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Sample records for meningitis listeria

  1. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis preceded by acute cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Luthe, Sarah Kyuragi; Sato, Ryota; Maeda, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Kuniko

    2017-03-20

    Listeria monocytogenes is a well-known cause of meningitis in immunocompromised patients. This organism has a growing significance for community-acquired meningitis, which should have ampicillin added to the usual regimen. We describe a case of L. monocytogenes meningitis preceded by cholangitis. This case suggests gastrointestinal symptoms preceding meningitis may be a clue of listeriosis. It is important for physicians to consider L. monocytogenes as a cause of bacterial meningitis in patients with altered mental status preceded by gastrointestinal symptoms, especially in the immunocompromised population.

  2. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Calubiran, O V; Horiuchi, J; Klein, N C; Cunha, B A

    1990-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes bacteremia without meningitis has been reported in patients who have undergone long-term hemodialysis and have transfusional iron overload. On the other hand, cases of Listeria bacteremia without meningitis have occurred sporadically among the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome population, mostly homosexuals. There have been no reports of Listeria meningitis occurring among persons who are antibody positive to human immunodeficiency virus or are intravenous drug abusers having chronic renal failure and undergoing hemodialysis. This patient represents the first case of Listeria bacteremia and meningitis to occur in an intravenous drug abuser who is human immunodeficient antibody positive, is receiving hemodialysis, and has transfusional iron overload.

  3. Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis in Adults: The Czech Republic Experience

    PubMed Central

    Rozsypal, Hanus; Smiskova, Dita; Benes, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Background. Listeria monocytogenes (LM) is currently the third most frequent pathogen of bacterial meningitis in adults. Methods. A prospective study of patients with LM meningitis in a Czech tertiary care hospital, carried out from 1997 to 2012. Results. Thirty-one patients were diagnosed with LM meningitis, which was 7% of a total of 440 adult patients with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) over a 16-year period. Their median age was 63 years, range 26–80 years. Nineteen patients (61%) had underlying immunocompromising comorbidity; 15 patients (48%) were older than 65 years. Fourteen patients (45%) had arterial hypertension. The typical triad of fever, neck stiffness, and altered mental status was present in 21 patients (68%). The median count of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocytes was 680/μL, protein level 2.6 g/L, and glucose ratio 0.28. Four patients (13%) died, and nine (29%) survived with moderate to severe sequelae. Conclusion. LM meningitis is known to affect immunosuppressed and elderly patients. Arterial hypertension seems to be another important predisposing factor. Clinical symptoms, CSF findings, and disease outcomes, did not significantly differ from other community-acquired ABM in our study, although the CSF leukocyte count was lower. Ampicillin showed good clinical and bacteriological efficacy in the majority of patients. PMID:24106719

  4. Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    Meningitis Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes (meninges) surrounding your brain and spinal cord. The swelling from meningitis typically triggers symptoms such as ...

  5. Three-year multicenter surveillance of community-acquired listeria monocytogenes meningitis in adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Listeria monocytogenes is the third most frequent cause of bacterial meningitis. The aim of this study is to know the incidence and risk factors associated with development of acute community-acquired Lm meningitis in adult patients and to evaluate the clinical features, management, and outcome in this prospective case series. Methods A descriptive, prospective, and multicentric study carried out in 9 hospitals in the Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) over a 39-month period. All adults patients admitted to the participating hospitals with the diagnosis of acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis (Ac-ABM) were included in this study. All these cases were diagnosed on the basis of a compatible clinical picture and a positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture or blood culture. The patients were followed up until death or discharge from hospital. Results Two hundred and seventy-eight patients with Ac-ABM were included. Forty-six episodes of Lm meningitis were identified in 46 adult patients. In the multivariate analysis only age (OR 1.026; 95% CI 1.00-1.05; p = 0.042), immunosupression (OR 2.520; 95% CI 1.05-6.00; p = 0.037), and CSF/blood glucose ratio (OR 39.42; 95% CI 4.01-387.50; p = 0.002) were independently associated with a Lm meningitis. The classic triad of fever, neck stiffness and altered mental status was present in 21 (49%) patients, 32% had focal neurological findings at presentation, 12% presented cerebellum dysfunction, and 9% had seizures. Twenty-nine (68%) patients were immunocompromised. Empirical antimicrobial therapy was intravenous ampicillin for 34 (79%) of 43 patients, in 11 (32%) of them associated to aminoglycosides. Definitive ampicillin plus gentamicin therapy was significantly associated with unfavourable outcome (67% vs 28%; p = 0.024) and a higher mortality (67% vs 32%; p = 0.040).The mortality rate was 28% (12 of 43 patients) and 5 of 31 (16.1%) surviving patients developed adverse clinical

  6. Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... One kind of bacterial meningitis is related to Lyme disease . Lyme meningitis is generally less severe than other forms ... to spend the full time in a hospital. Lyme meningitis is also treated with IV antibiotics. Doctors ...

  7. Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... system, infecting the meninges and causing meningitis. continue Bacteria and Viruses Many viruses can cause viral meningitis. ... examined under a microscope to see if any bacteria, cells, or substances that indicate inflammation or infection ...

  8. Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Meningitis KidsHealth > For Kids > Meningitis A A A What's ... there are ways to prevent it. What Is Meningitis? The central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) ...

  9. Antibiotic treatment and mortality in patients with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis or bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Thønnings, S; Knudsen, J D; Schønheyder, H C; Søgaard, M; Arpi, M; Gradel, K O; Østergaard, C

    2016-08-01

    Invasive Listeria monocytogenes infections carry a high mortality despite antibiotic treatment. The rareness of the infection makes it difficult to improve antibiotic treatment through randomized clinical trials. This observational study investigated clinical features and outcome of invasive L. monocytogenes infections including the efficacy of empiric and definitive antibiotic therapies. Demographic, clinical and biochemical findings, antibiotic treatment and 30-day mortality for all episodes of L. monocytogenes bacteraemia and/or meningitis were collected by retrospective medical record review in the North Denmark Region and the Capital Region of Denmark (17 hospitals) from 1997 to 2012. Risk factors for 30-day all-cause mortality were assessed by logistic regression. The study comprised 229 patients (median age: 71 years), 172 patients had bacteraemia, 24 patients had meningitis and 33 patients had both. Significant risk factors for 30-day mortality were septic shock (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.4), altered mental state (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.7-7.6) and inadequate empiric antibiotic therapy (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.8-8.1). Cephalosporins accounted for 90% of inadequately treated cases. Adequate definitive antibiotic treatment was administered to 195 patients who survived the early period (benzylpenicillin 72, aminopenicillin 84, meropenem 28, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim 6, and piperacillin/tazobactam 5). Definitive antibiotic treatment with benzylpenicillin or aminopenicillin resulted in a lower 30-day mortality in an adjusted analysis compared with meropenem (OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.8). In conclusion, inadequate empiric antibiotic therapy and definitive therapy with meropenem were both associated with significantly higher 30-day mortality.

  10. Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... be caused by: Chemical irritation Drug allergies Fungi Parasites Tumors Many types of viruses can cause meningitis: Enteroviruses: These are viruses that also can cause intestinal illness. Herpes viruses: These are the same viruses ...

  11. Meningococcal Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... meningitis Fact sheet N°141 Updated November 2015 Key facts Meningococcal meningitis is a bacterial form of ... clusters throughout the world with seasonal variation and accounts for a variable proportion of epidemic bacterial meningitis. ...

  12. Meningitis - staphylococcal

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes meningitis. Causes Staphylococcal meningitis is caused by staphylococcus bacteria. When it is caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria, it usually develops ...

  13. Meningitis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Meningitis KidsHealth > For Parents > Meningitis A A A What's ... to Call the Doctor en español Meningitis About Meningitis Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, the ...

  14. Meningitis - pneumococcal

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes meningitis. Causes Pneumococcal meningitis is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria (also called pneumococcus, or S pneumoniae ). This type ... Saunders; 2015:chap 89. Wood JB, Peters TR. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme ...

  15. Meningitis - H. influenzae

    MedlinePlus

    ... influenzae meningitis; H. flu meningitis; Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis ... influenzae meningitis is caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteria. This illness is not the same as ...

  16. Listeria (Listeriosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... en español Learn how CDC’s Listeria Whole Genome Sequencing Project is improving food safety Listeriosis is a ... Prevention People at Risk Outbreaks Surveillance Whole Genome Sequencing Publications Pregnant Women and Listeria Pregnant women are ...

  17. Viral Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... have severe illness from viral meningitis. Causes Non-polio enteroviruses are the most common cause of viral ... following viruses spread by visiting CDC’s websites: Non-polio enteroviruses Mumps virus Herpesviruses, including Epstein-Barr virus , ...

  18. [Cryptococcal meningitis].

    PubMed

    van Spil, W E Erwin; Nooijen, Suzan; de Jong, Peter Y P; Aliredjo, Riena P; de Sévaux, Ruud G L; Verhave, Jacobien C

    2015-01-01

    Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk of disseminated cryptococcal infection, often presenting as a primary respiratory infection with yeast cells originating from bird excreta. Because Cryptococcus neoformans has a tropism for cerebrospinal fluid, most patients suffer from meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Symptoms of cryptococcal meningitis are non-specific: headache, fever, nausea, or altered mental state and behaviour. Case descriptions of a renal transplant recipient and an HIV patient illustrate the non-specific presentation of cryptococcal meningitis. Lumbar puncture seemed to be critical in establishing the diagnosis. Cerebrospinal fluid, blood and other tissues were tested for C. neoformans by microscopy, culture and antigen tests. The patients were successfully treated with amphotericin B or liposomal amphotericin B intravenously and flucytosine intravenously or orally, followed by long-term fluconazole. The mortality rate for cryptococcal meningitis is 41% among renal transplant recipients and 20% in HIV patients.

  19. Listeria Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Listeria Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Listeria Infections A A ... to Call the Doctor en español Listeriosis About Listeria Listeria infections (known as listeriosis ) are rare. When ...

  20. Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli septicemia and meningoencephalitis in a 7-day-old llama.

    PubMed Central

    Frank, N; Couëtil, L L; Clarke, K A

    1998-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli were isolated from blood collected on presentation and tissues samples taken postmortem. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid collected antemortem. The importance of passive transfer of immunity, the subtlety of neurologic signs in early meningitis, and considering blood-CSF penetration in antimicrobial selection are discussed. PMID:10051957

  1. Eosinophilic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Chotmongkol, Verajit

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis is defined by the presence of at least 10% eosinophils in the total cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocyte count. Although there are several possible causes of eosinophils in the CSF, parasitic infection is the main cause. The three common parasites causing eosinophilic meningitis include Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Gnathostoma spinigerum, and Taenia solium. Even though these parasites are endemic in tropical countries, they are now spreading globally due to extensive traveling, and physicians worldwide should pay more attention to this condition. This chapter will review risk factors, clinical manifestations, and treatment of these three parasites.

  2. Meningitis - cryptococcal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bacterial meningitis in the United States, 1998-2007. N Engl J Med . 2011 May 26;364(21):2016-2025. Read More Diabetes HIV/AIDS Hodgkin lymphoma Hydrocephalus Review Date 12/7/2014 Updated by: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Associate Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical ...

  3. Listeria Infection (Listeriosis)

    MedlinePlus

    Listeria infection Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Listeria infection is a foodborne bacterial illness that can be very serious for pregnant women and people with impaired immune systems. Listeria infection is ...

  4. Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) in food is a critical public health concern given that it can grow and/or survive during storage at refrigeration and/or mildly abusive storage temperatures, thus contributing to the burden of food borne listeriosis associated with the consumption of conta...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microorganisms. Listeria monocytogenes, the most common human pathogen of this genus, causes meningitis (inflammation of the brain membranes) and meningoencephalitis (inflammation of the brain and brain...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microorganisms. Listeria monocytogenes, the most common human pathogen of this genus, causes meningitis (inflammation of the brain membranes) and meningoencephalitis (inflammation of the brain and brain...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microorganisms. Listeria monocytogenes, the most common human pathogen of this genus, causes meningitis (inflammation of the brain membranes) and meningoencephalitis (inflammation of the brain and brain...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microorganisms. Listeria monocytogenes, the most common human pathogen of this genus, causes meningitis (inflammation of the brain membranes) and meningoencephalitis (inflammation of the brain and brain...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microorganisms. Listeria monocytogenes, the most common human pathogen of this genus, causes meningitis (inflammation of the brain membranes) and meningoencephalitis (inflammation of the brain and brain...

  10. Listeria Genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanes, Didier; Sousa, Sandra; Cossart, Pascale

    The opportunistic intracellular foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes has become a paradigm for the study of host-pathogen interactions and bacterial adaptation to mammalian hosts. Analysis of L. monocytogenes infection has provided considerable insight into how bacteria invade cells, move intracellularly, and disseminate in tissues, as well as tools to address fundamental processes in cell biology. Moreover, the vast amount of knowledge that has been gathered through in-depth comparative genomic analyses and in vivo studies makes L. monocytogenes one of the most well-studied bacterial pathogens. This chapter provides an overview of progress in the exploration of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data in Listeria spp. to understand genome evolution and diversity, as well as physiological aspects of metabolism used by bacteria when growing in diverse environments, in particular in infected hosts.

  11. Clues to diagnosing culture negative Listeria rhombencephalitis.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Marguerite; Mok, Tzehow; Lefter, Stela; Harrington, Hugh

    2012-09-30

    A previously healthy 35-year-old Caucasian woman developed left body (including facial) hemianaesthesia, asymmetrical lower cranial nerve palsies and cerebellar signs after a 4-day history of headache, nausea and vomiting. Serial blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures returned negative for a culprit organism. CSF examination revealed a lymphocytic pleocytosis and an elevated protein count. CSF cytological examination identified plasma cells. MRI of brain showed multiple ring-enhancing 'abscess-like' lesions in the brainstem and upper cervical cord together with abnormal meningeal enhancement. A decision was made to treat her empirically for Listeria rhombencephalitis to which she responded completely. CSF PCR eventually returned positive for Listeria monocytogenes. This case illustrates the utility of clinical features, MRI, CSF cytology and PCR in diagnosis and treatment of culture negative L monocytogenes rhombencephalitis in an immunocompetent individual.

  12. [Meningitis after spinal anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Mouchrif, Issam; Berdaii, Adnane; Labib, Ismail; Harrandou, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    Meningitis is a rare but serious complication of epidural and spinal anesthesia. Bacterial meningitis is mainly caused by Gram-positive cocci, implying an exogenous contamination which suggests a lack of asepsis. The evolution is usually favorable after treatment, but at the expense of increased health care costs and, sometimes, of significant neurological sequelae. We report a case of bacterial meningitis after spinal anesthesia for caesarean section.

  13. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection with Listeria innocua.

    PubMed

    Karli, Arzu; Sensoy, Gulnar; Unal, Nevzat; Yanik, Keramettin; Cigdem, Halit; Belet, Nursen; Sofuoglu, Ayse

    2014-08-01

    Listeria species may cause life-threatening events including meningitis and invasive infection in newborns, pregnant women, older and immunodeficient people. The most common Listeria species that causes infection is L. monocytogenes. It is known that Listeria innocua has no pathogenicity. A 9-month-old baby had ventriculoperitoneal shunt and was treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone because of infantile spasms. He was brought to hospital with fever and vomiting. Upon physical examination, the patient seemed uncomfortable and had a temperature of 38.6°C. Laboratory results were as follows: hemoglobin, 6.7 g/dL; leukocyte count, 5420/mm(3) ; platelet count, 169,000/mm(3) ; and C-reactive protein, 100 mg/L (normal <5 mg/L). On analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), leukocyte count was 480/mm(3) , protein was 46 mg/dL and CSF glucose was 35 mg/dL. L. innocua was isolated in CSF culture. We describe this unusual case of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection with L. innocua.

  14. Meningitis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... newborns, the most common causes are Group B streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and less commonly, Listeria monocytogenes . In older kids, S treptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) and Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) are more often ...

  15. Listeria monocytogenes: a foodborne pathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Farber, J M; Losos, J Z

    1988-01-01

    Listeriosis, caused by Listeria monocytogenes, appears to be increasing in incidence worldwide. The disease is of great concern to the food industry. A recent outbreak in California was linked to the consumption of Mexican-style soft cheese and involved more than 300 cases, 30% of which were fatal. L. monocytogenes can be found in a variety of dairy products, leafy vegetables, fish and meat products. It can grow in refrigerated foods and is more heat resistant than most vegetative microbes. The epidemiologic features of listeriosis are poorly understood, and the minimum infectious dose is unknown. Those predisposed to listeriosis include immunocompromised people and pregnant women and their fetuses. Meningitis, spontaneous abortion and septicemia are the primary manifestations of the disease. Early recognition is critical for successful treatment, and ampicillin is the preferred drug. Listeriosis should be considered in any febrile patient with neurologic symptoms of unknown origin, as well as in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriages, premature labour or fetal death. A food source should be the prime suspect if any isolated case or outbreak occurs. PMID:3124948

  16. Detection of Listeria spp. using ACTERO listeria enrichment media.

    PubMed

    Claveau, David; Olishevskyy, Sergiy; Giuffre, Michael; Martinez, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    ACTERO Listeria Enrichment Media (ACTERO Listeria) is a selective medium developed for a single-step recovery and enrichment of Listeria spp. from environmental samples. Robustness testing of the ACTERO Listeria medium demonstrated good performance when minor changes were introduced to the incubation temperature and time. All 54 Listeria strains tested, representing the most frequently isolated Listeria species from food (L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii, L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri, and L. grayi), were successfully enriched in ACTERO Listeria. None of the 30 nontarget strains tested in the exclusivity study was recovered after incubation in ACTERO Listeria. Recovery of Listeria was consistent across three independently produced lots of the ACTERO Listeria, and the prepared medium was stable for 45 days when stored at 4 degrees C in the dark. Matrix studies performed with environmental sponge samples from plastic and stainless steel surfaces demonstrated similar recovery of Listeria spp. in a single-step enrichment using ACTERO Listeria from plastic, and significantly better recovery from stainless steel surfaces when compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service reference method. The results of this study prove that ACTERO Listeria Enrichment Media can be effectively used in replacement of the two-step enrichment suggested by the reference method without affecting the recovery of Listeria spp. from environmental samples.

  17. Syphilitic aseptic meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... or syphilitic meningitis, is a complication of untreated syphilis . It involves inflammation of the tissues covering the ... This condition is a life-threatening complication of syphilis infection. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection. Syphilitic ...

  18. Meningitis - gram-negative

    MedlinePlus

    ... damage or die of this type of meningitis. Young children and adults over age 50 have the highest risk for death. How well you do depends on: Your age How soon treatment is started Your overall health

  19. Meningeal carcinomatosis and blindness

    PubMed Central

    Altrocchi, Paul H.; Eckman, Paul B.

    1973-01-01

    The clinical syndrome of meningeal carcinomatosis includes headache, dementia, radiculopathy, and cranial nerve palsies. Blindness may be the first, or most prominent, symptom. When blindness occurs in adult life, meningeal carcinomatosis should be included in the differential diagnosis, even in the absence of other symptoms and in the absence of known malignancy. Although all pathophysiological mechanisms of the blindness in meningeal carcinomatosis have not yet been elucidated, optic nerve involvement by meningeal tumour-cuffing, by chronic papilloedema, and by direct tumour infiltration represent the likeliest causes. In the neuropathological analysis of such cases, the importance of analysing the intra-orbital portion of the optic nerves, in addition to the portions of the optic nerve and chiasm usually examined at routine necropsy, is emphasized. A case is described to illustrate this point, with the only pathological abnormality in the optic nerves being found within 6 mm of the retina. Images PMID:4708455

  20. Subacute and Chronic Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... not infections can cause chronic meningitis. They include Sarcoidosis Certain disorders that cause inflammation, such as systemic ... For disorders that are not infections, such as sarcoidosis and Behçet syndrome: Corticosteroids or other drugs that ...

  1. Non-Infectious Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Related Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Non-Infectious Meningitis ... confusion) Top of Page Related Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis File Formats Help: ...

  2. DISCUSSION ON MENINGITIS

    PubMed Central

    1929-01-01

    (1) Meningitis: two groups of cases. (2) A method of washing out the subarachnoid space in cases of septic meningitis secondary to infection of the ear. (3) Discussion on the value of maintaining a positive pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid when operating on a septic region communicating with the subarachnoid space. (4) Leaking cerebrospinal fluid from the region of the ear: operative treatment. PMID:19986899

  3. Listeria and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... well as in some animals, including cattle and poultry. When eaten, the bacterium can cause listeriosis. Listeria ... all raw and undercooked seafood, eggs, meat, and poultry while you are pregnant. Do not eat sushi ...

  4. Cryptococcal meningitis complicating sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Leonhard, Sonja E.; Fritz, Daan; van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cryptococcal meningitis is an uncommon but severe complication of sarcoidosis. Methods: We present 2 patients with cryptococcal meningitis complicating sarcoidosis and compared findings with 38 cases reported in the literature. Results: When analyzing our patients and 38 cases reported in the literature, we found that median age of sarcoidosis patients with cryptococcal meningitis was 39 years (range 30–48); 27 of 33 reported cases (82%) had a history of sarcoidosis. Only 16 of 40 patients (40%) received immunomodulating therapy at the time of diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis. The diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis was delayed in 17 of 40 patients (43%), mainly because of the initial suspicion of neurosarcoidosis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed mildly elevated white blood cell count (range 23–129/mm3). Twenty-nine of 32 cases (91%) had a positive CSF culture for Cryptococcus neoformans and 25 of 27 cases (93%) had a positive CSF C neoformans antigen test. CD4 counts were low in all patients in whom counts were performed (84–228/mL). Twelve patients had an unfavorable outcome (32%), of which 7 died (19%) and 24 patients (65%) had a favorable outcome. The rate of unfavorable outcome in patients with a delayed diagnosis was 7 of 17 (41%) compared to 5 of 28 (21%) in patients in whom diagnosis was not delayed. Conclusion: Cryptococcal meningitis is a rare but life-threatening complication of sarcoidosis. Patients were often initially misdiagnosed as neurosarcoidosis, which resulted in considerable treatment delay and worse outcome. CSF cryptococcal antigen tests are advised in patients with sarcoidosis and meningitis. PMID:27583871

  5. Listeria Vaccines for Pancreatic Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0411 TITLE: Listeria vaccines for pancreatic cancer...29September2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Listeria vaccines for pancreatic cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0411 5c...explored the capacity of Listeria vaccines to induce anti-tumor T cell immunity in the KPC model. We have found that Listeria vaccines produce

  6. Bacterial Meningitis in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Ostroy, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    During 1977 the state of Washington maintained a surveillance system for reporting cases of bacterial meningitis. Hemophilus influenzae meningitis was the most common etiologic agent causing bacterial meningitis. A high incidence rate for H. influenzae meningitis was found among American Indians less than five years ago. A focus of ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae meningitis was found in Pierce County among military dependents or persons who had family members or relatives working or attending school with Fort Lewis Army Base personnel. Although relationships between the individual cases were not detected, the surveillance system continues to seek some association. PMID:506227

  7. Bacterial meningitis in Washington state.

    PubMed

    Ostroy, P R

    1979-10-01

    During 1977 the state of Washington maintained a surveillance system for reporting cases of bacterial meningitis. Hemophilus influenzae meningitis was the most common etiologic agent causing bacterial meningitis. A high incidence rate for H. influenzae meningitis was found among American Indians less than five years ago. A focus of ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae meningitis was found in Pierce County among military dependents or persons who had family members or relatives working or attending school with Fort Lewis Army Base personnel. Although relationships between the individual cases were not detected, the surveillance system continues to seek some association.

  8. Scrub typhus meningitis or meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Min; Chung, Jong-Hoon; Yun, Na-Ra; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jun-Young; Han, Mi Ah; Lee, Yong-Bok

    2013-12-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi induces vasculitis leading to symptoms of systemic organ invasion including meningitis and meningoencephalitis. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of scrub typhus patients to investigate the clinical and laboratory features of patients with scrub typhus meningitis or meningoencephalitis, and the therapeutic outcomes, and to determine the predictor factors. Cases were 22 patients with scrub typhus meningitis or meningoencephalitis, and controls were 303 patients without meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of pneumonitis was associated with the occurrence of scrub typhus meningitis and meningoencephalitis (odds ratio [OR] 8.9; P < 0.001; confidence interval [CI] 2.9-27.2). Although appropriate antimicrobials such as doxycycline agents were administered at an early stage, meningitis or meningoencephalitis still occurred in some cases. Physicians should be aware that meningitis or meningoencephalitis may develop during appropriate drug therapy such as doxycycline. Close observation and great care are essential for patients with risk factors, particularly pneumonitis.

  9. Neisseria lactamica meningitis.

    PubMed

    Lauer, B A; Fisher, C E

    1976-02-01

    Neisseria lactamica was recovered from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of a 7-month-old girl with acute purulent meningitis. The isolate was identified initially as N meningitidis. However, additional biochemical testing at the Center for Disease Control showed that the organism fermented lactose and produced beta-D-galactosidase, thereby confirming its identity as N lactamica.

  10. Shunting in cryptococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Jacob; Atmar, Robert L; Gopinath, Shankar P

    2016-07-01

    OBJECT Patients with cryptococcal meningitis often develop symptomatic intracranial hypertension. The need for permanent CSF diversion in these cases remains unclear. METHODS Cases of cryptococcal meningitis over a 5-year period were reviewed from a single, large teaching hospital. Sources of identification included ICD-9 codes, operative logs, and microscopy laboratory records. RESULTS Fifty cases of cryptococcal meningitis were identified. Ninety-eight percent (49/50) of patients were HIV positive. Opening pressure on initial lumbar puncture diagnosing cryptococcal meningitis was elevated (> 25 cm H2O) in 33 cases and normal (≤ 25 cm H2O) in 17 cases. Thirty-eight patients ultimately developed elevated opening pressure over a follow-up period ranging from weeks to years. Serial lumbar punctures for relief of intracranial hypertension were performed in 29 cases. Thirteen of these patients ultimately had shunting procedures performed after failing to improve clinically. Two factors were significantly associated with the need for shunting: patients undergoing shunt placement were more likely to be women (5/13 vs 0/16; p = 0.01) and to have a pattern of increasing CSF cryptococcal antigen (10/13 vs 3/16 cases; p = 0.003). All patients re-presenting with mycological relapse either underwent or were offered shunt placement. CONCLUSIONS Neurosurgeons are often asked to consider CSF diversion in cases of cryptococcal meningitis complicated by intracranial hypertension. Most patients do well with serial lumbar punctures combined with antifungal therapy. When required, shunting generally provided sustained relief from intracranial hypertension symptoms. Ventriculoperitoneal shunts are the favored method of diversion. To the authors' knowledge, the present study is the largest series on diversionary shunts in primarily HIV-positive patients with this problem.

  11. Handbook of Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Once feared as a deadly intracellular bacterium with the extraordinary capacity to survive a wide array of arduous external stressors, Listeria monocytogenes is increasingly recognized as a preferred vector for delivering anti-infective and anti-cancer vaccine molecules. A reliable, single-source re...

  12. Listeria monocytogenes endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Sheinman, B D; Evans, T; Sage, R

    1985-01-01

    A fatal case of endocarditis due to Listeria monocytogenes is reported. Case reports of endocarditis due to this organism are rare but indicate a higher mortality than with many other causes of bacterial endocarditis. The size of the problem may be underestimated because the organism has a "diphtheroid' appearance and may be incorrectly dismissed as a contaminant.

  13. Listeria monocytogenes endocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Sheinman, B. D.; Evans, T.; Sage, R.

    1985-01-01

    A fatal case of endocarditis due to Listeria monocytogenes is reported. Case reports of endocarditis due to this organism are rare but indicate a higher mortality than with many other causes of bacterial endocarditis. The size of the problem may be underestimated because the organism has a "diphtheroid' appearance and may be incorrectly dismissed as a contaminant. PMID:3991406

  14. Molecular mechanisms of cryptococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong-Bao; Perlin, David S; Xue, Chaoyang

    2012-01-01

    Fungal meningitis is a serious disease caused by a fungal infection of the central nervous system (CNS) mostly in individuals with immune system deficiencies. Fungal meningitis is often fatal without proper treatment, and the mortality rate remains unacceptably high even with antifungal drug interventions. Currently, cryptococcal meningitis is the most common fungal meningitis in HIV-1/AIDS, and its disease mechanism has been extensively studied. The key steps for fungi to infect brain and cause meningitis after establishment of local infection are the dissemination of fungal cells to the bloodstream and invasion through the blood brain barrier to reach the CNS. In this review, we use cryptococcal CNS infection as an example to describe the current molecular understanding of fungal meningitis, including the establishment of the infection, dissemination, and brain invasion. Host and microbial factors that contribute to these infection steps are also discussed.

  15. Management of neoplastic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Roth, Patrick; Weller, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Leptomeningeal dissemination of tumor cells, also referred to as neoplastic meningitis, is most frequently seen in patients with late-stage cancer and mostly associated with a poor prognosis. Basically, neoplastic meningitis may affect all patients with a malignant tumor but is most common in patients affected by lung cancer, breast carcinoma, melanoma or hematologic neoplasms such as lymphoma and leukemia. Controlled clinical trials are largely lacking which results in various non-standardized treatment regimens. The presence of solid tumor manifestations in the CNS as well as the extracranial tumor load defines the most appropriate treatment approach. Radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy and intrathecal treatment must be considered. For each patient, the individual situation needs to be carefully evaluated to determine the potential benefit as well as putative side effects associated with any therapy. A moderate survival benefit and particularly relief from pain and neurological deficits are the main treatment goals. Here, we summarize the management of patients with neoplastic meningitis and review the available treatment options.

  16. Entry of the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes into mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Ireton, Keith

    2007-06-01

    The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes causes food-borne illnesses leading to meningitis or abortion. Listeria provokes its internalization ('entry') into mammalian cells that are normally non-phagocytic, such as intestinal epithelial cells and hepatocytes. Entry provides access to a nutrient-rich cytosol and allows translocation across anatomical barriers. Here I discuss the two major internalization pathways used by Listeria. These pathways are initiated by binding of the bacterial surface proteins InlA or InlB to their respective host receptors, E-cadherin or Met. InlA mediates traversal of the intestinal barrier, whereas InlB promotes infection of the liver. At the cellular level, both InlA- and InlB-dependent entry require host signalling that promotes cytoskeletal rearrangements and pathogen engulfment. However, many of the specific signalling proteins in the two entry routes differ. InlA-mediated uptake uses components of adherens junctions that are coupled to F-actin and myosin, whereas InlB-dependent entry involves cytosolic adaptors that bridge Met to regulators of F-actin, including phosphoinositide 3-kinase and activators of the Arp2/3 complex. Unexpectedly, entry directed by InlB also involves endocytic components. Future work on InlA and InlB will lead to a better understanding of virulence, and may also provide novel insights into the normal biological functions of E-cadherin and Met.

  17. Cryptococcal meningitis in African children.

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, V R; Mtitimila, E; Hart, C A; Broadhead, R L

    1997-06-01

    Three cases of cryptococcal meningitis in Malawian children aged 6 weeks, 3 years and 9 years are described. Only 23 cases of cryptococcal meningitis in children have been described previously, but in children from Europe and the USA. These are therefore the first cases of cryptococcosis to be described in African children.

  18. Infantile meningitis in England and Wales: a two year study.

    PubMed Central

    de Louvois, J; Blackbourn, J; Hurley, R; Harvey, D

    1991-01-01

    A two year prospective study identified 1922 cases of meningitis in children under 1 year of age. A further 201 cases were identified from other sources. The annual incidence of meningitis during the first year of life was 1.6/1000; during the first 28 days of life it was 0.32/1000, and among postneonatal infants it was 1.22/1000. The male:female ratio was 1.4:1. The overall case fatality rate was 19.8% for neonates and 5.4% for postneonatal infants. Two thirds of deaths identified in the study, 50% of all deaths, were not attributed to meningitis by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys. Group B beta haemolytic streptococci (28%), Escherichia coli (18%), and Listeria monocytogenes (5%) were most frequently isolated from neonates and Neisseria meningitidis (31%), Haemophilus influenzae (30%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (10%) from postneonatal infants. At 2-6 months of age N meningitidis meningitis was most common, and at 7-12 months H influenzae predominated. Meningitis caused by group B beta haemolytic streptococci occurred up to 6 months of age and had a consistent mortality of 25%. Neonatal meningitis due to Gram negative enteric rods had a mortality of 32%. Low birth weight was a significant predisposing factor for both neonates and postneonatal infants. In both groups mortality was significantly higher among children admitted in coma. There was no seasonal variation in incidence in either group. Neonates were treated with either group. Neonates were treated with either chloramphenicol (50%) or gentamicin (48%) usually in combination with a penicillin; 40% received a third generation cephalosporin. Of the 1472 postneonatal infants treated 84% received chloramphenicol with a penicillin and 10% received a third generation cephalosporin. Relapse occurred in 49 patients and three died. Eighteen babies coned as a result of raised intracranial pressure, including four neonates, and four died. Mortality among the 133 (7%) children who received steroids was

  19. Drug-resistant tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravindra K; Jain, Amita; Malhotra, Hardeep S; Agrawal, Avinash; Garg, Rajiv

    2013-06-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis, including drug-resistant tuberculous meningitis, is an emerging health problem in many countries. An association with Beijing strains and drug resistance-related mutations, such as mutations in katG and rpoB genes, has been found. The pathology, clinical features and neuroimaging characteristics of drug-resistant tuberculous meningitis are similar to drug-responsive tuberculous meningitis. Detection of mycobacteria in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by conventional methods (smear examination or culture) is often difficult. Nucleic acid amplification assays are better methods owing to their rapidity and high sensitivity. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid, CA, USA) is a fully-automated test that has also been found to be effective for CSF samples. Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculous meningitis depends on the drug susceptibility pattern of the isolate and/or the previous treatment history of the patient. Second-line drugs with good penetration of the CSF should be preferred. Isoniazid monoresistant disease requires addition of another drug with better CSF penetration. Drug-resistant tuberculous meningitis is associated with a high mortality. HIV infected patients with drug-resistant tuberculous meningitis have severe clinical manifestations with exceptionally high mortality. Prevention of tuberculosis is the key to reduce drug-resistant tuberculous meningitis.

  20. Campylobacter Fetus Meningitis in Adults

    PubMed Central

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, predisposing factors and outcome of C fetus meningitis in adults. We report cases of C fetus meningitis in a nationwide cohort study of adult bacterial meningitis patients in the Netherlands and performed a review of the literature. Two patients with C fetus meningitis were identified from January 2006 through May 2015. The calculated annual incidence was 0.02 per million adults. Combined with the literature, we identified 22 patients with a median age of 48 years. An immunocompromised state was present in 16 patients (73%), mostly due to alcoholism (41%) and diabetes mellitus (27%). The source of infection was identified in 13 out of 19 patients (68%), consisting of regular contact with domestic animals in 5 and working on a farm in 4. Recurrent fever and illness was reported in 4 patients (18%), requiring prolonged antibiotic treatment. Two patients died (9%) and 3 survivors (15%) had neurological sequelae. C fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis and is associated with an immunocompromised state. Based on the apparent slow clinical response seen in this limited number of cases, the authors of this study recommend a prolonged course of antimicrobial therapy when C fetus is identified as a causative agent of bacterial meningitis. Cases appeared to do best with carbapenem therapy. PMID:26937916

  1. Listeria monocytogenes, a food-borne pathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Farber, J M; Peterkin, P I

    1991-01-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is an ubiquitous, intracellular pathogen which has been implicated within the past decade as the causative organism in several outbreaks of foodborne disease. Listeriosis, with a mortality rate of about 24%, is found mainly among pregnant women, their fetuses, and immunocompromised persons, with symptoms of abortion, neonatal death, septicemia, and meningitis. Epidemiological investigations can make use of strain-typing procedures such as DNA restriction enzyme analysis or electrophoretic enzyme typing. The organism has a multifactorial virulence system, with the thiol-activated hemolysin, listeriolysin O, being identified as playing a crucial role in the organism's ability to multiply within host phagocytic cells and to spread from cell to cell. The organism occurs widely in food, with the highest incidences being found in meat, poultry, and seafood products. Improved methods for detecting and enumerating the organism in foodstuffs are now available, including those based on the use of monoclonal antibodies, DNA probes, or the polymerase chain reaction. As knowledge of the molecular and applied biology of L. monocytogenes increases, progress can be made in the prevention and control of human infection. PMID:1943998

  2. Possibility of diagnosing meningitis by gas chromatography: cryptococcal meningitis.

    PubMed Central

    Schlossberg, D; Brooks, J B; Shulman, J

    1976-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from eight patients with cryptococcal meningitis, from ten patients with viral meningitis, and from four control patients without meningitis were analyzed by electron-capture gas-liquid chromatography (EC-GLC). All cryptococcal specimens had similar EC-GLC profiles, and these differed from those of the controls. Viral EC-GLC patterns were different from those obtained with specimens from the patients with cryptococcal infection and from the controls. In addition, specimens from patients with various types of viral infections gave profiles that differed from each other. Two normal CSFs were inoculated with Cryptococcus neoformans; aliquots of these cultures showed an EC-GLC pattern very similar to that seen in CSF of patients with cryptococcal meningitis. The EC-GLC procedure is rapid, reproducible, and easy to perform and may hold promise as an additional aid in the diagnosis of cryptococcal infection. PMID:773956

  3. High-dose amoxicillin should be included in the empirical treatment of suspected meningitis in patients at risk of HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Ben Edward Michael; Webster, Daniel; Fisher, Martin; Alexander, Eliza

    2011-01-01

    The authors report on a case of Listeria rhomboencepahlitis in a previously undiagnosed HIV positive man. This case is of interest as the incidence of Listeria has increased dramatically in recent years and so may increase in the HIV-infected population. The organism is inherently resistant to cephalosporin antibiotics, empirically employed in the treatment of central nervous system infections and thus highlights the need to include amoxicillin in meningitis treatment regimes in patients at risk of HIV infection as well as the older and those known to be immuno-compromised. PMID:22696737

  4. Pyelonephritis with bacteremia caused by Listeria monocytogenes: A case report.

    PubMed

    Uno, Shunsuke; Hase, Ryota; Toguchi, Akihiro; Otsuka, Yoshihito; Hosokawa, Naoto

    2017-02-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a well-known cause of meningitis, colitis, and bacteremia; however, obstructive pyelonephritis caused by L. monocytogenes has never been reported. We herein report on a 90-year-old Japanese woman with obstructive pyelonephritis and bacteremia due to uterus carcinoma invading the ureter. She was admitted to our hospital complaining of fever and chills, and her physical examination revealed left costovertebral angle tenderness. Computed tomography showed hydronephrosis and complete ureteral obstruction due to tumor invasion. Blood and urine cultures upon nephrostomy revealed the growth of L. monocytogenes. We treated the patient with two weeks of intravenous ampicillin and an additional one-week treatment of oral sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. This case shows the importance to recognize L. monocytogenes as a potential causative agent of urinary tract infection.

  5. Primary leptomeningeal melanocytosis presenting as chronic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Honigberg, Michael C; Papavassiliou, Efstathios; Cohen, Yehuda Z

    2014-06-01

    We report a patient with primary leptomeningeal melanocytosis presenting as chronic meningitis. A previously healthy 27-year-old man presented with 2 months of severe headaches and photophobia. A lumbar puncture was notable for a highly elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level without pleocytosis. Imaging at the time of admission suggested only meningitis without the presence of parenchymal lesions. On the basis of the CSF findings, early meningeal biopsy was performed, leading to the diagnosis of a meningeal melanocytic neoplasm. Early meningeal biopsy should be considered in patients with meningitis when the CSF profile suggests the possibility of a central nervous system neoplasm.

  6. Effect of Listeria seeligeri or Listeria welshimeri on Listeria monocytogenes detection in and recovery from buffered Listeria enrichment broth.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Rachel C; Welch, Lacinda J; Hitchins, Anthony D; Smiley, R Derike

    2015-04-01

    The presence of multiple species of Listeria in regulated food products is not uncommon and can complicate the recovery of Listeria monocytogenes particularly on a non-differentiating medium. The potential complications of Listeria seeligeri and Listeria welshimeri on the recovery of L. monocytogenes from inoculated food test samples using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) selective enrichment procedure was investigated. Post-enrichment enumeration, in the absence of food product, indicates that some L. seeligeri and L. monocytogenes pairings may have population differentials as great as 2.7 ± 0.1 logs with L. seeligeri being the predominant species. A similar observation was noted for L. welshimeri and L. monocytogenes pairings which resulted in population differentials as large as 3.7 ± 0.2 logs with L. welshimeri being the predominant species. Select strain pairings were used to inoculate guacamole, crab meat, broccoli, and cheese with subsequent recovery by the FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) method with 10 colonies per sample selected for confirmation. The presence of L. seeligeri had little effect on the recovery of L. monocytogenes. The presence of L. welshimeri resulted in the failure to recover L. monocytogenes in three out of the four food matrices. This work extends the observation that non-pathogenic species of Listeria can complicate the recovery of L. monocytogenes and that competition during selective enrichment is not limited to the presence of just Listeria innocua.

  7. [Hematometra & Listeria monocytogenes].

    PubMed

    Gómez Arzapalo, E; Pérez Mendizábal, A; Herrera Avalos, I; Gorozpe Calvillo, J I

    2001-05-01

    The hematometra is a nosological entity that may not always be attributed to an embryonic defect of the paramesonefros; cervical-vaginal infections such as etiological possibilities due to Listeria monocytogenes (Lm), cervix malignant neoplasias, iatrogenias due to endometrial ablation with Lasser, traumatic bloody uterine curetage and because of cervical cryocoagulation or electrocoagulation are also mentioned. The case to be reported is from a woman in reproductive stage, who is 32 years old, and had menarca at the age of 13, starting her sexual life at 31, not using any method to control her fertility. When having an eight-week amenorrhea after 8 months of marriage, she visited the doctor for assumed pregnancy, within the prenatal analysis a pelvic echographic study was requested, finding out images that we concluded as hematometra, having been drained and demonstrated the presence of LM by anti-Lm antibodies, being administered Azitromicina and Espiramicina.

  8. [Hemangiopericytoma of the meninges].

    PubMed

    Ito, H; Hasegawa, T; Kawano, H; Shoin, K; Yamamoto, S; Matsubara, F

    1983-09-01

    A 44-year-old farmer complained blurred vision and disturbance of recent memory. During his driving car traffic accident happened due to his right homonymous hemianopsia. On the 1st admission, neurological examination revealed choked disc(1 D.), hemianopsia, memory disturbance, dyscalculia, dyslexia and dysgraphia. The angiograms showed feeding arteries from left middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery. Tumor vessels looked like cork-screw in the arterial phase and homogeneous tumor shadow was depicted in late venous phase. Contrast enhancement CT scan revealed a nodular homogeneous high dense lesion on the occipital region. Hemorrhage during every craniotomy was too much to remove and at last metastasized to left II rib and right VIII rib and right radius. Their histological examination reveals numerous endothelial-lined vascular channels and atypia of tumor cells with mitoses. Silver impregnation demonstrates networks of reticulum fibers surrounding the capillaries and tumor cells. Hemangiopericytoma in meninges forms entity and our case reports the WHO classification. Total removal should have to be done once for all by means of LASER (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation).

  9. [Normal and abnormal meningeal enhancement: MRI features].

    PubMed

    Dietemann, J L; Correia Bernardo, R; Bogorin, A; Abu Eid, M; Koob, M; Nogueira, Th; Vargas, M I; Fakhoury, W; Zöllner, G

    2005-11-01

    The authors describe normal imaging of the meninges and meningeal spaces and MR (magnetic resonance) imaging findings in tumoral and nontumoral diseases. Dural or/and pial enhancement may be related to tumoral, infectious or granulomatous diseases.

  10. Peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization for identification of Listeria genus, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Shan; Li, Ke; Shuai, Jiangbing; Dong, Qiang; Fang, Weihuan

    2012-07-02

    A fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method in conjunction with fluorescin-labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes (PNA-FISH) for detection of Listeria species was developed. In silico analysis showed that three PNA probes Lis-16S-1, Lm-16S-2 and Liv-16S-5 were suitable for specific identification of Listeria genus, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii, respectively. These probes were experimentally verified by their reactivity against 19 strains of six Listeria species (excluding newly described species Listeria marthii and Listeria rocourtiae) and eight other bacterial species. The PNA-FISH method was optimized as 30 min of hybridization with 0.2% Triton X-100 in the solution and used to identify 85 Listeria strains from individual putative Listeria colonies on PALCAM agar plates streaked from selectively enriched cultures of 780 food or food-related samples. Of the 85 Listeria strains, thirty-seven were identified as L. monocytogenes with the probe Lm-16S-2 and two as L. ivanovii with the probe Liv-16S-5 which was in agreement with the results obtained by the API LISTERIA method. Thus, the PNA-FISH protocol has the potential for identification of pathogenic Listeria spp. from food or food-related samples.

  11. Laboratory diagnosis of bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, L D; Fedorko, D P

    1992-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is relatively common, can progress rapidly, and can result in death or permanent debilitation. This infection justifiably elicits strong emotional reactions and, hopefully, immediate medical intervention. This review is a brief presentation of the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis and a review of current knowledge, literature, and recommendations on the subject of laboratory diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Those who work in clinical microbiology laboratories should be familiar with the tests used in detecting bacteria and bacterial antigens in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and should always have the utmost appreciation for the fact that results of such tests must always be reported immediately. Academic and practical aspects of the laboratory diagnosis of bacterial meningitis presented in this review include the following: anatomy of the meninges; pathogenesis; changes in the composition of CSF; etiological agents; processing CSF; microscopic examination of CSF; culturing CSF; methods of detecting bacterial antigens and bacterial components in CSF (counter-immunoelectrophoresis, coagglutination, latex agglutination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Limulus amebocyte lysate assay, and gas-liquid chromatography); use of the polymerase chain reaction; and practical considerations for testing CSF for bacterial antigens. PMID:1576585

  12. Listeria monocytogenes and hemolytic Listeria innocua in poultry.

    PubMed

    Milillo, S R; Stout, J C; Hanning, I B; Clement, A; Fortes, E D; den Bakker, H C; Wiedmann, M; Ricke, S C

    2012-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous, saprophytic, Gram-positive bacterium and occasional food-borne pathogen, often associated with ready-to-eat meat products. Because of the increased consumer interest in organic, all natural, and free range poultry products, it is important to understand L. monocytogenes in the context of such systems. Pasture-reared poultry were surveyed over the course of two 8-wk rearing periods. Cecal, soil, and grass samples were collected for Listeria isolation and characterization. Seven of 399 cecal samples (or 1.75%) were Listeria-positive. All positive cecal samples were obtained from broilers sampled at 2 wk of age. Grass and soil samples were collected from the pasture both before and after introduction of the poultry. Environmental samples collected after introduction of poultry were significantly more likely to contain Listeria (P < 0.001). The results of analytical profile index Listeria, sigB allelic typing, and hlyA PCR tests found that both L. monocytogenes and L. innocua, including hemolytic L. innocua, were recovered from the cecal and environmental (grass/soil) samples. The sigB allelic typing also revealed that (1) positive samples could be composed of 2 or more allelic types; (2) allelic types found in cecal samples could also be found in the environment; and (3) allelic types could persist through the 2 rearing periods. Our data indicate that both pasture-reared poultry and their environment can be contaminated with L. monocytogenes and hemolytic L. innocua.

  13. An unusual case of meningitis.

    PubMed

    Pond, Eric Dr; El-Bailey, Sameh; Webster, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis. A 56-year-old man with several pets developed a profoundly decreased level of consciousness following left tympanomastoidectomy. Lumbar puncture produced cerebrospinal fluid with the typical findings of meningitis (low glucose, high protein, high leukocytes). Cultures from the cerebrospinal fluid and a swab of the left ear revealed Gram-negative coccobacillus identified as P multocida. The organism was sensitive to ceftriaxone, ampicillin and penicillin, and a 14-day course of intravenous penicillin was used as definitive treatment, resulting in full recovery. Although rare, P multocida should be considered as a potential cause of meningitis in patients with animal exposure, particularly in the setting of recent cranial surgery.

  14. An unusual case of meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Pond, Eric DR; El-Bailey, Sameh; Webster, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis. A 56-year-old man with several pets developed a profoundly decreased level of consciousness following left tympanomastoidectomy. Lumbar puncture produced cerebrospinal fluid with the typical findings of meningitis (low glucose, high protein, high leukocytes). Cultures from the cerebrospinal fluid and a swab of the left ear revealed Gram-negative coccobacillus identified as P multocida. The organism was sensitive to ceftriaxone, ampicillin and penicillin, and a 14-day course of intravenous penicillin was used as definitive treatment, resulting in full recovery. Although rare, P multocida should be considered as a potential cause of meningitis in patients with animal exposure, particularly in the setting of recent cranial surgery. PMID:26236360

  15. Neonatal group B streptococcal meningitis.

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, C J; Zanen, H C

    1984-01-01

    Bacteriological and clinical data on 68 children with neonatal group B streptococcal meningitis were analysed as part of a wider study of bacterial meningitis undertaken between 1976 and 1982. Twenty five per cent of patients died and there was no difference in the mortality rate between early and late onset disease. Sixteen per cent of the infants weighed less than 2500 g at birth but in 50% no predisposing aetiological factor was found. Streptococcus agalactiae type III was isolated in 57% of the patients. PMID:6375583

  16. Listeria floridensis sp. nov., Listeria aquatica sp. nov., Listeria cornellensis sp. nov., Listeria riparia sp. nov. and Listeria grandensis sp. nov., from agricultural and natural environments.

    PubMed

    den Bakker, Henk C; Warchocki, Steven; Wright, Emily M; Allred, Adam F; Ahlstrom, Christina; Manuel, Clyde S; Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Burrell, Angela; Roof, Sherry; Strawn, Laura K; Fortes, Esther; Nightingale, Kendra K; Kephart, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Sampling of agricultural and natural environments in two US states (Colorado and Florida) yielded 18 Listeria-like isolates that could not be assigned to previously described species using traditional methods. Using whole-genome sequencing and traditional phenotypic methods, we identified five novel species, each with a genome-wide average BLAST nucleotide identity (ANIb) of less than 85% to currently described species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and amino acid sequences of 31 conserved loci showed the existence of four well-supported clades within the genus Listeria; (i) a clade representing Listeria monocytogenes, L. marthii, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri and L. ivanovii, which we refer to as Listeria sensu stricto, (ii) a clade consisting of Listeria fleischmannii and two newly described species, Listeria aquatica sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1188(T) = DSM 26686(T) = LMG 28120(T) = BEI NR-42633(T)) and Listeria floridensis sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1187(T) = DSM 26687(T) = LMG 28121(T) = BEI NR-42632(T)), (iii) a clade consisting of Listeria rocourtiae, L. weihenstephanensis and three novel species, Listeria cornellensis sp. nov. (type strain TTU A1-0210(T) = FSL F6-0969(T) = DSM 26689(T) = LMG 28123(T) = BEI NR-42630(T)), Listeria grandensis sp. nov. (type strain TTU A1-0212(T) = FSL F6-0971(T) = DSM 26688(T) = LMG 28122(T) = BEI NR-42631(T)) and Listeria riparia sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1204(T) = DSM 26685(T) = LMG 28119(T) = BEI NR- 42634(T)) and (iv) a clade containing Listeria grayi. Genomic and phenotypic data suggest that the novel species are non-pathogenic.

  17. [Laboratory diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis].

    PubMed

    Marí, José María Navarro; Ruiz, Mercedes Pérez; Anza, Diego Vicente

    2010-01-01

    Lymphocytic meningitis, mainly those with an acute and benign course, are caused by viruses. In our area, the most commonly involved agents are enteroviruses, herpes simplex, varicella zoster and Toscana viruses. Nucleic acids amplification techniques (NAAT) are the methods of choice to diagnose viral meningitis from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. They are more rapid and sensitive, and indeed, they are not influenced by the viability of the virus in the clinical specimen as traditional methods are. The development of commercial equipments, the degree of automation, and the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems are the most important premises to choose the molecular method in each laboratory. Recently, commercial kits of real-time PCR are available for the detection of enteroviruses and herpesviruses, which are the most frequently viruses involved in meningitis. Although NAAT from the clinical sample have replaced cell culture for diagnostic purposes, the combination of both methods remain useful. When the detection of the causal agent from the CSF sample is not possible, other specimens (pharyngeal exudates, stools) or serological methods can be used. Serology is the reference method for meningitis caused by West Nile virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, which are less frequently detected in our area.

  18. Kluyvera meningitis in a newborn.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Marisa; Rojas, Pilar; Garcia, Elisa; Marquez, Javier; Losada, Antonio; Muñoz, Miguel

    2007-11-01

    Kluyvera is described infrequently in association with clinically significant infections in humans. It can produce a wide range of clinically significant manifestations. We describe a newborn with ventriculoperitoneal shunt, who was successfully treated for Kluyvera meningitis. We believe that this is the first case of Kluyvera central nervous system infection reported in a child.

  19. Cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompetent children.

    PubMed

    Yuanjie, Zhu; Jianghan, Chen; Nan, Xu; Xiaojun, Wang; Hai, Wen; Wanqing, Liao; Julin, Gu

    2012-03-01

    To describe clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompetent children. Immunocompetent children with cryptococcal meningitis who attended Changzheng Hospital between 1998 and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. During the 10 years reviewed, 11 children with cryptococcal meningitis were admitted to Changzheng hospital and identified as immunocompetent. The 11 children had a median age of 7.25 years. Headache (100%), fever (81.8%), nausea or vomiting (63.6%) and visual or hearing damage or loss (36.4%) were the most common symptoms before treatment. There is no evidence for other site infection of cryptococcus although all the cryptococcal antigen titre is high in blood. All the patients received amphotericin B or AmB liposome with 5-flucytosine for at least 6 weeks followed by fluconazole or itraconazole as consolidation treatment for at least 12 weeks. Nine patients were cured mycologically; however, sequela of visual damage was showed in one patient. Cryptococcal meningitis seems to be uncharacteristic of symptoms, and central nervous system may be the only common site for infection. Amphotericin B with 5-flucytosine should be the choice of induction treatment in this group of patients.

  20. NATURAL ATYPICAL LISTERIA INNOCUA STRAINS WITH LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES PATHOGENICITY ISLAND 1 GENES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The detection of the human foodborne pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes, in food, environmental samples and clinical specimens associated with cases of listeriosis, a rare but high mortality-rate disease, requires distinguishing the pathogen from other Listeria species. Speciation...

  1. Corticosteroids for managing tuberculous meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Kameshwar; Singh, Mamta B; Ryan, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculous meningitis is a serious form of tuberculosis (TB) that affects the meninges that cover a person's brain and spinal cord. It is associated with high death rates and with disability in people who survive. Corticosteroids have been used as an adjunct to antituberculous drugs to treat people with tuberculous meningitis, but their role has been controversial. Objectives To evaluate the effects of corticosteroids as an adjunct to antituberculous treatment on death and severe disability in people with tuberculous meningitis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register up to the 18 March 2016; CENTRAL; MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; and Current Controlled Trials. We also contacted researchers and organizations working in the field, and checked reference lists. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials that compared corticosteroid plus antituberculous treatment with antituberculous treatment alone in people with clinically diagnosed tuberculous meningitis and included death or disability as outcome measures. Data collection and analysis We independently assessed search results and methodological quality, and extracted data from the included trials. We analysed the data using risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and used a fixed-effect model. We performed an intention-to-treat analysis, where we included all participants randomized to treatment in the denominator. This analysis assumes that all participants who were lost to follow-up have good outcomes. We carried out a sensitivity analysis to explore the impact of the missing data. Main results Nine trials that included 1337 participants (with 469 deaths) met the inclusion criteria. At follow-up from three to 18 months, steroids reduce deaths by almost one quarter (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.87; nine trials, 1337 participants, high quality evidence). Disabling neurological deficit is not common in survivors, and steroids may have little or no

  2. Characteristics and distribution of Listeria spp., including Listeria species newly described since 2009.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Renato H; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-06-01

    The genus Listeria is currently comprised of 17 species, including 9 Listeria species newly described since 2009. Genomic and phenotypic data clearly define a distinct group of six species (Listeria sensu strictu) that share common phenotypic characteristics (e.g., ability to grow at low temperature, flagellar motility); this group includes the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The other 11 species (Listeria sensu lato) represent three distinct monophyletic groups, which may warrant recognition as separate genera. These three proposed genera do not contain pathogens, are non-motile (except for Listeria grayi), are able to reduce nitrate (except for Listeria floridensis), and are negative for the Voges-Proskauer test (except for L. grayi). Unlike all other Listeria species, species in the proposed new genus Mesolisteria are not able to grow below 7 °C. While most new Listeria species have only been identified in a few countries, the availability of molecular tools for rapid characterization of putative Listeria isolates will likely lead to future identification of isolates representing these new species from different sources. Identification of Listeria sensu lato isolates has not only allowed for a better understanding of the evolution of Listeria and virulence characteristics in Listeria but also has practical implications as detection of Listeria species is often used by the food industry as a marker to detect conditions that allow for presence, growth, and persistence of L. monocytogenes. This review will provide a comprehensive critical summary of our current understanding of the characteristics and distribution of the new Listeria species with a focus on Listeria sensu lato.

  3. Evidence for intrathecal synthesis of alternative pathway complement activation proteins in experimental meningitis.

    PubMed Central

    Stahel, P. F.; Frei, K.; Fontana, A.; Eugster, H. P.; Ault, B. H.; Barnum, S. R.

    1997-01-01

    Complement has been shown to contribute to intrathecal inflammation in bacterial meningitis. However, the cellular source of complement in the infected central nervous system has not been determined. In this study, we analyzed protein and mRNA expression of two alternative pathway complement activation proteins, C3 and factor B, in the brains of mice with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis. Complement protein levels were found elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of infected mice, compared with mock-infected animals. In the course of the disease, enhanced C3 and factor B mRNA expression was detected on pyramidal neurons and Purkinje cells within 6 hours, peaking at 12 hours and then gradually decreasing by 72 hours after infection. In addition, leukocytes infiltrating the subarachnoid space, within 12 to 24 hours, expressed mRNA for C3 and factor B. The cellular infiltration increased dramatically up to 72 hours. Intraperitoneal injection of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha up-regulated C3 and factor B mRNA expression on neurons in normal mice, suggesting that TNF-alpha may represent one cytokine regulating complement expression in this model of bacterial meningitis. However, additional mediators may be involved in regulation of intrathecal complement expression, as infected mice deficient of TNF/lymphotoxin-alpha genes did not demonstrate attenuated complement expression in the brain. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9327721

  4. Surgical management of bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A variety of associated lesions may require the neurosurgeon's assistance in the management of bacterial meningitis. As treatment of this infection of the central nervous system proceeds, the surgeon will have to decide about the concurrent or subsequent operative treatment of congenital dysraphic states, paraneural infections, compound fractures or penetrating wounds of thecranium or spine, or infected bypass shunts for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In patients with intractable meningitic infections the surgeon may have to insert a ventricular drainage-irrigation system to permit adequate perfusion of the CSF pathways with antibiotic. Hydrocephalus or subdural effusions complicating meningitis may bring the patient to the surgeon long after the infection has been cured. This paper examines these problems and outlines the current principles of management. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:1098760

  5. Monoclonal antibody specific for Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, and Listeria welshimeri.

    PubMed Central

    Siragusa, G R; Johnson, M G

    1990-01-01

    Eight hundred fifty-nine murine hybridomas were produced from eight fusions, and 27 were characterized for secretion of antibodies reactive to Listeria monocytogenes. One monoclonal antibody (MAb), P5C9, reacted with all test strains of L. monocytogenes (31 of 31), L. innocua (3 of 3), and L. welshimeri (1 of 1) but not with any strains of the other four Listeria species or with any of 22 gram-positive or 11 gram-negative species of bacteria when tested in microtiter and dot blot enzyme immunoassays. Of the other 26 antibodies, 20 reacted with either L. monocytogenes Scott A or V7 and with some or all of the other six Listeria species but also cross-reacted with some or all of the non-Listeria bacteria tested. MAb P5C9 is of the immunoglobulin G1 murine subclass. In Western blot (immunoblot) analyses, this MAb reacted with a single antigen with a molecular weight of 18,500, and it is shared in common with all three reactive species, L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, and L. welshimeri. This antigen was extracted with detergent and appeared to be cell bound. Images PMID:2116762

  6. Visual pathway abnormalities in tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ajai Kumar; Sharma, Lalit; Kulshreshtha, Dinkar; Thacker, Anup Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Ophthalmological complications are common and disabling in patients with tuberculous meningitis. We aimed to study the visual pathway abnormalities in patients with tuberculous meningitis. Forty-three patients with tuberculous meningitis were subjected to visual evoked responses (VER) and neuroophthalmologic assessment. Neuroophthalmologic assessment revealed abnormalities in 22 (51.3%) patients. VER were found to be abnormal in 27 (62.8%) patients. The VER abnormalities included prolonged P100 latencies with relatively normal amplitude and significant interocular latency differences. Visual pathways abnormalities are common in patients with tuberculous meningitis and are often subclinical. Pathophysiologic explanations for electrophysiological abnormalities on VER in these patients are incompletely understood and needs further exploration.

  7. Rheumatoid Meningitis Occurring during Etanercept Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Takashi; Okumura, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Naoko; Hamano, Toshiaki

    2017-01-01

    We report a 65-year-old man who had repetitive seizures 6 months after receiving etanercept, methotrexate, and prednisolone for rheumatoid arthritis. Mononuclear cells were mildly increased in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed high intensity along sulci of the frontal and parietal lobes. Brain biopsy revealed lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltration in the meninges, confirming the diagnosis of rheumatoid meningitis. After steroid pulse therapy, seizures resolved and clinical findings improved. When etanercept was replaced by tocilizumab, rheumatoid meningitis did not recur. Although TNF-α inhibitors can control joint symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, they may induce rheumatoid meningitis. PMID:28286682

  8. A multi-target real-time PCR assay for rapid identification of meningitis-associated microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Marco; Savini, Vincenzo; Favalli, Cartesio; Fontana, Carla

    2013-01-01

    A central nervous system (CNS) infection, such as meningitis, is a serious and life-threatening condition. Bacterial meningitis can be severe and may result in brain damage, disability or even death. Rapid diagnosis of CNS infections and identification of the pathogenic microorganisms are needed to improve the patient outcome. Bacterial culture of a patient's cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is currently considered the "gold standard" for diagnosing bacterial meningitis. From the CSF cultures researchers can assess the in vitro susceptibility of the causative microorganism to determine the best antibiotic treatment. However, many of the culture assays, such as microscopy and the latex agglutination test are not sensitive. To enhance pathogen detection in CSF samples we developed a multi-target real-time PCR assay that can rapidly identify six different microorganisms: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Listeria monocytogenes and Cryptococcus neoformans. In this study we applied this PCR analysis to 296 CSF samples from patients who were suspected of having meningitis. Of the 296 samples that were examined, 59 samples were positive according to the CSF culture and/or molecular assays. Forty-six CSF samples were positive for both the CSF culture and our real-time PCR assay, while 13 samples were positive for the real-time PCR but negative for the traditional assays. This discrepancy may have been caused by the fact that these samples were collected from 23 patients who were treated with antimicrobials before CSF sampling.

  9. VIDAS Listeria species Xpress (LSX).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ronald; Mills, John

    2013-01-01

    The AOAC GovVal study compared the VIDAS Listeria species Xpress (LSX) to the Health Products and Food Branch MFHPB-30 reference method for detection of Listeria on stainless steel. The LSX method utilizes a novel and proprietary enrichment media, Listeria Xpress broth, enabling detection of Listeria species in environmental samples with the automated VIDAS in a minimum of 26 h. The LSX method also includes the use of the chromogenic media, chromID Ottaviani Agosti Agar (OAA) and chromID Lmono for confirmation of LSX presumptive results. In previous AOAC validation studies comparing VIDAS LSX to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) reference methods, the LSX method was approved as AOAC Official Method 2010.02 for the detection of Listeria species in dairy products, vegetables, seafood, raw meats and poultry, and processed meats and poultry, and as AOAC Performance Tested Method 100501 in a variety of foods and on environmental surfaces. The GovVal comparative study included 20 replicate test portions each at two contamination levels for stainless steel where fractionally positive results (5-15 positive results/20 replicate portions tested) were obtained by at least one method at one level. Five uncontaminated controls were included. In the stainless steel artificially contaminated surface study, there were 25 confirmed positives by the VIDAS LSX assay and 22 confirmed positives by the standard culture methods. Chi-square analysis indicated no statistical differences between the VIDAS LSX method and the MFHPB-30 standard methods at the 5% level of significance. Confirmation of presumptive LSX results with the chromogenic OAA and Lmono media was shown to be equivalent to the appropriate reference method agars. The data in this study demonstrate that the VIDAS LSX method is an acceptable alternative method to the MFHPB-30 standard

  10. Antibiotic Resistance in Listeria Species Isolated from Catfish Fillets and Processing Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The susceptibility of 221 Listeria spp. (86 Listeria monocytogenes, 41 Listeria innocua and 94 Listeria seeligeri-Listeria welshimeri-Listeria ivanovii) isolated from catfish fillets and processing environment to 15 antibiotics was determined. Listeria isolates were analysed by disc-diffusion assay...

  11. Cerebral infarction in childhood bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Snyder, R D; Stovring, J; Cushing, A H; Davis, L E; Hardy, T L

    1981-07-01

    Forty-nine children with complicated bacterial meningitis were studied. Thirteen had abnormalities on computed tomography compatible with the diagnosis of brain infarction; one had a brain biopsy with the histological appearance of infarction. Factors exist in childhood bacterial meningitis which are associated with the development of brain infraction.

  12. Cryptococcal meningitis with malaria. A case report.

    PubMed

    Ashiru, J O; Akang, E E

    1994-07-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is an uncommon infection globally, including Nigeria. This systemic fungal infection often is associated with immunodeficiency. The most common causes of meningitis in Nigeria in the 2-3 year age group are the malaria parasites and bacteria. The concomitant infections of Cryptococcal neoformans and Plasmodium falciparum are uncommon. We present here the report of a case of fatal cryptococcal meningitis with malaria infection in a 2 year old child from Nigeria (one of the malaria endemic regions of the world). This case emphasizes the importance of doing a combination of fungal and bacterial cultures as well as looking for malarial parasites in the determination of etiological agents of meningitis in any hospital in Africa. We suggest that cerebrospinal fluid from meningitis cases must be cultured using Sabouraud dextrose agar and any growth on the agar must be examined using Indian ink.

  13. Two cases of rheumatoid meningitis.

    PubMed

    Magaki, Shino; Chang, Edward; Hammond, Robert R; Yang, Isaac; Mackenzie, Ian R A; Chou, Benedict T; Choi, Soo I; Jen, Joanna C; Pope, Whitney B; Bell, David A; Vinters, Harry V

    2016-02-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the form of rheumatoid meningitis (RM) is rare and most commonly occurs in the setting of longstanding severe RA. Due to a wide range of clinical presentations and nonspecific laboratory findings, it presents a diagnostic challenge often requiring brain biopsy. Only a few histopathologically confirmed cases have been described in the literature. Our aim is to describe two cases of RM and review the literature. The first case is of a previously healthy 37-year-old man who presented with severe headaches and focal neurologic deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated abnormal leptomeningeal enhancement in the left frontal and parietal sulci. The second case is of a 62-year-old woman with a history of mild chronic joint pain who presented with confusion, personality changes and seizures. Both patients ultimately underwent brain biopsy which demonstrated RM on pathologic examination. Administration of corticosteroids resulted in significant clinical improvement in both cases. To our knowledge, our unusual case of RM in the young man is the fifth reported case of rheumatoid meningitis in a patient with no prior history of RA. Such an atypical presentation makes diagnosis even more difficult and highlights the need for awareness of this entity in the diagnostic consideration of a patient presenting with unexplained neurologic symptoms. Our literature review underscores the clinical and pathologic heterogeneity of CNS involvement in RA.

  14. In Brief: Forecasting meningitis threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), in conjunction with a team of health and weather organizations, has launched a project to provide weather forecasts to medical officials in Africa to help reduce outbreaks of meningitis. The forecasts will enable local health care providers to target vaccination programs more effectively. In 2009, meteorologists with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is managed by UCAR, will begin issuing 14-day forecasts of atmospheric conditions in Ghana. Later, UCAR plans to work closely with health experts from several African countries to design and test a decision support system to provide health officials with useful meteorological information. ``By targeting forecasts in regions where meningitis is a threat, we may be able to help vulnerable populations. Ultimately, we hope to build on this project and provide information to public health programs battling weather-related diseases in other parts of the world,'' said Rajul Pandya, director of UCAR's Community Building Program. Funding for the project comes from a $900,000 grant from Google.org, the philanthropic arm of the Internet search company.

  15. [Main virulence factors of Listeria monocytogenes and its regulation].

    PubMed

    Vera, Alejandra; González, Gerardo; Domínguez, Mariana; Bello, Helia

    2013-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenesis a facultative intracellular pathogen, ubiquitous and aetiological agent of listeriosis. The main way of acquisition is the consumption of contaminated food and can cause serious medical conditions such as septicemia, meningitis and gastroenteritis, especially in children, immunocompromised individuals and seniors and abortions in pregnant women. An increase in cases of listeriosis worldwide has been reported and it is estimated that its prevalence in developed countries is in the range of 2 to 15 cases per one million population. This microorganism is characterized for the transition from the environment into the eukaryotic cell. Several virulence factors have been involved in the intracellular cycle that are regulated, primarily, by the PrfA protein, which in turn is regulated by different mechanisms operating at the transcriptional, translational and post-translational levels. Additionally, other regulatory mechanisms have been described as sigma factor, system VirR/S and antisense RNA, but PrfA is the most important control mechanism and is required for the expression of essential virulence factors for the intracellular cycle.

  16. Distinct Neurotoxicity Profile of Listeriolysin O from Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Jana; Hupp, Sabrina; Bischoff, Carolin; Foertsch, Christina; Mitchell, Timothy J.; Chakraborty, Trinad; Iliev, Asparouh I.

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) are protein toxins that originate from Gram-positive bacteria and contribute substantially to their pathogenicity. CDCs bind membrane cholesterol and build prepores and lytic pores. Some effects of the toxins are observed in non-lytic concentrations. Two pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes, cause fatal bacterial meningitis, and both produce toxins of the CDC family—pneumolysin and listeriolysin O, respectively. It has been demonstrated that pneumolysin produces dendritic varicosities (dendrite swellings) and dendritic spine collapse in the mouse neocortex, followed by synaptic loss and astrocyte cell shape remodeling without elevated cell death. We utilized primary glial cultures and acute mouse brain slices to examine the neuropathological effects of listeriolysin O and to compare it to pneumolysin with identical hemolytic activity. In cultures, listeriolysin O permeabilized cells slower than pneumolysin did but still initiated non-lytic astrocytic cell shape changes, just as pneumolysin did. In an acute brain slice culture system, listeriolysin O produced dendritic varicosities in an NMDA-dependent manner but failed to cause dendritic spine collapse and cortical astrocyte reorganization. Thus, listeriolysin O demonstrated slower cell permeabilization and milder glial cell remodeling ability than did pneumolysin and lacked dendritic spine collapse capacity but exhibited equivalent dendritic pathology. PMID:28098781

  17. Distinct Neurotoxicity Profile of Listeriolysin O from Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Jana; Hupp, Sabrina; Bischoff, Carolin; Foertsch, Christina; Mitchell, Timothy J; Chakraborty, Trinad; Iliev, Asparouh I

    2017-01-13

    Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) are protein toxins that originate from Gram-positive bacteria and contribute substantially to their pathogenicity. CDCs bind membrane cholesterol and build prepores and lytic pores. Some effects of the toxins are observed in non-lytic concentrations. Two pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes, cause fatal bacterial meningitis, and both produce toxins of the CDC family-pneumolysin and listeriolysin O, respectively. It has been demonstrated that pneumolysin produces dendritic varicosities (dendrite swellings) and dendritic spine collapse in the mouse neocortex, followed by synaptic loss and astrocyte cell shape remodeling without elevated cell death. We utilized primary glial cultures and acute mouse brain slices to examine the neuropathological effects of listeriolysin O and to compare it to pneumolysin with identical hemolytic activity. In cultures, listeriolysin O permeabilized cells slower than pneumolysin did but still initiated non-lytic astrocytic cell shape changes, just as pneumolysin did. In an acute brain slice culture system, listeriolysin O produced dendritic varicosities in an NMDA-dependent manner but failed to cause dendritic spine collapse and cortical astrocyte reorganization. Thus, listeriolysin O demonstrated slower cell permeabilization and milder glial cell remodeling ability than did pneumolysin and lacked dendritic spine collapse capacity but exhibited equivalent dendritic pathology.

  18. Characterization of chemical meningitis after neurological surgery.

    PubMed

    Forgacs, P; Geyer, C A; Freidberg, S R

    2001-01-15

    We reviewed the records of 70 consecutive adult patients with meningitis after a neurosurgical procedure, to determine the characteristics that might help to distinguish a sterile postoperative chemical meningitis from bacterial infection. The spinal fluid profiles in bacterial and chemical meningitis are similar. The exceptions are that a spinal fluid white blood cell count > 7500/microL (7500 x 10(6)/L) and a glucose level of < 10 mg/dL were not found in any case of chemical meningitis. The clinical setting and clinical manifestations were distinct enough that no antibiotic was administered after lumbar puncture to 30 (43%) of the 70 patients with postoperative meningitis. Chemical meningitis was infrequent after surgery involving the spine and sinuses. Patients with chemical meningitis did not have purulent wound drainage or significant wound erythema or tenderness, coma, new focal neurological findings, or onset of a new seizure disorder. They rarely had temperatures > 39.4 degrees C or cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea or otorrhea.

  19. Climate Change and Cerebrospinal Meningitis in the Ghanaian Meningitis Belt

    PubMed Central

    Codjoe, Samuel Nii Ardey; Nabie, Vivian Adams

    2014-01-01

    Cerebrospinal meningitis (CSM) is one of the infectious diseases likely to be affected by climate change. Although there are a few studies on the climate change-CSM nexus, none has considered perceptions of community members. However, understanding public perception in relation to a phenomenon is very significant for the design of effective communication and mitigation strategies as well as coping and adaptation strategies. This paper uses focus group discussions (FGDs) to fill this knowledge lacuna. Results show that although a few elderly participants ascribed fatal causes (disobedience to gods, ancestors, and evil spirits) to CSM infections during FGDs, majority of participants rightly linked CSM infections to dry, very hot and dusty conditions experienced during the dry season. Finally, community members use a suite of adaptation options to curb future CSM epidemics. PMID:25003550

  20. Chronic Meningitis: Simplifying a Diagnostic Challenge.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Kelly; Whiting, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Chronic meningitis can be a diagnostic dilemma for even the most experienced clinician. Many times, the differential diagnosis is broad and encompasses autoimmune, neoplastic, and infectious etiologies. This review will focus on a general approach to chronic meningitis to simplify the diagnostic challenges many clinicians face. The article will also review the most common etiologies of chronic meningitis in some detail including clinical presentation, diagnostic testing, treatment, and outcomes. By using a case-based approach, we will focus on the key elements of clinical presentation and laboratory analysis that will yield the most rapid and accurate diagnosis in these complicated cases.

  1. Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... headaches or body aches. Reviewed by: Nicole A. Green, MD and Elana Pearl Ben-Joseph, MD Date reviewed: February 2016 previous 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Encephalitis Hand Washing Spinal Tap Why Should I Care About Germs? Lyme Disease Contact Us Print Resources ...

  2. Listeria Pathogenesis and Molecular Virulence Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Boland, José A.; Kuhn, Michael; Berche, Patrick; Chakraborty, Trinad; Domínguez-Bernal, Gustavo; Goebel, Werner; González-Zorn, Bruno; Wehland, Jürgen; Kreft, Jürgen

    2001-01-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a highly fatal opportunistic foodborne infection. Pregnant women, neonates, the elderly, and debilitated or immunocompromised patients in general are predominantly affected, although the disease can also develop in normal individuals. Clinical manifestations of invasive listeriosis are usually severe and include abortion, sepsis, and meningoencephalitis. Listeriosis can also manifest as a febrile gastroenteritis syndrome. In addition to humans, L. monocytogenes affects many vertebrate species, including birds. Listeria ivanovii, a second pathogenic species of the genus, is specific for ruminants. Our current view of the pathophysiology of listeriosis derives largely from studies with the mouse infection model. Pathogenic listeriae enter the host primarily through the intestine. The liver is thought to be their first target organ after intestinal translocation. In the liver, listeriae actively multiply until the infection is controlled by a cell-mediated immune response. This initial, subclinical step of listeriosis is thought to be common due to the frequent presence of pathogenic L. monocytogenes in food. In normal indivuals, the continual exposure to listerial antigens probably contributes to the maintenance of anti-Listeria memory T cells. However, in debilitated and immunocompromised patients, the unrestricted proliferation of listeriae in the liver may result in prolonged low-level bacteremia, leading to invasion of the preferred secondary target organs (the brain and the gravid uterus) and to overt clinical disease. L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii are facultative intracellular parasites able to survive in macrophages and to invade a variety of normally nonphagocytic cells, such as epithelial cells, hepatocytes, and endothelial cells. In all these cell types, pathogenic listeriae go through an intracellular life cycle involving early escape from the phagocytic vacuole

  3. Amoxicillin-induced acute aseptic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Prieto-González, Sergio; Escoda, Rosa; Coloma, Emmanuel; Grau, Josep M

    2011-03-01

    A 58-year-old man presented to the hospital with fever and headache after amoxicillin intake. Physical examination, laboratory, and a cranial CT scan were unremarkable. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing revealed lymphocytic pleocytosis. After discontinuation of amoxicillin and symptomatic care, the patient quickly improved. Interestingly, he had had two prior episodes of aseptic meningitis that were probably also related to the administration of amoxicillin. Aseptic meningitis can be caused by multiple non-infectious conditions including drugs, malignancy, and autoimmune diseases. We report a case associated with amoxicillin that meets the criteria of drug-induced aseptic meningitis. Considering the wide utilization of amoxicillin, healthcare providers should be aware of it as a possible cause of drug-induced aseptic meningitis.

  4. A Practical Approach to Meningitis and Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Richie, Megan B; Josephson, S Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Meningitis is an inflammatory syndrome involving the meninges that classically manifests with headache and nuchal rigidity and is diagnosed by cerebrospinal fluid examination. In contrast, encephalitis refers to inflammation of the brain parenchyma itself and often results in focal neurologic deficits or seizures. In this article, the authors review the differential diagnosis of meningitis and encephalitis, with an emphasis on infectious etiologies. The recommended practical clinical approach focuses on early high-yield diagnostic testing and empiric antimicrobial administration, given the high morbidity associated with these diseases and the time-sensitive nature of treatment initiation. If the initial workup does not yield a diagnosis, further etiology-specific testing based upon risk factors and clinical characteristics should be pursued. Effective treatment is available for many causes of meningitis and encephalitis, and when possible should address both the primary disease process as well as potential complications.

  5. Enterobacter Meningitis and Challenges in Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Jawad; Yegneswaran, Balaji; Kodali, Hanish

    2016-01-01

    Neurosurgical interventions are rarely associated with meningitis with a very low incidence rate ranging from 1.1% to 2.5%. Gram negative bacillary meningitis first described in the 1940’s, previously uncommon has been increasing in the recent past associated with advanced age, immunosuppression and neurosurgery. Enterobacter meningitis though relatively uncommon is recently increasing in incidence and treatment is frequently complicated due to resistance to antibiotics making this a challenging, difficult to treat infection that may be associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Here, we describe a case of a 27-year-old patient diagnosed with brain sarcoma at the age of four years, who presented with Enterobacter meningitis following a neurosurgical intervention for resection of a recurrent brain tumor (meningioma on pathology) and had a prolonged hospital stay with a difficult to treat infection. PMID:28208914

  6. Environmental Risk and Meningitis Epidemics in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Molesworth, Anna M.; Cuevas, Luis E.; Connor, Stephen J.; Morse, Andrew P.

    2003-01-01

    Epidemics of meningococcal meningitis occur in areas with particular environmental characteristics. We present evidence that the relationship between the environment and the location of these epidemics is quantifiable and propose a model based on environmental variables to identify regions at risk for meningitis epidemics. These findings, which have substantial implications for directing surveillance activities and health policy, provide a basis for monitoring the impact of climate variability and environmental change on epidemic occurrence in Africa. PMID:14609465

  7. Diffuse pneumocephalus in neonatal Citrobacter meningitis.

    PubMed

    Alviedo, Joseph N; Sood, Beena G; Aranda, Jacob V; Becker, Cristie

    2006-11-01

    Pneumocephalus, intracranial air or gas collection, associated with neonatal meningitis is extremely rare. We report the first case in the United States and the second case in the world of intracranial gas accumulation in a neonate with Citrobacter koseri meningitis. The clinical presentation was acute with pneumocephalus demonstrated by cranial sonography and computed tomography. The clinical course was fatal despite the prompt administration of antibiotics.

  8. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter meningitis in children

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ira; Kapdi, Muznah

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter species have emerged as one of the most troublesome pathogens for healthcare institutions globally. In more recent times, nosocomial infections involving the central nervous system, skin and soft tissue, and bone have emerged as highly problematic. Acinetobacter species infection is common in intensive care units; however, Acinetobacter baumannii meningitis is rarely reported. Here, we report two cases of Acinetobacter baumannii meningitis which was multidrug resistance and ultimately required the carbapenem group of drugs for the treatment.

  9. Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed Central

    Tunkel, A R; Scheld, W M

    1993-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis remains a disease with associated unacceptable morbidity and mortality rates despite the availability of effective bactericidal antimicrobial therapy. Through the use of experimental animal models of infection, a great deal of information has been gleaned concerning the pathogenic and pathophysiologic mechanisms operable in bacterial meningitis. Most cases of bacterial meningitis begin with host acquisition of a new organism by nasopharyngeal colonization followed by systemic invasion and development of a high-grade bacteremia. Bacterial encapsulation contributes to this bacteremia by inhibiting neutrophil phagocytosis and resisting classic complement-mediated bactericidal activity. Central nervous system invasion then occurs, although the exact site of bacterial traversal into the central nervous system is unknown. By production and/or release of virulence factors into and stimulation of formation of inflammatory cytokines within the central nervous system, meningeal pathogens increase permeability of the blood-brain barrier, thus allowing protein and neutrophils to move into the subarachnoid space. There is then an intense subarachnoid space inflammatory response, which leads to many of the pathophysiologic consequences of bacterial meningitis, including cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure. Attenuation of this inflammatory response with adjunctive dexamethasone therapy is associated with reduced concentrations of tumor necrosis factor in the cerebrospinal fluid, with diminished cerebrospinal fluid leukocytosis, and perhaps with improvement of morbidity, as demonstrated in recent clinical trials. Further information on the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis should lead to the development of more innovative treatment and/or preventive strategies for this disorder. Images PMID:8472245

  10. Listeriolysin S: a bacteriocin from epidemic Listeria monocytogenes strains that targets the microbiota.

    PubMed

    Quereda-Torres, Juan-José; Meza-Torres, Jazmín; Cossart, Pascale; Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier

    2017-02-03

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive food-borne pathogen that in humans may traverse the intestinal, placental and blood/brain barriers, causing gastroenteritis, abortions and meningitis. Crossing of these barriers is dependent on the bacterial ability to enter host cells, and several L. monocytogenes surface and secreted virulence factors are known to facilitate entry and the intracellular lifecycle. The study of L. monocytogenes strains associated to human listeriosis epidemics has revealed the presence of novel virulence factors. One such factor is Listeriolysin S, a thiazole/oxazole modified microcin that displays bactericidal activity and modifies the host microbiota during infection. Our recent results therefore highlight the interaction of L. monocytogenes with gut microbes as a crucial step in epidemic listeriosis. In this article, we will discuss novel implications for this family of toxins in the pathogenesis of diverse medically relevant microorganisms.

  11. Relationship between Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. in seafood processing plants.

    PubMed

    Alali, Walid Q; Schaffner, Donald W

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes as an outcome and Listeria spp. as an explanatory variable by food products, food contact surfaces, and nonfood contact surfaces in seafood processing plants by using peer-reviewed published data. Nine sets of prevalence data of L. monocytogenes and Listeria spp. were collected from published studies and used for the analyses. Based on our analysis, the relationship between L. monocytogenes prevalence and Listeria spp. prevalence in food products (incoming raw materials and finish products) was significant (P = 0.04) with (low) R² = 0.36. Furthermore, Listeria spp. were not a good indicator for L. monocytogenes when testing food contact surfaces (R² = 0.10). Listeria spp. were a good indicator for L. monocytogenes only on nonfood contact surfaces (R² = 0.90). On the other hand, the presence of Listeria spp. on food contact surfaces (R² = 0.002) and nonfood contact surfaces (R² = 0.03) was not a good indicator for L. monocytogenes presence in food products. In general, prevalence of Listeria spp. does not seem to be a good indicator for L. monocytogenes prevalence in seafood processing plants.

  12. Listeria infections of the eye.

    PubMed

    Hof, Herbert

    2017-03-10

    The bacterium Listeria monocytogenes resides originally in the environment. Infections of the eye have been induced experimentally; for example, in rabbits and guinea pigs. Natural ocular infections occur in various animals; in most instances, they are induced exogenously; for example, by contaminated silage affecting primarily the conjunctiva, cornea, or the anterior chamber. Sporadic infections as well as outbreaks have been described. In humans, besides exogenous infections, endogenous infections also occur, inducing mainly endophthalmitis. Since an exact diagnosis of the causative agent is often delayed, specific therapy starts too late, so that the outcome is often poor. The antibiotics of primary choice would be ampicillin or a quinolone such as moxifloxacin or levofloxacin. The role of fosfomycin for therapy of ocular infections is discussed.

  13. Meningitis and Climate: From Science to Practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez Garcia-Pando, Carlos; Thomson, Madeleine C.; Stanton, Michelle C.; Diggle, Peter J.; Hopson, Thomas; Pandya, Rajul; Miller, Ron L.; Hugonnet, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    Meningococcal meningitis is a climate sensitive infectious disease. The regional extent of the Meningitis Belt in Africa, where the majority of epidemics occur, was originally defined by Lapeysonnie in the 1960s. A combination of climatic and environmental conditions and biological and social factors have been associated to the spatial and temporal patterns of epidemics observed since the disease first emerged in West Africa over a century ago. However, there is still a lack of knowledge and data that would allow disentangling the relative effects of the diverse risk factors upon epidemics. The Meningitis Environmental Risk Information Technologies Initiative (MERIT), a collaborative research-to-practice consortium, seeks to inform national and regional prevention and control strategies across the African Meningitis Belt through the provision of new data and tools that better determine risk factors. In particular MERIT seeks to consolidate a body of knowledge that provides evidence of the contribution of climatic and environmental factors to seasonal and year-to-year variations in meningococcal meningitis incidence at both district and national scales. Here we review recent research and practice seeking to provide useful information for the epidemic response strategy of National Ministries of Health in the Meningitis Belt of Africa. In particular the research and derived tools described in this paper have focused at "getting science into policy and practice" by engaging with practitioner communities under the umbrella of MERIT to ensure the relevance of their work to operational decision-making. We limit our focus to that of reactive vaccination for meningococcal meningitis. Important but external to our discussion is the development and implementation of the new conjugate vaccine, which specifically targets meningococcus A

  14. Cerebrospinal fluid lactic acidosis in bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed Central

    Eross, J; Silink, M; Dorman, D

    1981-01-01

    A rapid, microenzymatic method was used to measure cerebrospinal fluid lactate levels in 205 children with suspected bacterial meningitis. Fifty children with normal CSF containing fewer than 0.005 X 10(9)/l WBC, no segmented neutrophils, glucose 3.4 +/- 0.8 mmol/l (61.2 +/- 14.4 mg/100 ml), and a protein of less than 0.30 g/l had CSF lactate levels below 2.0 mmol/l (18 mg/100 ml) (mean and standard deviation 1.3 +/- 0.3 mmol/l (11.8 +/- 2.7 mg/100 ml)). In 31 cases of proved viral meningitis as with 58 cases of clinically diagnosed viral meningitis, levels were below 3.8 mmol/l (34.5 mg/100 ml), being 2.3 +/- 0.6 mmol/l (20.9 +/- 5.4 mg/100 ml), and 2.1 +/- 0.7 mmol/l (19.1 +/- 6.4 mg/100 ml) respectively. Sixty-six cases of bacterial meningitis had CSF lactate levels ranging from 3.9 mmol/l (35.4 mg/100 ml) to greater than 10.0 mmol/l (90.0 mg/100 ml). Longitudinal studies in 7 children with bacterial meningitis showed that cerebrospinal fluid lactate levels differentiated bacterial from viral meningitis up to 4 days after starting treatment with antibiotics. Use of CSF lactate measurement for monitoring the efficacy of treatment is illustrated in a case of bacterial meningitis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The origin of the cerebrospinal fluid lactate acidosis and the role of lactate in the pathophysiological cycle leading to intensification of brain tissue hypoxia and cellular damage is discussed with respect to the short-term prognosis and the long-term neurological sequelae. PMID:7294872

  15. Detection of Listeria spp. in liquid egg products and in the egg breaking plants environment and tracking of Listeria monocytogenes by PFGE.

    PubMed

    Rivoal, Katell; Fablet, Aurore; Courtillon, Céline; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Chemaly, Marianne; Protais, Jocelyne

    2013-08-16

    Human listeriosis, caused by Listeria monocytogenes, is a severe bacterial infection that can lead to meningitis, cerebromeningitis, bacteremia or septicemia, with acute lethality and potentially leading to death. A study has shown that 29.5% of the caged laying hens in France are contaminated by L. monocytogenes (Chemaly et al., 2008). However, very little information regarding egg and egg product contamination is currently available. The objective of this study is to determine the sanitary status of egg products and egg breaking plants in France regarding Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes contaminations. The sampling scheme performed in five egg breaking plants in Western France during one year have revealed that 8.5% of raw egg products were contaminated by L. monocytogenes. No pasteurized egg products have been shown to be contaminated by L. monocytogenes. However, a high level of contamination by Listeria spp., and particularly by L. innocua, has been shown with 26.2% and 1.8% of raw and pasteurized egg products contaminated, respectively. This work has also revealed the presence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in the environment of egg breaking plants with 65.1% and 8.0% of contaminated samples, respectively. The typing of 253 isolates of L. monocytogenes by PFGE using ApaI and AscI enzymes has revealed a high diversity with 46 different pulsotypes and has shown that the raw material is a source of contamination of egg breaking plants. One L. monocytogenes cluster was dominant in the 5 egg-breaking plants during the four seasons studied. The issue of which strains are better adapted to egg products must be considered and studied in depth by comparing them to pulsotypes from strains of other chains. However, the traceability of L. monocytogenes in plants during the various seasons has also made it possible to highlight the presence of strains that are specific to egg breaking plants. The study of cleaning and disinfection methods in these plants as well

  16. Staphylococcus aureus meningitis from osteomyelitis of the spine.

    PubMed Central

    Markus, H. S.; Allison, S. P.

    1989-01-01

    Two cases of vertebral osteomyelitis presenting with secondary Staphylococcus aureus meningitis are described. In staphylococcal meningitis a search for a primary source should include the lower vertebral spine. PMID:2616438

  17. Exploitation of host cell cytoskeleton and signalling during Listeria monocytogenes entry into mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier; Sousa, Sandra; Cossart, Pascale

    2004-02-01

    Deciphering how Listeria monocytogenes exploits the host cell machinery to invade mammalian cells during infection is a key issue for the understanding how this food-borne pathogen causes a pleiotropic disease ranging from gastro-enteritis to meningitis and abortions. Using multidisciplinary approaches, essentially combining bacterial genetics and cell biology, we have identified two bacterial proteins critical for entry into target cells, InlA and InlB. Their cellular ligands have been also identified: InlA interacts with the adhesion molecule E-cadherin, while InlB interacts with the receptor for the globular head of the complement factor C1q (gC1q-R), with the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met) and with glycosaminoglycans (including heparan sulphate). The dynamic interaction between these cellular receptors and the actin cytoskeleton is currently under investigation. Several intracellular molecules have been recognized as key effectors for Listeria entry into target cells, including catenins (implicated in the connection of E-cadherin to actin) and the actin depolymerising factor/cofilin (involved in the rearrangement of the cytoskeleton in the InlB-dependent internalisation pathway). At the organism level, species specificity has been discovered concerning the interaction between InlA and E-cadherin, leading to the generation of transgenic mice expressing the human E-cadherin, in which the critical role of InlA in the crossing of the intestinal barrier has been clearly determined. Listeria appears as an instrumental model for addressing critical questions concerning both the complex process of bacterial pathogenesis and also fundamental molecular processes, such as phagocytosis.

  18. Exploitation of host cell cytoskeleton and signalling during Listeria monocytogenes entry into mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier; Sousa, Sandra; Cossart, Pascale

    2004-06-01

    Deciphering how Listeria monocytogenes exploits the host cell machinery to invade mammalian cells during infection isa key issue for the understanding how this food-borne pathogen causes a pleiotropic disease ranging from gastro-enteritis to meningitis and abortions. Using multidisciplinary approaches, essentially combining bacterial genetics and cell biology, we have identified two bacterial proteins critical for entry into target cells, InlA and InlB. Their cellular ligands have been also identified: InlA interacts with the adhesion molecule E-cadherin, while InlB interacts with the receptor for the globular head of the complement factor Clq (gClq-R), with the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met) and with glycosaminoglycans(including heparan sulphate). The dynamic interaction between these cellular receptors and the actin cytoskeleton is currently under investigation. Several intracellular molecules have been recognized as key effectors for Listeria entry into target cells,including catenins (implicated in the connection of E-cadherin to actin) and the actin depolymerising factor/cofilin (involved in the rearrangement of the cytoskeleton in the InlB-dependent internalisation pathway). At the organism level, species specificity has been discovered concerning the interaction between InlA and E-cadherin, leading to the generation of transgenic mice expressing the human E-cadherin, in which the critical role of InlA in the crossing of the intestinal barrier has been clearly determined. Listeria appears as an instrumental model for addressing critical questions concerning both the complex process of bacterial pathogenesis and also fundamental molecular processes, such as phagocytosis.

  19. Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov., isolated from cheese.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, David; Rau, Jörg; Eugster, Marcel R; Haug, Martina C; Lawson, Paul A; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2013-02-01

    A study was performed on three isolates (LU2006-1(T), LU2006-2 and LU2006-3), which were sampled independently from cheese in western Switzerland in 2006, as well as a fourth isolate (A11-3426), which was detected in 2011, using a polyphasic approach. The isolates could all be assigned to the genus Listeria but not to any known species. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data were compatible with the genus Listeria and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that the closest relationships were with members of this genus. However, DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that the isolates did not belong to any currently described species. Cell-wall-binding domains of Listeria monocytogenes bacteriophage endolysins were able to attach to the isolates, confirming their tight relatedness to the genus Listeria. Although PCR targeting the central portion of the flagellin gene flaA was positive, motility was not observed. The four isolates could not be discriminated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This suggests that they represent a single species, which seems to be adapted to the environment in a cheese-ripening cellar as it was re-isolated from the same type of Swiss cheese after more than 5 years. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that the isolates harbour a transferable resistance to clindamycin. The isolates did not exhibit haemolysis or show any indication of human pathogenicity or virulence. The four isolates are affiliated with the genus Listeria but can be differentiated from all described members of the genus Listeria and therefore they merit being classified as representatives of a novel species, for which we propose the name Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov.; the type strain is LU2006-1(T) ( = DSM 24998(T)  = LMG 26584(T)).

  20. [Clinical, epidemiological and etiological studies of adult aseptic meningitis: Report of 13 cases with mumps meningitis].

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Shinichi; Yoshimoto, Takeshi; Shiga, Yuji; Kanaya, Yuhei; Neshige, Shuichiro; Himeno, Takahiro; Kono, Ryuhei; Takamatsu, Kazuhiro; Shimoe, Yutaka; Kuriyama, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    We experienced 13 cases (29.8 ± 7.0 years) of mumps meningitis and 365 cases of adult aseptic meningitis during 11 years from 2004 to 2014. A small epidemic of mumps occurred for 3-4 years, and the incidence rate of adult mumps meningitis coincided with the epidemic without seasonal fluctuation. Parotitis was observed in 8 of the 13 mumps meningitis patients (61.5%) and orchitis in 2 of 7 male patients (28.6%). There were no differences in clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and outcome between patients with adult mumps meningitis and those with echovirus 9 meningitis (9 patients), except for the low frequency of nausea/vomiting and a high percentage of mononuclear cells of the cerebrospinal fluid in those with mumps. Eight patients had contact with persons with mumps before the symptomatic stage of meningitis. Only one patient had received mumps vaccination in childhood. On the basis of the values of the anti-mumps IgM and IgG antibodies, we speculated primary infection and the re-infection of mumps in 6 and 2 patients, respectively. Moreover, second vaccine failure was suggested in the vaccinated patient.

  1. 78 FR 23901 - Interagency Risk Assessment-Listeria monocytogenes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Interagency Risk Assessment--Listeria monocytogenes in Retail... risk assessment (QRA), ``Interagency Risk Assessment--Listeria monocytogenes in Retail Delicatessens... and on the FSIS Web site at http://www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/Listeria-Transcript_062309.pdf ). II....

  2. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes by using the polymerase chain reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bessesen, M.T.; Luo, Q.; Blaser, M.J.; Ellison, R.T. III.; Rotbart. H.A. )

    1990-09-01

    A method was developed for detection of Listeria monocytogens by polymerase chain reaction amplification followed by agarose gel electrophoresis or dot blot analysis with {sup 32}P-labeled internal probe. The technique identified 95 of 95 L. monocytogenes strains, 0 of 12 Listeria strains of other species, and 0 of 12 non-Listeria strains.

  3. Benign recurrent lymphocytic meningitis from herpes simplex virus type 2 during a summer outbreak of aseptic meningitis.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Edward L; Ferguson, Tomas M; Kwon, Herbert P; Thompson, Jennifer C

    2004-06-01

    Meningitis from herpes simplex virus (HSV) may have a clinical presentation similar to other forms of viral meningitis. However, subtle facets of the history and use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can differentiate HSV from other etiologies. During an outbreak of meningitis from enterovirus, a 32-year-old woman presented to the hospital with clinical meningitis, a history of genital HSV infection, and two previous bouts of viral meningitis. Her signs and symptoms as well as lumbar puncture results were similar to patients meeting our case definition for patients with presumed enteroviral meningitis. The cerebral spinal fluid was positive for HSV by PCR, and she was ultimately diagnosed with recurrent meningitis from HSV. We compared her presentation with patients who met our case definition for enteroviral meningitis. A thorough history and use of PCR may assist in differentiating these clinically similar presentations.

  4. Enterococcal meningitis in association with Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sukhwani, Kalpesh S; Bansal, Nitin; Soni, Mamta; Ramamurthy, Anand; Gopalakrishnan, Ram

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Strongyloidiasis can cause hyperinfection or disseminated infection in an immunocompromised host, and is an important factor linked to enterococcal bacteremia and meningitis. Case reports We report two cases highlighting the importance of suspecting Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome in patients with enterococcal meningitis. Conclusion Our cases highlight the importance of suspecting Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome in cases of community acquired enterococcal bacteremia and meningitis. PMID:28331839

  5. Use of radiologic modalities in coccidioidal meningitis

    SciTech Connect

    Stadalnik, R.C.; Goldstein, E.; Hoeprich, P.D.; McGahan, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    The diagnostic utility of pentetate indium trisodium CSF studies, technetium Tc 99m brain scans, and computerized tomographic (CT) scans was evaluated in eight patients in whom coccidioidal meningitis developed following a dust storm in the Central Valley of California. The 111In flow studies and the CT scans demonstrated hydrocephalus in five patients with clinical findings suggesting this complication. Ventriculitis has not previously been diagnosed before death in patients with coccidioidal meningitis; however, it was demonstrated in two patients by the technetium Tc 99m brain scan. The finding that communicating hydrocephalus occurs early in meningitis and interferes with CSF flow into infected basilar regions has important therapeutic implications in that antifungal agents injected into the lumbar subarachnoid space may not reach these regions.

  6. Emergency Neurologic Life Support: Meningitis and Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Gaieski, David F; Nathan, Barnett R; O'Brien, Nicole F

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis, particularly herpes simplex encephalitis, are severe neurological infections that, if not treated promptly and effectively, lead to poor neurological outcome or death. Because treatment is more effective if given early, the topic of meningitis and encephalitis was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. This protocol provides a practical approach to recognition and urgent treatment of bacterial meningitis and encephalitis. Appropriate imaging, spinal fluid analysis, and early empiric treatment is discussed. Though uncommon in its full form, the typical clinical triad of headache, fever, and neck stiffness should alert the clinical practitioner to the possibility of a central nervous system infection. Early attention to the airway and maintaining normotension is crucial in treatment of these patients, as is rapid treatment with anti-infectives and, in some cases, corticosteroids.

  7. Meningitis after cochlear implantation in Mondini malformation.

    PubMed

    Page, E L; Eby, T L

    1997-01-01

    Although the potential for CSF leakage and subsequent meningitis after cochlear implantation in the malformed cochlea has been recognized, this complication has not been previously reported. We report a case of CSF otorhinorrhea and meningitis after minor head trauma developing 2 years after cochlear implantation in a child with Mondini malformation. Leakage of CSF was identified from the cochleostomy around the electrode of the implant, and this leak was sealed with a temporalis fascia and muscle plug. Although this complication appears to be rare, care must be taken to seal the cochleostomy in children with inner ear malformations at the initial surgery, and any episode of meningitis after surgery must be thoroughly investigated to rule out CSF leakage from the labyrinth.

  8. Validation of the ANSR Listeria method for detection of Listeria spp. in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Wendorf, Michael; Feldpausch, Emily; Pinkava, Lisa; Luplow, Karen; Hosking, Edan; Norton, Paul; Biswas, Preetha; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    ANSR Listeria is a new diagnostic assay for detection of Listeria spp. in sponge or swab samples taken from a variety of environmental surfaces. The method is an isothermal nucleic acid amplification assay based on the nicking enzyme amplification reaction technology. Following single-step sample enrichment for 16-24 h, the assay is completed in 40 min, requiring only simple instrumentation. In inclusivity testing, 48 of 51 Listeria strains tested positive, with only the three strains of L. grayi producing negative results. Further investigation showed that L. grayi is reactive in the ANSR assay, but its ability to grow under the selective enrichment conditions used in the method is variable. In exclusivity testing, 32 species of non-Listeria, Gram-positive bacteria all produced negative ANSR assay results. Performance of the ANSR method was compared to that of the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service reference culture procedure for detection of Listeria spp. in sponge or swab samples taken from inoculated stainless steel, plastic, ceramic tile, sealed concrete, and rubber surfaces. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and probability of detection models. Only one surface, stainless steel, showed a significant difference in performance between the methods, with the ANSR method producing more positive results. Results of internal trials were supported by findings from independent laboratory testing. The ANSR Listeria method can be used as an accurate, rapid, and simple alternative to standard culture methods for detection of Listeria spp. in environmental samples.

  9. [Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in bacterial meningitis].

    PubMed

    Attout, H; Guez, S; Seriès, C

    2007-10-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage is the most common cause of cerebral salt wasting syndrome. There are few reports of this condition in infectious meningitis. We describe a patient with hyponatremia and bacterial meningitis. Hyponatremia rapidly improved after administration of sodium chloride. The purpose of this report is to alert clinicians to the fact that hyponatremic patients with central nervous system disease do not necessarily have a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), but may have cerebral salt wasting syndrome. By contrast with SIADH, the treatment requires saline administration.

  10. Neisseria lactamica meningitis following skull trauma.

    PubMed

    Denning, D W; Gill, S S

    1991-01-01

    A woman developed meningitis due to Neisseria lactamica in association with a cribriform plate fracture. Cerebrospinal fluid antigen tests for Neisseria meningitidis were negative. The patient recovered with intravenous penicillin therapy. N. lactamica can be rapidly distinguished from N. meningitidis by the hydrolysis of ONPG (o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside). In contrast to N. meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, N. lactamica lacks virulence properties. As 100% of N. lactamica strains are susceptible to penicillin and all three previously described patients with N. lactamica meningitis have recovered with penicillin treatment, the reason for distinguishing the organisms in this context is primarily to prevent unnecessary anxiety and prophylaxis among contacts.

  11. Highly selective medium for isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from food.

    PubMed

    al-Zoreky, N; Sandine, W E

    1990-10-01

    A new selective medium (Al-Zoreky-Sandine listeria medium [ASLM]) was formulated to recover Listeria monocytogenes from food specimens; the medium completely inhibited common food microflora. Recognition of Listeria colonies is evident by black discoloration of the medium due to esculin hydrolysis without need for special illuminating equipment. The medium contains acriflavin, ceftazidime, and moxalactam as selective agents. Compared with Listeria Selective Agar, ASLM was equally effective in recovering L. monocytogenes. However, ASLM inhibited micrococci, enterococci, and gram-negative bacteria, especially a strain that mimicked L. monocytogenes on Listeria Selective Agar. The new medium was able to recover heat injured cells with only 15% less count than the nonselective medium.

  12. [Characteristics of group A streptococcal meningitis in children].

    PubMed

    Levy, C; Bidet, Ph; Bonacorsi, S; Béchet, S; Cohen, R

    2014-11-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) meningitis in children are rare. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical, biological and outcome data on GAS meningitis recorded in the Bacterial Meningitis (BM) French Surveillance Network (GPIP/ACTIV). From 2001 through 2012, 4,564 children suffering from proven bacterial meningitis were recorded in the data base. Among them, 0.7 % were GAS infections. The median age was 5.6 years. A history of community acquired infection before the onset of GAS meningitis was frequent. Apart from the identification of the bacterial species, GAS meningitis were clinically and biologically indistinguishable from meningitis caused by other pathogens notably S. pneumoniae. Case fatality rate was 8 %.

  13. [Listeria monocytogenes rhomboencephalitis. Report of three cases].

    PubMed

    Miranda González, Gonzalo; Orellana P, Patricia; Dellien Z, Holvis; Switt R, Margarita

    2009-12-01

    An unusual number of cases of rhomb encephalitis have occurred in Chile because of the increased frequency of infections caused by Listeria monocytogenes. We report three females aged 36, 40 and 55 years, with the disease. All presented with a prodrome characterized by headache, nausea, vomiting and fever, followed by ataxia and unilateral palsies of the third, seventh and twelfth cranial nerves. One patient presented also a hemi-hypoesthesia. Magnetic resonance showed lesions in the posterior aspect of the brain stem, specifically in relation to the floor of the fourth ventricle. Blood cultures were positive for Listeria monocytogenes.

  14. Meninges: from protective membrane to stem cell niche

    PubMed Central

    Decimo, Ilaria; Fumagalli, Guido; Berton, Valeria; Krampera, Mauro; Bifari, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Meninges are a three tissue membrane primarily known as coverings of the brain. More in depth studies on meningeal function and ultrastructure have recently changed the view of meninges as a merely protective membrane. Accurate evaluation of the anatomical distribution in the CNS reveals that meninges largely penetrate inside the neural tissue. Meninges enter the CNS by projecting between structures, in the stroma of choroid plexus and form the perivascular space (Virchow-Robin) of every parenchymal vessel. Thus, meninges may modulate most of the physiological and pathological events of the CNS throughout the life. Meninges are present since the very early embryonic stages of cortical development and appear to be necessary for normal corticogenesis and brain structures formation. In adulthood meninges contribute to neural tissue homeostasis by secreting several trophic factors including FGF2 and SDF-1. Recently, for the first time, we have identified the presence of a stem cell population with neural differentiation potential in meninges. In addition, we and other groups have further described the presence in meninges of injury responsive neural precursors. In this review we will give a comprehensive view of meninges and their multiple roles in the context of a functional network with the neural tissue. We will highlight the current literature on the developmental feature of meninges and their role in cortical development. Moreover, we will elucidate the anatomical distribution of the meninges and their trophic properties in adult CNS. Finally, we will emphasize recent evidences suggesting the potential role of meninges as stem cell niche harbouring endogenous precursors that can be activated by injury and are able to contribute to CNS parenchymal reaction. PMID:23671802

  15. Autoregulation in the middle meningeal artery.

    PubMed

    Michalicek, J; Gordon, V; Lambert, G

    1996-05-01

    In cats anesthetized with alpha-chloralose, autoregulation of blood flow (F) in the middle meningeal and common carotid arteries was assessed by bleeding and subsequently reinfusing the animals to achieve a 25% step reduction in mean arterial blood pressure (P), while maintaining the systolic blood pressure >80 mmHg. The integrity of autoregulation was assessed by calculating the gain factor Gf = 1 - [(deltaF/F)/(deltaP/P)]. Cats were examined intact, after hexamethonium (10 mg/kg), and after papaverine (6 mg/kg). Reduction of blood pressure of 25 to 60 mmHg produced equivalent drops in carotid blood flow (Gf = 0.041 +/- 0.34; mean +/- standard deviation, n = 12). There were only small changes in flow in the middle meningeal artery during this procedure (Gf = 0.91 +/- 0.29). Hexamethonium did not block autoregulation in the middle meningeal artery (Gf = 0.92 +/- 0.13, n = 4). However, papaverine almost completely abolished the ability of the artery to autoregulate (Gf = 0.10 +/- 0.16, n = 7). The results suggest that the middle meningeal artery possesses an ability similar to that of the cortical circulation to autoregulate its blood flow through intrinsic, non-neuronal mechanisms. This will have important implications for the study of disturbances of dural arterial control in migraine and other headaches.

  16. Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis mimicking meningeal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ares, Gerardo; Collantes-Bellido, Elena; Rodriguez de Rivera, Francisco; Medina-Báez, Josmarlin; Palomo-Ferrer, Farnando; Morales-Bastos, Carmen; Arpa, Javier

    2011-05-01

    Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis (PDLG) is a rare condition, with only 45 cases recorded to date, characterized by infiltration of the meninges by glial cells without evidence of primary tumor in the brain or spinal cord parenchyma. Here, we describe a patient with PDLG who was managed with tuberculostatic drugs owing to multiple findings that were suggestive of tuberculous meningitis. A 19-year-old woman presented with headaches and behavioral changes. A sudden decrease in visual acuity with papilledema, bilateral sixth nerve palsies, and neck stiffness developed. Lumbar puncture showed elevated opening pressure (50 cm H2O). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed glucose 30 mg/dL, protein 26.5 mg/dL, white blood cell count 150 (60% lymphocytes, 40% neutrophils). The second sample of CSF provided adenosine deaminase activity 21.9 U/L. Polymerase chain reaction for Koch's bacillus was positive in the third CSF sample. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed meningeal thickening of the quadrigeminal cistern, tentorium cerebelli, cerebral convexity, and spinal cord, with gadolinium enhancement in nodular lesions. The patient died 22 weeks after symptom onset owing to brainstem infarction. Postmortem pathologic studies revealed PDLG. This entity should be included in the differential diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis that does not respond to treatment with antituberculous drugs. Surgical biopsy should be considered in contrast-enhanced areas in magnetic resonance imaging.

  17. Citrobacter koseri meningitis: another freediving risk?

    PubMed

    Pollara, Gabriele; Savy, Lloyd; Cropley, Ian; Hopkins, Susan

    2011-01-01

    We present a rare case of meningitis caused by Citrobacter koseri in an immunocompetent adult who had recently been freediving. Middle ear pressure changes from this recreational activity, and the subsequent inflammatory response, are likely to have provided this environmental organism access to the central nervous system, and thus the ability to cause clinically significant infection.

  18. New guinea pig model of Cryptococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, William R; Najvar, Laura K; Bocanegra, Rosie; Patterson, Thomas F; Graybill, John R

    2007-08-01

    We developed a guinea pig model of cryptococcal meningitis to evaluate antifungal agents. Immunosuppressed animals challenged intracranially with Cryptococcus neoformans responded to fluconazole and voriconazole. Disease was monitored by serial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures and quantitative organ cultures. Our model produces disseminating central nervous system disease and responds to antifungal therapy.

  19. Globicatella sanguinis Meningitis Associated with Human Carriage▿

    PubMed Central

    Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Doloy, Alexandra; Ansart, Séverine; Le Lay, Geneviève; Le Flèche-Matéos, Anne; Seizeur, Romuald; Garré, Michel; Payan, Christopher; Bouvet, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Globicatella sanguinis is a rare cause of acute meningitis. We demonstrated human carriage of Globicatella by identifying cefotaxime-resistant strains in groin and rectal specimens 9 months after invasive infection. The pathogenic strain isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid and the carriage strains were accurately identified by sodA gene sequence analysis. PMID:20147641

  20. Globicatella sanguinis meningitis associated with human carriage.

    PubMed

    Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Doloy, Alexandra; Ansart, Séverine; Le Lay, Geneviève; Le Flèche-Matéos, Anne; Seizeur, Romuald; Garré, Michel; Payan, Christopher; Bouvet, Anne

    2010-04-01

    Globicatella sanguinis is a rare cause of acute meningitis. We demonstrated human carriage of Globicatella by identifying cefotaxime-resistant strains in groin and rectal specimens 9 months after invasive infection. The pathogenic strain isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid and the carriage strains were accurately identified by sodA gene sequence analysis.

  1. Validation of the ANSR® Listeria Method for Detection of Listeria spp. in Selected Foods.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Oscar; Alles, Susan; Wendorf, Michael; Gray, R Lucas; Walton, Kayla; Pinkava, Lisa; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    ANSR® Listeria was previously certified as Performance Tested Method(SM) 101202 for detection of Listeria spp. on selected environmental surfaces. This study proposes a matrix extension to the method for detection of Listeria spp. in selected food matrixes. The method is an isothermal nucleic acid amplification assay based on the nicking enzyme amplification reaction technology. Following single-step sample enrichment for 16-24 h, the assay is completed in less than 50 min, requiring only simple instrumentation. Inclusivity testing was performed using a panel of 51 strains of Listeria spp., representing the species L. grayi, L. innocua, L. ivanovii, L. monocytogenes, L. seeligeri, and L. welshimeri. All strains tested were detected by the ANSR assay. Exclusivity testing of 30 strains representing non-Listeria Gram-positive bacteria yielded no evidence of cross-reactivity. Performance of the ANSR method for detection of Listeria spp. was compared to that of reference culture procedures for pasteurized liquid egg, pasteurized 2% milk, Mexican-style cheese, ice cream, smoked salmon, lettuce, cantaloupe, and guacamole. Data obtained in these unpaired studies and analyzed using a probability of detection model demonstrated that there were no statistically significant differences in results between the ANSR and reference culture methods, except for milk at 16 h and cantaloupe. In milk and smoked salmon, ANSR sensitivity was low at 16 h and therefore the recommended incubation time is 24 h. In cantaloupe, ANSR was found to be more sensitive than the reference culture method at both 16 and 24 h in independent laboratory testing. The ANSR Listeria method can be used as an accurate, rapid, and simple alternative to standard culture methods for detection of Listeria spp. in selected food types.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua from meat products and meat-processing environment.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Diego; Azón, Ester; Marco, Noelia; Carramiñana, Juan J; Rota, Carmina; Ariño, Agustín; Yangüela, Javier

    2014-09-01

    A total of 336 Listeria isolates from ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products and meat-processing environments, consisting of 206 Listeria monocytogenes, and 130 Listeria innocua isolates, were characterized by disc diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for antimicrobial susceptibility against twenty antimicrobials. Resistance to one or two antimicrobials was observed in 71 L. monocytogenes isolates (34.5%), and 56 L. innocua isolates (43.1%). Multidrug resistance was identified in 24 Listeria isolates, 18 belonging to L. innocua (13.9%) and 6 to L. monocytogenes (2.9%). Oxacillin resistance was the most common resistance phenotype and was identified in 100% Listeria isolates. A medium prevalence of resistance to clindamycin (39.3% isolates) and low incidence of resistance to tetracycline (3.9% isolates) were also detected. Listeria isolates from RTE meat products displayed higher overall antimicrobial resistance (31.3%) than those from the environment (13.4%). All the strains assayed were sensitive to the preferred antibiotics used to treat listeriosis. Results showed that although antimicrobial resistance in L. monocytogenes still occurs at a low prevalence, L. innocua can form a reservoir of resistance genes which may transfer between bacterial species, including transference to organisms capable of causing disease in humans.

  3. Listeria booriae sp. nov. and Listeria newyorkensis sp. nov., from food processing environments in the USA.

    PubMed

    Weller, Daniel; Andrus, Alexis; Wiedmann, Martin; den Bakker, Henk C

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of seafood and dairy processing facilities in the north-eastern USA produced 18 isolates of Listeria spp. that could not be identified at the species-level using traditional phenotypic and genotypic identification methods. Results of phenotypic and genotypic analyses suggested that the isolates represent two novel species with an average nucleotide blast identity of less than 92% with previously described species of the genus Listeria. Phylogenetic analyses based on whole genome sequences, 16S rRNA gene and sigB gene sequences confirmed that the isolates represented by type strain FSL M6-0635(T) and FSL A5-0209 cluster phylogenetically with Listeria cornellensis. Phylogenetic analyses also showed that the isolates represented by type strain FSL A5-0281(T) cluster phylogenetically with Listeria riparia. The name Listeria booriae sp. nov. is proposed for the species represented by type strain FSL A5-0281(T) ( =DSM 28860(T) =LMG 28311(T)), and the name Listeria newyorkensis sp. nov. is proposed for the species represented by type strain FSL M6-0635(T) ( =DSM 28861(T) =LMG 28310(T)). Phenotypic and genotypic analyses suggest that neither species is pathogenic.

  4. Utility of cerebrospinal fluid cortisol level in acute bacterial meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Anish; Mahale, Rohan R.; Sudhir, Uchil; Javali, Mahendra; Srinivasa, Rangasetty

    2015-01-01

    Background: Meningitis remains a serious clinical problem in developing as well as developed countries. Delay in diagnosis and treatment results in significant morbidity and mortality. The role and levels of intrathecal endogenous cortisol is not known. Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol levels and to evaluate its role as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker in acute bacterial meningitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with acute bacterial meningitis with no prior treatment were evaluated. Cortisol levels were compared with 20 patients with aseptic (viral) meningitis and 25 control subjects. Results: Mean CSF cortisol level was 13.85, 3.47, and 1.05 in bacterial meningitis, aseptic meningitis, and controls, respectively. Mean CSF cortisol level in bacterial meningitis was significantly higher as compared to controls (P < 0.001). There was significant difference in CSFcortisol levels in bacterial and aseptic meningitis (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Cortisol levels in CSF are highly elevated in patients with acute bacterial meningitis. This suggests that intrathecalcortisol may serve as a valuable, rapid, relatively inexpensive diagnostic marker in discriminatingbetween bacterial and aseptic meningitis. This helps in earlier institution of appropriate treatment and thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. PMID:26019421

  5. Tuberculous meningitis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Sinha, Manish Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected persons. HIV-infected patients have a high incidence of tuberculous meningitis as well. The exact incidence and prevalence of tuberculous meningitis in HIV-infected patients are not known. HIV infection does not significantly alter the clinical manifestations, laboratory, radiographic findings, or the response to therapy. Still, some differences have been noted. For example, the histopathological examination of exudates in HIV-infected patients shows fewer lymphocytes, epithelioid cells, and Langhan's type of giant cells. Larger numbers of acid-fast bacilli may be seen in the cerebral parenchyma and meninges. The chest radiograph is abnormal in up to 46% of patients with tuberculous meningitis. Tuberculous meningitis is likely to present with cerebral infarcts and mass lesions. Cryptococcal meningitis is important in differential diagnosis. The recommended duration of treatment in HIV-infected patients is 9-12 months. The benefit of adjunctive corticosteroids is uncertain. Antiretroviral therapy and antituberculosis treatment should be initiated at the same time, regardless of CD4 cell counts. Tuberculous meningitis may be a manifestation of paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Some studies have demonstrated a significant impact of HIV co-infection on mortality from tuberculous meningitis. HIV-infected patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculous meningitis have significantly higher mortality. The best way to prevent HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis is to diagnose and isolate infectious cases of tuberculosis promptly and administer appropriate treatment.

  6. Fatal Case of Listeria innocua Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Monique; Bemer, Michel; Delamare, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    Listeria innocua is widespread in the environment and in food. This species has to date never been described in association with human disease. We report a case of fatal bacteremia caused by L. innocua in a 62-year-old patient. PMID:14605191

  7. Fatal case of Listeria innocua bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Monique; Bemer, Michel; Delamare, Catherine

    2003-11-01

    Listeria innocua is widespread in the environment and in food. This species has to date never been described in association with human disease. We report a case of fatal bacteremia caused by L. innocua in a 62-year-old patient.

  8. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes, a psychrotrophic foodborne pathogen, is an occasional post-process contaminant on retail catfish. In this study, bacteriophages were evaluated for the ability to inactivate a cocktail of L. monocytogenes inoculated (4-5 log cfu/cm2) onto raw catfish. Spray application of bac...

  9. Incidence of Listeria spp. in Dairy Cows Feed and Raw Milk in Latvia

    PubMed Central

    Konosonoka, I. H.; Jemeljanovs, A.; Osmane, B.; Ikauniece, D.; Gulbe, G.

    2012-01-01

    Feed is a risk factor for poisoning the farm environment thus also fresh milk with pathogenic microorganisms of Listeria genus species. Listeria ivanovii, Listeria innocua, and Listeria seeligeri were isolated from 9.2%, but Listeria monocytogenes from 20.0% of feed samples. Most often different fodders (9.3%) and silage (4.7%) were contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. Listeria genus species were isolated more often from feed prepared and used in organic dairy farm than from that used in conventional dairy farm, correspondingly 44.4% and 18.3%. No Listeria monocytogenes was found in bulk milk samples of organic dairy farm. PMID:23738125

  10. Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis mimicking tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Kosker, Muhammet; Sener, Dicle; Kilic, Omer; Hasiloglu, Zehra Isik; Islak, Civan; Kafadar, Ali; Batur, Sebnem; Oz, Buge; Cokugras, Haluk; Akcakaya, Necla; Camcioglu, Yildiz

    2014-12-01

    Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis is a disease with an aggressive course that can result in death. To date, 82 cases have been reported. Here, the case of a 3-year-old male patient presenting with strabismus, headache, and restlessness is reported. Physical examination revealed paralysis of the left abducens nerve, neck stiffness, and bilateral papilledema. Tuberculous meningitis was tentatively diagnosed, and antituberculosis treatment was initiated when cranial imaging revealed contrast enhancement around the basal cistern. Craniocervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed when there was no response to treatment, and it revealed diffuse leptomeningeal contrast enhancement around the basilar cistern, in the supratentorial and infratentorial compartments, and in the spinal region. Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis was diagnosed by a meningeal biopsy.

  11. Cryptococcal meningitis: epidemiology and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Derek J; Parris, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis causes morbidity and mortality worldwide. The burden of disease is greatest in middle- and low-income countries with a high incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Patients taking immunosuppressive drugs and some immunocompetent hosts are also at risk. Treatment of cryptococcal meningitis consists of three phases: induction, consolidation, and maintenance. Effective induction therapy requires potent fungicidal drugs (amphotericin B and flucytosine), which are often unavailable in low-resource, high-endemicity settings. As a consequence, mortality is unacceptably high. Wider access to effective treatment is urgently required to improve outcomes. For human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, judicious management of asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia and appropriately timed introduction of antiretroviral therapy are important. PMID:24872723

  12. [Duration of antibiotic therapy in bacterial meningitis].

    PubMed

    Pereira, P Ricardo; Borges, Fernando; Mansinho, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    The duration of antibiotic therapy in bacterial meningitis is a controversial issue. Antibiotic regimens have changed over time along with the criteria used to determine the ideal antibiotic therapy duration. The authors aim to make an historical overview on this matter and simultaneously add the evidence of recent studies, pointing out some issues in results interpretation, namely, their design and the associated demographic and epidemiological questions. Clinical assays on this subject, with statistically significant results, are quite recent. Most of the scientific knowledge has been acquired empirically through the times. The actual investigation paradigm, in what concerns to antibiotic therapy in bacterial meningitis, lays on the dichotomy: "short versus long duration regimens". Nevertheless, so far, the existing studies have not completely cleared this doubt. Thus, despite some evidence suggests that short duration antibiotic regimens are effective for some patients, in patients with severe disease presentations or with other morbidities its use may be questioned.

  13. Chemical meningitis: a rare presentation of Rathke's cleft cyst.

    PubMed

    Mrelashvili, Anna; Braksick, Sherri A; Murphy, Lauren L; Morparia, Neha P; Natt, Neena; Kumar, Neeraj

    2014-04-01

    Rathke's cleft cysts (RCC) are usually benign, sellar and/or suprasellar lesions originating from the remnants of Rathke's pouch. Rarely, RCC can present with chemical meningitis, sellar abscess, lymphocytic hypophysitis, or intracystic hemorrhage. We describe an unusual presentation of RCC in which the patient presented with a clinical picture of chemical meningitis consisting of meningeal irritation, inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid profile, and enhancing pituitary and hypothalamic lesions, in addition to involvement of the optic tracts and optic nerve.

  14. Erythema dyschromicum perstans in a child following an enteroviral meningitis*

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Cláudia Raquel Ferrão; de Sá, Mário Correia; Carvalho, Sónia

    2017-01-01

    A healthy 6-year-old boy presented with an erythematous macular exanthema, meningeal signs and fever, initially diagnosed with probable bacterial meningitis and treated with antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drugs. Enteroviral meningitis was confirmed, but the skin lesions continued to evolve and the patient was ultimately diagnosed with erythema dyschromicum perstans. The boy was followed during three years until the spontaneous resolution of the dermatosis. PMID:28225976

  15. [Late sequelae of epidemic viral meningitis].

    PubMed

    Pierzchała, K; Grudzińska, B; Bara, M; Kłosińska, E

    1989-02-01

    In autumn 1982 during an epidemic of meningitis caused by Coxsackie A9 and ECHO4 viruses 36 patients, usually young, were hospitalized. After 3-4 years 22 of them were subjected to control examinations, carrying out medical examination. EEG, ACG, motor nerve conduction velocity measurements and psychological examinations by the tests od Eysenck, Bender-Koppitz and Wechsler. The studied group comprised 14 men and 8 women with mean age 29.8 years.

  16. Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Goldman, D L; Casadevall, A; Cho, Y; Lee, S C

    1996-12-01

    The primary clinical manifestation of Cryptococcus neoformans infection in humans is meningoencephalitis. To study the defense mechanisms that participate in the host response against C. neoformans infection of the central nervous system (CNS), we have developed a new model of cryptococcal meningitis in rats. Intracisternal inoculation of C. neoformans produced a granulomatous meningitis with minimal brain parenchymal involvement, resembling cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompetent patients. The granulomas were composed of T cells (CD4+ and CD8+) and macrophages (CD11b/c+); a subpopulation of the macrophages expressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). In this model, C. neoformans disseminated to systemic organs early in the course of infection and provoked granuloma formation and NOS2 expression. The temporal profile of inflammation indicated that the CNS inflammatory response is delayed relative to that in the lung and the spleen, which suggests that the effective inflammatory response within the CNS may follow activation of T cells in the periphery and their subsequent entry into the CNS. Inflammation in the meninges was associated with signs of subpial and subependymal glial activation, including enhanced expression of CD11b/c and CD4 in microglia and glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes. Neither cells, however, expressed NOS2. Although C. neoformans invasion to the brain parenchyma was rare, soluble polysaccharide was commonly associated with reactive glial cells. Necrosis was not a feature of C. neoformans granulomas, but, instead, inflammatory cells underwent apoptosis in inflamed organs. The current rat intrathecal cryptococcosis model has several unique advantages for the study of human cryptococcal meningoencephalitis that include close resemblance of histopathologic changes to those in humans, easy accessibility to the cerebrospinal fluid compartment, and no requirement of immunosuppressive agents for establishment of infection.

  17. Chronic meningitis caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suk Ran; Kwon, Min Jung; Lee, Jang Ho; Lee, Nam Yong

    2007-10-01

    A 47-year-old man presented with headache, nausea, vomiting and fever. Laboratory findings including analysis of cerebrospinal fluid suggested bacterial meningitis. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was identified in cultures of cerebrospinal fluid. The patient recovered without any neurological sequelae after antimicrobial treatment. It is interesting that intracranial infection by E. rhusiopathiae reappeared after scores of years and that it presented with absence of an underlying cause or bacteraemia.

  18. Viral Oncolytic Therapeutics for Neoplastic Meningitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    pulsation and particle interaction with the arachnoid. The data of the functional investigation of the diameter of meningeal pores draining CSF to the...particle clearance from the CSF, and virion interaction with normal arachnoid components. The interplay of these factors defines the bioavailability and...arachnoid and spinal cord parenchyma, and too hydro- philic to interact with the lipidic components of the tissue. Consequently, their behavior in CSF is

  19. Methods for detection, identification and specification of listerias

    DOEpatents

    Bochner, Barry

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to differential carbon source metabolism in the genus Listeria, metabolic, biochemical, immunological and genetic procedures to measure said differential carbon source metabolism and the use of these produces to detect, isolate and/or distinguish species of the genus Listeria as well as detect, isolate and/or distinguish strains of species of Listeria. The present invention also contemplates test kits and enrichment media to facilitate these procedures.

  20. [Which vaccination strategies for African meningococcal meningitis?].

    PubMed

    Saliou, P; Debois, H

    2002-12-01

    In 1963, Lapeyssonnie published a masterful description of the epidemiology of cerebrospinal meningococcal meningitis in the Sahel region of Africa (essentially due to the Neisseria meningitidis sero-group A): geographic spread (meningitis belt), seasonal cycle (dry and cool season). When a combined polyosidic AC vaccine became available in the early 1970s, a disease control strategy was defined along the lines of epidemiological surveillance, prophylaxis of lethality by early treatment of cases and reactive vaccination, since the polyosidic vaccine could not be included in the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Despite some success, this strategy has not led to the control of cerebrospinal meningococcal meningitis in Africa. Amongst the obstacles encountered are the difficulty to define at what point an out-break becomes an epidemic, gaps in epidemiological surveillance, unavailable vaccine doses, delayed and complex vaccination campaigns. At the end of the 1990s, controversy ensued: since reactive vaccination was fraught with so many problems, why not consider a strategy of preventive AC vaccination for high risk areas? But this controversy may well die out with the emergence of the present-day W 135 serogroup responsible for the first large scale epidemic in Burkina Faso in 2002. If this is confirmed, a polyosidic vaCcine containing the W 135 antigen would be required, pending the availability for Africa of a conjugate tetravalent ACYW135 vaccine which could be included in the EPI.

  1. Cerebral infarction pattern in tuberculous meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Mei-Ling Sharon; Viswanathan, Shanthi; Rahmat, Kartini; Nor, Hazman Mohd; Kadir, Khairul Azmi Abdul; Goh, Khean Jin; Ramli, Norlisah; Bakar, Fatimah Kamila Abu; Zain, Norzaini Rose Mohd; Yap, Jun Fai; Ong, Beng Hooi; Rafia, Mohd Hanip; Tan, Chong Tin

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) causes significant morbidity and mortality. The primary objective was to re-examine the concept of “TB zone” and “ischaemic zone” in cerebral infarction in patients with tuberculous meningitis. The secondary objective was to evaluate cerebral infarction, vasculitis and vasospasm in tuberculous meningitis infections. Between 2009 and 2014, TBM patients were recruited. Neuroimaging was performed and findings of cerebral infarction, vasculitis and vasospasm were recorded. Infarcts were classified based on arterial supply and Hsieh’s classification. Fifty-one TBM patients were recruited of whom 34 patients (67%) had cerebral infarction. Based on Hsieh’s classification, 20 patients (59%) had infarcts in both “TB zone” and “ischaemic zones”. 12 patients (35%) had infarcts in “ischaemic zone” and two (6%) patients had infarcts in “TB zone”. In terms of vascular supply, almost all patients (35/36) had infarcts involving perforators and cortical branches. 25 patients (73%) and 14 patients (41%) had infarcts supplied by lateral lenticulostriate and medial lenticulostriate arteries respectively. 15 patients (37%) had vasculitis. Vasospasm was present in six patients (15%). 29 patients (85%) with cerebral infarction also had leptomeningeal enhancement (p = 0.002). In summary, infarcts involved mainly perforators and cortical branches, rather than “TB zone” versus “ischaemic zone”. PMID:27958312

  2. Immune dysfunction in HIV-seronegative, Cryptococcus gattii meningitis.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Annemarie E; Siddiqui, Asna A; Kester, Maartje I; Sigaloff, Kim C E; Rajanuwong, Adul; Wannapasni, Saran; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Harrison, Thomas S

    2007-03-01

    The pathophysiology of meningitis caused by Cryptococcus gattii in apparently immunocompetent individuals remains unclear. We measured multiple cytokines in CSF from a HIV-seronegative, apparently immunocompetent, Thai patient with C. gattii meningitis, over the first 2 weeks of antifungal therapy. Levels of proinflammatory IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 were very low compared to patients with HIV-related Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis and of IL-10 very high. While patients with C. gattii meningitis may be a heterogeneous group, these data suggest in this case a maladapted immune response to cryptococcal exposure had allowed progression to clinical cryptococcal disease.

  3. [Eosinophllic meningitis, a very rare entity in Europe].

    PubMed

    Tudisco, Jean-Blaise; Fumeaux, Christophe; Petignat, Pierre-Auguste

    2013-11-13

    Eosinophilic meningitis is a rare entity, which is a complication of an underlying disease. Its diagnosis and treatment is always a challenge for the hospital practitioner. The aim of this case report and review is to identify the most important aetiologies, and show the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities of Eosinophilic meningitis. The most frequent causes of Eosinophilic meningitis are parasitic and fungal infections. In Europe Eosinophilic meningitis is essentially seen in travellers returning from endemic areas for these agents. The treatment is directed against the underlying disease and can differ depending on the aetiology and severity of the clinical manifestations.

  4. Malassezia furfur meningitis associated with total parenteral nutrition subdural effusion.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Cecilia M; Jackson, Mary Anne; Zwick, David

    2004-01-01

    We present a case of Malassezia furfur meningitis arising in a very low birth weight infant with chronic lung disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, and intraventricular hemorrhage. M. furfur meningitis was probably acquired late following successful treatment for earlier systemic central line-associated M. furfur infection. M. furfur meningitis has only once been previously reported. Unlike the previous case where meningitis was secondary to widespread blood-borne dissemination, infection was limited to the leptomeninges and arose in association with extravasation of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and intralipid fluid into subarachnoid space via peripheral scalp catheter.

  5. From Epidemic Meningitis Vaccines for Africa to the Meningitis Vaccine Project

    PubMed Central

    Aguado, M. Teresa; Jodar, Luis; Granoff, Dan; Rabinovich, Regina; Ceccarini, Costante; Perkin, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Polysaccharide vaccines had been used to control African meningitis epidemics for >30 years but with little or modest success, largely because of logistical problems in the implementation of reactive vaccination campaigns that are begun after epidemics are under way. After the major group A meningococcal meningitis epidemics in 1996–1997 (250 000 cases and 25 000 deaths), African ministers of health declared the prevention of meningitis a high priority and asked the World Health Organization (WHO) for help in developing better immunization strategies to eliminate meningitis epidemics in Africa. Methods. WHO accepted the challenge and created a project called Epidemic Meningitis Vaccines for Africa (EVA) that served as an organizational framework for external consultants, PATH, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF). Consultations were initiated with major vaccine manufacturers. EVA commissioned a costing study/business plan for the development of new group A or A/C conjugate vaccines and explored the feasibility of developing these products as a public–private partnership. Representatives from African countries were consulted. They confirmed that the development of conjugate vaccines was a priority and provided information on preferred product characteristics. In parallel, a strategy for successful introduction was also anticipated and discussed. Results. The expert consultations recommended that a group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine be developed and introduced into the African meningitis belt. The results of the costing study indicated that the “cost of goods” to develop a group A – containing conjugate vaccine in the United States would be in the range of US$0.35–$1.35 per dose, depending on composition (A vs A/C), number of doses/vials, and presentation. Following an invitation from BMGF, a proposal was submitted in the spring of 2001. Conclusions. In June 2001

  6. In vitro bactericidal activity of amoxicillin, gentamicin, rifampicin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole alone or in combination against Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Boisivon, A; Guiomar, C; Carbon, C

    1990-03-01

    The in vitro bactericidal activity of amoxicillin, gentamicin, rifampicin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole alone or in combination was determined against seven strains of Listeria monocytogenes by the killing curve method. Amoxicillin plus gentamicin was the most rapidly bactericidal combination, whereas trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was less bactericidal at 6 h but as bactericidal at 24 h. The combination of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole with either amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin or rifampicin did not result in antagonism, but the combinations were no more active than trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole alone. The interaction of amoxicillin with rifampin was fairly antagonistic (1 log10 difference). The combination of amoxicillin and ciprofloxacin, although producing antagonism during the first 6 h, was more active at 24 h than amoxicillin alone and prevented the regrowth observed with ciprofloxacin alone. Ciprofloxacin and rifampicin interacted antagonistically during the first 6 h, and the combination was not very bactericidal (3 log10) but prevented the emergence of mutants, as observed with each drug alone, when used at concentrations greater than the MICs for the strain tested. These regimens merit evaluation in in vivo models of Listeria monocytogenes meningitis.

  7. Comparative Efficacies of Antibiotics in a Rat Model of Meningoencephalitis Due to Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Michelet, Christian; Leib, Stephen L.; Bentue-Ferrer, Daniele; Täuber, Martin G.

    1999-01-01

    The antibacterial activities of amoxicillin-gentamicin, trovafloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and the combination of trovafloxacin with TMP-SMX were compared in a model of meningoencephalitis due to Listeria monocytogenes in infant rats. At 22 h after intracisternal infection, the cerebrospinal fluid was cultured to document meningitis, and the treatment was started. Treatment was instituted for 48 h, and efficacy was evaluated 24 h after administration of the last dose. All tested treatment regimens exhibited significant activities in brain, liver, and blood compared to infected rats receiving saline (P < 0.001). In the brain, amoxicillin plus gentamicin was more active than all of the other regimens, and trovafloxacin was more active than TMP-SMX (bacterial titers of 4.1 ± 0.5 log10 CFU/ml for amoxicillin-gentamicin, 5.0 ± 0.4 log10 CFU/ml for trovafloxacin, and 5.8 ± 0.5 log10 CFU/ml for TMP-SMX; P < 0.05). In liver, amoxicillin-gentamicin and trovafloxacin were similarly active (2.8 ± 0.8 and 2.7 ± 0.8 log10 CFU/ml, respectively) but more active than TMP-SMX (4.4 ± 0.6 log10 CFU/ml; P < 0.05). The combination of trovafloxacin with TMP-SMX did not alter the antibacterial effect in the brain, but it did reduce the effect of trovafloxacin in the liver. Amoxicillin-gentamicin was the most active therapy in this study, but the activity of trovafloxacin suggests that further studies with this drug for the treatment of Listeria infections may be warranted. PMID:10390217

  8. Comparative efficacies of antibiotics in a rat model of meningoencephalitis due to Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Michelet, C; Leib, S L; Bentue-Ferrer, D; Täuber, M G

    1999-07-01

    The antibacterial activities of amoxicillin-gentamicin, trovafloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and the combination of trovafloxacin with TMP-SMX were compared in a model of meningoencephalitis due to Listeria monocytogenes in infant rats. At 22 h after intracisternal infection, the cerebrospinal fluid was cultured to document meningitis, and the treatment was started. Treatment was instituted for 48 h, and efficacy was evaluated 24 h after administration of the last dose. All tested treatment regimens exhibited significant activities in brain, liver, and blood compared to infected rats receiving saline (P < 0.001). In the brain, amoxicillin plus gentamicin was more active than all of the other regimens, and trovafloxacin was more active than TMP-SMX (bacterial titers of 4.1 +/- 0.5 log10 CFU/ml for amoxicillin-gentamicin, 5.0 +/- 0.4 log10 CFU/ml for trovafloxacin, and 5.8 +/- 0.5 log10 CFU/ml for TMP-SMX; P < 0.05). In liver, amoxicillin-gentamicin and trovafloxacin were similarly active (2.8 +/- 0.8 and 2.7 +/- 0.8 log10 CFU/ml, respectively) but more active than TMP-SMX (4.4 +/- 0. 6 log10 CFU/ml; P < 0.05). The combination of trovafloxacin with TMP-SMX did not alter the antibacterial effect in the brain, but it did reduce the effect of trovafloxacin in the liver. Amoxicillin-gentamicin was the most active therapy in this study, but the activity of trovafloxacin suggests that further studies with this drug for the treatment of Listeria infections may be warranted.

  9. Colovesical fistula presenting as Listeria monocytogenes bacteraemia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of colovesical fistula presenting with a clinical syndrome of urosepsis subsequently demonstrated to be due to Listeria monocytogenes bacteraemia. The patient had a history of previous rectal cancer with a low anterior resection and a covering ileostomy that had been reversed 6 months prior to this presentation. L. monocytogenes was also isolated among mixed enteric organisms on urine culture. There were no symptoms or signs of acute gastrointestinal listeriosis or meningoencephalitis. This unusual scenario prompted concern regarding the possibility of communication between bowel and bladder, which was subsequently confirmed with CT and a contrast enema. The patient recovered well with intravenous amoxicillin and to date has declined surgical management of his colovesical fistula. This case illustrates the importance of considering bowel pathology when enteric organisms such as Listeria are isolated from unusual sites. PMID:25827919

  10. Discrimination of Listeria monocytogenes from other Listeria species by ligase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Wiedmann, M; Czajka, J; Barany, F; Batt, C A

    1992-01-01

    A ligase chain reaction assay based on a single-base-pair difference in the V9 region of the 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) was developed to distinguish between Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species. For this purpose, two pairs of primers were designed, with one primer of each pair being radioactively labeled. The ligated product was separated from the primers by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and then detected by autoradiography. To achieve a higher sensitivity, the 16S rDNA was initially amplified by polymerase chain reaction prior to the ligase chain reaction. The ligase chain reaction was tested on 19 different Listeria species and strains and proved to be a highly specific diagnostic method for the detection of L. monocytogenes. Images PMID:1482171

  11. Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in Niamey, Niger, 1981-96.

    PubMed Central

    Campagne, G.; Schuchat, A.; Djibo, S.; Ousséini, A.; Cissé, L.; Chippaux, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    In the African meningitis belt the importance of endemic meningitis is not as well recognized as that of epidemics of meningococcal meningitis that occur from time to time. Using retrospective surveillance, we identified a total of 7078 cases of laboratory-diagnosed bacterial meningitis in Niamey, Niger, from 1981 to 1996. The majority (57.7%) were caused by Neisseria meningitidis, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (13.2%) and Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) (9.5%). The mean annual incidence of bacterial meningitis was 101 per 100,000 population (70 per 100,000 during 11 non-epidemic years) and the average annual mortality rate was 17 deaths per 100,000. Over a 7-year period (including one major epidemic year) for which data were available, S. pneumoniae and Hib together caused more meningitis deaths than N. meningitidis. Meningitis cases were more common among males and occurred mostly during the dry season. Serogroup A caused 85.6% of meningococcal meningitis cases during the period investigated; three-quarters of these occurred among children aged < 15 years, and over 40% among under-5-year-olds. Both incidence and mortality rates were highest among infants aged < 1 year. In this age group, Hib was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, followed by S. pneumoniae. The predominant cause of meningitis in persons aged 1-40 years was N. meningitidis. Use of the available vaccines against meningitis due to N. meningitidis, S. pneumoniae, and Hib could prevent substantial endemic illness and deaths in sub-Saharan Africa, and potentially prevent recurrent meningococcal epidemics. PMID:10427935

  12. A PNPase dependent CRISPR System in Listeria.

    PubMed

    Sesto, Nina; Touchon, Marie; Andrade, José Marques; Kondo, Jiro; Rocha, Eduardo P C; Arraiano, Cecilia Maria; Archambaud, Cristel; Westhof, Éric; Romby, Pascale; Cossart, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    The human bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is emerging as a model organism to study RNA-mediated regulation in pathogenic bacteria. A class of non-coding RNAs called CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) has been described to confer bacterial resistance against invading bacteriophages and conjugative plasmids. CRISPR function relies on the activity of CRISPR associated (cas) genes that encode a large family of proteins with nuclease or helicase activities and DNA and RNA binding domains. Here, we characterized a CRISPR element (RliB) that is expressed and processed in the L. monocytogenes strain EGD-e, which is completely devoid of cas genes. Structural probing revealed that RliB has an unexpected secondary structure comprising basepair interactions between the repeats and the adjacent spacers in place of canonical hairpins formed by the palindromic repeats. Moreover, in contrast to other CRISPR-Cas systems identified in Listeria, RliB-CRISPR is ubiquitously present among Listeria genomes at the same genomic locus and is never associated with the cas genes. We showed that RliB-CRISPR is a substrate for the endogenously encoded polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) enzyme. The spacers of the different Listeria RliB-CRISPRs share many sequences with temperate and virulent phages. Furthermore, we show that a cas-less RliB-CRISPR lowers the acquisition frequency of a plasmid carrying the matching protospacer, provided that trans encoded cas genes of a second CRISPR-Cas system are present in the genome. Importantly, we show that PNPase is required for RliB-CRISPR mediated DNA interference. Altogether, our data reveal a yet undescribed CRISPR system whose both processing and activity depend on PNPase, highlighting a new and unexpected function for PNPase in "CRISPRology".

  13. Listeria infections associated with infliximab: case reports.

    PubMed

    Kesteman, Thomas; Yombi, Jean-Cyr; Gigi, Jacques; Durez, Patrick

    2007-12-01

    Infliximab is a human-murine chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). Infliximab and other TNF blockers are used to treat inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). TNF blockers are suspected to play a key role in some infections. We report here two cases of Listeria monocytogenes sepsis associated with infliximab treatment for RA. The first patient developed a terminal ileitis and a bacteraemia after three doses of infliximab; the second RA patient presented a bacteraemia associated with a prosthetic joint arthritis of the left hip, both related to Listeria. Those two cases occurred in a population of 518 patients treated with TNF blockers in our hospitals since the year 2000. Those events are of particular interest because of the severity of the infection, because the treatment differs from other infections, and because that, in the rheumatology unit, septic arthritis can mimic RA symptoms. They enhance the likelihood for this drug to increase the risk for infections with germs like Listeria.

  14. Listeria monocytogenes-Associated Biliary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Caroline; Fevre, Cindy; Travier, Laetitia; Cazenave, Benoît; Bracq-Dieye, Hélène; Podevin, Juliette; Assomany, Daher; Guilbert, Lydie; Bossard, Céline; Carpentier, Françoise; Cales, Valérie; Leclercq, Alexandre; Lecuit, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Abstract At present, little is known regarding Listeria monocytogenes-associated biliary tract infection, a rare form of listeriosis. In this article, we will study 12 culture-proven cases reported to the French National Reference Center for Listeria from 1996 to 2013 and review the 8 previously published cases. Twenty cases were studied: 17 cholecystitis, 2 cholangitis, and 1 biliary cyst infection. Half were men with a median age of 69 years (32–85). Comorbidities were present in 80%, including cirrhosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes. Five patients received immunosuppressive therapy, including corticosteroids and anti-tumor necrosis factor biotherapies. Half were afebrile. Blood cultures were positive in 60% (3/5). Gallbladder histological lesions were analyzed in 3 patients and evidenced acute, chronic, or necrotic exacerbation of chronic infection. Genoserogroup of the 12 available strains were IVb (n = 6), IIb (n = 5), and IIa (n = 1). Their survival in the bile was not enhanced when compared with isolates from other listeriosis cases. Adverse outcome was reported in 33% (5/15): 3 deaths, 1 recurrence; 75% of the patients with adverse outcome received inadequate antimicrobial therapy (P = 0.033). Biliary tract listeriosis is a severe infection associated with high mortality in patients not treated with appropriate therapy. This study provides medical relevance to in vitro and animal studies that had shown Listeria monocytogenes ability to survive in bile and induce overt biliary infections. PMID:25319439

  15. Listeria monocytogenes encephalitis mimicking Herpes Simplex virus encephalitis: the differential diagnostic importance of cerebrospinal fluid lactic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Fatehpuria, Ritu; Eisenstein, Lawrence E

    2007-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a common cause of bacterial meningitis in elderly patients and in those with impaired cellular immunity. The most common central nervous system infection caused by L. monocytogenes is acute bacterial meningitis; meningoencephalitis is uncommon and encephalitis is rare. Early diagnosis of L. monocytogenes meningitis is difficult because only 50% of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram stains are negative. L. monocytogenes is one of the few central nervous system pathogens associated with red blood cells in the CSF. When L. monocytogenes presents as encephalitis with red blood cells in the CSF, the clinical presentation mimics most closely herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 encephalitis. Because the therapies for L. monocytogenes and HSV-1 are different, early diagnostic differentiation is clinically important. The CSF lactic acid is the best way to rapidly differentiate between these two entities; the CSF lactic acid level is elevated in L. monocytogenes but is not elevated in HSV-1 encephalitis. The case presented is an elderly man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who presented with encephalitis. Advanced age and chronic lymphocytic leukemia predispose him to a wide variety of pathogens, but the rapidity and severity of his clinical presentation made L. monocytogenes and HSV-1 encephalitis the most likely diagnostic possibilities. The CSF Gram stain was negative, but the elevated CSF lactic acid levels with encephalitis and red blood cells in the CSF indicated L. monocytogenes as the most likely pathogen. We present a case of L. monocytogenes encephalitis mimicking HSV-1 encephalitis. While receiving ampicillin therapy, the patient remained unresponsive for more than 1 week and then suddenly regained consciousness and recovered without neurologic sequelae.

  16. Estimation of cerebrospinal fluid cortisol level in tuberculous meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Mahale, Rohan R.; Mehta, Anish; Uchil, Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in tuberculosis is around 5–10%. Of the various manifestations of CNS tuberculosis, meningitis is the most common (70–80%). Delay in diagnosis and treatment results in significant morbidity and mortality. Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol levels in tubercular meningitis and compare the levels with controls. Methods: Cross-sectional, prospective, observational, hospital-based study done in 20 patients of tubercular meningitis, 20 patients of aseptic meningitis (AM) and 25 control subjects without any preexisting neurological disorders who have undergone lumbar puncture for spinal anesthesia. Results: Cortisol was detected in all 40 CSF samples of patients (100%). Mean CSF cortisol level was 8.82, 3.47 and 1.05 in tubercular meningitis, AM and controls, respectively. Mean CSF cortisol level in tubercular meningitis was significantly higher as compared to AM and controls (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Cortisol level estimation in CSF is one of the rapid, relatively inexpensive diagnostic markers in early identification of tubercular meningitis along with CSF findings of elevated proteins, hypoglycorrhachia and lymphocytic pleocytosis. This aids in earlier institution of appropriate treatment and thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. This is the first study on the estimation of CSF cortisol level in tuberculous meningitis. PMID:26752900

  17. Aseptic Meningitis with Craniopharyngioma Resection: Consideration after Endoscopic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jenny X; Alkire, Blake C; Lam, Allen C; Curry, William T; Holbrook, Eric H

    2016-10-01

    Objectives While bacterial meningitis is a concerning complication after endoscopic skull base surgery, the diagnosis can be made without consideration for aseptic meningitis. This article aims to (1) present a patient with recurrent craniopharyngioma and multiple postoperative episodes of aseptic meningitis and (2) discuss the diagnosis and management of aseptic meningitis. Design Case report and literature review. Results A 65-year-old female patient with a symptomatic craniopharyngioma underwent transsphenoidal resection. She returned postoperatively with symptoms concerning for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and bacterial meningitis. Lumbar puncture demonstrated mildly elevated leukocytes with normal glucose levels. Cultures were sterile and she was discharged on antibiotics. She returned 18 days postoperatively with altered mental status and fever. Again, negative CSF cultures suggested aseptic meningitis. Radiological and intraoperative findings were now concerning for widespread cerebrovascular vasospasm due to leaked craniopharyngioma fluids. In the following months, her craniopharyngioma recurred and required multiple surgical resections. Days after her last operation, she returned with mental status changes and a sterile CSF culture. She was diagnosed with recurrent aseptic meningitis and antibiotics were discontinued. The patient experienced near complete resolution of symptoms. Conclusions Consideration of aseptic meningitis following craniopharyngioma resection is critical to avoid unnecessary surgical re-exploration and prolonged courses of antibiotics.

  18. Etiology of Acute Bacterial Meningitis in Iran: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ghotaslou, Reza; Yeganeh-Sefidan, Fatemeh; Salahi-Eshlaqi, Behnaz; Ebrahimzadeh-Leylabadlo, Hamed

    2015-08-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is one of the most severe infectious diseases, causing neurologic sequel, and a case fatality rate of 20-30%. The aim of this paper was to summarize the main causes of ABM in Iran. We searched the data for relevant articles using meningitis, etiology, and Iran as search terms. We found 23 papers for inclusion in the review that focused specifically on the ABM, addressing etiology and acute meningitis. Finally, during the 23 years, a total of 18163 cases were recorded, and 1074 cases of which met the criteria for bacterial meningitis. The most common agent associated with bacterial meningitis was S. pneumoniae, followed by H. influenzae, Enterobacter spp., N. meningitidis, and group B streptococcus. The total incidence of ABM during 1991 to 2002 was higher than during 2003-2013. S. pneumoniae still remains a main cause of bacterial meningitis. For improved outcomes, studies are needed to further clarify the etiology of meningitis in Iran, explore simple, accurate, and practical diagnostic tools as PCR, and investigate the most appropriate specific and supportive interventions to manage and prevent meningitis as vaccination.

  19. Meningitis in a College Student in Connecticut, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Lynn E.; Gupta, Shaili; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; Hadler, James L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe a case of aseptic meningitis in a college student that was ultimately attributed to infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). The authors also provide a review of LCMV infection, epidemiology, and public health implications. Providers should be aware of LCMV as a cause of meningitis in college students,…

  20. Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus–associated Meningitis, Southern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Marí, José-María; Sánchez-Seco, María-Paz; Gegúndez, María-Isabel; Palacios, Gustavo; Savji, Nazir; Lipkin, W. Ian; Fedele, Giovanni; de Ory-Manchón, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) was detected in 2 patients with acute meningitis in southern Spain within a 3-year period. Although the prevalence of LCMV infection was low (2 [1.3%] of 159 meningitis patients), it represents 2.9% of all pathogens detected. LCMV is a noteworthy agent of neurologic illness in immunocompetent persons. PMID:22515986

  1. Meningococcal meningitis C in Tamil Nadu, public health perspectives.

    PubMed

    David, Kirubah Vasandhi; Pricilla, Ruby Angeline; Thomas, Beeson

    2014-01-01

    Meningococcal meningitis has rarely been reported in Tamil Nadu. We report here two children diagnosed with meningococcal meningitis in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, on May 2014. The causative strain was Neisseria meningitidis serotype C. The role of the primary care physician in early diagnosis, appropriate referral, and preventive measures of this disease to the immediate family and community is stressed.

  2. Anthrax meningitis. Report of two cases with autopsies.

    PubMed

    Pluot, M; Vital, C; Aubertin, J; Croix, J C; Pire, J C; Poisot, D

    1976-12-21

    The authors report two cases of occupation-related anthrax meningitis; one was direct contamination from a diseased animal; the second was due to handling of bone powder imported from India. The pathological pattern of involvement of the meninges and brain is described and discussed.

  3. Aseptic Meningitis with Craniopharyngioma Resection: Consideration after Endoscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jenny X.; Alkire, Blake C.; Lam, Allen C.; Curry, William T.; Holbrook, Eric H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives While bacterial meningitis is a concerning complication after endoscopic skull base surgery, the diagnosis can be made without consideration for aseptic meningitis. This article aims to (1) present a patient with recurrent craniopharyngioma and multiple postoperative episodes of aseptic meningitis and (2) discuss the diagnosis and management of aseptic meningitis. Design Case report and literature review. Results A 65-year-old female patient with a symptomatic craniopharyngioma underwent transsphenoidal resection. She returned postoperatively with symptoms concerning for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and bacterial meningitis. Lumbar puncture demonstrated mildly elevated leukocytes with normal glucose levels. Cultures were sterile and she was discharged on antibiotics. She returned 18 days postoperatively with altered mental status and fever. Again, negative CSF cultures suggested aseptic meningitis. Radiological and intraoperative findings were now concerning for widespread cerebrovascular vasospasm due to leaked craniopharyngioma fluids. In the following months, her craniopharyngioma recurred and required multiple surgical resections. Days after her last operation, she returned with mental status changes and a sterile CSF culture. She was diagnosed with recurrent aseptic meningitis and antibiotics were discontinued. The patient experienced near complete resolution of symptoms. Conclusions Consideration of aseptic meningitis following craniopharyngioma resection is critical to avoid unnecessary surgical re-exploration and prolonged courses of antibiotics. PMID:27722072

  4. Application of heat in postcook meat chillers reduces Listeria.

    PubMed

    Eglezos, Sofroni; Dykes, Gary A

    2011-06-01

    Electrical air-blowing heaters were used to heat and dry out holding chillers used for postcook commercial processed meats in an attempt to control the presence of Listeria. A baseline study of the prevalence of Listeria in holding chillers in seven facilities was undertaken. Listeria was detected in four of the seven chillers, and swab samples showed Listeria prevalence ranging from 7 (7.8%) of 90 to 6 (20%) of 30, depending on the facility. Two of the facilities with established Listeria contamination (A and E) were chosen for further studies. The heating trials consisted of three individual heating interventions at each of the two facilities, with 2 weeks of postintervention sampling after each treatment. The initial Listeria prevalence in chiller A was 19 (10.6%) of 180, and treatment at 37°C for 36 h reduced prevalence to 3 (1.7%) of 180. The initial Listeria prevalence in chiller E was 7 (7.8%) of 90, and treatment at 50°C for 2 h reduced prevalence to 0 of 90. Both reductions were statistically significant at P < 0.01. The incorporation of these two simple chiller heating protocols into these facilities' good manufacturing practices has effectively reduced prevalence of Listeria in chillers.

  5. 21 CFR 172.785 - Listeria-specific bacteriophage preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Listeria-specific bacteriophage preparation. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.785 Listeria-specific bacteriophage...) bacteriophages (phages) specific against L. monocytogenes. (2) Each phage is deposited at, and assigned...

  6. 21 CFR 172.785 - Listeria-specific bacteriophage preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Listeria-specific bacteriophage preparation. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.785 Listeria-specific bacteriophage...) bacteriophages (phages) specific against L. monocytogenes. (2) Each phage is deposited at, and assigned...

  7. 21 CFR 172.785 - Listeria-specific bacteriophage preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Listeria-specific bacteriophage preparation. 172... Specific Usage Additives § 172.785 Listeria-specific bacteriophage preparation. The additive may be safely... proportions of six different individually purified lytic-type (lacking lysogenic activity)...

  8. 21 CFR 172.785 - Listeria-specific bacteriophage preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Listeria-specific bacteriophage preparation. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.785 Listeria -specific bacteriophage...) bacteriophages (phages) specific against L. monocytogenes. (2) Each phage is deposited at, and assigned...

  9. 21 CFR 172.785 - Listeria-specific bacteriophage preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Listeria-specific bacteriophage preparation. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.785 Listeria-specific bacteriophage...) bacteriophages (phages) specific against L. monocytogenes. (2) Each phage is deposited at, and assigned...

  10. Meningeal Melanocytes in the Mouse: Distribution and Dependence on Mitf

    PubMed Central

    Gudjohnsen, Stefán A. H.; Atacho, Diahann A. M.; Gesbert, Franck; Raposo, Graca; Hurbain, Ilse; Larue, Lionel; Steingrimsson, Eirikur; Petersen, Petur Henry

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Melanocytes are pigment producing cells derived from the neural crest. They are primarily found in the skin and hair follicles, but can also be found in other tissues including the eye, ear and heart. Here, we describe the distribution of pigmented cells in C57BL/6J mouse meninges, the membranes that envelope the brain. These cells contain melanosomes of all four stages of development and they depend on Microphthalmia associated transcription factor (MITF), the master regulator of melanocyte development, suggesting that they are bona-fide melanocytes. The location of these pigmented cells is consistent with the location of meningeal melanomas in humans and animal models. Significance: Here, we document and define pigmented cells in the meninges of the mouse brain and confirm that they are melanocytes. This is important for understanding the role of this cell type and for understanding primary meningeal melanoma, a rare disease that likely arises from normal meningeal melanocytes. PMID:26635543

  11. Cryptococcal meningitis post autologous stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chaaban, S; Wheat, L J; Assi, M

    2014-06-01

    Disseminated Cryptococcus disease occurs in patients with defective T-cell immunity. Cryptococcal meningitis following autologous stem cell transplant (SCT) has been described previously in only 1 patient, 4 months post SCT and while off antifungal prophylaxis. We present a unique case of Cryptococcus meningitis pre-engraftment after autologous SCT, while the patient was receiving fluconazole prophylaxis. A 41-year-old man with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma underwent autologous SCT. Post-transplant prophylaxis consisted of fluconazole 400 mg daily, levofloxacin 500 mg daily, and acyclovir 800 mg twice daily. On day 9 post transplant, he developed fever and headache. Peripheral white blood cell count (WBC) was 700/μL. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed lesions consistent with meningoencephalitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed a WBC of 39 with 77% lymphocytes, protein 63, glucose 38, CSF pressure 20.5 cmH2 O, and a positive cryptococcal antigen. CSF culture confirmed Cryptococcus neoformans. The patient was treated with liposomal amphotericin B 5 mg/kg intravenously daily, and flucytosine 37.5 mg/kg orally every 6 h. He was switched to fluconazole 400 mg daily after 3 weeks of amphotericin therapy, with sterilization of the CSF with negative CSFCryptococcus antigen and negative CSF culture. Review of the literature revealed 9 cases of cryptococcal disease in recipients of SCT. Median time of onset was 64 days post transplant. Only 3 meningitis cases were described; 2 of them after allogeneic SCT. Fungal prophylaxis with fluconazole post autologous SCT is recommended at least through engraftment, and for up to 100 days in high-risk patients. A high index of suspicion is needed to diagnose and treat opportunistic infections, especially in the face of immunosuppression and despite adequate prophylaxis. Infection is usually fatal without treatment, thus prompt diagnosis and therapy might be life saving.

  12. [Recurrent meningitis in inner ear malformations].

    PubMed

    Claros, Pedro; Matusialk, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Authors present two cases of children with reccurent meningitis and unilateral deafness. Implemented diagnostics (CT, NMR, ABR) revealed one side inner ear congenital malformation in one case and anterior fossa bony defect accompanied by labirynthine deformation in the other case. The presence of perilymphatic fistulae in oval and round windows and cerebrospinal fluid leakage has been confirmed in both cases during surgery. Carefull obliteration of the Eustachian tube and both windows has been performed. Non- complicated postoperative course (2 months and 6 years - respectively) has prooved the effectiveness of applied treatment.

  13. Meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type f.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Marta Pessoa; Pasternak, Jacyr; Giglio, Alfredo Elias; Casagrande, Rejane Rimazza Dalberto; Troster, Eduardo Juan

    2013-12-01

    With the decline in the rate of infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae serotype b since the widespread vaccination, non-b serotypes should be considered as potential pathogenic agents in children with invasive disease younger than 5 years old. We report the case of an immunocompetent 1-year-old boy with Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis. The agent was identified in cerebrospinal fluid and blood cultures. Serotyping was performed by tests using polyclonal sera and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. All Haemophilus influenzae isolates associated with invasive disease should be serotyped and notified as a way to evaluate the changes and trends in serotype distribution of this disease.

  14. [Bacteremia and meningitis caused by Yersinia spp].

    PubMed

    Robert, J; Moreno, A; Martínez, J A; Almela, M; Jiménez de Anta, M T; Soriano, E

    2000-07-01

    Yersinia spp infection in human people are increasing attention last thirty years. We have reviewed the bacteremia in our hospital last five years. Three episodes were Yersinia spp bacteremia. Presence of disease or predisponent therapy were present in most of episodes. All patients were more than seventy years old. The septic metastasis were present in all the cases: one with meningitis, other with liver abscess and one with septic arthritis. We have documented a good clinical evolution, though the mortality in different reports is around 50%. The election therapy for all episodes were cephalosporins, and in two cases we added quinolones.

  15. Foodborne Listeria monocytogenes: A Real Challenge in Quality Control.

    PubMed

    Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Szabó, Judit; Dombrádi, Zsuzsanna; Kovács, Szilvia; Pócsi, István

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen, and the detection and differentiation of this bacterium from the nonpathogenic Listeria species are of great importance to the food industry. Differentiation of Listeria species is very difficult, even with the sophisticated MALDI-TOF MS technique because of the close genetic relationship of the species and the usual gene transfer. The present paper emphasizes the difficulties of the differentiation through the standardized detection and confirmation according to ISO 11290-1:1996 and basic available L. monocytogenes detection methods and tests (such as API Listeria test, MALDI-TOF MS analysis, and hly gene PCR). With the increase of reports on the pathogenesis of atypical Listeria strains in humans, the significance of species level determination has become questionable, especially in food quality control, and the detection of pathogenic characteristics seems to be more relevant.

  16. Prevalence and level of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria sp. in ready-to-eat minimally processed and refrigerated vegetables.

    PubMed

    Kovačević, Mira; Burazin, Jelena; Pavlović, Hrvoje; Kopjar, Mirela; Piližota, Vlasta

    2013-04-01

    Minimally processed and refrigerated vegetables can be contaminated with Listeria species bacteria including Listeria monocytogenes due to extensive handling during processing or by cross contamination from the processing environment. The objective of this study was to examine the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat minimally processed and refrigerated vegetables from supermarkets in Osijek, Croatia. 100 samples of ready-to-eat vegetables collected from different supermarkets in Osijek, Croatia, were analyzed for presence of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes. The collected samples were cut iceberg lettuces (24 samples), other leafy vegetables (11 samples), delicatessen salads (23 samples), cabbage salads (19 samples), salads from mixed (17 samples) and root vegetables (6 samples). Listeria species was found in 20 samples (20 %) and Listeria monocytogenes was detected in only 1 sample (1 %) of cut red cabbage (less than 100 CFU/g). According to Croatian and EU microbiological criteria these results are satisfactory. However, the presence of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes indicates poor hygiene quality. The study showed that these products are often improperly labeled, since 24 % of analyzed samples lacked information about shelf life, and 60 % of samples lacked information about storage conditions. With regard to these facts, cold chain abruption with extended use after expiration date is a probable scenario. Therefore, the microbiological risk for consumers of ready-to-eat minimally processed and refrigerated vegetables is not completely eliminated.

  17. Rapid detection and differentiation of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria species in deli meats by a new multiplex PCR method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen. To effectively control this pathogen, it is necessary to have a method that can detect and differentiate L. monocytogenes from other Listeria species in food, environmental, and clinical samples. A new multiplex PCR method using new primers ...

  18. Listeria Spp. and Listeria Monocytogenes Contamination in Ready-To-Eat Sandwiches Collected from Vending Machines.

    PubMed

    Cossu, Francesca; Spanu, Carlo; Deidda, Silvia; Mura, Erica; Casti, Daniele; Pala, Carlo; Lamon, Sonia; Spanu, Vincenzo; Ibba, Michela; Marrocu, Elena; Scarano, Christian; Piana, Andrea; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2016-04-19

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) food is characterised by a long shelf-life at refrigerated temperature and can be consumed as such, without any treatment. The aim of the work was to evaluate the presence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in RTEs collected from refrigerated vending machines placed in hospital environment and accessible to the hospitalised patients. In 4 different sampling, 55 RTEs were collected from vending machines of six hospitals located in different areas of Sardinia region. All the samples were characterised by similar manufacturing process, such as the use of modified atmosphere packaging and belonged to 5 different producers. Listeria spp. was not countable using the enumeration method in all of the analysed samples. Using the detection method, Listeria spp. was recovered from 9 sandwich samples. Interestingly, 3 of these samples (5.5%) made by the manufacturer, were positive for L. monocytogenes contamination. The risk related to the L. monocytogenes presence in RTEs proportionally increases when food is introduced in susceptible environments, such as hospitals and consumed by susceptible people. Although the RTEs analysed showed values that complied with the European microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, the availability of these products in a susceptible environment should be carefully checked. Therefore, in order to limit the possible exposition to L. monocytogenes, more information on the risk related to RTE consumption should be provided to the hospitalised patients.

  19. Listeria Spp. and Listeria Monocytogenes Contamination in Ready-To-Eat Sandwiches Collected from Vending Machines

    PubMed Central

    Cossu, Francesca; Spanu, Carlo; Deidda, Silvia; Mura, Erica; Casti, Daniele; Pala, Carlo; Lamon, Sonia; Spanu, Vincenzo; Ibba, Michela; Marrocu, Elena; Piana, Andrea; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) food is characterised by a long shelf-life at refrigerated temperature and can be consumed as such, without any treatment. The aim of the work was to evaluate the presence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in RTEs collected from refrigerated vending machines placed in hospital environment and accessible to the hospitalised patients. In 4 different sampling, 55 RTEs were collected from vending machines of six hospitals located in different areas of Sardinia region. All the samples were characterised by similar manufacturing process, such as the use of modified atmosphere packaging and belonged to 5 different producers. Listeria spp. was not countable using the enumeration method in all of the analysed samples. Using the detection method, Listeria spp. was recovered from 9 sandwich samples. Interestingly, 3 of these samples (5.5%) made by the manufacturer, were positive for L. monocytogenes contamination. The risk related to the L. monocytogenes presence in RTEs proportionally increases when food is introduced in susceptible environments, such as hospitals and consumed by susceptible people. Although the RTEs analysed showed values that complied with the European microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, the availability of these products in a susceptible environment should be carefully checked. Therefore, in order to limit the possible exposition to L. monocytogenes, more information on the risk related to RTE consumption should be provided to the hospitalised patients. PMID:27800439

  20. Ehrlichia Meningitis Mimicking Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Dredla, Brynn

    2015-01-01

    Thunderclap headache is a sudden and severe headache that can occur after an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires prompt attention and hospitalization. Patients with thunderclap headache often undergo a noncontrast head computed tomography (CT) scan to ascertain SAH bleeding and, if the scan is negative, then undergo a lumbar puncture to look for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) red blood cells (RBCs), which would be consistent with an aneurysmal leak. If the initial CT is negative and CSF is positive for RBCs, patients are usually admitted to the hospital for evaluation of intracranial aneurysm. We encountered a patient with thunderclap headache whose initial head CT was negative for SAH and whose CSF tested positive for RBCs. The patient was referred to our center for evaluation and management of aneurysmal SAH. However, on careful review of the patient’s medical history, serum laboratory values, and spinal fluid values, the patient was diagnosed with Ehrlichia chaffeensis meningitis. While Ehrlichia meningitis is rare, it is important to recognize the clinical clues that could help avoid formal cerebral angiography, a costly and potentially unnecessary procedure. We present how this case represented a cognitive framing bias and anchoring heuristic as well as steps that medical providers can use to prevent such cognitive errors in diagnosis. PMID:27053985

  1. Rheumatoid Meningitis: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Observations.

    PubMed

    Stretz, Christoph; Song, Xianyuan; Killory, Brendan D; Ollenschleger, Martin D; Nouh, Amre M

    2016-03-01

    A 75-year-old female with untreated rheumatoid arthritis presented with two weeks of behavioral changes and cognitive decline. A neurologic examination showed severe encephalopathy, brisk reflexes, and bilateral Babinski sign. A contrast-enhanced brain MRI demonstrated right meningeal enhancement and periventricular white matter disease. A computed tomographic angiogram (CTA) of the head and neck was negative for vasculitis. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) demonstrated lymphocytic pleocytosis. The patient's serum rheumatoid factor levels were elevated. A biopsy of the leptomeninges and cortex showed lymphocytic vasculitis of the cortical tissue and patchy lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates of dural small vessels consistent with rheumatoid meningitis. The patient received pulse-dose steroids followed by cyclophosphamide infusions. At her three month follow-up appointment, the patient's mental status had improved mildly. A follow-up brain MRI showed resolution of enhancement, but progression of subcortical bihemispheric white matter disease. Subsequently, the patient developed a respiratory infection and passed away. In rheumatoid arthritis, symptoms of encephalopathy, headaches, seizures, or focal neurologic deficits should raise suspicion for CNS involvement. This potentially treatable disease warrants prompt diagnosis.

  2. Assessment of Listeria sp. Interference Using a Molecular Assay To Detect Listeria monocytogenes in Food.

    PubMed

    Zittermann, Sandra I; Stanghini, Brenda; See, Ryan Soo; Melano, Roberto G; Boleszczuk, Peter; Murphy, Allana; Maki, Anne; Mallo, Gustavo V

    2016-01-01

    Detection of Listeria monocytogenes in food is currently based on enrichment methods. When L. monocytogenes is present with other Listeria species in food, the species compete during the enrichment process. Overgrowth competition of the nonpathogenic Listeria species might result in false-negative results obtained with the current reference methods. This potential issue was noted when 50 food samples artificially spiked with L. monocytogenes were tested with a real-time PCR assay and Canada's current reference method, MFHPB-30. Eleven of the samples studied were from foods naturally contaminated with Listeria species other than those used for spiking. The real-time PCR assay detected L. monocytogenes in all 11 of these samples; however, only 6 of these samples were positive by the MFHPB-30 method. To determine whether L. monocytogenes detection can be affected by other species of the same genus due to competition, an L. monocytogenes strain and a Listeria innocua strain with a faster rate of growth in the enrichment broth were artificially coinoculated at different ratios into ground pork meat samples and cultured according to the MFHPB-30 method. L. monocytogenes was detected only by the MFHPB-30 method when L. monocytogenes/L. innocua ratios were 6.0 or higher. In contrast, using the same enrichments, the real-time PCR assay detected L. monocytogenes at ratios as low as 0.6. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that L. monocytogenes can be outcompeted by L. innocua during the MFHPB-30 enrichment phase. However, more reliable detection of L. monocytogenes in this situation can be achieved by a PCR-based method mainly because of its sensitivity.

  3. Coselection of cadmium and benzalkonium chloride resistance in conjugative transfers from nonpathogenic Listeria spp. to other Listeriae.

    PubMed

    Katharios-Lanwermeyer, S; Rakic-Martinez, M; Elhanafi, D; Ratani, S; Tiedje, J M; Kathariou, S

    2012-11-01

    Resistance to the quaternary ammonium disinfectant benzalkonium chloride (BC) may be an important contributor to the ability of Listeria spp. to persist in the processing plant environment. Although a plasmid-borne disinfectant resistance cassette (bcrABC) has been identified in Listeria monocytogenes, horizontal transfer of these genes has not been characterized. Nonpathogenic Listeria spp. such as L. innocua and L. welshimeri are more common than L. monocytogenes in food processing environments and may contribute to the dissemination of disinfectant resistance genes in listeriae, including L. monocytogenes. In this study, we investigated conjugative transfer of resistance to BC and to cadmium from nonpathogenic Listeria spp. to other nonpathogenic listeriae, as well as to L. monocytogenes. BC-resistant L. welshimeri and L. innocua harboring bcrABC, along with the cadmium resistance determinant cadA2, were able to transfer resistance to other nonpathogenic listeriae as well as to L. monocytogenes of diverse serotypes, including strains from the 2011 cantaloupe outbreak. Transfer among nonpathogenic Listeria spp. was noticeably higher at 25°C than at 37°C, whereas acquisition of resistance by L. monocytogenes was equally efficient at 25 and 37°C. When the nonpathogenic donors were resistant to both BC and cadmium, acquisition of cadmium resistance was an effective surrogate for transfer of resistance to BC, suggesting coselection between these resistance attributes. The results suggest that nonpathogenic Listeria spp. may behave as reservoirs for disinfectant and heavy metal resistance genes for other listeriae, including the pathogenic species L. monocytogenes.

  4. Coselection of Cadmium and Benzalkonium Chloride Resistance in Conjugative Transfers from Nonpathogenic Listeria spp. to Other Listeriae

    PubMed Central

    Katharios-Lanwermeyer, S.; Rakic-Martinez, M.; Elhanafi, D.; Ratani, S.; Tiedje, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to the quaternary ammonium disinfectant benzalkonium chloride (BC) may be an important contributor to the ability of Listeria spp. to persist in the processing plant environment. Although a plasmid-borne disinfectant resistance cassette (bcrABC) has been identified in Listeria monocytogenes, horizontal transfer of these genes has not been characterized. Nonpathogenic Listeria spp. such as L. innocua and L. welshimeri are more common than L. monocytogenes in food processing environments and may contribute to the dissemination of disinfectant resistance genes in listeriae, including L. monocytogenes. In this study, we investigated conjugative transfer of resistance to BC and to cadmium from nonpathogenic Listeria spp. to other nonpathogenic listeriae, as well as to L. monocytogenes. BC-resistant L. welshimeri and L. innocua harboring bcrABC, along with the cadmium resistance determinant cadA2, were able to transfer resistance to other nonpathogenic listeriae as well as to L. monocytogenes of diverse serotypes, including strains from the 2011 cantaloupe outbreak. Transfer among nonpathogenic Listeria spp. was noticeably higher at 25°C than at 37°C, whereas acquisition of resistance by L. monocytogenes was equally efficient at 25 and 37°C. When the nonpathogenic donors were resistant to both BC and cadmium, acquisition of cadmium resistance was an effective surrogate for transfer of resistance to BC, suggesting coselection between these resistance attributes. The results suggest that nonpathogenic Listeria spp. may behave as reservoirs for disinfectant and heavy metal resistance genes for other listeriae, including the pathogenic species L. monocytogenes. PMID:22904051

  5. Epidemiology of meningitis in an HIV-infected Ugandan cohort.

    PubMed

    Rajasingham, Radha; Rhein, Joshua; Klammer, Kate; Musubire, Abdu; Nabeta, Henry; Akampurira, Andrew; Mossel, Eric C; Williams, Darlisha A; Boxrud, Dave J; Crabtree, Mary B; Miller, Barry R; Rolfes, Melissa A; Tengsupakul, Supatida; Andama, Alfred O; Meya, David B; Boulware, David R

    2015-02-01

    There is limited understanding of the epidemiology of meningitis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected populations in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected adults with suspected meningitis in Uganda, to comprehensively evaluate the etiologies of meningitis. Intensive cerebrospiral fluid (CSF) testing was performed to evaluate for bacterial, viral, fungal, and mycobacterial etiologies, including neurosyphilis,16s ribosomal DNA (rDNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bacteria, Plex-ID broad viral assay, quantitative-PCR for HSV-1/2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and Toxoplasma gondii; reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for Enteroviruses and arboviruses, and Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Cryptococcal meningitis accounted for 60% (188 of 314) of all causes of meningitis. Of 117 samples sent for viral PCR, 36% were EBV positive. Among cryptococcal antigen negative patients, the yield of Xpert MTB/RIF assay was 22% (8 of 36). After exclusion of cryptococcosis and bacterial meningitis, 61% (43 of 71) with an abnormal CSF profile had no definitive diagnosis. Exploration of new TB diagnostics and diagnostic algorithms for evaluation of meningitis in resource-limited settings remains needed, and implementation of cryptococcal diagnostics is critical.

  6. Neonatal meningitis in England and Wales: 10 years on

    PubMed Central

    Holt, D; Halket, S; de Louvois, J; Harvey, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To determine the incidence of neonatal meningitis in England and Wales.
DESIGN—A national postal survey using the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit (BPSU) card scheme supplemented by information from other sources.
SETTING—England and Wales 1996-1997.
SUBJECTS—A total of 274 babies less than 28 days of age who were treated for meningitis.
RESULTS—The incidence of neonatal meningitis in England and Wales has not changed since our previous study in 1985-1987. However, the acute phase mortality has fallen from 19.8% in 1985-1987 to 6.6% in this study. Group B streptococci (42%) and Escherichia coli (16%) remain the most common infecting microorganisms. Eight of 69 (12%) babies with group B streptococci and 4/26 (15%) with E coli died. Antibiotic regimens based on the third generation cephalosporins, notably cefotaxime, were most commonly used (84%). The BPSU scheme identified 72% of cases during the study period. Most cases of viral meningitis were not reported through the BPSU. Less than a third of samples from aseptic meningitis were examined for viruses; 56% of these were positive.
CONCLUSIONS—Although the incidence of neonatal meningitis remains unchanged, mortality from this infection has fallen significantly. If this improvement is maintained as reflected in the level of sequelae at 5 years of age, then the fear surrounding meningitis during the neonatal period will have been dramatically reduced.

 PMID:11207221

  7. Tuberculous Meningitis in an Immunocompetent Host: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Suchin R.; Kralovic, Stephen M.; Prakash, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 57 Final Diagnosis: Tuberculous meningitis Symptoms: Altered mental state • headache Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Lumbar puncture Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: Tuberculous meningitis is very rare in the United States in immunocompetent hosts. Risk factors are similar to those of pulmonary tuberculosis, including poverty, malnutrition, overcrowding, a compromised immune system, and coming from an endemic area. Meningeal tuberculosis mortality and other outcomes have changed little over time despite effective therapies due to delay in diagnosis because of its rarity, variable presentation, and often indolent course. Case Report: We describe a case of a 57-year-old male immigrant from Senegal with no significant past medical history and no previous history of tuberculosis or evidence of immune compromise. He presented to the hospital with headache and altered mental status and was subsequently diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis. Conclusions: This is a rare case of tuberculous meningitis in an immunocompetent host, questioning the conventional view that tuberculous meningitis is a disease of immunocompromised individuals. It emphasizes the importance of maintaining a strong clinical suspicion of tuberculous meningitis even in an immunocompetent patient in a geographical area with low prevalence if the patient has risk factors. Missed or delayed diagnosis is commonly fatal. PMID:28008165

  8. Novel Cadmium Resistance Determinant in Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Cameron; Lee, Sangmi; Jayeola, Victor; Kathariou, Sophia

    2017-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause severe disease (listeriosis) in susceptible individuals. It is ubiquitous in the environment and often exhibits resistance to heavy metals. One of the determinants that enables Listeria to tolerate exposure to cadmium is the cadAC efflux system, with CadA being a P-type ATPase. Three different cadA genes (designated cadA1 to cadA3) were previously characterized in L. monocytogenes A novel putative cadmium resistance gene (cadA4) was recently identified through whole-genome sequencing, but experimental confirmation for its involvement in cadmium resistance is lacking. In this study, we characterized cadA4 in L. monocytogenes strain F8027, a cadmium-resistant strain of serotype 4b. By screening a mariner-based transposon library of this strain, we identified a mutant with reduced tolerance to cadmium and that harbored a single transposon insertion in cadA4 The tolerance to cadmium was restored by genetic complementation with the cadmium resistance cassette (cadA4C), and enhanced cadmium tolerance was conferred to two unrelated cadmium-sensitive strains via heterologous complementation with cadA4C Cadmium exposure induced cadA4 expression, even at noninhibitory levels. Virulence assessments in the Galleria mellonella model suggested that a functional cadA4 suppressed virulence, potentially promoting commensal colonization of the insect larvae. Biofilm assays suggested that cadA4 inactivation reduced biofilm formation. These data not only confirm cadA4 as a novel cadmium resistance determinant in L. monocytogenes but also provide evidence for roles in virulence and biofilm formation.IMPORTANCEListeria monocytogenes is an intracellular foodborne pathogen causing the disease listeriosis, which is responsible for numerous hospitalizations and deaths every year. Among the adaptations that enable the survival of Listeria in the environment are the abilities to persist in biofilms, grow in the cold, and tolerate

  9. Pasteurella multocida meningitis in an adult: case report

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, G; Sen, R; Wilkinson, J

    2000-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is known to form part of the normal flora in the nasopharynx or gastrointestinal tract in many domestic and wild animals. Most human P multocida infections are soft tissue infections caused by dog or cat bites. Less commonly this bacterium is associated with infections affecting other organ systems of man. A case of fatal P multocida meningitis discovered at the necropsy of a 52 year old man is described. P multocida is an unusual causative agent of meningitis which tends to affect those at the extremes of age. Key Words: Pasteurella multocida • meningitis PMID:10823146

  10. Bacteremic meningitis caused by Parvimonas micra in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jae-Hoon; Baek, Jin Yang; Kang, Cheol-In; Lee, Woo Joo; Lee, Ji Yong; Cho, Sun Young; Ha, Young Eun; Kim, So Hyun; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Lee, Nam Yong; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2015-08-01

    A 61-year-old man with chronic hepatitis B and dyslipidemia visited the emergency department with a fever and severe headache. He was diagnosed with bacterial meningitis after a lumbar puncture, and blood culture revealed Parvimonas micra bacteremia. Although he had a history of extraction of a molar two weeks before symptom onset, there was no evidence of abscess formation on physical examination or imaging studies. He was successfully treated with oral metronidazole for 12 days after 9 days of treatment with IV ceftriaxone and vancomcycin. This is the first report of primary bacterial meningitis caused by this organism, which indicates that this organism is capable of being a bacterial meningitis pathogen.

  11. Comparison of seven plating media for enumeration of Listeria spp.

    PubMed Central

    Loessner, M J; Bell, R H; Jay, J M; Shelef, L A

    1988-01-01

    The suitability of seven media for the enumeration of Listeria spp. was evaluated at 30 degrees C for 48 h. The media tested were (i) the original McBride Listeria agar formulation (with glycine); (ii) modified McBride agar containing glycine anhydride; (iii) LiCl-phenylethanol-moxalactam (LPM) agar; (iv) acriflavine-ceftazidime agar; (v) Rodriguez isolation agar (RISA); (vi) modified Vogel-Johnson (MVJ) agar; (vii) cyclohexanedione-nalidixic acid-phenylethanol agar; and tryptose agar as control. A total of 66 organisms were used including 11 Listeria monocytogenes strains and 5 other Listeria spp. For L. monocytogenes strains only, all media performed highly similarly. Of the other Listeria spp., only two grew on MVJ agar and three each grew on LPM and RISA. Only LPM agar inhibited the 50 non-listeriae, including five yeasts, while MVJ agar inhibited all but one yeast. The McBride Listeria agar formulation that contained glycine anhydride was less selective than the original. When pure cultures of 10 bacteria (including one L. monocytogenes strain) were combined and plated on four media, L. monocytogenes colonies were easiest to enumerate on MVJ agar, followed by LPM and RISA. These media ranked in the same order when plated with homogenates of various foods to which was added L. monocytogenes Scott A, but LPM agar was the best overall since Scott A was inhibited by MVJ. Upon microscopic examination of listerial colonies from the plating media, atypical cell morphology was noted with cells being about twofold in size on LPM, MVJ, and acriflavine-ceftazidime agars. Overall, LPM agar was the most suitable of the media tested even though it was inhibitory to Listeria grayi and Listeria murrayi. PMID:3146947

  12. Diversity of Listeria species in urban and natural environments.

    PubMed

    Sauders, Brian D; Overdevest, Jon; Fortes, Esther; Windham, Katy; Schukken, Ynte; Lembo, Arthur; Wiedmann, Martin

    2012-06-01

    A total of 442 Listeria isolates, including 234 Listeria seeligeri, 80 L. monocytogenes, 74 L. welshimeri, 50 L. innocua, and 4 L. marthii isolates, were obtained from 1,805 soil, water, and other environmental samples collected over 2 years from four urban areas and four areas representing natural environments. Listeria spp. showed similar prevalences in samples from natural (23.4%) and urban (22.3%) environments. While L. seeligeri and L. welshimeri were significantly associated with natural environments (P ≤ 0.0001), L. innocua and L. monocytogenes were significantly associated with urban environments (P ≤ 0.0001). Sequencing of sigB for all isolates revealed 67 allelic types with a higher level of allelic diversity among isolates from urban environments. Some Listeria spp. and sigB allelic types showed significant associations with specific urban and natural areas. Nearest-neighbor analyses also showed that certain Listeria spp. and sigB allelic types were spatially clustered within both natural and urban environments, and there was evidence that these species and allelic types persisted over time in specific areas. Our data show that members of the genus Listeria not only are common in urban and natural environments but also show species- and subtype-specific associations with different environments and areas. This indicates that Listeria species and subtypes within these species may show distinct ecological preferences, which suggests (i) that molecular source-tracking approaches can be developed for Listeria and (ii) that detection of some Listeria species may not be a good indicator for L. monocytogenes.

  13. A Case of Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis Caused by Listeria monocytogenes Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Importance. Infections can cause leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Observations. We report the case of a patient with a left ventricular assist device who presented with acute kidney injury and biopsy proven leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Blood cultures grew Listeria monocytogenes. The patient's rash improved with treatment of the underlying Listeria infection. Conclusion. Clinicians should be aware that there are a number of broad categories of disease associated with the histologic finding of vasculitis, including infection. It is important to keep in mind the risk factors of a particular patient when formulating a differential diagnosis. This is the first reported case of Listeria bacteremia causing leukocytoclastic vasculitis. PMID:27313916

  14. Attachment of Escherichia coli to Listeria monocytogenes for pediocin-mediated killing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shanna; Takala, Timo M; Reunanen, Justus; Saris, Ossian; Saris, Per E J

    2015-02-01

    Listeria phage endolysin cell wall-binding domain (CBD) from the Listeria phage A500 was fused with flagellar subunit FliC in Escherichia coli, aiming at binding of E. coli cells to Listeria cells, followed by enhanced killing of Listeria by pediocin production. FliC::CBD chimeric flagella were expressed and detected by Western blot. However, only few chimeric flagella could be isolated from the recombinant cells compared with sufficient amount of wild-type flagella obtained from the host cells. Interestingly, wild-type flagella extract showed capacity of binding Listeria cells. Pediocin-secreting E. coli cells with Listeria-binding flagella killed approximately 40 % of the Listeria cells, whereas cell-free spent growth medium with the same pediocin concentration only inhibited Listeria growth. These results suggested that binding the Listeria to bacteriocin-secreting cells improves killing.

  15. Recombinant phage probes for Listeria monocytogenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnazza, S.; Gioffrè, G.; Felici, F.; Guglielmino, S.

    2007-10-01

    Monitoring of food and environmental samples for biological threats, such as Listeria monocytogenes, requires probes that specifically bind biological agents and ensure their immediate and efficient detection. There is a need for robust and inexpensive affinity probes as an alternative to antibodies. These probes may be recruited from random peptide libraries displayed on filamentous phage. In this study, we selected from two phage peptide libraries phage clones displaying peptides capable of specific and strong binding to the L. monocytogenes cell surface. The ability of isolated phage clones to interact specifically with L. monocytogenes was demonstrated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmed by co-precipitation assay. We also assessed the sensitivity of phage-bacteria binding by PCR on phage-captured Listeria cells, which could be detected at a concentration of 104 cells ml-1. In addition, as proof-of-concept, we tested the possibility of immobilizing the affinity-selected phages to a putative biosensor surface. The quality of phage deposition was monitored by ELISA and fluorescent microscopy. Phage-bacterial binding was confirmed by high power optical phase contrast microscopy. Overall, the results of this work validate the concept of affinity-selected recombinant filamentous phages as probes for detecting and monitoring bacterial agents under any conditions that warrant their recognition, including in food products.

  16. Citrobacter koseri meningitis: a neurosurgical condition?

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lage, Juan F; Martínez-Lage Azorín, Laura; Almagro, María José; Bastida, María Encarnación; Reyes, Susana; Tellez, Cinthia

    2010-07-01

    A 2-month-old girl developed meningitis, ventriculitis and brain abscess in the course of Citrobacter koseri infection. She was successfully treated with the combined use of antibiotics, intra-cavitary urokinase and surgery, thus avoiding the development of hydrocephalus and of ventricular loculation. C. koseri is a Gram-negative pathogen with a strong predilection for the neonatal brain. Brain abscesses develop in roughly 77% of cases, causing severe neurological sequels in one-half and death in one-third of patients. The authors aim to report the role of neurosurgical treatment for managing the severe complications that may arise in the course of C. koseri brain infection and the use of urokinase for preventing the development of loculated hydrocephalus.

  17. [Acute bacterial meningitis as an occupational disease].

    PubMed

    Seixas, Diana; Lebre, Ana; Crespo, Pedro; Ferreira, Eugénia; Serra, José Eduardo; Saraiva da Cunha, José Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen with worldwide distribution, responsible for more than 700 human cases globally reported. This infection affects mostly men, exposed to pig or pork, which leads to its usual classification as an occupational disease. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 44 years old male. According to his past medical history, the patient had chronic alcoholism and worked in a restaurant as a piglet roaster. Microbiological examination of blood and CSF revealed S. suis. After 14 days of ceftriaxone the patient fully recovered. The authors review the clinical reports previously described in Portugal. In all of them was possible to identify risk exposition to pork. We alert to this microorganism's importance in Portugal where it is probably underdiagnosed.

  18. Corticosteroid-induced cryptococcal meningitis in patient without HIV.

    PubMed

    Nidhi, Anand; Meena, Alpana; Sreekumar, Arjun; Daga, Mradul Kumar

    2017-01-04

    Cryptococcus neoformans is the most frequent cause of fungal meningitis in humans. Cryptococcus affects people of all ages and has a worldwide distribution. It is the fourth most common infection in AIDS (CD4 counts <100/mm(3)). Cases also occur in patients with other forms of immunosuppression and in apparently immunocompetent individuals. Chronic high-dose steroid may precipitate such an immunocompromised state and thus create susceptibility to fungal infections. In our case, we describe a 14-year-old boy who was on steroids for tubercular meningitis for a period of 8 weeks after which he developed cryptococcal meningitis. Attention is drawn to the increasing number of reported cases of this disease which have been associated with steroid therapy and this possibility should be remembered when investigating patients with tubercular meningitis especially if they are being treated with steroids.

  19. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Antimicrobial Treatment of Acute Bacterial Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Tunkel, Allan R.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis has changed as a result of the widespread use of conjugate vaccines and preventive antimicrobial treatment of pregnant women. Given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with bacterial meningitis, accurate information is necessary regarding the important etiological agents and populations at risk to ascertain public health measures and ensure appropriate management. In this review, we describe the changing epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in the United States and throughout the world by reviewing the global changes in etiological agents followed by specific microorganism data on the impact of the development and widespread use of conjugate vaccines. We provide recommendations for empirical antimicrobial and adjunctive treatments for clinical subgroups and review available laboratory methods in making the etiological diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Finally, we summarize risk factors, clinical features, and microbiological diagnostics for the specific bacteria causing this disease. PMID:20610819

  20. Toxoplasmic encephalitis associated with meningitis in a heart transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Baliu, C; Sanclemente, G; Cardona, M; Castel, M A; Perez-Villa, F; Moreno, A; Cervera, C

    2014-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic pathogen that causes neurologic and extraneurologic manifestations in immunosuppressed patients. Encephalitis and intracranial mass lesions are easily recognized as typical manifestations of toxoplasmosis. However, meningitis caused by T. gondii is a rare condition with very few cases described in the literature. We present the case of a heart transplant recipient who developed toxoplasmic encephalitis associated with meningitis. After an extensive review of the medical literature, we found only 1 case of meningitis in solid organ transplant recipients and <25 cases in immunosuppressed patients, such as patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus or those with Hodgkin's disease. In this report, we consider toxoplasmosis in the differential diagnosis of meningitis in immunocompromised individuals.

  1. Cryptococcal meningitis in an HIV negative patient with systemic sarcoidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Botha, R J; Wessels, E

    1999-01-01

    A case of Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis is described in an HIV negative patient with undiagnosed systemic sarcoidosis. The patient presented with signs of meningitis together with generalised lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. Cryptococcal meningitis was diagnosed on lumbar puncture. She was treated with intravenous amphotericin B but died within two weeks of admission. Necropsy revealed lesions in the lungs, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, small intestine, and bone marrow consistent with sarcoidosis. Microscopically the lesions contained non-caseating epithelioid cell granulomas typical of sarcoidosis. No Schaumann or Hamazaki-Wesenberg bodies were identified. Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis is generally associated with immunosuppressive disorders. As T cell abnormalities have been described in sarcoidosis, this could have been a case of opportunistic infection. Although rare, sarcoidosis merits consideration in patients with cryptococcal disease in the absence of HIV infection. Images PMID:10711260

  2. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a patient with tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Ravishankar, B; Mangala; Prakash, G K; Shetty, K J; Ballal, H S

    2006-05-01

    We report a case of a 65 year male with meningitis who had polyuria, severe hyponatremia, volume depletion and very high urinary sodium excretion. He was diagnosed to have cerebral salt wasting syndrome based on clinical and laboratory parameters.

  3. Deafness and blindness as a presentation of colorectal meningeal carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Beau B.; Tehrani, Mahtab; Newman, Nancy J.; Biousse, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    We present a unique case of a patient with deafness and blindness secondary to carcinomatous meningitis from colorectal adenocarcinoma with accompanying radiologic and pathologic images and a brief review of the relevant literature. PMID:20966893

  4. Use of Intrathecal Fluorescein in Recurrent Meningitis after Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Swati; Singh, Satinder; Sharma, Shalabh; Lahiri, Asish K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital anomalies of the cochlea and labyrinth can be associated with meningitis and varying degrees of hearing loss or deafness. Despite antibiotics, meningitis remains a life threatening complication. Case Report: We report a case of recurrent meningitis following episodes of otitis media in a cochlear implantee child with bilateral vestibulocochlear malformation, due to fistula in the stapes footplate. Intrathecal fluorescin was used to identify the leak site. Conclusion: Recurrent meningitis can indicate for possible immunological or anatomical abnormalities as well for chronic parameningeal infections. Intraoperative use of intrathecal fluorescin is an ideal investigative tool to demonstrate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak site in patients in whom other investigations fail to do so. PMID:27429952

  5. Neoplastic meningitis as the presentation of occult primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

    PubMed

    Jennings, M T; Slatkin, N; D'Angelo, M; Ketonen, L; Johnson, M D; Rosenblum, M; Creasy, J; Tulipan, N; Walker, R

    1993-10-01

    Seven children and young adults initially presented with subacute meningitis and/or increased intracranial pressure. The diagnosis of neoplastic meningitis secondary to a primitive neuroectodermal neoplasm was delayed by the absence of an obvious primary tumor. The neuroradiologic appearance was that of a basimeningeal infiltrative process, complicated by communicating hydrocephalus or "pseudotumor cerebri." Myelography was important in the diagnosis of disseminated meningeal malignancy in four cases. Cerebrospinal fluid cytologic diagnosis was insensitive but ultimately confirmed in five cases. All seven patients experienced progressive disease despite neuraxis radiotherapy and intensive chemotherapy; six have died. Systemic dissemination to bone and/or peritoneum occurred in three patients while on therapy. In two, a primary parenchymal brain or spinal cord tumor could not be identified at postmortem examination. The presentation of a primitive neuroectodermal tumor as subacute meningitis without an evident primary tumor heralds an aggressive and refractory neoplasm.

  6. Mycobacterium bovis meningitis in young Nigerian-born male.

    PubMed

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Lillebaek, Troels; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Nielsen, Susanne Dam

    2014-10-01

    In Denmark, tuberculous meningitis is rare. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement with Mycobacterium bovis is even rarer and has only been seen three times since 1992. We present a case of M. bovis meningitis in a previously healthy young Nigerian-born male, who had been exposed to unpasteurized dairy products in Nigeria but had no known contact with larger mammals. Before the development of meningitis, the patient had several contacts with the health system due to fever and non-specific symptoms. Finally, upon hospital admission, the patient was diagnosed with M. tuberculosis complex meningitis and treated empirically. After 13 days he was discharged without neurological sequelae. Later, the culture revealed M. bovis and treatment was adjusted accordingly.

  7. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  8. Computed tomography in cases of coccidioidal meningitis, with clinical correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Shetter, A.G.; Fischer, D.W.; Flom, R.A.

    1985-06-01

    Cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans of 22 patients with coccidioidal meningitis were reviewed and their clinical course was analyzed. Abnormalities of the ventricular system or the basilar cisterns or both were present in 16 instances. Although it is not a definitive diagnostic tool, the CT scan is helpful in suggesting a diagnosis of coccidioidal meningitis and in predicting the prognosis of patients affected by the disease. 19 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Rare Elizabethkingia meningosepticum meningitis case in an immunocompetent adult

    PubMed Central

    Hayek, Salim S; Abd, Thura T; Cribbs, Sushma K; Anderson, Albert M; Melendez, Andre; Kobayashi, Miwako; Polito, Carmen; (Wayne) Wang, Yun F

    2013-01-01

    Though Elizabethkingia meningosepticum typically causes meningitis in neonates, its occurrence in adult is rare, with sixteen cases described worldwide. We report a case of E. meningosepticum meningitis in an immunocompetent adult. Bacterial identification was made a day earlier than conventional method by using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) Vitek mass spectrometry RUO (VMS), which resulted in successful treatment with rifampin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, levofloxacin and minocycline. PMID:26038458

  10. Cryptococcal meningitis presenting as sinusitis in a renal transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Iyer, S P; Movva, K; Wiebel, M; Chandrasekar, P; Alangaden, G; Carron, M; Tranchida, P; Revankar, S G

    2013-10-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is a relatively common invasive fungal infection in immunocompromised patients, especially in solid organ transplant recipients. Clinical presentation typically includes fever, headache, photophobia, neck stiffness, and/or altered mental status. Unusual presentations may delay diagnosis. Therapy is challenging in renal transplant patients because of the nephrotoxicity associated with amphotericin B, the recommended treatment. We present a case of cryptococcal meningitis in a renal transplant recipient presenting as acute sinusitis with successful treatment using fluconazole as primary therapy.

  11. Scrub Typhus Meningitis in South India — A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Stalin; Muthu, Vivekanandan; Iqbal, Nayyar; Remalayam, Bhavith; George, Tarun

    2013-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is prevalent in India although definite statistics are not available. There has been only one study on scrub typhus meningitis 20 years ago. Most reports of meningitis/meningoencephalitis in scrub typhus are case reports Methods A retrospective study done in Pondicherry to extract cases of scrub typhus admitted to hospital between February 2011 and January 2012. Diagnosis was by a combination of any one of the following in a patient with an acute febrile illness- a positive scrub IgM ELISA, Weil-Felix test, and an eschar. Lumbar puncture was performed in patients with headache, nuchal rigidity, altered sensorium or cranial nerve deficits. Results Sixty five cases of scrub typhus were found, and 17 (17/65) had meningitis. There were 33 males and 32 females. Thirteen had an eschar. Median cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell count, lymphocyte percentage, CSF protein, CSF glucose/blood glucose, CSF ADA were 54 cells/µL, 98%, 88 mg/dL, 0.622 and 3.5 U/mL respectively. Computed tomography was normal in patients with altered sensorium and cranial nerve deficits. Patients with meningitis had lesser respiratory symptoms and signs and higher urea levels. All patients had received doxycycline except one who additionally received chloramphenicol. Conclusion Meningitis in scrub typhus is mild with quick and complete recovery. Clinical features and CSF findings can mimic tuberculous meningitis, except for ADA levels. In the Indian context where both scrub typhus and tuberculosis are endemic, ADA and scrub IgM may be helpful in identifying patients with scrub meningitis and in avoiding prolonged empirical antituberculous therapy in cases of lymphocytic meningitis. PMID:23799119

  12. [Congenital skull base defect causing recurrent bacterial meningitis].

    PubMed

    Berliner, Elihay; Bar Meir, Maskit; Megged, Orli

    2012-08-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a life threatening disease. Most patients will experience only one episode throughout life. Children who experience bacterial meningitis more than once, require further immunologic or anatomic evaluation. We report a 9 year old child with five episodes of bacterial meningitis due to a congenital defect of the skull base. A two and a half year old boy first presented to our medical center with pneumococcal meningitis. He was treated with antibiotics and fully recovered. Two months later he presented again with a similar clinical picture. Streptococcus pneumoniae grew in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture. CT scan and later MRI of the brain revealed a defect in the anterior middle fossa floor, with protrusion of brain tissue into the sphenoidal sinus. Corrective surgery was recommended but the parents refused. Three months later, a third episode of pneumococcal meningitis occurred. The child again recovered with antibiotics and this time corrective surgery was performed. Five years later, the boy presented once again with clinical signs and symptoms consistent with bacterial meningitis. CSF culture was positive, but the final identification of the bacteria was conducted by broad spectrum 16S ribosomal RNA PCR (16S rRNA PCR) which revealed a sequence of Neisseria lactamica. CT and MRI showed recurrence of the skull base defect with encephalocele in the sphenoid sinus. The parents again refused neurosurgical intervention. A year later the patient presented with bacterial meningitis. CSF culture obtained after initiation of antibiotics was negative, but actinobacillus was identified in the CSF by 16S rRNA PCR. The patient is scheduled for neurosurgical intervention. In patients with recurrent bacterial meningitis caused by organisms colonizing the oropharynx or nasopharynx, an anatomical defect should be carefully sought and surgically repaired.

  13. Mondini malformation associated with diastematomyelia and presenting with recurrent meningitis.

    PubMed

    Masri, Amira; Bakri, Faris G; Birkenhäger, Ralf; Alassaf, Abeer; Musharbash, Awni F; Haroun, Azmy; Zak, Imad

    2011-05-01

    The authors report the case of 5-year-old girl who presented with 4 episodes of recurrent meningitis. Her initial workup revealed a lumbosacral dermoid sinus associated with diastematomyelia and a tethered cord. Therefore, a surgical repair to correct the anomaly was performed. However, another episode of meningitis occurred after surgery, and a subsequent temporal bone scan revealed the presence of left Mondini dysplasia. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Mondini dysplasia in association with diastematomyelia.

  14. Cervical Spinal Meningeal Melanocytoma Presenting as Intracranial Superficial Siderosis

    PubMed Central

    Srirama Jayamma, Savitha; Sud, Seema; Buxi, TBS; Madan, VS; Goyal, Ashish; Dhawan, Shashi

    2015-01-01

    Meningeal melanocytoma is a rare pigmented tumor of the leptomeningeal melanocytes. This rare entity results in diagnostic difficulty in imaging unless clinical and histopathology correlation is performed. In this case report, we describe a case of meningeal melanocytoma of the cervical region presenting with superficial siderosis. Extensive neuroradiological examination is necessary to locate the source of the bleeding in such patients. Usually, the patient will be cured by the complete surgical excision of the lesion. PMID:26770862

  15. Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. in a small-scale mushroom production facility.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Prema; Murugesan, Latha; Knabel, Stephen J; Verghese, Bindhu; Chikthimmah, Naveen; Laborde, Luke F

    2013-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen of significant concern to the agricultural and food processing industry because of its ability to grow and persist in cool and moist environments and its association with listeriosis, a disease with a very high mortality rate. Although there have been no listeriosis outbreaks attributed to fresh mushrooms in the United States, retail surveys and recalls are evidence that L. monocytogenes contamination of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) can occur. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp., including L. monocytogenes, in a small-scale mushroom production facility on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University in the United States. Of 184 samples taken from five production zones within the facility, 29 (15.8%) samples were positive for Listeria spp. Among the Listeria spp. isolates, L. innocua was most prevalent (10.3%) followed by L. welshimeri (3.3%), L. monocytogenes (1.6%), and L. grayi (0.5%). L. monocytogenes was recovered only from the phase I raw material composting area. Isolates of L. monocytogenes were confirmed and serotyped by multiplex PCR. The epidemiological relatedness of the three L. monocytogenes isolates to those serotypes or lineages frequently encountered in listeriosis infections was determined by multi-virulence-locus sequence typing using six virulence genes, namely, prfA, inlB, inlC, dal, clpP, and lisR. The phylogenetic positions of the three isolates in the dendrogram prepared with data from other isolates of L. monocytogenes showed that all isolates were grouped with serotype 4a, lineage IIIA. To date, this serotype has rarely been reported in foodborne disease outbreaks.

  16. Listeria species in a California coast estuarine environment.

    PubMed Central

    Colburn, K G; Kaysner, C A; Abeyta, C; Wekell, M M

    1990-01-01

    Listeria species and L. monocytogenes were found in 81 and 62%, respectively, of fresh or low-salinity waters (37 samples) in tributaries draining into Humboldt-Arcata Bay, Calif., during a winter (January-February) sampling period. The incidence of Listeria species and L. monocytogenes in sediment (46 samples) from the same sites where water was sampled was 30.4 and 17.4%, respectively. One of three bay water samples contained Listeria species (including L. monocytogenes), while of 35 samples of oysters examined, only 1 was found positive for Listeria species (L. innocua). A given species or L. monocytogenes serogroup appeared to predominate in fresh water when domesticated animals (cows, horses) were nearby, whereas greater variety with no species predominance was observed in areas with no direct animal influence. Images PMID:2117874

  17. Organelle targeting during bacterial infection: insights from Listeria.

    PubMed

    Lebreton, Alice; Stavru, Fabrizia; Cossart, Pascale

    2015-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a facultative intracellular bacterium responsible for severe foodborne infections, is now recognized as a multifaceted model in infection biology. Comprehensive studies of the molecular and cellular basis of the infection have unraveled how the bacterium crosses the intestinal and feto-placental barriers, invades several cell types in which it multiplies and moves, and spreads from cell to cell. Interestingly, although Listeria does not actively invade host cell organelles, it can interfere with their function. We discuss the effect of Listeria on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mechanisms leading to the fragmentation of the mitochondrial network and its consequences, and review the strategies used by Listeria to subvert nuclear functions, more precisely to control host gene expression at the chromatin level.

  18. FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual, Chapter 10, 2003: Listeria monocytogenes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual, Chapter 10 describes procedures for analysis of food samples and may be adapted for assessment of solid, particulate, aerosol, liquid and water samples containing Listeria monocytogenes.

  19. Incidence and inactivation of Listeria spp. on frozen shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illness outbreaks occasionally occur as a result of microbiologically contaminated crustaceans, including shrimp. Foodborne pathogens occasionally found on shrimp include Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrios. In this study the microbiological qualit...

  20. Clinical decision rules to distinguish between bacterial and aseptic meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Dubos, F; Lamotte, B; Bibi‐Triki, F; Moulin, F; Raymond, J; Gendrel, D; Bréart, G; Chalumeau, M

    2006-01-01

    Background Clinical decision rules have been derived to distinguish between bacterial and aseptic meningitis in the emergency room to avoid unnecessary antibiotic treatments and hospitalisations. Aims To evaluate the reproducibility and to compare the diagnostic performance of five clinical decision rules. Methods All children hospitalised for bacterial meningitis between 1995 and 2004 or aseptic meningitis between 2000 and 2004 have been included in a retrospective cohort study. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by applying each rule to the patients. The best rule was a priori defined as the one yielding 100% sensitivity for bacterial meningitis, the highest specificity, and the greatest simplicity for a bedside application. Results Among the 166 patients included, 20 had bacterial meningitis and 146 had aseptic meningitis. Although three rules achieved 100% sensitivity (95% CI 84–100), one had a significantly lower specificity (13%, 95% CI 8–19) than those of the other two rules (57%, 95% CI 48–65; and 66%, 95% CI 57–73), which were not statistically different. The ease of manual computation of the rule developed by Nigrovic et al (a simple list of five items: seizure, blood neutrophil count, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram stain, CSF protein, CSF neutrophil count) was higher than the one developed by Bonsu and Harper. Conclusion On our population, the rule derived by Nigrovic et al had the best balance between accuracy and simplicity of manual computation and could help to avoid two thirds of unnecessary antibiotic treatments and hospitalisations. PMID:16595647

  1. Tuberculous Meningitis in an Immunocompetent Host: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Suchin R; Kralovic, Stephen M; Prakash, Rajan

    2016-12-23

    BACKGROUND Tuberculous meningitis is very rare in the United States in immunocompetent hosts. Risk factors are similar to those of pulmonary tuberculosis, including poverty, malnutrition, overcrowding, a compromised immune system, and coming from an endemic area. Meningeal tuberculosis mortality and other outcomes have changed little over time despite effective therapies due to delay in diagnosis because of its rarity, variable presentation, and often indolent course. CASE REPORT We describe a case of a 57-year-old male immigrant from Senegal with no significant past medical history and no previous history of tuberculosis or evidence of immune compromise. He presented to the hospital with headache and altered mental status and was subsequently diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis. CONCLUSIONS This is a rare case of tuberculous meningitis in an immunocompetent host, questioning the conventional view that tuberculous meningitis is a disease of immunocompromised individuals. It emphasizes the importance of maintaining a strong clinical suspicion of tuberculous meningitis even in an immunocompetent patient in a geographical area with low prevalence if the patient has risk factors. Missed or delayed diagnosis is commonly fatal.

  2. Approaches to prevent acute bacterial meningitis in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, P. F.

    1989-01-01

    Endemic acute bacterial meningitis of childhood appears to be neglected as a cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, probably because it has been overshadowed by the dramatic epidemics of meningococcal disease in sub-Saharan Africa. The available data based on reviews of hospitalized patients suggest that endemic meningitis is mostly a disease of young infants, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b being the most important etiologic agents. The epidemiological pattern appears to be different in developing countries, compared with northern Europe or the USA, and closely resembles the early age of onset and high incidence of meningitis observed among the native American populations in Alaska. The mortality from meningitis appears to be much higher in developing countries than in industrialized countries. The availability of vaccines against the pneumococcus and haemophilus, particularly those in which the bacterial polysaccharide is conjugated to a protein, promises protection against systemic bacterial infection from these organisms. The assessment of the efficacy of such vaccines will have to include a close examination of meningitis as an outcome. It is suggested that before such vaccines become available careful clinical and epidemiological studies of meningitis will help both to define the impact of this disease and how to design an intervention strategy. PMID:2611973

  3. Extensive heterotopic ossification in patient with tubercular meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vijai Prakash; Yadav, Ganesh; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Dileep

    2014-01-01

    Tubercular meningitis is a severe form of central nervous system tuberculosis with high morbidity and mortality. Apart from neurological deficits, musculoskeletal involvement is also seen in very few cases in the form of heterotopic ossification around immobile joints. A 35-year-old male case of tubercular meningitis with left hemiparesis presented with multiple joint restriction of range of motion. On clinical examination, palpable firm masses around multiple joints with painful restriction of movements were seen. X-ray films of multiple joints revealed heterotopic ossification over left shoulder, hip and knee joint with bony ankylosis of left hip and soft tissue contractures. Very few reports have been published in the literature for association of heterotopic ossification with tubercular meningitis with such extensive joint involvement which compels us to report this clinical association of tubercular meningitis. This report is intended to create caution among physicians and other caregivers for this debilitating complication of tubercular meningitis and in face of high prevalence of tuberculosis and tubercular meningitis, employ methods to prevent and treat. PMID:25540549

  4. Detection of hemolytic Listeria monocytogenes by using DNA colony hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, A.R.; Wentz, B.A.; Hill, W.E.

    1987-09-01

    A fragment of about 500 base pairs of the beta-hemolysin gene from Listeria monocytogenes was used to screen different bacterial strains by DNA colony hybridization. The cells in the colonies were lysed by microwaves in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Of 52 different strains of Listeria species screened, only the DNA from beta-hemolytic (CAMP-positive) strains of L. monocytogenes hybridized with this probe.

  5. Postenrichment population differentials using buffered Listeria enrichment broth: implications of the presence of Listeria innocua on Listeria monocytogenes in food test samples.

    PubMed

    Keys, Ashley L; Dailey, Rachel C; Hitchins, Anthony D; Smiley, R Derike

    2013-11-01

    The recovery of low levels of Listeria monocytogenes from foods is complicated by the presence of competing microorganisms. Nonpathogenic species of Listeria pose a particular problem because variation in growth rate during the enrichment step can produce more colonies of these nontarget cells on selective and/or differential media, resulting in a preferential recovery of nonpathogens, especially Listeria innocua. To gauge the extent of this statistical barrier to pathogen recovery, 10 isolates each of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were propagated together from approximately equal initial levels using the current U. S. Food and Drug Administration's enrichment procedure. In the 100 isolate pairs, an average 1.3-log decrease was found in the 48-h enrichment L. monocytogenes population when L. innocua was present. In 98 of the 100 isolate pairs, L. innocua reached higher levels at 48 h than did L. monocytogenes, with a difference of 0.2 to 2.4 log CFU/ml. The significance of these population differences was apparent by an increase in the difficulty of isolating L. monocytogenes by the streak plating method. L. monocytogenes went completely undetected in 18 of 30 enrichment cultures even after colony isolation was attempted on Oxoid chromogenic Listeria agar. This finding suggests that although both Listeria species were present on the plate, the population differential between them restricted L. monocytogenes to areas of the plate with confluent growth and that isolated individual colonies were only L. innocua.

  6. Role of host GTPases in infection by Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Ireton, Keith; Rigano, Luciano A; Dowd, Georgina C

    2014-09-01

    The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes induces internalization into mammalian cells and uses actin-based motility to spread within tissues. Listeria accomplishes this intracellular life cycle by exploiting or antagonizing several host GTPases. Internalization into human cells is mediated by the bacterial surface proteins InlA or InlB. These two modes of uptake each require a host actin polymerization pathway comprised of the GTPase Rac1, nucleation promotion factors, and the Arp2/3 complex. In addition to Rac1, InlB-mediated internalization involves inhibition of the GTPase Arf6 and participation of Dynamin and septin family GTPases. After uptake, Listeria is encased in host phagosomes. The bacterial protein GAPDH inactivates the human GTPase Rab5, thereby delaying phagosomal acquisition of antimicrobial properties. After bacterial-induced destruction of the phagosome, cytosolic Listeria uses the surface protein ActA to stimulate actin-based motility. The GTPase Dynamin 2 reduces the density of microtubules that would otherwise limit bacterial movement. Cell-to-cell spread results when motile Listeria remodel the host plasma membrane into protrusions that are engulfed by neighbouring cells. The human GTPase Cdc42, its activator Tuba, and its effector N-WASP form a complex with the potential to restrict Listeria protrusions. Bacteria overcome this restriction through two microbial factors that inhibit Cdc42-GTP or Tuba/N-WASP interaction.

  7. Stalling autophagy: a new function for Listeria phospholipases

    PubMed Central

    Tattoli, Ivan; Sorbara, Matthew T.; Philpott, Dana J.; Girardin, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that induces its own uptake in non-phagocytic cells. Following invasion, Listeria escapes from the entry vacuole through the secretion of a pore-forming toxin, listeriolysin O (LLO) that acts to damage and disrupt the vacuole membrane. Listeria then replicates in the cytosol and is able to spread from cell-to-cell using actin-based motility. In addition to LLO, Listeria produces two phospholipase toxins, a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC, encoded by plcB) and a broad-range phospholipase C (PC-PLC, encoded by plcA), which contribute to bacterial virulence. It has long been recognized that secretion of PI- and PC-PLC enables the disruption of the double membrane vacuole during cell-to-cell spread, and those phospholipases have also been shown to augment LLO-dependent escape from the entry endosome. However, a specific role for Listeria phospholipases during the cytosolic stage of infection has not been previously reported. In a recent study, we demonstrated that Listeria PI-PLC and PC-PLC contribute to the bacterial escape from autophagy through a mechanism that involves direct inhibition of the autophagic flux in the infected cells [Tattoli et al. EMBO J (2013), 32, 3066-3078].

  8. Reactive nitrogen intermediates suppress the primary immunologic response to Listeria.

    PubMed

    Gregory, S H; Wing, E J; Hoffman, R A; Simmons, R L

    1993-04-01

    Reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI), e.g., nitric oxide derived from a terminal guanido nitrogen atom of L-arginine, exhibit potent antimicrobial activity in vitro. The function of these intermediates in host defenses in vivo, however, is presently unclear. Experiments were undertaken to determine the role of RNI in the resolution of primary listerial infections of the liver. Serum RNI levels were elevated significantly in mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes. Moreover, a marked increase in RNI production was found in cultures of the parenchymal, as well as the nonparenchymal, liver cells obtained from Listeria-infected mice. RNI did not kill Listeria treated directly, however, nor were they a factor in the listericidal activity exhibited by hepatic cells. Rather, the elevated production of RNI during primary infection appeared to promote the replication of Listeria in vivo. Mice administered NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, a competitive inhibitor of RNI production, exhibited a 10- and a 100-fold reduction in the number of Listeria in their lives on days 3 and 7 postinfection, respectively. In vitro, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine stimulated the Ag-specific proliferation of T lymphocytes derived from Listeria-infected mice at concentrations that inhibited RNI production. These latter findings suggest that the elevated production of RNI during primary listerial infections suppresses host defenses by diminishing the proliferation and, consequently, the biologic response of immune cell populations.

  9. Rapid Identification and Classification of Listeria spp. and Serotype Assignment of Listeria monocytogenes Using Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy and Artificial Neural Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Romanolo, K. F.; Gorski, L.; Wang, S.; Lauzon, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    The use of Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) in conjunction with Artificial Neural Network software NeuroDeveloper™ was examined for the rapid identification and classification of Listeria species and serotyping of Listeria monocytogenes. A spectral library was created for 245 strains of Listeria spp. to give a biochemical fingerprint from which identification of unknown samples were made. This technology was able to accurately distinguish the Listeria species with 99.03% accuracy. Eleven serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes including 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b were identified with 96.58% accuracy. In addition, motile and non-motile forms of Listeria were used to create a more robust model for identification. FT-IR coupled with NeuroDeveloper™ appear to be a more accurate and economic choice for rapid identification of pathogenic Listeria spp. than current methods. PMID:26600423

  10. Antibiotic therapy for Listeria monocytogenes bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Hung, C C; Chang, S C; Chen, Y C; Hsieh, W C; Luh, K T

    1995-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has been recognized as an important pathogen in immunocompromised patients, but it has been rarely reported in Taiwan. We reviewed 13 cases of L. monocytogenes bacteremia at National Taiwan University Hospital over a 12-year period. All of the patients had underlying diseases. Fever was the most common presenting symptom, and neurologic signs were found in 6 patients. Most of the patients received penicillin G, ampicillin or piperacillin with an aminoglycoside. Corticosteroids were used in 9 of 13 patients. The overall mortality directly due to L. monocytogenes bacteremia was 31%. However, patients treated with cephalosporins or oxacillin had higher mortality than those treated with penicillin G, ampicillin or piperacillin (p = 0.05). Given the increasing number of immunosuppressed patients in Taiwan, it is likely that more cases will be encountered. Physicians in Taiwan should be aware of L. monocytogenes bacteremia and its treatment.

  11. Brain infection and activation of neuronal repair mechanisms by the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in the lepidopteran model host Galleria mellonella.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Hain, Torsten; Fischer, Rainer; Chakraborty, Trinad; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2013-05-15

    Listeria monocytogenes the causative agent of the foodborne disease listeriosis in humans often involves fatal brainstem infections leading to meningitis and meningoencephalitis. We recently established the larvae of the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) as a model host for the investigation of L. monocytogenes pathogenesis and as a source of peptides exhibiting anti-Listeria-activity. Here we show that G. mellonella can be used to study brain infection and its impact on larval development as well as the activation of stress responses and neuronal repair mechanisms. The infection of G. mellonella larvae with L. monocytogenes elicits a cellular immune response involving the formation of melanized cellular aggregates (nodules) containing entrapped bacteria. These form under the integument and in the brain, resembling the symptoms found in human patients. We screened the G. mellonella transcriptome with marker genes representing stress responses and neuronal repair, and identified several modulated genes including those encoding heat shock proteins, growth factors, and regulators of neuronal stress. Remarkably, we discovered that L. monocytogenes infection leads to developmental shift in larvae and also modulates the expression of genes involved in the regulation of endocrine functions. We demonstrated that L. monocytogenes pathogenesis can be prevented by treating G. mellonella larvae with signaling inhibitors such as diclofenac, arachidonic acid, and rapamycin. Our data extend the utility of G. mellonella larvae as an ideal model for the high-throughput in vivo testing of potential compounds against listeriosis.

  12. Brain infection and activation of neuronal repair mechanisms by the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in the lepidopteran model host Galleria mellonella

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Hain, Torsten; Fischer, Rainer; Chakraborty, Trinad; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes the causative agent of the foodborne disease listeriosis in humans often involves fatal brainstem infections leading to meningitis and meningoencephalitis. We recently established the larvae of the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) as a model host for the investigation of L. monocytogenes pathogenesis and as a source of peptides exhibiting anti-Listeria-activity. Here we show that G. mellonella can be used to study brain infection and its impact on larval development as well as the activation of stress responses and neuronal repair mechanisms. The infection of G. mellonella larvae with L. monocytogenes elicits a cellular immune response involving the formation of melanized cellular aggregates (nodules) containing entrapped bacteria. These form under the integument and in the brain, resembling the symptoms found in human patients. We screened the G. mellonella transcriptome with marker genes representing stress responses and neuronal repair, and identified several modulated genes including those encoding heat shock proteins, growth factors, and regulators of neuronal stress. Remarkably, we discovered that L. monocytogenes infection leads to developmental shift in larvae and also modulates the expression of genes involved in the regulation of endocrine functions. We demonstrated that L. monocytogenes pathogenesis can be prevented by treating G. mellonella larvae with signaling inhibitors such as diclofenac, arachidonic acid, and rapamycin. Our data extend the utility of G. mellonella larvae as an ideal model for the high-throughput in vivo testing of potential compounds against listeriosis. PMID:23348912

  13. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: tuberculous meningitis new developments.

    PubMed

    Galimi, R

    2011-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) can involve any organ system in the body. Extrapulmonary involvement can occur in isolation or along with a pulmonary focus as in the case of patients with disseminated tuberculosis. Tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. TBM a medical emergency, is still a major cause of serious illness in many parts of the world. TBM remains difficult to diagnose, and it is usually due to hematogenous dissemination of the tubercle bacillus. The exact incidence and prevalence are not known. The clinical spectrum is broad and may be non-specific making early diagnosis difficult. Improved outcome requires early recognition and treatment of these conditions. Clinical features included fever for more than 7 days, headache, or neck stiffness. While TBM is a disease of childhood, tuberculomas and spinal tuberculosis are invariably an adult manifestation. In HIV infection, TB is often atypical in presentation, frequently causing extrapulmonary disease, and patients have a high incidence of TBM. Clinical response to antituberculous therapy in all forms of neurotuberculosis is excellent if the diagnosis is made early before irreversible neurological deficit is established. Diagnosis is based on the characteristic clinical picture, neuroimaging abnormalities, cerebrospinal fluid changes and the response to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Diagnosis is best made with lumbar puncture and examination of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Suspect TBM if there is a CSF leucocytosis (predominantly lymphocytes), the CSF protein is raised, and the CSF plasma glucose is <50%. Rapid techniques based on nucleic acid amplification such as PCR are more sensitive and specific as they attempt to detect specific DNA sequences of the organism. The hallmark pathological processes are meningeal inflammation, basal exudates, vasculitis and hydrocephalus. Treatment delay is strongly associated with death and empirical anti-tuberculosis therapy should be

  14. [Community acquired bacterial meningitis in patients over 60].

    PubMed

    Mora Mora, Luis A; Arco Espinosa, Micke E de; Plumet, Javier; Micheli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis has a global mortality rate of 135000 cases per year. In Argentina over the last 12 years, the annual incidence rate has been 5.5/100 000. About 20% of patients present neurological sequelae, which are more common in patients aged 60 or older. Our objective here is to determine the clinical characteristics, the most common causes and to measure evolution in patients over 60 years old diagnosed with meningitis and treated at the Hospital de Clinicas José de San Martín. This is a retrospective study based on a review of medical records from 2003 to 2013 that takes into account patients older than 60 who were diagnosed with acute bacterial meningitis acquired in the community by a microbiological diagnosis of CSF or those included due to a high suspicion of bacterial meningitis (pleocitosis > 2000 cells/mm3, proteins > 220 mg/dl, glycorrhachia < 34 mg/dl, glycorrhachia/glucose index < 0.23). Cases of TB meningitis, nosocomial, postoperative and other nonbacterial meningitis were excluded. Sixty nine patients were included, 45 (65%) were women with an average age of 78 ± 10.6 years. Only 40% had the triad of classical meningitis symptoms (stiff neck, fever and altered mental status). In 52% of the patients germs developed in the CSF, the most frequent being Streptococcus pneumoniae present in 47% of cases. Lethality rate was 41%, all of them by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Only 24 (35%) cases were admitted into intensive care. The main sequelae present were motor disorders (12%) and hearing loss (5%).

  15. Prospective investigation of pituitary functions in patients with acute infectious meningitis: is acute meningitis induced pituitary dysfunction associated with autoimmunity?

    PubMed

    Tanriverdi, F; De Bellis, A; Teksahin, H; Alp, E; Bizzarro, A; Sinisi, A A; Bellastella, G; Paglionico, V A; Bellastella, A; Unluhizarci, K; Doganay, M; Kelestimur, F

    2012-12-01

    Previous case reports and retrospective studies suggest that pituitary dysfunction may occur after acute bacterial or viral meningitis. In this prospective study we assessed the pituitary functions, lipid profile and anthropometric measures in adults with acute bacterial or viral meningitis. Moreover, in order to investigate whether autoimmune mechanisms could play a role in the pathogenesis of acute meningitis-induced hypopituitarism we also investigated the anti-pituitary antibodies (APA) and anti-hypothalamus antibodies (AHA) prospectively. Sixteen patients (10 males, 6 females; mean ± SD age 40.9 ± 15.9) with acute infectious meningitis were included and the patients were evaluated in the acute phase, and at 6 and 12 months after the acute meningitis. In the acute phase 18.7% of the patients had GH deficiency, 12.5% had ACTH and FSH/LH deficiencies. At 12 months after acute meningitis 6 of 14 patients (42.8%) had GH deficiency, 1 of 14 patients (7.1%) had ACTH and FSH/LH deficiencies. Two of 14 patients (14.3%) had combined hormone deficiencies and four patients (28.6%) had isolated hormone deficiencies at 12 months. Four of 9 (44.4%) hormone deficiencies at 6 months were recovered at 12 months, and 3 of 8 (37.5%) hormone deficiencies at 12 months were new-onset hormone deficiencies. At 12 months there were significant negative correlations between IGF-I level vs. LDL-C, and IGF-I level vs. total cholesterol. The frequency of AHA and APA positivity was substantially high, ranging from 35 to 50% of the patients throughout the 12 months period. However there were no significant correlations between AHA or APA positivity and hypopituitarism. The risk of hypopituitarism, GH deficiency in particular, is substantially high in the acute phase, after 6 and 12 months of the acute infectious meningitis. Moreover we found that 6th month after meningitis is too early to make a decision for pituitary dysfunction and these patients should be screened for at least 12 months

  16. An outbreak of febrile gastroenteritis associated with jellied pork contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Juliane; Much, Peter; Kasper, Sabine; Fretz, Rainer; Auer, Bettina; Kathan, Julia; Mann, Michaela; Huhulescu, Steliana; Ruppitsch, Werner; Pietzka, Ariane; Silberbauer, Karl; Neumann, Christian; Gschiel, Ernst; de Martin, Alfred; Schuetz, Angelika; Gindl, Josef; Neugschwandtner, Ernst; Allerberger, Franz

    2009-01-01

    In September 2008, the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES) learned of an outbreak of diarrheal illness that included a 71-year-old patient hospitalized for gastroenteritis with a blood culture positive for Listeria monocytogenes. Three stool specimens provided by seven of 19 persons attending a day trip to a foreign city, including a final break at an Austrian tavern, yielded L. monocytogenes. All isolates were of serovar 4b and had fingerprints indistinguishable from each other. A cohort study revealed that the outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred among 16 persons who had eaten dinner at the wine tavern on September 6. Of the 15 persons who ate from platters of mixed cold-cuts, 12 (80%) developed symptoms of febrile gastroenteritis within 24-48 h. The median age of those who became ill was 62 years. A 72-year-old patient recovered from gastroenteritis but was hospitalized with bacterial meningitis on day 19 after the dinner. The epidemiological investigation identified the consumption of mixed cold-cuts (including jellied pork) at the wine tavern as the most likely vehicle of the foodborne outbreak (P = 0.0015). This hypothesis was confirmed by microbiological investigation of jellied pork produced by the tavern owner on September 3. L. monocytogenes was isolated from leftover food in numbers of 3 x 10(3)-3 x 10(4) colony forming units/g and was indistinguishable from the clinical outbreak isolates. Symptoms reported by the 12 patients included unspecified fever (12x), diarrhea (9x), headache (5x), vomiting (4x), body aches (2x) and sore throat (1x). Active case finding identified one case of rhombencephalitis (female, age 48) among another group of four guests, among whom only the patient and her asymptomatic husband had eaten jellied pork on September 6. This is the first outbreak of L. monocytogenes-associated gastroenteritis reported in Austria. The occurrence of a secondary case of meningitis (diagnosed on day 19 after consumption of jellied

  17. Study of tuberculous meningitis by CT.

    PubMed

    Rovira, M; Romero, F; Torrent, O; Ibarra, B

    1980-04-01

    Computed tomography is a very valuable method by which the pathogenic evolution of tuberculous meningitis may be followed, thereby facilitating its differential diagnosis and controlling the efficiency of therapy. The initial miliary tuberculosis in the brain, very often unaccompanied by neurological symptoms, may offer very evident CT images. CT may also demonstrate the fibrogelatinous exudate which fills the basal cisterns and surrounds the arterial vessels which cross this region. Because of this, secondary arteritis is frequent and may be indirectly detected by CT in the form of foci of ischemic infarcts. Tuberculomas may be multiple, and are found equally in the cerebral and the cerebellar parenchyma. These tuberculomas present different images on CT, depending on the evolution of the disease at that moment. Hydrocephalus is a common complication of TM and is caused by a lack of reabsorption of the cerebrospinal fluid, or by an obstructive lesion in the ventricular drainage pathways due to a tuberculoma. This complication is usually easily identified by CT, which, moreover, permits the control of its evolution.

  18. CSF ADA Determination in Early Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis in HIV-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Gopal Chandra; Sharma, Brijesh; Gupta, B B

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculous and Cryptococcal meningitis are common in HIV patients. A highly specific and sensitive rapid test for diagnosis of Tuberculous meningitis especially in setting of HIV is not available in developing countries where the burden of disease is high. We measured ADA (adenosine deaminase) levels using spectrophotometric method in the CSF of HIV patients with meningitis to differentiate Tuberculous meningitis from meningitis due to other causes. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare ADA values between tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and nontuberculous (non-TB) meningitis patients and a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis curve was drawn from these values. Levels of ADA in the CSF of patients with TBM were significantly higher than those in patients with meningitis due to other causes. CSF ADA level determination with a cut-off value of 6 IU/L was found to be highly specific and fairly sensitive test for the diagnosis of TBM in HIV positive patients.

  19. Six months therapy for tuberculous meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Jullien, Sophie; Ryan, Hannah; Modi, Manish; Bhatia, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the main form of tuberculosis that affects the central nervous system and is associated with high rates of death and disability. Most international guidelines recommend longer antituberculous treatment (ATT) regimens for TBM than for pulmonary tuberculosis disease to prevent relapse. However, longer regimens are associated with poor adherence, which could contribute to increased relapse, development of drug resistance, and increased costs to patients and healthcare systems. Objectives To compare the effects of short-course (six months) regimens versus prolonged-course regimens for people with tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Search methods We searched the following databases up to 31 March 2016: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; INDMED; and the South Asian Database of Controlled Clinical Trials. We searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov for ongoing trials. We also checked article reference lists and contacted researchers in the field. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective cohort studies of adults and children with TBM treated with antituberculous regimens that included rifampicin for six months or longer than six months. The primary outcome was relapse, and included studies required a minimum of six months follow-up after completion of treatment. Data collection and analysis Two review authors (SJ and HR) independently assessed the literature search results for eligibility, and performed data extraction and 'Risk of bias' assessments of the included studies. We contacted study authors for additional information when necessary. Most data came from single arm cohort studies without a direct comparison so we pooled the findings for each group of cohorts and

  20. Differential diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis from partially-treated pyogenic meningitis by cell ELISA

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Rajpal S; Kainthla, Rani P; Satpute, Ravindra M; Agarwal, Neha P; Chandak, Nitin H; Purohit, Hemant J; Taori, Girdhar M; Daginawala, Hatim F

    2004-01-01

    Background Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a major global health problem, and it is sometimes difficult to perform a differential diagnosis of this disease from other diseases, particularly partially-treated pyogenic meningitis (PTPM). In an earlier study, we demonstrated the presence of a 30-kD protein antigen in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of TBM patients. We have also shown that lymphocytes from CSF of TBM patients respond differently to this antigen than do those from PTPM patients. The purpose of this study was to develop an assay that can discriminate between TBM and PTPM. Methods We developed a cell enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (Cell ELISA) to quantitatively measure production of antibodies against the 30-kD protein in B cells from CSF of TBM and PTPM patients. Results The cell ELISA yielded 92% (11/12) sensitivity and 92% (11/12) specificity for the differential diagnosis of TBM from PTPM. Conclusion When induced with the 30-kD protein antigen, B cells derived from CSF of TBM patients respond to IgG production within 24 h while those derived from PTPM patients do not respond. PMID:15498107

  1. Novel PCR Assays Complement Laser Biosensor-Based Method and Facilitate Listeria Species Detection from Food.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Singh, Atul K; Bai, Xingjian; Leprun, Lena; Bhunia, Arun K

    2015-09-08

    The goal of this study was to develop the Listeria species-specific PCR assays based on a house-keeping gene (lmo1634) encoding alcohol acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (Aad), previously designated as Listeria adhesion protein (LAP), and compare results with a label-free light scattering sensor, BARDOT (bacterial rapid detection using optical scattering technology). PCR primer sets targeting the lap genes from the species of Listeria sensu stricto were designed and tested with 47 Listeria and 8 non-Listeria strains. The resulting PCR primer sets detected either all species of Listeria sensu stricto or individual L. innocua, L. ivanovii and L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri, and L. marthii without producing any amplified products from other bacteria tested. The PCR assays with Listeria sensu stricto-specific primers also successfully detected all species of Listeria sensu stricto and/or Listeria innocua from mixed culture-inoculated food samples, and each bacterium in food was verified by using the light scattering sensor that generated unique scatter signature for each species of Listeria tested. The PCR assays based on the house-keeping gene aad (lap) can be used for detection of either all species of Listeria sensu stricto or certain individual Listeria species in a mixture from food with a detection limit of about 10⁴ CFU/mL.

  2. Occurrence of Listeria spp. in Effluents of French Urban Wastewater Treatment Plants

    PubMed Central

    Paillard, Delphine; Dubois, Véronique; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Nathier, Fany; Hoogland, Emilie; Caumette, Pierre; Quentin, Claudine

    2005-01-01

    Listeria spp. were found in most treated waters (84.4%) and raw sludge (89.2%) of six French urban wastewater treatment plants and one composting facility, examined monthly over a 1-year period. Most strains belonged to Listeria monocytogenes, serotypes 4b/4e being predominant. Sludge composting and liming reduced or prevented Listeria contamination. PMID:16269804

  3. The Meninges: New Therapeutic Targets For Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Russi, Abigail E.; Brown, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    The CNS is largely comprised of non-regenerating cells, including neurons and myelin-producing oligodendrocytes, which are particularly vulnerable to immune cell mediated damage. To protect the CNS, mechanisms exist that normally restrict the transit of peripheral immune cells into the brain and spinal cord, conferring an “immune specialized” status. Thus, there has been a long-standing debate as to how these restrictions are overcome in several inflammatory diseases of the CNS, including multiple sclerosis (MS). In this review, we highlight the role of the meninges, tissues that surround and protect the CNS and enclose the cerebral spinal fluid, in promoting chronic inflammation that leads to neuronal damage. Although the meninges have traditionally been considered structures that provide physical protection for the brain and spinal cord, new data has established these tissues as sites of active immunity. It has been hypothesized that the meninges are important players in normal immunosurveillance of the CNS but also serve as initial sites of anti-myelin immune responses. The resulting robust meningeal inflammation elicits loss of localized blood barrier integrity and facilitates a large-scale influx of immune cells into the CNS parenchyma. We propose that targeting of the cells and molecules mediating these inflammatory responses within the meninges offers promising therapies for MS that are free from the constraints imposed by the blood brain barrier. Importantly, such therapies may avoid the systemic immunosuppression often associated with the existing treatments. PMID:25241937

  4. Human Parasitic Meningitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yao-Shen; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2013-01-01

    The major cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Taiwan is Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Humans are infected by ingesting terrestrial and freshwater snails and slugs. In 1998 and 1999, two outbreaks of eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection were reported among 17 adult male immigrant Thai laborers who had eaten raw golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata). Another outbreak associated with consuming a health drink consisting of raw vegetable juice was reported in 2001. These adult cases differed from reports in the 1970s and 1980s, in which most of the cases were in children. With improvements in public health and education of foreign laborers, there have since been only sporadic cases in Taiwan. Review of clinical research indicates inconsistent association of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results with clinical features of eosinophilic meningitis. MRI features were nonspecific but there was an association between the presence of high brain MRI signal intensities and severity of peripheral and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia. Inflammatory markers have been identified in the CSF of patients with eosinophlic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and the matrix metalloproteinase system may be associated with blood-brain barrier disruption. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection is not a reportable disease in Taiwan. It is important that a public advisory and education program be developed to reduce future accidental infection. PMID:23901378

  5. Human parasitic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hung-Chin; Chen, Yao-Shen; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2013-06-01

    The major cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Taiwan is Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Humans are infected by ingesting terrestrial and freshwater snails and slugs. In 1998 and 1999, two outbreaks of eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection were reported among 17 adult male immigrant Thai laborers who had eaten raw golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata). Another outbreak associated with consuming a health drink consisting of raw vegetable juice was reported in 2001. These adult cases differed from reports in the 1970s and 1980s, in which most of the cases were in children. With improvements in public health and education of foreign laborers, there have since been only sporadic cases in Taiwan. Review of clinical research indicates inconsistent association of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results with clinical features of eosinophilic meningitis. MRI features were nonspecific but there was an association between the presence of high brain MRI signal intensities and severity of peripheral and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia. Inflammatory markers have been identified in the CSF of patients with eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and the matrix metalloproteinase system may be associated with blood-brain barrier disruption. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection is not a reportable disease in Taiwan. It is important that a public advisory and education program be developed to reduce future accidental infection.

  6. [A case of Mycobacterium fortuitum meningitis following surgery for meningioma].

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Keita; Suenaga, Akihito; Motomura, Masakatsu; Fukuda, Taku; Ooe, Nobuharu; Eguchi, Katsumi

    2006-07-01

    A 57-year-old woman had undergone surgery for meningioma. After the surgery, she suffered from repeated fever and headache. One year after surgery, she was admitted to our hospital for further examination. Cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) findings indicated bacterial meningitis infection. Germ culture, acid-fast bacterium culture, PCR for mycobacteriosis and cryptococcus antigens as well as cytological examination of CSF were checked repeatedly. However, all examinations were negative and etiology was unknown. We treated with many anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-tubercular drugs, but CSF findings were not improved. We repeated CSF examination and finally Mycobacterium fortuitum (M. fortuitum) was isolated. Clarithromycin (CAM) was started for M. fortuitum meningitis. After drug sensitivity testing, levofloxacin (LVFX), which was effective against M. fortuitum, was added to CAM, after which clinical and CSF findings improved dramatically. M. fortuitum rarely causes CNS infection. Several English literatures on M. fortuitum meningitis after traumatic injury and surgery have been published. Its CSF findings distinctly resemble those of bacterial meningitis, but are resistant to the usual antituberculosis drugs. We reported a case of M. fortuitum meningitis associated with surgery for meningioma.

  7. Stroke Secondary to Aseptic Meningitis After Endovascular Treatment of a Giant Aneurysm with Parent Artery Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Doenmez, Halil Mavili, Ertugrul Ikizceli, Tuerkan; Durak, Ahmet Candan; Kurtsoy, Ali

    2009-07-15

    Aseptic meningitis related to hydrogel-coated coils is a known complication, but it is extremely rare after platinum bare coil aseptic meningitis. Here we report the development of aseptic meningitis causing brain stem and cerebellar infarct in a patient with a giant aneurysm treated with bare platinum coils. We conclude that aneurysm size is an important factor affecting the occurrence of aseptic meningitis associated with stroke.

  8. 9 CFR 430.4 - Control of Listeria monocytogenes in post-lethality exposed ready-to-eat products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of Listeria monocytogenes in... Control of Listeria monocytogenes in post-lethality exposed ready-to-eat products. (a) Listeria..., such as Listeria species, to verify the effectiveness of their sanitation procedures in the...

  9. 9 CFR 430.4 - Control of Listeria monocytogenes in post-lethality exposed ready-to-eat products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of Listeria monocytogenes in... Control of Listeria monocytogenes in post-lethality exposed ready-to-eat products. (a) Listeria..., such as Listeria species, to verify the effectiveness of their sanitation procedures in the...

  10. Evaluation of Immune Responses Mediated by Listeria-Stimulated Human Dendritic Cells: Implications for Cancer Vaccine Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    by Listeria -Stimulated Human Dendritic Cells: Implications for Cancer Vaccine Therapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David J. Chung, MD, PhD...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Evaluation of Immune Responses Mediated by Listeria -Stimulated Human Dendritic Cells: Implications for Cancer Vaccine...ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is to study the immunomodulatory effect of Listeria on human dendritic cells (DCs) to optimize Listeria - based

  11. Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. contamination patterns in retail delicatessen establishments in three U.S. states.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Courtenay; Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Wright, Emily; Warchocki, Steven; Roof, Sherry; Kause, Janell R; Bauer, Nathan; Ibrahim, Salam; Wiedmann, Martin; Oliver, Haley F

    2014-11-01

    Postprocessing contamination in processing plants has historically been a significant source of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat delicatessen meats, and therefore a major cause of human listeriosis cases and outbreaks. Recent risk assessments suggest that a majority of human listeriosis cases linked to consumption of contaminated deli meats may be due to L. monocytogenes contamination that occurs at the retail level. To better understand the ecology and transmission of Listeria spp. in retail delicatessens, food and nonfood contact surfaces were tested for L. monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. in a longitudinal study conducted in 30 retail delis in three U.S. states. In phase I of the study, seven sponge samples were collected monthly for 3 months in 15 delis (5 delis per state) prior to start of daily operation; in phase II, 28 food contact and nonfood contact sites were sampled in each of 30 delis during daily operation for 6 months. Among the 314 samples collected during phase I, 6.8% were positive for L. monocytogenes. Among 4,503 samples collected during phase II, 9.5% were positive for L. monocytogenes; 9 of 30 delis showed low L. monocytogenes prevalence (<1%) for all surfaces. A total of 245 Listeria spp. isolates, including 184 Listeria innocua, 48 Listeria seeligeri, and 13 Listeria welshimeri were characterized. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to characterize 446 L. monocytogenes isolates. PFGE showed that for 12 of 30 delis, one or more PFGE types were isolated on at least three separate occasions, providing evidence for persistence of a given L. monocytogenes subtype in the delis. For some delis, PFGE patterns for isolates from nonfood contact surfaces were distinct from patterns for occasional food contact surface isolates, suggesting limited cross-contamination between these sites in some delis. This study provides longitudinal data on L. monocytogenes contamination patterns in retail delis, which should facilitate further

  12. [Haemophilus influenzae purulent meningitis in adults: looking for a predisposing factor].

    PubMed

    Boukadida, Jalel; Hannachi, Neila

    2002-05-01

    We bring back an adult case of purulent meningitis to Haemophilus influenzae. We insist on the particular aspects of the host of this meningitis type at the adult. These aspects must be searched every time that Haemophilus influenzae is isolated in cerebrospinal fluid in adult's meningitis.

  13. Staphylococcal meningitis can present as an abscess of a single lateral ventricle.

    PubMed

    Robinson, E N

    1993-03-01

    Ventricular obstruction and hydrocephalus are recognized complications of neurosurgical procedures and meningitis that has been previously treated. The confinement of bacterial meningitis solely to a lateral ventricle in an otherwise healthy individual, however, is rare. I describe a case in which a ventricular abscess occurred as the presenting manifestation of staphylococcal meningitis in a man who had no history of head trauma or neurosurgery.

  14. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in children with bacterial and aseptic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Nussinovitch, Moshe; Finkelstein, Yaron; Elishkevitz, Keren Politi; Volovitz, Benjamin; Harel, Daniella; Klinger, Gil; Razon, Yaron; Nussinovitch, Udi; Nussinovitch, Naomi

    2009-10-01

    Differentiation of bacterial from aseptic meningitis may be difficult. Our aim was to determine the pattern of distribution of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with bacterial and aseptic meningitis. One hundred and fifty-seven patients with suspected meningitis were enrolled in the study. They were divided into 3 groups according to the culture- or bacterial antigen assay-proven diagnosis and CSF findings: bacterial meningitis (n = 31), aseptic meningitis (n = 65), and non-meningitis (n = 61). Total LDH level and percentages of LDH isoenzymes in the CSF were measured in each patient. Each group showed a distinct LDH isoenzyme distribution pattern, with a statistically significant difference among the groups in the percentages of the various isoenzymes. Compared with the non-meningitis group, total LDH activity in the CSF was high in the aseptic meningitis group (49.82+/-35.59 U/L, P < 0.001) and exaggerated in the bacterial meningitis group (944.53+/-112.3 U/L, P < 0.001). Low LDH-2 levels were unique to bacterial meningitis (P < 0.01), whereas high LDH-3 levels were characteristic of aseptic meningitis (P < 0.05). Both groups had low levels of LDH-1 and high levels of LDH-4 and LDH-5. In conclusion, the LDH isoenzyme pattern may be of clinical diagnostic value in meningitis, particularly when culture results are pending.

  15. Bacillus cereus meningitis and bacteremia associated with an Ommaya reservoir in a patient with lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Garcia, I; Fainstein, V; McLaughlin, P

    1984-07-01

    After placement of an Ommaya reservoir, meningitis and bacteremia due to Bacillus cereus occurred in a patient with stage IV lymphoblastic lymphoma and meningeal involvement. Bacillus species have been implicated as meningeal pathogens after lumbar punctures. These organisms have become an important cause of severe infection, especially in immunologically compromised patients.

  16. Dose-response of Listeria monocytogenes after oral exposure in pregnant guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Williams, Denita; Irvin, Elizabeth A; Chmielewski, Revis A; Frank, Joseph F; Smith, Mary A

    2007-05-01

    Listeriosis, a severe disease that results from exposure to the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, is responsible for approximately 2500 illnesses and 500 deaths in the United States each year. Pregnant women are 20 times more likely to develop listeriosis than the general population, with adverse pregnancy outcomes that include spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and neonatal meningitis. The objective of this study was to determine an infective dose that resulted in stillbirths and infectivity of selected tissues in pregnant guinea pigs. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed orally on gestation day 35 to 10(4) to 10(8) L. monocytogenes CFU in sterile whipping cream. L. monocytogenes was recovered at 64, 73, 90, and 100% from the livers of animals infected with 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), and 10(8) CFU, respectively. In dams exposed to > or =10(6) CFU, L. monocytogenes was cultured from 50% of the spleen samples and 33% of the gallbladder samples. Eleven of 34 dams infected with > or =10(6) CFU delivered stillborn pups. L. monocytogenes was cultured from the placenta, liver, and brain tissue of all stillbirths. Dams that delivered nonviable fetuses after treatment with > or =10(7) L. monocytogenes CFU had fecal samples positive for L. monocytogenes at every collection posttreatment. On the basis of a log-logistic model, the dose that adversely affected 50% of the pregnancies was approximately 10(7) L. monocytogenes CFU compared with that estimated from a human outbreak of 106 CFU. Listeriosis in pregnant guinea pigs can result in stillbirths, and the overall disease is similar to that described in nonhuman primates and in humans.

  17. Symptomatic relapse of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: recurrent cryptococcal meningitis or Cryptococcus-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome?

    PubMed

    Jhamb, Rajat; Kashyap, Bineeta; Das, Shukla; Berry, Neha; Garg, Arun

    2014-04-01

    Cryptococcosis, a significant opportunistic infection, has become a global concern since the advent of immunosuppressive chemotherapy or in immunodeficient patients. Host responses range from a harmless colonization to disseminated disease. An accurate or definitive diagnosis in patients with cryptococcal meningitis is often delayed because of the similar clinical presentation and biochemical or cerebrospinal fluid findings to those of a variety of infectious and non-infectious aetiologies, most of which are also especially prevalent in developing countries. Rarely, patients with cryptococcal meningitis can develop immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) when initiated on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) the diagnosis which is often missed and can be fatal. Due to the similar presentation of infection and IRIS, it is often confused with the relapse of cryptococcal meningitis. We report a case of paradoxical recurrent meningitis in response to the initiation of cART in a patient diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis and propose that the recurrent symptoms resulted from a therapy-induced reconstitution of the immune response against residual Cryptococcus neoformans.

  18. Vaccine preventable meningitis in Malaysia: epidemiology and management.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Hannah C; Jefferies, Johanna M C; Clarke, Stuart C

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide bacterial meningitis accounts for more than one million cases and 135,000 deaths annually. Profound, lasting neurological complications occur in 9-25% of cases. This review confirms the greatest risk from bacterial meningitis is in early life in Malaysia. Much of the disease burden can be avoided by immunization, particularly against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Despite inclusion of the Hib vaccine in the National Immunisation Programme and the licensure of pneumococcal vaccines, these two species are the main contributors to bacterial meningitis in Malaysia, with Neisseria meningitidis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, causing a smaller proportion of disease. The high Hib prevalence may partly be due to dated, small-scale studies limiting the understanding of the current epidemiological situation. This highlights the need for larger, better quality surveillance from Malaysia to evaluate the success of Hib immunization and to help guide immunization policy for vaccines against S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis.

  19. Cat scratch disease complicated with aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis.

    PubMed

    Pinto Jr, Vitor Laerte; Curi, André Land; Pinto, Adriana da Silva; Nunes, Estevão Portela; Teixeira, Maria de Lourdes Benamor; Rozental, Tatiana; Favacho, Alexsandra Rodrigues; Castro, Elba Lemos de; Bóia, Márcio Neves

    2008-04-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a self limited condition characterized by fever, lymph node enlargement and less often eye involvement. Central nervous system involvement by Bartonella henselae infection is possibly an important cause of morbidity; its role as an agent of aseptic meningitis is unknown. We report a case of a 40 years-old man with CSD accompanied by aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis. Serum indirect immmunofluorescence (IFI) assays for B. henselae were positive and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed mononuclear pleocytosis and increased level of protein. Serological tests for other etiologies were negative. The patient responded well to antibiotic therapy with oral doxycicline plus rifampin and in the 12th day of hospitalization evolved to total regression of the headache and partial regression of the visual loss. Clinicians should consider CSD as a differential diagnosis when assessing previously healthy patients with aseptic meningitis associated with regional lymphadenopathy and epidemiological history of feline contact.

  20. Citrobacter koseri (diversus) meningitis in an otherwise healthy adolescent.

    PubMed

    Prais, Dario; Nussinovitch, Moshe; Harel, Liora; Amir, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    Citrobacter infection is commonly reported in neonates and immunocompromised patients. Citrobacter koseri (diversus) is an important cause of neonatal meningitis and brain abscess formation. It adults, however, Citrobacter infection with central nervous system involvement is rare, and is usually associated with an underlying disorder. This report describes a 12-y-old previously healthy girl with Citrobacter koseri meningitis. Intravenous treatment with ceftriaxone for 10 d led to complete recovery. Head computed tomography and brainstem-evoked response audiometry were normal. On follow-up, the patient was completely healthy. Previously reported cases of C. koseri meningitis in the adult population were associated with underlying predisposing factors. In this case a normal, healthy adolescent was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone without any of the known neurological complications observed in the neonatal cases.

  1. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with meningitis due to Mycobacterium intracellulare.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of persistent fever, headache and fatigue for several weeks. On admission, she was diagnosed as having meningitis due to Mycobacterium intracellulare (M. intracellulare) detected in her cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by polymerase chain reaction. Even though anti-tuberculous therapy improved her CSF findings, her condition was not restored. Brain MRI showed multifocal and asymmetrical increases in T2 signals involving white matter and cortical gray-white junction of cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum and brainstem. Based on the progression of clinical symptoms and radiological features, we diagnosed her illness as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) associated with meningitis due to M. intracellulare. Steroid therapy dramatically improved her condition. This is the first report of ADEM following meningitis due to M. intracellulare in a non-immunocompromized host.

  2. Preventing deaths from cryptococcal meningitis: from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Roy, Monika; Chiller, Tom

    2011-09-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM), a fungal disease caused by Cryptococcus spp., is the most common form of meningitis and a leading cause of death among persons with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. Detection of cryptococcal antigen, which is present several weeks before overt signs of meningitis develop, provides an opportunity to detect infection early. Screening persons with HIV for cryptococcal infection when they access healthcare can identify asymptomatic infected patients allowing for prompt treatment and prevention of death. A newly developed point-of-care assay for cryptococcal antigen, as well as growing evidence supporting the utility and cost-effectiveness of screening, are further reasons to consider broad implementation of cryptococcal screening in countries with a high burden of cryptococcal disease.

  3. Early blindness and coma during intrathecal chemotherapy for meningeal carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Boogerd, W; Moffie, D; Smets, L A

    1990-02-01

    A 35-year-old woman was treated with intraventricular methotrexate (MTX) with a total dose of 70 mg followed by cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) with a total dose of 80 mg for meningeal metastasis of breast carcinoma. Radiation therapy was not given. Despite a response of the meningeal tumor the patient developed in the third week of MTX treatment a progressive visual loss and loss of consciousness which worsened during subsequent Ara-C treatment and led to death within 3 weeks. Postmortem examination revealed only minimal neoplastic infiltration of the meninges. Multiple foci of axonal degeneration and demyelination were found in the optic nerves and chiasm, the superficial layers of the brainstem, and spinal cord and to some extent in other cranial nerves and spinal nerve roots. The possible causes of this previously unreported early complication are discussed.

  4. Meningitis caused by Capnocytophaga canimorsus: when to expect the unexpected.

    PubMed

    de Boer, M G J; Lambregts, P C L A; van Dam, A P; van 't Wout, J W

    2007-06-01

    In this article we review the available data concerning meningitis caused by Capnocytophaga canimorsus. The clinical presentation of this rare condition is described with the emphasis on associated conditions and management issues. Two additional cases, illustrating the difficulties in recognizing this rare disease, are presented. Reviewing a total of 28 reported cases, a preceding bite-incident by a cat or dog, or close contact with these animals, was described in the majority of cases (89%). Patients had a median age of 58 years; splenectomy and alcohol abuse were noted in, respectively, 18% and 25% of patients. Only in one case immune suppressive drug use was reported. The diagnosis C. canimorsus meningitis should be considered in healthy and immunocompromised adults, especially after splenectomy, who present with symptoms attributable to meningitis and a history of recent exposure to dogs or cats. The possibility of this condition has implications for both the diagnostic work-up and the treatment of the patient.

  5. The Evolution of the Meningitis Vaccine Project

    PubMed Central

    Tiffay, Kathleen; Jodar, Luis; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Socquet, Muriel; LaForce, F. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background. In 2001, the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP) was tasked to develop, test, license, and introduce a group A meningococcal (MenA) conjugate vaccine for sub-Saharan Africa. African public health officials emphasized that a vaccine price of less than US$0.50 per dose was necessary to ensure introduction and sustained use of this new vaccine. Methods. Initially, MVP envisioned partnering with a multinational vaccine manufacturer, but the target price and opportunity costs were problematic and formal negotiations ended in 2002. MVP chose to become a “virtual vaccine company,” and over the next decade managed a network of public–private and public–public partnerships for pharmaceutical development, clinical development, and regulatory submission. MVP supported the transfer of key know-how for the production of group A polysaccharide and a new conjugation method to the Serum Institute of India, Ltd, based in Pune, India. A robust staff structure supported by technical consultants and overseen by advisory groups in Europe and Africa ensured that the MenA conjugate vaccine would meet all international standards. Results. A robust project structure including a team of technical consultants and 3 advisory groups in Europe and Africa ensured that the MenA conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT, MenAfriVac) was licensed by the Drug Controller General of India and prequalified by the World Health Organization in June 2010. The vaccine was introduced in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger in December 2010. Conclusions. The development, through a public–private partnership, of a safe, effective, and affordable vaccine for sub-Saharan Africa, PsA-TT, offers a new paradigm for the development of vaccines specifically targeting populations in resource-poor countries. PMID:26553666

  6. McArdle Disease Misdiagnosed as Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Scalco, Renata Siciliani; Chatfield, Sherryl; Junejo, Muhammad Hyder; Booth, Suzanne; Pattni, Jatin; Godfrey, Richard; Quinlivan, Ros

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 44 Final Diagnosis: McArdle disease Symptoms: Exercise intolerance • muscle contracture • myalgia • myoglobinuria • recurrent rhabdomyolysis Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Neurology Objective: Rare disease Background: McArdle disease is a glycogen storage disorder mainly characterized by exercise intolerance. Prolonged muscle contracture is also a feature of this condition and may lead to rhabdomyolysis (RM), which is a serious event characterized by acute skeletal muscle damage. Case Report: A 44-year-old female patient presented with an acute contracture of the posterior neck muscles, causing severe nuchal rigidity. The contracture was induced during a dental extraction as she held her mouth open for a prolonged period, with her neck in a rigid position. She presented with severe pain in her ear and head, as well as fever, vomiting, and confusion. Based on her symptoms, she was initially misdiagnosed with bacterial meningitis and experienced an acute allergic reaction to the systemic penicillin she was subsequently administered. Lumbar puncture results were normal. High serum creatine kinase (CK) levels, recurrent exercise-related muscle symptoms, and a previous history of recurrent myoglobinuria raised the suspicion of an underlying neuromuscular condition. McArdle disease was confirmed by muscle biopsy and a genetic test, which revealed that the patient was homozygous for the R50X mutation in the PYGM gene. Conclusions: This case illustrates that even seemingly innocuous movements, if rapid isotonic or prolonged isometric in nature, can elicit a muscle contracture in McArdle disease patients. Here, we highlight the need for careful management in this patient population even during routine healthcare procedures. The allergic reaction to antibiotics emphasises that misdiagnoses may result in iatrogenic harm. PMID:27899787

  7. [A meningitis case of Brucella and tuberculosis co-infection].

    PubMed

    Karsen, Hasan; Karahocagil, Mustafa Kasim; Irmak, Hasan; Demiröz, Ali Pekcan

    2008-10-01

    Turkey is located at an endemic area for brusellosis and tuberculosis which are both important public health problems. Meningitis caused by Brucella and Mycobacterium spp. may be confused since the clinical and laboratory findings are similar. In this report, a meningitis case with Brucella and tuberculosis co-infection has been presented. A 19-years-old woman was admitted to our clinic with severe headache, fever, vomiting, meningeal irritation symptoms, confusion and diplopia. The patient was initially diagnosed as Brucella meningitis based on her history (stockbreeding, consuming raw milk products, clinical symptoms concordant to brucellosis lasting for 4-5 months), physical examination and laboratory findings of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Standard tube agglutination test for brucellosis was positive at 1/80 titer in CSF and at 1/640 titer in serum, whereas no growth of Brucella spp. was detected in CSF and blood cultures. Antibiotic therapy with ceftriaxone, rifampicin and doxycyclin was started, however, there was no clinical improvement and agitation and confusion of the patient continued by the end of second day of treatment. Repeated CSF examination yielded acid-fast bacteria. The patient was then diagnosed as meningitis with double etiology and the therapy was changed to ceftriaxone, streptomycin, morphozinamide, rifampicin and isoniazid for thirty days. Tuberculosis meningitis was confirmed with the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the 14th day of cultivation (BACTEC, Becton Dickinson, USA) of the CSF sample. On the 30th day of treatment she was discharged on anti-tuberculous treatment with isoniazid and rifampicin for 12 months. The follow-up of the patient on the first and third months of treatment revealed clinical and laboratory improvement. Since this was a rare case of Brucella and tuberculosis co-infection, this report emphasizes that such co-infections should be kept in mind especially in the endemic areas for tuberculosis and brucellosis.

  8. Exome Array Analysis of Susceptibility to Pneumococcal Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Kloek, Anne T.; van Setten, Jessica; van der Ende, Arie; Bots, Michiel L.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Serón, Mercedes Valls; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik; Ferwerda, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Host genetic variability may contribute to susceptibility of bacterial meningitis, but which genes contribute to the susceptibility to this complex disease remains undefined. We performed a genetic association study in 469 community-acquired pneumococcal meningitis cases and 2072 population-based controls from the Utrecht Health Project in order to find genetic variants associated with pneumococcal meningitis susceptibility. A HumanExome BeadChip was used to genotype 102,097 SNPs in the collected DNA samples. Associations were tested with the Fisher exact test. None of the genetic variants tested reached Bonferroni corrected significance (p-value <5 × 10−7). Our strongest signals associated with susceptibility to pneumococcal meningitis were rs139064549 on chromosome 1 in the COL11A1 gene (p = 1.51 × 10−6; G allele OR 3.21 [95% CI 2.05–5.02]) and rs9309464 in the EXOC6B gene on chromosome 2 (p = 6.01 × 10−5; G allele OR 0.66 [95% CI 0.54–0.81]). The sequence kernel association test (SKAT) tests for associations between multiple variants in a gene region and pneumococcal meningitis susceptibility yielded one significant associated gene namely COL11A1 (p = 1.03 × 10−7). Replication studies are needed to validate these results. If replicated, the functionality of these genetic variations should be further studied to identify by which means they influence the pathophysiology of pneumococcal meningitis. PMID:27389768

  9. [Chemoprophylaxis and vaccine for prevention of bacterial meningitis in children].

    PubMed

    Bourrillon, Antoine; Bingen, Edouard

    2004-05-15

    Given the devastating nature of Neisseria meningitidis disease and emergence of resistant strains prevention through chemoprophylaxis and meningococcal vaccine remains the best approach to control this serious infection. Chemoprophylaxis may limited strictly to the contact subjects. Polysaccharide meningococcal serogroups A, C, Y and W135 should be given less than 10 days to patients with prolonged contact with the index case. Meningococcal C conjugate vaccine constitutes an additional advantage in the prevention of meningococcal meningitis in children < 2 years. High Haemophilus serotype B coverage level led to near-disappearance of H. influenzae serotype b meningitis but chemoprophylaxis remains indicated.

  10. Meningeal melanocytoma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, J; Weil, B; Ayala, A; Jimenez, A; Acedo, C; Rodrigo, I

    1997-06-01

    We report a case of meningeal melanocytoma in the thoracic spinal cord of a 44-year-old woman and review previously documented cases. Our patient experienced numbness and tingling in her left leg for 8 years, and low back pains with intermittent claudication for the previous 2 months. A histologically benign 20-mm tumour was totally resected. Radiation therapy was not given. The tumour showed the histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of a meningeal melanocytoma. The patient is alive without recurrence 4.5 years after surgery.

  11. Aseptic Meningitis Caused by Lassa Virus: Case Series Report.

    PubMed

    Okokhere, Peter O; Bankole, Idowu A; Iruolagbe, Christopher O; Muoebonam, Benard E; Okonofua, Martha O; Dawodu, Simeon O; Akpede, George O

    2016-01-01

    The Lassa virus is known to cause disease in different organ systems of the human body, with varying clinical manifestations. The features of severe clinical disease may include bleeding and/or central nervous system manifestations. Whereas Lassa fever encephalopathy and encephalitis are well described in the literature, there is paucity of data on Lassa virus meningitis. We present the clinical description, laboratory diagnosis, and management of 4 consecutive cases of aseptic meningitis associated with Lassa virus infection without bleeding seen in a region of Nigeria known to be endemic for both the reservoir rodent and Lassa fever. The 4 patients recovered fully following intravenous ribavirin treatment and suffered no neurologic complications.

  12. [Haemophilus influenzae type B meningitis: typical and atypical presentation].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, J M; Zurro, F J; Ferreiro, D; Llana, R; Uría, D F

    1998-02-01

    We present 2 cases of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis. The first is a patient with atypical simptomatology: abdominal pain, fever and two days later pain in the back of his legs. Abdominal pathology was not found. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed polymorphonuclear cells, hyperproteinorachia and lowered glucose. CSF culture revealed Haemophilus influenzae, blood culture was sterile. The second had suffered surgery at maxilar and ethmoid sinuses four years before, and unknown germ meningitis 6 months before. Haemophilus influenzae was isolated from CSF cultures and CSF rhinorrhea was detected by isotopic cisternography.

  13. Detectability of early brain meningitis with magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M.; Wells, J.W.; Williams, N.M.

    1995-08-01

    The ability of high-field (1.5 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect early brain meningitis was evaluated in a canine model. Contrast dose, timing postinjection, and imaging technique (specifically the use of magnetization transfer) were assessed. Imaging of five canines was performed at 1.5 T 24 hours after injection of Cowans staphylococcus into the cisterna magna. Two control animals also were imaged using the same protocol. Contrast doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.8 mmol/kg gadoteridol were compared. Scans were performed at 2, 13, and 22 minutes after an initial injection of 0.1 mmol/kg. Thirty minutes after the initial injection of contrast, a supplemental dose of 0.2 mmol/kg was given. Scans were then repeated at 2, 12, and 22 minutes after this dose was administered. A second supplemental contrast injection of 0.5 mmol/kg was given at 70 minutes, and immediate postinjection scans with and without MT were acquired. Results. In the animals receiving a cisternal injection of bacteria, the degree of meningeal enhancement was greatest at 0.8 mmol/kg, intermediate at 0.3 mmol/kg, and least at 0.1 mmol/kg. Scans in control studies did not demonstrate abnormal meningeal enhancement. High-contrast dose, MT, and acquisition of immediate postcontrast scans all resulted in statistically significant improvement. On masked film review, abnormal meningeal enhancement was noted in only 2 of 5 experimental dogs at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg (regardless of the use of MT) compared with all animals at a dose of 0.3 mmol/kg. In 18 of 37 dogs (paired scans with and without MT), when abnormal enhancement was noted, the use of MT improved the visualization of abnormal meningeal enhancement. In early brain meningitis, high-contrast dose (0.3 mmol/kg), MT, and scanning immediately after injection improve detection of abnormal meningeal enhancement, thus facilitating the diagnosis of meningitis. Of these factors, contrast dose is the most important. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Neonatal Citrobacter koseri Meningitis: Report of Four Cases

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Joana; Rocha, Dalila; Santos, Fátima; João, Anabela

    2014-01-01

    Citrobacter koseri is a rare cause of neonatal meningitis with predisposal for brain abscesses, and therefore responsible for high mortality and serious neurologic sequelae in this age group. We present the evolution and outcome of four cases of C. koseri meningitis. One of them developed brain abscesses and another one died. The cases show the bacteria's propensity for serious brain damage, despite early and adequate treatment, and the high risk of long-term neurologic complications in survivors, which imposes a close follow-up. PMID:24716069

  15. Meningitis with Digital Gangrene in Meningococcal Infection: An Atypical Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jitendra; Himanshu, Dandu; Nim, Ranjit Kumar; Gupta, Kamlesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Meningococcal infection is an important public health concern. Neisseria meningitidis usually colonizes the nasopharynx of healthy adolescents and adults and remains as asymptomatic colonizer, while in rare cases it may present as invasive disease as either meningitis or septicemia or both. Most of the cases have typical presentation of rashes. We hereby present a case of a 40-year-old male who presented with meningococcal meningitis and peripheral digital gangrene but without development of typical rashes. He improved by early institution of appropriate intravenous antibiotics with supportive care. PMID:28208911

  16. Neonatal Citrobacter koseri Meningitis: Report of Four Cases.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Joana; Rocha, Dalila; Santos, Fátima; João, Anabela

    2014-01-01

    Citrobacter koseri is a rare cause of neonatal meningitis with predisposal for brain abscesses, and therefore responsible for high mortality and serious neurologic sequelae in this age group. We present the evolution and outcome of four cases of C. koseri meningitis. One of them developed brain abscesses and another one died. The cases show the bacteria's propensity for serious brain damage, despite early and adequate treatment, and the high risk of long-term neurologic complications in survivors, which imposes a close follow-up.

  17. How Do Meningeal Lymphatic Vessels Drain the CNS?

    PubMed

    Raper, Daniel; Louveau, Antoine; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    The many interactions between the nervous and the immune systems, which are active in both physiological and pathological states, have recently become more clearly delineated with the discovery of a meningeal lymphatic system capable of carrying fluid, immune cells, and macromolecules from the central nervous system (CNS) to the draining deep cervical lymph nodes. However, the exact localization of the meningeal lymphatic vasculature and the path of drainage from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to the lymphatics remain poorly understood. Here, we discuss the potential differences between peripheral and CNS lymphatic vessels and examine the purported mechanisms of CNS lymphatic drainage, along with how these may fit into established patterns of CSF flow.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility and antibiotic resistance gene transfer analysis of foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria spp. isolates including Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, David; Muelli, Mirjam; Weller, Monika; Uruty, Anaïs; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess antibiotic resistance pheno- and genotypes in foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria isolates, as well as to elucidate the horizontal gene transfer potential of detected resistance genes. A small fraction of in total 524 Listeria spp. isolates (3.1%) displayed acquired antibiotic resistance mainly to tetracycline (n = 11), but also to clindamycin (n = 4) and trimethoprim (n = 3), which was genotypically confirmed. In two cases, a tetracycline resistance phenotype was observed together with a trimethoprim resistance phenotype, namely in a clinical L. monocytogenes strain and in a foodborne L. innocua isolate. Depending on the applied guidelines, a differing number of isolates (n = 2 or n = 20) showed values for ampicillin that are on the edge between intermediate susceptibility and resistance. Transferability of the antibiotic resistance genes from the Listeria donors, elucidated in vitro by filter matings, was demonstrated for genes located on transposons of the Tn916 family and for an unknown clindamycin resistance determinant. Transfer rates of up to 10(-5) transconjugants per donor were obtained with a L. monocytogenes recipient and up to 10(-7) with an Enterococcus faecalis recipient, respectively. Although the prevalence of acquired antibiotic resistance in Listeria isolates from this study was rather low, the transferability of these resistances enables further spread in the future. This endorses the importance of surveillance of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. in terms of antibiotic susceptibility.

  19. How does Listeria monocytogenes combat acid conditions?

    PubMed

    Smith, James L; Liu, Yanhong; Paoli, George C

    2013-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a major foodborne pathogen, possesses a number of mechanisms that enable it to combat the challenges posed by acidic environments, such as that of acidic foods and the gastrointestinal tract. One mechanism employed by L. monocytogenes for survival at low pH is the adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR) in which a short adaptive period at a nonlethal pH induces metabolic changes that allow the organism to survive a lethal pH. Overcoming acid conditions by L. monocytogenes involves a variety of regulatory responses, including the LisRK 2-component regulatory system, the SOS response, components of the σ(B) regulon, changes in membrane fluidity, the F0F1-ATPase proton pump, and at least 2 enzymatic systems that regulate internal hydrogen ion concentration (glutamate decarboxylase and arginine deiminase). It is not clear if these mechanisms exert their protective effects separately or in concert, but it is probable that these mechanisms overlap. Studies using mutants indicate that the glutamate decarboxylase system can protect L. monocytogenes when the organism is present in acidic juices, yogurt, salad dressing, mayonnaise, and modified CO2 atmospheres. The glutamate decarboxylase system also has a role in protecting L. monocytogenes against the acidic environment of the stomach. There is a need to study other acid resistance mechanisms of L. monocytogenes to determine their effectiveness in protecting the organism in acidic foods or during transit through the acid stomach.

  20. Pathogenicity of Listeria monocytogenes grown on crabmeat.

    PubMed Central

    Brackett, R E; Beuchat, L R

    1990-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Listeria monocytogenes as influenced by growth on crabmeat at 5 and 10 degrees C was studied. Crabmeat was inoculated with L. monocytogenes V7 (ca. 10(4) CFU/g) and incubated for up to 14 days at 5 and 10 degrees C. At selected incubation times, L. monocytogenes was removed from crabmeat by washing with 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), and populations were determined by surface plating on LiCl-phenylethanol-moxalactam agar. Buffered suspensions were then centrifuged, and the resulting pellets were suspended in phosphate buffer containing 10% glycerol and stored at -18 degrees C. Thawed, diluted suspensions of cells were tested for pathogenicity by intraperitoneal injection into immunocompromised and nonimmunocompromised mice. L. monocytogenes cells recovered from crabmeat and then recultured in tryptose phosphate broth (TPB), as well as cells which had not been passed through crabmeat but had been cultured in TPB, were likewise harvested, suspended in buffered 10% glycerol, frozen, thawed, diluted, and tested for pathogenicity by intraperitoneal injection. Growth on crabmeat at 5 and 10 degrees C did not have a significant effect on pathogenicity. The population of L. monocytogenes necessary to kill about 50% of the immunocompromised mice in each test set within 7 days was about 10(4) CFU, and this result was not significantly affected by storage temperature of the crabmeat or type of substrate, i.e., crabmeat or TPB, on which it had grown. PMID:2111120

  1. Silver As Antibacterial toward Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Belluco, Simone; Losasso, Carmen; Patuzzi, Ilaria; Rigo, Laura; Conficoni, Daniele; Gallocchio, Federica; Cibin, Veronica; Catellani, Paolo; Segato, Severino; Ricci, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a serious foodborne pathogen that can contaminate food during processing and can grow during food shelf-life. New types of safe and effective food contact materials embedding antimicrobial agents, like silver, can play an important role in the food industry. The present work aimed at evaluating the in vitro growth kinetics of different strains of L. monocytogenes in the presence of silver, both in its ionic and nano form. The antimicrobial effect was determined by assaying the number of culturable bacterial cells, which formed colonies after incubation in the presence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) or silver nitrate (AgNO3). Ionic release experiments were performed in parallel. A different reduction of bacterial viability between silver ionic and nano forms was observed, with a time delayed effect exerted by AgNPs. An association between antimicrobial activity and ions concentration was shown by both silver chemical forms, suggesting the major role of ions in the antimicrobial mode of action. PMID:27014230

  2. Apoptotic cells enhance pathogenesis of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Pattabiraman, Goutham; Palasiewicz, Karol; Visvabharathy, Lavanya; Freitag, Nancy E; Ucker, David S

    2017-04-01

    Infections by pathogenic microorganisms elicit host immune responses, which crucially limit those infections. Pathogens employ various strategies to evade host immunity. We have identified the exploitation of the repertoire of potent immunosuppressive responses elicited normally by apoptotic cells ("Innate Apoptotic Immunity"; IAI) as one of these strategies. In the case of Listeria monocytogenes, an environmentally ubiquitous, foodborne bacterial pathogen capable of causing life-threatening invasive disease in immunocompromised and elderly individuals, the induction of host cell apoptosis appears to play an important role in pathogenesis. Previous studies have documented extensive lymphocyte apoptosis resulting from L. monocytogenes infection and demonstrated paradoxically that lymphocyte-deficient animals exhibit diminished susceptibility to listerial pathogenicity. We speculated that the triggering of IAI following the induction of host cell apoptosis was responsible for enhanced pathogenesis, and that the administration of exogenous apoptotic cells would serve to exert this effect. Importantly, apoptotic cells, which are not susceptible to L. monocytogenes infection, do not provide a niche for bacterial replication. Our experiments confirm that apoptotic cells, including exogenous apoptotic cells induced to die independently of the pathogen, specifically enhance pathogenesis. The recognition of a role of apoptotic cells and Innate Apoptotic Immunity in microbial pathogenesis provides an intriguing and novel insight for therapeutic approaches for the control of pathogenic infections.

  3. Listeria monocytogenes induces mast cell extracellular traps.

    PubMed

    Campillo-Navarro, Marcia; Leyva-Paredes, Kahiry; Donis-Maturano, Luis; González-Jiménez, Marco; Paredes-Vivas, Yuriria; Cerbulo-Vázquez, Arturo; Serafín-López, Jeanet; García-Pérez, Blanca; Ullrich, Stephen E; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia M; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Estrada-García, Iris; Chacón-Salinas, Rommel

    2017-02-01

    Mast cells play an essential role in different immunological phenomena including allergy and infectious diseases. Several bacteria induce mast cell activation leading to degranulation and the production of several cytokines and chemokines. However, mast cells also have different microbicidal activities such as phagocytosis and the release of DNA with embedded granular proteins known as Mast Cell Extracellular Traps (MCETs). Although previous reports indicate that extracellular bacteria are able to induce MCETs little is known if intracellular bacteria can induce these structures. In this work, we evaluated MCETs induction by the intracellular bacteria Listeria monocytogenes. We found that mast cells released DNA after stimulation with L. monocytogenes, and this DNA was complexed to histone and tryptase. Before extracellular DNA release, L. monocytogenes induced modifications to the mast cell nuclear envelope and DNA was detected outside the nucleus. L. monocytogenes stimulated mast cells to produce significant amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and blocking NADPH oxidase diminished DNA release by mast cells. Finally, MCETs showed antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes that was partially blocked when β-hexosaminidase activity was inhibited. These results show that L. monocytogenes induces mast cells to produce microbicidal MCETs, suggesting a role for mast cells in containing infection beyond the induction of inflammation.

  4. Generation of airborne Listeria innocua from model floor drains.

    PubMed

    Berrang, Mark E; Frank, Joseph F

    2012-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can colonize floor drains in poultry processing and further processing facilities, remaining present even after cleaning and disinfection. Therefore, during wash down, workers exercise caution to avoid spraying hoses directly into drains in an effort to prevent the escape and transfer of drain microflora to food contact surfaces. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which an inadvertent water spray into a colonized floor drain can cause the spread of airborne Listeria. Listeria innocua was used to inoculate a polyvinyl chloride model floor drain, resulting in approximately 10(8) cells per ml of phosphate-buffered saline and 10(4) attached cells per square centimeter of inner surface. Each model drain was subjected to a 2-s spray of tap water at 68.9 kPa from a distance of 1 m. Drains were sprayed while filled and again after emptying. Airborne cells were collected by using sedimentation plates containing Listeria selective agar which were placed on the floor and walls of a contained room at incremental horizontal and vertical distances of 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, or 4.0 m from the drain. Sedimentation plates were exposed for 10 min. A mechanical sampler was used to also collect air by impaction on the surface of Listeria selective agar to determine the number of cells per liter of air. The experiment was conducted in triplicate rooms for each of four replications. L. innocua was detected on sedimentation plates on the floor as far as 4.0 m from the drain and on walls as high as 2.4 m above the floor and 4 m from the drain. A 2-s spray with a water hose into a contaminated drain can cause airborne spread of Listeria, resulting in the potential for cross-contamination of food contact surfaces, equipment, and exposed product.

  5. Case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis meningitis: Gram staining as a useful initial diagnostic clue for tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Sayoko; Kawamura, Yasuyosi; Nishiyama, Kyouhei; Hatanaka, Hiroki; Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Ono, Yasuo; Miyazawa, Yukihisa; Nishiya, Hajime

    2012-12-01

    A 32-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of fever, headache, and loss of consciousness. Four days before admission, he had had difficulty speaking. On the day of admission, his colleague had found him to be unconscious and lying on his back. He was admitted to our hospital. The temperature at the eardrum was 35.2°C. Neurologic evaluation was negative. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain showed slight ventricular enlargement bilaterally. An X-ray film of the chest showed no abnormality. On the second hospital day, neck stiffness was noted. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contained 870 white cells/μl, most of which were neutrophils; the glucose level in the CSF was 10 mg/dl, and the protein level was 140 mg/dl. Stained smears of the CSF, including Gram staining and India-ink preparations, disclosed no microorganisms. Capsular antigen tests for several bacteria were negative. Antimicrobial agents were started. However, by changing the microscope focus slightly while viewing Gram stains of the CSF, we could see brightened and Gram-positive bacilli that had been phagocytosed by neutrophils. This finding suggested the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Ziehl-Neelsen staining of the CSF and gastric juice revealed anti-acid bacilli. Polymerase chain reaction for M. tuberculosis in the gastric juice was positive. This case showed that Gram staining could be useful as an initial adjunct for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis, particularly when the CSF shows predominantly neutrocytic pleocytosis, but no other evidence of bacterial meningitis.

  6. Using Relative Humidity Forecasts to Manage Meningitis in the Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R. E.; Adams-Forgor, A.; Akweogno, P.; Awine, T.; Dalaba, M.; Dukic, V.; Dumont, A.; Hayden, M.; Hodgson, A.; Hopson, T. M.; Hugonnet, S.; Yoksas, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    Meningitis epidemics in the Sahel occur quasi-regularly and with devastating impact. In 2008, for example, eighty-eight thousand people contracted meningitis and over five thousand died. Until very recently, the protection provided by the only available vaccine was so limited and short-lived that the only practical strategy for vaccination was reactive: waiting until an epidemic occurred in the region and then vaccinating in that region to prevent the epidemic's further growth. Even with that strategy, there were still times when demand outpaced available vaccine. While a new vaccine has recently been developed that is effective and inexpensive enough to be used more broadly and proactively, it is only effective against the strain of bacteria that causes the most common kind of bacterial meningitis. As a result, there will likely be continued need for reactive vaccination strategies. It is widely known that meningitis epidemics in the Sahel occur only in the dry season. Our project investigated this relationship, and several independent lines of evidence demonstrate a robust relationship between the onset of the rainy season, as marked by weekly average relative humidity above 40%, and the end of meningitis epidemics. These lines of evidence include statistical analysis of two years of weekly meningitis and weather data across the Sahel, cross-correlation of ten years of meningitis and weather data in the Upper East region of northern Ghana, and high-resolution weather simulations of past meningitis seasons to interpolate available weather data. We also adapted two techniques that have been successfully used in public health studies: generalized additive models, which have been used to relate air quality and health, and a linearized version of the compartmental epidemics model that has been used to understand MRSA. Based on these multiple lines of evidence, average weekly relative humidity forecast two weeks in advance appears consistently and strongly related to

  7. The challenge of enumerating Listeria monocytogenes in food.

    PubMed

    Auvolat, Anais; Besse, Nathalie Gnanou

    2016-02-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is recognised as a serious foodborne pathogen in humans. However, food products are usually contaminated at low levels (i.e. <100 CFU/g) and there is still no adequate enumeration method for testing food. Much research has been carried out to improve Listeria enumeration methods, leading to several proposed alternative methods such as the most probable number technique, molecular-based methods and bacterial cell concentration techniques. Here, we catalogue the current knowledge concerning L. monocytogenes enumeration, with a particular focus on the problem of enumerating low level contamination.

  8. Nonhuman Primate Model for Listeria monocytogenes-Induced Stillbirths

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mary Alice; Takeuchi, Kazue; Brackett, Robert E.; McClure, Harold M.; Raybourne, Richard B.; Williams, Kristina M.; Babu, Uma S.; Ware, Glenn O.; Broderson, J. Roger; Doyle, Michael P.

    2003-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, isolated from outbreaks in either human or nonhuman primate populations, was administered orally at doses ranging from 106 to 1010 CFU. Four of 10 treated animals delivered stillborn infants. L. monocytogenes was isolated from fetal tissue, and the pathology was consistent with L. monocytogenes infection as the cause of pregnancy loss. For all pregnancies resulting in stillbirths, L. monocytogenes was isolated from maternal feces, indicating that L. monocytogenes had survived and had probably colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Antibodies and antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation against Listeria increased in animals that had stillbirths. PMID:12595480

  9. Recurrent meningitis in a child with IgG3 subclass deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vehapoglu, Aysel; Ozgurhan, Gamze; Demir, Aysegul Dogan; Uzuner, Selcuk; Nursoy, Mustafa Atilla; Turkmen, Serdar

    2014-08-01

    Recurrent meningitis is an uncommon life-threatening condition. Here, the case of a 6-year-old boy is reported who had two episodes of meningitis with an IgG3 subclass deficiency. The boy had aseptic meningitis at the age of 3 years, followed by bacterial meningitis at the age of 4 years. Primary immunoglobulin deficiencies are a group of disorders associated with an increased incidence and/or severity of infection. Recurrent infections, sinusitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia are the most frequently observed illnesses in patients with IgG subclass deficiencies, of which an IgG3 subclass deficiency is the most common, especially in adults. Although cases of recurrent viral or bacterial meningitis have been reported, herein a patient is presented with recurrence of aseptic and bacterial meningitis 1 year after the initial episode. Some researchers recommend that all children with episodes of recurrent meningitis should be screened for primary immunoglobulin or complement deficiencies.

  10. We have got you 'covered': how the meninges control brain development.

    PubMed

    Siegenthaler, Julie A; Pleasure, Samuel J

    2011-06-01

    The meninges have traditionally been viewed as specialized membranes surrounding and protecting the adult brain from injury. However, there is increasing evidence that the fetal meninges play important roles during brain development. Through the release of diffusible factors, the meninges influence the proliferative and migratory behaviors of neural progenitors and neurons in the forebrain and hindbrain. Meningeal cells also secrete and organize the pial basement membrane (BM), a critical anchor point for the radially oriented fibers of neuroepithelial stem cells. With its emerging role in brain development, the potential that defects in meningeal development may underlie certain congenital brain abnormalities in humans should be considered. In this review, we will discuss what is known about assembly of the fetal meninges and review the role of meningeal-derived proteins in mouse and human brain development.

  11. Various Ready-to-Eat Products from Retail Stores Linked to Occurrence of Diverse Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. Isolates.

    PubMed

    Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Fuangpaiboon, Janejira; Turner, Matthew P; Vuddhakul, Varaporn

    2016-02-01

    Listeriosis outbreaks have been associated with a variety of foods. This study investigated the prevalence and diversity of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. in ready-to-eat (RTE) products and evaluated the performance of a rapid detection method, the 3M molecular detection assay for L. monocytogenes (MDA-LM), for detection of L. monocytogenes. Assay results were compared with those obtained using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration standard culture method described in the Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Products (n = 200) were purchased from retail stores: 122 aquatic products, 22 products of animal origin, 18 vegetarian products, 15 deli meat products, 13 salad and vegetable products, 4 desserts, 2 egg-based products, and 4 other products. L. monocytogenes prevalence was comparable with both methods. Overall, 15 (7.5%) of 200 samples were positive for L. monocytogenes: 3% of aquatic products, 1.5% of products of animal origin, 1% of vegetarian products, and 2% of deli meat products. Compared with the standard culture method, the sensitivity, specificity, and the accuracy of the MDA-LM were 86.7% (95% confidence interval, 58.4 to 97.7%), 98.4% (95% confidence interval, 95.0 to 99.6%), and 97.5%, respectively. Using the culture-based method, 18 (9%) of 200 samples were positive for Listeria species other than L. monocytogenes. Listeria isolates from these samples were classified into nine allelic types (ATs). The majority of isolates were classified as ATs 58 and 74, which were identified as L. monocytogenes lineages I and IV, respectively. Listeria innocua and Listeria welshimeri also were represented by isolates of multiple ATs. The MDA-LM is a rapid and reliable technique for detecting L. monocytogenes in various RTE foods. Further study is needed to develop effective control strategies to reduce L. monocytogenes contamination in RTE foods.

  12. Comparison of the Prevalences and Diversities of Listeria Species and Listeria monocytogenes in an Urban and a Rural Agricultural Watershed.

    PubMed

    Stea, Emma C; Purdue, Laura M; Jamieson, Rob C; Yost, Chris K; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth

    2015-06-01

    Foods and related processing environments are commonly contaminated with the pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes. To investigate potential environmental reservoirs of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes, surface water and point source pollution samples from an urban and a rural municipal water supply watershed in Nova Scotia, Canada, were examined over 18 months. Presumptive Listeria spp. were cultured from 72 and 35% of rural and urban water samples, respectively, with 24% of the positive samples containing two or three different Listeria spp. The L. innocua (56%) and L. welshimeri (43%) groups were predominant in the rural and urban watersheds, respectively. Analysis by the TaqMan assay showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence of L. monocytogenes of 62% versus 17% by the culture-based method. Both methods revealed higher prevalences in the rural watershed and during the fall and winter seasons. Elevated Escherichia coli (≥ 100 CFU/100 ml) levels were not associated with the pathogen regardless of the detection method. Isolation of Listeria spp. were associated with 70 times higher odds of isolating L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 70; P < 0.001). Serogroup IIa was predominant (67.7%) among the 285 L. monocytogenes isolates, followed by IVb (16.1%), IIb (15.8%), and IIc (0.4%). L. monocytogenes was detected in cow feces and raw sewage but not in septic tank samples. Pulsotyping of representative water (n = 54) and local human (n = 19) isolates suggested genetic similarities among some environmental and human L. monocytogenes isolates. In conclusion, temperate surface waters contain a diverse Listeria species population and could be a potential reservoir for L. monocytogenes, especially in rural agricultural watersheds.

  13. Ecology of Listeria spp. in a fish farm and molecular typing of Listeria monocytogenes from fish farming and processing companies.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Hanna; Wirtanen, Gun

    2006-11-01

    This study focused on the ecology of Listeria monocytogenes in a fish farm by following the changes in its occurrence in different types of samples for a three year period. In addition, L. monocytogenes isolates from different seafood industry areas were compared with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing to discover possible associations between primary production, further processing and final products. Weather conditions were found to have a strong influence on the probability of finding Listeria spp. in a fish farm environment. The number of samples contaminated with Listeria spp. was typically bigger after rainy periods. Brook and river waters as well as other runoff waters seemed to be the main contamination source at the farm studied. The farmed fish originally found to carry L. monocytogenes become gradually Listeria free. The time needed for the purification of the fish was several months. The sea bottom soil samples were the ones that preserved the L. monocytogenes contamination the longest time. It can be stated that the fish and fish farm equipment studied did not spread listeria contamination. On the contrary, they were found to suffer from listeria contamination coming from outside sources like the brook water. There was a wide range of different L. monocytogenes PFGE-pulsotypes (30) found at 15 Finnish fish farms and fish processing factories. L. monocytogenes isolates from the final products often belonged to the same pulsotypes as did the isolates from the processing environment as well as from the raw fish. This suggests that, in addition to the fish processing factory environment, the fish raw materials are important sources of L. monocytogenes contamination in final products.

  14. Streptococcus bovis septicemia and meningitis associated with chronic radiation enterocolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Jadeja, L.; Kantarjian, H.; Bolivar, R.

    1983-12-01

    We describe the first patient with simultaneous S bovis septicemia and meningitis associated with chronic radiation enterocolitis. This case underlines the value of a thorough gastrointestinal evaluation of all patients with S bovis infection, and the need for a neurologic investigation even with minor neurologic manifestations.

  15. Variations of relative humidity in relation to meningitis in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seefeldt, M. W.; Hopson, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    The meningitis belt is a region covering Sub-Saharan Africa from the Sahel of West Africa eastward to western Ethiopia. The region is prone to meningitis epidemics during the dry season extending from approximately January to May, depending on the region. Relative humidity has been found to be a critical environmental factor indicating the susceptibility of a region to meningitis epidemics. This study evaluates the variation of relative humidity across West Africa over 30 dry-seasons (1979 - 2009) using the NASA-MERRA dataset. The method of self-organizing maps is employed to characterize the changes in relative humidity patterns across the region within a given dry season as well as changes over the 30 years. A general pattern of changes in relative humidity is indicated as the rainbelt retreats to the south at the onset of the dry season and then returns to the region at the end of the dry season. Within each dry season there is a unique pattern. The climatological conditions of relative humidity at the onset of the dry season provide an indication of the moisture environment for the entire dry season. Year to year variation in the relative humidity patterns are found to be gradual. Future applications involve using the results from the SOM evaluation to be used for future decisions involving prevention of meningitis epidemics.

  16. One Family's Crusade To Inform the Public about Meningococcal Meningitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skowronek, Linda and Carl

    2001-01-01

    Describes meningococcal meningitis, which strikes over 100 college students yearly. Living in dormitories puts students at risk for contracting the disease. The current vaccine protects against the four main types of the infection, though it is not perfect protection. Some states have adopted legislation requiring all incoming college freshmen and…

  17. Vaccine May Reduce Incidence of Meningitis-Related Hearing Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dorothy

    1988-01-01

    Hearing loss as a result of meningitis, now the leading nongenetic cause of deafness in infants and young children, may be reduced by the introduction of the HiB (Hemophilus influenzae type B) vaccine. It is highly effective, relatively safe, and recommended for most children over 24 months and high risk children 18-24 months old. (VW)

  18. Real-time PCR for Strongyloides stercoralis-associated meningitis.

    PubMed

    Nadir, Eyal; Grossman, Tamar; Ciobotaro, Pnina; Attali, Malka; Barkan, Daniel; Bardenstein, Rita; Zimhony, Oren

    2016-03-01

    Four immunocompromised patients, immigrants from Ethiopia, presented with diverse clinical manifestations of meningitis associated with Strongyloides stercoralis dissemination as determined by identification of intestinal larvae. The cerebrospinal fluid of 3 patients was tested by a validated (for stool) real-time PCR for S. stercoralis and was found positive, establishing this association.

  19. [Tubercular meningitis with severe hyponatraemia caused by cerebral salt wasting].

    PubMed

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Schmidt, Ida Maria; Kristensen, Kim

    2011-09-12

    We describe two children, who were admitted with severe hyponatraemia and dehydration. In both children the hyponatraemia was due to cerebral salt wasting caused by tubercular meningitis. Differential diagnosis and pathophysiology is discussed. It is important to discriminate between cerebral salt wasting and inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone since the therapy required is completely different in the two conditions.

  20. Meningitis due to a "Bartonella washoensis"-like human pathogen.

    PubMed

    Probert, Will; Louie, Janice K; Tucker, James R; Longoria, Rose; Hogue, Robin; Moler, Silvia; Graves, Margot; Palmer, Heather J; Cassady, Joseph; Fritz, Curtis L

    2009-07-01

    We report the second human case of infection caused by an organism identified as the proposed Bartonella species, "B. washoensis." The organism was isolated from a blood sample from a patient presenting with meningitis and early sepsis. Oropsylla montana fleas were implicated as the vector for disease transmission in this case.

  1. [Virological evaluation of mumps meningitis following vaccination against mumps].

    PubMed

    Mori, I; Torii, S; Hamamoto, Y; Kanda, A; Tabata, Y; Nagafuji, H

    1991-02-01

    1) We report 5 cases of aseptic meningitis following vaccination against mumps. Of the 5 cases, 4 cases were diagnosed as mumps meningitis. 2 cases received monovalent mumps vaccine and the other 2 MMR vaccine. They consisted of 2 boys and 2 girls, aged 2 years and 2 months to 4 years and 5 months. The period between vaccination and symptoms ranged from 15 days to 20 days (mean 18 days). Cerebrospinal fluid of the cases contained 507 to 2688 cells/mm3. Eruption was observed in the 2 cases who received MMR vaccine, while parotid swelling was not seen in any case. 2) In all 4 cases, IgM antibody to mumps virus in the cerebrospinal fluid was detected by the ELISA or EIA methods. Causative organism of the fifth case was obscure. 3) PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) tests revealed that mumps virus isolated from 2 cases were of vaccine strain origin. 4) To evaluate the frequency of mumps meningitis following vaccination, it seems important to investigate carefully the number of children who received the vaccine and to exclude the cases of aseptic meningitis caused by other agents. On the other hand, cases of young infants tend to be overlooked because of atypical signs.

  2. Meningeal melanocytoma of Meckel's cave associated with ipsilateral Ota's nevus.

    PubMed

    Botticelli, A R; Villani, M; Angiari, P; Peserico, L

    1983-06-15

    A case of meningeal melanocytoma of the left Meckel's cave associated with ipsilateral Ota's nevus in a 43-year-old woman, was studied by light and electron microscopy. The cells of the tumor were characterized by the presence of dendritic cytoplasmic processes, melanosomes and premelanosomes; hence, they were deemed as neoplastic melanocytes. Moreover, the tumor was lacking in histologic and ultrastructural features of pigmented meningioma, melanotic Schwannoma and primary meningeal melanoma. The prolonged clinical course was different from primary and metastatic malignant melanomas of the meninges. The best treatment appears to be radical excision, when possible; otherwise, the local or partial enucleation followed by radiation therapy has been found to be the best curative to date. On the whole, meningeal melanocytoma cannot be considered as entirely benign, given its morphologic patterns that resemble those of uveal melanoma, and its potential for recurrence. The association of this tumor with Ota's nevus is referred to as having a common origin from an arrested migration of melanoblasts at different stages.

  3. Heat shock induces barotolerance in Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Hayman, Melinda M; Anantheswaran, Ramaswamy C; Knabel, Stephen J

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heat shock on the resistance of Listeria monocytogenes to high pressure processing (HPP). L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 was grown to stationary phase at 15 degrees C and inoculated into whole ultrahigh-temperature milk at approximately 10(7) CFU/ml. Milk samples (5 ml) were placed into plastic transfer pipettes, which were heat sealed and then heated in a water bath at 48 degrees C for 10 min. Immediately after heat shock, the milk was cooled in water (20 degrees C) for 25 min and then placed on ice. The samples were high pressure processed at ambient temperature (approximately 23 degrees C) at 400 MPa for various times up to 150 s. Following HPP, the samples were spread plated on tryptic soy agar supplemented with yeast extract. Heat shock significantly increased the D400 MPa-value of L. monocytogenes from 35 s in non-heat-shocked cells to 127 s in heat-shocked cells (P < 0.05). Addition of chloramphenicol before heat shock eliminated the protective effect of heat shock (P < 0.05). Heat shock for 5, 10, 15, or 30 min at 48 degrees C resulted in maximal barotolerance (P < 0.05); increasing the time to 60 min significantly decreased survival compared with that at 5, 10, 15, or 30 min (P < 0.05). These results indicate that prior heat shock significantly increases the barotolerance of L. monocytogenes and that de novo protein synthesis during heat shock is required for this enhanced barotolerance.

  4. SDIX RapidChek Listeria F.A.S.T. environmental test system for the detection of Listeria species on environmental surfaces.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Mark T; Allen, Ann-Christine Olsson; Gonzalez, Vera; Sutzko, Meredith; Klaus, Lindpaintner

    2012-01-01

    The SDIX RapidChek Listeria F.A.S.T. test system was validated against the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) cultural reference method for the detection of Listeria species on stainless steel, plastic, rubber, and painted concrete. The SDIX method uses a proprietary RapidChek Listeria enrichment media for a one-step, 24-40 h enrichment at 30 degrees C, and detects Listeria on an immunochromatographic lateral flow device in 10 min. Different Listeria species were used to spike each of the environmental surfaces. Environmental surfaces were spiked at levels ranging from 50 to 400 CFU/surface (1 in.2 swabs for painted concrete, 4 in.(2) for sponge). A total of 120 spiked samples were tested by the SDIX method at 24 and 40 h and the cultural reference method. Total confirmed positives were 49, 54, and 48 for the SDIX 24 h method, the SDIX 40 h method, and the USDA-FSIS cultural reference method, respectively. Nonspiked samples from all environmental surfaces were reported as negative for Listeria spp. by all methods. The overall Chi square was 0.017 (P = 0.104) and 0.611 (P= 0.566) after a 24 and 40 h enrichment, respectively, indicating that the test method was equivalent in performance to the reference method at both enrichment times. The SDIX method was evaluated for the detection of 50 Listeria and 35 non-Listeria bacterial strains. All 50 Listeria strains were detected by the method (100% sensitivity). Five out of 35 non-Listeria species gave light test signals when grown in nonselective broth culture and tested undiluted. However, when grown in the RapidChek Listeria F.A.S.T. proprietary media, only one bacterial strain (Staphylococcus aureus) was detected, giving a very low test signal (97% specificity). The method was shown to be robust toward several alterations in testing and storage conditions.

  5. Bacteriophage significantly reduces Listeria monocytogenes on raw salmon fillet tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have demonstrated the antilisterial activity of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) bacteriophage LISTEX P100 (phage P100) on the surface of raw salmon fillet tissue against Listeria monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a and 4b. In a broth model system, phage P100 completely inhibited L. monocytogenes gro...

  6. An overview of stress response proteomes in Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes adapts to diverse stress conditions including cold, osmotic, heat, acid, and alkali stresses encountered during food processing and preservation which is a serious food safety threat. In this review, we have presented the major findings on this bacterium’s stress response prot...

  7. Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms to sanitizing agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is notorious for its capacity to colonize the environment and equipment of food processing facilities and to persist in the processing plant ecosystem, sometimes for decades. Such persistence is mediated by multiple attributes of L. monocytogenes, including the pathogen’s capa...

  8. Bacteriocin from Honeybee Beebread Enterococcus avium, Active against Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Audisio, M. Carina; Terzolo, Horacio R.; Apella, María C.

    2005-01-01

    Enterococcus avium isolated from Apis mellifera beebread produces a thermoresistant bacteriocin with a strain-dependent inhibitory effect on Listeria and without effect on gram-negative bacteria. The bacteriocin appeared to be a polypeptide of about 6 kDa. Genetic analyses revealed no extrachromosomal material in E. avium. PMID:15933045

  9. Toward an Improved Laboratory Definition of Listeria monocytogenes Virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is an opportunistic foodborne pathogen that encompasses a diversity of strains with varied virulence. The ability to rapidly determine the pathogenic potential of L. monocytogenes strains is integral to the control and prevention campaign against listeriosis. Early methods for...

  10. Influence of temperature on alkali stress adaptation in Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes cells may induce alkali stress adaptation when exposed to sublethal concentrations of alkaline cleaners and sanitizers that may be frequently used in the food processing environment. In the present study, the effect of temperature on the induction and the stability of such alk...

  11. Genome sequesnce of lineage III Listeria monocytogenes strain HCC23

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 98% of reported human listeriosis cases are caused by Listeria monocytogenes serotypes within lineages I and II. Serotypes within lineage III (4a and 4c) are commonly isolated from environmental and food specimens. We report the first complete genome sequence of a lineage III isolate, HCC2...

  12. Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein (PML) Controls Listeria monocytogenes Infection.

    PubMed

    Ribet, David; Lallemand-Breitenbach, Valérie; Ferhi, Omar; Nahori, Marie-Anne; Varet, Hugo; de Thé, Hugues; Cossart, Pascale

    2017-01-10

    The promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) is the main organizer of stress-responsive subnuclear structures called PML nuclear bodies. These structures recruit multiple interactors and modulate their abundance or their posttranslational modifications, notably by the SUMO ubiquitin-like modifiers. The involvement of PML in antiviral responses is well established. In contrast, the role of PML in bacterial infection remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that PML restricts infection by the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes but not by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. During infection, PML undergoes oxidation-mediated multimerization, associates with the nuclear matrix, and becomes de-SUMOylated due to the pore-forming activity of the Listeria toxin listeriolysin O (LLO). These events trigger an antibacterial response that is not observed during in vitro infection by an LLO-defective Listeria mutant, but which can be phenocopied by specific induction of PML de-SUMOylation. Using transcriptomic and proteomic microarrays, we also characterized a network of immunity genes and cytokines, which are regulated by PML in response to Listeria infection but independently from the listeriolysin O toxin. Our study thus highlights two mechanistically distinct complementary roles of PML in host responses against bacterial infection.

  13. Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein (PML) Controls Listeria monocytogenes Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ribet, David; Lallemand-Breitenbach, Valérie; Ferhi, Omar; Nahori, Marie-Anne; Varet, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) is the main organizer of stress-responsive subnuclear structures called PML nuclear bodies. These structures recruit multiple interactors and modulate their abundance or their posttranslational modifications, notably by the SUMO ubiquitin-like modifiers. The involvement of PML in antiviral responses is well established. In contrast, the role of PML in bacterial infection remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that PML restricts infection by the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes but not by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. During infection, PML undergoes oxidation-mediated multimerization, associates with the nuclear matrix, and becomes de-SUMOylated due to the pore-forming activity of the Listeria toxin listeriolysin O (LLO). These events trigger an antibacterial response that is not observed during in vitro infection by an LLO-defective Listeria mutant, but which can be phenocopied by specific induction of PML de-SUMOylation. Using transcriptomic and proteomic microarrays, we also characterized a network of immunity genes and cytokines, which are regulated by PML in response to Listeria infection but independently from the listeriolysin O toxin. Our study thus highlights two mechanistically distinct complementary roles of PML in host responses against bacterial infection. PMID:28074026

  14. LOW PREVALENCE OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN CULL SOWS AND PORK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in cull sows slaughtered at a single plant on two occasions (Trial 1, n=179 cull sows and Trial 2, n= 160 cull sows). Fecal samples collected antemortem (Trial 1) as well as animal tissues, and carcass swabs collected ...

  15. Novel Epidemic Clones of Listeria monocytogenes, United States, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Lomonaco, Sara; Verghese, Bindhu; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Tarr, Cheryl; Gladney, Lori; Joseph, Lavin; Katz, Lee; Turnsek, Maryann; Frace, Michael; Chen, Yi; Brown, Eric; Meinersmann, Richard; Berrang, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We identified a novel serotype 1/2a outbreak strain and 2 novel epidemic clones of Listeria monocytogenes while investigating a foodborne outbreak of listeriosis associated with consumption of cantaloupe during 2011 in the United States. Comparative analyses of strains worldwide are essential to identification of novel outbreak strains and epidemic clones. PMID:23260778

  16. Genome sequences of Listeria monocytogenes strains with resistance to arsenic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes frequently exhibits resistance to arsenic. We report here the draft genome sequences of eight genetically diverse arsenic-resistant L. monocytogenes strains from human listeriosis and food-associated environments. Availability of these genomes would help to elucidate the role ...

  17. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in Salmon Roe - a kinetic analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes in unsalted and salted (3%) salmon roe. Growth curves, developed using inoculated samples incubated at constant temperatures between 5 and 30 degrees C, were analyzed by curve-fitting to the Huang and Baran...

  18. Impact of intervention strategies on Listeria contamination patterns in crawfish processing plants: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lappi, Victoria R; Thimothe, Joanne; Walker, Jonathan; Bell, Jon; Gall, Kenneth; Moody, Michael W; Wiedmann, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Two ready-to-eat crawfish processing plants were monitored for 2 years to study the impact of Listeria control strategies, including employee training and targeted sanitation procedures, on Listeria contamination. Environmental, raw material, and finished product samples were collected weekly during the main processing months (April to June) and tested for Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Before implementation of control strategies (year 1), the two processing plants showed Listeria spp. prevalences of 29.5% (n = 78) in raw, whole crawfish, 5.2% (n = 155) in the processing plant environment, and 0% (n = 78) in finished products. In year 2, after plant-specific Listeria control strategies were implemented, Listeria spp. prevalence increased in raw crawfish (57.5%, n = 101), in the processing plant environment (10.8%, n = 204), and in the finished product (1.0%, n = 102). Statistical analysis showed a significant increase in Listeria spp. prevalence (P < 0.0001) and a borderline nonsignificant increase in L. monocytogenes prevalence (P = 0.097) on raw material in year 2. Borderline nonsignificant increases were also observed for Listeria spp. prevalence in environmental samples (P = 0.082). Our data showed that Listeria spp. prevalence in raw crawfish can vary significantly among seasons. However, the increased contamination prevalence for raw materials only resulted in a limited Listeria prevalence increase for the processing plant environment with extremely low levels of finished product contamination. Heat treatment of raw materials combined with Listeria control strategies to prevent cross-contamination thus appears to be effective in achieving low levels of finished product contamination, even with Listeria spp. prevalences for raw crawfish of more than 50%.

  19. Twenty Years of Listeria in Brazil: Occurrence of Listeria Species and Listeria monocytogenes Serovars in Food Samples in Brazil between 1990 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Vallim, Deyse Christina; Barroso Hofer, Cristina; Lisbôa, Rodrigo de Castro; Victor Barbosa, André; Alves Rusak, Leonardo; dos Reis, Cristhiane Moura Falavina; Hofer, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Listeria spp. isolated from different food products and collected from 12 Brazilian states were sent to the Laboratory of Bacterial Zoonoses (Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Brazil) for identification. The aims of this study were to characterize these isolates, from 1990 to 2012, by using biochemical, morphological, and serotyping tests, and to analyze the distribution of L. monocytogenes serotypes on different food products and geographical locations. Serotyping was performed using polyclonal somatic and flagellar antisera. Of 5953 isolates, 5770 were identified as Listeria spp., from which 3429 (59.4%) were L. innocua, 2248 (38.9%) were L. monocytogenes, and 93 (1.6%) were other Listeria spp. L. innocua was predominantly isolated from 1990 to 2000, while L. monocytogenes was from 2001 to 2012. Regarding the serotype distribution in the foods, serotypes 1/2a and 4b were most common in processed meat and ready-to-eat products, respectively; serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b were the most common in nonprocessed meat. The results above confirm the presence of the main serotypes of L. monocytogenes in different parts of the food chain from three regions of the country and emphasize the importance of improving the control measures, as tolerance zero policy and microbiological surveillance in Brazil. PMID:26539507

  20. Listeriomics: an Interactive Web Platform for Systems Biology of Listeria.

    PubMed

    Bécavin, Christophe; Koutero, Mikael; Tchitchek, Nicolas; Cerutti, Franck; Lechat, Pierre; Maillet, Nicolas; Hoede, Claire; Chiapello, Hélène; Gaspin, Christine; Cossart, Pascale

    2017-01-01

    As for many model organisms, the amount of Listeria omics data produced has recently increased exponentially. There are now >80 published complete Listeria genomes, around 350 different transcriptomic data sets, and 25 proteomic data sets available. The analysis of these data sets through a systems biology approach and the generation of tools for biologists to browse these various data are a challenge for bioinformaticians. We have developed a web-based platform, named Listeriomics, that integrates different tools for omics data analyses, i.e., (i) an interactive genome viewer to display gene expression arrays, tiling arrays, and sequencing data sets along with proteomics and genomics data sets; (ii) an expression and protein atlas that connects every gene, small RNA, antisense RNA, or protein with the most relevant omics data; (iii) a specific tool for exploring protein conservation through the Listeria phylogenomic tree; and (iv) a coexpression network tool for the discovery of potential new regulations. Our platform integrates all the complete Listeria species genomes, transcriptomes, and proteomes published to date. This website allows navigation among all these data sets with enriched metadata in a user-friendly format and can be used as a central database for systems biology analysis. IMPORTANCE In the last decades, Listeria has become a key model organism for the study of host-pathogen interactions, noncoding RNA regulation, and bacterial adaptation to stress. To study these mechanisms, several genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics data sets have been produced. We have developed Listeriomics, an interactive web platform to browse and correlate these heterogeneous sources of information. Our website will allow listeriologists and microbiologists to decipher key regulation mechanism by using a systems biology approach.

  1. Listeriomics: an Interactive Web Platform for Systems Biology of Listeria

    PubMed Central

    Koutero, Mikael; Tchitchek, Nicolas; Cerutti, Franck; Lechat, Pierre; Maillet, Nicolas; Hoede, Claire; Chiapello, Hélène; Gaspin, Christine

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT As for many model organisms, the amount of Listeria omics data produced has recently increased exponentially. There are now >80 published complete Listeria genomes, around 350 different transcriptomic data sets, and 25 proteomic data sets available. The analysis of these data sets through a systems biology approach and the generation of tools for biologists to browse these various data are a challenge for bioinformaticians. We have developed a web-based platform, named Listeriomics, that integrates different tools for omics data analyses, i.e., (i) an interactive genome viewer to display gene expression arrays, tiling arrays, and sequencing data sets along with proteomics and genomics data sets; (ii) an expression and protein atlas that connects every gene, small RNA, antisense RNA, or protein with the most relevant omics data; (iii) a specific tool for exploring protein conservation through the Listeria phylogenomic tree; and (iv) a coexpression network tool for the discovery of potential new regulations. Our platform integrates all the complete Listeria species genomes, transcriptomes, and proteomes published to date. This website allows navigation among all these data sets with enriched metadata in a user-friendly format and can be used as a central database for systems biology analysis. IMPORTANCE In the last decades, Listeria has become a key model organism for the study of host-pathogen interactions, noncoding RNA regulation, and bacterial adaptation to stress. To study these mechanisms, several genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics data sets have been produced. We have developed Listeriomics, an interactive web platform to browse and correlate these heterogeneous sources of information. Our website will allow listeriologists and microbiologists to decipher key regulation mechanism by using a systems biology approach. PMID:28317029

  2. Rapid identification and classification of Listeria spp. and serotype assignment of Listeria monocytogenes using fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and artificial neural network analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) in conjunction with Artificial Neural Network software, NeuroDeveloper™ was examined for the rapid identification and classification of Listeria species and serotyping of Listeria monocytogenes. A spectral library was created for 245 strains...

  3. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of atypical Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua isolated from swine slaughterhouses and meat markets.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luisa Zanolli; Paixão, Renata; de Gobbi, Debora Dirani Sena; Raimundo, Daniele Cristine; Porfida Ferreira, Thais Sebastiana; Micke Moreno, Andrea; Hofer, Ernesto; dos Reis, Cristhiane Moura Falavina; Matté, Glavur Rogério; Matté, Maria Helena

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, atypical Listeria monocytogenes and L. innocua strains have been detected in food and the environment. Because of mutations in the major virulence genes, these strains have different virulence intensities in eukaryotic cells. In this study, we performed phenotypic and genotypic characterization of atypical L. monocytogenes and L. innocua isolates obtained from swine slaughterhouses and meat markets. Forty strains were studied, including isolates of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua with low-hemolytic activity. The isolates were characterized using conventional phenotypic Listeria identification tests and by the detection and analysis of L. monocytogenes-specific genes. Analysis of 16S rRNA was used for the molecular identification of the Listeria species. The L. monocytogenes isolates were positive for all of the virulence genes studied. The atypical L. innocua strains were positive for hly, plcA, and inlC. Mutations in the InlC, InlB, InlA, PI-PLC, PC-PLC, and PrfA proteins were detected in the atypical isolates. Further in vitro and transcriptomic studies are being developed to confirm the role of these mutations in Listeria virulence.

  4. Sequelae due to bacterial meningitis among African children: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Meenakshi; Ulland, Aaron J; Steinhardt, Laura C; Moïsi, Jennifer C; Were, Fred; Levine, Orin S

    2009-01-01

    Background African children have some of the highest rates of bacterial meningitis in the world. Bacterial meningitis in Africa is associated with high case fatality and frequent neuropsychological sequelae. The objective of this study is to present a comprehensive review of data on bacterial meningitis sequelae in children from the African continent. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search to identify studies from Africa focusing on children aged between 1 month to 15 years with laboratory-confirmed bacterial meningitis. We extracted data on neuropsychological sequelae (hearing loss, vision loss, cognitive delay, speech/language disorder, behavioural problems, motor delay/impairment, and seizures) and mortality, by pathogen. Results A total of 37 articles were included in the final analysis representing 21 African countries and 6,029 children with confirmed meningitis. In these studies, nearly one fifth of bacterial meningitis survivors experienced in-hospital sequelae (median = 18%, interquartile range (IQR) = 13% to 27%). About a quarter of children surviving pneumococcal meningitis and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis had neuropsychological sequelae by the time of hospital discharge, a risk higher than in meningococcal meningitis cases (median = 7%). The highest in-hospital case fatality ratios observed were for pneumococcal meningitis (median = 35%) and Hib meningitis (median = 25%) compared to meningococcal meningitis (median = 4%). The 10 post-discharge studies of children surviving bacterial meningitis were of varying quality. In these studies, 10% of children followed-up post discharge died (range = 0% to 18%) and a quarter of survivors had neuropsychological sequelae (range = 3% to 47%) during an average follow-up period of 3 to 60 months. Conclusion Bacterial meningitis in Africa is associated with high mortality and risk of neuropsychological sequelae. Pneumococcal and Hib meningitis kill approximately one third of affected

  5. RIG-I detects infection with live Listeria by sensing secreted bacterial nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Zeinab; Schlee, Martin; Roth, Susanne; Mraheil, Mobarak Abu; Barchet, Winfried; Böttcher, Jan; Hain, Torsten; Geiger, Sergej; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Fritz, Jörg H; Civril, Filiz; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Kurts, Christian; Ruland, Jürgen; Hartmann, Gunther; Chakraborty, Trinad; Knolle, Percy A

    2012-01-01

    Immunity against infection with Listeria monocytogenes is not achieved from innate immune stimulation by contact with killed but requires viable Listeria gaining access to the cytosol of infected cells. It has remained ill-defined how such immune sensing of live Listeria occurs. Here, we report that efficient cytosolic immune sensing requires access of nucleic acids derived from live Listeria to the cytoplasm of infected cells. We found that Listeria released nucleic acids and that such secreted bacterial RNA/DNA was recognized by the cytosolic sensors RIG-I, MDA5 and STING thereby triggering interferon β production. Secreted Listeria nucleic acids also caused RIG-I-dependent IL-1β-production and inflammasome activation. The signalling molecule CARD9 contributed to IL-1β production in response to secreted nucleic acids. In conclusion, cytosolic recognition of secreted bacterial nucleic acids by RIG-I provides a mechanistic explanation for efficient induction of immunity by live bacteria. PMID:23064150

  6. Applicability of the EN ISO 11290-1 standard method for Listeria monocytogenes detection in presence of new Listeria species.

    PubMed

    Barre, Léna; Angelidis, Apostolos S; Boussaid, Djouher; Brasseur, Emilie Decourseulles; Manso, Eléonore; Gnanou Besse, Nathalie

    2016-12-05

    During the past six years, new species of the genus Listeria have been isolated from foods and other environmental niches worldwide. The Standard method EN ISO 11290-1 that is currently under revision will include in its scope all Listeria species in addition to L. monocytogenes. The objective of this project was to evaluate the ability of the Standard EN ISO 11290-1 method to detect and identify the newly discovered Listeria spp., and to assess potential over-growth effects of the new species in mixed cultures with L. monocytogenes during each step of the enrichment process. This objective was addressed by the generation of necessary data on the behavior of the new species during the pre-enrichment and the enrichment steps of the reference method as well as data on their phenotypic characteristics on rich and selective media used for isolation and identification. Most of the new Listeria species developed well on selective agar media for Listeria, however the recovery of some species was difficult due to poor growth in Half Fraser and Fraser broth. Good results (consistently positive) were obtained for confirmation at the genus level via the catalase test, the Gram test and the blueish appearance test on non-selective medium, but not with the VP test, as most of the new species yielded a negative result. In the light of results obtained in co-culture experiments and inhibition tests, and considering the growth rates in Half Fraser and Fraser broths, the new species do not seem to interfere with the detection of L. monocytogenes.

  7. The overgrowth of Listeria monocytogenes by other Listeria spp. in food samples undergoing enrichment cultivation has a nutritional basis.

    PubMed

    Besse, Nathalie Gnanou; Barre, Lena; Buhariwalla, Colin; Vignaud, Marie Léone; Khamissi, Elissa; Decourseulles, Emilie; Nirsimloo, Marjorie; Chelly, Minyar; Kalmokoff, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from food is carried out using a double enrichment. In cases where multiple Listeria species are present within the original sample, L. monocytogenes can be overgrown during enrichment by other species of listeria present in the original sample. From a practical perspective, this can result in a false negative or complicate the ability of public health investigators to match food and clinical isolates. We have further investigated this phenomenon by analysing the growth kinetics of single species and pairs of different species over the ISO 11290-1 enrichment process. The overgrowth of a strain of L. monocytogenes by a strain of Listeria innocua resulted primarily from interactions which occurred in late exponential phase, where it was observed that growth of both strains stopped when the dominant strain reached stationary phase. In a second mixed culture, the dominant L. monocytogenes strain suppressed the exponential growth rate of the second Listeria welshimeri strain. Both findings suggest that the overgrowth could partially be explained in terms of a nutritional competition. Multi-factor analysis of Fraser broth constituents and growth temperatures using both stressed and non-stressed inoculants failed to identify any single factor in the ISO 11290-1 methodology which would contribute to the overgrowth phenomenon in our model system. Furthermore, species was not a significant factor in observed differences in growth parameters among a wider array of strains which had been stressed or not stressed prior to grown in Fraser broths, even though some strains had significantly faster growth rates than others. Limiting diffusion in Fraser broth through the addition of agar significantly reduced the extent of the overgrowth in experiments using mixtures of strains originally isolated from foods where overgrowth had been previously observed. Taken together, these findings support that the overgrowth phenomenon in most instances

  8. Incidence, Carriage and Case-Carrier Ratios for Meningococcal Meningitis in the African Meningitis Belt: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Koutangni, Thibaut; Boubacar Maïnassara, Halima; Mueller, Judith E.

    2015-01-01

    Background To facilitate the interpretation of meningococcal meningitis epidemiology in the “African meningitis belt”, we aimed at obtaining serogroup-specific pooled estimates of incidence, carriage and case-carrier ratios for meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt and describe their variations across the endemic, hyperendemic and epidemic context. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting serogroup-specific meningococcal meningitis monthly incidence and carriage in the same population and time period. Epidemiological contexts were defined as endemic (wet season, no epidemic), hyperendemic (dry season, no epidemic), and epidemic (dry season, epidemic). Findings Eight studies reporting a total of eighty pairs of serogroup-specific meningococcal meningitis incidence and carriage estimates were included in this review. For serogroup A, changes associated with the transition from endemic to hyperendemic incidence and from hyperendemic to epidemic incidence were 15-fold and 120-fold respectively. Changes in carriage prevalence associated with both transitions were 1-fold and 30-fold respectively. 
For serogroup W and X, the transition from endemic to hyperendemic incidence involved a 4-fold and 1•1-fold increase respectively. Increases in carriage prevalence for the later transition were 7-fold and 1•7-fold respectively. No data were available for the hyperendemic-epidemic transition for these serogroups. Our findings suggested that the regular seasonal variation in serogroup A meningococcal meningitis incidence between the rainy and the dry season could be mainly driven by seasonal change in the ratio of clinical cases to subclinical infections. In contrast appearance of epidemic incidences is related to a substantial increase in transmission and colonisation and to lesser extent with changes in the case-carrier ratio. Conclusion Seasonal change in the rate of progression to disease given carriage

  9. [A case of colchicine-responsive Mollaret's meningitis with MEFV gene mutation].

    PubMed

    Kinohshita, Tomomi; Matsushima, Akira; Satoh, Shunichi; Hoshi, Kenichi; Kishida, Dai; Yahikozawa, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with recurrent meningitis. She presented with 10 episodes of meningitis in 10 months. Examination of cerebrospinal fluid demonstrated pleocytosis, with neutrophils dominant at the early stage, and lymphocytes dominant at the late stage. Mollaret cells were found and the level of IL-6 was increased in cerebrospinal fluid. Several antibiotics and antiviral agents failed to prevent relapse. However, colchicine therapy successfully prevented the recurrence of meningitis. Genetic testing for familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) showed a mutation in the MEFV gene. It is difficult to diagnose the cause of Mollaret's meningitis in some patients. FMF, neuro-Behçet's disease, and neuro-Sweet disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of recurrent meningitis. In addition, colchicine therapy can prevent the relapse of meningitis in such cases.

  10. Multicenter Evaluation of BioFire FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel for Detection of Bacteria, Viruses, and Yeast in Cerebrospinal Fluid Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Everhart, Kathy; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Cullison, Jillian; Daly, Judy; Holt, Sarah; Lephart, Paul; Salimnia, Hossein; Schreckenberger, Paul C.; DesJarlais, Sharon; Reed, Sharon L.; Chapin, Kimberle C.; LeBlanc, Lindsay; Johnson, J. Kristie; Soliven, Nicole L.; Carroll, Karen C.; Miller, Jo-Anne; Dien Bard, Jennifer; Mestas, Javier; Bankowski, Matthew; Enomoto, Tori; Hemmert, Andrew C.; Bourzac, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis and treatment of infectious meningitis and encephalitis are critical to minimize morbidity and mortality. Comprehensive testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) often includes Gram stain, culture, antigen detection, and molecular methods, paired with chemical and cellular analyses. These methods may lack sensitivity or specificity, can take several days, and require significant volume for complete analysis. The FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) Panel is a multiplexed in vitro diagnostic test for the simultaneous, rapid (∼1-h) detection of 14 pathogens directly from CSF specimens: Escherichia coli K1, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, cytomegalovirus, enterovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 6, human parechovirus, varicella-zoster virus, and Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii. We describe a multicenter evaluation of 1,560 prospectively collected CSF specimens with performance compared to culture (bacterial analytes) and PCR (all other analytes). The FilmArray ME Panel demonstrated a sensitivity or positive percentage of agreement of 100% for 9 of 14 analytes. Enterovirus and human herpesvirus type 6 had agreements of 95.7% and 85.7%, and L. monocytogenes and N. meningitidis were not observed in the study. For S. agalactiae, there was a single false-positive and false-negative result each, for a sensitivity and specificity of 0 and 99.9%, respectively. The specificity or negative percentage of agreement was 99.2% or greater for all other analytes. The FilmArray ME Panel is a sensitive and specific test to aid in diagnosis of ME. With use of this comprehensive and rapid test, improved patient outcomes and antimicrobial stewardship are anticipated. PMID:27335149

  11. Geographical and meteorological factors associated with isolation of Listeria species in New York State produce production and natural environments.

    PubMed

    Chapin, Travis K; Nightingale, Kendra K; Worobo, Randy W; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2014-11-01

    Listeria species have been isolated from diverse environments, often at considerable prevalence, and are known to persist in food processing facilities. The presence of Listeria spp. has been suggested to be a marker for Listeria monocytogenes contamination. Therefore, a study was conducted to (i) determine the prevalence and diversity of Listeria spp. in produce production and natural environments and (ii) identify geographical and/or meteorological factors that affect the isolation of Listeria spp. in these environments. These data were also used to evaluate Listeria spp. as index organisms for L. monocytogenes in produce production environments. Environmental samples collected from produce production (n = 588) and natural (n = 734) environments in New York State were microbiologically analyzed to detect and isolate Listeria spp. The prevalence of Listeria spp. was approximately 33 and 34% for samples obtained from natural environments and produce production, respectively. Co-isolation of L. monocytogenes and at least one other species of Listeria in a given sample was recorded for 3 and 9% of samples from natural environments and produce production, respectively. Soil moisture and proximity to water and pastures were highly associated with isolation of Listeria spp. in produce production environments, while elevation, study site, and proximity to pastures were highly associated with isolation of Listeria spp. in natural environments, as determined by randomForest models. These data show that Listeria spp. were prevalent in both agricultural and nonagricultural environments and that geographical and meteorological factors associated with isolation of Listeria spp. were considerably different between the two environments.

  12. Scrub typhus meningitis in a renal transplant recipient

    PubMed Central

    Dhanapriya, J.; Dineshkumar, T.; Sakthirajan, R.; Murugan, S.; Jayaprakash, V.; Balasubramaniyan, T.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2017-01-01

    Scrub typhus is a rickettsial infection commonly seen in Asia. The clinical presentation ranges from nonspecific febrile illness to potentially fatal multiorgan involvement such as liver, kidney, or lung. Central nervous system involvement is uncommon. We report a 45-year-old female renal transplant recipient who presented with fever, headache, meningeal signs, graft dysfunction, and eschar. IgM antibodies against Orientia tsutsugamushi were positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Despite oral doxycycline therapy for 5 days, she did not improve but responded well to intravenous azithromycin. To the best of our knowledge, scrub typhus as a cause of meningitis in a renal transplant recipient has not been reported so far. PMID:28356672

  13. Improving Decision-Making Activities for Meningitis and Malaria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ceccato, Pietro; Trzaska, Sylwia; Garcia-Pando, Carlos Perez; Kalashnikova, Olga; del Corral, John; Cousin, Remi; Blumenthal, M. Benno; Bell, Michael; Connor, Stephen J.; Thomson, Madeleine C.

    2013-01-01

    Public health professionals are increasingly concerned about the potential impact that climate variability and change can have on infectious disease. The International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) is developing new products to increase the public health community's capacity to understand, use and demand the appropriate climate data and climate information to mitigate the public health impacts of climate on infectious disease, in particular meningitis and malaria. In this paper, we present the new and improved products that have been developed for: (i) estimating dust aerosol for forecasting risks of meningitis and (ii) for monitoring temperature and rainfall and integrating them into a vectorial capacity model for forecasting risks of malaria epidemics. We also present how the products have been integrated into a knowledge system (IRI Data Library Map Room, SERVIR) to support the use of climate and environmental information in climate-sensitive health decision-making.

  14. Neurologic deterioration in a child undergoing treatment for tuberculosis meningitis.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Gilad D; Marquez, Lucila; Hwang, Kevin M; Cruz, Andrea T

    2014-08-01

    Clinical deterioration while receiving antituberculosis (anti-TB) therapy can be due to a number of etiologies, including drug resistance, disease progression despite effective therapy, or alternative diagnoses. We present the case of a 22-month-old girl diagnosed with TB meningitis 4 months prior to presentation. At time of her initial diagnosis, computed tomography showed hydrocephalus and basilar meningitis with some evidence of ischemic damage. She required placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and was discharged on multidrug anti-TB therapy and corticosteroids. At the time of her second emergency department presentation, she had developed new-onset seizures and hemiparesis. Her steroids had been tapered and discontinued. Differential diagnosis included shunt malfunction and/or shunt infection. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed interval development of tuberculomas. Symptomatic and radiographic improvement was seen after initiation of corticosteroids for immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, which can be seen in immunocompetent children, with onset weeks to months after starting antituberculous therapy.

  15. Aseptic Meningitis Caused by Lassa Virus: Case Series Report

    PubMed Central

    Bankole, Idowu A.; Iruolagbe, Christopher O.; Muoebonam, Benard E.; Okonofua, Martha O.; Dawodu, Simeon O.; Akpede, George O.

    2016-01-01

    The Lassa virus is known to cause disease in different organ systems of the human body, with varying clinical manifestations. The features of severe clinical disease may include bleeding and/or central nervous system manifestations. Whereas Lassa fever encephalopathy and encephalitis are well described in the literature, there is paucity of data on Lassa virus meningitis. We present the clinical description, laboratory diagnosis, and management of 4 consecutive cases of aseptic meningitis associated with Lassa virus infection without bleeding seen in a region of Nigeria known to be endemic for both the reservoir rodent and Lassa fever. The 4 patients recovered fully following intravenous ribavirin treatment and suffered no neurologic complications. PMID:27957363

  16. Pasteurella multocida bacterial meningitis caused by contact with pigs

    PubMed Central

    López, C.; Sanchez-Rubio, P.; Betrán, A.; Terré, R.

    2013-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida belongs to the normal flora of the respiratory and digestive tract of many animals. Animal exposure is a considerable risk factor for Pasteurella infection. P. multocida is the most common cause of local infection after an animal bite but is an unusual cause of meningitis. We present a case of bacterial meningitis by P. multocida in a 37-year-old man who worked in a pig farm and was bitten by a pig. The patient had a defect located in the lamina cribosa and this lesion could be the gateway of the infection, although in this case the infection could also be acquired through the pig bite. The bacteria was identified as P. multocida with the biochemical test API 20E (bioMérieux). In agreement with findings in the literature, the strain was susceptible in vitro to penicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, imipenem and tetracycline. PMID:24294240

  17. Intradural Extramedullary Tuberculoma of the Spinal Cord Following Tuberculous Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Deok-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Intradural extramedullary tuberculoma of the spinal cord (IETSC) is an uncommon disease which can occurs secondary to tuberculous meningitis. A 31-year-old woman was diagnosed as tuberculous meningitis after mental disorientation. Her mentality was recovered after antituberculous therapy. After 7 months of antituberculous therapy, paraplegia has developed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a mass lesion between the T1 and T12 spinal levels with arachnoid thickening which results in the development of tuberculoma. She received surgical resection of IETSC followed by antituberculous therapy and neurological function has been improved. The two years after surgical treatment, spinal MRI showed syringomyelia between T1 to L1. But, her neurological outcome was not aggravated. PMID:26217394

  18. Enteroviral Meningitis in Neonates and Children of Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghabouli Shahroodi, Mohammad Javad; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Sadeghi, Reza; Sasan, Mohammad Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background The highest incidence of meningitis occurs during the neonatal period and (then) infancy. Although Bacterial agents are the most dangerous cause of neonatal and childhood meningitis yet viruses especially, enteroviruses (EV), are by far the most common cause of meningitis in this age group. Objectives The aim of the current study was to evaluate the role of EVs in neonatal and childhood meningitis in the Mashhad city of Iran. Materials and Methods This was a descriptive study that was performed at Imam Reza hospital in a period of six months (March to September 2007), during which all of the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) samples from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and pediatrics ward were collected and real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for EVs was done on these samples. Clinical data were collected retrospectively from hospital files. Results We collected 58 CSF samples (35 neonates and 23 children) during six months. Pleocytosis of CSF was seen in 51.1% of the subjects (28% of neonates, and 66.6% of infants and children). Enteroviruses PCR was positive in 37.1% (13) of neonates and 34.7% (8) of children. Pleocytosis of CSF was seen in 23% and 75% of EV positive neonates and children, respectively. Polymorphonuclear (PMN) dominance (PMN > 50%) of CSF was seen in 50% and 33% of EV positive neonates and children, respectively. There were three cases of bacterial meningitis in our group; EV PCR result was positive for one of these subjects. Concomitant bacterial infection (meningitis and sepsis) was seen in 9.5% (two cases) of EV positive CSFs in our study. Almost half of the available neonates (four of nine) with pure enteroviral meningitis (EVM) were discharged (in good condition) with final diagnosis of culture negative sepsis (CNS) and mean length of hospital stay (MLOS) of 4.3 days. One (12.5%) of the neonates with EVM, who had a very low birth weight (< 1500 mg), was expired, and two (25%) cases were discharged with brain damage and

  19. Antibiotic therapy for bacterial meningitis in children in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P.; Verma, I. C.

    1993-01-01

    We carried out a study to investigate the effectiveness of chloramphenicol alone as a treatment for bacterial meningitis. A total of 70 consecutive children aged > 3 months with bacterial meningitis, who had been admitted to the paediatric hospital of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, were randomized to receive chloramphenicol alone or chloramphenicol + penicillin. The two groups were matched with each other. Treatment failure occurred with three (9%) patients in the chloramphenicol-alone group and with four (12.1%) patients in the combination therapy group (P > 0.05). The mean duration of intravenous therapy, the number of intravenous cannulae used per patient, and the incidence of thrombophlebitis were significantly higher for the group that received the combination therapy. Also, the cost of using chloramphenicol + penicillin was four times higher than that of chloramphenicol alone. Hence, chloramphenicol alone was as effective as chloramphenicol + penicillin and much cheaper and more convenient to use. PMID:8490981

  20. Improving Decision-Making Activities for Meningitis and Malaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccato, P.; Trzaska, S.; Perez, C.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; del Corral, J.; Cousin, R.; Blumenthal, M. B.; Connor, S.; Thomson, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Public health professionals are increasingly concerned about the potential impact that climate variability and change can have on infectious disease. The International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) is developing new products to increase the public health community's capacity to understand, use, and demand the appropriate climate data and climate information to mitigate the public health impacts of climate on infectious disease, in particular Meningitis and Malaria. In this paper we present the new and improved products that have been developed for monitoring dust, temperature, rainfall and vectorial capacity model for monitoring and forecasting risks of Meningitis and Malaria epidemics. We also present how the products have been integrated into a knowledge system (IRI Data Library Map room, SERVIR) to support the use of climate and environmental information in climate-sensitive health decision-making.

  1. Noncommunicating Spinal Extradural Meningeal Cyst in Thoracolumbar Spine

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il Sup; Son, Byung Chul; Lee, Sang Won

    2010-01-01

    Spinal extradural meningeal cyst has been rarely reported, whose etiologies are assumed to be the communication of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between intradural subarchnoid space and cyst due to the congenital defect in dura mater. Although the CSF communication due to this defect can be found, in most case, few cases in which there is a lack of the communication have also been reported. We report a case of the huge extradural meningeal cyst occurring in the thoracolumbar spine (from T10 to L2) where there was a lack of the communication between the intradural subarachnoid space and cyst in a 46-year-old man who presented with symptoms that were indicative of progressive paraparesis and leg pain. The patient underwent laminectomy and cyst excision. On intraoperative findings, the dura was intact and there was a lack of the communication with intradural subarachnoid space. Immediately after the surgery, weakness and leg pain disappeared shortly. PMID:21430982

  2. Aseptic meningitis due to Frater type virus in Ontario.

    PubMed

    KELEN, A; LESIAK, J; LABZOFFSKY, N A

    1963-07-06

    During the summer and fall of 1959 and 1960 a virus was isolated on 14 occasions from the stool or cerebrospinal fluid or both of 12 patients with a clinical picture of non-paralytic poliomyelitis or aseptic meningitis. The patients were from eight different localities in Ontario. The isolated virus was not neutralized by antisera to any of the known enteroviruses, reoviruses or adenoviruses, nor did antiserum to the isolate neutralize any of these viruses. Antiserum to Frater virus, however, did neutralize this isolate and in turn was itself neutralized by antiserum to this virus. Frater virus was isolated in Scotland from cases of aseptic meningitis during the same period in 1959 and 1960. In Ontario this virus was not encountered before 1959. Isolation of the virus from cerebrospinal fluid and demonstration of immunological response in the patients establish its etiological significance. Biological characteristics indicate that it belongs to the Echo group.

  3. Eosinophilic meningitis: a case series and review of literature of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Gnathostoma spinigerum.

    PubMed

    Shah, I; Barot, S; Madvariya, M

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis is defined as the presence of >10 eosinophils/μL in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or at least 10% eosinophils in the total CSF leukocyte count. Eosinophilic meningitis has been reported in two case series and two case reports in India till date and has not been reported in children below 15 years of age. We present two children with eosinophilic meningitis with peripheral eosinophilia and the proposed etiologic agents based on the clinical setting and their response to antihelminthic agents.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of cerebrospinal fluid gram stain in children with suspected bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Brizzi, Kate; Hines, Elizabeth M; McGowan, Karin L; Shah, Samir S

    2012-02-01

    This cross-sectional study included 1938 children undergoing lumbar puncture; 21 (1.1%) cases were classified as definite (n = 17) or probable (n = 4) bacterial meningitis. Gram stain sensitivity was 94.1% (95% confidence interval, 71.3%-99.9%) for those with definite meningitis; the positive predictive value was 47.1% (95% confidence interval, 29.8%-64.9%). The sensitivity was 95.2% for those with definite or probable meningitis. Antibiotic pretreatment did not affect results.

  5. The occurrence of Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp. in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Arvanitidou, M; Papa, A; Constantinidis, T C; Danielides, V; Katsouyannopoulos, V

    1997-12-01

    Listeria ssp., mainly Listeria monocytogenes as well as Salmonella spp. are recognized as significant human pathogens. The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp. in surface waters of Northern Greece and to investigate the correlation of these pathogens with the standard indicator bacteria. A total number of 128 water samples from four rivers and one lake were examined for the presence of Listeria, Salmonella, total coliforms, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci. For isolating Listeria, 250 ml of water were filtered through 0.45 microns pore size membrane, that was transferred in 10 ml listeria enrichment broth and after incubation for 24 h at 30 degrees C, a second enrichment in FDA and Fraser broths was followed. After 24 hour incubation, an amount of 0.1 ml was streaked out onto listeria selective medium. The typical colonies were further biochemically and serologically examined. Salmonella spp. were isolated after preenrichment in BPW, enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis and selenite cysteine broths and identified from BGD and SS agar plates by biochemistry and serology. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from five (3.9%) and Salmonella spp. from eight (6.2%) samples. Mean log values of the standard indicator bacteria did not significantly differ between listeria and salmonella positive and negative samples.

  6. Cryptococcal meningitis associated with tuberculosis in HIV infected patients.

    PubMed

    Singh, Urvinderpal; Aditi; Aneja, Pooja; Kapoor, B K; Singh, S P; Purewal, Sukhpreet Singh

    2013-07-01

    Opportunistic infections are common complications of advanced immuno-deficiency in individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Following involvement of the lung, the central nervous system (CNS) is the second most commonly affected organ. We report two cases of concurrent cryptococcal meningitis and tuberculosis (TB) in HIV infected persons. A high suspicion of multiple opportunistic infections should be kept in mind in HIV seropositive individuals.

  7. Chronic Meningitis Complicating Intracranial Hypertension in Neurobrucellosis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tugcu, Betul; Nacaroglu, Senay Asik; Coskun, Cigdem; Kuscu, Demet Yandım; Onder, Feyza

    2015-01-01

    In neurobrucellosis, even though meningitis is encountered frequently, chronic intracranial hypertension is a rare manifestation. Early diagnosis and treatment is very important for the prevention of permanent visual loss secondary to poststasis optic atrophy in these cases. We report a case that presented with permanent visual loss secondary to intracranial hypertension in neurobrucellosis. Our goal is to draw attention to the consideration of neurobrucellosis in cases with papilla stasis, even in the absence of neurological findings in endemic areas.

  8. Microglia activation in a pediatric rabbit model of tuberculous meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Elizabeth W.; Pokkali, Supriya; Zhang, Zhi; DeMarco, Vincent P.; Klunk, Mariah; Smith, Elizabeth S.; Ordonez, Alvaro A.; Penet, Marie-France; Bhujwalla, Zaver; Kannan, Sujatha

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis (TB) is the most severe form of extra-pulmonary TB and disproportionately affects young children where the developing brain has a unique host response. New Zealand white rabbits were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis via subarachnoid inoculation at postnatal day 4-8 and evaluated until 4-6 weeks post-infection. Control and infected rabbit kits were assessed for the development of neurological deficits, bacterial burden, and postmortem microbiologic and pathologic changes. The presence of meningitis and tuberculomas was demonstrated histologically and by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The extent of microglial activation was quantified by in vitro immunohistochemistry as well as non-invasive in vivo imaging of activated microglia/macrophages with positron emission tomography (PET). Subarachnoid infection induced characteristic leptomeningeal and perivascular inflammation and TB lesions with central necrosis, a cellular rim and numerous bacilli on pathologic examination. Meningeal and rim enhancement was visible on MRI. An intense microglial activation was noted in M. tuberculosis-infected animals in the white matter and around the TB lesions, as evidenced by a significant increase in uptake of the tracer 124I-DPA-713, which is specific for activated microglia/macrophages, and confirmed by quantification of Iba-1 immunohistochemistry. Neurobehavioral analyses demonstrated signs similar to those noted in children with delayed maturation and development of neurological deficits resulting in significantly worse composite behavior scores in M. tuberculosis-infected animals. We have established a rabbit model that mimics features of TB meningitis in young children. This model could provide a platform for evaluating novel therapies, including host-directed therapies, against TB meningitis relevant to a young child's developing brain. PMID:27935825

  9. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome following neurosurgical intervention in tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Nagotkar, L; Shanbag, P; Dasarwar, N

    2008-07-01

    Cerebral salt wasting is characterized by inappropriate natriuresis and volume contraction in the presence of cerebral pathology. Diagnosis can be difficult and therapy is challenging. We report two children with tuberculous meningitis and hydrocephalus who developed cerebral salt wasting following neurosurgical intervention. The first patient was managed with rigorous salt and water replacement whereas the second patient required the addition of fludrocortisone for control of salt-wasting.

  10. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt for intracranial hypertension in cryptococcal meningitis without hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Panayota; Moscovici, Samuel; Leker, Ronen R; Itshayek, Eyal; Gomori, John M; Cohen, José E

    2012-08-01

    The use of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt to treat uncontrollable intracranial hypertension in patients with cryptococcal meningitis without hydrocephalus is somewhat unusual and still largely unreported. However, uncontrollable intracranial hypertension without hydrocephalus in these patients is a potentially life-threatening condition. Early diagnosis and shunt placement are essential to improve survival and neurological function. We report uncontrollable intracranial hypertension without hydrocephalus in a 23-year-old woman, which was successfully managed by VP shunt placement.

  11. Meningitis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tena, D; Solís, S; Lainez, S; Torralba, M; Chacón, P; Valdezate, S; Sáez-Nieto, J A; Bisquert, J

    2013-04-01

    The genus Abiotrophia comprises fastidious Gram-positive bacteria previously classified as nutritionally variant streptococci (NVS). The isolation of NVS from the central nervous system (CNS) is very rare. We describe a case of meningitis due to Abiotrophia defectiva in a patient who underwent a total hip arthroplasty 4 days previously. It is possible that the organism could be introduced through the spinal anesthesia. We also review all cases of CNS infections caused by NVS.

  12. Gene expression in cortex and hippocampus during acute pneumococcal meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Coimbra, Roney S; Voisin, Veronique; de Saizieu, Antoine B; Lindberg, Raija LP; Wittwer, Matthias; Leppert, David; Leib, Stephen L

    2006-01-01

    Background Pneumococcal meningitis is associated with high mortality (~30%) and morbidity. Up to 50% of survivors are affected by neurological sequelae due to a wide spectrum of brain injury mainly affecting the cortex and hippocampus. Despite this significant disease burden, the genetic program that regulates the host response leading to brain damage as a consequence of bacterial meningitis is largely unknown. We used an infant rat model of pneumococcal meningitis to assess gene expression profiles in cortex and hippocampus at 22 and 44 hours after infection and in controls at 22 h after mock-infection with saline. To analyze the biological significance of the data generated by Affymetrix DNA microarrays, a bioinformatics pipeline was used combining (i) a literature-profiling algorithm to cluster genes based on the vocabulary of abstracts indexed in MEDLINE (NCBI) and (ii) the self-organizing map (SOM), a clustering technique based on covariance in gene expression kinetics. Results Among 598 genes differentially regulated (change factor ≥ 1.5; p ≤ 0.05), 77% were automatically assigned to one of 11 functional groups with 94% accuracy. SOM disclosed six patterns of expression kinetics. Genes associated with growth control/neuroplasticity, signal transduction, cell death/survival, cytoskeleton, and immunity were generally upregulated. In contrast, genes related to neurotransmission and lipid metabolism were transiently downregulated on the whole. The majority of the genes associated with ionic homeostasis, neurotransmission, signal transduction and lipid metabolism were differentially regulated specifically in the hippocampus. Of the cell death/survival genes found to be continuously upregulated only in hippocampus, the majority are pro-apoptotic, while those continuously upregulated only in cortex are anti-apoptotic. Conclusion Temporal and spatial analysis of gene expression in experimental pneumococcal meningitis identified potential targets for therapy. PMID

  13. Consumer method to control Salmonella and Listeria species in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Genevieve; Janes, Marlene; Lampila, Lucina; Supan, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the current consumer method of boiling shrimp until floating and pink in color is adequate for destroying Listeria and Salmonella. Shrimp samples were submerged in bacterial suspensions of Listeria and Salmonella for 30 min and allowed to air dry for 1 h under a biosafety cabinet. Color parameters were then measured with a spectrophotometer programmed with the CIELAB system. Twenty-four shrimp samples were divided into groups (days 0, 1, or 2) and stored at 4°C. The samples were treated by placing them in boiling water (100°C) on days 0, 1, and 2. The shrimp were immediately removed from the boiling water once they floated to the surface, and color parameters were measured. Bacterial counts were determined, and the log CFU per gram was calculated. The effect of sodium tripolyphosphate on the color change of cooked shrimp also was determined. Initial bacterial counts on shrimp after air drying were 5.31 ± 0.14 log CFU/g for Salmonella Enteritidis, 5.24 ± 0.31 log CFU/g for Salmonella Infantis, 5.40 ± 0.16 log CFU/g for Salmonella Typhimurium, 3.91 + 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria innocua, 4.45 ± 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria monocytogenes (1/2a), and 3.70 ± 0.22 log CFU/g for Listeria welshimeri. On days 0, 1, and 2, all bacterial counts were reduced to nondetectable levels for shrimp samples that floated. The average time for shrimp to float was 96 ± 8 s. The bacterial counts remained at nondetectable levels (<10 log CFU/g) during refrigerated (4°C) storage of cooked shrimp for 2 days. The redness, yellowness, and lightness were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) for the cooked shrimp than for the uncooked shrimp on all days tested. The standard deviation for redness in the cooked shrimp was large, indicating a wide range of pink coloration on all days tested. The results suggest that boiling shrimp until they float will significantly reduce Listeria and Salmonella contamination, but color change is not a good

  14. [Cryptococcal meningitis in children: description of 3 cases].

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, M; Diagne, N R; Seck, L B; Sow, A D; Sène, M S; Diop, A G; Sow, H D; Ndiaye, M M

    2011-04-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is much less common in children than adults. The purpose of this report is to describe 3 cases of cryptococcal meningitis observed in children admitted to the Neurology Department of the Fann University Hospital Center in Dakar, Senegal between July 2003 and November 2008. There were 2 girls whose ages were 8 and 15 years and one 9-year-old boy. All 3 patients presented acute or chronic meningoencephalitis. Diagnosis was based on direct microscopic examination of India ink preparations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showing Cryptococcus neoformans at direct exam. Two patients were immunocompromised including one presenting severe protein-caloric malnutrition and one infected by HIV-1. The third patient was immunocompetent. All 3 patients were treated by intravenous Fluconazole. The immunocompetent boy died after 1 month of hospitalization due to cardiovascular and respiratory insufficiency. Both girls survived with severe neurosensory sequels. Cryptococcal meningitis that is relatively frequent in adulthood may be underestimated in children and should be tested for in any children presenting meningoencephalitis of undetermined cause.

  15. Enterococcal meningitis caused by Enterococcus casseliflavus. First case report

    PubMed Central

    Iaria, Chiara; Stassi, Giovanna; Costa, Gaetano Bruno; Di Leo, Rita; Toscano, Antonio; Cascio, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Background Enterococcal meningitis is an uncommon disease usually caused by Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium and is associated with a high mortality rate. Enterococcus casseliflavus has been implicated in a wide variety of infections in humans, but never in meningitis. Case presentation A 77-year-old Italian female presented for evaluation of fever, stupor, diarrhea and vomiting of 3 days duration. There was no history of head injury nor of previous surgical procedures. She had been suffering from rheumatoid arthritis for 30 years, for which she was being treated with steroids and methotrexate. On admission, she was febrile, alert but not oriented to time and place. Her neck was stiff, and she had a positive Kernig's sign. The patient's cerebrospinal fluid was opalescent with a glucose concentration of 14 mg/dl, a protein level of 472 mg/dl, and a white cell count of 200/μL with 95% polymorphonuclear leukocytes and 5% lymphocytes. Gram staining of CSF revealed no organisms, culture yielded E. casseliflavus. The patient was successfully treated with meropenem and ampicillin-sulbactam. Conclusions E. casseliflavus can be inserted among the etiologic agents of meningitis. Awareness of infection of central nervous system with Enterococcus species that possess an intrinsic vancomycin resistance should be increased. PMID:15649336

  16. Role of purinergic signaling in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Zierhut, Marco; Dyckhoff, Susanne; Masouris, Ilias; Klein, Matthias; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Pfister, Hans-Walter; Ayata, Korcan; Idzko, Marco; Koedel, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Excessive neutrophilic inflammation contributes to brain pathology and adverse outcome in pneumococcal meningitis (PM). Recently, we identified the NLRP3 inflammasome/interleukin (IL)-1β pathway as a key driver of inflammation in PM. A critical membrane receptor for NLRP3 inflammasome activation is the ATP-activated P2 purinoceptor (P2R) P2X7. Thus, we hypothesized involvement of ATP and P2Rs in PM. The functional role of ATP was investigated in a mouse meningitis model using P2R antagonists. Brain expression of P2Rs was assessed by RT-PCR. ATP levels were determined in murine CSF and cell culture experiments. Treatment with the P2R antagonists suramin or brilliant blue G did not have any impact on disease course. This lack of effect might be attributed to meningitis-associated down-regulation of brain P2R expression and/or a drop of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ATP, as demonstrated by RT-PCR and ATP analyses. Supplemental cell culture experiments suggest that the reduction in CSF ATP is, at least partly, due to ATP hydrolysis by ectonucleotidases of neutrophils and macrophages. In conclusion, this study suggests that ATP-P2R signaling is only of minor or even no significance in PM. This may be explained by down-regulation of P2R expression and decreased CSF ATP levels. PMID:28300164

  17. Streptococcus pneumoniae capsule determines disease severity in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Grandgirard, Denis; Valente, Luca G.; Täuber, Martin G.; Leib, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria can be characterized into over 90 serotypes according to the composition of their polysaccharide capsules. Some serotypes are common in nasopharyngeal carriage whereas others are associated with invasive disease, but when carriage serotypes do invade disease is often particularly severe. It is unknown whether disease severity is due directly to the capsule type or to other virulence factors. Here, we used a clinical pneumococcal isolate and its capsule-switch mutants to determine the effect of capsule, in isolation from the genetic background, on severity of meningitis in an infant rat model. We found that possession of a capsule was essential for causing meningitis. Serotype 6B caused significantly more mortality than 7F and this correlated with increased capsule thickness in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a stronger inflammatory cytokine response in the CSF and ultimately more cortical brain damage. We conclude that capsule type has a direct effect on meningitis severity. This is an important consideration in the current era of vaccination targeting a subset of capsule types that causes serotype replacement. PMID:27009189

  18. Postradiation lumbosacral radiculopathy with spinal root cavernomas mimicking carcinomatous meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Ducray, François; Guillevin, Rémy; Psimaras, Dimitri; Sanson, Marc; Mokhtari, Karima; Delanian, Sylvie; Navarro, Soledad; Maisonobe, Thierry; Cornu, Philippe; Hoang-Xuan, Khê; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Pradat, Pierre-François

    2008-01-01

    Lumbosacral radiculopathy is a rare complication of radiotherapy and may be challenging to differentiate from diagnosis of a tumor recurrence. We reviewed the records of three patients with a past history of cancer and radiotherapy who were referred for suspicion of carcinomatous meningitis on lumbar MRI, but whose final diagnosis was radiation-induced lumbosacral radiculopathy. The three patients developed a progressive lumbosacral radiculopathy at 20, 13, and 47 years after lumbar radiotherapy delivered for renal cancer, Hodgkin’s disease, and a seminoma, respectively. MRI showed a diffuse, nodular enhancement of the cauda equina nerve roots on T1 sequences, suggestive of leptomeningeal metastasis. A slowly progressive clinical course over several years and negative cerebrospinal fluid cytologic analysis ruled out the diagnosis of carcinomatous meningitis. Because of the radiologic findings, a biopsy was performed in two patients. In the first, a biopsy limited to the arachnoid excluded a malignant infiltration. In the second, a biopsy of the enhancing lesions demonstrated spinal root cavernomas. These observations, together with three recent case reports in the literature, delineate a syndrome of “radiation-induced lumbosacral radiculopathy with multiple spinal root cavernomas” that mimics carcinomatous meningitis on MRI. Its diagnosis is important in order to avoid inappropriate treatment and useless or dangerous spinal root biopsies. PMID:18755918

  19. Ommaya reservoir in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Baozhu; Qian, Cheng; Liu, Yang; Lin, Xuan; Wan, Jing; Wang, Yanggan

    2017-03-01

    The objective is to study the role of Ommaya reservoir in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis. The clinical data of 42 patients with cryptococcal meningitis were retrospectively studied. The Ommaya group included 20 patients, who were treated with Amphotericin B (Am B) and Ommaya reservoir implantation. The non-Ommaya group contained 22 patients, who were just treated with Amphotericin B (Am B). In the Ommaya group (surgical group), all 20 patients with Ommaya reservoir were fully recovered, and their average hospital stay period and average treatment period with Amphotericin B were 105.3 ± 18.3 and 75.0 ± 18.1 days, respectively. In the non-Ommaya group (control group), 16 patients were fully recovered and the average hospital stay period and average treatment period with Amphotericin B of these 22 patients were 139.6 ± 29.5 and 150.0 ± 32.2 days, respectively. In the surgical group, average period of cryptococcus disappearance was 20 ± 8 days, while in the control group, that was 35 ± 10 days. The clinical efficacy was better in surgical group than control group (P < 0.05). Ommaya reservoir implantation is a valuable approach in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis and can improve the cure rate, decrease mortality, and shorten the period of treatment.

  20. B cell repertoire expansion occurs in meningeal ectopic lymphoid tissue

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann-Horn, Klaus; Wang, Sheng-zhi; Sagan, Sharon A.; Zamvil, Scott S.

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic lymphoid tissues (ELT) can be found in multiple sclerosis (MS) and other organ-specific inflammatory conditions. Whether ELT in the meninges of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disease exhibit local germinal center (GC) activity remains unknown. In an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of CNS autoimmunity, we found activation-induced cytidine deaminase, a GC-defining enzyme, in meningeal ELT (mELT) densely populated by B and T cells. To determine GC activity in mELT, we excised meningeal lymphoid aggregates using laser capture microscopy and evaluated B cell repertoires in mELT and secondary lymphoid organs by next-generation immune repertoire sequencing. We found immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region sequences that were unique to mELT and had accumulated functionally relevant somatic mutations, together indicating localized antigen-driven affinity maturation. Our results suggest that B cells in mELT actively participate in CNS autoimmunity, which may be relevant to mELT in MS and ELT in other chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:27942581

  1. Traumatic Fracture of Thin Pedicles Secondary to Extradural Meningeal Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Yanni, Daniel S.; Mammis, Antonios; Thaker, Nikhil G.; Goldstein, Ira M.

    2011-01-01

    Spinal dural meningoceles and diverticula are meningeal cysts that have a myriad of clinical presentations and sequelae, secondary to local mass effect. Our objective is to report a technical case report, illustrating a traumatic spinal injury with multiple pedicle fractures, secondary to atrophic lumbar pedicles as well as the diagnostic workup and surgical management of this problem. Posterior lumbar decompression, resection of the meningeal cyst, ligation of the cyst ostium, instrumentation, and fusion were performed with the assistance of intraoperative isocentric fluoroscopy. The cyst's point of communication was successfully located with intraoperative fluoroscopy and the lesion was successfully excised. We suggest that patients with traumatic spinal injuries, having evidence of pre-existing anomalous bony architecture, undergo advanced imaging studies, to rule out intraspinal pathology. The positive clinical and radiographic results support the removal and closure of the pre-existing meningeal cyst at the time of treatment of traumatic spinal injury. Intraoperative isocentric fluoroscopy is a helpful tool in the operative management of these lesions. PMID:22022654

  2. Role of purinergic signaling in experimental pneumococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Zierhut, Marco; Dyckhoff, Susanne; Masouris, Ilias; Klein, Matthias; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Pfister, Hans-Walter; Ayata, Korcan; Idzko, Marco; Koedel, Uwe

    2017-03-16

    Excessive neutrophilic inflammation contributes to brain pathology and adverse outcome in pneumococcal meningitis (PM). Recently, we identified the NLRP3 inflammasome/interleukin (IL)-1β pathway as a key driver of inflammation in PM. A critical membrane receptor for NLRP3 inflammasome activation is the ATP-activated P2 purinoceptor (P2R) P2X7. Thus, we hypothesized involvement of ATP and P2Rs in PM. The functional role of ATP was investigated in a mouse meningitis model using P2R antagonists. Brain expression of P2Rs was assessed by RT-PCR. ATP levels were determined in murine CSF and cell culture experiments. Treatment with the P2R antagonists suramin or brilliant blue G did not have any impact on disease course. This lack of effect might be attributed to meningitis-associated down-regulation of brain P2R expression and/or a drop of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ATP, as demonstrated by RT-PCR and ATP analyses. Supplemental cell culture experiments suggest that the reduction in CSF ATP is, at least partly, due to ATP hydrolysis by ectonucleotidases of neutrophils and macrophages. In conclusion, this study suggests that ATP-P2R signaling is only of minor or even no significance in PM. This may be explained by down-regulation of P2R expression and decreased CSF ATP levels.

  3. [Meningeal carcinomatosis in breast cancer: from diagnosis to treatment].

    PubMed

    Elm'hadi, C; Es Sbai, Z; Reda Khmamouche, M; Toreis, M; Tanz, R; Errihani, H; Ichou, M

    2017-04-01

    The appearance of meningeal carcinomatosis in breast cancer is an event that is being reported increasingly more frequently in the literature. It seems to be related with the lengthening of the patients' lives, improved sensitivity to diagnostic imaging and impermeability of the blood-brain barrier to the chemotherapeutic agents. It is an evolutionary form that affirms the metastatic invasion of the subarachnoidal space and is correlated with limited survival. Its diagnosis is difficult, due to the lack of specificity of the clinical signs dominated by headaches, cognitive disorders and possible signs and symptoms of progressive focal lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and the spinal cord interpreted by a specialist in neuro-oncology is the preferred examination in this indication, in the search for an increase in meningeal enhancement. Biological analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid is an essential element in the diagnosis. In addition to the biochemical study, the presence of neoplastic cells is in itself enough to confirm the diagnosis. False negatives are very common and represent an important diagnostic problem that entails the need to repeat the lumbar punctures. The therapeutic methods are standard, often invasive, dominated by intrathecal chemotherapy and are based on low-level scientific evidence. This study analyses the epidemiology, the prognostic factors, the diagnostic tools, currently available treatments and the possible future therapies of meningeal carcinomatosis in breast cancer.

  4. Pneumocephalus as a complication of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, P; Vishad, V; Pappachan, Joseph M; Laly, D C; Jayaprakash, R; Ranjith, V T

    2008-03-01

    Pneumocephalus implies air inside the cranial vault, which usually results from cranio-facial trauma. Occasionally, meningitis caused by gas-forming organisms can result in pneumocephalus. Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis can, on rare occasions, cause pneumocephalus as a complication. The drug of choice for K. pneumoniae meningitis is a third-generation cephalosporin, and resistance to these drugs is unusual. We report a case of multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae meningitis resulting from chronic suppurative otitis media, which was later complicated by pneumocephalus. The patient was successfully managed with meropenam and amikacin, the only antibiotics to which these bacilli showed no resistance.

  5. Surgical Resection during Chemotherapy of Pulmonary Cryptococcoma in a Patient with Cryptococcal Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yuji; Satomi, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    We herein report the case of a 72-year-old-man with pulmonary cryptococcoma along with cryptococcal meningitis who underwent surgery for pulmonary lesions while receiving chemotherapy. We noted two major clinical issues. First, the presence of pulmonary cryptococcoma had a detrimental influence on the cryptococcal meningitis. Second, resolution of the pulmonary cryptococcoma through antifungal therapy had a beneficial influence on the recovery from cryptococcal meningitis. As observed in the current case with pulmonary and meningeal cryptococcosis, surgery for pulmonary cryptococcoma with continuous antifungal treatment should be considered for cases where the symptoms respond poorly to antifungal therapy and radiographic abnormalities persist. PMID:28050006

  6. Meningitis in HIV-positive patients in sub-Saharan Africa: a review

    PubMed Central

    Veltman, Jennifer A; Bristow, Claire C; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Meningitis is one of the leading causes of death among patients living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. There is no widespread tracking of the incidence rates of causative agents among patients living with HIV, yet the aetiologies of meningitis are different than those of the general population. Methods We reviewed the scientific literature published in PubMed to determine the incidence rates of meningitis among hospitalized people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa and report our findings from seven studies across sub-Saharan Africa. Results We found high rates of cryptococcal meningitis (19–68%). Tuberculous meningitis was lower (1–36%), although some centres included possible cases as “other” meningitis; therefore, this may not be a true representation of the total cases. Pyogenic meningitis ranged from 6 to 30% and “other” meningitis ranged from 7 to 28% of all reported cases of meningitis. Mortality rates ranged from 25 to 68%. This review describes the most common aetiologies and provides practical diagnostic, treatment and prevention considerations as they apply to the individual living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusions Diagnosis is often limited, and wider availability of accurate and low-cost laboratory diagnostics is desperately needed for prompt diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment. Wider acceptance and adoption of available preventative modalities can decrease the incidence of potentially fatal central nervous system infections in African patients living with HIV. PMID:25308903

  7. Evaluation and management of the swollen optic disk in cryptococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Rigi, Mohammed; Khan, Khurrum; Smith, Stacy V; Suleiman, Ayman O; Lee, Andrew G

    Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common and severe form of cryptococcal infection. In addition to infiltrative and inflammatory mechanisms, intracranial hypertension commonly complicates cryptococcal meningitis and may cause significant visual and neurological morbidity and mortality. The mainstays of treatment for cryptococcal meningitis include standard antifungal therapy, management of intracranial hypertension, and treatment of underlying immunosuppressive conditions. Early and aggressive management of intracranial hypertension in accordance with established guidelines reduces the risk of long-term visual and neurological complications and death. Traditional recommendations for treating elevated intracranial pressure in idiopathic intracranial hypertension including acetazolamide, weight loss, and avoiding serial lumbar punctures-are not helpful in cryptococcal meningitis and may be harmful.

  8. Comparison of isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae causing meningitis and report of gonococcal meningitis in a patient with C8 deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Del Rio, C; Stephens, D S; Knapp, J S; Rice, R J; Schalla, W O

    1989-01-01

    We studied a previously healthy 20-year-old woman who presented with gonococcal meningitis. The gonococcal isolate, HT-1, was prototrophic by auxotyping, was protein I serovar IB-1, and agglutinated with wheat germ lectin. This isolate differed from the proline-requiring, serovar IA-1 and IB-4, wheat germ-agglutination-negative gonococcal isolates recovered from three patients during a recent outbreak of gonococcal meningitis in Philadelphia. HT-1 was killed by normal pooled human sera (greater than or equal to 98% at 30 min) but not effectively killed by the convalescent-phase sera of the patient (greater than 30% survival at 30 min). Similar results were obtained when mucosal and cerebrospinal fluid isolates from a Philadelphia patient were exposed to these sera, but mucosal and blood isolates from another Philadelphia case showed increased resistance to killing by normal pooled human sera. Further characterization revealed multiple differences in outer membrane and cellular proteins and lipopolysaccharide between case isolates. Absence of the L8 lipopolysaccharide epitope was noted for all isolates. Sera of our patient were found to have low total hemolytic complement (CH100 = 21 U/ml; normal = 55 to 100 U/ml) due to deficiency of C8 (C8 less than 1,000 CH50 U/ml; normal = greater than or equal to 16,000 CH50 U/ml). This is the first reported case of gonococcal meningitis occurring in a patient with a terminal-complement deficiency. Gonococcal meningitis is a rare complication of gonococcal bacteremia. Both defects in host defenses (e.g., terminal-complement deficiency) and organisms with unusual virulence appear to contribute to the pathogenesis of this complication of gonococcal bacteremia. Images PMID:2473091

  9. Rhombencephalitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes in a pastured bull.

    PubMed

    Matto, Carolina; Varela, Gustavo; Mota, María Inés; Gianneechini, Ruben; Rivero, Rodolfo

    2017-03-01

    A pastured 2-y-old cross-breed bull developed brainstem encephalitis (rhombencephalitis); Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from the brain. In the brainstem, there was perivascular cuffing, multiple microabscesses, and positive immunostaining for L. monocytogenes. Samples of bovine feces, water, feedstuffs, milking parlor soil, and bulk tank milk were collected from the dairy farm. Seven isolates of the genus Listeria were obtained, 6 of L. innocua and 1 of L. monocytogenes, which was found in the pasture where the bull grazed. Both isolates belonged to serotype 4b and were positive for internalins A, C, and J. According to the DNA fragment patterns of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, the isolates were closely related. The source of infection was the pasture, implying that listeriosis should not be discounted in cases with compatible clinical signs but the absence of silage feeding.

  10. Case of Contamination by Listeria Monocytogenes in Mozzarella Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Tolli, Rita; Bossù, Teresa; Rodas, Eda Maria Flores; Di Giamberardino, Fabiola; Di Sirio, Alessandro; Vita, Silvia; De Angelis, Veronica; Bilei, Stefano; Sonnessa, Michele; Gattuso, Antonietta; Lanni, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Following a Listeria monocytogenes detection in a mozzarella cheese sampled at a dairy plant in Lazio Region, further investigations have been conducted both by the competent Authority and the food business operatordairy factory (as a part of dairy factory HACCP control). In total, 90 dairy products, 7 brine and 64 environmental samples have been tested. The prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes was 24.4% in mozzarella cheese, and 9.4% in environmental samples, while brines were all negatives. Forty-seven strains of L. monocytogenes have been isolated, all belonging to 4b/4e serotype. In 12 of these, the macrorestriction profile has been determined by means of pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The profiles obtained with AscI enzyme showed a 100% similarity while those obtained with ApaI a 96.78% similarity. These characteristics of the isolated strains jointly with the production process of mozzarella cheese has allowed to hypothesise an environmental contamination. PMID:27800317

  11. Uncovering Listeria monocytogenes hypervirulence by harnessing its biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Caroline; Touchon, Marie; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Leclercq, Alexandre; Criscuolo, Alexis; Gaultier, Charlotte; Roussel, Sophie; Brisabois, Anne; Disson, Olivier; Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; Brisse, Sylvain; Lecuit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Microbial pathogenesis studies are typically performed with reference strains, thereby overlooking microbial intra-species virulence heterogeneity. Here we integrated human epidemiological and clinical data with bacterial population genomics to harness the biodiversity of the model foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes and decipher the basis of its neural and placental tropisms. Taking advantage of the clonal structure of this bacterial species, we identify clones epidemiologically associated with either food or human central nervous system (CNS) and maternal-neonatal (MN) listeriosis. The latter are also most prevalent in patients without immunosuppressive comorbidities. Strikingly, CNS and MN clones are hypervirulent in a humanized mouse model of listeriosis. By integrating epidemiological data and comparative genomics, we uncovered multiple novel putative virulence factors and demonstrated experimentally the contribution of the first gene cluster mediating Listeria monocytogenes neural and placental tropisms. This study illustrates the exceptional power of harnessing microbial biodiversity to identify clinically relevant microbial virulence attributes. PMID:26829754

  12. Mechanobiology of Antimicrobial Resistant Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua.

    PubMed

    Tajkarimi, Mehrdad; Harrison, Scott H; Hung, Albert M; Graves, Joseph L

    2016-01-01

    A majority of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections in the United States are associated with biofilms. Nanoscale biophysical measures are increasingly revealing that adhesive and viscoelastic properties of bacteria play essential roles across multiple stages of biofilm development. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) applied to strains with variation in antimicrobial resistance enables new opportunities for investigating the function of adhesive forces (stickiness) in biofilm formation. AFM force spectroscopy analysis of a field strain of Listeria innocua and the strain Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 revealed differing adhesive forces between antimicrobial resistant and nonresistant strains. Significant increases in stickiness were found at the nanonewton level for strains of Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli in association with benzalkonium chloride and silver nanoparticle resistance respectively. This advancement in the usage of AFM provides for a fast and reliable avenue for analyzing antimicrobial resistant cells and the molecular dynamics of biofilm formation as a protective mechanism.

  13. Listeria: A foodborne pathogen that knows how to survive.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Megha; Chikindas, Michael L

    2007-01-01

    The foodborne pathogen Listeria is the causative agent of listeriosis, a severe disease with high hospitalization and case fatality rates. Listeria monocytogenes can survive and grow over a wide range of environmental conditions such as refrigeration temperatures, low pH and high salt concentration. This allows the pathogen to overcome food preservation and safety barriers, and pose a potential risk to human health. This review focuses on the key issues such as survival of the pathogen in adverse environments, and the important adaptation and survival mechanisms such as biofilm formation, quorum sensing and antimicrobial resistance. Studies on the development of technologies to prevent and control L. monocytogenes contamination in foods and food processing facilities are also discussed.

  14. Mechanobiology of Antimicrobial Resistant Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua

    PubMed Central

    Tajkarimi, Mehrdad; Harrison, Scott H.; Hung, Albert M.; Graves, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    A majority of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections in the United States are associated with biofilms. Nanoscale biophysical measures are increasingly revealing that adhesive and viscoelastic properties of bacteria play essential roles across multiple stages of biofilm development. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) applied to strains with variation in antimicrobial resistance enables new opportunities for investigating the function of adhesive forces (stickiness) in biofilm formation. AFM force spectroscopy analysis of a field strain of Listeria innocua and the strain Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 revealed differing adhesive forces between antimicrobial resistant and nonresistant strains. Significant increases in stickiness were found at the nanonewton level for strains of Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli in association with benzalkonium chloride and silver nanoparticle resistance respectively. This advancement in the usage of AFM provides for a fast and reliable avenue for analyzing antimicrobial resistant cells and the molecular dynamics of biofilm formation as a protective mechanism. PMID:26914334

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua Isolated from Ready-to-Eat Products of Animal Origin in Spain.

    PubMed

    Escolar, Cristina; Gómez, Diego; Rota García, María Del Carmen; Conchello, Pilar; Herrera, Antonio

    2017-03-29

    The objective of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance in Listeria spp. isolated from food of animal origin. A total of 50 Listeria strains isolated from meat and dairy products, consisting of 7 Listeria monocytogenes and 43 Listeria innocua strains, were characterized for antimicrobial susceptibility against nine antimicrobials. The strains were screened by real-time PCR for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes: tet M, tet L, mef A, msr A, erm A, erm B, lnu A, and lnu B. Multidrug resistance was identified in 27 Listeria strains, 4 belonging to L. monocytogenes. Resistance to clindamycin was the most common resistance phenotype and was identified in 45 Listeria strains; the mechanisms of resistance are still unknown. A medium prevalence of resistance to tetracycline (15 and 9 resistant and intermediate strains) and ciprofloxacin (13 resistant strains) was also found. Tet M was detected in Listeria strains with reduced susceptibility to tetracycline, providing evidence that both L. innocua and L. monocytogenes displayed acquired resistance. The presence of antimicrobial resistance genes in L. innocua and L. monocytogenes indicates that these genes may be transferred to commensal and pathogenic bacteria via the food chain; besides this, antibiotic resistance in L. monocytogenes could compromise the effective treatment of listeriosis in humans.

  16. Efficiency of four secondary enrichment protocols in differentiation and isolation of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes from smoked fish processing chains.

    PubMed

    Duarte, G; Vaz-Velho, M; Capell, C; Gibbs, P

    1999-11-15

    Four secondary enrichment protocols (conventional methods: UVM II, Fraser 24 h and Fraser 48 h: Impedimetric method: Listeria electrical detection medium) were studied for their ability to isolate Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes from fish and environmental samples collected along the processing chain of cold-smoked fish. From all methods, Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes were respectively present in 56 and 34 of 315 samples analysed. Fraser broth incubated for 48 h gave the fewest false negative Listeria spp. results [4/56; (7.1%)], but concurrently only 15/34 (44.1%) samples were correctly identified as containing L. monocytogenes, Listeria electrical detection (LED) medium detected only 36/56 (64.3%) Listeria spp. positive samples. Despite this lower isolation rate, LED identified 20/34 (58.8%) L. monocytogenes positive samples correctly and gave fewer false positive results. The overall conclusion was that more than one isolation method is needed to accurately estimate L. monocytogenes contamination rates.

  17. Magnetic bead based immuno-detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables using the Bio-Plex suspension array system.

    PubMed

    Day, J B; Basavanna, U

    2015-04-01

    Listeriosis, a disease contracted via the consumption of foods contaminated with pathogenic Listeria species, can produce severe symptoms and high mortality in susceptible people and animals. The development of molecular methods and immuno-based techniques for detection of pathogenic Listeria in foods has been challenging due to the presence of assay inhibiting food components. In this study, we utilize a macrophage cell culture system for the isolation and enrichment of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables for subsequent identification using the Luminex xMAP technique. Macrophage monolayers were exposed to infant formula, lettuce and celery contaminated with L. monocytogenes or L. ivanovii. Magnetic microspheres conjugated to Listeria specific antibody were used to capture Listeria from infected macrophages and then analyzed using the Bio-Plex 200 analyzer. As few as 10 CFU/mL or g of L. monocytogenes was detected in all foods tested. The detection limit for L. ivanovii was 10 CFU/mL in infant formula and 100 CFU/g in leafy greens. Microsphere bound Listeria obtained from infected macrophage lysates could also be isolated on selective media for subsequent confirmatory identification. This method presumptively identifies L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii from infant formula, lettuce and celery in less than 28 h with confirmatory identifications completed in less than 48 h.

  18. In vitro activities of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole against Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Winslow, D L; Pankey, G A

    1982-01-01

    The in vitro activities of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxyazole against clinical isolates of Listeria monocytogenes were examined separately and in combination with a microtiter broth dilution system. Sulfamethoxazole demonstrated variable activity and was generally bacteriostatic. Trimethoprim alone was bactericidal against 96% of isolates at less than 0.5 microgram/ml. The bactericidal action of trimethoprim against L. monocytogenes was generally potentiated by sulfamethoxyazole even when isolates were relatively resistant to sulfamethoxyazole alone. PMID:6812496

  19. Small-Molecule Modulators of Listeria monocytogenes Biofilm Development

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Uyen T.; Wenderska, Iwona B.; Chong, Matthew A.; Koteva, Kalinka; Wright, Gerard D.

    2012-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important food-borne pathogen whose ability to form disinfectant-tolerant biofilms on a variety of surfaces presents a food safety challenge for manufacturers of ready-to-eat products. We developed here a high-throughput biofilm assay for L. monocytogenes and, as a proof of principle, used it to screen an 80-compound protein kinase inhibitor library to identify molecules that perturb biofilm development. The screen yielded molecules toxic to multiple strains of Listeria at micromolar concentrations, as well as molecules that decreased (≤50% of vehicle control) or increased (≥200%) biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner without affecting planktonic cell density. Toxic molecules—including the protein kinase C antagonist sphingosine—had antibiofilm activity at sub-MIC concentrations. Structure-activity studies of the biofilm inhibitory compound palmitoyl-d,l-carnitine showed that while Listeria biofilm formation was inhibited with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 5.85 ± 0.24 μM, d,l-carnitine had no effect, whereas palmitic acid had stimulatory effects. Saturated fatty acids between C9:0 and C14:0 were Listeria biofilm inhibitors, whereas fatty acids of C16:0 or longer were stimulators, showing chain length specificity. De novo-synthesized short-chain acyl carnitines were less effective biofilm inhibitors than the palmitoyl forms. These molecules, whose activities against bacteria have not been previously established, are both useful probes of L. monocytogenes biology and promising leads for the further development of antibiofilm strategies. PMID:22194285

  20. Cellular vaccines in listeriosis: role of the Listeria antigen GAPDH

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-González, Ricardo; Frande-Cabanes, Elisabet; Bronchalo-Vicente, Lucía; Lecea-Cuello, M. Jesús; Pareja, Eduardo; Bosch-Martínez, Alexandre; Fanarraga, Mónica L.; Yañez-Díaz, Sonsoles; Carrasco-Marín, Eugenio; Álvarez-Domínguez, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The use of live Listeria-based vaccines carries serious difficulties when administrated to immunocompromised individuals. However, cellular carriers have the advantage of inducing multivalent innate immunity as well as cell-mediated immune responses, constituting novel and secure vaccine strategies in listeriosis. Here, we compare the protective efficacy of dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages and their safety. We examined the immune response of these vaccine vectors using two Listeria antigens, listeriolysin O (LLO) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and several epitopes such as the LLO peptides, LLO189−201 and LLO91−99 and the GAPDH peptide, GAPDH1−22. We discarded macrophages as safe vaccine vectors because they show anti-Listeria protection but also high cytotoxicity. DCs loaded with GAPDH1−22 peptide conferred higher protection and security against listeriosis than the widely explored LLO91−99 peptide. Anti-Listeria protection was related to the changes in DC maturation caused by these epitopes, with high production of interleukin-12 as well as significant levels of other Th1 cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ, and with the induction of GAPDH1−22-specific CD4+ and CD8+ immune responses. This is believed to be the first study to explore the use of a novel GAPDH antigen as a potential DC-based vaccine candidate for listeriosis, whose efficiency appears to highlight the relevance of vaccine designs containing multiple CD4+ and CD8+ epitopes. PMID:24600592

  1. Cellular vaccines in listeriosis: role of the Listeria antigen GAPDH.

    PubMed

    Calderón-González, Ricardo; Frande-Cabanes, Elisabet; Bronchalo-Vicente, Lucía; Lecea-Cuello, M Jesús; Pareja, Eduardo; Bosch-Martínez, Alexandre; Fanarraga, Mónica L; Yañez-Díaz, Sonsoles; Carrasco-Marín, Eugenio; Alvarez-Domínguez, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The use of live Listeria-based vaccines carries serious difficulties when administrated to immunocompromised individuals. However, cellular carriers have the advantage of inducing multivalent innate immunity as well as cell-mediated immune responses, constituting novel and secure vaccine strategies in listeriosis. Here, we compare the protective efficacy of dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages and their safety. We examined the immune response of these vaccine vectors using two Listeria antigens, listeriolysin O (LLO) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and several epitopes such as the LLO peptides, LLO189-201 and LLO91-99 and the GAPDH peptide, GAPDH1-22. We discarded macrophages as safe vaccine vectors because they show anti-Listeria protection but also high cytotoxicity. DCs loaded with GAPDH1-22 peptide conferred higher protection and security against listeriosis than the widely explored LLO91-99 peptide. Anti-Listeria protection was related to the changes in DC maturation caused by these epitopes, with high production of interleukin-12 as well as significant levels of other Th1 cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ, and with the induction of GAPDH1-22-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) immune responses. This is believed to be the first study to explore the use of a novel GAPDH antigen as a potential DC-based vaccine candidate for listeriosis, whose efficiency appears to highlight the relevance of vaccine designs containing multiple CD4(+) and CD8(+) epitopes.

  2. Solitary supratentorial Listeria monocytogenes brain abscess in an immunocompromised patient

    PubMed Central

    Onofrio, Anthony R.; Martinez, Lauren C.; Opatowsky, Michael J.; Spak, Cedric W.; Layton, Kennith F.

    2015-01-01

    We describe an 81-year-old man receiving azacitidine monotherapy for myelodysplastic syndrome who was improving from Listeria monocytogenes bacteremia after receiving antibiotic therapy during an earlier hospital admission. Shortly after discharge he developed new-onset seizure activity, with brain imaging on subsequent admissions demonstrating a posterior right frontal lobe mass. Specimen cultures after resection of the mass revealed this to be a cerebral abscess related to L. monocytogenes. Brain abscesses related to this organism are rare. PMID:26130881

  3. Osmotic therapies added to antibiotics for acute bacterial meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Emma CB; Ajdukiewicz, Katherine MB; Heyderman, Robert S; Garner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Every day children and adults throughout the world die from acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis, particularly in low-income countries. Survivors are at risk of deafness, epilepsy and neurological disabilities. Osmotic therapies have been proposed as an adjunct to improve mortality and morbidity from bacterial meningitis. The theory is that they will attract extra-vascular fluid by osmosis and thus reduce cerebral oedema by moving excess water from the brain into the blood. The intention is to thus reduce death and improve neurological outcomes. Objectives To evaluate the effects on mortality, deafness and neurological disability of osmotic therapies added to antibiotics for acute bacterial meningitis in children and adults. Search methods We searched CENTRAL 2012, Issue 11, MEDLINE (1950 to November week 3, 2012), EMBASE (1974 to November 2012), CINAHL (1981 to November 2012), LILACS (1982 to November 2012) and registers of ongoing clinical trials (April 2012). We also searched conference abstracts and contacted researchers in the field. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials testing any osmotic therapy in adults or children with acute bacterial meningitis. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened the search results and selected trials for inclusion. We collected data from each study for mortality, deafness, seizures and neurological disabilities. Results are presented using risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and grouped according to whether the participants received steroids or not. Main results Four trials were included comprising 1091 participants. All compared glycerol (a water-soluble sugar alcohol) with a control; in three trials this was a placebo, and in one a small amount of 50% dextrose. Three trials included comparators of dexamethasone alone or in combination with glycerol. As dexamethasone appeared to have no modifying effect, we aggregated results across arms where both

  4. 32-Phosphorus selectively delivered by listeria to pancreatic cancer demonstrates a strong therapeutic effect.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Dinesh; Selvanesan, Benson Chellakkan; Yuan, Ziqiang; Libutti, Steven K; Koba, Wade; Beck, Amanda; Zhu, Kun; Casadevall, Arturo; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Gravekamp, Claudia

    2017-02-06

    Our laboratory has developed a novel delivery platform using an attenuated non-toxic and non-pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes that infects tumor cells and selectively survives and multiplies in metastases and primary tumors with help of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment (TME). 32P was efficiently incorporated into the Listeria bacteria by starvation of the bacteria in saline, and then cultured in phosphorus-free medium complemented with 32P as a nutrient. Listeria-32P kills tumor cells through both 32P-induced ionizing radiation and Listeria-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). The levels of 32P and Listeria were studied in various normal and tumor tissues, at sequential time points after injection of mice with pancreatic cancer (syngeneic model Panc-02). We found that 32P and Listeria predominantly accumulated in tumors and metastases, with their highest accumulation 4 hrs (32P) and 3 days (Listeria) after injection. Listeria also penetrated the transgenic KPC (conditionally express endogenous Kras-G12D and p53-R172H mutant alleles) pancreatic tumors and metastases. This is remarkable since KPC tumors, like human tumors, exhibit a stromal barrier, which prevents most drugs from penetrating the pancreatic tumors. Therapeutic treatment with Listeria -32P resulted in a strong reduction of the growth of pancreatic cancer at early and late stages in Panc-02 and KPC mice. These results highlight the power of Listeria as new delivery platform of anticancer agents to the TME. Not only were therapeutic levels of radioactive Listeria reached in tumors and metastases but the selective delivery also led to minimal side effects.

  5. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of listeria species isolated from different types of raw meat in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Yazdi, Farzad; Farzinezhadizadeh, Hussein

    2012-12-01

    Listeria and particularly Listeria monocytogenes are important foodborne pathogens that can cause listeriosis and severe complications in immunocompromised individuals, children, pregnant women, and the elderly. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp. in raw meat in Iran. From July 2010 to November 2011, a total of 1,107 samples of various raw meats were obtained from randomly selected retail butcher shops. The results of conventional bacteriologic and PCR methods revealed that 141 samples (12.7%) were positive for Listeria spp. The highest prevalence of Listeria was found in raw buffalo meat samples (7 of 24 samples; 29.2%) followed by quail meat (26 of 116 samples; 22.4%), partridge meat (13 of 74 samples; 17.6%), and chicken meat (27 of 160 samples; 16.9%). The most common species recovered was Listeria innocua (98 of 141 strains; 75.9 % ); the remaining isolates were L. monocytogenes (19.1% of strains), Listeria welshimeri (6.4% of strains), Listeria seeligeri (3.5% of strains), and Listeria grayi (1.4% of strains). Susceptibilities of the 141 strains to 11 antimicrobial drugs were determined using the disk diffusion assay. Overall, 104 (73.8%) of the Listeria isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, and 17.0% of the isolates were resistant to three or more antimicrobials. The present study provides the first baseline data on the prevalence of Listeria in raw meat derived from sheep, goat, buffalo, quail, partridge, chicken, and ostrich in Iran and the susceptibility of these isolates to antimicrobials.

  6. Listeria weihenstephanensis sp. nov., isolated from the water plant Lemna trisulca taken from a freshwater pond.

    PubMed

    Lang Halter, Evi; Neuhaus, Klaus; Scherer, Siegfried

    2013-02-01

    The phylogenetic position and phenotypic characteristics of two non-spore-forming bacilli similar to members of the genus Listeria were studied. The gram-reaction-positive, slightly motile, facultatively anaerobic strains were isolated from the water plant Lemna trisulca sampled from a freshwater pond in Bavaria, Germany. Although no identification was possible employing the API Listeria test (bioMérieux), 16S rRNA sequence analysis confirmed a close phylogenetic similarity to Listeria rocourtiae DSM 22097(T) (99.0 % sequence similarity) and a more distant relationship to other Listeria species (96.0 % to Listeria monocytogenes DSM 20600(T) and 95.0 % similarity to Listeria grayi DSM 20601(T)). DNA-DNA hybridization analysis between the isolates and Listeria rocourtiae DSM 22097(T) yielded a similarity of 22.5 %. Analysis of partial sequences of sigB, prs, recA and HSP60 were studied and compared with those of other members of the genus Listeria and Brochothrix thermosphacta DSM 20171(T) supporting the relationships indicated by 16S rRNA gene sequences. The studied isolates were non-haemolytic and were not associated with cases of human or animal disease. While the results demonstrate that the strains belong to the genus Listeria, phenotypic and genotypic differences from Listeria rocourtiae DSM 22097(T) suggest that the strains represent a novel species for which the name Listeria weihenstephanensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is WS 4560(T) ( = DSM 24698(T) = LMG 26374(T)), with WS 4615 ( = DSM 24699 = LMG 26375) as a second strain of the species.

  7. An allelopathy based model for the Listeria overgrowth phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Fgaier, Hedia; Kalmokoff, Martin; Ells, Timothy; Eberl, Hermann J

    2014-01-01

    In a standard procedure of food safety testing, the presence of the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes can be masked by non-pathogenic Listeria. This phenomenon of Listeria overgrowth is not well understood. We present a mathematical model for the growth of a mixed population of L. innocua and L. monocytogenes that includes competition for a common resource and allelopathic control of L. monocytogenes by L. innocua when this resource becomes limited, which has been suggested as one potential explanation for the overgrowth phenomenon. The model is tested quantitatively and qualitatively against experimental data in batch experiments. Our results indicate that the phenomenon of masked pathogens can depend on initial numbers of each population present, and on the intensity of the allelopathic effect. Prompted by the results for the batch setup, we also analyze the model in a hypothetical chemostat setup. Our results suggest that it might be possible to operate a continuous growth environment such that the pathogens outcompete the non-pathogenic species, even in cases where they would be overgrown in a batch environment.

  8. Reservoirs of Listeria Species in Three Environmental Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Linke, Kristina; Rückerl, Irene; Brugger, Katharina; Karpiskova, Renata; Walland, Julia; Muri-Klinger, Sonja; Tichy, Alexander; Wagner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Soil and water are suggested to represent pivotal niches for the transmission of Listeria monocytogenes to plant material, animals, and the food chain. In the present study, 467 soil and 68 water samples were collected in 12 distinct geological and ecological sites in Austria from 2007 to 2009. Listeria was present in 30% and 26% of the investigated soil and water samples, respectively. Generally, the most dominant species in soil and water samples were Listeria seeligeri, L. innocua, and L. ivanovii. The human- and animal-pathogenic L. monocytogenes was isolated exclusively from 6% soil samples in regions A (mountainous region) and B (meadow). Distinct ecological preferences were observed for L. seeligeri and L. ivanovii, which were more often isolated from wildlife reserve region C (Lake Neusiedl) and from sites in proximity to wild and domestic ruminants (region A). The higher L. monocytogenes detection and antibiotic resistance rates in regions A and B could be explained by the proximity to agricultural land and urban environment. L. monocytogenes multilocus sequence typing corroborated this evidence since sequence type 37 (ST37), ST91, ST101, and ST517 were repeatedly isolated from regions A and B over several months. A higher L. monocytogenes detection and strain variability was observed during flooding of the river Schwarza (region A) and Danube (region B) in September 2007, indicating dispersion via watercourses. PMID:25002422

  9. Reservoirs of listeria species in three environmental ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Linke, Kristina; Rückerl, Irene; Brugger, Katharina; Karpiskova, Renata; Walland, Julia; Muri-Klinger, Sonja; Tichy, Alexander; Wagner, Martin; Stessl, Beatrix

    2014-09-01

    Soil and water are suggested to represent pivotal niches for the transmission of Listeria monocytogenes to plant material, animals, and the food chain. In the present study, 467 soil and 68 water samples were collected in 12 distinct geological and ecological sites in Austria from 2007 to 2009. Listeria was present in 30% and 26% of the investigated soil and water samples, respectively. Generally, the most dominant species in soil and water samples were Listeria seeligeri, L. innocua, and L. ivanovii. The human- and animal-pathogenic L. monocytogenes was isolated exclusively from 6% soil samples in regions A (mountainous region) and B (meadow). Distinct ecological preferences were observed for L. seeligeri and L. ivanovii, which were more often isolated from wildlife reserve region C (Lake Neusiedl) and from sites in proximity to wild and domestic ruminants (region A). The higher L. monocytogenes detection and antibiotic resistance rates in regions A and B could be explained by the proximity to agricultural land and urban environment. L. monocytogenes multilocus sequence typing corroborated this evidence since sequence type 37 (ST37), ST91, ST101, and ST517 were repeatedly isolated from regions A and B over several months. A higher L. monocytogenes detection and strain variability was observed during flooding of the river Schwarza (region A) and Danube (region B) in September 2007, indicating dispersion via watercourses.

  10. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by Food-Borne Yeasts†

    PubMed Central

    Goerges, Stefanie; Aigner, Ulrike; Silakowski, Barbara; Scherer, Siegfried

    2006-01-01

    Many bacteria are known to inhibit food pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, by secreting a variety of bactericidal and bacteriostatic substances. In sharp contrast, it is unknown whether yeast has an inhibitory potential for the growth of pathogenic bacteria in food. A total of 404 yeasts were screened for inhibitory activity against five Listeria monocytogenes strains. Three hundred and four of these yeasts were isolated from smear-ripened cheeses. Most of the yeasts were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Using an agar-membrane screening assay, a fraction of approximately 4% of the 304 red smear cheese isolates clearly inhibited growth of L. monocytogenes. Furthermore, 14 out of these 304 cheese yeasts were cocultivated with L. monocytogenes WSLC 1364 on solid medium to test the antilisterial activity of yeast in direct cell contact with Listeria. All yeasts inhibited L. monocytogenes to a low degree, which is most probably due to competition for nutrients. However, one Candida intermedia strain was able to reduce the listerial cell count by 4 log units. Another four yeasts, assigned to C. intermedia (three strains) and Kluyveromyces marxianus (one strain), repressed growth of L. monocytogenes by 3 log units. Inhibition of L. monocytogenes was clearly pronounced in the cocultivation assay, which simulates the conditions and contamination rates present on smear cheese surfaces. We found no evidence that the unknown inhibitory molecule is able to diffuse through soft agar. PMID:16391059

  11. Post-neurosurgical meningitis: Management of cerebrospinal fluid drainage catheters influences the evolution of infection

    PubMed Central

    Soavi, Laura; Rosina, Manuela; Stefini, Roberto; Fratianni, Alessia; Cadeo, Barbara; Magri, Silvia; Latronico, Nicola; Fontanella, Marco; Signorini, Liana

    2016-01-01

    Background: In order to better define the pathogenic role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage catheters in postoperative patients, we comparatively analyze the clinical course of device and non-device-related meningitis. Methods: This is an observational, partially prospective, study on consecutive adult patients who developed meningitis after undergoing neurosurgical procedures at the Neurosurgery and Neurointensive care Departments, Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy, between January 1999 and August 2007. Results: All 77 consecutive post-neurosurgical meningitis events in 65 patients were included in the analysis. Most were classified as external ventricular drainage (EVD)-related meningitis (23 cases, group A), external spinal drainage (ESD)-related meningitis (12 cases, group B), and non-device-related post-neurosurgical meningitis (30 cases, group C). Proven meningitis was identified in 78.3%, 91.7% and 56.7% of the events, respectively. ESD-related meningitis had a shorter onset time vs EVD and non-device-associated meningitis (3 days versus 6 and 7 days, respectively). Median antibiotic treatment duration was 20, 17, and 22.5 days in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Overall, 8 patients (34.8%) in group A, 3 (25.0%) in group B, and 3 (10.0%) in group C died. Median time to become afebrile was shorter in group C than in group A (10 days versus 12 days, P = 0.04). Removal of the device later than 48 hours after meningitis onset, as well as implantation of a second device were associated with a slower time of meningitis resolution. Conclusions: Early device removal and avoiding implantation of a second device were associated with short illness duration. Larger studies are warranted to confirm the conclusions of this study. PMID:28031985

  12. Evaluation of Immune Responses Mediated by Listeria-Stimulated Human Dendritic Cells: Implications for Cancer Vaccine Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Mediated by Listeria -Stimulated Human Dendritic Cells: Implications for Cancer Vaccine Therapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David J. Chung, M D , Ph D...CONTRACT NUMBER Evaluation of Immune Responses Mediated by Listeria -Stimulated Human Dendritic Cells: Implications for Cancer Vaccine Therapy 5b...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is to study the immunomodulatory effect of Listeria on

  13. Specific gene probe for detection of biotyped and serotyped Listeria strains.

    PubMed Central

    Notermans, S; Chakraborty, T; Leimeister-Wächter, M; Dufrenne, J; Heuvelman, K J; Maas, H; Jansen, W; Wernars, K; Guinee, P

    1989-01-01

    A total of 284 strains of Listeria, including all known serovars and biovars together with Listeria grayi and Listeria murrayi, were biotyped and serotyped. Biotyping and serotyping could be done in 2 days. A gene probe encoding a delayed hypersensitivity factor (DTH) was used in the detection of pathogenic biotypes and serotypes of the tested strains. The gene was found in all 117 tested Listeria monocytogenes strains of serogroups 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, 3a, 3b, 3c, 4c, 4d, 4e, 4ab, and 7. It was also present in Listeria ivanovii. Of 78 L. monocytogenes strains of serogroup 4b, 77 strains contained the gene, whereas it was absent in all 10 tested L. monocytogenes strains of serogroup 4a. Furthermore, the gene was absent in Listeria seeligeri, L. grayi, L. murrayi, and L. innocua of serogroups 3c, 4b, and 6a and in L. welshimeri of serogroups 1/2b, 3b, 6a, and 6b. Since L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii are the only two biotypes of the genus Listeria considered pathogens, the data obtained indicate that the DNA probe tested may be a useful tool in the detection of virulent Listeria isolates in clinical, environmental, and food samples. Images PMID:2658807

  14. Environmental prevalence and persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in cold-smoked trout processing plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes on the surfaces of equipment and workers' hands during different production stages, as well as on fish skin and meat during processing and storage of cold-smoked trout, was investigated. Listeria monocytogenes was recovered from 10 (6.06%) of a total 165 cotto...

  15. Antimicrobial-resistant Listeria species from retail meat in metro Detroit.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Liziane S; Gunathilaka, Gayathri U; Zhang, Yifan

    2012-12-01

    A total of 138 Listeria isolates from retail meat, including 58 Listeria welshimeri, 44 Listeria monocytogenes, and 36 Listeria innocua isolates, were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility tests against nine antimicrobials. In addition, the 44 L. monocytogenes isolates were analyzed by serotype identification using PCR and genotyping using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Resistance to one or two antimicrobials was observed in 32 Listeria isolates (23.2%). No multidrug resistance was identified. Tetracycline resistance was the most common resistance phenotype and was identified in 22 Listeria isolates. A low prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, and vancomycin was also detected. L. innocua isolates demonstrated the highest overall prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, 36.1%, followed by 34.1% in L. monocytogenes isolates and 6.9% in L. welshimeri isolates. Serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b were identified in 19, 23, and 1 L. monocytogenes isolate, respectively. One isolate was untypeable. Fifteen L. monocytogenes isolates were antimicrobial resistant (12 were serotype 1/2b, 2 were 1/2a, and 1 was untypeable). A diverse population of L. monocytogenes isolates was identified, as evidenced by multiple pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns in the 44 isolates. The data indicate that Listeria contamination is common in retail meat. Although antimicrobial resistance still occurs at a low prevalence, multiple Listeria species can serve as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance. Various antimicrobial susceptibilities may exist in L. monocytogenes isolates of different serotypes.

  16. Comparative genomic and morphological analyses of Listeria phages isolated from farm environments.

    PubMed

    Denes, Thomas; Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang; Moreno Switt, Andrea I; Wiedmann, Martin; den Bakker, Henk C

    2014-08-01

    The genus Listeria is ubiquitous in the environment and includes the globally important food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. While the genomic diversity of Listeria has been well studied, considerably less is known about the genomic and morphological diversity of Listeria bacteriophages. In this study, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 14 Listeria phages isolated mostly from New York dairy farm environments as well as one related Enterococcus faecalis phage to obtain information on genome characteristics and diversity. We also examined 12 of the phages by electron microscopy to characterize their morphology. These Listeria phages, based on gene orthology and morphology, together with previously sequenced Listeria phages could be classified into five orthoclusters, including one novel orthocluster. One orthocluster (orthocluster I) consists of large genome (~135-kb) myoviruses belonging to the genus “Twort-like viruses,” three orthoclusters (orthoclusters II to IV) contain small-genome (36- to 43-kb) siphoviruses with icosahedral heads, and the novel orthocluster V contains medium-sized-genome (~66-kb) siphoviruses with elongated heads. A novel orthocluster (orthocluster VI) of E. faecalis phages, with medium-sized genomes (~56 kb), was identified, which grouped together and shares morphological features with the novel Listeria phage orthocluster V. This new group of phages (i.e., orthoclusters V and VI) is composed of putative lytic phages that may prove to be useful in phage-based applications for biocontrol, detection, and therapeutic purposes.

  17. Anti-Listeria Activities of Galleria mellonella Hemolymph Proteins ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Mraheil, Mobarak Abu; Silva, Silke; Müller, Daniela; Cemic, Franz; Hemberger, Jürgen; Hain, Torsten; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Chakraborty, Trinad

    2011-01-01

    We report the use of antimicrobial hemolymph proteins from the model host Galleria mellonella as an inhibitor for various Listeria strains, providing a novel source for antilisterial therapeutics. We also have shown that specific virulence-associated genes known to mediate antimicrobial resistance of Listeria in mammalian models indicated a similar function in Galleria. PMID:21531838

  18. Acute Fetal Demise with First Trimester Maternal Infection Resulting from Listeria monocytogenes in a Nonhuman Primate Model

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Bryce; Wiepz, Gregory J.; Schotzko, Michele; Bondarenko, Gennadiy I.; Durning, Maureen; Simmons, Heather A.; Mejia, Andres; Faith, Nancy G.; Sampene, Emmanuel; Suresh, Marulasiddappa; Kathariou, Sophia; Czuprynski, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infection with Listeria monocytogenes during pregnancy is associated with miscarriage, preterm birth, and neonatal complications, including sepsis and meningitis. While the risk of these conditions is thought to be greatest during the third trimester of pregnancy, the determinants of fetoplacental susceptibility to infection, the contribution of gestational age, and the in vivo progression of disease at the maternal-fetal interface are poorly understood. We developed a nonhuman primate model of listeriosis to better understand antecedents of adverse pregnancy outcomes in early pregnancy. Four pregnant cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) received a single intragastric inoculation between days 36 and 46 of gestation with 107 CFU of an L. monocytogenes strain isolated from a previous cluster of human listeriosis cases that resulted in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Fecal shedding, maternal bacteremia, and fetal demise were consistently noted within 7 to 13 days. Biopsy specimens of maternal liver, spleen, and lymph node displayed variable inflammation and relatively low bacterial burden. In comparison, we observed greater bacterial burden in the decidua and placenta and the highest burden in fetal tissues. Histopathology indicated vasculitis, fibrinoid necrosis, and thrombosis of the decidual spiral arteries, acute chorioamnionitis and villitis in the placenta, and hematogenous infection of the fetus. Vascular pathology suggests early impact of L. monocytogenes infection on spiral arteries in the decidua, which we hypothesize precipitates subsequent placentitis and fetal demise. These results demonstrate that L. monocytogenes tropism for the maternal reproductive tract results in infection of the decidua, placenta, and the fetus itself during the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:28223455

  19. Detection of very long antisense transcripts by whole transcriptome RNA-Seq analysis of Listeria monocytogenes by semiconductor sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Wehner, Stefanie; Mannala, Gopala K; Qing, Xiaoxing; Madhugiri, Ramakanth; Chakraborty, Trinad; Mraheil, Mobarak A; Hain, Torsten; Marz, Manja

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a severe food-borne infection characterised by abortion, septicaemia, or meningoencephalitis. L. monocytogenes causes outbreaks of febrile gastroenteritis and accounts for community-acquired bacterial meningitis in humans. Listeriosis has one of the highest mortality rates (up to 30%) of all food-borne infections. This human pathogenic bacterium is an important model organism for biomedical research to investigate cell-mediated immunity. L. monocytogenes is also one of the best characterised bacterial systems for the molecular analysis of intracellular parasitism. Recently several transcriptomic studies have also made the ubiquitous distributed bacterium as a model to understand mechanisms of gene regulation from the environment to the infected host on the level of mRNA and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). We have used semiconductor sequencing technology for RNA-seq to investigate the repertoire of listerial ncRNAs under extra- and intracellular growth conditions. Furthermore, we applied a new bioinformatic analysis pipeline for detection, comparative genomics and structural conservation to identify ncRNAs. With this work, in total, 741 ncRNA locations of potential ncRNA candidates are now known for L. monocytogenes, of which 611 ncRNA candidates were identified by RNA-seq. 441 transcribed ncRNAs have never been described before. Among these, we identified novel long non-coding antisense RNAs with a length of up to 5,400 nt e.g. opposite to genes coding for internalins, methylases or a high-affinity potassium uptake system, namely the kdpABC operon, which were confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis. RNA-seq, comparative genomics and structural conservation of L. monocytogenes ncRNAs illustrate that this human pathogen uses a large number and repertoire of ncRNA including novel long antisense RNAs, which could be important for intracellular survival within the infected eukaryotic host.

  20. Detection of Very Long Antisense Transcripts by Whole Transcriptome RNA-Seq Analysis of Listeria monocytogenes by Semiconductor Sequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Wehner, Stefanie; Mannala, Gopala K.; Qing, Xiaoxing; Madhugiri, Ramakanth; Chakraborty, Trinad; Mraheil, Mobarak A.; Hain, Torsten; Marz, Manja

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a severe food-borne infection characterised by abortion, septicaemia, or meningoencephalitis. L. monocytogenes causes outbreaks of febrile gastroenteritis and accounts for community-acquired bacterial meningitis in humans. Listeriosis has one of the highest mortality rates (up to 30%) of all food-borne infections. This human pathogenic bacterium is an important model organism for biomedical research to investigate cell-mediated immunity. L. monocytogenes is also one of the best characterised bacterial systems for the molecular analysis of intracellular parasitism. Recently several transcriptomic studies have also made the ubiquitous distributed bacterium as a model to understand mechanisms of gene regulation from the environment to the infected host on the level of mRNA and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). We have used semiconductor sequencing technology for RNA-seq to investigate the repertoire of listerial ncRNAs under extra- and intracellular growth conditions. Furthermore, we applied a new bioinformatic analysis pipeline for detection, comparative genomics and structural conservation to identify ncRNAs. With this work, in total, 741 ncRNA locations of potential ncRNA candidates are now known for L. monocytogenes, of which 611 ncRNA candidates were identified by RNA-seq. 441 transcribed ncRNAs have never been described before. Among these, we identified novel long non-coding antisense RNAs with a length of up to 5,400 nt e.g. opposite to genes coding for internalins, methylases or a high-affinity potassium uptake system, namely the kdpABC operon, which were confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis. RNA-seq, comparative genomics and structural conservation of L. monocytogenes ncRNAs illustrate that this human pathogen uses a large number and repertoire of ncRNA including novel long antisense RNAs, which could be important for intracellular survival within the infected eukaryotic host. PMID

  1. Rapid and sensitive detection of enteroviruses in specimens from patients with aseptic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Yerly, S; Gervaix, A; Simonet, V; Caflisch, M; Perrin, L; Wunderli, W

    1996-01-01

    A 5-h PCR assay (Amplicor enterovirus test) was compared with viral culture for the detection of enteroviruses in cerebrospinal fluid. Of the cerebrospinal fluid specimens collected during a summer outbreak of aseptic meningitis, 34% were positive by viral culture whereas 66% were positive by the Amplicor PCR, suggesting that this technique improves the diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis.

  2. A review of tuberculous meningitis at Auckland City Hospital, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Anderson, N E; Somaratne, J; Mason, D F; Holland, D; Thomas, M G

    2010-08-01

    The clinical features, investigations, treatment and outcome were studied in 104 patients with definite or probable tuberculous meningitis. The diagnosis of definite tuberculous meningitis required the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from cultures, or a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for M. tuberculosis. In probable tuberculous meningitis, cultures and the PCR assay were negative, but other causes of meningitis were excluded and there was a response to anti-tuberculosis treatment. Of the 104 patients, 36% had a poor outcome (severe disability, persistent vegetative state or death), 12% moderate disability and 52% good recovery. A diagnosis of definite tuberculous meningitis, the severity of the symptoms at presentation and the occurrence of a stroke were significant predictors of a poor outcome. The most common reasons for a delayed diagnosis were presentation with mild symptoms wrongly attributed to a systemic infection, incorrectly attributing CSF abnormalities to non-tuberculous bacterial meningitis and failure to diagnose extraneural tuberculosis associated with meningitis. Recognition of the difficulties in making a diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis may facilitate earlier diagnosis in the future.

  3. Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay and Bacterial Meningitis Surveillance in Remote Areas, Niger

    PubMed Central

    Sidikou, Fati; Djibo, Saacou; Taha, Muhamed Kheir; Alonso, Jean Michel; Djibo, Ali; Kairo, Kiari Kaka; Chanteau, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    To compensate for the lack of laboratories in remote areas, the national reference laboratory for meningitis in Niger used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to enhance the surveillance of meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae. PCR effectively documented the wide geographic spread of N. meningitidis serogroup W135. PMID:14718100

  4. Vaccine-induced waning of Haemophilus influenzae empyema and meningitis, Angola.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Heikki; Pelkonen, Tuula; Bernardino, Luis; Monteiro, Lurdes; Silvestre, Silvia da Conceição; Anjos, Elizabete; Cruzeiro, Manuel Leite; Pitkäranta, Anne; Roine, Irmeli

    2014-11-01

    In Angola during 2003-2012, we detected Haemophilus influenzae in 18% of 2,634 and 26% of 2,996 bacteriologically positive pleural or cerebrospinal fluid samples, respectively, from children. After vaccination launch in 2006, H. influenzae empyema declined by 83% and meningitis by 86%. Severe H. influenzae pneumonia and meningitis are preventable by vaccination.

  5. Hemophilus influenzae meningitis at the Children's Hospital Medical Center in Boston, 1958 to 1973.

    PubMed

    Peter, G; Smith, D H

    1975-04-01

    Three hundred ninety-seven children were admitted to the Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston between 1958 and 1973 with H. influenzae meningitis. The annual rate of admission and the percent of all cases of bacterial meningitis were not changed from that of the preceding decade. The age incidence was strikingly similar to that reported from this hospital for 1920 to 1932.

  6. Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis with negative cryptococcal antigen: Evaluation of a new immunochromatographic detection assay.

    PubMed

    Opota, O; Desgraz, B; Kenfak, A; Jaton, K; Cavassini, M; Greub, G; Prod'hom, G; Giulieri, S

    2015-03-01

    Detection of cryptococcal antigen in serum or cerebrospinal fluid allows cryptococcal meningitis diagnosis within few hours with >90% sensitivity. In an HIV-positive patient with Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis, initial antigen detection by immunoagglutination was negative. We thus evaluated a new immunochromatographic detection assay that exhibited a higher sensitivity.

  7. Bordetella holmesii meningitis in a 12-year-old anorectic girl.

    PubMed

    Van Balen, Tessa; Nieman, An-Emmie; Hermans, Mirjam H A; Schneeberger, Peter M; de Vries, Esther

    2012-04-01

    We describe a 12-year-old anorectic girl with Bordetella holmesii meningitis, the techniques used for its identification, and minimum inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics for 7 B. Holmesii strains collected in the Netherlands during the past 12 years. B. holmesii meningitis has not been previously reported.

  8. Acute bacterial meningitis in Iran: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Riahi, Seyed Mohammad; Nasiri, Mohammad Javad; Fallah, Fatemeh; Dabiri, Hossein; Pouriran, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Bacterial meningitis persists in being a substantial cause of high mortality and severe neurological morbidity, despite the advances in antimicrobial therapy. Accurate data has not been available regarding the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis particularly in developing countries, yet. Indeed, the present systematic review provides a comprehensive data analysis on the prevalence and epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in Iran. Methods We systematically reviewed articles from 1994 to 2015. The reports which contained the prevalence and etiology of acute bacterial meningitis by valid clinical and laboratory diagnosis were comprised in the present study. Results Our analysis indicated that Streptococcus pneumoniae (30% [I2 = 56% p < 0.01]), Haemophilus influenza type b (15% [I2 = 82.75% p < 0.001]), coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) (14% [I2 = 60.5% p < 0.06]), and Neisseria meningitidis (13% [I2 = 74.16% p < 0.001]) were the most common cause of acute bacterial meningitis among meningitis cases in Iran. Notably, high frequency rates of nosocomial meningitis pathogens were detected in the present analysis. Conclusions It was magnificently attained that the majority of cases for bacterial meningitis in Iran could be avertable by public immunization schemes and by preventive care to inhibit the broadening of hospital acquired pathogens. PMID:28170400

  9. Staphylococcus aureus meningitis--a rare complication of iliacus muscle abscess.

    PubMed

    Parker, S L; Conn, K S; Ignotus, P I

    1997-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus meningitis is a rare but well recognized condition which had a high mortality and incidence of neurological sequelae. It is usually associated with chronic underlying conditions. A case is reported of S. aureus meningitis in a previously healthy young man. The epidemiology, microbiological findings and treatment of this condition are discussed.

  10. Multiple thoracic paraspinal meningeal cysts in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Coche, Emmanuel; Persu, Alexandre; Cosnard, Guy; Quoidbach, Albert; Pirson, Yves

    2003-02-01

    Spinal meningeal cysts have been reported in 3 patients as an extrarenal manifestation of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The authors report on a fourth patient with ADPKD who was found to harbor 7 thoracic meningeal cysts, appearing as paraspinal masses on plain films. The authors provide a comprehensive radiologic description of this abnormality.

  11. Associations between Meteorological Factors and Aseptic Meningitis in Six Metropolitan Provinces of the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Yadav Prasad; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Jong-Hun; Kim, Ho; Cheong, Hae-Kwan

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the association between climate factors and a number of aseptic meningitis cases in six metropolitan provinces of the Republic of Korea using a weekly number of cases from January 2002 to December 2012. Generalized linear quasi-Poisson models were applied to estimate the effects of climate factors on the weekly number of aseptic meningitis cases. We used generalized additive and generalized additive mixed models to assess dose–response relationships. A 1 °C increase in mean temperature was associated with an 11.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.6%–13.3%) increase in aseptic meningitis with a 0-week lag; a 10 mm rise in rainfall was associated with an 8.0% (95% CI: 7.2%–8.8%) increase in aseptic meningitis with a 7-week lag; and a 1 mJ/m2 increase of solar radiation was associated with a 5.8% (95% CI: 3.0%–8.7%) increase in aseptic meningitis with a 10-week lag. Nino3 showed positive effects in all lags, and its one unit increase was associated with an 18.9% (95% CI: 15.3%–22.6%) increase of aseptic meningitis at lag 9. The variability in the relationship between climate factors and aseptic meningitis could be used to initiate preventive measures for climate determinants of aseptic meningitis. PMID:27916923

  12. Complement component 5 contributes to poor disease outcome in humans and mice with pneumococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Woehrl, Bianca; Brouwer, Matthijs C; Murr, Carmen; Heckenberg, Sebastiaan G B; Baas, Frank; Pfister, Hans W; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Morgan, B Paul; Barnum, Scott R; van der Ende, Arie; Koedel, Uwe; van de Beek, Diederik

    2011-10-01

    Pneumococcal meningitis is the most common and severe form of bacterial meningitis. Fatality rates are substantial, and long-term sequelae develop in about half of survivors. Disease outcome has been related to the severity of the proinflammatory response in the subarachnoid space. The complement system, which mediates key inflammatory processes, has been implicated as a modulator of pneumococcal meningitis disease severity in animal studies. Additionally, SNPs in genes encoding complement pathway proteins have been linked to susceptibility to pneumococcal infection, although no associations with disease severity or outcome have been established. Here, we have performed a robust prospective nationwide genetic association study in patients with bacterial meningitis and found that a common nonsynonymous complement component 5 (C5) SNP (rs17611) is associated with unfavorable disease outcome. C5 fragment levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with bacterial meningitis correlated with several clinical indicators of poor prognosis. Consistent with these human data, C5a receptor-deficient mice with pneumococcal meningitis had lower CSF wbc counts and decreased brain damage compared with WT mice. Adjuvant treatment with C5-specific monoclonal antibodies prevented death in all mice with pneumococcal meningitis. Thus, our results suggest C5-specific monoclonal antibodies could be a promising new antiinflammatory adjuvant therapy for pneumococcal meningitis.

  13. Complement component 5 contributes to poor disease outcome in humans and mice with pneumococcal meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Woehrl, Bianca; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Murr, Carmen; Heckenberg, Sebastiaan G.B.; Baas, Frank; Pfister, Hans W.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Morgan, B. Paul; Barnum, Scott R.; van der Ende, Arie; Koedel, Uwe; van de Beek, Diederik

    2011-01-01

    Pneumococcal meningitis is the most common and severe form of bacterial meningitis. Fatality rates are substantial, and long-term sequelae develop in about half of survivors. Disease outcome has been related to the severity of the proinflammatory response in the subarachnoid space. The complement system, which mediates key inflammatory processes, has been implicated as a modulator of pneumococcal meningitis disease severity in animal studies. Additionally, SNPs in genes encoding complement pathway proteins have been linked to susceptibility to pneumococcal infection, although no associations with disease severity or outcome have been established. Here, we have performed a robust prospective nationwide genetic association study in patients with bacterial meningitis and found that a common nonsynonymous complement component 5 (C5) SNP (rs17611) is associated with unfavorable disease outcome. C5 fragment levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with bacterial meningitis correlated with several clinical indicators of poor prognosis. Consistent with these human data, C5a receptor–deficient mice with pneumococcal meningitis had lower CSF wbc counts and decreased brain damage compared with WT mice. Adjuvant treatment with C5-specific monoclonal antibodies prevented death in all mice with pneumococcal meningitis. Thus, our results suggest C5-specific monoclonal antibodies could be a promising new antiinflammatory adjuvant therapy for pneumococcal meningitis. PMID:21926466

  14. Differentiation of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua by 16S rRNA genes and intraspecies discrimination of Listeria monocytogenes strains by random amplified polymorphic DNA polymorphisms.

    PubMed Central

    Czajka, J; Bsat, N; Piani, M; Russ, W; Sultana, K; Wiedmann, M; Whitaker, R; Batt, C A

    1993-01-01

    Differences in the 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) which can be used to discriminate Listeria monocytogenes from Listeria innocua have been detected. The 16S rDNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction with a set of oligonucleotide primers which flank a 1.5-kb fragment. Sequence differences were observed in the V2 region of the 16S rDNA both between L. monocytogenes Scott A and L. innocua and between different L. monocytogenes serotypes. Although L. monocytogenes SLCC2371 had the same V2 region sequence as L. innocua, the two species were different within the V9 region at nucleotides 1259 and 1292, in agreement with previous studies (R.-F. Wang, W.-W. Cao, and M.G. Johnson, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:3666-3670, 1991). Intraspecies discrimination of L. monocytogenes strains was achieved by using the patterns generated by random amplified polymorphic DNA primers. Although some distinction can be made within the L. monocytogenes species by their 16S rDNA sequence, a far greater discrimination within species could be made by generating random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns from chromosomal DNA. By using a number of 10-bp primers, unique patterns for each isolate which in all cases examined differentiate between various L. monocytogenes serotypes, even though they may have the same 16S rRNA sequences, could be generated. Images PMID:8439157

  15. Assessments for the impact of mineral dust on the meningitis incidence in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martiny, Nadège; Chiapello, Isabelle

    2013-05-01

    Recently, mineral dust has been suspected to be one of the important environmental risk factor for meningitis epidemics in West Africa. The current study is one of the first which relies on long-term robust aerosol measurements in the Sahel region to investigate the possible impact of mineral dust on meningitis cases (incidence). Sunphotometer measurements, which allow to derive aerosol and humidity parameters, i.e., aerosol optical thickness, Angström coefficient, and precipitable water, are combined with quantitative epidemiological data in Niger and Mali over the 2004-2009 AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) program period. We analyse how the extremely high aerosol loads in this region may influence both the calendar (onset, peaks, end) and the intensity of meningitis. We highlight three distinct periods: (i) from November to December, beginning of the dry season, humidity is weak, there is no dust and no meningitis cases; (ii) from January to April, humidity is still weak, but high dust loads occur in the atmosphere and this is the meningitis season; (iii) from May to October, humidity is high and there is no meningitis anymore, in presence of dust or not, which flow anyway in higher altitudes. More specifically, the onset of the meningitis season is tightly related to mineral dust flowing close to the surface at the very beginning of the year. During the dry, and the most dusty season period, from February to April, each meningitis peak is preceded by a dust peak, with a 0-2 week lead-time. The importance (duration, intensity) of these meningitis peaks seems to be related to that of dust, suggesting that a cumulative effect in dust events may be important for the meningitis incidence. This is not the case for humidity, confirming the special contribution of dust at this period of the year. The end of the meningitis season, in May, coincides with a change in humidity conditions related to the West African Monsoon. These results, which are

  16. Haemophilus type B meningitis in Saudi children under 5 years old.

    PubMed

    Al-Mazrou, Yagob Y; Al-Jeffri, Mohamed H; Al-Haggar, Sami H; Musa, Elgeili K; Mohamed, Omer M; Abdalla, Mohamed N

    2004-06-01

    This study was designed to determine the magnitude of bacterial meningitis in general and Hib meningitis in particular among children below the age of 5 years. A population-based, prospective descriptive and analytical study was conducted in five regions, one each in northern, southern, eastern, western, and central parts of Saudi Arabia. Active surveillance for cases of bacterial meningitis among the study population, which comprised 171,818 children under 5 years of age, was implemented. A total of 208 cases of meningitis were identified, of which 141 (67.8 per cent) were identified with a definite causative organism. The remaining 67 cases (32 per cent) were labeled as aseptic meningitis. The overall incidence of meningitis was 60.53/10(5) in under-fives with a disease spectrum similar to that reported in studies conducted in other countries. The three leading causes of meningitis were Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type B), MCM (Neisseria menigitides) and SPN (Streptococcus pneumoniae). Hib meningitis constituted 28 per cent of cases with an incidence rate of 16.88/10(5) children. There was a marked regional variation in Hib incidence. MCM was the second leading cause (18 per cent) of meningitis with an incidence of 10.77/10(5) while SPN comprised 11 per cent of cases and its incidence was 9.69/10(5). Almost all MCM cases were related to meningitis outbreaks that occurred in Saudi Arabia during two successive Hajj seasons (2000-2001). Hib cases showed a bimodal seasonality, one peak during March-May, the other during September-November. The fact that this study is the first national base-line data on meningitis in general and Hib incidence in particular, has augmented further justification for introducing Hib vaccine within the national Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). Based on the experience gained during this study regarding surveillance of meningitis disease, optimal methods to strengthen meningitis surveillance were identified. A model of Meningitis

  17. Population-based surveillance for bacterial meningitis in the Dominican Republic: implications for control by vaccination.

    PubMed

    Gomez, E; Peguero, M; Sanchez, J; Castellanos, P L; Feris, J; Peña, C; Brudzinski-LaClaire, L; Levine, O S

    2000-12-01

    Quantifying the local burden of disease is an important step towards the introduction of new vaccines, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine. We adapted a generic protocol developed by the World Health Organization for population-based surveillance of bacterial meningitis. All hospitals that admit paediatric patients with meningitis in the National District, Dominican Republic were included in the system and standard laboratory methods were used. The system identified 111 cases of confirmed bacterial meningitis. Hib was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, followed by group B streptococcus, S. pneumoniae, and N. meningitidis. Unlike hospital-based case series, this population-based system was able to calculate incidence rates. The incidence of Hib meningitis was 13 cases per 100,000 children < 5 years old. The data from this study were used by the Ministry of Health to support the introduction of routine Hib vaccination and will be used to monitor its effectiveness.

  18. Population-based surveillance for bacterial meningitis in the Dominican Republic: implications for control by vaccination.

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, E.; Peguero, M.; Sanchez, J.; Castellanos, P. L.; Feris, J.; Peña, C.; Brudzinski-LaClaire, L.; Levine, O. S.

    2000-01-01

    Quantifying the local burden of disease is an important step towards the introduction of new vaccines, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine. We adapted a generic protocol developed by the World Health Organization for population-based surveillance of bacterial meningitis. All hospitals that admit paediatric patients with meningitis in the National District, Dominican Republic were included in the system and standard laboratory methods were used. The system identified 111 cases of confirmed bacterial meningitis. Hib was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, followed by group B streptococcus, S. pneumoniae, and N. meningitidis. Unlike hospital-based case series, this population-based system was able to calculate incidence rates. The incidence of Hib meningitis was 13 cases per 100,000 children < 5 years old. The data from this study were used by the Ministry of Health to support the introduction of routine Hib vaccination and will be used to monitor its effectiveness. PMID:11218205

  19. [Childhood bacterial meningitis trends in Japan from 2009 to 2010].

    PubMed

    Shinjoh, Masayoshi; Iwata, Satoshi; Sato, Yoshitake; Akita, Hironobu; Sunakawa, Keisuke

    2012-09-01

    We conducted a pediatric survey of bacterial meningitis epidemiology from January 2009 to December 2010 in Japan, and obtained the following results for 314 cases (186 boys, 124 girls, and 4 with gender not reported). Children younger than one year old accounted for the majority of cases (51.2%, 161/314), and the incidence decreased with increasing age. Haemophilus influenzae (in children aged 1 month to 5 years old) was the most common cause of infection (53.2%), followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (1 month to 12 years, 24.2%), Streptococcus agalactiae (0-4 months, 7.6%), and Escherichia coli (0-3 months, 3.2%). Susceptibility tests showed that 50.1% (78/153) of the H. influenzae isolates and 63.0% (46/73) of the S. pneumoniae isolates were drug-resistant. Combinations of ampicillin and cephem or carbapenem and other beta-lactams were mainly used as the initial antibiotics for patients under 4 months of age (77.8%, 42/54), and a carbapenem and other beta-lactam combination was used for patients aged 4 months and older (76.4%, 198/259). The final antibiotics for H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae were mainly cefotaxime (CTX) or ceftriaxone (CTRX) and carbapenem, respectively. The overall fatality rate was 2.0% (6/305). Since the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Hib vaccine) and the 7 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) are not widely used in Japan, only 5 patients in our cohort (all with meningitis not caused by H. influenzae) had been immunized with the Hib vaccine, and none had been immunized with the PCV7 vaccine. No remarkable changes in the characteristics of pediatric meningitis have been observed for several years in Japan.

  20. Evaluation of vancomycin for therapy of adult pneumococcal meningitis.

    PubMed Central

    Viladrich, P F; Gudiol, F; Liñares, J; Pallarés, R; Sabaté, I; Rufí, G; Ariza, J

    1991-01-01

    The emergence of pneumococci resistant to penicillin and other agents prompted us to evaluate intravenous vancomycin for the therapy of pneumococcal meningitis, which has an overall mortality of 30%. Eleven consecutive adult patients with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-culture-proven pneumococcal meningitis and positive initial CSF Gram stain were given intravenous vancomycin (usual dosage, 7.5 mg/kg every 6 h for 10 days). The MBCs of vancomycin ranged from 0.25 to 0.5 micrograms/ml. Early adjunctive therapy with intravenous dexamethasone, mannitol, and sodium phenytoin was also instituted. After 48 h of therapy, all 11 patients showed a satisfactory clinical response, although the CSF culture remained positive in one case; median trough CSF and serum vancomycin levels were 2 and 5.1 micrograms/ml, respectively, and trough CSF bactericidal titers ranged from less than 1:2 to 1:16. On day 3, one patient died of acute heart failure. Four patients had clinical failure at on days 4 (two patients), 7 (one), and 8 (one) of therapy; they all immediately responded to a change in antibiotic therapy. The remaining six patients were cured after 10 days of vancomycin therapy. At this point, median peak CSF and serum vancomycin levels were 1.9 and 18.5 micrograms/ml, respectively. A transient alteration of renal function occurred in two patients, and persistent slight hypoacusia occurred in three patients. In summary, 11 adults with pneumococcal meningitis were treated with vancomycin and early adjunctive therapy including dexamethasone. All patients initially improved, and 10 were ultimately cured of the infection. However, four patients experienced a therapeutic failure, which led to a change in vancomycin therapy. PMID:1810180

  1. Vitamin B6 reduces hippocampal apoptosis in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae leads to death in up to 30% of patients and leaves up to half of the survivors with neurological sequelae. The inflammatory host reaction initiates the induction of the kynurenine pathway and contributes to hippocampal apoptosis, a form of brain damage that is associated with learning and memory deficits in experimental paradigms. Vitamin B6 is an enzymatic cofactor in the kynurenine pathway and may thus limit the accumulation of neurotoxic metabolites and preserve the cellular energy status. The aim of this study in a pneumococcal meningitis model was to investigate the effect of vitamin B6 on hippocampal apoptosis by histomorphology, by transcriptomics and by measurement of cellular nicotine amide adenine dinucleotide content. Methods and results Eleven day old Wistar rats were infected with 1x106 cfu/ml of S. pneumoniae and randomized for treatment with vitamin B6 or saline as controls. Vitamin B6 led to a significant (p > 0.02) reduction of hippocampal apoptosis. According to functional annotation based clustering, vitamin B6 led to down-regulation of genes involved in processes of inflammatory response, while genes encoding for processes related to circadian rhythm, neuronal signaling and apoptotic cell death were mostly up-regulated. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that attenuation of apoptosis by vitamin B6 is multi-factorial including down-modulation of inflammation, up-regulation of the neuroprotective brain-derived neurotrophic factor and prevention of the exhaustion of cellular energy stores. The neuroprotective effect identifies vitamin B6 as a potential target for the development of strategies to attenuate brain injury in bacterial meningitis. PMID:23977941

  2. Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia presenting as refractory cryptococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A; Lal, V; Modi, M; Khurana, D; Bal, S; Prabhakar, S

    2010-04-01

    Idiopathic CD4 T-lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a syndrome characterized by depletion of CD4 T-cells without evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. There are a few reported cases of ICL associated with different diseases and clinical conditions, most commonly the opportunistic infections like Tuberculosis, fungal and parasitic diseases which are also seen in HIV-positive patients. We report a case without risk factors or laboratory evidence of HIV infection who presented with refractory cryptococcal meningitis and was found to have ICL.

  3. Isavuconazole Is Effective for the Treatment of Experimental Cryptococcal Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Kovanda, Laura; Najvar, Laura K.; Bocanegra, Rosie; Olivo, Marcos; Kirkpatrick, William R.; Patterson, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of isavuconazole against cryptococcal meningitis. Treatment with either oral isavuconazole (120 mg/kg and 240 mg/kg twice a day [BID]) or fluconazole as the positive control significantly improved survival in mice infected intracranially with either Cryptococcus neoformans USC1597 or H99 and significantly reduced brain fungal burdens for both isolates. Concentrations of isavuconazole in plasma and brain tissue also demonstrated that the greatest improvements in survival and fungal burden were associated with elevated exposures. PMID:27324761

  4. Acute meningitis as an initial manifestation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Joo, Eun-Jeong; Kang, Cheol-In; Kim, Wook Sung; Lee, Nam Yong; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2011-10-01

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a gram-positive bacillus which is found worldwide. Although bloodstream infections caused by E. rhusiopathiae are not common, there is a strong association between bacteremia and the development of infective endocarditis. The risk of human infection with Erysipelothrix is closely related to the opportunity for exposure to the organisms. We report a case of community-acquired meningitis as an initial manifestation of E. rhusiopathiae endocarditis in a 56-year-old woman, who had no history of exposure to animals.

  5. Occult invasive pituitary adenoma predisposing to fatal bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Laszewski, M J; Moore, S A

    1990-01-01

    Pituitary adenomata are benign neoplasms which usually grow slowly and present with manifestations relating to an associated endocrinopathy or visual disturbance. Rarely these neoplasms will demonstrate a more aggressive behavior with extracranial extension and symptoms of upper airway obstruction or anosmia. Several reported cases suggest that although these neoplasms behave aggressively the overall survival and prognosis for these patients remains good. We present the clinical and postmortem findings of an occult invasive pituitary adenoma leading to the development of bacterial meningitis, coma and death. This communication stresses the necessity for the early diagnosis and treatment of the invasive adenomata to prevent the development of potentially fatal infectious sequelae.

  6. [Emergency antibiotherapy and adjuvant treatments for acute bacterial meningitis].

    PubMed

    Mourvillier, B

    2009-01-01

    The management of bacterial meningitis is based on the combination of several components. The objective of this review is to give an overview of the literature concerning both the arguments for urgent antibiotic treatment associated with a particular focus on the place of corticosteroids. Among other treatments, glycerol seems the best rated but symptomatic measures, which may not be achieved by randomized studies, should not be overlooked. Many animal studies explore other treatment options, but none can be translated into clinical practice. The neuroimaging has been little evaluated despite recent technological advances but remains important in monitoring of patients whose evolution is considered unfavorable.

  7. Simultaneous genital ulcer and meningitis: a case of EBV infection

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Jairo Tavares; Lopes, Leonardo da Costa; Prokopowitsch, Aleksander Snioka

    2016-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a broad spectrum of diseases, mainly because of its genomic characteristics, which result in different latency patterns in immune cells and infective mechanisms. The patient described in this report is a previously healthy young man who presented to the emergency department with clinical features consistent with meningitis and genital ulcers, which raised concern that the herpes simplex virus was the causative agent. However, the polymerase chain reaction of cerebral spinal fluid was positive for EBV. The authors highlight the importance of this infection among the differential diagnosis of central nervous system involvement and genital ulceration. PMID:27547743

  8. [The new features of meningococcal meningitis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Lapeyssonnie, L

    1978-01-01

    According to a previous pattern epidemics of meningococcal meningitis (MM) were localized in North tropical Africa, caused by A serotype, easily treated with sulfanilamides and prevented by a polyosidic vaccine, A type. Changes have occured : epidemics in Finland and Brazil, with an African A type germ, in place of the American, sulfa-resistant, C type; outburst of epidemics in South tropical Africa; presence of C type in Tchad, Niger and Nigeria. In the same time dramatic evolutions due to endotoxinic processes and drug-resistances are more frequently observed.

  9. A Case of Tuberculous Meningitis with Atypical Multiple Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, W; Hu, Z; Li, T

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This case describes a rare case of tuberculous meningitis. A 50-year old female presented with seven days of numbness on the left side, fatigue and a three-day headache. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed multiple lesions in the dorsal medulla and upper cervical spine. After admission, she developed a long-term fever, cranial nerves palsy and showed little response to corticosteroid, antibacterial and antiviral therapy. She received a diagnostic anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT); despite that, all examinations for tuberculosis were negative. After ATT lasting 16 days, she recovered and was discharged from hospital with slight asthenia and hypoesthesia. PMID:25867567

  10. Partial Kluver-Bucy syndrome secondary to tubercular meningitis.

    PubMed

    Jha, Kunal Kishor; Singh, Satyajeet Kumar; Kumar, Prem; Arora, Charu Dutt

    2016-08-16

    Tubercular meningitis (TBM) is a devastating extra pulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis and demonstrates a high neurological morbidity. A rare complication of this condition is Kluver-Bucy syndrome (KBS), which is a neurobehavioral disorder characterised by hyper-sexuality, visual agnosia, bulimia, placidity, hyperorality and memory deficits caused by lesions to the amygdala. The amygdala lesions can be due to many causes, including traumatic brain injury, systemic conditions and infections such as tuberculosis. Here, we present a case of partial KBS in a patient undergoing treatment for TBM.

  11. Factors associated with mumps meningitis and the possible impact of vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Rhie, Kyuyol; Park, Heung-Keun; Kim, Young-Soo; Park, Ji Sook; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Park, Eun Sil; Lim, Jae-Young; Park, Chan-Hoo; Woo, Hyang-Ok; Youn, Hee-Shang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Mumps meningitis is a common complication of mumps infection; however, information on mumps meningitis in the postvaccine era is limited. The purpose of the present study was to determine factors associated with mumps meningitis and to discuss the effect of vaccination on this disease. Methods We retrospectively reviewed patients younger than 19 years with mumps, diagnosed at a university hospital in Korea between 2003 and 2013. Patients were divided into groups with and without meningitis, and the clinical features of the 2 groups were compared. Results The study enrolled 119 patients: 19 patients with meningitis and 100 patients without. Univariate analysis showed that older age (median: 15 years vs. 9.5 years, respectively), a longer interval from last vaccination (median: 10.2 years vs. 4.8 years, respectively), and febrile presentation (94.7% vs. 31.0%, respectively) were significantly associated with mumps meningitis. Sex, number of vaccination doses, bilateral parotitis, and the presence of complications other than meningitis did not differ between the 2 groups. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, age (odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.89; P=0.04) and fever (odds ratio, 30.46; 95% confidence interval, 3.27–283.61; P<0.01) remained independent factors for mumps meningitis. Conclusion Clinicians in the postvaccine era should be aware of the possibility of mumps meningitis in febrile cases of mumps in adolescents, regardless of the number of vaccination doses. To establish the role of vaccination in mumps meningitis, further studies will be necessary. PMID:26893600

  12. Evaluation of 3M™ Molecular Detection Assay (MDA) Listeria for the Detection of Listeria species in Selected Foods and Environmental Surfaces: Collaborative Study, First Action 2014.06.

    PubMed

    Bird, Patrick; Flannery, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Monteroso, Lisa; Benesh, DeAnn

    2015-01-01

    The 3M™ Molecular Detection Assay (MDA) Listeria is used with the 3M Molecular Detection System for the detection of Listeria species in food, food-related, and environmental samples after enrichment. The assay utilizes loop-mediated isothermal amplification to rapidly amplify Listeria target DNA with high specificity and sensitivity, combined with bioluminescence to detect the amplification. The 3M MDA Listeria method was evaluated using an unpaired study design in a multilaboratory collaborative study and compared to the AOAC Official Method of AnalysisSM (OMA) 993.12 Listeria monocytogenes in Milk and Dairy Products reference method for the detection of Listeria species in full-fat (4% milk fat) cottage cheese (25 g test portions). A total of 15 laboratories located in the continental United States and Canada participated. Each matrix had three inoculation levels: an uninoculated control level (0 CFU/test portion), and two levels artificially contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes, a low inoculum level (0.2-2 CFU/test portion) and a high inoculum level (2-5 CFU/test portion) using nonheat-stressed cells. In total, 792 unpaired replicate portions were analyzed. Statistical analysis was conducted according to the probability of detection (POD) model. Results obtained for the low inoculum level test portions produced a difference in cross-laboratory POD value of -0.07 with a 95% confidence interval of (-0.19, 0.06). No statistically significant differences were observed in the number of positive samples detected by the 3M MDA Listeria method versus the AOAC OMA method.

  13. Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) Can Precisely Discriminate the Lineages of Listeria monocytogenes and Species of Listeria

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Naomi; Takahashi, Hajime; Tamura, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    The genetic lineages of Listeria monocytogenes and other species of the genus Listeria are correlated with pathogenesis in humans. Although matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has become a prevailing tool for rapid and reliable microbial identification, the precise discrimination of Listeria species and lineages remains a crucial issue in clinical settings and for food safety. In this study, we constructed an accurate and reliable MS database to discriminate the lineages of L. monocytogenes and the species of Listeria (L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri, L. ivanovii, L. grayi, and L. rocourtiae) based on the S10-spc-alpha operon gene encoded ribosomal protein mass spectrum (S10-GERMS) proteotyping method, which relies on both genetic information (genomics) and observed MS peaks in MALDI-TOF MS (proteomics). The specific set of eight biomarkers (ribosomal proteins L24, L6, L18, L15, S11, S9, L31 type B, and S16) yielded characteristic MS patterns for the lineages of L. monocytogenes and the different species of Listeria, and led to the construction of a MS database that was successful in discriminating between these organisms in MALDI-TOF MS fingerprinting analysis followed by advanced proteotyping software Strain Solution analysis. We also confirmed the constructed database on the proteotyping software Strain Solution by using 23 Listeria strains collected from natural sources. PMID:27442502

  14. Genome sequencing identifies Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov., isolated from a ranch.

    PubMed

    den Bakker, Henk C; Manuel, Clyde S; Fortes, Esther D; Wiedmann, Martin; Nightingale, Kendra K

    2013-09-01

    Twenty Listeria-like isolates were obtained from environmental samples collected on a cattle ranch in northern Colorado; all of these isolates were found to share an identical partial sigB sequence, suggesting close relatedness. The isolates were similar to members of the genus Listeria in that they were Gram-stain-positive, short rods, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive; the isolates were similar to Listeria fleischmannii because they were non-motile at 25 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequencing for representative isolates and whole genome sequencing for one isolate was performed. The genome of the type strain of Listeria fleischmannii (strain LU2006-1(T)) was also sequenced. The draft genomes were very similar in size and the average MUMmer nucleotide identity across 91% of the genomes was 95.16%. Genome sequence data were used to design primers for a six-gene multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme. Phylogenies based on (i) the near-complete 16S rRNA gene, (ii) 31 core genes and (iii) six housekeeping genes illustrated the close relationship of these Listeria-like isolates to Listeria fleischmannii LU2006-1(T). Sufficient genetic divergence of the Listeria-like isolates from the type strain of Listeria fleischmannii and differing phenotypic characteristics warrant these isolates to be classified as members of a distinct infraspecific taxon, for which the name Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TTU M1-001(T) ( =BAA-2414(T) =DSM 25391(T)). The isolates of Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov. differ from the nominate subspecies by the inability to utilize melezitose, turanose and sucrose, and the ability to utilize inositol. The results also demonstrate the utility of whole genome sequencing to facilitate identification of novel taxa within a well-described genus. The genomes of both subspecies of Listeria fleischmannii contained putative enhancin genes; the Listeria fleischmannii subsp

  15. Omp85 genosensor for detection of human brain bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Dash, Sandip Kumar; Sharma, Minakshi; Khare, Shashi; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-06-01

    The 5'-thiolated DNA probe based on specific virulence gene, Omp85, was immobilized onto a screen-printed gold electrode followed by hybridization with 6-100 ng/6 μl (5.9 × 10(5)-9.3 × 10(6 )c.f.u.) of Neisseria meningitidis single stranded genomic DNA (ssG-DNA) for 10 min at 25 °C from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a meningitis patient. The Omp85 genosensor can detect as little as 6 ng ssG-DNA in 6 μl CSF of a human brain meningitis patient in 30 min including a response time of 1 min by cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance. The sensitivity of the genosensor electrode was 2.6(μA/cm(2))/ng using DPV with regression coefficient (R(2)) 0.954. The genosensor was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Omp85 genosensor was stable for 12 months at 4 °C with 12 % loss in DPV current.

  16. [Carcinomatous meningitis: The radiation therapist's point of view].

    PubMed

    Espenel, S; Vallard, A; Langrand-Escure, J; Ben Mrad, M; Méry, B; Rivoirard, R; Moriceau, G; Guy, J-B; Trone, J-C; Moncharmont, C; Wang, G; Diao, P; Bernichon, É; Chanal, É; Fournel, P; Magné, N

    2016-02-01

    Carcinomatous meningitis complicates 5 to 10% of cancers, essentially with breast cancers, lung cancers and melanomas. The incidence probably increased because of therapeutic advances in oncology. Treatment is based on external beam radiotherapy, systemic treatment, intrathecal chemotherapy and supportive care. The aim of this work was to review data on external radiation therapy and carcinomatous meningitis. There are few evidences on the subject, but it is a major topic of interest. A whole brain radiation therapy is indicated in case of brain metastases or clinical encephalitis. Focal radiation therapy is recommended on symptomatic, bulky or obstructive sites. The dose depends on performance status (20 to 40 Gy in five to 20 fractions), volume to treat and available techniques (classic fractionation or hypofractionation via stereotactic radiosurgery). The objective of radiation therapy is to improve quality of life. Association with systemic therapy improves overall survival. Administration of sequential intrathecal chemotherapy may also improve overall survival, but induces more toxicity. The use of new radiotherapy techniques and development of radiosensitizing molecules in patients with good performance status could improve survival in this frequent complication of cancer.

  17. Priority during a meningitis epidemic: vaccination or treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Veeken, H.; Ritmeijer, K.; Hausman, B.

    1998-01-01

    From November 1995 to May 1996, a meningitis epidemic occurred in northern Nigeria. More than 75,000 cases and 8440 deaths (case fatality rate (CFR), 11%) were recorded. Médecins sans Frontières, in cooperation with the Nigerian government, carried out an assistance programme (support to case management, surveillance and mass vaccination) in three states (Bauchi, Kano, Katsina) where 75% of cases occurred. Cost analysis of this assistance in Katsina State reveals that case management and mass vaccination were efficient: US$ 35 per case treated and US$ 0.64 per vaccination. There was, however, a remarkable difference in cost-effectiveness between the two strategies. The cost per death averted by improved case treatment was estimated to be US$ 396, while the cost per death averted by vaccination was estimated to be US$ 6000. In large part this difference is attributed to the late start of vaccination: more than 6 weeks after the epidemic threshold had been passed. During meningitis epidemics in countries where surveillance systems are inadequate, such as in most of sub-Saharan Africa, curative programmes should have priority. PMID:9648353

  18. Cryptococcal meningitis with secondary cutaneous involvement in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Saadia; Rahman, Atiya; Herekar, Fivzia; Masood, Sadia

    2013-09-16

    Cryptococcosis is a potentially fatal fungal disease caused by variants of Cryptococcus neoformans species.  The respiratory tract is the usual portal of entry, with a peculiar predilection to invade the central nervous system.  The skin can be secondarily involved in disseminated infection or be exceptionally involved as primary cutaneous infection by inoculation.  The disease is mostly seen in immunodeficiency states.  The diagnosis is frequently unsuspected in immunocompetent patients. We report a case of disseminated cryptococcal meningitis in an immunocompetent young adult. The cutaneous eruption prompted the accurate diagnosis.  The patient, a 20-year-old female, had fever, cough, headache and intractable vomiting for the past two months and was being managed as a case of tuberculous meningitis. Two weeks after starting antituberculous treatment she developed umbilicated papules on the head and neck region. Necessary laboratory workup identified C. neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and skin specimens.  The titers of cryptococcal antigen were measured in CSF and serum for diagnostic and prognostic purposes.  Anti-fungal treatment resulted in regression of the cutaneous lesions and resolution of systemic complaints. The case highlights the need for high degree of suspicion, especially in healthy young adults, in the diagnosis of cryptococcosis. The cutaneous eruptions can be the first manifestation or a diagnostic clue of enormous significance.

  19. Same-day identification scheme for colonies of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Lachica, R V

    1990-01-01

    A diagnostic scheme is described for the same-day identification of food-borne cells of Listeria monocytogenes that emerge in 40 h at 30 degrees C as large colonies, representatives of which are used to advantage as heavy inocula on agar plates for the rapid determination of hemolytic activity and acidification of rhamnose and xylose. Additional tests consisting of phase-contrast microscopy for cell morphology and motility, the catalase production test, and the KOH viscosity test in place of Gram staining complete the rapid identification scheme. PMID:2111113

  20. Dissociation of Innate Immune Responses in Microglia Infected with Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Frande-Cabanes, Elisabet; Fernandez-Prieto, Lorena; Calderon-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Del Río, Estela; Yañez-Diaz, Sonsoles; López-Fanarraga, Monica; Alvarez-Domínguez, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, plays a central role in cerebral listeriosis. Here, we present evidence that microglia control Listeria infection differently than macrophages. Infection of primary microglial cultures and murine cell lines with Listeria resulted in a dual function of the two gene expression programmes involved in early and late immune responses in macrophages. Whereas the bacterial gene hly seems responsible for both transcriptional programmes in macrophages, Listeria induces in microglia only the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-regulated transcriptional programme. Listeria also represses in microglia the late immune response gathered in two clusters, microbial degradation, and interferon (IFN)-inducible genes. The bacterial gene actA was required in microglia to induce TNF-regulated responses and to repress the late response. Isolation of microglial phagosomes revealed a phagosomal environment unable to destroy Listeria. Microglial phagosomes were also defective in several signaling and trafficking components reported as relevant for Listeria innate immune responses. This transcriptional strategy in microglia induced high levels of TNF-α and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and low production of other neurotoxic compounds such as nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and Type I IFNs. These cytokines and toxic microglial products are also released by primary microglia, and this cytokine and chemokine cocktail display a low potential to trigger neuronal apoptosis. This overall bacterial strategy strongly suggests that microglia limit Listeria inflammation pattern exclusively through TNF-mediated responses to preserve brain integrity. GLIA 2014;62:233–246 PMID:24311463

  1. A defined, glucose-limited mineral medium for the cultivation of Listeria spp.

    PubMed

    Schneebeli, Rudolf; Egli, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Members of the genus Listeria are fastidious bacteria with respect to their nutritional requirements, and several minimal media described in the literature fail to support growth of all Listeria spp. Furthermore, strict limitation by a single nutrient, e.g., the carbon source, has not been demonstrated for any of the published minimal media. This is an important prerequisite for defined studies of growth and physiology, including "omics." Based on a theoretical analysis of previously published mineral media for Listeria, an improved, well-balanced growth medium was designed. It supports the growth, not only of all tested Listeria monocytogenes strains, but of all other Listeria species, with the exception of L. ivanovii. The growth performance of L. monocytogenes strain Scott A was tested in the newly designed medium; glucose served as the only carbon and energy source for growth, whereas neither the supplied amino acids nor the buffering and complexing components (MOPS [morpholinepropanesulfonic acid] and EDTA) supported growth. Omission of amino acids, trace elements, or vitamins, alone or in combination, resulted in considerably reduced biomass yields. Furthermore, we monitored the specific growth rates of various Listeria strains cultivated in the designed mineral medium and compared them to growth in complex medium (brain heart infusion broth [BHI]). The novel mineral medium was optimized for the commonly used strain L. monocytogenes Scott A to achieve optimum cell yields and maximum specific growth rates. This mineral medium is the first published synthetic medium for Listeria that has been shown to be strictly carbon (glucose) limited.

  2. Rapid colorimetric sensing platform for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes foodborne pathogen.

    PubMed

    Alhogail, Sahar; Suaifan, Ghadeer A R Y; Zourob, Mohammed

    2016-12-15

    Listeria monocytogenes is a serious cause of human foodborne infections worldwide, which needs spending billions of dollars for inspection of bacterial contamination in food every year. Therefore, there is an urgent need for rapid, in-field and cost effective detection techniques. In this study, rapid, low-cost and simple colorimetric assay was developed using magnetic nanoparticles for the detection of listeria bacteria. The protease from the listeria bacteria was detected using D-amino acid substrate. D-amino acid substrate was linked to the carboxylic acid on the magnetic nanoparticles using EDC/NHS chemistry. The cysteine residue at the C-terminal of the substrate was used for the self-assembled monolayer formation on the gold sensor surface, which in turn the black magnetic nanobeads will mask the golden color. The color will change from black to golden color upon the cleavage of the specific peptide sequence by the Listeria protease. The sensor was tested with serial dilutions of Listeria bacteria. It was found that the appearance of the gold surface area is proportional to the bacterial concentrations in CFU/ml. The lowest detection limit of the developed sensor for Listeria was found to be 2.17×10(2) colony forming unit/ml (CFU/ml). The specificity of the biosensor was tested against four different foodborne associated bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella flexnerii and Staphylococcus aureus). Finally, the sensor was tested with artificially spiked whole milk and ground meat spiked with listeria.

  3. Long term follow up after meningitis in infancy: behaviour of teenagers

    PubMed Central

    Halket, S; de Louvois, J; Holt, D; Harvey, D

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine the effects of meningitis in infancy on subsequent teenage behaviour. Methods: A national postal survey of parents and teachers using an established standard behavioural questionnaire. Subjects were 739 of the surviving children from the national incidence study of infantile meningitis in England and Wales carried out between 1985 and 1987, together with a group of 606 matched controls that had been recruited when the index cases were 5 years old. Results: 46% of parents of children who had had meningitis with complications in infancy, compared with 21% of parents of control children rated their children as having behavioural problems. When the children were rated by their teachers, 37% and 23% respectively, were scored as having behavioural problems. There was no significant difference in behaviour between the 103 children who had had meningitis during the first month of life and the 634 who had had postneonatal meningitis. Eight of the index children had been excluded from school compared to none from the control group. Conclusions: The behaviour of teenage children who had meningitis in infancy is worse than that of control children who did not have infantile meningitis when rated by parents and teachers. PMID:12716708

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid outflow resistance in rabbits with experimental meningitis. Alterations with penicillin and methylprednisolone.

    PubMed Central

    Scheld, W M; Dacey, R G; Winn, H R; Welsh, J E; Jane, J A; Sande, M A

    1980-01-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis may be associated with increased intracranial pressure, neurological sequelae such as communicating hydrocephalus, and a slow response to antibiotic therapy. Alterations in cerebrospinal hydrodynamics are at least partially responsible for these complications. Constant, low-flow short-duration manometric infusion studies through a hollow-bore pressure monitoring device in direct continuity with the supracortical subarachnoid space were performed in rabbits with experimental meningitis. Maximal resistance to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow from the subarachnoid to vascular space was markedly increaed in acute pneumococcal meningitis when compared to control, uninfected animals (6.77 +/- 3.52 vs. 0.26 +/- 0.04 mm Hg/microliter per min, P less than 0.001). Similar elevations (8.93 +/- 4.15 mm Hg/microliter per min were found in experimental Escherichia coli meningitis. Despite eradication of viable bacteria from the CSF by penicillin therapy during the acute stage of pneumococcal meningitis, resistance remained elevated (6.07 +/- 4.68 mm Hg/microliter per min) and had not returned to normal up to 15 d later. Administration of methylprednisolone during the early stages of acute pneumococcal meningitis reduced mean peak outflow resistance towards control values (0.59 mm Hg/microliter per min) and no "rebound" effect was apparent 24 h later. These hydrodynamic alterations in experimental meningitis prevent normal CSF absorption and decrease the ability of the bran to compensate for changes in intracranial volume and pressure. PMID:6995482

  5. The neurochemical markers in cerebrospinal fluid to differentiate between aseptic and tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, G A; Baig, S M; Bednar, I; Halawa, A; Parvez, S H

    1998-02-01

    In this study, the use of neurochemical markers in patients with aseptic and tuberculous meningitis has been investigated. The cerebrospinal fluid levels of amino acids, nitrite (a metabolite of nitric oxide), vitamin B12 and homocysteine were quantitated in both groups of patients. Among the amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid both excitatory amino acid, GABA, glycine and tryptophan were all significantly increased in both patient groups whereas decreased level of taurine and increased level of phenylalanine were only found in patients with tuberculous meningitis. The levels of nitrite and its precursor arginine were significantly higher in patients with tuberculous meningitis whereas unchanged levels were found in patients with aseptic meningitis. A significantly increased homocysteine level and a decreased level of vitamin B12 were found only in patients with tuberculous meningitis whereas unchanged levels were found in patients with aseptic meningitis. This indicates that patients with tuberculous meningitis are particularly prone to vitamin B12 deficiency resulting into increased level of HC, and involvement of free radical showing the importance of these biological markers for promoting the possibility for the design of therapeutic approach.

  6. Anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor autoantibodies in patients with cryptococcal meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Lindsey B.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Yang, Lauren M.; Jutivorakool, Kamonwan; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Angkasekwinai, Nasikarn; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Bennett, John E.; Pyrgos, Vasilios; Williamson, Peter R.; Ding, Li; Holland, Steven M.; Browne, Sarah K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cryptococcal meningitis has been described in immunocompromised patients as well as in those for whom no immune defect has been identified. GM-CSF regulates the function of phagocytes and pulmonary alveolar macrophages, critical elements in cryptococcal control. Methods We performed clinical histories, immunological evaluation, and anticytokine autoantibody screening in 4 current patients with cryptococcal meningitis, and identified and tested 103 archived plasma/CSF samples from patients with cryptococcal meningitis. We assessed the ability of anti-GM-CSF autoantibody containing plasmas to inhibit GM-CSF signaling. Results We recognized anti-GM-CSF autoantibodies in an otherwise healthy female with cryptococcal meningitis who later developed pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Her diagnosis prompted screening of patients with cryptococcal meningitis for anticytokine autoantibodies. We identified 7 HIV uninfected patients with cryptococcal meningitis who tested positive for high-titer anti-GM-CSF autoantibodies. Two of the 7 later developed evidence of PAP. Plasma from all patients prevented GM-CSF-induced STAT-5 phosphorylation and MIP-1α production in normal PBMC. This effect was limited to their IgG fraction. Conclusions Anti-GM-CSF autoantibodies are associated with some cases of cryptococcal meningitis in otherwise immunocompetent patients. These cases need not have associated pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. PMID:23509356

  7. A rare case of neonatal cryptococcal meningitis in an HIV-unexposed 2-day-old infant: the youngest to date?

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Dominic Anthony

    2016-05-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is uncommon in children, particularly in infants. A 2-day-old boy was admitted with signs suggestive of meningitis. Lumbar puncture confirmed meningitis and cryptococcal infection (cryptococcal antigen and Indian ink stain-positive). His mother was HIV-negative. This is thought to be the youngest case of cryptococcal meningitis to be reported. Cryptococcal infection should be considered in children of all ages with meningitis where there is possible immunodeficiency or failure to respond to initial treatment with antibiotics.

  8. Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolase, a Novel Immunogenic Surface Protein on Listeria Species

    PubMed Central

    Conceição, Fabricio Rochedo; Hust, Michael; Mendonça, Karla Sequeira; Moreira, Ângela Nunes; França, Rodrigo Correa; da Silva, Wladimir Padilha; Aleixo, José Antonio G.

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous food-borne pathogen, and its presence in food or production facilities highlights the importance of surveillance. Increased understanding of the surface exposed antigens on Listeria would provide potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets. In the present work, using mass spectrometry and genetic cloning, we show that fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) class II in Listeria species is the antigen target of the previously described mAb-3F8. Western and dot blot assays confirmed that the mAb-3F8 could distinguish all tested Listeria species from close-related bacteria. Localization studies indicated that FBA is present in every fraction of Listeria cells, including supernatant and the cell wall, setting Listeria spp. as one of the few bacteria described to have this protein on their cell surface. Epitope mapping using ORFeome display and a peptide membrane revealed a 14-amino acid peptide as the potential mAb-3F8 epitope. The target epitope in FBA allowed distinguishing Listeria spp. from closely-related bacteria, and was identified as part of the active site in the dimeric enzyme. However, its function in cell surface seems not to be host cell adhesion-related. Western and dot blot assays further demonstrated that mAb-3F8 together with anti-InlA mAb-2D12 could differentiate pathogenic from non-pathogenic Listeria isolated from artificially contaminated cheese. In summary, we report FBA as a novel immunogenic surface target useful for the detection of Listeria genus. PMID:27489951

  9. Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolase, a Novel Immunogenic Surface Protein on Listeria Species.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Marcelo; Moreira, Gustavo Marçal Schmidt Garcia; Conceição, Fabricio Rochedo; Hust, Michael; Mendonça, Karla Sequeira; Moreira, Ângela Nunes; França, Rodrigo Correa; da Silva, Wladimir Padilha; Bhunia, Arun K; Aleixo, José Antonio G

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous food-borne pathogen, and its presence in food or production facilities highlights the importance of surveillance. Increased understanding of the surface exposed antigens on Listeria would provide potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets. In the present work, using mass spectrometry and genetic cloning, we show that fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) class II in Listeria species is the antigen target of the previously described mAb-3F8. Western and dot blot assays confirmed that the mAb-3F8 could distinguish all tested Listeria species from close-related bacteria. Localization studies indicated that FBA is present in every fraction of Listeria cells, including supernatant and the cell wall, setting Listeria spp. as one of the few bacteria described to have this protein on their cell surface. Epitope mapping using ORFeome display and a peptide membrane revealed a 14-amino acid peptide as the potential mAb-3F8 epitope. The target epitope in FBA allowed distinguishing Listeria spp. from closely-related bacteria, and was identified as part of the active site in the dimeric enzyme. However, its function in cell surface seems not to be host cell adhesion-related. Western and dot blot assays further demonstrated that mAb-3F8 together with anti-InlA mAb-2D12 could differentiate pathogenic from non-pathogenic Listeria isolated from artificially contaminated cheese. In summary, we report FBA as a novel immunogenic surface target useful for the detection of Listeria genus.

  10. InstantLabs Listeria species food safety kit. Performance tested methods 041304.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neil; Bambusch, Lauren; Le, Thu; Morey, Amit

    2014-01-01

    The InstantLabs Listeria Species Food SafetyKitwas validated against the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) reference method 11290-1 for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species. The matrixes (stainless steel, sealed concrete, cheddar cheese, raw shrimp, and hot dogs) were inoculated with approximately 1 CFU/test portion of various Listeria species to generate fractional positives (5-15) in 20 inoculated samples. Enrichments were also fractionally inoculated with L. monocytogenes for side-by-side testing of the InstantLabs Listeria monocytogenes Food Safety Kit. Stainless steel and sealed concrete samples were validated using 4 x 4" and 1 x 1" test areas, respectively, and enriched in Buffered Listeria Enrichment Broth (BLEB) at 35 +/- 1 degrees C for 22-28 h. All food samples were tested at 25 g or 25 mL and enriched in BLEB at 35 +/- 1 degrees C for 24-28 h. All samples were confirmed using the ISO reference method, regardless of initial screen result. The InstantLabs test method performed as well as or better than the reference method for the detection of Listeria species on stainless steel, sealed concrete, cheddar cheese, raw shrimp, and hot dogs. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing revealed no false negatives and no false positives among the 80 Listeria species and 30 non-Listeria species examined. The method was shown to be robust when variations were introduced to the enrichment time, the volume for DNA extraction, and the heat block time (data not shown).

  11. Pneumococcal meningitis post cochlear implantation: development of an animal model in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Niedermeier, Katharina; Braun, Susanne; Fauser, Claudius; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Stark, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    In 2002 an increased number of cochlear implant related meningitis cases was reported by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The most commonly identified causative agent was Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although most cases of meningitis were related to a special electrode design, the risk for post-operative pneumococcal meningitis might nonetheless be enhanced by opening of the cochlea during implantation. In the present study, a threshold model for middle ear inoculation of S. pneumoniae was established in the guinea pig after cochlear implantation to assess the post-operative risk of meningitis. Guinea pigs were implanted unilaterally with a silicone cochlear implant electrode dummy. Five weeks after implantation, animals were challenged via the middle ear with a clinically relevant strain of S. pneumoniae and monitored over a period of five days for signs of meningitis. Meningitis was confirmed by clinical outcome in the animals, histological investigation of brains, as well as by pleocytosis and presence of bacteria in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). By inoculation of varying numbers of bacteria (between 1 × 10(4) and 1 × 10(9) CFU/ml in 10 μl), a threshold model was established. The attack rate, pattern and onset of meningitis depended on number of inoculated bacteria. An increased meningitis rate in different experimental groups shows that greater bacterial burden leads to an increased attack rate after intratympanal inoculation. The established animal model provides a potential tool to assess the meningitis risk after cochlear implantation. Its implementation in future studies will allow the investigation of existing and newly developed prostheses for postoperatively infection risk.

  12. Early onset neonatal meningitis in Australia and New Zealand, 1992–2002

    PubMed Central

    May, M; Daley, A; Donath, S; Isaacs, D; on, b

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To study the epidemiology of early onset neonatal bacterial meningitis (EONBM) in Australasia. Design: Prospective surveillance study, 1992–2002, in 20 neonatal units in Australia and New Zealand. EONBM was defined as meningitis occurring within 48 hours of delivery. Results: There were 852 babies with early onset sepsis, of whom 78 (9.2%) had EONBM. The incidence of early onset group B streptococcal meningitis fell significantly from a peak of 0.24/1000 live births in 1993 to 0.03/1000 in 2002 (p trend = 0.002). There was no significant change over time in the incidence of Escherichia coli meningitis. The rate of EONBM in very low birthweight babies was 1.09/1000 compared with the rate in all infants of 0.11/1000. The overall rate of EONBM was 0.41/1000 in 1992 and 0.06 in 2001, but this trend was not significant (p trend = 0.07). Case-fatality rates for EONBM did not change significantly with time. Birth weight <1500 g (odds ratio (OR) 7.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.8 to 10.9)) and Gram negative bacillary meningitis (OR 3.3 (95% CI 2.2 to 4.9)) were significant risk factors for mortality. Sixty two percent of the 129 babies who died from early onset sepsis or suspected sepsis did not have a lumbar puncture performed. Conclusion: The incidence of early onset group B streptococcal meningitis has fallen, probably because of maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, without a corresponding change in E coli meningitis. Gram negative bacillary meningitis still carries a worse prognosis than meningitis with a Gram positive organism. PMID:15878934

  13. Effect of Filling Type and Heating Method on Prevalence of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes in Dumplings Produced in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Barbara; Dąbrowski, Waldemar

    2015-05-01

    The count of Listeria monocytogenes was determined, before and after heat treatment, in 200 samples of dumplings of 9 brands and with different types of stuffing. Analyses were conducted according to ISO 11290-1 standard and with real-time PCR method. The highest count of L. monocytogenes was found in meat dumplings (10(2) to 10(4) CFU/g), whereas products with white cheese-potato stuffing and vegetable-mushroom stuffing contained significantly less Listeria, 20 to 80 and 5 to 32 CFU/g, respectively. In cooled meat dumplings the extent of contamination depended significantly on the producer. In addition, a significant (P < 0.05) correlation was determined between contamination level and meat content in the stuffing (rho = 0.418), especially in stuffing containing pork meat (0.464), contrary to beef-containing stuffing (0.284). Heating dumplings in boiling water for 2 min completely eliminated L. monocytogenes in meat dumplings. In contrast, the microwave heating applied for 2 min at 600 W only reduced the count of L. monocytogenes by 1 to 2 logs. Hence, the microwave heating failed to reduce the risk of infection with this pathogen below the level permissible in the EU regulation, especially in the most contaminated samples. In this case, the efficacy of microwave heating was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by the initial count of L. monocytogenes (rho = 0.626), then by meat content in the stuffing (0.476), and to the lowest extent--by the type of meat (0.415 to 0.425). However, no Listeria sp. and L. monocytogenes were isolated from cooked dumplings with fruits (strawberries or blueberries).

  14. [A virological description of serous meningitis in children immunized with vaccine against epidemic parotitis].

    PubMed

    Goleva, O V; Kharit, S M; Cherniaeva, T V; Aksenov, O A; Davidkin, I; Kolyshkin, V M

    2004-01-01

    The morbidity structure was analyzed in children vaccinated against epidemic parotitis in 1993-2002. Eight children (4 with serous meningitis and 4 with lesions of the salivary glands) underwent virologic and immunologic examinations. The molecular typing of the SH-gene fragment of the parotitis virus showed the process in 7 cases to be provoked by the vaccination strain. Presumedly, progressing vaccine-associated meningitis inhibits antibody formation. The total incidence of vaccine-associated meningitis was shown, according to Saint Petersburg data, to be not high, which testifies to a low reactogenicity of the Russian vaccine strain.

  15. Herpes Zoster Meningitis Complicating Combined Tocilizumab and Cyclosporine Therapy for Adult-Onset Still's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tsurukawa, Shinichiro; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Izumi, Yasumori; Shirakawa, Atsunori; Kawahara, Chieko; Shukuwa, Tetsuo; Inamoto, Miwako; Kawakami, Atsushi; Migita, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A 56-year-old female with refractory adult-onset Still's disease presented with ocular herpes zoster infection during TCZ treatment. After three days of acyclovir treatment (5 mg/kg), she developed a severe headache and high fever. Viral DNA isolation and cerebral spinal fluid abnormalities led to a herpes zoster meningitis diagnosis. Her meningitis was cured by high doses of intravenous acyclovir (10 mg/kg for 14 days). To our knowledge, this is the first report of meningeal herpes zoster infection in rheumatic diseases under TCZ treatment. PMID:27092286

  16. Comparative Genomics of Listeria Sensu Lato: Genus-Wide Differences in Evolutionary Dynamics and the Progressive Gain of Complex, Potentially Pathogenicity-Related Traits through Lateral Gene Transfer.

    PubMed

    Chiara, Matteo; Caruso, Marta; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Manzari, Caterina; Fraccalvieri, Rosa; Goffredo, Elisa; Latorre, Laura; Miccolupo, Angela; Padalino, Iolanda; Santagada, Gianfranco; Chiocco, Doriano; Pesole, Graziano; Horner, David S; Parisi, Antonio

    2015-07-15

    Historically, genome-wide and molecular characterization of the genus Listeria has concentrated on the important human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes and a small number of closely related species, together termed Listeria sensu strictu. More recently, a number of genome sequences for more basal, and nonpathogenic, members of the Listeria genus have become available, facilitating a wider perspective on the evolution of pathogenicity and genome level evolutionary dynamics within the entire genus (termed Listeria sensu lato). Here, we have sequenced the genomes of additional Listeria fleischmannii and Listeria newyorkensis isolates and explored the dynamics of genome evolution in Listeria sensu lato. Our analyses suggest that acquisition of genetic material through gene duplication and divergence as well as through lateral gene transfer (mostly from outside Listeria) is widespread throughout the genus. Novel genetic material is apparently subject to rapid turnover. Multiple lines of evidence point to significant differences in evolutionary dynamics between the most basal Listeria subclade and all other congeners, including both sensu strictu and other sensu lato isolates. Strikingly, these differences are likely attributable to stochastic, population-level processes and contribute to observed variation in genome size across the genus. Notably, our analyses indicate that the common ancestor of Listeria sensu lato lacked flagella, which were acquired by lateral gene transfer by a common ancestor of Listeria grayi and Listeria sensu strictu, whereas a recently functionally characterized pathogenicity island, responsible for the capacity to produce cobalamin and utilize ethanolamine/propane-2-diol, was acquired in an ancestor of Listeria sensu strictu.

  17. Determination of Listeria monocytogenes Growth during Mushroom Production and Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Dara; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Guillas, Floriane; Jordan, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    In the EU, food is considered safe with regard to Listeria monocytogenes if its numbers do not exceed 100 CFU/g throughout the shelf-life of the food. Therefore, it is important to determine if a food supports growth of L. monocytogenes. Challenge studies to determine the ability of a food to support growth of L. monocytogenes are essential as predictive modelling often overestimates the growth ability of L. monocytogenes. The aim of this study was to determine if growth of L. monocytogenes was supported during the production and distribution of mushrooms. A three-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated onto three independent batches of whole mushrooms, sliced mushrooms, mushroom casing and mushroom substrate at a concentration of about 100–1000 CFU/g. The batches were incubated at potential abuse temperatures, as a worst case scenario, and at intervals during storage L. monocytogenes numbers, % moisture and pH were determined. The results showed that the sliced and whole mushrooms had the ability to support growth, while mushroom casing allowed survival but did not support growth. Mushroom substrate showed a rich background microflora that grew on Listeria selective media and this hindered enumeration of L. monocytogenes. In the case of this study, Combase predictions were not always accurate, indicating that challenge studies may be a necessary part of growth determination of L. monocytogenes. PMID:28239137

  18. Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Produce: Outbreaks, Prevalence and Contamination Levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qi; Gooneratne, Ravi; Hussain, Malik Altaf

    2017-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a member of the genus Listeria, is widely distributed in agricultural environments, such as soil, manure and water. This organism is a recognized foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes many diseases, from mild gastroenteritis to severe blood and/or central nervous system infections, as well as abortion in pregnant women. Generally, processed ready-to-eat and cold-stored meat and dairy products are considered high-risk foods for L. monocytogenes infections that cause human illness (listeriosis). However, recently, several listeriosis outbreaks have been linked to fresh produce contamination around the world. Additionally, many studies have detected L. monocytogenes in fresh produce samples and even in some minimally processed vegetables. Thus L. monocytogenes may contaminate fresh produce if present in the growing environment (soil and water). Prevention of biofilm formation is an important control measure to reduce the prevalence and survival of L. monocytogenes in growing environments and on fresh produce. This article specifically focuses on fresh produce–associated listeriosis outbreaks, prevalence in growing environments, contamination levels of fresh produce, and associated fresh produce safety challenges. PMID:28282938

  19. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by Enterococcus mundtii isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Bigwood, T; Hudson, J A; Cooney, J; McIntyre, L; Billington, C; Heinemann, J A; Wall, F

    2012-12-01

    Two bacterial isolates with inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecalis were obtained from soil. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization identified them as Enterococcus mundtii, a species whose ability to compete with L. monocytogenes is relatively unexplored compared to other members of the genus. The thermal stability of the inhibitory factor and its sensitivity to proteolytic enzymes indicate that it is most likely a bacteriocin. Both isolates grew at comparable rates to L. monocytogenes at 5 °C and 10 °C in vitro. One isolate killed L. monocytogenes when it reached concentrations of 10(6)-10(8) CFU ml(-1). Minimum inocula of 10(6) and 10(5) CFU ml(-1) of E. mundtii were required to reduce and maintain L. monocytogenes concentrations beneath the level of detection at 5 °C and 10 °C, respectively. In situ experiments at 5 °C showed that E. mundtii inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes on vacuum-packed cold smoked salmon during its four week shelf life. E. mundtii could, therefore, control the growth of L. monocytogenes at low temperatures, indicating a potential application in controlling this pathogen in chilled foods. To control growth of Listeria, the concentration of E. mundtii needs to be high, but it is possible that a purified bacteriocin could be used to achieve the same effect.

  20. Trajectories of Listeria-type motility in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Fu-Lai; Leung, Kwan-tai; Chen, Hsuan-Yi

    2012-12-01

    Force generated by actin polymerization is essential in cell motility and the locomotion of organelles or bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments on actin-based motility have observed geometrical trajectories including straight lines, circles, S-shaped curves, and translating figure eights. This paper reports a phenomenological model of an actin-propelled disk in two dimensions that generates geometrical trajectories. Our model shows that when the evolutions of actin density and force per filament on the disk are strongly coupled to the disk self-rotation, it is possible for a straight trajectory to lose its stability. When the instability is due to a pitchfork bifurcation, the resulting trajectory is a circle; a straight trajectory can also lose stability through a Hopf bifurcation, and the resulting trajectory is an S-shaped curve. We also show that a half-coated disk, which mimics the distribution of functionalized proteins in Listeria, also undergoes similar symmetry-breaking bifurcations when the straight trajectory loses stability. For both a fully coated disk and a half-coated disk, when the trajectory is an S-shaped curve, the angular frequency of the disk self-rotation is different from that of the disk trajectory. However, for circular trajectories, these angular frequencies are different for a fully coated disk but the same for a half-coated disk.

  1. Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Produce: Outbreaks, Prevalence and Contamination Levels.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qi; Gooneratne, Ravi; Hussain, Malik Altaf

    2017-03-09

    Listeria monocytogenes, a member of the genus Listeria, is widely distributed in agricultural environments, such as soil, manure and water. This organism is a recognized foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes many diseases, from mild gastroenteritis to severe blood and/or central nervous system infections, as well as abortion in pregnant women. Generally, processed ready-to-eat and cold-stored meat and dairy products are considered high-risk foods for L. monocytogenes infections that cause human illness (listeriosis). However, recently, several listeriosis outbreaks have been linked to fresh produce contamination around the world. Additionally, many studies have detected L. monocytogenes in fresh produce samples and even in some minimally processed vegetables. Thus L. monocytogenes may contaminate fresh produce if present in the growing environment (soil and water). Prevention of biofilm formation is an important control measure to reduce the prevalence and survival of L. monocytogenes in growing environments and on fresh produce. This article specifically focuses on fresh produce-associated listeriosis outbreaks, prevalence in growing environments, contamination levels of fresh produce, and associated fresh produce safety challenges.

  2. Post Neurosurgical Meningitis due to Colistin Heteroresistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Moosavian, Mojtaba; Shoja, Saeed; Nashibi, Roohangiz; Ebrahimi, Nasim; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Rostami, Soodabeh; Peymani, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recently Acinetobacter baumannii isolates have emerged as a problematic infectious agent that causes meningitis in neurosurgical patients. Colistin has been used successfully for the treatment of A. baumannii meningitis but colistin resistant isolates have been reported worldwide. Case Presentation: Two isolates of A. baumannii were cultured during a five-day period from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of a 20-year-old man with a gunshot trauma in the abdomen, which had exited from his back. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests of isolates were performed. Multiplex PCR was performed for detection of blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-24-like and blaOXA-58-like genes. Metallo-β-lactamase genes such as: blaVIM, blaIMP, blaSPM and blaNDM were sought by singleplex PCR. In order to evaluate the genetic relationship, two isolates were examined by the repetitive extragenic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (REP_PCR) method. Conclusions: E-test results showed that the isolates were sensitive to colistin and tigecycline with minimum inhibitory concentration of (MIC) 0.25 µg/mL and 1.5 µg/mL, respectively. Secondly the isolates were resistant to colistin with MIC > 256 µg/mL but remained sensitive to tigecycline with MIC 1.5 µg/mL. On the basis of the multiplex PCR, both of the isolates were positive for blaOXA-23-like. Other investigated genes such as blaOXA-24-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaVIM, blaIMP, blaSPM and blaNDM were negative. REP-PCR results showed that two isolates were derived from a single strain and both were the same. The results of our study revealed that the firs isolate of A. baumannii was colistin heteroresistant and was changed to completely resistant during therapy. Diagnosis and treatment of A. baumannii meningitis is very important and to avoid treatment failure we suggest that all A. baumannii isolates obtained from CSF should be evaluated properly for colistin heteroresistance. PMID:25632326

  3. Prompt meningeal reconstruction mediated by oxygen-sensitive AKAP12 scaffolding protein after central nervous system injury

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jong-Ho; Wee, Hee-Jun; Seo, Ji Hae; Ahn, Bum Ju; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Yang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Sae-Won; Lee, Ok-Hee; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Gelman, Irwin H.; Arai, Ken; Lo, Eng H.; Kim, Kyu-Won

    2015-01-01

    The meninges forms a critical epithelial barrier, which protects the central nervous system (CNS), and therefore its prompt reconstruction after CNS injury is essential for reducing neuronal damage. Meningeal cells migrate into the lesion site after undergoing an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and repair the impaired meninges. However, the molecular mechanisms of meningeal EMT remain largely undefined. Here we show that TGF-β1 and retinoic acid (RA) released from the meninges, together with oxygen tension, could constitute the mechanism for rapid meningeal reconstruction. AKAP12 is an effector of this mechanism, and its expression in meningeal cells is regulated by integrated upstream signals composed of TGF-β1, RA and oxygen tension. Functionally, AKAP12 modulates meningeal EMT by regulating the TGF-β1-non-Smad-SNAI1 signalling pathway. Collectively, TGF-β1, RA and oxygen tension can modulate the dynamic change in AKAP12 expression, causing prompt meningeal reconstruction after CNS injury by regulating the transition between the epithelial and mesenchymal states of meningeal cells. PMID:25229625

  4. Cryptococcal meningitis in patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Yang, YaLi; Sang, Junjun; Pan, Weihua; Du, Lin; Liao, Wanqing; Chen, Jianghan; Zhu, Yuanjie

    2014-08-01

    To summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, treatment, and outcome of cryptococcal meningitis (CM) in autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) patients and to provide a reference for the prevention and control of AIHA complicated with CM, we evaluated five cases of CM in patients with AIHA treated in our hospital from 2003 to 2013 and eight related foreign cases. All of the clinical isolates were Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and grouped into the VNI genotype and serotype A. The clinical features exhibit significant features. Headache, nausea, and fever are common symptoms of AIHA complicated with CM. The early clinical manifestations lack specificity, which may lead to delayed diagnosis and treatment. Long-term use of prednisone (≥15 mg day(-1)), poor control of anemia, and splenectomy are risk factors for AIHA complicated with cryptococcal infection. The combination of intravenous amphotericin B and oral 5-fluorocytosine remains the preferred treatment for AIHA complicated with CM.

  5. Epidemiology of meningococcal meningitis in Angola, 1994-2000.

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, M.; Leite, F.; Brumana, L.; Félix, B.; Stella, A. A.

    2001-01-01

    We describe six meningococcal disease outbreaks that occurred in Angola during the period 1994-2000. In total, 7140 cases were documented. The age groups most affected were 15-29 years and 5-14 years; there were no differences in incidence between the sexes. Circulation of both serogroup A and sporadic serogroup B strains was demonstrated. Mass vaccination campaigns with A+C meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine were implemented, except in Yambala province in 1999 where insecure conditions precluded this intervention. Outbreaks of serogroup A meningococcal disease in Angola may indicate an extension of these epidemics outside the meningitis belt. Mass vaccination campaigns stopped the Angolan epidemics within weeks. Civil conflict and displaced persons living in crowded areas created serious difficulties for surveillance and impeded timely public health responses. PMID:11811874

  6. Meningeal preservation in a child mummy from Ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Isidro, Albert; Herrerin, Jesús

    2017-01-26

    Over many centuries, the ancient Egyptians developed a method of preserving bodies so they would remain lifelike. Mummification of bodies was originally a natural process in Egypt, which evolved to a sophisticated embalming system to preserve the individual for the afterlife. Afterwards, mummification continued to be practiced in Egypt for some three thousand years, lasting until the end of the Christian era In the Coptic necropolis of Qarara (Middle Egypt) a total of 17 mummified individuals were studied during the 2012 campaign. One of them was a 6 to 8 old-year male child, which damaged skull allowed us to see the meningeal structures covering the entire cranial vault, in absence of brain remains. This finding in a child mummy is very exceptional, as reflected in the specialized literature.

  7. Control of meningococcal meningitis outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Chippaux, Jean-Philippe

    2008-10-01

    Outbreaks of Neisseria meningitidis recur frequently in the African Sahel where they are responsible for high mortality and morbidity, especially in children. An effective vaccine has been in existence for more than 30 years, but despite this, the control of epidemics has failed. Moreover, the geographical distribution of N. meningitidis seems to be increasing, perhaps because of climate change but also because of the economic crisis which prevails throughout much of Africa leading to population movements and the breakdown of essential services. Although alarming, the emergence of new serogroups in recent epidemics (such as serogroups X and W135) should not mask the fact that serogroup A remains the most common meningococcal isolate from meningitis cases and is therefore the most significant target for control. The development of a low-cost conjugate meningococcal vaccine should support a strategy of preventive immunization, as this strategy is one that appears most effective to control this plague.

  8. CSF interleukin-6 in neonatal Citrobacter ventriculitis after meningitis.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, F A; Hofer, M; Küster, H; Belohradsky, B H

    2000-01-01

    An infant with neonatal severe Citrobacter koseri (formerly Citrobacter diversus) meningoencephalitis developed necrosis with multicystic regression of both hemispheres. The ventriculitis persisted over months in spite of antibiotic therapy. The treatment succeeded with cefotaxime in a high dose (300 mg/kg/day) without surgical intervention. The infant had been previously treated with cefotaxime (200 mg/kg/day) over 5 weeks. High levels of CSF interleukin-6 (IL-6) permitted to attribute persisting CSF pleocytosis in spite of sterile CSF cultures to chronic infection and not to reminiscence of brain necrosis. This report reveals two main points. On the one hand, the importance of therapy monitoring with IL-6 in CSF for the consequent treatment of Citrobacter meningitis and on the other hand, high-dose cefotaxime (300 mg/kg/day) treatment of Citrobacter ventriculitis, which succeeded without surgical intervention.

  9. Media management of a community outbreak of meningococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Singleton, C D; Fey, R; Appleby, C

    2000-12-01

    Cases and, particularly, clusters of meningococcal meningitis often create high levels of public concern and attract the interest of news media. We describe below our experience of managing intense local and national media interest during a community outbreak of meningococcal disease in Derbyshire. Our learning is set out as ten key recommendations. Four of these are around managing the media, including using a proactive press release, providing detailed briefings, using a single spokesperson and coordination of the response by a press officer experienced in media management. Another four describe how to deliver an appropriate on-site response, often requested during community intervention programmes. The two final recommendations relate to ensuring good communication and supporting staff during what is an intensely stressful period. We hope our experiences may help others if faced with a similar problem.

  10. Risk factors associated with postcraniotomy meningitis: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-Hua; Chang, Chih-Yen; Lin, Li-Jhen; Chen, Wei Liang; Chang, Yu-Jun; Wang, Shu-Hui; Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Yen, Hua-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Postcraniotomy meningitis (PCM) is a major challenge in neurosurgery, and changing patterns of infectious agents in PCM have been noted. The limited epidemiological data and urgent clinical needs motivated this research. We conducted this study to determine a risk assessment for PCM and the current pattern of infectious agents. We performed a retrospective case-control study of significant cases of postcraniotomy meningitis in the Changhua Christian Hospital System between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2012. Postcraniotomy meningitis was diagnosed in 22 out of 4392 surgical patients; this data was reviewed for risk assessment. This study assessed the risk factors for postcraniotomy meningitis and found that it was more frequently seen in patients who were elderly (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.32–2.98, P = 0.013), underwent emergency procedures (OR = 4.82, 95% CI = 1.50–14.53, P = 0.008), had leak of cerebrospinal fluid (OR = 4.62, 95% CI = 2.03–10.50, P = 0.012), had external ventricular drainage (OR = 4.68, 95% CI = 2.46–8.87, P = 0.006), were admitted to the intensive care unit (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.53–8.08, P = 0.012), had used drain placement >72 hours (OR = 2.66, 95% CI = 1.04–4.29, P = 0.007), had surgery >4.5 hours (OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.39–4.05, P = 0.005), had repeat operations (OR = 2.74, 95% CI = 1.31–5.73, P = 0.018), endured trauma (OR = 5.97, 95% CI = 1.57–17.61, P = 0.007), or had 30-days mortality (OR = 5.07, 95% CI = 2.20–11.48, P = 0.001). The predominant pathogens isolated from cerebrospinal fluid were Staphylococcus aureus in 8 patients (36.7%) and Acinetobacter baumannii in 7 patients (31.8%). In our study, the mortality rate was 5.1% among all postcraniotomy patients. Accurate risk assessment, early diagnosis, and choice of appropriate antibiotics in accordance with epidemiologic information are

  11. [Meningeal sarcoma in childhood. Experiences with 17 cases].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Avalos, A; Rivera-Luna, R; Altamirano-Alvarez, E; Martínez-Guerra, G; Ayón-Cárdenas, A E; Cárdenas-Cardos, R

    1989-01-01

    A total of 17 patients with meningeal sarcoma were diagnosed and treated at the National Institute of Pediatrics in Mexico City in a period of 15 years. Among the diagnostic methodology used in this group we found that angiography is still the best to be used so far. On the other hand, the chemotherapy protocol employed did not improve the survival obtained with surgery and radiotherapy. Therefore we suggest that a new chemotherapy protocol has to be designed in order to obtain better results. Of particular interest, we found in this group of patients that the time elapsed between the first sign of disease to the moment of diagnosis varied from 2 months to 10 years without any prognostic significance.

  12. Development and validation of qualitative SYBR®Green real-time PCR for detection and discrimination of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Barbau-Piednoir, Elodie; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Yde, Marc; Mahillon, Jacques; Roosens, Nancy H

    2013-05-01

    A combination of four qualitative SYBR®Green qPCR screening assays targeting two levels of discrimination: Listeria genus (except Listeria grayi) and Listeria monocytogenes, is presented. These assays have been developed to be run simultaneously using the same polymerase chain reaction (PCR) programme. The paper also proposes a new validation procedure to specifically validate qPCR assays applied to food microbiology according to two guidelines: the ISO 22118 norm and the "Definition of minimum performance requirements for analytical methods of GMO testing". The developed assays target the iap, prs and hlyA genes that belong to or neighbour the virulence cluster of Listeria spp. The selected primers were designed to amplify short fragments (60 to 103 bp) in order to obtain optimal PCR efficiency (between 97 and 107 % efficiency). The limit of detection of the SYBR®Green qPCR assays is two to five copies of target genes per qPCR reaction. These assays are highly accurate (98.08 and 100 % accuracy for the Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes assays, respectively).

  13. Sublethal injury and virulence changes in Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua treated with antimicrobials carvacrol and citral.

    PubMed

    Silva, A; Genovés, S; Martorell, P; Zanini, S F; Rodrigo, D; Martinez, A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two antimicrobial substances, carvacrol and citral, on Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua cells, as well as possible virulence changes in injured cells, using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model test. The results indicated that the percentage of sublethal damage was higher in L. monocytogenes than in L. innocua. The results of the study carried out by using C. elegans indicated that C. elegans fed in a lawn of L. monocytogenes previously treated with carvacrol showed a loss in life span (p ≤ 0.05) as compared with L. monocytogenes treated with citral, Escherichia coli OP50 as a negative control, and treated and untreated L. innocua. Egg laying was also affected: worms fed in a lawn of treated and untreated L. monocytogenes laid fewer eggs than those fed in a lawn of treated and untreated L. innocua or fed with OP50 as a negative control. Worms fed in a lawn of treated and untreated L. innocua also laid fewer eggs than those fed with OP50 as a negative control. A phenotype named bag of worms and an undescribed new one, "vulva inflammation", were also observed.

  14. Ionizing radiation sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 49594 and Listeria innocua ATCC 51742 inoculated on endive (Cichorium endiva).

    PubMed

    Niemira, Brendan A; Fan, Xuetong; Sokorai, Kimberly J B; Sommers, Christopher H

    2003-06-01

    Ionizing radiation inactivates the pathogenic bacteria that can contaminate leafy green vegetables. Leaf pieces and leaf homogenate of endive (Cichorium endiva) were inoculated with the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 49594) or Listeria innocua (ATCC 51742), a nonpathogenic surrogate bacterium. The radiation sensitivity of the two strains was similar, although L. innocua was more sensitive to the type of suspending leaf preparation. During refrigerated storage after irradiation, the population of L. monocytogenes on inoculated endive was briefly suppressed by 0.42 kilogray (kGy), a dose calibrated to achieve a 99% reduction. However, the pathogen regrew after 5 days until it exceeded the bacterial levels on the control after 19 days in storage. Treatment with 0.84 kGy, equivalent to a 99.99% reduction, suppressed L. monocytogenes throughout refrigerated storage. Doses up to 1.0 kGy had no significant effect on the color of endive leaf material, regardless of whether taken from the leaf edge or the leaf midrib. The texture of leaf edge material was unaffected by doses up to 1.0 kGy, whereas the maximum dose tolerated by leaf midrib material was 0.8 kGy. These results show that endive leaves may be treated with doses sufficient to achieve at least a 99.99% reduction of L. monocytogenes with little or no impact on the product's texture or color.

  15. Comparative Study of the Effects of Citral on the Growth and Injury of Listeria innocua and Listeria monocytogenes Cells

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Angulo, Angela B.; Zanini, Surama F.; Rosenthal, Amauri; Rodrigo, Dolores; Klein, Günter; Martínez, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of citral on growth and on the occurrence of sublethal damage in Listeria innocua Serovar 6a (CECT 910) and Listeria monocytogenes Serovar 4b (CECT 4032) cells that were exposed to citral as a natural antimicrobial agent. Two initial inoculum concentrations were considered in this investigation: 102 and 106 cfu/mL. Citral exhibited antilisterial activity against L. innocua and L. monocytogenes, and the observed effects were dependent on the concentration of citral present in the culture medium (0, 0.150 and 0.250 μL/mL) (p ≤ 0.05). L. innocua had a shorter lag phase than L. monocytogenes, and the two species had nearly identical maximum specific growth rates. These results indicate that L. innocua could be used as surrogate for L. monocytogenes when testing the effects of this antimicrobial. Significant differences in the lag phase and growth rate were observed between the small and large inoculum concentration (p ≤ 0.05). Citral-treated L. innocua and L. monocytogenes that were recovered on selective medium (i.e., TSA-YE-SC) had a shorter lag phase and a higher maximum specific growth rate than cells that were recovered on non-selective medium (i.e., TSA-YE) (p ≤ 0.05). This result suggests that damage occurs at sublethal concentrations of citral. PMID:25643164

  16. Cerebral blood flow autoregulation in early experimental S. pneumoniae meningitis.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Michael; Brandt, Christian T; Knudsen, Gitte M; Ostergaard, Christian; Skinhøj, Peter; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Møller, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    We studied cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation and intracranial pressure (ICP) during normo- and hyperventilation in a rat model of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis. Meningitis was induced by intracisternal injection of S. pneumoniae. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), ICP, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP, defined as MAP - ICP), and laser-Doppler CBF were measured in anesthetized infected rats (n = 30) and saline-inoculated controls (n = 30). CPP was either incrementally reduced by controlled hemorrhage or increased by intravenous norepinephrine infusion. Twelve hours postinoculation, rats were studied solely during normocapnia, whereas rats studied after 24 h were exposed to either normocapnia or to acute hypocapnia. In infected rats compared with control rats, ICP was unchanged at 12 h but increased at 24 h postinoculation (not significant and P < 0.01, respectively); hypocapnia did not lower ICP compared with normocapnia. Twelve hours postinoculation, CBF autoregulation was lost in all infected rats but preserved in all control rats (P < 0.01). Twenty-four hours after inoculation, 10% of infected rats had preserved CBF autoregulation during normocapnia compared with 80% of control rats (P < 0.01). In contrast, 60% of the infected rats and 100% of the control rats showed an intact CBF autoregulation during hypocapnia (P < 0.05 for the comparison of infected rats at normocapnia vs. hypocapnia). In conclusion, CBF autoregulation is lost both at 12 and at 24 h after intracisternal inoculation of S. pneumoniae in rats. Impairment of CBF autoregulation precedes the increase in ICP, and acute hypocapnia may restore autoregulation without changing the ICP.

  17. Soil Dust Aerosols and Wind as Predictors of Seasonal Meningitis Incidence in Niger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez Garcia Pando, Carlos; Stanton, Michelle C.; Diggle, Peter J.; Trzaska, Sylwia; Miller, Ron L.; Perlwitz, Jan P.; Baldasano, Jose M.; Cuevas, Emilio; Ceccato, Pietro; Yaka, Pascal; Thomson, Madeleine C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemics of meningococcal meningitis are concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa during the dry season, a period when the region is affected by the Harmattan, a dry and dusty northeasterly trade wind blowing from the Sahara into the Gulf of Guinea.Objectives: We examined the potential of climate-based statistical forecasting models to predict seasonal incidence of meningitis in Niger at both the national and district levels.Data and methods: We used time series of meningitis incidence from 1986 through 2006 for 38 districts in Niger. We tested models based on data that would be readily available in an operational framework, such as climate and dust, population, and the incidence of early cases before the onset of the meningitis season in January-May. Incidence was used as a proxy for immunological state.

  18. The 2012 Fungal Meningitis Outbreak in the United States: Connections Between Soils and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Lynn; Brevik, Eric

    2013-04-01

    In September of 2012 the United States found itself facing a fungal meningitis outbreak that was traced back to contaminated steroid injections. The fungus Exserohilium rostratum, which is found in soil, among other locations in the environment, was identified as the main cause of the health issues created by the contaminated steroids. As of November 7, 2012 419 cases of fungal meningitis, stroke due to presumed fungal meningitis, or other central nervous system-related infections, 10 cases of peripheral joint infections, and 31 deaths linked to the contaminated steroids had been documented. However, the life cycle and soil ecology of E. rostratum is not well understood, and such knowledge would aid human health professionals in understanding the pathogenic potential of E. rostratum. Therefore, soil scientists have a role to play in developing the most effective ways to combat human health challenges such as the 2012 fungal meningitis outbreak.

  19. Neuroimaging Complication of Neonatal Meningitis in Full-Term and Near-Term Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Chatue Kamga, Herve Berenger

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine complication of neonatal meningitis due to streptococcus group B in full-term and near–full-term newborns in a tertiary-level neonate intensive care unit. PMID:28229093

  20. Detection of single bacteria - causative agents of meningitis using raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baikova, T. V.; Minaeva, S. A.; Sundukov, A. V.; Svistunova, T. S.; Bagratashvili, V. N.; Alushin, M. V.; Gonchukov, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    Early diagnostics of meningitis is a very topical problem as it is a fulminant disease with a high level of mortality. The progress of this disease is, as a rule, accompanied by the appearance of bacteria in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition. The examination of the CSF is well known to be the only reliable approach to the identification of meningitis. However, the traditional biochemical analyses are time consuming and not always reliable, simple, and inexpensive, whereas the optical methods are poorly developed. This work is devoted to the study of Raman spectra of several bacterial cultures which are mainly present during meningitis. Raman microscopy is a prompt and noninvasive technique capable of providing reliable information about molecular-level alterations of biological objects at their minimal quantity and size. It was shown that there are characteristic lines in Raman spectra which can be the reliable markers for determination of bacterial form of meningitis at a level of a single bacterium.