Science.gov

Sample records for menisci tibial

  1. The effect of proximal tibial corrective osteotomy on menisci, tibia and tarsal bones: a finite element model study of tibia vara.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Halil; Özkan, Arif; Mutlu, Ibrahim; Celik, Talip; Ugur, Levent; Kisioglu, Yasin

    2014-03-01

    Proximal tibial open wedge osteotomy (PTO) is a corrective operation used in the surgery of lower extremities and is applied to patients with varus deformities for sufficient correction. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the PTO can achieve decreased stress-bearing on the tibia and tarsal bones in addition to correcting the mechanical axis of the lower limb in patients with tibia vara. Three-dimensional (3D) solid modelling of the lower extremity was carried out using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR)-containing images of all of the bony elements and non-bony structures. PTO was applied to the obtained deformed model in the computer environment and the correction was carried out. Stress distributions in menisci, tibia and tarsal bones were calculated. With respect to loading on the tarsal bones, the maximum equivalent stresses on all bones decreased except for the navicula in the PTO-simulated model in the current study. These results clearly indicate that PTO can achieve decreased stresses on the tarsal bones in patients with tibia vara. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Unicompartmental knee prostheses: in vitro wear assessment of the menisci tibial insert after two different fixation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affatato, S.; Spinelli, M.; Zavalloni, M.; Carmignato, S.; Lopomo, N.; Marcacci, M.; Viceconti, M.

    2008-10-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a complex clinical scenario where many biological and mechanical factors influence the severity of articular degenerative changes. Minimally invasive knee prosthetic surgery, with only a compartment replacement (unicompartmental knee replacement), might be a good compromise between osteotomy and total knee prosthesis. The focus of this study was to develop and validate a protocol to assess the fixation method of the femoral components in mechanical simulation, for pre-clinical validation; the wear behaviour of two different fixation frames was quantified and compared. In particular, two different wear tests were conducted using the same knee simulator, the same load profiles and the same kinematics; two different fixation methods were applied to the femoral sleds (synthetic femur and metal block). Surface characterization on both articulating bearings was performed by a roughness measuring machine and coordinate measuring machine. The wear produced by the tibial inserts using the synthetic femur was considerably higher than the wear registered by the metal-block holder. Roughness measurements on femoral sleds showed a limited number of scratches with high Rt values for the metal-block set-up; the damaged surface broadened in the case of femoral condyles and tibial inserts mounted on composite bone, but lower Rt and linear penetration values were measured. The two holding frames showed different wear activities as a consequence of dissimilar dynamic performance. Further observations should be made in vivo to prove the actual importance of synthetic bone simulations and specific material behaviour.

  3. Cautious surgery for discoid menisci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Chadwick F.; Van Dyk, Eda; Jurgutis, John; Vangsness, C. Thomas

    1995-05-01

    Thirty patients were surgically treated for discoid menisci at our institution from 1972 to 1987. All developed Fairbank's changes if followed more than 5 years. Between 1980 and 1987 we saw 25 patients with menisci over 50% of the size of the femoral condyle by magnetic resonance imaging or arthrographic examination. Surgical criteria have been anteroposterior hypermobility and arthroscopic evidence of rupture in patients with disabling symptoms. Of the 21 patients undergoing surgery since 1980, 99 (43%) have developed Fairbank's changes, all having been treated by partial meniscectomy or meniscectomy plus posterior repair. Follow-up arthroscopy in five patients revealed distinctly abnormal but relatively stable menisci. Partial meniscectomy for discoid menisci by the Watanabe classification is recommended if symptoms are disabling and the menisci is significantly torn. Repair must be added if the posterior horn is unstable.

  4. Relationship between Knee Alignment and T1rho Values of Articular Cartilage and Menisci in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ligong; Vieira, Renata La Rocca; Rybak, Leon D.; Babb, James S.; Chang, Gregory; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Abramson, Steven; Regatte, Ravinder

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between knee alignment and subregional T1rho values of the femorotibial cartilage and menisci in patients with mild (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 1) to moderate (KL3) osteoarthritis (OA) at 3T. Materials and methods 26 subjects with a clinical diagnosis of KL1-3 OA were included and subdivided into three subgroups: varus, valgus, and neutral. All subjects were evaluated on a 3T MR scanner. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were performed to determine any statistically significant differences in subregional T1rho values of femorotibial cartilage and menisci among the three subgroups of KL1-3 OA patients. Results Medial femoral anterior cartilage subregion in varus group had significantly higher (p < 0.05) T1rho values than all cartilage subregions in valgus group. Medial tibial central cartilage subregion had significantly higher T1rho values (p < 0.05) than lateral tibial central cartilage subregion in varus group. The posterior horn of the medial meniscus in neutral group had significantly higher T1rho values (p < 0.0029) than all meniscus subregions in valgus group. Conclusion There exists some degree of association between knee alignment and subregional T1rho values of femorotibial cartilage and menisci in patients with clinical OA. PMID:23769189

  5. Clinical significance of tear menisci in dry eye.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianhua; Shen, Meixiao; Wang, Jianhua; Ma, Huixiang; Tao, Aizhu; Xu, Suzhong; Lu, Fan

    2012-05-01

    To determine the relationships among tear menisci variables and clinical tests used in the diagnosis of dry eye patients. Dry eye patients (n=50; age, 35.2 years) and healthy subjects (n=48; age, 33.3 years) were recruited. Upper and lower tear menisci were imaged noninvasively by optical coherence tomography (OCT) immediately after normal and delayed blinking in both eyes. Tear meniscus heights, areas, and radius of curvatures were obtained by custom software. Tear film break-up time was measured by fluorescein (fluorescein film tear break-up time, FTBUT) and tearscope (noninvasive tear film break-up time), ocular surface vital staining was evaluated with fluorescein (FS), and secretion was measured by Schirmer I test without and with anesthesia. In dry eye patients, all lower tear meniscus variables during normal blinking were correlated with all clinical tests except Schirmer I test without anesthesia. Upper tear meniscus variables were correlated with FTBUT and Schirmer I test with anesthesia. During delayed blinking, upper and lower tear menisci variables were correlated with Schirmer I test without anesthesia and FS; however, there were no correlations between menisci variables and FTBUT or Schirmer I test with anesthesia. In healthy subjects, only lower meniscus variables were correlated with Schirmer I test with anesthesia during normal blinking. During delayed blinking, the lower meniscus variables were correlated with only the Schirmer I test without anesthesia. Lower tear menisci were correlated more strongly with the clinical tests than were upper menisci. The tear menisci were associated with the basic tear secretion during normal blinking. Delayed blinking may affect reflex tearing levels.

  6. MRI evaluation of the knee in children with infantile Blount disease: tibial and extra-tibial findings.

    PubMed

    Ho-Fung, Victor; Jaimes, Camilo; Delgado, Jorge; Delgado, Joege; Davidson, Richard S; Jaramillo, Diego

    2013-10-01

    Infantile Blount disease is a developmental condition characterized by disorganized endochondral ossification in the medial aspect of the proximal tibial physis. To describe the MR imaging abnormalities in the proximal tibia, distal femur, menisci and ligaments of children with infantile Blount disease. We retrospectively evaluated 11 children (18 total knee MR examinations) with infantile Blount disease and compared them with an age-matched control group with normal MR examinations. Morphological and morphometric measurements were performed. The medial menisci were enlarged with increased T2 signal intensity in all MR examinations. The medial femoral epiphyseal cartilage showed abnormal foci of increased signal intensity in nine (50%). The mid-coronal thickness of the medial tibial epiphyseal cartilage was decreased with concomitant increase in the mid-coronal joint space distance. Angular measurements of the proximal tibia demonstrated posteromedial down-sloping configuration. Most severe abnormalities of infantile Blount disease occur in the medial compartment of the knee, especially at the medial tibial physis and epiphysis. However, other important structures of the knee and the lateral compartment are often affected. MR imaging helps to delineate the extent of multiple tibial and extra-tibial abnormalities, including meniscal abnormalities, perichondrial membrane changes and premature physeal closure.

  7. Histological characteristics of knee menisci in patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Dalton; Tilton, Emily; Dominick, Kathryn; Flory, Kale; Ernest, Taylor; Johnson, Jane C; Main, Donet C; Kondrashov, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Existing data indicate knee menisci in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) show tearing, maceration, and fragmentation, but little is known about the change in histological structure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in the menisci histological structure in patients with clinically diagnosed knee OA. Fourteen patients undergoing surgical treatment of knee OA (OA group) and 14 cadaveric knees (control group) were assessed. Demographic data, medical history, synovial fluid, OA severity, medial meniscus (MM) tissue, and lateral meniscus (LM) tissue were collected from the OA group. Three nonconsecutive 10 μm cross-sectional tissue slices of menisci were analyzed for percentage of tissue calcification. Exact Mann-Whitney tests and Spearman correlation coefficients tested for relationships between variables. The major change in the histological structure of the menisci in patients with OA was calcification of the matrix, which was significantly greater in the OA group compared with the control group for MM (OA: 11.9%, cadaver: 5.17%; P < 0.001) and LM tissues (OA: 11.1%, cadaver: 4.2%; P < 0.001). A correlation between percent calcification of the MM and LM tissues existed in the OA group (ρ = 0.56, P = 0.04) but not the control group (P = 0.20). The most pronounced pathological change in the histology of menisci was calcification of the cartilage matrix, significantly greater in the OA group than the control group. A strong correlation between percent calcification of MM and LM tissues in patients with OA indicates changes in fibrocartilage matrix of menisci progress similarly in the medial and lateral compartments of the knee. Clin. Anat. 30:805-810, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The menisci of the knee joint. Anatomical and functional characteristics, and a rationale for clinical treatment

    PubMed Central

    MESSNER, KAROLA; GAO, JIZONG

    1998-01-01

    The menisci and their insertions into bone (entheses) represent a functional unit. Thanks to their firm entheses, the menisci are able to distribute loads and therefore reduce the stresses on the tibia, a function which is regarded essential for cartilage protection and prevention of osteoarthrosis. The tissue of the hypocellular meniscal body consists mainly of water and a dense elaborate type I collagen network with a predominantly circumferential alignment. The content of different collagens, proteoglycans and nonproteoglycan proteins shows significant regional variations probably reflecting functional adaptation. The meniscal horns are attached via meniscal insertional ligaments mainly to tibial bone. At the enthesis, the fibres of the insertional ligaments attach to bone via uncalcified and calcified fibrocartilages. This anatomical configuration of gradual transition from soft to hard tissue, which is identical to other ligament entheses, is certainly essential for normal mechanical function and probably protects this vulnerable transition between 2 biomechanically different tissues from failure. Clinical treatment of meniscal tears needs to be based on these special anatomical and functional characteristics. Partial meniscectomy will preserve some of the load distribution function of the meniscus only when the meniscal body enthesis entity is preserved. Repair of peripheral longitudinal tears will heal and probably preserve the load distribution function of the meniscus, whereas radial tears through the whole meniscal periphery or more central and complex tears may be induced to heal, but probably do not preserve the load distribution function. There is no proof that replacement of the meniscus with an allograft can reestablish some of the important meniscal functions, and thereby prevent or reduce the development of osteoarthrosis which is common after meniscectomy. After implantation, major problems are the remodelling of the graft to inferior structural

  9. Comparison of Kinematics and Tibiofemoral Contact Pressures for Native and Transplanted Lateral Menisci

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, Patrick C.; Dolce, Donald; Jones, Hugh L.; Gale, Andrea; Hogen, Michael G.; Alder, Jason; Palmer, Jeremiah E.; Noble, Philip C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lateral meniscus transplantation is a proven treatment option for the meniscus-deficient knee, yet little is known about meniscal kinematics, strain, and tibiofemoral contact pressure changes after transplantation or the effect of altered root position in lateral meniscus transplantation. Purpose: To compare the native lateral meniscal kinematics, strain, and tibiofemoral contact pressures to a best-case scenario meniscus transplant with perfectly matched size and position and to determine how sensitive these factors are to subtle changes in shape and position by using a nonanatomic meniscus transplant position. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: The lateral menisci of 8 cadaveric knees were circumferentially implanted with radiopaque spherical markers. They were mounted to a testing apparatus applying muscle and ground-reaction forces. The meniscus was evaluated at 0°, 30°, 90°, and 115° of knee flexion using Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA), with a pressure sensor affixed to the lateral tibial plateau. Measurements were recorded for 3 states: the native lateral meniscus, an anatomic autograft transplant, and a nonanatomic autograft transplant with an anteriorized posterior root position. Results: After transplantation, there was less posterior displacement in both the anatomic and nonanatomic transplant states compared with the native meniscus, but this was not significant. The largest lateral translation in the native state was 2.38 ± 1.58 mm at the anterolateral region from 0° to 90°, which was increased to 3.28 ± 1.39 mm (P = .25) and 3.12 ± 1.18 mm (P = .30) in the anatomic and nonanatomic transplant states, respectively. Internal deformations of the transplant states were more constrained, suggesting less compliance. The native meniscus distributed load over 223 mm2, while both the anatomic (160 mm2) and nonanatomic (102 mm2) states concentrated pressure anteriorly to the tibial plateau centroid. Conclusion

  10. Assessment of tibial rotation and meniscal movement using kinematic magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective This work aimed to assess tibial rotations, meniscal movements, and morphological changes during knee flexion and extension using kinematic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Thirty volunteers with healthy knees were examined using kinematic MRI. The knees were imaged in the transverse plane with flexion and extension angles from 0° to 40° and 40° to 0°, respectively. The tibial interior and exterior rotation angles were measured, and the meniscal movement range, height change, and side movements were detected. Results The tibia rotated internally (11.55° ± 3.20°) during knee flexion and rotated externally (11.40° ± 3.0°) during knee extension. No significant differences were observed between the internal and external tibial rotation angles (P > 0.05), between males and females (P > 0.05), or between the left and right knee joints (P > 0.05). The tibial rotation angle with a flexion angle of 0° to 24° differed significantly from that with a flexion angle of 24° to 40° (P < 0.01). With knee flexion, the medial and lateral menisci moved backward and the height of the meniscus increased. The movement range was greater in the anterior horn than in the posterior horn and greater in the lateral meniscus than in the medial meniscus (P < 0.01). During backward movements of the menisci, the distance between the anterior and posterior horns decreased, with the decrease more apparent in the lateral meniscus (P < 0.01). The side movements of the medial and lateral menisci were not obvious, and a smaller movement range was found than that of the forward and backward movements. Conclusion Knee flexion and extension facilitated internal and external tibial rotations, which may be related to the ligament and joint capsule structure and femoral condyle geometry. PMID:25142267

  11. Interfacial phenomena and microscale transport processes in evaporating ultrathin menisci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchamgam, Sashidhar S.

    The study of interfacial phenomena in the three-phase contact line region, where a liquid-vapor interface intersects a solid surface, is of importance to many equilibrium and non-equilibrium processes. However, lack of experimental data on microscale transport processes controlled by interfacial phenomena has restricted progress. This thesis includes a high resolution image analyzing technique, based on reflectivity measurements, that accurately measures the thickness, contact angle and curvature profiles of ultrathin films, drops and curved menisci. In particular, the technique was used to emphasize measurements for thicknesses, delta < 100 nm, while studying delta < 2.5 mum. Using the "reflectivity technique", we studied fluid flow and heat transfer in a wickless, miniature heat pipe, a device which will be a very effective passive heat exchanger in a microgravity environment. The heat pipe is based on the Vertical Constrained Vapor Bubble (VCVB) concept. The broad objective was to increase the efficiency of the miniature heat pipe by enhancing the liquid flow towards the hotter region. This was achieved by understanding and manipulating the wetting and spreading characteristics of the liquid on the solid surface. By using a binary mixture (98% pentane and 2% octane by volume) instead of either pure pentane or octane, we were able to achieve a significant increase in the microscale phase change heat transfer. The experimental work was supported by numerical studies to understand the physics of the system at microscopic scale. In addition, using the reflectivity technique, we enhanced our understanding of interfacial phenomena in the contact line region. Experiments included flow instabilities in HFE-7000 meniscus on quartz (System S1), the spreading of a pentane (System S2 and S3), octane (System S4) and binary mixture menisci (System S5) during evaporation. The main objectives of the work are to present a new experimental technique, new observations, new data

  12. EXPRESSION OF COLLAGEN TYPE I IN UNALTERED AND OSTEOARTHRITIC MENISCI OF KNEE JOINT.

    PubMed

    Sladojević, Igor; Krivokuća, Zdenka; Gajanin, Vesna; Manojlović, Slavko

    2016-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a progressive degenerative disease which affects meniscal tissue. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in collagen type I expression in macroscopically unaltered and osteoarthritic menisci, and correlate the expression with the grade of macroscopic damage, age and body mass index of patients, preoperative condition of anterior cruciate ligament, angulation and knee contracture. The control group consisted of 10 macroscopically unaltered menisci, while the experimental group had 35 osteoarthritic menisci. Besides macroscopic grading of meniscal damage, the analysis of collagen type I expression was determined by immunohistochemical staining with the corresponding antibody using semiquantitative scale scores and quantitative parameters: intensity of expression and stained area size. The results of semiquantitative evaluation showed a statistically significant decrease in collagen type I expression in osteoarthritic menisci, which correlated with an increase in macroscopic damage grade. The results of quantitative evaluation did not show a statistically significant decrease in the expression. In posterior meniscal horns, a more intense collagen type I expression was seen in the women, as well as a positive correlation of quantitatively evaluated expression with body mass index. Collagen type I expression in the anterior horns was significantly lower in varus alignment. In the semiquantitative evaluation, collagen type I expression in osteoarthritic menisci was significantly lower compared to macroscopically unchanged menisci. The decrease in the expression level correlates with the increase in the grade of macroscopic meniscal damage. There was no statistically significant difference in the quantitative evaluation of expression.

  13. Mechanics of the passive knee joint. Part 1: The role of the tibial articular surfaces in guiding the passive motion.

    PubMed

    Amiri, S; Cooke, D; Kim, I Y; Wyss, U

    2006-11-01

    The motion of the unloaded knee is associated with tibial internal rotation and femoral posterior translation. Although it is known that the passive motion is the result of the interaction between the articular surfaces and the ligaments, the mechanism through which the particular pattern of motion is guided is not completely understood. The goal of this study was to focus on the tibial geometry and to identify the roles that its geometric features have in guiding the passive knee motion. The method used in this study simplified the geometry of the tibial plateaux and the menisci into basic features that could be eliminated individually. The generated tibial geometry was implemented in a computer model to simulate the passive motion. Different parts of the geometry were eliminated individually and the comparison between the simulation results was used to identify the role that each part of the geometry had in guiding the passive motion. The medial meniscus was found as the feature that promoted the tibial internal rotation and restrained the femoral posterior translation. The lateral meniscus and the medial aspect of the tibial eminence, on the other hand, were found as the elements that confined the tibial internal rotation.

  14. Effect of tibial tuberosity advancement on femorotibial contact mechanics and stifle kinematics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Stanley E; Pozzi, Antonio; Banks, Scott A; Conrad, Bryan P; Lewis, Daniel D

    2009-01-01

    Objective- To evaluate the effects of tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) on femorotibial contact mechanics and 3-dimensional kinematics in cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifles of dogs. Study Design- In vitro biomechanical study. Animals- Unpaired pelvic limbs from 8 dogs, weighing 28-35 kg. Methods- Digital pressure sensors placed subjacent to the menisci were used to measure femorotibial contact force, contact area, peak and mean contact pressure, and peak pressure location with the limb under an axial load of 30% body weight and a stifle angle of 135 degrees . Three-dimensional static poses of the stifle were obtained using a Microscribe digitizing arm. Each specimen was tested under normal, CrCL-deficient, and TTA-treated conditions. Repeated measures analysis of variance with a Tukey post hoc test (P<.05) was used for statistical comparison. Results- Significant disturbances to all measured contact mechanic parameters were evident after CrCL transection, which corresponded to marked cranial tibial subluxation and internal tibial rotation in the CrCL-deficient stifle. No significant differences in any contact mechanic and kinematic parameters were detected between normal and TTA-treated stifles. Conclusion- TTA eliminates craniocaudal stifle instability during simulated weight-bearing and concurrently restores femorotibial contact mechanics to normal. Clinical Relevance- TTA may mitigate the progression of stifle osteoarthritis in dogs afflicted with CrCL insufficiency by eliminating cranial tibial thrust while preserving the normal orientation of the proximal tibial articulating surface.

  15. Risk factors for lesions of the knee menisci among workers in South Korea's national parks.

    PubMed

    Shin, Donghee; Youn, Kanwoo; Lee, Eunja; Lee, Myeongjun; Chung, Hweemin; Kim, Deokweon

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of the menisci lesions in national park workers and work factors affecting this prevalence. The study subjects were 698 workers who worked in 20 Korean national parks in 2014. An orthopedist visited each national park and performed physical examinations. Knee MRI was performed if the McMurray test or Apley test was positive and there was a complaint of pain in knee area. An orthopedist and a radiologist respectively read these images of the menisci using a grading system based on the MRI signals. To calculate the cumulative intensity of trekking of the workers, the mean trail distance, the difficulty of the trail, the tenure at each national parks, and the number of treks per month for each worker from the start of work until the present were investigated. Chi-square tests was performed to see if there were differences in the menisci lesions grade according to the variables. The variables used in the Chi-square test were evaluated using simple logistic regression analysis to get crude odds ratios, and adjusted odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated using multivariate logistic regression analysis after establishing three different models according to the adjusted variables. According to the MRI signal grades of menisci, 29 % were grade 0, 11.3 % were grade 1, 46.0 % were grade 2, and 13.7 % were grade 3. The differences in the MRI signal grades of menisci according to age and the intensity of trekking as calculated by the three different methods were statistically significant. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed for three models. In model 1, there was no statistically significant factor affecting the menisci lesions. In model 2, among the factors affecting the menisci lesions, the OR of a high cumulative intensity of trekking was 4.08 (95 % CI 1.00-16.61), and in model 3, the OR of a high cumulative intensity of trekking was 5.84 (95 % CI 1.09-31.26). The factor that most

  16. Mapping surface tension induced menisci with application to tensiometry and refractometry.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Avanish; Kulkarni, Varun; Khor, Jian-Wei; Wereley, Steve

    2015-07-28

    In this work, we discuss an optical method for measuring surface tension induced menisci. The principle of measurement is based upon the change in the background pattern produced by the curvature of the meniscus acting as a lens. We measure the meniscus profile over an inclined glass plate and utilize the measured meniscus for estimation of surface tension and refractive index.

  17. The effect of tibial slope in acute ACL-insufficient patients on concurrent meniscal tears.

    PubMed

    Markl, Isabelle; Zantop, Thore; Zeman, Florian; Seitz, Johannes; Angele, Peter

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the medial and lateral posterior tibial slope (MPTS, LPTS) in patients with acutely ruptured ACL on the menisci. It was hypothesized that medial and lateral meniscus lesions are seen more often with high PTS (posterior tibial slope). We hypothesized that in case of a high tibial slope a possible meniscus lesion is more often located in the posterior horn of the meniscus than in knees with a low tibial slope. We identified 537 patients with ACL insufficiency between 2012 and 2013. Of these, 71 patients were eligible for the study according to the study's criteria. PTS was measured via MRI and classified into two groups: >10° for high tibial slope and ≤10° for low tibial slope. Any meniscal lesion was documented during arthroscopic ACL reconstruction and evaluated regarding meniscal lesion patterns with high and low PTS, taking into account the type and the location of the tear (anterior horn, intermediate part and posterior horn). Statistical analysis for differences in meniscal lesion was performed using Chi-square tests and McNemar tests for dependent variables. The level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. High PTS (MPTS and LPTS) was associated with a higher incidence of meniscal lesions with an odds ratio of 2.11, respectively, 3.44; however, no statistical significance was found. Among the total number of ACL-insufficient knees studied, the meniscal lesion spread more often to the posterior part in the group with a low PTS. In contrast, less damage of the posterior horn of the meniscus could be found in the group with a high PTS. High PTS seems to predetermine for meniscal lesion in an acute ACL-insufficient knee. More damage to the posterior part of the menisci could generally be seen but was not associated with a high PTS. There was no statistical significance to support the initial hypothesis. Further research is needed to find out if factors other than tibial slope are risk factors for meniscal

  18. Soft tissue injury of the knee after tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Stannard, James P; Lopez, Robert; Volgas, David

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the pattern of ligament and meniscal injuries that occur during high-energy tibial plateau fractures. One hundred three patients with fractures due to high-energy mechanisms were evaluated with knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All studies were read by a single musculoskeletal radiologist who was blinded to surgical and physical exam findings. Pertinent demographic information was obtained. There were 66 patients with AO/OTA type 41C fractures and 37 patients with AO/OTA type 41B fractures. Seventy-three (71%) patients tore at least one major ligament group, and 55 (53%) patients tore multiple ligaments. There were 53 torn ligaments in AO/OTA type 41C fractures (80%) compared with 20 torn ligaments in AO/OTA type 41B fractures (54%) (p < 0.001, Fisher's exact test). Using Schatzker's classification, we found the following correlation: type I, 13 fractures with 6 ligaments (46%); type II, 11 fractures with 5 ligaments (45%); type IV, 13 fractures with 9 ligaments (69%); type V, 13 fractures with 11 ligaments (85%); and type VI, 53 fractures with 42 ligaments (79%). A significant difference exists between the groups regarding the incidence of ligament injuries (p < 0.05) and also regarding high-energy (type IV, V, VI) versus low-energy (type I, II, III) fracture patterns. The incidence of knee dislocation was 32% for AO/OTA type 41B fractures and 23% for AO/OTA type 41C fractures. Knee dislocations (dislocated on presentation, bicruciate injury, or at least three ligament groups torn with a dislocatable knee) were most common in Schatzker type IV fractures (46%). Fifty patients sustained meniscus tears (49%), with 25 medial menisci and 35 lateral menisci injuries. Tibial plateau fractures frequently have important soft tissue injuries that are difficult to diagnose on physical examination. High-energy fracture patterns (AO/OTA type 41C or Schatzker type IV, V, VI) clearly have a significantly higher incidence of ligament

  19. Scintigraphy of posterior tibial tendinitis.

    PubMed

    Groshar, D; Liberson, A; Alperson, M; Mendes, D G; Rozenbaum, M; Rosner, I

    1997-02-01

    Our goal was to describe the typical scintigraphic pattern of posterior tibial tendinitis. Bone scintigraphs were reviewed to study the scintigraphic characteristics of posterior tibial tendinitis in nine patients with posterior tibial tendinitis related to generalized rheumatic disease and in eight patients with isolated posterior tibial tendinitis. The scintigraphic pattern of posterior tibial tendinitis is elongated increased uptake in the blood flow and blood-pool phase along the anatomical course of the tibialis posterior tendon at the medial aspect of the ankle (malleolus region). Static images demonstrate increased focal abnormal uptake at the medial malleolus and in the navicular bone. Bone scintigraphy depicts a characteristic pattern of posterior tibial tendinitis. It is useful for the early diagnosis of idiopathic- or rheumatic-related posterior tibial tendinitis.

  20. The prevalence of knee injuries ipsilateral to tibial shaft fractures and their impact on clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Guler, Ferhat; Kose, Ozkan; Erol, Bekir; Turan, Adil; Koroglu, Mert; Akalin, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the prevalence of occult knee injuries in patients with ipsilateral tibial shaft fractures and determine their impact on clinical outcome. Preoperative knee MRI examination was performed in 41 patients (42 knees) with isolated tibial shaft fractures. Menisci, cruciate ligaments, collateral ligaments, extensor mechanism, osteochondral lesions, bone contusions and knee effusion were evaluated. All patients were treated with reamed and locked intra-medullary tibial nailing without an additional surgical procedure for knee injuries. All patients were followed to at least fracture union and were evaluated with knee examination and Lysholm knee score. Of the 42 knees, 41 (97.6 %) showed at least one defined injury around the knee. There was only one patient who had totally normal knee MRI findings. One or more ligamentous injuries of the knee were identified in 35 (83.3 %) of the knees. Five patents (11.9 %) had medial meniscal tear in posterior horn. Extensor mechanism injuries were seen in two patients. Mild to marked joint effusion was observed in 35 (81 %) knees. Twenty-two knees demonstrated bone bruise; femoral condyle (n = 7), tibial plateau (n = 12), patella (n = 2) and fibular head (n = 1). No patients had osteochondral lesion. Patients were followed with a mean of 13.2 ± 3.6 (range 8-22) months. Clinical knee examination revealed Grade II (+) anterior drawer test in two patients. The mean Lysholm knee score was 99.1 ± 2.14 (range 91-100) at the final follow-up. Ipsilateral intra-articular, extra-articular or combined knee injuries may occur at the time of injury with tibial shaft fractures. However, most of these injuries are not clinically relevant and heal without any sequel or remain asymptomatic late after fracture union. Routine use of preoperative knee MRI examination in patients with tibial shaft fractures is not necessary.

  1. Asymptotic formulae for flow in superhydrophobic channels with longitudinal ridges and protruding menisci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, Toby L.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents new analytical formulae for flow in a channel with one or both walls patterned with a longitudinal array of ridges and arbitrarily protruding menisci. Derived from a matched asymptotic expansion, they extend results by Crowdy (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 791, 2016, R7) for shear flow, and thus make no restriction on the protrusion into or out of the liquid. The slip length formula is compared against full numerical solutions and, despite the assumption of small ridge period in its derivation, is found to have a very large range of validity; relative errors are small even for periods large enough for the protruding menisci to degrade the flow and touch the opposing wall.

  2. Slip length for transverse shear flow over a periodic array of weakly curved menisci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowdy, Darren

    2017-09-01

    By exploiting the reciprocal theorem of Stokes flow, we find an explicit expression for the first order slip length correction, for small protrusion angles, and for transverse shear over a periodic array of curved menisci. The result is the transverse flow analogue of the longitudinal flow result of Sbragaglia and Prosperetti ["A note on the effective slip properties for microchannel flows with ultrahydrophobic surfaces," Phys. Fluids 19, 043603 (2007)]. For small protrusion angles, it also generalizes the dilute-limit result of Davis and Lauga ["Geometric transition in friction for flow over a bubble mattress," Phys. Fluids 21, 011701 (2009)] to arbitrary no-shear fractions. While the leading order slip lengths for transverse and longitudinal flow over flat no-shear slots are well-known to differ by a factor of 2, the first order slip length corrections for weakly protruding menisci in each flow are found to be identical.

  3. Indentation properties and glycosaminoglycan content of human menisci in the deep zone.

    PubMed

    Moyer, John T; Priest, Ryan; Bouman, Troy; Abraham, Adam C; Donahue, Tammy L Haut

    2013-05-01

    Menisci are two crescent shaped fibrocartilaginous structures that provide fundamental load distribution and support within the knee joint. Their unique shape transmits axial stresses (i.e. "body force") into hoop or radial stresses. The menisci are primarily an inhomogeneous aggregate of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) supporting bulk compression and type I collagen fibrils sustaining tension. It has been shown that the superficial meniscal layers are functionally homogeneous throughout the three distinct regions (anterior, central and posterior) using a 300 μm diameter spherical indenter tip, but the deep zone of the meniscus has yet to be mechanically characterized at this scale. Furthermore, the distribution and content of GAG throughout the human meniscal cross-section have not been examined. This study investigated the mechanical properties, via indentation, of the human deep zone meniscus among three regions of the lateral and medial menisci. The distribution of GAGs through the cross-section was also documented. Results for the deep zone of the meniscus showed the medial posterior region to have a significantly greater instantaneous elastic modulus than the central region. No significant differences in the equilibrium modulus were seen when comparing regions or the hemijoint. Histological results revealed that GAGs are not present until at least ~600 μm from the meniscal surface. Understanding the role and distribution of GAG within the human meniscus in conjunction with the material properties of the meniscus will aid in the design of tissue engineered meniscal replacements. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of different temperatures and periods of preservation in menisci cellularity in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Reckers, Leandro José; Fagundes, Djalma José; Cohen, Moisés; Raymundo, José Luiz Pozzo; Moreira, Márcia Bento; Paiva, Vanessa Carla

    2005-01-01

    Quantify the progressive decrease of the cellular viability of rabbit meniscus preserved for transplants over a 30 day period at different freezing temperatures. 180 menisci were removed from 45 rabbits. Menisci were frozen from 2 to 30 days at -7.2 degrees Celsius -21.4 degrees Celsius and -73 degrees Celsius. Four menisci from each temperature were thawed every two days and the number of present cells was quantified. On the 14th freezing day at -7.2 degrees Celsius, there were 92.38% mean viable cells. However, as from the 16th day, there has been a significant 12% decrease (p = 0.001), as compared to 14th day mean. Mean cell viability at -21.4 degrees Celsius and -73 degrees Celsius, until the 16th day was statistically similar. As from the 18th day at -21.4 degrees Celsius, there has been significant cell count decrease (p < 0.001), especially from the 28th (54.5%) to the 30th (30%) freezing day. The number of viable cells at -73 degrees Celsius has shown insignificant 2.3% decrease (p = 1.000) from the 28th (40.2%) to the 30th (37.9%) day. The amount of viable meniscus cells is similar up to the 14th day of preservation, under any of the used temperatures. However, from the 14th day to the 30th day, the amount of viable cells is smaller in lower temperatures.

  5. [Tibial torsion deformities].

    PubMed

    Lampert, C; Thomann, B; Brunner, R

    2000-09-01

    Tibial torsion defects are usually not clinically evident and, hence, are often overlooked. Clinical examination and CT scan have proved to be the best ways of measuring static tibial torsion, whereas dynamic measurements are usually performed in the clinic and the "gait laboratory." Only few studies have determined there to be a connection between a torsion defect in the lower leg and expected pathological conditions of the knee and ankle joints. However, patellofemoral instability, Osgood-Schlatter disease, osteochondrosis dissecans are increasingly being found in cases of increased external tibial torsion and arthrosis in reduced torsion. Although spontaneous correction may occur in certain cases, in others the only way to correct the condition is by employing physiologic torsion. Conservative treatment methods such as bandages or orthosis have been shown to not have any effect on torsion; thus, surgical treatment is the only successful way to correct a pathologic angle of rotation of the tibia. For this, supramalleolar osteotomy with fixation using Kirscher wires and plaster or an external fixator are the most common treatments.

  6. Pediatric Tibial Osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Stone, Brad; Street, Matthew; Leigh, Warren; Crawford, Haemish

    2016-01-01

    Osteomyelitis shows a strong predilection for the tibia in the pediatric population and is a significant source of complications. The purpose of this article is to retrospectively review a large series of pediatric patients with tibial osteomyelitis. We compare our experience with that in the literature to determine any factors that may aid diagnosis and/or improve treatment outcomes. A 10-year retrospective review was performed of clinical records of all cases of pediatric tibial osteomyelitis managed at the 2 children's orthopaedic departments in the Auckland region. The Osteomyelitis Database was used to identify all cases between 1997 and 2007, at Starship Children's Hospital, and 1998 and 2008 at Middlemore's Kids First Hospital. One hundred ninety-one patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and had a review of clinical notes and relevant investigations. The average duration of symptoms before presentation to hospital was 5.7 days. Less than 40% of patients had a recent episode of trauma. Almost 60% of patients could not bear weight on admission. Over 40% of patients had a temperature above 38°C. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was elevated in 78% and the C-reactive protein was elevated in 90% of patients. In total, 42% of blood cultures and almost 75% of tissue cultures were positive, with Staphylococcus aureus being the most commonly cultured organism. X-rays, bone scans, and magnetic resonance imaging were all used to aid the diagnosis. About 43% of patients had surgery. Treatment length was an average of 2 weeks 6 days of intravenous antibiotics followed by 3 weeks 2 days of oral treatment. Six postsurgical complications and 46 readmissions were noted: 25 for relapse, with the remainder due to social and antibiotic-associated complications. Although generally diagnosed on presentation, pediatric tibial osteomyelitis can require more sophisticated investigations and prolonged management. Treatment with intravenous and oral antibiotics and surgical

  7. Hemiepiphysiodesis for posttraumatic tibial valgus.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Peter M; Pease, Felicity

    2006-01-01

    Posttraumatic tibial valgus is a recognized complication of proximal tibial metaphyseal fractures in children. There is no consensus regarding management of this malalignment; approaches range from repeated osteotomy to therapeutic nihilism. The authors present 12 patients with an average age at fracture of 4 years 11 months, each of whom who was successfully managed by temporary hemiepiphysiodesis. An additional patient (age 33 years) is included to illustrate the potential long-term outcome of "benign neglect."Using staples or, more recently, a 2-hole plate for guided growth, we have demonstrated correction of posttraumatic tibial valgus by all criteria; including mechanical axis deviation, lateral tibial metaphyseal-diaphyseal angle, tibiofemoral angle, and tibial length. We conclude that hemiepiphysiodesis is a safe and effective method of treatment with a high degree of patient/parent satisfaction. There have been no permanent growth arrests.

  8. Effect of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy on femorotibial contact mechanics and stifle kinematics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Stanley E; Pozzi, Antonio; Banks, Scott A; Conrad, Bryan P; Lewis, Daniel D

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) on femorotibial contact mechanics and 3-dimensional (3D) kinematics in cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifles of dogs. In vitro biomechanical study. Unpaired pelvic limbs from 8 dogs, weighing 28-35 kg. Digital pressure sensors placed subjacent to the menisci were used to measure femorotibial contact force, contact area, peak and mean contact pressure, and peak pressure location with the limb under an axial load of 30% body weight and a stifle angle of 135 degrees. Three-dimensional static poses of the stifle were obtained using a Microscribe digitizing arm. Each specimen was tested under normal, CrCL-deficient, and TPLO-treated conditions. Repeated measures analysis of variance with a Tukey post hoc test (P<.05) was used for statistical comparison. Significant disturbances to all measured contact mechanical variables were evident after CrCL transection, which corresponded to marked cranial tibial subluxation and increased internal tibial rotation in the CrCL-deficient stifle. No significant differences in 3D femorotibial alignment were observed between normal and TPLO-treated stifles; however, femorotibial contact area remained significantly smaller and peak contact pressures in both medial and lateral stifle compartments were positioned more caudally on the tibial plateau, when compared with normal. Whereas TPLO eliminates craniocaudal stifle instability during simulated weight bearing, the procedure fails to concurrently restore femorotibial contact mechanics to normal. Progression of stifle osteoarthritis in dogs treated with TPLO may be partly the result of abnormal stifle contact mechanics induced by altering the orientation of the proximal tibial articulating surface.

  9. The Effect of Arch Drop on Tibial Rotation and Tibiofemoral Contact Stress in Postpartum Women.

    PubMed

    Rabe, Kaitlin; Segal, Neil A; Waheed, Saphia; Anderson, Donald D

    2018-04-26

    Women are at higher risk for knee osteoarthritis and numerous other lower limb musculoskeletal disorders. Arch drop during pregnancy and the resultant excessive pronation of the feet may alter loading patterns and contribute to the higher prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in women. To determine the effect of arch drop on tibial rotation and tibiofemoral contact stress. Interventional study with internal control SETTING: Biomechanics laboratory PARTICIPANTS: Eleven postpartum women (age 33.4 ± 5.3 years, body mass 76.1 ± 13.5 kg), who had lost arch height with pregnancy in a prior study. Subjects underwent standing computed tomography (SCT) with their knees in a 20° fixed-flexed position with and without semi-rigid arch supports to reconstitute pre-pregnancy arch height. Knee MRI was acquired at a flexion angle equivalent to that of SCT. Bone and cartilage were manually segmented on the MR images and segmented surfaces were registered to the 3D SCT image sets for the arch-supported and unsupported conditions. These models were used to measure changes in tibial rotation, as well as to estimate contact stress in the medial and lateral tibiofemoral compartments, using computational methods. Change in tibial rotation and tibiofemoral contact stress with arch drop RESULTS: Arch drop resulted in a mean tibial internal rotation of 0.75±1.33° (p<0.05). Changes in mean or peak contact stress were not detected. Arch drop causes internal tibial rotation, resulting in a shift in the tibiofemoral articulation. An associated increase in contact stress was not detected. Internal rotation of the tibia increases stress on the anterior cruciate ligament and menisci, potentially explaining the higher prevalence of knee disorders in postpartum women. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Morphological Anatomy of the Menisci of the Knee Joint in Human Fetuses.

    PubMed

    Koyuncu, Esra; Özgüner, Gülnur; Öztürk, Kenan; Bilkay, Cemil; Dursun, Ahmet; Sulak, Osman

    2017-12-01

    Development of the foetal period of the meniscus has been reported in different studies. Evaluation of lateral and medial meniscus development, typing and the relationship of the tibia during the foetal period. Anatomical dissection. We evaluated 210 knee menisci obtained from 105 human foetuses ranging in age from 9 to 40 weeks' gestation. Foetuses were divided into four groups, and the intra-articular structure was exposed. We subsequently acquired images (Samsung WB 100 26X Optical Zoom Wide, Beijing, China) of the intra-articular structures with the aid of a millimetric ruler. The images were digitized for morphometric analyses and analysed by using Netcad 5.1 Software (Ak Mühendislik, Ankara, Turkey). The lateral and medial meniscal areas as well as the lateral and the medial articular surface areas of the tibia increased throughout gestation. We found that the medial articular surface areas were larger than the lateral articular surface areas, and the difference was statistically significant. The ratios of the mean lateral and medial meniscal areas to the lateral and medial articular surface areas, respectively, of the tibia decreased gradually from the first trimester to full term. The most common shape of the medial meniscus was crescentic (50%), and that of the lateral meniscus was C-shaped (61%). This study reveals the development of morphological changes and morphometric measurements of the menisci.

  11. Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) expression in experimentally induced osteoarthritic knee menisci: an in vivo and in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, G; Leonardi, R; Carnazza, M L; Cardile, V; Pichler, K; Weinberg, A M; Loreto, C

    2013-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a major problem in our society. The development of new treatment options for OA is limited, because the pathophysiological mechanisms are not clearly understood, especially on the molecular level. Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) is a specific protein channels for water transport; it is expressed in articular chondrocytes, human synovitis, in chondrocytes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis or OA and in chondrocyte-like cells of human intervertebral disc. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of AQP1, through immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry and Western blot, in experimentally induced OA knee menisci. AQP1 was studied in vivo in knee OA menisci from 36 rats that underwent medial or lateral meniscectomy, and in vitro on fibrochondrocytes derived from knee OA menisci rats. OA in rats was experimentally induced and tested by histomorphometric analysis. Histological results demonstrated structural alterations in OA menisci accompanied by a very strong AQP1 immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical staining. The Western blot analysis confirmed a strong expression of AQP1 in OA fibrochondrocytes cells. The results of the present research suggest that an activation of AQP1, induced by the OA process, may represent an endogenous mechanism, which can be used to control the tissue degeneration within OA articular joints. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and Characterization of Acellular Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds from Porcine Menisci for Use in Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Chen; Chen, Ray-Neng; Jhan, Hua-Jing; Liu, Der-Zen; Ho, Hsiu-O; Mao, Yong; Kohn, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Given the growing number of arthritis patients and the limitations of current treatments, there is great urgency to explore cartilage substitutes by tissue engineering. In this study, we developed a novel decellularization method for menisci to prepare acellular extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds with minimal adverse effects on the ECM. Among all the acid treatments, formic acid treatment removed most of the cellular contents and preserved the highest ECM contents in the decellularized porcine menisci. Compared with fresh porcine menisci, the content of DNA decreased to 4.10%±0.03%, and there was no significant damage to glycosaminoglycan (GAG) or collagen. Histological staining also confirmed the presence of ECM and the absence of cellularity. In addition, a highly hydrophilic scaffold with three-dimensional interconnected porous structure was fabricated from decellularized menisci tissue. Human chondrocytes showed enhanced cell proliferation and synthesis of chondrocyte ECM including type II collagen and GAG when cultured in this acellular scaffold. Moreover, the scaffold effectively supported chondrogenesis of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Finally, in vivo implantation was conducted in rats to assess the biocompatibility of the scaffolds. No significant inflammatory response was observed. The acellular ECM scaffold provided a native environment for cells with diverse physiological functions to promote cell proliferation and new tissue formation. This study reported a novel way to prepare decellularized meniscus tissue and demonstrated the potential as scaffolds to support cartilage repair. PMID:25919905

  13. Predicted Loading on the Menisci during Gait: The Effect of Horn Laxity

    PubMed Central

    Guess, Trent M.; Razu, Swithin; Jahandar, Hamidreza; Stylianou, Antonis

    2015-01-01

    Radiographic measurements have established a link between meniscus extrusion and meniscus degeneration as well as with knee osteoarthritis. The presented work combines medical imaging with motion capture data from two healthy female subjects to create subject specific knee models that predict tibio-menisco-femoral contact forces and ligament forces during muscle driven simulations of barefoot gait. The developed computational models were used to explore the relationship between the extent of meniscal extrusion and biomechanical function by altering the laxity of the meniscal horn attachments during gait. The extrusion distance increased as laxity increased and the amount of contact force transferred through the menisci during gait decreased rapidly as the meniscal attachments became more lax. Horn attachment lengths that were 20% longer than MRI attachment lengths resulted in an almost complete loss of force transfer through the menisci during the gait cycle. Relatively small changes (2 to 3 mm) in the lengths at which horn bundles first become taut, manifested in large changes in the capacity of the tissue to transmit forces. As meniscal horn attachment laxity increased from 80% to 120% of the MRI measured horn distance, medial meniscus extrusion increased 3.9 mm for the first subject and 2.7 mm for the second subject. For the same horn laxity changes, the percent of medial tibiofemoral contact force transmitted through the medial meniscus during early stance decreased from 51% to 8% and from 36% to 14% for the two subjects. The results of our study show that increased meniscal extrusion occurs with increased laxity of the meniscal tibia attachments and this increased laxity results in loss of meniscal function. PMID:25814179

  14. Upper and lower tear menisci in Sjögren's syndrome dry eye.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Zhang, Xiaobo; Cui, Lele; Huang, Qinzhu; Chen, Wei; Ma, Huixiang; Lu, Fan

    2011-12-09

    To measure the tear menisci in Sjögren's syndrome dry eye (SSDE) by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to determine its relationships with the clinical tests. Twenty-six SSDE, 26 non-SSDE, and 26 control subjects completed the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) before OCT determination of upper tear meniscus volume (UTMV), lower tear meniscus volume (LTMV), and total tear meniscus volume (TTMV). These were followed by measurements of noninvasive tear breakup time (NITBUT), fluorescein tear breakup time (FTBUT), fluorescein staining, Schirmer test, and corneal confocal microscopy. UTMV, LTMV, and TTMV were the lowest in SSDE among the three groups (P < 0.05). High sensitivity and specificity of UTMV (1.0; 0.96), LTMV (0.92; 0.92), and TTMV (0.96; 0.96) were found in the diagnosis of SSDE. For SSDE, the areas under the UTMV, LTMV, and TTMV receiver operating characteristic curves were larger than those in NITBUT, FTBUT, and Schirmer test (P < 0.005). In the SSDE group, NITBUT was correlated with UTMV (R = 0.41) and TTMV (R = 0.39) (P < 0.05). Fluorescein staining score was significantly correlated with UTMV (R = -0.46), LTMV (R = -0.41), and TTMV (R = -0.53) (P < 0.05). Superficial epithelial cell density was correlated with UTMV (R = 0.18), LTMV (R = 0.51), and TTMV (R = 0.44) (P < 0.05). Tear menisci volumes estimated by OCT may have great potential in the diagnosis and monitoring of SSDE. They can also reflect ocular surface damage and tear film stability.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging for detection of late meniscal tears in dogs following tibial tuberosity advancement for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Brown, F; Lamb, C R; Tivers, M S; Li, A

    2014-01-01

    To document the use of and to estimate the accuracy of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for detection of late meniscal tears in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament injury treated with tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA). Medical records of dogs that had TTA followed by stifle MR imaging for suspected meniscal tear and subsequent arthrotomy were reviewed retrospectively. Magnetic resonance images were reviewed independently by an observer blinded to clinical information who classified menisci as torn, abnormal but intact, or normal. Magnetic resonance and surgical findings were compared. Eight stifles from large breed dogs were included. Six stifles had a medial meniscal tear identified in MR images and later confirmed surgically. In the remaining two stifles, the menisci appeared intact in MR images and no tear was identified at subsequent arthrotomy. Lateral menisci in all stifles appeared intact in MR images and were considered normal at surgery. Susceptibility artefacts associated with TTA implants were present in all images but did not adversely affect interpretation of intra-articular structures. Magnetic resonance imaging appears to be accurate for diagnosis of late meniscal tears. Artefacts associated with TTA implants did not prevent evaluation of critical intra-articular structures. Further investigation with MR imaging should be considered when late meniscal tear is suspected following TTA.

  16. TIBIAL SHAFT FRACTURES.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kodi Edson; Ferreira, Ramon Venzon

    2011-01-01

    The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an association with compartmental syndrome, and early diagnosis can be achieved through evaluating clinical parameters and constant clinical monitoring. Once the diagnosis has been made, fasciotomy should be performed. It is always difficult to assess consolidation, but the RUST method may help in this. Radiography is assessed in two projections, and points are scored for the presence of the fracture line and a visible bone callus. Today, the dogma of six hours for cleaning the exposed fracture is under discussion. It is considered that an early start to intravenous antibiotic therapy and the lesion severity are very important. The question of early or late closure of the lesion in an exposed fracture has gone through several phases: sometimes early closure has been indicated and sometimes late closure. Currently, whenever possible, early closure of the lesion is recommended, since this diminishes the risk of infection. Milling of the canal when the intramedullary nail is introduced is still a controversial subject. Despite strong personal positions in favor of milling, studies have shown that there may be some advantage in relation to closed fractures, but not in exposed fractures.

  17. TIBIAL SHAFT FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Kodi Edson; Ferreira, Ramon Venzon

    2015-01-01

    The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an association with compartmental syndrome, and early diagnosis can be achieved through evaluating clinical parameters and constant clinical monitoring. Once the diagnosis has been made, fasciotomy should be performed. It is always difficult to assess consolidation, but the RUST method may help in this. Radiography is assessed in two projections, and points are scored for the presence of the fracture line and a visible bone callus. Today, the dogma of six hours for cleaning the exposed fracture is under discussion. It is considered that an early start to intravenous antibiotic therapy and the lesion severity are very important. The question of early or late closure of the lesion in an exposed fracture has gone through several phases: sometimes early closure has been indicated and sometimes late closure. Currently, whenever possible, early closure of the lesion is recommended, since this diminishes the risk of infection. Milling of the canal when the intramedullary nail is introduced is still a controversial subject. Despite strong personal positions in favor of milling, studies have shown that there may be some advantage in relation to closed fractures, but not in exposed fractures. PMID:27026999

  18. Cranial tibial wedge osteotomy: a technique for eliminating cranial tibial thrust in cranial cruciate ligament repair.

    PubMed

    Slocum, B; Devine, T

    1984-03-01

    Cranial tibial wedge osteotomy, surgical technique for cranial cruciate ligament rupture, was performed on 19 stifles in dogs. This procedure leveled the tibial plateau, thus causing weight-bearing forces to be compressive and eliminating cranial tibial thrust. Without cranial tibial thrust, which was antagonistic to the cranial cruciate ligament and its surgical reconstruction, cruciate ligament repairs were allowed to heal without constant loads. This technique was meant to be used as an adjunct to other cranial cruciate ligament repair techniques.

  19. Material properties of individual menisci and their attachments obtained through inverse FE-analysis.

    PubMed

    Freutel, Maren; Galbusera, Fabio; Ignatius, Anita; Dürselen, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    Meniscal properties for computational methods have already been proposed. However, it is well known that there is high intra subject variability in the material properties of soft tissues and that disruption of the fiber network alters the biomechanics of the meniscus. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish a non invasive method to determine the material properties of the individual menisci and their attachments using inverse FE-analyses. In a previous study, the 3D displacements of the meniscus and its attachments under axial joint loads were determined for intact porcine knees. To simulate the experimental response in individual FE-analyses (n=5), an anisotropic, hyperelastic meniscus matrix was embedded in a poroelastic model. During a particle swarm optimization, the difference between the force applied to the meniscus during the experiment and the femoral surface reaction force of the FE model at equilibrium was minimized by varying four material parameters. Afterwards, a prediction error was determined to describe how well the material parameter fit to each of the three displacement directions. Additionally, the stresses occurring in the meniscus were evaluated. The error of the material parameter optimization was on average 6.5±4.4%. The best fitting material parameter combination revealed an error of 1.2%. The highest stresses occurred in the region between the pars intermedia and posterior horn of the meniscus. The individual material properties of the meniscus were successfully obtained with a combination of previously reported, noninvasively measured 3D displacements and inverse FE-analyses. The methodology presented in this study is a promising contribution to the detection of degeneration within the meniscus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tear menisci after laser in situ keratomileusis with mechanical microkeratome and femtosecond laser.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wenjia; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Jia; Liu, Jing; Yu, Ye; Hu, Liang

    2014-08-21

    To investigate the effect on tear menisci after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with flap creation by either microkeratome or femtosecond laser. Sixty eyes of 30 myopes were analyzed. Fifteen patients underwent LASIK with Moria II microkeratome, and the other 15 patients with 60-KHz IntraLase femtosecond laser. Upper and lower tear meniscus parameters of height (UTMH, LTMH) and area (UTMA, LTMA) were measured by SD-OCT preoperatively and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively. Compared with the baseline values, all tear meniscus parameters decreased significantly at each postoperative time point (all P < 0.01) in both groups. LTMH increased significantly between 1 week and 1 month and between 1 and 3 months after surgery in the microkeratome (both P < 0.01) and femtosecond laser groups (P < 0.01, P = 0.012, respectively). There were significant increases in LTMA between 1 week and 1 month after surgery in the microkeratome group (P < 0.01) and in the femtosecond laser group (P = 0.028). There were no significant differences in UTMH, UTMA, LTMH, or LTMA between two groups. The depth of ablation was negatively correlated with the LTMA at 1 week after surgery (R = -0.256, P = 0.049) for all patients. There were no significant differences in the tear meniscus parameters between the microkeratome and femtosecond laser groups. The depth of ablation was significantly correlated with the LTMA only at 1 week after surgery. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  1. Variation in the shape of the tibial insertion site of the anterior cruciate ligament: classification is required.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Daniel; Irarrázaval, Sebastian; Nishizawa, Yuichiro; Vernacchia, Cara; Thorhauer, Eric; Musahl, Volker; Irrgang, James J; Fu, Freddie H

    2017-08-01

    To propose a classification system for the shape of the tibial insertion site (TIS) of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and to demonstrate the intra- and inter-rater agreement of this system. Due to variation in shape and size, different surgical approaches may be feasible to improve reconstruction of the TIS. One hundred patients with a mean age of 26 ± 11 years were included. The ACL was cut arthroscopically at the base of the tibial insertion site. Arthroscopic images were taken from the lateral and medial portal. Images were de-identified and duplicated. Two blinded observers classified the tibial insertion site according to a classification system. The tibial insertion site was classified as type I (elliptical) in 51 knees (51 %), type II (triangular) in 33 knees (33 %) and type III (C-shaped) in 16 knees (16 %). There was good agreement between raters when viewing the insertion site from the lateral portal (κ = 0.65) as well as from the medial portal (κ = 0.66). Intra-rater reliability was good to excellent. Agreement in the description of the insertion site between the medial and lateral portals was good for rater 1 and good for rater 2 (κ = 0.74 and 0.77, respectively). There is variation in the shape of the ACL TIS. The classification system is a repeatable and reliable tool to summarize the shape of the TIS using three common patterns. For clinical relevance, different shapes may require different types of reconstruction to ensure proper footprint restoration. Consideration of the individual TIS shape is required to prevent iatrogenic damage of adjacent structures like the menisci. III.

  2. Tibial tuberosity fractures in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Frey, Steven; Hosalkar, Harish; Cameron, Danielle B; Heath, Aaron; David Horn, B; Ganley, Theodore J

    2008-12-01

    Tibial tuberosity fractures in adolescents are uncommon. We retrospectively reviewed all tibial tuberosity fractures in adolescents (10-19) who presented to our level 1 pediatric trauma center over a 7-year period to review fracture morphology, mechanism of injury, fracture management including return to play, as well as complications. Additionally, we present a review of the literature and treatment algorithm. We reviewed the clinical charts and radiographs of consecutive patients with tibial tuberosity fractures between 01 January 2000 and 01 January 2007. Data parameters included the following: patients age and gender, involved side, injury classification, co-morbidities, mechanism of injury, treatment, return to activity and complications. Data were extracted and reviewed, and a treatment algorithm is proposed with some additional insights into the epidemiology of the injury. Nineteen patients met the inclusion criteria. There were 19 patients with 20 tibial tuberosity fractures. The mean age was 13.7 years. There were 18 males and 1 female patient. There were nine left-sided injuries and eleven right-sided including one patient with bilateral fractures. Mechanism of injuries included basketball injury (8), running injury (5), football injury (3), fall from a scooter (2), high jump (1) and fall (1). Co-morbidities included three patients with concurrent Osgood-Schlatter disease and one with osteogenesis imperfecta. All were treated with ORIF, including arthroscopic-assisted techniques in two cases. Complications included four patients with pre-operative presentation of compartment syndrome all requiring fasciotomy, one post-operative stiffness and one painful hardware requiring removal. Range of motion was started an average of 4.3 weeks post-operatively and return to play was an average of 3.9 months post-operatively. Although uncommon, tibial tuberosity fractures in adolescents are clinically important injuries. Early recognition and treatment (closed or open

  3. Biomechanical Factors in Tibial Stress Fractures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    Ankle TOTAL 52 Lateral ankle sprain 44 Medial ankle sprain 2 Ankle other 6 Foot TOTAL 84 Acute...sfrain 1 Tibial sfress fracture 3 Tibial sfress syndrome 6 Tibialis posterior sfrain 2 Lower leg other 6 Ankle TOTAL 20 Lateral ankle sprain 12...Medial ankle sprain 29 Ankle other 3 Foot TOTAL 21 Metatarsal stress syndrome 2 Metatarsal

  4. A three-dimensional finite element analysis of the combined behavior of ligaments and menisci in the healthy human knee joint.

    PubMed

    Peña, E; Calvo, B; Martínez, M A; Doblaré, M

    2006-01-01

    We present here a three-dimensional FE model of the healthy human knee that included the main structures of the joint: bones, all the relevant ligaments and patellar tendon, menisci and articular cartilages. Bones were considered to be rigid, articular cartilage and menisci linearly elastic, isotropic and homogeneous and ligaments hyperelastic and transversely isotropic. Initial strains on the ligaments and patellar tendon were also considered. This model was validated using experimental and numerical results obtained by other authors. Our main goal was to analyze the combined role of menisci and ligaments in load transmission and stability of the human knee. The results obtained reproduce the complex, nonuniform stress and strain fields that occur in the biological soft tissues involved and the kinematics of the human knee joint under a physiological external load.

  5. [TIBIAL PERIOSTEAL FLAP PEDICLED WITH INTERMUSCULAR BRANCH OF POSTERIOR TIBIAL VESSELS COMBINED WITH AUTOLOGOUS BONE GRAFT FOR TIBIAL BONE DEFECT].

    PubMed

    Ni, Yulong; Gao, Shunhong; Zhang, Jingyu; Dong, Huishuang; Zhang, Yunpeng; Fu, Jiansong

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of tibial periosteal flap pedicled with intermuscular branch of posterior tibial vessels combined with autologous bone graft in the treatment of tibial bone defects. Between January 2007 and December 2013, 19 cases of traumatic tibia bone and soft tissue defects were treated. There were 14 males and 5 females, aged from 18 to 49 years (mean, 28 years). The tibial fracture site located at the middle tibia in 6 cases and at the distal tibia in 13 cases. According to Gustilo type, 4 cases were rated as type III A, 14 cases as type III B, and 1 case as type III C (injury of anterior tibial artery). The length of bone defect ranged from 4.3 to 8.5 cm (mean, 6.3 cm). The soft tissue defects ranged from 8 cm x 5 cm to 17 cm x 9 cm. The time from injury to operation was 3 to 8 hours (mean, 4 hours). One-stage operation included debridement, external fixation, and vacuum sealing drainage. After formation of granulation tissue, the fresh wound was repaired with sural neurovascular flap or posterior tibial artery perforator flap. The flap size ranged from 10 cmx6 cm to 19 cm x 11 cm. In two-stage operation, tibial periosteal flap pedicled with intermuscular branch of posterior tibial vessels combined with autologous bone graft was used to repair tibial defect. The periosteal flap ranged from 6.5 cm x 4.0 cm to 9.0 cm x 5.0 cm; bone graft ranged from 4.5 to 9.0 cm in length. External fixation was changed to internal fixation. All flaps survived with soft texture, and no ulcer and infection occurred. All incisions healed by the first intention. All patients were followed up 18-40 months (mean, between normal and affected sides.The function of the knee an ankle joint was good without infection, malunion, and equinus. According to the Johner standard at last follow-up, the results were excellent in 15 cases, good in 3 cases, and fair in 1 case, with an excellent and good rate of 94.7%. Tibial periosteal flap pedicled with intermuscular branch of

  6. Improving tibial component coronal alignment during total knee arthroplasty with use of a tibial planing device.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shantanu; D'Lima, Darryl D; Fait, James M; Colwell, Clifford W

    2007-02-01

    The outcomes of knee arthroplasty have been shown to be affected by component alignment. Intramedullary and extramedullary alignment instrumentation are fairly effective for achieving the desired mean tibial component coronal alignment. However, there are outliers representing >3 degrees of varus or valgus alignment with respect to the anatomic tibial shaft axis. We measured the efficacy of a custom tibial planing device for reducing the outliers in tibial alignment. We designed a tibial planing tool in an effort to improve tibial alignment. In one cohort (100 knees), we used traditional intramedullary alignment instrumentation to make the tibial bone cut. In a second cohort (120 knees), we used intramedullary alignment instrumentation to make the cut and also used a custom tool to check the cut and to correct an inexact cut. Tibial tray alignment relative to the long axis of the tibial shaft was measured in the coronal and sagittal planes on postoperative radiographs. The target coronal alignment was 90 degrees with respect to the tibial shaft axis (with <90 degrees denoting varus alignment). A total of 100 anteroposterior radiographs and sixty-five lateral radiographs were analyzed for the group that was treated with traditional instrumentation alone, and a total of 120 anteroposterior radiographs and fifty-five lateral radiographs were analyzed for the group that was treated with use of the custom tibial planing device. The mean coronal alignment of the tibial component was 89.5 degrees +/- 2.1 degrees in the group that was treated with traditional instrumentation alone and 89.6 degrees +/- 1.4 degrees in the group that was treated with use of the custom planing device. Although the mean coronal alignment was not significantly different, the number of outliers was substantially reduced when the custom planing device was used. All 120 components that had been aligned with use of the custom planing device were within 3 degrees of the target coronal alignment

  7. Application of cell and biomaterial-based tissue engineering methods in the treatment of cartilage, menisci and ligament injuries.

    PubMed

    Trzeciak, Tomasz; Richter, Magdalena; Suchorska, Wiktoria; Augustyniak, Ewelina; Lach, Michał; Kaczmarek, Małgorzata; Kaczmarczyk, Jacek

    2016-03-01

    Over 20 years ago it was realized that the traditional methods of the treatment of injuries to joint components: cartilage, menisci and ligaments, did not give satisfactory results and so there is a need of employing novel, more effective therapeutic techniques. Recent advances in molecular biology, biotechnology and polymer science have led to both the experimental and clinical application of various cell types, adapting their culture conditions in order to ensure a directed differentiation of the cells into a desired cell type, and employing non-toxic and non-immunogenic biomaterial in the treatment of knee joint injuries. In the present review the current state of knowledge regarding novel cell sources, in vitro conditions of cell culture and major important biomaterials, both natural and synthetic, used in cartilage, meniscus and ligament repair by tissue engineering techniques are described, and the assets and drawbacks of their clinical application are critically evaluated.

  8. Injury to the anterior tibial system during percutaneous plating of a proximal tibial fracture.

    PubMed

    Gary, Joshua L; Sciadini, Marcus F

    2012-07-01

    Minimally invasive osteosynthesis of proximal tibial fractures has grown in popularity in recent years. This article describes a patient with a Schatzker type VI proximal tibial fracture (AO/OTA type 41.C3) and previous compartment syndrome treated with definitive fixation 8 weeks after initial injury with a precontoured proximal tibial plate and a distal targeting device. Brisk bleeding occurred during percutaneous insertion of a cortical screw at the midshaft of the tibia. Surgical exploration revealed sidewall tearing of the anterior tibial artery and vein, which were clipped at the screw insertion site. After the bleeding was controlled, the patient had a strong palpable posterior tibial pulse with no palpable dorsalis pedis pulse, and the foot remained well perfused. Function of the deep peroneal nerve was normal postoperatively. Previous concerns regarding the percutaneous treatment of proximal tibial fractures have focused on the risks of damage to the superficial peroneal nerve from distal screws. Based on cadaveric studies, percutaneously and laterally based screw placement in the distal tibial metaphysis threatens injury to the anterior tibial system. However, with alterations to the normal anatomy caused by severe trauma, previously described safe zones may be changed and neurovascular structures may be exposed to risk in locations that were previously thought safe. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. The effect of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy position on cranial tibial subluxation: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kowaleski, Michael P; Apelt, Detlef; Mattoon, John S; Litsky, Alan S

    2005-01-01

    To compare centered versus distal tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) position on cranial tibial subluxation, postoperative tibial plateau angle (TPA), and tibial long axis shift (TLAS). In vitro biomechanical evaluation. Six pairs of canine cadaveric hind limbs. One limb of each pair was randomly assigned to the distal (TPLO-D) or centered (TPLO-C) osteotomy group. Cranial tibial subluxation (CTS) under load was quantified sequentially under 3 conditions: intact, after cranial cruciate ligament transection, and after TPLO; a corrected CTS value was also calculated. Postoperative TPA and TLAS were measured. Comparisons were made using 1-way repeated measures ANOVA with a Tukey's multiple comparison post hoc test for CTS, and a Wilcoxon's sign rank test for TPA and TLAS. Significance was set at P<.05. TPLO-C had a significantly lower mean CTS than TPLO-D (P<.01). Corrected CTS was also significantly lower in TPLO-C than in TPLO-D (P<.001). Postoperative TPA and TLAS were less in TPLO-C than in TPLO-D (P=.0312). Our results confirm that distal centering of the TPLO leads to craniodistal translation of the tibial plateau, TLAS, and a postoperative TPA that is greater than expected. This geometric effect has the biomechanical effect expected of inadequate tibial plateau leveling, namely incomplete neutralization of cranial tibial thrust. The centered osteotomy position is geometrically more precise, and biomechanically more effective than the distal position.

  10. Anatomic single-bundle ACL surgery: consequences of tibial tunnel diameter and drill-guide angle on tibial footprint coverage.

    PubMed

    Van der Bracht, H; Verhelst, L; Stuyts, B; Page, B; Bellemans, J; Verdonk, P

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the consequences of differences in drill-guide angle and tibial tunnel diameter on the amount of tibial anatomical anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) footprint coverage and the risk of overhang of the tibial tunnel aperture over the edges of the native tibial ACL footprint. Twenty fresh-frozen adult human knee specimens with a median age of 46 years were used for this study. Digital templates mimicking the ellipsoid aperture of tibial tunnels with a different drill-guide angle and a different diameter were designed. The centres of these templates were positioned over the geometric centre of the tibial ACL footprint. The amount of tibial ACL footprint coverage and overhang was calculated. Risk factors for overhang were determined. Footprint coverage and the risk of overhang were also compared between a lateral tibial tunnel and a classic antero-medial tibial tunnel. A larger tibial tunnel diameter and a smaller drill-guide angle both will create significant more footprint coverage and overhang. In 45% of the knees, an overhang was created with a 10-mm diameter tibial tunnel with drill-guide angle 45°. Furthermore, a lateral tibial tunnel was found not to be at increased risk of overhang. A larger tibial tunnel diameter and a smaller drill-guide angle both will increase the amount of footprint coverage. Inversely, larger tibial tunnel diameters and smaller drill-guide angles will increase the risk of overhang of the tibial tunnel aperture over the edges of the native tibial ACL footprint. A lateral tibial tunnel does not increase the risk of overhang.

  11. Aligning the tibial component with medial border of the tibial tubercle--is it always right?

    PubMed

    Tao, Kun; Cai, Ming; Zhu, Yuchang; Lou, Lieming; Cai, Zhengdong

    2014-01-01

    Correct rotational alignment of the tibial component is crucial for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Several studies have indicated that the best rotational orientation of the tibial component is close to the medial border of the tibial tubercle. However, it remains obscure whether it is always right. Thus, the objective of current study was to quantify tibial rotational alignment in 120 primary rotating platform TKAs using the medial border of tibial tubercle as a landmark between July 2008 and June 2010. The femoral component was positioned parallel to the transepicondlylar axis, and a rotating platform trial insert was used to determine tibial insert rotational alignment relative to the most medial aspect of the tibial tubercle with the knee in full extension. Rotational alignment of the components was detected based on radiograph and CT scan. This investigation is based on the premise that all neutral points would lie within 10° of the mean. The mean divergence external to the medial border of the tubercle was 2.3°±3.5°. However, six of the knees (5%) had neutral points≥10° from the mean, including two valgus knees measured 10° of internal rotation and four varus knees measured 10° of external rotation. Using the medial border of tibial tubercle as a landmark does not always result in a good femoro-tibial rotational alignment. Surgeons using fixed bearings component should be aware of this effect to avoid suboptimal outcomes resulting from tibiofemoral rotational malalignment in full extension. Diagnostic study, Level II-3. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Tibial Stress Injuries: Decisive Diagnosis and Treatment of "Shin Splints."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couture, Christopher J.; Karlson, Kristine A.

    2002-01-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called shin splints, often result when bone remodeling processes adopt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who are caring for athletic patients must have a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are…

  13. Fracture of tibial tuberosity in an adult

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires e; Campos, André Siqueira; de Araújo, Gabriel Costa Serrão; Gameiro, Vinícius Schott

    2013-01-01

    The fracture of tibial tuberosity is a rare lesion and still more unusual in adults. We describe a case in an adult who suffered a left knee injury due to a fall from height. No risk factors were identified. The lesion was treated with surgical reduction and internal fixation. The rehabilitation method was successful, resulting in excellent function and rage of motion of the knee. The aim of this study was to present an unusual case of direct trauma of the tibial tuberosity in an adult and the therapy performed. PMID:24293543

  14. Regional Variation in T1ρ and T2 Times in Osteoarthritic Human Menisci: Correlation with Mechanical Properties and Matrix Composition

    PubMed Central

    Son, M.; Goodman, S. B.; Chen, W.; Hargreaves, B.A.; Gold, G.E.; Levenston, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Changes in T1ρ and T2 magnetic resonance relaxation times have been associated with articular cartilage degeneration, but similar relationships for meniscal tissue have not been extensively investigated. This work examined relationships between T1ρ and T2 measurements and biochemical and mechanical properties across regions of degenerate human menisci. Design Average T1ρ and T2 relaxation times were determined for nine regions each of seven medial and thirteen lateral menisci from fourteen total knee replacement patients. Sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG), collagen and water contents were measured for each region. Biomechanical measurements of equilibrium compressive, dynamic compressive and dynamic shear moduli were made for anterior, central and posterior regions. Results T1ρ and T2 times showed similar regional patterns, with longer relaxation times in the middle region compared to the inner and outer region. Pooled over all regions, T1ρ and T2 times showed strong correlations both with one another and with water content. Correlations with biochemical content varied depending on normalization to wet or dry mass, and both imaging parameters showed stronger correlations with collagen compared to sGAG content. Mechanical properties displayed moderate inverse correlations with increasing T1ρ and T2 times and water content. Conclusion Both T1ρ and T2 relaxation times correlated strongly with water content and moderately with mechanical properties in osteoarthritic menisci, but not as strongly with sGAG or collagen contents alone. While the ability of MRI to detect early osteoarthritic changes remains the subject of investigation, these results suggest that T1ρ and T2 relaxation times have limited ability to detect compositional variations in degenerate menisci. PMID:23499673

  15. Kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty limits high tibial forces, differences in tibial forces between compartments, and abnormal tibial contact kinematics during passive flexion.

    PubMed

    Roth, Joshua D; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2017-09-07

    Following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), high tibial forces, large differences in tibial forces between the medial and lateral compartments, and anterior translation of the contact locations of the femoral component on the tibial component during passive flexion indicate abnormal knee function. Because the goal of kinematically aligned TKA is to restore native knee function without soft tissue release, the objectives were to determine how well kinematically aligned TKA limits high tibial forces, differences in tibial forces between compartments, and anterior translation of the contact locations of the femoral component on the tibial component during passive flexion. Using cruciate retaining components, kinematically aligned TKA was performed on thirteen human cadaveric knee specimens with use of manual instruments without soft tissue release. The tibial forces and tibial contact locations were measured in both the medial and lateral compartments from 0° to 120° of passive flexion using a custom tibial force sensor. The average total tibial force (i.e. sum of medial + lateral) ranged from 5 to 116 N. The only significant average differences in tibial force between compartments occurred at 0° of flexion (29 N, p = 0.0008). The contact locations in both compartments translated posteriorly in all thirteen kinematically aligned TKAs by an average of 14 mm (p < 0.0001) and 18 mm (p < 0.0001) in the medial and lateral compartments, respectively, from 0° to 120° of flexion. After kinematically aligned TKA, average total tibial forces due to the soft tissue restraints were limited to 116 N, average differences in tibial forces between compartments were limited to 29 N, and a net posterior translation of the tibial contact locations was observed in all kinematically aligned TKAs during passive flexion from 0° to 120°, which are similar to what has been measured previously in native knees. While confirmation in vivo is warranted, these findings give

  16. Irreducible tibial pilon fracture caused by incarceration of the fibula in the tibial medullary canal.

    PubMed

    Ellanti, Prasad; Hammad, Yassir; Kosutic, Damir; Grieve, Philip P

    2012-01-01

    Fractures can be irreducible for several reasons, including soft tissue or bone fragment interposition. We report an unusual fracture configuration of a comminuted tibial pilon fracture in which the distal fibular shaft fragment was occupying the medullary canal of the proximal tibial shaft fragment and inhibiting reduction and fixation. To the best of our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in a published study. Copyright © 2012 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Anterior tibial curved cortex is a reliable landmark for tibial rotational alignment in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong Il; Jang, Jak; Lee, Ki Woong; Han, Hyuk Soo; Lee, Sahnghoon; Lee, Myung Chul

    2017-06-12

    Rotational alignment of the tibial component is important for long-term success of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This study aimed to compare five axes in normal and osteoarthritic (OA) knees to determine a reliable landmark for tibial rotational alignment in TKA. One hundred twenty patients with OA knees and 40 with normal knees were included. The angle between a line perpendicular to the surgical transepicondylar axis and each of five axes were measured on preoperative computed tomography. The five axes were as follows: a line from the center of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) to the medial border of the patellar tendon (PCL-PT), medial border of the tibial tuberosity (PCL-TT1), medial one-third of the tibial tuberosity (PCL-TT2), and apex of the tibial tuberosity (PCL-TT3), as well as the anteroposterior axis of the tibial prosthesis along the anterior tibial curved cortex (ATCC). For all five axes tested, the mean angles were smaller in OA knees than in normal knees. In normal knees, the angle of the ATCC axis had the smallest mean value and narrowest range (1.6° ± 2.8°; range, -1.7°-7.7°). In OA knees, the mean angle of the ATCC axis (0.8° ± 2.7°; range, -7.9°-9.2°) was larger than that of the PCL-TT1 axis (0.3° ± 5.5°; range, -19.7°-10.6°) (P = 0.461), while the angle of the ATCC axis had the smallest SD and narrowest range. The ATCC was found to be the most reliable and useful anatomical landmark for tibial rotational alignment in TKA.

  18. In Vivo Tibial Cartilage Strains in Regions of Cartilage-to-Cartilage Contact and Cartilage-to-Meniscus Contact in Response to Walking.

    PubMed

    Liu, Betty; Lad, Nimit K; Collins, Amber T; Ganapathy, Pramodh K; Utturkar, Gangadhar M; McNulty, Amy L; Spritzer, Charles E; Moorman, Claude T; Sutter, E Grant; Garrett, William E; DeFrate, Louis E

    2017-10-01

    There are currently limited human in vivo data characterizing the role of the meniscus in load distribution within the tibiofemoral joint. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to compare the strains experienced in regions of articular cartilage covered by the meniscus to regions of cartilage not covered by the meniscus. It was hypothesized that in response to walking, tibial cartilage covered by the meniscus would experience lower strains than uncovered tibial cartilage. Descriptive laboratory study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knees of 8 healthy volunteers was performed before and after walking on a treadmill. Using MRI-generated 3-dimensional models of the tibia, cartilage, and menisci, cartilage thickness was measured in 4 different regions based on meniscal coverage and compartment: covered medial, uncovered medial, covered lateral, and uncovered lateral. Strain was defined as the normalized change in cartilage thickness before and after activity. Within each compartment, covered cartilage before activity was significantly thinner than uncovered cartilage before activity ( P < .001). After 20 minutes of walking, all 4 regions experienced significant cartilage thickness decreases ( P < .01). The covered medial region experienced significantly less strain than the uncovered medial region ( P = .04). No difference in strain was detected between the covered and uncovered regions in the lateral compartment ( P = .40). In response to walking, cartilage that is covered by the meniscus experiences lower strains than uncovered cartilage in the medial compartment. These findings provide important baseline information on the relationship between in vivo tibial compressive strain responses and meniscal coverage, which is critical to understanding normal meniscal function.

  19. Evaluation of the WARP-turbo spin echo sequence for 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging of stifle joints in dogs with stainless steel tibial plateau leveling osteotomy implants.

    PubMed

    Simpler, Renee E; Kerwin, Sharon C; Eichelberger, Bunita M; Wall, Corey R; Thompson, James A; Padua, Abraham; Purdy, David; Griffin, John F

    2014-01-01

    Susceptibility artifacts caused by ferromagnetic implants compromise magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the canine stifle after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) procedures. The WARP-turbo spin echo sequence is being developed to mitigate artifacts and utilizes slice encoding for metal artifact reduction. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the WARP-turbo spin echo sequence for imaging post TPLO canine stifle joints. Proton density weighted images of 19 canine cadaver limbs were made post TPLO using a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Susceptibility artifact sizes were recorded and compared for WARP vs. conventional turbo spin echo sequences. Three evaluators graded depiction quality for the tibial tuberosity, medial and lateral menisci, tibial osteotomy, and caudal cruciate ligament as sufficient or insufficient to make a diagnosis. Artifacts were subjectively smaller and local structures were better depicted in WARP-turbo spin echo images. Signal void area was also reduced by 75% (sagittal) and 49% (dorsal) in WARP vs. conventional turbo spin echo images. Evaluators were significantly more likely to grade local anatomy depiction as adequate for making a diagnosis in WARP-turbo spin echo images in the sagittal but not dorsal plane. The proportion of image sets with anatomic structure depiction graded adequate to make a diagnosis ranged from 28 to 68% in sagittal WARP-turbo spin echo images compared to 0-19% in turbo spin echo images. Findings indicated that the WARP-turbo spin echo sequence reduces the severity of susceptibility artifacts in canine stifle joints post TPLO. However, variable depiction of local anatomy warrants further refinement of the technique. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  20. Effect of lesion location on fixation strength of the meniscal viper repair system: an in vitro study using porcine menisci.

    PubMed

    Chang, Haw Chong; Caborn, David N M; Nyland, John; Burden, Robert

    2006-04-01

    The Meniscal Viper Repair System (Arthrex, Naples, FL) is a novel suture-based all-inside meniscal repair system. This study was performed to test whether the Meniscal Viper Repair System would provide superior fixation characteristics for vertical longitudinal meniscal lesions located closer to the periphery compared with those located further away from the periphery. Vertical longitudinal lesions were created either 1 to 2 mm or 3 to 4 mm away from the periphery of porcine menisci. After repair with the Meniscal Viper Repair System, fixation characteristics were studied during cyclic (500 cycles, 5 to 50 N) and load to failure testing (5 mm/min) in a servo hydraulic device. Meniscal lesion repair location did not show significant differences in displacement or stiffness during cyclic testing. During load to failure testing, meniscal lesion repairs located 1 to 2 mm from the periphery showed superior load at failure (188.8 +/- 45.4 N) compared with repairs located 3 to 4 mm from the periphery (114.4 +/- 35.0 N) (P = .01). Stiffness and displacement during load to failure testing did not show statistically significant differences. The Meniscal Viper Repair System provides stronger meniscal repair strength when lesions are located within 1 to 2 mm of the periphery. The Meniscal Viper Repair System is better suited for repair of peripheral meniscal lesions located within 1 to 2 mm of the periphery. For lesions located in zone 2 (within the central 50%), careful assessment of their distance from the periphery is recommended. For lesions located more than 3 to 4 mm away from the periphery, alternative repair systems or augmentation with other devices may be prudent.

  1. Effect of an anterior-sloped brace joint on anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation: a motion analysis study.

    PubMed

    Yeow, C H; Gan, W L; Lee, P V S; Goh, J C H

    2010-12-01

    Anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation are major biomechanical factors involved in anterior cruciate ligament injuries. This study sought to evaluate a brace prototype designed with an anterior-sloped joint, in terms of its efficacy in attenuating anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation during landing, using a motion analysis approach. Ten healthy male subjects performed single-leg landing tasks from a 0.6-m height with and without the brace prototype. Ground reaction force and kinematics data were obtained using a motion-capture system and force-plates. Anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation were determined based on tibial and femoral marker reference frames. Vertical and anterior-posterior ground reaction forces, hip, knee and ankle joint range-of-motions and angular velocities, anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation were compared between unbraced and braced conditions using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. We found no significant difference in peak vertical and anterior-posterior ground reaction forces (p=0.770 and p=0.332 respectively) between unbraced and braced conditions. Knee joint range-of-motion and angular velocity were lower (p=0.037 and p=0.038 respectively) for braced condition than unbraced condition. Anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation were reduced (p=0.027 and p=0.006 respectively) in braced condition, compared to unbraced condition. The anterior-sloped brace joint helps to attenuate anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation present in the knee joint during landing. It is necessary to test the brace prototype in a sporting population with realistic sports landing situations in order to assess its effectiveness in lowering anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intraneural ganglion cyst of the tibial nerve.

    PubMed

    Adn, M; Hamlat, A; Morandi, X; Guegan, Y

    2006-08-01

    Intraneural ganglion cyst of the tibial nerve is very rare. To date, only 5 cases of this entity in the popliteal fossa have been reported. We report a new case and review the previously reported cases. A 40-year-old man experienced a mild vague pain in the medial half of his right foot for 3 years. Magnetic resonance imaging scan demonstrated a soft-tissue mass along the right tibial nerve. At surgery, an intraneural ganglion cyst was evacuated. After 12 months, the patient was pain-free with no signs of recurrence. Trauma might be a contributing factor to the development of intraneural ganglion cysts. Application of microsurgical techniques is encouraged.

  3. 'Diabetic tibial disease': the case for revascularisation.

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, B. M.; Shandall, A. A.; Shute, K.

    1993-01-01

    Diabetic patients with critical ischaemia of the lower limb are frequently considered to have unreconstructable vascular disease. In the presence of a palpable popliteal pulse they are often labelled as having 'small vessel disease'. In nine patients (mean age 69 years) with 'diabetic tibial disease' and critical ischaemia we have avoided major amputation using short vein bypasses. All revascularisations remained patent at a mean follow-up of 32 months (range 12-60 months). Diabetic patients with critical ischaemia should at the very least undergo arteriography to ensure that the possibility of successful distal revascularisation is not feasible before amputation is performed. However, if arteriography fails to demonstrate patent distal vessels and limb salvage is considered practical, Doppler insonation of the tibial and pedal vessels should be performed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8476182

  4. The management of tibial torsion in patients with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Fraser, R K; Menelaus, M B

    1993-05-01

    We reviewed 20 patients with spina bifida who had had surgical management of tibial torsion. Eight had had bilateral procedures and 12 a unilateral procedure, giving a total of 28 limbs for analysis. We performed closed osteoclasis on seven limbs and tibial osteotomy on 21. In the closed osteoclasis group six limbs (85%) had a good result after an average follow-up of nine years (2 to 22). All limbs developed postoperative anteromedial bowing of the tibia which later remodelled. In the tibial osteotomy group 19 (90%) had a good result. The average follow-up was nine years (2 to 28). Complications occurred in seven limbs (33%). We recommend closed osteoclasis of the tibia for the young patient with spina bifida in whom walking is impeded by excessive internal tibial torsion, and supramalleolar tibial osteotomy in the older patient with excessive external tibial torsion and a planovalgus foot.

  5. Biomechanical Factors in Tibial Stress Fractures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    Ankle TOTAL 82 Lateral ankle sprain 72 Medial ankle sprain 3 Ankle other 7 Foot TOTAL 124...strain 5 Acute fibular fracture 1 Lower leg other 25 31 Ankle TOTAL 59 Lateral ankle sprain 42 Medial ankle sprain 5 Ankle other 12 Foot TOTAL 96...tibial stress fracture. Therefore, we chose to investigate the individual knee and ankle stiffness in the sagittal plane. We evaluated this

  6. Tibial tuberosity advancement in 65 canine stifles.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, D E; Miller, J M; Ober, C P; Lanz, O I; Martin, R A; Shires, P K

    2006-01-01

    The tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) procedure was developed to treat dogs with cranial cruciate ligament deficient stifles. A retrospective, descriptive study was performed on 57 dogs that underwent unilateral or bilateral TTA. Medical records were reviewed and pre-, postoperative and follow-up radiographs were evaluated for patellar ligament-tibial plateau angle (alpha), distance of the tibial tuberosity advancement and progression of degenerative joint disease. A questionnaire was sent to all owners to obtain their assessment of the procedural outcome. Sixty-five stifles in 57 dogs received a TTA. Mean age was 5.2 +/- 2.5 years while mean weight was 39.7 +/- 11.9 kg. Eighteen breeds were represented with Labrador retrievers and mixed breeds predominating. The mean duration of lameness prior to surgery was 6.2 +/- 6.7 months, with a median lameness score of 3/4. Fifty-nine percent of cases encountered complications, the majority of which were minor. Major post-operative complications were uncommon but consisted of implant failure, tibial crest displacement and medial meniscal tears. The mean radiographic preoperative angle alpha was 100 degrees, while the postoperative was 95.5 degrees. Mean osteoarthrosis scores were significantly different between preoperative and follow-up radiographs with 67% of cases showing radiographic progression. Seventy percent of owners responded to the survey with overall outcome considered good to excellent in 90%. Activity level was improved in 90% of responses. TTA subjectively appears to be a useful alternative in the management of cranial cruciate ligament disease. Few severe complications were encountered. Good clinical outcome and owner satisfaction was reported with the procedure in this set of cases.

  7. Cranial tibial thrust: a primary force in the canine stifle.

    PubMed

    Slocum, B; Devine, T

    1983-08-15

    A cranially directed force identified within the canine stifle joint was termed cranial tibial thrust. It was generated during weight bearing by tibial compression, of which the tarsal tendon of the biceps femoris is a major contributor, and by the slope of the tibial plateau, found to have a mean cranially directed inclination of 22.6 degrees. This force may be an important factor in cranial cruciate ligament rupture and in generation of cranial drawer sign.

  8. Radiographic quantitative assessment of cranial tibial subluxation before and after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Stanley E; Lewis, Daniel D; Pozzi, Antonio; Seibert, Rachel L; Winter, Matthew D

    2011-03-01

    To determine the influence of stifle joint flexion angle, cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) integrity, tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO), and cranial tibial subluxation on the distance between the location of the origin and insertion of the CrCL (CrCL(d)) in dogs. 4 pairs of pelvic limbs from adult dog cadavers weighing 23 to 34 kg. Procedures-Mediolateral projection radiographs of each stifle joint were obtained with the joint flexed at 90°, 105°, 120°, 135°, and 150°. Radiopaque markers were then placed at the sites of origin and insertion of the CrCL. Afterward, radiography was repeated in the same manner, before and after CrCL transection, with and without TPLO. Following CrCL transection, radiographs were obtained before and after inducing overt cranial tibial subluxation. Interobserver variation in measuring the CrCL(d) without fiduciary markers was assessed. The effect of CrCL integrity, cranial tibial subluxation, flexion angle, and TPLO on CrCL(d) was also determined. Interobserver agreement was strong, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.859. The CrCL(d) was significantly shorter (< 1 mm) at 90° of flexion; otherwise, flexion angle had no effect on CrCL(d). Cranial tibial subluxation caused a 25% to 40% increase in CrCL(d). No effect of TPLO on CrCL(d) was found, regardless of CrCL integrity, forced stifle joint subluxation, or flexion angle. Overt cranial tibial subluxation in CrCL-deficient stifle joints can be detected on mediolateral projection radiographs by comparing CrCL(d) on neutral and stressed joint radiographs at joint angles between 105° and 150°, regardless of whether a TPLO has been performed.

  9. Combined Rotational Alignment Change after Total Knee Arthroplasty in Different Tibial Component Designs: Implications for Optimal Tibial Component Rotational Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jae Young; Jeung, Seung Hyeon; Poon, Kein Boon; Choi, Yoon Young; Suh, Jeung Tak

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The rotational alignment of the femoral and tibial components is closely related to the results after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In this study, we measured the combined rotational alignment change (ΔCR) after TKA and compared the different influence of symmetric and asymmetric tibial component designs on the combined rotational alignment. Materials and Methods Eighty-four patients (mean age, 67.9 years) were included. A symmetric tibial component was used in 51 knees (group I), whereas an asymmetric tibial component was used in 50 knees (group II). We measured the angles of four anatomical landmarks by using preoperative and postoperative computed tomography images. The combined rotational alignment and the amount of change were calculated. The correlation between the isolated tibial component rotation (ITR) and ΔCR was analyzed by using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Results The mean ΔCR was −0.1°±6.3° in group I and −4.8°±5.7° in group II after TKA. Excluding the intercomponent rotation, the change was −1.0°±7.3° and −6.7°±6.7° in group I and group II, respectively. A correlation analysis between the ITR and tibial component rotation relative to the tibial tuberosity showed a statistically significant correlation. Conclusions The combined lower limb rotational alignment was internally rotated in both symmetric and asymmetric tibial component designs after TKA. The asymmetric tibial component was better than the symmetric tibial component in achieving internally rotated combined lower limb rotational alignment. The internal rotation of the symmetric tibial component relative to the tibial tuberosity tip should fall within 20° to correct the externally deformed lower limb. PMID:29482307

  10. Combined Rotational Alignment Change after Total Knee Arthroplasty in Different Tibial Component Designs: Implications for Optimal Tibial Component Rotational Alignment.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Seung Joon; Cho, Jae Young; Jeung, Seung Hyeon; Poon, Kein Boon; Choi, Yoon Young; Suh, Jeung Tak

    2018-03-01

    The rotational alignment of the femoral and tibial components is closely related to the results after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In this study, we measured the combined rotational alignment change (ΔCR) after TKA and compared the different influence of symmetric and asymmetric tibial component designs on the combined rotational alignment. Eighty-four patients (mean age, 67.9 years) were included. A symmetric tibial component was used in 51 knees (group I), whereas an asymmetric tibial component was used in 50 knees (group II). We measured the angles of four anatomical landmarks by using preoperative and postoperative computed tomography images. The combined rotational alignment and the amount of change were calculated. The correlation between the isolated tibial component rotation (ITR) and ΔCR was analyzed by using the Spearman correlation coefficient. The mean ΔCR was -0.1°±6.3° in group I and -4.8°±5.7° in group II after TKA. Excluding the intercomponent rotation, the change was -1.0°±7.3° and -6.7°±6.7° in group I and group II, respectively. A correlation analysis between the ITR and tibial component rotation relative to the tibial tuberosity showed a statistically significant correlation. The combined lower limb rotational alignment was internally rotated in both symmetric and asymmetric tibial component designs after TKA. The asymmetric tibial component was better than the symmetric tibial component in achieving internally rotated combined lower limb rotational alignment. The internal rotation of the symmetric tibial component relative to the tibial tuberosity tip should fall within 20° to correct the externally deformed lower limb.

  11. Asymmetric Tibial Component Improved the Coverage and Rotation of the Tibial Component in a Medial Pivot Total Knee Prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Minoda, Yukihide; Ikebuchi, Mitsuhiko; Mizokawa, Shigekazu; Ohta, Yoichi; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2018-05-01

    Malrotation of tibial components is one of the important causes of failure in total knee arthroplasty. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between tibial rotational positioning and coverage of the tibial surface during the operation, using a symmetric and newly introduced asymmetric medial pivot tibial components. The coverage and overhang were compared between a symmetric component (Advance medial pivot) and a newly introduced asymmetric medial pivot tibial component (Evolution medial pivot) in 31 knees during the operation. When the tibial component was placed parallel to the anteroposterior (AP) axis, the uncovered width in the posteromedial part using a symmetric design was larger than that using an asymmetric design ( p  < 0.01). Overhang in the posterolateral part was observed in 42% for a symmetric design and 3% for an asymmetric design ( p  < 0.01). When the component was placed in malrotation (10 degrees internal to the AP axis), overhang in the posteromedial part was observed in 6% for a symmetric design and in 71% for an asymmetric design ( p  < 0.01). The tibial rotation parallel to the AP axis and maximizing coverage of the tibial surface conflict in a symmetric design, but are compatible in an asymmetric design. An asymmetric tibial component is expected to improve the coverage and the rotational positioning of medial pivot total knee prosthesis. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Tibial Attachment Preserving Hamstring Graft without Implant on Tibial Side.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Skand; Naik, Ananta Kumar; Maheshwari, Mridul; Sandanshiv, Sumedh; Meena, Durgashankar; Arya, Rajendra K

    2018-01-01

    Tibial attachment preserving hamstring graft could prevent potential problems of free graft in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction such as pull out before graft-tunnel healing or rupture before ligamentization. Different implants have been reportedly used for tibial side fixation with this technique. We investigated short-term outcome of ACL reconstruction (ACLR) with tibial attachment sparing hamstring graft without implant on the tibial side by outside in technique. Seventy nine consecutive cases of ACL tear having age of 25.7 ± 6.8 years were included after Institutional Board Approval. All subjects were male. The mean time interval from injury to surgery was of 7.5 ± 6.4 months. Hamstring tendons were harvested with open tendon stripper leaving the tibial insertion intact. The free ends of the tendons were whip stitched, quadrupled, and whip stitched again over the insertion site of hamstring with fiber wire (Arthrex). Single bundle ACLR was done by outside in technique and the femoral tunnel was created with cannulated reamer. The graft was pulled up to the external aperture of femoral tunnel and fixed with interference screw (Arthrex). The scoring was done by Lysholm, Tegner, and KT 1000 by independent observers. All cases were followed up for 2 years. The mean length of quadrupled graft attached to tibia was 127.65 ± 7.5 mm, and the mean width was 7.52 ± 0.78 mm. The mean preoperative Lysholm score of 47.15 ± 9.6, improved to 96.8 ± 2.4 at 1 year. All cases except two returned to the previous level of activity after ACLR. There was no significant difference statistically between preinjury (5.89 ± 0.68) and postoperative (5.87 ± 0.67) Tegner score. The anterior tibial translation (ATT) (KT 1000) improved from 11.44 ± 1.93 mm to 3.59 ± 0.89 mm. The ATT of operated knee returned to nearly the similar value as of the opposite knee (3.47 ± 1.16 mm). The Pivot shift test was negative in all cases. None had a failure of graft till final

  13. Comparison of the operation of arthroscopic tibial inlay and traditional tibial inlay for posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lu, Daifeng; Xiao, Mochao; Lian, Yongyun; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Xuefeng

    2014-01-01

    To perform dual-bundle reconstruction of posterior cruciate ligament using full arthroscopic tibial inlay technology with self-designed tibia tunnel drilling system and to compare the effect of arthroscopic tibial inlay versus traditional technique for posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. 32 patients were randomly divided into experiment group (improved tibial inlay, n = 17) and control group (traditional tibial inlay, n = 15). Self-designed tibia tunnel drill system was used to produce intraoperative deep-limited bone tunnel. During follow-up, the location of the bone block and the healing situation were checked by knee X-ray and spiral CT scan. Blood loss, operation time and nerve vascular injuries were evaluated. Mean intraoperative blood loss was 123.53 ± 74.05 ml in the improved tibial inlay group compared with 332 ± 114.26 ml in the traditional tibial inlay group (t = 6.12, P < 0.05). Mean operation time was 235.27 ± 58.88 min in the improved tibial inlay group compared with 346.37 ± 59.67 min in the traditional tibial inlay group (t = 5.19, P < 0.05). Posterior drawer test were negative in 15 cases, slight positive in 2 with improved tibial inlay technique compared with 14 negative cases and 2 positive cases of traditional tibial Inlay technique. The X-ray and spiral CT scan showed the location of the bone block were perfect and healed well with the patent who received improved tibial inlay technology after 12 weeks postoperatively. Accurate depth-limited bone tunnel can be produced by the tibia tunnel drill system with minor trauma, less bleeding and reducing of nerves or vessels and the recent clinical effects of PCL reconstruction were pretty good.

  14. Effects of tibial rotation on Ober's test and patellar tracking.

    PubMed

    Park, Joo-Hee; Kang, Sun-Young; Choung, Sung-Dae; Jeon, Hye-Seon; Kwon, Oh-Yun

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tibial position on ITB flexibility and patellar position. A total of 31 asymptomatic subjects (21 males, 10 females) were recruited for this investigation. Adduction angle was measured by Ober's test, and PCD was measured by ultrasonography in three different tibial rotation conditions: N, IR, and ER. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant difference in adduction angle and PCD among three different tibial positions (P<0.05). Adduction angle was significantly greater in the N tibial position than in ER (P<0.05). The PCD was significantly greater in N position than in IR (P<0.05). However, the PCD was significantly smaller in IR compared with the N position (P<0.05). These findings support that tibial rotation influences the flexibility of ITB and patellar positions. Therefore, excessive tibial rotation can cause inappropriate patellar positions that eventually lead to knee injury. Therapists should consider tibial rotation when measuring adduction angles because tibial rotation can change Ober's test results and contribute to the consistency of ITB length measurements. Level IV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Neurofibromatosis Type 1 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. David Stevenson CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Utah SALT LAKE CITY...COVERED 1 April 2013 - 31 March 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Anterolateral tibial bowing is a morbid skeletal manifestation observed in 5% of children with neurofibromatosis

  16. Tibial sequestrectomy in the management of Osgood-Schlatter disease.

    PubMed

    Trail, I A

    1988-01-01

    Two groups of patients with symptomatic Osgood-Schlatter disease were compared over a 4-5 year follow-up period. One group was treated surgically by tibial sequestrectomy and the other group was managed conservatively. Tibial sequestrectomy was found to offer no significant benefit over simple conservative methods of treatment. In addition, a significant complication rate was identified with this procedure.

  17. Foot and ankle function after tibial overlengthening.

    PubMed

    Emara, Khaled M; Diab, Ramy Ahmed; El Ghazali, Sherif; Farouk, Amr; El Kersh, Mohamed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Lengthening the tibia more than 25% of its original length can be indicated for proximal femoral deficiency, poliomyelitis, or femoral infected nonunion. Such lengthening of the tibia can adversely affect the ankle or foot shape and function. The present study aimed to assess the effect of tibial lengthening of more than 25% of its original length on the foot and ankle shape and function compared with the preoperative condition. This was a retrospective study of 13 children with severe proximal focal femoral deficiency, Aitken classification type D, who had undergone limb lengthening from June 2000 to June 2008 using Ilizarov external fixators. The techniques used in tibial lengthening included lengthening without intramedullary rodding and lengthening over a nail. The foot assessment was done preoperatively, at fixator removal, and then annually for 3 years, documenting the range of motion and deformity of the ankle and subtalar joints and big toe and the navicular height, calcaneal pitch angle, and talo-first metatarsal angle. At fixator removal, all cases showed equinocavovarus deformity, with decreased ankle, subtalar, and big toe motion. The mean American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score was significantly reduced. During follow-up, the range of motion, foot deformity, and American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score improved, reaching nearly to the preoperative condition by 2 years of follow-up. The results of our study have shown that tibial overlengthening has an adverse effect on foot and ankle function. This effect was reversible in the patients included in the present study. Lengthening of more than 25% can be safely done after careful discussion with the patients and their families about the probable effects of lengthening on foot and ankle function. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of counteracting external valgus moment on lateral tibial cartilage contact conditions and tibial rotation.

    PubMed

    Shriram, Duraisamy; Parween, Rizuwana; Lee, Yee Han Dave; Subburaj, Karupppasamy

    2017-07-01

    Knee osteoarthritis that prevalently occurs at the medial compartment is a progressive chronic disorder affecting the articular cartilage of the knee joint, and lead to loss of joint functionality. Valgus braces have been used as a treatment procedure to unload the medial compartment for patients with medial osteoarthritis. Valgus braces through the application of counteracting external valgus moment shift the load from medial compartment towards the lateral compartment. Previous biomechanical studies focused only on the changes in varus moments before and after wearing the brace. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of opposing external valgus moment applied by knee braces on the lateral tibial cartilage contact conditions using a 3D finite element model of the knee joint. Finite element simulations were performed on the knee joint model without and with the application of opposing valgus moment to mimic the unbraced and braced conditions. Lateral tibial cartilage contact pressures and contact area, and tibial rotation (varus-valgus and internal-external) were estimated for the complete walking gait cycle. The opposing valgus moment increased the maximum contact pressure and contact area on the lateral tibial cartilage compared to the normal gait moment. A peak contact pressure of 8.2 MPa and maximum cartilage loaded area of 28% (loaded cartilage nodes) on the lateral cartilage with the application of external valgus moment were induced at 50% of the gait cycle. The results show that the use of opposing valgus moment may significantly increase the maximum contact pressures and contact area on the lateral tibial cartilage and increases the risk of articular cartilage damage on the lateral compartment.

  19. Posterior tibial neuropathy from ruptured Baker's cyst.

    PubMed

    Dash, S; Bheemreddy, S R; Tiku, M L

    1998-04-01

    To increase awareness of entrapment neuropathy caused by rupture of Baker's cyst. A patient with psoriatic arthritis, ruptured Baker's cyst, and entrapment neuropathy is reported and the literature on this complication is reviewed. Nerve entrapment caused by rupture of Baker's cyst is rare. Neurological examination and demonstration of Baker's cyst by Color Doppler Duplex Ultrasound (CDDU) help in making the diagnosis. Nerve Conduction Study (NCS) may confirm the diagnosis of posterior tibial nerve entrapment. Peripheral nerve entrapment should be considered in patients with Baker's cysts and loss of sensation along the plantar aspect of the foot or other neurological symptoms or findings.

  20. Tibial sesamoid fracture in a softball player.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeanine L; Losito, James M

    2007-01-01

    A single case of a tibial sesamoid fracture in a softball player is reported here. A review of the literature confirms that this is an unusual and difficult problem to treat in the athletic population given the significant loads placed on the sesamoids during athletic activity. In the case presented, conservative care was not effective, and the athlete underwent surgical excision of the fractured sesamoid. With use of a postoperative orthosis and cleat modification, surgical management was successful and allowed the athlete to return to her athletic endeavors without restrictions in 8 weeks.

  1. Fractures of the tibial tuberosity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ogden, J A; Tross, R B; Murphy, M J

    1980-03-01

    The cases of fourteen adolescents with fifteen physeal fractures of the tibial tuberosity were reviewed to more accurately define specific fracture patterns, to establish treatment for the different types, and to determine the incidence of complications. A modified classification scheme with a greater emphasis on intra-articular extension of the fracture and communution of the tuberosity was devised. Closed or open reduction, as necessary, gave satisfactory results. The primary indications for surgery were: (1) displacement of one or more fragments of the tuberosity anterosuperiorly, and (2) extension of the fracture through the proximal tibial ossification center into the knee joint, with disruption of the joint surface. There appears to be an increased incidence of pre-existing Osgood-Schlatter disease (ipsilateral and contralateral) in patients who have an acute tuberosity injury. Complications are rare. The theoretical possibility of the subsequent development of genu recurvatum appears unlikely, since most of these injuries occur when the physis of the tuberosity is undergoing normal closure.

  2. The anatomical tibial axis: reliable rotational orientation in knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Cobb, J P; Dixon, H; Dandachli, W; Iranpour, F

    2008-08-01

    The rotational alignment of the tibia is an unresolved issue in knee replacement. A poor functional outcome may be due to malrotation of the tibial component. Our aim was to find a reliable method for positioning the tibial component in knee replacement. CT scans of 19 knees were reconstructed in three dimensions and orientated vertically. An axial plane was identified 20 mm below the tibial spines. The centre of each tibial condyle was calculated from ten points taken round the condylar cortex. The tibial tubercle centre was also generated as the centre of the circle which best fitted eight points on the outside of the tubercle in an axial plane at the level of its most prominent point. The derived points were identified by three observers with errors of 0.6 mm to 1 mm. The medial and lateral tibial centres were constant features (radius 24 mm (SD 3), and 22 mm (SD 3), respectively). An anatomical axis was created perpendicular to the line joining these two points. The tubercle centre was found to be 20 mm (SD 7) lateral to the centre of the medial tibial condyle. Compared with this axis, an axis perpendicular to the posterior condylar axis was internally rotated by 6 degrees (SD 3). An axis based on the tibial tubercle and the tibial spines was also internally rotated by 5 degrees (sd 10). Alignment of the knee when based on this anatomical axis was more reliable than either the posterior surfaces or any axis involving the tubercle which was the least reliable landmark in the region.

  3. Fibular segment bone bridging in trans-tibial amputation.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M A G S; Harris, W W

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative method of achieving a synostosis between tibia and fibula in trans-tibial amputations by means of a fibular segment in place of tibial osteoperiosteal flaps as described by Ertl, in 1949. From May 1997 through to February 2003, 15 patients were submitted to the proposed procedure. As a result, all patients produced a solid synostosis between tibia and fibula and were rehabilitated with the use of prostheses. The capacity of these patients for distal weight-bearing on the stump was remarkable when compared to patients submitted to the conventional trans-tibial amputation technique.

  4. Lower limb salvage to allow planned trans-tibial amputation.

    PubMed

    Watt, D A L; Grotz, M R W; Giannoudis, P V; Kay, S P J

    2006-01-01

    Early, primary amputations are still necessary for certain patients sustaining high impact lower limb trauma. For cases with extensive proximal tibial bone loss a turn-up bone flap technique has been described to achieve a below-knee stump suitable for a prosthesis. However, in certain circumstances, for example if posterior soft tissues are injured, this type of reconstruction is not possible. This case report demonstrates that converting a severe open proximal tibial fracture to a successful below-knee amputation is also possible with acute limb shortening, flap cover and planned subsequent trans-tibial amputation.

  5. A novel jig arm to measure tibial plateau angle during tibial plateau leveling osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Restle, Kyle N; Biskup, Jeffery J

    2017-10-01

    To determine the ability of a novel device attached to the proximal tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) jig pin to accurately predict intraoperative change in tibial plateau angle (TPA). In vitro cadaveric study. Left hindlimbs of adult dogs (n = 9). A modified Slocum tibial plateau leveling (TPL) jig with the Rotational Osteotomy Measuring Arm (ROMA) was placed on the tibia and a radial TPLO osteotomy was performed. Based on preoperative radiographic TPA measurements, the proximal segment was rotated using the traditional method of marking points on the osteotomy a specified distance apart. After rotation, the predicted TPA was recorded based on the ROMA. Postoperative TPA was measured on radiographs. The ability of the ROMA to predict postoperative TPA was compared to that of the traditional method. The average final TPA achieved with the traditional method was 6.4° (range, 3.0-10.0°). The ROMA predicted a final TPA of 5.8° (range, 3.8-10.1°). No significant difference was found between the TPA predicted based on the traditional method and ROMA method. The ROMA may be an alternative to the traditional method of measuring proximal segment rotation during TPLO procedure. Performing a TPLO with the ROMA may accurately predict the postoperative TPA while eliminating the need for measuring chord length, making reference marks, or referencing TPA charts for various osteotomy blade sizes. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  6. In vitro comparison of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy with and without use of a tibial plateau leveling jig.

    PubMed

    Schmerbach, Kay Ingo; Boeltzig, Christian Konrad Matthias; Reif, Ullrich; Wieser, Jan Carsten; Keller, Thomas; Grevel, Vera

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of a tibial plateau leveling jig on osteotomy orientation, fragment reduction, and postoperative tibial plateau angle (TPA) during tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). In vitro experimental study. Large-breed canine cadavers (n=20). TPLO was performed on 40 hindlimbs using 4 methods. Group 1: Jig; dogs in dorsal recumbency with the osteotomy parallel to the distal jig pin. Groups 2-4: No jig; dogs in lateral recumbency with the osteotomy in a vertical orientation (group 2: tibia parallel to the table top; group 3: controlled superimposition of the femoral condyles; group 4: internal rotation of the tibia). Postoperative TPA, fragment reduction, and osteotomy orientation relative to the tibial plateau were compared. Positive or negative values denoted deviation from parallel relative to the tibial plateau. Postoperative TPA, fragment reduction, and proximodistal osteotomy orientation were not significantly different between groups. Craniocaudal osteotomy orientation was significantly different (P<.005) from the tibial plateau. Median deviations were -4.0 degrees (group 1), 11.8 degrees (group 2), 11.2 degrees (group 3), and 0.2 degrees (group 4). Group 1 was not significantly different from group 4. A jig is not essential for osteotomy orientation, tibial plateau rotation, or fragment reduction. Comparable results were achieved performing a vertical osteotomy with the tibia slightly internally rotated (10 degrees -15 degrees) and parallel to the table surface. TPLO without use of a jig reduces surgical trauma, is less time consuming, and reduces cost.

  7. High tibial osteotomy: does navigation improve results?

    PubMed

    Maurer, Franz; Wassmer, Günther

    2006-10-01

    Between January 2003 and March 2006, the authors performed 67 open-wedge high tibial osteotomies (HTO) for treatment of genu varum and osteoarthritis. Through comparison of two groups, the study sought to answer whether computed tomography (CT)-free navigation is feasible for HTO and will provide a more accurate correction angle without giving rise to additional complications. The results showed a significantly higher accuracy in achieving the proper leg axis correction (P< .016) when HTO was performed with navigation. Navigation in HTO, which allows intraoperative calculation of the leg axis, seems to be a reliable and safe procedure. Knowing that clinical results of HTO in varus deformity of the leg axis are closely connected to correct postoperative valgus alignment and avoiding overcorrection and undercorrection, the study lead to the conclusion that the use of navigation will contribute to better clinical outcomes.

  8. Percutaneous plating of distal tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Amal; Liebergall, Meir; London, Eli; Mosheiff, Rami

    2002-09-01

    This article presents our experience with 24 patients who had distal tibial fractures and were treated by percutaneous plate fixation. Distribution of the fractures according to the AO/OTA classification was as follows: five patients suffered from a 43 A type fracture, six from a 43 B type fracture, and 13 from a 43 C type fractures. Four of the fractures were open. Exclusion criteria included 43 C3 fractures and Gustilo III open fractures. All fractures showed radiographic signs of union enough to enable full weightbearing within an average time of 12.3 weeks. All patients showed a good range of motion (average dorsiflexion 12 degrees and average plantiflexion 18 degrees). Two fractures united with mal-union: one with an 8 degrees valgus deformity and another with a 7 degrees varus deformity. Both cases, which had a metaphyseal component, were treated by means of a "soft" (flexible and manually adjustable) AO 3.5 mm reconstruction plate. Except for one case of superficial infection, no infections were detected in any of the patients. The biological percutaneous plate fixation of distal tibial fractures with no extensive intra-articular involvement is a good soft tissue preserving technique. It provides a rigid and anatomical fixation in most cases. We conclude that type B fractures with one intact column can be fixed with either "soft" or "rigid" plates, and type A and C fractures with a metaphyseal component should be fixed with "rigid" plates (AO 4.5 mm Dynamic Compression Plate). In these fractures the reduction should be performed cautiously due to the tendency of sagittal plane mal-reduction.

  9. Safe surgical technique: intramedullary nail fixation of tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Zelle, Boris A; Boni, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Statically locked, reamed intramedullary nailing remains the standard treatment for displaced tibial shaft fractures. Establishing an appropriate starting point is a crucial part of the surgical procedure. Recently, suprapatellar nailing in the semi-extended position has been suggested as a safe and effective surgical technique. Numerous reduction techiques are available to achieve an anatomic fracture alignment and the treating surgeon should be familiar with these maneuvers. Open reduction techniques should be considered if anatomic fracture alignment cannot be achieved by closed means. Favorable union rates above 90 % can be achieved by both reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing. Despite favorable union rates, patients continue to have functional long-term impairments. In particular, anterior knee pain remains a common complaint following intramedullary tibial nailing. Malrotation remains a commonly reported complication after tibial nailing. The effect of postoperative tibial malalignment on the clinical and radiographic outcome requires further investigation.

  10. Rotational alignment of the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Graceffa, Angelo; Marcucci, Massimiliano; Baldini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Many surgical techniques, correlated to different anatomical landmarks, have been proposed to allow a satisfactory rotational alignment of the tibial component in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Unfortunately, an accurate landmark has not yet been established although many computer models using CT reconstructions and standard radiologic studies have been performed. In this review article, the authors propose a new anatomical rotational reference for a correct positioning of the tibial component during primary TKA; the authors compared the results of their studies with the current literature on rotational alignment references and previously proposed surgical techniques. The authors also analyzed the correlation between classic and newer tibial baseplate designs and different tibial rotational landmarks. PMID:26855939

  11. Bilateral Salter-Harris type II upper tibial epiphyseal fractures.

    PubMed

    Merloz, P; de Cheveigne, C; Butel, J; Robb, J E

    1987-01-01

    We present a case of bilateral Salter-Harris type II epiphyseal injury to the proximal tibial epiphysis that occurred during gentle exercise. The mechanism and the likely contribution of preexisting Osgood-Schlatter disease are discussed.

  12. Tibial Base Plate for Total Knee Arthroplasty: Symmetric or Asymmetric?

    PubMed Central

    Akkaya, Mustafa; Tahta, Mesut; Gursoy, Safa; Firat, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Background Ideal positioning and best coverage of the tibial base plate are essential in total knee arthroplasty. There are 2 types of tibial base plates: symmetric and asymmetric. The superiority of one to the other is still controversial. The aim of this study was to compare symmetric and asymmetric tibial base plates for total knee arthroplasty in terms of rotational alignment and coverage. Methods The study was conducted on a total of 80 cadaveric tibial bones. Two surgeons were asked to place 20 symmetric (group 1) and 20 asymmetric (group 2) tibial base plates taking care to ensure the best coverage that they were able to determine. Afterwards, the rotational errors and coverage were assessed with reference to the posterior tibial margin and posterior condylar axis on the three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) scan. In the second part of the study, the surgeons were asked to place 20 symmetric (group 3) and 20 asymmetric (group 4) base plates taking care to ensure the best rotational alignment. The rotational errors and the areas uncovered or overstuffed after the application were measured on the 3D CT scan. Results On the comparison of rotational errors, while there was no significant difference between group 1 and group 2 in terms of coverage (p = 0.624), the mean external rotation error was significantly greater in group 2 (p = 0.034). On the comparison of coverage, while there was no significant difference between group 3 and group 4 in terms of rotation (p = 0.36), the mean ratios of the uncovered tibial surface to the total tibial surface (p = 0.041) and also the overstuffed area to the total base plate surface (p = 0.029) were significantly greater in group 4. Conclusions The determination of correct size and rotation of the tibial component is essential for favorable outcomes of total knee arthroplasty. In this study, the symmetric tibial base plate design was more effective than the asymmetric design in providing the ideal tibial rotation and

  13. Physeal growth arrest after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Bilateral tibial lengthening has become one of the standard treatments for upper segment-lower segment disproportion and to improve quality of life in achondroplasia. We determined the effect of tibial lengthening on the tibial physis and compared tibial growth that occurred at the physis with that in non-operated patients with acondroplasia. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of serial radiographs until skeletal maturity in 23 achondroplasia patients who underwent bilateral tibial lengthening before skeletal maturity (lengthening group L) and 12 achondroplasia patients of similar height and age who did not undergo tibial lengthening (control group C). The mean amount of lengthening of tibia in group L was 9.2 cm (lengthening percentage: 60%) and the mean age at the time of lengthening was 8.2 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 9.8 years. Results Skeletal maturity (fusion of physis) occurred at 15.2 years in group L and at 16.0 years in group C. The actual length of tibia (without distraction) at skeletal maturity was 238 mm in group L and 277 mm in group C (p = 0.03). The mean growth rates showed a decrease in group L relative to group C from about 2 years after surgery. Physeal closure was most pronounced on the anterolateral proximal tibial physis, with relative preservation of the distal physis. Interpretation Our findings indicate that physeal growth rate can be disturbed after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia, and a close watch should be kept for such an occurrence—especially when lengthening of more than 50% is attempted. PMID:22489887

  14. [Custom-designed 3D tibial augmentation for knee replacement].

    PubMed

    Jirman, R; Vavrík, P; Horák, Z

    2009-02-01

    Reconstruction with the use of custom-made implants aims at optimal replacement of lost or damaged bone structures and restoration of their funkction. In this study the development and construction of a custom-made implant and the operative technique used for the treatment of an extensive tibial defect are described. The patient was a 65-year-old man treated for over 20 years for psoriatic arthritis and severe instability of the right knee, particularly in the frontal plane, with a worsening varus deformity. The radiogram showed an extensive destruction of the medial tibial condyle that also deeply involved the lateral condyle. The extent of defect made it impossible to use any commercial tibial augmentation. The geometry of the custom-designed implant for the medial tibial condyle was constructed on the basis of a 3D defect model and the shape of the medial tibial condyle of the collateral knee seen on CT scans. After its correct shape was verified on a plastic model, its coordinates were set in the software of a machine tool, and a titanium augmentation otherwise compatible with a standard knee replacement was produced.The use of such a custom implant to complete standard total knee arthroplasty has so far been demanding in terms of organisation and manufacture. Its production in the future could be facilitated by substituting titanium for plastic material such as poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK). Key words: custom-made implant, tibial augmentation, knee prosthesis.

  15. Understanding the etiology of the posteromedial tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Charles; Burr, David B; Finestone, Aharon S; Voloshin, Arkady

    2015-09-01

    Previous human in vivo tibial strain measurements from surface strain gauges during vigorous activities were found to be below the threshold value of repetitive cyclical loading at 2500 microstrain in tension necessary to reduce the fatigue life of bone, based on ex vivo studies. Therefore it has been hypothesized that an intermediate bone remodeling response might play a role in the development of tibial stress fractures. In young adults tibial stress fractures are usually oblique, suggesting that they are the result of failure under shear strain. Strains were measured using surface mounted unstacked 45° rosette strain gauges on the posterior aspect of the flat medial cortex just below the tibial midshaft, in a 48year old male subject while performing vertical jumps, staircase jumps and running up and down stadium stairs. Shear strains approaching 5000 microstrain were recorded during stair jumping and vertical standing jumps. Shear strains above 1250 microstrain were recorded during runs up and down stadium steps. Based on predictions from ex vivo studies, stair and vertical jumping tibial shear strain in the test subject was high enough to potentially produce tibial stress fracture subsequent to repetitive cyclic loading without necessarily requiring an intermediate remodeling response to microdamage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Shape optimization of tibial prosthesis components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Mraz, P. J.; Davy, D. T.

    1993-01-01

    NASA technology and optimal design methodologies originally developed for the optimization of composite structures (engine blades) are adapted and applied to the optimization of orthopaedic knee implants. A method is developed enabling the shape tailoring of the tibial components of a total knee replacement implant for optimal interaction within the environment of the tibia. The shape of the implant components are optimized such that the stresses in the bone are favorably controlled to minimize bone degradation, to improve the mechanical integrity of the implant/interface/bone system, and to prevent failures of the implant components. A pilot tailoring system is developed and the feasibility of the concept is demonstrated and evaluated. The methodology and evolution of the existing aerospace technology from which this pilot optimization code was developed is also presented and discussed. Both symmetric and unsymmetric in-plane loading conditions are investigated. The results of the optimization process indicate a trend toward wider and tapered posts as well as thicker backing trays. Unique component geometries were obtained for the different load cases.

  17. Preserving the PCL during the tibial cut in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Cinotti, G; Sessa, P; Amato, M; Ripani, F R; Giannicola, G

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that the PCL insertion may be damaged during the tibial cut performed in total knee arthroplasty. We investigated the maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserves the PCL insertion and to what extent the posterior slope of the tibial cut and that of the patient's tibial plateaus affect the outcome. MR images of 83 knees were analysed. The maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserves the PCL using a posterior slope of 0°, 3°, 5° and parallel to the patient's slope of the tibial plateau, was evaluated. Correlations between the results and the degrees of the posterior slope of the patient's tibial plateaus were also investigated. The maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserves the entire PCL insertion was, on average, 5.5, 4.7, 4.2 and 3.1 mm when a posterior slope of 0°, 3°, 5° and parallel to the patients' tibial plateaus was used, respectively. When the 25th percentile was considered, the maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserved the PCL was 4 and 3 mm with a tibial cut of 0° and 5° of posterior slope, respectively. The maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserved the PCL was significantly greater in patients with a sagittal slope of the tibial plateaus more than 8° than in those with a sagittal slope less than 8°. In cruciate retaining implants, the PCL insertion may be spared in the majority of patients by performing a tibial cut of 4 mm, or even less when a posterior slope of 3°-5° is used. The clinical relevance of our study is that the execution of a conservative tibial cut, followed by a second tibial resection to achieve the thickness required for the tibial component to be implanted, may be an alternative technique to spare the PCL in CR TKA. II.

  18. Effect of tibial plateau leveling on stability of the canine cranial cruciate-deficient stifle joint: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Reif, Ullrich; Hulse, Donald A; Hauptman, Joe G

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of tibial plateau leveling on joint motion in canine stifle joints in which the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) had been severed. In vitro cadaver study. Six canine cadaver hind legs. Radiographs of the stifle joints were made to evaluate the tibial plateau angle with respect to the long axis of the tibia. The specimens were mounted in a custom-made testing device to measure cranio-caudal translation of the tibia with respect to the femur. An axial load was applied to the tibia, and its position was recorded in the normal stifle, after transection of the CCL, and after tibial plateau leveling. Further, the amount of caudal tibial thrust was measured in the tibial plateau leveled specimen while series of eight linearly increasing axial tibial loads were applied. Transection of the CCL resulted in cranial tibial translation when axial tibial load was applied. After tibial plateau leveling, axial loading resulted in caudal translation of the tibia. Increasing axial tibial load caused a linear increase in caudal tibial thrust in all tibial plateau-leveled specimens. After tibial plateau leveling, axial tibial load generates caudal tibial thrust, which increases if additional axial load is applied. Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy may prevent cranial translation during weight bearing in dogs with CCL rupture by converting axial load into caudal tibial thrust. The amount of caudal tibial thrust seems to be proportional to the amount of weight bearing. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  19. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence: a video demonstration.

    PubMed

    Hotouras, Alexander; Allison, Marion; Currie, Ann; Knowles, Charles H; Chan, Christopher L; Thaha, Mohamed A

    2012-06-01

    Fecal incontinence is an increasingly common condition with significant negative impact on quality on life and health care resources. It frequently presents a therapeutic challenge to clinicians. Emerging evidence suggests that percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation is an effective treatment for fecal incontinence with the added benefit of being minimally invasive and cost effective. Pursuant to the preliminary report of our early experience of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation in patients with fecal incontinence published in this journal in 2010, in this dynamic article, we now describe and demonstrate the actual technique that can be performed in a nurse-led clinic or outpatient or community setting. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation is a technically simple procedure that can potentially be performed in an outpatient or community setting. The overall early success rate of 68% following its use reported by our unit compares favorably with the success rate following other forms of neuromodulation, including sacral nerve stimulation. When completed, our long-term outcome data will provide further information on the efficacy of tibial nerve stimulation in a larger cohort of patients (n > 100). Future studies, including our currently planned randomized controlled trial of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation vs sham stimulation, will provide controlled efficacy data and may provide information on its exact mechanism of action.

  20. Forefoot flexibility and medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Shintarou; Hatanaka, Yasuhiko

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the association between medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) and morphology and flexibility of the foot arches. 131 feet from 74 healthy subjects and 31 feet from 27 patients with MTSS were classified as normal feet (n=78 in 40 subjects), flat feet (n=53 in 34 subjects), or MTSS feet (n=31 in 27 patients). The medial longitudinal arch (MLA) ratio and the transverse arch length (TAL) were measured in both rearfoot and forefoot loading positions. The difference between the 2 positions indicated the flexibility of the MLA (diff-MLA ratio) and the transverse arch (diff- TAL). The MLA ratio was higher in normal feet than MTSS feet or flat feet (15.1% vs. 12.8% vs. 12.3%, p<0.001). The diff-TAL was lower in MTSS feet than normal feet or flat feet (0.4% vs. 0.8% vs. 0.9%, p<0.001]). The 3 groups were comparable in terms of the diff-MLA ratio and the TAL. Respectively for the MLA ratio and the diff-TAL, the cut-off value was 11.9% and 0.61% based on the Youden index. The sensitivity, specificity, and odds ratio of the cut-off value were 0.4, 0.9, and 4.8 for the MLA ratio, and 0.6, 0.7, and 9.8 for the diff-TAL, respectively. Decreased flexibility of the transverse arch and decreased MLA ratio are risk factors for MTSS. In contrast, the flexibility of the MLA and the height of the transverse arch were not risk factors for MTSS.

  1. Primary Ankle Arthrodesis for Severely Comminuted Tibial Pilon Fractures.

    PubMed

    Al-Ashhab, Mohamed E

    2017-03-01

    Management of severely comminuted, complete articular tibial pilon fractures (Rüedi and Allgöwer type III) remains a challenge, with few treatment options providing good clinical outcomes. Twenty patients with severely comminuted tibial pilon fractures underwent primary ankle arthrodesis with a retrograde calcaneal nail and autogenous fibular bone graft. The fusion rate was 100% and the varus malunion rate was 10%. Fracture union occurred at a mean of 16 weeks (range, 13-18 weeks) postoperatively. Primary ankle arthrodesis is a successful method for treating highly comminuted tibial pilon fractures, having a low complication rate and a high satisfaction score. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e378-e381.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Bilateral tibial agenesis and syndactyly in a cat.

    PubMed

    Di Dona, Francesco; Murino, Carla; Della Valle, Giovanni; Fatone, Gerardo

    2016-07-19

    A three-year-old cat was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Naples, Italy. The cat had severe pelvic limb deformity, and abnormal development of all four paws. Radiographs revealed bilateral tibial agenesis, syndactyly, and digital hypoplasia. No treatment was instituted because of the severity of the injury, the adaptation of the cat to the abnormal condition, and the owner's refusal to permit any treatment. Congenital limb deformities are rarely reported in the cat and tibial agenesis is considered a very rare disease. This congenital anomaly is well documented and classified in man, and it has been associated with other abnormalities in more complex syndromes. This paper reports clinical and radiographic findings in a cat affected by bilateral complete tibial agenesis associated with other congenital anomalies.

  3. Increased external tibial torsion in Osgood-Schlatter disease.

    PubMed

    Gigante, Antonio; Bevilacqua, Claudia; Bonetti, Massimo G; Greco, Francesco

    2003-08-01

    We studied the relationship between Osgood-Schlatter disease and torsional abnormalities of the lower limb in 21 boys with this condition and 20 age- and sex-matched controls. 3 groups of knees (20 control knees, 21 symptomatic and 21 asymptomatic or less symptomatic knees) were subjected to clinical, radiographic and CT evaluation. We found no statistically significant differences between patients and controls, as regards femoral anteversion, patellar congruence angle, patellar tilt angle and anterior tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance, but the condylomalleolar angle and tibial torsion angle were greater in patients. We found no differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic or less symptomatic knees in any of the parameters. All the symptomatic knees were on the side preferentially involved in jumping and sprinting. This increase in external tibial torsion may play a role as a predisposing mechanical factor in the onset of Osgood-Schlatter disease in male athletes.

  4. Bone stress in runners with tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Meardon, Stacey A; Willson, John D; Gries, Samantha R; Kernozek, Thomas W; Derrick, Timothy R

    2015-11-01

    Combinations of smaller bone geometry and greater applied loads may contribute to tibial stress fracture. We examined tibial bone stress, accounting for geometry and applied loads, in runners with stress fracture. 23 runners with a history of tibial stress fracture & 23 matched controls ran over a force platform while 3-D kinematic and kinetic data were collected. An elliptical model of the distal 1/3 tibia cross section was used to estimate stress at 4 locations (anterior, posterior, medial and lateral). Inner and outer radii for the model were obtained from 2 planar x-ray images. Bone stress differences were assessed using two-factor ANOVA (α=0.05). Key contributors to observed stress differences between groups were examined using stepwise regression. Runners with tibial stress fracture experienced greater anterior tension and posterior compression at the distal tibia. Location, but not group, differences in shear stress were observed. Stepwise regression revealed that anterior-posterior outer diameter of the tibia and the sagittal plane bending moment explained >80% of the variance in anterior and posterior bone stress. Runners with tibial stress fracture displayed greater stress anteriorly and posteriorly at the distal tibia. Elevated tibial stress was associated with smaller bone geometry and greater bending moments about the medial-lateral axis of the tibia. Future research needs to identify key running mechanics associated with the sagittal plane bending moment at the distal tibia as well as to identify ways to improve bone geometry in runners in order to better guide preventative and rehabilitative efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tibial tuberosity excision for symptomatic Osgood-Schlatter disease.

    PubMed

    Flowers, M J; Bhadreshwar, D R

    1995-01-01

    A modified Ferciot procedure was used to excise the tibial tubercle in patients with persistently symptomatic Osgood-Schlatter disease. Forty-two knees in 35 patients were reviewed at a mean follow-up of 5 years to assess outcome. The results revealed relief of pain in 95% of patients and reduction of prominence in 85.5% with minimal complication, in particular no evidence of genu recurvatum. The pathogenesis of the condition is outlined, and some of the theories and treatment modalities discussed. Tibial tubercle excision is recommended as the treatment of choice in those few cases that fail with conservative treatment.

  6. Tibial rotational osteotomy and distal tuberosity transfer for patella subluxation secondary to excessive external tibial torsion: surgical technique and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Drexler, M; Dwyer, T; Dolkart, O; Goldstein, Y; Steinberg, E L; Chakravertty, R; Cameron, J C

    2014-11-01

    Recurrent patella subluxation may be secondary to excessive external tibial torsion. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcome of patients undergoing tibial derotation osteotomy and tibial tuberosity transfer for recurrent patella subluxation in association with excessive external tibial torsion. A combined tibial derotation osteotomy and tibial tuberosity transfer was performed in 15 knees (12 patients) with recurrent patella subluxation secondary to excessive external tibial torsion. Clinical evaluation was carried out using preoperative and post-operative Knee Society Score (KSS), Kujala Patellofemoral score, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire, the short form-12 (SF-12) and a visual analogue score (VAS) pain scale. The median follow-up period was 84 months (range 15-156) and median patient age was 34 years (range 19-57 years). The median preoperative external tibial torsion was 62° (range 55°-70°), with a median rotational correction of 36° (range 30°-45°) after surgery. Significant improvement (p < 0.05) was found in the KSS part I (37 ± 14 to 89 ± 11 points), KSS part II (25 ± 26 to 85 ± 14 points), Kujala score, the SF-12 outcome, WOMAC score and VAS score (8.8 ± 1.9 to 2.4 ± 1.5). Two patients had a nonunion of the tibial osteotomy site; one patient required bone grafting, while another patient required revision to total knee arthroplasty. Patients presenting with recurrent patella subluxation secondary to excessive external tibial torsion >45° who underwent tibial derotation osteotomy and tibial tuberosity transfer achieved a satisfactory outcome in terms of pain relief and improved function. A significant complication was seen in 2/15 patients. Case series, Level IV.

  7. Comparison of volumetric bone mineral density in the tibial region of interest for ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Klein, Scott A; Nyland, John; Caborn, David N M; Kocabey, Yavuz; Nawab, Akbar

    2005-12-01

    Adequate tibial bone mineral density (BMD) is essential to soft tissue graft fixation during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to compare volumetric bone plug density measurements at the tibial region of interest for ACL reconstruction using a standardized immersion technique and Archimedes' principle. Cancellous bone cores were harvested from the proximal, middle, and distal metaphyseal regions of the lateral tibia and from the standard tibial tunnel location used for ACL reconstruction of 18 cadaveric specimens. Proximal tibial cores displayed 32.6% greater BMD than middle tibial cores and 31.8% greater BMD than distal tibial cores, but did not differ from the BMD of the tibial tunnel cores. Correlational analysis confirmed that the cancellous BMD in the tibial tunnel related to the cancellous BMD of the proximal and distal lateral tibial metaphysis. In conjunction with its adjacent cortical bone, the cancellous BMD of the region used for standard tibial tunnel placement provides an effective foundation for ACL graft fixation. In tibia with poor BMD, bicortical fixation that incorporates cortical bone from the distal tibial tunnel region is recommended.

  8. Partial resection of the PCL insertion site during tibial preparation in cruciate-retaining TKA.

    PubMed

    Feyen, Hans; Van Opstal, Nick; Bellemans, Johan

    2013-12-01

    Based on the anatomy of the tibial PCL insertion site, we hypothesized that at least part of it is damaged while performing a standard tibial cut in a PCL-retaining total knee replacement. The purpose of this study was to determine and quantify the amount of resection of the tibial PCL attachment with a 9 mm tibial cut with 3 degrees of posterior slope. Twenty cadaver tibias were used. The borders of the PCL footprint were demarcated, and calibrated digital pictures were taken in order to determine the surface area. A standard tibial intramedullary guide was used to prepare and perform a tibial cut at a depth of 9 mm with 3 degrees posterior slope. After the tibial cut was made, a second digital picture was taken using the same methodology to measure the surface area of the remaining PCL insertion. The mean surface area of the intact tibial PCL footprint before the cut was 148.9 ± 25.8 mm(2) and after the tibial cut 47.1 ± 28.0 mm(2). On average, 68.8 ± 15.3 % of the surface area of the PCL insertion was removed. The results of this study, therefore, indicate that the conventional technique for tibial preparation in cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty can result in damage or removal of a significant part of the tibial PCL insertion.

  9. Rotational profile of lower limb and axis for tibial component alignment in varus osteoarthritic knees.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Shahnawaz; Seon, Jong Keun; Song, Eun Kyoo

    2012-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe the changes in tibial torsion and knee rotation in varus osteoarthritic knees and to check the reliability of reference axis, for tibial component placement, based on femoral transepicondylar axis in these patients. A secondary goal was to determine which reference axis based on proximal tibia is most accurate for determining tibial component rotation. Fifty-two varus osteoarthritic knees and 20 normal knees were analyzed using computed tomographic scan. Tibial torsion and knee rotation were significantly reduced in patients with osteoarthritis. Reference axis based on posterior tibial condyles was most accurate and least variable for tibial component alignment. A significant negative correlation was found between knee rotation and tibial axis based on transepicondylar axis (r = -0.485). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Trans-tibial amputation for reflex sympathetic dystrophy: postoperative management.

    PubMed

    Emmelot, C H; Spauwen, P H; Hol, W; Overbeek, B

    2000-04-01

    This paper describes the experience with a trans-tibial amputation due to reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Because of lack of information about postoperative management in these cases, the medical history is provided together with a description of early mobilisation and technical information about prosthetic equipment.

  11. Congenital tibial deficiencies: treatment using the Ilizarov's external fixator.

    PubMed

    Courvoisier, A; Sailhan, F; Thevenin-Lemoine, C; Vialle, R; Damsin, J -P

    2009-10-01

    Congenital longitudinal deficiency of the tibia is a rare and often syndromic anomaly. Amputation is usually the preferred treatment option in complete absence of the tibia; however, a conservative management might be implemented in partial forms or in case of amputation refusal. Our experience with the Ilizarov fixator, convinced us this device was the best suited for progressive correction of lower limbs length discrepancies and articular or bone angular limb deformities (ALD). The aim of this study is to highlight the interest of the Ilizarov fixator in the multistage conservative treatment of congenital tibial deficiencies. A retrospective study was conducted in nine patients suffering from Type I or II congenital tibial deficiencies (Jones) and sequentially managed using the Ilizarov technique. The functional outcome after treatment completion was then clinically assessed. The different stages of correction were recorded for each individual patient. Patients were assessed at a mean follow-up of 18,3 years (4-32 years). The mean maximum knee flexion was 35 degrees (0 degrees -90 degrees ) in type I deficiencies and 118 degrees (90 degrees -140 degrees ) in type II deficiencies. One patient underwent amputation and a bilateral knee arthrodesis was performed in another case. Few series in the literature report a comparable length of follow-up period in the conservative management of severe congenital tibial deficiencies. In our study, the Ilizarov fixator provided satisfactory progressive corrections of severe congenital tibial deficiencies. Level IV therapeutic retrospective study. 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Arthroscopically assisted percutaneous osteosynthesis of lateral tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Kayali, Cemil; Oztürk, Hasan; Altay, Taskin; Reisoglu, Ali; Agus, Haluk

    2008-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the results of lateral tibial plateau fractures treated with arthroscopically assisted percutaneous osteosynthesis (AAPO). Twenty-one patients (14 men and 7 women) with a mean age of 41 years underwent AAPO to repair low-energy Schatzker I-III tibial plateau fractures. Under pneumatic tourniquet, we reduced and fixed the fracture with 1 or 2 subchondral cannulated screws. Accompanying lesions included 10 meniscus tears, which we partially excised in 9 patients and repaired in 1 patient. On the second postoperative day, patients began range-of-motion exercises. We encouraged partial and full weight-bearing by the sixth and tenth weeks, respectively. The mean follow-up period was 38 (range 12-96) months, and we evaluated the patients using Rasmussen's clinical and radiologic criteria. We used a t test for statistical analysis. There were 13 excellent (62%), 6 good (28%) and 2 fair (10%) clinical results, and 11 excellent (52%), 7 good (33%) and 3 fair (14%) radiologic results. We observed mild or moderate arthritic changes in 5 patients (24%). There were no infection or wound problems, but we removed hardware in 4 patients. Arthroscopically assisted treatment of lateral tibial plateau fractures yields satisfactory results and can be accepted as an alternative and effective method for the treatment of low-energy tibial plateau fractures.

  13. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction failure after tibial shaft malunion.

    PubMed

    LaFrance, Russell M; Gorczyca, John T; Maloney, Michael D

    2012-02-17

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is common, with >100,000 procedures performed each year in the United States. Several factors are associated with failure, including poor surgical technique, graft incorporation failure, overly aggressive rehabilitation, and trauma. Tibial shaft fracture is also common and frequently requires operative intervention. Failure to reestablish the anatomic alignment of the tibia may cause abnormal forces across adjacent joints, which can cause degenerative joint disease or attritional failure of the surrounding soft tissues. This article describes a case of ACL reconstruction failure after a tibial fracture that resulted in malunion. Excessive force across the graft from lower-extremity malalignment and improper tunnel placement likely contributed to the attritional failure of the graft. This patient required a staged procedure for corrective tibial osteotomy followed by revision ACL reconstruction. This article describes ACL reconstruction failure, tibial shaft malunions, their respective treatments, the technical details of each procedure, and the technical aspects that must be considered when these procedures are done in a staged manner by 2 surgeons. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Automated Measurement of Patient-Specific Tibial Slopes from MRI

    PubMed Central

    Amerinatanzi, Amirhesam; Summers, Rodney K.; Ahmadi, Kaveh; Goel, Vijay K.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Nyman, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multi-planar proximal tibial slopes may be associated with increased likelihood of osteoarthritis and anterior cruciate ligament injury, due in part to their role in checking the anterior-posterior stability of the knee. Established methods suffer repeatability limitations and lack computational efficiency for intuitive clinical adoption. The aims of this study were to develop a novel automated approach and to compare the repeatability and computational efficiency of the approach against previously established methods. Methods: Tibial slope geometries were obtained via MRI and measured using an automated Matlab-based approach. Data were compared for repeatability and evaluated for computational efficiency. Results: Mean lateral tibial slope (LTS) for females (7.2°) was greater than for males (1.66°). Mean LTS in the lateral concavity zone was greater for females (7.8° for females, 4.2° for males). Mean medial tibial slope (MTS) for females was greater (9.3° vs. 4.6°). Along the medial concavity zone, female subjects demonstrated greater MTS. Conclusion: The automated method was more repeatable and computationally efficient than previously identified methods and may aid in the clinical assessment of knee injury risk, inform surgical planning, and implant design efforts. PMID:28952547

  15. Posterior Tibial Slope as a Risk Factor for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture in Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Şenişik, Seçkin; Özgürbüz, Cengizhan; Ergün, Metin; Yüksel, Oğuz; Taskiran, Emin; Işlegen, Çetin; Ertat, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the primary stabilizer of the knee. An impairment of any of the dynamic or static stability providing factors can lead to overload on the other factors and ultimately to deterioration of knee stability. This can result in anterior tibial translation and rupture of the ACL. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of tibial slope on ACL injury risk on soccer players. A total of 64 elite soccer players and 45 sedentary controls were included in this longitudinal and controlled study. The angle between the tibial mid-diaphysis line and the line between the anterior and posterior edges of the medial tibial plateau was measured as the tibial slope via lateral radiographs. Individual player exposure, and injuries sustained by the participants were prospectively recorded. Eleven ACL injuries were documented during the study period. Tibial slope was not different between soccer players and sedentary controls. Tibial slope in the dominant and non-dominant legs was greater for the injured players compared to the uninjured players. The difference reached a significant level only for the dominant legs (p < 0.001). While the tibial slopes of the dominant and non-dominant legs were not different on uninjured players (p > 0.05), a higher tibial slope was observed in dominant legs of injured players (p < 0.05). Higher tibial slope on injured soccer players compared to the uninjured ones supports the idea that the tibial slope degree might be an important risk factor for ACL injury. Key points Dominant legs’ tibial slopes of the injured players were significantly higher compared to the uninjured players (p < 0.001). Higher tibial slope was determined in dominant legs compared to the non-dominant side, for the injured players (p = 0.042). Different tibial slope measures in dominant and non-dominant legs might be the result of different loading and/or adaptation patterns in soccer. PMID:24149571

  16. Congenital tibial deficiency: a 37-year experience at 1 institution.

    PubMed

    Clinton, Rebecca; Birch, John G

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate all cases of tibial deficiency seen at a single institution from 1975 to 2012, to classify these cases by the Jones classification if possible, to evaluate for associated anomalies, and to review the surgical treatments provided to these patients. Ninety-five patients (125 extremities) treated at our institution between 1975 and 2012 with tibial deficiency had complete records allowing for classification and review of full treatment course. These patients' records and imaging were retrospectively reviewed for any associated anomalies, surgical treatment performed, and limb deformity characterized by the Jones classification where possible. Seventy-three of 125 limbs (58%) were classified as Jones type 1A, 6 (5%) as type 1B, 18 (14%) as type 2, and 12 (10%) as type 4. Two limbs initially classified radiographically as type 3 deformities subsequently developed a proximal tibia epiphyses and thus did not represent true type 3 deformities. Fourteen limbs (11%) were characterized by global tibial deficiency but with proximal and distal epiphyses and could not be classified according to the Jones classification. Seventy-five of the 95 patients (79%) had associated anomalies. Other lower extremity anomalies were most frequent; however, upper extremity, spine, and visceral anomalies were also noted. True type 3 deformity as described by Jones was not seen in our patient population; all patients developed a proximal epiphysis. Therefore, this group may be better served by limb salvage than amputation. Fourteen (11%) limbs, characterized by global tibia shortening relative to the fibula of variable degree, could not be classified according to the Jones classification. We propose adding this group as a new group within the Jones classification, which we call type 5. Finally, in this patient population, the Brown procedure for type 1 tibial deficiency universally failed, confirming results of prior studies. This is a level IV study, a

  17. Fatigue behavior of Ilizarov frame versus tibial interlocking nail in a comminuted tibial fracture model: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Hasenboehler, Erik; Smith, Wade R; Laudicina, Laurence; Philips, Giby C; Stahel, Philip F; Morgan, Steven J

    2006-12-11

    Treatment options for comminuted tibial shaft fractures include plating, intramedullary nailing, and external fixation. No biomechanical comparison between an interlocking tibia nail with external fixation by an Ilizarov frame has been reported to date. In the present study, we compared the fatigue behaviour of Ilizarov frames to interlocking intramedullary nails in a comminuted tibial fracture model under a combined loading of axial compression, bending and torsion. Our goal was to determine the biomechanical characteristics, stability and durability for each device over a clinically relevant three month testing period. The study hypothesis was that differences in the mechanical properties may account for differing clinical results and provide information applicable to clinical decision making for comminuted tibia shaft fractures. In this biomechanical study, 12 composite tibial bone models with a comminuted fracture and a 25 mm diaphyseal gap were investigated. Of these, six models were stabilized with a 180-mm four-ring Ilizarov frame, and six models were minimally reamed and stabilized with a 10 mm statically locked Russell-Taylor Delta tibial nail. After measuring the pre-fatigue axial compression bending and torsion stiffness, each model was loaded under a sinusoidal cyclic combined loading of axial compression (2.8/28 lbf; 12.46/124.6 N) and torque (1.7/17 lbf-in; 0.19/1.92 Nm) at a frequency of 3 Hz. The test was performed until failure (implant breakage or >or= 5 degrees angulations and/or 2 cm shortening) occurred or until 252,000 cycles were completed, which corresponds to approximately three months testing period. In all 12 models, both the Ilizarov frame and the interlocking tibia nail were able to maintain fracture stability of the tibial defect and to complete the full 252,000 cycles during the entire study period of three months. A significantly higher stiffness to axial compression and torsion was demonstrated by the tibial interlocking nail model

  18. Long-term follow up of single-stage anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and high tibial osteotomy and its relation with posterior tibial slope.

    PubMed

    Arun, G R; Kumaraswamy, Vinay; Rajan, David; Vinodh, K; Singh, Ashutosh Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep; Chandrasekaran, Karthik; Santosh, Sahanand; Kishore, Chandan

    2016-04-01

    Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy is considered to be an effective treatment for medial compartmental osteoarthritis. It is generally admitted that tibial slope increases after open-wedge high tibial osteotomy and decreases after closing-wedge high tibial osteotomy. Young patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency along with medial compartment osteoarthritis need a combined procedure of ACL reconstruction along with high tibial osteotomy to regain physiological knee kinematics and to avoid chondral damage. We retrospectively analysed data from 30 patients who underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction along with medial opening-wedge osteotomy from Jan 2004 to June 2012 with a minimum follow up of 2 years. The pre-operative and post-operative posterior tibial slopes were measured. Functional outcome was analysed using clinico-radiological criteria, IKDC scoring and Lysholm score. Post-operative patients improved both clinically and functionally. The patients who had posterior tibial slope >5° decrease, compared to patients who had less <5° decrease, had better functional scores (IKDC and Lysholm score), which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Our study has shown that decreasing the tibial slope >5° compared to pre-operative value has functionally favourable effect on the reconstructed ACL graft and outcome. It is known that increasing slope causes an anterior shift in tibial resting position that is accentuated under axial loads. This suggests that decreasing tibial slope may be protective in an ACL deficient knee. Hence by placing the tricortical graft posterior to midline in the opening wedge reduces the posterior tibial slope and thereby reduces the stress on the graft leading to better functional outcome.

  19. Tibial component considerations in bicruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty: A 3D MRI evaluation of proximal tibial anatomy.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Vishal; Anari, Jason B; Ruutiainen, Alexander T; Voleti, Pramod B; Stephenson, Jason W; Lee, Gwo-Chin

    2016-08-01

    Restoration of normal anatomy and proper ligament balance are theoretical prerequisites for reproducing physiological kinematics with bicruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to use a 3D MRI technique to evaluate the topography of the proximal tibia and outline considerations in tibial component design for bicruciate-retaining TKA. We identified 100 consecutive patients (50 males and 50 females) between ages 20 and 40 years with knee MRIs without arthritis, dysplasia, ACL tears, or prior knee surgery. A novel 3D MRI protocol coordinating axial, coronal, and sagittal images was used to measure: 1) medial and lateral posterior tibial slopes; 2) medial and lateral coronal slopes; and 3) distance from the anterior tibia to the ACL footprint. There was no overall difference in medial and lateral posterior tibial slopes (5.5° (95% CI 5.0 to 6.0°) vs. 5.4° (95% CI 4.8 to 6.0°), respectively (p=0.80)), but 41 patients had side-to-side differences greater than 3°. The medial coronal slope was greater than the lateral coronal slope (4.6° (95% CI 4.0 to 5.1°) vs. 3.3° (95% CI 2.9 to 3.7°), respectively (p<0.0001)). Females had less clearance between the anterior tibia and ACL footprint than males (10.8mm (95% CI 10.4 to 11.2mm) vs. 13.0mm (95% CI 12.5 to 13.5mm), respectively (p<0.0001)). Due to highly variable proximal tibial topography, a monoblock bicruciate-retaining tibial baseplate may not reproduce normal anatomy in all patients. Level IV - Anatomic research study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Three-dimensional analysis of the tibial resection plane relative to the arthritic tibial plateau in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J Michael; Mahfouz, Mohamed R; Midillioğlu, Mehmet Rüştü; Nedopil, Alexander J; Howell, Stephen M

    2017-08-08

    Kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty strives to correct the arthritic deformity by restoring the native tibial joint line. However, the precision of such surgical correction needs to be quantified in order to reduce recuts of the resection and to design assisting instrumentation. This study describes a method for novel three-dimensional analysis of tibial resection parameters in total knee arthroplasty. Pre-operative versus post-operative differences in the slopes of the varus-valgus and flexion-extension planes and the proximal-distal level between the tibia resection and the arthritic tibial joint line can reliably be measured using the three-dimensional models of the tibia and fibula. This work uses the proposed comparison method to determine the parameters for resecting the tibia in kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty. Three-dimensional shape registration was performed between arthritic surface models segmented from pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging scans and resected surface models segmented from post-operative computed tomography scans. Mean, standard deviation and 95% confidence intervals were determined for all measurements.  RESULTS: Results indicate that kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty consistently corrects the varus deformity and restores the slope of the flexion-extension plane and the proximal-distal level of the arthritic tibial joint line. The slope of the varus-valgus plane is most precisely associated with the overall arthritic slope after approximately 3° of correction and the posterior slope is biased towards the overall arthritic plateau, though less precisely than the varus correlation. Use of this analysis on a larger population can quantify the effectiveness of the tibial resection for correcting pathologies, potentially reduce imprecisions in the surgical technique, and enable development of instrumentation that reduces the risk of resection recuts. The kinematic alignment technique consistently

  1. The effect of distal tibial rotation during high tibial osteotomy on the contact pressures in the knee and ankle joints.

    PubMed

    Suero, Eduardo M; Hawi, Nael; Westphal, Ralf; Sabbagh, Yaman; Citak, Musa; Wahl, Friedrich M; Krettek, Christian; Liodakis, Emmanouil

    2017-01-01

    Intraoperative fracture of the lateral cortex fractures of the tibia is a potential complication of high tibial osteotomy (HTO), which may result in inadequate rotational alignment of the distal tibia. Our aim was to determine how rotational malalignment of the distal tibial segment distal would affect intraarticular contact pressure distribution in the knee and ankle joints. A medial, L-shaped opening-wedge HTO was performed on seven human lower body specimens. A stainless steel device with integrated load cell was used to axially load the leg. Pressure-sensitive sensors were used to measure intraarticular contact pressures. Intraoperative changes in alignment were monitored in real time using computer navigation. Measurements were performed in the native knee alignment, after 10° and 15° of alignment correction and with the distal tibia fixed at 15° of external rotation. Moderate-to-large alignment changes after medial opening-wedge HTO resulted in a shift in intraarticular contact pressures from the medial compartment of the knee towards the lateral compartment. However, fixation of the distal tibial segment at 15° of external rotation neutralized this intended beneficial effect. In the ankle, external rotation of the distal tibia also caused a reduction in contact pressures and tibiotalar contact area. Malrotation of the distal tibial fragment negates the intended effect of offloading the diseased compartment of the knee, with the contact pressures remaining similar to those of the native knee. Furthermore, malrotation leads to abnormal ankle contact pressures. Care should be taken to ensure appropriate rotational alignment of the distal tibial segment during intraoperative fixation of HTO procedures.

  2. Quantification of tibial bone loss in antegrade versus retrograde tunnel placement for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Osti, Michael; Krawinkel, Alessa; Hoffelner, Thomas; Benedetto, Karl Peter

    2015-08-01

    Tibial bone destruction during primary graft tunnel placement and tibial bone loss following tunnel enlargement represent major challenges in revision reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Initial all-inside ACL reconstruction facilitates the preparation of tibial bone sockets rather than full tunnels that potentially preserve tibial bone stock. The purpose of this study was to comparatively assess length, diameter and volume of tibial graft tunnels following all-inside and conventional ACL reconstruction. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans of 59 patients were assessed following ACL reconstruction. In 35 patients we used conventional antegrade tibial tunnel drilling and in 24 all-inside retrograde tibial bone sockets. Imaging analysis included total, minimal and maximal tunnel length and tunnel diameter. Tunnel volumes were calculated corresponding to these parameters. Statistically significant group differences (p < 0.01) could be detected for tibial tunnel volume, length and diameter between conventional antegrade and all-inside retrograde tibial bone tunnels and sockets, respectively. Compared with conventional techniques, all-inside retrograde drilling of tibial bone sockets is effective in preserving significant bone stock, which might be beneficial for revision reconstruction in cases of eventual primary graft failure.

  3. Measurements of tibial rotation during a simulated pivot shift manoeuvre using a gyroscopic sensor.

    PubMed

    Petrigliano, Frank A; Borgstrom, Per Henrik; Kaiser, William J; McAllister, David R; Markolf, Keith L

    2015-08-01

    The pivot shift has been correlated with patient-reported outcomes and knee function following ACL injury and reconstruction. Tibial rotation has been recognized as an important component to the pivot shift motion path. However, few methodologies exist to quantify tibial rotation in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to validate the use of a wireless gyroscopic sensor to measure axial rotation of the tibia during a manually simulated pivot shift manoeuvre in cadaveric specimens. We hypothesized that integrated gyroscopic measurements of tibial rotation velocity (tibial rotation) would be highly correlated with tibial rotations simultaneously recorded with a rotary potentiometer during a simulated pivot shift motion under intact and ACL-deficient conditions. Gyroscopic measurements of rotational velocity were integrated and calibrated to a known arc of rotation. The gyroscope was mounted on the distal tibia with its axis aligned to the tibial shaft. Ten simulations of a pivot shift motion pathway were performed on nine cadaveric knees under intact and ACL-deficient conditions. Logistic regression was used to compare gyroscopic and potentiometer measurements of tibial rotation for both test conditions. Gyroscopic measurements of maximum external tibial rotation during the simulated pivot shift motion pathway were strongly correlated with potentiometer measurements of external tibial rotation in both the intact and ACL-deficient states (R (2) = 0.984). The gyroscope evaluated in this cadaveric study was capable of accurately recording tibial rotation during a simulated pivot shift motion pathway.

  4. Arthroscopic management of tibial plateau fractures: special techniques.

    PubMed

    Perez Carro, L

    1997-04-01

    Arthroscopic assessment and treatment of tibial plateau fractures has gained popularity in recent years. This article describes some maneuvers to facilitate the management of these fractures with the arthroscope. We use a 14-mm rounded curved periosteal elevator to manipulate fragments within the joint instead of using a probe. To facilitate visualization of fractures, we describe the use of loop sutures around the meniscus to retract the meniscus when there is a tear in the meniscus. We suggest the use of the arthroscope for directly viewing the interosseous space to be sure that any internal fixation devices remain outside the articular space. The use of these tactics will allow a faster, more accurate reduction with less radiation exposure in patients with displaced tibial plateau fractures.

  5. Immediate changes of angiosome perfusion during tibial angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Rother, Ulrich; Krenz, Katrin; Lang, Werner; Horch, Raymund E; Schmid, Axel; Heinz, Marco; Meyer, Alexander; Regus, Susanne

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, a controversial discussion about the clinical relevance of the angiosome concept during tibial angioplasty has developed. Therefore, we conducted a prospective study to evaluate the angiosome concept on the level of microcirculation during tibial vascular interventions. Thirty patients with isolated tibial angioplasty were examined prospectively. Macrocirculation was evaluated by measurement of the ankle-brachial index (ABI). For the assessment of microcirculation, a combined method of laser Doppler flowmetry and tissue spectrometry (O2C; LEA Medizintechnik GmbH, Giessen, Germany) was applied. Microcirculatory parameters were measured continuously during the procedures. Measuring points were located over different angiosomes of the index foot; a control probe was placed on the contralateral leg. Cumulated microcirculation parameters (sO 2 , flow) as well as the ABI showed a significant improvement postinterventionally (ABI, P < .001; sO 2 , P < .001; flow, P < .001). Assessment of the separate angiosomes of the index leg and the comparison of the directly revascularized (DR) and indirectly revascularized (IR) angiosomes showed no significant difference concerning the microperfusion postinterventionally (DR - IR: sO 2 , P = .399; flow, P = .909) as well as during angioplasty. Even a further subdivision of the collective into patients with diabetes (sO 2 , P = .445; flow, P =.758) and renal insufficiency (sO 2 , P = .246; flow, P = .691) could not demonstrate a superiority of the direct revascularization at the level of microcirculation in these patients (comparison DR - IR). There is a significant overall improvement in tissue perfusion of the foot immediately after tibial angioplasty. The effect shown in this study, however, was found to be global and was not restricted to certain borders, such as defined by angiosomes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Titanium elastic nails for pediatric tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Wudbhav N; Jones, Kristofer J; David Horn, B; Wells, Lawrence

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of elastic stable intramedullary nailing for unstable pediatric tibial shaft fractures using titanium elastic nails (TENs). To our knowledge, this is the largest series reported in the literature of this specific fixation technique. We reviewed all children with tibial shaft fractures treated operatively at our tertiary care children's hospital to find those patients who underwent fixation with TENs. Between 1998 and 2005, we identified 19 consecutive patients who satisfied inclusion criteria. The average age of the patients in our series was 12.2 years (range 7.2-16 years), and mean follow-up was 15.7 months (range 6-28 months). Patient charts and radiographs were retrospectively reviewed to gather the clinical data. Outcomes were classified as excellent, satisfactory, or poor according to the Flynn classification for flexible nail fixation. All patients achieved complete healing at a mean of 11.0 weeks (range 6-18 weeks). At final follow-up, mean angulation was 2 degrees (range 0 degrees -6 degrees ) in the sagittal plane and 3 degrees in the coronal plane (range 0 degrees -9 degrees ). Five patients (26%) complained of irritation at the nail entry site; there were no leg length discrepancies or physeal arrests as a result of treatment. Two patients required remanipulation after the index procedure to maintain adequate alignment. According to the Flynn classification, we had 12 excellent, six satisfactory, and one poor result. Although the indications for operative fixation of pediatric tibial shaft fractures are rare, occasionally surgical treatment is warranted. Based on our results, elastic stable intramedullary nailing with titanium elastic nails is an effective surgical technique which allows rapid healing of tibial shaft fractures with an acceptable rate of complications.

  7. Tibial acceleration profiles during the menstrual cycle in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Erik; Bryant, Adam L; Livingstone, Elisabeth; Reaburn, Peter; Tetsworth, Kevin; Imhoff, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Fluctuating levels of endogenous estrogen are thought to have an adverse effect on lower limb biomechanics, given the observed higher rate of ACL injury at certain phases of the menstrual cycle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of fluctuating endogenous estrogen levels during the menstrual cycle on acceleration transients at the proximal tibia in young physically active females. Eleven females aged 16-18 years participated in this study and were compared to a male control group. Female subjects were tested at each of the four phases of the menstrual cycle: menses, follicular, ovulation and luteal. On each test occasion, acceleration transients at the proximal tibia were measured while subjects performed an abrupt deceleration task (simulated netball landing). No significant differences were found between the different phases of the menstrual cycle for peak tibial acceleration (PTA; P = 0.57), and time to zero tibial acceleration (TZTA; P = 0.59). However, there was a significant difference for time to peak tibial acceleration (TPTA) between menstruation and follicular (P = 0.04), menstruation and ovulation (P = 0.001), menstruation and luteal phase (P = 0.002), and follicular phase and ovulation (P = 0.007). In the male control group, no significant between-test session differences were observed for PTA (P = 0.48), TZTA (P = 0.08) and TPTA (P = 0.29). While there were no significant between-group differences for PTA (P = 0.21) and TZTA (P = 0.48), significant between-group differences were observed for TPTA (P = 0.001). The results of this project strongly suggest that serum estrogen fluctuations have an effect on tibial acceleration profiles in young female athletes during different phases of the menstrual cycle.

  8. Experimental validation of the GNRB® for measuring anterior tibial translation.

    PubMed

    Jenny, J-Y; Puliero, B; Schockmel, G; Harnoist, S; Clavert, P

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the technique used to measure anterior tibial translation in cadaver knees using the GNRB ® device by comparing it with the gold standard, the OrthoPilot ® navigation system. Simultaneous measurement of anterior tibial translation by the GNRB ® and the OrthoPilot ® in the chosen experimental conditions will result in significant differences between devices. Five fresh frozen cadavers were used. The knee was placed in 20° flexion. Four calibrated posterior-anterior forces (134N to 250N) were applied. For each applied force, the anterior tibial translation was measured simultaneously by both devices. Two conditions were analyzed: anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) intact and ACL transected. The primary criterion was anterior tibial translation at 250N. The measurements were compared using a paired Student's t-test and the correlation coefficient was calculated. Agreement between the two methods was determined using Bland-Altman plots. Consistency of the measurements was determined by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient. For all applied forces and ligament conditions, the mean difference between the GNRB ® and the navigation system was 0.1±1.7mm (n.s). Out of the 80 measurements taken, the difference between devices was less than ±2mm in 66 cases (82%). There was a strong correlation, good agreement and high consistency between the two measurement methods. The differences between the measurements taken by the GNRB ® and the navigation system were small and likely have no clinical impact. We recommend using the GNRB ® to evaluate anterior knee laxity. II controlled laboratory study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Tibial shaft fracture and ankle injury - Case report.

    PubMed

    Zamboni, Caio; Campos, Felipe Augusto Garcez de; Foni, Noel Oizerovici; Souza, Rafael Carboni; Christian, Ralph Walter; Mercadante, Marcelo Tomanik

    2016-01-01

    The authors report on a case of tibial shaft fracture associated with ankle injury. The clinical, radiological and surgical characteristics are discussed. Assessment of associated injuries is often overlooked and these injuries are hard to diagnose. When torque occurs in the lower limb, the ankle becomes susceptible to simultaneous injury. It is essential to make careful assessment based on clinical, radiographic, intraoperative and postoperative characteristics in order to attain functional recovery.

  10. Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Neurofibromatosis Type 1 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David A. Stevenson, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Utah... Neurofibromatosis Type 1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0250 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David Stevenson...observed in 5% of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), typically identified in infancy. The majority of NF1 individuals with tibial bowing

  11. Skew flap technique in trans-tibial amputation.

    PubMed

    Jain, S K

    2005-12-01

    The long posterior flap technique is an established technique for trans-tibial amputation in ischaemic limbs. Despite its success, it has a few drawbacks. It may be time-consuming and requires considerable planning, and at times the dog-ears cannot be avoided. The suture line passes over the distal end of the stump, which is usually a problem during prosthetic use. The skew flap technique retains the advantages of the long posterior flap technique and eliminates the difficulties of prosthetic fitting. The equal skin flaps are skewed so that the flaps become anteromedial and posterolateral, whereas the calf muscle flap remains long underneath the skewed skin flaps. The posterior muscles are brought anteriorly covering the cut ends of the bones and are buried in between the tibia and its anterior periosteum, by suturing their margins with the periosteum. The skew flap procedure was perceived in 1980 and was started at the Artificial Limb Centre, Pune in 1983 by the author. This procedure underwent many changes during the initial 5 years and by the end of April 1992, 85 trans-tibial amputations were performed using this technique. A 9-year follow-up of these patients, who had been using prostheses with ease and without any discomfort or problem, had been exceptionally good. Encouraged by the results, this technique is now being practised as routinely. By March 1998, a total of 125 such trans-tibial amputations had been performed in 119 patients, with excellent results.

  12. Proximal tibial resections and reconstructions: clinical outcome of 225 patients.

    PubMed

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Pala, Elisa; Angelini, Andrea; Ferraro, Andrea; Ruggieri, Pietro

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies reported variable outcome of proximal tibial resections and reconstructions. Therefore, we evaluated the survival, Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) function, and complications of patients and reconstructions in this location. We reviewed the files of 225 patients with proximal tibial tumors treated with proximal tibial resection, fixed or rotating hinge megaprosthetic reconstruction and extensor mechanism reattachment using sutures, mechanical clamping, artificial ligaments, and/or gastrocnemius flap from 1985 to 2010 (mean follow-up, 90 months; median, 56; range, 2-294). Survival of patients and reconstructions, type of hinge, extensor mechanism reconstruction, MSTS function, and complications were analyzed. Survival of patients with sarcomas was 68% and 62% at 5 and 10 years. Survival of megaprosthetic reconstructions was 82% and 78% at 5 and 10 years, without any difference between fixed and rotating hinge megaprostheses. MSTS function was significantly better in univariate and multivariate analysis for rotating compared to fixed hinge megaprostheses, without any difference between the types of extensor mechanism reconstructions. Most common complications were infection (12%), aseptic loosening (6%), and extensor mechanism rupture (3%). Rotating hinge proximal tibia megaprosthetic reconstructions have better function compared to fixed hinge, regardless of the type of extensor mechanism reconstruction. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [External patello-tibial transfixation. I: Indications and technique].

    PubMed

    Gotzen, L; Ishaque, B; Morgenthal, F; Petermann, J

    1997-01-01

    Patello-tibial transfixation using the MPT-fixator is a new kind of external fixation. The device works biomechanically transferring the quadriceps tension forces from the patella to the lower leg and converting them into extension of the knee. The fixator can be applied in two different configurations. When performing configuration A, a Steinmann pin with a central thread is transversely placed through the patella and proximal tibia. Both pins are joined to connecting rods. Configuration B differs from type A in that a Schanz screw is inserted from anterior to posterior through the proximal tibia. The frame construction is achieved by fastening the tibial-sided Steinmann pin with a special clamp at the Schanz screw. Patello-tibial transfixation is indicated in the repair of fresh extensor mechanism disruption and reconstruction of neglected rupture of the patellar tendon. The technique provides a secure protection of the repair and reconstruction against mechanical overloading during the healing period. It enables immediate functional after-treatment and mobilization with early full weight bearing.

  14. Tibial rotation in running: Does rearfoot adduction matter?

    PubMed

    Fischer, Katina Mira; Willwacher, Steffen; Hamill, Joseph; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2017-01-01

    To quantify the magnitude of global rearfoot motion, in particular, rearfoot adduction and to investigate its relationship to tibial rotation. One hundred and four participants ran barefoot on an Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) foam. Global range of motion values for the shank, rearfoot and medial metatarsal segment as well as foot motion within the transverse plane were determined using an optoelectric motion capture system. Relationships between parameters were assessed using partial correlation analysis. Global rearfoot adduction amounts to 6.1° (±2.7). Furthermore global rearfoot adduction and rearfoot eversion were significantly related to internal tibial rotation (partial correlation: r=0.37, p<0.001 and r=-0.24, p=0.015, respectively). Furthermore, a strong relationship between rearfoot adduction and transverse within foot motion (r=-0.65, p<0.001) was found. Next to rearfoot eversion, rearfoot adduction may be also important to the understanding of ankle joint coupling. Controlling rearfoot adduction and transverse within foot motion may be a mechanism to control excessive tibial rotation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bilateral synchronous tibial periosteal osteosarcoma with familial incidence.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Aditya V; Jelinek, James S; Seibel, Nita L; Meloni-Ehrig, Aurelia M; Kumar, Dhruv; Henshaw, Robert M

    2012-08-01

    Multifocal or multicentric osteosarcoma (OS) has been described as tumor occurrence at two or more sites in a patient without visceral metastasis. These may be synchronous (more than one lesion at presentation) or metachronous (new tumor developing after the initial treatment). The incidence of multifocal OS has ranged from 1.5 to 5.4% in large series, with the synchronous type being rarer. Similarly, periosteal OS is another rare subtype of surface OS and constitutes less than 2% of all OS. An 11-year-old female was diagnosed with bilateral synchronous tibial periosteal OS, which were confirmed by CT-guided biopsies. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the patient underwent a staged wide local resection of the tumors. The defect was reconstructed with a proximal tibial replacement on the left side and autologous bone grafting on the right side. The patient did well after surgery and is free of disease at 5.5 years of follow-up. However, her brother also developed a right tibial periosteal osteosarcoma 4 years after her index surgery. Genetic analysis of blood sample from both patients showed a similar missense mutation in at least one allele of TP53 gene (exon 8). To the best of our knowledge, a case of bilateral 'synchronous' periosteal OS with a familial incidence has not been reported before.

  16. [Tibial plateau fractures in winter sports. Current treatment options].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, V

    2014-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures overall and especially in winter sports are rare. However, the incidence in recent years is increasing. In a retrospective study from 2009-2012, we found 52 injuries affiliated with winter sports. Noticeable was the high rate of severe injury patterns. In 20 of the 52 cases, there were complete articular or bicondylar fractures (38 %). In 25 cases (48 %), fragment dislocation corresponding to the Moore classification was observed. The operative algorithm was based on the initial soft tissue damage and the type of fracture. A two or more stage procedure with first line soft tissue management and temporary external fixation stabilization was performed 12 times. The final internal osteosynthesis was based on the morphology of the fracture, i.e., direct exposition and stabilization of relevant fracture patterns. In 24 cases (46 %), there was a need for two (or more) approaches. In the anterior aspect of the tibial head, customary implants were used; posterior pathologies were stabilized with low-dimension implants. Summarizing with regard to the literature, there is a more discriminating view of tibial plateau fractures, regarding all relevant fracture patterns. Thus, different options in operative access and choice of implants can be made.

  17. Tibial Growth Disturbance Following Distal Femoral Resection and Expandable Endoprosthetic Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Arteau, Annie; Lewis, Valerae O.; Moon, Bryan S.; Satcher, Robert L.; Bird, Justin E.; Lin, Patrick P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In growing children, an expandable endoprosthesis is commonly used after distal femoral resection to compensate for loss of the distal femoral physis. Our hypothesis was that such prostheses can affect proximal tibial growth, which would contribute to an overall leg-length discrepancy and cause angular deformity. Methods: Twenty-three skeletally immature patients underwent the placement of a distal femoral expandable endoprosthesis between 1994 and 2012. Tibial length, femoral length, and mechanical axis were measured radiographically to determine the growth rate. Results: No patient had radiographic evidence of injury to the proximal tibial physis at the time of surgery other than insertion of the tibial stem. Fifteen (65%) of the patients experienced less proximal tibial growth in the operative compared with the contralateral limb. In ten (43%) of the patients, the discrepancy progressively worsened, whereas in five (22%) of the patients, the discrepancy stabilized. Seven patients did not develop tibial length discrepancy, and one patient had overgrowth of the tibia. For the ten patients with progressive shortening, the proximal tibial physis grew an average of 4.0 mm less per year in the operative limb. Five (22%) of the patients had ≥20 mm of tibial length discrepancy at last follow-up. Three of these patients underwent contralateral tibial epiphysiodesis. Three patients required corrective surgery for angular deformity. Conclusions: The tibial growth plate may not resume normal growth after implantation of a distal femoral prosthesis. Physeal bar resection, prosthesis revision, and contralateral tibial epiphysiodesis may be needed to address tibial growth abnormalities. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:26582624

  18. CAD/CAM evaluation of the fit of trans-tibial sockets for trans-tibial amputation stumps.

    PubMed

    Isozaki, Koji; Hosoda, Masataka; Masuda, Tadashi; Morita, Sadao

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to objectively evaluate the fit of sockets for trans-tibial stumps in order to establish a guideline for use in the automated production of prosthetic sockets. Subjects were 24 trans-tibial amputees. Using a CAD/CAM system, 11 parameters regarding the 3D shape of the stumps and the sockets were objectively evaluated. A correlation was found between the activity level and the upper and lower volumes of the socket, and between the cause of amputation and the upper volume of the socket. It was considered desirable to make the lower part of the socket looser for patients with lower activity levels, to make the upper part tighter for patients with higher activity levels, and to make the upper part looser for amputation patients with peripheral circulatory diseases.

  19. Tibial rotational osteotomy for idiopathic torsion. A comparison of the proximal and distal osteotomy levels.

    PubMed

    Krengel, W F; Staheli, L T

    1992-10-01

    A retrospective analysis was done of 52 rotational tibial osteotomies (RTOs) performed on 35 patients with severe idiopathic tibial torsion. Thirty-nine osteotomies were performed at the proximal or midtibial level. Thirteen were performed at the distal tibial level with a technique previously described by one of the authors. Serious complications occurred in five (13%) of the proximal and in none of the distal RTOs. For severe and persisting idiopathic tibial torsion, the authors recommend correction by RTO at the distal level. Proximal level osteotomy is indicated only when a varus or valgus deformity required concurrent correction.

  20. A novel technique using sensor-based technology to evaluate tibial tray rotation.

    PubMed

    Roche, Martin W; Elson, Leah C; Anderson, Christopher R

    2015-03-01

    Rotational tibiofemoral congruency and centralized patellar tracking are critical technical factors that affect the postoperative success of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Several techniques are used to position the femoral component, but there is no validated method for achieving the ideal rotational position of the tibial component. It has been suggested that referencing the midmedial third of the tibial tubercle intraoperatively mitigates positional outliers. This study used data collected from intraoperative sensors to quantify the variability associated with using the midmedial third of the tibial tubercle in 170 patients undergoing primary TKA. With the sensor-equipped trial insert in place, the knee was taken into extension and the location of the femoral condylar contact point on the articular surface of the tibial insert was displayed. Rotational adjustments of the tibial tray were evaluated in real time as the surgeon corrected tray malpositioning. The initial and final angles of tibial tray rotation were captured and recorded with intraoperative video feed. When referencing the tubercle, 53% of patients had asymmetric tibiofemoral congruency in extension. Of those patients, 68% had excessive internal rotation of the tibial tray relative to the femur and 32% had excessive external rotation. The average tibiofemoral incongruency deviated from a neutral position by 6° (range, 0.5°-19.2°). Data from this evaluation suggest that use of the tibial tubercle to maximize tibiofemoral congruency is highly variable and inconsistent for confirming the final rotation of the tibial tray. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Intramedullary fixation of tibial shaft fractures using an expandable nail: early results of 54 acute tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Ely L; Geller, David S; Yacoubian, Shahan V; Shasha, Nadav; Dekel, Shmuel; Lorich, Dean G

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate and present our experience using the expandable nail system for the treatment of acute tibial shaft fractures. Retrospective study. Two level-1 trauma centers-University teaching hospitals. Fifty-four consecutive patients were treated by this nail system for acute tibial shaft fracture. Two nail diameters were used, 8.5 mm and 10 mm. Operation, hospitalization and healing times, reaming versus nonreaming, isolated versus multiple injuries, and reoperations were recorded and analyzed statistically. Follow-up was obtained either until fracture healing or for a minimum of 1 year with an average of 14 months (12 to 24). All fractures healed in an average time of 72 days (21 to 204). The average healing times for patients treated with 8.5-mm and 10-mm nails were 77.2 days (27 to 204) and 63.4 days (21 to 121), respectively. Average operative time was 103 minutes (40 to 185) if reamed and 56 minutes (30 to 80) if unreamed. Average healing times were 65.4 days (21 to 190) if reamed and 79.5 days (42 to 204) if unreamed. There were 11 complications (20.4%) related to the nailing: 3 deep infections, 2 superficial infections, 2 bone shortenings of 1 cm secondary to nail protrusion in the knee, 1 compartment syndrome, 1 fracture propagation, 1 distal malalignment, and 1 delayed union. Hardware was removed in 6 patients (3 infections, 2 patients' request and 1 protrusion into the knee), and 1 additional patient underwent exchange nailing due to a delayed union. The expandable nail offers the theoretical advantages of improved load sharing and rotational control without the need for interlocking screws. This study demonstrates satisfactory healing and alignment for the treatment of tibial shaft fractures using this device. However, caution must be exercised when using this nail in cases of significant comminution and in cases where the fracture pattern involves the more proximal or distal aspect of the tibial shaft.

  2. Long-term complications following tibial plateau levelling osteotomy in small dogs with tibial plateau angles > 30°.

    PubMed

    Knight, Rebekah; Danielski, Alan

    2018-04-21

    Tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) is commonly performed for surgical management of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease. It has been suggested that small dogs may have steeper tibial plateau angles (TPAs) than large dogs, which has been associated with increased complication rates after TPLO. A retrospective study was performed to assess the rate and nature of long-term complications following TPLO in small dogs with TPAs>30°. Medical records were reviewed for dogs with TPAs>30° treated for CCL rupture by TPLO with a 2.0 mm plate over a five-year period. Radiographs were assessed to determine TPA, postoperative tibial tuberosity width and to identify any complication. Up-to-date medical records were obtained from the referring veterinary surgeon and any complications in the year after surgery were recorded. The effects of different variables on complication rate were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Minor complications were reported in 22.7 per cent of cases. This is similar to or lower than previously reported complication rates for osteotomy techniques in small dogs and dogs with steep TPAs. A smaller postoperative TPA was the only variable significantly associated with an increased complication rate. No major complications were identified. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Effect of Osteotomy Position and Tibial Plateau Rotation on the Tensile Force Required for Failure of the Canine Quadriceps Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Katie; Tarlton, John; Parsons, Kevin; Toscano, Mike; Burton, Neil

    2015-08-01

    To measure the tensile force required for failure of the quadriceps mechanism with different tibial tuberosity widths and different degrees of rotation of the tibial plateau after radial osteotomy of the proximal tibia. Ex vivo study, randomized unblocked design Thirty-five hind limbs from 18 adult Greyhound cadavers. Part 1 (15 limbs)--The center of rotation of the proximal tibial radial osteotomy was advanced craniodistally, progressively reducing absolute tibial tuberosity width (ATTW) for 5 different widths. Part 2 (21 limbs)-Tibial plateau rotation was performed at a set ATTW. Rotation was varied as a function of tibial tuberosity position with rotation proximal, level with, or distal to the tuberosity. All 35 limbs were tested with force applied via the quadriceps mechanism until construct failure occurred. All but 2 limbs failed by fracture of the tibial tuberosity. The tensile force required for failure of the quadriceps mechanism increased linearly with increasing ATTW. Significantly less force (P = .016) was required for failure of the quadriceps mechanism when the rotation of the tibial plateau was distal to the level of the patella tendon (mean 1,877 N) compared to when it was above the level of the patella tendon (mean 2,533 N). Rotation of the tibial plateau distal to the level of the patella tendon insertion point resulted in fracture at the base of the tibial tuberosity, level with the tibial plateau buttress. The overwhelming mode of failure of the quadriceps mechanism was by tibial tuberosity fracture, thus this was the weakest part of the construct. Reducing the tibial tuberosity width and rotation of the tibial plateau segment below the patella tendon insertion decreased the force required for tibial tuberosity fracture. These results support the idea of a safe point with the tibial plateau segment providing buttress to the tibial tuberosity. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  4. [Clinical practice guideline on closed tibial plateau fractures in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Ocegueda-Sosa, Miguel Ángel; Valenzuela-Flores, Adriana Abigail; Aldaco-García, Víctor Daniel; Flores-Aguilar, Sergio; Manilla-Lezama, Nicolás; Pérez-Hernández, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Closed tibiae plateau fractures are common injuries in the emergency room. The optimal treatment is not well defined or established. For this reason, there are several surgical management options: open reduction and internal fixation, closed reduction and percutaneous synthesis, external fixation, and even conservative treatment for this kind of fracture. The mechanism of production of this fracture is through large varus or valgus deformation to which is added a factor of axial load. The trauma may be direct or indirect. The degree of displacement, fragmentation and involvement of soft tissues like ligaments, menisci, vascular and nerve structures are determined by the magnitude of the force exerted. Any intra-articular fracture treatment can lead to an erroneous instability, deformity and limitation of motion with subsequent arthritic changes, leading to joint incongruity, limiting activity and significantly altering the quality of life. Open reduction and internal fixation with anatomic restitution is the method used in this type of fracture. However, the results of numerous publications can be questioned due to the inclusion in the same study of fractures treated with very different methods.

  5. THE TIBIAL APERTURE SURFACE ANALYSIS IN ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION PROCESS.

    PubMed

    Milojević, Zoran; Tabaković, Slobodan; Vićević, Marija; Obradović, Mirko; Vranjes, Miodrag; Milankov, Miroslav Z

    2016-01-01

    The tibial tunnel aperture in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is usually analyzed as an ellipse, generated as an intersection between a tibial plateau and a tibial bone tunnel. The aim of this study is to show that the tibial tunnel aperture, which utilizes 3D tibial surface bone model, differs significantly from common computations which present the tibial tunnel anterior cruciate ligament aperture surface as an ellipse. An interactive program system was developed for the tibial tunnel aperture analysis which included the real tibia 3D surface bone model generated from a series of computed tomography images of ten male patients, their mean age being 25 years. In aperture calculation, the transverse drill angle of 10 degrees was used, whereas sagittal drill angles of 40 degrees, 50 degrees and 60 degrees were used with the drill-bit diameter set to 10 mm. The real 3D and 2D tibial tunnel aperture surface projection was calculated and compared with an ellipse. According to the calculations, generated 3D aperture surfaces were different for every patient even though the same drill parameters were used. For the sagittal drill angles of 40 degrees, 50 degrees and 60 degrees, the mean difference between the projected 3D and 2D area on the tibial plateau was 19.6 +/- 5.4%, 21.1 +/- 8.0% and 21.3 +/- 9.6%, respectively. The difference between the projected 3D area on the tibial plateau and ellipse surface was 54.8 +/- 16.3%, 39.6 +/- 10.4% and 25.0 +/- 8.0% for sagittal drill angles of 40 degrees, 50 degrees and 60 degrees, respectively. The tibial tunnel aperture surface area differs significantly from the ellipse surface area, which is commonly used in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction analysis. Inclusion of the 3D shape of the tibial attachment site in the preoperative anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction planning process can lead to a more precise individual anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction on the tibial bone. Both

  6. Rotational alignment of tibial components in mobile-bearing TKA: posterior substituted vs. PCL retaining.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yoshinori; Noguchi, Hideo; Sato, Junko; Todoroki, Koji; Toyabe, Shin-Ichi

    2015-09-01

    The medial border of the tibial tubercle (MBTT) is one of the fixed anatomic landmarks for tibial component setting during total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In mobile-bearing TKA using a tibial cut first technique, the final tibial component rotation can be guided by the position it achieves following several flexion-extension cycles. In this study, tibial component angle (TCA) and tibial rotational angle (TRA) were determined in dependence of retention or resection of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). The TCA and TRA were examined in 206 patients who underwent primary TKA (PCL retaining: 104 knees, PCL substituting: 102 knees). The tibial component rotation was intraoperatively setting between the parallel to the axis of the most medial aspect of the tibial tubercle as the anterior anatomic landmark and the center of the tibial component as the posterior landmark at the maximum coverage with the osteotomized tibial plateau with its adjustment after several knee flexion-extension exercises. A postoperative quantitative three-dimensional computed tomography technique was used for measurements by a single observer. The TCA showed a divergence of 0.21° external to the MBTT in the PCL-retaining design and 1.62° internal divergence in the PCL-substituting design. The TRA showed an internal divergence of 0.88° in the PCL-retaining design and an internal divergence of 2.12° in the PCL-substituting design. There were no significant differences between the two designs. The MBTT might be regarded as a reliable landmark for obtaining an acceptable tibial rotational setting in mobile-bearing TKA despite PCL retention.

  7. Metachronous Bilateral Posterior Tibial Artery Aneurysms in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV

    SciTech Connect

    Hagspiel, Klaus D., E-mail: kdh2n@virginia.edu; Bonatti, Hugo; Sabri, Saher

    2011-04-15

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV is a life-threatening genetic connective tissue disorder. We report a 24-year-old woman with EDS-IV who presented with metachronous bilateral aneurysms/pseudoaneurysms of the posterior tibial arteries 15 months apart. Both were treated successfully with transarterial coil embolization from a distal posterior tibial approach.

  8. Early trans-tibial oedema control using polymer gel socks.

    PubMed

    Graf, M; Freijah, N

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine if early trans-tibial oedema control, by polymer gel socks prior to the fitting of a shrinker, could enhance trans-tibial stump volume reduction. Sixteen (16) adults, following unilateral trans-tibial amputation, were randomly allocated into 2 groups and baseline volume measurements taken of their stumps. The control group followed the normal removable rigid dressing programme, while the experimental group wore a polymer gel sock in conjunction with the removable rigid dressing. When wound healing permitted fitting of a shrinker, use of the polymer sock was discontinued and a stump volume measurement was taken. The shrinker was worn for a minimum of 2 days before casting for a prosthesis and a final stump volume measurement taken. Volumes were measured by water filling casts taken of the stump and calculated as a percentage of the baseline volume and the rate of volume reduction calculated. Two t-tests for unequal variance (2-tail, alpha=0.05) were used to compare the rate of percentage volume reduction between the groups, for the trial period of baseline to shrinker fitting and baseline to casting. A statistical difference was observed for the period of baseline to shrinker exceeding the 95% confidence limit (p<0.05). No significant difference was detected for the overall period of baseline to cast. It was concluded that early oedema control by polymer gel sock could enhance stump volume reduction, prior to a shrinker. It was also found that no volume advantage was carried over to the time of casting for a prosthesis.

  9. ß-TCP bone substitutes in tibial plateau depression fractures.

    PubMed

    Rolvien, Tim; Barvencik, Florian; Klatte, Till Orla; Busse, Björn; Hahn, Michael; Rueger, Johannes Maria; Rupprecht, Martin

    2017-10-01

    The use of beta-tricalciumphospate (ß-TCP, Cerasorb®) ceramics as an alternative for autologous bone-grafting has been outlined previously, however with no study focusing on both clinical and histological outcomes of ß-TCP application in patients with multi-fragment tibial plateau fractures. The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term results of ß-TCP in patients with tibial plateau fractures. 52 patients were included in this study. All patients underwent open surgery with ß-TCP block or granulate application. After a mean follow-up of 36months (14-64months), the patients were reviewed. Radiography and computed-tomography were performed, while the Rasmussen score was obtained for clinical outcome. Furthermore, seven patients underwent biopsy during hardware removal, which was subsequently analyzed by histology and backscattered electron microscopy (BSEM). An excellent reduction with two millimeters or less of residual incongruity was achieved in 83% of the patients. At follow-up, no further changes occurred and no nonunions were observed. Functional outcome was good to excellent in 82%. Four patients underwent revision surgery due to reasons unrelated to the bone substitute material. Histologic analyses indicated that new bone was built around the ß-TCP-grafts, however a complete resorption of ß-TCP was not observed. ß-TCP combined with internal fixation represents an effective and safe treatment of tibial plateau depression fractures with good functional recovery. While its osteoconductivity seems to be successful, the biological degradation and replacement of ß-TCP is less pronounced in humans than previous animal studies have indicated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bilateral transcutaneous tibial nerve stimulation for chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, F; Collins, B; Thomas, G P; Askari, A; Tan, E; Nicholls, R J; Vaizey, C J

    2016-02-01

    Chronic constipation is difficult to treat when symptoms are intractable. Colonic propulsion may be altered by distal neuromodulation but this is conventionally delivered percutaneously. Transcutaneous tibial nerve stimulation is noninvasive and cheap: this study aimed to assess its efficacy in chronic constipation. Eighteen patients (median age 46 years, 12 female) with chronic constipation were recruited consecutively. Conservative and behavioural therapy had failed to improve symptoms in all 18. Thirty minutes of daily bilateral transcutaneous tibial nerve stimulation was administered by each patient at home for 6 weeks. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life (PAC-QoL) score. Change in Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms (PAC-SYM), weekly bowel frequency and visual analogue scale (VAS) score were also measured. Fifteen patients (12 female) completed the trial. The PAC-QoL score improved significantly with treatment [pretreatment, median 2.95, interquartile range (IQR) 1.18; posttreatment, median 2.50, IQR 0.70; P = 0.047]. There was no change in PAC-SYM score (pretreatment, median 2.36, IQR 1.59; posttreatment, median 2.08, IQR 0.92; P = 0.53). Weekly stool frequency improved as did VAS score, but these did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.229 and 0.161). The PAC-QoL and PAC-SYM scores both improved in four (26%) patients. Two patients reported complete cure. There were no adverse events reported. Bilateral transcutaneous tibial nerve stimulation appears to be effective in a quarter of patients with chronic constipation. Carefully selected patients with less severe disease may benefit more. This requires further study. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  11. Tibial and peroneal nerve conduction studies in ankle sprain.

    PubMed

    Jazayeri Shooshtari, S M; Didehdar, D; Moghtaderi Esfahani, A R

    2007-09-01

    Lower limb injuries and ankle sprain occur frequently among football players, due to the high incidence of physical contact. As a result, lower limb nerves are subject to injury. This project aims to evaluate the lower limb nerve conduction among students playing football to investigate the probable relationship between ankle sprain in football and nerve conductivity. Fifty volunteer students aged between 19 and 25 were studied. They fell into three groups; one comprising of 20 healthy football players whose football experience exceeded three years, the second group with 15 football players who had suffered ankle sprain and the last group with 15 healthy non- sports students. Initially, the surface temperature of the foot skin was recorded. Then, the latency and the conduction velocity of deep peroneal and tibial nerves were recorded, statistical data analysis was conducted using statistical tests, i.e., "Independent sampleT", and "Paired T test". In the football player group, student with Hx of ankle sprain, the deep peroneal and tibial nerves distal latencies were significantly longer than the other two groups (P < or = 0.05). In addition, the nerve conduction velocity of the deep peroneal motor and tibial nerves showed a significant decrease in comparison with the other two groups (P < or = 0.05). Harming the lower limb nerves, football may increase the nerve latencies and hence decrease the conductivity in lower limbs. Therefore, in electrophysiologic tests of the football players lower limb nerves, especially those with lower limb injuries, one has to consider the fact that the decrease in the clinical neuroconductivity may be preexistent. Thus care should be taken in diagnosing neuropathy, in this group.

  12. Surface damage versus tibial polyethylene insert conformity: a retrieval study.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Markus A; Laurent, Michel P; Haman, Jeannie D; Jacobs, Joshua J; Galante, Jorge O

    2012-07-01

    Surface damage of the tibial polyethylene insert in TKA is thought to diminish with increasing conformity, based on computed lower contact stresses. Added constraint from higher conformity may, however, result in greater forces in vivo. We therefore determined whether increased conformity was associated with increased surface pitting, delamination, creep, and polishing in a group of retrieved tibial inserts. We compared 38 inserts with a dished articular surface (conforming group) with 31 inserts that were unconstrained and nonconforming in the sagittal plane (less conforming group). The two groups had identical polyethylene composition and processing history. The articulating surfaces were scored for pitting, delamination, deformation/creep, and polishing. Evidence of edge loading and the presence of embedded bone cement were also recorded. The conforming inserts were associated with higher delamination and pitting scores but lower polishing scores, even after adjusting for the effects of sex, age, insert thickness, and implantation duration. Long implantation duration and male sex were also associated with increased delamination, pitting, and polishing, whereas long shelf life was associated only with increased delamination. The conforming group also had approximately a fourfold greater prevalence of edge loading and approximately a threefold greater prevalence of embedded bone cement. The latter was associated with higher scores and proportions of delamination and pitting. These findings suggest more conformity may increase surface fatigue damage in TKA. Higher constraint-induced stresses during secondary motions and more possibility for edge loading and bone cement capture on a dished surface may account for these results. The selection of materials with high fatigue resistance may be particularly important for high-conformity/constraint tibial inserts. In addition, awareness of the benefits and trade-offs with conformity may allow better matching of TKA design

  13. CIR sand casting system for trans-tibial socket.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Casanova, H; Smith, W K; Edwards, M; Childress, D S

    2003-08-01

    The authors have developed a trans-tibial socket fabrication system based on the "dilatancy" principle, a process that has been commonly used in forming wheelchair Seating. The CIR Sand Casting System replaces plaster of Paris with sand for forming both a negative sand mould and a positive sand model, which can be modified for either thermoplastic socket formation or resin lamination. Initial clinical trials suggest that fabrication times are approximately 90 minutes from patient evaluation and casting to dynamic alignment. Compatibility with all existing prosthetic components is retained. It is believed the CIR socket fabrication system may be a competitive alternative for prosthetic service providers in developing countries.

  14. Tension band wiring of displaced tibial tuberosity fractures in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Polakoff, D R; Bucholz, R W; Ogden, J A

    1986-08-01

    Twelve adolescent boys with avulsion fractures of the tibial tuberosity were treated with open reduction and tension band wire fixation. Fasciotomies were required in two cases for associated compartmental syndromes. All fractures healed in anatomic position. The tension band wire assisted both in neutralizing tensile (distracting) forces and compressing comminuted fragments. Early functional motion was started within four weeks. Osgood-Schlatter disease was diagnosed in five of the 12 patients. The apparent high incidence of this fracture pattern in the community prompted the recommendation to restrict jumping sports for adolescent boys with active Osgood-Schlatter disease.

  15. Tibial Metastasis from Muscle Invasive Bladder Carcinoma: An Unusual Site

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, David; Kelly, Michael E.; Nason, Gregory J.; Collins-Smyth, Coilin; McGuire, Barry B.; Lennon, Gerald M.

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 61-year-old gentleman who presented with frank hematuria with associated weight loss and on-going left knee pain. Subsequent investigation revealed a muscle invasive bladder carcinoma with a related unusual bone metastasis. Though bone metastases form bladder carcinoma are common, frequent deposition sites include the spinal column and pelvis. This case report is to the best of our knowledge the first reported case of a tibial metastasis for relevant bladder carcinoma. Furthermore, we reviewed the literature, relevant diagnostic and management surrounding such occurrences. PMID:24917780

  16. Biomechanical analysis of suture bridge fixation for tibial eminence fractures.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Gregory A; Anderson, Brett C; Paller, David; Schiller, Jonathan; Eberson, Craig P; Hulstyn, Michael

    2012-10-01

    To perform a biomechanical analysis of suture bridge fixation for tibial eminence fractures using PushLock anchors (Arthrex, Naples, FL) and compare it with traditional suture fixation and screw fixation. This study used 24 porcine knees, divided into 3 comparison fixation groups: PushLock suture bridge fixation, screw fixation, and suture fixation. Each knee was dissected of all soft tissue, leaving only the anterior cruciate ligament. A tibial eminence fracture was created with disruption of the posterior hinge, and each knee was fixed with a randomly assigned fixation technique. After fixation, each knee underwent 2 phases of biomechanical testing. The initial cyclic dynamic phase assessed the displacement change after 200 cycles (in millimeters) and initial stiffness (in Newtons per millimeter) of the fixation construct. After completion of dynamic testing, each specimen underwent a single tensile failure test load to assess ultimate failure load (in Newtons) and displacement (in millimeters) to ultimate failure. There was a significant difference for the load-to-failure outcome variable among treatment groups (P = .004 by analysis of variance, 1 - β = 0.851). Mean ultimate failure load borne by the PushLock fixation group was statistically significantly higher in comparison with the screw (P = .007) and suture (P = .017) fixation groups. For the cyclical testing, the primary outcome variable of displacement change after 200 loading cycles failed to show a significant difference among the 3 groups (P = .412). Suture bridge fixation with PushLock anchors is a new and effective surgical technique for the treatment of displaced tibial eminence fractures. By use of a high-bone density animal model, our results suggest that this suture bridge construct provides superior fixation with regard to ultimate failure load compared with standard screw fixation and suture fixation. The suture bridge technique provides another fixation option for displaced tibial eminence

  17. [Rupture of the tibial tuberosity in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Schwarzkopf, W

    1983-01-01

    The avulsion of the tuberosity of the tibia occurs particularly in male adolescents. Although on the whole being a rare type of injury, it is caused primarily by sports injuries following a sudden contraction of the quadriceps muscle when the knee is bent, especially when jumping. The main symptoms are loss of extensional capacity, local swelling and palpable dislocation. The radiographic differentiation from osteochondrosis of the tibial tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter) can be difficult, especially if there is a minimal dislocation. Principally, surgical therapy is applied. Depending on the size of the bone - fragment a tension band or fixation with a spongiosal bone screw should be taken into consideration.

  18. External tibial torsion and the effectiveness of the solid ankle-foot orthoses.

    PubMed

    Vankoski, S J; Michaud, S; Dias, L

    2000-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the influence of external tibial torsion on the effectiveness of the ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) in children with lumbosacral myelomeningocele. Forty patients with normal tibial rotation and 18 patients with excessive external tibial torsion were evaluated with three-dimensional gait analysis at their comfortable walking speed. The group with normal tibial rotation showed significantly greater knee extension and lower mean extension moment compared with the group with external tibial torsion (p < 0.05). The posteriorly and laterally deviated ground-reaction force relative to the knee-flexion axis compromises the ability of this force to facilitate knee extension. Patients with torsional magnitudes >20 degrees demand close inspection as candidates for derotation osteotomy. The AFO will continue to stabilize the ankle-foot complex, but improved knee motion, knee-extensor activity, and ultimately walking efficiency may be compromised.

  19. In vivo evaluation of femoral and tibial graft tunnel placement following all-inside arthroscopic tibial inlay reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Osti, Michael; Krawinkel, Alessa; Benedetto, Karl Peter

    2014-12-01

    The arthroscopic all-inside tibial inlay technique represents a novel procedure for posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction. However, in vivo investigations that evaluate the accuracy of this technique regarding anatomic graft tunnel placement are few. The objective of this study was to analyse the femoral and tibial tunnel apertures using computed tomography (CT) and compare these findings to recommendations in the literature. CT scans were obtained in 45 patients following single-bundle PCL reconstruction. The centres of the tibial and femoral tunnel apertures were correlated to measurement grid systems used as a radiographic reference. The centre of the femoral tunnel aperture was located at 42.9% ± 9.4% of the total intercondylar depth and at 12.9% ± 7.2% of the total intercondylar height. The angle α for the femoral tunnel position was measured at 64.2° ± 10.0°. The centre of the tibial tunnel aperture was found at 51.8% ± 4.1% of the total mediolateral diameter of the tibial plateau. The superoinferior distance of the tibial tunnel aperture to the joint line was 9.6 mm ± 4.4 mm on frontal and 9.3 mm ± 3.4 mm on sagittal 3D-CT scans. The distance of the tibial tunnel aperture to the former physis line averaged to 0.8 mm ± 3.4 mm. Comparison to the corresponding reference values revealed no statistically significant difference. Arthroscopic tibial inlay reconstruction is an efficient procedure for precise replication of the anatomical footprint of the PCL. IV, prospective case series. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tibial tubercle apophysitis in cerebral palsy treated with proximal tibial epiphysiodesis: report of two cases with 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kasser, J R; Mathews, P A; MacEwen, G D

    1988-01-01

    Tibial tubercle apophysitis, or Osgood-Schlatter disease, is a condition not commonly seen in conjunction with cerebral palsy. The reported radiologic incidence of this association is only 3%. The condition usually responds to conservative therapy, consisting of rest, immobilization, and antiinflammatory agents. Occasionally, a child with cerebral palsy and resistant apophysitis requires surgical intervention. We report two patients with bilateral apophysitis who underwent proximal tibial epiphysiodesis with complete relief of symptoms and rapid return to community ambulation.

  1. Standing balance in people with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Seth, Mayank; Lamberg, Eric

    2017-08-01

    Balance is an important variable to consider during the rehabilitation process of individuals with trans-tibial amputation. Limited evidence exists on the balance abilities of people with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes. The purpose of this article is to review literature and determine if standing balance is diminished in people with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes. Literature review. Data were obtained from PubMed, Google Scholar, OandP.org , CINHAL, and Science Direct. Studies were selected only if they included standing balance assessment of people with unilateral trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes. The review yielded seven articles that met the inclusion criteria. The general test methodology required participants to stand still on force platforms, with feet together, while center of pressure or postural sway was recorded. According to the findings of this review, individuals with trans-tibial amputees due to vascular causes have diminished balance abilities. Limited evidence suggests their balance might be further diminished as compared to individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to trauma. Although the evidence is limited, because of the underlying pathology and presence of comorbidities in individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes, one cannot ignore these findings, as even a minor injury from a fall may develop into a non-healing ulcer and affect their health and well-being more severely than individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to trauma. Clinical relevance Individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes have diminished balance abilities compared to healthy individuals and individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to trauma. This difference should be considered when designing and fabricating prostheses. Prosthetists and rehabilitation clinicians should consider designing amputation cause-specific rehabilitation interventions, focussing on balance and other

  2. Tibial rotation influences anterior knee stability--a robot-aided in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Andrea; Röttgerkamp, Heike; Bobrowitsch, Evgenij; Leichtle, Carmen I; Leichtle, Ulf G

    2016-02-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament rupture can lead to symptomatic instability, especially during pivoting activities, which are often associated with increased anterior and rotational tibial loading. Therefore, the purpose of our robot-aided in-vitro study was to analyze the influence of tibial rotation on anterior knee stability under three anterior cruciate ligament conditions. Ten human knee specimens were examined using a robotic system. Anterior tibial translations were measured during anterior force application at internally and externally rotated positions of the tibia (5° steps until 4 Nm was reached) at 20°, 60°, and 90° of flexion. The native knee was compared with the knee with deficient and replaced anterior cruciate ligament. Tibial rotation significantly influenced anterior tibial translation (P<0.001), with differences of up to 12 mm between the largest and smallest anterior translation in the deficient knee. The largest influence of the anterior cruciate ligament on anterior translation was found in slightly externally rotated positions of the tibia (5°-10° at 20° of flexion; 0°-5° at 90° of flexion). Significantly increased anterior tibial translation (up to 7 mm) was measured after anterior cruciate ligament resection, which could be almost completely restored by the replacement (remaining difference<1mm) over a wide range of tibial rotations. Tibial rotation clearly influences anterior tibial translation. Because the greatest effect of the anterior cruciate ligament was found in slightly externally rotated positions of the tibia, increased attention to tibial rotation should be paid when performing the Lachman and anterior drawer tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Varus femoral and tibial coronal alignments result in different kinematics and kinetics after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Mutsumi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Nishitani, Kohei; Furu, Moritoshi; Ito, Hiromu; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2017-11-01

    Abnormal knee motion under various conditions has been described after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, differences in kinematics and kinetics of knees with varus femoral versus varus tibial alignment have not been evaluated. It was hypothesized that varus femoral and tibial alignments have the same impact on knee motion. A musculoskeletal computer simulation was used. Femoral and tibial alignment in the coronal plane was each varied from neutral to 5° of varus in 1° increments. Lift-off, defined as an intercomponent distance of >2 mm, and tibiofemoral contact forces were evaluated during gait up to 60° of knee flexion. Knee kinematics and contact stresses were also examined during squat, with up to 130° of knee flexion. During gait, lift-off occurred readily with more than 3° of varus tibial alignment and slight lateral joint laxity. In contrast, lift-off did not occur with varus femoral or tibial alignment of up to 5° during squat. Peak medial contact forces with varus femoral alignment were approximately twice those observed with varus tibial alignment. The lowest points of the femoral condyles moved internally with varus femoral alignment, contrary to the kinematics with neutral or varus tibial alignment. On the other hand, there was femoral medial sliding and edge loading against the tibia in mid-flexion with varus tibial alignment. Varus femoral alignment affects the non-physiological rotational movement of the tibiofemoral joint, whereas varus tibial alignment causes medial-lateral instability during mid-flexion. Varus femoral and tibial alignments might lead to post-TKA discomfort and unreliability.

  4. Tibial internal rotation negatively affects clinical outcomes in total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Panni, Alfredo Schiavone; Ascione, Francesco; Rossini, Marco; Braile, Adriano; Corona, Katia; Vasso, Michele; Hirschmann, Michael T

    2017-12-15

    The aim of this systematic review is to analyze the effect of tibial rotational alignment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) on clinical outcomes and assess the eventual cut-off values for tibial TKA rotation leading to poor outcomes. A detailed and systematic search from 1997 to 2017 of the Pubmed, Medline, Cochrane Reviews, and the Google Scholar databases was performed using the keyword terms "total knee arthroplasty", "total knee replacement", "tibial alignment", "tibial malalignement", "tibial rotation", "rotational error", "axis", "angle", "tibial malrotation", "clinical outcome", in several combinations. The modified Coleman scoring methodology (mCMS) was used. All the primary TKAs studies analyzing correlation between clinical results and tibial rotation were included. Five articles met the inclusion criteria. A total of 333 arthroplasties were included in this review; 139 had tibial component malalignment, while 194 were in control groups. The mean age of patients was 67.3 (SD 0.57) years. The mean average postoperative follow-up delay was 34.7 months (range 21-70). The mean mCMS score was 59.2 points indicating good methodological quality in the included studies. Functional outcomes were assessed through KSS, OKS, KOOS and VAS, negatively related to tibial internal rotation. Our review confirmed that excessive internal rotation of the tibial TKA component represents a significant risk factor for pain and inferior functional outcomes after TKA (> 10° of internal rotation demonstrated the common value), since external rotation does not affect the results. However, a universal precise cut-off value has not been found in the available literature and there remains a debate about CT rotation assessment and surgical intra-operative landmarks. III.

  5. Percutaneous tibial physeal fracture repair in small animals: technique and 17 cases.

    PubMed

    von Pfeil, Dirsko J F; Glassman, Mathieu; Ropski, Meaghan

    2017-07-20

    To retrospectively describe cases treated via percutaneous tibial physeal fracture repair (PTPFR), using intra-operative fluoroscopy (IFL) or digital radiography (DR). To describe a technique ("spiking"), used to treat tibial tuberosity avulsion fractures. Clinical data of 14 dogs and three cats were included. The "spiking" technique was described. Intra-operative fluoroscopy (n = 11) and DR (n = 6) were successfully used in 11 tibial tuberosity avulsion fractures, one combined proximal physeal and tibial tuberosity avulsion fracture, and five distal tibial/fibular physeal fractures. Surgery times ranged from eight to 54 minutes. The "spiking" technique was successfully applied in six tibial tuberosity avulsion fracture cases. Return to function was at a mean (± standard deviation) of 1.9 (± 1.6) weeks. Long-term (>12 months; n = 17) follow-up was available at a mean of 40.6 (± 13.4) months. Major complications consisted of skin irritation from a pin (distal tibia / fibula physeal fracture case; 8 weeks post-PTPFR), and a bilateral grade II medial patella luxation (tibial tuberosity avulsion fracture case; 1.5 years post-PTPFR). One case developed a mild tibial tuberosity avulsion fracture re-avulsion. All conditions in these three cases were not of clinical concern at follow-up and final outcome was graded as good in these and excellent in the other 14 cases. Percutaneous tibial physeal fracture repair can be considered as a technique to treat tibial physeal fractures. The "spiking" technique was successfully applied in six dogs. A larger, prospective case series is indicated to provide additional clinical information.

  6. [Posterior tibial nerve stimulation for pelvic floor dysfunction. Review].

    PubMed

    Sucar-Romero, Sandra; Escobar-del Barco, Laura; Rodríguez-Colorado, Silvia; Gorbea-Chávez, Viridiana

    2014-08-01

    Pelvic floor dysfunction is a highly prevalent functional pathology that affects women and can present with different clinical symptoms that include urinary urgency with or without incontinence, diurnal and nocturnal frequency, urinary retention, fecal incontinence, obstructive defecation, sexual dysfunction and pelvic pain. Lately, concern arised as to offer patients an advanced therapy within an integral approach. This interest was first focused in sacral nerve root modulation, a key element for pelvic function. Neuromodulation is considered a normal characteristic of the nervous system that regulates or modifies the electric impulses that come from different nervous body tissues. Neuromodulation is carried out through sacral neurostimulation (SNS), posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PNTS), which are reversible non destructive therapies used for peripheric stimulation of nerves, ganglia, spinal medula and brain. Even though there is evidence of efficacy for sacral nerve stimulation at short, medium and long-term, there are two main concerns within this approach: invasivity and high cost. It seems posterior nerve tibial stimulation has the same neuromodulatory effect as the one obtained by sacral nerve stimulation through a less invasive route and lower cost.

  7. Elastic Bandage Traction Technique for Reduction of Distal Tibial Fractures.

    PubMed

    Dong, Quanyu; Hong, Do Yeong; Park, Yong Wook; Kim, Hyong Nyun

    2015-01-01

    In the present technique report, we describe a useful noninvasive traction technique that uses a 6-inch elastic bandage that can be obtained in every operating room and can be easily applied around the patient's ankle and the surgeon's waist to offer a stable traction force during minimally invasive plate fixation of distal tibial fractures. This technique frees the surgeon's hands to focus on applying other forces, such as rotational, varus, or valgus forces, to reduce the fracture and stabilize the reduction and alignment during percutaneous insertion and fixation of the plate. This technique, although simplistic and old-fashioned, is also useful for the closed reduction of distal tibial physeal injuries in children, because it can provide a significant amount of traction force while allowing the surgeon to apply other forces for fracture reduction. This technique can be used in the emergency room, where an ankle distractor is not usually present, and in some cases could be useful during ankle arthroscopy. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis in Open Pediatric Tibial Fractures.

    PubMed

    Özkul, Emin; Gem, Mehmet; Arslan, Hüseyin; Alemdar, Celil; Azboy, İbrahim; Arslan, Seher G

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness and reliability of limited-contact locking plates in minimally invasive percutaneous osteosynthesis (MIPO) of the lateral tibia. A retrospective study. The retrospective study included 14 patients who were operatively treated with an MIPO technique due to open tibial fractures between 2006 and 2012. The patients were 11 males and 3 females with a mean age of 13.2 (range, 9 to 16) years. The patients were followed up for a mean period of 2.4 (range, 1 to 5) years. The mechanism of the injuries included a motor vehicle accident (n=11), a shotgun injury (n=2), and a fall from height (n=1). According to the Gustilo-Anderson classification, 10 patients had type I (72%), 2 had type II (14%), and 2 had type III (14%) open fractures. The mean time to radiologic union was 18 (range, 11 to 32) weeks. No infection was detected that would require implant removal. No complications such as early epiphyseal closure, angulation, or limb-length inequality were observed. Limited-contact locking plates in MIPO of the lateral tibia is an effective alternative method in the treatment of open pediatric tibial fractures. Level IV-therapeutic.

  9. Complications of Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Plating for Distal Tibial Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Muzaffar, Nasir; Bhat, Rafiq; Yasin, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background The management of distal tibia fractures continues to remain a source of controversy and debate. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the various complications of minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) using a locking plate for closed fractures of distal tibia in a retrospective study. Patients and Methods Twenty-five patients with distal tibial fractures, treated by minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis, were evaluated in a retrospective study. We studied the rate, probable etiological factors and preventive and corrective measures of various complications associated with minimally invasive plating of distal tibia. Results Mean age of the patients was 41.16 years (range 22 - 65). There were 13 male and 12 female patients. All fractures united at an average duration of 16.8 weeks. There were two cases of superficial and two cases of deep infection, and deep infections required removal of hardware for cure. There were four cases of ankle stiffness, most of them occurring in intra-articular fractures, three cases of palpable implant, three cases of malunion, one case of loss of reduction and one patient required reoperation. The average AO foot and ankle score was 83.6. Conclusions We found MIPPO using locking plate to be a safe and effective method for the treatment of distal tibial fractures in properly selected patients yet can result in a variety of complications if proper precautions before, during and after surgery are not taken care of. PMID:28182170

  10. Complications of Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Plating for Distal Tibial Fractures.

    PubMed

    Muzaffar, Nasir; Bhat, Rafiq; Yasin, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    The management of distal tibia fractures continues to remain a source of controversy and debate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the various complications of minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) using a locking plate for closed fractures of distal tibia in a retrospective study. Twenty-five patients with distal tibial fractures, treated by minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis, were evaluated in a retrospective study. We studied the rate, probable etiological factors and preventive and corrective measures of various complications associated with minimally invasive plating of distal tibia. Mean age of the patients was 41.16 years (range 22 - 65). There were 13 male and 12 female patients. All fractures united at an average duration of 16.8 weeks. There were two cases of superficial and two cases of deep infection, and deep infections required removal of hardware for cure. There were four cases of ankle stiffness, most of them occurring in intra-articular fractures, three cases of palpable implant, three cases of malunion, one case of loss of reduction and one patient required reoperation. The average AO foot and ankle score was 83.6. We found MIPPO using locking plate to be a safe and effective method for the treatment of distal tibial fractures in properly selected patients yet can result in a variety of complications if proper precautions before, during and after surgery are not taken care of.

  11. Effect of interstitial low level laser therapy on tibial defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangyeob; Ha, Myungjin; Hwang, Donghyun; Yu, Sungkon; Jang, Seulki; Park, Jihoon; Radfar, Edalat; Kim, Hansung; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    Tibial defect is very common musculoskeletal disorder which makes patient painful and uncomfortable. Many studies about bone regeneration tried to figure out fast bone healing on early phase. It is already known that low level laser therapy (LLLT) is very convenient and good for beginning of bone disorder. However, light scattering and absorption obstruct musculoskeletal therapy which need optimal photon energy delivery. This study has used an interstitial laser probe (ILP) to overcome the limitations of light penetration depth and scattering. Animals (mouse, C57BL/6) were divided into three groups: laser treated test group 1 (660 nm; power 10 mW; total energy 5 J) and test group 2 (660 nm; power 20 mW; total energy 10 J); and untreated control group. All animals were taken surgical operation to make tibial defect on right crest of tibia. The test groups were treated every 48 hours with ILP. Bone volume and X-ray attenuation coefficient were measured on 0, 14th and 28th day with u-CT after treatment and were used to evaluate effect of LLLT. Results show that bone volume of test groups has been improved more than control group. X-ray attenuation coefficients of each groups have slightly different. The results suggest that LLLT combined with ILP may affect on early phase of bone regeneration and may be used in various musculoskeletal disease in deep tissue layer.

  12. Isokinetic performance of the thigh muscles after tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Honkonen, S E; Kannus, P; Natri, A; Latvala, K; Järvinen, M J

    1997-01-01

    The isokinetic performance of thigh muscles was evaluated in 37 patients at an average of 7 years after sustaining a fracture of the tibial plateau. The mean torque deficit in the quadriceps of the injured limb was an average of 15% at a speed of 60 degrees/s and 16% at 180 degrees/s, while the corresponding deficits in the hamstrings were 3% and 8%. The radiological appearance of the injured knee correlated significantly to the quadriceps deficit at both speeds. Limited knee movement and thigh atrophy also correlated with the deficit at the lower speed. The strength deficit tended to decrease during follow-up. A multiple step-wise regression analysis showed that the radiological result, length of follow-up and thigh atrophy accounted for 47% of the variation in loss of quadriceps strength. At the higher speed, the functional result was associated with the deficit in quadriceps strength, and older patients had greater deficits than younger. Regression analysis indicated that the radiological and functional result accounted for 31% of the variation in quadriceps strength. Anatomical restoration of the tibial plateau and good muscle rehabilitation are important in obtaining good long term results after this fracture.

  13. Rare case of tibial hemimelia, preaxial polydactyly, and club foot

    PubMed Central

    Granite, Guinevere; Herzenberg, John E; Wade, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    A seven-month old female presented with left tibial hemimelia (or congenital tibial aplasia; Weber type VIIb, Jones et al type 1a), seven-toed preaxial polydactyly, and severe club foot (congenital talipes equinovarus). Definitive amputation surgery disarticulated the lower limb at the knee. This case report describes the anatomical findings of a systematic post-amputation examination of the lower limb’s superficial dissection, X-rays, and computed tomography (CT) scans. From the X-rays and CT scans, we found curved and overlapping preaxial supernumerary toes, hypoplastic first metatarsal, lack of middle and distal phalanges in one supernumerary toe, three tarsal bones, hypoplastic middle phalanx and no distal phalanx for fourth toe, and no middle or distal phalanges for fifth toe. The fibula articulated with the anteromedial calcaneus and the tibia was completely absent. We identified numerous muscles and nerves in the superficial dissection that are described in the results section of the case report. Due to the rarity of this combination of anatomical findings, descriptions of such cases are very infrequent in the literature. PMID:28035313

  14. Rare case of tibial hemimelia, preaxial polydactyly, and club foot.

    PubMed

    Granite, Guinevere; Herzenberg, John E; Wade, Ronald

    2016-12-16

    A seven-month old female presented with left tibial hemimelia (or congenital tibial aplasia; Weber type VIIb, Jones et al type 1a), seven-toed preaxial polydactyly, and severe club foot (congenital talipes equinovarus). Definitive amputation surgery disarticulated the lower limb at the knee. This case report describes the anatomical findings of a systematic post-amputation examination of the lower limb's superficial dissection, X-rays, and computed tomography (CT) scans. From the X-rays and CT scans, we found curved and overlapping preaxial supernumerary toes, hypoplastic first metatarsal, lack of middle and distal phalanges in one supernumerary toe, three tarsal bones, hypoplastic middle phalanx and no distal phalanx for fourth toe, and no middle or distal phalanges for fifth toe. The fibula articulated with the anteromedial calcaneus and the tibia was completely absent. We identified numerous muscles and nerves in the superficial dissection that are described in the results section of the case report. Due to the rarity of this combination of anatomical findings, descriptions of such cases are very infrequent in the literature.

  15. Surgical interventions for treating distal tibial metaphyseal fractures in adults.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Liang Tseng; Chi, Ching-Chi; Chuang, Ching-Hui

    2015-03-30

    The distal tibial metaphysis is located in the lower (distal) part of the tibia (shin bone). Fractures of this part of the tibia are most commonly due to a high energy injury in young men and to osteoporosis in older women. The optimal methods of surgical intervention for a distal tibial metaphyseal fracture remain uncertain. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of surgical interventions for distal tibial metaphyseal fractures in adults. We planned to compare surgical versus non-surgical (conservative) treatment, and different methods of surgical intervention. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (9 December 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2014, Issue 12), MEDLINE (1946 to November Week 3 2014), EMBASE (1980 to 2014 Week 48), the Airiti Library (1967 to 2014 Week 8), China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database (1915 to 2014 Week 8), ClinicalTrials.gov (February 2014) and reference lists of included studies. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled clinical studies comparing surgical versus non-surgical (conservative) treatment or different surgical interventions for treating distal tibial metaphyseal fractures in adults. Our primary outcomes were patient-reported function and the need for secondary or revision surgery or substantive physiotherapy because of adverse outcomes. Two authors independently selected studies, assessed the risk of bias in each study and extracted data. We resolved disagreement by discussion and, where necessary, in consultation with a third author. Where appropriate we pooled data using the fixed-effect model. We included three randomised trials that evaluated intramedullary nailing versus plating in 213 participants, with useable data from 173 participants of whom 112 were male. The mean age of participants in individual studies ranged from 41 to 44 years. There were no trials comparing surgery with non-surgical treatment. The three included trials

  16. The Tibial Slope in Patients With Achondroplasia: Its Characterization and Possible Role in Genu Recurvatum Development.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jaysson T; Bernholt, David L; Tran, Kevin V; Ain, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    Genu recurvatum, a posterior resting position of the knee, is a common lower extremity deformity in patients with achondroplasia and has been thought to be secondary to ligamentous laxity. To the best of our knowledge, the role of the tibial slope has not been investigated, and no studies describe the tibial slope in patients with achondroplasia. Our goals were to characterize the tibial slope in children and adults with achondroplasia, explore its possible role in the development of genu recurvatum, and compare the tibial slope in patients with achondroplasia to that in the general population. We reviewed 252 lateral knee radiographs of 130 patients with achondroplasia seen at our clinic from November 2007 through September 2013. Patients were excluded if they had previous lower extremity surgery or radiographs with extreme rotation. We analyzed patient demographics and, on all radiographs, the tibial slope. We then compared the mean tibial slope to norms in the literature. Tibial slopes >90 degrees had an anterior tibial slope and received a positive prefix. Statistical analysis included intraclass and interclass reliability, Pearson correlation coefficient, and the Student t tests (significance, P<0.05). The overall mean tibial slope for the 252 knees was +1.32±7 degrees, which was significantly more anterior than the normal slopes reported in the literature for adults (7.2 to 10.7 degrees, P=0.0001) and children (10 to 11 degrees, P=0.0001). The Pearson correlation coefficient for mean tibial slope and age showed negative correlations of -0.4011 and -0.4335 for left and right knees, respectively. This anterior tibial slope produces proximal and posterior vector force components, which may shift the knee posteriorly in weightbearing. The mean tibial slope is significantly more anterior in patients with achondroplasia than in the general population; however, this difference diminishes as patients' age. An anterior tibial slope may predispose to a more posterior

  17. Evaluation of knee-joint cartilage and menisci ten years after isolated and combined ruptures of the medial collateral ligament. Investigation by weight-bearing radiography, MR imaging and analysis of proteoglycan fragments in the joint fluid.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, M; Thuomas, K A; Messner, K

    1997-01-01

    To compare radiography, MR imaging, and chemical analysis in posttraumatic knees. Ten matched pairs with either isolated partial rupture of the medial collateral ligament or combined medial collateral ligament/anterior cruciate ligament rupture were compared with matched controls 10 years after trauma. Weight-bearing radiographs and MR examinations were compared with proteoglycan fragment concentrations in the joint fluid. The chemical analyses were similar in both trauma groups. The radiographs showed mild signs of arthrosis in half the patients with combined injury. MR images showed almost all injured knees to have degenerative changes of various degrees in the cartilage and menisci. More frequent and more advanced changes were found after combined injury than after isolated injury (p < 0.01). There were no changes in the controls. MR imaging is the best method for detecting and differentiating early posttraumatic knee arthrosis.

  18. Comparison between uncemented and cemented fixation for the tibial component in distal femoral replacement: a clinical and radiological study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Haijie; Guo, Wei; Yang, Rongli; Tang, Xiaodong; Yan, Taiqiang

    2018-02-24

    We performed a retrospective, cohort study to compare uncemented tibial fixation with cemented tibial fixation in distal femoral replacement (DFR). Sixty-two cases with uncemented tibial fixation and 58 cases with cemented tibial fixation were included. Inter-group comparisons were performed for baseline data, oncological and prosthetic outcomes, and changes of cortical thickness of tibial diaphysis. Radiological signs of bone adaptations around the uncemented tibial stem were identified through evaluation of plain films during follow-up. Uncemented tibial fixation shortened operative duration by 26 minutes, achieved equivalent oncological and prosthetic outcomes, and helped preserve anterior cortical thickness of tibia compared with the cemented counterpart after a mean follow-up of over 40 months. Radiological signs of osseointegration and reactive line were observed in 64.3 and 17.9% cases with uncemented tibial fixation. The two signs had different patterns of distribution and no significant predisposing factors could be identified. For DFR, the uncemented tibial fixation was safe and effective in functional reconstruction and in preservation of anterior cortex of tibial diaphysis. It could achieve osseointegration and might permit adaptive micromotion of the tibial stem post-operatively. level III Therapeutic.

  19. Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy in patients with posttraumatic medial tibial plateau bone defect: A case report.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon Young; Rhee, Seung Joon

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic uncontained bone defect in the knee joint is one of the most serious knee injuries. As the knee joint is the main weight-bearing joint of the body, the problem of weight loading should be addressed while restoring the bone defect. However, no consensus exists regarding the treatment of this injury. Two patients in separate cases initially sustained traumatic uncontained proximal tibial bone defects secondary to passenger traffic accidents. After recovery from the initial trauma, these patients underwent medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO) and femoral head allograft augmentation simultaneously. Treatment of traumatic uncontained bone defect in the knee joint should be considered separately as tumorous or osteoarthritic bone defects. Especially, the effects of the defective supporting soft tissue structures should be considered. We considered that MOWHTO was capable of solving problems of both bone stock restoration and weight loading. After the operation, the patients' knee joint pain was relieved and stable ambulation was possible. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Varus tibial alignment is associated with greater tibial baseplate migration at 10 years following total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Teeter, Matthew G; Naudie, Douglas D; McCalden, Richard W; Yuan, Xunhua; Holdsworth, David W; MacDonald, Steven J; Lanting, Brent A

    2017-11-16

    To examine implant migration and articular behavior of primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) at 10 years after index surgery and correlate to implant alignment. Thirty-five patients underwent a cemented posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty with a surgical objective of neutral alignment and were enrolled in a long-term radiostereometric analysis (RSA) study. At 10 years after surgery, patients were analyzed for implant migration using RSA as well as radiographic assessment of articular behavior at four positions of knee flexion. Implant position and alignment was measured on full-length radiographs. Patient demographics and reported outcomes were also collected. No difference between patient demographics or patient-reported outcomes were found. When categorized into neutral and varus groupings, no difference in migration was present. If alignment was considered as a continuous variable, there was no correlation between overall leg alignment and migration, however, migration increased with an increasing varus tibial alignment. Although contact location did not differ between neutral and varus groups through a range of motion, condylar liftoff was much more common in the varus group, of which all were lateral liftoff. Increased tibial varus results in increased implant migration. Overall varus limb alignment is correlated with isolated lateral compartment liftoff, and liftoff occurs more commonly than in neutral aligned knees. The increased migration and liftoff raise concerns about the longevity of malaligned total knee replacements. If a goal of overall varus limb alignment is desired for TKA, the tibia should remain neutral. Level III.

  1. Tibial Acceleration and Spatiotemporal Mechanics in Distance Runners During Reduced-Body-Weight Conditions.

    PubMed

    Moran, Matthew F; Rickert, Brendan J; Greer, Beau K

    2017-05-01

    Treadmills that unload runners via a differential air-pressure (DAP) bladder (eg, AlterG Anti-Gravity Treadmill) are commonly used to reduce effective body weight (BW) in a clinical setting. However, the relationship between the level of unloading and tibial stress is currently unknown. To determine the relationship between tibial impact acceleration and level of BW unloading during running. Cross-sectional. University motion-analysis laboratory. 15 distance runners (9 male, 6 female; 20.4 ± 2.4 y, 60.1 ± 12.6 kg). Peak tibial acceleration and peak-to-peak tibial acceleration were measured via a uniaxial accelerometer attached to the tibia during a 37-min continuous treadmill run that simulated reduced-BW conditions via a DAP bladder. The trial began with a 10-min run at 100% BW followed by nine 3-min stages where BW was systematically reduced from 95% to 60% in 5% increments. There was no significant relationship between level of BW and either peak tibial acceleration or peak-to-peak tibial acceleration (P > .05). Both heart rate and step rate were significantly reduced with each 5% reduction in BW level (P < .01). Although ground-reaction forces are reduced when running in reduced-BW conditions on a DAP treadmill, tibial shock magnitudes are unchanged as an alteration in spatiotemporal running mechanics (eg, reduced step rate) and may nullify the unloading effect.

  2. [Suprapatellar approach to tibial medullary nailing with electromagnetic field-guided distal locking].

    PubMed

    Rueger, J M; Rücker, A H; Hoffmann, M

    2015-04-01

    Closed tibial shaft fractures are the domain of intramedullary nailing. With the introduction of new nail designs and technologies, even small, dislocated distal fragments can be anatomically aligned and safely fixed. Unsolved or to a lesser degree controlled are the problems of distal locking in the freehand technique, which can still be difficult and can lead to a significant radiation exposure, and how to control very short proximal tibial fragments in metaphyseal tibial fractures or tibial segmental fractures, where the proximal fracture line also runs through the metaphysis.By using a suprapatellar approach, i.e. a skin incision proximal to the patella with an entry point into the tibial bone from within the knee at the same site as for a standard infrapatellar approach, and then nailing the tibia in a semi-extended position, i.e. the knee is only flexed 10-20°, the intraoperative dislocation of a short proximal fragment can be avoided. The main indications for semi-extended tibial nailing are a short diaphyseal fragment in an isolated tibial shaft fracture, a segmental fracture where the proximal fracture line is metaphyseal and in patients where infrapatellar soft tissues are compromised.The use of the electromagnetic guidance system SureShot® generates reliable and reproducible results, reduces the operating time and is independent from radiation for distal locking.

  3. Medial sixth of the patellar tendon at the tibial attachment is useful for the anterior reference in rotational alignment of the tibial component.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Shinya; Okazaki, Ken; Matsuda, Shuichi; Mitsuyasu, Hiroaki; Nakahara, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Shigetoshi; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2014-05-01

    The anteroposterior (AP) axis connecting the middle of the posterior cruciate ligament to the medial border of the patellar tendon at its attachment has been introduced as a reproducible and reliable reference perpendicular to the surgical epicondylar axis in healthy knees. A recent literature has reported that the AP axis of the tibia is, on average, almost perpendicular to the surgical epicondylar axis also in varus and valgus knees and can be used as a tibial rotational reference to minimize the risk for rotational mismatch between the femoral and tibial components in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, it is difficult to identify the AP axis after tibial resection. The purpose of the current study was to determine a modified AP axis that runs parallel to the AP axis and passes through the centre of the cut surface in osteoarthritic knees. Preoperative computed tomography scans on 30 varus and 30 valgus knees undergoing TKA were studied using a three-dimensional software. The modified AP axis that runs parallel to the AP axis and passes through the centre of the cut surface was drawn. We investigated where the modified AP axis crossed the patellar tendon at its tibial attachment. The modified AP axis passed through the medial 1/6 of the patellar tendon (4 mm from medial edge) at its attachment in both varus and valgus knees. The AP axis of the tibia is useful as a tibial rotational reference in cutting the proximal tibia, but it is difficult to identify the AP axis after tibial resection. The clinical relevance of this study is that medial 1/6 of the patellar tendon at its attachment would be a useful landmark in aligning the tibial component. IV.

  4. Mapping of the anterior tibial profile to identify accurate reference points for sagittal alignment of tibial component in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Cinotti, G; Caruso, E; Orsina, L; La Torre, G; Ripani, F R

    2017-10-01

    Although standard instrumentation is the procedure most frequently used to implant a Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA), high rates of malalignment of tibial component are reported using this technique. Anatomical landmarks for sagittal alignment have been little investigated and the best reference axis, which parallels the mechanical axis, is yet to be established. Mapping the Anterior Tibial Profile (ATP) may allow the identification of segmental zones of the ATP parallel to the mechanical axis which can be used to align the extramedullary rod. An intramedullary rod was positioned in line with the mechanical axis in 47 dried cadaveric tibiae. The rod was connected to a cutting jig and to an extramedullary rod. Digitalized images of lateral view radiographs were taken and the distance between the ATP and the extramedullary rod was measured at 10-mm intervals and at interpolated distances corresponding to every 2% of the tibial length. Segmental portions of the ATP exhibit an alignment parallel to the mechanical axis between points located at 58% and 90% and at 62% and 88% of the tibial length. Points placed at 50% of tibial length and 5mm proximal to the ankle joint generate the longer axis parallel to the mechanical axis. The orientation of sagittal tibial cut may be improved by aligning the extramedullary rod parallel to the ATP at definite points. Points placed at 50% of the tibial length and 5mm proximal to the ankle joint may be preferred since they generate the longer axis parallel to the mechanical axis and are more easily identified at surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The accuracy of intramedullary tibial guide of sagittal alignment of PCL-substituting total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyuk-Soo; Kang, Seung-Baik; Jo, Chris H; Kim, Sun-Hong; Lee, Jung-Ha

    2010-10-01

    Experimental and clinical studies on the accuracy of the intramedullary alignment method have produced different results, and few have addressed accuracy in the sagittal plane. Reported deviations are not only attributable to the alignment method but also to radiological errors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the intramedullary alignment method in the sagittal plane using computed tomography (CT) and 3-dimensional imaging software. Thirty-one TKAs were performed using an intramedullary alignment method involving the insertion of a long 8-mm diameter rod into the medullary canal to the distal metaphysis of the tibia. All alignment instruments were set to achieve an ideal varus/valgus angle of 0° in the coronal plane and a tibial slope of 0° in the sagittal plane. The accuracy of the intramedullary alignment system was assessed by measuring the coronal tibial component angle and sagittal tibial slope angles, i.e., angles between the tibial anatomical axis and the tangent to the medial and lateral tibial plateau or the cut-surface. The mean coronal tibial component angle was 88.5° ± 1.2° and the mean tibial component slope in the sagittal plane was 1.6° ± 1.2° without anterior slope. Our intramedullary tibial alignment method, which involves passing an 8-mm diameter long rod through the tibial shaft isthmus, showed good accuracy (less than 3 degrees of variation and no anterior slope) in the sagittal plane in neutral or varus knees.

  6. Relationship between Tibial Baseplate Design and Rotational Alignment Landmarks in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Indelli, Pier Francesco; Graceffa, Angelo; Baldini, Andrea; Payne, Brielle; Pipino, Gennaro; Marcucci, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of modern tibial baseplate designs when using the anterior tibial cortex as a primary rotational landmark for the tibial baseplate in TKA. Eighty patients undergoing TKA were randomized in two groups. Group 1 included 25 females and 15 males receiving a posterior-stabilized (PS) symmetric tibial baseplate while Group 2 included 24 females and 16 males receiving a PS anatomical tibial component. Identical surgical technique, including the use of the surgical transepicondylar femoral axis (sTEA) and the anterior tibial cortex (“Curve-on-Curve”) as rotational alignment landmarks, was used. All patients underwent CT evaluation performed with the knee in full extension. Three observers independently measured the rotational alignment of the tibial component in relation to the sTEA. The rotational alignment of the symmetric baseplate showed an average external rotation of 1.3° (minimum 5°, maximum −1°): 91% of the knees showed 0 ± 3° with respect to the surgical sTEA, being internally rotated in 20%. The rotational alignment of the anatomical baseplate showed an average external rotation of 4.1° (minimum 0.4°, maximum 8.9°): only 47.5% of the knees showed 0 ± 3°, being externally rotated in 100%. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. This study confirms the reliability of the “Curve-on-Curve” technique as an adequate rotational alignment anatomical landmark in TKA: the use of an asymmetric tibial baseplate might lead to external rotation of the tibial component when this technique is intraoperatively chosen. PMID:26491564

  7. Relationship between Tibial Baseplate Design and Rotational Alignment Landmarks in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Indelli, Pier Francesco; Graceffa, Angelo; Baldini, Andrea; Payne, Brielle; Pipino, Gennaro; Marcucci, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of modern tibial baseplate designs when using the anterior tibial cortex as a primary rotational landmark for the tibial baseplate in TKA. Eighty patients undergoing TKA were randomized in two groups. Group 1 included 25 females and 15 males receiving a posterior-stabilized (PS) symmetric tibial baseplate while Group 2 included 24 females and 16 males receiving a PS anatomical tibial component. Identical surgical technique, including the use of the surgical transepicondylar femoral axis (sTEA) and the anterior tibial cortex ("Curve-on-Curve") as rotational alignment landmarks, was used. All patients underwent CT evaluation performed with the knee in full extension. Three observers independently measured the rotational alignment of the tibial component in relation to the sTEA. The rotational alignment of the symmetric baseplate showed an average external rotation of 1.3° (minimum 5°, maximum -1°): 91% of the knees showed 0 ± 3° with respect to the surgical sTEA, being internally rotated in 20%. The rotational alignment of the anatomical baseplate showed an average external rotation of 4.1° (minimum 0.4°, maximum 8.9°): only 47.5% of the knees showed 0 ± 3°, being externally rotated in 100%. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. This study confirms the reliability of the "Curve-on-Curve" technique as an adequate rotational alignment anatomical landmark in TKA: the use of an asymmetric tibial baseplate might lead to external rotation of the tibial component when this technique is intraoperatively chosen.

  8. Postnatal Changes in Tibial Bone Speed of Sound of Preterm and Term Infants during Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wei-Te; Lee, Pei-Lun; Liu, Po-Len; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in tibial bone speed of sound (SOS) over time, in preterm and term infants during infancy, in addition to identifying factors influencing the development of tibial SOS during infancy. Preterm (n = 155) and term (n = 65) infants were enrolled in this study. Tibial bone SOS was measured using quantitative ultrasonography (QUS) on the left tibia of newborn infants after birth (within 7 days), at 1 month old, and then every 2 months until subjects were approximately 12–15 months old. Follow-up checks included anthropometric measurements and tibial bone SOS. Mean tibial bone SOS at birth was significantly higher in term infants (mean ± SD, 2968.5 ± 99.7 m/s) than in preterm infants (2912.2 ± 122.6 m/s). Values of follow-up tibial bone SOS declined for the first 4 months, and then increased gradually until 12–15 months old. This increasing trend was greater in preterm infants after 2 months of corrected age than in term infants. There were no significant differences by 12–15 months of age between preterm and term infants. A longitudinal mixed-effect model controlling for internal correlations and other covariates in the two groups showed that age and the SOS value at birth were important factors affecting the tibial bone SOS in both preterm and term newborn infants during infancy. There are significant differences in the pattern of change in tibial bone SOS values between preterm and term infants during the first 12–15 months of life. Age and SOS value at birth were important factors affecting the pattern of tibial bone SOS change in both preterm and term newborn infants during infancy. PMID:27832193

  9. Proximal Tibial Osteochondromas in Patients with Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva

    PubMed Central

    Deirmengian, Gregory K.; Hebela, Nader M.; O’Connell, Michael; Glaser, David L.; Shore, Eileen M.; Kaplan, Frederick S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital malformation of the great toes and by progressive heterotopic ossification of skeletal muscle and soft connective tissues. The disorder is caused by a recurrent missense mutation in the glycine-serine activation domain of activin A receptor type I, a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type-I receptor, in all classically affected individuals. Osteochondromas of the proximal part of the tibia are benign osteochondral neoplasms or orthotopic lesions of skeletal remodeling associated with dysregulated BMP signaling and have been considered an atypical feature of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, but they may be underdiagnosed because of their often asymptomatic nature. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of proximal tibial osteochondromas in individuals who have fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Methods: Over a period of thirty months, we evaluated all patients with new and established fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva for the presence of proximal tibial osteochondromas on the basis of medical history, physical examination, and radiographic studies. We quantified the prevalence of osteochondromas and characterized the types of osteochondromas to identify relevant trends. Results: Ninety-six patients (including fifty-two female patients and forty-four male patients) with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva were evaluated on the basis of a history and physical examination. Plain radiographs were available for sixty-seven patients. Ninety percent of all patients had osteochondroma of the proximal part of the tibia. These lesions usually were asymptomatic, most commonly were bilateral, and typically were located at the pes anserinus. Seventy-five percent of the lesions were pedunculated, and 25% were sessile. Conclusions: Proximal tibial osteochondromas are a common phenotypic feature of

  10. Proximal tibial osteochondromas in patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.

    PubMed

    Deirmengian, Gregory K; Hebela, Nader M; O'Connell, Michael; Glaser, David L; Shore, Eileen M; Kaplan, Frederick S

    2008-02-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital malformation of the great toes and by progressive heterotopic ossification of skeletal muscle and soft connective tissues. The disorder is caused by a recurrent missense mutation in the glycine-serine activation domain of activin A receptor type I, a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type-I receptor, in all classically affected individuals. Osteochondromas of the proximal part of the tibia are benign osteochondral neoplasms or orthotopic lesions of skeletal remodeling associated with dysregulated BMP signaling and have been considered an atypical feature of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, but they may be underdiagnosed because of their often asymptomatic nature. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of proximal tibial osteochondromas in individuals who have fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Over a period of thirty months, we evaluated all patients with new and established fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva for the presence of proximal tibial osteochondromas on the basis of medical history, physical examination, and radiographic studies. We quantified the prevalence of osteochondromas and characterized the types of osteochondromas to identify relevant trends. Ninety-six patients (including fifty-two female patients and forty-four male patients) with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva were evaluated on the basis of a history and physical examination. Plain radiographs were available for sixty-seven patients. Ninety percent of all patients had osteochondroma of the proximal part of the tibia. These lesions usually were asymptomatic, most commonly were bilateral, and typically were located at the pes anserinus. Seventy-five percent of the lesions were pedunculated, and 25% were sessile. Proximal tibial osteochondromas are a common phenotypic feature of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, a finding

  11. Prolonged operative time increases infection rate in tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Colman, Matthew; Wright, Adam; Gruen, Gary; Siska, Peter; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Tarkin, Ivan

    2013-02-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau present a treatment challenge and are susceptible to both prolonged operative times and high postoperative infection rates. For those fractures treated with open plating, we sought to identify the relationship between surgical site infection and prolonged operative time as well as to identify other surgical risk factors. We performed a retrospective controlled analysis of 309 consecutive unicondylar and bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with open plate osteosynthesis at our institution's level I trauma centre during a recent 5-year period. We recorded operative times, injury characteristics, surgical treatment, and need for operative debridement due to infection. Operative times of infected cases were compared to uncomplicated surgical cases. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for postoperative infection. Mean operative time in the infection group was 2.8h vs. 2.2h in the non-infected group (p=0.005). 15 fractures (4.9%) underwent four compartment fasciotomies as part of their treatment, with a significantly higher infection rate than those not undergoing fasciotomy (26.7% vs. 6.8%, p=0.01). Open fracture grade was also significantly related to infection rate (closed fractures: 5.3%, grade 1: 14.3%, grade 2: 40%, grade 3: 50%, p<0.0001). In the bicolumnar fracture group, use of dual-incision medial and lateral plating as compared to single incision lateral locked plating had statistically similar infection rates (13.9% vs. 8.7%, p=0.36). Multivariable logistic regression analysis of the entire study group identified longer operative times (OR 1.78, p=0.013) and open fractures (OR 7.02, p<0.001) as independent predictors of surgical site infection. Operative times approaching 3h and open fractures are related to an increased overall risk for surgical site infection after open plating of the tibial plateau. Dual incision approaches with bicolumnar plating do not

  12. Return to sport following tibial plateau fractures: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Greg A J; Wong, Seng J; Wood, Alexander M

    2017-01-01

    AIM To systemically review all studies reporting return to sport following tibial plateau fracture, in order to provide information on return rates and times to sport, and to assess variations in sporting outcome for different treatment methods. METHODS A systematic search of CINAHAL, Cochrane, EMBASE, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PEDro, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science was performed in January 2017 using the keywords “tibial”, “plateau”, “fractures”, “knee”, “athletes”, “sports”, “non-operative”, “conservative”, “operative”, “return to sport”. All studies which recorded return rates and times to sport following tibial plateau fractures were included. RESULTS Twenty-seven studies were included: 1 was a randomised controlled trial, 7 were prospective cohort studies, 16 were retrospective cohort studies, 3 were case series. One study reported on the outcome of conservative management (n = 3); 27 reported on the outcome of surgical management (n = 917). Nine studies reported on Open Reduction Internal Fixation (ORIF) (n = 193), 11 on Arthroscopic-Assisted Reduction Internal Fixation (ARIF) (n = 253) and 7 on Frame-Assisted Fixation (FRAME) (n = 262). All studies recorded “return to sport” rates. Only one study recorded a “return to sport” time. The return rate to sport for the total cohort was 70%. For the conservatively-managed fractures, the return rate was 100%. For the surgically-managed fractures, the return rate was 70%. For fractures managed with ORIF, the return rate was 60%. For fractures managed with ARIF, the return rate was 83%. For fractures managed with FRAME was 52%. The return rate for ARIF was found to be significantly greater than that for ORIF (OR 3.22, 95%CI: 2.09-4.97, P < 0.001) and for FRAME (OR 4.33, 95%CI: 2.89-6.50, P < 0.001). No difference was found between the return rates for ORIF and FRAME (OR 1.35, 95%CI: 0.92-1.96, P = 0.122). The recorded return time was 6.9 mo (median), from a study

  13. Equilibrium and movement control strategies in trans-tibial amputees.

    PubMed

    Viton, J M; Mouchnino, L; Mille, M L; Cincera, M; Delarque, A; Pedotti, A; Bardot, A; Massion, J

    2000-08-01

    This study was aimed at identifying changes in equilibrium and movement control strategies in trans-tibial amputees (TTA) related to both the biomechanical changes and the loss of afferent inflow. The coordinations between equilibrium and movement were studied in traumatical TTA and in controls during transition from bipedal to monopodal stance. TTA failed to perform the task in a high percentage of trials both when the sound and the prosthetic limb were supporting. Significant differences were also found between TTA and controls in the duration of the weight transfer phase, in the length of the initial centre of pressure (CP) displacement and in the electromyographic (EMG) patterns. Despite adaptive posturomotor control strategies, transition from bipedal to monopodal stance remains a difficult task to perform for TTA, both when the supporting limb is the affected one and when the sound one is. The results of this study are discussed with respect to the rehabilitation programme and the prosthesis design for transtibial amputees.

  14. Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa complicated with chronic tibial osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Turhan, Egemen; Ege, Ahmet; Keser, Selcuk; Bayar, Ahmet

    2008-10-01

    Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa represents an infrequent clinical entity with cutaneous changes characterized by dermal fibrosis, hyperkeratotic verrucous and papillamotous lesions resulting from chronic non-filarial lymphedema secondary to infections, surgeries, tumor obstruction, radiation, congestive heart failure, and obesity. Although recurrent streptococcal lymphangitis is believed to play a critical role in the origin of elephantiasis nostras verrucosa, the exact pathogenesis of the disorder is not yet clear. Therapeutic efforts should aim to reduce lymph stasis, which will also lead to improvement of the cutaneous changes but unfortunately there is no specific treatment for advanced cases. In this report, we present a patient who was treated by below knee amputation as a result of elephantiasis nostras verrucosa complicated with chronic tibial osteomyelitis.

  15. Intraneural Lipoma of the Tibial Nerve: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Krzywosinski, Tarin B; Bingham, Adam L; Fallat, Lawrence M

    Intraneural lipomas, neurofibrolipomas, lipofibromatous hamartomas, and perineural lipomas are subsets of hamartomas that typically present as fibroadipose, soft tissue masses within the epineurium of a nerve. Several cases involving intraneural lipomas of the median nerve in the upper extremity have been reported; however, owing to the lesion's rare incidence in the foot and ankle, only a select few cases involving the superficial peroneal nerve have been reported. We present the first case of a tibial nerve intraneural lipoma in a 42-year-old female with a follow-up period of 2 years. We discuss the clinical presentation, distinguishing features, surgical procedures, and short-term outcome regarding this unique tumor. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Avulsion fracture of the tibial tuberosity in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Nimityongskul, P; Montague, W L; Anderson, L D

    1988-04-01

    Between January 1982 and May 1985, eight patients with avulsion fractures of tibial tuberosity were seen at the University of South Alabama Medical Center. All were boys, average age, 15 years 8 months. Six of eight had a positive history of Osgood-Schlatter disease. Seven patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation, one had closed reduction and cast. Followup ranged from 5 months to 3.5 years, averaging 19.5 months. All, except one who had lateral meniscectomy, regained practically full ROM and reported no pain or limitation of activities. No patient developed genu recurvatum deformity or leg length discrepancy due to the injury. Open reduction and internal fixation is the treatment of choice in displaced intra-articular fractures. Lateral parapatellar incision is a more direct approach to this fracture and is less likely to injure the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve.

  17. Sagittal accuracy of tibial osteotomy position during in vivo tibial plateau levelling osteotomy performed without an alignment jig and cutting guide.

    PubMed

    Craig, Andrew; Witte, Philip Georg; Scott, Harry William

    2017-01-16

    To assess the accuracy of tibial osteotomy location for tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) in the sagittal plane and its effect on the postoperative tibial plateau angle (TPA), when performed without an alignment jig and saw guide. Also, to document the improvement gained with experience. Medical records and stifle radiographs of dogs undergoing TPLO, without the use of an alignment jig and saw guide, by one surgeon were reviewed (2010-2014). Postoperative radiographs were reviewed to record the distance and direction of eccentricity. Postoperative TPA was also recorded. In a series of 401 TPLO procedures, 231 met the inclusion criteria. The absolute distance of eccentricity (DOE) for all dogs was 3.0 ± 1.6 mm. When evaluating surgical experience, the DOE for the final 77 cases (2.72 ± 1.43 mm), the middle 77 cases (3.18 ± 1.49 mm), and the first 77 cases (3.24 ± 1.7 mm) were not significantly different (p = 0.07157). There was a very weak correlation between DOE and postoperative TPA (R = 0.029). The location of the tibial osteotomy when performing TPLO without an alignment jig and saw guide compared favourably with previously documented use of an alignment jig and saw guide. Whilst the location of the tibial osteotomy has a theoretical impact on the postoperative TPA, other factors appear to be of greater importance. Surgeon experience did not result in significant improvement in accuracy up to 231 procedures.

  18. How to Minimize Rotational Conflict between Femoral & Tibial Component in Total Knee Arthroplasty: The Use of Femoro-Tibial Axial Synchronizer (Linker)

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jai-Gon; Moon, Young-Wan; Kim, Sang-Min

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between rotational axes of femur and tibia with the use of Linker. Materials and Methods This study was carried out from August 2009 to February 2010 on 54 patients (106 knees), who were diagnosed with simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty. With the use of postoperative computed tomography scans, it was investigated how much the rotational angle of femoral and tibial components matched. Results The tibial component was internally rotated for the femoral component at an angle of 0.8°. The femoral component was externally rotated for the surgical transepicondylar axis (TEA) at an angle of 1.6 (range: from 4.8° of internal rotation to 7.9° of external rotation, SD=2.2°), and the tibial component was externally rotated for the surgical TEA at an average angle of 0.9 (range: from 5.1° of internal rotation to 8.3° of external rotation, SD=3.1°). Conclusion The femoro-tibial synchronizer helped to improve the orientation and positioning of both femoral component and tibial component, and also increase the correlation of the rotational axes of the two components. PMID:25683995

  19. How to minimize rotational conflict between femoral & tibial component in total knee arthroplasty: the use of femoro-tibial axial synchronizer (Linker).

    PubMed

    Seo, Jai-Gon; Moon, Young-Wan; Kim, Sang-Min; Park, Sang-Hoon

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between rotational axes of femur and tibia with the use of Linker. This study was carried out from August 2009 to February 2010 on 54 patients (106 knees), who were diagnosed with simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty. With the use of postoperative computed tomography scans, it was investigated how much the rotational angle of femoral and tibial components matched. The tibial component was internally rotated for the femoral component at an angle of 0.8°. The femoral component was externally rotated for the surgical transepicondylar axis (TEA) at an angle of 1.6 (range: from 4.8° of internal rotation to 7.9° of external rotation, SD=2.2°), and the tibial component was externally rotated for the surgical TEA at an average angle of 0.9 (range: from 5.1° of internal rotation to 8.3° of external rotation, SD=3.1°). The femoro-tibial synchronizer helped to improve the orientation and positioning of both femoral component and tibial component, and also increase the correlation of the rotational axes of the two components.

  20. Tibial tubercle torsion, a new factor of patellar instability.

    PubMed

    Chassaing, V; Zeitoun, J-M; Camara, M; Blin, J-L; Marque, S; Chancelier, M-D

    2017-12-01

    External torsion of the anterior tibial tubercle (TT), defined as external rotation around a craniocaudal axis with respect to the posterior femoral condylar plane, may induce patellar instability. To our knowledge no studies have focused on this parameter. The present study aimed to perform an MRI analysis of TT torsion. The study hypothesis was that TT torsion correlates with patellar instability and with 3 of its components: tibial tubercle-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance, axial engagement index of the patella (AEI), and patellar tilt. Four observers performed MRI measurements for 2 groups: 37 patellar instability patients (PI group) with history of at least 2 patellar dislocations, and 50 control patients with meniscal lesion but free from patellofemoral pathology. All measurements were taken from 2 axial slices with the posterior condylar plane as reference. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.88. TT torsion correlated with patellar instability, with a mean 5.8̊ in controls and 17.9̊ in the PI group (P<0.001). There were also excellent correlations between TT torsion and TT-TG distance, patellar tilt and patellar lateralization (measured by AEI), with correlation coefficients greater than 0.85. TT torsion is a reproducible measurement, with excellent ICC. It is significantly correlated with patellar instability, with a discrimination threshold of 11.5̊, and correlations with all 3 components of instability. These statistical correlations enable TT torsion to be added to the list of patellar instability factors. Further studies should determine its biomechanical role and assess the contribution of associating TT derotation to medialization or distalization procedures. III; case-control study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Distal tibial fractures: evaluation of different fixation techniques.

    PubMed

    Jöstl, Julian; Tiefenböck, Thomas Manfred; Hofbauer, Marcus; Winnisch, Markus; Lang, Nikolaus; Hajdu, Stefan; Sarahrudi, Kambiz

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was the comparison of the most commonly used surgical techniques (external fixation, intramedullary nailing, and plate fixation) for the treatment of distal tibial fractures (AO/OTA classification 42-A, B, C or 43-A, B1). A retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent surgical treatment for distal tibial fractures between 1992 and 2011 was performed. A total of 93 patients (52 male/41 female) met inclusion criteria. Statistically significant differences were found regarding the consolidation time of the intramedullary-nailing (147.32 ± 91.16 days) and the plate-fixation group (135.75 ± 110.75 days) versus the external-fixation group (163.12 ± 96.79 days; P = 0.001; P = 0.01). Significant differences were also observed in the range of motion (ROM) of the ankle joint in the intramedullary-nailing and plate-fixation group versus the ROM in the external-fixation group (P = 0.044; P = 0.025). The overall complication rate was 13/93 (14 %). Out of 66 patients treated with intramedullary nailing, 8 (12 %) suffered from complications. Out of the 15 patients treated with plate and 12 patients with external fixation, 2 (13 %) and 3 (25 %) showed complications, respectively. Our results demonstrate advantages in terms of shorter mobilization time and a better ROM of the ankle joint for intramedullary nailing and plate fixation compared with external fixation. Due to our results, we suggest internal fixation (intramedullary nailing or plate fixation) whenever patient's condition and the local fracture situation allow it.

  2. Surgical Technique of Anterolateral Approach for Tibial Plateau Fracture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-cheng; Ren, Dong; Zhou, Bing

    2015-11-01

    A 66-year-old woman had sustained crush injury 3 hours prior to her presentation to our hospital. The diagnosis was defined as lateral tibial plateau fracture of the right knee (Schatzker III). Supine position was set up and a pad was put under the affected hip. After sterilization of the surgical field the sterilized sheets were placed beneath the leg in order to be higher than the other side. A rolled sheet was put under the knee joint so that the knee joint was flexed around 30° to 40°. After the surgical field was draped the skin was incised. Iliotibial band was incised by blade (not by electrotomy) and sharp dissection was performed in the Gerdy's tubercle. Capsulotomy was made by cutting the tibial meniscal ligament. Then the meniscus was tagged superiorly and the articular surface was clearly visualized. A window was made in the lateral cortex beneath the plateau, so the impacted fragment was elevated through the window. The metaphyseal void was filled by bone allograft. The placement of the raft-screw plate must be ensured that the raft screws passing the plate could purchase the subchondral bone. After perfect placement of the plate was defined, the femoral distractor was removed and the knee joint was relaxed. It was ensured that the alignment of the lower leg was normal, and then the other screws were inserted. Following placing drainage in the wound the iliotibial band was closed and the subcutaneous soft tissue and skin were closed in layer. © 2015 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Effect of step width manipulation on tibial stress during running.

    PubMed

    Meardon, Stacey A; Derrick, Timothy R

    2014-08-22

    Narrow step width has been linked to variables associated with tibial stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of step width on bone stresses using a standardized model of the tibia. 15 runners ran at their preferred 5k running velocity in three running conditions, preferred step width (PSW) and PSW±5% of leg length. 10 successful trials of force and 3-D motion data were collected. A combination of inverse dynamics, musculoskeletal modeling and beam theory was used to estimate stresses applied to the tibia using subject-specific anthropometrics and motion data. The tibia was modeled as a hollow ellipse. Multivariate analysis revealed that tibial stresses at the distal 1/3 of the tibia differed with step width manipulation (p=0.002). Compression on the posterior and medial aspect of the tibia was inversely related to step width such that as step width increased, compression on the surface of tibia decreased (linear trend p=0.036 and 0.003). Similarly, tension on the anterior surface of the tibia decreased as step width increased (linear trend p=0.029). Widening step width linearly reduced shear stress at all 4 sites (p<0.001 for all). The data from this study suggests that stresses experienced by the tibia during running were influenced by step width when using a standardized model of the tibia. Wider step widths were generally associated with reduced loading of the tibia and may benefit runners at risk of or experiencing stress injury at the tibia, especially if they present with a crossover running style. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anterior tibial laxity using the GNRB® device in healthy knees.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Y; Murgier, J; Beaufils, P; Boisrenoult, P; Steltzlen, C; Pujol, N

    2018-01-01

    GRNB® is a non-radiating power tool that allows the evaluation of the anterior tibial translation. The pressure exerted by the system against the patella and the body mass index (BMI) could affect the anterior tibial translation when we repeat the measurements in healthy knees. We retrospectively evaluated the measurements of anterior knee laxity in healthy knees carried out by the GNRB® in 69 consecutive patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair in the contralateral knee. Two measurements were carried out, the initial measurements (M1), and then repeated at a mean of seven months (M2) (4.9 to 13months). There were 38 women and 31 men with an average age of 31years. In healthy knees, the Mean average anterior translation was 5.4±4mm with an average patellar force of 35.8 at time M1. The average anterior translation was 4.9±4mm with an average patellar force of 47 at time M2. There was a significant difference between the measurements M1 and M2 (P<0.03). The tightening force was significantly different between the two sets of measurements (P<10-7). There was a negative correlation between the pressure applied on the patella and anterior knee laxity (P<0.01). The pressure force exerted on the patella during GNRB® affects the measurement of anterior laxity in healthy knees. This raises the problem of the reproducibility of the measurements during repeated examinations at different times. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Neurovascular risk of bicortical tibial drilling for screw and spiked washer fixation of soft-tissue anterior cruciate ligament graft.

    PubMed

    Post, William R.; King, Stephen S.

    2001-03-01

    PURPOSE: As the use of soft-tissue anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) grafts, including hamstring grafts, has become more prominent and the benefits of aggressive rehabilitation have become clear, maximizing fixation with screw and spiked washers is important. Bicortical fixation may be superior. We were concerned about potential neurovascular risks and designed this study to define the posterior neurovasculature structures at risk when drilling for bicortical tibial screw fixation during ACL reconstruction. Type of Study: Consecutive sample. METHODS: We placed the tibial tunnel arthroscopically in 10 cadaveric knees using a standard tibial drill guide. Accurate tibial tunnel position was documented in each knee by lateral radiograph. A 4.5-mm bicortical drill hole was placed perpendicular to the tibial surface 1 cm distal to the tibial tunnel. The distances from the posterior tibial drill exit point to nearby neurovascular structures were measured with a caliper. RESULTS: The closest structure to the exit point was the bifurcation of the popliteal artery/vein (11.4 +/- 0.6 mm; range, 8.4 to 14.0 mm). The next closest was the anterior tibial vein (11.7 +/- 1.6 mm; range, 3.5 to 22.8 mm). The closest any individual hole came to a neurovascular structure was 3.5 mm from the anterior tibial vein. CONCLUSIONS: Bicortical drilling for fixation of soft tissue grafts appears reasonably safe. The structures at greatest risk for injury are the bifurcation of the popliteal artery/vein and the anterior tibial vein.

  6. Dynamic and static tibial translation in patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency initially treated with a structured rehabilitation protocol.

    PubMed

    Sonesson, Sofi; Kvist, Joanna

    2017-08-01

    To compare dynamic and static tibial translation, in patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency, at 2- to 5-year follow-up, with the tibial translation after 4 months of rehabilitation initiated early after the injury. Secondarily, to compare tibial translation in the injured knee and non-injured knee and explore correlations between dynamic and static tibial translation. Twelve patients with ACL rupture were assessed at 3-8 weeks after ACL injury, after 4 months of structured rehabilitation, and 2-5 years after ACL injury. Sagittal tibial translation was measured during the Lachman test (static translation) and during gait (dynamic translation) using a CA-4000 electrogoniometer. Static tibial translation was increased bilateral 2-5 years after ACL injury, whereas the dynamic tibial translation was unchanged. Tibial translation was greater in the injured knee compared with the non-injured knee (Lachman test 134 N 9.1 ± 1.0 vs. 7.0 ± 1.7 mm, P = 0.001, gait 5.6 ± 2.1 vs. 4.7 ± 1.8 mm, P = 0.011). There were no correlations between dynamic and static tibial translation. Dynamic tibial translation was unchanged in spite of increased static tibial translation in the ACL-deficient knee at 2- to 5-year follow-up compared to directly after rehabilitation. Dynamic tibial translation did not correlate with the static tibial translation. A more normal gait kinematics may be maintained from completion of a rehabilitation programme to mid-term follow-up in patients with ACL deficiency treated with rehabilitation only. IV.

  7. Evaluation of the rotational alignment of the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty: position prioritizing maximum coverage.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Masashi; Miyazaki, Masashi; Ikeda, Shinichi; Matsumoto, Yoshiki; Kondo, Makoto; Tsumura, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The standard for rotational alignment of the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains unclear. Cases often require positioning of the tibial component, prioritizing adequate coverage of resected bone surface rather than alignment with the tibial rotational axis. We investigated tibial component position in TKA, prioritizing maximum coverage of resected bone surface, and evaluated the correlation with the tibial anteroposterior (AP) axis. We analyzed preoperative computed tomography images for primary TKA in 106 cases and 157 knees, using three-dimensional planning software. Tibial component position prioritizing maximum coverage of resected bone surface was simulated, and results were compared with the AP axis. Rotational alignment angle was defined as that between a line perpendicular to the tibial AP axis and a line connecting the posterior edge of the tibial component. The simulated tibial component was more externally rotated by a mean 4.5° ± 4.2°. The alignment angle showed normal distribution, but variability was large, ranging from 5.1° internal rotation to 16.2° external rotation. In 138 of 157 (87.9 %) knees, the tibial component was positioned in the externally rotated position with respect to the AP axis. The tibial component was aligned within the medial one-third of the patellar tendon in 122 of 157 (77.7 %) knees. The tibial component aligned using coverage prioritizing was externally rotated, although large variability was observed. Rotational alignment was optimal in 79 % of cases when the tibial component was aligned with coverage prioritizing, but hyperexternal rotation was observed in patients with severe knee deformation.

  8. Prosthetic foot roll-over shapes with implications for alignment of trans-tibial prostheses.

    PubMed

    Hansen, A H; Childress, D S; Knox, E H

    2000-12-01

    Roll-over shape is introduced as a significant characteristic of prosthetic feet. The roll-over shapes of the Flexwalk, Quantum, SACH, and SAFE prosthetic feet were determined using three methods; two involving quasi-static loading and one dynamic loading. The results show that foot roll-over shape properties obtained by quasi-static and by dynamic methods are similar. Relationships between foot roll-over shape and the alignment of trans-tibial prostheses are introduced that suggest ways to align trans-tibial prostheses without walking trials and iterations. The relationships may explain what prosthetists attempt to accomplish when they dynamically align a trans-tibial limb. They also explain why prosthetic feet with different mechanical properties usually necessitate different alignments, and may explain why a number of gait studies of trans-tibial amputees do not show major gait differences when walking is executed on various kinds of prosthetic feet.

  9. Economics of open tibial fractures: the pivotal role of length-of-stay and infection.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Harm; Smeets, Bart; Metsemakers, Willem-Jan; Spitz, Anne-Cécile; Nijs, Stefaan

    2017-09-25

    In order to define strategies to curb the continuing increase in healthcare costs, we describe the cost breakdown of open tibial fractures. Twenty-seven clinical and process variables were recorded retrospectively, and five main hospital related cost categories were defined. Three multivariate linear models were fitted to the data. Total healthcare costs of open tibial fractures were almost twice as high compared to closed fractures and mainly existed of hospitalization costs. Length-of-stay (LOS) was found to be the most important variable driving the healthcare costs of open tibial fractures. Deep infection lead to a 6-fold increase of LOS and 5-fold increase in total healthcare costs of open tibial fractures. Therefore, appropriate international consensus guidelines are required to improve not only the patient outcome (infection prevention) but also reduce overall healthcare cost by focusing on reducing the LOS.

  10. [Investigation of tibial bones of the rats exposed on board "Spacelab-2":histomorphometric analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durnova, G. N.; Kaplanskii, A. S.; Morey-Holton, E. R.; Vorobeva, V. N.

    1996-01-01

    Proximal metaphyses of tibial bones from the Sprague-Dowly rats exposed in US dedicated space life sciences laboratory SLS-2 for 13-14 days and sacrificed on day 13 in microgravity and within 5 hours and 14 days following recovery were the subject of histological, histochemical, and histomorphometric analyses. After the 13-day flight of SLS-2 the rats showed initial signs of osteopenia in the spongy tissue of tibial bones, secondary spongiosis affected first. Resorption of the secondary spongiosis was consequent to enhanced resorption and inhibition of osteogenesis. In rats sacrificed within 5 hours of recovery manifestations of tibial osteopenia were more evident than in rats sacrificed during the flight. Spaceflight-induced changes in tibial spongiosis were reverse by character the amount of spongy bone was fully compensated and following 14 days of readaptation to the terrestrial gravity.

  11. [Spontaneous avulsion of the tibial tuberosity following Osgood-Schlatter disease].

    PubMed

    Bang, J; Broeng, L

    1995-05-22

    Two cases of spontaneous fracture and dislocation of the tibial tuberosity in boys (15 and 19 years of age), who had both suffered from Osgood-Schlatter disease are described. The treatment and prognosis are discussed.

  12. Effect of Modularity on the Fatigue Performance of Tibial Tray Designs in TKA Prostheses.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Ahilan Anantha; Ghyar, Rupesh; Ravi, Bhallamudi

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue performance of tibial tray in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is of critical importance in terms of longevity of the prosthesis. Standards have been proposed by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to ensure its long-term structural integrity. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of modularity in the tibial tray following the testing standards, using finite element analysis. Goodman and Sines criteria were used to compare the fatigue safety factor (FSF) of four modular designs versus the two conventional designs. Cruciate-retaining (CR) type modular tibial tray designs were better than posterior-stabilized (PS) type tibial tray designs. More cutouts in the tray and absence of keel were reasons for poor fatigue performance.

  13. Outcomes of selective tibial artery repair following combat-related extremity injury.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Gabriel E; Cox, Mitchell; Clouse, W Darrin; Porras, Chantel; Gifford, Shaun M; Williams, Ken; Propper, Brandon W; Rasmussen, Todd E

    2010-07-01

    Selective tibial revascularization refers to the practice of vessel repair vs ligation or observation based on factors observed at the time of injury. Although commonly employed, the effectiveness of this strategy and its impact on sustained limb salvage is unknown. The objective of this study is to define the factors most relevant in selective tibial artery revascularization and to characterize limb salvage following tibial-level vascular injury. The cohort of active-duty military patients undergoing infrapopliteal artery repair comprises the tibial Bypass group. A similarly injured cohort of patients that did not undergo operative vascular intervention (No Bypass group) was identified. All tibial vessel injuries were documented by angiography. Data were compiled via medical records and patient interview. The primary outcome measure was failure of limb salvage. Multivariate regression was performed to identify factors associated with revascularization and to describe factors associated with amputation. Between March 2003 and September 2008, 135 of 1332 patients with battle-related vascular injuries had documented tibial vessel disruption or occlusion. Of these, 104 were included for analysis. Twenty-one underwent autologous vein bypass at the time of injury (Bypass group), and the remaining 83 patients were managed without revascularization (No Bypass group). Mean follow-up (39 vs 41 months; P = .27), age (25 vs 27 years; P = .66), and mechanism of injury (88% vs 92% penetrating blast; P = .56) were similar, but the No Bypass group had higher Injury Severity Scores (ISS; 16.3 vs 11.7; P < .01). Injury characteristics, including Gustilo III classification (49% vs 43%; P = .81) and nerve injury (55% vs 53%; P = 1.0), were similar. Subjects were more likely to receive tibial bypass with an increasing number of tibial vessel occlusions and documented ischemia on initial exam. However, of the 23 in the No Bypass group with initially unobtainable Doppler signals, 17 (74

  14. Incidence and risk factors for medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fracture in high school runners.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Shigenori; Muneta, Takeshi; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2013-03-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) and tibial stress fracture (SF) are common lower leg disorders in runners. A prospective study was done to identify the incidence of MTSS and SF in high school runners and to determine risk factors. A total of 230 runners participating in high school running teams were evaluated. All runners aged 15 years as first grade of high school were involved in the study. They were followed up for 3 years. The measured items included height, weight, body mass index (BMI), range of hip and ankle motion, straight leg raising (SLR), intercondylar and intermalleolar interval, Q-angle, navicular drop test, hip abductor strength and physical conditioning. Each runner was followed for 3 years to report occurrence of MTSS and SF. A total number of 102 MTSS (0.29 athlete exposures) and 21 SF (0.06 athlete exposures) were identified. In females, BMI significantly increased the risk of MTSS after adjustment for the other variables in this study (adjusted odds ratio, 0.51; 95 % confidence interval, 0.31-0.86). Increased internal rotation of the hip significantly increased the risk of MTSS (adjusted odds ratio, 0.91; 95 % confidence interval, 0.85-0.99). In males, limited SLR also significantly increased the risk of SF with adjustment for the other variables in this study (adjusted odds ratio, 1.38; 95 % confidence interval, 1.04-1.83). A significant relationship was found between BMI, internal hip rotation angle and MTSS in females, and between limited SLR and SF in males. Prospective cohort study, Level II.

  15. SIMULTANEOUS BILATERAL AVULSION FRACTURE OF THE TIBIAL TUBEROSITY IN A TEENAGER: CASE REPORT AND THERAPY USED

    PubMed Central

    e Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires; Giordano, Vincenzo; Carvalho, Antônio Carlos Pires; Puell, Thiago; e Albuquerque, Maria Isabel Pires; do Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral avulsion fracture of the tibial tuberosity in teenagers is a rare lesion. We describe the first case in the literature, in a teenage girl who sustained a fall while jumping during a volleyball match. No predisposing factors were iden tified. The lesions were treated with open surgical reduction and internal fixation. The aim of the present study was to present a case of simultaneous bilateral avulsion fracture of the tibial tuberosity in a teenage girl and the therapy used. PMID:27042651

  16. Coronal tibial anteromedial tunnel location has minimal effect on knee biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Asai, Shigehiro; Kim, Donghwi; Hoshino, Yuichi; Moon, Chan-Woong; Maeyama, Akira; Linde, Monica; Smolinski, Patrick; Fu, Freddie H

    2018-02-15

    Studies have found anatomic variation in the coronal position of the insertion site of anteromedial (AM) bundle of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) on the tibia, which can lead to questions about tunnel placement during ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to determine how mediolateral placement of the tibial AM graft tunnel in double-bundle ACL reconstructions affects knee biomechanics. Two different types of double-bundle ACL reconstructions were performed. The AM tibial tunnel was placed at either the medial or lateral portion of tibial AM footprint. Nine cadaveric knees were tested with the robotic/universal force-moment sensor system with the use of (1) an 89.0-N anterior tibial load at full extension (FE), 30°, 60° and 90° of knee flexion and (2) a combined 7.0-Nm valgus torque and 5.0-Nm internal tibial rotation torque at FE, 15°, 30°and 45° of knee flexion. Both medial (2.6 ± 1.2 mm) and lateral (1.6 ± 0.9 mm) double-bundle reconstructions reduced the anterior tibial translation (ATT) to less than the intact value (3.9 ± 0.7 mm) at FE. At all other flexion angles, there was no significant different in ATT between the intact knee and the reconstructions. At FE, the ATT for the medial AM reconstruction was different from that of the lateral AM construction and closer to the intact ACL value. The coronal tibial placement of the AM tunnel had only a slight effect on knee biomechanics. In patients with differing AM bundle coronal positions, the AM tibial tunnel can be placed anatomically at the native insertion site.

  17. Complex Medial Meniscus Tears Are Associated With a Biconcave Medial Tibial Plateau.

    PubMed

    Barber, F Alan; Getelman, Mark H; Berry, Kathy L

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether an association exists between a biconcave medial tibial plateau and complex medial meniscus tears. A consecutive series of stable knees undergoing arthroscopy were evaluated retrospectively with the use of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiographs, and arthroscopy documented by intraoperative videos. Investigators independently performed blinded reviews of the MRI or videos. Based on the arthroscopy findings, medial tibial plateaus were classified as either biconcave or not biconcave. A transverse coronal plane ridge, separating the front of the tibial plateau from the back near the inner margin of the posterior body of the medial meniscus, was defined as biconcave. The medial plateau slope was calculated with MRI sagittal views. General demographic information, body mass index, and arthroscopically confirmed knee pathology were recorded. A total of 179 consecutive knees were studied from July 2014 through August 2015; 49 (27.2%) biconcave medial tibial plateaus and 130 (72.8%) controls were identified at arthroscopy. Complex medial meniscus tears were found in 103. Patients with a biconcave medial tibial plateau were found to have more complex medial meniscus tears (69.4%) than those without a biconcavity (53.1%) (P = .049) despite having lower body mass index (P = .020). No difference in medial tibial plateau slope was observed for biconcavities involving both cartilage and bone, bone only, or an indeterminate group (P = .47). Biconcave medial tibial plateaus were present in 27.4% of a consecutive series of patients undergoing knee arthroscopy. A biconcave medial tibial plateau was more frequently associated with a complex medial meniscus tear. Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. All rights reserved.

  18. Outcomes of Surgical Treatment for Anterior Tibial Stress Fractures in Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Zaira S; Raikin, Steven M; Harwood, Marc I; Bishop, Meghan E; Ciccotti, Michael G; Hammoud, Sommer

    2017-12-01

    Although most anterior tibial stress fractures heal with nonoperative treatment, some may require surgical management. To our knowledge, no systematic review has been conducted regarding surgical treatment strategies for the management of chronic anterior tibial stress fractures from which general conclusions can be drawn regarding optimal treatment in high-performance athletes. This systematic review was conducted to evaluate the surgical outcomes of anterior tibial stress fractures in high-performance athletes. Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. In February 2017, a systematic review of the PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL databases was performed to identify studies that reported surgical outcomes for anterior tibial stress fractures. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were screened, and reported outcome measures were documented. A total of 12 studies, published between 1984 and 2015, reporting outcomes for the surgical treatment of anterior tibial stress fractures were included in this review. All studies were retrospective case series. Collectively, surgical outcomes for 115 patients (74 males; 41 females) with 123 fractures were evaluated in this review. The overall mean follow-up was 23.3 months. The most common surgical treatment method reported in the literature was compression plating (n = 52) followed by drilling (n = 33). Symptom resolution was achieved in 108 of 123 surgically treated fractures (87.8%). There were 32 reports of complications, resulting in an overall complication rate of 27.8%. Subsequent tibial fractures were reported in 8 patients (7.0%). Moreover, a total of 17 patients (14.8%) underwent a subsequent procedure after their initial surgery. Following surgical treatment for anterior tibial stress fracture, 94.7% of patients were able to return to sports. The available literature indicates that surgical treatment of anterior tibial stress fractures is associated with a high rate of symptom resolution and return

  19. SIMULTANEOUS BILATERAL AVULSION FRACTURE OF THE TIBIAL TUBEROSITY IN A TEENAGER: CASE REPORT AND THERAPY USED.

    PubMed

    E Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires; Giordano, Vincenzo; Carvalho, Antônio Carlos Pires; Puell, Thiago; E Albuquerque, Maria Isabel Pires; do Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral avulsion fracture of the tibial tuberosity in teenagers is a rare lesion. We describe the first case in the literature, in a teenage girl who sustained a fall while jumping during a volleyball match. No predisposing factors were iden tified. The lesions were treated with open surgical reduction and internal fixation. The aim of the present study was to present a case of simultaneous bilateral avulsion fracture of the tibial tuberosity in a teenage girl and the therapy used.

  20. Physeal growth arrest after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia: 23 children followed to skeletal maturity.

    PubMed

    Song, Sang-Heon; Agashe, Mandar Vikas; Huh, Young-Jae; Hwang, Soon-Young; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2012-06-01

    Bilateral tibial lengthening has become one of the standard treatments for upper segment-lower segment disproportion and to improve quality of life in achondroplasia. We determined the effect of tibial lengthening on the tibial physis and compared tibial growth that occurred at the physis with that in non-operated patients with achondroplasia. We performed a retrospective analysis of serial radiographs until skeletal maturity in 23 achondroplasia patients who underwent bilateral tibial lengthening before skeletal maturity (lengthening group L) and 12 achondroplasia patients of similar height and age who did not undergo tibial lengthening (control group C). The mean amount of lengthening of tibia in group L was 9.2 cm (lengthening percentage: 60%) and the mean age at the time of lengthening was 8.2 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 9.8 years. Skeletal maturity (fusion of physis) occurred at 15.2 years in group L and at 16.0 years in group C. The actual length of tibia (without distraction) at skeletal maturity was 238 mm in group L and 277 mm in group C (p = 0.03). The mean growth rates showed a decrease in group L relative to group C from about 2 years after surgery. Physeal closure was most pronounced on the anterolateral proximal tibial physis, with relative preservation of the distal physis. Our findings indicate that physeal growth rate can be disturbed after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia, and a close watch should be kept for such an occurrence-especially when lengthening of more than 50% is attempted.

  1. The biomechanical characteristics of arthroscopic tibial inlay techniques for posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: in vitro comparison of tibial graft tunnel placement.

    PubMed

    Benedetto, Karl Peter; Hoffelner, Thomas; Osti, Michael

    2014-11-01

    The hypothesis of the present study was that the biomechanical properties of arthroscopic tibial inlay procedures depend on tibial graft bone block position. Five paired fresh-frozen human cadaveric knee specimens were randomized to a reconstruction with quadriceps tendon placing the replicated footprint either to the more proximal margin of the remnants of the anatomical PCL fibrous attachments (group A) or to the distal margin of the anatomical PCL fibrous attachments at the edge of the posterior tibial facet to the posterior tibial cortex in level with the previous physis line (group B). The relative graft-tibia motions, post cycling pull-out failure load and failure properties of the tibia-graft fixation were measured. Cyclic displacement at 5, 500 and 1,000 cycles, stiffness and yield strength were calculated. The cyclic displacement at 5, 500 and 1,000 cycles measured consistently more in group A without statistically significant difference (4.11 ± 1.37, 7.73 ± 2.73 and 8.18 ± 2.75 mm versus 2.81 ± 1.33, 6.01 ± 2.37 and 6.46 ± 2.37 mm). Mean ultimate load to failure (564.6 ± 212.3) and yield strength (500.2 ± 185.9 N) were significantly higher in group B (p < 0.05). Replicating the anatomical PCL footprint at the posterior edge of the posterior tibial facet yields higher pull-out strength and less cycling loading displacement compared to a tunnel position at the centre of the posterior tibial facet.

  2. Tibial developmental field defect is the most common lower limb malformation pattern in VACTERL association.

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco; Rinaldi, Rosanna; Cappellacci, Sandra; Grammatico, Paola

    2008-05-15

    VACTERL association is one of the most common recognizable patterns of human malformation and has been recently defined as a multiple polytopic developmental field defect. Limb anomalies are a key component of this condition and characteristically reflect perturbation of radial ray development. However, the pattern of appendicular malformations in VACTERL association is wider and includes a broad spectrum of additional and apparently nonspecific anomalies. We report on the sporadic case of a 4-10/12-year-old boy presenting with multiple costovertebral defects, dextrocardia, bilateral radial ray hypo/aplasia, unilateral kidney agenesis and anal atresia. Homolaterally to the more severe radial ray defect and kidney aplasia, he also has a complex lower limb malformation, consisting of distal tibial aplasia, clubfoot, hallucal deficiency and preaxial polydactyly. Literature review identifies 24 additional patients with VACTERL manifestations and lower limb malformations (excluding cases with isolated secondary deformations). Tibial hypo/aplasia with or without additional tibial field defects, reported in about 2/3 (68%) of the patients, represents the most common finding, while involvement of the fibular ray is rare (20%) and very often accompanies tibial anomalies. The relatively high frequency of tibial ray anomalies in VACTERL patients could easily be explained by the principle of homology of the developmental field theory. Careful search of lower limb anomalies of the "tibial type" is, therefore, indicated in all patients with multiple polytopic developmental field defects. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Passive Posterior Tibial Subluxation on Routine Knee MRI as a Secondary Sign of PCL Tear

    PubMed Central

    Degnan, Andrew J.; Maldjian, Catherine; Adam, Richard J.; Harner, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    The posterior drawer test is an accurate clinical test to diagnose posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), indicating laxity of the PCL that allows posterior tibial translation. This study aimed to determine whether posterior tibial translation relative to the femur on routine MRI could serve as an additional sign of PCL tear. Routine knee MRI in eleven patients (7 males, 4 females) with arthroscopically confirmed isolated PCL tears were reviewed independently by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Measurements of tibial translation were made in the medial and lateral compartments of patients and controls (10 males, 12 females) without clinical or MRI evidence of ligament injury. Significant medial compartment posterior tibial translation was present in patients with PCL tear compared to controls (+2.93 mm versus +0.03 mm, P = 0.002) with excellent interobserver agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.94). No significant difference in lateral compartment tibial translation was observed (+0.17 mm versus −0.57 mm, P = 0.366) despite excellent interobserver agreement (ICC = 0.96). Posterior tibial translation in the midmedial compartment may be a secondary sign of isolated PCL tear on routine knee MRI with passive extension without manipulation or weight bearing. Additional work in a larger cohort may better address the accuracy of this finding. PMID:25587446

  4. What is the optimal alignment of the tibial and femoral components in knee arthroplasty?

    PubMed Central

    Gromov, Kirill; Korchi, Mounim; Thomsen, Morten G; Husted, Henrik; Troelsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Background Surgeon-dependent factors such as optimal implant alignment are thought to play a significant role in outcome following primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Exact definitions and references for optimal alignment are, however, still being debated. This overview of the literature describes different definitions of component alignment following primary TKA for (1) tibiofemoral alignment in the AP plane, (2) tibial and femoral component placement in the AP plane, (3) tibial and femoral component placement in the sagittal plane, and (4) rotational alignment of tibial and femoral components and their role in outcome and implant survival. Methods We performed a literature search for original and review articles on implant positioning following primary TKA. Definitions for coronal, sagittal, and rotational placement of femoral and tibial components were summarized and the influence of positioning on survival and functional outcome was considered. Results Many definitions exist when evaluating placement of femoral and tibial components. Implant alignment plays a role in both survival and functional outcome following primary TKA, as component malalignment can lead to increased failure rates, maltracking, and knee pain. Interpretation Based on currently available evidence, surgeons should aim for optimal alignment of tibial and femoral components when performing TKA. PMID:25036719

  5. Is intact fibula a disadvantage in treatment of tibial diaphysis fracture with intramedullary nailing?

    PubMed

    Kabukçuoğlu, Yavuz; Sökücü, Sami; Özcan, Çağrı; Beng, Kubilay; Lapçin, Osman; Demir, Bilal

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare solitary tibial diaphysis fractures and tibial diaphysis fractures associated with fibula fracture treated with the intramedullary nailing method. Records of 254 patients diagnosed with tibial diaphysis fracture and treated with intramedullary nailing between 2010 and 2013 were examined and 30 patients were included in the study. Group 1 comprised patients with solitary tibial diaphysis fracture, and Group 2 was made up of patients with tibial diaphysis fractures associated with fibula fracture. Patients in both groups were compared in terms of time to surgery, duration of surgical tourniquet, time to union, and varus, valgus, recurvatum, and antecurvatum deformities of the tibia at final follow-up. No statistically significant difference was found between the 2 groups in time to surgery, duration of surgical tourniquet, time to union, or varus, valgus, recurvatum, and antecurvatum deformities. Results indicated that intact fibula in tibial diaphysis fracture treated with intramedullary nailing was not a disadvantage; it did not affect rate of union or lead to loss of reduction, non-union, or malunion.

  6. Biomechanical analysis on transverse tibial fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions☆

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Edmar Stieven; Mendes, Mariane Henseler Damaceno; Claudino, Stephanie; Baracho, Filipe; Borges, Paulo César; da Cunha, Luiz Antonio Munhoz

    2015-01-01

    Objective To verify whether the combination of tibial cross pin fixation and femoral screw fixation presents biomechanical advantages when compared to femoral cross pin fixation and tibial screw fixation for the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Methods Thirty-eight porcine knees and bovine extensor digitorum tendons were used as the graft materials. The tests were performed in three groups: (1) standard, used fourteen knees, and the grafts were fixated with the combination of femoral cross pin and a tibial screw; (2) inverted, used fourteen knees with an inverted combination of tibial cross pin and a femoral screw; (3) control, ten control tests performed with intact ACL. After the grafts fixation, all the knees were subjected to tensile testing to determine yield strength and ultimate strength. Results There was no statistically significant difference in survival techniques in regard to strength, yield load and tension. There was a higher survival compared in the standard curves of yield stress (p < 0.05). Conclusion There is no biomechanical advantage, observed in animal models testing, in the combination of tibial cross pin fixation and femoral screw when compared to femoral cross pin fixation and tibial screw. PMID:26229913

  7. Prediction of Tibial Rotation Pathologies Using Particle Swarm Optimization and K-Means Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Sari, Murat; Tuna, Can; Akogul, Serkan

    2018-03-28

    The aim of this article is to investigate pathological subjects from a population through different physical factors. To achieve this, particle swarm optimization (PSO) and K-means (KM) clustering algorithms have been combined (PSO-KM). Datasets provided by the literature were divided into three clusters based on age and weight parameters and each one of right tibial external rotation (RTER), right tibial internal rotation (RTIR), left tibial external rotation (LTER), and left tibial internal rotation (LTIR) values were divided into three types as Type 1, Type 2 and Type 3 (Type 2 is non-pathological (normal) and the other two types are pathological (abnormal)), respectively. The rotation values of every subject in any cluster were noted. Then the algorithm was run and the produced values were also considered. The values of the produced algorithm, the PSO-KM, have been compared with the real values. The hybrid PSO-KM algorithm has been very successful on the optimal clustering of the tibial rotation types through the physical criteria. In this investigation, Type 2 (pathological subjects) is of especially high predictability and the PSO-KM algorithm has been very successful as an operation system for clustering and optimizing the tibial motion data assessments. These research findings are expected to be very useful for health providers, such as physiotherapists, orthopedists, and so on, in which this consequence may help clinicians to appropriately designing proper treatment schedules for patients.

  8. Prediction of Tibial Rotation Pathologies Using Particle Swarm Optimization and K-Means Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Murat; Tuna, Can

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate pathological subjects from a population through different physical factors. To achieve this, particle swarm optimization (PSO) and K-means (KM) clustering algorithms have been combined (PSO-KM). Datasets provided by the literature were divided into three clusters based on age and weight parameters and each one of right tibial external rotation (RTER), right tibial internal rotation (RTIR), left tibial external rotation (LTER), and left tibial internal rotation (LTIR) values were divided into three types as Type 1, Type 2 and Type 3 (Type 2 is non-pathological (normal) and the other two types are pathological (abnormal)), respectively. The rotation values of every subject in any cluster were noted. Then the algorithm was run and the produced values were also considered. The values of the produced algorithm, the PSO-KM, have been compared with the real values. The hybrid PSO-KM algorithm has been very successful on the optimal clustering of the tibial rotation types through the physical criteria. In this investigation, Type 2 (pathological subjects) is of especially high predictability and the PSO-KM algorithm has been very successful as an operation system for clustering and optimizing the tibial motion data assessments. These research findings are expected to be very useful for health providers, such as physiotherapists, orthopedists, and so on, in which this consequence may help clinicians to appropriately designing proper treatment schedules for patients. PMID:29597270

  9. [The geometry of the keel determines the behaviour of the tibial tray against torsional forces in total knee replacement].

    PubMed

    García David, S; Cortijo Martínez, J A; Navarro Bermúdez, I; Maculé, F; Hinarejos, P; Puig-Verdié, L; Monllau, J C; Hernández Hermoso, J A

    2014-01-01

    The keel design of the tibial tray is essential for the transmission of the majority of the forces to the peripheral bone structures, which have better mechanical proprieties, thus reducing the risk of loosening. The aim of the present study was to compare the behaviour of different tibial tray designs submitted to torsional forces. Four different tibial components were modelled. The 3-D reconstruction was made using the Mimics software. The solid elements were generated by SolidWorks. The finite elements study was done by Unigraphics. A torsional force of 6 Nm. applied to the lateral aspects of each tibial tray was simulated. The GENUTECH® tibial tray, with peripheral trabecular bone support, showed a lower displacement and less transmitted tensions under torsional forces. The results suggest that a tibial tray with more peripheral support behaves mechanically better than the other studied designs. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Static and dynamic tibial translation before, 5 weeks after, and 5 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tagesson, Sofi; Öberg, Birgitta; Kvist, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate static and dynamic tibial translation before, 5 weeks after, and 5 years after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. To explore whether static and dynamic tibial translation are correlated. Ten patients undergoing quadruple hamstring tendon graft ACL reconstruction were evaluated before, 5 weeks after, and 5 years after ACL reconstruction. Sagittal tibial translation was measured during the Lachman test (static translation) and during gait (dynamic translation) using a CA-4000 electrogoniometer. Five years after ACL reconstruction, static tibial translation did not differ between knees (Lachman test 90 N and 134 N n.s.). In contrast, there was greater maximal anterior tibial translation during gait in ACL-reconstructed knees than in uninjured knees (5.5 ± 1.4 vs. 4.5 ± 1.6 mm, P = 0.028). There were no differences in static or dynamic tibial translation between the 5-year follow-up and before ACL reconstruction or between the 5-year follow-up and the 5-week follow-up. There were no correlations between static and dynamic tibial translation. Although static tibial translation did not differ between knees 5 years after ACL reconstruction, dynamic tibial translation during gait was greater in ACL-reconstructed knees than in uninjured knees. Neither static nor dynamic tibial translation changed 5 years after ACL reconstruction as compared to before surgery and 5 weeks after surgery. Static tibial translation did not correlate with dynamic tibial translation. This study indicates that although the knee is stable during static measurements, kinematics during gait is impaired 5 years after ACL reconstruction. This may affect the return to sport and risk of osteoarthritis. Case series, Level IV.

  11. [Total knee prosthesis. Clinical and numerical study of micromovements of the tibial implant].

    PubMed

    Farron, A; Rakotomanana, R L; Zambelli, P Y; Leyvraz, P F

    1995-01-01

    The importance of the micromovements in the mechanism of aseptic loosening is clinically difficult to evaluate. To complete the analysis of a series of total knee arthroplasties (TKA), we used a tridimensional numerical model to study the micromovements of the tibial implant. Fifty one patients (with 57 cemented Porous Coated Anatomic TKAs) were reviewed (mean follow-up 4.5 year). Radiolucency at the tibial bone-cement interface was sought on the AP radiographs and divided in 7 areas. The distribution of the radiolucency was then correlated with the axis of the lower limb as measured on the orthoradiograms. The tridimensional numerical model is based on the finite element method. It allowed the measurement of the cemented prosthetic tibial implant's displacements and the micromovements generated at bone-ciment interface. A total load (2000 Newton) was applied at first vertically and asymetrically on the tibial plateau, thereby simulating an axial deviation of the lower limbs. The vector's posterior inclination then permitted the addition of a tangential component to the axial load. This type of effort is generated by complex biomechanical phenomena such as knee flexion. 81 per cent of the 57 knees had a radiolucent line of at least 1 mm, at one or more of the tibial cement-epiphysis jonctional areas. The distribution of these lucent lines showed that they came out more frequently at the periphery of the implant. The lucent lines appeared most often under the unloaded margin of the tibial plateau, when axial deviation of lower limbs was present. Numerical simulations showed that asymetrical loading on the tibial plateau induced a subsidence of the loaded margin (0-100 microns) and lifting off at the opposite border (0-70 microns). The postero-anterior tangential component induced an anterior displacement of the tibial implant (160-220 microns), and horizontal micromovements with non homogenous distribution at the bone-ciment interface (28-54 microns). Comparison of

  12. Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: reducing anterior tibial subluxation.

    PubMed

    Muller, Bart; Duerr, Eric R H; van Dijk, C Niek; Fu, Freddie H

    2016-09-01

    To measure and compare the amount of anterior tibial subluxation (ATS) after anatomic ACL reconstruction for both acute and chronic ACL-deficient patients. Fifty-two patients were clinically and radiographically evaluated after primary, unilateral, anatomic ACL reconstruction. Post-operative true lateral radiographs were obtained of both knees with the patient in supine position and knees in full passive extension with heels on a standardized bolster. ATS was measured on the radiographs by two independent and blinded observers. ATS was calculated as the side-to-side difference in tibial position relative to the femur. An independent t test was used to compare ATS between those undergoing anatomic reconstruction for an acute versus chronic ACL injury. Chronic ACL deficiency was defined as more than 12 weeks from injury to surgery. Patients averaged 26.4 ± 11.5 years (mean ± SD) of age, 43.6 % were female, and 48.1 % suffered an injury of the left knee. There were 30 and 22 patients in the acute and chronic groups, respectively. The median duration from injury to reconstruction for the acute group was 5 versus 31 weeks for the chronic group. After anatomic ACL reconstruction, the mean ATS was 1.0 ± 2.1 mm. There was no statistical difference in ATS between the acute and chronic groups (1.2 ± 2.0 vs. 0.6 ± 2.3 mm, n.s.). Assessment of inter-tester reliability for radiographic evaluation of ATS revealed an excellent intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.894. Anatomic ACL reconstruction reduces ATS with a mean difference of 1.0 mm from the healthy contralateral limb. This study did not find a statistical difference in ATS between patients after anatomic ACL reconstruction in the acute or chronic phase. These observations suggest that anatomic ACL reconstruction, performed in either the acute or the chronic phase, approaches the normal AP relationship of the tibiofemoral joint. IV.

  13. A Finite-Element Study of Metal Backing and Tibial Resection Depth in a Composite Tibia Following Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Susumu; Rogge, Renee D; Small, Scott R; Berend, Michael E; Ritter, Merrill A

    2016-04-01

    Prosthetic alignment, patient characteristics, and implant design are all factors in long-term survival of total knee arthroplasty (TKA), yet the level at which each of these factors contribute to implant loosening has not been fully described. Prior clinical and biomechanical studies have indicated tibial overload as a cause of early TKA revision. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between tibial component design and bone resection on tibial loading. Finite-element analysis (FEA) was performed after simulated implantation of metal backed (MB) and all-polyethylene (AP) TKA components in 5 and 15 mm of tibial resection into a validated intact tibia model. Proximal tibial strains significantly increased between 13% and 199% when implanted with AP components (p < 0.05). Strain significantly increased between 12% and 209% in the posterior tibial compartment with increased bone resection (p < 0.05). This study indicates elevated strains in AP implanted tibias across the entirety of the proximal tibial cortex, as well as a posterior shift in tibial loading in instances of increased resection depth. These results are consistent with trends observed in prior biomechanical studies and may associate the documented device history of tibial collapse in AP components with increased bone strain and overload beneath the prosthesis.

  14. Rotational positioning of the tibial tray in total knee arthroplasty: a CT evaluation.

    PubMed

    Berhouet, J; Beaufils, P; Boisrenoult, P; Frasca, D; Pujol, N

    2011-11-01

    Various surgical techniques have been described to set the rotational alignment of the tibial baseplate during total knee arthroplasty. The self-positioning method ("self-adjustment") aligns the tibial implant according to the rotational alignment of the femoral component which is used as a reference after performing repeated knee flexion/extension cycles. Postoperative computed tomography scanning produces accurate measurements of the tibial baseplate rotational alignment with respect to the femoral component. The rotational positioning of the tibial baseplate matches the rotation of the femoral component with parallel alignment to the prosthetic posterior bicondylar axis. A 3-month follow-up CT scan was carried out after primary total knee arthroplasty implanted in osteoarthritic patients with a mean 7.8° varus deformity of the knee in 50 cases and a mean 8.7° valgus deformity of the knee in 44 cases. The NexGen LPS Flex (Zimmer) fixed-bearing knee prosthesis was used in all cases. An independant examiner (not part of the operating team) measured different variables: the angle between the anatomic transepicondylar axis and the posterior bicondylar axis of the femoral prosthesis (prosthetic posterior condylar angle), the angle between the posterior bicondylar axis and the posterior marginal axis of the tibial prosthesis, the angle between the posterior marginal axis of the tibial prosthesis and the posterior marginal axis of the tibial bone and finally the angle between the anatomic transepicondylar axis and the posterior marginal axis of the tibial prosthesis. For the genu varum and genu valgum subgroups, the mean posterior condylar axis of the femoral prosthesis was 3.1° (SD: 1.91; extremes 0° to 17.5°) and 4.7° (SD: 2.7; extremes 0° to 11°) respectively. The tibial baseplate was placed in external rotation with respect to the femoral component: 0.7° (SD : 4.45; extremes -9.5° to 9.8°) and 0.9° (SD: 4.53; extremes -10.8° to 9.5°), but also to the

  15. Effect of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency, tibial plateau leveling osteotomy, and tibial tuberosity advancement on contact mechanics and alignment of the stifle in flexion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Stanley E; Pozzi, Antonio; Banks, Scott A; Conrad, Bryan P; Lewis, Daniel D

    2010-04-01

    To assess contact mechanics and 3-dimensional (3-D) joint alignment in cranial cruciate ligament (CCL)-deficient stifles before and after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) and tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) with the stifle in 90 degrees of flexion. In vitro biomechanical study. Cadaveric pelvic limb pairs (n=8) from dogs weighing 28-35 kg. Contralateral limbs were assigned to receive TPLO or TTA. Digital pressure sensors were used to measure femorotibial contact area, peak and mean contact pressure, and peak pressure location with the limb under a load of 30% body weight and stifle flexion angle of 90 degrees . 3-D poses were obtained using a Microscribe digitizer. Specimens were tested under normal, CCL deficient, and treatment conditions. Significant disturbances in alignment were not observed after CCL transection, although medial contact area was 10% smaller than normal (P=.003). There were no significant differences in contact mechanics or alignment between normal and TTA conditions; TPLO induced 6 degrees varus angulation (P<.001), 26% decrease in lateral peak pressure (P=.027), and 18% increase in medial mean pressure (P=.008) when compared with normal. Cranial tibial subluxation is nominal in CCL-deficient stifles loaded in flexion. Stifle alignment and contact mechanics are not altered by TTA, whereas TPLO causes mild varus and a subsequent increase in medial compartment loading. Cranial tibial subluxation of CCL-deficient stifles may not occur during postures that load the stifle in flexion. The significance of minor changes in loading patterns after TPLO is unknown.

  16. Effects of physical exertion on trans-tibial prosthesis users' ability to accommodate alignment perturbations.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Goeran; Slavens, Brooke A; O'Connor, Kristian M; Smith, Roger O; Hafner, Brian J

    2016-02-01

    It has long been reported that a range of prosthesis alignments is acceptable in trans-tibial prosthetics. This range was shown to be smaller when walking on uneven surfaces. It has also been argued that findings on gait with prostheses that were obtained under laboratory conditions are limited in their applicability to real-life environments. This study investigated the hypothesis that efforts to compensate for suboptimal alignments by active users of trans-tibial prostheses become less effective when levels of physical exertion increase. A 2 × 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare the effects of physical exertion and subtle alignment perturbations on gait with trans-tibial prostheses. The gait of eight subjects with trans-tibial amputation was analyzed when walking with two different prosthesis alignments and two different physical exertion levels. The main and interaction effects were statistically evaluated. Bilateral step length symmetry and measures of step variability within the same leg were found to be affected by the intervention. There was no significant effect on index variables that combined kinematic or kinetic measures. Findings showed that persons with trans-tibial prostheses responded heterogeneously to the interventions. For most variables, the research hypothesis could not be confirmed. Findings support the practice of allotting several sessions to the alignment of trans-tibial prostheses, as users' gait responds differently to perturbations when external factors (e.g. exertion) change. Furthermore, the found inhomogeneity in the population of persons with trans-tibial amputation supports the use of technical gait assessment methods in clinical practice. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  17. The rotational axis of the tibia and relationship to the tibial torsion in varus osteoarthritic knee.

    PubMed

    Chotanaphuti, Thanainit; Srisawasdi, Ruthasiri; Rattanaprichavej, Piti; Laoruengthana, Artit

    2012-10-01

    A transepicondylar axis is a useful reference for femoral component rotation and is demonstrated as a functional flexion-extension axis of a knee. Conversely, a rotational orientation of the tibial component was less clearly demonstrated and many anatomical landmarks were proposed. It has been reported that Asian people had more medial torsion of the tibia particularly with an osteoarthritic knee. The present study aims to address the relationship between the torsion variation of the tibia and the rotational axis of the tibia. Forty knees of 32 women (mean age of 73.3) with varus osteoarthritis underwent a preoperative CT images to identify a surgical epicondylar axis, an axis perpendicular to this line (femoral reference line), lines connecting between the PCL insertion and 3 reference point on the patellar tendon, an AP axis of the ankle and a tibial torsion angle. The mean value of the angle between the line connecting the PCL insertion and 3 different point of the patellar tendon including the medial border medial one-third and middle of the patellar tendon and the femoral reference line was -4.22, +4.37 and +8.47 degree, respectively. The mean of a tibial torsion angle was +16.51 degree. There were 6 cases having the femoral reference line rotated internally to the medial border of the patellar tendon and having less torsion angle (medial tibial torsion) with a mean of +13.78 degree. The femoral reference line in the Thai osteoarthritic knee is passed between medial edge of patellar tendon and medial 1/3 of patellar tendon. This line rotates more internally compared with the patellar tendon if the degree of medial tibial torsion is more severe. An excessive externally rotated tibial component when using the patellar tendon as guidance should be avoided in the knee presenting with medial tibial torsion.

  18. Flat midsubstance of the anterior cruciate ligament with tibial "C"-shaped insertion site.

    PubMed

    Siebold, Rainer; Schuhmacher, Peter; Fernandez, Francis; Śmigielski, Robert; Fink, Christian; Brehmer, Axel; Kirsch, Joachim

    2015-11-01

    This anatomical cadaver study was performed to investigate the flat appearance of the midsubstance shape of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and its tibial "C"-shaped insertion site. The ACL midsubstance and the tibial ACL insertion were dissected in 20 cadaveric knees (n = 6 fresh frozen and n = 14 paraffined). Magnifying spectacles were used for all dissections. Morphometric measurements were performed using callipers and on digital photographs. In all specimens, the midsubstance of the ACL was flat with a mean width of 9.9 mm, thickness of 3.9 mm and cross-sectional area of 38.7 mm(2). The "direct" "C"-shaped tibial insertion runs from along the medial tibial spine to the anterior aspect of the lateral meniscus. The mean width (length) of the "C" was 12.6 mm, its thickness 3.3 mm and area 31.4 mm(2). The centre of the "C" was the bony insertion of the anterior root of the lateral meniscus overlayed by fat and crossed by the ACL. No posterolateral (PL) inserting ACL fibres were found. Together with the larger "indirect" part (area 79.6 mm(2)), the "direct" one formed a "duck-foot"-shaped footprint. The tibial ACL midsubstance and tibial "C"-shaped insertion are flat and are resembling a "ribbon". The centre of the "C" is the bony insertion of the anterior root of the lateral meniscus. There are no central or PL inserting ACL fibres. Anatomical ACL reconstruction may therefore require a flat graft and a "C"-shaped tibial footprint reconstruction with an anteromedial bone tunnel for single bundle and an additional posteromedial bone tunnel for double bundle.

  19. Stump management after trans-tibial amputation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nawijn, S E; van der Linde, H; Emmelot, C H; Hofstad, C J

    2005-04-01

    In order to achieve stump healing after trans-tibial amputation, various methods are applied, such as soft dressings followed by elastic wrapping of the stump, rigid dressings, semi-rigid dressings, and more recently the application of silicon or gel-liners. A systematic literature search was performed to identify the optimal post-amputation management. The methodological quality of the studies was systematically evaluated by using a predefined list of criteria. Only 11 controlled studies were identified and evaluated for their methodological quality. From these studies, no studies were classified as A-level studies, whereas three were classified as B-level, and 8 were classified as C-level studies. Relevant literature appears heterogeneous with respect to patient selection, intervention and outcome measures. Despite the large variability of included studies, this review reveals a trend in favour of rigid and semi-rigid dressings for achieving stump healing and reduction of stump volume. No conclusions can be drawn with regard to the effect on functional outcome. The literature is not conclusive on the effects of early weight bearing on stump healing, volume reduction, and functional outcome. More research is needed for the development of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines concerning management after transtibial amputation.

  20. Posterior tibial tendon insufficiency results at different stages.

    PubMed

    Deland, Jonathan T; Page, Alexandra; Sung, Il-Hoon; O'Malley, Martin J; Inda, David; Choung, Steven

    2006-09-01

    The results of surgical treatment of posterior tibial tendon insufficiency (PTTI) may be different at different stages of the disease. No single study has compared the results at different stages. This comparison can be helpful to the patient and physician if the patient asks "What if I wait and the disease progresses, how will my results be different?" A preliminary study comparing results for stage IIa, stage IIb (advanced stage II), and stage III was performed followed by a larger study comparing IIa and IIb with 26 and 22 patients, respectively. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) outcome scores as well as radiographs and functional questions were used. Nearly all patients, regardless of stage, felt they were helped by surgical treatment. However, the lowest AOFAS score was in stage III, the most advanced stage investigated in this study. In comparing stage IIa and IIb patients, stage IIb patients had a statistically higher incidence of lateral discomfort. Although statistically significant differences were not found in all comparisons, this study suggests that the results of surgical treatment for PTTI declines with increasing stage or severity of disease.

  1. Posterior Tibial Tendon Insufficiency Results at Different Stages

    PubMed Central

    Page, Alexandra; Sung, Il-Hoon; O’Malley, Martin J.; Inda, David; Choung, Steven

    2006-01-01

    The results of surgical treatment of posterior tibial tendon insufficiency (PTTI) may be different at different stages of the disease. No single study has compared the results at different stages. This comparison can be helpful to the patient and physician if the patient asks “What if I wait and the disease progresses, how will my results be different?” A preliminary study comparing results for stage IIa, stage IIb (advanced stage II), and stage III was performed followed by a larger study comparing IIa and IIb with 26 and 22 patients, respectively. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) outcome scores as well as radiographs and functional questions were used. Nearly all patients, regardless of stage, felt they were helped by surgical treatment. However, the lowest AOFAS score was in stage III, the most advanced stage investigated in this study. In comparing stage IIa and IIb patients, stage IIb patients had a statistically higher incidence of lateral discomfort. Although statistically significant differences were not found in all comparisons, this study suggests that the results of surgical treatment for PTTI declines with increasing stage or severity of disease. PMID:18751830

  2. Nanoindentation Results from Direct Molded vs. Machined UHMWPE Tibial Bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, J.E.; Joy, D.C.; Pharr, G.M.

    1999-11-13

    Nanoindentation has been used to compare the micromechanical properties of direct molded vs. machined bearing surfaces on UHMWPE tibial components. Differences in micromechanical properties (hardness and elastic storage modulus) were observed between these two types of bearing surfaces, and are believed to result from (1) differences in surface roughness, and (2) differences in morphology of the UHMWPE. Clinical studies of in-vivo UHMWPE wear rates in acetabular cups have reported differences between direct molded and machined bearings.{sup 1,2} Other studies of retrieved components have reported differences as well.{sup 3} Variations in surface characteristics (rather than bulk properties) may cause these differencesmore » in wear behavior. This study's objective was to compare micro-mechanical interactions at the bearing surfaces of direct molded components with those of machined components. A nanoindenter was used to perform instrumented microindentations on these surfaces. Da ta was analyzed to study both the load vs. displacement behavior during the indentation cycle, and also to measure the elastic storage modulus and hardness as a function of depth.« less

  3. [Operative techniques and results of tibial pilon fractures].

    PubMed

    Rotter, R; Gierer, P

    2017-08-01

    The anatomical reconstruction of tibial pilon fractures is a major challenge with respect to preoperative planning, time management and the intraoperative procedure. Presentation of the various surgical procedures available and the clinical outcome. The established open reduction and internal plate fixation procedures form the basis for new minimally invasive treatment concepts. The current results of comparative studies and basic literature are discussed. The treatment result depends on the severity of the initial fracture and accompanying soft tissue damage. Essential is an anatomical reduction with an articular displacement of less than 2 mm. Overall, only approximately half of all patients return to work within 1 year. The fixation procedure used is not relevant for this purpose. Both plate fixation and the combination of external fixator plus minimally invasive articular reconstruction with and without arthroscopy achieve equivalent results. Good clinical results can be achieved by an accurate preoperative planning with respect to the surgical procedure, time of surgery and the surgical steps. In cases of disregarding these points and inadequate surgical expertise, loss of function and reduced quality of life are impending.

  4. Descending Geniculate Artery Pseudoaneurysm Following Tibial Plateau Fracture.

    PubMed

    Cefalu, Charles A; Royals, Thomas P; Krause, Peter C

    2017-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysms are uncommon in patients with trauma, but can cause diagnostic difficulty and result in significant morbidity. Etiologies range from penetrating and nonpenetrating trauma to operative injury during fracture fixation, arthroscopy, total joint arthroplasty, and hardware loosening and removal. Pseudoaneurysms can conspicuously present as a pulsatile mass with an audible bruit, or as a subtly expanding hematoma. In either case, the complications can be serious if diagnosed late. The authors report a case of a pseudoaneurysm arising from the descending geniculate artery following a tibial plateau fracture. This was suspected following a slowly expanding hematoma and persistent anemia refractory to transfusion. Computed tomography angiography was used for confirmation. Successful treatment was accomplished with embolization, surgical evacuation of the hematoma, delayed skin grafting, and fracture fixation. The postoperative outcome was satisfactory, with complete wound healing, functional but decreased range of motion, normal perfusion distal to the injury, and the sole report of mild intermittent knee pain. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):e188-e191.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Electrodiagnostic Examination of the Tibial Nerve in Clinically Normal Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Ezio; Callegari, Daniela; Ravera, Manuela; Dondi, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Tibial nerves of 10 normal domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) were evaluated by means of electrodiagnostic tests: motor nerve conduction studies (MNCSs), supramaximal repetitive nerve stimulation (SRNS), F waves, and cord dorsum potentials (CDPs). Values of conduction velocity, proximal and distal compound muscular action potentials, and amplitudes of MNCS were, respectively, 63.25 ± 7.56 m/sec, 10.79 ± 2.75 mV, and 13.02 ± 3.41 mV. Mean decrements in amplitude and area of compound muscular action potentials of wave 9 with low frequency SRNS were 0.3 ± 3.83% and 0.1 ± 3.51%. The minimum latency of the F waves and the F ratio were, respectively, 8.49 ± 0.65 ms and 1.92 ± 0.17. Onset latency of CDP was 1.99 ± 0.03 ms. These tests may help in diagnosing neuromuscular disorders and in better characterizing the hindlimb paresis reported in many ferrets with systemic illnesses. PMID:20706690

  6. Complications after titanium elastic nailing of pediatric tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J Eric; Gregush, Ronald V; Schoenecker, Perry L; Dobbs, Matthew B; Luhmann, Scott J

    2007-06-01

    A retrospective review of 60 diaphyseal tibia fractures (31 closed and 29 open fractures) treated with flexible intramedullary fixation was conducted. All charts and radiographs were reviewed. Children ranged in age from 5.1 to 17 years. Fifty patients with 51 fractures were followed up until union and comprised the study group. The mean follow-up period for these 50 patients was 79 weeks. Forty-five fractures achieved bony union within 18 weeks (mean, 8 weeks). Five patients (11%) had delayed healing (3 had delayed unions that ultimately healed with casting or observation, and 2 had nonunions that required secondary procedures to achieve union [1 patient underwent a fibular osteotomy, and 1 underwent exchange nailing with a reamed tibial nail]). These 5 fractures ultimately healed, with a mean time to union of 41 weeks. Patients with delayed healing tended to be older (mean age, 14.1 years) versus the study population as a whole (mean age, 11.7 years). In addition to delayed union, other complications were observed in the study population. One patient healed with malunion (13-degree valgus), requiring corrective osteotomy. One patient with a grade II open fracture was diagnosed with osteomyelitis at the fracture site after attaining bony union. Two patients developed nail migration through the skin, requiring modification or nail removal. The fixation of pediatric diaphyseal tibia fractures with titanium elastic nails is effective but has a substantial rate of delayed healing, particularly in older patients.

  7. Type III fractures of the tibial tubercle in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wiss, D A; Schilz, J L; Zionts, L

    1991-01-01

    Fifteen patients with Type III avulsion fractures of the tibial tubercle treated surgically were reviewed at an average of 9.6 years after injury. Six patients had a history of Osgood-Schlatter disease, and two patients had Type I osteogenesis imperfecta. Associated injuries to the meniscus were found and repaired in three patients. Two of these patients had also avulsed the origin of the tibialis anterior muscle, leading to a compartment syndrome in one. All but one fracture healed. There was one refracture. Five patients developed bursitis over prominent screw heads, which required screw removal. All but two patients were asymptomatic and participated in sports. A full range of knee motion without instability was present in all patients. Thigh and calf circumferences were equal to the opposite side. Radiographs showed normal knee joints in all but one asymptomatic patient, who showed signs of an early arthrosis. No patient developed angular or recurvatum deformities. However, a leg-length discrepancy of 1.0-1.8 cm was noted in four patients (two overgrowth, two undergrowth).

  8. Distance Between the Anterior Distal Tibial Edge and the Anterior Tibial Artery in Distraction and Nondistraction During Anterior Ankle Arthroscopy: A Cadaveric Study.

    PubMed

    Tonogai, Ichiro; Hayashi, Fumio; Tsuruo, Yoshihiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    Anterior ankle arthroscopy is widely applied for various osteoarthropathies. However, distraction of the ankle may put the anterior tibial artery (ATA) at risk of injury during the procedure. The purpose of this study was to assess the difference in the distance between the anterior distal tibial edge and the ATA in distraction and nondistraction of the ankle with joint space expansion by saline injection into the joint. Eight whole fresh-frozen cadaveric feet (mean age 78.9 years) were used. Barium sulfate suspension was injected into the popliteal artery of each specimen, and the distance from 3 aspects of the anterior distal tibial edge to the ATA was measured to evaluate the possibility of damage to the ATA based on computed tomography (CT) scans, in ankle distraction and nondistraction, using a traction device developed for reproducible ankle positioning inside the CT scanner. The distance between the ATA and the most proximal, middle, and distal parts of the anterior distal tibial edge was 0.5 mm, 3.9 mm, and 7.4 mm, respectively, without saline injection, and 3.7 mm, 7.2 mm, and 11.6 mm, respectively, with saline injection, in nondistraction. The distance was 2.2 mm, 5.9 mm, and 9.8 mm, respectively, with 5-kg distraction, and 1.7 mm, 5.1 mm, and 8.8 mm, respectively, with 10-kg distraction, both with saline injection, respectively. The distance between the anterior distal tibial edge and the ATA with joint space expansion by saline injection into the joint increased, and that distance in distraction of the ankle decreased during anterior arthroscopic surgery. The anatomic relationship of the ATA to its surrounding structures may be at more risk without saline injection or with distraction during anterior ankle arthroscopy.

  9. Can a tibial tunnel in ACL surgery be placed anatomically without impinging on the femoral notch? A risk factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Van der Bracht, H; Bellemans, J; Victor, J; Verhelst, L; Page, B; Verdonk, P

    2014-02-01

    To analyze anatomical risk factors and surgical technique dependent variables, which determine the risk for femoral notch impingement in anatomically correct placed tibial tunnels for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery. Twenty fresh frozen adult human knee specimens under the age of 65 years were used. Digital templates mimicking a tibial tunnel aperture at the tibia plateau were designed for different tibial tunnel diameters and different drill-guide angles. The centres of these templates were placed over the geometric centre of the native tibial ACL footprint. The distances between the anterior borders of the templates and the anterior borders of the footprints (graft free zone) were measured and compared. Furthermore, anatomic risk factors for femoral notch impingement were determined. The graft free zone was statistically significantly longer for larger drill-guide angles compared to smaller drill-guide angles (p < 0.00001). Furthermore, 8 mm diameter tibial tunnels had a statistically significant larger graft free zone compared to 10-mm-diameter tibial tunnels (p < 0.00001). For the 10 mm diameter tibial tunnels with drill-guide angle of 45°, 9 out of 20 knees (45 %) were "at risk" for notching and 4 out of 20 knees (20 %) had "definite" notching. For 10-mm tunnels with drill-guide angle of 45°, a risk for notching was associated with smaller tibial ACL footprint (p < 0.05). If a perfect centrally positioned tibial tunnel is drilled, a real risk for femoral notch impingement exists depending on the size of the tibial ACL footprint and surgery-related factors. Therefore, in anatomical tibial tunnel placement in single bundle ACL reconstruction surgery, particular attention should be paid to size of the tunnel and drill-guide angle to minimize the risk of femoral notch impingement.

  10. Effects of physical exertion on trans-tibial prosthesis users' ability to accommodate alignment perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Goeran; Slavens, Brooke A; O'Connor, Kristian M; Smith, Roger O; Hafner, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    Background It has long been reported that a range of prosthesis alignments is acceptable in trans-tibial prosthetics. This range was shown to be smaller when walking on uneven surfaces. It has also been argued that findings on gait with prostheses that were obtained under laboratory conditions are limited in their applicability to real-life environments. Objectives This study investigated the hypothesis that efforts to compensate for suboptimal alignments by active users of trans-tibial prostheses become less effective when levels of physical exertion increase. Study design A 2 × 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare the effects of physical exertion and subtle alignment perturbations on gait with trans-tibial prostheses. Methods The gait of eight subjects with trans-tibial amputation was analyzed when walking with two different prosthesis alignments and two different physical exertion levels. The main and interaction effects were statistically evaluated. Results Bilateral step length symmetry and measures of step variability within the same leg were found to be affected by the intervention. There was no significant effect on index variables that combined kinematic or kinetic measures. Conclusion Findings showed that persons with trans-tibial prostheses responded heterogeneously to the interventions. For most variables, the research hypothesis could not be confirmed. PMID:25138114

  11. Effect of motion control running shoes compared with neutral shoes on tibial rotation during running.

    PubMed

    Rose, Alice; Birch, Ivan; Kuisma, Raija

    2011-09-01

    To determine whether a motion control running shoe reduces tibial rotation in the transverse plane during treadmill running. An experimental study measuring tibial rotation in volunteer participants using a repeated measures design. Human Movement Laboratory, School of Health Professions, University of Brighton. Twenty-four healthy participants were tested. The group comprised males and females with size 6, 7, 9 and 11 feet. The age range for participants was 19 to 31 years. The total range of proximal tibial rotation was measured using the Codamotion 3-D Movement Analysis System. A one-tailed paired t-test indicated a statistically significant decrease in the total range of proximal tibial rotation when a motion control shoe was worn (mean difference 1.38°, 95% confidence interval 0.03 to 2.73, P=0.04). There is a difference in tibial rotation in the transverse plane between a motion control running shoe and a neutral running shoe. The results from this study have implications for the use of supportive running shoes as a form of injury prevention. Copyright © 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sequential avulsions of the tibial tubercle in an adolescent basketball player.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying Chieh; Chao, Ying-Hao; Lien, Fang-Chieh

    2010-05-01

    Tibial tubercle avulsion is an uncommon fracture in physically active adolescents. Sequential avulsion of tibial tubercles is extremely rare. We reported a healthy, active 15-year-old boy who suffered from left tibial tubercle avulsion fracture during a basketball game. He received open reduction and internal fixation with two smooth Kirschner wires and a cannulated screw, with every effort to reduce the plate injury. Long-leg splint was used for protection followed by programmed rehabilitation. He recovered uneventfully and returned to his previous level of activity soon. Another avulsion fracture happened at the right tibial tubercle 3.5 months later when he was playing the basketball. From the encouragement of previous successful treatment, we provided him open reduction and fixation with two small-caliber screws. He recovered uneventfully and returned to his previous level of activity soon. No genu recurvatum or other deformity was happening in our case at the end of 2-year follow-up. No evidence of Osgood-Schlatter disease or osteogenesis imperfecta was found. Sequential avulsion fractures of tibial tubercles are rare. Good functional recovery can often be obtained like our case if we treat it well. To a physically active adolescent, we should never overstate the risk of sequential avulsion of the other leg to postpone the return to an active, functional life.

  13. Does use of a jig influence the precision of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy surgery?

    PubMed

    Bell, Jonathan C; Ness, Malcolm G

    2007-04-01

    To compare the precision of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) surgery when performed with or without a jig. Cadaveric study. Cadaveric, adult greyhound hindlimbs (n=9 pair). TPLO (n=18) was performed on each limb pair; 1 with and 1 without use of a jig. Measurements taken from pre- and postsurgical radiographs were osteotomy position, tibial plateau angle (TPA), varus-valgus malalignment, and tibial torsion. The null hypothesis was that TPLO precision was not affected by use of a jig. Student's t-test was used to investigate differences in TPA, osteotomy location, and frequency and extent of iatrogenic limb malalignment; P<.05 was considered significant. There were no significant differences in postsurgical TPA, tibial crest thickness, varus-valgus malalignment, or tibial torsion between TPLOs performed with or without a jig. Osteotomy location was significantly more distal when a jig was used (P=.03). Jig use did not improve the precision of TPLO surgery. Performing TPLO without a jig should reduce surgery time, eliminate complications related to placement of the distal jig pin and allow unhindered positioning of the osteotomy.

  14. The location of the tibial accelerometer does influence impact acceleration parameters during running.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Encarnación-Martínez, Alberto; Camacho-García, Andrés; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro

    2017-09-01

    Tibial accelerations have been associated with a number of running injuries. However, studies attaching the tibial accelerometer on the proximal section are as numerous as those attaching the accelerometer on the distal section. This study aimed to investigate whether accelerometer location influences acceleration parameters commonly reported in running literature. To fulfil this purpose, 30 athletes ran at 2.22, 2.78 and 3.33 m · s -1 with three accelerometers attached with double-sided tape and tightened to the participants' tolerance on the forehead, the proximal section of the tibia and the distal section of the tibia. Time-domain (peak acceleration, shock attenuation) and frequency-domain parameters (peak frequency, peak power, signal magnitude and shock attenuation in both the low and high frequency ranges) were calculated for each of the tibial locations. The distal accelerometer registered greater tibial acceleration peak and shock attenuation compared to the proximal accelerometer. With respect to the frequency-domain analysis, the distal accelerometer provided greater values of all the low-frequency parameters, whereas no difference was observed for the high-frequency parameters. These findings suggest that the location of the tibial accelerometer does influence the acceleration signal parameters, and thus, researchers should carefully consider the location they choose to place the accelerometer so that equivalent comparisons across studies can be made.

  15. Effect of femoro-tibial component size mismatch on outcome in primary total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Heylen, Steven; Foubert, Knud; Van Haver, Annemieke; Nicolai, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Most total knee arthroplasty systems allow a degree of femoro-tibial component size mismatch. We aim to investigate the influence of size mismatch on outcome after primary total knee arthroplasty. We reviewed 332 patients with cruciate-retaining Genesis II total knee arthroplasty with regard to femoro-tibial component size mismatch and Oxford Knee Score (OKS). We evaluated effects of Body Mass Index, gender and patellar procedure. Minimum follow-up is five years. We divided patients into four groups (tibial component larger than femoral component, no mismatch, femoral component one size larger and femoral component two sizes larger than tibial component). There was no statistically significant difference in OKS between the four groups. Size mismatch did not have a statistical significant effect on OKS in a multivariate analysis. Women had mismatched components in 66% of all cases and men in 40% of all cases. Our study showed no statistically significant effect of femoro-tibial size mismatch on outcome after total knee replacement. Compared to men, women tend to have more component size mismatch. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of high tibial osteotomy on osteoarthritis of the knee. Clinical and histological observations.

    PubMed

    Koshino, T; Tsuchiya, K

    1979-01-01

    High tibial osteotomies were performed on 136 osteoarthritic knees for correction of varus deformity. Before osteotomy all patients experienced moderate or severe pain, and the knees showed lateral thrust on weight-bearing. The patients were followed up for one to five years. Marked relief of pain was obtained in 112 knees, and the patients were satisfied with the result of operation in 122. These painless knees showed no lateral thrust, and in the majority the deformity had been adequately corrected, with post-operative femoro-tibial angles (standing) ranging from 165 degrees to 174 degrees. Four of 28 knees with femoro-tibial angles of 175 degrees to 179 degrees, when measured one year after operation, showed recurrence of varus deformity three years after osteotomy. Preoperative ranges of knee motion were well maintained after osteotomy even when arthrotomy had also been undertaken. Intra-articular assessment in two patients, several years after operation, showed that the most degenerated portions of the articular surface were completely covered by a fibrocartilagenous layer, with no bare bone. High tibial osteotomy is most effective in osteoarthritic knees with varus deformity, when correction is made to a femoro-tibial angle (standing) of 170 degrees (10 degrees valgus).

  17. The effect of high tibial osteotomy on osteoarthritis of the knee : Clinical and histological observations.

    PubMed

    Koshino, T; Tsuchiya, K

    1979-03-01

    High tibial osteotomies were performed on 136 osteoarthritic knees for correction of varus deformity. Before osteotomy all patients experienced moderate or severe pain, and the knees showed lateral thrust on weight-bearing. The patients were followed up for one to five years. Marked relief of pain was obtained in 112 knees, and the patients were satisfied with the result of operation in 122. These painless knees showed no lateral thrust, and in the majority the deformity had been adequately corrected, with post-operative femoro-tibial angles (standing) ranging from 165° to 174°. Four of 28 knees with femoro-tibial angles of 175° to 179°, when measured one year after operation, showed recurrence of varus deformity three years after osteotomy. Preoperative ranges of knee motion were well maintained after osteotomy even when arthrotomy had also been undertaken. Intra-articular assessment in two patients, several years after operation, showed that the most degenerated portions of the articular surface were completely covered by a fibrocartilagenous layer, with no bare bone.High tibial osteotomy is most effective in osteoarthritic knees with varus deformity, when correction is made to a femoro-tibial angle (standing) of 170° (10° valgus).

  18. Minimally invasive osteosynthesis of distal tibial fractures using anterolateral locking plate: Evaluation of results and complications.

    PubMed

    Lakhotia, Devendra; Sharma, Gaurav; Khatri, Kavin; Kumar, G-N; Sharma, Vijay; Farooque, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue healing is of paramount importance in distal tibial fractures for a successful outcome. There is an increasing trend of using anterolateral plate due to an adequate soft tissue cover on ante- rolateral distal tibia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results and complications of minimally invasive anterolateral locking plate in distal tibial fractures. This is a retrospective study of 42 patients with distal tibial fractures treated with minimally invasive anterolateral tibial plating. This study evaluates the bone and soft tissue healing along with emphasis on complications related to bone and soft tissue healing. Full weight bearing was allowed in mean time period of 4.95 months (3-12 months). A major local complication of a wound which required revision surgery was seen in one case. Minor complications were identified in 9 cases which comprised 4 cases of marginal necrosis of the surgical wound, 1 case of superficial infection, 1 case of sensory disturbance over the anterolateral foot, 1 case of muscle hernia and 2 cases of delayed union. Mean distance between the posterolateral and anterolateral incision was 5.7 cm (4.5-8 cm). The minimally invasive distal tibial fixation with anterolateral plating is a safe method of stabilization. Distance between anterolateral and posterolateral incision can be placed less than 7 cm apart depending on fracture pattern with proper surgical timing and technique.

  19. A modified tibial compression test for the detection of meniscal injury in dogs.

    PubMed

    Valen, S; McCabe, C; Maddock, E; Bright, S; Keeley, B

    2017-02-01

    To assess diagnostic efficacy of a modified tibial compression test in predicting medial meniscal injury in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament failure. Dogs admitted for surgical stabilisation of stifles with cranial cruciate ligament failure were examined by five preoperative physical tests to assess medial meniscal injury. Results of each physical test were compared with findings at arthrotomy and used to calculate sensitivities, specificities, positive and negative predictive values. None of the physical tests were accurate in reflecting meniscal integrity for dogs with cranial cruciate failure. Out of the five tests, the modified tibial compression test exhibited the highest concordance and sensitivity for the detection of medial meniscal tears. A palpable click during the modified tibial compression test had a sensitivity and specificity up to 63 and 77%, respectively, for the detection of medial meniscal lesions. Concordance values were up to 40% for the modified tibial compression test, followed by the range of motion test (up to 25%), while all other physical tests had concordance values below 10%. Physical tests are highly available, affordable and can be easily performed, but their efficacy in diagnosing medical meniscal injury is low. Meniscal clicks associated with meniscal tears were more frequently elicited during the modified tibial compression test when compared with other traditional tests. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  20. The complex tibial organ of the New Zealand ground weta: sensory adaptations for vibrational signal detection.

    PubMed

    Strauß, Johannes; Lomas, Kathryn; Field, Laurence H

    2017-05-17

    In orthopteran insects, a complex tibial organ has evolved to detect substrate vibrations and/or airborne sound. Species of New Zealand weta (Anostostomatidae) with tympanal ears on the foreleg tibia use this organ to communicate by sound, while in atympanate species (which communicate by substrate drumming) the organ is unstudied. We investigated the complex tibial organ of the atympanate ground weta, Hemiandrus pallitarsis, for vibration detection adaptations. This system contains four sensory components (subgenual organ, intermediate organ, crista acustica homolog, accessory organ) in all legs, together with up to 90 scolopidial sensilla. Microcomputed tomography shows that the subgenual organ spans the hemolymph channel, with attachments suggesting that hemolymph oscillations displace the organ in a hinged-plate fashion. Subgenual sensilla are likely excited by substrate oscillations transmitted within the leg. Instead of the usual suspension within the middle of the tibial cavity, we show that the intermediate organ and crista acustica homolog comprise a cellular mass broadly attached to the anterior tibial wall. They likely detect cuticular vibrations, and not airborne sound. This atympanate complex tibial organ shows elaborate structural changes suggesting detection of vibrational stimuli by parallel input pathways, thus correlating well with the burrowing lifestyle and communication by substrate-transmitted vibration.

  1. Preservation of hamstring tibial insertion in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Ruffilli, A; Traina, F; Evangelisti, G; Borghi, R; Perna, F; Faldini, C

    2015-08-01

    Hamstring graft (HG) used in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction undergoes a biological modification process called "ligamentization" in the early postoperative period that proceeds through three different phases: an early graft-healing phase with central graft necrosis, a phase of proliferation, and finally, a ligamentization phase toward the properties of the intact ACL. The fastening of this process could result in more aggressive rehabilitation protocols as well as faster sport resumption. A recent literature supports the preservation of HG tibial attachment in order to enhance "ligamentization" process. Aim of this literature review is to describe all the techniques described that spare HG tibial insertion and the obtained results in order to evaluate evidence that would substantiate the maintenance of HG tibial insertion in ACL reconstruction. A search was performed using the following keywords "ACL reconstruction" in combination with "hamstrings," "hamstrings insertion," "tibial insertion," "ligamentization," and "over the top"; 18 articles were found to be relevant. Among these, eight randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were found. The RCT analyzed presented a high number of biases regarding the analyzed topic, thus making impossible to draw definitive evidences to validate HG tibial insertion sparing in ACL reconstruction. Despite the satisfactory results in many clinical series and the promising results in anatomic and animal studies, well-designed prospective clinical trials with large cohort of patients associated with MRI evaluation are mandatory to assess the beneficial effects of HG attachment preservation in ACL reconstruction.

  2. A posteromedial approach for open reduction and internal fixation of posteromedial tibial plateau fracture.

    PubMed

    Chen, H-W; Pan, J; Yi, X-H; Huang, Y-X

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with posteromedial tibial plateau fractures treated by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) through a posteromedial approach. Thirty-six patients with posteromedial tibial plateau fracture underwent ORIF through a posteromedial approach and were retrospectively analyzed. Pre-operative X-ray pictures and CT images were -obtained. And there were 11 cases of posteromedial tibial plateau fracture and 25 cases of posteromedial and posterolateral tibial plateau fracture. All the -patients were treated surgically with posteromedial approach. The clinical outcomes were assessed -according to the Rasmussen knee function grading system. The patients were followed-up for an average of 17.5 months (range, 12-32 months). All the fractures attained satisfactory reduction. No major complications were observed. According to the Rasmussen knee function grading system, the results were graded as excellent in 21 cases, good in 13 cases, fair in 2 cases. The rate of excellent and good results was 94.4%. The posteromedial approach in our opinion is the best option to treat the posteromedial tibial plateau fractures because it can provide direct visualization of the fracture site and avoid dissection of neurovascular bundle in the popliteal fossa area with minimal soft tissue injury.

  3. Apophysitis of the Tibial Tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter Disease): A Review.

    PubMed

    Vaishya, Raju; Azizi, Ahmad Tariq; Agarwal, Amit Kumar; Vijay, Vipul

    2016-09-13

    Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD) is a condition in which the patellar tendon insertion on the tibial tuberosity becomes inflamed. It is a well-known condition in late childhood characterized by pain and a bony prominence over the tibial tuberosity. The pain is usually exacerbated by physical activities like running, jumping, and climbing stairs. In the acute stage, the margins of the patellar tendon become blurred in radiographs due to the soft tissue swelling. After three to four months, bone fragmentation at the tibial tuberosity is viewed. In the sub-acute stage, soft tissue swelling resolves, but the bony ossicle remains. In the chronic stage, the bone fragment may fuse with the tibial tuberosity which can appear normal. The primary goal in the treatment of OSD is the reduction of pain and swelling over the tibial tuberosity. The patient should limit physical activities until the symptoms are resolved. In some cases, the patient should restrict physical activities for several months. The presence of pain with kneeling because of an ossicle that does not respond to conservative measures is the indication for surgery. In these cases, the removal of the ossicle, surrounding bursa, and the bony prominence is the treatment of choice.

  4. Apophysitis of the Tibial Tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter Disease): A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vaishya, Raju; Azizi, Ahmad Tariq; Vijay, Vipul

    2016-01-01

    Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD) is a condition in which the patellar tendon insertion on the tibial tuberosity becomes inflamed. It is a well-known condition in late childhood characterized by pain and a bony prominence over the tibial tuberosity. The pain is usually exacerbated by physical activities like running, jumping, and climbing stairs. In the acute stage, the margins of the patellar tendon become blurred in radiographs due to the soft tissue swelling. After three to four months, bone fragmentation at the tibial tuberosity is viewed. In the sub-acute stage, soft tissue swelling resolves, but the bony ossicle remains. In the chronic stage, the bone fragment may fuse with the tibial tuberosity which can appear normal. The primary goal in the treatment of OSD is the reduction of pain and swelling over the tibial tuberosity. The patient should limit physical activities until the symptoms are resolved. In some cases, the patient should restrict physical activities for several months. The presence of pain with kneeling because of an ossicle that does not respond to conservative measures is the indication for surgery. In these cases, the removal of the ossicle, surrounding bursa, and the bony prominence is the treatment of choice. PMID:27752406

  5. Effectiveness of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation in managing refractory constipation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, L; Liwanag, J; Athanasakos, E; Raeburn, A; Zarate-Lopez, N; Emmanuel, A V

    2017-01-01

    Chronic constipation can be aetiopathogenically classified into slow transit constipation (STC), rectal evacuation difficulty (RED) or a combination (BOTH). Although the efficacy of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) in faecal incontinence has been well proved, a current literature search identifies only one study which assessed its effect on constipation. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of PTNS in patients with different causes of constipation. Thirty-four patients [30 women, median age 50 (20-79) years] with constipation who had previously failed maximal laxative and biofeedback therapy participated in the study. All patients underwent a baseline radio-opaque marker transit study and anorectal physiology examination. All had 12 sessions of PTNS of 30 min per session. A fall in the Wexner constipation score to ≤15 or by ≥5 points was taken as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included the results of pre- and post- PTNS transit and anorectal physiology studies. Eleven patients had STC, 14 had RED and nine had BOTH. A response was seen in four patients (1/11 STC, 2/14 RED and 1/9 BOTH). Comparing pre- and post- PTNS, there was no significant change in the mean Wexner score (P = 0.10). There was no change in colonic transit time among the whole population (P = 0.56) or among those with STC (P = 0.47). There was no improvement in balloon expulsion in the whole group (P = 0.73) or in patients with RED (P = 0.69). PTNS is of no benefit to patients with constipation, whatever aetiopathogenic mechanism is responsible for the symptoms. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. Medial tibial stress syndrome: evidence-based prevention.

    PubMed

    Craig, Debbie I

    2008-01-01

    Thacker SB, Gilchrist J, Stroup DF, Kimsey CD. The prevention of shin splints in sports: a systematic review of literature. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(1):32-40. Among physically active individuals, which medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) prevention methods are most effective to decrease injury rates? Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (1966-2000), Current Contents (1996-2000), Biomedical Collection (1993-1999), and Dissertation Abstracts. Reference lists of identified studies were searched manually until no further studies were identified. Experts in the field were contacted, including first authors of randomized controlled trials addressing prevention of MTSS. The Cochrane Collaboration (early stage of Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) was contacted. Inclusion criteria included randomized controlled trials or clinical trials comparing different MTSS prevention methods with control groups. Excluded were studies that did not provide primary research data or that addressed treatment and rehabilitation rather than prevention of incident MTSS. A total of 199 citations were identified. Of these, 4 studies compared prevention methods for MTSS. Three reviewers independently scored the 4 studies. Reviewers were blinded to the authors' names and affiliations but not the results. Each study was evaluated independently for methodologic quality using a 100-point checklist. Final scores were averages of the 3 reviewers' scores. Prevention methods studied were shock-absorbent insoles, foam heel pads, Achilles tendon stretching, footwear, and graduated running programs. No statistically significant results were noted for any of the prevention methods. Median quality scores ranged from 29 to 47, revealing flaws in design, control for bias, and statistical methods. No current evidence supports any single prevention method for MTSS. The most promising outcomes support the use of shock-absorbing insoles. Well-designed and controlled trials are critically needed

  7. Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Hamstring Tendons Using a Suspensory Device for Tibial Fixation and Interference Screw for Femoral Fixation.

    PubMed

    Espejo-Baena, Alejandro; Espejo-Reina, Alejandro; Espejo-Reina, María Josefa; Lombardo-Torre, Maximiano

    2017-02-01

    A technique for posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is presented. Autologous hamstring tendons are selected as a graft. An interference screw is used for femoral fixation. A suspension device is used for tibial fixation to bring the fixation closer to the articular end of the tibial tunnel. Single diameter tunnels of the same diameter as the graft are created in an outside-in direction.

  8. [Transtibial amputation salvage with a cutaneous flap based on posterior tibial perforators].

    PubMed

    Boucher, F; Ho Quoc, C; Pinatel, B; Thiney, P-O; Mojallal, A

    2013-08-01

    When performing an amputation of the lower limb, the preservation of the knee joint is important to obtain an optimal functional outcome. Many reconstruction procedures are available to cover the amputation defect in order to preserve a sufficient length of the stump, so a prosthesis could be put in place with the best functional results. Local musculocutaneous flaps or free flaps are conventionally described with their advantages and disadvantages. In this report, we describe our experience with a transtibial amputation and stump covering using a fasciocutaneous flap based on tibial posterior perforators. An extensive tibial bone exposure with only posterior skin was viable. It is an efficient and reliable solution for covering tibial stump without microvascular anastomosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Is There A Difference in Bone Ingrowth in Modular Versus Monoblock Porous Tantalum Tibial Trays?

    PubMed Central

    Hanzlik, Josa A.; Day, Judd S.; Rimnac, Clare M.; Kurtz, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary total knee designs incorporating highly porous metallic surfaces have demonstrated promising clinical outcomes. However, stiffness differences between modular and monoblock porous tantalum tibial trays may affect bone ingrowth. This study investigated effect of implant design, spatial location and clinical factors on bone ingrowth in retrieved porous tantalum tibial trays. Three modular and twenty-one monoblock tibial trays were evaluated for bone ingrowth. Nonparametric statistical tests were used to investigate differences in bone ingrowth measurements by implant design, spatial location on the tray, substrate depth and clinical factors. Modular trays (5.3±3.2%) exhibited higher bone ingrowth than monoblock trays (1.6±1.9%, p=0.032). Bone ingrowth in both designs was highest in the initial 500 μm from the surface. Implantation time was positively correlated with bone ingrowth for monoblock trays. PMID:25743106

  10. Muscle adaptation patterns of children with a trans-tibial amputation during walking.

    PubMed

    Centomo, H; Amarantini, D; Martin, L; Prince, F

    2007-05-01

    Many studies have shown that trans-tibial amputation involves modifications of resultant muscle patterns during gait. However, these experiments did not estimate the contribution of simultaneous agonist and antagonist muscle action (co-contraction) during gait tasks. Diminution of co-contraction could create joint instability and, thus, change joint integrity, which is particularly important in the etiology of degenerative diseases, such as osteoarthritis, present at the knees of amputated limbs, and particularly in non-amputated limbs. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is any difference in the production of co-contraction about the knee between able-bodied children and children with a trans-tibial amputation during gait. Six children with a trans-tibial amputation vs. six able-bodied children paired for gender, age, weight and height participated in this study. Four one-way ANOVAs (P<0.05) were used to observe differences in resultant, agonist and antagonist moments, power, and co-contraction index during different phases of gait between able-bodied children limbs, the amputated and the non-amputated limbs of children with trans-tibial amputation. Children with a trans-tibial amputation modified muscle patterns at their amputated limb and produced smaller co-contraction (P<0.05) during single limb support, for both the non-amputated and amputated limbs when compared to able-bodied children. These results suggest that children with a trans-tibial amputation altered their muscle patterns to perform locomotion. These changes produced a diminution of co-contraction during single limb support for both the amputated and non-amputated limbs and, thus, could create joint instability.

  11. A proposal for a new tibial guide system for posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Pacagnan, André Valente; Loyola, Hugo Alexandre Guimarães; Cohen, Moisés; Camanho, Gilberto Luís; Forgas, Andrea

    2007-07-01

    Posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is always a challenge to the orthopaedic surgeon. It is difficult when the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is intact. We propose a new guide system through the posteromedial portal, avoiding ACL damage. The arthroscope is inserted anteromedially (30 degrees), and anterolateral portals are used for instruments to confirm the diagnosis and inspect the joint to search for and treat associated lesions that may appear eventually. The posteromedial portal is located posterior to the collateral medial ligament superficially, adjacent to a portion of the posteromedial femoral condyle, which is located 1 cm proximal to the posteromedial tibial plate (where a skin marker must be used before insufflation of the knee). Our system is designed with an articular end in the form of a rasp, which helps prepare the area of the posterior tibia to be stripped before the tibial tunnel is drilled while being protected by the drill guide; this simplifies the preparation and creation of the tibial tunnel via a single device, which can be done with a 30 degrees arthroscope but is easier with a 70 degree arthroscope. The guide system through the posteromedial portal is used to determine a fixed 40 degrees angle of approach to the tibia in the anteroposterior direction to drill the tibial tunnel; this approach is particularly helpful in the presence of an intact ACL. The graft into the femoral tunnel is fixed with a bioabsorbable interference screw whose size must fit the graft and the tunnel walls. Before tibial graft fixation, it is necessary to reduce the posterior drawer. In the tibia the bundle corresponding to the anterolateral portion is tensioned and fixed under flexion, followed by the posteromedial portion in extension, by means of a Bottom Fix system (Smith & Nephew, Mayfield, MA) placed near the exit of the tibial tunnel.

  12. In vitro biomechanical study of femoral torsion disorders: effect on femoro-tibial kinematics.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, S; Dugailly, P-M; Baillon, B; Lefevre, P; Rooze, M; Salvia, P; Feipel, V

    2012-12-01

    Gonarthrosis is a degenerative disease mainly found in elderly persons. Frontal plane deviations are known to induce lateral and medial gonarthrosis. Nevertheless, patients suffer from gonarthrosis without frontal deviations. Lower limb torsions disorders have been considered as a factor inducing lateral and medial gonarthrosis. This paper reports an in vitro study aiming at quantifying the relationships between experimental femoral torsion disorders and femoro-tibial kinematics. Five fresh-frozen lower limbs were used. Specimens were fixed on an experimental jig and muscles were loaded. A six-degree-of-freedom Instrumented Spatial Linkage was used to measure femoro-tibial kinematics. Experimental femoral osteotomies were performed to simulate various degrees of medial and lateral torsion. Internal tibial rotation, abduction/adduction and proximo-distal, medio-lateral and antero-posterior translations were measured during knee flexion. Internal tibial rotation and abduction/adduction were significantly influenced (P<0.001) by femoral torsion disorder conditions. Medial femoral torsion increased tibial adduction and decreased internal rotation during knee flexion. Opposite changes were observed during lateral femoral torsion. Concerning translations, medial femoral torsion induced a significant (P<0.05) decrease of medial translation and inversely for lateral femoral torsion. No interactions between femoral torsion disorders and range of motion were observed. Our results showed that medial and lateral femoral torsion disorders induced alterations of femoro-tibial kinematics when applied in normally aligned lower limbs. These results highlight a potential clinical relevance of the effect of femoral torsion alterations on knee kinematics that may be related to the development of long-term knee disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanical Failure of Revision Knee Prosthesis at both Femoral and Tibial Modular Metaphyseal Stem Junctions.

    PubMed

    Woodgate, Ian G; Rooney, John; Mulford, Johnathan S; Gillies, R Mark

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of a mechanical failure of an S-ROM revision total knee prosthesis. The prosthesis was used as a revision implant following deep peri-prosthetic infection in a morbidly obese male. The prosthesis failed on both the femoral and tibial sides at the modular metaphyseal stem junctions and required a further revision using the same type of implant after infection was excluded. A 57 year old male had previously undergone a left total knee arthroplasty in 1999 for osteoarthritis. He acquired a late deep peri-prosthetic infection with a multi-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. The organism was sensitive to vancomycin and rifampicin. A two stage revision was undertaken after clinical signs of infection had resolved and blood parameters had normalized. Intra-operative gram stain was negative for micro-organisms and frozen section of deep tissue was less than five polymorphs per high power field. A cemented S-ROM prosthesis was implanted using a coronal tibial osteotomy and a lateral release for exposure. After three years of the second stage of revision, the patient again presented to the orthopaedic department after reportedly falling on a wet floor six weeks ago. Radiographically, there was a broken tibial wire, osteolysis and pedestal formation around both the femoral and distal tibial stem extensions. The prosthesis was bent at the proximal tibial sleeve and stem junction. The prosthesis was considered loose with mechanical failure. At implant removal, it was noted that the femoral and tibial components at the modular metaphyseal sleeve-stem junction were fractured. Surgeons should be cautious in the use of these implants in morbidly obese patients where the stresses generated maybe above the yield stress of the material and the frictional forces that may overcome the modular taper junction's locking mechanism.

  14. Femoral shaft bowing influences the correction angle for high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Ryuji; Inoue, Sanshiro; Miura, Hiromasa; Matsuda, Shuichi; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2007-05-01

    The optimal femorotibial angle (FTA) after high tibial osteotomy (HTO) is still controversial. Our hypothesis was that FTA itself may not be reliable because FTA cannot represent the accurate alignment of the whole lower extremity. Non-weight-bearing radiographs of the lower extremities were taken in 100 Japanese subjects with medial osteoarthritic knees, and seven anatomic parameters were assessed. The correction angle by FTA was calculated so that the postoperative FTA was set at 166 degrees (14 degrees valgus). Another correction angle was calculated so that the mechanical axis passed through the lateral one-fourth of the tibial articular surface after HTO. After the correlation between two correction angles was assessed, influences of anatomic parameters on the discrepancy between two correction angles were assessed. There was a high correlation between two correction angles (R2 = 0.777, P < 0.001). The mechanical axis passed through the lateral one-fourth of the tibial articular surface when the postoperative FTA was set at 166 degrees in 80% of subjects. However, discrepancy between the two correction angles was 3 degrees or larger in 20% of subjects. Femoral shaft bowing and tibial shaft bowing significantly influenced the correction angles. Even though FTA was the same, the femoral head shifted medially in cases with lateral bowing of the femoral shaft, and the correction angle by FTA should be set larger. On the other hand, the correction angle by FTA can be set smaller in knees with medial bowing of the femoral shaft. Tibial shaft bowing also influences the correction angle by FTA. The correction angle by FTA for HTO should be calculated taking femoral and/or tibial shaft bowing in the frontal plane into account.

  15. An observational, prospective study comparing tibial and humeral intraosseous access using the EZ-IO.

    PubMed

    Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Chan, Yiong Huak; Oh, Jen Jen; Ngo, Adeline Su-Yin

    2009-01-01

    Intraosseous (IO) access is an alternative to conventional intravenous access. The proximal tibia and proximal humerus have been proposed as suitable sites for IO access. A nonrandomized, prospective, observational study comparing flow rates and insertion success with tibial and humeral IO access in adults using the EZ-IO-powered drill device was conducted. The tibia was the first site of insertion, and a second IO was inserted in the humerus if clinically indicated for the same patient. Twenty-four patients were recruited, with 24 tibial and 11 humeral insertions. All EZ-IO insertions were successful at the first attempt except for 1 tibial insertion that was successful on the second attempt. All insertions were achieved within 20 seconds. Mean ease of IO insertion score (1=easiest to 10=most difficult) was 1.1 for both sites. We found tibial flow rates to be significantly faster using a pressure bag (165 mL/min) compared with those achieved without a pressure bag (73 mL/min), with a difference of 92 mL/min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 52, 132). Similarly, humeral flow rates were significantly faster using a pressure bag (153 mL/min) compared with humeral those achieved without pressure bag (84 mL/min), with a difference of 69 mL/min (95% CI: 39, 99). Comparing matched pairs (same patient), there was no significant difference in flow rates between tibial and humeral sites, with or without pressure bag infusion. Both sites had high-insertion success rates. Flow rates were significantly faster with a pressure bag infusion than without. However, we did not find any significant difference in tibial or humeral flow rates.

  16. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation vs parasacral transcutaneous neuromodulation for overactive bladder in children.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Ubirajara; Viterbo, Walter; Bittencourt, Joana; Farias, Tiago; Lordêlo, Patrícia

    2013-08-01

    Parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and posterior tibial nerve stimulation have emerged as effective methods to treat overactive bladder in children. However, to our knowledge no study has compared the 2 methods. We evaluated the results of parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and posterior tibial nerve stimulation in children with overactive bladder. We prospectively studied children with overactive bladder without dysfunctional voiding. Success of treatment was evaluated by visual analogue scale and dysfunctional voiding symptom score, and by level of improvement of each specific symptom. Parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation was performed 3 times weekly and posterior tibial nerve stimulation was performed once weekly. A total of 22 consecutive patients were treated with posterior tibial nerve stimulation and 37 with parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. There was no difference between the 2 groups regarding demographic characteristics or types of symptoms. Concerning the evaluation by visual analogue scale, complete resolution of symptoms was seen in 70% of the group undergoing parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and in 9% of the group undergoing posterior tibial nerve stimulation (p = 0.02). When the groups were compared, there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.55). The frequency of persistence of urgency and diurnal urinary incontinence was nearly double in the group undergoing posterior tibial nerve stimulation. However, this difference was not statistically significant. We found that parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is more effective in resolving overactive bladder symptoms, which matches parental perception. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the evaluation by dysfunctional voiding symptom score, or in complete resolution of urgency or diurnal incontinence. Copyright © 2013 American Urological

  17. High resolution ultrasonography of the tibial nerve in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwarpal; Gupta, Kamlesh; Kaur, Sukhdeep

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution ultrasonography of the tibial nerve is a fast and non invasive tool for diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Our study was aimed at finding out the correlation of the cross sectional area and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerve with the presence and severity of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. 75 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus clinically diagnosed with diabetic peripheral neuropathy were analysed, and the severity of neuropathy was determined using the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score. 58 diabetic patients with no clinical suspicion of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and 75 healthy non-diabetic subjects were taken as controls. The cross sectional area and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerves were calculated 3 cm cranial to the medial malleolus in both lower limbs. The mean cross sectional area (22.63 +/- 2.66 mm 2 ) and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles (0.70 mm) of the tibial nerves in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with both control groups was significantly larger, and statistically significant correlation was found with the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score ( p < 0.001). The diabetic patients with no signs of peripheral neuropathy had a larger mean cross sectional area (14.40 +/- 1.72 mm 2 ) and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerve (0.40 mm) than healthy non-diabetic subjects (12.42 +/- 1.01 mm 2 and 0.30 mm respectively). The cross sectional area and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles of the tibial nerve is larger in diabetic patients with or without peripheral neuropathy than in healthy control subjects, and ultrasonography can be used as a good screening tool in these patients.

  18. Posterior tibial tendon dislocation: a systematic review of the literature and presentation of a case.

    PubMed

    Lohrer, Heinz; Nauck, Tanja

    2010-05-01

    In contrast to posterior tibial tendon lesions, dislocations of the posterior tibial tendon are thought to be 'extremely rare'. Diagnostic criteria for this condition have not yet been established. A systematic literature review revealed 61 published cases with posterior tibial tendon dislocation in 36 reports, including eight (12 patients) in French and five (7 patients) in German. We add one more case, which was complicated by a longitudinal tibial tendon tear and a lateral talar dome osteochondral lesion. Fifty-nine cases were descriptively analysed regarding initial injury, subjective symptoms, clinical presentation and findings on different imaging modalities. Treatment and outcome were additionally evaluated. 58.5% of the initial injuries were induced by sport. Initially most cases were misdiagnosed (53.1%). 35.6% of the patients felt a recurrent snapping phenomenon at the medial ankle. Physical examination exhibited a cord-like structure over the medial malleolus in 58.6%, and a posterior tibial tendon (sub)luxation could be provocated in 54.2%. MRI, ultrasound and plain radiography (medial malleolar chip fracture) detected specific findings in 75.0%, 66.7% and 14.7%, respectively. Surgery was done in 83.1% of the patients using varying techniques. The authors judged the treatment result as excellent or asymptomatic in 80%, as good in 12% and as fair or moderate in 8% of the patients. Posterior tibial tendon dislocation occurs more frequently than was previously thought. Misdiagnosis can be avoided, if the surgeon is aware of the condition and combines findings from history, physical investigation and imaging modalities.

  19. Soleal sling syndrome (proximal tibial nerve compression): results of surgical decompression.

    PubMed

    Williams, Eric H; Rosson, Gedge D; Hagan, Robert R; Hashemi, Shahreyar S; Dellon, A Lee

    2012-02-01

    Although distal tibial nerve compression is well recognized, proximal tibial nerve compression remains a rarely recognized clinical condition. This report defines the presentation, diagnosis, surgical decompression technique, and clinical outcome of neurolysis of the tibial nerve at this soleal sling compression site. Forty-nine patients with 69 proximal tibial nerves (20 bilateral) were stratified retrospectively into three groups: neuropathy (n = 10), failed tarsal tunnel syndrome (n = 25), and trauma (n = 14). Pain level, strength of the flexor hallucis longus muscle, neurosensory testing of the hallux, and subjective sensory improvement were evaluated. Each proximal tibial nerve compression was subjected to neurolysis with division of the soleal sling. Results were stratified into poor, fair, good, and excellent based on the amount of pain relief and improvement in motor and sensory function. In all groups combined, there were 13 excellent (26.5 percent), 13 good (26.5 percent), 18 fair (36.7 percent), and five poor (10.2 percent) results. Results in the neuropathy group were excellent in two patients, good in three, fair in four, and poor in one (mean follow-up, 18.7 months). Results in the failed tarsal tunnel syndrome group were excellent in two, good in six, fair in 13, and poor in four patients (mean follow-up, 13.9 months). The trauma subgroup had the best outcomes: excellent in nine patients, good in four, fair in one, and poor in zero (mean follow-up, 13.4 months). Regardless of cause, if a proximal tibial nerve compression beneath the soleal sling is identified, neurolysis may improve pain and sensory and motor function. Therapeutic, IV.

  20. Autologous Bone Grafting and Revision Plating in a Case of Persistent High Tibial Osteotomy Non-Union

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Tan Shi; Koon, Wong Merng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Uni-compartmental knee arthritis may be treated with several surgical options including uni-compartmental knee arthroplasty, total knee arthroplasty and high tibial osteotomy. Non-union is a well-established and common complication that may arise from the latter option and few reports have shown successful treatment of persistent non-union of high tibial osteotomy. Case Presentation: We present a case of persistent non-union after high tibial osteotomy treated with autologous iliac crest bone grafting and revision plating. At 1 year post-operative interval, successful union was achieved after revision internal fixation. In addition, a good functional outcome was achieved. Conclusion: In this patient with persistent non-union following high tibial osteotomy, the aim of revision was to restore alignment and effect bone healing while preserving adequate tibial bone stock. Revision plating with autologous bone grafting is a good surgical strategy in the treatment ofpersistent non-union with hardware failure. PMID:28116282

  1. Autologous Bone Grafting and Revision Plating in a Case of Persistent High Tibial Osteotomy Non-Union.

    PubMed

    Ming, Tan Shi; Koon, Wong Merng

    2016-01-01

    Uni-compartmental knee arthritis may be treated with several surgical options including uni-compartmental knee arthroplasty, total knee arthroplasty and high tibial osteotomy. Non-union is a well-established and common complication that may arise from the latter option and few reports have shown successful treatment of persistent non-union of high tibial osteotomy. We present a case of persistent non-union after high tibial osteotomy treated with autologous iliac crest bone grafting and revision plating. At 1 year post-operative interval, successful union was achieved after revision internal fixation. In addition, a good functional outcome was achieved. In this patient with persistent non-union following high tibial osteotomy, the aim of revision was to restore alignment and effect bone healing while preserving adequate tibial bone stock. Revision plating with autologous bone grafting is a good surgical strategy in the treatment ofpersistent non-union with hardware failure.

  2. Simultaneous bilateral tibial tubercle avulsion fracture in a male teenager: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, Alexandre P; Carvalho, Rogerio T; Ferretti, Mario; Cohen, Moises

    2018-01-01

    Tibial tuberosity avulsion fractures are injuries accounting for less than 3% of all epiphyseal and 1% of all physeal injuries in adolescents. Bilateral injuries are very rare, with only 19 cases described in the literature. These types of fractures occur commonly in male teenagers during sport activities and are often associated with other orthopaedic disorders. We report the case of a male teenager with simultaneous bilateral tibial tubercle fractures, describe the evolution and treatment of this injury and review the literature on this subject. Case report.

  3. Gait characteristics and quality of life perception of patients following tibial plateau fracture.

    PubMed

    Warschawski, Yaniv; Elbaz, Avi; Segal, Ganit; Norman, Doron; Haim, Amir; Jacov, Elis; Grundshtein, Alon; Steinberg, Ely

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the long-term functional outcome as measured by gait patterns and quality of life assessment of patients with high-energy tibial plateau fracture compared to matched controls. Thirty-eight patients were evaluated in a case-controlled comparison. Twenty-two patients with tibial plateau fracture were evaluated after 3.1 (1.63) years (sd) from injury. Patients underwent a computerized spatiotemporal gait test and completed the SF-12 health survey. 16 healthy subjects, matched for age and gender served as a control group. The main outcome measures for this study were spatiotemporal gait characteristics, physical quality of life and mental quality of life. Significant differences were found in all gait parameters between patients with tibial plateau fracture and healthy controls. Patients with tibial plateau fracture walked slower by 18% compared to the control group (p < 0.001), had slower cadence by 8% compared (p = 0.002) to the control group and had shorter step length in the involved leg by 11% and in the uninvolved leg by 12% compared to the control group (p = 0.006 and p = 0.003, respectively). Patients with tibial plateau fracture also showed shorter single limb support (SLS) in the involved leg by 12% compared to the uninvolved leg and 5% in the uninvolved leg compared to the control group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.017, respectively). Significant differences were found in the Short Form (SF)-12 scores. Physical Health Score of patients with tibial plateau fracture was 65% lower compared to healthy controls (p < 0.001), and Mental Health Score of the patients was 40% lower compared to healthy controls (p < 0.001). Finally, significant correlations were found between SF-12 and gait patterns. Long-term deviations in gait and quality of life exist in patients following tibial plateau fracture. Patients following tibial plateau fracture present altered spatiotemporal gait patterns compared to healthy controls, as well as

  4. Flexion-valgus unicondylar tibial plateau depression fracture pattern: Classification and treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Song, Lijun; Li, Xiang; Fang, Jiahu

    2018-03-07

    The authors have identified a subset of unicondylar tibial plateau depression fracture patterns caused by a flexion-valgus force. The purpose of this study was to describe this fracture pattern and suggest a modified lateral approach that may allow for improved reduction and stabilization. The preoperative radiographs and CT scans of 102 patients who sustained unicondylar tibial plateau fractures (OTA 41B) were reviewed. Twenty-six fracture patients had posterolateral (PL) tibial plateau depression fractures. By medical record review and telephone follow-up, the injury mechanism of the 22 unicondylar tibial plateau fractures was confirmed as a flexion-valgus force. The radiographic features of those cases were analyzed and measured. To address this specific fracture pattern, a modified approach combined with a novel intra-articular osteotomy was applied. According to the morphological characteristics, this tibial plateau fracture pattern could be divided into two subtypes: type A was a confined, basin-like articular surface depression fracture located in the PL quadrant, and type B was a cancellous fracture involving the PL tibial plateau resulting in a decrease in the posterior slope. One radiographic hallmark of this fracture pattern is an anatomically or a mechanically intact posterior column wall. The novel approach was applied to both types. The postoperative radiographic measurements revealed excellent reduction quality. On axial scans, the distance between the most posterior rafting screw and the tangent line of the tibial plateau rim was 3.0 ± 2.07 mm (from -1.9 to 4.3), and the angulation between them was 8.9 ± 3.02° (from -7.3 to 15.6). These results indicated excellent PL quadrant coverage from the rafting screws. Flexion-valgus force-induced unicondylar tibial plateau depression fracture is a unique injury pattern. We suggest a novel surgical approach to address this injury's key features, which may facilitate exposure and enhance fixation

  5. Case Reports: Tantalum Debris Dispersion During Revision of a Tibial Component for TKA

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez Marquez, Jose Miguel; Del Sel, Nicolas; Leali, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Porous tantalum nonmodular tibial components for TKA were introduced in 1999. We revised three well-fixed tantalum tibial trays. For removal, we used osteotomes and revision oscillating saw blades. Removal of the components was laborious and resulted in generation of abundant tantalum debris that seeded the periarticular soft tissues despite meticulous protection with gauze. The retained metallic debris that is visible on postoperative radiographs has the potential for generation of third-body wear. We alert the orthopaedic community about this phenomenon and recommend minimizing the use of motorized revision instruments for removal of trabecular metal implants. PMID:18941849

  6. Rehabilitation of avulsion fracture of the tibial tuberosity following Osgood-Schlatter disease.

    PubMed

    Baltaci, G; Ozer, H; Tunay, V B

    2004-03-01

    A sixteen-year-old boy suffered from sharp pain in the knee during a jump while playing basketball. He had a positive history of Osgood Schlatter disease. Radiographic evaluation demonstrated an avulsion fracture of the tibial tuberosity Type III according to the classification of Watson-Jones. Rehabilitation after avulsion fracture of the tibial tuberosity is an important consideration for this relatively uncommon adolescent injury. In such avulsion fractures, landing on the ground with the knee fully extended after a jump is the most likely cause. This case report reviews the rehabilitation program, and selected functional outcome measures after rehabilitation are reported. The patient returned to sporting activity after 12 months.

  7. Defining the Role of the Tibial Tubercle-Trochlear Groove and Tibial Tubercle-Posterior Cruciate Ligament Distances in the Work-up of Patients With Patellofemoral Disorders.

    PubMed

    Anley, Cameron Michael; Morris, Guy Vernon; Saithna, Adnan; James, Steven Laurence; Snow, Martyn

    2015-06-01

    The radiological work-up of patients with patellofemoral disorders continues to be debated. The interchangeability of the tibial tubercle-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance between computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has recently been questioned. In addition, a new measurement-the tibial tubercle-posterior cruciate ligament (TT-PCL) distance-has shown that not all patients with a pathological TT-TG distance (>20 mm) have lateralization of the tibial tubercle. Another factor to consider when looking at the position of the tibial tubercle is the knee joint rotation, defined as the angle between the femoral dorsal condylar line and the tibial dorsal condylar line. To determine, with a larger population, if the TT-TG measurements can be used interchangeably between CT and MRI and to confirm the correlation between the TT-PCL and TT-TG distances in determining tibial tubercle lateralization. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Patients with patellofemoral disorders and MRI and CT scans of the same knee (n = 141) were identified. The TT-PCL, the knee joint rotation, and TT-TG were measured independently by 2 fellowship-trained orthopaedic surgeons. Thirty measurements were repeated on a separate occasion to allow for an assessment of the intrarater reliability. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess reliability of the measurements. The mean TT-TG was 4.16 mm less on MRI (P < .05), with the mean TT-TG ± SD being 17.72 ± 5.15 mm on CT (range, 6.97-31.33 mm) and 13.56 ± 6.07 mm on MRI (range, 2-30.04 mm). The ICC for each rater comparing the 2 imaging modalities was only fair (0.54 and 0.48). The mean TT-PCL measurement was 20.32 ± 3.45 mm (range, 10.11-32.01 mm) with excellent interobserver and intraobserver reliability (>0.75). Based on the TT-TG and TT-PCL measurements, 4 groups of patients can be established. When knee joint rotation is compared among groups, an increased TT-TG may result from true

  8. Delay in weight bearing in surgically treated tibial shaft fractures is associated with impaired healing: a cohort analysis of 166 tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Houben, I B; Raaben, M; Van Basten Batenburg, M; Blokhuis, T J

    2018-04-09

    The relation between timing of weight bearing after a fracture and the healing outcome is yet to be established, thereby limiting the implementation of a possibly beneficial effect for our patients. The current study was undertaken to determine the effect of timing of weight bearing after a surgically treated tibial shaft fracture. Surgically treated diaphyseal tibial fractures were retrospectively studied between 2007 and 2015. The timing of initial weight bearing (IWB) was analysed as a predictor for impaired healing in a multivariate regression. Totally, 166 diaphyseal tibial fractures were included, 86 cases with impaired healing and 80 with normal healing. The mean age was 38.7 years (range 16-89). The mean time until IWB was significantly shorter in the normal fracture healing group (2.6 vs 7.4 weeks, p < 0.001). Correlation analysis yielded four possible confounders: infection requiring surgical intervention, fracture type, fasciotomy and open fractures. Logistic regression identified IWB as an independent predictor for impaired healing with an odds ratio of 1.13 per week delay (95% CI 1.03-1.25). Delay in initial weight bearing is independently associated with impaired fracture healing in surgically treated tibial shaft fractures. Unlike other factors such as fracture type or soft tissue condition, early resumption of weight bearing can be influenced by the treating physician and this factor therefore has a direct clinical relevance. This study indicates that early resumption of weight bearing should be the treatment goal in fracture fixation. 3b.

  9. ACL Roof Impingement Revisited: Does the Independent Femoral Drilling Technique Avoid Roof Impingement With Anteriorly Placed Tibial Tunnels?

    PubMed

    Tanksley, John A; Werner, Brian C; Conte, Evan J; Lustenberger, David P; Burrus, M Tyrrell; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Gwathmey, F Winston; Miller, Mark D

    2017-05-01

    Anatomic femoral tunnel placement for single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is now well accepted. The ideal location for the tibial tunnel has not been studied extensively, although some biomechanical and clinical studies suggest that placement of the tibial tunnel in the anterior part of the ACL tibial attachment site may be desirable. However, the concern for intercondylar roof impingement has tempered enthusiasm for anterior tibial tunnel placement. To compare the potential for intercondylar roof impingement of ACL grafts with anteriorly positioned tibial tunnels after either transtibial (TT) or independent femoral (IF) tunnel drilling. Controlled laboratory study. Twelve fresh-frozen cadaver knees were randomized to either a TT or IF drilling technique. Tibial guide pins were drilled in the anterior third of the native ACL tibial attachment site after debridement. All efforts were made to drill the femoral tunnel anatomically in the center of the attachment site, and the surrogate ACL graft was visualized using 3-dimensional computed tomography. Reformatting was used to evaluate for roof impingement. Tunnel dimensions, knee flexion angles, and intra-articular sagittal graft angles were also measured. The Impingement Review Index (IRI) was used to evaluate for graft impingement. Two grafts (2/6, 33.3%) in the TT group impinged upon the intercondylar roof and demonstrated angular deformity (IRI type 1). No grafts in the IF group impinged, although 2 of 6 (66.7%) IF grafts touched the roof without deformation (IRI type 2). The presence or absence of impingement was not statistically significant. The mean sagittal tibial tunnel guide pin position prior to drilling was 27.6% of the sagittal diameter of the tibia (range, 22%-33.9%). However, computed tomography performed postdrilling detected substantial posterior enlargement in 2 TT specimens. A significant difference in the sagittal graft angle was noted between the 2 groups. TT grafts were

  10. Tibial tunnel placement accuracy during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: independent femoral versus transtibial femoral tunnel drilling techniques.

    PubMed

    Keller, Thomas C; Tompkins, Marc; Economopoulos, Kostas; Milewski, Matthew D; Gaskin, Cree; Brockmeier, Stephen; Hart, Joseph; Miller, Mark D

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the accuracy of tibial tunnel placement using independent femoral (IF) versus transtibial (TT) techniques. Ten matched pairs of cadaveric knees were randomized so that one knee in the pair underwent arthroscopic TT drilling of the femoral tunnel and the other underwent IF drilling through an accessory medial portal. For both techniques, an attempt was made to place the femoral and tibial tunnels as close to the center of the respective anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) footprints as possible. Preoperative and postoperative computed tomography using a technique optimized for ligament evaluation allowed comparison of the anatomic ACL tibial footprint to the tibial tunnel aperture. The percentage of tunnel aperture contained within the native footprint, as well as the distance from the center of the tunnel aperture to the center of the footprint, was measured. Additionally, graft obliquity relative to the tibial plateau was evaluated in the sagittal plane. The percentage of tibial tunnel aperture contained within the native footprint averaged 71.6% ± 17.2% versus 52.1% ± 23.4% (P = .04) in the IF and TT groups, respectively. The distance from the center of the footprint to the center of the tibial tunnel aperture was 3.50 ± 1.6 mm and 4.40 ± 1.7 mm (P = .27) in the IF and TT groups, respectively. TT drilling placed 6 of 10 tunnels posterior to the center of the footprint versus 3 of 10 tunnels in IF drilling. The graft obliquity angles were 54.8° in TT specimens and 47.5° in IF specimens (P = .09). This study adds to the literature suggesting that TT drilling with an 8-mm reamer has deleterious effects on tibial tunnel aperture and position. IF drilling, which does not involve repeated reaming of the tibial tunnel, is associated with the placement of a higher percentage of the tunnel aperture within the native tibial footprint. There was not a significant difference between the IF and TT techniques in their ability to place the center

  11. "Clothesline technique" for proximal tibial shaft fracture fixation using conventional intramedullary nail: a simple, useful, and inexpensive technique to prevent fracture malalignment.

    PubMed

    Belangero, William Dias; Santos Pires, Robinson Esteves; Livani, Bruno; Rossi, Felipe Lins; de Andrade, Andre Luis Lugnani

    2018-01-23

    Treatment of proximal tibial shaft fractures is always challenging. Despite the development of modern techniques, the literature still shows high complication rates, especially regarding proximal fragment malalignment. It is well known that knee position in flexion during tibial nailing is responsible for extension and valgus deformities of the proximal fragment. Unlike in tibial shaft fractures, nails do not reduce proximal tibial fractures due to the medullary canal width. This study aims to describe a simple, useful, and inexpensive technique to prevent valgus and extension deformities when treating proximal tibial fractures using conventional nails: the so-called clothesline technique.

  12. Use of a pneumatic tourniquet improves outcome following trans-tibial amputation.

    PubMed

    Wolthuis, A M; Whitehead, E; Ridler, B M F; Cowan, A R; Campbell, W B; Thompson, J F

    2006-06-01

    It is traditionally taught that a pneumatic tourniquet is contraindicated for trans-tibial amputations in patients with peripheral arterial disease. However, tourniquets are used successfully during total knee arthroplasty in elderly patients. Vascular patients undergoing a trans-tibial amputation have a high perioperative mortality and morbidity-notably the need for wound revision or a higher amputation level. We hypothesised that a tourniquet, used during amputation, would reduce blood loss and subsequent complications without compromising healing. This was a prospective non-randomized study of 89 adult patients who underwent a trans-tibial amputation between January 2001 and December 2003. The endpoints were: haemoglobin levels, the need for blood transfusion, perioperative morbidity, revision rate and mortality. Patients were divided into two groups: a group with a pneumatic tourniquet (n=42) and a group without (n=47). The haemoglobin fall was 14.8% in the non-tourniquet group and 5.6% in the tourniquet group, with a higher need for transfusion in the non-tourniquet group. The revision rate was 14.3% in the tourniquet group and significantly higher in the non-tourniquet group (38.3%). Mortality was similar in both groups: 7.1% for the tourniquet and 6.4% for the non-tourniquet group. The use of a pneumatic tourniquet is safe and significantly reduces both blood loss and transfusion requirements during trans-tibial amputation. A pneumatic tourniquet reduces revision rates by over 50%, with subsequent cost savings.

  13. Tibial nerve transection - a standardized model for denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Batt, Jane A E; Bain, James Ralph

    2013-11-03

    The tibial nerve transection model is a well-tolerated, validated, and reproducible model of denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in rodents. Although originally developed and used extensively in the rat due to its larger size, the tibial nerve in mice is big enough that it can be easily manipulated with either crush or transection, leaving the peroneal and sural nerve branches of the sciatic nerve intact and thereby preserving their target muscles. Thus, this model offers the advantages of inducing less morbidity and impediment of ambulation than the sciatic nerve transection model and also allows investigators to study the physiologic, cellular and molecular biologic mechanisms regulating the process of muscle atrophy in genetically engineered mice. The tibial nerve supplies the gastrocnemius, soleus and plantaris muscles, so its transection permits the study of denervated skeletal muscle composed of fast twitch type II fibers and/or slow twitch type I fibers. Here we demonstrate the tibial nerve transection model in the C57Black6 mouse. We assess the atrophy of the gastrocnemius muscle, as a representative muscle, at 1, 2, and 4 weeks post-denervation by measuring muscle weights and fiber type specific cross-sectional area on paraffin-embedded histologic sections immunostained for fast twitch myosin.

  14. Arthroscopic osteochondral autograft transplantation for chondral lesion of the tibial plateau of the knee.

    PubMed

    Matsusue, Y; Kotake, T; Nakagawa, Y; Nakamura, T

    2001-07-01

    Arthroscopic osteochondral autograft transplantation is often used to treat chondral/osteochondral lesions of the femoral condyle of the knee. However, arthroscopic autologous osteochondral grafting to the tibial plateau has not been reported. We report the surgical technique and the clinical course of a patient who underwent engraftment by this method. A 26-year-old man developed symptoms of pain and catching in his knee. Arthroscopy revealed a deep chondral lesion, 10 x 15 mm in size, down to the subchondral bone on the posterocentral area of the lateral tibial plateau. The injured cartilage was debrided using a curette and an abrader until normal healthy cartilage bordered the debrided defect. An osteochondral plug, 10 mm in diameter and 20 mm long, the chondral surface of which was orientated 25 degrees obliquely, was harvested from the most peripheral and proximal part of the lateral patellar groove. A bony hole was created in the center of the defect through the tibia using a core reamer. The osteochondral plug was inserted from the tibial window through the bony hole. To enhance the stability of the osteochondral fragment, bioactive ceramic fillers were used to fill the space below the plug. A second-look arthroscopy 10 months after surgery showed that the grafted osteochondral plug was well adapted and integrated into the surrounding cartilage on the lateral tibial plateau.

  15. High altitude hypoxia as a factor that promotes tibial growth plate development in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shucheng; Zhang, Lihong; Rehman, Mujeeb Ur; Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Lan, Yanfang; Mehmood, Khalid; Zhang, Hui; Qiu, Gang; Nabi, Fazul; Yao, Wangyuan; Wang, Meng; Li, Jiakui

    2017-01-01

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is one of the most common problems in the poultry industry and leads to lameness by affecting the proximal growth plate of the tibia. However, due to the unique environmental and geographical conditions of Tibet, no case of TD has been reported in Tibetan chickens (TBCs). The present study was designed to investigate the effect of high altitude hypoxia on blood parameters and tibial growth plate development in chickens using the complete blood count, morphology, and histological examination. The results of this study showed an undesirable impact on the overall performance, body weight, and mortality of Arbor Acres chickens (AACs) exposed to a high altitude hypoxic environment. However, AACs raised under hypoxic conditions showed an elevated number of red blood cells (RBCs) and an increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit values on day 14 compared to the hypobaric normoxia group. Notably, the morphology and histology analyses showed that the size of tibial growth plates in AACs was enlarged and that the blood vessel density was also higher after exposure to the hypoxic environment for 14 days, while no such change was observed in TBCs. Altogether, our results revealed that the hypoxic environment has a potentially new role in increasing the blood vessel density of proximal tibial growth plates to strengthen and enhance the size of the growth plates, which may provide new insights for the therapeutic manipulation of hypoxia in poultry TD.

  16. Back out of Locking Pin with Hinge Fracture after High Tibial Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Shuhei; Murakami, Tomohiko; Morikura, Rei; Nakagawa, Kosuke; Okamoto, Yoshinori; Neo, Masashi

    2018-04-30

    Low-profile fixation devices for medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) were developed in order to avoid skin irritation and additional invasion. However, the low-profile system is associated with additional risks. We report three cases of locking pin back out with the low-profile locking plate system for medial OWHTO.

  17. Role of high tibial osteotomy in chronic injuries of posterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral corner.

    PubMed

    Savarese, Eugenio; Bisicchia, Salvatore; Romeo, Rocco; Amendola, Annunziato

    2011-03-01

    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a surgical procedure used to change the mechanical weight-bearing axis and alter the loads carried through the knee. Conventional indications for HTO are medial compartment osteoarthritis and varus malalignment of the knee causing pain and dysfunction. Traditionally, knee instability associated with varus thrust has been considered a contraindication. However, today the indications include patients with chronic ligament deficiencies and malalignment, because an HTO procedure can change not only the coronal but also the sagittal plane of the knee. The sagittal plane has generally been ignored in HTO literature, but its modification has a significant impact on biomechanics and joint stability. Indeed, decreased posterior tibial slope causes posterior tibia translation and helps the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee. Vice versa, increased tibial slope causes anterior tibia translation and helps the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)-deficient knee. A review of literature shows that soft tissue procedures alone are often unsatisfactory for chronic posterior instability if alignment is not corrected. Since limb alignment is the most important factor to consider in lower limb reconstructive surgery, diagnosis and treatment of limb malalignment should not be ignored in management of chronic ligamentous instabilities. This paper reviews the effects of chronic posterior instability and tibial slope alteration on knee and soft tissues, in addition to planning and surgical technique for chronic posterior and posterolateral instability with HTO.

  18. Flexor Digitorum Longus Tendon Transfer and Modified Kidner Technique in Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Maskill, James T; Pomeroy, Gregory C

    2016-01-01

    The modified Kidner procedure and flexor digitorum longus tendon transfer are common procedures used today when addressing posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. These techniques are often used in conjunction with a combination of osteotomies to correct flatfoot deformity, and have been proved to be reliable and predictable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative comparison of the microscopic anatomy of the human ACL femoral and tibial entheses.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Mélanie L; Carey, Grace E; Schlecht, Stephen H; Wojtys, Edward M; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2015-12-01

    The femoral enthesis of the human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is known to be more susceptible to injury than the tibial enthesis. To determine whether anatomic differences might help explain this difference, we quantified the microscopic appearance of both entheses in 15 unembalmed knee specimens using light microscopy, toluidine blue stain and image analysis. The amount of calcified fibrocartilage and uncalcified fibrocartilage, and the ligament entheseal attachment angle were then compared between the femoral and tibial entheses via linear mixed-effects models. The results showed marked differences in anatomy between the two entheses. The femoral enthesis exhibited a 3.9-fold more acute ligament attachment angle than the tibial enthesis (p<0.001), a 43% greater calcified fibrocartilage tissue area (p<0.001), and a 226% greater uncalcified fibrocartilage depth (p<0.001), with the latter differences being particularly pronounced in the central region. We conclude that the ACL femoral enthesis has more fibrocartilage and a more acute ligament attachment angle than the tibial enthesis, which provides insight into why it is more vulnerable to failure. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation for treating neurologic bladder in women: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Eftekhar, Tahereh; Teimoory, Nastaran; Miri, Elahe; Nikfallah, Abolghasem; Naeimi, Mahsa; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a disabling disorder. Treatment of cases with OAB includes behavioral, pharmacological, surgical interventions and peripheral electrical stimulation. The goal of this study was to determine effects of posterior tibial nerve stimulation on sexual function and pelvic disorders in women with Overactive bladder (OAB). Fifty women were randomly assigned to PTNS (posterior tibial nerve stimulation) plus tolterodine or tolterodine alone treatment. Tolterodine group received 4 mg tolterodine daily for three months while the other group received this treatment plus percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation for 12 consequence weeks. Two in PTNS group and 8 in the control group withdrew from the study. Age, education level, and occupation status were not significantly different between two groups. Mean total FSFI and its subscales were not significantly different before and after treatment between two groups. Urine leakage associated with a feeling of urgency and loss of stool or gas from the rectum beyond patient's control became significantly different after treatment between two groups. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation could help urinary problems in women with a neurologic bladder.

  1. VAC Therapy Direct to the Medullary Cavity for Chronic Tibial Osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Miyamura, Satoshi; Tsuji, Shigeyoshi; Iwai, Takao; Hamada, Masayuki

    2016-06-01

    Vacuum-assisted wound closure (VAC) is useful for difficult wound beds, although sites where bleeding or infection is expected are usually regarded as problematic for this therapy. This report outlines the treatment of chronic tibial osteomyelitis (Cierny- Mader type III) due to mixed infection with Nocardia spp and Bacteroi- des fragilis by postoperative VAC therapy direct to the medullary cavity, followed by wound coverage with a gastrocnemius myocutaneous skin flap. A 64-year-old man developed chronic left tibial os- teomyelitis after a work injury. The nonviable tissues were debrided, including a sequestrum. Nocardia spp and B. fragilis were isolated from surgical bone specimens, and chronic tibial osteomyelitis due to mixed infection was diagnosed. Postoperatively, VAC therapy was performed directly to the open medullary cavity of the tibia and sub- sequently covered the residual soft tissue defect with a gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap. The authors could not find any English literature on VAC therapy direct to the medullary cavity combined with transplantation of a myocutaneous flap for osteomyelitis. Nocardia spp can cause a variety of infections, among which osteomyelitis occupies a relatively small percentage. This case raises the possibil- ity of treating chronic tibial osteomyelitis caused by mixed infection with Nocardia spp and B. fragilis by applying postoperative VAC ther- apy directly to the medullary cavity and covering the residual wound with a gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap.

  2. Hindfoot Valgus following Interlocking Nail Treatment for Tibial Diaphysis Fractures: Can the Fibula Be Neglected?

    PubMed Central

    Uzun, Metin; Kara, Adnan; Adaş, Müjdat; Karslioğlu, Bülent; Bülbül, Murat; Beksaç, Burak

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated whether intramedullary nail fixation for tibial diaphysis fractures with concomitant fibula fractures (except at the distal one-third level) managed conservatively with an associated fibula fracture resulted in ankle deformity and assessed the impact of the ankle deformity on lower extremity function. Methods. Sixty middle one-third tibial shaft fractures with associated fibular fractures, except the distal one-third level, were included in this study. All tibial shaft fractures were anatomically reduced and fixed with interlocking intramedullary nails. Fibular fractures were managed conservatively. Hindfoot alignment was assessed clinically. Tibia and fibular lengths were compared to contralateral measurements using radiographs. Functional results were evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the Foot and Ankle Disability Index Score (FADI). Results. Anatomic union, defined as equal length in operative and contralateral tibias, was achieved in 60 fractures (100%). Fibular shortening was identified in 42 fractures (68%). Mean fibular shortening was 1.2 cm (range, 0.5–2 cm). Clinical exams showed increased hindfoot valgus in 42 fractures (68%). The mean KOOS was 88.4, and the mean FADI score was 90. Conclusion. Fibular fractures in the middle or proximal one-third may need to be stabilized at the time of tibial intramedullary nail fixation to prevent development of hindfoot valgus due to fibular shortening. PMID:25544899

  3. Accuracy of manual instrumentation of tibial cutting guide in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Iorio, R; Bolle, G; Conteduca, F; Valeo, L; Conteduca, J; Mazza, D; Ferretti, A

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of conventional instrumentation for tibial resection in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) as assessed by a computer-based navigation system during each phase of the surgical procedure. The hypothesis is that conventional instrumentation fails to achieve optimal accuracy in final implant positioning, thus leading to surgical errors. Forty primary TKAs were performed. The resection guide was placed using an extramedullary guide. Accurate guide positioning was assessed by the navigation system prior to the osteotomy. The alignment measurement was repeated after resection and after component implantation in order to quantify the deviation caused by the manual positioning of the prosthetic components. A deviation ≥2° was considered unsatisfactory. In the frontal plane, unsatisfactory results observed were as follows: 15 % with reference to manual positioning of the resection guide and 10 % with reference to definition of the resection plane with a tendency towards varus malalignment. In the sagittal plane, unsatisfactory results were as follows: 45 % with reference to manual positioning of the resection guide and 40 % with reference to definition of the resection plane with a trend of decreased tibial slope angle. The deviation between bone resection and subsequent implant placement was ≥2° in none of the cases. The study confirms the hypothesis that conventional instrumentation fails to achieve optimal accuracy in the positioning of the tibial component. During each phase of the surgical procedure, a tendency towards varus malalignment and a decreased tibial slope angle were observed. II.

  4. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. 888.3590 Section 888.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3590...

  5. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. 888.3590 Section 888.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3590...

  6. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. 888.3590 Section 888.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3590...

  7. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. 888.3590 Section 888.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3590...

  8. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. 888.3590 Section 888.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3590...

  9. Percutaneous bone grafting for nonunion and delayed union of fractures of the tibial shaft.

    PubMed

    Bhan, S; Mehara, A K

    1993-11-01

    Percutaneous bone grafting with a specially devised milling cutter was used in 21 patients with nonunion or delayed union of fractures of the tibial shaft. Union was obtained in 18. The technique is safe, simple and can be done under local anaesthesia.

  10. High altitude hypoxia as a factor that promotes tibial growth plate development in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shucheng; Zhang, Lihong; Rehman, Mujeeb Ur; Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Lan, Yanfang; Mehmood, Khalid; Zhang, Hui; Qiu, Gang; Nabi, Fazul; Yao, Wangyuan; Wang, Meng; Li, Jiakui

    2017-01-01

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is one of the most common problems in the poultry industry and leads to lameness by affecting the proximal growth plate of the tibia. However, due to the unique environmental and geographical conditions of Tibet, no case of TD has been reported in Tibetan chickens (TBCs). The present study was designed to investigate the effect of high altitude hypoxia on blood parameters and tibial growth plate development in chickens using the complete blood count, morphology, and histological examination. The results of this study showed an undesirable impact on the overall performance, body weight, and mortality of Arbor Acres chickens (AACs) exposed to a high altitude hypoxic environment. However, AACs raised under hypoxic conditions showed an elevated number of red blood cells (RBCs) and an increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit values on day 14 compared to the hypobaric normoxia group. Notably, the morphology and histology analyses showed that the size of tibial growth plates in AACs was enlarged and that the blood vessel density was also higher after exposure to the hypoxic environment for 14 days, while no such change was observed in TBCs. Altogether, our results revealed that the hypoxic environment has a potentially new role in increasing the blood vessel density of proximal tibial growth plates to strengthen and enhance the size of the growth plates, which may provide new insights for the therapeutic manipulation of hypoxia in poultry TD. PMID:28282429

  11. Editorial Commentary: Tibial Tubercle Prominence After Osgood-Schlatter Disease: What Causes Pain?

    PubMed

    Arendt, Elizabeth A

    2017-08-01

    A novel surgical technique to reduce the tibial tubercle prominence in painful Osgood-Schlatter disease was piloted in a small cohort of patients with chronic anterior knee pain. Midterm results judged by patient-reported outcomes of pain and function show promise for this technique. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of Different Tibial Fixation Techniques on Initial Stability in Single-Stage Anterior Cruciate Ligament Revision With Confluent Tibial Tunnels: A Biomechanical Laboratory Study.

    PubMed

    Schliemann, Benedikt; Treder, Maximilian; Schulze, Martin; Müller, Viktoria; Vasta, Sebastiano; Zampogna, Biaggio; Herbort, Mirco; Kösters, Clemens; Raschke, Michael J; Lenschow, Simon

    2016-01-01

    To kinematically and biomechanically compare 4 different types of tibial tunnel management in single-stage anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) revision reconstruction with the control: primary ACL reconstruction using a robotic-based knee testing setup. Porcine knees and flexor tendons were used. One hundred specimens were randomly assigned to 5 testing groups: (1) open tibial tunnel, (2) bone plug technique, (3) biodegradable interference screw, (4) dilatation technique, and (5) primary ACL reconstruction. A robotic/universal force-moment sensor testing system was used to simulate the KT-1000 (MEDmetric, San Diego, CA) and pivot-shift tests. Cyclic loading and load-to-failure testing were performed. Anterior tibial translation increased significantly with all of the techniques compared with the intact ACL (P < .05). In the simulated KT-1000 test, groups 2 and 3 achieved results equal to those of primary ACL reconstruction (P > .05). The open tunnel and dilated tunnel techniques showed significantly greater anterior tibial translation (P < .05). The results of the simulated pivot-shift test were in accordance with those of the KT-1000 test. No significant differences could be observed regarding stiffness or maximum load to failure. However, elongation was significantly lower in the primary ACL reconstruction group compared with groups 1 and 3 (P = .02 and P = .03, respectively). Filling an incomplete and incorrect tibial tunnel with a press-fit bone plug or a biodegradable interference screw in a standardized laboratory situation provided initial biomechanical properties and knee stability comparable with those of primary ACL reconstruction. In contrast, the dilatation technique or leaving the malplaced tunnel open did not restore knee kinematics adequately in this model. Backup extracortical fixation should be considered because the load to failure depends on the extracortical fixation when an undersized interference screw is used for aperture fixation. Our

  13. Changes in microarchitectural characteristics at the tibial epiphysis induced by collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis over time.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Hyung; Chun, Keyoung Jin; Kim, Han Sung; Kim, Sang Ho; Lee, Kwon-Yong; Kim, Dae Jun; Lim, Dohyung

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the time course of changes in the microarchitecture of the tibial epiphysis with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), although such information would be valuable in predicting risk of fracture. Therefore, we used in vivo microcomputed tomography (μ-CT) to assess patterns of microarchitectural alterations in the tibial epiphysis using collagen-induced RA in an animal model. Bovine type II collagen was injected intradermally into the tails of rats for induction of RA. The tibial joints were scanned by in vivo μ-CT at 0, 4, and 8 weeks following injection. Microarchitectural parameters were measured to evaluate alteration patterns of bone microarchitecture at the tibial epiphysis. The microarchitectural alterations in an RA group were significantly different from those in a control group from 0 to 4 weeks and from 4 to 8 weeks following injection (P < 0.05). The distribution of trabecular bone thickness and trabecular bone separation from 0 weeks to 8 weeks differed significantly (P < 0.05). These results indicate that the patterns of microarchitectural alterations at the tibial epiphysis are strongly affected by collagen-induced progression of RA and entail a severe risk of fracture at the tibial epiphysis. This study represents a valuable first approach to tracking periodic and continuous changes in the microarchitectural characteristics of the tibial epiphysis with collagen-induced RA.

  14. Restrained tibial rotation may prevent ACL injury during landing at different flexion angles.

    PubMed

    Mokhtarzadeh, Hossein; Ng, Andrew; Yeow, Chen Hua; Oetomo, Denny; Malekipour, Fatemeh; Lee, Peter Vee Sin

    2015-01-01

    Internal tibial rotation is a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The effect of restraining tibial rotation (RTR) to prevent ACL injury during single-leg landing is not well understood. We aimed to investigate the effect of impact load and RTR on ACL injury with respect to flexion angle. We hypothesized that RTR could protect the knee from ACL injury compared to free tibial rotation (FTR) regardless of flexion angle and create a safety zone to protect the ACL. Thirty porcine specimens were potted in a rig manufactured to replicate single-leg landing maneuvers. A mechanical testing machine was used to apply external forces in the direction of the tibial long axis. A 3D displacement sensor measured anterior tibial translation (ATT). The specimens were divided into 3 groups of 10 specimens and tested at flexion angles of 22 ± 1°, 37 ± 1° and 52 ± 1° (five RTR and five FTR) through a consecutive range of actuator displacements until ACL failure. After dissection, damage to the joint was visually recorded. Two-way ANOVA were utilized in order to compare compressive forces, torques and A/P displacements with respect to flexion angle. The largest difference between peak axial compressive forces (~3.4 kN) causing ACL injury between RTR and FTR was reported at a flexion angle of 22°. Tibial torques with RTR was in the same range and < 20 Nm at the instance and just before ACL failure, compared to a significant reduction when cartilage/bone damage (no ACL failure) was reported. Isolated ACL injuries were observed in ten of the 15 FTR specimens. Injuries to bone and cartilage were more common with RTR. RTR increases the threshold for ACL injury by elevating the compressive impact load required at lower flexion angles. These findings may contribute to neuromuscular training programs or brace designs used to avoid excessive internal/external tibial rotation. Caution must be exercised as bone/cartilage damage may result. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  15. Mean tensile strength of the PCL in TKA depends on the preservation of the tibial insertion site.

    PubMed

    Van Opstal, N; Feyen, H; Luyckx, J P; Bellemans, J

    2016-01-01

    The tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) frequently becomes damaged when performing a tibial cut in a PCL-retaining total knee replacement (TKA). The aim of this study was to quantify the functional effect of this structural damage on the tensile strength and failure load. Six paired knees from fresh-frozen cadaver specimens were used. All soft tissues but the PCL were removed. In the left-sided specimens, a classic tibial cut at a depth of 9 mm with 3° of posterior slope was made, while in the right-sided specimens, a bone block was left in front of the tibial PCL insertion. After cementing a tibial tray, the specimens were mounted in a loading frame in 60° of flexion. The femur was translated anteriorly at a constant velocity rate of 0.5 mm/s. Tensions in the PCL were measured continuously until failure occurred. In one specimen, the tibial PCL insertion was completely removed by the tibial cut. In the other five paired specimens, the mean tensile strength of the PCL was 380.6 ± 154.7 N in the left-sided knees. In the right-sided knees, the mean tensile strength was 738.4 ± 166.7. The average right-to-left ratio was 2.2 ± 0.7 (p = 0.006). The results of this study indicate that the conventional technique for tibial preparation in cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty can result in a significant decrease in tensile strength of the PCL, rendering it susceptible to failure and subsequent midflexion instability. Therefore, we recommend leaving the posterior tibial cortex anterior to the PCL insertion intact when performing a cruciate-retaining TKA.

  16. Effects of tibial baseplate shape on rotational alignment in total knee arthroplasty: three-dimensional surgical simulation using osteoarthritis knees.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuan; Mizu-Uchi, Hideki; Okazaki, Ken; Ushio, Tetsuro; Murakami, Koji; Hamai, Satoshi; Akasaki, Yukio; Nakashima, Yasuharu

    2018-01-01

    Placement of tibial component is expected to fulfill both maximum surface coverage and recommended anterior-posterior (AP) alignment in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of the tibial baseplate shape on AP axis. Virtual surgery of TKA was performed with three-dimensional bone models reconstructed from 77 osteoarthritis varus knees. Two differently designed tibial baseplates, symmetrically and anatomically, were set to the cut surface under posterior slopes of 0°, 3°, and 7°. The AP axes were defined by connecting the geometrical center of the cut surface with the medial edge (axis MED) and medial 1/3 (axis 1/3MED) of patella tendon attachment. We evaluated the overhang rates as well as the most fitting AP axis which passes through the geometric center. Overhang rates when aligned to axis MED were 12-25% for the symmetrical-type group and 13-22% for the anatomical-type group. Overhang rates when aligned to axis 1/3MED were 42-48% for the symmetrical-type group and 3-7% for the anatomical-type group. The most fitting AP axis of tibial baseplate was located 2.5° external to axis MED for the symmetrical-type group and around 3.3° internal to axis 1/3MED for the anatomical-type group. Symmetrically or anatomically designed tibial baseplates have their own favored AP axis and specific performance on coverage. When aligned to axis 1/3MED, anatomically designed tibial baseplates will effectively lower the mismatch rates compared to a symmetrically designed tibial baseplate. Orthopaedic surgeons are expected to place the tibial components to the cut surface during TKA with full understanding of the features between different baseplate designs, AP axes, and posterior slopes for an ideal tibial rotational position.

  17. Finite Element Analysis of Mobile-bearing Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty: The Influence of Tibial Component Coronal Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guang-Duo; Guo, Wan-Shou; Zhang, Qi-Dong; Liu, Zhao-Hui; Cheng, Li-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background: Controversies about the rational positioning of the tibial component in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) still exist. Previous finite element (FE) studies were rare, and the results varied. This FE study aimed to analyze the influence of the tibial component coronal alignment on knee biomechanics in mobile-bearing UKA and find a ration range of inclination angles. Methods: A three-dimensional FE model of the intact knee was constructed from image data of one normal subject. A 1000 N compressive load was applied to the intact knee model for validating. Then a set of eleven UKA FE models was developed with the coronal inclination angles of the tibial tray ranging from 10° valgus to 10° varus. Tibial bone stresses and strains, contact pressures and load distribution in all UKA models were calculated and analyzed under the unified loading and boundary conditions. Results: Load distribution, contact pressures, and contact areas in intact knee model were validated. In UKA models, von Mises stress and compressive strain at proximal medial cortical bone increased significantly as the tibial tray was in valgus inclination >4°, which may increase the risk of residual pain. Compressive strains at tibial keel slot were above the high threshold with varus inclination >4°, which may result in greater risk of component migration. Tibial bone resection corner acted as a strain-raiser regardless of the inclination angles. Compressive strains at the resected surface slightly changed with the varying inclinations and were not supposed to induce bone resorption and component loosening. Contact pressures and load percentage in lateral compartment increased with the more varus inclination, which may lead to osteoarthritis progression. Conclusions: Static knee biomechanics after UKA can be greatly affected by tibial component coronal alignment. A range from 4° valgus to 4° varus inclination of tibial component can be recommended in mobile-bearing UKA. PMID

  18. Preservation of the PCL when performing cruciate-retaining TKA: Is the tibial tuberosity a reliable predictor of the PCL footprint location?

    PubMed

    Jawhar, A; Kadavkolan, A S; Wasnik, S; Scharf, H P; Roehl, H

    2016-01-01

    Reconstruction of the joint line is crucial in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A routine height of tibial cut to maintain the natural joint line may compromise the preservation of the PCL. Since the PCL footprint is not accessible prior to tibial osteotomy, it seems beneficial to identify a reliable extraarticular anatomic landmark for predicting the PCL footprint and being visible within standard TKA approach. The fibula head predicts reliably the location of PCL footprint; however, it is not accessible during TKA. The aim of this study now was to analyze whether the tibial tuberosity can serve as a reliable referencing landmark to estimate the PCL footprint height prior to tibial cut. The first consecutive case series included 216 CR TKA. Standing postoperative lateral view radiographs were utilized to measure the vertical distance between tibial tuberosity and tibial osteotomy plane. In the second case series, 223 knee MRIs were consecutively analyzed to measure the vertical distance between tibial tuberosity and PCL footprint. The probability of partial or total PCL removal was calculated for different vertical distances between tibial tuberosity and tibial cutting surface. The vertical distance between the tibial tuberosity and tibial cut averaged 24.7 ± 4 mm. The average vertical distance from tibial tuberosity to proximal and to distal PCL footprint was found to be 22 ± 4.4 and 16 ± 4.4 mm, respectively. Five knees were considered at 50% risk of an entire PCL removal after CR TKA. Current surgical techniques of tibial preparation may result in partial or total PCL damage. Tibial tuberosity is a useful anatomical landmark to locate the PCL footprint and to predict the probability of its detachment pre-, intra-, and postoperatively. This knowledge might be useful to predict and avoid instability, consecutive pain, and dissatisfaction after TKA related to PCL insufficiency. III.

  19. [Analysis of risk factors of infection for complex tibial plateau fractures after operation].

    PubMed

    Ma, Ju-Lei; Xu, Yun-Qin; Shen, Tu-Gang; Li, Qiang

    2017-10-25

    To analyze the risk factor of infection for complex tibial plateau fractures after operation. Totally clinical data of 293 patients with complex tibial plateau fractures underwent open reduction and internal fixation were retrospectively analyzed from September 2010 to March 2015, including 199 males and 94 females, ranging in age from 17 to 80 years old with an average of 47.3 years old. The possible risk factors such as gender, age, smoking, diabetes, type of fracture(open/closed), classification of open fracture(Gustilo-Anderson classification), classification of soft tissue injury in closed fracture (Tscherne-Gotzen classification), fracture classification(Schatzker V/VI), osteofascial compartment syndrome, ASA score, anesthesia, timing of surgery, operative time(<=150 min/>150 min), surgical approach, combined approach or not, internal fixation site were studied. The multivariate Logistic regression model was used to analyze the risk factors. Twelve patients were infected of all 293 patients after operation, the infection rate was 4.10%. Univariate analysis showed that fracture type(χ ² =14.496, P =0.001), fracture classification(χ²=4.560, P =0.033), osteofascial compartment syndrome(χ²=15.631, P =0.001), operative time(χ²=11.233, P =0.001) were correlated with complex tibial plateau fractures postoperative infection. Multivariate analysis showed that open fractures(χ²=9.696, P =0.002) and osteofascial compartment syndrome(χ²=9.119, P =0.003) were complex tibial plateau fracture risk factors for infection after operation. Open fractures and osteofascial compartment syndrome are risk factor of complex tibial plateau fracture for infection after operation. While through debridement for open fracture patients, early diagnosis and promt treatment for osteofascial compartment syndrome could reduce incidence of infection.

  20. Gait retraining and incidence of medial tibial stress syndrome in army recruits.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jagannath; Weston, Matthew; Batterham, Alan M; Spears, Iain R

    2014-09-01

    Gait retraining, comprising biofeedback and/or an exercise intervention, might reduce the risk of musculoskeletal conditions. The purpose was to examine the effect of a gait-retraining program on medial tibial stress syndrome incidence during a 26-wk basic military training regimen. A total of 450 British Army recruits volunteered. On the basis of a baseline plantar pressure variable (mean foot balance during the first 10% of stance), participants classified as at risk of developing medial tibial stress syndrome (n = 166) were randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 83) or control (n = 83) group. The intervention involved supervised gait retraining, including exercises to increase neuromuscular control and flexibility (three sessions per week) and biofeedback enabling internalization of the foot balance variable (one session per week). Both groups continued with the usual military training regimen. Diagnoses of medial tibial stress syndrome over the 26-wk regimen were made by physicians blinded to the group assignment. Data were modeled in a survival analysis using Cox regression, adjusting for baseline foot balance and time to peak heel rotation. The intervention was associated with a substantially reduced instantaneous relative risk of medial tibial stress syndrome versus control, with an adjusted HR of 0.25 (95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.53). The number needed to treat to observe one additional injury-free recruit in intervention versus control at 20 wk was 14 (11 to 23) participants. Baseline foot balance was a nonspecific predictor of injury, with an HR per 2 SD increment of 5.2 (1.6 to 53.6). The intervention was effective in reducing incidence of medial tibial stress syndrome in an at-risk military sample.

  1. Quantitative analysis of scintigraphic findings in tibial stress fractures in Thoroughbred racehorses.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Martínez, Alejandro; Seiler, Gabriela; Mai, Wilfried; Bolt, David M; Mudge, Margaret; Dukti, Sarah A; Hubert, Jeremy D

    2008-07-01

    To develop a quantitative method of interpreting tibial scintigrams of Thoroughbred racehorses with tibial stress fractures that may facilitate diagnosis of fractures and to provide prognostic information regarding future performance of affected horses. 35 Thoroughbred racehorses. Static bone-phase scintigrams of tibial stress fractures were quantitatively analyzed by use of ratios of the mean radionuclide counts per pixel in a region of interest (ROI) drawn around the area of increased uptake of radiopharmaceutical to mean counts per pixel in a second ROI drawn around an apparently normal area of the tibial diaphysis. In horses with unilateral fractures, ratios for the contralateral tibia were determined by use of 2 ROIs drawn at the same positions as the ROIs in the fractured tibia. Ratios were compared between fractured versus apparently normal tibias, between horses that returned to racing versus those that did not, and among horses with various grades of lameness. The association between ratios for fractured tibias and intervals between diagnosis and return to racing was also assessed. Mean ratio of ROIs in apparently normal tibias was 1.35 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 1.50); that in tibias with stress fractures was 3.55 (95% CI, 2.50 to 4.60). These ratios were significantly different. None of the associations between ratios for fractured tibias and grades of lameness or performance outcomes were significant. Tibial stress fracture scintigrams can be quantitatively analyzed. A prospective study with a controlled rehabilitation period is necessary to evaluate the possible applications of this method.

  2. A modified technique to reduce tibial keel cutting errors during an Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Inui, Hiroshi; Taketomi, Shuji; Tahara, Keitarou; Yamagami, Ryota; Sanada, Takaki; Tanaka, Sakae

    2017-03-01

    Bone cutting errors can cause malalignment of unicompartmental knee arthroplasties (UKA). Although the extent of tibial malalignment due to horizontal cutting errors has been well reported, there is a lack of studies evaluating malalignment as a consequence of keel cutting errors, particularly in the Oxford UKA. The purpose of this study was to examine keel cutting errors during Oxford UKA placement using a navigation system and to clarify whether two different tibial keel cutting techniques would have different error rates. The alignment of the tibial cut surface after a horizontal osteotomy and the surface of the tibial trial component was measured with a navigation system. Cutting error was defined as the angular difference between these measurements. The following two techniques were used: the standard "pushing" technique in 83 patients (group P) and a modified "dolphin" technique in 41 patients (group D). In all 123 patients studied, the mean absolute keel cutting error was 1.7° and 1.4° in the coronal and sagittal planes, respectively. In group P, there were 22 outlier patients (27 %) in the coronal plane and 13 (16 %) in the sagittal plane. Group D had three outlier patients (8 %) in the coronal plane and none (0 %) in the sagittal plane. Significant differences were observed in the outlier ratio of these techniques in both the sagittal (P = 0.014) and coronal (P = 0.008) planes. Our study demonstrated overall keel cutting errors of 1.7° in the coronal plane and 1.4° in the sagittal plane. The "dolphin" technique was found to significantly reduce keel cutting errors on the tibial side. This technique will be useful for accurate component positioning and therefore improve the longevity of Oxford UKAs. Retrospective comparative study, Level III.

  3. [Does increased tibial slope reduce the wear rate of unicompartmental knee prostheses? An in vitro investigation].

    PubMed

    Weber, P; Schröder, C; Utzschneider, S; Schmidutz, F; Jansson, V; Müller, P E

    2012-04-01

    Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has become a standard procedure with good clinical outcome in patients with isolated medial osteoarthritis of the knee. However, the survival rates of UKA are still inferior compared to that of total knee arthroplasty. Aseptic loosening and wear are responsible for more than 50% of revisions. Therefore, this study evaluated the influence of the tibial slope on the wear rate in a medial UKA. The wear rate of a medial mobile-bearing UKA (Univation® Aesculap, Tuttlingen, Deutschland) was evaluated according to the ISO 14243-1:2002(E) norm with a customized four-station servo-hydraulic knee wear simulator (EndoLab, Thansau, Germany). In the first group, the prostheses was medially implanted with 0° slope (n = 3) and in the second group the prostheses was medially implanted with 8° slope (n = 3). The lateral side was kept constant with 0° in both groups. For each implant, a total of 5.0 million cycles was performed and after every 0.5 million cycles the gravimetric wear rate was determined. The wear rate in the 0° slope group was 3.46 ± 0.59 mg/million cycles and therefore significantly higher than in the 8° slope group with 0.99 ± 0.42 mg/million cycles (p < 0.01). An increase in the tibial slope leads to a reduced wear rate in a mobile-bearing UKA. Therefore, at least for this mobile-bearing UKA a higher tibial slope seems favorable to reduce the wear. However, before an optimal position of the tibial slope can be recommended, further investigations are required to evaluate the influence of the tibial slope on other factors, such as the ligament tension or the strain on the lateral compartment.

  4. Giant early components of somatosensory evoked potentials to tibial nerve stimulation in cortical myoclonus.

    PubMed

    Anzellotti, Francesca; Onofrj, Marco; Bonanni, Laura; Saracino, Antonio; Franciotti, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Enlarged cortical components of somatosensory evoked potentials (giant SEPs) recorded by electroencephalography (EEG) and abnormal somatosensory evoked magnetic fields (SEFs) recorded by magnetoencephalography (MEG) are observed in the majority of patients with cortical myoclonus (CM). Studies on simultaneous recordings of SEPs and SEFs showed that generator mechanism of giant SEPs involves both primary sensory and motor cortices. However the generator sources of giant SEPs have not been fully understood as only one report describes clearly giant SEPs following lower limb stimulation. In our study we performed a combined EEG-MEG recording on responses elicited by electric median and tibial nerve stimulation in a patient who developed consequently to methyl bromide intoxication CM with giant SEPs to median and tibial nerve stimuli. SEPs wave shapes were identified on the basis of polarity-latency components (e.g. P15-N20-P25) as defined by earlier studies and guidelines. At EEG recording, the SEP giant component did not appear in the latency range of the first cortical component for median nerve SEP (N20), but appeared instead in the range of the P37 tibial nerve SEP, which is currently identified as the first cortical component elicited by tibial nerve stimuli. Our MEG and EEG SEPs recordings also showed that components in the latency range of P37 were preceded by other cortical components. These findings suggest that lower limb P37 does not correspond to upper limb N20. MEG results confirmed that giant SEFs are the second component from both tibial (N43m-P43m) and median (N27m-P27m) nerve stimulation. MEG dipolar sources of these giant components were located in the primary sensory and motor area.

  5. An intact fibula may contribute to allow early weight bearing in surgically treated tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Ion; Gelber, Pablo Eduardo; Chary, Gaetan; Gomez Masdeu, Mireia; González Ballester, Miguel A; Monllau, Juan Carlos; Noailly, Jerome

    2018-03-01

    The role of the proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) in tibial plateau fractures is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess, with finite-element (FE) calculations, differences in interfragmentary movement (IFM) in a split fracture of lateral tibial plateau, with and without intact fibula. It was hypothesized that an intact fibula could positively contribute to the mechanical stabilization of surgically reduced lateral tibial plateau fractures. A split fracture of the lateral tibial plateau was recreated in an FE model of a human tibia. A three-dimensional FE model geometry of a human femur-tibia system was obtained from the VAKHUM project database, and was built from CT images from a subject with normal bone morphologies and normal alignment. The mesh of the tibia was reconverted into a geometry of NURBS surfaces. The fracture was reproduced using geometrical data from patient radiographs, and two models were created: one with intact fibula and other without fibula. A locking screw plate and cannulated screw systems were modelled to virtually reduce the fracture, and 80 kg static body weight was simulated. Under mechanical loads, the maximum interfragmentary movement achieved with the fibula was about 30% lower than without fibula, with both the cannulated screws and the locking plate. When the locking plate model was loaded, intact fibula contributed to lateromedial forces on the fractured fragments, which would be clinically translated into increased normal compression forces in the fractured plane. The intact fibula also reduced the mediolateral forces with the cannulated screws, contributing to stability of the construct. This FE model showed that an intact fibula contributes to the mechanical stability of the lateral tibial plateau. In combination with a locking plate fixation, early weight bearing may be allowed without significant IFM, contributing to an early clinical and functional recovery of the patient.

  6. Predictive radiographic markers for concomitant ipsilateral ankle injuries in tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Schottel, Patrick C; Berkes, Marschall B; Little, Milton T M; Lazaro, Lionel E; Nguyen, Joseph T; Helfet, David L; Lorich, Dean G

    2014-02-01

    To quantify the radiographic tibia and fibula shaft fracture characteristics that are associated with a concomitant ipsilateral ankle injury. Retrospective case-control study. Academic level I trauma center. Seventy-one adult patients with an operatively treated tibial shaft fracture met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Preoperative radiographs were categorized according to tibia and fibula fracture pattern, location and spatial relationship to each other. Preoperative computed tomographic scans were then evaluated to assess for the presence of an articular ankle injury. (1) incidence of concomitant tibial shaft fracture and ipsilateral ankle injury; and (2) statistical association between tibia and fibula fracture characteristics in patients with and without an ipsilateral ankle fracture. Thirty-five of 71 (49.3%) tibial shaft fracture patients had a concomitant ipsilateral ankle injury. Of these, 31 (88.6%) ankle injuries occurred in patients with a spiral pattern tibia fracture of the distal third diaphysis (P < 0.001). A spiral pattern tibia fracture, a distal one-third tibial shaft fracture location, or a spiral pattern fibula fracture all were significantly associated with the presence of an ipsilateral ankle injury (P ≤ 0.001; P = 0.001; and P = 0.002, respectively). Patients with either a transverse pattern or absent fibula fracture, a nonspiral pattern tibia fracture, or a midshaft diaphyseal tibia fracture location were significantly less likely to have an associated ankle injury (P ≤ 0.001; P ≤ 0.001; and P = 0.012, respectively). Ipsilateral ankle fractures are commonly associated with tibial shaft fractures, specifically distal one-third spiral type injuries. Recognition of an associated ankle injury is important as it can alter operative and postoperative management. Clinical studies are needed to examine patient outcomes with or without ipsilateral ankle injury to determine the clinical significance of this entity. Prognostic level IV. See

  7. Predictive Radiographic Markers For Concomitant Ipsilateral Ankle Injuries In Tibial Shaft Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Schottel, Patrick C.; Berkes, Marschall B.; Little, Milton T. M.; Lazaro, Lionel E.; Nguyen, Joseph T.; Helfet, David L.; Lorich, Dean G.

    2015-01-01

    STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Objectives To quantify the radiographic tibia and fibula shaft fracture characteristics that are associated with a concomitant ipsilateral ankle injury. Design Retrospective case-control study. Setting Academic level I trauma center. Patients Seventy-one adult patients with an operatively treated tibial shaft fracture met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Intervention Preoperative radiographs were categorized according to tibia and fibula fracture pattern, location and spatial relationship to each other. Preoperative CT scans were then evaluated to assess for the presence of an articular ankle injury. Main Outcome Measurements 1) incidence of concomitant tibial shaft fracture and ipsilateral ankle injury; and 2) statistical association between tibia and fibula fracture characteristics in patients with and without an ipsilateral ankle fracture. Results Thirty-five of 71 (49.3%) tibial shaft fracture patients had a concomitant ipsilateral ankle injury. Of these, 31 (88.6%) ankle injuries occurred in patients with a spiral pattern tibia fracture of the distal third diaphysis (p<0.001). A spiral pattern tibia fracture, a distal one-third tibial shaft fracture location or a spiral pattern fibula fracture all were significantly associated with the presence of an ipsilateral ankle injury (p=<0.001; p=0.001; and p=0.002). Patients with either a transverse pattern or absent fibula fracture, a non-spiral pattern tibia fracture or a midshaft diaphyseal tibia fracture location were significantly less likely to have an associated ankle injury (p=<0.001; p=<0.001; and p=0.012) Conclusions Ipsilateral ankle fractures are commonly associated with tibial shaft fractures, specifically distal one-third spiral type injuries. Recognition of an associated ankle injury is important as it can alter operative and postoperative management. Clinical studies are needed to examine patient outcomes with or without ipsilateral ankle injury to determine the clinical

  8. Role of the fibula in the stability of diaphyseal tibial fractures fixed by intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, John G; Daly, Charles J; Harty, James A; Dailey, Hannah L

    2016-10-01

    For tibial fractures, the decision to fix a concomitant fibular fracture is undertaken on a case-by-case basis. To aid in this clinical decision-making process, we investigated whether loss of integrity of the fibula significantly destabilises midshaft tibial fractures, whether fixation of the fibula restores stability to the tibia, and whether removal of the fibula and interosseous membrane for expediency in biomechanical testing significantly influences tibial interfragmentary mechanics. Tibia/fibula pairs were harvested from six cadaveric donors with the interosseous membrane intact. A tibial osteotomy fracture was fixed by reamed intramedullary (IM) nailing. Axial, torsion, bending, and shear tests were completed for four models of fibular involvement: intact fibula, osteotomy fracture, fibular plating, and resected fibula and interosseous membrane. Overall construct stiffness decreased slightly with fibular osteotomy compared to intact bone, but this change was not statistically significant. Under low loads, the influence of the fibula on construct stability was only statistically significant in torsion (large effect size). Fibular plating stiffened the construct slightly, but this change was not statistically significant compared to the fibular osteotomy case. Complete resection of the fibula and interosseous membrane significantly decreased construct torsional stiffness only (large effect size). These results suggest that fixation of the fibula may not contribute significantly to the stability of diaphyseal tibial fractures and should not be undertaken unless otherwise clinically indicated. For testing purposes, load-sharing through the interosseous membrane contributes significantly to overall construct mechanics, especially in torsion, and we recommend preservation of these structures when possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of directly autotransplanted tibial bone marrow aspirates on bone regeneration and osseointegration of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Payer, Michael; Lohberger, Birgit; Strunk, Dirk; Reich, Karoline M; Acham, Stephan; Jakse, Norbert

    2014-04-01

    Aim of the pilot trial was to evaluate applicability and effects of directly autotransplanted tibial bone marrow (BM) aspirates on the incorporation of porous bovine bone mineral in a sinus lift model and on the osseointegration of dental implants. Six edentulous patients with bilaterally severely resorbed maxillae requiring sinus augmentation and implant treatment were included. During surgery, tibial BM was harvested and added to bone substitute material (Bio-Oss(®) ) at the randomly selected test site. At control sites, augmentation was performed with Bio-Oss(®) alone. The cellular content of each BM aspirate was checked for multipotency and surface antigen expression as quality control. Histomorphometric analysis of biopsies from the augmented sites after 3 and 6 months (during implantation) was used to evaluate effects on bone regeneration. Osseointegration of implants was evaluated with Periotest(®) and radiographic means. Multipotent cellular content in tibial BM aspirates was comparable to that in punctures from the iliac crest. No significant difference in amount of new bone formation and the integration of bone substitute particles was detected histomorphometrically. Periotest(®) values and radiographs showed successful osseointegration of inserted implants at all sites. Directly autotransplanted tibial BM aspirates did not show beneficial regenerative effects in the small study population (N = 6) of the present pilot trial. However, the proximal tibia proved to be a potential donor site for small quantities of BM. Future trials should clarify whether concentration of tibial BM aspirates could effect higher regenerative potency. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Evaluation of cranial tibial and extensor carpi radialis reflexes before and after anesthetic block in cats.

    PubMed

    Tudury, Eduardo Alberto; de Figueiredo, Marcella Luiz; Fernandes, Thaiza Helena Tavares; Araújo, Bruno Martins; Bonelli, Marília de Albuquerque; Diogo, Camila Cardoso; Silva, Amanda Camilo; Santos, Cássia Regina Oliveira; Rocha, Nadyne Lorrayne Farias Cardoso

    2017-02-01

    Objectives This study aimed to test the extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial reflexes in cats before and after anesthetic block of the brachial and lumbosacral plexus, respectively, to determine whether they depend on a myotatic reflex arc. Methods Fifty-five cats with a normal neurologic examination that were referred for elective gonadectomy were divided into group 1 (29 cats) for testing the extensor carpi radialis reflex, and group 2 (26 cats) for testing the cranial tibial reflex. In group 1, the extensor carpi radialis reflex was tested after anesthetic induction and 15 mins after brachial plexus block with lidocaine. In group 2, the cranial tibial, withdrawal and patellar reflexes were elicited in 52 hindlimbs and retested 15 mins after epidural anesthesia. Results In group 1, before the anesthetic block, 55.17% of the cats had a decreased and 44.83% had a normal extensor carpi radialis reflex. After the block, 68.96% showed a decreased and 27.59% a normal reflex. No cat had an increased or absent reflex before anesthetic block. In group 2, prior to the anesthetic block, 15.38% of the cats had a decreased cranial tibial reflex and 84.62% had a normal response, whereas after the block it was decreased in 26.92% and normal in 73.08% of the cats. None of the cats had an increased or absent reflex. Regarding the presence of both reflexes before and after anesthetic block, there was no significant difference at 1% ( P = 0.013). Conclusions and relevance The extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial reflexes in cats are not strictly myotatic reflexes, as they are independent of the reflex arc, and may be idiomuscular responses. Therefore, they are not reliable for neurologic examination in this species.

  11. Ultrasound elasticity imaging of human posterior tibial tendon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang

    Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is a common degenerative condition leading to a severe impairment of gait. There is currently no effective method to determine whether a patient with advanced PTTD would benefit from several months of bracing and physical therapy or ultimately require surgery. Tendon degeneration is closely associated with irreversible degradation of its collagen structure, leading to changes to its mechanical properties. If these properties could be monitored in vivo, it could be used to quantify the severity of tendonosis and help determine the appropriate treatment. Ultrasound elasticity imaging (UEI) is a real-time, noninvasive technique to objectively measure mechanical properties in soft tissue. It consists of acquiring a sequence of ultrasound frames and applying speckle tracking to estimate displacement and strain at each pixel. The goals of my dissertation were to 1) use acoustic simulations to investigate the performance of UEI during tendon deformation with different geometries; 2) develop and validate UEI as a potentially noninvasive technique for quantifying tendon mechanical properties in human cadaver experiments; 3) design a platform for UEI to measure mechanical properties of the PTT in vivo and determine whether there are detectable and quantifiable differences between healthy and diseased tendons. First, ultrasound simulations of tendon deformation were performed using an acoustic modeling program. The effects of different tendon geometries (cylinder and curved cylinder) on the performance of UEI were investigated. Modeling results indicated that UEI accurately estimated the strain in the cylinder geometry, but underestimated in the curved cylinder. The simulation also predicted that the out-of-the-plane motion of the PTT would cause a non-uniform strain pattern within incompressible homogeneous isotropic material. However, to average within a small region of interest determined by principal component analysis (PCA

  12. Stability of Menisci in Detached Bridgman Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, K.; Volz, M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Detached growth, also referred to as dewetted growth, is a Bridgman crystal growth process in which the melt is in contact with the crucible wall but the crystal is not. A meniscus bridges the gap between the top of the crystal and the crucible wall. The meniscus shape depends on the contact angle of the melt with the crucible wall, the growth angle of the melt with respect to the solidifying crystal, the gas pressure differential, the Weber number describing the rotation rate of the crucible, and the Bond number. Only some of the meniscus shapes are stable and the stability criterion is the sign of the second variation of the potential energy upon admissible meniscus shape perturbations. The effects of confined gas volumes above and below the melt and crucible rotation are evaluated. The analysis is applicable to the non-stationary case where the crystal radius changes during growth. Static stability maps (crystal radius versus pressure differential) are obtained for a series of Bond numbers, growth angles and Weber numbers. Also, the specific cases of Ge and InSb, in both terrestrial and microgravity conditions, are analyzed. Stability was found to depend significantly on whether the interior surface was considered to be microscopically rough or smooth, corresponding to pinned or unpinned states. It was also found that all meniscus shapes are statically stable in a microgravity environment.

  13. Peak stresses shift from femoral tunnel aperture to tibial tunnel aperture in lateral tibial tunnel ACL reconstructions: a 3D graft-bending angle measurement and finite-element analysis.

    PubMed

    Van Der Bracht, Hans; Tampere, Thomas; Beekman, Pieter; Schepens, Alexander; Devriendt, Wouter; Verdonk, Peter; Victor, Jan

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effect of tibial tunnel orientation on graft-bending angle and stress distribution in the ACL graft. Eight cadaveric knees were scanned in extension, 45°, 90°, and full flexion. 3D reconstructions with anatomically placed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) grafts were constructed with Mimics 14.12 ® . 3D graft-bending angles were measured for classic medial tibial tunnels (MTT) and lateral tibial tunnels (LTT) with different drill-guide angles (DGA) (45°, 55°, 65°, and 75°). A pivot shift was performed on 1 knee in a finite-element analysis. The peak stresses in the graft were calculated for eight different tibial tunnel orientations. In a classic anatomical ACL repair, the largest graft-bending angle and peak stresses are seen at the femoral tunnel aperture. The use of a different DGA at the tibial side does not change the graft-bending angle at the femoral side or magnitude of peak stresses significantly. When using LTT, the largest graft-bending angles and peak stresses are seen at the tibial tunnel aperture. In a classic anatomical ACL repair, peak stresses in the ACL graft are found at the femoral tunnel aperture. When an LTT is used, peak stresses are similar compared to classic ACL repairs, but the location of the peak stress will shift from the femoral tunnel aperture towards the tibial tunnel aperture. the risk of graft rupture is similar for both MTTs and LTTs, but the location of graft rupture changes from the femoral tunnel aperture towards the tibial tunnel aperture, respectively. I.

  14. Avulsion fragmentation of the tibial tuberosity apophysis and associated patellar tendon enthesopathy in a skeletally immature dog.

    PubMed

    Brown, G W; Kalff, S; Parry, A; Whitehead, M; McKee, W M

    2013-01-01

    A 9.5-month-old, female entire, 31.3 kg crossbred dog was presented with a 12 week history of moderate weight-bearing right pelvic limb lameness. Radiographic, computed tomographic, and ultrasonographic imaging revealed progressive avulsion fragmentation of the right tibial tuberosity apophysis and a patellar tendon insertional enthesopathy without physeal involvement. Conservative management was successful in achieving a good clinical outcome. A progressive avulsion of the contralateral proximal tibial physes that occurred concurrently resulted in development of an excessive tibial plateau slope angle. The additional development of a moderate left distal femoral varus deformity was surgically corrected. This is the first report of a progressive, traction injury to the tibial tuberosity apophysis in a dog that appears clinically and radiographically very similar to Osgood-Schlatter disease in humans.

  15. The effect of polyethylene creep on tibial insert locking screw loosening and back-out in prosthetic knee joints.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Anthony P; Raeymaekers, Bart

    2014-10-01

    A prosthetic knee joint typically comprises a cobalt-chromium femoral component that articulates with a polyethylene tibial insert. A locking screw may be used to prevent micromotion and dislodgement of the tibial insert from the tibial tray. Screw loosening and back-out have been reported, but the mechanism that causes screw loosening is currently not well understood. In this paper, we experimentally evaluate the effect of polyethylene creep on the preload of the locking screw. We find that the preload decreases significantly as a result of polyethylene creep, which reduces the torque required to loosen the locking screw. The torque applied to the tibial insert due to internal/external rotation within the knee joint during gait could thus drive locking screw loosening and back-out. The results are very similar for different types of polyethylene. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Influencing factors for trauma-induced tibial infection in underground coal mine].

    PubMed

    Meng, W Z; Guo, Y J; Liu, Z K; Li, Y F; Wang, G Z

    2016-07-20

    Objective: To investigate the influencing factors for trauma-induced tibial infection in underground coal mine. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 1 090 patients with tibial fracture complicated by bone infection who were injured in underground coal mine and admitted to our hospital from January 1995 to August 2015, including the type of trauma, injured parts, severity, and treatment outcome. The association between risk factors and infection was analyzed. Results: Among the 1 090 patients, 357 had the clinical manifestations of acute and chronic bone infection, 219 had red and swollen legs with heat pain, and 138 experienced skin necrosis, rupture, and discharge of pus. The incidence rates of tibial infection from 1995 to 2001, from 2002 to 2008, and from 2009 to 2015 were 31%, 26.9%, and 20.2%, respectively. The incidence rate of bone infection in the proximal segment of the tibia was significantly higher than that in the middle and distal segments (42.1% vs 18.9%/27.1%, P <0.01) . As for patients with different types of trauma (Gustilo typing) , the patients with type III fracture had a significantly higher incidence rate of bone infection than those with type I/II infection (52.8% vs 21.8%/24.6%, P <0.01) . The incidence rates of bone infection after bone traction, internal fixation with steel plates, fixation with external fixator, and fixation with intramedullary nail were 20.7%, 43.5%, 21.4%, and 26.1%, respectively, suggesting that internal fixation with steel plates had a significantly higher incidence rate of bone infection than other fixation methods ( P <0.01) . The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the position of tibial fracture and type of fracture were independent risk factors for bone infection. Conclusion: There is a high incidence rate of trauma-induced tibial infection in workers in underground coal mine. The position of tibial fracture and type of fracture are independent risk factors

  17. Motion at the Tibial and Polyethylene Component Interface in a Mobile-Bearing Total Ankle Replacement.

    PubMed

    Lundeen, Gregory A; Clanton, Thomas O; Dunaway, Linda J; Lu, Minggen

    2016-08-01

    Normal biomechanics of the ankle joint includes sagittal as well as axial rotation. Current understanding of mobile-bearing motion at the tibial-polyethylene interface in total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is limited to anterior-posterior (AP) motion of the polyethylene component. The purpose of our study was to define the motion of the polyethylene component in relation to the tibial component in a mobile-bearing TAA in both the sagittal and axial planes in postoperative patients. Patients who were a minimum of 12 months postoperative from a third-generation mobile-bearing TAA were identified. AP images were saved at maximum internal and external rotation, and the lateral images were saved in maximum plantarflexion and dorsiflexion. Sagittal range of motion and AP translation of the polyethylene component were measured from the lateral images. Axial rotation was determined by measuring the relative position of the 2 wires within the polyethylene component on AP internal and external rotation imaging. This relationship was compared to a table developed from fluoroscopic images taken at standardized degrees of axial rotation of a nonimplanted polyethylene with the associated length relationship of the 2 imbedded wires. Sixteen patients were included in this investigation, 9 (56%) were male and average age was 68 (range, 49-80) years. Time from surgery averaged 25 (range, 12-38) months. Total sagittal range of motion averaged 23±9 (range, 9-33) degrees. Axial motion for total internal and external rotation of the polyethylene component on the tibial component averaged 6±5 (range, 0-18) degrees. AP translation of the polyethylene component relative to the tibial component averaged 1±1 (range, 0-3) mm. There was no relationship between axial rotation or AP translation of the polyethylene component and ankle joint range of motion (P > .05). To our knowledge, this is the first investigation to measure axial and sagittal motion of the polyethylene component at the tibial

  18. A Biomechanical Study of Posteromedial Tibial Plateau Fracture Stability: Do They All Require Fixation?

    PubMed

    Cuéllar, Vanessa G; Martinez, Danny; Immerman, Igor; Oh, Cheongeun; Walker, Peter S; Egol, Kenneth A

    2015-07-01

    Although the posteromedial fragment in tibial plateau fractures is often considered unstable, biomechanical evidence supporting this view is lacking. We aimed to evaluate the stability of the fragment in a cadaver model. Our hypothesis was that under the expected small axial force during rehabilitation and the combined effects of this force with shear force, internal rotation torque, and varus moment, the most common posteromedial tibial fragment morphology could maintain stability in early flexion. Axial compression force alone or combined with posterior shear, internal rotation torque, or varus moment was applied to the femurs of 5 fresh cadaveric knees. A Tekscan pressure mapping system was used to measure pressure and contact area between the femoral condyles, meniscus, and tibial plateau. A Microscribe 3D digitizer was used to define the 3-dimensional positions of the femur and tibia. A 10-mm and then a 20-mm osteotomy was created with a saw at an angle of 30 degrees in the axial plane with respect to the tangent of the posterior tibial plateau and 75 degrees in the sagittal plane, representing a typical posteromedial fracture fragment. At each flexion angle (15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 degrees) and loading condition (axial compression only, compression with shear force, torque, and varus moment), distal displacement of the medial femoral condyle and the tibial fracture fragments was determined. For the 10-mm fragment, medial femoral condyle displacement was little affected up to approximately 30-degree flexion, after which it increased. For the 20-mm fragment, there was progressive medial femoral condyle displacement with increasing flexion from baseline. However, for the 10- and 20-mm fragments themselves, displacements were noted at every flexion angle, starting at 1.7 mm inferior displacement with 15 degrees of flexion and internal rotation torque and up to 10.2 mm displacement with 90 degrees of flexion and varus bending moment. In this cadaveric model of a

  19. Size correlation between the tibial anterior cruciate ligament footprint and the tibia plateau.

    PubMed

    Iriuchishima, Takanori; Ryu, Keinosuke; Aizawa, Shin; Fu, Freddie H

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the correlation between the size of the native anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) footprint and the size of the tibia plateau. Twenty-four non-paired human cadaver knees were used. All soft tissues around the knee were resected except the ACL. The ACL was cut in the middle, and the femoral bone was cut at the most proximal point of the femoral notch. The ACL was carefully dissected, and the periphery of the ACL insertion site was outlined on both the femoral and tibial sides. An accurate lateral view of the femoral condyle and the tibial plateau was photographed with a digital camera, and the images were downloaded to a personal computer. The size of the femoral and tibial ACL footprints, and anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML), lengths of the tibia plateau and area of tibia plateau were measured with Image J software (National Institution of Health). The sizes of the native femoral and tibial ACL footprints were 72.3 ± 24.4 and 134.1 ± 32.4 mm(2), respectively. The AP lengths of the whole, medial and lateral facet of the tibia plateau were as follows: 44.5 ± 4.1, 40.8 ± 4.1 and 36.8 ± 4 mm, respectively. The ML length of the tibia plateau was 68.3 ± 5.5 mm. Total area of tibia plateau was 2,282.9 ± 378.7 mm(2). The AP length of the lateral facet of the tibia plateau (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.508, p = 0.011) and the total area of tibia plateau (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.442, p = 0.031) were significantly correlated with the size of the tibial ACL footprint. For clinical relevance, the AP length of lateral facet of the tibia plateau and total area of tibia plateau are significantly correlated with the size of the tibial ACL footprint. It might be possible to predict the size of the ACL measuring these parameters.

  20. Comparison of fixed-bearing and mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty after high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe; Huys, Maxime; Pariat, Jacques; Roubineau, François; Flouzat Lachaniette, Charles Henri; Dubory, Arnaud

    2018-02-01

    There is no information comparing the results of fixed-bearing total knee replacement and mobile-bearing total knee replacement in the same patients previously treated by high tibial osteotomy. The purpose was therefore to compare fixed-bearing and mobile-bearing total knee replacements in patients treated with previous high tibial osteotomy. We compared the results of 57 patients with osteoarthritis who had received a fixed-bearing prosthesis after high tibial osteotomy with the results of 41 matched patients who had received a rotating platform after high tibial osteotomy. The match was made for length of follow-up period. The mean follow-up was 17 years (range, 15-20 years). The patients were assessed clinically and radiographically. The pre-operative knee scores had no statistically significant differences between the two groups. So was the case with the intra-operative releases, blood loss, thromboembolic complications and infection rates in either group. There was significant improvement in both groups of knees, and no significant difference was observed between the groups (i.e., fixed-bearing and mobile-bearing knees) for the mean Knee Society knee clinical score (95 and 92 points, respectively), or the Knee Society knee functional score (82 and 83 points, respectively) at the latest follow-up. However, the mean post-operative knee motion was higher for the fixed-bearing group (117° versus 110°). In the fixed-bearing group, one knee was revised because of periprosthetic fracture. In the rotating platform mobile-bearing group, one knee was revised because of aseptic loosening of the tibial component. The Kaplan-Meier survivorship for revision at ten years of follow-up was 95.2% for the fixed bearing prosthesis and 91.1% for the rotating platform mobile-bearing prosthesis. Although we did manage to detect significant differences mainly in clinical and radiographic results between the two groups, we found no superiority or inferiority of the mobile

  1. Role of dietary calcium and available phosphorus in the aetiology of tibial dyschondroplasia in growing turkeys.

    PubMed

    Hocking, P M; Wilson, S; Dick, L; Dunn, L N; Robertson, G W; Nixey, C

    2002-07-01

    1. Large White male turkeys from a heavy commercial male-line were fed 16 diets containing 4 concentrations of calcium (6, 10, 14 and 18 g/kg) and available phosphorus (3, 5, 7 and 9 g/kg) in a 4 x 4 factorial experiment. There were three replicates (pens) of each treatment and the skeletal health, morphology and mineral status of 4 turkeys from each pen were assessed at 7, 10 and 13 weeks of age. 2. The prevalence of tibial dyschondroplasia increased after 7 weeks of age and was present in 50 and 71% of turkeys respectively at 10 and 13 weeks. The lesion was localised in the caudal aspect of the proximal tibiae. Dietary calcium and available phosphorus did not affect the prevalence of the lesion except in turkeys on the diet containing 6 g calcium/kg, where body weight and the incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia were low. 3. Histological investigation showed no evidence of rachitic changes. 4. Low dietary calcium was associated with lower tibial plateau angles at 10 and 13 weeks of age. Tibial torsion and the angle of rotation were not affected by dietary treatments or age. Tibial torsion and the angle of rotation were not affected by dietary treatments or age. 5. Increasing dietary calcium increased tibial radiodensity, cortical density and the widths of the cortex and proximal tibiotarsus. Radiodensities increased to 10 weeks and were significantly lower at 13 weeks of age. 6. Bone ash, calcium and phosphorus declined with age, particularly between 10 and 13 weeks, whereas bone calcium: phosphorus ratios were not affected by dietary treatment or age. 7. Dietary calcium was positively associated with blood calcium and calcium ion concentrations and was without effect on blood phosphorus. Available phosphorus was associated positively with increased blood phosphorus and lower calcium ion concentrations but had no effect on total calcium. Alkaline phosphatase activity was low at high concentrations of dietary calcium with low available phosphorus and there was

  2. Posterior Tibial Slope Angle Correlates With Peak Sagittal and Frontal Plane Knee Joint Loading During Robotic Simulations of Athletic Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Nathaniel A.; Nesbitt, Rebecca J.; Shearn, Jason T.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Tibial slope angle is a nonmodifiable risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, the mechanical role of varying tibial slopes during athletic tasks has yet to be clinically quantified. Purpose To examine the influence of posterior tibial slope on knee joint loading during controlled, in vitro simulation of the knee joint articulations during athletic tasks. Study Design Descriptive laboratory study. Methods A 6 degree of freedom robotic manipulator positionally maneuvered cadaveric knee joints from 12 unique specimens with varying tibial slopes (range, −7.7° to 7.7°) through drop vertical jump and sidestep cutting tasks that were derived from 3-dimensional in vivo motion recordings. Internal knee joint torques and forces were recorded throughout simulation and were linearly correlated with tibial slope. Results The mean (6SD) posterior tibial slope angle was 2.2° ± 4.3° in the lateral compartment and 2.3° ± 3.3° in the medial compartment. For simulated drop vertical jumps, lateral compartment tibial slope angle expressed moderate, direct correlations with peak internally generated knee adduction (r = 0.60–0.65), flexion (r = 0.64–0.66), lateral (r = 0.57–0.69), and external rotation torques (r = 0.47–0.72) as well as inverse correlations with peak abduction (r = −0.42 to −0.61) and internal rotation torques (r = −0.39 to −0.79). Only frontal plane torques were correlated during sidestep cutting simulations. For simulated drop vertical jumps, medial compartment tibial slope angle expressed moderate, direct correlations with peak internally generated knee flexion torque (r = 0.64–0.69) and lateral knee force (r = 0.55–0.74) as well as inverse correlations with peak external torque (r = −0.34 to 20.67) and medial knee force (r = −0.58 to −0.59). These moderate correlations were also present during simulated sidestep cutting. Conclusion The investigation supported the theory that increased posterior

  3. Posterior Tibial Slope Angle Correlates With Peak Sagittal and Frontal Plane Knee Joint Loading During Robotic Simulations of Athletic Tasks.

    PubMed

    Bates, Nathaniel A; Nesbitt, Rebecca J; Shearn, Jason T; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2016-07-01

    Tibial slope angle is a nonmodifiable risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, the mechanical role of varying tibial slopes during athletic tasks has yet to be clinically quantified. To examine the influence of posterior tibial slope on knee joint loading during controlled, in vitro simulation of the knee joint articulations during athletic tasks. Descriptive laboratory study. A 6 degree of freedom robotic manipulator positionally maneuvered cadaveric knee joints from 12 unique specimens with varying tibial slopes (range, -7.7° to 7.7°) through drop vertical jump and sidestep cutting tasks that were derived from 3-dimensional in vivo motion recordings. Internal knee joint torques and forces were recorded throughout simulation and were linearly correlated with tibial slope. The mean (±SD) posterior tibial slope angle was 2.2° ± 4.3° in the lateral compartment and 2.3° ± 3.3° in the medial compartment. For simulated drop vertical jumps, lateral compartment tibial slope angle expressed moderate, direct correlations with peak internally generated knee adduction (r = 0.60-0.65), flexion (r = 0.64-0.66), lateral (r = 0.57-0.69), and external rotation torques (r = 0.47-0.72) as well as inverse correlations with peak abduction (r = -0.42 to -0.61) and internal rotation torques (r = -0.39 to -0.79). Only frontal plane torques were correlated during sidestep cutting simulations. For simulated drop vertical jumps, medial compartment tibial slope angle expressed moderate, direct correlations with peak internally generated knee flexion torque (r = 0.64-0.69) and lateral knee force (r = 0.55-0.74) as well as inverse correlations with peak external torque (r = -0.34 to -0.67) and medial knee force (r = -0.58 to -0.59). These moderate correlations were also present during simulated sidestep cutting. The investigation supported the theory that increased posterior tibial slope would lead to greater magnitude knee joint moments, specifically

  4. Technique tip: use of anterior cruciate ligament jig for hindfoot fusion by calcanio-talo-tibial nail.

    PubMed

    Haque, Syed; Sarkar, Jay

    2012-08-01

    The use of intramedullary nail fixation for tibio-talo-calcaneal fusion is gaining popularity. There is chance of failure of procedure following faulty operative technique specially alignment. The article describes a useful application of tibial tunnel jig in inserting the calcanio-talo-tibial guide wire. There is precision of few millimeters in the exit point of guide wire on talus. The authors believe that this helps in better positioning of nail and hence better alignment and better operative outcome.

  5. The relationship between anterior tibial shear force during a jump landing task and quadriceps and hamstring strength.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Douglas R; Blackburn, J Troy; Boling, Michelle C; McGrath, Melanie; Walusz, Hollie; Padua, Darin A

    2008-11-01

    Eccentric quadriceps contraction during landing and the resulting anterior tibial shear force are anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factors, while hamstring contraction limits anterior cruciate ligament loading. Anterior tibial shear force is derived from quadriceps and hamstring co-contraction, and a greater quadriceps/hamstring strength ratio has been associated with heightened lower extremity injury risk. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate relationships between anterior tibial shear force during landing and quadriceps and hamstring strength. Anterior tibial shear force was calculated during a jump landing task in 26 healthy females. Isokinetic eccentric quadriceps strength and concentric hamstrings strength were assessed at 60 degrees /s, 180 degrees /s, and 300 degrees /s. Correlational analyses were conducted to evaluate relationships between lower extremity strength and anterior tibial shear force. Quadriceps (r=0.126 to 0.302, P>0.05) and hamstrings strength (r=-0.019 to 0.058, P>0.05) and the quadriceps/hamstring ratio (r=0.036 to 0.127, P>0.05) were not significant predictors of anterior tibial shear force. Quadriceps and hamstring strength are not indicative of sagittal-plane knee loading during landing. Contractile force resulting from maximal strength testing may not represent that produced during landing, as it is unlikely that landing requires maximal effort. Additionally, peak anterior tibial shear force, quadriceps torque, and hamstrings torque are generated at different points in the knee flexion/extension range of motion. Therefore, peak anterior tibial shear force is a function of the available strength at a given point in the range of motion rather than of peak strength. These findings illustrate the limitations of peak strength values in predicting dynamic loading during landing.

  6. [A cadaveric study of relationships among rotational alignment reference axes of distal femur and tibial mechanical axis].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bao-hui; Chen, Bai-cheng; Shao, De-cheng; Wang, Fei; Gao, Shi-jun; Lu, Bo

    2008-07-15

    To investigate the relationships among rotational alignment reference axes of distal femur and tibial mechanical axis, and determine the safest rotational alignment reference axis. Digital photos were taken of 30 cadaveric lower extremities with knee in extension and flexion at 90 degrees , angles were measured among tibial mechanical axis and a line perpendicular to clinical epicondylar axis, a line perpendicular to surgical epicondylar axis, Whiteside's line and femoral mechanical axis. Statistical analysis of relationships among those axes were performed. The angles among the tibial mechanical axis and a line perpendicular to the clinical epicondylar axis, a line perpendicular to the surgical epicondylar axis, Whiteside's line and femoral mechanical axis were 0.6 degrees varus, 3.9 degrees varus, 0.2 degrees valgus and 3.0 degrees varus respectively. The angle between the femoral mechanical axis and the tibial mechanical axis was significantly larger than the angles among the tibial mechanical axis and a line perpendicular to the clinical epicondylar axis, the Whiteside's line (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference compared with the angle between a line perpendicular to the surgical epicondylar axis and the tibial mechanical axis. Angles of the clinical epicondylar axis, the surgical epicondylar axis and the Whiteside's line between knee extension and flexion were 2.3 degrees valgus, 0.9 degrees varus and 3.1 degrees valgus respectively. The surgical epicondylar axis rather than the clinical epicondylar axis or the Whiteside's line is the safest femoral rotational alignment reference axis intraoperatively.

  7. [Application of a self-made steel wire guide in the treatment of avulsion fractures of tibial posterior cruciate ligament].

    PubMed

    Gui, Jing-xiong; Ou, Ju-lun; Wang, Xiao-ping; Zhu, Xiao-hua; Guo, Sheng; Xu, Guo-tai; Deng, Zhi-cheng

    2016-05-01

    To explore the effect of a self-made guiding needle of steel wire in guiding the wire through the tibial tunnel for the treatment of avulsion fractures of tibial posterior cruciate ligament with open reduction and wire fixation. From February 2011 to June 2014, a total of 22 patients with avulsion fractures of tibial posterior cruciate ligament underwent surgical treatments were analyzed, including 14 males and 8 females with an average age of 35.6 years old (ranged, 17 to 63 years old). According to Meyers classification, 9 patients were classified as type II, 13 patients were classified as type III. All the patients underwent open reduction and wire fixation with medial knee "L" shape approach. A wire guiding needle was used to guide the wire through the tibial tunnel during operation. With the assistance of wire guidance needles, wires passed through the tibial tunnel rapidly during the operation in all the 22 patients. All the patients were followed up, X-ray imagings 6 months after operation showed the fractures healed well. The average follow-up time in all patients was 6 months (ranged, 6 to 12 months). The averaged Lysholm knee score in 22 knee was 92.7 +/- 3.4. All patients' posterior drawer test were negative. Self-made wire guiding needle can simplify the operation procedures in which the wires pass through the tibial tunnel, shorten the operation time, reduce the surgical trauma and complications, and be worthy of clinical application.

  8. [Dynamic loads at knee joint of trans-tibial amputee on different terrains].

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaohong; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Yubo; Wang, Rencheng

    2005-04-01

    Dynamic loads at knee joint of amputee are fundamental for rehabilitation of knee injury and prosthesis design. In this paper, a 3-D model for calculation of dynamic load at knee joint of trans-tibial amputee was developed. Gait analysis was done on three terrains including normal level walking, upstairs and downstairs. Dynamic loads at knee joint were calculated during one gait cycle. The results show that gait patterns and dynamic loads at knee joint were different among these three terrains. Although the general waveforms were about the same, the motion range of knee joint, ground reaction forces and loads at knee joint when walking upstairs or downstairs were larger than those in a normal level walking. The quantitative findings provide the theoretical basis of gait analysis and prosthesis design for trans-tibial amputee.

  9. [Posttraumatic deformities of the knee joint : Intra-articular osteotomy after malreduction of tibial head fractures].

    PubMed

    Frosch, K-H; Krause, M; Frings, J; Drenck, T; Akoto, R; Müller, G; Madert, J

    2016-10-01

    Malreduction of tibial head fractures often leads to malalignment of the lower extremity, pain, limited range of motion and instability. The extent of the complaints and the degree of deformity requires an exact analysis and a standardized approach. True ligamentous instability should be distinguished from pseudoinstability of the joint. Also extra- and intra-articular deformities have to be differentiated. In intra-articular deformities the extent of articular surface displacement, defects and clefts must be accurately evaluated. A specific surgical approach is necessary, which allows adequate visualization, correct osteotomy and refixation of the fractured area of the tibial head. In the long-term course good clinical results are described for intra-articular osteotomies. If the joint is damaged to such an extent that it cannot be reconstructed or in cases of advanced posttraumatic osteoarthritis, total knee arthroplasty may be necessary; however, whenever possible and reasonable, anatomical reconstruction and preservation of the joint should be attempted.

  10. Effects of incision closure method on infection prevalence following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Chase; Maxwell, Mac; Butler, Ryan; Wills, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study was to retrospectively investigate the effect of incisional closure with either stainless steel skin staples or intradermal poliglecaprone 25 on the prevalence of surgical site infection following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs. Medical records were reviewed for dogs treated with unilateral tibial plateau leveling osteotomy at Memphis Veterinary Specialists between 2006 and 2013. Procedures (n = 306) from 242 dogs were included in the study. The association of potential risk factors with the occurrence of postoperative infection was assessed using logistic regression. A value of P < 0.05 was considered significant. Weight and administration of postoperative antimicrobials were found to significantly influence surgical site infection prevalence. No significant association was noted between closure method and prevalence of postoperative infection.

  11. Oxidation and other property changes of a remelted highly crosslinked UHMWPE in retrieved tibial bearings.

    PubMed

    Reinitz, Steven D; Currier, Barbara H; Levine, Rayna A C; Collier, John P; Van Citters, Douglas W

    2017-01-01

    This study examined retrieved UHMWPE tibial bearings made from a remelted highly crosslinked (HXL) UHMWPE to determine whether the material is chemically stable in vivo. Retrieved tibial components were measured for changes in ketone oxidation and crosslink density. Oxidation increased with in vivo duration, and a significant decrease in crosslink density with increased mean ketone oxidation index was observed. These results suggest that in vivo oxidation is causing material degradation. Furthermore, a subsurface whitened damage region was found below the articular surface of one bearing, indicating the possibility of a clinically relevant decrease in mechanical properties of this component. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 39-45, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Arthroscopic treatment of tibial eminence fracture: a systematic review of different fixation methods

    PubMed Central

    Osti, Leonardo; Buda, Matteo; Soldati, Francesco; Del Buono, Angelo; Osti, Raffaella; Maffulli, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Arthroscopy procedures are the gold standard for the management of tibial spine avulsion. This review evaluates and compares different arthroscopic treatment options for tibial spine fractures. Source of data PubMed, Medline, Ovid, Google Scholar and Embase databases were systematically searched with no limit regarding the year of publication. Areas of agreement An arthroscopic approach compared with arthrotomy reduces complications such as soft-tissue lesions, post-operative pain and length of hospitalization. Areas of controversy The use of suture techniques, compared to cannulated screw technique, avoids a second surgery for removal of the screws, but requires longer immobilization and partial weight bearing. Growing points Clinical outcomes and radiographic results do not seem to differ in relation to the chosen method of fixation. Areas timely for developing research Further studies are needed to produce clear guidelines to define the best choice in terms of clinical outcomes, function and complications. PMID:27151952

  13. Arthroscopic treatment of tibial eminence fracture: a systematic review of different fixation methods.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Buda, Matteo; Soldati, Francesco; Del Buono, Angelo; Osti, Raffaella; Maffulli, Nicola

    2016-06-01

    Arthroscopy procedures are the gold standard for the management of tibial spine avulsion. This review evaluates and compares different arthroscopic treatment options for tibial spine fractures. PubMed, Medline, Ovid, Google Scholar and Embase databases were systematically searched with no limit regarding the year of publication. An arthroscopic approach compared with arthrotomy reduces complications such as soft-tissue lesions, post-operative pain and length of hospitalization. The use of suture techniques, compared to cannulated screw technique, avoids a second surgery for removal of the screws, but requires longer immobilization and partial weight bearing. Clinical outcomes and radiographic results do not seem to differ in relation to the chosen method of fixation. Further studies are needed to produce clear guidelines to define the best choice in terms of clinical outcomes, function and complications. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Complex tibial fracture outcomes following treatment with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Leung, Kwok-Sui; Lee, Wing-Sze; Tsui, Hon-For; Liu, Paul Po-Lung; Cheung, Wing-Hoi

    2004-03-01

    A clinical study was conducted to investigate the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (US) stimulation (LIPUS) on the healing of complex tibial fractures. Thirty complex tibial fractures were randomly assigned to the treatment with LIPUS (n = 16) or by a dummy machine (sham-exposed: n = 14). The fractures were immobilized by either internal or external fixations according to the clinical indications. LIPUS was given 20 min/day for 90 days. Fracture healing was monitored by clinical, radiological, densitometric and biochemical assessments. The LIPUS-treated group showed statistically significantly better healing, as demonstrated by all assessments. Complications were minimal in the LIPUS group. There were two cases of delayed union, with one in each group. There were two cases of infection in the control group. The delayed-union cases were subsequently treated by LIPUS and the infection cases were treated with standard protocol. Fracture healing in these patients was again treated by LIPUS.

  15. An experimental approach to determining fatigue crack size in polyethylene tibial inserts.

    PubMed

    Lockard, Carly A; Sanders, Anthony P; Raeymaekers, Bart

    2016-02-01

    A major limiting factor to the longevity of prosthetic knee joints is fatigue crack damage of the polyethylene tibial insert. Existing methods to quantify fatigue crack damage have several shortcomings, including limited resolution, destructive testing approach, and high cost. We propose an alternative fatigue crack damage visualization and measurement method that addresses the shortcomings of existing methods. This new method is based on trans-illumination and differs from previously described methods in its ability to non-destructively measure subsurface fatigue crack damage while using a simple and cost-effective bench-top set-up. We have evaluated this method to measure fatigue crack damage in two tibial inserts. This new method improves on existing image-based techniques due to its usability for subsurface damage measurement and its decreased reliance on subjective damage identification and measurement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of incision closure method on infection prevalence following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Chase; Maxwell, Mac; Butler, Ryan; Wills, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to retrospectively investigate the effect of incisional closure with either stainless steel skin staples or intradermal poliglecaprone 25 on the prevalence of surgical site infection following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs. Medical records were reviewed for dogs treated with unilateral tibial plateau leveling osteotomy at Memphis Veterinary Specialists between 2006 and 2013. Procedures (n = 306) from 242 dogs were included in the study. The association of potential risk factors with the occurrence of postoperative infection was assessed using logistic regression. A value of P < 0.05 was considered significant. Weight and administration of postoperative antimicrobials were found to significantly influence surgical site infection prevalence. No significant association was noted between closure method and prevalence of postoperative infection. PMID:25829557

  17. Anatomical characteristics of the tibial medullary canal and their implications for intramedullary fixation.

    PubMed

    Tosun, N; Aydinlioğlu, A; Akpinar, F; Doğan, A; Islam, C

    2003-01-01

    The use of intramedullary fixation methods in the tibia is limited by the anatomical characteristics of this bone. In this study, the shape and degree of axial lateral rotation of the medullary canal were determined in 45 human dry cadaver bones using X-ray and computed tomography examinations and direct measurement of rotation in inserted nails. Forty bones (88.8%) had slight and five bones (11.1%) had excessive anterior bowing along the tibial shaft. Six of the 45 bones (13.3%) had an extremely narrow medullary canal. Axial lateral rotation was demonstrated in the middle third of the medullary canal, being on average (+/- SD) 32.35 +/- 16.25 degrees (range 10-75 degrees). This study revealed that extreme narrowing of the medullary canal, axial lateral rotation of the medullary canal, and extreme anterior bowing of the tibial shaft are the anatomical characteristics most likely to cause difficulties when using intermedullary fixation in the tibia.

  18. Arthroscopic Reduction and Fixation of Tibial Spine Avulsion Fractures by a Stainless Steel Wiring Technique.

    PubMed

    Abdelhamid, Mohamed M; Bayoumy, Maysara Abdelhalim; Elkady, Hesham A; Abdelkawi, Ayman Farouk

    2017-12-01

    Several techniques of arthroscopic treatment of tibial spine avulsion fractures have been described in the literature. These techniques include the use of various fixation devices such as screws, K-wires, wiring, sutures, and suture anchors. In this study, we evaluate a new wiring technique for the treatment of these injuries. This technique involves fixation by stainless steel tension wires passed over the fractured spine and tied over a bone bridge. The advantages of this technique are that it aids in reduction, allows for compression of the tibial spine fragment anatomically in its fracture bed, provides stable fixation in difficult comminuted fractures, and allows for early mobilization and weight bearing because of the solid fixation.

  19. Use of tantalum cones in primary arthroplasty of acute proximal tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Sivasubramanian, H; Kini, S G; Ang, K Y; Sathappan, S S

    2016-09-01

    Metaphyseal tantalum cones in primary total knee arthroplasty and their functional outcome is described using 3 case reports over 6 years. 3 knees in 3 elderly individuals (mean age of 70.4 years), with pre-existing osteoarthritis and complex proximal tibial fractures, were operated on. Ambulation with walking frame was achieved from post-operation day 1, with weight-bearing as tolerated. Mean range of motion was 122° and Mean Knee Society Score was 88. All showed improvement in pre-operative limb alignment. Radiological fracture union was achieved on an average of 3 months. All were independent ambulators and pain-free at the latest follow-up. Our case series shows that tantalum cones are associated with significant improvements in clinical scores, patient symptoms, range of movement, early weight-bearing and low rates of complications in complex proximal tibial fractures with poor bone stock.

  20. Is There A Difference in Bone Ingrowth in Modular Versus Monoblock Porous Tantalum Tibial Trays?

    PubMed

    Hanzlik, Josa A; Day, Judd S; Rimnac, Clare M; Kurtz, Steven M

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary total knee designs incorporating highly porous metallic surfaces have demonstrated promising clinical outcomes. However, stiffness differences between modular and monoblock porous tantalum tibial trays may affect bone ingrowth. This study investigated effect of implant design, spatial location and clinical factors on bone ingrowth. Three modular and twenty-one monoblock retrieved porous tantalum tibial trays were evaluated for bone ingrowth. Nonparametric statistical tests were used to investigate differences in bone ingrowth by implant design, tray spatial location, substrate depth and clinical factors. Modular trays (5.3 ± 3.2%) exhibited higher bone ingrowth than monoblock trays (1.6 ± 1.9%, P = 0.032). Bone ingrowth in both designs was highest in the initial 500 μm from the surface. Implantation time was positively correlated with bone ingrowth for monoblock trays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor and isolated anterior tibial muscle metastasis as first recurrence.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Hasan; Balkarlı, Hüseyin; Musri, Fatma Yalcin; Salim, Derya Kıvrak; Eryılmaz, Melek Karakurt; Ünal, Betül; Coşkun, Hasan Şenol

    2015-01-01

    In the presented case, we report gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) in a patient using adjuvant imatinib in whom isolated metastasis to anterior tibial muscle as first recurrence was diagnosed. A 66-year-old woman was diagnosed with GIST on October 2012 and was followed up with adjuvant imatinib until June 2014. In this time, there was a nodular and fixed lesion with 1.5-2 cm of diameter in right lateral pre-tibial area. The lesion was resected, and it was reported as GIST metastasis by pathologist. GIST metastasis to muscle under knee is a generally unexpected area for any tumor metastasis. In modern treatment era, due to the increasing survival of the patients with GIST using targeted therapy, the metastatic pattern and behavior of GIST may be changing.

  2. Update on the management of open fractures of the tibial shaft.

    PubMed

    Templeman, D C; Gulli, B; Tsukayama, D T; Gustilo, R B

    1998-05-01

    A retrospective study of 133 open tibial fractures in 129 patients treated at the Hennepin County Medical Center between 1986 and 1993 was done. The results of the treatment protocol in this patient group is presented and the current classification schemes, prevention of infection, debridement, antibiotics, soft tissue reconstruction, fracture stabilization methods, bone grafting, and exchange nailing are discussed. Recent studies that have documented interobserver disagreement in the classification of open fractures underscore the difficulties encountered in the initial assessment and treatment of open tibial shaft fractures. Despite repetitive and aggressive debridement, a certain number of fractures will remain contaminated and become infected. Infection after these severe injuries is probably multifactorial, and its prevention requires that the surgeon diligently adhere to the imperatives of open fracture care.

  3. Ipsilateral distal femoral and proximal tibial epiphyseal growth plate injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gulabi, Deniz; Erdem, Mehmet; Bulut, Guven; Avci, Cem Coskun; Asci, Murat

    2013-05-31

    Both the isolated distal femoral epiphysiolysis and the isolated proximal tibial epiphysiolysis are the least common epiphyseal injuries. Even though they are uncommon, they have a high incidence rate of complications. We present a case with Gustilo-Anderson grade 3b open and Salter-Harris type 1 epiphysiolysis of the distal femur and proximal tibia caused by a farm machinery accident. The patient was a 10-year-old boy, treated by open reduction and internal fixation. Although distal femoral and proximal tibial growth plate injuries are rarely seen benign fractures, their management requires meticulous care. Anatomic reduction is important, especially to minimize the risk of growth arrest and the development of degenerative arthritis. However, there is a high incidence of growth arrest and neurovascular injury with these type of fractures.

  4. Ipsilateral distal femoral and proximal tibial epiphyseal growth plate injury: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Both the isolated distal femoral epiphysiolysis and the isolated proximal tibial epiphysiolysis are the least common epiphyseal injuries. Even though they are uncommon, they have a high incidence rate of complications. Case presentation We present a case with Gustilo-Anderson grade 3b open and Salter-Harris type 1 epiphysiolysis of the distal femur and proximal tibia caused by a farm machinery accident. The patient was a 10-year-old boy, treated by open reduction and internal fixation. Conclusion Although distal femoral and proximal tibial growth plate injuries are rarely seen benign fractures, their management requires meticulous care. Anatomic reduction is important, especially to minimize the risk of growth arrest and the development of degenerative arthritis. However, there is a high incidence of growth arrest and neurovascular injury with these type of fractures. PMID:23724954

  5. Use of a gyroscope sensor to quantify tibial motions during a pivot shift test.

    PubMed

    Borgstrom, Per Henrik; Markolf, Keith L; Foster, Brock; Petrigliano, Frank A; McAllister, David R

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate the use of a gyroscope sensor to record rotations of the tibia about its long axis during a clinical pivot shift examination. Ten patients with a unilateral ACL injury were tested under anaesthesia prior to surgery. Each ankle was placed in neutral position, wrapped and stabilized with athletic tape, and a small aluminium plate was taped to the bottom of the foot. A data recovery module was attached to the bottom of each plate using a swivel bracket that allowed alignment of the gyro axis with the long axis of the tibia. The module contained a triaxial gyroscope, battery and circuitry for wireless data broadcast to a laptop computer. Ten pivot shift tests were performed on both knees, and the surgeon's clinical grading of the pivot shift was noted for each limb. Mean values (10 trials) of peak tibial rotational velocity and integrated tibial rotation were compared between knees for each patient during the pivot shift reduction event (external tibial rotation during knee flexion). Five patients (50%) had significantly greater tibial rotation in their injured knee, four showed no difference between knees, and one had significantly greater rotation in the normal knee (p < 0.05). Seven patients (70%) showed greater peak rotational velocity in their injured knee, and three had no difference between the knees (p < 0.05). Correlations of rotation and rotational velocity with clinical pivot shift grade were weak (r2 = 0.09 and 0.19, respectively). Foot gyroscope measurements did not correctly identify the injured limb in all patients. Peak rotational velocity during the reduction event was a better indicator of ACL deficiency than the integrated rotation. If this technology is to be more useful clinically, gyroscope data may have to be combined with accelerometer data, perhaps with sensors mounted on both the tibia and femur. Diagnostic case-control study, Level III.

  6. External versus internal fixation for bicondylar tibial plateau fractures: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, David; Hickson, Craig J; McKee, Lesley; Griffin, Xavier L

    2015-12-01

    It is uncertain whether external fixation or open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) is optimal for patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fractures. A systematic review using Ovid MEDLINE, Embase Classic, Embase, AMED, the Cochrane Library, Open Grey, Orthopaedic Proceedings, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Current Controlled Trials, US National Institute for Health Trials Registry, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The search was conducted on 3rd October 2014 and no language limits were applied. Inclusion criteria were all clinical study designs comparing external fixation with open reduction internal fixation of bicondylar tibial plateau fractures. Studies of only one treatment modality were excluded, as were those that included unicondylar tibial plateau fractures. Treatment effects from studies reporting dichotomous outcomes were summarised using odds ratios. Continuous outcomes were converted to standardized mean differences to assess the treatment effect, and inverse variance methods used to combine data. A fixed effect model was used for meta-analyses. Patients undergoing external fixation were more likely to have returned to preinjury activities by six and twelve months (P = 0.030) but not at 24 months follow-up. However, external fixation was complicated by a greater number of infections (OR 2.59, 95 % CI 1.25-5.36, P = 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences in the rates of deep infection, venous thromboembolism, compartment syndrome, or need for re-operation between the two groups. Although external fixation and ORIF are associated with different complication profiles, both are acceptable strategies for managing bicondylar tibial plateau fractures.

  7. Domed (cupola) tibial osteotomy in the treatment of decompensated arthrosis secondary to genu varum.

    PubMed

    Giunti, A; Vicenzi, G; Toni, A; Graci, A; Zanotti, G

    1984-06-01

    Decompensated arthrosis secondary to genu varum is always a severely disabling condition. In English speaking countries there is an increasing trend towards prosthetic replacement surgery, but the present paper aims to show that valgising tibial osteotomy is still a valid form of treatment. The authors also discuss the various techniques that have been used and describe the advantages and results of their own preferred technique of "domed" osteotomy.

  8. Contact Kinematics Correlates to Tibial Component Migration Following Single Radius Posterior Stabilized Knee Replacement.

    PubMed

    Teeter, Matthew G; Perry, Kevin I; Yuan, Xunhua; Howard, James L; Lanting, Brent A

    2018-03-01

    Contact kinematics between total knee arthroplasty components is thought to affect implant migration; however, the interaction between kinematics and tibial component migration has not been thoroughly examined in a modern implant system. A total of 24 knees from 23 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty with a single radius, posterior stabilized implant were examined. Patients underwent radiostereometric analysis at 2 and 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months, and 1 and 2 years to measure migration of the tibial component in all planes. At 1 year, patients also had standing radiostereometric analysis examinations acquired in 0°, 20°, 40°, and 60° of flexion, and the location of contact and magnitude of any condylar liftoff was measured for each flexion angle. Regression analysis was performed between kinematic variables and migration at 1 year. The average magnitude of maximum total point motion across all patients was 0.671 ± 0.270 mm at 1 year and 0.608 ± 0.359 mm at 2 years (P = .327). Four implants demonstrated continuous migration of >0.2 mm between the first and second year of implantation. There were correlations between the location of contact and tibial component anterior-posterior tilt, varus-valgus tilt, and anterior-posterior translation. The patients with continuous migration demonstrated atypical kinematics and condylar liftoff in some instances. Kinematics can influence tibial component migration, likely through alterations of force transmission. Abnormal kinematics may play a role in long-term implant loosening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) ameliorates healing of tibial fracture non-union unresponsive to conventional therapy.

    PubMed

    Haffner, Nicolas; Antonic, Vlado; Smolen, Daniel; Slezak, Paul; Schaden, Wolfgang; Mittermayr, Rainer; Stojadinovic, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Tibial non-unions are common cause of demanding revision surgeries and are associated with a significant impact on patients' quality of life and health care costs. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) has been shown to improve osseous healing in vitro and in vivo. The main objective of present study was to evaluate the efficacy of ESWT in healing of tibial non-unions unresponsive to previous surgical and non-surgical measures. A retrospective multivariant analysis of a prospective open, single-centre, clinical trial of tibia non-union was conducted. 56 patients with 58 eligible fractures who met the FDA criteria were included. All patients received 3000-4000 impulses of electrohydraulic shockwaves at an energy flux density of 0.4mJ/mm(2) (-6dB). On average patients underwent 1.9 times (±1.3SD) surgical interventions prior to ESWT displaying the rather negatively selected cohort and its limited therapy responsiveness. In 88.5% of patients receiving ESWT complete bone healing was observed after six months irrespective of underlying pathology. The multivariant analysis showed that time of application is important for therapy success. Patients achieving healing received ESWT earlier: mean number of days between last surgical intervention and ESWT (healed - 355.1 days±167.4SD vs. not healed - 836.7 days±383.0SD; p<0.0001). ESWT proved to be a safe, effective and non-invasive treatment modality in tibial non-unions recalcitrant to standard therapies. The procedure is well tolerated, time-saving, lacking side effects, with potential to significantly decrease health care costs. Thus, in our view, ESWT should be considered the treatment of first choice in established tibial non-unions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Declining tibial curvature parallels ∼6150 years of decreasing mobility in Central European agriculturalists.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, Alison A; Davies, Thomas G; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T

    2015-06-01

    Long bones respond to mechanical loading through functional adaptation in a suite of morphological characteristics that together ensure structural competence to in vivo loading. As such, adult bone structure is often used to make inferences about past behavior from archaeological remains. However, such biomechanical approaches often investigate change in just one aspect of morphology, typically cross-sectional morphology or trabecular structure. The relationship between longitudinal bone curvature and mobility patterns is less well understood, particularly in the tibia, and it is unknown how tibial curvature and diaphyseal cross-sectional geometry interact to meet the structural requirements of loading. This study examines tibial curvature and its relationship with diaphyseal cross-sectional geometry (CSG) and body size in preindustrial Central Europeans spanning ∼6150 years following the introduction of agriculture in the region. Anteroposterior centroid displacement from the proximo-distal longitudinal axis was quantified at nine diaphyseal section locations (collectively representative of diaphyseal curvature) in 216 tibial three-dimensional laser scans. Results documented significant and corresponding temporal declines in midshaft centroid displacement and CSG properties. Significant correlations were found between mid-diaphyseal centroid displacement and all mobility-related CSG properties, while the relationship weakened toward the diaphyseal ends. No significant relationship was found between centroid displacement and body size variables with the exception of the most distal section location. Results support a relationship between tibial curvature and cross-sectional geometry among prehistoric Central European agricultural populations, and suggest that changes in mechanical loading may have influenced a suite of morphological features related to bone adaptation in the lower limb. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy with a locked low-profile plate: surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Werner; Guhlmann, Hanno; Windisch, Christoph; Koller, Heiko; Grützner, Paul; Kolb, Klaus

    2010-09-01

    High tibial osteotomy has been recognized as a beneficial treatment for osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the short-term results of opening-wedge high tibial osteotomies with locked plate fixation. From September 2002 to November 2005, fifty-one consecutive medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomies were performed. The mean age of the patients at the time of the index operation was forty-nine years. The preoperative and postoperative factors analyzed included the grade of arthritis of the tibiofemoral compartment (the Ahlbäck radiographic grade), the anatomic tibiofemoral angle, patellar height, the Hospital for Special Surgery rating system score, and the Lysholm and Gillquist knee score. Postoperatively, one superficial wound infection occurred. Fifty of the fifty-one osteotomies healed after an average period of 12.9 weeks (range, eight to sixteen weeks) without bone grafts. A nonunion developed in a sixty-two-year-old patient who was a cigarette smoker. The average postoperative tibiofemoral angle was 9° of valgus. Forty-nine patients were followed for a mean of fifty-two months. The average score on the Hospital for Special Surgery rating system was 86 points at the time of the most recent follow-up. The rating was excellent in twenty-eight patients (57%), good in twelve (24%), fair in four (8%), and poor in five (10%). The average score on the Lysholm and Gillquist knee-scoring scale was 83 points. According to these scores, the outcome was excellent in nine patients (18%), good in thirty-one (63%), fair in three (6%), and poor in six (12%). Four knees failed after an average of thirty-six months. Our results suggest that an opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy with locked plate fixation allows a correct valgus angle to be achieved with good short-term results.

  12. Supracutaneous plating using a locking plate for the treatment of a tibial fracture in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Nicetto, Tommaso; Longo, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Radiographs revealed a slightly displaced long oblique diaphyseal tibial fracture with bone fissures running distally in a 2-year-old, 4.5 kg cat that had been hit by a car. An angle stable implant was applied in a supracutaneous fashion. The patient tolerated the external implant and had a satisfactory functional recovery. Radiographic follow-up after 60 days revealed sign of osseous union; therefore, the plate was removed. PMID:28588330

  13. Paediatric tibial shaft fractures treated by open reduction and stabilization with monolateral external fixation.

    PubMed

    Simon, A-L; Apostolou, N; Vidal, C; Ferrero, E; Mazda, K; Ilharreborde, B

    2018-02-01

    Elastic stable intramedullary nailing is increasingly used for surgical treatment of tibial shaft fractures, but frequently requires immobilization and delayed full weight-bearing. Therefore, external fixation remains interesting. The aim was to report clinico-radiological outcomes of monolateral external fixation for displaced and unstable tibial shaft fractures in children. All tibial fractures consecutively treated by monolateral external fixation between 2008 and 2013 were followed. Inclusion criteria included skeletal immaturity and closed and open Gustilo I fractures caused by a direct impact. Patients were seen until two years postoperatively. Demographics, mechanism of injury, surgical data and complications were recorded. Anteroposterior and lateral side radiographs were performed at each visit. Full-limb 3D reconstructions using biplanar stereroradiography was performed for final limb length and alignment measures. A total of 45 patients (mean age 9.7 years ± 0.5) were included. In all, 17 were Gustilo I fractures, with no difference between open and closed fractures for any data. Mean time to full weight bearing was 18.2 days ± 0.7. After 15 days, 39 patients returned to school. Hardware removal (mean time to union 15.6 weeks ± 0.8) was performed during consultation under analgesic gas. There were no cases of nonunion. No fracture healed with > 10° of angulation (mean 5.1° ± 0.4°). Leg-length discrepancy > 10 mm was found for six patients. This procedure can be a safe and simple surgical treatment for children with tibial shaft fractures. Few complications and early return to school were reported, with the limitations of non-comparative study. IV.

  14. Closed Tibial shaft fractures treated with the Ilizarov method: A ten year case series.

    PubMed

    May, Jonathan David; Paavana, Thumri; McGregor-Riley, Jonathan; Royston, Simon

    2017-07-01

    To review the outcomes of patients treated with the Ilizarov method for an isolated, closed, simple diaphyseal, Tibial fracture at our institution over the last decade. The Ilizarov frame database was used to identify 76 skeletally mature patients who sustained an isolated, closed, extra-articular, simple, diaphyseal Tibial fracture; the injury also known as a "nail-able Tibial fracture." The average age of the patient was 38 (17-70). All 76 patients progressed to union. The average time until union was 148 (55-398) days. The coronal and sagittal alignment was 3° (0-17°) and 4° (0-14°) respectively. No patient suffered from compartment syndrome. No patient developed septic arthritis. No patient had documented anterior knee pain or secondary knee specialist input post frame removal. On average, there were 9(4-29) follow up appointments and 10(5-26) radiographs post frame application. There is a 59% chance of a patient having a difficulty post frame application. The malunion rate was 5%. Persisting pinsite infection post frame removal occurred in 5 patients (6.5%). Drilling of the pinsite sequestrum resolved the infection in four of these patients, giving a deep infection rate of 1.3%. The Ilizarov method has a role to play in the treatment of simple closed Tibial shaft fractures in patients who need to kneel. Patient education is a priority however; the patient must be made aware of the difficulty rate associated with the Ilizarov method when compared to the complication profile of alternative treatments. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Findings related to rotational malalignment in tibial fractures treated with reamed intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Say, Ferhat; Bülbül, Murat

    2014-10-01

    Rotational malalignment following closed intramedullary nailing of tibial fractures does not attract attention but is a complication which may lead to serious results. This study aimed to present findings related to rotational malalignment from rotational alignment measurements made clinically and with computerised tomography (CT) in patients who had undergone locked intramedullary nailing for tibial fracture. A total of 26 patients (male/female: 23/3) were evaluated after application of reamed locking intramedullary nailing to a diagnosed tibial shaft fracture. The mean age was determined as 37.5 ± 15.6 years. Rotational alignment was measured in both lower extremities clinically as thigh-foot angle (TFA) and radiologically with CT. Rotational malalignment was accepted as a more than 10º difference between the two lower extremities. Malrotation was determined at more than 10º from TFA in two (7 %) of 26 patients and from CT in five (19 %) of 26 patients. In three of them, the malrotation was >15º. Of the patients determined with malrotation with CT, it was determined from clinical measurements in 40 %. The mean rotational difference was determined as greater with CT measurement (4.7° ± 9.5) compared to the TFA (1.1° ± 5.6) (p < 0.001). No statistically significant relationship was determined between a rotational difference over 10º and the AO fracture type, fracture location and fibula fixation. A significant number of patients treated with intramedullary nailing for a tibial fracture may result in rotational malalignment. To determine rotational malalignment, a thorough clinical evaluation must be made and different kinds of clinical measurements taken and, when suspicions remain, determination should be made by CT.

  16. Tibial component coverage and rotational alignment accuracy after mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yoshinori; Noguchi, Hideo; Sato, Junko; Ishii, Hana; Todoroki, Koji; Toyabe, Shin-Ichi

    2018-02-10

    Tibial component coverage (TCC) and tibial rotational angle (TRA) have been studied simultaneously in simulations, but not in clinical studies after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purposes of this study were (1) to evaluate TCC and rotational setting postoperatively in mobile-bearing TKA patients and (2) to compare the results with previously published simulation data. We prospectively examined 100 patients who underwent primary TKA using the LCS ® Total Knee System (LCS) posterior cruciate ligament-substituting prosthesis. Clinical outcomes, TCC (coverage area of the tibial component over the tibia), and TRA (relative to the femoral transepicondylar axis (TEA)) were assessed. Quantitative three-dimensional computed tomography was used to assess TCC and TRA. All values are expressed as median (25th percentile, 75th percentile) using minus (-) for internal and plus (+) for external rotation. Hospital for Special Surgery scores improved from 46 (36, 50) preoperatively to 92 (90, 92) postoperatively. TRA showed a median divergence of - 2.0° (- 4.75°, + 2.74°). All knees were located within 10° of the TEA (range - 10.0° to + 9.7°). The median TCC of the knees was 82.7% (80.6, 84.7%), and there were no knees that hung over the tibial component in any direction. The LCS prosthesis had good clinical outcomes, comparable TCC, and improved TRA as compared to previous reports, as all knees were located within 10° of the TEA. Simultaneous optimization of both TCC and TRA may contribute to the excellent long-term outcomes that have been observed with this system. Level II, Prognostic study.

  17. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Purnajyoti; McLean, Christopher

    2011-06-14

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome and medial tibial stress syndrome are uncommon conditions that affect long-distance runners or players involved in team sports that require extensive running. We report 2 cases of bilateral chronic exertional compartment syndrome, with medial tibial stress syndrome in identical twins diagnosed with the use of a Kodiag monitor (B. Braun Medical, Sheffield, United Kingdom) fulfilling the modified diagnostic criteria for chronic exertional compartment syndrome as described by Pedowitz et al, which includes: (1) pre-exercise compartment pressure level >15 mm Hg; (2) 1 minute post-exercise pressure >30 mm Hg; and (3) 5 minutes post-exercise pressure >20 mm Hg in the presence of clinical features. Both patients were treated with bilateral anterior fasciotomies through minimal incision and deep posterior fasciotomies with tibial periosteal stripping performed through longer anteromedial incisions under direct vision followed by intensive physiotherapy resulting in complete symptomatic recovery. The etiology of chronic exertional compartment syndrome is not fully understood, but it is postulated abnormal increases in intramuscular pressure during exercise impair local perfusion, causing ischemic muscle pain. No familial predisposition has been reported to date. However, some authors have found that no significant difference exists in the relative perfusion, in patients, diagnosed with chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Magnetic resonance images of affected compartments have indicated that the pain is not due to ischemia, but rather from a disproportionate oxygen supply versus demand. We believe this is the first report of chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins, raising the question of whether there is a genetic predisposition to the causation of these conditions. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy: comparison between manual and computer-assisted techniques.

    PubMed

    Iorio, R; Pagnottelli, M; Vadalà, A; Giannetti, S; Di Sette, P; Papandrea, P; Conteduca, F; Ferretti, A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare clinical and radiological results of two groups of patients treated for medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee with either conventional or computer-assisted open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO). Goals of surgical treatment were a correction of the mechanical axis between 2° and 6° of valgus and a modification of posterior tibial slope between -2° and +2°. Twenty-four patients (27 knees) affected by varus knee deformity and operated with HTO were prospectively followed-up. They were randomly divided in two groups, A (11 patients, conventional treatment) and B (13 patients, navigated treatment). The American Knee Society Score and the Modified Cincinnati Rating System Questionnaire were used for clinical assessment. All patients were radiologically evaluated with a comparative lower limb weight-bearing digital radiograph, a standard digital anteroposterior, a latero-lateral radiograph of the knee, and a Rosenberg view. Patients were followed-up at a mean of 39 months. Clinical evaluation showed no statistical difference (n.s.) between the two groups. Radiological results showed an 86% reproducibility in achieving a mechanical axis of 182°-186° in group B compared to a 23% in group A (p = 0.0392); furthermore, in group B, we achieved a modification of posterior tibial slope between -2° and +2° in 100% of patients, while in group A, this goal was achieved only in 24% of cases (p = 0.0021). High tibial osteotomy with navigator is more accurate and reproducible in the correction of the deformity compared to standard technique. Therapeutic study, Level II.

  19. Reduction Osteotomy of the Prominent Tibial Tubercle After Osgood-Schlatter Disease.

    PubMed

    Pagenstert, Geert; Wurm, Markus; Gehmert, Sebastian; Egloff, Christian

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the functional and clinical outcome of a new closing-wedge osteotomy for the prominent tibial tubercle after Osgood-Schlatter disease. Between 2010 and 2014, 7 consecutive adults (mean age, 28.6 years; range, 26-35 years) were treated by closing-wedge reduction osteotomy of a painful tibial tubercle. All patients had prior nonsurgical and surgical treatment. Preoperative and postoperative tubercular prominence, Caton-Deschamps index for patellar height, the Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale, Lysholm Knee Score as well as visual analog scale score and Tegner activity scores were recorded. Mean follow-up after reduction osteotomy was 31.3 months (27-41 months). The bony prominence of the tibial tubercle was significantly reduced (mean 8 mm, P < .001) and the Caton-Deschamps index was lowered from 1.29 to 1.09 (P < .001). From preoperative to last follow-up, the Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale increased from 54.71 preoperative to 84.71 (P < .001); the Lysholm Knee Score improved from 72.42 to 94.14 (P < .001); the Tegner activity score increased from 3.1 to 5.7 (P < .001), whereas the visual analog scale significantly decreased from 5.8 to 1.2 (P < .001). No complications were recorded, and all patients were satisfied with clinical outcome. Closing-wedge osteotomy of the tibial tubercle effectively reduced the bony prominence after Osgood-Schlatter disease and consecutively improved the outcome in terms of knee pain and function. Thus, we can recommend this procedure in selected patients. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical, electrodiagnostic and pedobarographic assessments of leprotic patients with trans-tibial amputation.

    PubMed

    Salekzamani, Y; Shakouri, S K; Houshyar, Y; Ghanjeyfar, V; Samarbakhsh, A; Shamaizadeh, M; Nezami, N

    2009-08-15

    The aim of present study was to investigate clinical, electrodiagnostic and pedobarographic findings of non-amputee limb in chronic leprotic patients with unilateral trans-tibial amputation to determine neuropathy and plantar foot pressure in non-amputee limb. During the present prospective cross-sectional study, 10 chronic leprotic patients with unilateral trans-tibial amputation were evaluated. The study was conducted in Tabriz Bababaghi and Imam Reza Hospitals at summer of 2008. Sensory nerve conduction (SNAP) and Compound Motor Action Potentials (CMAP) studies were performed in association with pedobarographic assessment. No reliable response was detected from tested sensory and motor nerves, except a very low amplitude finding in deep preoneal nerve of one patient. In comparing with healthy group, static total plantar area, dynamic total plantar area, static rarefoot peak pressure and dynamic rarefoot peak pressure were lower in leprotic patients (p = 0.047, p = 0.004, p = 0.029 and p < 0.001), while static forefoot peak pressure and dynamic forefoot peak pressure were higher in these patients (p = 0.011 and p = 0.031). All of leprotic patients with unilateral trans-tibial amputation suffered from severe neuropathy. Also, these patients have high plantar pressure under the forefoot. Collectively, severe neuropathy and abnormal plantar foot pressure expose in non-amputee foot expose leprotic patients to the higher risk of secondary amputation.

  1. Literature review of the possible advantages of silicon liner socket use in trans-tibial prostheses.

    PubMed

    Baars, E C T; Geertzen, J H B

    2005-04-01

    The silicon liner socket has been used in the trans-tibial prosthesis since the 1980s. Silicon liner sockets are sleeves of silicon material that are rolled onto the stump and fix the prosthesis to it. The producers of the liners propagate many advantages in their use i.e. better suspension of the prosthesis, protection of the stump skin and improved cosmetic appearance. This review was performed to find objective documentation in the literature in support of the advantages in prosthetic fitting and use of silicon liners. A medline search was performed with the key words: "silicon liner socket, Icelandic Roll On Silicon Socket (ICEROSS), trans-tibial prosthesis, lower leg prosthesis and stump sockets". Six articles remained after application of the selection criteria. In two studies clinical examination was done while in the rest questionnaires were used to collect data. The indication for amputation varied from vascular insufficiency, diabetes mellitus and infection to trauma. Most studies mentioned improved prosthetic suspension compared to the conventional supracondylar fitting. Also the walking performance improved with less use of walking aids. There were reports of positive but also negative effects on the skin such as excessive perspiration and itching. Patients had a general preference in prosthetic appearance in favour of the prosthesis with a silicon liner. Further research is needed with the use of objective clinical parameters and a homogenous study group objectively to find advantages in the use of the silicon liner socket in the trans-tibial prosthesis.

  2. Joint loading and bone mineral density in persons with unilateral, trans-tibial amputation.

    PubMed

    Royer, Todd; Koenig, Michael

    2005-12-01

    Persons with unilateral, lower-extremity amputation sometimes develop osteoarthritis in the intact limb. The purpose of this study was to investigate gait mechanics and bone mineral density in unilateral, trans-tibial amputees to test the hypotheses that the intact limb knee and hip will have larger frontal plane net joint moments and bone mineral density than the prosthetic side and the limbs of control subjects. Proximal tibia and femoral neck bone mineral density and gait mechanics were measured from nine subjects with a unilateral, trans-tibial amputation and from age, gender, and mass matched control subjects. The amputee intact proximal tibia bone mineral density and peak knee internal abduction moment were 45% (P=0.001) and 56% (P=0.028) greater, respectively, than the prosthetic side. The intact limb femoral neck bone mineral density and peak hip internal abduction moment were 12% (P=0.095) and 33% (P=0.03) greater, respectively, than the prosthetic side. The intact knee frontal plane moment and bone mineral density were moderately larger than the control knee, while the intact and control hip were similar. Elevated frontal plane net joint moments and bone mineral density suggest the potential exists for premature knee joint degradation. Measuring frontal plane joint mechanics and bone mineral density may be important tools for assessing joint health in persons with unilateral, trans-tibial amputation.

  3. Incidence of complications associated with tibial tuberosity advancement in Boxer dogs.

    PubMed

    de Lima Dantas, Brigite; Sul, Rui; Parkin, Tim; Calvo, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    To retrospectively review and describe the incidence of complications associated with tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) surgical procedures in a group of Boxer dogs (n = 36 stifles) and compare the data with a non-Boxer control population (n = 271 stifles). Retrospective analysis of medical records to identify all dogs that underwent TTA surgery due to cranial cruciate ligament disease. These records were categorized into two groups: Boxer dogs and non-Boxer dogs (controls - all other breeds). Of the 307 stifles included, 69 complications were reported in 58 joints. The complication rate differed significantly for Boxer dogs (16/36 stifles) and non-Boxer dogs (42/271 stifles), corresponding to an odds ratio of 5.8 (confidence interval: 1.96-17.02; p-value <0.001). Boxer dogs were more likely to undergo revision surgery and to develop multiple complications. The incidence of tibial tuberosity fractures requiring surgical repair (2/36 versus 1/271) and incisional infections requiring antibiotic treatment (three in each group) was significantly higher in the Boxer group. Boxer dogs had more major and multiple complications after TTA surgery than the control non-Boxer group; these complications included higher rates of revision surgery, tibial tuberosity fractures requiring stabilization, and infection related complications. The pertinence and value of breed-specific recommendations for cranial cruciate ligament disease appears to be a subject worthy of further investigation.

  4. Comparisons of tibial accelerations when walking on a wood composite vs. a concrete mezzanine surface.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Steven A; Mehta, Jay P; Allread, W Gary

    2013-09-01

    Mezzanine surfaces can be made from concrete, bar grate, or composite materials. Anecdotal data indicate that mezzanines in distribution centers made from composite materials, due to their increased compliance, may be a more comfortable working surface. Prior research suggested that a measure of tibial shock, peak tibial acceleration, could potentially discriminate the biomechanical differences between these surfaces. The objective of this study was to quantify differences in tibial accelerations as 27 people walked on mezzanines constructed from concrete and a wood composite material. Accelerometers were attached bilaterally to the shins of volunteers, and data were collected as they walked 30.5 m on each surface at their normal walking speed, a faster-than-normal walking speed, and a slower-than-normal walking speed. Peak acceleration values obtained from the leg with the highest values were compared. On average, the peak acceleration values were 5% higher on the concrete mezzanine as compared with the wood composite mezzanine (p = .036). These findings suggest that individuals working on mezzanines in distribution centers constructed from composite surfaces would potentially experience less discomfort associated with long exposure periods on these surfaces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro evaluation of a custom cutting jig and custom plate for canine tibial plateau leveling.

    PubMed

    Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Harrysson, Ola L A; Cansizoglu, Omer

    2008-07-01

    To design and manufacture custom titanium bone plates and a custom cutting and drill guide by use of free-form fabrication methods and to compare variables and mechanical properties of 2 canine tibial plateau leveling methods with each other and with historical control values. 10 canine tibial replicas created by rapid prototyping methods. Application time, accuracy of correction of the tibial plateau slope (TPS), presence and magnitude of rotational and angular deformation, and replica axial stiffness for 2 chevron wedge osteotomy (CWO) methods were assessed. One involved use of freehand CWO (FHCWO) and screw hole drilling, whereas the other used jig-guided CWO (JGCWO) and screw hole drilling. Replicas used for FHCWO and JGCWO methods had similar stiffness. Although JGCWO and FHCWO did not weaken the replicas, mean axial stiffness of replicas after JGCWO was higher than after FHCWO. The JGCWO method was faster than the FHCWO method. Mean +/- SD TPS after osteotomy was lower for FHCWO (4.4 +/- 1.1 degrees ) than for JGCWO (9.5 +/- 0.4 degrees ), and JGCWO was more accurate (target TPS, 8.9 degrees ). Slight varus was evident after FHCWO but not after JGCWO. Mean postoperative rotation after JGCWO and FHCWO did not differ from the target value or between methods. The JGCWO method was more accurate and more rapid and resulted in more stability than the FHCWO method. Use of custom drill guides could enhance the speed, accuracy, and stability of corrective osteotomies in dogs.

  6. Prospective Case Study of Outcome of Tibial Plateau Fractures Treated with Locking Condylar Plate.

    PubMed

    Jain, R

    2016-11-01

    Introduction: Tibial plateau injury involves the articular surface of the proximal tibia with diverse group of fractures that represent a wide spectrum of severity that challenge even the most experienced surgeons, but with the invent of modern diagnostic technology and the advent of locking plates, results appear to be improving over time. Method: The study was conducted on thirty patients admitted in the department of orthopaedics with diagnoses of tibial plateau fractures treated with Locking Condylar Plate. The patients were followed up for a minimum period of six months and clinico-radiological progression of fracture union with the functional outcome was studied using 100 point rating system devised by Delamarter et al . Result: Twenty-two patients showed excellent results while eight patients had good to fair and none with poor result. The average time for radiological union was 17.5 weeks. Conclusion: The results of the study concluded that while locking condylar plate seems to show excellent results in low energy tibial plateau fractures, it can probably be used to successfully treat patients with high energy fracture patterns without the need for additional medial stabilization.

  7. Metaphyseal locking plate as an external fixator for open tibial fracture: Clinical outcomes and biomechanical assessment.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ching-Hou; Wu, Chin-Hsien; Jiang, Jiun-Ru; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Lin, Ting-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the outcome of using a metaphyseal locking plate as a definitive external fixator for treating open tibial fractures based on biomechanical experiments and analysis of clinical results. A metaphyseal locking plate was used as an external fixator in 54 open tibial fractures in 52 patients. The mean follow-up was 38 months (range, 20-52 months). Moreover, static axial compression and torsional tests were performed to evaluate the strength of the fixation techniques. The average fracture healing time was 34.5 weeks (range, 12-78 weeks). At 4 weeks postoperatively and at the final follow-up, the average Hospital for Special Surgery knee score was 85 (range, 81-100) and 94 (range, 88-100), respectively, and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 88 (range, 80-100) and 96 (range, 90-100), respectively. Based on the static test result, the axial stiffness was significantly different among groups (p=0.002), whereas the torsional stiffness showed no significant difference (p=0.068). Clinical outcomes show that the use of locking plate as a definitive external fixator is an alternative choice for tibial fractures after obtaining appropriate fracture reduction. However, external locked plating constructs were not as strong as standard locked plating constructs. Therefore, the use of external locked plating constructs as a definitive treatment warrants further biomechanical study for construct strength improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Engineering a trans-tibial prosthetic socket for the lower limb amputee.

    PubMed

    Laing, Sheridan; Lee, Peter Vs; Goh, James Ch

    2011-05-01

    This review addresses the different prosthetic socket designs for trans-tibial amputees, the biomechanics behind the designs and the current state of the field. Of particular focus is the classic patella-tendon bearing (PTB) socket and the more recent sockets manufactured using pressure casting techniques and the theory, biomechanics and clinical implications of the two designs. Methods to examine and compare these designs are also addressed. Journal papers by various investigators which have clinical significance/impact on the field of trans-tibial socket design were chosen for this review. Articles were chosen over a period of over 50 years to demonstrate the evolution of knowledge. The engineering of the trans-tibial socket has been largely subjected to empirical derivations and biomechanical theory that remains, for the most part, unproven. The fundamental principles of the PTB socket have been widely refuted. Hydrostatic theory based on pressure casting techniques, on the other hand, provides an optimal scenario to produce a more uniform stump/socket interface pressure. Preliminary studies indicate the pressure casting technique has the potential to produce comfortable sockets, providing an alternative to the PTB design. Various studies have been attempted to quantitatively compare the 2 types of socket designs. However, further quantitative biomechanical studies are needed to explain the fundamental theory surrounding the pressure cast technique. Methods that could help further understand the pressure cast concept include amputee gait analysis, stump/socket interface pressure measurements, computer aided socket design and finite element modelling techniques.

  9. Transfixation pinning and casting of tibial fractures in calves: five cases (1985-1989).

    PubMed

    St-Jean, G; Clem, M F; DeBowes, R M

    1991-01-01

    Medical records of 5 calves with tibial fractures that were reduced and stabilized by transfixation pinning and casting were reviewed. Multiple Steinmann pins were placed transversely through proximal and distal fracture fragments, and the pin ends were incorporated in fiberglass cast material after fracture reduction. Cast material serves as an external frame to maintain pin position and fracture reduction. Calves were between 2 weeks and 6 months old and weighed between 40 and 180 kg. Three fractures were spiral in configuration and 2 were comminuted. One tibial fracture was open. After surgery, all calves were ambulatory within 24 hours. To improve tarsal flexion and achieve normal stance in 3 calves, cast revision was required on the caudal aspect of the limb. Good radiographic and clinical evidence of stability was observed in 5 to 10 weeks (mean 8 weeks), at which time the pis and cast were removed. Return to normal function was rapid and judged to be excellent at follow-up evaluation 3 to 12 months later. Advantages of transfixation pinning and casting in management of tibial fractures include flexibility in pin positioning, adequate maintenance of reduction, early return to weight-bearing status, joint mobility, and ease of ambulation. The inability to adjust fixation and alignment after cast application is a disadvantage of this technique compared with other external fixators.

  10. Ankle and Hindfoot Symptoms after Medial Open Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Shah, Siddharth Mahesh; Roberts, Jason; Picard, Frederic

    2018-04-04

    Medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO) is a commonly performed procedure for symptomatic medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA). However, little is known about its effects on ipsilateral ankle or hindfoot. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence of ankle or hindfoot problems after MOWHTO and examine its association with radiological indices. Thirty-five knees (32 patients) undergoing navigated MOWHTO were evaluated for the presence of new-onset ankle or hindfoot symptoms after surgery. Pre- and postoperative hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle, medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA), and tibial plafond inclination (TPI) were measured and compared on standing lower limb alignment radiographs. The mean postoperative change in HKA angle, MPTA, and TPI was 8.8°, 7.0°, and 8.4°, respectively. New-onset unexplained ankle or hindfoot symptoms were seen in 20% of the cases after surgery. Postoperative change in TPI was significantly greater in symptomatic patients as compared with asymptomatic ones (12.8° ± 4.9° vs. 8.1° ± 4.8°, p  = 0.03). The odds ratio (OR) for developing ankle or hindfoot symptoms in cases with ≥ 10° change in TPI postoperatively was 10.8 ( p  = 0.04). Ankle or hindfoot symptoms were successfully managed with conservative treatment in all cases. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Recombinant human growth hormone enhances tibial growth in peripubertal female rats but not in males.

    PubMed

    Rol De Lama, M A; Pérez-Romero, A; Tresguerres, J A; Hermanussen, M; Ariznavarreta, C

    2000-05-01

    A novel non-invasive technique termed microknemometry, which allows daily leg length measurement, was used to investigate the growth promoting effect of growth hormone (GH) on peripubertal rats. We compared the effect of different patterns of recombinant human (rh) GH administration to peripubertal male rats with the effect produced by two daily administrations of the same amount of rhGH to peripubertal female rats or adult male rats. Another group of peripubertal male rats was also submitted to a 3-day period of starvation, in order to study catch-up growth during refeeding and to determine whether this process could be stimulated by exogenous GH administration. GH treatment was unable to stimulate tibial growth or weight gain in peripubertal males, whereas a clear growth promoting effect was observed in female rats and also in adult male rats. Starvation caused a dramatic body weight loss, and a reduction in tibial growth rate. Peripubertal male rats gained body weight faster than unstarved animals during refeeding, although recovery was not complete after nine days. Tibial growth, however, was resumed at the same speed as in normally fed males. This means that no catch-up effect was observed after refeeding in animals either with or without GH treatment. During peripuberty, normal male rats grow at a maximal speed that cannot be further increased by exogenous GH treatment, whereas age-matched female rats or older males grow at a slower rate than peripubertal males. Thus, exogenous rhGH administration is capable of enhancing growth velocity.

  12. The relationship between the clinical performance and large deformation mechanical behavior of retrieved UHMWPE tibial inserts.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, S M; Rimnac, C M; Pruitt, L; Jewett, C W; Goldberg, V; Edidin, A A

    2000-02-01

    Many aspects of the proposed relationship between material properties and clinical performance of UHMWPE components remain unclear. In this study, we explored the hypothesis that the clinical performance of tibial inserts is directly related to its large-deformation mechanical behavior measured near the articulating surface. Retrieval analysis was performed on three conventional UHMWPE and three Hylamer-M tibial components of the same design and manufacturer. Samples of material were then obtained from the worn regions of each implant and subjected to mechanical characterization using the small punch test. Statistically significant relationships were observed between the metrics of the small punch test and the total damage score and the burnishing damage score of the implants. We also examined the near-surface morphology of the retrievals using transmission electron microscopy. TEM analysis revealed lamellar alignment at and below the wear surfaces of the conventional UHMWPE retrievals up to a maximum depth of approximately 8 microm, consistent with large-deformation crystalline plasticity. The depth of the plasticity-induced damage layer varied not only between the retrievals, but also between the conventional UHMWPE and Hylamer-M components. Thus, the results of this study support the hypothesis that the clinical performance of UHMWPE tibial inserts is related to the large-deformation mechanical behavior measured near the articulating surface.

  13. Sex difference in the contribution of GABAB receptors to tibial neuromodulation of bladder overactivity in cats.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Thomas W; Jiang, Xuewen; Bansal, Utsav; Lamm, Vladimir; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the role of γ-aminobutyric acid subtype B (GABA B ) receptors in tibial and pudendal neuromodulation of bladder overactivity induced by intravesical administration of dilute (0.5%) acetic acid (AA) in α-chloralose-anesthetized cats. To inhibit bladder overactivity, tibial or pudendal nerve stimulation (TNS or PNS) was applied at 5 Hz and two or four times threshold (T) intensity for inducing toe or anal sphincter twitch. TNS at 2T or 4T intensity significantly ( P < 0.05) increased the bladder capacity to 173.8 ± 16.2 or 198.5 ± 24.1%, respectively, of control capacity. Meanwhile, PNS at 2T or 4T intensity significantly ( P < 0.05) increased the bladder capacity to 217 ± 18.8 and 221.3 ± 22.3% of control capacity, respectively. CGP52432 (a GABA B receptor antagonist) at intravenous dosages of 0.1-1 mg/kg completely removed the TNS inhibition in female cats but had no effect in male cats. CGP52432 administered intravenously also had no effect on control bladder capacity or the pudendal inhibition of bladder overactivity. These results reveal a sex difference in the role of GABA B receptors in tibial neuromodulation of bladder overactivity in cats and that GABA B receptors are not involved in either pudendal neuromodulation or irritation-induced bladder overactivity. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Exchange nailing for aseptic tibial shaft nonunion: emphasis on the influence of a concomitant fibulotomy.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chih-Wen; Wu, Chi-Chuan; Su, Chun-Yi; Fan, Kuo-Feng; Tseng, I-Chuan; Lee, Po-Chang

    2006-01-01

    Exchange nailing is reported to have a high success rate for aseptic tibial nonunions. However, sample sizes in all series in the literature were small, and the influence of a concomitant fibulotomy was not evaluated. Fifty-four aseptic tibial shaft nonunions for 1.2 approximately 4.3 (mean, 2.4) years were treated with exchange nailing. Indications for this technique included an aseptic nonunion of the tibial shaft with an inserted intramedullary nail and < 2 cm of shortening. A fibulotomy was performed in a nonunion with poor shaft alignment, which concomitantly required manipulation to correct. The success rate of exchange nailing was determined, and whether a concomitant fibulotomy affected the success rate was evaluated. Forty-seven nonunions were followed-up for 1.1 approximately 6.9 (mean, 3.8) years, and all nonunions healed. The union rate was 100% (47/47), and the average period required to achieve union was 4.7 (3.0 approximately 7.5) months. The average union periods between the fibulotomy and non-fibulotomy groups did not statistically differ (4.6 vs. 4.8 months, p = 0.61). There were no significant complications in either group. Exchange nailing is an excellent technique to treat aseptic nonunions of the tibia. It can be considered the treatment of choice for all indicated cases. A concomitant fibulotomy has minimal influence on the success rate. It can be performed when the shaft alignment needs correction.

  15. Ipsilateral fibula transport for the treatment of massive tibial bone defects.

    PubMed

    Yin, Peng; Zhang, Lihai; Li, Tongtong; Xie, Yong; Li, Jiantao; Li, Zhirui; Liu, Jianheng; Zhang, Lining; Zhang, Qun; Tang, Peifu

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment of massive tibial bone defects by ipsilateral fibula transport. Nine patients with massive tibial bone defects were retrospectively reviewed. There were 7 males and 2 females with an average age of 32.22 years. The mean length of bone defect was 15.67cm (range 13-25cm). All patients were followed up and the mean time of follow up was 40.11 months (range 26-60 months). All the patients achieved bone union and the average external fixation time was 11.67 months (range 9-14 months). The mean degrees of knee extension were 2.2°(range 0-5°) and the mean degrees of knee flexion were 131.7° (range 120-140°). The mean degrees of ankle dorsiflexion were 8.9° (range 0-15°) and the mean degrees of ankle plantar flexion were 30° (range 20-40°). Our study suggested that ipsilateral fibula transport in the treatment of massive tibial bone defects acquired satisfying functional results. It may be a better choice for the patients without suitable proximal or distal tibia remnant to transport. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rotational position of femoral and tibial components in TKA using the femoral transepicondylar axis.

    PubMed

    Aglietti, Paolo; Sensi, Lorenzo; Cuomo, Pierluigi; Ciardullo, Antonio

    2008-11-01

    Proper femoral and tibial component rotational positioning in TKA is critical for outcomes. Several rotational landmarks are frequently used with different advantages and limitations. We wondered whether coronal axes in the tibia and femur based on the transepicondylar axis in the femur would correlate with anteroposterior deformity. We obtained computed tomography scans of 100 patients with arthritis before they underwent TKA. We measured the posterior condylar angle on the femoral side and the angle between Akagi's line and perpendicular to the projection of the femoral transepicondylar axis on the tibial side. On the femoral side, we found a linear relationship between the posterior condylar angle and coronal deformity with valgus knees having a larger angle than varus knees, ie, gradual external rotation increased with increased coronal deformity from varus to valgus. On the tibial side, the angle between Akagi's line and the perpendicular line to the femoral transepicondylar axis was on average approximately 0 degrees , but we observed substantial interindividual variability without any relationship to gender or deformity. A preoperative computed tomography scan was a useful, simple, and relatively inexpensive tool to identify relevant anatomy and to adjust rotational positioning. We do not, however, recommend routine use because on the femoral side, we found a relationship between rotational landmarks and coronal deformity.

  17. Tibial Tubercle in Valgus Osteoarthritic Knees Is More Laterally Positioned Than in Varus Knees.

    PubMed

    Hatayama, Kazuhisa; Terauchi, Masanori; Saito, Kenichi; Hagiwara, Keiichi; Higuchi, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    The tibial tubercle (TT) is the most reliable landmark of the tibial component rotation in total knee arthroplasty. However, there is no report comparing the position of the TT between valgus and varus osteoarthritic knees. Using preoperative computed tomography, we measured the TT-posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) distance representing the degree of lateralization of the TT and the angle between Akagi's anteroposterior (AP) axis and the dorsal condylar line (DCL) of the tibia in 36 valgus and 40 varus osteoarthritic knees and compared them. The mean TT-PCL distances in valgus and varus knees were 26.1 (18.2-36.8) and 17.2 mm (10.3-22.6), respectively, with a significant difference (P < .001). Twenty-four of 36 valgus knees (67%) had abnormal TT-PCL (>24 mm). The mean AP-DCL angles in valgus and varus knees were 103° (95.8°-114.8°) and 93.2° (85.3°-99.6°), respectively, with a significant difference (P < .001). The TT in valgus knees was significantly more laterally positioned than in varus knees. Also, Akagi's AP axis in valgus knees was significantly more externally rotated relative to the DCL of the tibia than in varus knees. Attention is necessary to correct rotational alignment without posterolateral overhang of the tibial component during total knee arthroplasty, particularly for valgus knees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Construction of finite element model and stress analysis of anterior cruciate ligament tibial insertion.

    PubMed

    Dai, Can; Yang, Liu; Guo, Lin; Wang, Fuyou; Gou, Jingyue; Deng, Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a more realistic finite element (FE) model of the human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tibial insertion and to analyze the stress distribution in the ACL internal fibers under load. The ACL tibial insertions were processed histologically. With Photoshop software, digital images taken from the histological slides were collaged, contour lines were drawn, and different gray values were filled based on the structure. The data were exported to Amira software and saved as ".hmascii" file. This document was imported into HyperMesh software. The solid mesh model generated using HyperMesh software was imported into Abaqus software. The material properties were introduced, boundary conditions were set, and load was added to carry out the FE analysis. The stress distribution of the ACL internal fibers was uneven. The lowest stress could be observed in the ACL lateral fibers under tensile and shear load. The establishment of ACL tibial insertion FE model and mechanical analysis could reveal the stress distribution in the ACL internal fibers under load. There was greater load carrying capacity in the ACL lateral fibers which could sustain greater tensile and shear forces.

  19. Correlation between ground reaction force and tibial acceleration in vertical jumping.

    PubMed

    Elvin, Niell G; Elvin, Alex A; Arnoczky, Steven P

    2007-08-01

    Modern electronics allow for the unobtrusive measurement of accelerations outside the laboratory using wireless sensor nodes. The ability to accurately measure joint accelerations under unrestricted conditions, and to correlate them with jump height and landing force, could provide important data to better understand joint mechanics subject to real-life conditions. This study investigates the correlation between peak vertical ground reaction forces, as measured by a force plate, and tibial axial accelerations during free vertical jumping. The jump heights calculated from force-plate data and accelerometer measurements are also compared. For six male subjects participating in this study, the average coefficient of determination between peak ground reaction force and peak tibial axial acceleration is found to be 0.81. The coefficient of determination between jump height calculated using force plate and accelerometer data is 0.88. Data show that the landing forces could be as high as 8 body weights of the jumper. The measured peak tibial accelerations ranged up to 42 g. Jump heights calculated from force plate and accelerometer sensors data differed by less than 2.5 cm. It is found that both impact accelerations and landing forces are only weakly correlated with jump height (the average coefficient of determination is 0.12). This study shows that unobtrusive accelerometers can be used to determine the ground reaction forces experienced in a jump landing. Whereas the device also permitted an accurate determination of jump height, there was no correlation between peak ground reaction force and jump height.

  20. Are overground or treadmill runners more likely to sustain tibial stress fracture?

    PubMed Central

    Milgrom, C; Finestone, A; Segev, S; Olin, C; Arndt, T; Ekenman, I

    2003-01-01

    Background: Repetitive high bone strain and/or strain rates, such as those that occur during running, contribute to stress fractures as well as promoting maintenance of or increase in bone mass. Kinematic differences are known to exist between overground and treadmill running and these may be reflected in different bone strains and strain rates during the two running techniques. Aim: To measure in vivo strains and strain rates in human tibia during treadmill and overground running and determine if there are significant differences in strain and strain rate levels between the two running techniques. Methods: A strain gauged bone staple was mounted percutaneously along the axial direction in the mid diaphysis of the medial tibia in three subjects, and in vivo tibial strains were measured during treadmill and overground running at 11 km/h. Results: Axial compression strains (p<0.0001), tension strains (p<0.001), compression strain rates (p<0.0001), and tension strain rates (p<0.0001) were 48–285% higher during overground running than during treadmill running. Conclusions: On the basis of lower in vivo strains and strain rates, treadmill runners are at lower risk of developing tibial stress fractures, but less likely to achieve tibial bone strengthening, than overground runners. PMID:12663360

  1. Selective activation of the human tibial and common peroneal nerves with a flat interface nerve electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiefer, M. A.; Freeberg, M.; Pinault, G. J. C.; Anderson, J.; Hoyen, H.; Tyler, D. J.; Triolo, R. J.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Electrical stimulation has been shown effective in restoring basic lower extremity motor function in individuals with paralysis. We tested the hypothesis that a flat interface nerve electrode (FINE) placed around the human tibial or common peroneal nerve above the knee can selectively activate each of the most important muscles these nerves innervate for use in a neuroprosthesis to control ankle motion. Approach. During intraoperative trials involving three subjects, an eight-contact FINE was placed around the tibial and/or common peroneal nerve, proximal to the popliteal fossa. The FINE's ability to selectively recruit muscles innervated by these nerves was assessed. Data were used to estimate the potential to restore active plantarflexion or dorsiflexion while balancing inversion and eversion using a biomechanical simulation. Main results. With minimal spillover to non-targets, at least three of the four targets in the tibial nerve, including two of the three muscles constituting the triceps surae, were independently and selectively recruited in all subjects. As acceptable levels of spillover increased, recruitment of the target muscles increased. Selective activation of muscles innervated by the peroneal nerve was more challenging. Significance. Estimated joint moments suggest that plantarflexion sufficient for propulsion during stance phase of gait and dorsiflexion sufficient to prevent foot drop during swing can be achieved, accompanied by a small but tolerable inversion or eversion moment.

  2. Analysis of different bicruciate-retaining tibial prosthesis design using a three dimension finite element model

    PubMed Central

    He, Peiheng; Li, Xing; Huang, Shuai; Liu, Minghao; Chen, Weizhi; Xu, Dongliang

    2017-01-01

    The recent interest in bicruciate-retaining prostheses has aimed to address the need for an implant that can mimic a natural knee. Arguments have always existed about survivorship, including loosening and subsidence, as well as tibial preparation in bicruciate-retaining tibial prostheses. The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanics of a new modular design and other bicruciate-retaining designs using a three-dimensional finite element model under different load conditions to discover which prosthesis was more suitable. We also evaluated related parameters (the third principal stress, shear stress, micromotion, and von Mises stresses) to compare the characteristics of different bicruciate-retaining designs. The biomechanics of the bicruciate-retaining tibial prosthesis can be influenced by the style of the designed prosthesis and gait loading. The new modular design showed stability and moderated the third principal stress, leading to less shear stress and stress shield, suggesting that this type of design can avoid knee prosthesis loosening and subsidence. Therefore, the new design may be used as a more suitable prosthesis for future bicruciate-retaining implant application. PMID:28560009

  3. Subjective and novel objective radiographic evaluation of inflatable bone tamp treatment of articular calcaneus, tibial plateau, tibial pilon and distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Heiney, Jake P; Redfern, Roberta E; Wanjiku, Stephen

    2013-08-01

    There is a growing need to develop tools that allow for better reductions of difficult to treat fractures in minimally disruptive ways. One such technique has been developed using the inflatable bone tamp and a fast setting calcium phosphate. KYPHON(®) XPANDER Inflatable Bone Tamp and the KYPHON(®) Osteo Introducer(®) System were used to reduce the articular fractures and a fast-setting calcium phosphate was introduced into those voids and metal hardware was applied as deemed necessary. Subjects were skeletally mature patients treated for articular fractures of the calcaneus, tibial plateau, tibial pilon, or distal radius. Post-operative day zero and week 12 radiographs were objectively and subjectively evaluated by three independent orthopaedic surgeons. Their objective scores were then translated into subjective categories based on the Heiney-Redfern scaled scoring (H-R score) system established herein. Overall, the thorough radiographic analysis by independent reviewers indicates that the technique is capable of obtaining and maintaining articular reductions in a good or adequate manner at 12-weeks post-operatively. Introduced is a potential novel evaluation scale scoring system for these articular fractures that evaluates the important anatomic considerations reproducibly in fracture reductions. There are many potential benefits that remain speculative to this type of tool within a procedure, and therefore this tool and technique warrants further research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The contribution of the tibial tubercle to patellar instability: analysis of tibial tubercle-trochlear groove (TT-TG) and tibial tubercle-posterior cruciate ligament (TT-PCL) distances.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Mark J; Camp, Christopher L; Dahm, Diane L; Stuart, Michael J; Levy, Bruce A; Krych, Aaron J

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the reliability of measuring the tibial tubercle to posterior cruciate (TT-PCL) distance compared to the tibial tubercle to trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), establish baseline TT-PCL values in patellar instability patients, and determine the predictive value of an excessive TT-PCL distance (≥24 mm) for recurrent patellar instability compared to a TT-TG distance ≥20 mm. TT-TG and TT-PCL distances were calculated on MRI in a randomized and blinded fashion by two reviewers on 54 patients (59 knees) with patellar instability. Interobserver reliability was assessed using interclass correlation coefficients (ICC). TT-PCL distances were also assessed to establish mean values in patellar instability patients. The ability of excessive TT-PCL and TT-TG distances to predict recurrent instability was assessed by comparing odds ratios, sensitivities, and specificities. Interobserver reliability was excellent for both TT-TG (ICC = 0.978) and TT-PCL (ICC = 0.932). The mean TT-PCL in these 59 knees was 21.7 mm (standard deviation 4.1 mm). Twelve (20 %) of 59 knees had a single dislocation, and 47 (80 %) exhibited 2 or more dislocations. The odds ratios, sensitivities, and specificities of a TT-TG distance ≥20 mm for identifying patients with recurrent dislocation were 5.38, 0.213, and 1.0, respectively, while those of a TT-PCL distance ≥24 mm were 1.46, 0.298, and 0.583, respectively. Of the 10 knees with a TT-TG distance ≥20 mm, all 10 (100 %) had recurrent instability, while 14 (73.7 %) of the 19 knees with a TT-PCL ≥24 mm experienced multiple dislocations (n.s.). Both TT-PCL and TT-TG can be measured on MRI with excellent interobserver reliability. In this series, the mean TT-PCL value in patients with patellar instability was 21.8 mm, but the range was broad. A TT-PCL distance ≥24 mm was found to be less predictive of recurrent instability in this series. For patients

  5. Tibial Fractures in Alpine Skiing and Snowboarding in Finland: A Retrospective Study on Fracture Types and Injury Mechanisms in 363 Patients.

    PubMed

    Stenroos, A; Pakarinen, H; Jalkanen, J; Mälkiä, T; Handolin, L

    2016-09-01

    Alpine skiing and snowboarding share the hazards of accidents accounting for tibial fractures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture patterns and mechanisms of injury of tibial fractures taking place in downhill skiing and snowboarding. All patients with tibial fracture due to alpine skiing or snowboarding accident treated in four trauma centers next to the largest ski resorts in Finland were analyzed between 2006 and 2012. The hospital records were retrospectively reviewed for data collection: equipment used (skis or snowboard), age, gender, and mechanism of injury. Fractures were classified according to AO-classification. There were 342 skiing and 30 snowboarding related tibial fractures in 363 patients. Tibial shaft fracture was the most common fracture among skiers (n = 215, 63%), followed by proximal tibial fractures (n = 92, 27%). Snowboarders were most likely to suffer from proximal tibial fracture (13, 43%) or tibial shaft fracture (11, 37%). Snowboarders were also more likely than skiers to suffer complex AO type C fractures (23% vs 9%, p < 0.05). Adult skiers had both wider variety of fractures and higher prevalence of proximal tibial fractures compared to children (49% vs 16%, p < 0.05). Skiers typically got injured due to falling down on the same level (70%) and snowboarders due to loss of control while jumping (46%). The most important finding was the relatively high number of the tibial plateau fractures among adult skiers. The fracture patterns between snowboarding and skiing were different; the most common fracture type in skiers was spiral tibial shaft fracture compared to proximal tibial fractures in snowboarders. Children had more simple fractures than adults. © The Finnish Surgical Society 2016.

  6. The use of a robotic tibial rotation device and an electromagnetic tracking system to accurately reproduce the clinical dial test.

    PubMed

    Stinton, S K; Siebold, R; Freedberg, H; Jacobs, C; Branch, T P

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine whether a robotic tibial rotation device and an electromagnetic tracking system could accurately reproduce the clinical dial test at 30° of knee flexion; (2) compare rotation data captured at the footplates of the robotic device to tibial rotation data measured using an electromagnetic sensor on the proximal tibia. Thirty-two unilateral ACL-reconstructed patients were examined using a robotic tibial rotation device that mimicked the dial test. The data reported in this study is only from the healthy legs of these patients. Torque was applied through footplates and was measured using servomotors. Lower leg motion was measured at the foot using the motors. Tibial motion was also measured through an electromagnetic tracking system and a sensor on the proximal tibia. Load-deformation curves representing rotational motion of the foot and tibia were compared using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Off-axis motions including medial-lateral translation and anterior-posterior translation were also measured using the electromagnetic system. The robotic device and electromagnetic system were able to provide axial rotation data and translational data for the tibia during the dial test. Motion measured at the foot was not correlated to motion of the tibial tubercle in internal rotation or in external rotation. The position of the tibial tubercle was 26.9° ± 11.6° more internally rotated than the foot at torque 0 Nm. Medial-lateral translation and anterior-posterior translation were combined to show the path of the tubercle in the coronal plane during tibial rotation. The information captured during a manual dial test includes both rotation of the tibia and proximal tibia translation. All of this information can be captured using a robotic tibial axial rotation device with an electromagnetic tracking system. The pathway of the tibial tubercle during tibial axial rotation can provide additional information about knee

  7. Association of physical activity and physical performance with tibial cartilage volume and bone area in young adults.

    PubMed

    Antony, Benny; Venn, Alison; Cicuttini, Flavia; March, Lyn; Blizzard, Leigh; Dwyer, Terence; Cross, Marita; Jones, Graeme; Ding, Changhai

    2015-10-26

    Physical activity has been recommended to patients with knee osteoarthritis for improving their symptoms. However, it is still controversial if physical activity has effects on joint structures including cartilage volume. The aim of this study was to describe the associations between physical activity and performance measured 5 years prior and tibial cartilage volume and bone area in young adults. Subjects broadly representative of the Australian population (n = 328, aged 31-41 years, female 47.3 %) were selected from the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study. They underwent T1-weighted fat-suppressed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of their knees. Tibial bone area and cartilage volume were measured from MRI. Physical activity (measured using long international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ)) and performance measures (long jump, leg muscle strength, physical work capacity (PWC170)) were measured 5 years prior. In multivariable analyses, total physical activity (min/week) (β: 0.30 mm(3), 95 % CI: 0.13,0.47), vigorous (β: 0.54 mm(3), 95 % CI: 0.13,0.94), moderate (β: 0.34 mm(3), 95 % CI: 0.01,0.67), walking (β: 0.40 mm(3), 95 % CI: 0.07,0.72) and IPAQ category (β: 182.9 mm(3), 95 % CI: 51.8,314.0) were positively associated with total tibial cartilage volume but not tibial bone area. PWC170, long jump and leg muscle strength were positively and significantly associated with both total tibial cartilage volume and total tibial bone area; and the associations with tibial cartilage volume decreased in magnitude but remained significant for PWC170 and long jump after further adjustment for tibial bone area. While tibial bone area is affected only by physical performance, total tibial cartilage volume can be influenced by both physical activity and performance in younger adults. The clinical significance suggests a beneficial effect for cartilage but the bone area association was restricted to performance suggesting other factors

  8. The treatment of segmental tibial fractures: does patient preference differ from surgeon choice?

    PubMed

    Little, Z; Smith, T O; McMahon, S E; Cooper, C; Trompeter, A; Pearse, M; Britten, S; Rogers, B; Sharma, H; Narayan, B; Costa, M; Beard, D J; Hing, C B

    2017-10-01

    Segmental tibial fractures are complex injuries with a prolonged recovery time. Current definitive treatment options include intramedullary fixation or a circular external fixator. However, there is uncertainty as to which surgical option is preferable and there are no sufficiently rigorous multi-centre trials that have answered this question. The objective of this study was to determine whether patient and surgeon opinion was permissive for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing intramedullary nailing to the application of a circular external fixator. A convenience questionnaire survey of attending surgeons was conducted during the United Kingdom's Orthopaedic Trauma Society annual meeting 2017 to determine the treatment modalities used for a segmental tibial fracture (n=63). Patient opinion was obtained from clinical patients who had been treated for a segmental tibial fracture as part of a patient and public involvement focus group with questions covering the domains of surgical preference, treatment expectations, outcome, the consent process and follow-up regime (n=5). Based on the surgeon survey, 39% routinely use circular frame fixation following segmental tibial fracture compared to 61% who use nail fixation. Nail fixation was reported as the treatment of choice for a closed injury in a healthy patient in 81% of surgeons, and by 86% for a patient with a closed fracture who was obese. Twenty-one percent reported that they would use a nail for an open segmental tibia fracture in diabetics who smoked, whilst 57% would opt for a nail for a closed injury with compartment syndrome, and only 27% would use a nail for an open segmental injury in a young fit sports person. The patient and public preference exercise identified that sleep, early functional outcomes and psychosocial measures of outcomes are important. We concluded that a RCT comparing definitive fixation with an intramedullary nail and a circular external fixator is justified as there remains

  9. Total Knee Arthroplasty versus Osteochondral Allograft: Prevalence and Risk Factors following Tibial Plateau Fractures.

    PubMed

    Oladeji, Lasun O; Dreger, Tina K; Pratte, Eli L; Baumann, Charles A; Stannard, James P; Volgas, David A; Rocca, Gregory J Della; Crist, Brett D

    2018-04-18

    Orthopaedic surgeons commonly have the misconception that patients with tibial plateau fractures will likely go on to posttraumatic knee arthritis requiring total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In younger patients, osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation is an alternative method to address posttraumatic knee arthritis. The purpose of this study was (1) to identify our institutional failure rate following tibial plateau open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) (failure was defined as conversion to TKA or OCA); (2) to determine if there are patient- or injury-related risk factors predictive of failure; and (3) to characterize differences between patients treated with TKA versus those treated with OCA transplantation. A 10-year retrospective review was conducted to identify patients treated at our institution with a tibial plateau fracture. Patients included in the final analysis were at least 18 years of age with an articular fracture (AO/OTA 41 B/C). The primary outcome was subsequent ipsilateral OCA or TKA. There were 350 patients (359 tibial plateau fractures) with a mean follow-up of 22.3 months (range, 6-133 months) who met inclusion criteria. Twenty-seven fractures (7.5%) were subsequently converted to a TKA or OCA at an average of 3.75 ± 3.1 years following their initial surgery. Patients who consumed tobacco were 2.3 times more likely to require a joint replacement (confidence interval [CI], 1.0-5.2; p  = 0.04). Those patients who received an OCAs were significantly younger as compared with their TKA peers, both at time of initial injury (37 vs. 51 years, p  = 0.02) and at time of surgery (41 vs. 55 years, p  = 0.009). The joint replacement rate in this study is similar to those studies in the published literature that focused solely on the prevalence of conventional TKA. Tobacco is a risk factor for failure following tibial plateau ORIF. Patients who were treated with an OCA were younger at time of injury and failure. Thieme Medical

  10. Early Revision Surgery for Tibial Plateau Non-union and Mal-union.

    PubMed

    Van Nielen, Dominic L; Smith, Christopher S; Helfet, David L; Kloen, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Although relatively rare, non-unions and mal-unions of tibial plateau fractures present significant challenges for the orthopedic surgeon. With careful pre-operative planning, tibial plateau mal-union or non-union revision surgery with intra-articular and varus opening osteotomies can provides good functional results when performed early (within 1 year) after primary surgical procedure. We present our treatment algorithm for approaching and treating non-union or mal-union of tibial plateau fractures. Our aim is to give surgeons treating these difficult injuries an overview of the pertinent literature as well as describe the challenges and pitfalls we have experienced when treating non-union or mal-union of tibial plateau fractures. Using two case examples from our institution, one for mal-union and one for mal-reduction, we describe our treatment algorithm and surgical technique for managing these difficult injuries. We also provide a brief literature review outlining relevant studies and summarizing outcomes for similar injuries. A systematic literature review was conducted with the aim of determining the methods and outcomes commonly reported in the literature regarding revision surgery following tibial plateau non-union or mal-union. Due to the nature of revision surgery, there are no long-term randomized trials dealing with outcomes, but rather several smaller case series exist from which larger conclusions have to be drawn. To date, we have successfully treated approximately 35 patients with this technique, and clinical follow-up continues to show good functional outcomes with reduced pain and little radiographic evidence of arthritic changes. Restoring long leg alignment, anatomic reduction of the articular surface, and achieving stable internal fixation are paramount in achieving the best long-term outcome. Due to the shallow soft tissue envelope around the proximal tibia, and the tendency for these fractures to fall into progressive valgus collapse, these

  11. Aetiology and mechanisms of injury in medial tibial stress syndrome: Current and future developments

    PubMed Central

    Franklyn, Melanie; Oakes, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a debilitating overuse injury of the tibia sustained by individuals who perform recurrent impact exercise such as athletes and military recruits. Characterised by diffuse tibial anteromedial or posteromedial surface subcutaneous periostitis, in most cases it is also an injury involving underlying cortical bone microtrauma, although it is not clear if the soft tissue or cortical bone reaction occurs first. Nuclear bone scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can both be used for the diagnosis of MTSS, but the patient’s history and clinical symptoms need to be considered in conjunction with the imaging findings for a correct interpretation of the results, as both imaging modalities have demonstrated positive findings in the absence of injury. However, MRI is rapidly becoming the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis of bone stress injuries. It can also be used for the early diagnosis of MTSS, as the developing periosteal oedema can be identified. Retrospective studies have demonstrated that MTSS patients have lower bone mineral density (BMD) at the injury site than exercising controls, and preliminary data indicates the BMD is lower in MTSS subjects than tibial stress fracture (TSF) subjects. The values of a number of tibial geometric parameters such as cross-sectional area and section modulus are also lower in MTSS subjects than exercising controls, but not as low as the values in TSF subjects. Thus, the balance between BMD and cortical bone geometry may predict an individual's likelihood of developing MTSS. However, prospective longitudinal studies are needed to determine how these factors alter during the development of the injury and to find the detailed structural cause, which is still unknown. Finite element analysis has recently been used to examine the mechanisms involved in tibial stress injuries and offer a promising future tool to understand the mechanisms involved in MTSS. Contemporary accurate diagnosis

  12. Aetiology and mechanisms of injury in medial tibial stress syndrome: Current and future developments.

    PubMed

    Franklyn, Melanie; Oakes, Barry

    2015-09-18

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a debilitating overuse injury of the tibia sustained by individuals who perform recurrent impact exercise such as athletes and military recruits. Characterised by diffuse tibial anteromedial or posteromedial surface subcutaneous periostitis, in most cases it is also an injury involving underlying cortical bone microtrauma, although it is not clear if the soft tissue or cortical bone reaction occurs first. Nuclear bone scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can both be used for the diagnosis of MTSS, but the patient's history and clinical symptoms need to be considered in conjunction with the imaging findings for a correct interpretation of the results, as both imaging modalities have demonstrated positive findings in the absence of injury. However, MRI is rapidly becoming the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis of bone stress injuries. It can also be used for the early diagnosis of MTSS, as the developing periosteal oedema can be identified. Retrospective studies have demonstrated that MTSS patients have lower bone mineral density (BMD) at the injury site than exercising controls, and preliminary data indicates the BMD is lower in MTSS subjects than tibial stress fracture (TSF) subjects. The values of a number of tibial geometric parameters such as cross-sectional area and section modulus are also lower in MTSS subjects than exercising controls, but not as low as the values in TSF subjects. Thus, the balance between BMD and cortical bone geometry may predict an individual's likelihood of developing MTSS. However, prospective longitudinal studies are needed to determine how these factors alter during the development of the injury and to find the detailed structural cause, which is still unknown. Finite element analysis has recently been used to examine the mechanisms involved in tibial stress injuries and offer a promising future tool to understand the mechanisms involved in MTSS. Contemporary accurate diagnosis

  13. The Impact of Computed Tomography on Decision Making in Tibial Plateau Fractures.

    PubMed

    Castiglia, Marcello Teixeira; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Messias, Andre Marcio Vieira; Salim, Rodrigo; Fogagnolo, Fabricio; Schatzker, Joseph; Kfuri, Mauricio

    2018-02-14

    Schatzker introduced one of the most used classification systems for tibial plateau fractures, based on plain radiographs. Computed tomography brought to attention the importance of coronal plane-oriented fractures. The goal of our study was to determine if the addition of computed tomography would affect the decision making of surgeons who usually use the Schatzker classification to assess tibial plateau fractures. Image studies of 70 patients who sustained tibial plateau fractures were uploaded to a dedicated homepage. Every patient was linked to a folder which contained two radiographic projections (anteroposterior and lateral), three interactive videos of computed tomography (axial, sagittal, and coronal), and eight pictures depicting tridimensional reconstructions of the tibial plateau. Ten attending orthopaedic surgeons, who were blinded to the cases, were granted access to the homepage and assessed each set of images in two different rounds, separated to each other by an interval of 2 weeks. Each case was evaluated in three steps, where surgeons had access, respectively to radiographs, two-dimensional videos of computed tomography, and three-dimensional reconstruction images. After every step, surgeons were asked to present how would they classify the case using the Schatzker system and which surgical approaches would be appropriate. We evaluated the inter- and intraobserver reliability of the Schatzker classification using the Kappa concordance coefficient, as well as the impact of computed tomography in the decision making regarding the surgical approach for each case, by using the chi-square test and likelihood ratio. The interobserver concordance kappa coefficients after each assessment step were, respectively, 0.58, 0.62, and 0.64. For the intraobserver analysis, the coefficients were, respectively, 0.76, 0.75, and 0.78. Computed tomography changed the surgical approach selection for the types II, V, and VI of Schatzker ( p  < 0.01). The addition of

  14. Posterior tibial tendon transfer improves function for foot drop after knee dislocation.

    PubMed

    Molund, Marius; Engebretsen, Lars; Hvaal, Kjetil; Hellesnes, Jan; Ellingsen Husebye, Elisabeth

    2014-09-01

    Knee dislocation may be associated with an injury to the common peroneal nerve with a subsequent foot drop. Previous studies have demonstrated good functional results after posterior tibial tendon transfer in patients with foot drop. No studies, to our knowledge, have focused exclusively on knee dislocation as the cause of common peroneal nerve injury leading to foot drop. We determined the percentage of patients developing common peroneal nerve paresis after knee dislocation, the symptom improvement rate in these patients, and patient-reported outcomes (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society [AOFAS] ankle-hindfoot score), ankle dorsiflexion strength, and ROM in patients with no symptom improvement treated with posterior tibial tendon transfer. Two hundred forty-seven patients with knee dislocation, defined as an injury to both the ACL and PCL with an additional injury to the lateral and/or medial ligaments (Schenck Classification II to IV), were registered in a single institution's database between 1996 and 2011. The database was queried for the frequency of documented injuries to the common peroneal nerve and, among those, the frequency of spontaneous resolution after this injury. Patients demonstrating no active dorsiflexion 12 months after injury generally were offered posterior tibial tendon transfer. Postoperatively, patients were evaluated for AOFAS score, ankle dorsiflexion strength, and ROM. Forty-three patients (17%) had a common peroneal nerve paresis at admission. At 1-year followup, 15 of 43 patients (35%) had experienced symptom improvement. One patient experienced spontaneous improvement later than 1 year after injury. One patient was lost to followup. A below-knee amputation was performed in one patient due to the initial trauma. Seven patients were satisfied with their function using a brace or had medical contraindications to surgical treatment, while four patients refused the proposed operation with a tendon transfer, leaving 14 patients

  15. Rotational alignment of the tibial component affects the kinematic rotation of a weight-bearing knee after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Hiroyuki; Okazaki, Ken; Hamai, Satoshi; Kawahara, Shinya; Higaki, Hidehiko; Mizu-uchi, Hideki; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate how the rotational malalignment of prosthesis after total knee arthroplasty affects the rotational kinematics in a weight-bearing condition. In this study of 18 knees replaced with the posterior stabilizing fixed-bearing system, which has a relatively low-restricting design, rotational angles between the femoral and tibial components and between the femur and tibia during stair climbing were evaluated in vivo in three dimensions using radiologically based image-matching techniques. Rotational alignments of the components were assessed by postoperative CT. The correlations between the rotational alignments and the rotational angles during stair climbing were evaluated. Rotational alignment of the tibial component significantly correlated with rotational angles between the components as well as between bones during stair climbing. Rotational malalignment of the tibial component toward internal rotation caused a rotational mismatch of the tibial component toward internal rotation relative to the femoral component in 0° extension and caused a rotational mismatch of the tibia (bone) toward external rotation relative to the femur (bone). The knee in which the tibial component was placed close to the AP axis of the tibia did not show any rotational mismatch between either components or bones. Rotational alignment of the tibial component affects the kinematic rotation of the replaced knee during a weight-bearing condition even though using a low-restricting designed surface, and the AP axis can be a reliable reference in determining rotational alignment for the tibial component. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of axial tibial torque direction on ACL relative strain and strain rate in an in vitro simulated pivot landing.

    PubMed

    Oh, Youkeun K; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L; Wojtys, Edward M; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2012-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries most frequently occur under the large loads associated with a unipedal jump landing involving a cutting or pivoting maneuver. We tested the hypotheses that internal tibial torque would increase the anteromedial (AM) bundle ACL relative strain and strain rate more than would the corresponding external tibial torque under the large impulsive loads associated with such landing maneuvers. Twelve cadaveric female knees [mean (SD) age: 65.0 (10.5) years] were tested. Pretensioned quadriceps, hamstring, and gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit forces maintained an initial knee flexion angle of 15°. A compound impulsive test load (compression, flexion moment, and internal or external tibial torque) was applied to the distal tibia while recording the 3D knee loads and tibofemoral kinematics. AM-ACL relative strain was measured using a 3 mm DVRT. In this repeated measures experiment, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to test the null hypotheses with p < 0.05 considered significant. The mean (±SD) peak AM-ACL relative strains were 5.4 ± 3.7% and 3.1 ± 2.8% under internal and external tibial torque, respectively. The corresponding mean (± SD) peak AM-ACL strain rates reached 254.4 ± 160.1%/s and 179.4 ± 109.9%/s, respectively. The hypotheses were supported in that the normalized mean peak AM-ACL relative strain and strain rate were 70 and 42% greater under internal than under external tibial torque, respectively (p = 0.023, p = 0.041). We conclude that internal tibial torque is a potent stressor of the ACL because it induces a considerably (70%) larger peak strain in the AM-ACL than does a corresponding external tibial torque. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  17. Estimates of Tibial Shock Magnitude in Men and Women at the Start and End of a Military Drill Training Program.

    PubMed

    Rice, Hannah M; Saunders, Samantha C; McGuire, Stephen J; O'Leary, Thomas J; Izard, Rachel M

    2018-03-26

    Foot drill is a key component of military training and is characterized by frequent heel stamping, likely resulting in high tibial shock magnitudes. Higher tibial shock during running has previously been associated with risk of lower limb stress fractures, which are prevalent among military populations. Quantification of tibial shock during drill training is, therefore, warranted. This study aimed to provide estimates of tibial shock during military drill in British Army Basic training. The study also aimed to compare values between men and women, and to identify any differences between the first and final sessions of training. Tibial accelerometers were secured on the right medial, distal shank of 10 British Army recruits (n = 5 men; n = 5 women) throughout a scheduled drill training session in week 1 and week 12 of basic military training. Peak positive accelerations, the average magnitude above given thresholds, and the rate at which each threshold was exceeded were quantified. Mean (SD) peak positive acceleration was 20.8 (2.2) g across all sessions, which is considerably higher than values typically observed during high impact physical activity. Magnitudes of tibial shock were higher in men than women, and higher in week 12 compared with week 1 of training. This study provides the first estimates of tibial shock magnitude during military drill training in the field. The high values suggest that military drill is a demanding activity and this should be considered when developing and evaluating military training programs. Further exploration is required to understand the response of the lower limb to military drill training and the etiology of these responses in the development of lower limb stress fractures.

  18. Greater Static Anterior Tibial Subluxation of the Lateral Compartment After an Acute Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Is Associated With an Increased Posterior Tibial Slope.

    PubMed

    Song, Guan-Yang; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Xin; Xue, Zhe; Qian, Yi; Feng, Hua

    2018-03-01

    Static anterior tibial subluxation of the lateral compartment after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury highlights an increased anterior position of the tibia relative to the femur. However, the precise cause of this phenomenon is not entirely clear. Recently, an increased posterior tibial slope (PTS) has been identified as an independent risk factor for noncontact ACL injuries. An increased PTS is associated with an increased anterior position of the lateral compartment of the tibia relative to the femur after acute ACL injuries. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. From March 2016 to March 2017, a total of 154 patients with clinically diagnosed noncontact ACL injuries who underwent primary ACL reconstruction were retrospectively analyzed. Static anterior subluxation of the lateral compartment relative to the lateral femoral condyle was measured on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Among them, 23 patients (study group) who demonstrated ≥6-mm anterior subluxation of the lateral compartment were matched in a 1:1 fashion to 23 control participants (control group), who showed <6-mm anterior subluxation of the lateral compartment. The PTS was measured on routinely available preoperative weightbearing lateral knee radiographs. Predictors of increased (≥6 mm) static anterior subluxation of the lateral compartment, including body mass index (BMI), PTS, injuries to the anterolateral ligament (ALL), and concomitant lateral meniscal lesions, were assessed by multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis. The mean PTS in the study group was 15.4°, which was significantly larger than that in the control group (8.8°) ( P < .001). In addition, an abnormal degree of PTS (≥10.0°) was determined to be an independent risk factor (odds ratio, 8.0 [95% CI, 2.7-29.2]; P < .001) associated with ≥6-mm anterior subluxation of the lateral compartment after acute ACL injuries. However, BMI, presence of concomitant lateral meniscal lesions, and presence

  19. Comparison of glenohumeral contact pressures and contact areas after glenoid reconstruction with latarjet or distal tibial osteochondral allografts.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Sanjeev; Van Thiel, Geoffrey S; Gupta, Deepti; Ghodadra, Neil; Cole, Brian J; Bach, Bernard R; Shewman, Elizabeth; Wang, Vincent M; Romeo, Anthony A; Verma, Nikhil N; Provencher, Matthew T

    2013-08-01

    Glenoid reconstruction with distal tibial allografts offers the theoretical advantage over Latarjet reconstruction of improved joint congruity and a cartilaginous articulation for the humeral head. Hypothesis/ To investigate changes in the magnitude and location of glenohumeral contact areas, contact pressures, and peak forces after (1) the creation of a 30% anterior glenoid defect and subsequent glenoid bone augmentation with (2) a flush Latarjet coracoid graft or (3) a distal tibial osteochondral allograft. It was hypothesized that the distal tibial bone graft would best normalize glenohumeral contact areas, contact pressures, and peak forces. Controlled laboratory study. Eight cadaveric shoulder specimens were dissected free of all soft tissues and randomly tested in 3 static positions of humeral abduction with a 440-N compressive load: 30°, 60°, and 60° of abduction with 90° of external rotation (ABER). Glenohumeral contact area, contact pressure, and peak force were determined sequentially using a digital pressure mapping system for (1) the intact glenoid, (2) the glenoid with a 30% anterior bone defect, and (3) the glenoid after reconstruction with a distal tibial allograft or a Latarjet bone block. Glenoid reconstruction with distal tibial allografts resulted in significantly higher glenohumeral contact areas than reconstruction with Latarjet bone blocks in 60° of abduction (4.87 vs. 3.93 cm2, respectively; P < .05) and the ABER position (3.98 vs. 2.81 cm2, respectively; P < .05). Distal tibial allograft reconstruction also demonstrated significantly lower peak forces than Latarjet reconstruction in the ABER position (2.39 vs. 2.61 N, respectively; P < .05). Regarding the bone loss model, distal tibial allograft reconstruction exhibited significantly higher contact areas and significantly lower contact pressures and peak forces than the 30% defect model at all 3 abduction positions. Latarjet reconstruction also followed this same pattern, but

  20. Quadriceps force and anterior tibial force occur obviously later than vertical ground reaction force: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Ryo; Ishida, Tomoya; Yamanaka, Masanori; Taniguchi, Shohei; Ikuta, Ryohei; Samukawa, Mina; Saito, Hiroshi; Tohyama, Harukazu

    2017-11-18

    Although it is well known that quadriceps force generates anterior tibial force, it has been unclear whether quadriceps force causes great anterior tibial force during the early phase of a landing task. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the quadriceps force induced great anterior tibial force during the early phase of a landing task. Fourteen young, healthy, female subjects performed a single-leg landing task. Muscle force and anterior tibial force were estimated from motion capture data and synchronized force data from the force plate. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance and the post hoc Bonferroni test were conducted to compare the peak time of the vertical ground reaction force, quadriceps force and anterior tibial force during the single-leg landing. In addition, we examined the contribution of vertical and posterior ground reaction force, knee flexion angle and moment to peak quadriceps force using multiple linear regression. The peak times of the estimated quadriceps force (96.0 ± 23.0 ms) and anterior tibial force (111.9 ± 18.9 ms) were significantly later than that of the vertical ground reaction force (63.5 ± 6.8 ms) during the single-leg landing. The peak quadriceps force was positively correlated with the peak anterior tibial force (R = 0.953, P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the peak knee flexion moment contributed significantly to the peak quadriceps force (R 2  = 0.778, P < 0.001). The peak times of the quadriceps force and the anterior tibial force were obviously later than that of the vertical ground reaction force for the female athletes during successful single-leg landings. Studies have reported that the peak time of the vertical ground reaction force was close to the time of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) disruption in ACL injury cases. It is possible that early contraction of the quadriceps during landing might induce ACL disruption as a result of

  1. [Internal fixation surgery planning for complex tibial plateau fracture based on digital design and 3D printing].

    PubMed

    Huang, Huajun; Zhang, Guodong; Ouyang, Hanbin; Yang, Yang; Wu, ZhangLin; Xu, Jing; Xie, Pusheng; Huang, Wenhua

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the application of 3D printing and digital technology in preoperative assessment and planning of internal fixation surgery for complex tibial plateau fracture. Complex tibial plateau fractures and commonly used plates for tibial plateau were imaged using computed tomography (CT) to reconstruct the 3D fracture and plate models. The 3D models were used to perform virtual reduction and preoperative planning of internal fixation surgery with the most appropriate plates assisted by the 3D library of plates. According to the optimal plan, the 3D physical models of tibial plateau fractures and plates were 3D printed to simulate internal fixation operation. The effects of internal fixation were compared between the virtual surgery and the simulated surgery based on the 3D models. The effects of internal fixation in the simulated surgery based on the 3D models were consistent with those of the virtual surgery. No significant difference was found in the screw length between the two surgeries. The combination of 3D printing and digital design can improve the effects of internal fixation for complex tibial plateau fractures.

  2. Inverse relationship between the complexity of midfoot kinematics and muscle activation in patients with medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rathleff, M S; Samani, A; Olesen, C G; Kersting, U G; Madeleine, P

    2011-08-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is a common overuse injury characterized by pain located on the medial side of the lower leg during weight bearing activities such as gait. The purpose of this study was to apply linear and nonlinear methods to compare the structure of variability of midfoot kinematics and surface electromyographic (SEMG) signals between patients with medial tibial stress syndrome and healthy controls during gait. Fourteen patients diagnosed with medial tibial stress syndrome and 11 healthy controls were included from an orthopaedic clinic. SEMG from tibialis anterior and the soleus muscles as well as midfoot kinematics were recorded during 20 consecutive gait cycles. Permuted sample entropy and permutation entropy were used as a measure of complexity from SEMG signals and kinematics. SEMG signals in patients with medial tibial stress syndrome were characterized by higher structural complexity compared with healthy controls (p<0.001) while it was the opposite for the midfoot kinematics (p=0.01). Assessing the complexity of midfoot kinematics and SEMG activation pattern enabled a precise characterization of gait in patients with medial tibial stress syndrome. The reported inverse relationship in foot kinematics and SEMG complexity most likely point towards separated control processes governing gait variability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of both Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire and Short Form-36 among tibial-fracture patients was redundant.

    PubMed

    Busse, Jason W; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon H; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Mandel, Scott; Sanders, David; Schemitsch, Emil; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Wai, Eugene; Walter, Stephen D

    2009-11-01

    To compare the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index (SMFA DI) and the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary (SF-36 PCS) scores among patients undergoing operative management of tibial fractures. Between July 2000 and September 2005, we enrolled 1,319 skeletally mature patients with open or closed fractures of the tibial shaft that were managed with intramedullary nailing. Patients were asked to complete the SMFA Questionnaire and SF-36 at discharge and 3, 6, and 12 months post-surgical fixation. The SMFA DI and SF-36 PCS scores were highly correlated at 3, 6, and 12 months post-surgical fixation. The difference in the mean standardized change scores for SMFA DI and SF-36 PCS, from 3 to 12 months post-surgical fixation, was not statistically significant. Both the SMFA DI and SF-36 PCS scores were able to discriminate between healed and nonhealed tibial fractures at 3, 6, and 12 months postsurgery. In patients with tibial-shaft fractures, the SMFA DI offered no significant advantages over the SF-36 PCS score. These results, along with the usefulness of SF-36 for comparing populations, recommend the SF-36 for assessing physical function in studies of patients with tibial fractures.

  4. Use of Both the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire and the Short Form-36 among Tibial Fracture Patients was Redundant

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores among patients undergoing operative management of tibial fractures. Study Design and Setting Between July 2000 and September 2005, we enrolled 1319 skeletally mature patients with open or closed fractures of the tibial shaft that were managed with intramedullary nailing. Patients were asked to complete the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment and Short Form-36 at discharge and 3, 6, and 12 months post surgical fixation. Results Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores were highly correlated at 3, 6, and 12 months post surgical fixation. The difference in mean standardized change scores for the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary, from 3 to 12 months post-surgical fixation, was not statistically significant. Both the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores were able to discriminate between healed and non-healed tibial fractures at 3, 6, and 12 months post surgery. Conclusion In patients with tibial shaft fractures, the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index offered no important advantages over the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary score. These results, along with the usefulness of the Short Form-36 for comparing populations, recommends the Short Form-36 for assessing physical function in studies of patients with tibial fractures. PMID:19364637

  5. The flexion-extension axis of the knee and its relationship to the rotational orientation of the tibial plateau.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, Charles M; Noble, Philip C; Ismaily, Sabir K; Stal, Drew; Incavo, Steve J

    2011-09-01

    We measured the optimal rotational alignment of the tibial component with respect to anatomic landmarks. Kinematic data were collected from functional maneuvers simulated in 20 cadaveric knees mounted in a joint simulator. The axis of knee motion was calculated for squatting and lunging activities over the interval of 30° to 90° of knee flexion. We then examined the accuracy and variability of 5 different anatomic axes in predicting the direction of knee motion. No one landmark guaranteed correct alignment of the tibial component and most predictors were highly variable (range, 6°-21°). The most accurate indicators were the medial third of the tibial tubercle (average error: squatting: 3.5° external rotation; lunging: 9.5°), and the medial-lateral axis of the resected tibial surface (6.7° and 1.1° internal rotation). The correct alignment of the tibial component can be best achieved by splitting the difference between these landmarks to eliminate placement of the component in excessive external and excessive internal rotation. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Landing strategies focusing on the control of tibial rotation in the initial contact period of one-leg forward hops.

    PubMed

    Chen, W-L; Chen, Y-T; Huang, S-Y; Yang, C-Y; Wu, C-D; Chang, C-W

    2017-08-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) surgeries successfully restore anterior tibial translation but not tibial rotation. This study aimed to explore landing strategies focusing on the control of tibial rotation at landing when the ACL is most vulnerable. Three groups of male subjects (50 ACLRs, 26 basketball players, and 31 controls) participated in one-leg forward hop tests for determining the tibial rotatory landing strategies adopted during the initial landing phase. The differences in knee kinematics and muscle activities between internal and external tibial rotatory (ITR, ETR) landing strategies were examined. A higher proportion of basketball players (34.6%) were found to adopt ITR strategies (controls: 6.5%), exhibiting significantly greater hopping distance and knee strength. After adjusting for hopping distance, subjects adopting ITR strategies were found to hop faster with straighter knees at foot contact and with greater ITR and less knee adduction angular displacement during the initial landing phase. However, significantly greater angular displacement in knee flexion, greater medial hamstring activities, and greater co-contraction index of hamstrings and medial knee muscles were also found during initial landing. Our results support the importance of the recruitments of medial hamstrings or the local co-contraction in assisting the rotatory control of the knee during initial landing for avoiding ACL injuries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Objective Metric of Energy Absorbed in Tibial Plateau Fractures Corresponds Well to Clinician Assessment of Fracture Severity.

    PubMed

    Kempton, Laurence B; Dibbern, Kevin; Anderson, Donald D; Morshed, Saam; Higgins, Thomas F; Marsh, J Lawrence; McKinley, Todd O

    2016-10-01

    Determine the agreement between subjective assessments of fracture severity and an objective computed tomography (CT)-based metric of fracture energy in tibial plateau fractures. Six fellowship-trained orthopaedic trauma surgeons independently rank-ordered 20 tibial plateau fractures in terms of severity based on anteroposterior and lateral knee radiographs. A CT-based image analysis methodology was used to quantify the fracture energy, and agreement between the surgeons' severity rankings and the fracture energy metric was tested by computing their concordance, a statistical measure that estimates the probability that any 2 cases would be ranked with the same ordering by 2 different raters or methods. Concordance between the 6 orthopaedic surgeons ranged from 82% to 93%, and concordance between surgeon severity rankings and the computed fracture energy ranged from 73% to 78%. There is a high level of agreement between experienced surgeons in their assessments of tibial plateau fracture severity, and a slightly lower agreement between the surgeon assessments and an objective CT-based metric of fracture energy. Taken together, these results suggest that experienced surgeons share a similar understanding of what makes a tibial plateau fracture more or less severe, and an objective CT-based metric of fracture energy captures much but not all of that information. Further research is ongoing to characterize the relationship between surgeon assessments of severity, fracture energy, and the eventual clinical outcomes for patients with fractures of the tibial plateau.

  8. Objective metric of energy absorbed in tibial plateau fractures corresponds well to clinician assessment of fracture severity

    PubMed Central

    Kempton, Laurence B.; Dibbern, Kevin; Anderson, Donald D.; Morshed, Saam; Higgins, Thomas F.; Marsh, J. Lawrence; McKinley, Todd O.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Determine the agreement between subjective assessments of fracture severity and an objective CT-based metric of fracture energy in tibial plateau fractures. Methods Six fellowship-trained orthopaedic trauma surgeons independently rank-ordered 20 tibial plateau fractures in terms of severity based upon AP and lateral knee radiographs. A CT-based image analysis methodology was used to quantify the fracture energy, and agreement between the surgeons’ severity rankings and the fracture energy metric was tested by computing their concordance, a statistical measure that estimates the probability that any two cases would be ranked with the same ordering by two different raters or methods. Results Concordance between the six orthopaedic surgeons ranged from 82% to 93%, and concordance between surgeon severity rankings and the computed fracture energy ranged from 73% to 78%. Conclusions There is a high level of agreement between experienced surgeons in their assessments of tibial plateau fracture severity, and a slightly lower agreement between the surgeon assessments and an objective CT-based metric of fracture energy. Taken together, these results suggest that experienced surgeons share a similar understanding of what makes a tibial plateau fracture more or less severe, and an objective CT-based metric of fracture energy captures much but not all of that information. Further research is ongoing to characterize the relationship between surgeon assessments of severity, fracture energy, and the eventual clinical outcomes for patients with fractures of the tibial plateau. PMID:27243347

  9. Effect of Posterior Tibial Slope on Flexion and Anterior-Posterior Tibial Translation in Posterior Cruciate-Retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Andrew W; Wood, Addison R; Kosmopoulos, Victor; Sanchez, Hugo B; Wagner, Russell A

    2016-01-01

    Reduced posterior tibial slope (PTS) and posterior tibiofemoral translation (PTFT) in posterior cruciate-retaining (PCR) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may result in suboptimal flexion. We evaluated the relationship between PTS, PTFT, and total knee flexion after PCR TKA in a cadaveric model. We performed a balanced PCR TKA using 9 transfemoral cadaver specimens and changed postoperative PTS in 1° increments. We measured maximal flexion and relative PTFT at maximal flexion. We determined significant changes in flexion and PTFT as a function of PTS. Findings showed an average increase in flexion of 2.3° and average PTFT increase of 1mm per degree of PTS increase when increasing PTS from 1° to 4° (P<.05). Small initial increases in PTS appear to significantly increase knee flexion and PTFT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Effects of expanded anterolateral approach for tibial plateau fractures involved the posterolateral column].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y W; Xie, J B; Ding, G Z

    2018-01-30

    Objective: To explore the short-term effects of expanded anterolateral approach in treating fracture involved the posterolateral tibial plateau. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the clinical data from 16 patients undergoing extended anterolateral approach for fracture involved the posterolateral tibial plateau in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College between January 2013 and July 2016 was done. The patients were treated with 3.5 mm proximal "L" type proximal tibial locking compression plate with four locking screws through the nail row technique. The X-rays examinations were carried out immediately after the operation and at 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 months later, to continuously measure the tibial plateau angle (TPA) and posterior slope angle (PA). The Rasmussen radiology score was used to assess the reduction. One year later, the modified Rasmussen knee score was used to assess the recovery of knee function, the Lysholm score was applied to evaluate the cartilage injury, softening and degeneration, and lateral stress test and dial test were carried out to evaluate the stability of the knee. Results: The group consisted of 11 males and 5 females; aged 25 to 71 years, mean (47±12) years; schatzker type Ⅱ 9 cases, type Ⅴ 6 cases and type Ⅵ 1 case. There were 9 cases of type B in Orthopedic Trauma Association (OTA) classification, and 7 cases of type C. X-ray was immediately performed after operation and it showed that 14 cases got anatomic reduction, 2 cases left<2 mm of steps. Rasmussen radiology score was 14 to 18 points, mean (17.0±1.5) points. X-ray examination showed no significant difference in TPA immediately after operation and 1.5, 3, 6, 12 months later ( F =0.05, P =0.99), and there was no significant difference in PA among the time points ( F =0.02, P =1.00). At one-year of follow-up, the modified Rasmussen knee score ranged from 18 to 29 with an average of (25.0±3.3) points, of which 7 were excellent, 8 were good and 1 was fair

  11. High Varus Angle and Lower Posterior Tibial Slope Associated with PCL Injury in Cruciate Retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty: An MRI Study.

    PubMed

    Çabuk, Haluk; İmren, Yunus; Tekin, Ali Çağrı; Dedeoğlu, Süleyman Semih; Gürbüz, Hakan

    2018-03-01

    The posterior tibial slope (PTS) is important for performing a tibial cut that does not injure the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). In this study, the amount of PCL fibers sacrificed under simulated tibial cuts with varying posterior inclinations was evaluated using magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of osteoarthritic varus knees. Knee X-rays, orthoroentgenograms, and MRIs of 113 Kellgren and Lawrence grades 3 to 4 osteoarthritic knees were included. Four different simulated tibial cuts were performed at 0, 3, 5 degrees and parallel to the tibia plateau 3 mm below of the most defective part of the cartilage in the medial plateau. Correlations between the PCL avulsion amount and the PTS and varus alignment of the lower extremity were analyzed for all four simulated tibial cut levels. The maximum amount of PCL was preserved with a 0-degree tibial cut in patients with a PTS of more than 8 degrees. With increased tibial cut angles, the posterior slope resulted in an increased amount of avulsed PCL. Although the amount of avulsed PCL was proportional with the varus alignment, it was inversely proportional with the sagittal slope. The number of injured PCLs also increased as the slope of the tibial cuts increased. Patients with mild varus alignments and high PTSs are more suitable for cruciate retaining total knee arthroplasty. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Combined CT-based and image-free navigation systems in TKA reduces postoperative outliers of rotational alignment of the tibial component.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Shota; Akamatsu, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Hideo; Kusayama, Yoshihiro; Kumagai, Ken; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2018-02-01

    Rotational malpositioning of the tibial component can lead to poor functional outcome in TKA. Although various surgical techniques have been proposed, precise rotational placement of the tibial component was difficult to accomplish even with the use of a navigation system. The purpose of this study is to assess whether combined CT-based and image-free navigation systems replicate accurately the rotational alignment of tibial component that was preoperatively planned on CT, compared with the conventional method. We compared the number of outliers for rotational alignment of the tibial component using combined CT-based and image-free navigation systems (navigated group) with those of conventional method (conventional group). Seventy-two TKAs were performed between May 2012 and December 2014. In the navigated group, the anteroposterior axis was prepared using CT-based navigation system and the tibial component was positioned under control of the navigation. In the conventional group, the tibial component was placed with reference to the Akagi line that was determined visually. Fisher's exact probability test was performed to evaluate the results. There was a significant difference between the two groups with regard to the number of outliers: 3 outliers in the navigated group compared with 12 outliers in the conventional group (P < 0.01). We concluded that combined CT-based and image-free navigation systems decreased the number of rotational outliers of tibial component, and was helpful for the replication of the accurate rotational alignment of the tibial component that was preoperatively planned.

  13. Strength asymmetry and osteoarthritis risk factors in unilateral trans-tibial, amputee gait.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Chandra H; Stanhope, Steven J; Davis, Irene S; Royer, Todd D

    2010-07-01

    Persons with a unilateral, trans-tibial amputation have an increased risk of developing osteoarthritis (OA) in the knee of their intact limb. Between-side strength discrepancies observed in individuals with an amputation may indicate overuse of the intact limb and increased osteoarthritis risk; however, the relationship between lower extremity strength and gait mechanics has not been addressed in previous literature. It was hypothesized that amputee subjects' strength and gait would be more asymmetrical than controls, and that strength asymmetry would positively correlate with gait variable asymmetry and intact side gait variables associated with osteoarthritis risk. Eight persons with unilateral, trans-tibial amputation and eight able-bodied control subjects participated. Three gait variables related to osteoarthritis risk (knee external adduction moment, knee adduction moment load rate, and vertical ground reaction force load rate) were measured bilaterally, along with three strength measures (hip abductors, knee extensors, and knee flexors). Four of the six variables were more asymmetrical in the amputee group than the control group (p<0.05 and/or effect size greater than 0.70). Knee extension strength asymmetry was significantly related to knee adduction moment load rate asymmetry (rho=0.714), and knee flexion strength asymmetry was moderately related to the vertical ground reaction force on the intact limb (rho=0.643). Results suggest that strength asymmetry in unilateral trans-tibial amputees has a moderate relationship with osteoarthritis risk, and may be a useful way to assess gait ability and the need for rehabilitation in this population. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Dynamic balance training during standing in people with trans-tibial amputation: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Matjaĉić, Z; Burger, H

    2003-12-01

    Falls and fear of falling are significant problems arising from impaired balancing abilities that affect people with lower limb amputation during unassisted transfer manoeuvres and ambulation. It is important to develop and evaluate efficient therapeutic interventions aimed at improving balancing and coordination skills. A group of 14 persons after trans-tibial amputation, fitted with trans-tibial prostheses, were included in a balance-training programme, consisting of approximately 20 minutes of balance training per day for five consecutive days on BalanceReTrainer--a novel balance-training, fall-safe mechanical apparatus. Before and after the training period three outcome measures were taken: duration of standing only on the prosthetic leg, timed up and go test and 10m walk. Each measurement was repeated five times and the mean value was used in the subsequent calculation of mean values and standard deviations for the group. Before training the group was able to stand on the prosthetic leg for 2.98 +/- 2.75s, they needed 6.15 +/- 1.9s for accomplishing timed up and go test and they needed 5.51 +/- 1.5s to cover the distance of 10m. After the treatment period the values were 4.3 + 4.5s, 5.4 +/- 1.5s and 4.5 +/- 0.9s, respectively. The results indicate improved performance in all three measured tasks, thereby indicating that the applied treatment programme improves balancing and ambulation abilities in people after trans-tibial amputation.

  15. Are antibiotic nails effective in the treatment of infected tibial fractures?

    PubMed

    Reilly, Rachel M; Robertson, Thomas; O'Toole, Robert V; Manson, Theodore T

    2016-12-01

    Antibiotic-impregnated cement nails are used to treat postoperative deep infections after primary intramedullary nail insertion for the treatment of tibial fractures. Few data exist regarding the efficacy of this treatment strategy. We hypothesized that such treatment with antibiotic nails results in a high rate of infection clearance at intermediate follow-up. We conducted a retrospective review at our Level I trauma center. Patients who received intramedullary nails to stabilize tibial fractures (from 2000 to 2011) and subsequently required antibiotic nails to treat deep postoperative infection (n=55) were considered for study inclusion. Patients with less than 6 months of follow-up were excluded, leaving 41 patients in the study group (average age, 41 years; average follow-up, 20 months). Thirty-one patients (76%) had no evidence of infection after treatment. The 10 patients for whom treatment failed were shown to have infection within the first 6 months. Two experienced persistent infection after antibiotic nail removal, necessitating massive débridement and ring fixator placement. Four patients underwent repeat antibiotic nail insertion after persistent infection. Three infections resulted in eventual above-knee amputations, and one chronic infection resulted in the need for multiple débridement and saucerization procedures. No complications associated with use of the antibiotic nails were observed. The use of antibiotic nails for treatment of tibial infections seems to be a reasonable option, clearing 76% of infections at the 6-month time frame. Further investigation is needed to compare this treatment algorithm with other strategies, such as antibiotic treatment without nail removal and massive débridement with ring fixator placement. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Cartilage health in high tibial osteotomy using dGEMRIC: Relationships with joint kinematics.

    PubMed

    d'Entremont, Agnes G; McCormack, Robert G; Agbanlog, Kenard; Horlick, Simon G D; Stone, Trevor B; Manzary, Mojieb M; Wilson, David R

    2015-06-01

    The aims of this study are to determine how opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) affects cartilage health in the tibiofemoral (TF) joint and patella, and to explore relationships between TF and patellofemoral (PF) joint kinematics and cartilage health in HTO. 14 knees (13 subjects) with medial TF osteoarthritis (OA) were examined before HTO and 6 and 12 months after HTO using delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) to evaluate cartilage health at the TF joint and patella. They were also examined using a validated 3D MR knee kinematics measurement to obtain 11 rotations and translations at both TF and PF joints. No statistically significant differences in overall TF or patellar dGEMRIC score were found at 6 or 12 months after HTO. However three subjects had large decreases (mean 105 ms) in TF dGEMRIC at 6 months that recovered at 12 months. Kinematics for these subjects were compared to subjects who did not have decreases in TF dGEMRIC at 6 months (n=5). Differences were observed between groups with HTO in anterior and proximal tibial translation (mean differences 3.05 mm and 1.35 mm), and patellar flexion (mean difference 3.65°). These changes were consistent between 6 and 12 months, despite recovery of TF dGEMRIC values. We did not find significant differences in TF or patellar dGEMRIC before and after HTO with all subjects, however there were differences in kinematics between subjects who had a decrease in TF dGEMRIC at 6 months and those who did not. This suggests a link between joint kinematics and cartilage health in HTO. The effect of opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy on cartilage GAG concentration may be linked to specific changes in knee kinematics following surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The cost of infection in severe open tibial fractures treated with a free flap.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Ulrik Kähler; Pedersen, Nicolas Jones; Eckardt, Henrik; Lykke-Meyer, Line; Bonde, Christian Thorsten; Singh, Upender Martin; McNally, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Open tibial fractures needing soft tissue cover are challenging injuries. Infection risk is high, making treatment difficult and expensive. Delayed skin closure has been shown to increase the infection rate in several studies. We aimed at calculating the direct and indirect cost of treatment, and to determine the effect of delayed skin closure on this cost. We reviewed all records of patients treated with a free flap in our institution for an open tibial fracture from 2002 to 2013. We calculated direct costs based on length of stay (LOS) and orthopaedic and plastic surgical procedures performed, including medications and intensive care. We analysed indirect cost in terms of absenteeism and unemployment benefits. The primary goal was to establish the extra cost incurred by an infection. We analysed 46 injuries in 45 patients. Infection increased the LOS from 41 to 74 days and increased the cost of treatment from € 49,817 in uninfected fractures to € 81,155 for infected fractures. Employed patients spent 430 days more on unemployment benefits, than a matched cohort in the background population. Achieving skin cover within seven days of injury decreased the infection rate from 60 to 27 %. Severe open tibial fractures covered with free flaps, cause over a year of absenteeism. Infection increases direct cost of treatment over 60 % and roughly doubles LOS. Early soft-tissue cover and correct antibiotics have been shown to improve outcomes-underscoring the need for rapid referral to centres with an ortho-plastic set-up to handle such injuries.

  18. [Total knee arthroplasty for recent severe fracture of the proximal tibial epiphysis in the elderly subject].

    PubMed

    Nourissat, G; Hoffman, E; Hémon, C; Rillardon, L; Guigui, P; Sautet, A

    2006-05-01

    Bone comminution, serious cartilage damage, and the poor mechanical quality of osteoporotic bone create a difficult challenge for osteosynthesis of joint fractures in the elderly subject. Poor results with certain hip, elbow and shoulder fractures have lead certain authors to propose emergency arthroplasty in selected cases. We report our experience with four knee arthroplasties implanted for recent severe fracture of the proximal tibial epiphysis in elderly subjects. Four independent patients aged over 75 years presented a severe comminutive fracture of the proximal epiphysis of the tibia (Three Schatzker 5, one Schatzker 4). After obtaining the patients' informed consent, early knee arthroplasty was performed. A long-stem cemented tibial piece was used on which the epiphysis was reconstructed. Implants providing support for ligament deficits were used in all cases. Immediate weight-bearing was authorized. Follow-up ranged from two to seven years. The IKS function score (15, 60, 100, 100) depended on the patient's general status. The IKS knee score was excellent for three knees (90, 95, 95), and fair in one (45). Re-operations were not needed in any of the patients. All x-rays showed bone healing with correctly aligned limbs (less than 2 degrees deformation). There were no lucent lines at last follow-up. Early arthroplasty for complex fractures of the proximal epiphysis of the tibia is a realistic option. Using a cemented long-stem tibial piece ensures primary stability sufficient for early weight-bearing before bone healing. Use of a constrained prosthesis, or better a hinged prosthesis, can be questioned but avoids the difficulty of ligament balance on an osteoporotic knee with a destroyed joint surface. None of the patients required reoperation and the results in terms of pain were excellent. The overall outcome depends on the general status of the patient.

  19. [ARTHROSCOPIC TREATMENT OF ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT TIBIAL EMINENCE AVULSION FRACTURE IN ADOLESCENTS WITH EPIPHYSEAL UNCLOSURE].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Sun, Xuebin; Zhang, Keyuan; Li, Gang; Ni, Jiati

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical results of arthroscopic treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tibial eminence avulsion fractures in adolescents with epiphyseal unclosure. Between January 2011 and October 2013, 35 knees with ACL tibial eminence avulsion fractures (35 patients with epiphyseal unclosure) were arthroscopically treated with suture fixation. There were 25 males and 10 females, aged 8-16 years (mean, 14.7 years). The causes included sports injury in 24 cases, traffic accident injury in 9 cases, and daily life injury in 2 cases. According to Meyers-McKeever classification criteria, there were 27 cases of type II and 8 cases of type III. Five cases had meniscus injury. The preoperative the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score was 48.7 ± 3.2, and Lysholm score was 51.2 ± 4.5. The time from injury to operation was 2-16 days (mean, 5 days). Primary healing of incision was obtained in all patients. The mean follow-up time was 22.4 months (range, 12-32 months). Anatomical reduction was achieved in 28 cases and satisfactory reduction in 7 cases. X-ray films showed all fractures healing at last follow-up. There was no limb shortening deformity, varus knee, or valgus knee. Lachman test results were all negative. The other knees had normal range of motion except 1 knee with limited flexion, whose range of motion returned to 0-120° after treatment. At last follow-up, the IKDC score was significantly improved to 93.2 ± 4.1 (t = -53.442, P = 0.000), and the Lysholm score was significantly increased to 96.2 ± 2.5 (t = -56.242, P = 0.000). The arthroscopic fixation technique has satisfactory results for the reduction and fixation of ACL tibial eminence avulsion fracture in the adolescents with epiphyseal unclosure because of little trauma and quick recovery.

  20. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on open tibial fractures in rabbits after transient seawater immersion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaosong; Cheng, Xunsheng; Ma, Wuxiu; Chen, Congcong

    2017-01-01

    To explore the effect and mechanism of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy of open tibial fractures in rabbits after transient seawater immersion. Forty-eight (48) New Zealand rabbits were randomly and averagely divided into an HBO₂ therapy group (Group A) and a control group (Group B). All rabbits were subjected to unilateral open tibial fractures, while immersed in artificial seawater (20-22 °C) for three hours prior to debridement and external fixation. Group A was treated with HBO₂ at 2 atmospheres absolute (ATA) for 50 minutes once daily for two weeks; Group B received postoperative routine treatments only. The fracture zone in each group was compared by radiological, histological and immunohistochemical examinations. In Group A, bony callus and mature osteocytes without infiltration of inflammatory cells were observed in the fracture zone. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was expressed mainly in the cytoplasm of osteoblasts, chondrocytes and osteocytes, and exhibited significant changes at different time points. The gray value of bony callus in Group A was 190.58 ± 7.52; that of Group B was 144 ± 8.11. Difference between the groups was statistically significant (P ⟨ 0.01). The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in Group A was significantly lower than Group B (P ⟨ 0.01), and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Group A was higher than Group B (P ⟨ 0.01) at four weeks. There were no significant differences in MDA content and SOD activity between groups at eight and 12 weeks. HBO₂ treatment of open tibial fractures in seawater can reduce the inflammatory reaction and reperfusion injury, and promote osteocytic proliferation and fracture healing.

  1. Effects of surgical variables in balancing of total knee replacements using an instrumented tibial trial.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter S; Meere, Patrick A; Bell, Christopher P

    2014-01-01

    In total knee surgery, typically the bone cuts are made first to produce the correct overall alignment. This is followed by balancing, often using spacer blocks to obtain equal parallel gaps in flexion and extension. Recently an electronically instrumented tibial trial has been introduced, which measures lateral and medial contact forces. The goal of our study was to determine the effect of different surgical variables; changing component sizes, modifying bone cuts, or ligament releases; on the contact forces, as a method to achieve balancing. A special rig was designed to fit on a standard operating table, on which tests on 10 lower extremity specimens were carried out. After making bone cuts for a posterior cruciate retaining knee using a navigation system, tibial thickness was determined in extension using the Sag Test. Different Surgical Variables were then implemented, and the changes in the condylar forces were determined throughout flexion using the Heel Push Test. condylar forces were found to consist of gravity forces due to the weight of the leg plus forces due to pretension in the collateral ligaments. The pretension force averaged 145 N but there was considerable variation because of ligament stiffness properties. Balancing from an imbalanced state could be achieved with adjustments within only 2° or 2 mm. The instrumented tibial trial provided force information which indicated which surgical correction options to carry out to achieve balancing. From an initial unbalanced state, relatively small changes could produce balancing, indicating the sensitivity of the procedure. Non-clinical. This study will assist in the balancing of the knee at total knee replacement surgery. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Limited open reduction is better for simple- distal tibial shaft fractures than minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Zeng, B F; Luo, C F; Song, S; Zhang, C Q; Kong, W Q

    2014-07-24

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects and indications of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) and limited open reduction (LOR) for managing distal tibial shaft fractures. A total of 79 cases of distal tibial shaft fractures were treated surgically in our trauma center. The 79 fracture cases were classified into type A, B, and C (C1) according to the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) classification, with 28, 32, and 19 cases, respectively. Among the 79 fracture cases, 52 were closed fractures and 27 were open fractures (GUSTILO, I-II). After adequate preparation, 48 cases were treated with LOR and 31 cases were treated with MIPO. All cases were followed up for 12 to 18 months, with an average of 16.4 months. During the follow-up period, 76 fracture cases were healed in the first stage, whereas the 3 cases that developed non-union were treated by changing the fixation device and autografting. For types A, B, and some of C simple fractures (C1), LOR accelerated the fracture healing and lowered the non-union rate. One case suffered from regional soft tissue infection, which was controlled by wound dressing and intravenous antibiotics. Another case that developed local skin necrosis underwent local flap transplant. LOR promoted bone healing and lowered the non-union rate of several simple-distal tibial shaft fractures. Thereafter, the incidence of soft tissue complication was not significantly increased. However, for complex and comminuted fractures, MIPO was the preferred method for correcting bone alignment and protecting soft tissue, leading to functional recovery.

  3. Evaluation of Fibular Fracture Type vs Location of Tibial Fixation of Pilon Fractures.

    PubMed

    Busel, Gennadiy A; Watson, J Tracy; Israel, Heidi

    2017-06-01

    Comminuted fibular fractures can occur with pilon fractures as a result of valgus stress. Transverse fibular fractures can occur with varus deformation. No definitive guide for determining the proper location of tibial fixation exists. The purpose of this study was to identify optimal plate location for fixation of pilon fractures based on the orientation of the fibular fracture. One hundred two patients with 103 pilon fractures were identified who were definitively treated at our institution from 2004 to 2013. Pilon fractures were classified using the AO/OTA classification and included 43-A through 43-C fractures. Inclusion criteria were age of at least 18 years, associated fibular fracture, and definitive tibial plating. Patients were grouped based on the fibular component fracture type (comminuted vs transverse), and the location of plate fixation (medial vs lateral) was noted. Radiographic outcomes were assessed for mechanical failures. Forty fractures were a result of varus force as evidenced by transverse fracture of the fibula and 63 were due to valgus force with a comminuted fibula. For the transverse fibula group, 14.3% mechanical complications were noted for medially placed plate vs 80% for lateral plating ( P = .006). For the comminuted fibular group, 36.4% of medially placed plates demonstrated mechanical complications vs 16.7% for laterally based plates ( P = .156). Time to weight bearing as tolerated was also noted to be significant between groups plated medially and laterally for the comminuted group ( P = .013). Correctly assessing the fibular component for pilon fractures provides valuable information regarding deforming forces. To limit mechanical complications, tibial plates should be applied in such a way as to resist the original deforming forces. Level of Evidence Level III, comparative study.

  4. Comparison of Tibial Intramedullary Nailing Guided by Digital Technology Versus Conventional Method: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Xu, Xian; Li, Xu; Wu, Wei; Cai, Junfeng; Lu, Qingyou

    2017-06-12

    BACKGROUND This prospective study aimed to compare clinical effects of intramedullary nailing guided by digital and conventional technologies in treatment of tibial fractures. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty-two patients (mean age 43 years, 18 males and 14 females) who were treated for tibial fractures from October 2010 to October 2012 were enrolled. They were sequentially randomized to receive intramedullary nailing guided by either digital technology (digital group, n=16) or conventional technology (conventional group, n=16). The operation time, fluoroscopy times, fracture healing time, distance between the actual and planned insertion point, postoperative lower limb alignment, and functional recovery were recorded for all patients. RESULTS The mean operation time in the digital group was 43.1±6.2 min compared with 48.7±8.3 min for the conventional technology (P=0.039). The fluoroscopy times and distance between the actual and planned insertion point were significantly lower in the digital group than in the conventional group (both P<0.001). The accuracy rate of the insertion point was 99.12% by digital technology. No difference was found in fracture healing time and good postoperative lower limb alignment between the digital and conventional groups (P=0.083 and P=0.310), as well as the effective rate (100% vs. 87.50%, P=0.144). CONCLUSIONS Intramedullary nailing guided by digital technology has many advantages in treatment of tibial fractures compared to conventional technology, including shorter operation time, reduced fluoroscopy times, and decreased distance between the actual and planned insertion point of the intramedullary nail.

  5. A clinical comparison of screw and suture fixation of anterior cruciate ligament tibial avulsion fractures.

    PubMed

    Seon, Jong Keun; Park, Sang Jin; Lee, Keun Bae; Gadikota, Hemanth R; Kozanek, Michal; Oh, Luke S; Hariri, Sanaz; Song, Eun Kyoo

    2009-12-01

    Screw and suture fixations are the most commonly used methods of fixation in treatment of anterior cruciate ligament tibial avulsion fractures. Even though a few biomechanical studies have compared the stability of the 2 fixation techniques, a clinical comparison has not yet been reported. The authors hypothesized that both fixations would be identical in all studied clinical outcome measures at a minimum 2-year follow-up. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Thirty-three patients treated with either screw fixation (16 patients) or suture fixation (17 patients) within 1 month of the anterior cruciate ligament tibial avulsion fracture (type II or III) without associated ligamentous injury were included. All patients were evaluated at a minimum 2-year follow-up in terms of Lysholm knee scores and return to preinjury activities. Knee stability was compared based on the Lachman test and stress radiography. No significant differences were found between the 2 groups in terms of average Lysholm knee scores (91.7 in the screw group and 92.7 in the suture group, P = .413) at follow-up. All patients except 2 (1 in each group) returned to preinjury activity levels. However, flexion contractures (5 degrees to 10 degrees) were found in 3 patients in the screw group and 2 patients in the suture group without significant intergroup difference. Stabilities based on the Lachman test and instrumented stress radiography were also similar between the 2 groups at follow-up. However, 2 patients in the screw group and 1 in the suture group showed more than 5 mm laxity compared with the contralateral knee on stress radiographs. Both the screw and suture fixation techniques for the anterior cruciate ligament tibial avulsion fracture produced relatively good results in terms of functional outcomes and stability without any significant differences. However, some patients in both groups showed residual laxity or flexion contractures.

  6. Surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shishui; Mauffrey, Cyril; Hammerberg, E Mark; Stahel, Philip F; Hak, David J

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for surgical site infections and to quantify the contribution of independent risk factors to the probability of developing infection after definitive fixation of tibial plateau fractures in adult patients. A retrospective analysis was performed at a level I trauma center between January 2004 and December 2010. Data were collected from a review of the patient's electronic medical records. A total of 251 consecutive patients (256 cases) were divided into two groups, those with surgical site infections and those without surgical site infections. Preoperative and perioperative variables were compared between these groups, and risk factors were determined by univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression. Variables analyzed included age, gender, smoking history, diabetes, presence of an open fracture, presence of compartment syndrome, Schatzker classification, polytrauma status, ICU stay, time from injury to surgery, use of temporary external fixation, surgical approach, surgical fixation, operative time, and use of a drain. The overall rate of surgical site infection after ORIF of tibial plateau fractures during the 7 years of this study was 7.8% (20 of 256). The most common causative pathogens was Staphylococcus aureus (n=15, 75%). Independent predictors of surgical site infection identified by multivariate analyses were open tibial plateau fracture (odds ratio=3.9; 95% CI=1.3-11.6; p=0.015) and operative time (odds ratio=2.7; 95% CI=1.6-4.4; p<0.001). The presence of compartment syndrome (odds ratio=3.4; 95% CI=0.7-15.9; p=0.119), use of temporary external fixation (odds ratio=0.5; 95% CI=0.2-1.7; p=0.298), and ICU stay (odds ratio=1.0; 95% CI=1.0-1.1; p=0.074) were not determined to be independent predictors of surgical site infection. Both open fracture and operative time are independent risks factors for postoperative infection.

  7. Finite element analysis of the effect of high tibial osteotomy correction angle on articular cartilage loading.

    PubMed

    Trad, Zahra; Barkaoui, Abdelwahed; Chafra, Moez; Tavares, João Manuel Rs

    2018-04-01

    Osteoarthritis is a globally common disease that imposes a considerable ongoing health and economic burden on the socioeconomic system. As more and more biomechanical factors have been explored, malalignment of the lower limb has been found to influence the load distribution across the articular surface of the knee joint substantially. In this work, a three-dimensional finite element analysis was carried out to investigate the effect of varying the high tibial osteotomy correction angle on the stress distribution in both compartments of the human knee joint. Thereafter, determine the optimal correction angle to achieve a balanced loading between these two compartments. The developed finite element model was validated against experimental and numerical results. The findings of this work suggest that by changing the correction angle from 0° to 10° valgus, high tibial osteotomy shifted the mechanical load from the affected medial compartment to the lateral compartment with intact cartilage. The Von Mises and the shear stresses decreased in the medial compartment and increased in the lateral compartment. Moreover, a balanced stress distribution between the two compartments as well as the desired alignment were achieved under a valgus hypercorrection of 4.5° that significantly unloads the medial compartment, loads the lateral compartment and arrests the progression of osteoarthritis. After comparing the achieved results against the ones of previous studies that explored the effects of the high tibial osteotomy correction angle on either clinical outcomes or biomechanical outcomes, one can conclude that the findings of this study agree well with the related clinical data and recommendations found in the literature.

  8. Assessment of prophylactic bone grafting effect on union of open tibial fracture.

    PubMed

    Fakoor, Mohammad; Sarrafan, Naser; Naghizadeh-Tabrizi, Naser; Fakoor, Morteza

    2013-01-01

    The fracture of the tibial shaft is the most common fracture of long bone in human. Considerable proportion of this fractures are open fractures. Treatment of open fractures is one of the orthopedic problems. In the developing country with economic problem, early mobilization and returning to work may be important for people. We compared result of treatment with addition of autogenus bone graft in two different time periods in two groups. In this study, 144 patients with open tibial fracture were randomly divided in two groups and were treated with autogenus bone graft at two different time intervals, the first group in the end of third week and second group in the end of sixth week. All Patients were followed up periodically in first two month every month and then every two weeks. T-test was used for comparison. SPSS ver. 13.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA) was used for analysis. The mean fracture healing time in the first group (with bone graft in 3rd week) was 14.24±4.4 week and in the second group (with bone graft in 6th week) was 16.4±5.4 week and the difference was statistically meaningful. Differences in the rate of delayed union and none union in two groups were statistically insignificant. In addition to time of bone graft, the age, gender, injury mechanism, fixation method, cigarette smoking and drug abuse were studied in two groups. The difference as regards these factors in two groups was statically insignificant. Achievement of autogenus bone graft in open tibial fracture at the end of third week causes reduction of union time from 16.4 week to 14.4 week without increment of deep infection.

  9. A revised 3-column classification approach for the surgical planning of extended lateral tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, H; Kempenaers, K; Nijs, S

    2017-10-01

    Variable angle locking compression plates allow for lateral buttress and support of the posterolateral joint surface of tibial plateau fractures. This gives room for improvement of the surgical 3-column classification approach. Our aim was to revise and validate the 3-column classification approach to better guide the surgical planning of tibial plateau fractures extending into the posterolateral corner. In contrast to the 3-column classification approach, in the revised approach the posterior border of the lateral column in the revised approach lies posterior instead of anterior of the fibula. According to the revised 3-column classification approach, extended lateral column fractures are defined as single lateral column fractures extending posteriorly into the posterolateral corner. CT-images of 36 patients were reviewed and classified twice online according to Schatzker and revised 3-column classification approach by five observers. The intraobserver reliability was calculated using the Cohen's kappa and the interobserver reliability was calculated using the Fleiss' kappa. The intraobserver reliability showed substantial agreement according to Landis and Koch for both Schatzker and the revised 3-column classification approach (0.746 vs. 0.782 p = 0.37, Schatzker vs. revised 3-column, respectively). However, the interobserver reliability of the revised 3-column classification approach was significantly higher as compared to the Schatzker classification (0.531 vs. 0.669 p < 0.01, moderate vs. substantial agreement, Schatzker vs. revised 3-column, respectively). With the introduction of variable angle locking compression plates, the revised 3-column classification approach