab; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar; Jamalidoust, Marzieh; Moeini, Mahsa; Pouladfar, Gholamreza; Abbasian, Amin; Kadivar, Mohamad Rahim

    2011-05-01

    Aseptic meningitis refers to a clinical syndrome of meningeal inflammation in which bacteria cannot be identified in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The viral etiology and the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of aseptic meningitis among children aged 2 months to 15 years in Shiraz, southern Iran were determined. From May 2007 to April 2008, 65 patients were admitted to the hospital with aseptic meningitis. Seven viruses, non-polio human enteroviruses, mumps virus, herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpes virus type 6 (HHV-6), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Viruses were detected in 30 (46.2%) patients in whom non-polio human enterovirus and mumps virus were detected in 13 (43.3%) and 11 (36.7%), respectively. The remaining 6 (20%) of the cases were caused by HSV, VZV, HCMV, and HHV-6. Haemophilus influenzae and non-polio human enterovirus were detected in one patient simultaneously. Viral meningitis was found to be more frequent during spring and summer. The majority (66.6%) of the patients were treated in the hospital for 10 days and had received antibiotics in the case of bacterial meningitis. Rapid diagnosis of viral meningitis using PCR testing of CSF can help shorten hospitalization, and avoid the unnecessary use of antibiotics.

  1. Epidemiology of meningitis in an HIV-infected Ugandan cohort.

    PubMed

    Rajasingham, Radha; Rhein, Joshua; Klammer, Kate; Musubire, Abdu; Nabeta, Henry; Akampurira, Andrew; Mossel, Eric C; Williams, Darlisha A; Boxrud, Dave J; Crabtree, Mary B; Miller, Barry R; Rolfes, Melissa A; Tengsupakul, Supatida; Andama, Alfred O; Meya, David B; Boulware, David R

    2015-02-01

    There is limited understanding of the epidemiology of meningitis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected populations in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected adults with suspected meningitis in Uganda, to comprehensively evaluate the etiologies of meningitis. Intensive cerebrospiral fluid (CSF) testing was performed to evaluate for bacterial, viral, fungal, and mycobacterial etiologies, including neurosyphilis,16s ribosomal DNA (rDNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bacteria, Plex-ID broad viral assay, quantitative-PCR for HSV-1/2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and Toxoplasma gondii; reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for Enteroviruses and arboviruses, and Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Cryptococcal meningitis accounted for 60% (188 of 314) of all causes of meningitis. Of 117 samples sent for viral PCR, 36% were EBV positive. Among cryptococcal antigen negative patients, the yield of Xpert MTB/RIF assay was 22% (8 of 36). After exclusion of cryptococcosis and bacterial meningitis, 61% (43 of 71) with an abnormal CSF profile had no definitive diagnosis. Exploration of new TB diagnostics and diagnostic algorithms for evaluation of meningitis in resource-limited settings remains needed, and implementation of cryptococcal diagnostics is critical.

  2. Incidence of Listeria spp. in Dairy Cows Feed and Raw Milk in Latvia

    PubMed Central

    Konosonoka, I. H.; Jemeljanovs, A.; Osmane, B.; Ikauniece, D.; Gulbe, G.

    2012-01-01

    Feed is a risk factor for poisoning the farm environment thus also fresh milk with pathogenic microorganisms of Listeria genus species. Listeria ivanovii, Listeria innocua, and Listeria seeligeri were isolated from 9.2%, but Listeria monocytogenes from 20.0% of feed samples. Most often different fodders (9.3%) and silage (4.7%) were contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. Listeria genus species were isolated more often from feed prepared and used in organic dairy farm than from that used in conventional dairy farm, correspondingly 44.4% and 18.3%. No Listeria monocytogenes was found in bulk milk samples of organic dairy farm. PMID:23738125

  3. Chickenpox complicated by pneumococcal meningitis: a rare coinfection.

    PubMed

    Rebahi, H; Mouaffak, Y; Soraa, N; Younous, S

    2014-11-01

    Bacterial complications, particularly skin superinfections, are common during chickenpox. However, reports of acute bacterial meningitis associated with chickenpox are unusual and amount to only a very few observations. For the most part, they are caused by Neisseria meningitidis or Streptococcus pyogenes. We report an infrequent occurrence of pneumococcal meningitis 2 days after the onset of a chickenpox rash in a 7-year-old previously healthy boy. Based on data from the literature, we attempt to understand the possible mechanisms resulting in bacterial complications, particularly meningitis, during chickenpox and to determine the means to prevent it.

  4. [Epidemiological study of nosocomial meningitis in neurological patients].

    PubMed

    Ostabal, M I; Suárez Pinilla, M A; Sanz Sebastián, C; Millastre, A

    1996-03-01

    We realized a retrospective study of all the patients who developed a nosocomial meningitis after to admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of our hospital, during the last five years. Nosocomial meningitis was found in 3.29% of the neurologic patients. The most frequent causes of the meningitis was the external ventricular drainage (14.8%), post-neurosurgical (0.8%) and head injury (0.0007%). The causative bacterias were stafilococo, S. pneumoniae, K. pneunomiae and P. aeruginosa. The mortality was of the 39.06%.

  5. [Sandfly virus meningitis in a Danish traveller returning from Tuscany].

    PubMed

    Nissen, Nanna Bang; Jespersen, Sanne; Vinner, Lasse; Fomsgaard, Anders; Laursen, Alex

    2011-10-01

    We report the first case of Sandfly virus meningitis in a Danish traveller returning from Tuscany. A 52 year-old man was admitted with headache, fever and photophobia. Spinal fluid showed evidence of aseptic meningitis. Indirect immuno-fluorescence assays showed presence of immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG antibodies reactive against Toscana virus, and Phlebovirus RNA was detected in blood by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The patient recovered spontaneously. Since Sandfly virus is a very common cause of meningitis in the Mediterranean countries, it is important to be aware of this disease in travellers returning from these areas.

  6. Salmonella typhimurium meningitis in an adult patient with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Swe, K Swe; Nagel, G; Van der Westhuizen, M; Hoosen, A A

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella meningitis is an unusual complication of Salmonella sepsis and occurs mainly in children. A rare case of Salmonella typhimurium meningitis occurring in an adult HIV positive man who presented with a history of fever and diarrhoea is reported. On examination he was dehydrated, and had oral thrush, weakness of lower limbs and neck stiffness. A septic diagnostic screen was performed and he was commenced on empiric intravenous cefotaxime therapy for meningitis. S typhimurium was cultured from cerebrospinal fluid and blood culture specimens. It was non-lactose fermenting, oxidase negative, H(2)S positive and motile. Cefotaxime was continued for 14 days and the patient responded without neurological sequelae. PMID:17158637

  7. Methods for detection, identification and specification of listerias

    SciTech Connect

    Bochner, Barry

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to differential carbon source metabolism in the genus Listeria, metabolic, biochemical, immunological and genetic procedures to measure said differential carbon source metabolism and the use of these produces to detect, isolate and/or distinguish species of the genus Listeria as well as detect, isolate and/or distinguish strains of species of Listeria. The present invention also contemplates test kits and enrichment media to facilitate these procedures.

  8. Carcinomatous Meningitis from Unknown Primary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Favier, L.; Ladoire, L.; Guiu, B.; Arnould, L.; Guiu, S.; Boichot, C.; Isambert, N.; Besancenot, J.F.; Muller, M.; Ghiringhelli, F.

    2009-01-01

    Carcinomatous meningitis (CM) occurs in 3 to 8% of cancer patients. Patients present with a focal symptom, and multifocal signs are often found following neurological examination. The gold standard for diagnosis remains the demonstration of carcinomatous cells in the cerebrospinal fluid on cytopathological examination. Despite the poor prognosis, palliative treatment could improve quality of life and, in some cases, overall survival. We report on a patient who presented with vertigo, tinnitus and left-sided hearing loss followed by progressive diffuse facial nerve paralysis. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of CM. However, no primary tumor was discovered, even after multiple invasive investigations. This is the first reported case in the English-language medical literature of CM resulting from a carcinoma of unknown primary origin. PMID:20737034

  9. Intracranial meningeal chondrosarcoma--probable mesenchymal type.

    PubMed

    Rodda, R A; Franklin, C I

    1984-08-01

    A 12 year old girl with episodes of left hemiparesis for 9 months was found to have a large, partly calcified brain tumour which at craniotomy presented on the parasagittal and medial surfaces of the right frontal lobe. No dural or falx attachment could be found and naked eye removal of the tumour was achieved. At a second craniotomy 10 weeks later there was recurrent tumour attached to the falx and involving the sagittal sinus. She died 5 months later. Pathologically, almost all this malignant intracranial neoplasm comprised differentiated cartilaginous tumour. Although only a very small amount of undifferentiated mesenchymal tissue was found in the surgical material available for histological study, it is suggested the tumour can be regarded as a predominantly mature mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the meninges.

  10. [Acute bacterial meningitis as an occupational disease].

    PubMed

    Seixas, Diana; Lebre, Ana; Crespo, Pedro; Ferreira, Eugénia; Serra, José Eduardo; Saraiva da Cunha, José Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen with worldwide distribution, responsible for more than 700 human cases globally reported. This infection affects mostly men, exposed to pig or pork, which leads to its usual classification as an occupational disease. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 44 years old male. According to his past medical history, the patient had chronic alcoholism and worked in a restaurant as a piglet roaster. Microbiological examination of blood and CSF revealed S. suis. After 14 days of ceftriaxone the patient fully recovered. The authors review the clinical reports previously described in Portugal. In all of them was possible to identify risk exposition to pork. We alert to this microorganism's importance in Portugal where it is probably underdiagnosed.

  11. Acute meningitis caused by Cladosporium sphaerospermum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Yu; Lu, Po-Liang; Lee, Kun-Mu; Chang, Tsung Chain; Lai, Chung-Chih; Chang, Ko; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2013-12-01

    Phaeohyphomycosis of the central nervous system is rare but typically associated with high mortality. Treatment has not been standardized, but the combination of antifungal chemotherapy with surgical debridement is recommended. We report a 73-year-old, retired, male timber merchant with acute meningitis caused by Cladosporium sphaerospermum. The patient, who had well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus, presented with fever and weakness of the lower limbs. No brain abscess was apparent by cranial computed tomography. C. sphaerospermum was isolated from the cerebral spinal fluid and identified based on both morphology and DNA sequencing. He was treated with combination antifungal chemotherapy with amphotericin B and voriconazole for 28 days, followed by voriconazole monotherapy for 46 days. To date, the patient has recovered without significant sequelae. This patient represents the first reported case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by C. sphaerospermum. Moreover, the therapy was successful for totally less than 3 months of treatment duration.

  12. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  13. A Case of Tuberculous Meningitis with Tuberculoma in Nonimmunocompromised Immigrant

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Hammad; Bihler, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of tuberculous (TB) meningitis in nonimmunocompromised immigrant worker who initially presented with headache and later with generalized tonic clonic seizures and disseminated tuberculosis. PMID:27413568

  14. Regulation of radial glial survival by signals from the meninges.

    PubMed

    Radakovits, Randor; Barros, Claudia S; Belvindrah, Richard; Patton, Bruce; Müller, Ulrich

    2009-06-17

    Radial glial cells (RGCs) in the developing cerebral cortex are progenitors for neurons and glia, and their processes serve as guideposts for migrating neurons. So far, it has remained unclear whether RGC processes also control the function of RGCs more directly. Here, we show that RGC numbers and cortical size are reduced in mice lacking beta1 integrins in RGCs. TUNEL stainings and time-lapse video recordings demonstrate that beta1-deficient RGCs processes detach from the meningeal basement membrane (BM) followed by apoptotic death of RGCs. Apoptosis is also induced by surgical removal of the meninges. Finally, mice lacking the BM components laminin alpha2 and alpha4 show defects in the attachment of RGC processes at the meninges, a reduction in cortical size, and enhanced apoptosis of RGC cells. Our findings demonstrate that attachment of RGC processes at the meninges is important for RGC survival and the control of cortical size.

  15. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a patient with tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Ravishankar, B; Mangala; Prakash, G K; Shetty, K J; Ballal, H S

    2006-05-01

    We report a case of a 65 year male with meningitis who had polyuria, severe hyponatremia, volume depletion and very high urinary sodium excretion. He was diagnosed to have cerebral salt wasting syndrome based on clinical and laboratory parameters.

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid "leaks" and meningitis following acoustic tumor surgery.

    PubMed

    Hughes, G B; Glasscock, M E; Hays, J W; Jackson, C G; Sismanis, A

    1982-01-01

    We reviewed 271 intracanalicular and cerebellopontine angle lesions removed over the past ten years, 237 by the translabyrinthine or combined approach which created a mastoid defect. The patients were divided into three groups with the following results: (1) obliteration of the mastoid defect combined with older wound closure techniques in the first 188 patients produced CSF leakage in 25% and meningitis in 16% of cases; (2) not obliterating the defect intentionaly in 16 patients produced CSF leakage in 50% and meningitis in 25% of cases; (3) obliteration of the defect combined with newer packing and closure techniques in the last 33 patients produced CSF leakage and meningitis in only 6% of cases. Four problem areas were identified: the eustachian tube, middle ear, mastoid defect, and postauricular wound. Of these, obliteration of the mastoid defect was most important in minimizing postoperative CSF wound leakage, CSF rhinorrhea, and meningitis. PMID:6806745

  17. Use of Intrathecal Fluorescein in Recurrent Meningitis after Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Swati; Singh, Satinder; Sharma, Shalabh; Lahiri, Asish K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital anomalies of the cochlea and labyrinth can be associated with meningitis and varying degrees of hearing loss or deafness. Despite antibiotics, meningitis remains a life threatening complication. Case Report: We report a case of recurrent meningitis following episodes of otitis media in a cochlear implantee child with bilateral vestibulocochlear malformation, due to fistula in the stapes footplate. Intrathecal fluorescin was used to identify the leak site. Conclusion: Recurrent meningitis can indicate for possible immunological or anatomical abnormalities as well for chronic parameningeal infections. Intraoperative use of intrathecal fluorescin is an ideal investigative tool to demonstrate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak site in patients in whom other investigations fail to do so. PMID:27429952

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid "leaks" and meningitis following acoustic tumor surgery.

    PubMed

    Hughes, G B; Glasscock, M E; Hays, J W; Jackson, C G; Sismanis, A

    1982-01-01

    We reviewed 271 intracanalicular and cerebellopontine angle lesions removed over the past ten years, 237 by the translabyrinthine or combined approach which created a mastoid defect. The patients were divided into three groups with the following results: (1) obliteration of the mastoid defect combined with older wound closure techniques in the first 188 patients produced CSF leakage in 25% and meningitis in 16% of cases; (2) not obliterating the defect intentionaly in 16 patients produced CSF leakage in 50% and meningitis in 25% of cases; (3) obliteration of the defect combined with newer packing and closure techniques in the last 33 patients produced CSF leakage and meningitis in only 6% of cases. Four problem areas were identified: the eustachian tube, middle ear, mastoid defect, and postauricular wound. Of these, obliteration of the mastoid defect was most important in minimizing postoperative CSF wound leakage, CSF rhinorrhea, and meningitis.

  19. Bacterial meningitis: an update of new treatment options.

    PubMed

    Nau, Roland; Djukic, Marija; Spreer, Annette; Ribes, Sandra; Eiffert, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of bacterial meningitis critically depends on the rapid initiation of bactericidal antibiotic therapy and adequate management of septic shock. In community-acquired meningitis, the choice of an optimum initial empirical antibiotic regimen depends on the regional resistance patterns. Pathogens resistant to antibacterials prevail in nosocomial bacterial meningitis. Dexamethasone is recommended as adjunctive therapy for community-acquired meningitis in developed countries. In comatose patients, aggressive measures to lower intracranial pressure <20 mmHg (in particular, external ventriculostomy, osmotherapy and temporary hyperventilation) were effective in a case-control study. Although many experimental approaches were protective in animal models, none of them has been proven effective in patients. Antibiotics, which are bactericidal but do not lyse bacteria, and inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases or complement factor C5 appear the most promising therapeutic options. At present, vaccination is the most efficient method to reduce disease burden. Palmitoylethanolamide appears promising to enhance the resistance of the brain to infections. PMID:26293166

  20. Toxoplasmic encephalitis associated with meningitis in a heart transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Baliu, C; Sanclemente, G; Cardona, M; Castel, M A; Perez-Villa, F; Moreno, A; Cervera, C

    2014-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic pathogen that causes neurologic and extraneurologic manifestations in immunosuppressed patients. Encephalitis and intracranial mass lesions are easily recognized as typical manifestations of toxoplasmosis. However, meningitis caused by T. gondii is a rare condition with very few cases described in the literature. We present the case of a heart transplant recipient who developed toxoplasmic encephalitis associated with meningitis. After an extensive review of the medical literature, we found only 1 case of meningitis in solid organ transplant recipients and <25 cases in immunosuppressed patients, such as patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus or those with Hodgkin's disease. In this report, we consider toxoplasmosis in the differential diagnosis of meningitis in immunocompromised individuals.

  1. Liver metastasis of meningeal hemangiopericytoma: a study of 5 cases

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Regina C.; Suriawinata, Arief A.; Rubin, Brian P.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal tumors in the liver, whether primary or metastatic, are rare. Meningeal hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is characteristically associated with delayed metastasis and the liver is one of the most common sites. Despite its consistent histological features, a pathological diagnosis of HPC in the liver is sometimes not straightforward due to its rarity and usually remote medical history of the primary meningeal tumor. In this report, the clinicopathological features of 5 cases of metastatic HPC to the liver were reviewed and described. PMID:27044772

  2. Computed Tomography in Cases of Coccidioidal Meningitis, With Clinical Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Shetter, Andrew G.; Fischer, Donald W.; Flom, Richard A.

    1985-01-01

    Cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans of 22 patients with coccidioidal meningitis were reviewed and their clinical course was analyzed. Abnormalities of the ventricular system or the basilar cisterns or both were present in 16 instances. Although it is not a definitive diagnostic tool, the CT scan is helpful in suggesting a diagnosis of coccidioidal meningitis and in predicting the prognosis of patients affected by the disease. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:4024632

  3. Cryptococcal meningitis presenting as sinusitis in a renal transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Iyer, S P; Movva, K; Wiebel, M; Chandrasekar, P; Alangaden, G; Carron, M; Tranchida, P; Revankar, S G

    2013-10-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is a relatively common invasive fungal infection in immunocompromised patients, especially in solid organ transplant recipients. Clinical presentation typically includes fever, headache, photophobia, neck stiffness, and/or altered mental status. Unusual presentations may delay diagnosis. Therapy is challenging in renal transplant patients because of the nephrotoxicity associated with amphotericin B, the recommended treatment. We present a case of cryptococcal meningitis in a renal transplant recipient presenting as acute sinusitis with successful treatment using fluconazole as primary therapy.

  4. [Congenital skull base defect causing recurrent bacterial meningitis].

    PubMed

    Berliner, Elihay; Bar Meir, Maskit; Megged, Orli

    2012-08-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a life threatening disease. Most patients will experience only one episode throughout life. Children who experience bacterial meningitis more than once, require further immunologic or anatomic evaluation. We report a 9 year old child with five episodes of bacterial meningitis due to a congenital defect of the skull base. A two and a half year old boy first presented to our medical center with pneumococcal meningitis. He was treated with antibiotics and fully recovered. Two months later he presented again with a similar clinical picture. Streptococcus pneumoniae grew in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture. CT scan and later MRI of the brain revealed a defect in the anterior middle fossa floor, with protrusion of brain tissue into the sphenoidal sinus. Corrective surgery was recommended but the parents refused. Three months later, a third episode of pneumococcal meningitis occurred. The child again recovered with antibiotics and this time corrective surgery was performed. Five years later, the boy presented once again with clinical signs and symptoms consistent with bacterial meningitis. CSF culture was positive, but the final identification of the bacteria was conducted by broad spectrum 16S ribosomal RNA PCR (16S rRNA PCR) which revealed a sequence of Neisseria lactamica. CT and MRI showed recurrence of the skull base defect with encephalocele in the sphenoid sinus. The parents again refused neurosurgical intervention. A year later the patient presented with bacterial meningitis. CSF culture obtained after initiation of antibiotics was negative, but actinobacillus was identified in the CSF by 16S rRNA PCR. The patient is scheduled for neurosurgical intervention. In patients with recurrent bacterial meningitis caused by organisms colonizing the oropharynx or nasopharynx, an anatomical defect should be carefully sought and surgically repaired. PMID:23350293

  5. Enterococcus gallinarum meningitis in an immunocompetent host: a case report.

    PubMed

    Antonello, Vicente Sperb; Zenkner, Francis de Moura; França, Josiane; Santos, Breno Riegel

    2010-01-01

    We describe a rare case of a 53-year-old man with a long history of alcohol abuse, with Enterococcus gallinarum meningitis, an organism that rarely causes human infection and is primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. The patient improved with high-dose ampicillin and gentamicin therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first Brazilian reported case of E. gallinarum meningitis and probably the first case described in an immunocompetent host. PMID:20464133

  6. Association between Experimental Bacterial Meningitis and Periapical Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Netto, Soraia; Ceretta, Renan Antonio; Generoso, Jaqueline S.; Simões, Lutiana R.; Ribeiro, Patrícia Ávila; Budni, Josiane; Quevedo, João

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mortality and morbidity from bacterial meningitis in African adults is significantly higher than those in better resourced settings. At the same time, the periodontal diseases are highly prevalent and can affect up to 90% of the population. Dental caries in Uganda was recorded in 40% and 62.5% of the children and adults, respectively. We hypothesize that pneumococcal meningitis could interfere in the development of periapical lesion. The aim of this study was to evaluate periapical lesion in Wistar rats subjected to pneumococcal meningitis. Materials and Methods The animals were divided in control, control/periapical lesion, meningitis, and meningitis/periapical lesion groups. The surgical exposure of molars and the infection of the dental pulp were from the oral environment. Pulp necrosis was induced on the left mandibular first molars during adulthood. Dental pulps were exposed by drilling cavities on the central portion of the occlusal surface with a 1011 HL round bur in high speed to a depth nearly equal to the bur diameter. Animals were subjected to behavioral task and evaluation of the size of periodontal ligament. Data from periodontal ligament space and open field task were reported as mean ± SEM and analysed by Two-way ANOVA and paired Student’s t-test, respectively. Results and Conclusion Meningitis/periapical increased the periodontal ligament space by 61% when compared with control/periapical. In the open-field task, there were no differences in the number of crossings and rearing movements between training and test session in meningitis and periapical lesion groups demonstrating habituation memory impairment. Bacterial meningitis and periapical lesion may play an important role in development of cognitive impairment. PMID:26155479

  7. Computed tomography in cases of coccidioidal meningitis, with clinical correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Shetter, A.G.; Fischer, D.W.; Flom, R.A.

    1985-06-01

    Cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans of 22 patients with coccidioidal meningitis were reviewed and their clinical course was analyzed. Abnormalities of the ventricular system or the basilar cisterns or both were present in 16 instances. Although it is not a definitive diagnostic tool, the CT scan is helpful in suggesting a diagnosis of coccidioidal meningitis and in predicting the prognosis of patients affected by the disease. 19 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Discrimination of Listeria monocytogenes from other Listeria species by ligase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Wiedmann, M; Czajka, J; Barany, F; Batt, C A

    1992-01-01

    A ligase chain reaction assay based on a single-base-pair difference in the V9 region of the 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) was developed to distinguish between Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species. For this purpose, two pairs of primers were designed, with one primer of each pair being radioactively labeled. The ligated product was separated from the primers by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and then detected by autoradiography. To achieve a higher sensitivity, the 16S rDNA was initially amplified by polymerase chain reaction prior to the ligase chain reaction. The ligase chain reaction was tested on 19 different Listeria species and strains and proved to be a highly specific diagnostic method for the detection of L. monocytogenes. Images PMID:1482171

  9. Biodiversity and hypervirulence of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Grad, Yonatan H; Fortune, Sarah M

    2016-03-01

    The integration of large, well-sampled collections of bacterial isolates with genomics and experimental methods provides opportunities for 'top-down' discovery of the genetic basis of phenotypes of interest. In a new report, the authors apply this approach to investigate the heterogeneity in manifestations of disease caused by Listeria monocytogenes and demonstrate that a previously uncharacterized cellobiose PTS system is involved in central nervous system infection.

  10. A PNPase dependent CRISPR System in Listeria.

    PubMed

    Sesto, Nina; Touchon, Marie; Andrade, José Marques; Kondo, Jiro; Rocha, Eduardo P C; Arraiano, Cecilia Maria; Archambaud, Cristel; Westhof, Éric; Romby, Pascale; Cossart, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    The human bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is emerging as a model organism to study RNA-mediated regulation in pathogenic bacteria. A class of non-coding RNAs called CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) has been described to confer bacterial resistance against invading bacteriophages and conjugative plasmids. CRISPR function relies on the activity of CRISPR associated (cas) genes that encode a large family of proteins with nuclease or helicase activities and DNA and RNA binding domains. Here, we characterized a CRISPR element (RliB) that is expressed and processed in the L. monocytogenes strain EGD-e, which is completely devoid of cas genes. Structural probing revealed that RliB has an unexpected secondary structure comprising basepair interactions between the repeats and the adjacent spacers in place of canonical hairpins formed by the palindromic repeats. Moreover, in contrast to other CRISPR-Cas systems identified in Listeria, RliB-CRISPR is ubiquitously present among Listeria genomes at the same genomic locus and is never associated with the cas genes. We showed that RliB-CRISPR is a substrate for the endogenously encoded polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) enzyme. The spacers of the different Listeria RliB-CRISPRs share many sequences with temperate and virulent phages. Furthermore, we show that a cas-less RliB-CRISPR lowers the acquisition frequency of a plasmid carrying the matching protospacer, provided that trans encoded cas genes of a second CRISPR-Cas system are present in the genome. Importantly, we show that PNPase is required for RliB-CRISPR mediated DNA interference. Altogether, our data reveal a yet undescribed CRISPR system whose both processing and activity depend on PNPase, highlighting a new and unexpected function for PNPase in "CRISPRology".

  11. A PNPase Dependent CRISPR System in Listeria

    PubMed Central

    Sesto, Nina; Touchon, Marie; Andrade, José Marques; Kondo, Jiro; Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; Arraiano, Cecilia Maria; Archambaud, Cristel; Westhof, Éric; Romby, Pascale; Cossart, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    The human bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is emerging as a model organism to study RNA-mediated regulation in pathogenic bacteria. A class of non-coding RNAs called CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) has been described to confer bacterial resistance against invading bacteriophages and conjugative plasmids. CRISPR function relies on the activity of CRISPR associated (cas) genes that encode a large family of proteins with nuclease or helicase activities and DNA and RNA binding domains. Here, we characterized a CRISPR element (RliB) that is expressed and processed in the L. monocytogenes strain EGD-e, which is completely devoid of cas genes. Structural probing revealed that RliB has an unexpected secondary structure comprising basepair interactions between the repeats and the adjacent spacers in place of canonical hairpins formed by the palindromic repeats. Moreover, in contrast to other CRISPR-Cas systems identified in Listeria, RliB-CRISPR is ubiquitously present among Listeria genomes at the same genomic locus and is never associated with the cas genes. We showed that RliB-CRISPR is a substrate for the endogenously encoded polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) enzyme. The spacers of the different Listeria RliB-CRISPRs share many sequences with temperate and virulent phages. Furthermore, we show that a cas-less RliB-CRISPR lowers the acquisition frequency of a plasmid carrying the matching protospacer, provided that trans encoded cas genes of a second CRISPR-Cas system are present in the genome. Importantly, we show that PNPase is required for RliB-CRISPR mediated DNA interference. Altogether, our data reveal a yet undescribed CRISPR system whose both processing and activity depend on PNPase, highlighting a new and unexpected function for PNPase in “CRISPRology”. PMID:24415952

  12. ISG15 counteracts Listeria monocytogenes infection

    PubMed Central

    Radoshevich, Lilliana; Impens, Francis; Ribet, David; Quereda, Juan J; Nam Tham, To; Nahori, Marie-Anne; Bierne, Hélène; Dussurget, Olivier; Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier; Knobeloch, Klaus-Peter; Cossart, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    ISG15 is an interferon-stimulated, linear di-ubiquitin-like protein, with anti-viral activity. The role of ISG15 during bacterial infection remains elusive. We show that ISG15 expression in nonphagocytic cells is dramatically induced upon Listeria infection. Surprisingly this induction can be type I interferon independent and depends on the cytosolic surveillance pathway, which senses bacterial DNA and signals through STING, TBK1, IRF3 and IRF7. Most importantly, we observed that ISG15 expression restricts Listeria infection in vitro and in vivo. We made use of stable isotope labeling in tissue culture (SILAC) to identify ISGylated proteins that could be responsible for the protective effect. Strikingly, infection or overexpression of ISG15 leads to ISGylation of ER and Golgi proteins, which correlates with increased secretion of cytokines known to counteract infection. Together, our data reveal a previously uncharacterized ISG15-dependent restriction of Listeria infection, reinforcing the view that ISG15 is a key component of the innate immune response. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06848.001 PMID:26259872

  13. Streptococcus pneumoniae Meningitis Presenting with Acute Urinary Retention and Emphysematous Cystitis.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Yasushi; Doi, Asako; Endo, Akiko; Nishioka, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    A combination of acute urinary retention and aseptic meningitis has occasionally been described, which is referred to as meningitis-retention syndrome. In contrast, acute urinary retention has rarely been reported in bacterial meningitis. We herein report a case of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis presenting with acute urinary retention which led to emphysematous cystitis in an elderly woman. She presented with impaired consciousness and a distended lower abdomen. She was diagnosed with pneumococcal meningitis by lumbar puncture. Abdominal computed tomography revealed the presence of emphysematous cystitis. She completely recovered with antibiotic therapy without any complications. Acute urinary retention can occur secondary to pneumococcal meningitis. PMID:27477423

  14. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Listeria spp. serological reagents. 866.3355 Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Listeria spp. serological reagents. 866.3355 Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Listeria spp. serological reagents. 866.3355 Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Listeria spp. serological reagents. 866.3355 Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Listeria spp. serological reagents. 866.3355 Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria...

  19. Rapid detection of eight causative pathogens for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Naoko; Murayama, Somay Y; Morozumi, Miyuki; Nakayama, Eiichi; Okada, Takafumi; Iwata, Satoshi; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Ubukata, Kimiko

    2009-04-01

    We aimed to detect causative pathogens in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from patients diagnosed with bacterial meningitis by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae described previously, five other pathogens, Neisseria meningitidis, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes, were targeted, based on a large-scale surveillance in Japan. Results in CSF from neonates and children (n=150), and from adults (n=18) analyzed by real-time PCR with molecular beacon probes were compared with those of conventional culturing. The total time from DNA extraction from CSF to PCR analysis was 1.5 h. The limit of detection for these pathogens ranged from 5 copies to 28 copies per tube. Nonspecific positive reactions were not recognized for 37 microorganisms in clinical isolates as a negative control. The pathogens were detected in 72.0% of the samples by real-time PCR, but in only 48.2% by culture, although the microorganisms were completely concordant. With the real-time PCR, the detection rate of H. influenzae from CSF was high, at 45.2%, followed by S. pneumoniae (21.4%), S. agalactiae (2.4%), E. coli (1.8%), L. monocytogenes (0.6%), and M. pneumoniae (0.6%). The detection rate with PCR was significantly better than that with cultures in patients with antibiotic administration (chi2=18.3182; P=0.0000). In conclusion, detection with real-time PCR is useful for rapidly identifying the causative pathogens of meningitis and for examining the clinical course of chemotherapy.

  20. Pregnancy - associated human listeriosis: Virulence and genotypic analysis of Listeria monocytogenes from clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Soni, Dharmendra Kumar; Singh, Durg Vijai; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a life-threatening pathogen, poses severe risk during pregnancy, may cause abortion, fetal death or neonatal morbidity in terms of septicemia and meningitis. The present study aimed at characterizing L. monocytogenes isolated from pregnant women based on serotyping, antibiotic susceptibility, virulence genes, in vivo pathogenicity test and ERIC- and REP-PCR fingerprint analyses. The results revealed that out of 3700 human clinical samples, a total of 30 (0.81%) isolates [12 (0.80%) from placental bit (1500), 18 (0.81%) from vaginal swab (2200)] were positive for L. monocytogenes. All the isolates belonged to serogroup 4b, and were + ve for virulence genes tested i.e. inlA, inlC, inlJ, plcA, prfA, actA, hlyA, and iap. Based on the mice inoculation tests, 20 isolates showed 100% and 4 isolates 60% relative virulence while 6 isolates were non-pathogenic. Moreover, 2 and 10 isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and cefoxitin, respectively, while the rest susceptible to other antibiotics used in this study. ERIC- and REP-PCR collectively depicted that the isolates from placental bit and vaginal swab had distinct PCR fingerprints except a few isolates with identical patterns. This study demonstrates prevalence of pathogenic strains mostly resistant to cefoxitin and/or ciprofloxacin. The results indicate the importance of isolating and characterizing the pathogen from human clinical samples as the pre-requisite for accurate epidemiological investigations. PMID:26231373

  1. Listeria monocytogenes--threat to a safe food supply: a review.

    PubMed

    Pearson, L J; Marth, E H

    1990-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can cause circling disease, encephalitis, meningitis, septicemia, and mastitis in dairy cattle. Shedding of the pathogen from the udder or contamination from the environment can lead to presence of L. monocytogenes in raw milk. Surveys indicate the pathogen is in about 4% of US raw milks. Although HTST pasteurization commonly inactivates L. monocytogenes, evidence suggests that under unusual circumstances minimal survival is possible. The pathogen grows well in liquid dairy products at 4 to 35 degrees C and achieves higher populations in chocolate than in unflavored milks. When present in cheese milk, growth of L. monocytogenes may be retarded but not stopped by lactic starter cultures. The pathogen is concentrated in the curd with only a small fraction of cells in milk appearing in whey. Once in curd, the behavior of the pathogen ranges from growth (feta cheese making) to death of most but not all cells (cottage cheese making). During ripening of cheese, the numbers of L. monocytogenes decrease gradually (as in Cheddar or Colby cheese), decrease precipitously early during ripening, and then stabilize (as in blue cheese) or increase markedly (as in Camembert cheese). Consumption of foods containing L. monocytogenes can lead to listeriosis in susceptible humans (adults with a compromised immune system), pregnant women, and infants). In large outbreaks of human listeriosis, mortality rates of ca. 30% are common.

  2. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes and the toxin listeriolysin O in food.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Robin L T; Lee, Hung; Hall, J Christopher

    2006-02-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an emerging bacterial foodborne pathogen responsible for listeriosis, an illness characterized by meningitis, encephalitis, and septicaemia. Less commonly, infection can result in cutaneous lesions and flu-like symptoms. In pregnant women, the pathogen can cause bacteraemia, and stillbirth or premature birth of the fetus. The mortality rate for those contracting listeriosis is approximately 20%. Currently, the United States has a zero tolerance policy regarding the presence of L. monocytogenes in food, while Canada allows only 100 cfu/g of food. As such, it is essential to be able to detect the pathogen in low numbers in food samples. One of the best ways to detect and confirm the pathogen is through the detection of one of the virulence factors, listeriolysin O (LLO) produced by the microorganism. The LLO-encoding gene (hlyA) is present only in virulent strains of the species and is required for virulence. LLO is a secreted protein toxin that can be detected easily with the use of blood agar or haemolysis assays and it is well characterized and understood. This paper focuses on some of the common methods used to detect the pathogen and the LLO toxin in food products and comments on some of the potential uses and drawbacks for the food industry.

  3. Prospective investigation of pituitary functions in patients with acute infectious meningitis: is acute meningitis induced pituitary dysfunction associated with autoimmunity?

    PubMed

    Tanriverdi, F; De Bellis, A; Teksahin, H; Alp, E; Bizzarro, A; Sinisi, A A; Bellastella, G; Paglionico, V A; Bellastella, A; Unluhizarci, K; Doganay, M; Kelestimur, F

    2012-12-01

    Previous case reports and retrospective studies suggest that pituitary dysfunction may occur after acute bacterial or viral meningitis. In this prospective study we assessed the pituitary functions, lipid profile and anthropometric measures in adults with acute bacterial or viral meningitis. Moreover, in order to investigate whether autoimmune mechanisms could play a role in the pathogenesis of acute meningitis-induced hypopituitarism we also investigated the anti-pituitary antibodies (APA) and anti-hypothalamus antibodies (AHA) prospectively. Sixteen patients (10 males, 6 females; mean ± SD age 40.9 ± 15.9) with acute infectious meningitis were included and the patients were evaluated in the acute phase, and at 6 and 12 months after the acute meningitis. In the acute phase 18.7% of the patients had GH deficiency, 12.5% had ACTH and FSH/LH deficiencies. At 12 months after acute meningitis 6 of 14 patients (42.8%) had GH deficiency, 1 of 14 patients (7.1%) had ACTH and FSH/LH deficiencies. Two of 14 patients (14.3%) had combined hormone deficiencies and four patients (28.6%) had isolated hormone deficiencies at 12 months. Four of 9 (44.4%) hormone deficiencies at 6 months were recovered at 12 months, and 3 of 8 (37.5%) hormone deficiencies at 12 months were new-onset hormone deficiencies. At 12 months there were significant negative correlations between IGF-I level vs. LDL-C, and IGF-I level vs. total cholesterol. The frequency of AHA and APA positivity was substantially high, ranging from 35 to 50% of the patients throughout the 12 months period. However there were no significant correlations between AHA or APA positivity and hypopituitarism. The risk of hypopituitarism, GH deficiency in particular, is substantially high in the acute phase, after 6 and 12 months of the acute infectious meningitis. Moreover we found that 6th month after meningitis is too early to make a decision for pituitary dysfunction and these patients should be screened for at least 12 months

  4. Foodborne Listeria monocytogenes: A Real Challenge in Quality Control.

    PubMed

    Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Szabó, Judit; Dombrádi, Zsuzsanna; Kovács, Szilvia; Pócsi, István

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen, and the detection and differentiation of this bacterium from the nonpathogenic Listeria species are of great importance to the food industry. Differentiation of Listeria species is very difficult, even with the sophisticated MALDI-TOF MS technique because of the close genetic relationship of the species and the usual gene transfer. The present paper emphasizes the difficulties of the differentiation through the standardized detection and confirmation according to ISO 11290-1:1996 and basic available L. monocytogenes detection methods and tests (such as API Listeria test, MALDI-TOF MS analysis, and hly gene PCR). With the increase of reports on the pathogenesis of atypical Listeria strains in humans, the significance of species level determination has become questionable, especially in food quality control, and the detection of pathogenic characteristics seems to be more relevant. PMID:27239376

  5. Foodborne Listeria monocytogenes: A Real Challenge in Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Szabó, Judit; Dombrádi, Zsuzsanna; Kovács, Szilvia; Pócsi, István

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen, and the detection and differentiation of this bacterium from the nonpathogenic Listeria species are of great importance to the food industry. Differentiation of Listeria species is very difficult, even with the sophisticated MALDI-TOF MS technique because of the close genetic relationship of the species and the usual gene transfer. The present paper emphasizes the difficulties of the differentiation through the standardized detection and confirmation according to ISO 11290-1:1996 and basic available L. monocytogenes detection methods and tests (such as API Listeria test, MALDI-TOF MS analysis, and hly gene PCR). With the increase of reports on the pathogenesis of atypical Listeria strains in humans, the significance of species level determination has become questionable, especially in food quality control, and the detection of pathogenic characteristics seems to be more relevant. PMID:27239376

  6. Rifampicin in tuberculous meningitis: a retrospective assessment.

    PubMed

    Latorre, P; Gallofré, M; Laporte, J R; Massons, J

    1984-01-01

    To shed some light on the potential value of rifampicin in the treatment of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in adults, a retrospective analysis has been made of 143 medical records from 4 hospitals for the period 1967-80. Treatment of TBM with rifampicin and other antituberculous drugs in combination (Group B) was compared to other regimes which did not include rifampicin (Group A). There were 64 patients in Group B and 79 in Group A. The two groups of patients did not differ significantly in their prognostic characteristics. The total mortality was 14.7%: it was higher among patients not treated with rifampicin (24%; Group A) than amongst those given rifampicin (3.1%; Group B; chi 2 = 10.74; p less than 0.005). The difference was also statistically significant (chi 2 = 6.88; p less than 0.01) if patients who died during the first 48 h after the institution of treatment were excluded. No significant difference in mortality rate was found when patients treated with rifampicin plus isoniazid (INH) 8-10 mg/kg (1 death out of 41 patients) were compared to patients treated with INH 15 mg/kg (2 deaths out of 20 patients). Neurological sequelae recorded during a 6 month follow-up period were more severe among patients not treated with rifampicin.

  7. [Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2005].

    PubMed

    Stefanoff, Paweł; Rosińska, Magdalena

    2007-01-01

    In Poland, 2 806 cases of neuroinfections were reported in 2005, of which 998 had bacterial aetiology, 1469 viral, and 339 cases had other or unknown origin. Incidence of bacterial neuroin-fections increased in 2003-2005, following a decreasing trend observed during the past decade. Etiological factor was determined in 486 (49%) cases of bacterial neuroinfections. Among them Neisseria meningitidis was found in 135 cases, Haemophilus influenzae in 59 cases and Streptococ-cus pneumoniae in 111 cases. Unlike previously in 2005 serogroup B was no longer the predominant type of N. meningitidis cultured from patients. Both types B and C constituted similar proportions of all strains serotyped in 2005. Viral neuroinfections incidence in 2005 remained on the same level as in 2004. Etiological factor of central nervous system aseptic infections were established only in minor proportion of cases--3% of meningitis and 20% of encephalitis. Among confirmed cases, there were 177 cases of tick-borne encephalitis and 13 cases of herpetic encephalitis. Tick borne encephalitis incidence decreased in 2005 (0.46), compared to 2003-2004. Most of the cases were reported from endemic areas of northeastern part of the country.

  8. [Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2006].

    PubMed

    Kicman-Gawłowska, Agnieszka; Chrześcijańska, Irena; Stefanoff, Paweł

    2008-01-01

    In Poland, 3 693 cases of neuroinfections were reported in 2006, of which 989 had bacterial aetiology, 1 874--viral aetiology, and 512--other or unknown origin. The etiological agent was determined in 455 (46%) cases of bacterial neuroinfections. Among them Neisseria meningitidis was found in 148 cases, Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) in 39 cases and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 119 cases. An increasing trend in meningococcal infections incidence has been observed in 2006, and a substantial decrease of Hib incidence, related to increasing vaccination coverage. Viral neuroinfections incidence in 2006 increased compared to year 2005. Etiological factors of central nervous system aseptic infections were established only in minor proportion of cases--3% of meningitis and 20% of encephalitis. Among confirmed cases, there were 317 cases of tick-borne encephalitis and 31 cases of herpetic encephalitis. Tick borne encephalitis incidence increased in 2006 (0.83), compared to 2004 - 2005. Most of the cases were reported from endemic areas of north-eastern part of the country.

  9. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  10. Prevalence and level of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria sp. in ready-to-eat minimally processed and refrigerated vegetables.

    PubMed

    Kovačević, Mira; Burazin, Jelena; Pavlović, Hrvoje; Kopjar, Mirela; Piližota, Vlasta

    2013-04-01

    Minimally processed and refrigerated vegetables can be contaminated with Listeria species bacteria including Listeria monocytogenes due to extensive handling during processing or by cross contamination from the processing environment. The objective of this study was to examine the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat minimally processed and refrigerated vegetables from supermarkets in Osijek, Croatia. 100 samples of ready-to-eat vegetables collected from different supermarkets in Osijek, Croatia, were analyzed for presence of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes. The collected samples were cut iceberg lettuces (24 samples), other leafy vegetables (11 samples), delicatessen salads (23 samples), cabbage salads (19 samples), salads from mixed (17 samples) and root vegetables (6 samples). Listeria species was found in 20 samples (20 %) and Listeria monocytogenes was detected in only 1 sample (1 %) of cut red cabbage (less than 100 CFU/g). According to Croatian and EU microbiological criteria these results are satisfactory. However, the presence of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes indicates poor hygiene quality. The study showed that these products are often improperly labeled, since 24 % of analyzed samples lacked information about shelf life, and 60 % of samples lacked information about storage conditions. With regard to these facts, cold chain abruption with extended use after expiration date is a probable scenario. Therefore, the microbiological risk for consumers of ready-to-eat minimally processed and refrigerated vegetables is not completely eliminated.

  11. Six months therapy for tuberculous meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Jullien, Sophie; Ryan, Hannah; Modi, Manish; Bhatia, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the main form of tuberculosis that affects the central nervous system and is associated with high rates of death and disability. Most international guidelines recommend longer antituberculous treatment (ATT) regimens for TBM than for pulmonary tuberculosis disease to prevent relapse. However, longer regimens are associated with poor adherence, which could contribute to increased relapse, development of drug resistance, and increased costs to patients and healthcare systems. Objectives To compare the effects of short-course (six months) regimens versus prolonged-course regimens for people with tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Search methods We searched the following databases up to 31 March 2016: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; INDMED; and the South Asian Database of Controlled Clinical Trials. We searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov for ongoing trials. We also checked article reference lists and contacted researchers in the field. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective cohort studies of adults and children with TBM treated with antituberculous regimens that included rifampicin for six months or longer than six months. The primary outcome was relapse, and included studies required a minimum of six months follow-up after completion of treatment. Data collection and analysis Two review authors (SJ and HR) independently assessed the literature search results for eligibility, and performed data extraction and 'Risk of bias' assessments of the included studies. We contacted study authors for additional information when necessary. Most data came from single arm cohort studies without a direct comparison so we pooled the findings for each group of cohorts and

  12. Six months therapy for tuberculous meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Jullien, Sophie; Ryan, Hannah; Modi, Manish; Bhatia, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the main form of tuberculosis that affects the central nervous system and is associated with high rates of death and disability. Most international guidelines recommend longer antituberculous treatment (ATT) regimens for TBM than for pulmonary tuberculosis disease to prevent relapse. However, longer regimens are associated with poor adherence, which could contribute to increased relapse, development of drug resistance, and increased costs to patients and healthcare systems. Objectives To compare the effects of short-course (six months) regimens versus prolonged-course regimens for people with tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Search methods We searched the following databases up to 31 March 2016: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; INDMED; and the South Asian Database of Controlled Clinical Trials. We searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov for ongoing trials. We also checked article reference lists and contacted researchers in the field. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective cohort studies of adults and children with TBM treated with antituberculous regimens that included rifampicin for six months or longer than six months. The primary outcome was relapse, and included studies required a minimum of six months follow-up after completion of treatment. Data collection and analysis Two review authors (SJ and HR) independently assessed the literature search results for eligibility, and performed data extraction and 'Risk of bias' assessments of the included studies. We contacted study authors for additional information when necessary. Most data came from single arm cohort studies without a direct comparison so we pooled the findings for each group of cohorts and

  13. Listeria Spp. and Listeria Monocytogenes Contamination in Ready-To-Eat Sandwiches Collected from Vending Machines

    PubMed Central

    Cossu, Francesca; Spanu, Carlo; Deidda, Silvia; Mura, Erica; Casti, Daniele; Pala, Carlo; Lamon, Sonia; Spanu, Vincenzo; Ibba, Michela; Marrocu, Elena; Piana, Andrea; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) food is characterised by a long shelf-life at refrigerated temperature and can be consumed as such, without any treatment. The aim of the work was to evaluate the presence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in RTEs collected from refrigerated vending machines placed in hospital environment and accessible to the hospitalised patients. In 4 different sampling, 55 RTEs were collected from vending machines of six hospitals located in different areas of Sardinia region. All the samples were characterised by similar manufacturing process, such as the use of modified atmosphere packaging and belonged to 5 different producers. Listeria spp. was not countable using the enumeration method in all of the analysed samples. Using the detection method, Listeria spp. was recovered from 9 sandwich samples. Interestingly, 3 of these samples (5.5%) made by the manufacturer, were positive for L. monocytogenes contamination. The risk related to the L. monocytogenes presence in RTEs proportionally increases when food is introduced in susceptible environments, such as hospitals and consumed by susceptible people. Although the RTEs analysed showed values that complied with the European microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, the availability of these products in a susceptible environment should be carefully checked. Therefore, in order to limit the possible exposition to L. monocytogenes, more information on the risk related to RTE consumption should be provided to the hospitalised patients. PMID:27800439

  14. Childhood meningitis in the conjugate vaccine era: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sadarangani, Manish; Willis, Louise; Kadambari, Seilesh; Gormley, Stuart; Young, Zoe; Beckley, Rebecca; Gantlett, Katherine; Orf, Katharine; Blakey, Sarah; Martin, Natalie G; Kelly, Dominic F; Heath, Paul T; Nadel, Simon; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial conjugate vaccines have dramatically changed the epidemiology of childhood meningitis; viral causes are increasingly predominant, but the current UK epidemiology is unknown. This prospective study recruited children under 16 years of age admitted to 3 UK hospitals with suspected meningitis. 70/388 children had meningitis-13 bacterial, 26 viral and 29 with no pathogen identified. Group B Streptococcus was the most common bacterial pathogen. Infants under 3 months of age with bacterial meningitis were more likely to have a reduced Glasgow Coma Score and respiratory distress than those with viral meningitis or other infections. There were no discriminatory clinical features in older children. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white blood cell count and plasma C-reactive protein at all ages, and CSF protein in infants <3 months of age, distinguished between bacterial meningitis and viral meningitis or other infections. Improved diagnosis of non-bacterial meningitis is urgently needed to reduce antibiotic use and hospital stay.

  15. CSF ADA Determination in Early Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis in HIV-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Gopal Chandra; Sharma, Brijesh; Gupta, B B

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculous and Cryptococcal meningitis are common in HIV patients. A highly specific and sensitive rapid test for diagnosis of Tuberculous meningitis especially in setting of HIV is not available in developing countries where the burden of disease is high. We measured ADA (adenosine deaminase) levels using spectrophotometric method in the CSF of HIV patients with meningitis to differentiate Tuberculous meningitis from meningitis due to other causes. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare ADA values between tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and nontuberculous (non-TB) meningitis patients and a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis curve was drawn from these values. Levels of ADA in the CSF of patients with TBM were significantly higher than those in patients with meningitis due to other causes. CSF ADA level determination with a cut-off value of 6 IU/L was found to be highly specific and fairly sensitive test for the diagnosis of TBM in HIV positive patients. PMID:27144055

  16. The meninges: new therapeutic targets for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Russi, Abigail E; Brown, Melissa A

    2015-02-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) largely comprises nonregenerating cells, including neurons and myelin-producing oligodendrocytes, which are particularly vulnerable to immune cell-mediated damage. To protect the CNS, mechanisms exist that normally restrict the transit of peripheral immune cells into the brain and spinal cord, conferring an "immune-specialized" status. Thus, there has been a long-standing debate as to how these restrictions are overcome in several inflammatory diseases of the CNS, including multiple sclerosis (MS). In this review, we highlight the role of the meninges, tissues that surround and protect the CNS and enclose the cerebral spinal fluid, in promoting chronic inflammation that leads to neuronal damage. Although the meninges have traditionally been considered structures that provide physical protection for the brain and spinal cord, new data have established these tissues as sites of active immunity. It has been hypothesized that the meninges are important players in normal immunosurveillance of the CNS but also serve as initial sites of anti-myelin immune responses. The resulting robust meningeal inflammation elicits loss of localized blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and facilitates a large-scale influx of immune cells into the CNS parenchyma. We propose that targeting the cells and molecules mediating these inflammatory responses within the meninges offers promising therapies for MS that are free from the constraints imposed by the BBB. Importantly, such therapies may avoid the systemic immunosuppression often associated with the existing treatments.

  17. Appearance of the canine meninges in subtraction magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Christopher R; Lam, Richard; Keenihan, Erin K; Frean, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The canine meninges are not visible as discrete structures in noncontrast magnetic resonance (MR) images, and are incompletely visualized in T1-weighted, postgadolinium images, reportedly appearing as short, thin curvilinear segments with minimal enhancement. Subtraction imaging facilitates detection of enhancement of tissues, hence may increase the conspicuity of meninges. The aim of the present study was to describe qualitatively the appearance of canine meninges in subtraction MR images obtained using a dynamic technique. Images were reviewed of 10 consecutive dogs that had dynamic pre- and postgadolinium T1W imaging of the brain that was interpreted as normal, and had normal cerebrospinal fluid. Image-anatomic correlation was facilitated by dissection and histologic examination of two canine cadavers. Meningeal enhancement was relatively inconspicuous in postgadolinium T1-weighted images, but was clearly visible in subtraction images of all dogs. Enhancement was visible as faint, small-rounded foci compatible with vessels seen end on within the sulci, a series of larger rounded foci compatible with vessels of variable caliber on the dorsal aspect of the cerebral cortex, and a continuous thin zone of moderate enhancement around the brain. Superimposition of color-encoded subtraction images on pregadolinium T1- and T2-weighted images facilitated localization of the origin of enhancement, which appeared to be predominantly dural, with relatively few leptomeningeal structures visible. Dynamic subtraction MR imaging should be considered for inclusion in clinical brain MR protocols because of the possibility that its use may increase sensitivity for lesions affecting the meninges.

  18. Human parasitic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hung-Chin; Chen, Yao-Shen; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2013-06-01

    The major cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Taiwan is Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Humans are infected by ingesting terrestrial and freshwater snails and slugs. In 1998 and 1999, two outbreaks of eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection were reported among 17 adult male immigrant Thai laborers who had eaten raw golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata). Another outbreak associated with consuming a health drink consisting of raw vegetable juice was reported in 2001. These adult cases differed from reports in the 1970s and 1980s, in which most of the cases were in children. With improvements in public health and education of foreign laborers, there have since been only sporadic cases in Taiwan. Review of clinical research indicates inconsistent association of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results with clinical features of eosinophilic meningitis. MRI features were nonspecific but there was an association between the presence of high brain MRI signal intensities and severity of peripheral and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia. Inflammatory markers have been identified in the CSF of patients with eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and the matrix metalloproteinase system may be associated with blood-brain barrier disruption. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection is not a reportable disease in Taiwan. It is important that a public advisory and education program be developed to reduce future accidental infection.

  19. Phage display-derived binders able to distinguish Listeria monocytogenes from other Listeria species.

    PubMed

    Morton, Josephine; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Stewart, Linda D; Elliott, Christopher T; Grant, Irene R

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to produce phage display-derived binders with the ability to distinguish Listeria monocytogenes from other Listeria spp., which may have potential utility to enhance detection of Listeria monocytogenes. To obtain binders with the desired binding specificity a series of surface and solution phage-display biopannings were performed. Initially, three rounds of surface biopanning against gamma-irradiated L. monocytogenes serovar 4b cells were performed followed by an additional surface biopanning round against L. monocytogenes 4b which included prior subtraction biopanning against gamma-irradiated L. innocua cells. In an attempt to further enhance binder specificity for L. monocytogenes 4b two rounds of solution biopanning were performed, both rounds included initial subtraction solution biopanning against L. innocua. Subsequent evaluations were performed on the phage clones by phage binding ELISA. All phage clones tested from the second round of solution biopanning had higher specificity for L. monocytogenes 4b than for L. innocua and three other foodborne pathogens (Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni). Further evaluation with five other Listeria spp. revealed that one phage clone in particular, expressing peptide GRIADLPPLKPN, was highly specific for L. monocytogenes with at least 43-fold more binding capability to L. monocytogenes 4b than to any other Listeria sp. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates how a combination of surface, solution and subtractive biopanning was used to maximise binder specificity. L. monocytogenes-specific binders were obtained which could have potential application in novel detection tests for L. monocytogenes, benefiting both the food and medical industries. PMID:24040227

  20. Assessment of Listeria sp. Interference Using a Molecular Assay To Detect Listeria monocytogenes in Food.

    PubMed

    Zittermann, Sandra I; Stanghini, Brenda; See, Ryan Soo; Melano, Roberto G; Boleszczuk, Peter; Murphy, Allana; Maki, Anne; Mallo, Gustavo V

    2016-01-01

    Detection of Listeria monocytogenes in food is currently based on enrichment methods. When L. monocytogenes is present with other Listeria species in food, the species compete during the enrichment process. Overgrowth competition of the nonpathogenic Listeria species might result in false-negative results obtained with the current reference methods. This potential issue was noted when 50 food samples artificially spiked with L. monocytogenes were tested with a real-time PCR assay and Canada's current reference method, MFHPB-30. Eleven of the samples studied were from foods naturally contaminated with Listeria species other than those used for spiking. The real-time PCR assay detected L. monocytogenes in all 11 of these samples; however, only 6 of these samples were positive by the MFHPB-30 method. To determine whether L. monocytogenes detection can be affected by other species of the same genus due to competition, an L. monocytogenes strain and a Listeria innocua strain with a faster rate of growth in the enrichment broth were artificially coinoculated at different ratios into ground pork meat samples and cultured according to the MFHPB-30 method. L. monocytogenes was detected only by the MFHPB-30 method when L. monocytogenes/L. innocua ratios were 6.0 or higher. In contrast, using the same enrichments, the real-time PCR assay detected L. monocytogenes at ratios as low as 0.6. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that L. monocytogenes can be outcompeted by L. innocua during the MFHPB-30 enrichment phase. However, more reliable detection of L. monocytogenes in this situation can be achieved by a PCR-based method mainly because of its sensitivity.

  1. Phage display-derived binders able to distinguish Listeria monocytogenes from other Listeria species.

    PubMed

    Morton, Josephine; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Stewart, Linda D; Elliott, Christopher T; Grant, Irene R

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to produce phage display-derived binders with the ability to distinguish Listeria monocytogenes from other Listeria spp., which may have potential utility to enhance detection of Listeria monocytogenes. To obtain binders with the desired binding specificity a series of surface and solution phage-display biopannings were performed. Initially, three rounds of surface biopanning against gamma-irradiated L. monocytogenes serovar 4b cells were performed followed by an additional surface biopanning round against L. monocytogenes 4b which included prior subtraction biopanning against gamma-irradiated L. innocua cells. In an attempt to further enhance binder specificity for L. monocytogenes 4b two rounds of solution biopanning were performed, both rounds included initial subtraction solution biopanning against L. innocua. Subsequent evaluations were performed on the phage clones by phage binding ELISA. All phage clones tested from the second round of solution biopanning had higher specificity for L. monocytogenes 4b than for L. innocua and three other foodborne pathogens (Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni). Further evaluation with five other Listeria spp. revealed that one phage clone in particular, expressing peptide GRIADLPPLKPN, was highly specific for L. monocytogenes with at least 43-fold more binding capability to L. monocytogenes 4b than to any other Listeria sp. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates how a combination of surface, solution and subtractive biopanning was used to maximise binder specificity. L. monocytogenes-specific binders were obtained which could have potential application in novel detection tests for L. monocytogenes, benefiting both the food and medical industries.

  2. Coselection of cadmium and benzalkonium chloride resistance in conjugative transfers from nonpathogenic Listeria spp. to other Listeriae.

    PubMed

    Katharios-Lanwermeyer, S; Rakic-Martinez, M; Elhanafi, D; Ratani, S; Tiedje, J M; Kathariou, S

    2012-11-01

    Resistance to the quaternary ammonium disinfectant benzalkonium chloride (BC) may be an important contributor to the ability of Listeria spp. to persist in the processing plant environment. Although a plasmid-borne disinfectant resistance cassette (bcrABC) has been identified in Listeria monocytogenes, horizontal transfer of these genes has not been characterized. Nonpathogenic Listeria spp. such as L. innocua and L. welshimeri are more common than L. monocytogenes in food processing environments and may contribute to the dissemination of disinfectant resistance genes in listeriae, including L. monocytogenes. In this study, we investigated conjugative transfer of resistance to BC and to cadmium from nonpathogenic Listeria spp. to other nonpathogenic listeriae, as well as to L. monocytogenes. BC-resistant L. welshimeri and L. innocua harboring bcrABC, along with the cadmium resistance determinant cadA2, were able to transfer resistance to other nonpathogenic listeriae as well as to L. monocytogenes of diverse serotypes, including strains from the 2011 cantaloupe outbreak. Transfer among nonpathogenic Listeria spp. was noticeably higher at 25°C than at 37°C, whereas acquisition of resistance by L. monocytogenes was equally efficient at 25 and 37°C. When the nonpathogenic donors were resistant to both BC and cadmium, acquisition of cadmium resistance was an effective surrogate for transfer of resistance to BC, suggesting coselection between these resistance attributes. The results suggest that nonpathogenic Listeria spp. may behave as reservoirs for disinfectant and heavy metal resistance genes for other listeriae, including the pathogenic species L. monocytogenes.

  3. Stroke Secondary to Aseptic Meningitis After Endovascular Treatment of a Giant Aneurysm with Parent Artery Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Doenmez, Halil Mavili, Ertugrul Ikizceli, Tuerkan; Durak, Ahmet Candan; Kurtsoy, Ali

    2009-07-15

    Aseptic meningitis related to hydrogel-coated coils is a known complication, but it is extremely rare after platinum bare coil aseptic meningitis. Here we report the development of aseptic meningitis causing brain stem and cerebellar infarct in a patient with a giant aneurysm treated with bare platinum coils. We conclude that aneurysm size is an important factor affecting the occurrence of aseptic meningitis associated with stroke.

  4. Predictive value of decoy receptor 3 in postoperative nosocomial bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Juan; Shao, Li-Hua; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Rui-Ping; Liu, Hai-Hong; Dong, Xiao-Meng; Ma, Li-Xian

    2014-11-03

    Nosocomial bacterial meningitis requires timely treatment, but what is difficult is the prompt and accurate diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the potential role of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) levels in the differentiation of bacterial meningitis from non-bacterial meningitis. A total of 123 patients were recruited in this study, among them 80 patients being with bacterial meningitis and 43 patients with non-bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was confirmed by bacterial culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the level of DcR3 in CSF. CSF levels of DcR3 were statistically significant between patients with bacterial meningitis and those with non-bacterial meningitis (p<0.001). A total of 48.75% of patients with bacterial meningitis received antibiotic>24 h before CSF sampling, which was much higher than that of non-bacterial meningitis. CSF leucocyte count yielded the highest diagnostic value, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of 0.928, followed by DcR3. At a critical value of 0.201 ng/mL for DcR3, the sensitivity and specificity were 78.75% and 81.40% respectively. DcR3 in CSF may be a valuable predictor for differentiating patients with bacterial meningitis from those with non-bacterial meningitis. Further studies are needed for the validation of this study.

  5. De Novo Meningitis Caused by Propionibacterium acnes in a Patient with Metastatic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Jason P.; Trevino, Sergio E.; McElvania TeKippe, Erin; Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; Kuhlmann, F. Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a known cause of postneurosurgical meningitis; however, it is rarely implicated in de novo meningitis. Herein we report a case of a 49-year-old male with de novo meningitis caused by P. acnes with metastatic melanoma as the only identified risk factor for his infection. PMID:24478417

  6. Streptococcus salivarius meningitis and sphenoid sinus mucocele. Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Conte, Aristide; Chinello, Pierangelo; Civljak, Rok; Bellussi, Angelo; Noto, Pasquale; Petrosillo, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of meningitis caused by Streptococcus salivarius in a 49-year-old woman with a previously undiagnosed cerebrospinal fluid fistula due to a sphenoid mucocele. We reviewed the literature concerning meningitis caused by this uncommon organism and to the best of our knowledge this is the first case of S. salivarius meningitis associated with sphenoid mucocele. PMID:15936084

  7. The immunophenotypic spectrum of meningeal hemangiopericytoma: a comparison with fibrous meningioma and solitary fibrous tumor of meninges.

    PubMed

    Perry, A; Scheithauer, B W; Nascimento, A G

    1997-11-01

    Despite controversy regarding its histogenesis, meningeal hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is a well-defined clinicopathologic entity exhibiting high rates of recurrence and late extracranial metastasis. It must be distinguished from several benign neoplasms, particularly fibrous meningioma (FM) and solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). To determine the immunoprofile of HPC, we studied 27 meningeal examples, including 13 low-grade and 14 high-grade tumors. For comparison, 20 FMs and eight SFTs of the meninges were also evaluated. The immunotype of HPC included vimentin (85%), factor XIIIa (78%) in individual scattered cells, Leu-7 (70%), and CD34 (33%) in a weak, patchy pattern. Focal desmin and cytokeratin positivity was only occasionally encountered (20% each). The SFT shared a similar immunophenotype, except that CD34 expression (100%) was characteristically strong and diffuse. The FM characteristically expressed epithelial membrane antibody (EMA) (80%) and S-100 protein (80%); CD34 reactivity (60%) was patchy and weak. Both within and among all three tumor types, MIB-1 labeling indices varied widely. Specifically, they were unrelated to tumor grade in HPC. Significant reactivity for p53 protein was detected in 52% of HPCs, 17% of SFTs, and 5% of FMs. Meningeal HPC exhibits a distinct antigenic profile, one enabling the exclusion of other entities in nearly all cases. The rare expression of desmin or cytokeratin in HPC suggests either the occurrence of divergent differentiation or, less likely, the possibility that its distinctive morphology is but a phenotype shared by several types of meningeal sarcoma.

  8. The Evolution of the Meningitis Vaccine Project

    PubMed Central

    Tiffay, Kathleen; Jodar, Luis; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Socquet, Muriel; LaForce, F. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background. In 2001, the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP) was tasked to develop, test, license, and introduce a group A meningococcal (MenA) conjugate vaccine for sub-Saharan Africa. African public health officials emphasized that a vaccine price of less than US$0.50 per dose was necessary to ensure introduction and sustained use of this new vaccine. Methods. Initially, MVP envisioned partnering with a multinational vaccine manufacturer, but the target price and opportunity costs were problematic and formal negotiations ended in 2002. MVP chose to become a “virtual vaccine company,” and over the next decade managed a network of public–private and public–public partnerships for pharmaceutical development, clinical development, and regulatory submission. MVP supported the transfer of key know-how for the production of group A polysaccharide and a new conjugation method to the Serum Institute of India, Ltd, based in Pune, India. A robust staff structure supported by technical consultants and overseen by advisory groups in Europe and Africa ensured that the MenA conjugate vaccine would meet all international standards. Results. A robust project structure including a team of technical consultants and 3 advisory groups in Europe and Africa ensured that the MenA conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT, MenAfriVac) was licensed by the Drug Controller General of India and prequalified by the World Health Organization in June 2010. The vaccine was introduced in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger in December 2010. Conclusions. The development, through a public–private partnership, of a safe, effective, and affordable vaccine for sub-Saharan Africa, PsA-TT, offers a new paradigm for the development of vaccines specifically targeting populations in resource-poor countries. PMID:26553666

  9. Severe cochlear dysplasia causing recurrent meningitis: a surgical lesson.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, D S; Proops, D W; Phelps, P D

    1993-08-01

    Meningitis may be the sole presenting sign of a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula of the temporal bone. An eight-year-old boy suffering from recurrent meningitis was found to have bilateral severe cochlear dysplasia. Bilateral tympanotomies were performed, planning to obliterate each vestibule. In the right ear a stapedectomy was performed, resulting in a torrential 'CSF gusher' and difficulty in packing the vestibule. CSF rhinorrhoea requiring revision surgery and two episodes of gram-negative bacterial meningitis complicated the post-operative management, resulting in a prolonged hospital stay. Subsequently, the left ear was managed in a different fashion, leaving the stapes in situ, with grafts placed to seal the oval window niche. We would recommend this alternative procedure in cases of severe cochlear dysplasia, where abnormalities of the vestibule and basal turn of the cochlea mean that performing a stapedectomy to pack the vestibule may result in a severe 'CSF gusher', by opening directly into the subarachnoid space.

  10. A case of solitary fibrous tumor of the meninges.

    PubMed

    Sanno, N; Shimura, T; Maeda, S; Teramoto, A

    2001-01-01

    We report a rare case of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the meninges of the posterior fossa presenting as an intracerebellar hemorrhage. A 29-year-old woman was admitted with sudden-onset severe headache, nausea, and vomiting. A computed tomographic (CT) scan of the brain revealed an intracerebellar hemorrhage 3.5cm in diameter. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a heterogeneous enhancement mass. A posterior craniotomy found a firm, highly vascular tumor attached to the meninges. Histologically, the tumor showed mostly sclerotic tissues with spindle cells. In few areas, the tumor had a more compact arrangement of spindle-shaped cells with vascular spaces and highly cellular components. Immunohistochemical study revealed strong CD-34 immunopositivity in many tumor cells. The tumor was diagnosed as SFT of the meninges. We report the clinical and histological features of this newly described tumor with a heterogeneous component.

  11. Metastatic solitary fibrous tumor of the meninges. Case report.

    PubMed

    Ng, H K; Choi, P C; Wong, C W; To, K F; Poon, W S

    2000-09-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a unique tumor composed of interstitial dendritic cells that was first described in the thorax and subsequently reported in diverse organs. Extrathoracic SFTs are predominantly benign but rare malignant cases have been documented. In the nervous system, SFT has been described as a meningeal lesion although all 14 previously reported cases were benign. The authors report the first case of a meningeal SFT occurring in a 55-year-old woman. The tumor first presented as a meningeal lesion that after three recurrences over a 10-year period metastasized to the soft tissues and lungs. The potentially malignant nature of cranial SFTs, especially those with atypical histological features and high mitotic counts, should be recognized.

  12. Vaccine preventable meningitis in Malaysia: epidemiology and management.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Hannah C; Jefferies, Johanna M C; Clarke, Stuart C

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide bacterial meningitis accounts for more than one million cases and 135,000 deaths annually. Profound, lasting neurological complications occur in 9-25% of cases. This review confirms the greatest risk from bacterial meningitis is in early life in Malaysia. Much of the disease burden can be avoided by immunization, particularly against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Despite inclusion of the Hib vaccine in the National Immunisation Programme and the licensure of pneumococcal vaccines, these two species are the main contributors to bacterial meningitis in Malaysia, with Neisseria meningitidis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, causing a smaller proportion of disease. The high Hib prevalence may partly be due to dated, small-scale studies limiting the understanding of the current epidemiological situation. This highlights the need for larger, better quality surveillance from Malaysia to evaluate the success of Hib immunization and to help guide immunization policy for vaccines against S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis.

  13. Exome Array Analysis of Susceptibility to Pneumococcal Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Kloek, Anne T.; van Setten, Jessica; van der Ende, Arie; Bots, Michiel L.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Serón, Mercedes Valls; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik; Ferwerda, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Host genetic variability may contribute to susceptibility of bacterial meningitis, but which genes contribute to the susceptibility to this complex disease remains undefined. We performed a genetic association study in 469 community-acquired pneumococcal meningitis cases and 2072 population-based controls from the Utrecht Health Project in order to find genetic variants associated with pneumococcal meningitis susceptibility. A HumanExome BeadChip was used to genotype 102,097 SNPs in the collected DNA samples. Associations were tested with the Fisher exact test. None of the genetic variants tested reached Bonferroni corrected significance (p-value <5 × 10−7). Our strongest signals associated with susceptibility to pneumococcal meningitis were rs139064549 on chromosome 1 in the COL11A1 gene (p = 1.51 × 10−6; G allele OR 3.21 [95% CI 2.05–5.02]) and rs9309464 in the EXOC6B gene on chromosome 2 (p = 6.01 × 10−5; G allele OR 0.66 [95% CI 0.54–0.81]). The sequence kernel association test (SKAT) tests for associations between multiple variants in a gene region and pneumococcal meningitis susceptibility yielded one significant associated gene namely COL11A1 (p = 1.03 × 10−7). Replication studies are needed to validate these results. If replicated, the functionality of these genetic variations should be further studied to identify by which means they influence the pathophysiology of pneumococcal meningitis. PMID:27389768

  14. Arterial cerebrovascular complications in 94 adults with acute bacterial meningitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Intracranial vascular complications are an important complication of acute bacterial meningitis. Ischemic stroke in meningitis is reported as a result of vasculitis, vasospasm, endocarditis or intraarterial thrombosis. The aim of the study was to identify the value of measuring cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) on transracranial doppler (TCD) in the identification of patients at risk for meningitis-associated stroke. Methods We retrospectively studied patients with acute bacterial meningitis who were treated in our university hospital from 2000 to 2009. Data were analyzed with the main focus on the incidence of an increase of CBFv on TCD, defined as peak systolic values above 150 cm/s, and the development of stroke. Results In total, 114 patients with acute bacterial meningitis were treated, 94 of them received routine TCD studies during their hospital stay. 41/94 patients had elevated CBFv values. This increase was associated with an increased risk of stroke (odds ratio (95% confidence intervall) = 9.15 (1.96-42.67); p < 0.001) and unfavorable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Score < 4; odds ratio (95% confidence intervall) = 2.93 (1.23-6.98); p = 0.018). 11/32 (34.4%) patients with an increase of CBFv who received nimodipine and 2/9 (22.2%) patients with an increase of CBFv who did not receive nimodipine developed stroke (p = 0.69). Conclusions In summary, TCD was found to be a valuable bedside test to detect arterial alterations in patients with bacterial meningitis. These patients have an increased risk of stroke. PMID:22112693

  15. [A meningitis case of Brucella and tuberculosis co-infection].

    PubMed

    Karsen, Hasan; Karahocagil, Mustafa Kasim; Irmak, Hasan; Demiröz, Ali Pekcan

    2008-10-01

    Turkey is located at an endemic area for brusellosis and tuberculosis which are both important public health problems. Meningitis caused by Brucella and Mycobacterium spp. may be confused since the clinical and laboratory findings are similar. In this report, a meningitis case with Brucella and tuberculosis co-infection has been presented. A 19-years-old woman was admitted to our clinic with severe headache, fever, vomiting, meningeal irritation symptoms, confusion and diplopia. The patient was initially diagnosed as Brucella meningitis based on her history (stockbreeding, consuming raw milk products, clinical symptoms concordant to brucellosis lasting for 4-5 months), physical examination and laboratory findings of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Standard tube agglutination test for brucellosis was positive at 1/80 titer in CSF and at 1/640 titer in serum, whereas no growth of Brucella spp. was detected in CSF and blood cultures. Antibiotic therapy with ceftriaxone, rifampicin and doxycyclin was started, however, there was no clinical improvement and agitation and confusion of the patient continued by the end of second day of treatment. Repeated CSF examination yielded acid-fast bacteria. The patient was then diagnosed as meningitis with double etiology and the therapy was changed to ceftriaxone, streptomycin, morphozinamide, rifampicin and isoniazid for thirty days. Tuberculosis meningitis was confirmed with the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the 14th day of cultivation (BACTEC, Becton Dickinson, USA) of the CSF sample. On the 30th day of treatment she was discharged on anti-tuberculous treatment with isoniazid and rifampicin for 12 months. The follow-up of the patient on the first and third months of treatment revealed clinical and laboratory improvement. Since this was a rare case of Brucella and tuberculosis co-infection, this report emphasizes that such co-infections should be kept in mind especially in the endemic areas for tuberculosis and brucellosis

  16. Sphingomonas paucimobilis: an unusual cause of meningitis-case report.

    PubMed

    Tai, Mei-Ling Sharon; Velayuthan, Rukumani Devi

    2014-01-01

    Sphingomonas paucimobilis is an aerobic gram-negative bacillus. The bacteria can cause infections, which can be devastating and, therefore, the patients need adequate and early antibiotic cover. We are presenting an interesting case of meningitis secondary to an unusual S. paucimobilis infection. This is the second case to our knowledge in the literature on meningitis due to S. paucimobilis. The 31-year-old previously healthy man presented with 2 months' history of weight loss and loss of appetite. He had fever and headache for 3 weeks. He was also speaking irrelevantly for 3 weeks. He had change of behaviour for 1 day. The patient was a farmer and worked in the soil. On examination, he was not responding to questions and was not obeying commands. Computed tomography (CT) brain with contrast revealed meningeal enhancement and cerebral oedema. Lumbar puncture was performed. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) opening pressure was more than 50 cm H2O. CSF analysis showed meningitis picture with raised white cell count of 210/μL (predominantly neutrophils), glucose 3.1 mmol/L, and raised protein 2.47 g/L. He was given intravenous ceftriaxone. The following day, his condition deteriorated. CSF culture grew S. paucimobilis sensitive to ceftriaxone. S. paucimobilis causes severe meningitis. This can lead to hydrocephalus, which results in a need for extraventricular drainage. A good occupational history is important with regard to finding the aetiology of serious meningitis (including rare bacteria) even before the culture result is known. Appropriate treatment can be given early and adequately to prevent mortality.

  17. Diversity of Listeria species in urban and natural environments.

    PubMed

    Sauders, Brian D; Overdevest, Jon; Fortes, Esther; Windham, Katy; Schukken, Ynte; Lembo, Arthur; Wiedmann, Martin

    2012-06-01

    A total of 442 Listeria isolates, including 234 Listeria seeligeri, 80 L. monocytogenes, 74 L. welshimeri, 50 L. innocua, and 4 L. marthii isolates, were obtained from 1,805 soil, water, and other environmental samples collected over 2 years from four urban areas and four areas representing natural environments. Listeria spp. showed similar prevalences in samples from natural (23.4%) and urban (22.3%) environments. While L. seeligeri and L. welshimeri were significantly associated with natural environments (P ≤ 0.0001), L. innocua and L. monocytogenes were significantly associated with urban environments (P ≤ 0.0001). Sequencing of sigB for all isolates revealed 67 allelic types with a higher level of allelic diversity among isolates from urban environments. Some Listeria spp. and sigB allelic types showed significant associations with specific urban and natural areas. Nearest-neighbor analyses also showed that certain Listeria spp. and sigB allelic types were spatially clustered within both natural and urban environments, and there was evidence that these species and allelic types persisted over time in specific areas. Our data show that members of the genus Listeria not only are common in urban and natural environments but also show species- and subtype-specific associations with different environments and areas. This indicates that Listeria species and subtypes within these species may show distinct ecological preferences, which suggests (i) that molecular source-tracking approaches can be developed for Listeria and (ii) that detection of some Listeria species may not be a good indicator for L. monocytogenes.

  18. Diversity of Listeria Species in Urban and Natural Environments

    PubMed Central

    Overdevest, Jon; Fortes, Esther; Windham, Katy; Schukken, Ynte; Lembo, Arthur; Wiedmann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A total of 442 Listeria isolates, including 234 Listeria seeligeri, 80 L. monocytogenes, 74 L. welshimeri, 50 L. innocua, and 4 L. marthii isolates, were obtained from 1,805 soil, water, and other environmental samples collected over 2 years from four urban areas and four areas representing natural environments. Listeria spp. showed similar prevalences in samples from natural (23.4%) and urban (22.3%) environments. While L. seeligeri and L. welshimeri were significantly associated with natural environments (P ≤ 0.0001), L. innocua and L. monocytogenes were significantly associated with urban environments (P ≤ 0.0001). Sequencing of sigB for all isolates revealed 67 allelic types with a higher level of allelic diversity among isolates from urban environments. Some Listeria spp. and sigB allelic types showed significant associations with specific urban and natural areas. Nearest-neighbor analyses also showed that certain Listeria spp. and sigB allelic types were spatially clustered within both natural and urban environments, and there was evidence that these species and allelic types persisted over time in specific areas. Our data show that members of the genus Listeria not only are common in urban and natural environments but also show species- and subtype-specific associations with different environments and areas. This indicates that Listeria species and subtypes within these species may show distinct ecological preferences, which suggests (i) that molecular source-tracking approaches can be developed for Listeria and (ii) that detection of some Listeria species may not be a good indicator for L. monocytogenes. PMID:22504820

  19. Herpes simplex virus 2 meningitis: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Stephanie; Mateen, Farrah J; Aksamit, Allen J

    2013-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 is a leading cause of viral meningitis and the most commonly recognized infectious cause of benign, recurrent meningitis. We report a retrospective, observational cohort study of patients with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) meningitis, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The terms "herpes simplex," "meningitis," or "encephalitis" were searched in the medical records system of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota (1995-2008). Patients were included if they had a clinical diagnosis of meningitis and HSV-2 detected by PCR in the CSF. There were 28 patients with 33 episodes identified (83 % female; mean age at presentation of meningitis 36 years, range 17-53; mean time to HSV2 detection from symptom onset 3 days, range 0-6; history of genital herpes 23 %). No patient took oral antiviral treatment at the time of presentation. Episodes were most likely to include headache (100 %), photophobia (47 %), self-reported fever (45 %), meningismus (44 %), and nausea and/or vomiting (29 %). CSF at the time of meningitis was notable for elevated protein (mean 156 g/dL, range 60-258) and white cell count (mean 504 cells/μL, range 86-1,860) with normal glucose (mean 54 mg/dL, range 32-80). Mollaret cells were never detected. Neuroimaging was most often normal (83 %) when performed, although some cases showed nonspecific (14 %) or meningeal changes (3 %). There was no consistent relationship to genital herpes. The duration of treatment with intravenous acyclovir ranged from 3 to 14 days for the first meningitic episode (daily dose range from 500 to 1,000 mg and total dose range from 500 mg q8h for 3 days to 800 mg q8h for 14 days). For subsequent episodes, the duration of treatment of intravenous acyclovir ranged from less than 1 to 14 days (total dose range from 1,390 mg for 1 day to 900 mg q8h for 10 days). The dose of valacyclovir ranged from 500 mg once daily to 500 mg four times daily. The median duration

  20. How Do Meningeal Lymphatic Vessels Drain the CNS?

    PubMed

    Raper, Daniel; Louveau, Antoine; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    The many interactions between the nervous and the immune systems, which are active in both physiological and pathological states, have recently become more clearly delineated with the discovery of a meningeal lymphatic system capable of carrying fluid, immune cells, and macromolecules from the central nervous system (CNS) to the draining deep cervical lymph nodes. However, the exact localization of the meningeal lymphatic vasculature and the path of drainage from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to the lymphatics remain poorly understood. Here, we discuss the potential differences between peripheral and CNS lymphatic vessels and examine the purported mechanisms of CNS lymphatic drainage, along with how these may fit into established patterns of CSF flow.

  1. Group A streptococcal meningitis in a patient with palmoplantar pustulosis.

    PubMed

    Hagiya, Hideharu; Otsuka, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    A 64-year-old man with a 10-year history of palmoplantar pustulosis, a recent history of cranial surgery and a persistent upper airway infection presented with a high fever and deep coma. The patient was diagnosed with Group A Streptococcal meningitis and promptly treated with antibiotics. Although his general condition recovered well, sensorineural hearing loss and facial palsy remained. Group A Streptococcal meningitis is a rare condition, and its typical clinical picture and epidemiological features remain poorly understood. Physicians need to be more aware of this infection, which is extremely rare but frequently causes various complications and yields a high mortality.

  2. Viral loads of cerebrospinal fluid in infants with enterovirus meningitis.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Hisashi; Ioi, Hiroaki; Ishii, Chiako; Hasegawa, Yuka; Amaha, Masahiro; Kashiwagi, Yasuyo; Takekuma, Kouji; Hoshika, Akinori; Watanabe, Yasuo

    2008-01-01

    For a better understanding of the role of the viral load, free radicals, and cytokines in viral meningitis, we surveyed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from patients below 1 year of age who showed positive for enterovirus. In their first examinations interleukin (IL)-6 and free radicals increased whereas pleocytosis was rarely observed. IL-6 decreased within the short period. Viral loads and free radicals increased simultaneously. IL-6 and free radicals of CSF are helpful for diagnosis and treatment of viral meningitis at an early stage.

  3. Outbreak of meningitis due to Serratia marcescens after spinal anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ersoz, G; Uguz, M; Aslan, G; Horasan, E S; Kaya, A

    2014-06-01

    This article describes an outbreak of meningitis caused by Serratia marcescens in patients who had undergone spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. Bacterial meningitis was diagnosed in 12 of the 46 patients who underwent a caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia in a 75-bed private hospital between 6(th) and 14(th) March 2011. S. marcescens was isolated from samples taken from four prefilled syringes and one bag containing 5% dextrose with norepinephrine, suggesting that medications used in spinal anaesthesia were contaminated extrinsically. Strategies for prevention of anaesthesia-associated infections in operating theatres are discussed.

  4. Detectability of early brain meningitis with magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M.; Wells, J.W.; Williams, N.M.

    1995-08-01

    The ability of high-field (1.5 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect early brain meningitis was evaluated in a canine model. Contrast dose, timing postinjection, and imaging technique (specifically the use of magnetization transfer) were assessed. Imaging of five canines was performed at 1.5 T 24 hours after injection of Cowans staphylococcus into the cisterna magna. Two control animals also were imaged using the same protocol. Contrast doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.8 mmol/kg gadoteridol were compared. Scans were performed at 2, 13, and 22 minutes after an initial injection of 0.1 mmol/kg. Thirty minutes after the initial injection of contrast, a supplemental dose of 0.2 mmol/kg was given. Scans were then repeated at 2, 12, and 22 minutes after this dose was administered. A second supplemental contrast injection of 0.5 mmol/kg was given at 70 minutes, and immediate postinjection scans with and without MT were acquired. Results. In the animals receiving a cisternal injection of bacteria, the degree of meningeal enhancement was greatest at 0.8 mmol/kg, intermediate at 0.3 mmol/kg, and least at 0.1 mmol/kg. Scans in control studies did not demonstrate abnormal meningeal enhancement. High-contrast dose, MT, and acquisition of immediate postcontrast scans all resulted in statistically significant improvement. On masked film review, abnormal meningeal enhancement was noted in only 2 of 5 experimental dogs at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg (regardless of the use of MT) compared with all animals at a dose of 0.3 mmol/kg. In 18 of 37 dogs (paired scans with and without MT), when abnormal enhancement was noted, the use of MT improved the visualization of abnormal meningeal enhancement. In early brain meningitis, high-contrast dose (0.3 mmol/kg), MT, and scanning immediately after injection improve detection of abnormal meningeal enhancement, thus facilitating the diagnosis of meningitis. Of these factors, contrast dose is the most important. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Chronic mycobacterial meningitis due to Mycobacterium chelonae: a case report.

    PubMed

    Salmanzadeh, Shokrallah; Honarvar, Negin; Goodarzi, Hamed; Khosravi, Azar Dokht; Nashibi, Roohangiz; Serajian, Amir Arsalan; Hashemzadeh, Mohammad

    2014-10-01

    We report a case of chronic meningitis due to Mycobacterium chelonae. This organism is a rapidly growing Mycobacterium (RGM) and can be found worldwide in environmental sources such as soil, dust, and water. M. chelonae is an uncommon cause of meningitis; the majority of infections caused by this organism are localized cutaneous or soft tissue infections, and rarely lung infections. The organism is indistinguishable phenotypically, so we applied PCR based on the rpoB gene sequence followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) for molecular identification. The subsequent sequencing of RFLP products revealed 99.7% similarity with M. chelonae.

  6. A Case of Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis Caused by Listeria monocytogenes Bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Daniel R; Sullivan, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Importance. Infections can cause leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Observations. We report the case of a patient with a left ventricular assist device who presented with acute kidney injury and biopsy proven leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Blood cultures grew Listeria monocytogenes. The patient's rash improved with treatment of the underlying Listeria infection. Conclusion. Clinicians should be aware that there are a number of broad categories of disease associated with the histologic finding of vasculitis, including infection. It is important to keep in mind the risk factors of a particular patient when formulating a differential diagnosis. This is the first reported case of Listeria bacteremia causing leukocytoclastic vasculitis. PMID:27313916

  7. A Case of Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis Caused by Listeria monocytogenes Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Importance. Infections can cause leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Observations. We report the case of a patient with a left ventricular assist device who presented with acute kidney injury and biopsy proven leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Blood cultures grew Listeria monocytogenes. The patient's rash improved with treatment of the underlying Listeria infection. Conclusion. Clinicians should be aware that there are a number of broad categories of disease associated with the histologic finding of vasculitis, including infection. It is important to keep in mind the risk factors of a particular patient when formulating a differential diagnosis. This is the first reported case of Listeria bacteremia causing leukocytoclastic vasculitis. PMID:27313916

  8. Case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis meningitis: Gram staining as a useful initial diagnostic clue for tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Sayoko; Kawamura, Yasuyosi; Nishiyama, Kyouhei; Hatanaka, Hiroki; Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Ono, Yasuo; Miyazawa, Yukihisa; Nishiya, Hajime

    2012-12-01

    A 32-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of fever, headache, and loss of consciousness. Four days before admission, he had had difficulty speaking. On the day of admission, his colleague had found him to be unconscious and lying on his back. He was admitted to our hospital. The temperature at the eardrum was 35.2°C. Neurologic evaluation was negative. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain showed slight ventricular enlargement bilaterally. An X-ray film of the chest showed no abnormality. On the second hospital day, neck stiffness was noted. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contained 870 white cells/μl, most of which were neutrophils; the glucose level in the CSF was 10 mg/dl, and the protein level was 140 mg/dl. Stained smears of the CSF, including Gram staining and India-ink preparations, disclosed no microorganisms. Capsular antigen tests for several bacteria were negative. Antimicrobial agents were started. However, by changing the microscope focus slightly while viewing Gram stains of the CSF, we could see brightened and Gram-positive bacilli that had been phagocytosed by neutrophils. This finding suggested the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Ziehl-Neelsen staining of the CSF and gastric juice revealed anti-acid bacilli. Polymerase chain reaction for M. tuberculosis in the gastric juice was positive. This case showed that Gram staining could be useful as an initial adjunct for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis, particularly when the CSF shows predominantly neutrocytic pleocytosis, but no other evidence of bacterial meningitis.

  9. Using Relative Humidity Forecasts to Manage Meningitis in the Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R. E.; Adams-Forgor, A.; Akweogno, P.; Awine, T.; Dalaba, M.; Dukic, V.; Dumont, A.; Hayden, M.; Hodgson, A.; Hopson, T. M.; Hugonnet, S.; Yoksas, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    Meningitis epidemics in the Sahel occur quasi-regularly and with devastating impact. In 2008, for example, eighty-eight thousand people contracted meningitis and over five thousand died. Until very recently, the protection provided by the only available vaccine was so limited and short-lived that the only practical strategy for vaccination was reactive: waiting until an epidemic occurred in the region and then vaccinating in that region to prevent the epidemic's further growth. Even with that strategy, there were still times when demand outpaced available vaccine. While a new vaccine has recently been developed that is effective and inexpensive enough to be used more broadly and proactively, it is only effective against the strain of bacteria that causes the most common kind of bacterial meningitis. As a result, there will likely be continued need for reactive vaccination strategies. It is widely known that meningitis epidemics in the Sahel occur only in the dry season. Our project investigated this relationship, and several independent lines of evidence demonstrate a robust relationship between the onset of the rainy season, as marked by weekly average relative humidity above 40%, and the end of meningitis epidemics. These lines of evidence include statistical analysis of two years of weekly meningitis and weather data across the Sahel, cross-correlation of ten years of meningitis and weather data in the Upper East region of northern Ghana, and high-resolution weather simulations of past meningitis seasons to interpolate available weather data. We also adapted two techniques that have been successfully used in public health studies: generalized additive models, which have been used to relate air quality and health, and a linearized version of the compartmental epidemics model that has been used to understand MRSA. Based on these multiple lines of evidence, average weekly relative humidity forecast two weeks in advance appears consistently and strongly related to

  10. Recombinant phage probes for Listeria monocytogenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnazza, S.; Gioffrè, G.; Felici, F.; Guglielmino, S.

    2007-10-01

    Monitoring of food and environmental samples for biological threats, such as Listeria monocytogenes, requires probes that specifically bind biological agents and ensure their immediate and efficient detection. There is a need for robust and inexpensive affinity probes as an alternative to antibodies. These probes may be recruited from random peptide libraries displayed on filamentous phage. In this study, we selected from two phage peptide libraries phage clones displaying peptides capable of specific and strong binding to the L. monocytogenes cell surface. The ability of isolated phage clones to interact specifically with L. monocytogenes was demonstrated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmed by co-precipitation assay. We also assessed the sensitivity of phage-bacteria binding by PCR on phage-captured Listeria cells, which could be detected at a concentration of 104 cells ml-1. In addition, as proof-of-concept, we tested the possibility of immobilizing the affinity-selected phages to a putative biosensor surface. The quality of phage deposition was monitored by ELISA and fluorescent microscopy. Phage-bacterial binding was confirmed by high power optical phase contrast microscopy. Overall, the results of this work validate the concept of affinity-selected recombinant filamentous phages as probes for detecting and monitoring bacterial agents under any conditions that warrant their recognition, including in food products.

  11. A case of recurrent benign lymphocytic (Mollaret's) meningitis and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Poulikakos, P J; Sergi, E E; Margaritis, A S; Kioumourtzis, A G; Kanellopoulos, G D; Mallios, P K; Dimitrakis, D J; Poulikakos, D J; Aspiotis, A A; Deliousis, A D; Flevaris, C P; Zacharof, A K

    2010-12-01

    Mollaret's meningitis is a rare form of benign recurrent aseptic meningitis first described in 1944. We report a case of Mollaret's meningitis due to Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV2), diagnosed with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) implementation in the Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the patient and treated successfully with acyclovir. To our knowledge, this is the first case of Mollaret's meningitis reported in Greece. We reviewed the literature since PCR has become widely available. Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 has been the most commonly identified causative agent of Mollaret's meningitis.

  12. Non-group D streptococcal meningitis misidentified as enterococcal meningitis. Diagnostic and therapeutic implications of misdiagnosis by screening microbiology.

    PubMed

    Bayer, A S; Yoshikawa, T T; Nolan, F; Shibata, S; Guze, L B

    1978-11-01

    Two patients had nonhemolytic Gram-positive coccal meningitis. Both pathogens were initially misidentified as a group D enterococcus by growth in "selective" media, which led to the use of inappropriate and potentially toxic systemic and intrathecal aminoglycosides. Careful evaluation of the antibiotic sensitivity data and additional microbiological studies allowed correct identification of the organism. The important diagnostic and therapeutic considerations in differentiating true enterococcal infections, especially meningitis, from those caused by other alpha-hemolytic or nonhemolytic streptococci are emphasized. A simple laboratory schema for rapid recognition of such pathogens is reviewed.

  13. We have got you 'covered': how the meninges control brain development.

    PubMed

    Siegenthaler, Julie A; Pleasure, Samuel J

    2011-06-01

    The meninges have traditionally been viewed as specialized membranes surrounding and protecting the adult brain from injury. However, there is increasing evidence that the fetal meninges play important roles during brain development. Through the release of diffusible factors, the meninges influence the proliferative and migratory behaviors of neural progenitors and neurons in the forebrain and hindbrain. Meningeal cells also secrete and organize the pial basement membrane (BM), a critical anchor point for the radially oriented fibers of neuroepithelial stem cells. With its emerging role in brain development, the potential that defects in meningeal development may underlie certain congenital brain abnormalities in humans should be considered. In this review, we will discuss what is known about assembly of the fetal meninges and review the role of meningeal-derived proteins in mouse and human brain development.

  14. Recurrent meningitis in a child with IgG3 subclass deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vehapoglu, Aysel; Ozgurhan, Gamze; Demir, Aysegul Dogan; Uzuner, Selcuk; Nursoy, Mustafa Atilla; Turkmen, Serdar

    2014-08-01

    Recurrent meningitis is an uncommon life-threatening condition. Here, the case of a 6-year-old boy is reported who had two episodes of meningitis with an IgG3 subclass deficiency. The boy had aseptic meningitis at the age of 3 years, followed by bacterial meningitis at the age of 4 years. Primary immunoglobulin deficiencies are a group of disorders associated with an increased incidence and/or severity of infection. Recurrent infections, sinusitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia are the most frequently observed illnesses in patients with IgG subclass deficiencies, of which an IgG3 subclass deficiency is the most common, especially in adults. Although cases of recurrent viral or bacterial meningitis have been reported, herein a patient is presented with recurrence of aseptic and bacterial meningitis 1 year after the initial episode. Some researchers recommend that all children with episodes of recurrent meningitis should be screened for primary immunoglobulin or complement deficiencies.

  15. Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. in a small-scale mushroom production facility.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Prema; Murugesan, Latha; Knabel, Stephen J; Verghese, Bindhu; Chikthimmah, Naveen; Laborde, Luke F

    2013-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen of significant concern to the agricultural and food processing industry because of its ability to grow and persist in cool and moist environments and its association with listeriosis, a disease with a very high mortality rate. Although there have been no listeriosis outbreaks attributed to fresh mushrooms in the United States, retail surveys and recalls are evidence that L. monocytogenes contamination of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) can occur. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp., including L. monocytogenes, in a small-scale mushroom production facility on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University in the United States. Of 184 samples taken from five production zones within the facility, 29 (15.8%) samples were positive for Listeria spp. Among the Listeria spp. isolates, L. innocua was most prevalent (10.3%) followed by L. welshimeri (3.3%), L. monocytogenes (1.6%), and L. grayi (0.5%). L. monocytogenes was recovered only from the phase I raw material composting area. Isolates of L. monocytogenes were confirmed and serotyped by multiplex PCR. The epidemiological relatedness of the three L. monocytogenes isolates to those serotypes or lineages frequently encountered in listeriosis infections was determined by multi-virulence-locus sequence typing using six virulence genes, namely, prfA, inlB, inlC, dal, clpP, and lisR. The phylogenetic positions of the three isolates in the dendrogram prepared with data from other isolates of L. monocytogenes showed that all isolates were grouped with serotype 4a, lineage IIIA. To date, this serotype has rarely been reported in foodborne disease outbreaks.

  16. [Unusual location of a brain abscess due to Listeria monocytogenes].

    PubMed

    Coste, J-F; Duval, V; Nguyen, Y; Guillard, T; Brasme, L; David, C; Strady, C; Lecuit, M; de Champs, C

    2012-10-01

    Here we report a case of sustentorial brain abscess due to Listeria monocytogenes. Blood culture and procalcitonine blood measurement were negative. L. monocytogenes was isolated from CSF after inoculation in Castañeda medium. PMID:21835558

  17. Incidence and inactivation of Listeria spp. on frozen shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illness outbreaks occasionally occur as a result of microbiologically contaminated crustaceans, including shrimp. Foodborne pathogens occasionally found on shrimp include Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrios. In this study the microbiological qualit...

  18. Organelle targeting during bacterial infection: insights from Listeria.

    PubMed

    Lebreton, Alice; Stavru, Fabrizia; Cossart, Pascale

    2015-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a facultative intracellular bacterium responsible for severe foodborne infections, is now recognized as a multifaceted model in infection biology. Comprehensive studies of the molecular and cellular basis of the infection have unraveled how the bacterium crosses the intestinal and feto-placental barriers, invades several cell types in which it multiplies and moves, and spreads from cell to cell. Interestingly, although Listeria does not actively invade host cell organelles, it can interfere with their function. We discuss the effect of Listeria on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mechanisms leading to the fragmentation of the mitochondrial network and its consequences, and review the strategies used by Listeria to subvert nuclear functions, more precisely to control host gene expression at the chromatin level.

  19. Folic acid prevented cognitive impairment in experimental pneumococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Barichello, Tatiana; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Simões, Lutiana R; Steckert, Amanda V; Moreira, Ana Paula; Dominguini, Diogo; Ferrari, Pâmela; Gubert, Carolina; Kapczinski, Flávio; Jornada, Luciano K; Danielski, Lucineia G; Petronilho, Fabricia; Budni, Josiane; Quevedo, João

    2015-05-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of bacterial meningitis, with a high mortality rate and neurological sequelae. In contrast, folic acid plays an important role in neuroplasticity and the preservation of neuronal integrity. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of folic acid on memory, oxidative damage, enzymatic defence, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. In animals that received folic acid at a dose of 10 or 50 mg, there was a reduction in both crossing and rearing during an open-field task compared with the training session, demonstrating habituation memory. During a step-down inhibitory avoidance task, there was a difference between the training and the test sessions, demonstrating aversive memory. In the hippocampus, BDNF expression decreased in the meningitis group; however, adjuvant treatment with 10 mg of folic acid increased BDNF expression, decreased lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, nitrate/nitrite levels, and myeloperoxidase activity and increased superoxide dismutase activity. In frontal cortex adjuvant treatment with 10 mg of folic acid decreased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation. There is substantial interest in the role of folic acid and related pathways in nervous system function and in folic acid's potential therapeutic effects. Here, adjuvant treatment with vitamin B9 prevented memory impairment in experimental pneumococcal meningitis.

  20. Toscana virus meningitis in Portugal, 2002-2005.

    PubMed

    Santos, L; Simões, J; Costa, R; Martins, S; Lecour, H

    2007-06-01

    Toscana virus infection is endemic in Italy, but has also been documented in other Mediterranean countries. Our aim was to investigate the occurrence of Toscana virus (TOSV) meningitis in children and young adults in a metropolitan area in the north of Portugal. Cerebrospinal fluid samples from 308 patients with the diagnosis of meningitis and with negative bacterial culture were tested for enteroviruses and herpesviruseses by reverse transcription PCR. Those samples that proved negative for enterovirus and herpesvirus were tested for Toscana virus with a commercial reverse transcription nested PCR assay. In total, we investigated 106 samples, collected between May and September during the four-year period between 2002 and 2005 from patients younger than 30 years old. Toscana virus was the cause of meningitis in six (5.6%) of the cases, three children and three young adults. All had a benign course and self-limited disease. Since a first case report of TOSV infection 1985 and another in 1996, both in foreign tourists, these six cases of Toscana virus meningitis are, to our knowledge, the first diagnosed in Portuguese inhabitants, and they underline the need for more studies on the prevalence of this virus in Portugal.

  1. Pneumococcal meningitis: clinical-pathological correlations (MeninGene-Path).

    PubMed

    Engelen-Lee, Joo-Yeon; Brouwer, Matthijs C; Aronica, Eleonora; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococcal meningitis is associated with substantial mortality and morbidity. We systematically assessed brain histopathology of 31 patients who died of pneumococcal meningitis from a nationwide study (median age 67 years; 21 (67 %) were male) using a pathology score including inflammation and vascular damage. Of the 27 patients with known time from the admission to death, 14 patients died within 7 days of admission and 13 after 7 days of admission. Eleven of 25 (44 %) patients had been treated with adjunctive dexamethasone therapy. Observed pathological processes were inflammation of medium-large arteries in 30 brains (97 %), cerebral haemorrhage in 24 (77 %), cerebritis in 24 (77 %), thrombosis in 21 (68 %), infarction in 19 (61 %) and ventriculitis in 19 (of 28 cases, 68 %). Inflammation of medium-large arteries led to obstruction of the vascular lumen in 14 (of 31 cases, 45 %). Vascular inflammation was associated with infarction and thrombosis of brain parenchymal vessels. Hippocampal dentate gyrus apoptosis between patients treated with and without dexamethasone was similar (p = 0.66); however, dexamethasone treated patients had higher total pathology score than non-dexamethasone treated patients (p = 0.003). Our study shows that vascular damage is key in the process of brain damage in pneumococcal meningitis. Data and material of this study will be made open-access for translational research in pneumococcal meningitis (MeninGene-Path). PMID:27001057

  2. Streptococcus suis toxic-shock syndrome and meningitis.

    PubMed

    Leelarasamee, A; Nilakul, C; Tien-Grim, S; Srifuengfung, S; Susaengrat, W

    1997-01-01

    Three cases with S. suis bacteremia and meningitis were reported. The first case was a 23-year-old butcher who was a regular drinker of alcohol for two years and developed streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome. The organism was transmitted to him through a minor cut in his right arm. The second cases was a 49-year-old female laborer who had been consuming locally produced alcohol for 20 years and developed fever and meningitis. Unfortunately, she succumbed in seven days despite intensive supportive and cefotaxime treatments. The third case was a 45-year-old regular alcoholic drinker and car painter who was seen at a private hospital due to contusion at his left lateral chest wall. However, fever and confusion due to meningitis was detected upon admission. Irreversible deafness developed within 48 hours of ceftriaxone therapy for meningitis. He finally recovered with deafness. S. suis was isolated from blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures in all three cases though initially reported to be viridans group of streptococci.

  3. Coccidioidal meningitis. The use of amphotericin B in treatment.

    PubMed

    EINSTEIN, H E; HOLEMAN, C W; SANDIDGE, L L; HOLDEN, D H

    1961-06-01

    Amphotericin B is the first agent to alter favorably the course of coccidioidal meningitis. The morbidity and toxicity of the drug are at present its chief limiting factors. Although no cures were obtained in a series of 11 cases, significant remissions usually followed a course of therapy. Comparison with similar groups showed a significant prolongation of life in adequately treated cases.

  4. Escherichia coli Meningitis after Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in an Infant

    PubMed Central

    Vermezoglu, Oznur; Ocal Topcu, Didem; Karbuz, Adem; Hacihamdioglu, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Although rotavirus gastroenteritis is quite common in the pediatric population, secondary bacterial sepsis following rotavirus infection is a rare clinical entity. Gram-negative bacilli are the fifth most common cause of meningitis in infants but this infection rarely occurs after gastroenteritis. Here, we report a 2.5-month-old infant who developed Escherichia coli (E. coli) meningitis after acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. The 2.5-month-old male infant with fever, vomiting, and watery diarrhea that started 1 day earlier was admitted to the hospital. Rotavirus antigen in stool sample was positive. He was hospitalized, and fever was measured at 39.5°C on the second day. Lumbar puncture was done for suspicion of meningitis, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings suggested meningitis. Intravenous vancomycin and cefotaxime were started empirically. Since E. coli reproduction was seen in blood culture and CSF culture, treatment was continued with cefotaxime. The patient was discharged with minimal midlevel hydrocephalus findings in cranial ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging following 21 days of antibiotics treatment. Septicemia development following rotavirus gastroenteritis is an extremely rare clinical condition. It is vital to start prompt antibiotic treatment as soon as the diagnosis of secondary bacterial infection is made because of high mortality and morbidity rates. PMID:27738536

  5. Eosinophilic meningitis: cause of a chronic pain syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Clouston, P D; Corbett, A J; Pryor, D S; Garrick, R

    1990-01-01

    Three tourists developed eosinophilic meningitis after visiting the Fijian Islands. Two had a severe and long lasting illness with chronic intractable pain. In one patient electrophysiological studies and MRI scan of the brain were abnormal and provided evidence of both radicular and cerebral parenchymal involvement by the most likely causative agent, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Images PMID:2246659

  6. Streptococcal Meningitis Resulting from Contact with an Infected Horse

    PubMed Central

    Downar, James; Willey, Barbara M.; Sutherland, Jeffrey W.; Mathew, Kelly; Low, Donald E.

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of group C streptococcal meningitis in a woman with a history of close animal contact as well as head trauma as a result of a kick by a horse. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures grew Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, as did a throat culture taken from the colt that had kicked her 2 weeks prior to admission. PMID:11376093

  7. [Salmonella meningitis in an infant due to a pet turtle].

    PubMed

    Ricard, C; Mellentin, J; Ben Abdallah Chabchoub, R; Kingbede, P; Heuclin, T; Ramdame, A; Bouquet, A; Couttenier, F; Hendricx, S

    2015-06-01

    In humans, Salmonella most often causes self-limiting gastroenteritis, but more severe symptoms such as sepsis and meningitis can also occur and can sometimes have a fatal outcome. Even if the meningitis is not fatal, sequelae such as epilepsy, cranial nerve palsies, and hydrocephalus can occur. In the United States, it has been estimated that approximately 6% of the human cases of salmonellosis can be attributed to contact with reptiles or amphibians. The infection may take place by direct contact between reptile and human or indirectly via contact with an environment contaminated with Salmonella from a reptile. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Vitkin is a common gut inhabitant of reptiles. Though human cases due to this organism are exceedingly rare, it may infect young infants and immunocompromised individuals with a history of intimate associations with reptiles. Gastroenteritis is the most common presentation ; others include peritonitis, meningitis and bacteremia. We report a case of meningitis caused by S. enterica subsp. enterica serotype Vitkin in a 1-month-old child due to a pet turtle. PMID:26014646

  8. Streptococcus bovis septicemia and meningitis associated with chronic radiation enterocolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Jadeja, L.; Kantarjian, H.; Bolivar, R.

    1983-12-01

    We describe the first patient with simultaneous S bovis septicemia and meningitis associated with chronic radiation enterocolitis. This case underlines the value of a thorough gastrointestinal evaluation of all patients with S bovis infection, and the need for a neurologic investigation even with minor neurologic manifestations.

  9. Variations of relative humidity in relation to meningitis in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seefeldt, M. W.; Hopson, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    The meningitis belt is a region covering Sub-Saharan Africa from the Sahel of West Africa eastward to western Ethiopia. The region is prone to meningitis epidemics during the dry season extending from approximately January to May, depending on the region. Relative humidity has been found to be a critical environmental factor indicating the susceptibility of a region to meningitis epidemics. This study evaluates the variation of relative humidity across West Africa over 30 dry-seasons (1979 - 2009) using the NASA-MERRA dataset. The method of self-organizing maps is employed to characterize the changes in relative humidity patterns across the region within a given dry season as well as changes over the 30 years. A general pattern of changes in relative humidity is indicated as the rainbelt retreats to the south at the onset of the dry season and then returns to the region at the end of the dry season. Within each dry season there is a unique pattern. The climatological conditions of relative humidity at the onset of the dry season provide an indication of the moisture environment for the entire dry season. Year to year variation in the relative humidity patterns are found to be gradual. Future applications involve using the results from the SOM evaluation to be used for future decisions involving prevention of meningitis epidemics.

  10. One Family's Crusade To Inform the Public about Meningococcal Meningitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skowronek, Linda and Carl

    2001-01-01

    Describes meningococcal meningitis, which strikes over 100 college students yearly. Living in dormitories puts students at risk for contracting the disease. The current vaccine protects against the four main types of the infection, though it is not perfect protection. Some states have adopted legislation requiring all incoming college freshmen and…

  11. Vaccine May Reduce Incidence of Meningitis-Related Hearing Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dorothy

    1988-01-01

    Hearing loss as a result of meningitis, now the leading nongenetic cause of deafness in infants and young children, may be reduced by the introduction of the HiB (Hemophilus influenzae type B) vaccine. It is highly effective, relatively safe, and recommended for most children over 24 months and high risk children 18-24 months old. (VW)

  12. Tuberculous granulomas in childhood tuberculous meningitis: radiological features and course.

    PubMed

    Ravenscroft, A; Schoeman, J F; Donald, P R

    2001-02-01

    The clinical course and serial cranial computerized tomographic (CT) findings of 202 children with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) admitted to Tygerberg Hospital between 1985 and 1994 were reviewed with regard to the incidence, CT appearance and clinical course of associated intracranial tuberculous granulomas. Thirty-four patients (16.85 per cent) had associated intracranial granulomas. Thirty-eight individual lesions were analysed and classified as meningeal, parenchymal or ependymal according to their central nervous system (CNS) location. Twenty-five patients had round to irregular, brain iso-, hypo- or hyperdense meningeal granulomas with variable degrees of enhancement and peri-lesional hypodensities. Four patients had diffusely enhancing, brain isodense, enplaque-like ependymal granulomas associated with the ventricular ependymal lining. Four patients with miliary tuberculosis and TBM showed multiple small diffusely enhancing, brain iso- or hyperdense parenchymal lesions and associated hypodensities on initial CT. Although granulomas in the meningeal and ependymal group had the propensity to paradoxically enlarge or appear on standard four-drug antituberculosis therapy, the majority resolved uneventfully. Rapid resolution of small parenchymal granulomas associated with miliary tuberculosis occurred in all cases. Most granulomas in this series were co-incidental, asymptomatic CT findings. In rare cases, the development or enlargement of a strategically located granuloma may result in complications. PMID:11245351

  13. Replica plating of colonies from Listeria-selective agars to blood agar to improve the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from foods.

    PubMed

    Cassiday, P K; Graves, L M; Swaminathan, B

    1990-07-01

    Bacterial colonies from Listeria-selective agars were replica plated to sheep blood agar to screen for beta-hemolysis. By using the replica plating method to test for the beta-hemolytic characteristic of all the colonies growing on Listeria-selective agars instead of picking 3 to 10 suspected colonies for further testing, we recovered Listeria monocytogenes from 59 of 142 Listeria-selective agar plates which contained colonies of hemolytic and nonhemolytic Listeria species and were negative when tested by conventional colony picks.

  14. Detection of hemolytic Listeria monocytogenes by using DNA colony hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, A.R.; Wentz, B.A.; Hill, W.E.

    1987-09-01

    A fragment of about 500 base pairs of the beta-hemolysin gene from Listeria monocytogenes was used to screen different bacterial strains by DNA colony hybridization. The cells in the colonies were lysed by microwaves in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Of 52 different strains of Listeria species screened, only the DNA from beta-hemolytic (CAMP-positive) strains of L. monocytogenes hybridized with this probe.

  15. Postenrichment population differentials using buffered Listeria enrichment broth: implications of the presence of Listeria innocua on Listeria monocytogenes in food test samples.

    PubMed

    Keys, Ashley L; Dailey, Rachel C; Hitchins, Anthony D; Smiley, R Derike

    2013-11-01

    The recovery of low levels of Listeria monocytogenes from foods is complicated by the presence of competing microorganisms. Nonpathogenic species of Listeria pose a particular problem because variation in growth rate during the enrichment step can produce more colonies of these nontarget cells on selective and/or differential media, resulting in a preferential recovery of nonpathogens, especially Listeria innocua. To gauge the extent of this statistical barrier to pathogen recovery, 10 isolates each of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were propagated together from approximately equal initial levels using the current U. S. Food and Drug Administration's enrichment procedure. In the 100 isolate pairs, an average 1.3-log decrease was found in the 48-h enrichment L. monocytogenes population when L. innocua was present. In 98 of the 100 isolate pairs, L. innocua reached higher levels at 48 h than did L. monocytogenes, with a difference of 0.2 to 2.4 log CFU/ml. The significance of these population differences was apparent by an increase in the difficulty of isolating L. monocytogenes by the streak plating method. L. monocytogenes went completely undetected in 18 of 30 enrichment cultures even after colony isolation was attempted on Oxoid chromogenic Listeria agar. This finding suggests that although both Listeria species were present on the plate, the population differential between them restricted L. monocytogenes to areas of the plate with confluent growth and that isolated individual colonies were only L. innocua.

  16. Different meningitis-causing bacteria induce distinct inflammatory responses on interaction with cells of the human meninges.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Mark I; Weller, Roy O; Heckels, John E; Christodoulides, Myron

    2004-06-01

    The interactions of bacterial pathogens with cells of the human leptomeninges are critical events in the progression of meningitis. An in vitro model based on the culture of human meningioma cells was used to investigate the interactions of the meningeal pathogens Escherichia coli K1, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. A rank order of association with meningioma cells was observed, with N. meningitidis showing the highest levels of adherence, followed by E. coli, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae. Neisseria meningitidis and H. influenzae did not invade meningioma cells or induce cell death, but induced a concentration-dependent secretion of inflammatory mediators. Neisseria meningitidis induced higher levels of IL-6, MCP-1, RANTES and GM-CSF than H. influenzae, but there was no significant difference in the levels of IL-8 induced by both pathogens. Streptococcus pneumoniae was also unable to invade meningioma cells, but low concentrations of bacteria failed to stimulate cytokine secretion. However, higher concentrations of pneumococci led to cell death. By contrast, only E. coli K1 invaded meningioma cells directly and induced rapid cell death before an inflammatory response could be induced. These data demonstrate that the interactions of different bacterial pathogens with human meningeal cells are distinct, and suggest that different intervention strategies may be needed in order to prevent the morbidity and mortality associated with bacterial meningitis.

  17. Rapid Identification and Classification of Listeria spp. and Serotype Assignment of Listeria monocytogenes Using Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy and Artificial Neural Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Romanolo, K. F.; Gorski, L.; Wang, S.; Lauzon, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    The use of Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) in conjunction with Artificial Neural Network software NeuroDeveloper™ was examined for the rapid identification and classification of Listeria species and serotyping of Listeria monocytogenes. A spectral library was created for 245 strains of Listeria spp. to give a biochemical fingerprint from which identification of unknown samples were made. This technology was able to accurately distinguish the Listeria species with 99.03% accuracy. Eleven serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes including 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b were identified with 96.58% accuracy. In addition, motile and non-motile forms of Listeria were used to create a more robust model for identification. FT-IR coupled with NeuroDeveloper™ appear to be a more accurate and economic choice for rapid identification of pathogenic Listeria spp. than current methods. PMID:26600423

  18. Occurrence and distribution of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species in ready-to-eat and raw meat products.

    PubMed

    Mengesha, Desalegn; Zewde, Bayleyegn Molla; Toquin, Marie-Thérèse; Kleer, Josef; Hildebrandt, Goetz; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to estimate the occurrence and distribution of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species in ready-to-eat food items (pasteurized milk, cheese, ice cream, and cakes) and raw meat products (minced beef, pork, and chicken carcasses). A total of 711 randomly selected samples were collected from supermarkets and pastry shops in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species were isolated and identified according to the techniques recommended by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 11290-1). Serotyping of L. monocytogenes strains was carried out at the French Food Safety Agency (AFSSA), Ploufragan, France. Of the 711 food samples examined, 189 (26.6%) were Listeria positive of which 34 (4.8%) were L. monocytogenes. Pork was the most contaminated with Listeria species (62.5%) followed by minced beef (47.7%), ice cream (42.7%), soft cheese (16.8%), chicken carcasses (16.0%), and cakes (12.1%). All pasteurized milk and cottage cheese samples examined were Listeria negative. Listeria monocytogenes strains were isolated in ready-to-eat food items consisting of ice cream (11.7%), cakes (6.5%), and soft cheese (3.9%) and in meat products ranging from 3.7% to 5.1%. Among the 34 isolates of L. monocytogenes serotyped, serotypes 4b/4e (n = 32), 4c, and 4e (n = 2) were identified. The presence of L. monocytogenes in some ready-to-eat food items could pose public health hazards to the consumer, particularly to the high-risk group of the population.

  19. Liofilchem(®) O.A. Listeria agar and direct CAMP test provided sooner Listeria monocytogenes identification from neonatal bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Savini, Vincenzo; Marrollo, Roberta; Serio, Annalisa; Paparella, Antonello; Argentieri, Angela Valentina; D'Antonio, Marianna; Coclite, Eleonora; Fusilli, Paola; Fazii, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes infection in pregnant women and newborns is a cause for serious concern, and invasive disease outcome strongly depends on prompt antibiotic therapy. To provide sooner identification from neonatal bacteremia we performed a CAMP test directly on positive blood aliquots and inoculated the Liofilchem(®) O.A. Listeria chromogenic agar as well, thus providing a 24-h turn-around time for response.

  20. Serotype O18 avian pathogenic and neonatal meningitis Escherichia coli strains employ similar pathogenic strategies for the onset of meningitis.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Subramanian; Chang, Alexander C; Hodges, Jacqueline; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Romero, Ignacio A; Weksler, Babette; Nicholson, Bryon A; Nolan, Lisa K; Prasadarao, Nemani V

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal meningitis Escherichia coli K1 (NMEC) are thought to be transmitted from mothers to newborns during delivery or by nosocomial infections. However, the source of E. coli K1 causing these infections is not clear. Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) have the potential to cause infection in humans while human E. coli have potential to cause colibacillosis in poultry, suggesting that these strains may lack host specificity. APEC strains are capable of causing meningitis in newborn rats; however, it is unclear whether these bacteria use similar mechanisms to that of NMEC to establish disease. Using four representative APEC and NMEC strains that belong to serotype O18, we demonstrate that these strains survive in human serum similar to that of the prototypic NMEC strain E44, a derivative of RS218. These bacteria also bind and enter both macrophages and human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (HCMEC/D3) with similar frequency as that of E44. The amino acid sequences of the outer membrane protein A (OmpA), an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of meningitis, are identical within these representative APEC and NMEC strains. Further, these strains also require FcγRI-α chain (CD64) and Ecgp96 as receptors for OmpA in macrophages and HCMEC/D3, respectively, to bind and enter these cells. APEC and NMEC strains induce meningitis in newborn mice with varying degree of pathology in the brains as assessed by neutrophil recruitment and neuronal apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that serotype O18 APEC strains utilize similar pathogenic mechanisms as those of NMEC strains in causing meningitis.

  1. Picornaviruses in cerebrospinal fluid of children with meningitis in Luanda, Angola.

    PubMed

    Pelkonen, Tuula; Roine, Irmeli; Anjos, Elizabete; Kaijalainen, Svetlana; Roivainen, Merja; Peltola, Heikki; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Human enteroviruses are the most common cause of viral meningitis. Viral-bacterial interaction may affect the clinical course and outcome of bacterial meningitis. In Africa, viruses might be responsible for 14-25% of all meningitis cases. However, only few studies from Africa have reported detection of viruses in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or mixed viral-bacterial infections of the central nervous system (CNS). The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of picornaviruses in the CSF of children suffering from meningitis in Luanda, Angola. The study included 142 consecutive children enrolled in a prospective study of bacterial meningitis in Luanda between 2005 and 2006, from whom a CSF sample was available. CSF samples were obtained at hospital admission, stored in a deep-freeze, and transported to Finland for testing by real-time PCR for picornaviruses. Enteroviruses were detected in 4 (3%) of 142 children with presumed bacterial meningitis. A 5-month-old girl with rhinovirus and Haemophilus influenzae meningitis recovered uneventfully. An 8-year-old girl with human enterovirus and pneumococcal meningitis developed no sequelae. A 2-month-old girl with human enterovirus and malaria recovered quickly. A 7-month-old girl with human enterovirus was treated for presumed tuberculous meningitis and survived with severe sequelae. Mixed infections of the CNS with picornaviruses and bacteria are rare. Detection of an enterovirus does not affect the clinical picture and outcome of bacterial meningitis.

  2. 75 FR 47524 - Notice of Request for a Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection (Listeria...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Collection (Listeria Monocytogenes Control for Ready-to-Eat Products) AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection... information collection regarding Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) for ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Listeria Monocytogenes Control for Ready-to-Eat Products. OMB Number:...

  3. Novel PCR Assays Complement Laser Biosensor-Based Method and Facilitate Listeria Species Detection from Food.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Singh, Atul K; Bai, Xingjian; Leprun, Lena; Bhunia, Arun K

    2015-09-08

    The goal of this study was to develop the Listeria species-specific PCR assays based on a house-keeping gene (lmo1634) encoding alcohol acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (Aad), previously designated as Listeria adhesion protein (LAP), and compare results with a label-free light scattering sensor, BARDOT (bacterial rapid detection using optical scattering technology). PCR primer sets targeting the lap genes from the species of Listeria sensu stricto were designed and tested with 47 Listeria and 8 non-Listeria strains. The resulting PCR primer sets detected either all species of Listeria sensu stricto or individual L. innocua, L. ivanovii and L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri, and L. marthii without producing any amplified products from other bacteria tested. The PCR assays with Listeria sensu stricto-specific primers also successfully detected all species of Listeria sensu stricto and/or Listeria innocua from mixed culture-inoculated food samples, and each bacterium in food was verified by using the light scattering sensor that generated unique scatter signature for each species of Listeria tested. The PCR assays based on the house-keeping gene aad (lap) can be used for detection of either all species of Listeria sensu stricto or certain individual Listeria species in a mixture from food with a detection limit of about 10⁴ CFU/mL.

  4. Novel PCR Assays Complement Laser Biosensor-Based Method and Facilitate Listeria Species Detection from Food

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Singh, Atul K.; Bai, Xingjian; Leprun, Lena; Bhunia, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop the Listeria species-specific PCR assays based on a house-keeping gene (lmo1634) encoding alcohol acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (Aad), previously designated as Listeria adhesion protein (LAP), and compare results with a label-free light scattering sensor, BARDOT (bacterial rapid detection using optical scattering technology). PCR primer sets targeting the lap genes from the species of Listeria sensu stricto were designed and tested with 47 Listeria and 8 non-Listeria strains. The resulting PCR primer sets detected either all species of Listeria sensu stricto or individual L. innocua, L. ivanovii and L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri, and L. marthii without producing any amplified products from other bacteria tested. The PCR assays with Listeria sensu stricto-specific primers also successfully detected all species of Listeria sensu stricto and/or Listeria innocua from mixed culture-inoculated food samples, and each bacterium in food was verified by using the light scattering sensor that generated unique scatter signature for each species of Listeria tested. The PCR assays based on the house-keeping gene aad (lap) can be used for detection of either all species of Listeria sensu stricto or certain individual Listeria species in a mixture from food with a detection limit of about 104 CFU/mL. PMID:26371000

  5. Metal ion homeostasis in Listeria monocytogenes and importance in host-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Jesse, Helen E; Roberts, Ian S; Cavet, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is responsible for one of the most life-threatening food-borne infections and the leading cause of food-poisoning associated deaths in the UK. Infection may be of the unborn/newly born infant where disease may manifest as listeric abortion, stillbirth or late-onset neonatal listeriosis, while in adults, infection usually affects the central nervous system causing meningitis. Crucial to the survival of L. monocytogenes, both inside and outside the host, is its ability to acquire metals which act as cofactors for a broad range of its cellular proteins. However, L. monocytogenes must also protect itself against the innate toxicity of metals. The importance of metals in host-pathogen interactions is illustrated by the restriction of metals (including zinc and iron) in vertebrates in response to infection and the use of high levels of metals (copper and zinc) as part of the antimicrobial defences within host phagocytes. As such, L. monocytogenes is equipped with various mechanisms to tightly control its cellular metal pools and avoid metal poisoning. These include multiple DNA-binding metal-responsive transcription factors, metal-acquisition, metal-detoxification and metal-storage systems, some of which represent key L. monocytogenes virulence determinants. This review discusses current knowledge of the role of metals in L. monocytogenes infections, with a focus on the mechanisms that contribute to zinc and copper homeostasis in this organism. The requirement to precisely control cellular metal levels may impose a vulnerability to L. monocytogenes which can be exploited in antimicrobials and therapeutics. PMID:25476765

  6. Incidence, Carriage and Case-Carrier Ratios for Meningococcal Meningitis in the African Meningitis Belt: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Koutangni, Thibaut; Boubacar Maïnassara, Halima; Mueller, Judith E.

    2015-01-01

    Background To facilitate the interpretation of meningococcal meningitis epidemiology in the “African meningitis belt”, we aimed at obtaining serogroup-specific pooled estimates of incidence, carriage and case-carrier ratios for meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt and describe their variations across the endemic, hyperendemic and epidemic context. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting serogroup-specific meningococcal meningitis monthly incidence and carriage in the same population and time period. Epidemiological contexts were defined as endemic (wet season, no epidemic), hyperendemic (dry season, no epidemic), and epidemic (dry season, epidemic). Findings Eight studies reporting a total of eighty pairs of serogroup-specific meningococcal meningitis incidence and carriage estimates were included in this review. For serogroup A, changes associated with the transition from endemic to hyperendemic incidence and from hyperendemic to epidemic incidence were 15-fold and 120-fold respectively. Changes in carriage prevalence associated with both transitions were 1-fold and 30-fold respectively. 
For serogroup W and X, the transition from endemic to hyperendemic incidence involved a 4-fold and 1•1-fold increase respectively. Increases in carriage prevalence for the later transition were 7-fold and 1•7-fold respectively. No data were available for the hyperendemic-epidemic transition for these serogroups. Our findings suggested that the regular seasonal variation in serogroup A meningococcal meningitis incidence between the rainy and the dry season could be mainly driven by seasonal change in the ratio of clinical cases to subclinical infections. In contrast appearance of epidemic incidences is related to a substantial increase in transmission and colonisation and to lesser extent with changes in the case-carrier ratio. Conclusion Seasonal change in the rate of progression to disease given carriage

  7. A cascade of morphogenic signaling initiated by the meninges controls corpus callosum formation.

    PubMed

    Choe, Youngshik; Siegenthaler, Julie A; Pleasure, Samuel J

    2012-02-23

    The corpus callosum is the most prominent commissural connection between the cortical hemispheres, and numerous neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with callosal agenesis. By using mice either with meningeal overgrowth or selective loss of meninges, we have identified a cascade of morphogenic signals initiated by the meninges that regulates corpus callosum development. The meninges produce BMP7, an inhibitor of callosal axon outgrowth. This activity is overcome by the induction of expression of Wnt3 by the callosal pathfinding neurons, which antagonize the inhibitory effects of BMP7. Wnt3 expression in the cingulate callosal pathfinding axons is developmentally regulated by another BMP family member, GDF5, which is produced by the adjacent Cajal-Retzius neurons and turns on before outgrowth of the callosal axons. The effects of GDF5 are in turn under the control of a soluble GDF5 inhibitor, Dan, made by the meninges. Thus, the meninges and medial neocortex use a cascade of signals to regulate corpus callosum development.

  8. [A case of colchicine-responsive Mollaret's meningitis with MEFV gene mutation].

    PubMed

    Kinohshita, Tomomi; Matsushima, Akira; Satoh, Shunichi; Hoshi, Kenichi; Kishida, Dai; Yahikozawa, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with recurrent meningitis. She presented with 10 episodes of meningitis in 10 months. Examination of cerebrospinal fluid demonstrated pleocytosis, with neutrophils dominant at the early stage, and lymphocytes dominant at the late stage. Mollaret cells were found and the level of IL-6 was increased in cerebrospinal fluid. Several antibiotics and antiviral agents failed to prevent relapse. However, colchicine therapy successfully prevented the recurrence of meningitis. Genetic testing for familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) showed a mutation in the MEFV gene. It is difficult to diagnose the cause of Mollaret's meningitis in some patients. FMF, neuro-Behçet's disease, and neuro-Sweet disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of recurrent meningitis. In addition, colchicine therapy can prevent the relapse of meningitis in such cases.

  9. Recombinant Probiotic Expressing Listeria Adhesion Protein Attenuates Listeria monocytogenes Virulence In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Ok Kyung; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Bhunia, Arun K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Listeria monocytogenes, an intracellular foodborne pathogen, infects immunocompromised hosts. The primary route of transmission is through contaminated food. In the gastrointestinal tract, it traverses the epithelial barrier through intracellular or paracellular routes. Strategies to prevent L. monocytogenes entry can potentially minimize infection in high-risk populations. Listeria adhesion protein (LAP) aids L. monocytogenes in crossing epithelial barriers via the paracellular route. The use of recombinant probiotic bacteria expressing LAP would aid targeted clearance of Listeria from the gut and protect high-risk populations from infection. Methodology/Principal Findings The objective was to investigate the ability of probiotic bacteria or LAP-expressing recombinant probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei (LbpLAP) to prevent L. monocytogenes adhesion, invasion, and transwell-based transepithelial translocation in a Caco-2 cell culture model. Several wild type probiotic bacteria showed strong adhesion to Caco-2 cells but none effectively prevented L. monocytogenes infection. Pre-exposure to LbpLAP for 1, 4, 15, or 24 h significantly (P<0.05) reduced adhesion, invasion, and transepithelial translocation of L. monocytogenes in Caco-2 cells, whereas pre-exposure to parental Lb. paracasei had no significant effect. Similarly, LbpLAP pre-exposure reduced L. monocytogenes translocation by as much as 46% after 24 h. LbpLAP also prevented L. monocytogenes-mediated cell damage and compromise of tight junction integrity. Furthermore, LbpLAP cells reduced L. monocytogenes-mediated cell cytotoxicity by 99.8% after 1 h and 79% after 24 h. Conclusions/Significance Wild type probiotic bacteria were unable to prevent L. monocytogenes infection in vitro. In contrast, LbpLAP blocked adhesion, invasion, and translocation of L. monocytogenes by interacting with host cell receptor Hsp60, thereby protecting cells from infection. These data show promise for the use of recombinant

  10. Prevalence of Listeria spp. and Molecular Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Broilers at the Abattoir.

    PubMed

    Bouayad, Leila; Hamdi, Taha M; Naim, Malek; Leclercq, Alexandre; Lecuit, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Products from three broiler abattoirs were sampled for Listeria species to evaluate the changes in the prevalence and contamination rates at two stages of processing. Sampling was performed at the evisceration stage and at the end of processing after packaging and refrigerating at 4°C for 24 h. A total of 212 samples were collected; 52 were from abattoir A, and 80 samples each were collected from abattoirs B and C. Among all samples, 99 (46.7%) tested positive for Listeria, including L. monocytogenes 19 (8.9%), L. innocua 69 (32.5%), L. grayi 10 (4.7%), and L. welshimeri 1 (0.5%). The L. monocytogenes contamination rate varied from 5% to 11.5% in the 3 abattoirs. L. innocua was the most common species identified and was found in 8.8% of the samples from abattoir A and 33.7% of the samples from both abattoirs B and C. Twenty-six of the L. monocytogenes isolates obtained from positive samples were subjected to serotyping by multiplex polymerase chain reaction and characterization by the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method using two cutting enzymes, ApaI and AscI. Three molecular serogroups were identified: IIa, IIb, and IVb. Serogroup IIa was common to all abattoirs, and serogroups IIb and IVb were found only in abattoir C. The 10 different obtained PFGE profiles were grouped into 7 clusters; some of these clusters were common to the 3 abattoirs, and others were specific to the abattoirs in which they were identified. This study revealed a high prevalence of Listeria spp., particularly L. monocytogenes, in raw broilers. This high incidence presents a risk to consumers due to the potential occurrence of cross-contamination with other foods in domestic refrigerators and the ability of these microorganisms to survive in undercooked products.

  11. Congenital cerebrospinal fluid fistula through the inner ear and meningitis.

    PubMed

    Phelps, P D; Proops, D; Sellars, S; Evans, J; Michaels, L

    1993-06-01

    Congenital deformities of the labyrinth of the inner ear can be associated with a fistulous communication between the intracranial subarachnoid space and the middle ear cavity. We describe seven such cases, six confirmed by high resolution CT and one by postmortem histological section. The seven patients all presented with meningitis although a cerebrospinal fluid fistula was demonstrated at subsequent surgery or postmortem. The lesions were bilateral in three patients, unilateral in three and probably bilateral in the postmortem case although only one temporal bone was obtained. In every case there was a dilated sac instead of the normal two and a half turn cochlea on the affected side and this was confirmed at surgery. The demonstration of the basal cochlear turn is of paramount importance in any deaf child presenting with meningitis. A true Mondini deformity with a normal basal turn and some hearing is not at risk of developing a fistula. PMID:8345296

  12. Pasteurella multocida bacterial meningitis caused by contact with pigs

    PubMed Central

    López, C.; Sanchez-Rubio, P.; Betrán, A.; Terré, R.

    2013-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida belongs to the normal flora of the respiratory and digestive tract of many animals. Animal exposure is a considerable risk factor for Pasteurella infection. P. multocida is the most common cause of local infection after an animal bite but is an unusual cause of meningitis. We present a case of bacterial meningitis by P. multocida in a 37-year-old man who worked in a pig farm and was bitten by a pig. The patient had a defect located in the lamina cribosa and this lesion could be the gateway of the infection, although in this case the infection could also be acquired through the pig bite. The bacteria was identified as P. multocida with the biochemical test API 20E (bioMérieux). In agreement with findings in the literature, the strain was susceptible in vitro to penicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, imipenem and tetracycline. PMID:24294240

  13. Improving Decision-Making Activities for Meningitis and Malaria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ceccato, Pietro; Trzaska, Sylwia; Garcia-Pando, Carlos Perez; Kalashnikova, Olga; del Corral, John; Cousin, Remi; Blumenthal, M. Benno; Bell, Michael; Connor, Stephen J.; Thomson, Madeleine C.

    2013-01-01

    Public health professionals are increasingly concerned about the potential impact that climate variability and change can have on infectious disease. The International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) is developing new products to increase the public health community's capacity to understand, use and demand the appropriate climate data and climate information to mitigate the public health impacts of climate on infectious disease, in particular meningitis and malaria. In this paper, we present the new and improved products that have been developed for: (i) estimating dust aerosol for forecasting risks of meningitis and (ii) for monitoring temperature and rainfall and integrating them into a vectorial capacity model for forecasting risks of malaria epidemics. We also present how the products have been integrated into a knowledge system (IRI Data Library Map Room, SERVIR) to support the use of climate and environmental information in climate-sensitive health decision-making.

  14. Intradural Extramedullary Tuberculoma of the Spinal Cord Following Tuberculous Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Deok-Ki; Kwon, Young-Min

    2015-06-01

    Intradural extramedullary tuberculoma of the spinal cord (IETSC) is an uncommon disease which can occurs secondary to tuberculous meningitis. A 31-year-old woman was diagnosed as tuberculous meningitis after mental disorientation. Her mentality was recovered after antituberculous therapy. After 7 months of antituberculous therapy, paraplegia has developed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a mass lesion between the T1 and T12 spinal levels with arachnoid thickening which results in the development of tuberculoma. She received surgical resection of IETSC followed by antituberculous therapy and neurological function has been improved. The two years after surgical treatment, spinal MRI showed syringomyelia between T1 to L1. But, her neurological outcome was not aggravated. PMID:26217394

  15. Ischemic infarction in 25 children with tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Leiguarda, R; Berthier, M; Starkstein, S; Nogués, M; Lylyk, P

    1988-02-01

    Twenty-five cases (38%) of ischemic infarction occurred among 65 cases of tuberculous meningitis in patients less than 14 years of age. The male:female ratio was 1.3:1. The most frequent clinical findings were meningeal signs, fever, alteration of consciousness, cranial nerve involvement, seizures, and focal neurologic deficit. Twenty-three patients had anterior circulation infarcts, and two more had infarcts in the vertebrobasilar territories. Distribution of infarcts in the anterior circulation was shown by computed tomography in the territories of the following arteries: lenticulostriate, 10 cases unilateral and 6 bilateral; middle cerebral, 3 cases; internal carotid, 1 case; multiple areas, 3 cases. Of the 25 ischemic infarction cases, 23 (92%) had hydrocephalus, 19 (76%) basal exudates, and 2 (8%) tuberculomas. Outcome was poor since no patient with infarction recovered completely. Six died and bilateral subcortical infarcts led to a considerably higher mortality than unilateral ones, whether cortical or subcortical.

  16. How Do Meningeal Lymphatic Vessels Drain the CNS?

    PubMed

    Raper, Daniel; Louveau, Antoine; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    The many interactions between the nervous and the immune systems, which are active in both physiological and pathological states, have recently become more clearly delineated with the discovery of a meningeal lymphatic system capable of carrying fluid, immune cells, and macromolecules from the central nervous system (CNS) to the draining deep cervical lymph nodes. However, the exact localization of the meningeal lymphatic vasculature and the path of drainage from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to the lymphatics remain poorly understood. Here, we discuss the potential differences between peripheral and CNS lymphatic vessels and examine the purported mechanisms of CNS lymphatic drainage, along with how these may fit into established patterns of CSF flow. PMID:27460561

  17. Improving Decision-Making Activities for Meningitis and Malaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccato, P.; Trzaska, S.; Perez, C.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; del Corral, J.; Cousin, R.; Blumenthal, M. B.; Connor, S.; Thomson, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Public health professionals are increasingly concerned about the potential impact that climate variability and change can have on infectious disease. The International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) is developing new products to increase the public health community's capacity to understand, use, and demand the appropriate climate data and climate information to mitigate the public health impacts of climate on infectious disease, in particular Meningitis and Malaria. In this paper we present the new and improved products that have been developed for monitoring dust, temperature, rainfall and vectorial capacity model for monitoring and forecasting risks of Meningitis and Malaria epidemics. We also present how the products have been integrated into a knowledge system (IRI Data Library Map room, SERVIR) to support the use of climate and environmental information in climate-sensitive health decision-making.

  18. Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. contamination patterns in retail delicatessen establishments in three U.S. states.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Courtenay; Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Wright, Emily; Warchocki, Steven; Roof, Sherry; Kause, Janell R; Bauer, Nathan; Ibrahim, Salam; Wiedmann, Martin; Oliver, Haley F

    2014-11-01

    Postprocessing contamination in processing plants has historically been a significant source of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat delicatessen meats, and therefore a major cause of human listeriosis cases and outbreaks. Recent risk assessments suggest that a majority of human listeriosis cases linked to consumption of contaminated deli meats may be due to L. monocytogenes contamination that occurs at the retail level. To better understand the ecology and transmission of Listeria spp. in retail delicatessens, food and nonfood contact surfaces were tested for L. monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. in a longitudinal study conducted in 30 retail delis in three U.S. states. In phase I of the study, seven sponge samples were collected monthly for 3 months in 15 delis (5 delis per state) prior to start of daily operation; in phase II, 28 food contact and nonfood contact sites were sampled in each of 30 delis during daily operation for 6 months. Among the 314 samples collected during phase I, 6.8% were positive for L. monocytogenes. Among 4,503 samples collected during phase II, 9.5% were positive for L. monocytogenes; 9 of 30 delis showed low L. monocytogenes prevalence (<1%) for all surfaces. A total of 245 Listeria spp. isolates, including 184 Listeria innocua, 48 Listeria seeligeri, and 13 Listeria welshimeri were characterized. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to characterize 446 L. monocytogenes isolates. PFGE showed that for 12 of 30 delis, one or more PFGE types were isolated on at least three separate occasions, providing evidence for persistence of a given L. monocytogenes subtype in the delis. For some delis, PFGE patterns for isolates from nonfood contact surfaces were distinct from patterns for occasional food contact surface isolates, suggesting limited cross-contamination between these sites in some delis. This study provides longitudinal data on L. monocytogenes contamination patterns in retail delis, which should facilitate further

  19. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome following neurosurgical intervention in tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Nagotkar, L; Shanbag, P; Dasarwar, N

    2008-07-01

    Cerebral salt wasting is characterized by inappropriate natriuresis and volume contraction in the presence of cerebral pathology. Diagnosis can be difficult and therapy is challenging. We report two children with tuberculous meningitis and hydrocephalus who developed cerebral salt wasting following neurosurgical intervention. The first patient was managed with rigorous salt and water replacement whereas the second patient required the addition of fludrocortisone for control of salt-wasting.

  20. Chronic Meningitis Complicating Intracranial Hypertension in Neurobrucellosis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tugcu, Betul; Nacaroglu, Senay Asik; Coskun, Cigdem; Kuscu, Demet Yandım; Onder, Feyza

    2015-01-01

    In neurobrucellosis, even though meningitis is encountered frequently, chronic intracranial hypertension is a rare manifestation. Early diagnosis and treatment is very important for the prevention of permanent visual loss secondary to poststasis optic atrophy in these cases. We report a case that presented with permanent visual loss secondary to intracranial hypertension in neurobrucellosis. Our goal is to draw attention to the consideration of neurobrucellosis in cases with papilla stasis, even in the absence of neurological findings in endemic areas.

  1. Eosinophilic meningitis: a case series and review of literature of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Gnathostoma spinigerum.

    PubMed

    Shah, I; Barot, S; Madvariya, M

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis is defined as the presence of >10 eosinophils/μL in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or at least 10% eosinophils in the total CSF leukocyte count. Eosinophilic meningitis has been reported in two case series and two case reports in India till date and has not been reported in children below 15 years of age. We present two children with eosinophilic meningitis with peripheral eosinophilia and the proposed etiologic agents based on the clinical setting and their response to antihelminthic agents.

  2. Bifrontal meningeal fibrosarcoma in a patient with metastases to the liver, kidneys and suprarenal glands.

    PubMed

    Aung, T H; Tse, C H

    1993-09-01

    Primary meningeal sarcoma is a rare malignant tumour of the central nervous system and metastases to the liver, kidney and the suprarenal gland have not been reported elsewhere. A 47 year old Chinese woman who presented with a short history of headache and vomiting was found to have metastatic meningeal fibrosarcoma in the liver 4 months after resection of primary bifrontal meningeal fibrosarcoma. The computerized tomography findings and relevant histology are presented.

  3. Atypical clinical presentation of meningococcal meningitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Ilaria; Pileri, Paola; Merello, Maria; Gnesin, Paolo; Cogi, Enrico; Aggiusti, Carlo; Giacomelli, Laura; Ettori, Stefano; Colombini, Paolo; Collidá, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    A young woman was examined in the Emergency Department for fever, pharyngitis and widespread petechial rash. Physical examination, including neurological evaluation, did not show any other abnormalities. Chest X-ray was negative. Blood exams showed leukocytosis and CPR 20 mg/dL (nv<0.5 mg/dL). On the basis of these results and petechial rash evidence, lumbar puncture was performed. CSF was opalescent; physico-chemical examination showed: total proteins 2.8 (nv 0.15-0.45), glucose 5 (nv 59-80), WBC 7600/μL (nv 0-4/ μL). In the hypothesis of meningococcal meningitis, antimicrobial therapy was started. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures were positive for N. meningitidis. During the first hours the patient experienced hallucinations and mild psychomotor agitation, making a spontaneous recovery. A brain MRI showed minimal extra-axial inflammatory exudates. She was discharged after 10 days in good condition. We underline the need to consider meningococcal meningitis diagnosis when any suggestive symptom or sign is present, even in the absence of the classic meningitis triad, to obtain earlier diagnosis and an improved prognosis. PMID:27668905

  4. [Blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier in purulent cerebrospinal meningitis].

    PubMed

    Przyjałkowski, W; Lipowski, D; Kolasa, T; Issa, E; Olejnik, Z

    1996-01-01

    Our investigations concerned the blood-brain barrier (b.b.b.) in patients with acute bacterial purulent meningitis. For that purpose concentrations of proteins, which are synthesized beyond the central nervous system and in normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) exist only in slight amounts, were determined in CSF and in blood serum. Albumin was examined in the CSF of 59 patients and in the serum of 35 of them, transferrin of 40 and 32 patients, respectively. Etiological verification was obtained in 84.7% of patients. The control group consisted of 20 persons. Quantitative analytical tests were carried out by means of immunochemical, turbidimetric methods. High levels of albumin and transferrin in CSF and low in serum of patients with meningitis were observed. The obtained results, confirmed by statistical analysis, demonstrate that in the acute phase of purulent meningitis b.b.b is impaired, what leads to the transfer of the proteins from the blood serum into the cerebrospinal fluid and that transferrins a better indicator of the damage to blood-brain barrier than albumin. PMID:8657349

  5. Streptococcus pneumoniae capsule determines disease severity in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Grandgirard, Denis; Valente, Luca G.; Täuber, Martin G.; Leib, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria can be characterized into over 90 serotypes according to the composition of their polysaccharide capsules. Some serotypes are common in nasopharyngeal carriage whereas others are associated with invasive disease, but when carriage serotypes do invade disease is often particularly severe. It is unknown whether disease severity is due directly to the capsule type or to other virulence factors. Here, we used a clinical pneumococcal isolate and its capsule-switch mutants to determine the effect of capsule, in isolation from the genetic background, on severity of meningitis in an infant rat model. We found that possession of a capsule was essential for causing meningitis. Serotype 6B caused significantly more mortality than 7F and this correlated with increased capsule thickness in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a stronger inflammatory cytokine response in the CSF and ultimately more cortical brain damage. We conclude that capsule type has a direct effect on meningitis severity. This is an important consideration in the current era of vaccination targeting a subset of capsule types that causes serotype replacement. PMID:27009189

  6. Listeria Species in Broiler Poultry Farms: Potential Public Health Hazards.

    PubMed

    Dahshan, Hesham; Merwad, Abdallah Mohamed Amin; Mohamed, Taisir Saber

    2016-09-28

    Broiler meat production worldwide has been plagued by lethal food-poisoning bacteria diseases, including listeriosis. A fatality rate of 15.6% was recorded in human beings in the EU in 2015. During 2013, a total of 200 poultry farm samples, including litter, chicken breast, farm feed, and drinking water, were collected to generate baseline data for the characterization of the genus Listeria in broiler poultry farms. Listeria spp. were detected in a total of 95 (47.5%) poultry farm samples. The isolates of Listeria spp. included L. innocua (28.5%), L. ivanovii (12.5%), L. welshimeri (4.5%), and L. monocytogenes and L. seeligeri (1% each). Listeria spp. contamination rates were higher in farm feed (70%), followed by litter (52.5%), chicken breasts (42.2%), and drinking water (10%). Almost all Listeria spp. isolates were resistant to more than three classes of antibiotics (multidrug resistant). Besides this, we observed a significant resistance level to penicillin and fluoroquinolone drugs. However, lower resistance levels were recorded for broad-spectrum cephalosporins. The inlA, inlC, and inlJ virulence genes were detected in almost all of the L. monocytogenes isolates. Thus, food safety management approaches and interventions at all stages of the broiler rearing cycle were needed to control cross-contamination and the zoonotic potential of listeriosis.

  7. Listeria Species in Broiler Poultry Farms: Potential Public Health Hazards.

    PubMed

    Dahshan, Hesham; Merwad, Abdallah Mohamed Amin; Mohamed, Taisir Saber

    2016-09-28

    Broiler meat production worldwide has been plagued by lethal food-poisoning bacteria diseases, including listeriosis. A fatality rate of 15.6% was recorded in human beings in the EU in 2015. During 2013, a total of 200 poultry farm samples, including litter, chicken breast, farm feed, and drinking water, were collected to generate baseline data for the characterization of the genus Listeria in broiler poultry farms. Listeria spp. were detected in a total of 95 (47.5%) poultry farm samples. The isolates of Listeria spp. included L. innocua (28.5%), L. ivanovii (12.5%), L. welshimeri (4.5%), and L. monocytogenes and L. seeligeri (1% each). Listeria spp. contamination rates were higher in farm feed (70%), followed by litter (52.5%), chicken breasts (42.2%), and drinking water (10%). Almost all Listeria spp. isolates were resistant to more than three classes of antibiotics (multidrug resistant). Besides this, we observed a significant resistance level to penicillin and fluoroquinolone drugs. However, lower resistance levels were recorded for broad-spectrum cephalosporins. The inlA, inlC, and inlJ virulence genes were detected in almost all of the L. monocytogenes isolates. Thus, food safety management approaches and interventions at all stages of the broiler rearing cycle were needed to control cross-contamination and the zoonotic potential of listeriosis. PMID:27291674

  8. Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfestation syndrome with Escherichia coli meningitis: report of two cases.

    PubMed Central

    Smallman, L A; Young, J A; Shortland-Webb, W R; Carey, M P; Michael, J

    1986-01-01

    Two cases of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfestation syndrome accompanied by Gram negative bacteraemia and meningitis were studied. Both occurred in non-immunosuppressed West Indian women. Images PMID:3517071

  9. An unusual case of E coli meningitis in a patient with Marfan's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kangath, Raghesh Varot; Midturi, John

    2013-03-05

    Spontaneous non-traumatic Escherichia coli meningitis is very rare in adults. We report a case of a 48-year-old woman with Marfan's syndrome with E coli meningitis. Apparently, the relation between an increased risk of meningitis and Marfan's syndrome is not well known. This patient was discharged on intravenous antibiotic therapy after a diagnosis of E coli meningitis without looking for the cause by imaging studies previously. Her blood cultures were negative ruling out haematogenous spread. Our work-up revealed extensive dural ectasia with intrasacral meningoceles extending into the pelvis possibly acting as a portal of entry for the bacteria into the brain from the gastrointestinal tract.

  10. Multicenter Evaluation of BioFire FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel for Detection of Bacteria, Viruses, and Yeast in Cerebrospinal Fluid Specimens.

    PubMed

    Leber, Amy L; Everhart, Kathy; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Cullison, Jillian; Daly, Judy; Holt, Sarah; Lephart, Paul; Salimnia, Hossein; Schreckenberger, Paul C; DesJarlais, Sharon; Reed, Sharon L; Chapin, Kimberle C; LeBlanc, Lindsay; Johnson, J Kristie; Soliven, Nicole L; Carroll, Karen C; Miller, Jo-Anne; Dien Bard, Jennifer; Mestas, Javier; Bankowski, Matthew; Enomoto, Tori; Hemmert, Andrew C; Bourzac, Kevin M

    2016-09-01

    Rapid diagnosis and treatment of infectious meningitis and encephalitis are critical to minimize morbidity and mortality. Comprehensive testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) often includes Gram stain, culture, antigen detection, and molecular methods, paired with chemical and cellular analyses. These methods may lack sensitivity or specificity, can take several days, and require significant volume for complete analysis. The FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) Panel is a multiplexed in vitro diagnostic test for the simultaneous, rapid (∼1-h) detection of 14 pathogens directly from CSF specimens: Escherichia coli K1, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, cytomegalovirus, enterovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 6, human parechovirus, varicella-zoster virus, and Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii We describe a multicenter evaluation of 1,560 prospectively collected CSF specimens with performance compared to culture (bacterial analytes) and PCR (all other analytes). The FilmArray ME Panel demonstrated a sensitivity or positive percentage of agreement of 100% for 9 of 14 analytes. Enterovirus and human herpesvirus type 6 had agreements of 95.7% and 85.7%, and L. monocytogenes and N. meningitidis were not observed in the study. For S. agalactiae, there was a single false-positive and false-negative result each, for a sensitivity and specificity of 0 and 99.9%, respectively. The specificity or negative percentage of agreement was 99.2% or greater for all other analytes. The FilmArray ME Panel is a sensitive and specific test to aid in diagnosis of ME. With use of this comprehensive and rapid test, improved patient outcomes and antimicrobial stewardship are anticipated. PMID:27335149

  11. Multicenter Evaluation of BioFire FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel for Detection of Bacteria, Viruses, and Yeast in Cerebrospinal Fluid Specimens.

    PubMed

    Leber, Amy L; Everhart, Kathy; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Cullison, Jillian; Daly, Judy; Holt, Sarah; Lephart, Paul; Salimnia, Hossein; Schreckenberger, Paul C; DesJarlais, Sharon; Reed, Sharon L; Chapin, Kimberle C; LeBlanc, Lindsay; Johnson, J Kristie; Soliven, Nicole L; Carroll, Karen C; Miller, Jo-Anne; Dien Bard, Jennifer; Mestas, Javier; Bankowski, Matthew; Enomoto, Tori; Hemmert, Andrew C; Bourzac, Kevin M

    2016-09-01

    Rapid diagnosis and treatment of infectious meningitis and encephalitis are critical to minimize morbidity and mortality. Comprehensive testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) often includes Gram stain, culture, antigen detection, and molecular methods, paired with chemical and cellular analyses. These methods may lack sensitivity or specificity, can take several days, and require significant volume for complete analysis. The FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) Panel is a multiplexed in vitro diagnostic test for the simultaneous, rapid (∼1-h) detection of 14 pathogens directly from CSF specimens: Escherichia coli K1, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, cytomegalovirus, enterovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 6, human parechovirus, varicella-zoster virus, and Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii We describe a multicenter evaluation of 1,560 prospectively collected CSF specimens with performance compared to culture (bacterial analytes) and PCR (all other analytes). The FilmArray ME Panel demonstrated a sensitivity or positive percentage of agreement of 100% for 9 of 14 analytes. Enterovirus and human herpesvirus type 6 had agreements of 95.7% and 85.7%, and L. monocytogenes and N. meningitidis were not observed in the study. For S. agalactiae, there was a single false-positive and false-negative result each, for a sensitivity and specificity of 0 and 99.9%, respectively. The specificity or negative percentage of agreement was 99.2% or greater for all other analytes. The FilmArray ME Panel is a sensitive and specific test to aid in diagnosis of ME. With use of this comprehensive and rapid test, improved patient outcomes and antimicrobial stewardship are anticipated.

  12. Adjunctive Dexamethasone in HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Beardsley, J.; Wolbers, M.; Kibengo, F.M.; Ggayi, A.-B.M.; Kamali, A.; Cuc, N.T.K.; Binh, T.Q.; Chau, N.V.V.; Farrar, J.; Merson, L.; Phuong, L.; Thwaites, G.; Van Kinh, N.; Thuy, P.T.; Chierakul, W.; Siriboon, S.; Thiansukhon, E.; Onsanit, S.; Supphamongkholchaikul, W.; Chan, A.K.; Heyderman, R.; Mwinjiwa, E.; van Oosterhout, J.J.; Imran, D.; Basri, H.; Mayxay, M.; Dance, D.; Phimmasone, P.; Rattanavong, S.; Lalloo, D.G.; Day, J.N.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cryptococcal meningitis associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection causes more than 600,000 deaths each year worldwide. Treatment has changed little in 20 years, and there are no imminent new anticryptococcal agents. The use of adjuvant glucocorticoids reduces mortality among patients with other forms of meningitis in some populations, but their use is untested in patients with cryptococcal meningitis. METHODS In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited adult patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, Laos, Uganda, and Malawi. All the patients received either dexamethasone or placebo for 6 weeks, along with combination antifungal therapy with amphotericin B and fluconazole. RESULTS The trial was stopped for safety reasons after the enrollment of 451 patients. Mortality was 47% in the dexamethasone group and 41% in the placebo group by 10 weeks (hazard ratio in the dexamethasone group, 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 1.47; P = 0.45) and 57% and 49%, respectively, by 6 months (hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.53; P = 0.20). The percentage of patients with disability at 10 weeks was higher in the dexamethasone group than in the placebo group, with 13% versus 25% having a prespecified good outcome (odds ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.69; P<0.001). Clinical adverse events were more common in the dexamethasone group than in the placebo group (667 vs. 494 events, P = 0.01), with more patients in the dexamethasone group having grade 3 or 4 infection (48 vs. 25 patients, P = 0.003), renal events (22 vs. 7, P = 0.004), and cardiac events (8 vs. 0, P = 0.004). Fungal clearance in cerebrospinal fluid was slower in the dexamethasone group. Results were consistent across Asian and African sites. CONCLUSIONS Dexamethasone did not reduce mortality among patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis and was associated with more adverse events and disability

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility and antibiotic resistance gene transfer analysis of foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria spp. isolates including Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, David; Muelli, Mirjam; Weller, Monika; Uruty, Anaïs; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess antibiotic resistance pheno- and genotypes in foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria isolates, as well as to elucidate the horizontal gene transfer potential of detected resistance genes. A small fraction of in total 524 Listeria spp. isolates (3.1%) displayed acquired antibiotic resistance mainly to tetracycline (n = 11), but also to clindamycin (n = 4) and trimethoprim (n = 3), which was genotypically confirmed. In two cases, a tetracycline resistance phenotype was observed together with a trimethoprim resistance phenotype, namely in a clinical L. monocytogenes strain and in a foodborne L. innocua isolate. Depending on the applied guidelines, a differing number of isolates (n = 2 or n = 20) showed values for ampicillin that are on the edge between intermediate susceptibility and resistance. Transferability of the antibiotic resistance genes from the Listeria donors, elucidated in vitro by filter matings, was demonstrated for genes located on transposons of the Tn916 family and for an unknown clindamycin resistance determinant. Transfer rates of up to 10(-5) transconjugants per donor were obtained with a L. monocytogenes recipient and up to 10(-7) with an Enterococcus faecalis recipient, respectively. Although the prevalence of acquired antibiotic resistance in Listeria isolates from this study was rather low, the transferability of these resistances enables further spread in the future. This endorses the importance of surveillance of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. in terms of antibiotic susceptibility.

  14. Epidemic meningitis due to Group A Neisseria meningitidis in the African meningitis belt: a persistent problem with an imminent solution.

    PubMed

    Marc LaForce, F; Ravenscroft, Neil; Djingarey, Mamoudou; Viviani, Simonetta

    2009-06-24

    Epidemic meningitis in Africa remains an important and unresolved public health problem. Bacteriologic and epidemiologic data collected over the past 30 years have consistently established the importance of Group A Neisseria meningitidis as the dominant etiologic agent. The meningococcal Group A capsule is the major virulence factor; it is a polysaccharide comprised of a repeating unit of partly O-acetylated alpha-1,6-linked N-acetylmannosamine phosphate. Meningitis epidemics occur annually during the dry season (January to May) and stop with the first rains. Until now, control of these meningitis epidemics has relied on a reactive vaccination strategy with polysaccharide vaccines that is logistically complicated and has not put an end to recurrent epidemics. A meningococcal A conjugate vaccine (MenAfriVac) has been developed and tested in Phase II clinical trials in Africa. The vaccine has been shown to be safe and to generate a sustained immunologic response with functional antibody 20 times higher than that seen with polysaccharide vaccine. Widespread use of such a vaccine is likely to generate herd immunity and to put an end to Group A meningococcal epidemics. PMID:19477559

  15. Production of bacteriocin inhibitory to Listeria species by Enterococcus hirae.

    PubMed

    Siragusa, G R

    1992-11-01

    A bovine intestinal bacterial isolate, identified as Enterococcus hirae, was found to produce a bacteriocin (designated hiraecin S) inhibitory to Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. Identification to species level was determined by comprehensive biochemical and morphological tests which were verified by DNA-DNA homology assays. The antimicrobial agent was inactivated by pronase and papain and was insensitive to catalase. The antimicrobial activity was not due to hydrogen peroxide or acid formation, nor was lysozyme or muramidase activity observed in cell-free bacteriocin preparations. Inhibition of selected gram-negative bacteria was not observed. Other enterococci were sensitive to the bacteriocin, and except for Listeria spp., no other gram-positive bacteria tested were inhibited. PMID:1482176

  16. Osmotic therapies added to antibiotics for acute bacterial meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Emma CB; Ajdukiewicz, Katherine MB; Heyderman, Robert S; Garner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Every day children and adults throughout the world die from acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis, particularly in low-income countries. Survivors are at risk of deafness, epilepsy and neurological disabilities. Osmotic therapies have been proposed as an adjunct to improve mortality and morbidity from bacterial meningitis. The theory is that they will attract extra-vascular fluid by osmosis and thus reduce cerebral oedema by moving excess water from the brain into the blood. The intention is to thus reduce death and improve neurological outcomes. Objectives To evaluate the effects on mortality, deafness and neurological disability of osmotic therapies added to antibiotics for acute bacterial meningitis in children and adults. Search methods We searched CENTRAL 2012, Issue 11, MEDLINE (1950 to November week 3, 2012), EMBASE (1974 to November 2012), CINAHL (1981 to November 2012), LILACS (1982 to November 2012) and registers of ongoing clinical trials (April 2012). We also searched conference abstracts and contacted researchers in the field. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials testing any osmotic therapy in adults or children with acute bacterial meningitis. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened the search results and selected trials for inclusion. We collected data from each study for mortality, deafness, seizures and neurological disabilities. Results are presented using risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and grouped according to whether the participants received steroids or not. Main results Four trials were included comprising 1091 participants. All compared glycerol (a water-soluble sugar alcohol) with a control; in three trials this was a placebo, and in one a small amount of 50% dextrose. Three trials included comparators of dexamethasone alone or in combination with glycerol. As dexamethasone appeared to have no modifying effect, we aggregated results across arms where both

  17. Internalization of Listeria monocytogenes in Whole Avocado.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Evans, Peter; Hammack, Thomas S; Brown, Eric W; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, tree fruits have emerged as a new concern for Listeria monocytogenes contamination. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the potential internalization of L. monocytogenes from the surface of avocados into the edible portions of the fruit during certain postharvest practices simulated in a laboratory setting. One set of intact avocados was spot inoculated with L. monocytogenes on the stem scar, and the second set was hydrocooled in water contaminated with L. monocytogenes. Under these experimental conditions, L. monocytogenes internalized into the avocado pulp through the stem or stem scar after both spot inoculation and hydrocooling. In avocados spot inoculated with 50, 130, 500, and 1,300 CFU per fruit, bacteria were detected in the edible portion adjacent to the stem scar within 15 days postinoculation during storage at 4°C. In avocados hydrocooled in water containing L. monocytogenes at 10(6) and 10(8) CFU/ml, bacteria reached the bottom end of the fruit, and the populations in the edible portion adjacent to the stem scar reached up to 5.90 to 7.19 log CFU/g within 10 to 15 days during storage at 4°C. Dye mixed with inoculum was useful for guiding subsequent sampling, but dye penetration patterns were not always consistent with bacterial penetration.

  18. Silver As Antibacterial toward Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Belluco, Simone; Losasso, Carmen; Patuzzi, Ilaria; Rigo, Laura; Conficoni, Daniele; Gallocchio, Federica; Cibin, Veronica; Catellani, Paolo; Segato, Severino; Ricci, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a serious foodborne pathogen that can contaminate food during processing and can grow during food shelf-life. New types of safe and effective food contact materials embedding antimicrobial agents, like silver, can play an important role in the food industry. The present work aimed at evaluating the in vitro growth kinetics of different strains of L. monocytogenes in the presence of silver, both in its ionic and nano form. The antimicrobial effect was determined by assaying the number of culturable bacterial cells, which formed colonies after incubation in the presence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) or silver nitrate (AgNO3). Ionic release experiments were performed in parallel. A different reduction of bacterial viability between silver ionic and nano forms was observed, with a time delayed effect exerted by AgNPs. An association between antimicrobial activity and ions concentration was shown by both silver chemical forms, suggesting the major role of ions in the antimicrobial mode of action. PMID:27014230

  19. Internalization of Listeria monocytogenes in Whole Avocado.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Evans, Peter; Hammack, Thomas S; Brown, Eric W; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, tree fruits have emerged as a new concern for Listeria monocytogenes contamination. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the potential internalization of L. monocytogenes from the surface of avocados into the edible portions of the fruit during certain postharvest practices simulated in a laboratory setting. One set of intact avocados was spot inoculated with L. monocytogenes on the stem scar, and the second set was hydrocooled in water contaminated with L. monocytogenes. Under these experimental conditions, L. monocytogenes internalized into the avocado pulp through the stem or stem scar after both spot inoculation and hydrocooling. In avocados spot inoculated with 50, 130, 500, and 1,300 CFU per fruit, bacteria were detected in the edible portion adjacent to the stem scar within 15 days postinoculation during storage at 4°C. In avocados hydrocooled in water containing L. monocytogenes at 10(6) and 10(8) CFU/ml, bacteria reached the bottom end of the fruit, and the populations in the edible portion adjacent to the stem scar reached up to 5.90 to 7.19 log CFU/g within 10 to 15 days during storage at 4°C. Dye mixed with inoculum was useful for guiding subsequent sampling, but dye penetration patterns were not always consistent with bacterial penetration. PMID:27497134

  20. Silver As Antibacterial toward Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Belluco, Simone; Losasso, Carmen; Patuzzi, Ilaria; Rigo, Laura; Conficoni, Daniele; Gallocchio, Federica; Cibin, Veronica; Catellani, Paolo; Segato, Severino; Ricci, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a serious foodborne pathogen that can contaminate food during processing and can grow during food shelf-life. New types of safe and effective food contact materials embedding antimicrobial agents, like silver, can play an important role in the food industry. The present work aimed at evaluating the in vitro growth kinetics of different strains of L. monocytogenes in the presence of silver, both in its ionic and nano form. The antimicrobial effect was determined by assaying the number of culturable bacterial cells, which formed colonies after incubation in the presence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) or silver nitrate (AgNO3). Ionic release experiments were performed in parallel. A different reduction of bacterial viability between silver ionic and nano forms was observed, with a time delayed effect exerted by AgNPs. An association between antimicrobial activity and ions concentration was shown by both silver chemical forms, suggesting the major role of ions in the antimicrobial mode of action. PMID:27014230

  1. Generation of airborne Listeria innocua from model floor drains.

    PubMed

    Berrang, Mark E; Frank, Joseph F

    2012-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can colonize floor drains in poultry processing and further processing facilities, remaining present even after cleaning and disinfection. Therefore, during wash down, workers exercise caution to avoid spraying hoses directly into drains in an effort to prevent the escape and transfer of drain microflora to food contact surfaces. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which an inadvertent water spray into a colonized floor drain can cause the spread of airborne Listeria. Listeria innocua was used to inoculate a polyvinyl chloride model floor drain, resulting in approximately 10(8) cells per ml of phosphate-buffered saline and 10(4) attached cells per square centimeter of inner surface. Each model drain was subjected to a 2-s spray of tap water at 68.9 kPa from a distance of 1 m. Drains were sprayed while filled and again after emptying. Airborne cells were collected by using sedimentation plates containing Listeria selective agar which were placed on the floor and walls of a contained room at incremental horizontal and vertical distances of 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, or 4.0 m from the drain. Sedimentation plates were exposed for 10 min. A mechanical sampler was used to also collect air by impaction on the surface of Listeria selective agar to determine the number of cells per liter of air. The experiment was conducted in triplicate rooms for each of four replications. L. innocua was detected on sedimentation plates on the floor as far as 4.0 m from the drain and on walls as high as 2.4 m above the floor and 4 m from the drain. A 2-s spray with a water hose into a contaminated drain can cause airborne spread of Listeria, resulting in the potential for cross-contamination of food contact surfaces, equipment, and exposed product.

  2. Generation of airborne Listeria innocua from model floor drains.

    PubMed

    Berrang, Mark E; Frank, Joseph F

    2012-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can colonize floor drains in poultry processing and further processing facilities, remaining present even after cleaning and disinfection. Therefore, during wash down, workers exercise caution to avoid spraying hoses directly into drains in an effort to prevent the escape and transfer of drain microflora to food contact surfaces. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which an inadvertent water spray into a colonized floor drain can cause the spread of airborne Listeria. Listeria innocua was used to inoculate a polyvinyl chloride model floor drain, resulting in approximately 10(8) cells per ml of phosphate-buffered saline and 10(4) attached cells per square centimeter of inner surface. Each model drain was subjected to a 2-s spray of tap water at 68.9 kPa from a distance of 1 m. Drains were sprayed while filled and again after emptying. Airborne cells were collected by using sedimentation plates containing Listeria selective agar which were placed on the floor and walls of a contained room at incremental horizontal and vertical distances of 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, or 4.0 m from the drain. Sedimentation plates were exposed for 10 min. A mechanical sampler was used to also collect air by impaction on the surface of Listeria selective agar to determine the number of cells per liter of air. The experiment was conducted in triplicate rooms for each of four replications. L. innocua was detected on sedimentation plates on the floor as far as 4.0 m from the drain and on walls as high as 2.4 m above the floor and 4 m from the drain. A 2-s spray with a water hose into a contaminated drain can cause airborne spread of Listeria, resulting in the potential for cross-contamination of food contact surfaces, equipment, and exposed product. PMID:22980019

  3. The challenge of enumerating Listeria monocytogenes in food.

    PubMed

    Auvolat, Anais; Besse, Nathalie Gnanou

    2016-02-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is recognised as a serious foodborne pathogen in humans. However, food products are usually contaminated at low levels (i.e. <100 CFU/g) and there is still no adequate enumeration method for testing food. Much research has been carried out to improve Listeria enumeration methods, leading to several proposed alternative methods such as the most probable number technique, molecular-based methods and bacterial cell concentration techniques. Here, we catalogue the current knowledge concerning L. monocytogenes enumeration, with a particular focus on the problem of enumerating low level contamination.

  4. Comparison of the Prevalences and Diversities of Listeria Species and Listeria monocytogenes in an Urban and a Rural Agricultural Watershed.

    PubMed

    Stea, Emma C; Purdue, Laura M; Jamieson, Rob C; Yost, Chris K; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth

    2015-06-01

    Foods and related processing environments are commonly contaminated with the pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes. To investigate potential environmental reservoirs of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes, surface water and point source pollution samples from an urban and a rural municipal water supply watershed in Nova Scotia, Canada, were examined over 18 months. Presumptive Listeria spp. were cultured from 72 and 35% of rural and urban water samples, respectively, with 24% of the positive samples containing two or three different Listeria spp. The L. innocua (56%) and L. welshimeri (43%) groups were predominant in the rural and urban watersheds, respectively. Analysis by the TaqMan assay showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence of L. monocytogenes of 62% versus 17% by the culture-based method. Both methods revealed higher prevalences in the rural watershed and during the fall and winter seasons. Elevated Escherichia coli (≥ 100 CFU/100 ml) levels were not associated with the pathogen regardless of the detection method. Isolation of Listeria spp. were associated with 70 times higher odds of isolating L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 70; P < 0.001). Serogroup IIa was predominant (67.7%) among the 285 L. monocytogenes isolates, followed by IVb (16.1%), IIb (15.8%), and IIc (0.4%). L. monocytogenes was detected in cow feces and raw sewage but not in septic tank samples. Pulsotyping of representative water (n = 54) and local human (n = 19) isolates suggested genetic similarities among some environmental and human L. monocytogenes isolates. In conclusion, temperate surface waters contain a diverse Listeria species population and could be a potential reservoir for L. monocytogenes, especially in rural agricultural watersheds. PMID:25819965

  5. Comparison of the Prevalences and Diversities of Listeria Species and Listeria monocytogenes in an Urban and a Rural Agricultural Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Stea, Emma C.; Purdue, Laura M.; Jamieson, Rob C.; Yost, Chris K.

    2015-01-01

    Foods and related processing environments are commonly contaminated with the pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes. To investigate potential environmental reservoirs of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes, surface water and point source pollution samples from an urban and a rural municipal water supply watershed in Nova Scotia, Canada, were examined over 18 months. Presumptive Listeria spp. were cultured from 72 and 35% of rural and urban water samples, respectively, with 24% of the positive samples containing two or three different Listeria spp. The L. innocua (56%) and L. welshimeri (43%) groups were predominant in the rural and urban watersheds, respectively. Analysis by the TaqMan assay showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence of L. monocytogenes of 62% versus 17% by the culture-based method. Both methods revealed higher prevalences in the rural watershed and during the fall and winter seasons. Elevated Escherichia coli (≥100 CFU/100 ml) levels were not associated with the pathogen regardless of the detection method. Isolation of Listeria spp. were associated with 70 times higher odds of isolating L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 70; P < 0.001). Serogroup IIa was predominant (67.7%) among the 285 L. monocytogenes isolates, followed by IVb (16.1%), IIb (15.8%), and IIc (0.4%). L. monocytogenes was detected in cow feces and raw sewage but not in septic tank samples. Pulsotyping of representative water (n = 54) and local human (n = 19) isolates suggested genetic similarities among some environmental and human L. monocytogenes isolates. In conclusion, temperate surface waters contain a diverse Listeria species population and could be a potential reservoir for L. monocytogenes, especially in rural agricultural watersheds. PMID:25819965

  6. Ecology of Listeria spp. in a fish farm and molecular typing of Listeria monocytogenes from fish farming and processing companies.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Hanna; Wirtanen, Gun

    2006-11-01

    This study focused on the ecology of Listeria monocytogenes in a fish farm by following the changes in its occurrence in different types of samples for a three year period. In addition, L. monocytogenes isolates from different seafood industry areas were compared with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing to discover possible associations between primary production, further processing and final products. Weather conditions were found to have a strong influence on the probability of finding Listeria spp. in a fish farm environment. The number of samples contaminated with Listeria spp. was typically bigger after rainy periods. Brook and river waters as well as other runoff waters seemed to be the main contamination source at the farm studied. The farmed fish originally found to carry L. monocytogenes become gradually Listeria free. The time needed for the purification of the fish was several months. The sea bottom soil samples were the ones that preserved the L. monocytogenes contamination the longest time. It can be stated that the fish and fish farm equipment studied did not spread listeria contamination. On the contrary, they were found to suffer from listeria contamination coming from outside sources like the brook water. There was a wide range of different L. monocytogenes PFGE-pulsotypes (30) found at 15 Finnish fish farms and fish processing factories. L. monocytogenes isolates from the final products often belonged to the same pulsotypes as did the isolates from the processing environment as well as from the raw fish. This suggests that, in addition to the fish processing factory environment, the fish raw materials are important sources of L. monocytogenes contamination in final products. PMID:16842875

  7. Ecology of Listeria spp. in a fish farm and molecular typing of Listeria monocytogenes from fish farming and processing companies.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Hanna; Wirtanen, Gun

    2006-11-01

    This study focused on the ecology of Listeria monocytogenes in a fish farm by following the changes in its occurrence in different types of samples for a three year period. In addition, L. monocytogenes isolates from different seafood industry areas were compared with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing to discover possible associations between primary production, further processing and final products. Weather conditions were found to have a strong influence on the probability of finding Listeria spp. in a fish farm environment. The number of samples contaminated with Listeria spp. was typically bigger after rainy periods. Brook and river waters as well as other runoff waters seemed to be the main contamination source at the farm studied. The farmed fish originally found to carry L. monocytogenes become gradually Listeria free. The time needed for the purification of the fish was several months. The sea bottom soil samples were the ones that preserved the L. monocytogenes contamination the longest time. It can be stated that the fish and fish farm equipment studied did not spread listeria contamination. On the contrary, they were found to suffer from listeria contamination coming from outside sources like the brook water. There was a wide range of different L. monocytogenes PFGE-pulsotypes (30) found at 15 Finnish fish farms and fish processing factories. L. monocytogenes isolates from the final products often belonged to the same pulsotypes as did the isolates from the processing environment as well as from the raw fish. This suggests that, in addition to the fish processing factory environment, the fish raw materials are important sources of L. monocytogenes contamination in final products.

  8. Various Ready-to-Eat Products from Retail Stores Linked to Occurrence of Diverse Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. Isolates.

    PubMed

    Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Fuangpaiboon, Janejira; Turner, Matthew P; Vuddhakul, Varaporn

    2016-02-01

    Listeriosis outbreaks have been associated with a variety of foods. This study investigated the prevalence and diversity of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. in ready-to-eat (RTE) products and evaluated the performance of a rapid detection method, the 3M molecular detection assay for L. monocytogenes (MDA-LM), for detection of L. monocytogenes. Assay results were compared with those obtained using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration standard culture method described in the Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Products (n = 200) were purchased from retail stores: 122 aquatic products, 22 products of animal origin, 18 vegetarian products, 15 deli meat products, 13 salad and vegetable products, 4 desserts, 2 egg-based products, and 4 other products. L. monocytogenes prevalence was comparable with both methods. Overall, 15 (7.5%) of 200 samples were positive for L. monocytogenes: 3% of aquatic products, 1.5% of products of animal origin, 1% of vegetarian products, and 2% of deli meat products. Compared with the standard culture method, the sensitivity, specificity, and the accuracy of the MDA-LM were 86.7% (95% confidence interval, 58.4 to 97.7%), 98.4% (95% confidence interval, 95.0 to 99.6%), and 97.5%, respectively. Using the culture-based method, 18 (9%) of 200 samples were positive for Listeria species other than L. monocytogenes. Listeria isolates from these samples were classified into nine allelic types (ATs). The majority of isolates were classified as ATs 58 and 74, which were identified as L. monocytogenes lineages I and IV, respectively. Listeria innocua and Listeria welshimeri also were represented by isolates of multiple ATs. The MDA-LM is a rapid and reliable technique for detecting L. monocytogenes in various RTE foods. Further study is needed to develop effective control strategies to reduce L. monocytogenes contamination in RTE foods.

  9. Comparison of the Prevalences and Diversities of Listeria Species and Listeria monocytogenes in an Urban and a Rural Agricultural Watershed.

    PubMed

    Stea, Emma C; Purdue, Laura M; Jamieson, Rob C; Yost, Chris K; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth

    2015-06-01

    Foods and related processing environments are commonly contaminated with the pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes. To investigate potential environmental reservoirs of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes, surface water and point source pollution samples from an urban and a rural municipal water supply watershed in Nova Scotia, Canada, were examined over 18 months. Presumptive Listeria spp. were cultured from 72 and 35% of rural and urban water samples, respectively, with 24% of the positive samples containing two or three different Listeria spp. The L. innocua (56%) and L. welshimeri (43%) groups were predominant in the rural and urban watersheds, respectively. Analysis by the TaqMan assay showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence of L. monocytogenes of 62% versus 17% by the culture-based method. Both methods revealed higher prevalences in the rural watershed and during the fall and winter seasons. Elevated Escherichia coli (≥ 100 CFU/100 ml) levels were not associated with the pathogen regardless of the detection method. Isolation of Listeria spp. were associated with 70 times higher odds of isolating L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 70; P < 0.001). Serogroup IIa was predominant (67.7%) among the 285 L. monocytogenes isolates, followed by IVb (16.1%), IIb (15.8%), and IIc (0.4%). L. monocytogenes was detected in cow feces and raw sewage but not in septic tank samples. Pulsotyping of representative water (n = 54) and local human (n = 19) isolates suggested genetic similarities among some environmental and human L. monocytogenes isolates. In conclusion, temperate surface waters contain a diverse Listeria species population and could be a potential reservoir for L. monocytogenes, especially in rural agricultural watersheds.

  10. Rose Bengal plate agglutination and counterimmunoelectrophoresis tests on spinal fluid in the diagnosis of Brucella meningitis.

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, R; Maraví-Poma, E; Delgado, G; Rivero, A

    1978-01-01

    Rose Bengal and counterimmunoelectrophoresis, two tests that detect antibodies against different structural antigens, when carried out on spinal fluid permitted rapid diagnosis of human Brucella meningitis. The Rose Bengal test was positive in five out of five patients studied, and counterimmunoelectrophoresis was positive in all but one. The Brucella meningitis was characterized by an increase of immunoglobulin G in the cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:632350

  11. A case of Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis in a patient with abnormal levels of isolated immunological markers.

    PubMed

    Simsek, B; Guven, E; Gumral, R; Mert, G; Saracli, M A; Besirbellioglu, B; Yildiran, S T

    2016-09-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is considered rare in immunocompetent patients and is mainly a disease of immunocompromised patients. We report a case of cryptococcal meningitis, due to Cryptococcus neoformans, in an apparently healthy individual with abnormal levels of isolated immunological markers. Regardless of the patient's immune status, the result of the disease can be serious unless the disease is diagnosed early. PMID:27402508

  12. Bordetella holmesii meningitis in a 12-year-old anorectic girl.

    PubMed

    Van Balen, Tessa; Nieman, An-Emmie; Hermans, Mirjam H A; Schneeberger, Peter M; de Vries, Esther

    2012-04-01

    We describe a 12-year-old anorectic girl with Bordetella holmesii meningitis, the techniques used for its identification, and minimum inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics for 7 B. Holmesii strains collected in the Netherlands during the past 12 years. B. holmesii meningitis has not been previously reported.

  13. Herpes zoster and meningitis due to reactivation of varicella vaccine virus in an immunocompetent child.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin-Young; Hanson, David C; Way, Sing Sing

    2011-03-01

    Neurologic complications from varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation are rare. In this article, we describe a previously immunized child who developed herpes zoster with meningitis. Vaccine strain of VZV was recovered from a skin swab and the cerebrospinal fluid. Reactivation of the vaccine strain of VZV should be recognized as a potential cause of meningitis in children.

  14. Vaccine-induced waning of Haemophilus influenzae empyema and meningitis, Angola.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Heikki; Pelkonen, Tuula; Bernardino, Luis; Monteiro, Lurdes; Silvestre, Silvia da Conceição; Anjos, Elizabete; Cruzeiro, Manuel Leite; Pitkäranta, Anne; Roine, Irmeli

    2014-11-01

    In Angola during 2003-2012, we detected Haemophilus influenzae in 18% of 2,634 and 26% of 2,996 bacteriologically positive pleural or cerebrospinal fluid samples, respectively, from children. After vaccination launch in 2006, H. influenzae empyema declined by 83% and meningitis by 86%. Severe H. influenzae pneumonia and meningitis are preventable by vaccination.

  15. Identification of Streptococcus suis Meningitis through Population-Based Surveillance, Togo, 2010–2014

    PubMed Central

    Tall, Haoua; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Mounkoro, Didier; Tidjani, Loukoumane; Agbenoko, Kodjo; Alassani, Issifou; Amidou, Moussa; Tamekloe, Stanislas; Laing, Kenneth G.; Witney, Adam A.; Hinds, Jason; van der Linden, Mark P.G.; Gessner, Bradford D.

    2016-01-01

    During 2010–2014, we enrolled 511 patients with suspected bacterial meningitis into surveillance in 2 districts of northern Togo. We identified 15 persons with Streptococcus suis infection; 10 had occupational contact with pigs, and 12 suffered neurologic sequelae. S. suis testing should be considered in rural areas of the African meningitis belt. PMID:27314251

  16. Neuroinfections complicating foreign body implants after perinatal trauma or meningitis in 60 children.

    PubMed

    Rudinsky, B; Bauer, F; Kalavsky, M; Huttova, M; Sramka, M; Kalavsky, E; Benca, J; Karvaj, M; Jarcuska, P; Liskova, A; Kralinsky, K; Ondrusova, A; Taziarova, M; Pevalova, L; Kovac, M; Miklosko, Jozef

    2007-06-01

    Meningitis after artificial implants in 60 children, mainly after foreign body infections (FBI) was caused more frequently by coagulase negative staphylococci and Ps. aeruginosa than other organisms and was significantly associated with perinatal trauma, hydrocephalus, haemorrhage or VLBW and had more neurologic sequels despite mortality was similar to other nosocomial meningitis.

  17. Clinical and laboratory features of Streptococcus salivarius meningitis: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Megan; Martin, Ryan; Walk, Seth T; Young, Carol; Grossman, Sylvia; McKean, Erin Lin; Aronoff, David M

    2012-02-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a normal member of the human oral microbiome that is an uncommon cause of invasive infections. Meningitis is a rare but increasingly reported infection caused by S. salivarius. Despite the growing number of reported cases, a comprehensive review of the literature on S. salivarius meningitis is lacking. We sought to gain a better understanding of the clinical presentation, evaluation, management, and outcome of S. salivarius meningitis by analyzing previously reported cases. In addition to a single case reported here, 64 previously published cases of meningitis were identified for this review. The collected data confirm that most patients presented with classical signs and symptoms of bacterial meningitis with a predominance of neutrophils in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and hypoglycorrhachia. The majority of cases followed iatrogenic or traumatic CSF contamination. Most cases were diagnosed by CSF culture within one day of symptom onset. There was no clear evidence of predisposing co-morbid conditions in patients with meningitis, although in most case reports, limited information was given on the medical history of each patient. Outcomes were generally favorable with antibiotic management. Clinicians should suspect S. salivarius meningitis in patients presenting acutely after medical or surgical procedures involving the meninges. PMID:21817122

  18. Clinical and Laboratory Features of Streptococcus salivarius Meningitis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Megan; Martin, Ryan; Walk, Seth T.; Young, Carol; Grossman, Sylvia; McKean, Erin Lin; Aronoff, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a normal member of the human oral microbiome that is an uncommon cause of invasive infections. Meningitis is a rare but increasingly reported infection caused by S. salivarius. Despite the growing number of reported cases, a comprehensive review of the literature on S. salivarius meningitis is lacking. We sought to gain a better understanding of the clinical presentation, evaluation, management, and outcome of S. salivarius meningitis by analyzing previously reported cases. In addition to a single case reported here, 64 previously published cases of meningitis were identified for this review. The collected data confirm that most patients presented with classical signs and symptoms of bacterial meningitis with a predominance of neutrophils in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and hypoglycorrhachia. The majority of cases followed iatrogenic or traumatic CSF contamination. Most cases were diagnosed by CSF culture within one day of symptom onset. There was no clear evidence of predisposing co-morbid conditions in patients with meningitis, although in most case reports, limited information was given on the medical history of each patient. Outcomes were generally favorable with antibiotic management. Clinicians should suspect S. salivarius meningitis in patients presenting acutely after medical or surgical procedures involving the meninges. PMID:21817122

  19. Identification of Streptococcus suis Meningitis through Population-Based Surveillance, Togo, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Tall, Haoua; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Mounkoro, Didier; Tidjani, Loukoumane; Agbenoko, Kodjo; Alassani, Issifou; Amidou, Moussa; Tamekloe, Stanislas; Laing, Kenneth G; Witney, Adam A; Hinds, Jason; van der Linden, Mark P G; Gessner, Bradford D; Moïsi, Jennifer C

    2016-07-01

    During 2010-2014, we enrolled 511 patients with suspected bacterial meningitis into surveillance in 2 districts of northern Togo. We identified 15 persons with Streptococcus suis infection; 10 had occupational contact with pigs, and 12 suffered neurologic sequelae. S. suis testing should be considered in rural areas of the African meningitis belt. PMID:27314251

  20. Place of Colistin-Rifampicin Association in the Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii Meningitis: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Souhail, Dahraoui; Bouchra, Belefquih; Belarj, Badia; Laila, Rar; Mohammed, Frikh; Nassirou, Oumarou Mamane; Azeddine, Ibrahimi; Haimeur, Charki; Lemnouer, Abdelhay; Elouennass, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of Acinetobacter baumannii meningitis is an important challenge due to the accumulation of resistance of this bacteria and low meningeal diffusion of several antimicrobial requiring use of an antimicrobial effective combination to eradicate these species. We report a case of Acinetobacter baumannii multidrug-resistant nosocomial meningitis which was successfully treated with intravenous and intrathecal colistin associated with rifampicin. PMID:27064923

  1. A New Perspective on Listeria monocytogenes Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Ragon, Marie; Wirth, Thierry; Hollandt, Florian; Lavenir, Rachel; Lecuit, Marc; Le Monnier, Alban; Brisse, Sylvain

    2008-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a model organism for cellular microbiology and host–pathogen interaction studies and an important food-borne pathogen widespread in the environment, thus representing an attractive model to study the evolution of virulence. The phylogenetic structure of L. monocytogenes was determined by sequencing internal portions of seven housekeeping genes (3,288 nucleotides) in 360 representative isolates. Fifty-eight of the 126 disclosed sequence types were grouped into seven well-demarcated clonal complexes (clones) that comprised almost 75% of clinical isolates. Each clone had a unique or dominant serotype (4b for clones 1, 2 and 4, 1/2b for clones 3 and 5, 1/2a for clone 7, and 1/2c for clone 9), with no association of clones with clinical forms of human listeriosis. Homologous recombination was extremely limited (r/m<1 for nucleotides), implying long-term genetic stability of multilocus genotypes over time. Bayesian analysis based on 438 SNPs recovered the three previously defined lineages, plus one unclassified isolate of mixed ancestry. The phylogenetic distribution of serotypes indicated that serotype 4b evolved once from 1/2b, the likely ancestral serotype of lineage I. Serotype 1/2c derived once from 1/2a, with reference strain EGDe (1/2a) likely representing an intermediate evolutionary state. In contrast to housekeeping genes, the virulence factor internalin (InlA) evolved by localized recombination resulting in a mosaic pattern, with convergent evolution indicative of natural selection towards a truncation of InlA protein. This work provides a reference evolutionary framework for future studies on L. monocytogenes epidemiology, ecology, and virulence. PMID:18773117

  2. SDIX RapidChek Listeria F.A.S.T. environmental test system for the detection of Listeria species on environmental surfaces.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Mark T; Allen, Ann-Christine Olsson; Gonzalez, Vera; Sutzko, Meredith; Klaus, Lindpaintner

    2012-01-01

    The SDIX RapidChek Listeria F.A.S.T. test system was validated against the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) cultural reference method for the detection of Listeria species on stainless steel, plastic, rubber, and painted concrete. The SDIX method uses a proprietary RapidChek Listeria enrichment media for a one-step, 24-40 h enrichment at 30 degrees C, and detects Listeria on an immunochromatographic lateral flow device in 10 min. Different Listeria species were used to spike each of the environmental surfaces. Environmental surfaces were spiked at levels ranging from 50 to 400 CFU/surface (1 in.2 swabs for painted concrete, 4 in.(2) for sponge). A total of 120 spiked samples were tested by the SDIX method at 24 and 40 h and the cultural reference method. Total confirmed positives were 49, 54, and 48 for the SDIX 24 h method, the SDIX 40 h method, and the USDA-FSIS cultural reference method, respectively. Nonspiked samples from all environmental surfaces were reported as negative for Listeria spp. by all methods. The overall Chi square was 0.017 (P = 0.104) and 0.611 (P= 0.566) after a 24 and 40 h enrichment, respectively, indicating that the test method was equivalent in performance to the reference method at both enrichment times. The SDIX method was evaluated for the detection of 50 Listeria and 35 non-Listeria bacterial strains. All 50 Listeria strains were detected by the method (100% sensitivity). Five out of 35 non-Listeria species gave light test signals when grown in nonselective broth culture and tested undiluted. However, when grown in the RapidChek Listeria F.A.S.T. proprietary media, only one bacterial strain (Staphylococcus aureus) was detected, giving a very low test signal (97% specificity). The method was shown to be robust toward several alterations in testing and storage conditions.

  3. Assessments for the impact of mineral dust on the meningitis incidence in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martiny, Nadège; Chiapello, Isabelle

    2013-05-01

    Recently, mineral dust has been suspected to be one of the important environmental risk factor for meningitis epidemics in West Africa. The current study is one of the first which relies on long-term robust aerosol measurements in the Sahel region to investigate the possible impact of mineral dust on meningitis cases (incidence). Sunphotometer measurements, which allow to derive aerosol and humidity parameters, i.e., aerosol optical thickness, Angström coefficient, and precipitable water, are combined with quantitative epidemiological data in Niger and Mali over the 2004-2009 AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) program period. We analyse how the extremely high aerosol loads in this region may influence both the calendar (onset, peaks, end) and the intensity of meningitis. We highlight three distinct periods: (i) from November to December, beginning of the dry season, humidity is weak, there is no dust and no meningitis cases; (ii) from January to April, humidity is still weak, but high dust loads occur in the atmosphere and this is the meningitis season; (iii) from May to October, humidity is high and there is no meningitis anymore, in presence of dust or not, which flow anyway in higher altitudes. More specifically, the onset of the meningitis season is tightly related to mineral dust flowing close to the surface at the very beginning of the year. During the dry, and the most dusty season period, from February to April, each meningitis peak is preceded by a dust peak, with a 0-2 week lead-time. The importance (duration, intensity) of these meningitis peaks seems to be related to that of dust, suggesting that a cumulative effect in dust events may be important for the meningitis incidence. This is not the case for humidity, confirming the special contribution of dust at this period of the year. The end of the meningitis season, in May, coincides with a change in humidity conditions related to the West African Monsoon. These results, which are

  4. Meningeal afferent signaling and the pathophysiology of migraine.

    PubMed

    Burgos-Vega, Carolina; Moy, Jamie; Dussor, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is the most common neurological disorder. Attacks are complex and consist of multiple phases but are most commonly characterized by intense, unilateral, throbbing headache. The pathophysiology contributing to migraine is poorly understood and the disorder is not well managed with currently available therapeutics, often rendering patients disabled during attacks. The mechanisms most likely to contribute to the pain phase of migraine require activation of trigeminal afferent signaling from the cranial meninges and subsequent relay of nociceptive information into the central nervous system in a region of the dorsal brainstem known as the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Events leading to activation of meningeal afferents are unclear, but nerve endings within this tissue are mechanosensitive and also express a variety of ion channels including acid-sensing ion channels and transient receptor-potential channels. These properties may provide clues into the pathophysiology of migraine by suggesting that decreased extracellular pH and environmental irritant exposure in the meninges contributes to headache. Neuroplasticity is also likely to play a role in migraine given that attacks are triggered by routine events that are typically nonnoxious in healthy patients and clear evidence of sensitization occurs during an attack. Where and how plasticity develops is also not clear but may include events directly on the afferents and/or within the TNC. Among the mediators potentially contributing to plasticity, calcitonin gene-related peptide has received the most attention within the migraine field but other mechanisms may also contribute. Ultimately, greater understanding of the molecules and mechanisms contributing to migraine will undoubtedly lead to better therapeutics and relief for the large number of patients across the globe who suffer from this highly disabling neurological disorder.

  5. [Community-acquired Pseudomonas stutzeri meningitis in an immunocompetent patient].

    PubMed

    Sünbül, Mustafa; Zivalioğlu, Muammer; Taşdelen Fişgin, Nuriye

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas stutzeri which is an aerobic, non-fermentative gram-negative bacillus frequently found in soil, water and hospital environment, rarely leads to serious community-acquired infections. In this report a case of community-acquired meningitis due to P. stutzeri was presented. A 73-years-old male patient was admitted to the emergency department with the complaints of nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, difficulties in walking and speaking and loss of consciousness. There was no history of an underlying disease or immunosuppression. Physical examination revealed nuchal rigidity, however, Kernig and Brudzinski signs were negative. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed 0.4 mg/dl glucose (simultaneous blood glucose 145 mg/dl), and 618 mg/dl protein and 640 leucocyte/mm3 (90% PMNL). No bacteria were detected in Gram stained and Ehrlich-Ziehl-Neelsen stained CSF smears. Upon the diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis, treatment with ceftriaxone and ampicillin was initiated, however, the patient died after 16 hours of hospitalization. CSF culture yielded the growth of gram-negative oxidase-positive bacteria and the isolate was identified as P. stutzeri by Vitek-2 Compact system (bioMerieux, France). The isolate was found to be sensitive to piperacillin/tazobactam, amikacin, gentamycin, ceftazidime, cefepime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem and meropenem. Since the patient was lost due to acute respiratory and cardiac failure, it was not possible to change the therapy to agent specific therapy. In conclusion, it should always be kept in mind that uncommon agents could lead to community-acquired meningitis in elderly patients and empirical treatment protocols might fail in such cases resulting in high morbidity and mortality. PMID:19334394

  6. C1 inhibitor treatment improves host defense in pneumococcal meningitis in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Zwijnenburg, Petra J G; van der Poll, Tom; Florquin, Sandrine; Polfliet, Machteld M J; van den Berg, Timo K; Dijkstra, Christine D; Roord, John J; Hack, C Erik; van Furth, A Marceline

    2007-07-01

    In spite of antibiotic treatment, pneumococcal meningitis continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The complement system is a key component of innate immunity against invading pathogens. However, activation of complement is also involved in tissue damage, and complement inhibition by C1 inhibitor (C1-inh) is beneficial in animal models of endotoxemia and sepsis. In the present study, we demonstrate classical pathway complement activation during pneumococcal meningitis in rats. We also evaluate the effect of C1-inh treatment on clinical illness, bacterial clearance, and inflammatory responses in rats and mice with pneumococcal meningitis. C1-inh treatment was associated with reduced clinical illness, a less-pronounced inflammatory infiltrate around the meninges, and lower brain levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. C1-inh treatment increased bacterial clearance, possibly through an up-regulation of CR3. Hence, C1-inh may be a useful agent in the treatment of pneumococcal meningitis.

  7. Population-based surveillance for bacterial meningitis in the Dominican Republic: implications for control by vaccination.

    PubMed

    Gomez, E; Peguero, M; Sanchez, J; Castellanos, P L; Feris, J; Peña, C; Brudzinski-LaClaire, L; Levine, O S

    2000-12-01

    Quantifying the local burden of disease is an important step towards the introduction of new vaccines, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine. We adapted a generic protocol developed by the World Health Organization for population-based surveillance of bacterial meningitis. All hospitals that admit paediatric patients with meningitis in the National District, Dominican Republic were included in the system and standard laboratory methods were used. The system identified 111 cases of confirmed bacterial meningitis. Hib was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, followed by group B streptococcus, S. pneumoniae, and N. meningitidis. Unlike hospital-based case series, this population-based system was able to calculate incidence rates. The incidence of Hib meningitis was 13 cases per 100,000 children < 5 years old. The data from this study were used by the Ministry of Health to support the introduction of routine Hib vaccination and will be used to monitor its effectiveness.

  8. EDA-containing fibronectin levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of children with meningitis.

    PubMed

    Pupek, Małgorzata; Jasonek, Jolanta; Kątnik-Prastowska, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Fibronectin containing an alternatively spliced extra domain A (EDA-FN) participates in diverse biological cell functions, being also directly or indirectly engaged during an inflammatory response to brain injury and/or neuron regeneration. We analyzed FN and EDA-FN isoform levels by ELISA in 85 cerebrospinal fluid samples and 67 plasma samples obtained from children suffering from bacterial or viral meningitis and non-meningitis peripheral inflammation. We have found that the cerebrospinal level of EDA-FN was significantly lower in the bacterial meningitis group than in the viral- and non-meningitis groups. In the patients' plasma, EDA-FN was almost undetectable. The determination of fibronectin containing the EDA segment might be considered as an additional diagnostic marker of bacterial meningitis in children.

  9. Actinomyces meyeri meningitis: the need for anaerobic cerebrospinal fluid cultures.

    PubMed

    Hagiya, Hideharu; Otsuka, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    We herein present a rare case of Actinomyces meyeri-induced meningitis that occurred in a patient of advanced age with poor oral hygiene. Although Gram staining of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed Gram-positive rods and a blood culture was positive for the organism, a bacterial culture of the CSF was negative. Anaerobic cultures of CSF specimens are not routinely performed; however, anaerobes are sometimes involved in central nervous system infection. We therefore believe that anaerobic cultures should be considered in high-risk cases, such as those involving necrotizing bowel lesions or poor oral hygiene. A negative result on a CSF culture can result in misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment.

  10. Isavuconazole Is Effective for the Treatment of Experimental Cryptococcal Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Wiederhold, Nathan P; Kovanda, Laura; Najvar, Laura K; Bocanegra, Rosie; Olivo, Marcos; Kirkpatrick, William R; Patterson, Thomas F

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of isavuconazole against cryptococcal meningitis. Treatment with either oral isavuconazole (120 mg/kg and 240 mg/kg twice a day [BID]) or fluconazole as the positive control significantly improved survival in mice infected intracranially with either Cryptococcus neoformans USC1597 or H99 and significantly reduced brain fungal burdens for both isolates. Concentrations of isavuconazole in plasma and brain tissue also demonstrated that the greatest improvements in survival and fungal burden were associated with elevated exposures. PMID:27324761

  11. Simultaneous genital ulcer and meningitis: a case of EBV infection

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Jairo Tavares; Lopes, Leonardo da Costa; Prokopowitsch, Aleksander Snioka

    2016-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a broad spectrum of diseases, mainly because of its genomic characteristics, which result in different latency patterns in immune cells and infective mechanisms. The patient described in this report is a previously healthy young man who presented to the emergency department with clinical features consistent with meningitis and genital ulcers, which raised concern that the herpes simplex virus was the causative agent. However, the polymerase chain reaction of cerebral spinal fluid was positive for EBV. The authors highlight the importance of this infection among the differential diagnosis of central nervous system involvement and genital ulceration. PMID:27547743

  12. Imaging of the meninges and the extra-axial spaces.

    PubMed

    Kirmi, Olga; Sheerin, Fintan; Patel, Neel

    2009-12-01

    The separate meningeal layers and extraaxial spaces are complex and can only be differentiated by pathologic processes on imaging. Differentiation of the location of such processes can be achieved using different imaging modalities. In this pictorial review we address the imaging techniques, enhancement and location patterns, and disease spread that will promote accurate localization of the pathology, thus improving accuracy of diagnosis. Typical and unusual magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound imaging findings of many conditions affecting these layers and spaces are described.

  13. A Case of Tuberculous Meningitis with Atypical Multiple Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, W; Hu, Z; Li, T

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This case describes a rare case of tuberculous meningitis. A 50-year old female presented with seven days of numbness on the left side, fatigue and a three-day headache. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed multiple lesions in the dorsal medulla and upper cervical spine. After admission, she developed a long-term fever, cranial nerves palsy and showed little response to corticosteroid, antibacterial and antiviral therapy. She received a diagnostic anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT); despite that, all examinations for tuberculosis were negative. After ATT lasting 16 days, she recovered and was discharged from hospital with slight asthenia and hypoesthesia. PMID:25867567

  14. Delayed liver metastasis of a meningeal solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Buccauw, Kurt; Sciot, Raf; Wolter, Pascal; Aerts, Raymond; Claus, Filip

    2011-12-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFT's) are rare soft tissue neoplasms of mesenchymal origin, most commonly reported in the thoracic cavity. They exhibit an aggressive and infiltrative nature and have a tendency to recur either locally or distantly, the latter typically being a late event. Primary therapy consists of complete excision and prognosis is poor in case of recurrence. In this manuscript, we discuss the imaging features and treatment options for a patient presenting with delayed liver metastasis ten years after treatment for a meningeal SFT.

  15. From suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease to confirmed histoplasma meningitis.

    PubMed

    Batra, Vivek; Khararjian, Armen; Wheat, Joseph; Zhang, Sean X; Crain, Barbara; Baras, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    A 77-year-old man with chronic obstructive lung disease who was on steroids, presented to the hospital after a fall with subacute headaches and ataxia. During the patient's hospital course, his clinical condition deteriorated with myoclonic jerks, fevers and severe encephalopathy. An extensive workup, including EEG, brain MRI and lumbar puncture, revealed possible Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Unfortunately, the patient failed to improve and died 12 days after admission. A brain-only autopsy revealed he had acute histoplasma meningitis with patchy superficial cerebritis. PMID:27389723

  16. Partial Kluver-Bucy syndrome secondary to tubercular meningitis.

    PubMed

    Jha, Kunal Kishor; Singh, Satyajeet Kumar; Kumar, Prem; Arora, Charu Dutt

    2016-01-01

    Tubercular meningitis (TBM) is a devastating extra pulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis and demonstrates a high neurological morbidity. A rare complication of this condition is Kluver-Bucy syndrome (KBS), which is a neurobehavioral disorder characterised by hyper-sexuality, visual agnosia, bulimia, placidity, hyperorality and memory deficits caused by lesions to the amygdala. The amygdala lesions can be due to many causes, including traumatic brain injury, systemic conditions and infections such as tuberculosis. Here, we present a case of partial KBS in a patient undergoing treatment for TBM. PMID:27530874

  17. Partial Kluver-Bucy syndrome secondary to tubercular meningitis.

    PubMed

    Jha, Kunal Kishor; Singh, Satyajeet Kumar; Kumar, Prem; Arora, Charu Dutt

    2016-08-16

    Tubercular meningitis (TBM) is a devastating extra pulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis and demonstrates a high neurological morbidity. A rare complication of this condition is Kluver-Bucy syndrome (KBS), which is a neurobehavioral disorder characterised by hyper-sexuality, visual agnosia, bulimia, placidity, hyperorality and memory deficits caused by lesions to the amygdala. The amygdala lesions can be due to many causes, including traumatic brain injury, systemic conditions and infections such as tuberculosis. Here, we present a case of partial KBS in a patient undergoing treatment for TBM.

  18. New chromogenic plating media for detection and enumeration of pathogenic Listeria spp.--an overview.

    PubMed

    Reissbrodt, Rolf

    2004-08-15

    In recent years a number of selective chromogenic plating media for pathogenic Listeria spp. have been developed and marketed. Their advantages are direct detection and enumeration of pathogenic Listeria spp. utilizing cleavage of substrates by the virulence factor phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) and, to a lesser extent, by phosphatidylcholin-phospholipase C (PC-PLC). There are two groups of such media: the first utilizes cleavage by PI-PLC of L-alpha-phosphatidyl-inositol, forming a white precipitation zone around the colony, combined with the chromogenic substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside for detection of beta-d-glucosidase, which occurs in all Listeria spp. All Listeria spp. produce turquoise colonies on these media which include ALOA , CHROMagar Listeria, BBL CHROMagar Listeria, and OCLA. The second group of media utilizes 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-myoinositol-1-phosphate, forming blue-turquoise colonies of pathogenic Listeria spp. and white colonies of non-pathogenic Listeria spp. BCM trade mark Listeria monocytogenes plating medium, Rapid'L.mono and LIMONO-Ident-Agar belong to this group. Selective chromogenic L. monocytogenes plating media offer the attraction of rapid economic detection and enumeration of pathogenic Listeria spp. within 24 or 48 h of incubation at 36+/-1 degrees C. This overview summarises the characteristics of these chromogenic plating media, reviews important evaluations, and focuses on replacement of conventional by these chromogenic plating media, particularly for applications in the food industry.

  19. Listeria monocytogenes Biofilm Formation on Silver Ion Impregnated Cutting Boards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a human pathogen that can be a member of a biofilm community attached to surfaces in poultry processing plants. When present as a biofilm on product contact surfaces, this organism can effectively cross contaminate fully cooked ready-to-eat meat. Plastic cutting boards ca...

  20. 78 FR 27939 - Draft Interagency Risk Assessment-Listeria monocytogenes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration....usda.gov/PDF/Listeria-Transcript_062309.pdf ). As announced by FSIS in the Federal Register (78 FR... Inspection Service and Department of Health and Human Service, Food and Drug Administration/Center for...

  1. Genome sequesnce of lineage III Listeria monocytogenes strain HCC23

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 98% of reported human listeriosis cases are caused by Listeria monocytogenes serotypes within lineages I and II. Serotypes within lineage III (4a and 4c) are commonly isolated from environmental and food specimens. We report the first complete genome sequence of a lineage III isolate, HCC2...

  2. Occurrence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Listeria Species in Turkey Meats

    PubMed Central

    Ardıç, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of Listeria species in turkey meats and to check the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated strains. Hundred and fifteen raw turkey meat samples were randomly collected from the supermarkets, butchers and restaurants. Strain isolation and identification were made according to the ISO11290-1 method. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the standard disc diffusion method. A total of 47 Listeria spp. were isolated from 115 (40.9%) raw turkey meat samples. The isolates were distributed between L. monocytogenes (25.53%), L. innocua (34.04%), L. grayi (31.91%) and L. welshimeri (8.51%). A total of 55.3 % of Listeria spp. isolates were multi-resistant to at least 3 of the antimicrobial agent tested. The level of multi-resistance was higher in L. monocytogenes strains (66.7%) than in L. innocua (62.5%) and L. grayi (53.3%). Listeria spp. isolates were highly resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin, penicillin, meticillin, oxacillin, and trimethoprime-sulfamethoxazole. The isolates particularly L. monocytogenes are increasingly resistant to one or more antibiotics and may represent a potential risk for public health because these antibiotics are common used in treatment of listeriosis. The correct and controlled use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine is important to the emergence of resistant strains. PMID:26761896

  3. Influence of temperature on alkali stress adaptation in Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes cells may induce alkali stress adaptation when exposed to sublethal concentrations of alkaline cleaners and sanitizers that may be frequently used in the food processing environment. In the present study, the effect of temperature on the induction and the stability of such alk...

  4. Toward an Improved Laboratory Definition of Listeria monocytogenes Virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is an opportunistic foodborne pathogen that encompasses a diversity of strains with varied virulence. The ability to rapidly determine the pathogenic potential of L. monocytogenes strains is integral to the control and prevention campaign against listeriosis. Early methods for...

  5. Genome Sequences of Five Nonvirulent Listeria monocytogenes Serovar 4 Strains

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yang; Loessner, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    We present the complete genome sequences of five nonpathogenic Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4 strains: WSLC 1018 (4e), 1019 (4c), 1020 (4a), 1033 (4d), and 1047 (4d). These sequences may help to uncover genes involved in the synthesis of the serovar antigens—phenotypic determinants of virulence deemed clinically relevant. PMID:27034489

  6. Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms to sanitizing agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is notorious for its capacity to colonize the environment and equipment of food processing facilities and to persist in the processing plant ecosystem, sometimes for decades. Such persistence is mediated by multiple attributes of L. monocytogenes, including the pathogen’s capa...

  7. Listeria meningoencephalitis and anti-GQ1b antibody syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vergori, A; Masi, G; Donati, D; Ginanneschi, F; Annunziata, P; Cerase, A; Mencarelli, M; Rossetti, B; De Luca, A; Zanelli, G

    2016-08-01

    We report the first case of Listeria monocytogenes meningoencephalitis associated with anti-GQ1b antibody syndrome in an immunocompetent adult. A prompt diagnosis, made thanks to the multidisciplinary contribution, allowed a combined therapeutic approach leading to final favourable outcome, despite several intercurrent complications. PMID:26825308

  8. Analytical bioconjugates, aptamers, enable specific quantitative detection of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Ahn, Ji-Young; Lee, Kyeong-Ah; Um, Hyun-Ju; Sekhon, Simranjeet Singh; Sun Park, Tae; Min, Jiho; Kim, Yang-Hoon

    2015-06-15

    As a major human pathogen in the Listeria genus, Listeria monocytogenes causes the bacterial disease listeriosis, which is a serious infection caused by eating food contaminated with the bacteria. We have developed an aptamer-based sandwich assay (ABSA) platform that demonstrates a promising potential for use in pathogen detection using aptamers as analytical bioconjugates. The whole-bacteria SELEX (WB-SELEX) strategy was adopted to generate aptamers with high affinity and specificity against live L. monocytogenes. Of the 35 aptamer candidates tested, LMCA2 and LMCA26 reacted to L. monocytogenes with high binding, and were consequently chosen as sensing probes. The ABSA platform can significantly enhance the sensitivity by employing a very specific aptamer pair for the sandwich complex. The ABSA platform exhibited a linear response over a wide concentration range of L. monocytogenes from 20 to 2×10(6) CFU per mL and was closely correlated with the following relationship: y=9533.3x+1542.3 (R(2)=0.99). Our proposed ABSA platform also provided excellent specificity for the tests to distinguish L. monocytogenes from other Listeria species and other bacterial genera (3 Listeria spp., 4 Salmonella spp., 2 Vibrio spp., 3 Escherichia coli and 3 Shigella spp.). Improvements in the sensitivity and specificity have not only facilitated the reliable detection of L. monocytogenes at extremely low concentrations, but also allowed for the development of a 96-well plate-based routine assay platform for multivalent diagnostics.

  9. The meninges contribute to the conditioned taste avoidance induced by neural cooling in male rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Chambers, Kathleen C

    2002-08-21

    After consumption of a novel sucrose solution, temporary cooling of neural areas that mediate conditioned taste avoidance can itself induce conditioned avoidance to the sucrose. It has been suggested that this effect is either a result of inactivation of neurons in these areas or of cooling the meninges. In a series of studies, we demonstrated that cooling the outer layer of the meninges, the dura mater, does not contribute to the conditioned taste avoidance induced by cooling any of these areas. The present experiments were designed to determine whether the inner layers of the meninges are involved. If they are involved, then one would expect that cooling locations in the brain that do not mediate conditioned taste avoidance, such as the caudate putamen (CP), would induce conditioned taste avoidance as long as the meninges were cooled as well. One also would expect that cooling neural tissue without cooling the meninges would reduce the strength of the conditioned taste avoidance. Experiment 1 established that the temperature of the neural tissue and meninges around the cold probes implanted in the CP were cooled to temperatures that have been shown to block synaptic transmission. Experiment 2 demonstrated that cooling the caudate putamen and overlying cortex and meninges induced conditioned taste avoidance. In experiment 3, a circle of meninges was cut away so that the caudate putamen and overlying cortex could be cooled without cooling the meninges. The strength of the conditioned taste avoidance was substantially reduced, but it was not entirely eliminated. These data support the hypothesis that cooling the meninges contributes to the conditioned taste avoidance induced by neural cooling. They also allow the possibility that neural inactivation produces physiological changes that can induce conditioned taste avoidance.

  10. Nucleotide homeostasis and purinergic nociceptive signaling in rat meninges in migraine-like conditions.

    PubMed

    Yegutkin, Gennady G; Guerrero-Toro, Cindy; Kilinc, Erkan; Koroleva, Kseniya; Ishchenko, Yevheniia; Abushik, Polina; Giniatullina, Raisa; Fayuk, Dmitriy; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2016-09-01

    Extracellular ATP is suspected to contribute to migraine pain but regulatory mechanisms controlling pro-nociceptive purinergic mechanisms in the meninges remain unknown. We studied the peculiarities of metabolic and signaling pathways of ATP and its downstream metabolites in rat meninges and in cultured trigeminal cells exposed to the migraine mediator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Under resting conditions, meningeal ATP and ADP remained at low nanomolar levels, whereas extracellular AMP and adenosine concentrations were one-two orders higher. CGRP increased ATP and ADP levels in meninges and trigeminal cultures and reduced adenosine concentration in trigeminal cells. Degradation rates for exogenous nucleotides remained similar in control and CGRP-treated meninges, indicating that CGRP triggers nucleotide release without affecting nucleotide-inactivating pathways. Lead nitrate-based enzyme histochemistry of whole mount meninges revealed the presence of high ATPase, ADPase, and AMPase activities, primarily localized in the medial meningeal artery. ATP and ADP induced large intracellular Ca(2+) transients both in neurons and in glial cells whereas AMP and adenosine were ineffective. In trigeminal glia, ATP partially operated via P2X7 receptors. ATP, but not other nucleotides, activated nociceptive spikes in meningeal trigeminal nerve fibers providing a rationale for high degradation rate of pro-nociceptive ATP. Pro-nociceptive effect of ATP in meningeal nerves was reproduced by α,β-meATP operating via P2X3 receptors. Collectively, extracellular ATP, which level is controlled by CGRP, can persistently activate trigeminal nerves in meninges which considered as the origin site of migraine headache. These data are consistent with the purinergic hypothesis of migraine pain and suggest new targets against trigeminal pain.

  11. Spontaneous gram-negative bacillary meningitis in adult patients: characteristics and outcome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Spontaneous meningitis caused by gram-negative bacilli in adult patients is uncommon and poorly characterized. Our objective is to describe and compare the characteristics and the outcome of adult patients with spontaneous gram-negative bacilli meningitis (GNBM) and spontaneous meningitis due to other pathogens. Methods Prospective single hospital-based observational cohort study conducted between 1982 and 2006 in a university tertiary hospital in Barcelona (Spain). The Main Outcome Measure: In-hospital mortality. Results Gram-negative bacilli meningitis was diagnosed in 40 (7%) of 544 episodes of spontaneous acute bacterial meningitis. The most common pathogens were Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas species. On admission, characteristics associated with spontaneous gram-negative bacilli meningitis by multivariate modeling were advanced age, history of cancer, nosocomial acquisition of infection, urinary tract infection as distant focus of infection, absence of rash, hypotension, and a high cerebrospinal fluid white-cell count. Nine (23%) episodes were acquired in the hospital and they were most commonly caused by Pseudomonas. The in-hospital mortality rate was 53%. The mortality rate was higher among patients with Gram-negative bacillary meningitis than among those with other bacterial meningitis and their risk of death was twenty times higher than among patients infected with Neisseria meningitidis (odds ratio 20.47; 95% confidence interval 4.03-103.93; p<0.001). Conclusions Gram-negative bacilli cause 9% of spontaneous bacterial meningitis of known etiology in adults. Characteristics associated with GNBM include advanced age, history of cancer, nosocomial acquisition, and urinary tract infection as distant focus of infection. The mortality rate is higher among patients with gram-negative bacillary meningitis than among those with other bacterial meningitides. PMID:24079517

  12. Twenty Years of Listeria in Brazil: Occurrence of Listeria Species and Listeria monocytogenes Serovars in Food Samples in Brazil between 1990 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Vallim, Deyse Christina; Barroso Hofer, Cristina; Lisbôa, Rodrigo de Castro; Victor Barbosa, André; Alves Rusak, Leonardo; dos Reis, Cristhiane Moura Falavina; Hofer, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Listeria spp. isolated from different food products and collected from 12 Brazilian states were sent to the Laboratory of Bacterial Zoonoses (Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Brazil) for identification. The aims of this study were to characterize these isolates, from 1990 to 2012, by using biochemical, morphological, and serotyping tests, and to analyze the distribution of L. monocytogenes serotypes on different food products and geographical locations. Serotyping was performed using polyclonal somatic and flagellar antisera. Of 5953 isolates, 5770 were identified as Listeria spp., from which 3429 (59.4%) were L. innocua, 2248 (38.9%) were L. monocytogenes, and 93 (1.6%) were other Listeria spp. L. innocua was predominantly isolated from 1990 to 2000, while L. monocytogenes was from 2001 to 2012. Regarding the serotype distribution in the foods, serotypes 1/2a and 4b were most common in processed meat and ready-to-eat products, respectively; serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b were the most common in nonprocessed meat. The results above confirm the presence of the main serotypes of L. monocytogenes in different parts of the food chain from three regions of the country and emphasize the importance of improving the control measures, as tolerance zero policy and microbiological surveillance in Brazil. PMID:26539507

  13. Twenty Years of Listeria in Brazil: Occurrence of Listeria Species and Listeria monocytogenes Serovars in Food Samples in Brazil between 1990 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Vallim, Deyse Christina; Barroso Hofer, Cristina; Lisbôa, Rodrigo de Castro; Barbosa, André Victor; Alves Rusak, Leonardo; dos Reis, Cristhiane Moura Falavina; Hofer, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Listeria spp. isolated from different food products and collected from 12 Brazilian states were sent to the Laboratory of Bacterial Zoonoses (Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Brazil) for identification. The aims of this study were to characterize these isolates, from 1990 to 2012, by using biochemical, morphological, and serotyping tests, and to analyze the distribution of L. monocytogenes serotypes on different food products and geographical locations. Serotyping was performed using polyclonal somatic and flagellar antisera. Of 5953 isolates, 5770 were identified as Listeria spp., from which 3429 (59.4%) were L. innocua, 2248 (38.9%) were L. monocytogenes, and 93 (1.6%) were other Listeria spp. L. innocua was predominantly isolated from 1990 to 2000, while L. monocytogenes was from 2001 to 2012. Regarding the serotype distribution in the foods, serotypes 1/2a and 4b were most common in processed meat and ready-to-eat products, respectively; serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b were the most common in nonprocessed meat. The results above confirm the presence of the main serotypes of L. monocytogenes in different parts of the food chain from three regions of the country and emphasize the importance of improving the control measures, as tolerance zero policy and microbiological surveillance in Brazil.

  14. Rapid identification and classification of Listeria spp. and serotype assignment of Listeria monocytogenes using fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and artificial neural network analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) in conjunction with Artificial Neural Network software, NeuroDeveloper™ was examined for the rapid identification and classification of Listeria species and serotyping of Listeria monocytogenes. A spectral library was created for 245 strains...

  15. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of atypical Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua isolated from swine slaughterhouses and meat markets.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luisa Zanolli; Paixão, Renata; de Gobbi, Debora Dirani Sena; Raimundo, Daniele Cristine; Porfida Ferreira, Thais Sebastiana; Micke Moreno, Andrea; Hofer, Ernesto; dos Reis, Cristhiane Moura Falavina; Matté, Glavur Rogério; Matté, Maria Helena

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, atypical Listeria monocytogenes and L. innocua strains have been detected in food and the environment. Because of mutations in the major virulence genes, these strains have different virulence intensities in eukaryotic cells. In this study, we performed phenotypic and genotypic characterization of atypical L. monocytogenes and L. innocua isolates obtained from swine slaughterhouses and meat markets. Forty strains were studied, including isolates of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua with low-hemolytic activity. The isolates were characterized using conventional phenotypic Listeria identification tests and by the detection and analysis of L. monocytogenes-specific genes. Analysis of 16S rRNA was used for the molecular identification of the Listeria species. The L. monocytogenes isolates were positive for all of the virulence genes studied. The atypical L. innocua strains were positive for hly, plcA, and inlC. Mutations in the InlC, InlB, InlA, PI-PLC, PC-PLC, and PrfA proteins were detected in the atypical isolates. Further in vitro and transcriptomic studies are being developed to confirm the role of these mutations in Listeria virulence.

  16. Isolated Rosai-Dorfman disease of intracranial meninges.

    PubMed

    Z'Graggen, Werner J; Sturzenegger, Matthias; Mariani, Luigi; Keserue, Borbala; Kappeler, Andreas; Vajtai, Istvan

    2006-01-01

    Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a non-neoplastic proliferative histiocytic disorder that primarily affects lymph nodes (sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy). Primary RDD of the central nervous system is most uncommon. We report on a 35-year-old man with isolated RDD of the meninges overlying the left cerebral hemisphere. Presenting signs and symptoms included severe progressive ipsilateral headaches of 4 months duration, as well as laboratory evidence of mild non-specific systemic inflammatory reaction. On magnetic resonance imaging, the lesion was seen as a contrast-enhancing, plaque-like thickening of the dura mater over the left convexity,without impinging on adjacent bone or cerebral parenchyma. Meningeal biopsy revealed a mixed mononuclear infiltrate dominated by CD68(+), S100(+), CD1a(-) non-Langerhans type histiocytes on a background of fibrosis. Bacteria, in particular mycobacteria, and fungi were excluded with special stains. Extensive clinical workup, encompassing computed tomography of thoracal and abdominal organs, bone marrow biopsy, and bronchoalveolar lavage failed to reveal any extracranial involvement. Laboratory tests for autoimmunity, including C- and P-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, antinuclear antibody, and serum rheumatoid factor, were negative. Methylprednisolone therapy induced complete remission of symptoms, with the neuroradiologic status remaining unchanged on follow-up after 2 months. We discuss the complex clinicopathologic differential diagnosis and therapeutic issues of this rare condition. While the correct diagnosis of central nervous system RDD is unlikely to be established without invasive procedures (biopsy), a conservative therapeutic approach may be considered a legitimate option.

  17. Microscopic morphology and histology of the human meninges.

    PubMed

    Weller, R O

    2005-03-01

    The meninges comprise the dura mater and the leptomeninges (arachnoid and pia mater). Dura forms an outer endosteal layer related to the bones of the skull and spine and an inner layer closely applied to the arachnoid mater. Leptomeninges have multiple functions and anatomical relationships. The outer parietal layer of arachnoid is impermeable to CSF due to tight intercellular junctions; elsewhere leptomeningeal cells form demosomes and gap junctions. Trabeculae of leptomeninges compartmentalize the subarachnoid space and join the pia to arachnoid mater. In bacterial meningitis leptomeningeal cells secrete cytokines. Pia mater is reflected from the surface of the brain and spinal cord onto arteries and veins, thus separating the subarachnoid space from the brain and cord. A sheath of leptomeninges accompanies arteries into the brain and is related to the pathways for the drainage of interstitial fluid that play a role in inflammatory responses in the brain and appear to be blocked by amyloid-beta in Alzheimer's disease. Specialised leptomeningeal cells in the stroma of the choroid plexus form collagen whorls that become calcified with age. Leptomeningeal cells also form channels in the core and apical cap of arachnoid granulations for the drainage of CSF into venous sinuses. In the spine, leptomeninges form highly perforated intermediate sheets of arachnoid and delicate ligaments that compartmentalize the subarachnoid space; dentate ligaments anchor subpial collagen to the dura mater and stabilize the spinal cord. Despite the multiple anatomical arrangements and physiological functions, leptomeningeal cells retain many histological features that are similar from site to site.

  18. Role of Microglial Activation in the Pathophysiology of Bacterial Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Barichello, Tatiana; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Simões, Lutiana R; Goularte, Jessica A; Petronilho, Fabricia; Saigal, Priyanka; Badawy, Marwa; Quevedo, João

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening infection associated with cognitive impairment in many survivors. The pathogen invades the central nervous system (CNS) by penetrating through the luminal side of the cerebral endothelium, which is an integral part of the blood-brain barrier. The replication of bacteria within the subarachnoid space occurs concomitantly with the release of their compounds that are highly immunogenic. These compounds known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) may lead to both an increase in the inflammatory response in the host and also microglial activation. Microglia are the resident macrophages of the CNS which, when activated, can trigger a host of immunological pathways. Classical activation increases the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and reactive oxygen species, while alternative activation is implicated in the inhibition of inflammation and restoration of homeostasis. The inflammatory response from classical microglial activation can facilitate the elimination of invasive microorganisms; however, excessive or extended microglial activation can result in neuronal damage and eventually cell death. This review aims to discuss the role of microglia in the pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis as well as the process of microglial activation by PAMPs and by endogenous constituents that are normally released from damaged cells known as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). PMID:25744564

  19. The meningeal lymphatic system: a route for HIV brain migration?

    PubMed

    Lamers, Susanna L; Rose, Rebecca; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C; Nolan, David J; Salemi, Marco; Maidji, Ekaterina; Stoddart, Cheryl A; McGrath, Michael S

    2016-06-01

    Two innovative studies recently identified functional lymphatic structures in the meninges that may influence the development of HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND). Until now, blood vessels were assumed to be the sole transport system by which HIV-infected monocytes entered the brain by bypassing a potentially hostile blood-brain barrier through inflammatory-mediated semi-permeability. A cascade of specific chemokine signals promote monocyte migration from blood vessels to surrounding brain tissues via a well-supported endothelium, where the cells differentiate into tissue macrophages capable of productive HIV infection. Lymphatic vessels on the other hand are more loosely organized than blood vessels. They absorb interstitial fluid from bodily tissues where HIV may persist and exchange a variety of immune cells (CD4(+) T cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells) with surrounding tissues through discontinuous endothelial junctions. We propose that the newly discovered meningeal lymphatics are key to HIV migration among viral reservoirs and brain tissue during periods of undetectable plasma viral loads due to suppressive combinational antiretroviral therapy, thus redefining the migration process in terms of a blood-lymphatic transport system.

  20. Rhodotorula glutinis meningitis: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Menon, Sarala; Gupta, H R; Sequeira, R; Chavan, Shazia; Gholape, D; Amandeep, S; Bhilave, N; Chowdhary, A S

    2014-07-01

    Rhodotorula is ubiquitous saprophytic yeast belonging to phylum Basidiomycota. These encapsulated basidiomycetes are being increasingly recognised as important emerging human pathogens. There are scanty reports of meningitis caused by Rhodurorula spp in HIV infected patients. We present one such case of meningitis by Rhodutorula glutinis in HIV-infected patient. The patient also had a past history of abdominal tuberculosis. The diagnosis of Rhodotorula was confirmed by Gram staining and culture of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Contamination was ruled out by repeated culturing of CSF from the same patient. Therapy with Amphotericin B showed good results. Patient was discharged from the hospital. However, in the seventh month of follow-up patient was readmitted with complaints of fever, breathlessness, altered sensorium, vomiting and succumbed to his illness. This time the CSF cultures remained negative for Rhodotorula, acid fast bacilli and other pyogenic organisms. Our last 11-year retrospective analysis of 8197 specimens received for mycological work-up showed that this is the first report of R. glutinis isolation from our institute.

  1. [Carcinomatous meningitis: The radiation therapist's point of view].

    PubMed

    Espenel, S; Vallard, A; Langrand-Escure, J; Ben Mrad, M; Méry, B; Rivoirard, R; Moriceau, G; Guy, J-B; Trone, J-C; Moncharmont, C; Wang, G; Diao, P; Bernichon, É; Chanal, É; Fournel, P; Magné, N

    2016-02-01

    Carcinomatous meningitis complicates 5 to 10% of cancers, essentially with breast cancers, lung cancers and melanomas. The incidence probably increased because of therapeutic advances in oncology. Treatment is based on external beam radiotherapy, systemic treatment, intrathecal chemotherapy and supportive care. The aim of this work was to review data on external radiation therapy and carcinomatous meningitis. There are few evidences on the subject, but it is a major topic of interest. A whole brain radiation therapy is indicated in case of brain metastases or clinical encephalitis. Focal radiation therapy is recommended on symptomatic, bulky or obstructive sites. The dose depends on performance status (20 to 40 Gy in five to 20 fractions), volume to treat and available techniques (classic fractionation or hypofractionation via stereotactic radiosurgery). The objective of radiation therapy is to improve quality of life. Association with systemic therapy improves overall survival. Administration of sequential intrathecal chemotherapy may also improve overall survival, but induces more toxicity. The use of new radiotherapy techniques and development of radiosensitizing molecules in patients with good performance status could improve survival in this frequent complication of cancer. PMID:26867467

  2. Aetiological agents of cerebrospinal meningitis: a retrospective study from a teaching hospital in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstracts Background Meningitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in low-resource settings. In sub-Saharan Africa, the meningitis belt has been characterized by particularly high and seasonal incidences of bacterial meningitis extending throughout life. Despite the progress being made in treating the condition, the mortality rates continue to be high, ranging between 2% and 30% globally. In Ghana, the mortality rate of meningitis has been estimated to range from 36% to 50%. However little information is available on the pathogens contributing to meningitis and their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Updated information is essential to adjust the recommendations for empirical treatment or prevention of meningitis which could have immense implications for local and global health. Methods We retrospectively reviewed laboratory records of all patients suspected of bacterial meningitis who underwent a lumbar puncture from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. Data were retrieved from laboratory record books and double entered into a Microsoft® excel spreadsheet. Results Records of 4,955 cerebrospinal fluid samples were analysed. Of these, 163 (3.3%, 95%CI: 2.8% to 3.8%) were confirmed meningitis and 106 (2.1%, 95%CI: 1.7% to 2.6%) were probable meningitis cases. Confirmed meningitis cases were made up of 117 (71.8%) culture positive bacteria, 19 (11.7%) culture positive Cryptococcus neoformans and 27(16.6%) Gram positive bacteria with negative culture. The most prevalent bacteria was Streptococcus pneumoniae 91 (77.7%), followed by E.coli 4 (3.4%), Salmonella species 4 (3.4%), Neisseria meningitidis 3 (2.5%), Pseudomonas species 3(2.5%) and others. Pneumococcal isolates susceptibility to penicillin, chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone were 98.9% (95%CI: 94.0% to 100.0%), 83.0% (95%CI: 73.4% to 90.1%) and 100.0% (95%CI: 95.8% to 100.0%) respectively. Conclusion Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of meningitis among all age groups and its

  3. Increased levels of cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid of children with aseptic meningitis caused by mumps virus and echovirus 30.

    PubMed

    Sulik, A; Kroten, A; Wojtkowska, M; Oldak, E

    2014-01-01

    We measured levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with mumps meningitis, enteroviral echovirus 30 meningitis and children without central nervous system infection to investigate whether these molecules were involved in the pathogenesis of viral meningitis. The CSF was obtained from 62 children suspected with meningitis. These patients were classified to the mumps meningitis (n = 19), echovirus 30 meningitis (n = 22) and non-meningitis (n = 21) groups. The concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-1 soluble receptor type 2 (IL-1R2), interleukin-8 (IL-8), human interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and human tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were determined by immunoassay. A significant increase was noted in the levels of IL-8, TNF-α and IL-1R2 in the CSF of both meningitis groups as compared to controls. The concentrations of IFN-γ and IL-1 differed significantly only between the mumps group and control. The levels of IL-1, IFN-γ and TNF-α were significantly higher in mumps meningitis when compared to the echovirus 30 group. Of all cytokines examined, only IFN-γ correlated with pleocytosis (r = 0.58) in the mumps meningitis group. The increased CSF cytokine levels are markers of meningeal inflammation, and each virus may cause a specific profile of the cytokine pattern.

  4. Urban prevalence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in public lavatories and on shoe soles of facility patrons in the European capital city Vienna.

    PubMed

    Schoder, D; Schmalwieser, A; Szakmary-Brändle, K; Stessl, B; Wagner, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) in urban public lavatories and on shoe soles of facility patrons in a European capital city. More than 91% of all municipal public lavatories in Vienna close to public hubs were included in this study. Overall, 373 swab samples of public lavatories and shoes of facility patrons were enriched, according to ISO 11290-1. Listeria monocytogenes isolates were subtyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 24 samples were positive for Listeria spp., yielding an overall prevalence of 6.4% (24/373). Listeria monocytogenes was found in 2.1% (8/373) of all samples. Swabs from lavatories in parks, container lavatories and lavatories at markets had the highest prevalences of 20.7% (6/29), 20% (2/10) and 12.5% (1/8) Listeria spp., respectively. These detection rates were statistically significantly higher than those associated with lavatories in shopping centres (P = 0.003, P = 0.002, P = 0.02) and at public transport locations (P = 0.0004, P = 0.005, P = 0.02). Shoes sampled at Christmas markets showed the highest Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes prevalences of 80% (4/5) and 40% (2/5), respectively. With regard to shoe type, Listeria spp. detection rates were 14.3% (3/21; winter boots), 13.3% (2/15; hiking boots), sport shoes (5.9%; 2/34) and brogues (5.1%; 4/79). No Listeria spp. were found on shoe soles that had smooth treads (0/76), while Listeria spp. were detected on 19.5% (8/41) of medium depth tread shoe types and on 9.4% (3/32) of deep tread shoes. These data suggest that soil environment is still one of the most important reservoirs for the foodborne pathogen L. monocytogenes.

  5. Geographical and meteorological factors associated with isolation of Listeria species in New York State produce production and natural environments.

    PubMed

    Chapin, Travis K; Nightingale, Kendra K; Worobo, Randy W; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2014-11-01

    Listeria species have been isolated from diverse environments, often at considerable prevalence, and are known to persist in food processing facilities. The presence of Listeria spp. has been suggested to be a marker for Listeria monocytogenes contamination. Therefore, a study was conducted to (i) determine the prevalence and diversity of Listeria spp. in produce production and natural environments and (ii) identify geographical and/or meteorological factors that affect the isolation of Listeria spp. in these environments. These data were also used to evaluate Listeria spp. as index organisms for L. monocytogenes in produce production environments. Environmental samples collected from produce production (n = 588) and natural (n = 734) environments in New York State were microbiologically analyzed to detect and isolate Listeria spp. The prevalence of Listeria spp. was approximately 33 and 34% for samples obtained from natural environments and produce production, respectively. Co-isolation of L. monocytogenes and at least one other species of Listeria in a given sample was recorded for 3 and 9% of samples from natural environments and produce production, respectively. Soil moisture and proximity to water and pastures were highly associated with isolation of Listeria spp. in produce production environments, while elevation, study site, and proximity to pastures were highly associated with isolation of Listeria spp. in natural environments, as determined by randomForest models. These data show that Listeria spp. were prevalent in both agricultural and nonagricultural environments and that geographical and meteorological factors associated with isolation of Listeria spp. were considerably different between the two environments.

  6. Meningeal hemangiopericytomas and hemangiopericytoma/solitary fibrous tumors of extracranial soft tissues: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini-Spaltro, Andrea; Eusebi, Vincenzo

    2010-04-01

    The current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system tumors lists meningeal hemangiopericytomas (HPC) and meningeal solitary fibrous tumors (SFT) as separate entities. On the contrary, SFT and HPC of soft tissues are regarded in the WHO soft tissue fascicle as features of the same entity. The clinical data, histology, and immunohistochemistry of 18 cases of meningeal HPC and 12 cases of peripheral soft tissue HPC-SFT were compared. Both intracranial and soft tissue lesions had significant similarities that included staghorn vasculature, necrotic areas, cytologic atypia, and positivities for CD99, collagen IV, and reticulin. Nevertheless, intracranial tumors were more cellular than HPC-SFT of soft tissues and had fewer collagen bands. Meningeal HPC in addition had more mitoses, higher Ki67 index, stained less intensely for CD34 and B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) than HPC-SFT of soft tissues. Meningeal HPCs recurred in 13 out of 14 cases (92.9%). One of the patients died in the postoperative period for a recurrent lesion 5 years after the diagnosis, and another patient developed an extracranial metastasis 13 years after surgery. None of the six cases of HPC-SFT of soft tissues available for follow-up recurred. Both meningeal and soft tissue tumors appear to represent different features of the same entity. A more aggressive phenotype of the tumor together with incomplete surgical resection of intracranial lesions might explain the noticeable clinical difference between HPC of the meninges and HPC-SFT of soft tissues.

  7. Meningeal cells influence midbrain development and the engraftment of dopamine progenitors in Parkinsonian mice.

    PubMed

    Somaa, Fahad A; Bye, Christopher R; Thompson, Lachlan H; Parish, Clare L

    2015-05-01

    Dopaminergic neuroblasts, isolated from ventral midbrain fetal tissue, have been shown to structurally and functionally integrate, and alleviate Parkinsonian symptoms following transplantation. The use of donor tissue isolated at an age younger than conventionally employed can result in larger grafts - a consequence of improved cell survival and neuroblast proliferation at the time of implantation. However studies have paid little attention to removal of the meninges from younger tissue, due to its age-dependent tight attachment to the underlying brain. Beyond the protection of the central nervous system, the meninges act as a signaling center, secreting a variety of trophins to influence neural development and additionally impact on neural repair. However it remains to be elucidated what influence these cells have on ventral midbrain development and grafted dopaminergic neuroblasts. Here we examined the temporal role of meningeal cells in graft integration in Parkinsonian mice and, using in vitro approaches, identified the mechanisms underlying the roles of meningeal cells in midbrain development. We demonstrate that young (embryonic day 10), but not older (E12), meningeal cells promote dopaminergic differentiation as well as neurite growth and guidance within grafts and during development. Furthermore we identify stromal derived factor 1 (SDF1), secreted by the meninges and acting on the CXCR4 receptor present on dopaminergic progenitors, as a contributory mediator in these effects. These findings identify new and important roles for the meningeal cells, and SDF1/CXCR4 signaling, in ventral midbrain development as well as neural repair following cell transplantation into the Parkinsonian brain.

  8. Meninges harbor cells expressing neural precursor markers during development and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bifari, Francesco; Berton, Valeria; Pino, Annachiara; Kusalo, Marijana; Malpeli, Giorgio; Di Chio, Marzia; Bersan, Emanuela; Amato, Eliana; Scarpa, Aldo; Krampera, Mauro; Fumagalli, Guido; Decimo, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Brain and skull developments are tightly synchronized, allowing the cranial bones to dynamically adapt to the brain shape. At the brain-skull interface, meninges produce the trophic signals necessary for normal corticogenesis and bone development. Meninges harbor different cell populations, including cells forming the endosteum of the cranial vault. Recently, we and other groups have described the presence in meninges of a cell population endowed with neural differentiation potential in vitro and, after transplantation, in vivo. However, whether meninges may be a niche for neural progenitor cells during embryonic development and in adulthood remains to be determined. In this work we provide the first description of the distribution of neural precursor markers in rat meninges during development up to adulthood. We conclude that meninges share common properties with the classical neural stem cell niche, as they: (i) are a highly proliferating tissue; (ii) host cells expressing neural precursor markers such as nestin, vimentin, Sox2 and doublecortin; and (iii) are enriched in extracellular matrix components (e.g., fractones) known to bind and concentrate growth factors. This study underlines the importance of meninges as a potential niche for endogenous precursor cells during development and in adulthood.

  9. Long-Term Effects from Bacterial Meningitis in Childhood and Adolescence on Postural Control

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Hannes; Patel, Mitesh; Ingason, Einar F.; Einarsson, Einar J.; Haraldsson, Ásgeir; Fransson, Per-Anders

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis in childhood is associated with cognitive deficiencies, sensorimotor impairments and motor dysfunction later in life. However, the long-term effects on postural control is largely unknown, e.g., whether meningitis subjects as adults fully can utilize visual information and adaptation to enhance stability. Thirty-six subjects (20 women, mean age 19.3 years) treated in childhood or adolescence for bacterial meningitis, and 25 controls (13 women, mean age 25.1 years) performed posturography with eyes open and closed under unperturbed and perturbed standing. The meningitis subjects were screened for subjective vertigo symptoms using a questionnaire, clinically tested with headshake and head thrust test, as well as their hearing was evaluated. Meningitis subjects were significantly more unstable than controls during unperturbed (p≤0.014) and perturbed standing, though while perturbed only with eyes open in anteroposterior direction (p = 0.034) whereas in lateral direction both with eyes open and closed (p<0.001). Meningitis subjects had poorer adaption ability to balance perturbations especially with eyes open, and they frequently reported symptoms of unsteadiness (88% of the subjects) and dizziness (81%), which was found significantly correlated to objectively decreased stability. Out of the 36 subjects only 3 had unilateral hearing impairment. Hence, survivors of childhood bacterial meningitis may suffer long-term disorders affecting postural control, and would greatly benefit if these common late effects became generally known so treatments can be developed and applied. PMID:25405756

  10. Solitary fibrous tumors of the meninges: report of four cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Caroli, Emanuela; Salvati, Maurizio; Orlando, Epimenio Ramundo; Lenzi, Jacopo; Santoro, Antonio; Giangaspero, Felice

    2004-10-01

    Central nervous system solitary fibrous tumors are a new pathological entity. To our knowledge, only 60 meningeal solitary fibrous tumors both in the spinal cord and in the brain have been described in the literature. The 56 previously reported cases of meningeal solitary fibrous tumors are critically reviewed. In addition, we report four new cases of solitary fibrous tumors of the meninges. There is a slight male prepoderance. Meningeal solitary fibrous tumors show a tendency to arise in the posterior fossa (26%) and spine (25%). The treatment was mainly total surgical excision. Radiotherapy was given only to four patients with tumors involving the cerebral parenchyma. Sporadic cases of recurrence and distant metastasis have been reported. The prognosis of meningeal solitary fibrous tumors is still unknown because the follow-up of the reported cases is short. It is probable that cases of solitary fibrous tumors of the meninges have been misdiagnosed as other tumors in the past. The best management of these tumors seems to be total surgical excision whenever possible. It is important that every new case of meningeal SFT be reported to throw light on this particular tumor and to affirm its status as a clinicopathological entity.

  11. Unusually severe varicella zoster (VZV) virus viral (aseptic) meningitis in an unimmunized, immunocompetent host with chickenpox.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Warren-Favorito, Heather; Mickail, Nardeen

    2011-01-01

    Chickenpox is caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV) and may be more severe in adults than in children. Central nervous system (CNS) manifestations of chickenpox and VZV are uncommon, for example, encephalitis and cerebellar ataxis. Viral (aseptic) meningitis is a rare CNS complication of VZV. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profile in VZV viral (aseptic) meningitis is indistinguishable from other causes of viral meningitis. The clue to most of the diagnoses of VZV aseptic meningitis is based on the temporal relationship between antecedent or concomitant chickenpox. Chickenpox is a clinical diagnosis based on the appearance and distribution of the rash. The rash of chickenpox is vesicular/pruritic and typically appears in crops over 3 successive days. VZV vesicles are fragile, superficial, and surrounded by a erythematous halo. Common nonspecific laboratory findings in chickenpox include leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated serum transaminases (serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase/serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase). The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is not highly elevated in chickenpox. In VZV aseptic meningitis, the CSF shows a lymphocytic pleocytosis with normal protein, glucose, and lactic acid levels. CSF red blood cells are not a feature of VZV meningitis. We present the case of a healthy unimmunized adult who was hospitalized with chickenpox complicated by VZV aseptic meningitis with an unusually severe headache and nuchal rigidity that occurred during hospitalization.

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Cerebrospinal Fluid in Pneumococcal Meningitis Reveals Potential Biomarkers Associated with Survival

    PubMed Central

    Goonetilleke, Upali R.; Scarborough, Matthew; Ward, Stephen A.; Gordon, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with pneumococcal meningitis often die or have severe neurological damage despite optimal antibiotic therapy. New or improved therapy is required. The delivery of new interventions will require an improved understanding of the disease pathogenesis. Our objective was to learn more about the pathophysiology of severe meningitis through the interpretation of differences in the proteomic profile of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with meningitis. Methods Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of CSF from normal subjects (controls, n = 10) and patients with pneumococcal meningitis (n = 20) was analyzed. Spot differences were compared and identified between controls, nonsurvivors (n = 9), and survivors (n = 11). Results Protein concentration in CSF of patients with meningitis was 4-fold higher than in CSF of control subjects (7.0 mg/mL vs 0.23 mg/mL; P < .01). A mean of 2466 discrete protein spots was present in CSF of patients with meningitis. Thirty-four protein spots were differentially expressed in CSF of nonsurvivors, compared with survivors. None of these protein spots were observed in CSF of control subjects. Conclusions Proteomic screening of CSF yields potential biomarkers capable of differentiating control subjects from nonsurvivors and survivors of meningitis. Proteins involved in the inflammatory process and central metabolism were represented in the differentially expressed protein repertoire. PMID:20608875

  13. The Economic Burden of Meningitis to Households in Kassena-Nankana District of Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Akweongo, Patricia; Dalaba, Maxwell A.; Hayden, Mary H.; Awine, Timothy; Nyaaba, Gertrude N.; Anaseba, Dominic; Hodgson, Abraham; Forgor, Abdulai A.; Pandya, Rajul

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the direct and indirect costs of meningitis to households in the Kassena-Nankana District of Ghana. Methods A Cost of illness (COI) survey was conducted between 2010 and 2011. The COI was computed from a retrospective review of 80 meningitis cases answers to questions about direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs incurred and productivity losses due to recent meningitis incident. Results The average direct and indirect costs of treating meningitis in the district was GH¢152.55 (US$101.7) per household. This is equivalent to about two months minimum wage earned by Ghanaians in unskilled paid jobs in 2009. Households lost 29 days of work per meningitis case and thus those in minimum wage paid jobs lost a monthly minimum wage of GH¢76.85 (US$51.23) due to the illness. Patients who were insured spent an average of GH¢38.5 (US$25.67) in direct medical costs whiles the uninsured patients spent as much as GH¢177.9 (US$118.6) per case. Patients with sequelae incurred additional costs of GH¢22.63 (US$15.08) per case. The least poor were more exposed to meningitis than the poorest. Conclusion Meningitis is a debilitating but preventable disease that affects people living in the Sahel and in poorer conditions. The cost of meningitis treatment may further lead to impoverishment for these households. Widespread mass vaccination will save households' an equivalent of GH¢175.18 (US$117) and impairment due to meningitis. PMID:24278203

  14. Contamination profile of Listeria spp. in three types of ready-to-eat chicken meat products.

    PubMed

    Lekroengsin, Sumalin; Keeratipibul, Suwimon; Trakoonlerswilai, Kasame

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated contamination sources of Listeria spp. in frozen, ready-to-eat, roasted, steamed, and fried chicken meat products from a plant in Thailand, as well as the correlation between Listeria contamination in the production environment and the finished product. The cooking processes used in this factory (with a product core temperature of 80 degrees C for 1 min) were confirmed as adequate for eliminating Listeria spp. However, Listeria spp. were detected at the packing stage of roasted and steamed chicken products. An environmental swab test was conducted by means of the zone concept, whereby surfaces in the production area were divided into three zones. Zone 1 was made up of the equipment surfaces that came into direct contact with the products. Zone 2 consisted of equipment surfaces that were not in direct contact with the products, including surfaces that were difficult to be cleaned. Zone 3 included surfaces that did not come in direct contact with the products and were located far from the products. The results showed that the prevalence of Listeria spp. in roasted and steamed products was affected by the prevalence of Listeria contamination in all zones, especially zone 1, which demonstrated the highest correlation. In addition, the prevalence of Listeria contamination in zones 2 and 3 affected the prevalence of Listeria in zone 1. A correlation between Listeria on roasted chicken products and the surfaces of zone 1 at the start of production was also established.

  15. The occurrence of Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp. in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Arvanitidou, M; Papa, A; Constantinidis, T C; Danielides, V; Katsouyannopoulos, V

    1997-12-01

    Listeria ssp., mainly Listeria monocytogenes as well as Salmonella spp. are recognized as significant human pathogens. The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp. in surface waters of Northern Greece and to investigate the correlation of these pathogens with the standard indicator bacteria. A total number of 128 water samples from four rivers and one lake were examined for the presence of Listeria, Salmonella, total coliforms, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci. For isolating Listeria, 250 ml of water were filtered through 0.45 microns pore size membrane, that was transferred in 10 ml listeria enrichment broth and after incubation for 24 h at 30 degrees C, a second enrichment in FDA and Fraser broths was followed. After 24 hour incubation, an amount of 0.1 ml was streaked out onto listeria selective medium. The typical colonies were further biochemically and serologically examined. Salmonella spp. were isolated after preenrichment in BPW, enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis and selenite cysteine broths and identified from BGD and SS agar plates by biochemistry and serology. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from five (3.9%) and Salmonella spp. from eight (6.2%) samples. Mean log values of the standard indicator bacteria did not significantly differ between listeria and salmonella positive and negative samples.

  16. Consumer method to control Salmonella and Listeria species in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Genevieve; Janes, Marlene; Lampila, Lucina; Supan, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the current consumer method of boiling shrimp until floating and pink in color is adequate for destroying Listeria and Salmonella. Shrimp samples were submerged in bacterial suspensions of Listeria and Salmonella for 30 min and allowed to air dry for 1 h under a biosafety cabinet. Color parameters were then measured with a spectrophotometer programmed with the CIELAB system. Twenty-four shrimp samples were divided into groups (days 0, 1, or 2) and stored at 4°C. The samples were treated by placing them in boiling water (100°C) on days 0, 1, and 2. The shrimp were immediately removed from the boiling water once they floated to the surface, and color parameters were measured. Bacterial counts were determined, and the log CFU per gram was calculated. The effect of sodium tripolyphosphate on the color change of cooked shrimp also was determined. Initial bacterial counts on shrimp after air drying were 5.31 ± 0.14 log CFU/g for Salmonella Enteritidis, 5.24 ± 0.31 log CFU/g for Salmonella Infantis, 5.40 ± 0.16 log CFU/g for Salmonella Typhimurium, 3.91 + 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria innocua, 4.45 ± 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria monocytogenes (1/2a), and 3.70 ± 0.22 log CFU/g for Listeria welshimeri. On days 0, 1, and 2, all bacterial counts were reduced to nondetectable levels for shrimp samples that floated. The average time for shrimp to float was 96 ± 8 s. The bacterial counts remained at nondetectable levels (<10 log CFU/g) during refrigerated (4°C) storage of cooked shrimp for 2 days. The redness, yellowness, and lightness were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) for the cooked shrimp than for the uncooked shrimp on all days tested. The standard deviation for redness in the cooked shrimp was large, indicating a wide range of pink coloration on all days tested. The results suggest that boiling shrimp until they float will significantly reduce Listeria and Salmonella contamination, but color change is not a good

  17. Consumer method to control Salmonella and Listeria species in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Genevieve; Janes, Marlene; Lampila, Lucina; Supan, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the current consumer method of boiling shrimp until floating and pink in color is adequate for destroying Listeria and Salmonella. Shrimp samples were submerged in bacterial suspensions of Listeria and Salmonella for 30 min and allowed to air dry for 1 h under a biosafety cabinet. Color parameters were then measured with a spectrophotometer programmed with the CIELAB system. Twenty-four shrimp samples were divided into groups (days 0, 1, or 2) and stored at 4°C. The samples were treated by placing them in boiling water (100°C) on days 0, 1, and 2. The shrimp were immediately removed from the boiling water once they floated to the surface, and color parameters were measured. Bacterial counts were determined, and the log CFU per gram was calculated. The effect of sodium tripolyphosphate on the color change of cooked shrimp also was determined. Initial bacterial counts on shrimp after air drying were 5.31 ± 0.14 log CFU/g for Salmonella Enteritidis, 5.24 ± 0.31 log CFU/g for Salmonella Infantis, 5.40 ± 0.16 log CFU/g for Salmonella Typhimurium, 3.91 + 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria innocua, 4.45 ± 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria monocytogenes (1/2a), and 3.70 ± 0.22 log CFU/g for Listeria welshimeri. On days 0, 1, and 2, all bacterial counts were reduced to nondetectable levels for shrimp samples that floated. The average time for shrimp to float was 96 ± 8 s. The bacterial counts remained at nondetectable levels (<10 log CFU/g) during refrigerated (4°C) storage of cooked shrimp for 2 days. The redness, yellowness, and lightness were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) for the cooked shrimp than for the uncooked shrimp on all days tested. The standard deviation for redness in the cooked shrimp was large, indicating a wide range of pink coloration on all days tested. The results suggest that boiling shrimp until they float will significantly reduce Listeria and Salmonella contamination, but color change is not a good

  18. The 1932 Macau epidemic of cerebrospinal meningitis: a historical perspective and critical review of the data.

    PubMed

    Buchillet, Dominique; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2010-10-01

    Since the first clinical description by Vieusseux (1805) of the epidemic form of meningitis known today as cerebrospinal meningitis, numerous epidemic outbreaks of the disease were reported globally during the nineteenth and early twentieth century. Historical medical data confirmed that clinical disease may occur either sporadically or in an epidemic form. Moreover, it may afflict children, young military recruits and/or populations living under crowded conditions. In 1932, an epidemic of meningitis occurred in Macau. The disease was sufficiently unusual to justify the publication of a special report by the Portuguese physician in charge of the control services of the epidemic. Here we present a critical review of the Macau epidemic data.

  19. Recurrent meningitis attributable to herpes simplex virus-2 in a child.

    PubMed

    Moustaki, Maria; Sharifi, Fariba; Stasinopoulou, Anastasia; Fretzayas, Andrew; Karpathios, Themistocles

    2010-05-01

    A boy manifested episodes of recurrent meningitis that were attributed to herpes simplex virus-2 infection. He presented no concurrent or previous history of involvement of the genitourinary system. He exhibited headaches, dizziness, photophobia, loss of balance, and vomiting. He underwent three episodes of aseptic meningitis. The herpes simplex virus-2 etiology was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction of the cerebrospinal fluid in the last two episodes. After the third occurrence, he was treated with acyclovir. Five years have elapsed since then, without the recurrence of aseptic meningitis.

  20. Analysis of tuberculous meningitis cases by an immunoblotting assay based on a mycobacterial antigen complex.

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Y L; Van Antwerpen, M P; Shi, G Q; Chen, Q X; Sindic, C J; Cocito, C

    1994-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis cases were analyzed by an immunoblotting test based on Mycobacterium bovis BCG antigen complex A60. Anti-A60 immunoglobulin G (IgG) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) allowed early diagnosis, and concentrations decreased after recovery. In primary meningitis forms, anti-A60 IgGs were intrathecally synthesized and specific oligoclonal IgGs were present in CSF. In meningeal complications of pulmonary tuberculosis, there were matching titers of anti-A60 IgG in blood and CSF (mirror pattern). Correlation between CSF-restricted patterns and CSF pleocytosis was shown. Images PMID:7496976

  1. Streptococcus pneumoniae arginine synthesis genes promote growth and virulence in pneumococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Piet, Jurgen R; Geldhoff, Madelijn; van Schaik, Barbera D C; Brouwer, Matthijs C; Valls Seron, Mercedes; Jakobs, Marja E; Schipper, Kim; Pannekoek, Yvonne; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; van der Poll, Tom; van Kampen, Antoine H C; Baas, Frank; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2014-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a major human pathogen causing pneumonia, sepsis and bacterial meningitis. Using a clinical phenotype based approach with bacterial whole-genome sequencing we identified pneumococcal arginine biosynthesis genes to be associated with outcome in patients with pneumococcal meningitis. Pneumococci harboring these genes show increased growth in human blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Mouse models of meningitis and pneumonia showed that pneumococcal strains without arginine biosynthesis genes were attenuated in growth or cleared, from lung, blood and CSF. Thus, S. pneumoniae arginine synthesis genes promote growth and virulence in invasive pneumococcal disease.

  2. Herpes Zoster Meningitis Complicating Combined Tocilizumab and Cyclosporine Therapy for Adult-Onset Still's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tsurukawa, Shinichiro; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Izumi, Yasumori; Shirakawa, Atsunori; Kawahara, Chieko; Shukuwa, Tetsuo; Inamoto, Miwako; Kawakami, Atsushi; Migita, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A 56-year-old female with refractory adult-onset Still's disease presented with ocular herpes zoster infection during TCZ treatment. After three days of acyclovir treatment (5 mg/kg), she developed a severe headache and high fever. Viral DNA isolation and cerebral spinal fluid abnormalities led to a herpes zoster meningitis diagnosis. Her meningitis was cured by high doses of intravenous acyclovir (10 mg/kg for 14 days). To our knowledge, this is the first report of meningeal herpes zoster infection in rheumatic diseases under TCZ treatment. PMID:27092286

  3. Unilateral common cavity deformity: Recurrent meningitis due to insufficient newborn hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Kivekäs, Ilkka; Vasama, Juha-Pekka; Weitz-Tuoretmaa, Annamaria; Hakomäki, Jari; Rautiainen, Markus

    2015-06-01

    Insufficient newborn hearing screening may leave the other ear with undetected hearing loss. Subsequently, the missed pathology behind the impairment may have potential risk for severe infections. We describe a case of recurrent Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis in an infant with unilateral common cavity deformity. The diagnosis of the deaf left ear was delayed due to insufficient newborn hearing screening and not until the second meningitis the pathology behind the deafness was confirmed. Subtotal petrosectomy was performed unsuccessfully and resulted in another meningitis. We highlight the importance of proper newborn hearing screening and surgical technique to treat cochlear malformations.

  4. Herpes Zoster Meningitis Complicating Combined Tocilizumab and Cyclosporine Therapy for Adult-Onset Still's Disease.

    PubMed

    Tsurukawa, Shinichiro; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Izumi, Yasumori; Shirakawa, Atsunori; Kawahara, Chieko; Shukuwa, Tetsuo; Inamoto, Miwako; Kawakami, Atsushi; Migita, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A 56-year-old female with refractory adult-onset Still's disease presented with ocular herpes zoster infection during TCZ treatment. After three days of acyclovir treatment (5 mg/kg), she developed a severe headache and high fever. Viral DNA isolation and cerebral spinal fluid abnormalities led to a herpes zoster meningitis diagnosis. Her meningitis was cured by high doses of intravenous acyclovir (10 mg/kg for 14 days). To our knowledge, this is the first report of meningeal herpes zoster infection in rheumatic diseases under TCZ treatment. PMID:27092286

  5. Development and characterization of a monoclonal antibody specific for Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua.

    PubMed Central

    Bhunia, A K; Ball, P H; Fuad, A T; Kurz, B W; Emerson, J W; Johnson, M G

    1991-01-01

    BALB/c mice were immunized with crude cell surface proteins of Listeria monocytogenes V7. Approximately 1,680 hybridomas were generated after two fusions, and the monoclone C11E9 was selected and used for further characterization. The monoclonal antibody (MAb) produced by C11E9 was immunoglobulin subclass G2b with kappa light chains. Dot and colony blot results indicated that MAb C11E9 was reactive to all the L. monocytogenes (34 of 34) and Listeria innocua (6 of 6) isolates without any cross-reaction to other organisms tested. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of crude cell surface proteins in native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) indicated that MAb C11E9 reacts with a single band in each species, with a molecular mass of 174 kDa for L. monocytogenes and 182 kDa for L. innocua. The MAb reacted with one major protein band in Western blot from acid-urea PAGE for both L. monocytogenes and L. innocua. Isoelectric focusing results indicated two immunoreactive protein bands with pIs of 8.1 and 7.4 for L. monocytogenes. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE and Western blot analysis indicated several proteins with molecular masses of 76, 66, 56, and 52 kDa for L. monocytogenes and 66, 56, and 52 kDa for L. innocua. Reaction of MAb C11E9 to washed live cells indicated the possible binding of antibody to cell surface antigen. These cell surface antigens could be removed by 1 N HCl plus 9 M urea, 2% SDS-0.5% beta-mercaptoethanol, or 4 M guanidine-HCl. The epitope of MAb C11E9 binding site was shown to be protein in nature. Periodic acid-Schiff staining and glycoprotein immunoassay indicated that carbohydrate was absent in the epitope. The cellular locations of the MAb C11E9-reactive antigens were calculated to be 76 and 90% outside and 24 and 10% inside the cell membranes of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua, respectively, for 12- to 14-h cultures. Images PMID:1715321

  6. Magnetic bead based immuno-detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables using the Bio-Plex suspension array system.

    PubMed

    Day, J B; Basavanna, U

    2015-04-01

    Listeriosis, a disease contracted via the consumption of foods contaminated with pathogenic Listeria species, can produce severe symptoms and high mortality in susceptible people and animals. The development of molecular methods and immuno-based techniques for detection of pathogenic Listeria in foods has been challenging due to the presence of assay inhibiting food components. In this study, we utilize a macrophage cell culture system for the isolation and enrichment of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables for subsequent identification using the Luminex xMAP technique. Macrophage monolayers were exposed to infant formula, lettuce and celery contaminated with L. monocytogenes or L. ivanovii. Magnetic microspheres conjugated to Listeria specific antibody were used to capture Listeria from infected macrophages and then analyzed using the Bio-Plex 200 analyzer. As few as 10 CFU/mL or g of L. monocytogenes was detected in all foods tested. The detection limit for L. ivanovii was 10 CFU/mL in infant formula and 100 CFU/g in leafy greens. Microsphere bound Listeria obtained from infected macrophage lysates could also be isolated on selective media for subsequent confirmatory identification. This method presumptively identifies L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii from infant formula, lettuce and celery in less than 28 h with confirmatory identifications completed in less than 48 h. PMID:25475329

  7. Magnetic bead based immuno-detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables using the Bio-Plex suspension array system.

    PubMed

    Day, J B; Basavanna, U

    2015-04-01

    Listeriosis, a disease contracted via the consumption of foods contaminated with pathogenic Listeria species, can produce severe symptoms and high mortality in susceptible people and animals. The development of molecular methods and immuno-based techniques for detection of pathogenic Listeria in foods has been challenging due to the presence of assay inhibiting food components. In this study, we utilize a macrophage cell culture system for the isolation and enrichment of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables for subsequent identification using the Luminex xMAP technique. Macrophage monolayers were exposed to infant formula, lettuce and celery contaminated with L. monocytogenes or L. ivanovii. Magnetic microspheres conjugated to Listeria specific antibody were used to capture Listeria from infected macrophages and then analyzed using the Bio-Plex 200 analyzer. As few as 10 CFU/mL or g of L. monocytogenes was detected in all foods tested. The detection limit for L. ivanovii was 10 CFU/mL in infant formula and 100 CFU/g in leafy greens. Microsphere bound Listeria obtained from infected macrophage lysates could also be isolated on selective media for subsequent confirmatory identification. This method presumptively identifies L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii from infant formula, lettuce and celery in less than 28 h with confirmatory identifications completed in less than 48 h.

  8. Efficiency of four secondary enrichment protocols in differentiation and isolation of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes from smoked fish processing chains.

    PubMed

    Duarte, G; Vaz-Velho, M; Capell, C; Gibbs, P

    1999-11-15

    Four secondary enrichment protocols (conventional methods: UVM II, Fraser 24 h and Fraser 48 h: Impedimetric method: Listeria electrical detection medium) were studied for their ability to isolate Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes from fish and environmental samples collected along the processing chain of cold-smoked fish. From all methods, Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes were respectively present in 56 and 34 of 315 samples analysed. Fraser broth incubated for 48 h gave the fewest false negative Listeria spp. results [4/56; (7.1%)], but concurrently only 15/34 (44.1%) samples were correctly identified as containing L. monocytogenes, Listeria electrical detection (LED) medium detected only 36/56 (64.3%) Listeria spp. positive samples. Despite this lower isolation rate, LED identified 20/34 (58.8%) L. monocytogenes positive samples correctly and gave fewer false positive results. The overall conclusion was that more than one isolation method is needed to accurately estimate L. monocytogenes contamination rates. PMID:10733247

  9. RNA Purification from Intracellularly Grown Listeria monocytogenes in Macrophage Cells.

    PubMed

    Sigal, Nadejda; Pasechnek, Anna; Herskovits, Anat A

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the transcriptome of bacterial pathogens during mammalian infection is a valuable tool for studying genes and factors that mediate infection. However, isolating bacterial RNA from infected cells or tissues is a challenging task, since mammalian RNA mostly dominates the lysates of infected cells. Here we describe an optimized method for RNA isolation of Listeria monocytogenes bacteria growing within bone marrow derived macrophage cells. Upon infection, cells are mildly lysed and rapidly filtered to discard most of the host proteins and RNA, while retaining intact bacteria. Next, bacterial RNA is isolated using hot phenol-SDS extraction followed by DNase treatment. The extracted RNA is suitable for gene transcription analysis by multiple techniques. This method is successfully employed in our studies of Listeria monocytogenes gene regulation during infection of macrophage cells (1-4). The protocol can be easily modified to study other bacterial pathogens and cell types. PMID:27341521

  10. Uncovering Listeria monocytogenes hypervirulence by harnessing its biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Caroline; Touchon, Marie; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Leclercq, Alexandre; Criscuolo, Alexis; Gaultier, Charlotte; Roussel, Sophie; Brisabois, Anne; Disson, Olivier; Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; Brisse, Sylvain; Lecuit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Microbial pathogenesis studies are typically performed with reference strains, thereby overlooking microbial intra-species virulence heterogeneity. Here we integrated human epidemiological and clinical data with bacterial population genomics to harness the biodiversity of the model foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes and decipher the basis of its neural and placental tropisms. Taking advantage of the clonal structure of this bacterial species, we identify clones epidemiologically associated with either food or human central nervous system (CNS) and maternal-neonatal (MN) listeriosis. The latter are also most prevalent in patients without immunosuppressive comorbidities. Strikingly, CNS and MN clones are hypervirulent in a humanized mouse model of listeriosis. By integrating epidemiological data and comparative genomics, we uncovered multiple novel putative virulence factors and demonstrated experimentally the contribution of the first gene cluster mediating Listeria monocytogenes neural and placental tropisms. This study illustrates the exceptional power of harnessing microbial biodiversity to identify clinically relevant microbial virulence attributes. PMID:26829754

  11. Mechanobiology of Antimicrobial Resistant Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua.

    PubMed

    Tajkarimi, Mehrdad; Harrison, Scott H; Hung, Albert M; Graves, Joseph L

    2016-01-01

    A majority of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections in the United States are associated with biofilms. Nanoscale biophysical measures are increasingly revealing that adhesive and viscoelastic properties of bacteria play essential roles across multiple stages of biofilm development. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) applied to strains with variation in antimicrobial resistance enables new opportunities for investigating the function of adhesive forces (stickiness) in biofilm formation. AFM force spectroscopy analysis of a field strain of Listeria innocua and the strain Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 revealed differing adhesive forces between antimicrobial resistant and nonresistant strains. Significant increases in stickiness were found at the nanonewton level for strains of Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli in association with benzalkonium chloride and silver nanoparticle resistance respectively. This advancement in the usage of AFM provides for a fast and reliable avenue for analyzing antimicrobial resistant cells and the molecular dynamics of biofilm formation as a protective mechanism.

  12. Mechanobiology of Antimicrobial Resistant Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua.

    PubMed

    Tajkarimi, Mehrdad; Harrison, Scott H; Hung, Albert M; Graves, Joseph L

    2016-01-01

    A majority of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections in the United States are associated with biofilms. Nanoscale biophysical measures are increasingly revealing that adhesive and viscoelastic properties of bacteria play essential roles across multiple stages of biofilm development. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) applied to strains with variation in antimicrobial resistance enables new opportunities for investigating the function of adhesive forces (stickiness) in biofilm formation. AFM force spectroscopy analysis of a field strain of Listeria innocua and the strain Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 revealed differing adhesive forces between antimicrobial resistant and nonresistant strains. Significant increases in stickiness were found at the nanonewton level for strains of Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli in association with benzalkonium chloride and silver nanoparticle resistance respectively. This advancement in the usage of AFM provides for a fast and reliable avenue for analyzing antimicrobial resistant cells and the molecular dynamics of biofilm formation as a protective mechanism. PMID:26914334

  13. Case of Contamination by Listeria Monocytogenes in Mozzarella Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Tolli, Rita; Bossù, Teresa; Rodas, Eda Maria Flores; Di Giamberardino, Fabiola; Di Sirio, Alessandro; Vita, Silvia; De Angelis, Veronica; Bilei, Stefano; Sonnessa, Michele; Gattuso, Antonietta; Lanni, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Following a Listeria monocytogenes detection in a mozzarella cheese sampled at a dairy plant in Lazio Region, further investigations have been conducted both by the competent Authority and the food business operatordairy factory (as a part of dairy factory HACCP control). In total, 90 dairy products, 7 brine and 64 environmental samples have been tested. The prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes was 24.4% in mozzarella cheese, and 9.4% in environmental samples, while brines were all negatives. Forty-seven strains of L. monocytogenes have been isolated, all belonging to 4b/4e serotype. In 12 of these, the macrorestriction profile has been determined by means of pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The profiles obtained with AscI enzyme showed a 100% similarity while those obtained with ApaI a 96.78% similarity. These characteristics of the isolated strains jointly with the production process of mozzarella cheese has allowed to hypothesise an environmental contamination. PMID:27800317

  14. Mechanobiology of Antimicrobial Resistant Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua

    PubMed Central

    Tajkarimi, Mehrdad; Harrison, Scott H.; Hung, Albert M.; Graves, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    A majority of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections in the United States are associated with biofilms. Nanoscale biophysical measures are increasingly revealing that adhesive and viscoelastic properties of bacteria play essential roles across multiple stages of biofilm development. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) applied to strains with variation in antimicrobial resistance enables new opportunities for investigating the function of adhesive forces (stickiness) in biofilm formation. AFM force spectroscopy analysis of a field strain of Listeria innocua and the strain Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 revealed differing adhesive forces between antimicrobial resistant and nonresistant strains. Significant increases in stickiness were found at the nanonewton level for strains of Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli in association with benzalkonium chloride and silver nanoparticle resistance respectively. This advancement in the usage of AFM provides for a fast and reliable avenue for analyzing antimicrobial resistant cells and the molecular dynamics of biofilm formation as a protective mechanism. PMID:26914334

  15. Infective endocarditis caused by Listeria monocytogenes forming a pseudotumor.

    PubMed

    Uehara Yonekawa, Akiko; Iwasaka, Sho; Nakamura, Hisataka; Fukata, Mitsuhiro; Kadowaki, Masako; Uchida, Yujiro; Odashiro, Keita; Shimoda, Shinji; Shimono, Nobuyuki; Akashi, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman with breast cancer and metastasis under chemotherapy suffered from fever, pleural effusion and pericardial effusion. Despite the administration of treatment with cefozopran and prednisolone, the patient's fever relapsed. An electrocardiogram identified a new complete atrioventricular block and an echocardiogram revealed vegetation with an unusual pseudotumoral mass in the right atrium. Blood cultures grew Listeria monocytogenes. The patient was eventually diagnosed with right-sided infective endocarditis, which improved following the six-week administration of ampicillin and gentamicin. Homemade yoghurt was suspected to be the cause of infection in this case. Listeria endocarditis is rare; however, physicians should pay more attention to preventing this fatal disease in immunocompromised patients.

  16. The incidence of Listeria spp. in soft cheeses, butter and raw milk in the province of Bologna.

    PubMed

    Massa, S; Cesaroni, D; Poda, G; Trovatelli, L D

    1990-02-01

    Samples of soft cheese, butter and raw milk were examined for Listeria species. Listeria monocytogenes (serotype 1, haemolytic and virulent for mice) and L. innocua (the only other Listeria sp. isolated) were each found in 2/21 (1.6%) of soft cheese samples. Five per cent of butter samples were contaminated with L. innocua. No Listeria spp. were detected in 40 raw milk samples. The results were compared with similar studies in Italy and abroad.

  17. [Solitary fibrous tumor of the meninges: case report].

    PubMed

    Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Pedroso, Alessandra Augusta Gorgulho; Pereira, Emilio Marcelo; Rassi Neto, Aziz

    2002-06-01

    The solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenquimal neoplasm, found originally in association with the pleura. Recently, SFT was reported in others sites. The extension into adjacent structures is not uncommon. The meningeal involvement by SFT is rare and there has only twenty-six cases been reported previously in the literature. We report a case of a 25 years-old female patient with generalized tonic clonic seizures in the last six years. During the neurologic investigation, a tumor in the left occipital region of the brain was found. The patient underwent an occipital craniotomy with total resection of the tumor. The histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis was STF. After three years of follow-up, the patient remains stable, with a normal neurological exam. There is no sign of tumor recidive in the postoperative cranial tomography. We will briefly review the literature about STF.

  18. Detection of enteroviruses in pediatric patients with aseptic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Olfat G; Abdelhamid, Nehal

    2015-02-01

    Aseptic meningitis is an acute viral infection of the central nervous system that occurs most frequently in infants and young children. This study was conducted on 100 pediatric patients with ages range from 1.5 months to 6 years. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were obtained with criteria of aseptic CNS infections as documented by pleocytosis, negative Gram stain and negative bacterial culture. Clinical and CSF findings of the affected children were analyzed and CSF specimens were submitted to viral culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques to determine the enteroviral etiology. Fifty six percent patients had positive PCR results for the enteroviral genome, compared with 20% by virus culture. We can conclude that PCR is a rapid, reliable and sensitive diagnostic tool for the detection of enteroviral infections. A positive EV-PCR result may affect clinical decision making and may significantly alter the medical care offered to infected patients.

  19. Risk factors associated with postcraniotomy meningitis: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Hua; Chang, Chih-Yen; Lin, Li-Jhen; Chen, Wei Liang; Chang, Yu-Jun; Wang, Shu-Hui; Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Yen, Hua-Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Postcraniotomy meningitis (PCM) is a major challenge in neurosurgery, and changing patterns of infectious agents in PCM have been noted. The limited epidemiological data and urgent clinical needs motivated this research. We conducted this study to determine a risk assessment for PCM and the current pattern of infectious agents.We performed a retrospective case-control study of significant cases of postcraniotomy meningitis in the Changhua Christian Hospital System between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2012. Postcraniotomy meningitis was diagnosed in 22 out of 4392 surgical patients; this data was reviewed for risk assessment.This study assessed the risk factors for postcraniotomy meningitis and found that it was more frequently seen in patients who were elderly (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.32-2.98, P = 0.013), underwent emergency procedures (OR = 4.82, 95% CI = 1.50-14.53, P = 0.008), had leak of cerebrospinal fluid (OR = 4.62, 95% CI = 2.03-10.50, P = 0.012), had external ventricular drainage (OR = 4.68, 95% CI = 2.46-8.87, P = 0.006), were admitted to the intensive care unit (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.53-8.08, P = 0.012), had used drain placement >72 hours (OR = 2.66, 95% CI = 1.04-4.29, P = 0.007), had surgery >4.5 hours (OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.39-4.05, P = 0.005), had repeat operations (OR = 2.74, 95% CI = 1.31-5.73, P = 0.018), endured trauma (OR = 5.97, 95% CI = 1.57-17.61, P = 0.007), or had 30-days mortality (OR = 5.07, 95% CI = 2.20-11.48, P = 0.001). The predominant pathogens isolated from cerebrospinal fluid were Staphylococcus aureus in 8 patients (36.7%) and Acinetobacter baumannii in 7 patients (31.8%). In our study, the mortality rate was 5.1% among all postcraniotomy patients.Accurate risk assessment, early diagnosis, and choice of appropriate antibiotics in accordance with epidemiologic information are the cornerstones of reducing

  20. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection in a patient with bacterial meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Kensuke; Tsunoda, Yoshiya; Watanabe, Shigeyuki; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2013-01-01

    A 40-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of the acute onset of fever and headache, which were attributed to bacterial meningitis. Antibiotic treatment was initiated and his condition gradually improved. On day 5 after admission, immediately after masturbation, he developed abrupt onset of severe chest pain and cold sweat and the ECG suggested acute anterior myocardial infarction. Immediate coronary angiography revealed spontaneous dissection of the left anterior descending artery. After conservative management, his cardiac function improved. Acute coronary syndrome may be rarely caused by spontaneous coronary artery dissection. Sepsis was considered as a probable trigger for spontaneous coronary artery dissection, possibly through vascular damage from increased nitric oxide and sympathetic nervous over-activation. PMID:24194165

  1. Al-Akhawayni and the early descriptions of meningitis.

    PubMed

    Dalfardi, Behnam; Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Sedighi, Mahsa; Zargaran, Arman

    2014-01-01

    Abubakr Rabi-ibn Ahmad Akhawayni Bukhari, also known as Al-Akhawayni, was a Persian physician who lived in the Near East during an age in which medical knowledge blossomed in the Islamic world. This era, the "Islamic Golden Age," extended from the tenth to the twelfth centuries AD. During his lifetime as a physician, Al-Akhawayni was famous for his expertise in medicine, including disorders that would be considered neurological today. In his extant book Hidayat al-Muta`allemin fi al-Tibb [A Scholar's Guide to Medicine], he provided an early description of what is probably meningitis. He illustrated the membranes surrounding the brain tissue in detail and described manifestations resulting from their inflammation.

  2. Risk factors associated with postcraniotomy meningitis: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-Hua; Chang, Chih-Yen; Lin, Li-Jhen; Chen, Wei Liang; Chang, Yu-Jun; Wang, Shu-Hui; Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Yen, Hua-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Postcraniotomy meningitis (PCM) is a major challenge in neurosurgery, and changing patterns of infectious agents in PCM have been noted. The limited epidemiological data and urgent clinical needs motivated this research. We conducted this study to determine a risk assessment for PCM and the current pattern of infectious agents. We performed a retrospective case-control study of significant cases of postcraniotomy meningitis in the Changhua Christian Hospital System between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2012. Postcraniotomy meningitis was diagnosed in 22 out of 4392 surgical patients; this data was reviewed for risk assessment. This study assessed the risk factors for postcraniotomy meningitis and found that it was more frequently seen in patients who were elderly (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.32–2.98, P = 0.013), underwent emergency procedures (OR = 4.82, 95% CI = 1.50–14.53, P = 0.008), had leak of cerebrospinal fluid (OR = 4.62, 95% CI = 2.03–10.50, P = 0.012), had external ventricular drainage (OR = 4.68, 95% CI = 2.46–8.87, P = 0.006), were admitted to the intensive care unit (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.53–8.08, P = 0.012), had used drain placement >72 hours (OR = 2.66, 95% CI = 1.04–4.29, P = 0.007), had surgery >4.5 hours (OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.39–4.05, P = 0.005), had repeat operations (OR = 2.74, 95% CI = 1.31–5.73, P = 0.018), endured trauma (OR = 5.97, 95% CI = 1.57–17.61, P = 0.007), or had 30-days mortality (OR = 5.07, 95% CI = 2.20–11.48, P = 0.001). The predominant pathogens isolated from cerebrospinal fluid were Staphylococcus aureus in 8 patients (36.7%) and Acinetobacter baumannii in 7 patients (31.8%). In our study, the mortality rate was 5.1% among all postcraniotomy patients. Accurate risk assessment, early diagnosis, and choice of appropriate antibiotics in accordance with epidemiologic information are

  3. Coagglutination (COA) test for the rapid diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Koshi, G; Anandi, V; Shastry, J C; Cheriyan, A M; Abraham, J

    1989-07-01

    Cryptococcus coagglutination (COA) test reagent was prepared locally and showed no cross reactions with different species of bacteria or yeasts or with 75 control sera including 25 that gave positive results for RA factor. We used the COA test to detect cryptococcus antigen in the CSF and we could confirm the diagnosis of 11 out of 115 suspected cases of fungal meningitis; the titre varied from 4 to 128. A four-fold rise in titre confirmed the diagnostic value and a steady fall in titre in three patients on therapy indicated the prognostic value of the test. The earliest confirmation was in a renal transplant patient on the eighth day after onset of symptoms. The COA test was negative with the CSF of 118 patients with chronic meningitis. Cryptococcal colony forming units (cfu) in CSF varied from 100 to greater than 100,000/ml and correlated well with microscopy and with the COA antigen titre in CSF. Four out of the 11 patients who had cryptococcaemia, had 50,000-100,000 cfu/ml in the CSF. Cryptococcus antigen was detected by COA in the serum of all 11 patients, even in those with only 100 cfu/ml in CSF. In the three post-renal transplant patients, who were being monitored regularly, the diagnosis was made early and all three recovered on antifungal therapy with no relapse to date (1-2 years). All the others, including the two primary CNS infections, succumbed to the disease because they presented late for diagnosis and therapy. The cryptococcus COA test is a simple and specific test that can be used as a rapid test to confirm early diagnosis and permit prompt therapy, which should improve the prognosis in CNS and other forms of systemic cryptococcosis. Moreover, it is reproducible and cost-effective, particularly in countries where the latex and other expensive test reagents are not generally available. PMID:2664182

  4. Meningeal Solitary Fibrous Tumors with Delayed Extracranial Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Nayoung; Kim, Hannah; Min, Soo Kee; Paek, Sun-Ha; Park, Chul-Kee; Choi, Seung-Hong; Chae, U-Ri; Park, Sung-Hye

    2016-01-01

    Background: The term solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is preferred over meningeal hemangiopericytoma (HPC), because NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion has been observed in both intracranial and extracranial HPCs. HPCs are now considered cellular variants of SFTs. Methods: This study analyzes 19 patients with STAT6-confirmed SFTs, who were followed for over 11 years in a single institution. Ten patients (10/19, 56.2%) had extracranial metastases (metastatic group), while the remainder (9/19) did not (non-metastatic group). These two groups were compared clinicopathologically. Results: In the metastatic group, the primary metastatic sites were the lungs (n = 6), bone (n = 4), and liver (n = 3). There was a mean lag time of 14.2 years between the diagnosis of the initial meningeal tumor to that of systemic metastasis. The median age at initial tumor onset was 37.1 years in the metastatic group and 52.5 in the non-metastatic group. The 10-year survival rates of the metastatic- and non-metastatic groups were 100% and 33%, respectively. The significant prognostic factors for poor outcomes on univariate analysis included advanced age (≥45 years) and large initial tumor size (≥5 cm). In contrast, the patients with higher tumor grade, high mitotic rate (≥5/10 high-power fields), high Ki-67 index (≥5%), and the presence of necrosis or CD34 positivity showed tendency of poor prognosis but these parameters were not statistically significant poor prognostic markers. Conclusions: Among patients with SFTs, younger patients (<45 years) experienced longer survival times and paradoxically had more frequent extracranial metastases after long latent periods than did older patients. Therefore, young patients with SFTs require careful surveillance and follow-up for early detection of systemic metastases. PMID:26657311

  5. Two Outbreaks of Listeria monocytogenes Infection, Northern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Zigorraga, Carmen; Artieda, Junkal; Alkorta, Miriam; Marimón, José M.

    2014-01-01

    In the province of Gipuzkoa, Spain (≈700,000 inhabitants), 7–12 episodes of human listeriosis were recorded annually during 2009–2012. However, during January 2013–February 2014, 27 episodes were detected, including 11 pregnancy-associated cases. Fifteen cases in 2 epidemiologically unrelated outbreaks were caused by a rare type of Listeria monocytogenes, sequence type 87 serotype 1/2b. PMID:25418800

  6. Cellular vaccines in listeriosis: role of the Listeria antigen GAPDH.

    PubMed

    Calderón-González, Ricardo; Frande-Cabanes, Elisabet; Bronchalo-Vicente, Lucía; Lecea-Cuello, M Jesús; Pareja, Eduardo; Bosch-Martínez, Alexandre; Fanarraga, Mónica L; Yañez-Díaz, Sonsoles; Carrasco-Marín, Eugenio; Alvarez-Domínguez, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The use of live Listeria-based vaccines carries serious difficulties when administrated to immunocompromised individuals. However, cellular carriers have the advantage of inducing multivalent innate immunity as well as cell-mediated immune responses, constituting novel and secure vaccine strategies in listeriosis. Here, we compare the protective efficacy of dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages and their safety. We examined the immune response of these vaccine vectors using two Listeria antigens, listeriolysin O (LLO) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and several epitopes such as the LLO peptides, LLO189-201 and LLO91-99 and the GAPDH peptide, GAPDH1-22. We discarded macrophages as safe vaccine vectors because they show anti-Listeria protection but also high cytotoxicity. DCs loaded with GAPDH1-22 peptide conferred higher protection and security against listeriosis than the widely explored LLO91-99 peptide. Anti-Listeria protection was related to the changes in DC maturation caused by these epitopes, with high production of interleukin-12 as well as significant levels of other Th1 cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ, and with the induction of GAPDH1-22-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) immune responses. This is believed to be the first study to explore the use of a novel GAPDH antigen as a potential DC-based vaccine candidate for listeriosis, whose efficiency appears to highlight the relevance of vaccine designs containing multiple CD4(+) and CD8(+) epitopes.

  7. In vitro activities of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole against Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Winslow, D L; Pankey, G A

    1982-01-01

    The in vitro activities of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxyazole against clinical isolates of Listeria monocytogenes were examined separately and in combination with a microtiter broth dilution system. Sulfamethoxazole demonstrated variable activity and was generally bacteriostatic. Trimethoprim alone was bactericidal against 96% of isolates at less than 0.5 microgram/ml. The bactericidal action of trimethoprim against L. monocytogenes was generally potentiated by sulfamethoxyazole even when isolates were relatively resistant to sulfamethoxyazole alone. PMID:6812496

  8. Cellular vaccines in listeriosis: role of the Listeria antigen GAPDH

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-González, Ricardo; Frande-Cabanes, Elisabet; Bronchalo-Vicente, Lucía; Lecea-Cuello, M. Jesús; Pareja, Eduardo; Bosch-Martínez, Alexandre; Fanarraga, Mónica L.; Yañez-Díaz, Sonsoles; Carrasco-Marín, Eugenio; Álvarez-Domínguez, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The use of live Listeria-based vaccines carries serious difficulties when administrated to immunocompromised individuals. However, cellular carriers have the advantage of inducing multivalent innate immunity as well as cell-mediated immune responses, constituting novel and secure vaccine strategies in listeriosis. Here, we compare the protective efficacy of dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages and their safety. We examined the immune response of these vaccine vectors using two Listeria antigens, listeriolysin O (LLO) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and several epitopes such as the LLO peptides, LLO189−201 and LLO91−99 and the GAPDH peptide, GAPDH1−22. We discarded macrophages as safe vaccine vectors because they show anti-Listeria protection but also high cytotoxicity. DCs loaded with GAPDH1−22 peptide conferred higher protection and security against listeriosis than the widely explored LLO91−99 peptide. Anti-Listeria protection was related to the changes in DC maturation caused by these epitopes, with high production of interleukin-12 as well as significant levels of other Th1 cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ, and with the induction of GAPDH1−22-specific CD4+ and CD8+ immune responses. This is believed to be the first study to explore the use of a novel GAPDH antigen as a potential DC-based vaccine candidate for listeriosis, whose efficiency appears to highlight the relevance of vaccine designs containing multiple CD4+ and CD8+ epitopes. PMID:24600592

  9. Adherence characteristics of Listeria strains isolated from three ready-to-eat meat processing plants.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Kalpana; Muriana, Peter M

    2009-10-01

    Over 1,560 non-food contact surface swabs and raw meat ingredient samples were collected from three ready-to-eat meat processing plants (520 from each plant) from 1998 to 1999, resulting in the recovery of 259 isolates of Listeria obtained from postprocess areas including drains, floors, garbage bins, cart wheels, walls, equipment surfaces, tables, brooms, pallet jacks, hoses, ladders, and waste chutes. We further examined 246 of the 259 isolates for adherence phenotype and used PCR to identify those that were Listeria monocytogenes. Adherence was classified as weak, moderate, or strong depending on results obtained with all Listeria isolates by using a fluorescent microplate adherence assay. Among the 246 isolates, there were 61 weakly, 148 moderately, and 37 strongly adherent Listeria, of which 130 (53%) were found to be L. monocytogenes. Plants A and B provided similar recoveries of 39 (7.5%) and 43 (8.3%) Listeria-positive isolates, including 9 (23.1% of Listeria) and 41 (95.3% of Listeria) identified as L. monocytogenes, respectively, that were weakly or moderately adherent. In plant C, we recovered 164 Listeria-positive samples (31.5% isolation rate), which included 80 L. monocytogenes-positive samples (49.8% of Listeria spp.), 52 of which were moderately adherent, as well as all 9 strongly adherent isolates of L. monocytogenes obtained in this study. Adherence properties of Listeria may allow persistence and recurrence in plant environments, potentially increasing the chance of eventual product contamination, and this emphasizes the need for sanitary approaches to prevent colonization by Listeria as well as product antimicrobial interventions should the sanitation barrier be breached.

  10. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of listeria species isolated from different types of raw meat in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Yazdi, Farzad; Farzinezhadizadeh, Hussein

    2012-12-01

    Listeria and particularly Listeria monocytogenes are important foodborne pathogens that can cause listeriosis and severe complications in immunocompromised individuals, children, pregnant women, and the elderly. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp. in raw meat in Iran. From July 2010 to November 2011, a total of 1,107 samples of various raw meats were obtained from randomly selected retail butcher shops. The results of conventional bacteriologic and PCR methods revealed that 141 samples (12.7%) were positive for Listeria spp. The highest prevalence of Listeria was found in raw buffalo meat samples (7 of 24 samples; 29.2%) followed by quail meat (26 of 116 samples; 22.4%), partridge meat (13 of 74 samples; 17.6%), and chicken meat (27 of 160 samples; 16.9%). The most common species recovered was Listeria innocua (98 of 141 strains; 75.9 % ); the remaining isolates were L. monocytogenes (19.1% of strains), Listeria welshimeri (6.4% of strains), Listeria seeligeri (3.5% of strains), and Listeria grayi (1.4% of strains). Susceptibilities of the 141 strains to 11 antimicrobial drugs were determined using the disk diffusion assay. Overall, 104 (73.8%) of the Listeria isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, and 17.0% of the isolates were resistant to three or more antimicrobials. The present study provides the first baseline data on the prevalence of Listeria in raw meat derived from sheep, goat, buffalo, quail, partridge, chicken, and ostrich in Iran and the susceptibility of these isolates to antimicrobials.

  11. Listeria weihenstephanensis sp. nov., isolated from the water plant Lemna trisulca taken from a freshwater pond.

    PubMed

    Lang Halter, Evi; Neuhaus, Klaus; Scherer, Siegfried

    2013-02-01

    The phylogenetic position and phenotypic characteristics of two non-spore-forming bacilli similar to members of the genus Listeria were studied. The gram-reaction-positive, slightly motile, facultatively anaerobic strains were isolated from the water plant Lemna trisulca sampled from a freshwater pond in Bavaria, Germany. Although no identification was possible employing the API Listeria test (bioMérieux), 16S rRNA sequence analysis confirmed a close phylogenetic similarity to Listeria rocourtiae DSM 22097(T) (99.0 % sequence similarity) and a more distant relationship to other Listeria species (96.0 % to Listeria monocytogenes DSM 20600(T) and 95.0 % similarity to Listeria grayi DSM 20601(T)). DNA-DNA hybridization analysis between the isolates and Listeria rocourtiae DSM 22097(T) yielded a similarity of 22.5 %. Analysis of partial sequences of sigB, prs, recA and HSP60 were studied and compared with those of other members of the genus Listeria and Brochothrix thermosphacta DSM 20171(T) supporting the relationships indicated by 16S rRNA gene sequences. The studied isolates were non-haemolytic and were not associated with cases of human or animal disease. While the results demonstrate that the strains belong to the genus Listeria, phenotypic and genotypic differences from Listeria rocourtiae DSM 22097(T) suggest that the strains represent a novel species for which the name Listeria weihenstephanensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is WS 4560(T) ( = DSM 24698(T) = LMG 26374(T)), with WS 4615 ( = DSM 24699 = LMG 26375) as a second strain of the species.

  12. The handling of Listeria monocytogenes by macrophages: the search for an immunogenic molecule in antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Allen, P M; Beller, D I; Braun, J; Unanue, E R

    1984-01-01

    The activation of T lymphocytes for immunity to the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes requires that Ia-positive macrophages ingest the bacteria. The subsequent handling of Listeria by macrophages was examined in this report and related to antigen presentation to T cells. Macrophages pulsed with radiolabeled Listeria, besides releasing acid-soluble radioactivity--an indication of extensive catabolism of the Listeria-derived proteins--were also found to release acid-insoluble peptides. The rate of release of the peptides was not markedly affected by treatment with chloroquine, ammonia, or monensin and was independent of the state of activation and the level of Ia expression of the macrophage. The peptides were not associated with fragments of membranes and were represented by several molecular species. Listeria-derived peptides were also found associated with the macrophage plasma membrane. The membrane-associated peptides behaved like integral membrane proteins and could be released by proteases or detergents. Their expression was independent of the dose of Listeria and the level of Ia expression of the macrophage, and their presence could not be inhibited by protease inhibitors or chloroquine. The Listeria peptides released by the macrophages were very weakly immunogenic in a T cell proliferation assay. Purified plasma membranes from Listeria-pulsed macrophages, which contained membrane-associated Listeria peptides, were not immunogenic by themselves but could be reprocessed by additional macrophages to subsequently stimulate T cells. Trypsin treatment of Listeria-pulsed macrophages did not cause a significant reduction in their ability to stimulate T cells. No association was found between Ia molecules and either the membrane-associated or the released peptides with the use of several technical approaches. Hence, after internalization of Listeria, potentially immunogenic material can be found at the cell surface as well as in the culture fluid. The

  13. Prompt meningeal reconstruction mediated by oxygen-sensitive AKAP12 scaffolding protein after central nervous system injury.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jong-Ho; Wee, Hee-Jun; Seo, Ji Hae; Ahn, Bum Ju; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Yang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Sae-Won; Lee, Ok-Hee; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Gelman, Irwin H; Arai, Ken; Lo, Eng H; Kim, Kyu-Won

    2014-09-17

    The meninges forms a critical epithelial barrier, which protects the central nervous system (CNS), and therefore its prompt reconstruction after CNS injury is essential for reducing neuronal damage. Meningeal cells migrate into the lesion site after undergoing an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and repair the impaired meninges. However, the molecular mechanisms of meningeal EMT remain largely undefined. Here we show that TGF-β1 and retinoic acid (RA) released from the meninges, together with oxygen tension, could constitute the mechanism for rapid meningeal reconstruction. AKAP12 is an effector of this mechanism, and its expression in meningeal cells is regulated by integrated upstream signals composed of TGF-β1, RA and oxygen tension. Functionally, AKAP12 modulates meningeal EMT by regulating the TGF-β1-non-Smad-SNAI1 signalling pathway. Collectively, TGF-β1, RA and oxygen tension can modulate the dynamic change in AKAP12 expression, causing prompt meningeal reconstruction after CNS injury by regulating the transition between the epithelial and mesenchymal states of meningeal cells.

  14. Reservoirs of Listeria Species in Three Environmental Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Linke, Kristina; Rückerl, Irene; Brugger, Katharina; Karpiskova, Renata; Walland, Julia; Muri-Klinger, Sonja; Tichy, Alexander; Wagner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Soil and water are suggested to represent pivotal niches for the transmission of Listeria monocytogenes to plant material, animals, and the food chain. In the present study, 467 soil and 68 water samples were collected in 12 distinct geological and ecological sites in Austria from 2007 to 2009. Listeria was present in 30% and 26% of the investigated soil and water samples, respectively. Generally, the most dominant species in soil and water samples were Listeria seeligeri, L. innocua, and L. ivanovii. The human- and animal-pathogenic L. monocytogenes was isolated exclusively from 6% soil samples in regions A (mountainous region) and B (meadow). Distinct ecological preferences were observed for L. seeligeri and L. ivanovii, which were more often isolated from wildlife reserve region C (Lake Neusiedl) and from sites in proximity to wild and domestic ruminants (region A). The higher L. monocytogenes detection and antibiotic resistance rates in regions A and B could be explained by the proximity to agricultural land and urban environment. L. monocytogenes multilocus sequence typing corroborated this evidence since sequence type 37 (ST37), ST91, ST101, and ST517 were repeatedly isolated from regions A and B over several months. A higher L. monocytogenes detection and strain variability was observed during flooding of the river Schwarza (region A) and Danube (region B) in September 2007, indicating dispersion via watercourses. PMID:25002422

  15. Efficacy of a variety of disinfectants against Listeria spp.

    PubMed Central

    Best, M; Kennedy, M E; Coates, F

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy of 14 disinfectants against Listeria innocua and two strains of Listeria monocytogenes in the presence of organic matter was studied. Quantitative efficacy tests were used. Many of the disinfectants tested were not as effective on Listeria spp. when the test organisms were dried onto the surface of steel disks (carrier tests) as they were when the organisms were placed in suspension (suspension test). The presence of whole serum and milk (2% fat) further reduced the disinfectant capacities of most of the formulations studied. Only three disinfectants (povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine gluconate, and glutaraldehyde) were effective in the carrier test in the presence of serum; however, all three were ineffective when challenged with milk (2% fat). Only one solution, sodium dichloroisocyanurate, was effective in the presence of milk. All but four formulations (chloramine-T, phosphoric acid, an iodophor, and formaldehyde) were effective in the suspension tests, regardless of the organic load. L. monocytogenes was observed to be slightly more resistant to disinfection than L. innocua was. There was no difference in disinfectant susceptibility between the two strains of L. monocytogenes. These findings emphasize the need for caution in selecting an appropriate disinfectant for use on contaminated surfaces, particularly in the presence of organic material. PMID:2106285

  16. Reservoirs of listeria species in three environmental ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Linke, Kristina; Rückerl, Irene; Brugger, Katharina; Karpiskova, Renata; Walland, Julia; Muri-Klinger, Sonja; Tichy, Alexander; Wagner, Martin; Stessl, Beatrix

    2014-09-01

    Soil and water are suggested to represent pivotal niches for the transmission of Listeria monocytogenes to plant material, animals, and the food chain. In the present study, 467 soil and 68 water samples were collected in 12 distinct geological and ecological sites in Austria from 2007 to 2009. Listeria was present in 30% and 26% of the investigated soil and water samples, respectively. Generally, the most dominant species in soil and water samples were Listeria seeligeri, L. innocua, and L. ivanovii. The human- and animal-pathogenic L. monocytogenes was isolated exclusively from 6% soil samples in regions A (mountainous region) and B (meadow). Distinct ecological preferences were observed for L. seeligeri and L. ivanovii, which were more often isolated from wildlife reserve region C (Lake Neusiedl) and from sites in proximity to wild and domestic ruminants (region A). The higher L. monocytogenes detection and antibiotic resistance rates in regions A and B could be explained by the proximity to agricultural land and urban environment. L. monocytogenes multilocus sequence typing corroborated this evidence since sequence type 37 (ST37), ST91, ST101, and ST517 were repeatedly isolated from regions A and B over several months. A higher L. monocytogenes detection and strain variability was observed during flooding of the river Schwarza (region A) and Danube (region B) in September 2007, indicating dispersion via watercourses.

  17. Efficacy of a variety of disinfectants against Listeria spp.

    PubMed

    Best, M; Kennedy, M E; Coates, F

    1990-02-01

    The efficacy of 14 disinfectants against Listeria innocua and two strains of Listeria monocytogenes in the presence of organic matter was studied. Quantitative efficacy tests were used. Many of the disinfectants tested were not as effective on Listeria spp. when the test organisms were dried onto the surface of steel disks (carrier tests) as they were when the organisms were placed in suspension (suspension test). The presence of whole serum and milk (2% fat) further reduced the disinfectant capacities of most of the formulations studied. Only three disinfectants (povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine gluconate, and glutaraldehyde) were effective in the carrier test in the presence of serum; however, all three were ineffective when challenged with milk (2% fat). Only one solution, sodium dichloroisocyanurate, was effective in the presence of milk. All but four formulations (chloramine-T, phosphoric acid, an iodophor, and formaldehyde) were effective in the suspension tests, regardless of the organic load. L. monocytogenes was observed to be slightly more resistant to disinfection than L. innocua was. There was no difference in disinfectant susceptibility between the two strains of L. monocytogenes. These findings emphasize the need for caution in selecting an appropriate disinfectant for use on contaminated surfaces, particularly in the presence of organic material. PMID:2106285

  18. An allelopathy based model for the Listeria overgrowth phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Fgaier, Hedia; Kalmokoff, Martin; Ells, Timothy; Eberl, Hermann J

    2014-01-01

    In a standard procedure of food safety testing, the presence of the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes can be masked by non-pathogenic Listeria. This phenomenon of Listeria overgrowth is not well understood. We present a mathematical model for the growth of a mixed population of L. innocua and L. monocytogenes that includes competition for a common resource and allelopathic control of L. monocytogenes by L. innocua when this resource becomes limited, which has been suggested as one potential explanation for the overgrowth phenomenon. The model is tested quantitatively and qualitatively against experimental data in batch experiments. Our results indicate that the phenomenon of masked pathogens can depend on initial numbers of each population present, and on the intensity of the allelopathic effect. Prompted by the results for the batch setup, we also analyze the model in a hypothetical chemostat setup. Our results suggest that it might be possible to operate a continuous growth environment such that the pathogens outcompete the non-pathogenic species, even in cases where they would be overgrown in a batch environment. PMID:24184260

  19. Detection of Very Long Antisense Transcripts by Whole Transcriptome RNA-Seq Analysis of Listeria monocytogenes by Semiconductor Sequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Wehner, Stefanie; Mannala, Gopala K.; Qing, Xiaoxing; Madhugiri, Ramakanth; Chakraborty, Trinad; Mraheil, Mobarak A.; Hain, Torsten; Marz, Manja

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a severe food-borne infection characterised by abortion, septicaemia, or meningoencephalitis. L. monocytogenes causes outbreaks of febrile gastroenteritis and accounts for community-acquired bacterial meningitis in humans. Listeriosis has one of the highest mortality rates (up to 30%) of all food-borne infections. This human pathogenic bacterium is an important model organism for biomedical research to investigate cell-mediated immunity. L. monocytogenes is also one of the best characterised bacterial systems for the molecular analysis of intracellular parasitism. Recently several transcriptomic studies have also made the ubiquitous distributed bacterium as a model to understand mechanisms of gene regulation from the environment to the infected host on the level of mRNA and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). We have used semiconductor sequencing technology for RNA-seq to investigate the repertoire of listerial ncRNAs under extra- and intracellular growth conditions. Furthermore, we applied a new bioinformatic analysis pipeline for detection, comparative genomics and structural conservation to identify ncRNAs. With this work, in total, 741 ncRNA locations of potential ncRNA candidates are now known for L. monocytogenes, of which 611 ncRNA candidates were identified by RNA-seq. 441 transcribed ncRNAs have never been described before. Among these, we identified novel long non-coding antisense RNAs with a length of up to 5,400 nt e.g. opposite to genes coding for internalins, methylases or a high-affinity potassium uptake system, namely the kdpABC operon, which were confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis. RNA-seq, comparative genomics and structural conservation of L. monocytogenes ncRNAs illustrate that this human pathogen uses a large number and repertoire of ncRNA including novel long antisense RNAs, which could be important for intracellular survival within the infected eukaryotic host. PMID

  20. Meningitis determined by oligosymptomatic dengue virus type 3 infection: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Soares, C N; Cabral-Castro, M J; Peralta, J M; Freitas, M R G; Puccioni-Sohler, M

    2010-02-01

    Dengue infection is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a flavivirus, and is recognized in over 100 countries with 2.5 billion people living in areas of risk. Neurological manifestations such as encephalitis, myelitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, cranial nerve palsies, neuromyelitis optica, and encephalomyelitis have been recognized as clinical consequences of dengue infection. Meningitis is a rare complication. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman who presented with fever, headache, and nuchal rigidity without the typical symptoms of dengue infection. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed lymphocytic pleocytosis with a normal glucose value and negative bacterial and fungal cultures. The etiology of meningitis was confirmed by positive dengue PCR in the serum. This case report highlights dengue infection as a potential cause of meningitis in endemic areas. Also, meningitis can be the first manifestation of the infection. Dengue should be investigated even in the absence of a typical picture of the infection.

  1. Hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke secondary to herpes simplex virus type 2 meningitis and vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Snider, Samuel B; Jacobs, Claire S; Scripko, Patricia S; Klein, Joshua P; Lyons, Jennifer L

    2014-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) meningitis dogmatically is benign and self-limited in the immune competent patient. However, we describe how left untreated HSV-2 meningitis can be complicated by vasculitis and both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. We report a 57-year-old woman with lymphocytic meningitis complicated by ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage in the setting of vasculopathy and HSV-2 DNA detected in CSF successfully treated with acyclovir and corticosteroids. Subsequent angiographic magnetic resonance imaging revealed improvement in the vasculopathy after treatment. This case demonstrates that HSV-2 meningitis may take a less benign course and further provides the first evidence of angiographic improvement in addition to clinical improvement after definitive treatment.

  2. Expect the Unexpected: A Case of Isolated Eosinophilic Meningitis in Toxocariasis

    PubMed Central

    Sick, Christian; Hennerici, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a young police officer suffering from headache without other neurological symptoms caused by isolated eosinophilic meningitis, which resulted from an infection with Toxocara cati, along with a discussion of the differential diagnosis. PMID:25535488

  3. Soil Dust Aerosols and Wind as Predictors of Seasonal Meningitis Incidence in Niger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez Garcia Pando, Carlos; Stanton, Michelle C.; Diggle, Peter J.; Trzaska, Sylwia; Miller, Ron L.; Perlwitz, Jan P.; Baldasano, Jose M.; Cuevas, Emilio; Ceccato, Pietro; Yaka, Pascal; Thomson, Madeleine C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemics of meningococcal meningitis are concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa during the dry season, a period when the region is affected by the Harmattan, a dry and dusty northeasterly trade wind blowing from the Sahara into the Gulf of Guinea.Objectives: We examined the potential of climate-based statistical forecasting models to predict seasonal incidence of meningitis in Niger at both the national and district levels.Data and methods: We used time series of meningitis incidence from 1986 through 2006 for 38 districts in Niger. We tested models based on data that would be readily available in an operational framework, such as climate and dust, population, and the incidence of early cases before the onset of the meningitis season in January-May. Incidence was used as a proxy for immunological state.

  4. Use of Vaccines to Prevent Meningitis in Persons with Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaccine=MPSV4 Meningococcal conjugate vaccine=MenACWY Use of Vaccines to Prevent Meningitis in Persons with Cochlear Implants ... References FACT SHEET What You Should Know Pneumococcal Vaccine Recommendations Pneumococcal Vaccination for Cochlear Implant Candidates and ...

  5. Mondini dysplasia as a cause for recurrent bacterial meningitis: an early diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Anandi, Shobi; Tullu, Milind S; Bhatia, Sonal; Agrawal, Mukesh

    2012-08-01

    Mondini dysplasia is a rare but an important cause for recurrent pyogenic meningitis in children and requires a high index of clinical suspicion for early diagnosis. We present the case of a 7-year-old boy, who presented with 2 episodes of pyogenic meningitis within a span of 1 month. There was no obvious history of hearing abnormalities, but pure tone audiometry suggested profound mixed hearing loss in the left ear. High-resolution computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging of temporal bones confirmed the diagnosis of Mondini dysplasia in the left ear. Computed tomographic cisternography failed to demonstrate any obvious cerebrospinal fluid leak. The child was managed conservatively and has been asymptomatic since then. Thus, in our patient, Mondini dysplasia as a cause for recurrent pyogenic meningitis was diagnosed (early) during the second episode of meningitis. The need for an early diagnosis of Mondini dysplasia has been stressed in this report. PMID:22290862

  6. Acute hydrocephalus in a child with a third ventricle arachnoid cyst and coincidental enteroviral meningitis.

    PubMed

    Jeltema, Hanne-Rinck; Kuijlen, Jos M A; Hoving, Eelco W

    2014-06-01

    We present a 2.5-year-old child suffering from acute hydrocephalus. First, the child was diagnosed with aseptic viral meningitis. The PCR of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for enterovirus. Subsequently, MRI revealed that the hydrocephalus was caused by a cyst in the third ventricle. During ventriculoscopy, the cyst had all aspects of an arachnoid cyst. An endoscopic fenestration and partial removal of the cyst was performed, combined with a ventriculocisternostomy. The coincidental finding of viral meningitis and a third ventricle arachnoid cyst in a patient with acute hydrocephalus has, to our knowledge, not been described in literature before. If there is a relation between the enteroviral meningitis, the arachnoid cyst (possibly causing a pre-existing subclinical hydrocephalus) and the rapidly evolving neurological deterioration, remains speculative. Proposed mechanisms, by which the viral meningitis could accelerate the disease process, are slight brain swelling or increased CSF production. This rare combination of diagnoses could also be coincidental.

  7. The 2012 Fungal Meningitis Outbreak in the United States: Connections Between Soils and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Lynn; Brevik, Eric

    2013-04-01

    In September of 2012 the United States found itself facing a fungal meningitis outbreak that was traced back to contaminated steroid injections. The fungus Exserohilium rostratum, which is found in soil, among other locations in the environment, was identified as the main cause of the health issues created by the contaminated steroids. As of November 7, 2012 419 cases of fungal meningitis, stroke due to presumed fungal meningitis, or other central nervous system-related infections, 10 cases of peripheral joint infections, and 31 deaths linked to the contaminated steroids had been documented. However, the life cycle and soil ecology of E. rostratum is not well understood, and such knowledge would aid human health professionals in understanding the pathogenic potential of E. rostratum. Therefore, soil scientists have a role to play in developing the most effective ways to combat human health challenges such as the 2012 fungal meningitis outbreak.

  8. Detection of single bacteria - causative agents of meningitis using raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baikova, T. V.; Minaeva, S. A.; Sundukov, A. V.; Svistunova, T. S.; Bagratashvili, V. N.; Alushin, M. V.; Gonchukov, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    Early diagnostics of meningitis is a very topical problem as it is a fulminant disease with a high level of mortality. The progress of this disease is, as a rule, accompanied by the appearance of bacteria in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition. The examination of the CSF is well known to be the only reliable approach to the identification of meningitis. However, the traditional biochemical analyses are time consuming and not always reliable, simple, and inexpensive, whereas the optical methods are poorly developed. This work is devoted to the study of Raman spectra of several bacterial cultures which are mainly present during meningitis. Raman microscopy is a prompt and noninvasive technique capable of providing reliable information about molecular-level alterations of biological objects at their minimal quantity and size. It was shown that there are characteristic lines in Raman spectra which can be the reliable markers for determination of bacterial form of meningitis at a level of a single bacterium.

  9. Chronic meningitis with intracranial hypertension and bilateral neuroretinitis following Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Karampatsas, Konstantinos; Patel, Himanshu; Basheer, Sheikh N; Prendergast, Andrew J

    2014-12-23

    A previously well 12-year-old boy presented with a 2-week history of headache, nausea, vomiting and left-sided weakness. He subsequently developed meningism, right abducens nerve palsy, persistent papilloedema and reduced visual acuity in association with a bilateral macular star, consistent with neuroretinitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination indicated chronic meningitis and serological testing confirmed recent Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, although PCR in CSF was negative. He was treated for aseptic meningitis with ceftriaxone, aciclovir, azithromycin and acetazolamide for intracranial hypertension, with gradual improvement in clinical condition and visual acuity over several weeks. This is the first report of M. pneumoniae chronic meningitis further complicated with bilateral neuroretinitis and intracranial hypertension. Evidence of central nervous system inflammation in the absence of direct infection suggests an immune-mediated pathophysiology. Although the use of macrolides with antibiotic and immunomodulatory activity might be beneficial, it was not possible to ascertain whether it influenced clinical recovery in this case.

  10. Endovascular Treatment of a Traumatic Pseudo Aneurysm of the Middle Meningeal Artery.

    PubMed

    Shah, Qaisar A; Hurst, Robert W

    2006-01-01

    We describe a case of traumatic pseudoaneurysm of middle meningeal artery in a patient after a head trauma. The aneurysm was associated with epidural hemorrhage and was treated successfully with coil embolization.

  11. Methods of rapid diagnosis for the etiology of meningitis in adults

    PubMed Central

    Bahr, Nathan C; Boulware, David R

    2014-01-01

    Infectious meningitis may be due to bacterial, mycobacterial, fungal or viral agents. Diagnosis of meningitis must take into account numerous items of patient history and symptomatology along with regional epidemiology and basic cerebrospinal fluid testing (protein, etc.) to allow the clinician to stratify the likelihood of etiology possibilities and rationally select additional diagnostic tests. Culture is the mainstay for diagnosis in many cases, but technology is evolving to provide more rapid, reliable diagnosis. The cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay (Immuno-Mycologics) has revolutionized diagnosis of cryptococcosis and automated nucleic acid amplification assays hold promise for improving diagnosis of bacterial and mycobacterial meningitis. This review will focus on a holistic approach to diagnosis of meningitis as well as recent technological advances. PMID:25402579

  12. Molecular identification of human enteroviruses associated with aseptic meningitis in Yunnan province, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanju; Zhou, Xi; Liu, Jiansheng; Xia, Longhui; Pan, Yue; Chen, Junying; Luo, Na; Yin, Jianzhong; Ma, Shaohui

    2016-01-01

    Human enteroviruses (EVs) are the major causative agents of aseptic meningitis. In this study, a total of 524 children were admitted to the children Kunming hospital (continental China) for aseptic meningitis manifestations in 2009 and 2010. An EV infection was diagnosed in 85/524 children (16.2 %) and the viruses detected were assigned to 16 serotypes. Most serotypes belonged to the enterovirus B species. Echovirus 9 was predominant (24.7 %), followed by coxsackievirus B5 (23.5 %) and then echovirus 30 (16.5 %). Echovirus 9 was firstly identified as the predominant serotype in sporadic aseptic meningitis which occurred in Yunnan, Southwest China. This work indicates the need to perform large-scale surveillance to gain a better insight into the epidemiology of enteroviruses associated with aseptic meningitis in China. PMID:27652088

  13. Etiologies and Management of Aseptic Meningitis in Patients Admitted to an Internal Medicine Department

    PubMed Central

    Jarrin, Irène; Sellier, Pierre; Lopes, Amanda; Morgand, Marjolaine; Makovec, Tamara; Delcey, Veronique; Champion, Karine; Simoneau, Guy; Green, Andrew; Mouly, Stéphane; Bergmann, Jean-François; Lloret-Linares, Célia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several studies have focused on the clinical and biological characteristics of meningitis in order to distinguish between bacterial and viral meningitis in the emergency setting. However, little is known about the etiologies and outcomes of aseptic meningitis in patients admitted to Internal Medicine. The aim of the study is to describe the etiologies, characteristics, and outcomes of aseptic meningitis with or without encephalitis in adults admitted to an Internal Medicine Department. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the Internal Medicine Department of the Lariboisière Hospital in Paris, France, from January 2009 to December 2011. Clinical and biological characteristics of aseptic meningitis were recorded. These included cerebrospinal fluid analysis, results of polymerase chain reaction testing, final diagnoses, and therapeutic management. The cohort included 180 patients fulfilling the criteria for aseptic meningitis with (n = 56) or without (n = 124) encephalitis. A definitive etiological diagnosis was established in 83 of the 180 cases. Of the cases with a definitive diagnosis, 73 were due to infectious agents, mainly enteroviruses, Herpes Simplex Virus 2, and Varicella Zoster Virus (43.4%, 16.8%, and 14.5% respectively). Inflammatory diseases were diagnosed in 7 cases. Among the 97 cases without definitive diagnoses, 26 (26.8%) remained free of treatment throughout their management whereas antiviral or antibiotic therapy was initiated in the emergency department for the remaining 71 patients. The treatment was discontinued in only 10 patients deemed to have viral meningitis upon admission to Internal Medicine. The prevalence of inflammatory diseases among patients admitted to internal medicine for aseptic meningitis is not rare (4% of overall aseptic meningitis). The PCR upon admission to the emergency department is obviously of major importance for the prompt optimization of therapy and management. However, meningitis due to

  14. Etiologies and Management of Aseptic Meningitis in Patients Admitted to an Internal Medicine Department.

    PubMed

    Jarrin, Irène; Sellier, Pierre; Lopes, Amanda; Morgand, Marjolaine; Makovec, Tamara; Delcey, Veronique; Champion, Karine; Simoneau, Guy; Green, Andrew; Mouly, Stéphane; Bergmann, Jean-François; Lloret-Linares, Célia

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have focused on the clinical and biological characteristics of meningitis in order to distinguish between bacterial and viral meningitis in the emergency setting. However, little is known about the etiologies and outcomes of aseptic meningitis in patients admitted to Internal Medicine.The aim of the study is to describe the etiologies, characteristics, and outcomes of aseptic meningitis with or without encephalitis in adults admitted to an Internal Medicine Department.A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the Internal Medicine Department of the Lariboisière Hospital in Paris, France, from January 2009 to December 2011. Clinical and biological characteristics of aseptic meningitis were recorded. These included cerebrospinal fluid analysis, results of polymerase chain reaction testing, final diagnoses, and therapeutic management.The cohort included 180 patients fulfilling the criteria for aseptic meningitis with (n = 56) or without (n = 124) encephalitis. A definitive etiological diagnosis was established in 83 of the 180 cases. Of the cases with a definitive diagnosis, 73 were due to infectious agents, mainly enteroviruses, Herpes Simplex Virus 2, and Varicella Zoster Virus (43.4%, 16.8%, and 14.5% respectively). Inflammatory diseases were diagnosed in 7 cases. Among the 97 cases without definitive diagnoses, 26 (26.8%) remained free of treatment throughout their management whereas antiviral or antibiotic therapy was initiated in the emergency department for the remaining 71 patients. The treatment was discontinued in only 10 patients deemed to have viral meningitis upon admission to Internal Medicine.The prevalence of inflammatory diseases among patients admitted to internal medicine for aseptic meningitis is not rare (4% of overall aseptic meningitis). The PCR upon admission to the emergency department is obviously of major importance for the prompt optimization of therapy and management. However, meningitis due to viral agents or

  15. Carcinomatous meningitis: antibody-guided therapy with I-131 HMFG1.

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, R P; Benjamin, J C; Ashpole, R D; Sullivan, N M; Bullimore, J A; Coakham, H B; Kemshead, J T

    1991-01-01

    Seven patients with carcinomatous meningitis were administered intrathecal I-131 labelled monoclonal antibody HMFG1. Clinical responses were seen in two patients, with a long term survivor at 32 months. Aseptic meningitis occurred in 4/7 patients, but more serious toxicity was observed in the form of seizures (2/7 patients) and myelosuppression (3/7 patients). Partial obliteration of the subarachnoid space was identified as a potential problem in patients with advanced disease. Images PMID:2030355

  16. Dual infection with hepatitis A and E virus presenting with aseptic meningitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Naha, Kushal; Karanth, Suman; Prabhu, Mukhyaprana; Sidhu, Manpreet Singh

    2012-07-01

    We report the case of a young male who presented with features of aseptic meningitis and elevated serum liver enzymes, but no symptoms or signs suggestive of an acute hepatitis. Subsequently, he was diagnosed with dual infection with hepatitis A and E viruses, and recovered completely with symptomatic therapy. Isolated aseptic meningitis, unaccompanied by hepatitic features is an unusual presentation of a hepatotrophic viral infection, and is yet to be reported with hepatitis A and E virus co-infection.

  17. Clinical outcomes of neonatal meningitis in very-low birth-weight infants.

    PubMed

    Doctor, B A; Newman, N; Minich, N M; Taylor, H G; Fanaroff, A A; Hack, M

    2001-09-01

    We sought to describe the clinical presentation and consequences of meningitis among 64 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW <1.5 kg) infants who had 67 culture-proven episodes of meningitis over an 18-year period, 1977 through 1995. Demographic and neonatal descriptors of meningitis and later outcomes were retrospectively examined and neurodevelopmental outcomes of 39 of 45 (87%) meningitis survivors were compared to those of nonmeningitis survivors followed up to 20 months corrected age. Causes of meningitis included coagulase-negative Staphylococcus in 43% of episodes, other gram-positive bacteria in 19%, gram-negative bacteria in 17%, and Candida species in 20% of episodes. Spinal fluid abnormalities were sparse, regardless of etiologic organism. Of 38 nonbloody spinal fluid taps (<1,000 erythrocytes/mm3), 6 had >30 leukocytes/mm3, 5 protein >150 mg/dL%, and 6 glucose <30 mg/dL (1.67 mmol/L). Only 10 infants (26%) had 1 or more of these spinal fluid abnormalities. Meningitis survivors had a higher rate of major neurologic abnormality (41% vs 11%, p<0.001) and subnormal (<70) Mental Development Index (38% vs 14%, p<0.001) than nonmeningitis survivors. Impairment rates did not differ by etiologic organism. The effect of meningitis on neurologic outcome persisted even after controlling for birth weight, intraventricular hemorrhage, chronic lung disease, and social risk factors (odds ratio 2.27 [95% CI 1.02, 5.05]). We conclude that despite a sparsity of abnormal spinal fluid findings, culture-proven neonatal meningitis among VLBW infants has a detrimental effect on neurologic outcome, which persists even after controlling for other risk factors.

  18. [Meningitis to Candida albicans at the adult, use of the new diagnosis methods].

    PubMed

    Duclos, G; Dumont, J-C; Ranque, S; Zieleskiewicz, L; Bruder, N

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans or non-albicans are a frequent source of infection but seldom displayed in cerebrospinal fluid although responsible of an important number of nosocomial meningitis. Diagnosis is difficult which often delays treatment, which in turn hinders prognostic. This clinical case shows a patient afflicted with a deadly C. albicans meningitis and allows us to focus on new diagnostic tools and advice against this infection. PMID:25127852

  19. Enzootic Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Rats and Snails after an Outbreak of Human Eosinophilic Meningitis, Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Lindo, John F.; Waugh, Cecilia; Hall, John; Cunningham-Myrie, Colette; Ashley, Deanna; Sullivan, James J.; Bishop, Henry S.; Robinson, David G.; Holtz, Timothy; Robinson, Ralph D.

    2002-01-01

    After an outbreak in 2000 of eosinophilic meningitis in tourists to Jamaica, we looked for Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats and snails on the island. Overall, 22% (24/109) of rats harbored adult worms, and 8% (4/48) of snails harbored A. cantonensis larvae. This report is the first of enzootic A. cantonensis infection in Jamaica, providing evidence that this parasite is likely to cause human cases of eosinophilic meningitis. PMID:11927033

  20. Tuberculous meningitis with dementia as the presenting symptom after intramedullary spinal cord tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Yagi, Hideki; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Kenyu; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2015-11-01

    Early-stage TB meningitis has no specific symptoms in patients, potentially leading to delayed diagnosis and consequently worsening prognosis. The authors present the fatal case with a delayed diagnosis of tuberculous (TB) meningitis with dementia as the presenting symptom after intramedullary spinal cord tumor resection. The medical records, operative reports, and radiographical imaging studies of a single patient were retrospectively reviewed. A 77-year-old man who underwent thoracic intramedullary hemangioblastoma resection for 2 times. The postoperative course was uneventful, but 1.5 months after surgery, the patient suffered from dementia with memory loss and diminished motivation and speech in the absence of a fever. No abnormalities were detected on blood test, brain computed tomography and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. A sputum sample was negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the QuantiFERON®-TB Gold (QFT-G) In-Tube Test and the tuberculin skin test was also negative. The patient was diagnosed with senile dementia by a psychiatrist. However, the patient's symptoms progressively worsened. Despite the absence of TB meningitis findings, we suspected TB meningitis from the patient's history, and administered a four-drug regimen. However the patient died 29 days after admission, subsequently M. tuberculosis was detected in the CSF sample. This case is a rare case of TB meningitis initially mistaken for dementia after intramedullary spinal cord tumor resection. Symptoms of dementia after intramedullary spinal cord tumor resection should first be suspected as one of TB meningitis, even if the tests for meningitis are negative. We propose that anti-tuberculosis therapy should be immediately initiated in cases of suspected TB meningitis prior to positive identification on culture. PMID:26663944