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Sample records for menisci tibial

  1. Influence of cartilage and menisci on the sagittal slope of the tibial plateaus.

    PubMed

    Cinotti, Gianluca; Sessa, Pasquale; Ragusa, Giovanni; Ripani, Francesca Romana; Postacchini, Roberto; Masciangelo, Raffaele; Giannicola, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    We analyzed the magnetic resonance studies of the knee in 80 subjects, 45 men and 35 women with a mean age of 38.9 years, who showed no pathological condition of the joint. Using an imaging visualization software, the sagittal longitudinal axis of the tibia was identified. The angle between this axis and a line tangent to the bone profile of the tibial plateau (bone slope) and to the superior border of the menisci (meniscal slope) were calculated. Thickness of anterior and posterior portion of menisci and underlying cartilage were also measured. The bone slope averaged 8° and 7.7° on the medial and lateral sides, respectively. The mean meniscal slope was 4.1° and 3.3° on the medial and lateral sides, respectively, with a significant difference compared with the bone slope. Menisci and underlying cartilage were significantly thicker in their posterior than their anterior portion (7.6 and 5.2 mm, respectively, in the medial compartment; 8.6 and 5.2 mm, respectively, in the lateral compartment). The presence of cartilage and menisci implies a significant decrease in the posterior tibial slope. In the lateral compartment, the greater the bone slope, the larger the difference between bone and meniscal slope, which means that a marked posterior tilt of the lateral tibial plateau is decreased by the cartilage and meniscus. These findings should be taken into account in planning surgical procedures which affect the slope of the articular tibial surface.

  2. The effect of proximal tibial corrective osteotomy on menisci, tibia and tarsal bones: a finite element model study of tibia vara.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Halil; Özkan, Arif; Mutlu, Ibrahim; Celik, Talip; Ugur, Levent; Kisioglu, Yasin

    2014-03-01

    Proximal tibial open wedge osteotomy (PTO) is a corrective operation used in the surgery of lower extremities and is applied to patients with varus deformities for sufficient correction. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the PTO can achieve decreased stress-bearing on the tibia and tarsal bones in addition to correcting the mechanical axis of the lower limb in patients with tibia vara. Three-dimensional (3D) solid modelling of the lower extremity was carried out using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR)-containing images of all of the bony elements and non-bony structures. PTO was applied to the obtained deformed model in the computer environment and the correction was carried out. Stress distributions in menisci, tibia and tarsal bones were calculated. With respect to loading on the tarsal bones, the maximum equivalent stresses on all bones decreased except for the navicula in the PTO-simulated model in the current study. These results clearly indicate that PTO can achieve decreased stresses on the tarsal bones in patients with tibia vara. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Unicompartmental knee prostheses: in vitro wear assessment of the menisci tibial insert after two different fixation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affatato, S.; Spinelli, M.; Zavalloni, M.; Carmignato, S.; Lopomo, N.; Marcacci, M.; Viceconti, M.

    2008-10-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a complex clinical scenario where many biological and mechanical factors influence the severity of articular degenerative changes. Minimally invasive knee prosthetic surgery, with only a compartment replacement (unicompartmental knee replacement), might be a good compromise between osteotomy and total knee prosthesis. The focus of this study was to develop and validate a protocol to assess the fixation method of the femoral components in mechanical simulation, for pre-clinical validation; the wear behaviour of two different fixation frames was quantified and compared. In particular, two different wear tests were conducted using the same knee simulator, the same load profiles and the same kinematics; two different fixation methods were applied to the femoral sleds (synthetic femur and metal block). Surface characterization on both articulating bearings was performed by a roughness measuring machine and coordinate measuring machine. The wear produced by the tibial inserts using the synthetic femur was considerably higher than the wear registered by the metal-block holder. Roughness measurements on femoral sleds showed a limited number of scratches with high Rt values for the metal-block set-up; the damaged surface broadened in the case of femoral condyles and tibial inserts mounted on composite bone, but lower Rt and linear penetration values were measured. The two holding frames showed different wear activities as a consequence of dissimilar dynamic performance. Further observations should be made in vivo to prove the actual importance of synthetic bone simulations and specific material behaviour.

  4. Unicompartmental knee prostheses: in vitro wear assessment of the menisci tibial insert after two different fixation methods.

    PubMed

    Affatato, S; Spinelli, M; Zavalloni, M; Carmignato, S; Lopomo, N; Marcacci, M; Viceconti, M

    2008-10-07

    Knee osteoarthritis is a complex clinical scenario where many biological and mechanical factors influence the severity of articular degenerative changes. Minimally invasive knee prosthetic surgery, with only a compartment replacement (unicompartmental knee replacement), might be a good compromise between osteotomy and total knee prosthesis. The focus of this study was to develop and validate a protocol to assess the fixation method of the femoral components in mechanical simulation, for pre-clinical validation; the wear behaviour of two different fixation frames was quantified and compared. In particular, two different wear tests were conducted using the same knee simulator, the same load profiles and the same kinematics; two different fixation methods were applied to the femoral sleds (synthetic femur and metal block). Surface characterization on both articulating bearings was performed by a roughness measuring machine and coordinate measuring machine. The wear produced by the tibial inserts using the synthetic femur was considerably higher than the wear registered by the metal-block holder. Roughness measurements on femoral sleds showed a limited number of scratches with high R(t) values for the metal-block set-up; the damaged surface broadened in the case of femoral condyles and tibial inserts mounted on composite bone, but lower R(t) and linear penetration values were measured. The two holding frames showed different wear activities as a consequence of dissimilar dynamic performance. Further observations should be made in vivo to prove the actual importance of synthetic bone simulations and specific material behaviour.

  5. Knee Menisci.

    PubMed

    Bryceland, James Kevin; Powell, Andrew John; Nunn, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The menisci of the knees are semicircular fibrocartilaginous structures consisting of a hydrophilic extracellular matrix containing a network of collagen fibers, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans maintained by a cellular component. The menisci are responsible for more than 50% of load transmission across the knee and increase joint congruity thereby also aiding in fluid film lubrication of the joint. In the United Kingdom, meniscal tears are the most common form of intra-articular knee injury and one of the commonest indications for orthopedic intervention. The management of these injuries is dependent on the location within the meniscus (relative to peripheral blood supply) and the pattern of tear. Removal of meniscus is known to place the knee at increased risk of osteoarthritis; therefore repair of meniscal tears is preferable. However, a significant proportion of tears are irreparable and can only be treated by partial or even complete meniscectomy. More recent studies have shown encouraging results with meniscal replacement in this situation, though further work is required in this area.

  6. Medial and Lateral Discoid Menisci of Both Knees

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Hiroyuki; Arai, Yuji; Nakagawa, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Minami, Ginjiro; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Discoid menisci on both the medial and lateral sides are rare, and there are very few reports on cases involving both sides. We report a case of a 52-year-old female with medial and lateral discoid menisci in both knees. Arthroscopy revealed the lateral menisci of both knees were complete discoid menisci, and partial meniscectomy was performed. The medial menisci were incomplete discoid menisci, but there were no findings of abnormal mobility or injury; therefore, the medial menisci were observed without treatment. At six months postoperatively, her pain and range of motion restrictions disappeared. PMID:27894182

  7. Radiographic identification of the anterior and posterior root attachments of the medial and lateral menisci.

    PubMed

    James, Evan W; LaPrade, Christopher M; Ellman, Michael B; Wijdicks, Coen A; Engebretsen, Lars; LaPrade, Robert F

    2014-11-01

    Anatomic root placement is necessary to restore native meniscal function during meniscal root repair. Radiographic guidelines for anatomic root placement are essential to improve the accuracy and consistency of anatomic root repair and to optimize outcomes after surgery. To define quantitative radiographic guidelines for identification of the anterior and posterior root attachments of the medial and lateral menisci on anteroposterior (AP) and lateral radiographic views. Descriptive laboratory study. The anterior and posterior roots of the medial and lateral menisci were identified in 12 human cadaveric specimens (average age, 51.3 years; age range, 39-65 years) and labeled using 2-mm radiopaque spheres. True AP and lateral radiographs were obtained, and 2 raters independently measured blinded radiographs in relation to pertinent landmarks and radiographic reference lines. On AP radiographs, the anteromedial and posteromedial roots were, on average, 31.9 ± 5.0 mm and 36.3 ± 3.5 mm lateral to the edge of the medial tibial plateau, respectively. The anterolateral and posterolateral roots were, on average, 37.9 ± 5.2 mm and 39.3 ± 3.8 mm medial to the edge of the lateral tibial plateau, respectively. On lateral radiographs, the anteromedial and anterolateral roots were, on average, 4.8 ± 3.7 mm and 20.5 ± 4.3 mm posterior to the anterior margin of the tibial plateau, respectively. The posteromedial and posterolateral roots were, on average, 18.0 ± 2.8 mm and 19.8 ± 3.5 mm anterior to the posterior margin of the tibial plateau, respectively. The intrarater and interrater intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were >0.958, demonstrating excellent reliability. The meniscal root attachment sites were quantitatively and reproducibly defined with respect to anatomic landmarks and superimposed radiographic reference lines. The high ICCs indicate that the measured radiographic relationships are a consistent means for evaluating meniscal root positions. This study

  8. Automated segmentation and analysis of normal and osteoarthritic knee menisci from magnetic resonance images--data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Paproki, A; Engstrom, C; Chandra, S S; Neubert, A; Fripp, J; Crozier, S

    2014-09-01

    To validate an automatic scheme for the segmentation and quantitative analysis of the medial meniscus (MM) and lateral meniscus (LM) in magnetic resonance (MR) images of the knee. We analysed sagittal water-excited double-echo steady-state MR images of the knee from a subset of the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) cohort. The MM and LM were automatically segmented in the MR images based on a deformable model approach. Quantitative parameters including volume, subluxation and tibial-coverage were automatically calculated for comparison (Wilcoxon tests) between knees with variable radiographic osteoarthritis (rOA), medial and lateral joint space narrowing (mJSN, lJSN) and pain. Automatic segmentations and estimated parameters were evaluated for accuracy using manual delineations of the menisci in 88 pathological knee MR examinations at baseline and 12 months time-points. The median (95% confidence-interval (CI)) Dice similarity index (DSI) (2 ∗|Auto ∩ Manual|/(|Auto|+|Manual|)∗ 100) between manual and automated segmentations for the MM and LM volumes were 78.3% (75.0-78.7), 83.9% (82.1-83.9) at baseline and 75.3% (72.8-76.9), 83.0% (81.6-83.5) at 12 months. Pearson coefficients between automatic and manual segmentation parameters ranged from r = 0.70 to r = 0.92. MM in rOA/mJSN knees had significantly greater subluxation and smaller tibial-coverage than no-rOA/no-mJSN knees. LM in rOA knees had significantly greater volumes and tibial-coverage than no-rOA knees. Our automated method successfully segmented the menisci in normal and osteoarthritic knee MR images and detected meaningful morphological differences with respect to rOA and joint space narrowing (JSN). Our approach will facilitate analyses of the menisci in prospective MR cohorts such as the OAI for investigations into pathophysiological changes occurring in early osteoarthritis (OA) development. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  9. Fuzzy rule-based approach to segment the menisci regions from MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Takashi; Hata, Yutaka; Ando, Yoshiro; Ishikawa, Makato; Ishikawa, Hitoshi

    1999-05-01

    Injuries of the menisci are one of the most common internal derangement of the knee. To examine them with noninvasive, we propose an automated segmentation method of the menisci region from MR image. The method is composed of two steps based on fuzzy logic. First, we segment the cartilage region by thresholding of the intensity. We then extract the candidate region of the menisci as the region between the cartilages. Second, we segment the menisci voxels from the candidate region based on fuzzy if-then rules obtained from knowledge of location and intensity. We applied our method to five MR data sets. Three of them are the normal knees and the others are with some injuries. Quantitative evaluation by a physician shows that this method can successfully segment the menisci for the all. The generated visualizations will help medical doctor to diagnose the menisci with noninvasive.

  10. Heterogeneous mechanical response of rat knee menisci to thermomechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Zernicke, R F; Vailas, A C; Shaw, S R; Bogey, R A; Hart, T J; Matsuda, J

    1986-01-01

    Thermodilatometric, dynamic thermomechanical, and light-microscopic analyses were done on the anterior and posterior regions of the rat knee menisci to correlate regional differences in morphology and extracellular matrix composition with regional mechanical behavior. Following the administration of a general anesthetic, menisci were excised from 12 young female Sprague-Dawley rats. During thermodilatometric and thermomechanical testing, tissue temperature was increased at a constant rate of 3.5 degrees C/min from 30 to 100 degrees C. Light microscopy revealed regional differences in cell density and proteoglycan content. The anterior horn was significantly heavier (greater than 87%) and thicker (greater than 60%) than the posterior region. During thermal analyses, both the anterior and posterior horns decreased in tissue thickness as the temperature increased from 30 to 73 degrees C. After 73 degrees C, however, the posterior horn expanded significantly, whereas the anterior remained in a comparatively contracted state. The rates of linear contraction and expansion of the posterior horn were seven times those of the anterior horn, and the stiffness of the anterior horn was significantly greater than the posterior horn.

  11. Comparison of Kinematics and Tibiofemoral Contact Pressures for Native and Transplanted Lateral Menisci

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, Patrick C.; Dolce, Donald; Jones, Hugh L.; Gale, Andrea; Hogen, Michael G.; Alder, Jason; Palmer, Jeremiah E.; Noble, Philip C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lateral meniscus transplantation is a proven treatment option for the meniscus-deficient knee, yet little is known about meniscal kinematics, strain, and tibiofemoral contact pressure changes after transplantation or the effect of altered root position in lateral meniscus transplantation. Purpose: To compare the native lateral meniscal kinematics, strain, and tibiofemoral contact pressures to a best-case scenario meniscus transplant with perfectly matched size and position and to determine how sensitive these factors are to subtle changes in shape and position by using a nonanatomic meniscus transplant position. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: The lateral menisci of 8 cadaveric knees were circumferentially implanted with radiopaque spherical markers. They were mounted to a testing apparatus applying muscle and ground-reaction forces. The meniscus was evaluated at 0°, 30°, 90°, and 115° of knee flexion using Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA), with a pressure sensor affixed to the lateral tibial plateau. Measurements were recorded for 3 states: the native lateral meniscus, an anatomic autograft transplant, and a nonanatomic autograft transplant with an anteriorized posterior root position. Results: After transplantation, there was less posterior displacement in both the anatomic and nonanatomic transplant states compared with the native meniscus, but this was not significant. The largest lateral translation in the native state was 2.38 ± 1.58 mm at the anterolateral region from 0° to 90°, which was increased to 3.28 ± 1.39 mm (P = .25) and 3.12 ± 1.18 mm (P = .30) in the anatomic and nonanatomic transplant states, respectively. Internal deformations of the transplant states were more constrained, suggesting less compliance. The native meniscus distributed load over 223 mm2, while both the anatomic (160 mm2) and nonanatomic (102 mm2) states concentrated pressure anteriorly to the tibial plateau centroid. Conclusion

  12. Assessment of tibial rotation and meniscal movement using kinematic magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective This work aimed to assess tibial rotations, meniscal movements, and morphological changes during knee flexion and extension using kinematic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Thirty volunteers with healthy knees were examined using kinematic MRI. The knees were imaged in the transverse plane with flexion and extension angles from 0° to 40° and 40° to 0°, respectively. The tibial interior and exterior rotation angles were measured, and the meniscal movement range, height change, and side movements were detected. Results The tibia rotated internally (11.55° ± 3.20°) during knee flexion and rotated externally (11.40° ± 3.0°) during knee extension. No significant differences were observed between the internal and external tibial rotation angles (P > 0.05), between males and females (P > 0.05), or between the left and right knee joints (P > 0.05). The tibial rotation angle with a flexion angle of 0° to 24° differed significantly from that with a flexion angle of 24° to 40° (P < 0.01). With knee flexion, the medial and lateral menisci moved backward and the height of the meniscus increased. The movement range was greater in the anterior horn than in the posterior horn and greater in the lateral meniscus than in the medial meniscus (P < 0.01). During backward movements of the menisci, the distance between the anterior and posterior horns decreased, with the decrease more apparent in the lateral meniscus (P < 0.01). The side movements of the medial and lateral menisci were not obvious, and a smaller movement range was found than that of the forward and backward movements. Conclusion Knee flexion and extension facilitated internal and external tibial rotations, which may be related to the ligament and joint capsule structure and femoral condyle geometry. PMID:25142267

  13. Tibial osteonecrosis.

    PubMed

    Lonner, J H; Lotke, P A

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the tibial plateau involves a continuum of change observed in the subchondral zone that is commonly associated with early and mid stages of osteoarthritis. The typical patient is an elderly woman who experiences a sudden onset of pain in the medial aspect of the knee. The diagnosis of this under-appreciated clinical entity may be difficult, but careful examination and judicious use of imaging studies, as well as a high index of suspicion, may facilitate the accurate diagnosis. Although the radiographs may initially be normal (with the exception of mild arthrosis), radionuclide scans and MRI can be of great value. The MRI studies usually show a decreased signal intensity on a T1-weighted image, but may be normal in the early course of the disease. The T2-weighted images and fat suppression views are helpful in establishing a diagnosis and determining the extent of involvement. Recognition of this problem may help to avoid unnecessary intra-articular surgery. Many of these patients have complete or partial resolution of symptoms by 1 year, after a period of protected weight bearing. Nonetheless, surgery may be necessary for more advanced lesions and in those patients with progressive arthrosis.

  14. Distribution of glycosaminoglycans and the nonreducible collagen crosslink, pyridinoline in porcine menisci.

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, T; Thompson, J R; Aherne, F X

    1986-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans and the nonreducible collagen crosslink, pyridinoline were determined in stifle joint menisci from adolescent pigs. Medial and lateral menisci were dissected into two portions, the inner third (zone 1) and the remaining two thirds (zone 2) at three different regions; anterior, central and posterior regions. Both glycosaminoglycan and pyridinoline concentrations were greater (P less than 0.05) in zone 1 than in zone 2 in both the medial and lateral menisci. In zone 1, the anterior region had a greater (P less than 0.05) glycosaminoglycan concentration than did the central and posterior regions. Light microscopic observations indicated zonal variations in collagen fiber arrangement. Images Fig. 2. PMID:3791078

  15. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Proximal Tibial Bone Graft Page Content What is a bone graft? Bone grafts may be needed for various ... the proximal tibia. What is a proximal tibial bone graft? Proximal tibial bone graft (PTBG) is a ...

  16. Interfacial phenomena and microscale transport processes in evaporating ultrathin menisci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchamgam, Sashidhar S.

    The study of interfacial phenomena in the three-phase contact line region, where a liquid-vapor interface intersects a solid surface, is of importance to many equilibrium and non-equilibrium processes. However, lack of experimental data on microscale transport processes controlled by interfacial phenomena has restricted progress. This thesis includes a high resolution image analyzing technique, based on reflectivity measurements, that accurately measures the thickness, contact angle and curvature profiles of ultrathin films, drops and curved menisci. In particular, the technique was used to emphasize measurements for thicknesses, delta < 100 nm, while studying delta < 2.5 mum. Using the "reflectivity technique", we studied fluid flow and heat transfer in a wickless, miniature heat pipe, a device which will be a very effective passive heat exchanger in a microgravity environment. The heat pipe is based on the Vertical Constrained Vapor Bubble (VCVB) concept. The broad objective was to increase the efficiency of the miniature heat pipe by enhancing the liquid flow towards the hotter region. This was achieved by understanding and manipulating the wetting and spreading characteristics of the liquid on the solid surface. By using a binary mixture (98% pentane and 2% octane by volume) instead of either pure pentane or octane, we were able to achieve a significant increase in the microscale phase change heat transfer. The experimental work was supported by numerical studies to understand the physics of the system at microscopic scale. In addition, using the reflectivity technique, we enhanced our understanding of interfacial phenomena in the contact line region. Experiments included flow instabilities in HFE-7000 meniscus on quartz (System S1), the spreading of a pentane (System S2 and S3), octane (System S4) and binary mixture menisci (System S5) during evaporation. The main objectives of the work are to present a new experimental technique, new observations, new data

  17. [Tibial periostitis ("medial tibial stress syndrome")].

    PubMed

    Fournier, Pierre-Etienne

    2003-06-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is characterised by complaints along the posteromedial tibia. Runners and athletes involved in jumping activities may develop this syndrome. Increased stress to stabilize the foot especially when excessive pronation is present explain the occurrence this lesion.

  18. Viscoelastic properties of rabbit osteoarthritic menisci: A correlation with matrix alterations.

    PubMed

    Levillain, A; Magoariec, H; Boulocher, C; Decambron, A; Viateau, V; Hoc, T

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of early osteoarthritis (OA) on the viscoelastic properties of rabbit menisci and to correlate the mechanical alterations with the microstructural changes. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection (ACLT) was performed in six male New-Zealand White rabbits on the right knee joint. Six healthy rabbits served as controls. Menisci were removed six weeks after ACLT and were graded macroscopically. Indentation-relaxation tests were performed in the anterior and posterior regions of the medial menisci. The collagen fibre organization and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content were assessed by biphotonic confocal microscopy and histology, respectively. OA menisci displayed severe macroscopic lesions compared with healthy menisci (p=0.009). Moreover, the instantaneous and equilibrium moduli, which were 2.9±1.0MPa and 0.60±0.18MPa in the anterior region of healthy menisci, respectively, decreased significantly (p=0.03 and p=0.004, respectively) in OA menisci by 55% and 57%, respectively, indicating a global decrease in meniscal stiffness in this region. The equilibrium modulus alone decreased significantly (p=0.04) in the posterior region, going from 0.60±0.18MPa to 0.26±012MPa. This induced a loss of tissue elasticity. These mechanical changes were associated in the posterior region with a structural disruption of the superficial layers, from which the tie fibres emanate, and with a decrease in the GAG content in the anterior region. Consequently, the circumferential collagen fibres of the deep zone were dissociated and the collagen bundles were less compact. Our results demonstrate the strong meniscal modifications induced by ACLT at an early stage of OA and highlight the relationship between structural and chemical matrix alterations and mechanical properties.

  19. Effect of tibial tuberosity advancement on femorotibial contact mechanics and stifle kinematics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Stanley E; Pozzi, Antonio; Banks, Scott A; Conrad, Bryan P; Lewis, Daniel D

    2009-01-01

    Objective- To evaluate the effects of tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) on femorotibial contact mechanics and 3-dimensional kinematics in cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifles of dogs. Study Design- In vitro biomechanical study. Animals- Unpaired pelvic limbs from 8 dogs, weighing 28-35 kg. Methods- Digital pressure sensors placed subjacent to the menisci were used to measure femorotibial contact force, contact area, peak and mean contact pressure, and peak pressure location with the limb under an axial load of 30% body weight and a stifle angle of 135 degrees . Three-dimensional static poses of the stifle were obtained using a Microscribe digitizing arm. Each specimen was tested under normal, CrCL-deficient, and TTA-treated conditions. Repeated measures analysis of variance with a Tukey post hoc test (P<.05) was used for statistical comparison. Results- Significant disturbances to all measured contact mechanic parameters were evident after CrCL transection, which corresponded to marked cranial tibial subluxation and internal tibial rotation in the CrCL-deficient stifle. No significant differences in any contact mechanic and kinematic parameters were detected between normal and TTA-treated stifles. Conclusion- TTA eliminates craniocaudal stifle instability during simulated weight-bearing and concurrently restores femorotibial contact mechanics to normal. Clinical Relevance- TTA may mitigate the progression of stifle osteoarthritis in dogs afflicted with CrCL insufficiency by eliminating cranial tibial thrust while preserving the normal orientation of the proximal tibial articulating surface.

  20. Comparison of insertional trauma between suprapatellar and infrapatellar portals for tibial nailing.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Robert J; Rockwood, Jason; Garland, Joshua; Ellingson, Christopher; Demaio, Marlene

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in insertional articular trauma in infrapatellar tibial portal and suprapatellar portal intramedullary tibial nail insertion techniques. A cadaveric study was performed on 10 matched pairs of fresh-frozen adult cadaver lower extremities with intact extensor mechanisms. Two study groups with 10 limbs each were created: left lower limbs were treated with a standard medial parapatellar nailing portal and right lower limbs were treated with a suprapatellar tibial nailing portal. Start points were created under fluoroscopic guidance in anteroposterior and mediolateral planes. A start wire was placed and opening reaming was performed on the specimens using instrumentation specific to the nailing portal. Specimens were then dissected by medial parapatellar arthrotomy, revealing the intra-articular condition of the knee structures. The border of the tibial entry reamer hole was measured to the anterior horns of the menisci, anterior cruciate ligament root, and intermeniscal ligament using a digital caliper accurate to 0.02 mm. The structure was considered damaged if the structure was obviously damaged on visual inspection or if a measurement was less than 1 mm. Impact to intra-articular structures was numerically lower in the suprapatellar group (2/10) compared with the infrapatellar group (4/10), but the difference was not statistically significant between the 2 groups (P=.629). The suprapatellar portal approach to the tibial start point demonstrated a lower overall incidence of damage to intra-articular structures, but no significant statistical difference existed between the 2 treatment groups.

  1. Mapping surface tension induced menisci with application to tensiometry and refractometry.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Avanish; Kulkarni, Varun; Khor, Jian-Wei; Wereley, Steve

    2015-07-28

    In this work, we discuss an optical method for measuring surface tension induced menisci. The principle of measurement is based upon the change in the background pattern produced by the curvature of the meniscus acting as a lens. We measure the meniscus profile over an inclined glass plate and utilize the measured meniscus for estimation of surface tension and refractive index.

  2. Enhanced cellular infiltration of human adipose-derived stem cells in allograft menisci using a needle-punch method.

    PubMed

    Nordberg, Rachel C; Charoenpanich, Adisri; Vaughn, Christopher E; Griffith, Emily H; Fisher, Matthew B; Cole, Jacqueline H; Spang, Jeffrey T; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-28

    The meniscus plays a crucial role in knee joint stability, load transmission, and stress distribution. Meniscal tears are the most common reported knee injuries, and the current standard treatment for meniscal deficiency is meniscal allograft transplantation. A major limitation of this approach is that meniscal allografts do not have the capacity to remodel and maintain tissue homeostasis due to a lack of cellular infiltration. The purpose of this study was to provide a new method for enhanced cellular infiltration in meniscal allografts. Twenty medial menisci were collected from cadaveric human sources and split into five experimental groups: (1) control native menisci, (2) decellularized menisci, (3) decellularized menisci seeded with human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC), (4) decellularized needle-punched menisci, and (5) decellularized needle-punched menisci seeded with hASC. All experimental allografts were decellularized using a combined method with trypsin EDTA and peracetic acid. Needle punching (1-mm spacing, 28 G microneedle) was utilized to improve porosity of the allograft. Samples were recellularized with hASC at a density of 250 k/g of tissue. After 28 days of in vitro culture, menisci were analyzed for mechanical, biochemical, and histological characteristics. Menisci maintained structural integrity and material properties (compressive equilibrium and dynamic moduli) throughout preparations. Increased DNA content was observed in the needle-punched menisci but not in the samples without needle punching. Histology confirmed these results, showing enhanced cellular infiltration in needle-punched samples. The enhanced infiltration achieved in this study could help meniscal allografts better remodel post-surgery. The integration of autologous adipose-derived stem cells could improve long-term efficacy of meniscal transplantation procedures by helping to maintain the meniscus in vivo.

  3. Macroscopic and histopathologic analysis of human knee menisci in aging and osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Pauli, C.; Grogan, S.P.; Patil, S.; Otsuki, S.; Hasegawa, A.; Koziol, J.; Lotz, M.K.; D’Lima, D.D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Meniscus lesions following trauma or associated with osteoarthritis (OA) have been described, yet meniscus aging has not been systematically analyzed. The objectives of this study were to (i) establish standardized protocols for representative macroscopic and microscopic analysis, (ii) improve existing scoring systems, and (iii) apply these techniques to a large number of human menisci. Design Medial and lateral menisci from 107 human knees were obtained and cut in two different planes (triangle/crossection and transverse/horizontal) in three separate locations (mid portion, anterior and posterior horns). All sections included vascular and avascular regions and were graded for i) surface integrity, ii) cellularity, iii) matrix/fiber organization and collagen alignment, and iv) Safranin-O staining intensity. The cartilage in all knee compartments was also scored. Results The new macroscopic and microscopic grading systems showed high inter-reader and intra-reader intraclass correlation coefficients. The major age-related changes in menisci in joints with no or minimal OA included increased Safranin-O staining intensity, decreased cell density, the appearance of acellular zones, and evidence of mucoid degeneration with some loss of collagen fiber organization. The earliest meniscus changes occurred predominantly along the inner rim. Menisci from OA joints showed severe fibrocartilaginous separation of the matrix, extensive fraying, tears and calcification. Abnormal cell arrangements included decreased cellularity, diffuse hypercellularity along with cellular hypertrophy and abnormal cell clusters. In general, the anterior horns of both medial and lateral menisci were less affected by age and OA. Conclusions New standardized protocols and new validated grading systems allowed us to conduct a more systematic evaluation of changes in aging and OA menisci at a macroscopic and microscopic level. Several meniscus abnormalities appear to be specific to aging in

  4. The capillarity of nanometric water menisci confined inside closed-geometry viral cages

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, C.; Douas, M.; Miranda, R.; Castellanos, M.; Serena, P. A.; Carrascosa, J. L.; Mateu, M. G.; Marqués, M. I.; de Pablo, P. J.

    2009-01-01

    We present an investigation of water menisci confined in closed geometries by studying the structural effects of their capillary forces on viruses during the final stage of desiccation. We used individual particles of the bacteriophage ϕ29 and the minute virus of mice. In both cases the genomic DNA was ejected from the capsid. However, although the structural integrity of the minute virus of mice was essentially preserved, the ϕ29 capsid underwent a wall-to-wall collapse. We provide evidence that the capillary forces of water confined inside the viruses are mainly responsible for these effects. Moreover, by performing theoretical simulations with a lattice gas model, we found that some structural differences between these 2 viruses may be crucial to explain the different ways in which they are affected by water menisci forces confined at the nanoscale. PMID:19307554

  5. Slip length for transverse shear flow over a periodic array of weakly curved menisci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowdy, Darren

    2017-09-01

    By exploiting the reciprocal theorem of Stokes flow, we find an explicit expression for the first order slip length correction, for small protrusion angles, and for transverse shear over a periodic array of curved menisci. The result is the transverse flow analogue of the longitudinal flow result of Sbragaglia and Prosperetti ["A note on the effective slip properties for microchannel flows with ultrahydrophobic surfaces," Phys. Fluids 19, 043603 (2007)]. For small protrusion angles, it also generalizes the dilute-limit result of Davis and Lauga ["Geometric transition in friction for flow over a bubble mattress," Phys. Fluids 21, 011701 (2009)] to arbitrary no-shear fractions. While the leading order slip lengths for transverse and longitudinal flow over flat no-shear slots are well-known to differ by a factor of 2, the first order slip length corrections for weakly protruding menisci in each flow are found to be identical.

  6. Chondrocalcinosis of Femoro-Tibial and Proximal Tibio-Fibular Joints in Cadaveric Specimens: A High-Resolution CT Imaging Study of the Calcification Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Touraine, Sébastien; Ea, Hang Korng; Bousson, Valérie; Cohen-Solal, Martine; Laouisset, Liess; Chappard, Christine; Lioté, Frédéric; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To analyze calcium deposits by computed tomography (CT) in femoro-tibial compartments and proximal tibio-fibular joints; to assess the relationship with CT-assessed osteoarthritis (OA). Methods 68 (34 pairs) cadaveric knees (mean age of 84) were scanned at high resolution CT. Menisci and hyaline cartilage calcifications in the femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular joints were analyzed. OA was CT-assessed by the Kellgren and Lawrence score. Gross appearance of OA was evaluated on 29 left knees after dissection and India ink staining of tibial plateaus. Results In femoro-tibial joints, meniscal calcifications (MC) and hyaline cartilage calcifications (HCC) were detected in 23(34%) and 14(21%) knees respectively. Calcifications mainly involved the three meniscal segments and were mainly observed in all thirds of the femoro-tibial compartments. In proximal tibio-fibular joints, HCC were detected in 19(28%) knees. The association HCC-MC in femoro-tibial joints and between calcifications in femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular joints was strong (p<0.0001). Femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular CT-assessed OA were respectively found in 23(34%) and 19(28%) knees. HCC were significantly associated with femoro-tibial OA (p = 0.04) while MC were not (p = 0.34). OA macroscopic evaluation showed a mean surface of cartilage lesions of 35% (range 0.13–0.55). No significant difference was demonstrated regarding the CT-detection of MC, HCC or CT-assessed OA. Conclusions This is the first study to report a strong association of chondrocalcinosis between femoro-tibial and tibio-fibular joints in addition to a strong association between MC and HCC in femoro-tibial compartments. No significant relationship between chondrocalcinosis and OA was demonstrated. PMID:23372802

  7. Tibial fractures in children

    PubMed Central

    Palmu, Sauli A; Auro, Sampo; Lohman, Martina; Paukku, Reijo T; Peltonen, Jari I; Nietosvaara, Yrjänä

    2014-01-01

    Background Tibial fracture is the third most common long-bone fracture in children. Traditionally, most tibial fractures in children have been treated non-operatively, but there are no long-term results. Methods 94 children (64 boys) were treated for a tibial fracture in Aurora City Hospital during the period 1980–89 but 20 could not be included in the study. 58 of the remaining 74 patients returned a written questionnaire and 45 attended a follow-up examination at mean 27 (23–32) years after the fracture. Results 89 children had been treated by manipulation under anesthesia and cast-immobilization, 4 by skeletal traction, and 1 with pin fixation. 41 fractures had been re-manipulated. The mean length of hospital stay was 5 (1–26) days. Primary complications were recorded in 5 children. The childrens’ memories of treatment were positive in two-thirds of cases. The mean subjective VAS score (range 0–10) for function appearance was 9. Leg-length discrepancy (5–10 mm) was found clinically in 10 of 45 subjects and rotational deformities exceeding 20° in 4. None of the subjects walked with a limp. None had axial malalignment exceeding 10°. Osteoarthritis of the hip and/or knee was seen in radiographs from 2 subjects. Interpretation The long-term outcome of tibial fractures in children treated non-operatively is generally good. PMID:24786903

  8. Bilateral tibial hemimelia I.

    PubMed

    Suganthy, J; Rassau, Marina; Koshi, Rachel; Battacharjee, Suranjan

    2007-05-01

    Congenital absence of tibia is a rare anomaly. We report a case of bilateral tibial hemimelia born to phenotypically normal parents. The two amputated legs with tibial dysplasia obtained from a 3-year-old boy were studied by radiography and anatomical dissection. The radiological evaluation revealed a normal hip joint. The lower end of femur was normal without any bifurcation, shortening or bowing. Fibula was present on both legs and there was no sign of bowing or doubling. Both right and left tibiae were absent. In addition, on the right side, five tarsal bones, two metatarsals and the corresponding digital rays were absent. On the left side, three tarsal bones were absent. Dissection of the amputated segments showed the presence of extensor digitorum longus, peroneus tertius, peroneus longus and brevis, gastrocnemius, and soleus. Following bilateral knee disarticulation the patient was fitted with prosthesis and is doing well.

  9. The Morphological Anatomy of the Menisci of the Knee Joint in Human Fetuses.

    PubMed

    Koyuncu, Esra; Özgüner, Gülnur; Öztürk, Kenan; Bilkay, Cemil; Dursun, Ahmet; Sulak, Osman

    2017-08-23

    Development of the fetal period of the meniscus has been reported in different studies. Evaluation of the lateral and the medial menisci development, typing and the relationship of the tibia during the fetal period. Anatomical dissection. We were evaluated 210 knee meniscus obtained from 105 human fetuses that in age from 9-40 weeks. Fetuses were divided into four groups. Intraarticular structure were exposed. This was followed by taking pictures (Samsung WB 100 26X Optical Zoom Wide, Pekin, China) of the intra-articular structures with the help of millimetric ruler. The pictures were digitized for morphometric analyses and analyzed by Netcad 5.1 Software (Ak Mühendislik Ltd, Şti, Ankara, Turkey). The lateral and the medial meniscal areas, the lateral and the medial articular surface areas of the tibia increased throughout the gestation. We found that the medial articular surface areas was larger than the lateral articular surface areas and the difference was statistically significant. The ratio of the mean lateral and medial meniscal area to the lateral and the medial articular surface areas of the tibia was decresed gradually from the first group towards to full term. The most common shape for the medial meniscus was crescentic (50%), the lateral meniscus was C-shaped (61%). The present study aims to clarify the development of fetal menisci by providing reliable data through anatomical dissection method in a large series. The study has revealed the development of the morphological changes and the morphometric measurement of the menisci. Key words: human fetus, meniscus, development, meniscal area.

  10. Analysis of menisci formed on cones for single field of view parasite egg microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cooke, I R; Laing, C J; White, L V; Wakes, S J; Sowerby, S J

    2015-02-01

    Parasite ova caused to accumulate in a single microscopic field simplifies monitoring soil-transmitted helminthiasis by optical microscopy. Here we demonstrate new egg-accumulating geometries based on annular menisci formed on the surface of a wetted cone. Fluidic features extracted from profile images of the system provided mathematical representations of the meniscus gradient that were compared quantitatively to numerical solutions of an axisymmetric Young-Laplace equation. Our results show that the governing dynamics of these systems is dominated by the surface tension of the fluid. These image analysis and mathematical tools provide simple quantitative methods for system analysis and optimization.

  11. Tibial fracture after transposition of the tibial tubercle.

    PubMed

    van Haeff, M J; Sauter, A J

    1991-01-01

    Eight weeks after transposition of the tibial tubercle for recurrent subluxation of the patella, the patient sustained a tibial fracture during rope jumping. In spite of consolidation of the osteotomy in the frontal plane, there remained a small gap in the anterior cortex in the transverse plane through which the tibia failed during bending stress.

  12. Tibial hypoplasia with a bifid tibia: an unclassified tibial hemimelia.

    PubMed

    Shah, Krupa; Shah, Hitesh

    2016-08-16

    Tibial hemimelia is a rare congenital limb deficiency which is characterised by a hypoplastic/aplastic tibia. It actually represents a spectrum of anomalies, ranging from mild hypoplasia of the tibia to total absence of the tibia. Several classifications based on radiological description exist in the literature. The tibial hemimelia is usually described with preaxial mirror polydactyly, split hand/foot syndrome-ectrodactyly, polydactyly-triphalangeal thumb syndrome (Werner syndrome) and micromelia-trigonal brachycephaly syndrome. We describe a child with unclassified tibial hemimelia. The child had right incomplete tibial hemimelia with bifid tibia, left complete tibial hemimelia, bilateral split hands and left split foot. This is the first report of the bifid tibia in the literature.

  13. Anatomy and physical examination of the knee menisci: a narrative review of the orthopedic literature

    PubMed Central

    Chivers, Michael D.; Howitt, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to review the physical examination tests available to a practitioner in order to arrive at a clinical diagnosis or suspicion of a meniscal lesion. Background: The menisci transmit weight bearing forces and increase stability of the knee. The menisci also facilitate nutrition, provide lubrication and shock absorption for the articular cartilage and promote knee proprioception. The combinations of torsional and axial loading appear to be the cause of most meniscal injuries. Diagnosis of acute knee injuries has long been a topic for discussion throughout the orthopedic literature. Many clinical tests and diagnostic studies have been developed to increase the clinician’s ability to accurately diagnose these types of disorders of the knee. Conclusion: The accuracy of all diagnostic tests is thought to be dependant upon the skill of the examiner, and the severity and location of the injury. The multitude of tests described to assess meniscal lesions suggests that none are consistently reliable. However, recent research has focused on a composite score to accurately predict meniscus lesions. The combination of a comprehensive history, multiple physical tests and diagnostic imaging for confirmation is typical for a clinical meniscal lesion diagnosis while the gold standard remains the arthroscopic procedure itself. PMID:20037697

  14. Adamantinoma of tibial shaft.

    PubMed

    A, Joshi; Kc, B R; Basnet, S B; Panth, R; Shrestha, R L; Chand, P; Thapa, B B

    2009-01-01

    Adamantinoma is an extremely rare primary bony neoplasm. Because of its malignant nature, accurate and early diagnosis is very important. On the other hand adamantinoma mimics many benign conditions, so it is doubly important to establish correct tissue diagnosis to avoid radical surgery with morbidities. Because of its rarity, diagnosing adamantinoma still remains difficult, even if when it occurs in classical sites. We report a case of adamantinoma of tibial shaft diaphysis in a 23 year male. In this case, because of classic clinic-radiological features, we were suspecting adamantinoma from very beginning but final diagnosis was delayed for nine months.

  15. Development and Characterization of Acellular Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds from Porcine Menisci for Use in Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Chen; Chen, Ray-Neng; Jhan, Hua-Jing; Liu, Der-Zen; Ho, Hsiu-O; Mao, Yong; Kohn, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Given the growing number of arthritis patients and the limitations of current treatments, there is great urgency to explore cartilage substitutes by tissue engineering. In this study, we developed a novel decellularization method for menisci to prepare acellular extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds with minimal adverse effects on the ECM. Among all the acid treatments, formic acid treatment removed most of the cellular contents and preserved the highest ECM contents in the decellularized porcine menisci. Compared with fresh porcine menisci, the content of DNA decreased to 4.10%±0.03%, and there was no significant damage to glycosaminoglycan (GAG) or collagen. Histological staining also confirmed the presence of ECM and the absence of cellularity. In addition, a highly hydrophilic scaffold with three-dimensional interconnected porous structure was fabricated from decellularized menisci tissue. Human chondrocytes showed enhanced cell proliferation and synthesis of chondrocyte ECM including type II collagen and GAG when cultured in this acellular scaffold. Moreover, the scaffold effectively supported chondrogenesis of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Finally, in vivo implantation was conducted in rats to assess the biocompatibility of the scaffolds. No significant inflammatory response was observed. The acellular ECM scaffold provided a native environment for cells with diverse physiological functions to promote cell proliferation and new tissue formation. This study reported a novel way to prepare decellularized meniscus tissue and demonstrated the potential as scaffolds to support cartilage repair. PMID:25919905

  16. Fibrous cartilage of human menisci is less shock-absorbing and energy-dissipating than hyaline cartilage.

    PubMed

    Gaugler, Mario; Wirz, Dieter; Ronken, Sarah; Hafner, Mirjam; Göpfert, Beat; Friederich, Niklaus F; Elke, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    To test meniscal mechanical properties such as the dynamic modulus of elasticity E* and the loss angle δ at two loading frequencies ω at different locations of the menisci and compare it to E* and δ of hyaline cartilage in indentation mode with spherical indenters. On nine pairs of human menisci, the dynamic E*-modulus and loss angle δ (as a measure of the energy dissipation) were determined. The measurements were performed at two different strain rates (slow sinusoidal and fast single impact) to show the strain rate dependence of the material. The measurements were compared to previous similar measurements with the same equipment on human hyaline cartilage. The resultant E* at fast indentation (median 1.16 MPa) was significantly higher, and the loss angle was significantly lower (median 10.2°) compared to slow-loading mode's E* and δ (median 0.18 MPa and 16.9°, respectively). Further, significant differences for different locations are shown. On the medial meniscus, the anterior horn shows the highest resultant dynamic modulus. In dynamic measurements with a spherical indenter, the menisci are much softer and less energy-dissipating than hyaline cartilage. Further, the menisci are stiffer and less energy-dissipating in the middle, intermediate part compared to the meniscal base. In compression, the energy dissipation of meniscus cartilage plays a minor role compared to hyaline cartilage. At high impacts, energy dissipation is less than on low impacts, similar to cartilage.

  17. Shape of menisci in spinning horizontal tubes: Application to contact angle determination

    SciTech Connect

    Princen, H.M.; Vaidya, R.N.

    1995-09-01

    The authors have computed the shape of an axisymmetric fluid/liquid meniscus in a capillary that is spun about its horizontal axis. The solutions were used to establish the relationship between the fluid/liquid/solid contact angle on the one hand and several experimentally accessible parameters (tube radius, interfacial tension, densities, angular velocity, and certain meniscus dimensions) on the other. This opens the way to a novel method for determining contact angles. Using the results for single menisci, the authors have in addition developed a method whereby the contact angle may be obtained from the critical speed at which a finite drop (or slug) is either released from the tube wall (if the drop phase is the less dense phase) or penetrated axially by the other phase (if the drop phase is the denser phase).

  18. Transition from stripe-like patterns to a particulate film using driven evaporating menisci.

    PubMed

    Noguera-Marín, Diego; Moraila-Martínez, Carmen L; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, Miguel A; Rodríguez-Valverde, Miguel A

    2014-07-01

    Better control of colloidal assembly by convective deposition is particularly helpful in particle templating. However, knowledge of the different factors that can alter colloidal patterning mechanisms is still insufficient. Deposit morphology is strongly ruled by contact line dynamics, but the wettability properties of the substrate can alter it drastically. In this work, we experimentally examined the roles of substrate contact angle hysteresis and receding contact angle using driven evaporating menisci similar to the dip-coating technique but at a low capillary number. We used smooth substrates with very different wettability properties and nanoparticles of different sizes. For fixed withdrawal velocity, evaporation conditions, and nanoparticle concentration, we analyzed the morphology of the deposits formed on each substrate. A gradual transition from stripe-like patterns to a film was observed as the contact angle hysteresis and receding contact angle were lowered.

  19. Predicted Loading on the Menisci during Gait: The Effect of Horn Laxity

    PubMed Central

    Guess, Trent M.; Razu, Swithin; Jahandar, Hamidreza; Stylianou, Antonis

    2015-01-01

    Radiographic measurements have established a link between meniscus extrusion and meniscus degeneration as well as with knee osteoarthritis. The presented work combines medical imaging with motion capture data from two healthy female subjects to create subject specific knee models that predict tibio-menisco-femoral contact forces and ligament forces during muscle driven simulations of barefoot gait. The developed computational models were used to explore the relationship between the extent of meniscal extrusion and biomechanical function by altering the laxity of the meniscal horn attachments during gait. The extrusion distance increased as laxity increased and the amount of contact force transferred through the menisci during gait decreased rapidly as the meniscal attachments became more lax. Horn attachment lengths that were 20% longer than MRI attachment lengths resulted in an almost complete loss of force transfer through the menisci during the gait cycle. Relatively small changes (2 to 3 mm) in the lengths at which horn bundles first become taut, manifested in large changes in the capacity of the tissue to transmit forces. As meniscal horn attachment laxity increased from 80% to 120% of the MRI measured horn distance, medial meniscus extrusion increased 3.9 mm for the first subject and 2.7 mm for the second subject. For the same horn laxity changes, the percent of medial tibiofemoral contact force transmitted through the medial meniscus during early stance decreased from 51% to 8% and from 36% to 14% for the two subjects. The results of our study show that increased meniscal extrusion occurs with increased laxity of the meniscal tibia attachments and this increased laxity results in loss of meniscal function. PMID:25814179

  20. TIBIAL SHAFT FRACTURES.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kodi Edson; Ferreira, Ramon Venzon

    2011-01-01

    The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an association with compartmental syndrome, and early diagnosis can be achieved through evaluating clinical parameters and constant clinical monitoring. Once the diagnosis has been made, fasciotomy should be performed. It is always difficult to assess consolidation, but the RUST method may help in this. Radiography is assessed in two projections, and points are scored for the presence of the fracture line and a visible bone callus. Today, the dogma of six hours for cleaning the exposed fracture is under discussion. It is considered that an early start to intravenous antibiotic therapy and the lesion severity are very important. The question of early or late closure of the lesion in an exposed fracture has gone through several phases: sometimes early closure has been indicated and sometimes late closure. Currently, whenever possible, early closure of the lesion is recommended, since this diminishes the risk of infection. Milling of the canal when the intramedullary nail is introduced is still a controversial subject. Despite strong personal positions in favor of milling, studies have shown that there may be some advantage in relation to closed fractures, but not in exposed fractures.

  1. TIBIAL SHAFT FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Kodi Edson; Ferreira, Ramon Venzon

    2015-01-01

    The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an association with compartmental syndrome, and early diagnosis can be achieved through evaluating clinical parameters and constant clinical monitoring. Once the diagnosis has been made, fasciotomy should be performed. It is always difficult to assess consolidation, but the RUST method may help in this. Radiography is assessed in two projections, and points are scored for the presence of the fracture line and a visible bone callus. Today, the dogma of six hours for cleaning the exposed fracture is under discussion. It is considered that an early start to intravenous antibiotic therapy and the lesion severity are very important. The question of early or late closure of the lesion in an exposed fracture has gone through several phases: sometimes early closure has been indicated and sometimes late closure. Currently, whenever possible, early closure of the lesion is recommended, since this diminishes the risk of infection. Milling of the canal when the intramedullary nail is introduced is still a controversial subject. Despite strong personal positions in favor of milling, studies have shown that there may be some advantage in relation to closed fractures, but not in exposed fractures. PMID:27026999

  2. Medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reshef, Noam; Guelich, David R

    2012-04-01

    MTSS is a benign, though painful, condition, and a common problem in the running athlete. It is prevalent among military personnel, runners, and dancers, showing an incidence of 4% to 35%. Common names for this problem include shin splints, soleus syndrome, tibial stress syndrome, and periostitis. The exact cause of this condition is unknown. Previous theories included an inflammatory response of the periosteum or periosteal traction reaction. More recent evidence suggests a painful stress reaction of bone. The most proven risk factors are hyperpronation of the foot, female sex, and history of previous MTSS. Patient evaluation is based on meticulous history taking and physical examination. Even though the diagnosis remains clinical, imaging studies, such as plain radiographs and bone scans are usually sufficient, although MRI is useful in borderline cases to rule out more significant pathology. Conservative treatment is almost always successful and includes several options; though none has proven more superior to rest. Prevention programs do not seem to influence the rate of MTSS, though shock-absorbing insoles have reduced MTSS rates in military personnel, and ESWT has shortened the duration of symptoms. Surgery is rarely indicated but has shown some promising results in patients who have not responded to all conservative options.

  3. T1rho MRI of Menisci in Patients with Osteoarthritis at 3T: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ligong; Chang, Gregory; Bencardino, Jenny; Babb, James S.; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Abramson, Steven; Regatte, Ravinder R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare and assess subregional, compartmental, and whole T1rho values of menisci in patients with doubtful-minimal [Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade 1–2] as compared to moderate-severe (KL3–4) osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy controls at 3T. Materials and Methods 46 subjects were included in the study and subdivided into three subgroups: 16 healthy controls (4 females, 12 males; mean age = 34.4±10.2 years, age range 24–63 years), 20 patients with doubtful-minimal (KL1–2) OA (9 females, 11 males; mean age = 61.9±10.8 years, age range 40–80 years), and 10 patients with moderate-severe (KL3–4) OA (4 females, 6 males; mean age = 71.1±9.6 years, age range 58–89 years). All subjects were evaluated on a 3T MR scanner using a spin-lock-based 3D GRE sequence for T1rho mapping. Clinical proton density (PD)-weighted fast spin echoes (FSE) images in the sagittal (without fat saturation), axial, and coronal (fat-saturated) planes were acquired for cartilage Whole-Organ MR Imaging Score (WORMS) grading. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed to determine whether there were any statistically significant differences between subregional, compartmental, and whole T1rho values of meniscus among healthy controls, OA patients with KL1–2 and with KL3–4. Results Lateral anterior (median±inter-quartile range: 26±3 ms) and medial posterior (29±6 ms) meniscus subregions in healthy controls had significantly lower T1rho values (p < 0.05) than the corresponding meniscus subregions in both KL1–2 (29±7 ms and 35±8 ms, respectively) and KL3–4 (30±12 ms and 40±13 ms, respectively) OA subjects. Significantly lower meniscus T1rho values (p < 0.05) were also identified in the medial compartment in healthy controls (28±5 ms) relative to both KL1–2 OA subjects and KL3–4 OA subjects (32±7 ms and 37±7 ms, respectively). The entire meniscus T1rho values in healthy controls (28±4 ms) were significantly lower than those of both KL1–2 and KL3–4 OA

  4. Factors influencing posterior tibial slope and tibial rotation in opening wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Matthias; Villa, Vincent; Reischl, Nikolaus; Demey, Guillaume; Goy, Damien; Neyret, Philippe; Gautier, Emanuel; Magnussen, Robert A

    2015-09-01

    Opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) is an accepted treatment option for medial compartment knee osteoarthritis with associated varus lower limb axis in younger, more active patients. A concern with the use of this technique is that posterior tibial slope (PTS) and tibial rotation can be altered. We hypothesized that there is a tendency to increase the PTS and internal rotation of the distal tibia during the procedure and that certain intra-operative parameters may influence the amount of change that can be expected. A cadaveric model and surgical navigation system were used to evaluate the influence of certain intra-operative factors of the degree of PTS and tibial rotation change observed during medial opening HTO. Parameters evaluated included: degree of osteotomy opening, knee flexion angle, location of limb support (thigh versus foot), performance of a posteromedial release, the status of the lateral cortical hinge, and the degree of osteoarthritis present in the knee. Combining measurements of all specimens and parameters, a mean PTS increase of 2.7° ± 3.9° and a mean tibial internal rotation of 1.5° ± 2.9° were observed. Clinically, significant changes in tibial slope (>2°) occurred in 50.4 % of corrections, while significant changes in tibial rotation (>5°) occurred in only 11.9 % of corrections. Patients with significant osteoarthritis and concomitant flexion contracture, cases where large corrections were required, and procedures in which the lateral cortical hinge was disrupted were associated with increased PTS change. The other factors evaluated did not exert a significant influence of the degree of PTS change observed. Surgeons should be vigilant for possible PTS change, particularly in high-risk situations as outlined above. Routine use of an intra-operative measure of PTS is recommended to avoid inadvertent slope change.

  5. Do Not Hallow until You Are out of the Wood! Ultrasonographic Detection of CPP Crystal Deposits in Menisci: Facts and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Filippou, Georgios; Adinolfi, Antonella; Bozios, Panagiotis; Lorenzini, Sauro; Picerno, Valentina; Di Sabatino, Valentina; Bertoldi, Ilaria; Gambera, Dario; Galeazzi, Mauro; Frediani, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Ultrasonography (US) has been demonstrated to be an important tool in the diagnosis of calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) crystal deposition disease. The aim of our study was to individuate and describe possible pitfalls in US detection of such deposits in menisci. Patients and Methods. We enrolled all patients waiting to undergo knee replacement surgery due to osteoarthritis, for one-month period. Each patient underwent US examination of the knee, focusing on the menisci. After surgery, the menisci were examined by US, macroscopically and microscopically, using the microscopic analysis as the gold standard for CPP deposition. Results. 11 menisci of 6 patients have been studied. Ex vivo examination of menisci performed better in CPP identification than in vivo examination. The possible reasons of misinterpretation or misdiagnosis of the in vivo exam were identified and are extensively described in the paper. Also a new sign of CPP crystal deposits was found. Conclusions. This study permitted to highlight some difficulties in CPP crystal detection by US in menisci. Further studies are needed to define completely US CPP crystal aspect and to improve the sensibility and specificity of US in CPP deposition diagnosis. PMID:23970829

  6. Material properties of individual menisci and their attachments obtained through inverse FE-analysis.

    PubMed

    Freutel, Maren; Galbusera, Fabio; Ignatius, Anita; Dürselen, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    Meniscal properties for computational methods have already been proposed. However, it is well known that there is high intra subject variability in the material properties of soft tissues and that disruption of the fiber network alters the biomechanics of the meniscus. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish a non invasive method to determine the material properties of the individual menisci and their attachments using inverse FE-analyses. In a previous study, the 3D displacements of the meniscus and its attachments under axial joint loads were determined for intact porcine knees. To simulate the experimental response in individual FE-analyses (n=5), an anisotropic, hyperelastic meniscus matrix was embedded in a poroelastic model. During a particle swarm optimization, the difference between the force applied to the meniscus during the experiment and the femoral surface reaction force of the FE model at equilibrium was minimized by varying four material parameters. Afterwards, a prediction error was determined to describe how well the material parameter fit to each of the three displacement directions. Additionally, the stresses occurring in the meniscus were evaluated. The error of the material parameter optimization was on average 6.5±4.4%. The best fitting material parameter combination revealed an error of 1.2%. The highest stresses occurred in the region between the pars intermedia and posterior horn of the meniscus. The individual material properties of the meniscus were successfully obtained with a combination of previously reported, noninvasively measured 3D displacements and inverse FE-analyses. The methodology presented in this study is a promising contribution to the detection of degeneration within the meniscus.

  7. Dynamic Contact Stress Patterns on the Tibial Plateaus during Simulated Gait: A Novel Application of Normalized Cross Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongsheng; Chen, Tony; Torzilli, Peter; Warren, Russell; Maher, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution and pattern of local contact stresses within the knee joint during activities of daily living have not been fully investigated. The objective of this study was to determine if common contact stress patterns exist on the tibial plateaus of human knees during simulated gait. To test this hypothesis, we developed a novel normalized cross-correlation (NCC) algorithm and applied it to the contact stresses on the tibial plateaus of twelve human cadaveric knees subjected to multi-directional loads mimicking gait. The contact stress profiles at different locations on the tibial plateaus were compared, where regions with similar contact stress patterns were identified across specimens. Three consistent regional patterns were found, among them two most prominent contact stress patterns were shared by 9 to 12 of all the knees and the third pattern was shared by 6 to 8 knees. The first pattern was located at the posterior aspect of the medial tibial plateau and had a single peak stress that occurred during the early stance phase. The second pattern was located at the central-posterior aspects of the lateral plateau and consisted of two peak stresses coincident with the timing of peak axial force at early and late stance. The third pattern was found on the anterior aspect of cartilage-to-cartilage contact region on the medial plateau consisted of double peak stresses. The differences in the location and profile of the contact stress patterns suggest that the medial and lateral menisci function to carry load at different points in the gait cycle: with the posterior aspect of the medial meniscus consistently distributing load only during the early phase of stance, and the posterior aspect of the lateral meniscus consistently distributing load during both the early and late phases of stance. This novel approach can help identify abnormalities in knee contact mechanics and provide a better understanding of the mechanical pathways leading to post

  8. [VASCULAR ANATOMICAL STUDY ON TIBIAL OSTEOTOMY LENGTHENING].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Yupeng; Jia, Song; Yang, Huanyou; Yin, Jiali; Jiang, Wenping; Zhao, Gang

    2015-07-01

    To provide the anatomical basis for the selection of osteotomy site in leg lengthening or tibial slip. Between August 2010 and July 2014, 10 adult fresh amputated leg specimens were collected. The pressure perfusion of red latex was performed by the popliteal artery. The anterior tibial artery and its main branches were separated and exposed, and the periosteal branch of anterior tibial artery was adequately exposed; the posterior tibial artery and its main branches were exposed; the peroneal artery was separated and exposed. The tibial and peroneal artery and its branches were observed and measured. When measuring the proximal end, the medial tibial plateau bone margin, the most prominent part of the tibial tuberosity, and the fibular head edge were used as a reference; when measuring the distal end, distal medial condyle of tibia malleolus tip, tibial lateral malleolus lateral tip, and distal tibial articular surface were used as a reference; the vertical distance between tibia proximal and distal main arteries and bone end reference was measured to determine the optimal osteotomy position of upper and lower tibia. The osteotomy index was calculated which was used to represent the relative position of osteotomy site in the whole tibia. The proximal tibial osteotomy site located at (78.2 ± 19.5) mm from medial tibial plateau margin, (41.8 ± 16.0) mm from the tibial tuberosity pole, and (66.7 ± 16.4) mm from the fibular head edge. The distal tibial osteotomy site located at (70.8 ± 12.1) mm above the inferior margin of tibial medial malleolus, (83.3 ± 13.0) mm above the inferior margin of lateral malleolus tip, and (59.1 ± 11.7) mm from distal tibial articular surface. The proximal tibial osteotomy index was 18.45-23.35 (mean, 20.46); the distal tibial osteotomy index was 14.36-23.05 (mean, 18.81). The metaphyseal-diaphyseal connection shold be selected in the proximal and distal tibia osteotomy, the lower one third of the tibia is not suitable for ostetomy.

  9. Tibial tuberosity fractures in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Frey, Steven; Hosalkar, Harish; Cameron, Danielle B; Heath, Aaron; David Horn, B; Ganley, Theodore J

    2008-12-01

    Tibial tuberosity fractures in adolescents are uncommon. We retrospectively reviewed all tibial tuberosity fractures in adolescents (10-19) who presented to our level 1 pediatric trauma center over a 7-year period to review fracture morphology, mechanism of injury, fracture management including return to play, as well as complications. Additionally, we present a review of the literature and treatment algorithm. We reviewed the clinical charts and radiographs of consecutive patients with tibial tuberosity fractures between 01 January 2000 and 01 January 2007. Data parameters included the following: patients age and gender, involved side, injury classification, co-morbidities, mechanism of injury, treatment, return to activity and complications. Data were extracted and reviewed, and a treatment algorithm is proposed with some additional insights into the epidemiology of the injury. Nineteen patients met the inclusion criteria. There were 19 patients with 20 tibial tuberosity fractures. The mean age was 13.7 years. There were 18 males and 1 female patient. There were nine left-sided injuries and eleven right-sided including one patient with bilateral fractures. Mechanism of injuries included basketball injury (8), running injury (5), football injury (3), fall from a scooter (2), high jump (1) and fall (1). Co-morbidities included three patients with concurrent Osgood-Schlatter disease and one with osteogenesis imperfecta. All were treated with ORIF, including arthroscopic-assisted techniques in two cases. Complications included four patients with pre-operative presentation of compartment syndrome all requiring fasciotomy, one post-operative stiffness and one painful hardware requiring removal. Range of motion was started an average of 4.3 weeks post-operatively and return to play was an average of 3.9 months post-operatively. Although uncommon, tibial tuberosity fractures in adolescents are clinically important injuries. Early recognition and treatment (closed or open

  10. Application of cell and biomaterial-based tissue engineering methods in the treatment of cartilage, menisci and ligament injuries.

    PubMed

    Trzeciak, Tomasz; Richter, Magdalena; Suchorska, Wiktoria; Augustyniak, Ewelina; Lach, Michał; Kaczmarek, Małgorzata; Kaczmarczyk, Jacek

    2016-03-01

    Over 20 years ago it was realized that the traditional methods of the treatment of injuries to joint components: cartilage, menisci and ligaments, did not give satisfactory results and so there is a need of employing novel, more effective therapeutic techniques. Recent advances in molecular biology, biotechnology and polymer science have led to both the experimental and clinical application of various cell types, adapting their culture conditions in order to ensure a directed differentiation of the cells into a desired cell type, and employing non-toxic and non-immunogenic biomaterial in the treatment of knee joint injuries. In the present review the current state of knowledge regarding novel cell sources, in vitro conditions of cell culture and major important biomaterials, both natural and synthetic, used in cartilage, meniscus and ligament repair by tissue engineering techniques are described, and the assets and drawbacks of their clinical application are critically evaluated.

  11. The quantitative evaluation of the impact of viable medial meniscus graft type on the biochemical and biomechanical properties of the rabbit tibial cartilage.

    PubMed

    Zwierzchowski, Tomasz J; Janus, Jolanta; Konecki, Włodzimierz; Kubiak, Grzegorz; Fabiś, Jarosław

    2015-11-12

    Knowledge of the impact of viable medial meniscus allograft and autograft transplantation on biochemical and mechanical properties of cartilage is needed to understand the development of joint osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this relationship 6 months after viable medial meniscal autograft and allograft transplantation. Twenty rabbits were chosen for the study. The medial menisci were excised from 14 animals and stored under tissue culture conditions for 2 weeks. Seven menisci were implanted as autografts (group A) and seven as allografts (group B). The control group consisted of six animals which underwent arthrotomy. The tibial cartilage was used for mechanical and biochemical evaluation. The respective decreases of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and elasticity were 13.4 and 14.8% for group A and 30.4 and 32.6% for group B. The differences between group A and B and between each group and the control were statistically significant. The total collagen content was significantly lower in group B. The type of viable meniscal graft has an influence on the biochemical composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomechanical properties of the underlying tibial cartilage. A 1% decrease of glycosaminoglycan content is associated with a 1.1% decrease of cartilage elasticity. The average ratio of decrease of cartilage elasticity to that of the meniscus was 0.77 regardless of the type of meniscus graft. The viable allograft causes irreversible ECM disorder of the cartilage. Knowledge of the biochemical composition of the ECM meniscal grafts may serve as a predictor of their chondroprotective properties.

  12. Assessing Tibial Tray Rotation in TKA: A Cadaveric Study.

    PubMed

    Hakki, Sam; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Gabriel, Christian; Mihalko, William M; Saleh, Khaled J

    2016-05-01

    Tibial anatomical landmarks for transverse plane rotation of the tibial tray have not been validated. The current authors propose aligning the tibial tray with both the anterior tibial center point of rotation (ATCPR) and the femoral trochlear groove (FTG) to establish the ideal tibial tray rotation in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). When the tibial tray centerline was aligned with ATCPR and FTG lines, the mean range of motion (ROM) was 144.3° (preoperatively 145°) and tibial rotation range was 22.8 mm (preoperatively, 24.9 mm). When the tibial component was rotated 5 mm medially to the ATCPR, the knee ROM decreased in flexion with patellar subluxation, while it decreased in extension when rotated 5 mm laterally. This method identifies the ideal tibial tray rotation in TKA, at which maximal range of tibial rotation and knee ROM are achieved without obvious overriding of components. [Orthopedics, 2016; 39(3):S67-S71.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture.

    PubMed

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; Dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; Dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome.

  14. Bilateral double level tibial lengthening in dwarfism☆

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, Rolf D.; Yoshino, Koichi; Kashiwagi, Naoya; Yoshino, Shigeo; Bhave, Anil; Paley, Dror; Herzenberg, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Outcome assessment after double level tibial lengthening in patients with dwarfism. Methods Fourteen patients with dwarfism were analyzed after bilateral simultaneous double level tibial lengthening. Results Average age was 15.1 years. Average lengthening was 13.5 cm. The two levels were lengthened by an average of 7.5 cm proximally and 6.0 cm distally. Concomitant deformities were also addressed during lengthening. External fixation treatment time averaged 8.8 months. Healing index averaged 0.7 months/cm. Conclusion Bilateral tibial lengthening for dwarfism is difficult, but the results are usually quite gratifying. PMID:26566326

  15. Distal realignment (tibial tuberosity transfer).

    PubMed

    Feller, Julian Ashley

    2012-09-01

    Although tibial tuberosity (TT) transfer has for many years been the basis of many protocols for the management of patellar instability, the role of pure medial transfer in particular appears to be declining. In contrast, the greater recognition of the importance of patella alta as a predisposing factor to recurrent patellar dislocation has resulted in a resurgence in the popularity of distal TT transfer. When TT transfer is performed, the direction and amount of transfer is based on the patellar height and the lateralization of the TT relative to the trochlear groove. Patellar height is best assessed on a lateral radiograph with the knee in flexion using a ratio that uses the articular surface of the patella in relation to the height above the tibia. Assessment of lateralization of the TT relative to the trochlear groove can be made using either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans.

  16. [TIBIAL PERIOSTEAL FLAP PEDICLED WITH INTERMUSCULAR BRANCH OF POSTERIOR TIBIAL VESSELS COMBINED WITH AUTOLOGOUS BONE GRAFT FOR TIBIAL BONE DEFECT].

    PubMed

    Ni, Yulong; Gao, Shunhong; Zhang, Jingyu; Dong, Huishuang; Zhang, Yunpeng; Fu, Jiansong

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of tibial periosteal flap pedicled with intermuscular branch of posterior tibial vessels combined with autologous bone graft in the treatment of tibial bone defects. Between January 2007 and December 2013, 19 cases of traumatic tibia bone and soft tissue defects were treated. There were 14 males and 5 females, aged from 18 to 49 years (mean, 28 years). The tibial fracture site located at the middle tibia in 6 cases and at the distal tibia in 13 cases. According to Gustilo type, 4 cases were rated as type III A, 14 cases as type III B, and 1 case as type III C (injury of anterior tibial artery). The length of bone defect ranged from 4.3 to 8.5 cm (mean, 6.3 cm). The soft tissue defects ranged from 8 cm x 5 cm to 17 cm x 9 cm. The time from injury to operation was 3 to 8 hours (mean, 4 hours). One-stage operation included debridement, external fixation, and vacuum sealing drainage. After formation of granulation tissue, the fresh wound was repaired with sural neurovascular flap or posterior tibial artery perforator flap. The flap size ranged from 10 cmx6 cm to 19 cm x 11 cm. In two-stage operation, tibial periosteal flap pedicled with intermuscular branch of posterior tibial vessels combined with autologous bone graft was used to repair tibial defect. The periosteal flap ranged from 6.5 cm x 4.0 cm to 9.0 cm x 5.0 cm; bone graft ranged from 4.5 to 9.0 cm in length. External fixation was changed to internal fixation. All flaps survived with soft texture, and no ulcer and infection occurred. All incisions healed by the first intention. All patients were followed up 18-40 months (mean, between normal and affected sides.The function of the knee an ankle joint was good without infection, malunion, and equinus. According to the Johner standard at last follow-up, the results were excellent in 15 cases, good in 3 cases, and fair in 1 case, with an excellent and good rate of 94.7%. Tibial periosteal flap pedicled with intermuscular branch of

  17. Genetics Home Reference: tibial muscular dystrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... more common in particular ethnic groups? Genetic Changes Mutations in the TTN gene cause tibial muscular dystrophy . ... in chemical signaling and in assembling new sarcomeres. Mutations in the TTN gene alter the structure and ...

  18. [Retrograde nailing in a tibial fracture].

    PubMed

    Valls-Mellado, M; Martí-Garín, D; Fillat-Gomà, F; Marcano-Fernández, F A; González-Vargas, J A

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of a severely comminuted type iiia open tibial fracture, with distal loss of bone stock (7 cm), total involvement of the tibial joint surface, and severe instability of the fibular-talar joint. The treatment performed consisted of thorough cleansing, placing a retrograde reamed calcaneal-talar-tibial nail with proximal and distal blockage, as well as a fibular-talar Kirschner nail. Primary closure of the skin was achieved. After 3 weeks, an autologous iliac crest bone graft was performed to fill the bone defect, and the endomedullary nail, which had protruded distally was reimpacted and dynamized distally. The bone defect was eventually consolidated after 16 weeks. Currently, the patient can walk without pain the tibial-astragal arthrodesis is consolidated. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomechanical Factors in Tibial Stress Fractures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    The Effect of a Single Treatment of the Protonics System on Lower Extremity Kinematics during Gait and the Lateral Step Up Exercise . (in review) Gait...section in a comparison with a matched control group of subjects who have not sustained a fracture. Due to the low number of tibial stress fractures...fractures must be confirmed by x-rays, bone scans or MRIs. Tibial stress reactions have been operationally defined as bony pain specifically along the

  20. Atypical tibial tuberosity fracture in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Jalgaonkar, Azal A; Dachepalli, Sunil; Al-Wattar, Zaid; Rao, Sudhir; Kochhar, Tony

    2011-06-14

    Avulsion fractures of the tibial tuberosity are typically sustained by adolescent males during sporting activities. Tibial tuberosity avulsions with simultaneous proximal tibial epiphyseal fractures are rare injuries. We present an unusual case of Ogden type IIIA avulsion fracture of tibial tuberosity with a Salter Harris type IV posterior fracture of proximal tibial epiphysis in a 13-year-old boy. We believe that the patient sustained the tibial tuberosity avulsion during the take-off phase of a jump while playing basketball due to sudden violent contraction of the quadriceps as the knee was extending. This was then followed by the posterior Salter Harris type IV fracture of proximal tibial physis as he landed on his leg with enormous forces passing through the knee. Although standard radiographs were helpful in diagnosing the complex fracture pattern, precise configuration was only established by computed tomography (CT) scan. The scan also excluded well-recognized concomitant injuries including ligament and meniscal injuries. Unlike other reported cases, our patient did not have compartment syndrome. Anatomic reduction and stabilization with a partially threaded transepiphyseal cannulated screw and a metaphyseal screw followed by early mobilization ensured an excellent recovery by the patient.Our case highlights the importance of vigilance and a high index of suspicion for coexisting fractures or soft tissue injuries when treating avulsion fractures of tibial tuberosity. A CT scan is justified in such patients to recognize complex fracture configurations, and surgical treatment should be directed appropriately to both the fractures followed by early rehabilitation. Patients with such injuries warrant close monitoring for compartment syndrome during the perioperative period.

  1. Optimizing femorotibial alignment in high tibial osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Rudan, John; Harrison, Mark; Simurda, Michael A

    Objective To study factors that affect femorotibial (F-T) alignment after valgus closing wedge tibial osteotomy. Study design A review of standardized standing radiographs. Femorotibial alignment was measured 1 year postoperatively for over- and under-correction. Changes in F–T alignment and in tibial plateau angle were measured. Setting An urban hospital and orthopedic clinic. Patients Eighty-two patients with osteoarthritis and varus femorotibial alignment underwent valgus closing wedge tibial osteotomy. Patients having a diagnosis of inflammatory arthritis or a prior osteotomy about the knee were excluded. Results A 1° wedge removed from the tibia resulted in an average correction of F–T alignment of 1.2°. A knee that had increased valgus orientation of the distal femur had a greater degree of correction, averaging 1.46° in F–T alignment per degree of tibial wedge. This resulted in excessive postoperative valgus alignment for some patients who had increased valgus tilt of the distal femur. Optimal F–T alignment of 6° to 14° of valgus occurred when the postoperative tibial inclination was 4° to 8° of valgus. Conclusions There was a trend for knees with increased valgus orientation of the distal femur to have greater correction in F–T alignment after tibial osteotomy, likely because of a greater opening up of the medial joint space during stance. Surgeons need to account for this in their preoperative planning. PMID:10526522

  2. Increasing posterior tibial slope does not raise anterior cruciate ligament strain but decreases tibial rotation ability.

    PubMed

    Nelitz, Manfred; Seitz, Andreas M; Bauer, Jasmin; Reichel, Heiko; Ignatius, Anita; Dürselen, Lutz

    2013-03-01

    It was investigated whether the strain of the anterior cruciate ligament and tibial kinematics are affected by increasing posterior tibial slope. 9 human cadaveric knee joints were passively moved between full extension and 120° flexion in a motion and loading simulator under various loading conditions and at 0°, 5°, 10° and 15° posterior tibial slope angles. The anterior cruciate ligament strain and the tibial rotation angle were registered. To assess the influence of posterior tibial slope on the anterior cruciate ligament strain at a fixed flexion angle the anterior cruciate ligament strain was recorded at three different flexion angles of 0°, 30° and 90° while continuously increasing the osteotomy angle from 5° to 15°. The anterior cruciate ligament strain was either not affected by the posterior tibial slope angle or, in some load cases, was decreased for increasing posterior tibial slope (P<0.05). There was a significant decrease of tibial rotation when the posterior tibial slope was increased to 15° for many of the load cases tested (P<0.05). The mean maximum decrease was from 17.4° (SD 5.7°) to 11.2° (SD 4.7°) observed for flexion-extension motion under 30N axial load in combination with an internal rotation moment. The hypothesis that increasing posterior tibial slope results in higher anterior cruciate ligament strain was not confirmed. However, knee kinematics were affected in terms of a reduced tibial rotation. From a biomechanical point of view the data do not support the efficacy of sagittal osteotomies as performed to stabilize anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased lateral tibial posterior slope is related to tibial tunnel widening after primary ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Sabzevari, Soheil; Rahnemai-Azar, Amir Ata; Shaikh, Humza S; Arner, Justin W; Irrgang, James J; Fu, Freddie H

    2017-03-04

    The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of femoral and tibial bone morphology on the amount of femoral and tibial tunnel widening after primary anatomic ACL reconstruction. It was hypothesized that tibial and femoral bone morphology would be significantly correlated with tunnel widening after anatomic ACL reconstruction. Forty-nine consecutive patients (mean age 21.8 ± 8.1 years) who underwent primary single-bundle anatomic ACL reconstruction with hamstring autograft were enrolled. Two blinded observers measured the bone morphology of tibia and femur including, medial and lateral tibial posterior slope, medial and lateral tibial plateau width, medial and lateral femoral condyle width, femoral notch width, and bicondylar width on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Tibial and femoral tunnel width at three points (aperture, mid-section, and exit) were measured on standard anteroposterior radiograph from 1 week and 1 year postoperatively (mean 12.5 ± 2 months). Tunnel width measurements at each point were compared between 1 week and 1 year to calculate percent of tunnel widening over time. Multivariable linear regression was used to analyze correlations between bone morphology and tunnel widening. Increase in lateral tibial posterior slope was the only independent bony morphology characteristics that was significantly correlated with an increased tibial tunnel exit widening (R = 0.58). For every degree increase in lateral tibial posterior slope, a 3.2% increase in tibial tunnel exit width was predicted (p = 0.003). Excellent inter-observer and intra-observer reliability were determined for the measurements (ICC = 0.91 and 0.88, respectively). Increased lateral tibial posterior slope is an important preoperative anatomic factor that may predict tunnel widening at the tibial tunnel exit. In regard to clinical relevance, the results of this study suggest that lateral tibial posterior slope be measured

  4. Control of posterior tibial slope and patellar height in open-wedge valgus high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Hinterwimmer, Stefan; Beitzel, Knut; Paul, Jochen; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Sauerschnig, Martin; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Rüdiger; Imhoff, Andreas B

    2011-04-01

    Valgus-producing open-wedge high tibial osteotomy is an established treatment for varus malalignment and medial osteoarthritis, with reproducible results in the frontal plane. However, an undesirable but often accepted increase in posterior tibial slope and decrease in patellar height are still routinely seen. To evaluate the influence of valgus open-wedge high tibial osteotomy on posterior tibial slope and patellar height when special techniques are used to minimize unwanted changes. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Twenty-five patients, 3 women and 22 men (mean age, 40.2 years), underwent valgus open-wedge high tibial osteotomy. Several technical steps were taken to prevent an increase in posterior tibial slope during the osteotomy. To minimize patellar height changes, the tibial tuberosity was left on either the proximal or distal fragment, depending on the desired patellofemoral effect. The medial and lateral posterior slope was measured using the proximal posterior cortex as a reference; the patellar height was assessed with the Caton-Deschamps Index and compared on preoperative and postoperative radiographs. No significant posterior tibial slope changes were observed. Patellar height increased with both types of tibial tuberosity osteotomy. With the proximal osteotomy, the Caton-Deschamps Index increased from 0.95 to 0.97; with the distal osteotomy, it increased from 0.89 to 0.95. The change was not significant with either osteotomy. The posterior tibial slope did not change on the medial side, measuring 4.2 preoperatively and postoperatively. The lateral slope decreased from 5.4 to 5.1. There was no correlation between the correction in the coronal plane and the changes in the sagittal plane. Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy can be performed without significant changes in patellar height or posterior tibial slope if specific intraoperative methods are used to prevent their occurrence. Analysis and control of sagittal changes in valgus open-wedge high

  5. [Fractures of the tibial shaft].

    PubMed

    Märdian, S; Schwabe, P; Schaser, K-D

    2015-02-01

    The tibia shaft is the most often fractured long bone of human beings. Among others traffic accidents (37.5 %), falls (17.8 %), sport accidents (30.9 %) and assaults (4.5 %) are typical mechanisms. A brief clinical examination including the correct classification of the fracture pattern and even more important the degree of the soft tissue damage are the most crucial factors for the following therapeutic cascade. This follows a defined algorithm based on the degree of soft tissue damage. As biplanar X-ray diagnostics are obligatory, CT scans are subject to complex fracture patterns and accompanying intraarticular pathologies.The treatment of tibial shaft fractures is the preserve of operative stabilization, which should be done primarily depending on the degree of the soft tissue injury. Here intramedullary methods - especially intramedullary nailing - are the golden standard.The most serious complication of these fractures is the development of a compartment syndrome. This requires rapid diagnosis and an adequate surgical management in order to avoid extensive muscle necrosis with ischaemic contractures and irreversible neurovascular deficits. Apart from postoperative infections, which are the predominant complication especially in open injuries, non union provide typical and late complications which are partly difficult to treat. These should, depending on their type, follow a dedicated treatment algorithm.

  6. Topography of human ankle joint: focused on posterior tibial artery and tibial nerve

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deog-Im; Kim, Yi-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Most of foot pain occurs by the entrapment of the tibial nerve and its branches. Some studies have reported the location of the tibial nerve; however, textbooks and researches have not described the posterior tibial artery and the relationship between the tibal nerve and the posterior tibial artery in detail. The purpose of this study was to analyze the location of neurovascular structures and bifurcations of the nerve and artery in the ankle region based on the anatomical landmarks. Ninety feet of embalmed human cadavers were examined. All measurements were evaluated based on a reference line. Neurovascular structures were classified based on the relationship between the tibial nerve and the posterior tibial artery. The bifurcation of arteries and nerves were expressed by X- and Y-coordinates. Based on the reference line, 9 measurements were examined. The most common type I (55.6%), was the posterior tibial artery located medial to the tibial nerve. Neurovascular structures were located less than 50% of the distance between M and C from M at the reference line. The bifurcation of the posterior tibial artery was 41% in X-coordinate, -38% in Y-coordinate, and that of the tibial nerve was 48%, and -10%, respectively. Thirteen measurements and classification showed statistically significant differences between both sexes (P<0.05). It is determined the average position of neurovascular structures in the human ankle region and recorded the differences between the sexes and amongst the populations. These results would be helpful for the diagnosis and treatment of foot pain. PMID:26140224

  7. Association of the type of trauma, occurrence of bone bruise, fracture and joint effusion with the injury to the menisci and ligaments in MRI of knee trauma

    PubMed Central

    Pezeshki, Sina; Vogl, Thomas J.; Pezeshki, Mohammad Zakaria; Daghighi, Mohammad Hossein; Pourisa, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a noninvasive diagnostic tool may help clinicians in the evaluation of injuries to menisci and ligaments. Purpose this study assessed the associations between type of trauma to knee joint, bone bruise, fracture and pathological joint effusion with injuries to menisci and ligaments of knee joint. Methods we reviewed knee joint MRI of 175 patients aged less than 45 years old who were referred to MRI center of our University. Results statistical analysis showed that tearing of medial meniscus (MM) is significantly more common in sport related trauma (p= 0.045) but tearing of medial collateral ligament (MCL) is significantly more common in non-sport related trauma (p= 0.005). Existence of bone bruise in knee MRI is negatively associated with tearing of medial meniscus (MM) (p=0.004) and positively associated with tearing of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) (p=0.00047) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) (p = 0.0001). Existence of fracture is associated with decreased risk of the tearing of ACL and MM (p=0.04, p=0.001 respectively). Pathologic joint effusion is significantly more common in ACL and MCL tearing (p=0.0001, p=0.004 respectively). Conclusions as diagnostic clues, bone bruise, fracture and joint effusion may help radiologists for better assessment of injury to menisci and ligaments in MRI of patients with knee trauma. PMID:27331046

  8. New understanding of the complex structure of knee menisci: implications for injury risk and repair potential for athletes.

    PubMed

    Rattner, J B; Matyas, J R; Barclay, L; Holowaychuk, S; Sciore, P; Lo, I K Y; Shrive, N G; Frank, C B; Achari, Y; Hart, D A

    2011-08-01

    Menisci help maintain the structural integrity of the knee. However, the poor healing potential of the meniscus following a knee injury can not only end a career in sports but lead to osteoarthritis later in life. Complete understanding of meniscal structure is essential for evaluating its risk for injury and subsequent successful repair. This study used novel approaches to elucidate meniscal architecture. The radial and circumferential collagen fibrils in the meniscus were investigated using novel tissue-preparative techniques for light and electron microscopic studies. The results demonstrate a unique architecture based on differences in the packaging of the fundamental collagen fibrils. For radial arrays, the collagen fibrils are arranged in parallel into ∼10 μm bundles, which associate laterally to form flat sheets of varying dimensions that bifurcate and come together to form a honeycomb network within the body of the meniscus. In contrast, the circumferential arrays display a complex network of collagen fibrils arranged into ∼5 μm bundles. Interestingly, both types of architectural organization of collagen fibrils in meniscus are conserved across mammalian species and are age and sex independent. These findings imply that disruptions in meniscal architecture following an injury contribute to poor prognosis for functional repair. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy: the effect of the cortical hinge on posterior tibial slope.

    PubMed

    Wang, Joon Ho; Bae, Ji Hoon; Lim, Hong Chul; Shon, Won Yong; Kim, Cheol Woong; Cho, Jae Woo

    2009-12-01

    High tibial osteotomy can affect the posterior tibial slope in the sagittal plane because of the triangular configuration of the proximal tibia. However, the effect of the location of cortical hinge on posterior tibial slope has not been previously described. Posterolateral location of the cortical hinge will increase posterior tibial slope after medial open wedge osteotomy, and lateral location of the cortical hinge will not affect the change of the posterior tibial slope. Controlled laboratory study. We performed incomplete valgus open wedge osteotomy on 12 paired knees of 6 fresh-frozen human cadavers (age, 63.4 + or - 7.5 years) using an OrthoPilot navigation system. The left and right legs of each specimen were randomly assigned to a posterolateral (group A) or a lateral (group B) cortical hinge group. Changes in mean medial proximal tibial angle, posterior tibial slope, and opening wedge angle were measured and compared after surgery. In group A, mean medial proximal tibial angle changed from 84.37 degrees + or - 2.8 degrees to 93.48 degrees + or - 3.06 degrees (P = .028); mean posterior tibial slope increased significantly from 8.71 degrees + or - 0.81 degrees to 12.16 degrees + or - 0.84 degrees (P = .031); and mean wedge angle was 1.92 degrees + or - 0.46 degrees . In group B, mean medial proximal tibial angle changed from 82.98 degrees + or - 2.53 degrees to 90.89 degrees + or - 3.25 degrees (P = .027); mean posterior tibial slope changed from 9.19 degrees + or - 1.11 degrees to 9.78 degrees + or - 1.27 degrees (P = .029); and mean wedge angle was 7.25 degrees + or - 0.72 degrees . The location of the intact cortical hinge affects the posterior tibia slope. During medial open wedge osteotomy, the change of posterior tibial slope was larger in the posterolateral than in the lateral cortical hinge group. To prevent the unintentional increase of the posterior tibial slope, special attention should be paid to locate the intact cortical hinge on the lateral

  10. Posterior cruciate ligament tibial insertion anatomy and implications for tibial tunnel placement.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Seuk; Ra, Ho Jong; Ahn, Jin Hwan; Ha, Jeong Ku; Kim, Jin Goo

    2011-02-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to predict the tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and posterior cortex that aligned with the tibial tunnel (PCTT) by use of 2-dimensional plain radiographs by evaluating the relation between plain radiograph and computed tomography (CT) images and (2) to determine the safe angle of the tibial guide for preventing breakage of the posterior cortex. In 10 fresh cadaveric tibias, the soft tissues were dissected and the tibial footprint of the PCL was identified. The insertion of the PCL, the longest distance from the PCTT to the posterior cortex that aligned with the tibial plateau (PCTP), and the possible maximum angle of the tibial guide to the most posteriorly positioned cortical line were measured from simple anteroposterior (AP) and lateral radiographs, as well as CT. The mean tibial insertion of the PCL from the joint line was located between 5.9 ± 1.1 and 17.4 ± 2.4 mm on the simple AP radiographs and between 2.2 ± 1.2 and 12.3 ± 1.5 mm on the simple lateral radiographs (P = .005). The PCL insertion was from the posterior 48% of the area of the posterior intercondylar fossa to the posterior cortex. The longest distance from the PCTT to the PCTP was 10.8 ± 2.2 mm. The maximum angle of the tibial guide to the PCTT possible on CT and the PCTP on lateral radiographs was 52° ± 5° and 62° ± 4.5°, respectively (P = .005). The mean tibial insertion of the PCL from the joint line was located higher on the lateral radiographs than on the AP radiographs, and the PCL insertion was in the posterior 48% of the area of the PCL fovea to the posterior cortex. The maximum possible angle of the tibial guide to the PCTT based on CT was 52°. Therefore the angle of the tibial guide pin must be limited for tibial footprint reconstruction to prevent posterior wall breakage. Increasing the tibial guide angle may have some advantages, but there is a limit because of posterior wall breakage. Copyright © 2011

  11. Single incision pediatric flexible intramedullary tibial nailing.

    PubMed

    Coury, John G; Lum, Zachary C; O'Neill, Nicholas P; Gerardi, Joseph A

    2017-09-01

    There has been a trend towards flexible intramedullary nailing for unstable tibial shaft fractures in the pediatric population, traditionally, utilizing a 2-incision technique with passage of one nail medially and one nail laterally. Our study aims to compare a single incision approach for flexible nailing of unstable tibial shaft fractures in pediatric patients to the traditional 2-incision approach. Patients were selected for operative fixation if they had a length unstable tibial shaft fracture confirmed by fluoroscopy. Exclusion criteria included length stable tibial fractures that could undergo nonoperative treatment. Single incision technique utilized the medial incision only. Patients were monitored in the hospital for one postoperative day and followed up at 4 week, 8 week, and 12 week marks. Radiographic analysis was performed to evaluate for malunion or nonunion. Operative times, infection rates and complications were recorded and analyzed. All patients achieved complete fracture healing at the 12-week follow up. There were no delayed unions, nonunions or malunions in either treatment group. Single medial incision for tibial flexible nails had equivalent outcomes with no difference in primary healing rate, malunion or nonunion rate when compared to the dual incision technique.

  12. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture☆

    PubMed Central

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome. PMID:26229779

  13. Osteochondritis of the Distal Tibial Epiphysis

    PubMed Central

    EL Hajj, Firass; Sebaaly, Amer; Kharrat, Khalil; Ghanem, Ismat

    2012-01-01

    Osteochondritis of the distal tibial epiphysis is a very rare entity. 9 cases have been described in 7 articles and 8 other cases have been mentioned in textbooks. This paper describes the 10th case of osteochondritis of the distal tibial epiphysis and summarizes the clinical and radiological presentations of the 9 other cases. The etiology of this entity is well debated in the literature. We believe that it results from a vascular abnormality in the distal tibial epiphysis associated with a mechanical stress (trauma, excessive overload, etc.). Since it is a self-limited disease, the prognosis is good and the younger the patient is the better the prognosis will be. In general, this entity responds well to conservative treatment. PMID:23193412

  14. Injury to the Anterior Tibial Artery during Bicortical Tibial Drilling in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Bum; Lim, Jin Woo; Seo, Jeong Gook

    2016-01-01

    Many complications have been reported during or after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, including infection, bleeding, tibial tunnel widening, arthrofibrosis, and graft failure. However, arterial injury has been rarely reported. This paper reports a case of an anterior tibial arterial injury during bicortical tibial drilling in arthroscopic ACL reconstruction, associated with an asymptomatic occlusion of the popliteal artery. The patient had a vague pain which led to delayed diagnosis of compartment syndrome and delayed treatment with fasciotomy. All surgeons should be aware of these rare but critical complications because the results may be disastrous like muscle necrosis as in this case. PMID:26929808

  15. The importance of tibial alignment: finite element analysis of tibial malalignment.

    PubMed

    Perillo-Marcone, A; Barrett, D S; Taylor, M

    2000-12-01

    The influence of the tibial plateau orientation on cancellous bone stress was examined by finite element analysis for a cemented device. The objectives of the study were i) to examine the effect of the plateau-ankle angle on the cancellous bone stress, ii) to analyze the significance of the anteroposterior angles of the tibial component on these stresses, and iii) to compare the finite element predictions with clinical data. In general, positioning the tibial plateau in valgus resulted in lower cancellous bone stresses. These results support previous clinical studies, which suggest that overall alignment in valgus results in lower migration rates and lower incidence of loosening.

  16. Tibial Stress Injuries: Decisive Diagnosis and Treatment of "Shin Splints."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couture, Christopher J.; Karlson, Kristine A.

    2002-01-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called shin splints, often result when bone remodeling processes adopt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who are caring for athletic patients must have a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are…

  17. Tibial Stress Injuries: Decisive Diagnosis and Treatment of "Shin Splints."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couture, Christopher J.; Karlson, Kristine A.

    2002-01-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called shin splints, often result when bone remodeling processes adopt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who are caring for athletic patients must have a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are…

  18. Insufficiency fractures of the tibial plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Manco, L.G.; Schneider, R.; Pavlov, H.

    1983-06-01

    An insufficiency fracture of the tibial plateau may be the cause of knee pain in patients with osteoporosis. The diagnosis is usually not suspected until a bone scan is done, as initial radiographs are often negative or inconclusive and clinical findings are nonspecific and may simulate osteoarthritis or spontaneous osteonecrosis. In five of 165 patients referred for bone scans due to nontraumatic knee pain, a characteristic pattern of intense augmented uptake of radionuclide confined to the tibial plateau led to a presumptive diagnosis of insufficiency fracture, later confirmed on radiographs.

  19. Fracture of tibial tuberosity in an adult

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires e; Campos, André Siqueira; de Araújo, Gabriel Costa Serrão; Gameiro, Vinícius Schott

    2013-01-01

    The fracture of tibial tuberosity is a rare lesion and still more unusual in adults. We describe a case in an adult who suffered a left knee injury due to a fall from height. No risk factors were identified. The lesion was treated with surgical reduction and internal fixation. The rehabilitation method was successful, resulting in excellent function and rage of motion of the knee. The aim of this study was to present an unusual case of direct trauma of the tibial tuberosity in an adult and the therapy performed. PMID:24293543

  20. Outcome of Posterior Tibial Plateau Fixation.

    PubMed

    Jiwanlal, Aneel; Jeray, Kyle James

    2016-01-01

    Isolated posterior tibial plateau fractures are rare injuries that encompass a wide variety of fracture patterns. Based on the variation in fracture pattern, the surgical approach varies, with both anterior and posterior approaches described for surgical fixation. Postoperative protocol also varies among studies. The aim of this article is to summarize the outcomes related to posterior column tibial plateau fractures. The papers reviewed, primarily small retrospective case series, showed functional knee range of motion is preserved, a low incidence of wound complications, and patient outcome scores comparable to other reported lower extremity injury outcome scores. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Tibial plateau fracture following gracilis-semitendinosus anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: The tibial tunnel stress-riser.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, R O; Cohen, D; Barton-Hanson, N

    2006-06-01

    Tibial plateau fractures following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are extremely rare. This is the first reported case of a tibial plateau fracture following four-strand gracilis-semitendinosus autograft ACL reconstruction. The tibial tunnel alone may behave as a stress riser which can significantly reduce bone strength.

  2. Posterior tibial slope changes after opening- and closing-wedge high tibial osteotomy: a comparative prospective multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Ducat, A; Sariali, E; Lebel, B; Mertl, P; Hernigou, P; Flecher, X; Zayni, R; Bonnin, M; Jalil, R; Amzallag, J; Rosset, P; Servien, E; Gaudot, F; Judet, T; Catonné, Y

    2012-02-01

    Valgus high tibial osteotomy is considered to be an effective treatment for unicompartmental medial osteoarthritis. It is generally admitted that tibial slope increases after open-wedge high tibial osteotomy and decreases after closing-wedge high tibial osteotomy. However, the effects on posterior tibial slope of closing- or opening-wedge osteotomies remain controversial. We analyzed the modifications of tibial slope after opening- and closing-wedge high tibial osteotomies and compared the results of these two procedures. We hypothesized that there was no difference in postoperative tibial slope between opening and closing-wedge osteotomies. This prospective consecutive nonrandomized multicenter study was conducted between January 2008 and March 2009 and included 321 patients: 205 men and 116 women. A total of 224 patients underwent an opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy and 97 a closing-wedge osteotomy. The mean age was 52 years ± 9 and the mean body mass index was 28kg/m(2) ± 5. The main etiology was primary arthritis. Posterior tibial slope was measured preoperatively and at the last follow-up on a lateral radiograph in relation to the posterior tibial cortex. In the opening-wedge group, a definite 0.6° increase in tibial slope (P=0.016) was observed. In the closing-wedge group, a definite 0.7° decrease in tibial slope (P=0.02) was found. Fourteen percent of the opening-wedge osteotomies increased tibial slope by 5° or more versus only 2% of the closed-wedge osteotomies (P<0.001). Twelve percent of the closing-wedge high tibial osteotomies led to a decrease of 5° or more of the tibial slope versus 7% of the opening-wedge osteotomies (P<0.02). These results confirm what is generally reported in the literature, i.e., an increase in tibial slope in opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy and a decrease in the slope in closing-wedge osteotomies. These tibial slope changes appear to be very limited in this series, less than 1° on average. However, there was a bias

  3. Kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty limits high tibial forces, differences in tibial forces between compartments, and abnormal tibial contact kinematics during passive flexion.

    PubMed

    Roth, Joshua D; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2017-09-07

    Following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), high tibial forces, large differences in tibial forces between the medial and lateral compartments, and anterior translation of the contact locations of the femoral component on the tibial component during passive flexion indicate abnormal knee function. Because the goal of kinematically aligned TKA is to restore native knee function without soft tissue release, the objectives were to determine how well kinematically aligned TKA limits high tibial forces, differences in tibial forces between compartments, and anterior translation of the contact locations of the femoral component on the tibial component during passive flexion. Using cruciate retaining components, kinematically aligned TKA was performed on thirteen human cadaveric knee specimens with use of manual instruments without soft tissue release. The tibial forces and tibial contact locations were measured in both the medial and lateral compartments from 0° to 120° of passive flexion using a custom tibial force sensor. The average total tibial force (i.e. sum of medial + lateral) ranged from 5 to 116 N. The only significant average differences in tibial force between compartments occurred at 0° of flexion (29 N, p = 0.0008). The contact locations in both compartments translated posteriorly in all thirteen kinematically aligned TKAs by an average of 14 mm (p < 0.0001) and 18 mm (p < 0.0001) in the medial and lateral compartments, respectively, from 0° to 120° of flexion. After kinematically aligned TKA, average total tibial forces due to the soft tissue restraints were limited to 116 N, average differences in tibial forces between compartments were limited to 29 N, and a net posterior translation of the tibial contact locations was observed in all kinematically aligned TKAs during passive flexion from 0° to 120°, which are similar to what has been measured previously in native knees. While confirmation in vivo is warranted, these findings give

  4. Evaluation of the WARP-turbo spin echo sequence for 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging of stifle joints in dogs with stainless steel tibial plateau leveling osteotomy implants.

    PubMed

    Simpler, Renee E; Kerwin, Sharon C; Eichelberger, Bunita M; Wall, Corey R; Thompson, James A; Padua, Abraham; Purdy, David; Griffin, John F

    2014-01-01

    Susceptibility artifacts caused by ferromagnetic implants compromise magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the canine stifle after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) procedures. The WARP-turbo spin echo sequence is being developed to mitigate artifacts and utilizes slice encoding for metal artifact reduction. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the WARP-turbo spin echo sequence for imaging post TPLO canine stifle joints. Proton density weighted images of 19 canine cadaver limbs were made post TPLO using a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Susceptibility artifact sizes were recorded and compared for WARP vs. conventional turbo spin echo sequences. Three evaluators graded depiction quality for the tibial tuberosity, medial and lateral menisci, tibial osteotomy, and caudal cruciate ligament as sufficient or insufficient to make a diagnosis. Artifacts were subjectively smaller and local structures were better depicted in WARP-turbo spin echo images. Signal void area was also reduced by 75% (sagittal) and 49% (dorsal) in WARP vs. conventional turbo spin echo images. Evaluators were significantly more likely to grade local anatomy depiction as adequate for making a diagnosis in WARP-turbo spin echo images in the sagittal but not dorsal plane. The proportion of image sets with anatomic structure depiction graded adequate to make a diagnosis ranged from 28 to 68% in sagittal WARP-turbo spin echo images compared to 0-19% in turbo spin echo images. Findings indicated that the WARP-turbo spin echo sequence reduces the severity of susceptibility artifacts in canine stifle joints post TPLO. However, variable depiction of local anatomy warrants further refinement of the technique.

  5. Biomechanical Factors in Tibial Stress Fractures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    Gluteal strain/ tendinitis Greater trochanteritis TOTAL Groin sfrain/ tendinitis Hip/ groin injury other Pelvic sfress fracture 32 19 Thigh...Medial collateral sfrain 79 28 27 Medial plica syndrome 1 Patellar tendinitis 7 Patellofemoral pain syndrome 16 Pes Anserinus tendinitis 1...Knee other 24 Lower leg TOTAL 127 Achilles tendinitis 19 Acute fibular fracture 3 Acute tibial fracture 1 Anterior compartment syndrome 7

  6. High tibial slope correlates with increased posterior tibial translation in healthy knees.

    PubMed

    Schatka, Imke; Weiler, Andreas; Jung, Tobias M; Walter, Thula C; Gwinner, Clemens

    2017-09-09

    Notwithstanding the importance of the tibial slope (TS) for anterior tibial translation, little information is available regarding the implications on posterior laxity, particularly in healthy subjects. It was hypothesized that increased TS is associated with decreased posterior tibial translation (PTT) in healthy knees. A total of 124 stress radiographs of healthy knees were enrolled in this study. Tibial slope and the posterior tibial translation were evaluated using a Telos device with a 150-N force at 90° of knee flexion. Two blinded observers reviewed independently on two different occasions. One hundred and twenty-four patients [35 females and 89 males; 41 (range 18-75) years] were enrolled in this study, with a mean PTT of 2.8 mm (±1.9 mm; range 0-8 mm) and a mean TS of 8.6° (±2.6°; range 1°-14°). Pearson correlation showed a significant correlation between the PTT and TS in the overall patient cohort (P < 0.0001) with r = 0.76 and R (2) = 0.58. There was no statistical difference between female and male patients regarding the PTT or the TS. Subgrouping of the patient cohort (four groups with n = 31) according to their TS (groups I < 7°; II = 7°-8.5°; III = 9°-10.5°; IV ≥ 11°) revealed significant differences between each subgroup, respectively. Furthermore, there was a weak but significant correlation between age and PTT (P = 0.004, r = 0.26). In addition to the substantial variance in tibial slope and posterior laxity among healthy knees, high tibial slope significantly correlates with increased posterior tibial translation. Increasing age is further associated with a greater magnitude of posterior tibial translation. Consequently, knowledge of the tibial slope facilitates simple estimation of posterior knee laxity, which is mandatory for PCL reconstruction and knee arthroplasty.

  7. [Menisci and posture].

    PubMed

    Sérgio, J S

    2000-01-01

    The first aim of this work is not only to review the localised perspective of meniscopathy, concerned with the consequences of meniscectomy, but to also view it in a broader dimension, in the behavioural aspect--related to postural activity. The second aim is to establish the relationship between these two dimensions. Meniscopathies invariably lead to degenerative alterations of the knee joint--not sufficiently explained by the local factors--that result in a situation of osteoarthritis. Some investigators established that the osteoarthritis process should not be confined only to the mechanical responsibility, due to some studies that also confirm the existence of biochemical alterations. However, others have also shown that the nervous system (NS) is likely to influence the inflammatory manifestations through the unmyelinated afferent fibers and sympathetic efferent fibers of the joints. These fibers can interact with non-neural elements, releasing some mediators, such as P substance (PS) and norepinephrine (NE), which, by themselves, or through other substances, contribute to the exacerbation of the inflammatory process. In order to relate the facts above, this longitudinal study comprised the following approaches clinical: anthropometric; biotechnical; and posturographic. It was characterised by five moments of data collection, the periodicity of which is related to the time of the surgery: the first moment is before surgery, followed by the remaining four, at six-week intervals, the sample being composed of--15 male caucasians, aged between 20 and 30 years, working for the Air Force. These Subjects were divided into two groups, according to the amount of meniscus removed in the longitudinal direction. Group A--meniscectomy < 1/2 the longitudinal body, composed of 7 subjects, with an average age of 21.4 years; and Group B, meniscectomy > 1/2 the longitudinal body, composed of: 8 subjects, with an average age of 24.1 years. The statistical analysis contained a descriptive approach that was comprised of--the average, the standard deviation and the limits of variation or variation range--and an inferential approach--ANOVA-One Way. The error probability chosen was p < or = 0.05. The tendency to recover was shown from the 3rd moment onwards (12th week), muscular involution also being implied by an involution of orthostatic postural activity, which confirms the interdependence between muscular tonicity and postural activity. In what concerns metabolic alterations, there was no parallel evolution with the other variables since, when the signs of recovery of the latter were verified, the osteo-cartilaginous manifestations of destruction and reconstruction are more emphasised. On the other hand, the manifestations of postural activity reach their highest values before the manifestations protagonized by biochemical substances related to osteo-articular alterations. The accuracy of the posturographic tests for the diagnosis of deficiencies in what concerns of motor activity was shown, such as the inversion of the dislocation amplitudes on the YY' axis in relation to the XX', visible when the performance of the injured limb is evident, which leads us to admit that this fact is a consequence of meniscal pathology.

  8. Chronic Dissection of the Anterior Tibial Artery

    PubMed Central

    De Salazar, Alvaro Ortiz; Muñoz, Fernando; Antoñana, Mirel; Aramendi, José I.; Castellanos, Enrique; Loizate, Alberto; Calderon, Antonio; Llorente, Alberto; Serrano, Alberto

    1991-01-01

    We present a clinical case of chronic dissection of the anterior tibial artery leading to acute aneurysmal dilatation. Our patient, a 22-year-old man, had a history of trauma at the middle third of his left leg. Because of impending ischemia, he was diagnosed by emergency arteriography. We ligated the proximal and distal ends of the dissection and used a reversed saphenous vein for a short end-to-end bypass. Although the evolution of this dilatation had been silent, its clinical presentation was spectacular. The case is worthy of attention because of its extreme rarity, both as a dissection of a peripheral artery caused by trauma and as an aneurysmal dilatation at tibial level. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1991;18:223-5) Images PMID:15227485

  9. Intraneural ganglion cyst of the tibial nerve.

    PubMed

    Adn, M; Hamlat, A; Morandi, X; Guegan, Y

    2006-08-01

    Intraneural ganglion cyst of the tibial nerve is very rare. To date, only 5 cases of this entity in the popliteal fossa have been reported. We report a new case and review the previously reported cases. A 40-year-old man experienced a mild vague pain in the medial half of his right foot for 3 years. Magnetic resonance imaging scan demonstrated a soft-tissue mass along the right tibial nerve. At surgery, an intraneural ganglion cyst was evacuated. After 12 months, the patient was pain-free with no signs of recurrence. Trauma might be a contributing factor to the development of intraneural ganglion cysts. Application of microsurgical techniques is encouraged.

  10. [Magnetic resonance imaging of tibial periostitis].

    PubMed

    Meyer, X; Boscagli, G; Tavernier, T; Aczel, F; Weber, F; Legros, R; Charlopain, P; Martin, J P

    1998-01-01

    Tibial periostitis frequently occurs in athletes. We present our experience with MRI in a series of 7 patients (11 legs) with this condition. The clinical presentation and scintigraphic scanning suggested the diagnosis. MRI exploration of 11 legs demonstrated a high band-like juxta-osseous signal enhancement of SE and IR T2 weighted sequences in 6 cases, a signal enhancement after i.v. contrast administration in 4. Tibial periostitis is a clinical diagnosis and MRI and scintigraphic findings can be used to assure the differential diagnosis in difficult cases with stress fracture. MRI can visualize juxta-osseous edematous and inflammatory reactions and an increased signal would appear to be characteristic when the band-like image is fixed to the periosteum.

  11. Effect of an anterior-sloped brace joint on anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation: a motion analysis study.

    PubMed

    Yeow, C H; Gan, W L; Lee, P V S; Goh, J C H

    2010-12-01

    Anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation are major biomechanical factors involved in anterior cruciate ligament injuries. This study sought to evaluate a brace prototype designed with an anterior-sloped joint, in terms of its efficacy in attenuating anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation during landing, using a motion analysis approach. Ten healthy male subjects performed single-leg landing tasks from a 0.6-m height with and without the brace prototype. Ground reaction force and kinematics data were obtained using a motion-capture system and force-plates. Anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation were determined based on tibial and femoral marker reference frames. Vertical and anterior-posterior ground reaction forces, hip, knee and ankle joint range-of-motions and angular velocities, anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation were compared between unbraced and braced conditions using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. We found no significant difference in peak vertical and anterior-posterior ground reaction forces (p=0.770 and p=0.332 respectively) between unbraced and braced conditions. Knee joint range-of-motion and angular velocity were lower (p=0.037 and p=0.038 respectively) for braced condition than unbraced condition. Anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation were reduced (p=0.027 and p=0.006 respectively) in braced condition, compared to unbraced condition. The anterior-sloped brace joint helps to attenuate anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation present in the knee joint during landing. It is necessary to test the brace prototype in a sporting population with realistic sports landing situations in order to assess its effectiveness in lowering anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of different hinge positions on posterior tibial slope in medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Jo, Ho-Seung; Park, Jin-Sung; Byun, June-Ho; Lee, Young-Bok; Choi, Young-Lac; Cho, Seong-Hee; Moon, Dong-Kyu; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Hwang, Sun-Chul

    2017-04-07

    The purpose of this study was to determine the standard hinge position to minimize effects from medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) on the posterior tibial slope. Sixteen cadaveric knees underwent medial open-wedge osteotomy using either the standard or the low hinge position. To define the standard hinge position, a line 3 cm inferior to the medial tibial plateau towards the fibular head and located its intersection with a longitudinal line 1 cm medial to the fibular shaft was drawn. Low hinge position was defined as the point 1 cm inferior to the standard position. After tibial osteotomy, computed tomography scans of each knee were taken and three-dimensional models were constructed to characterize hinge position orientation and measure the osteotomy site effects on posterior tibial slope, medial proximal tibial angle, and gap ratio (the ratio of the anterior to posterior gap in the opened wedge). In two low hinge position specimens, the tibial lateral cortex hinge fracture occurred. Osteotomy through the low hinge position resulted in significantly greater posterior tibial slope compared to the standard hinge position (mean ± standard deviation) (11.2 ± 3.0° and 5.6 ± 2.5°, respectively; p < 0.001). Medial proximal tibial angle was also significantly greater for low compared to standard hinge position (95.4 ± 3.5° and 88.0 ± 3.5°, respectively; p < 0.001). Gap ratio was not significantly different between the two groups. Hinge position significantly affects the posterior tibial slope and medial proximal tibial angle following medial open-wedge HTO. Accurate hinge position is crucial to prevent complications from changes in posterior tibial slope and medial proximal tibial angle after surgery.

  13. Biomechanical Factors in Tibial Stress Fractures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    patellofemoral joint pain during running. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise , 36, S56. Dierks, T.A., Davis, I.S. & Hamill, J. (2004). Lower extremity...knee flexion / extension , and knee internal/external rotation were assessed. Timing difference values of 0% stance indicated synchronous coupling. CRP...and continuous excursion ratios. Differences were primarily observed between the tibial internal/external rotation with knee flexion / extension

  14. Tibial forces measured in vivo after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    D'Lima, Darryl D; Patil, Shantanu; Steklov, Nikolai; Slamin, John E; Colwell, Clifford W

    2006-02-01

    An instrumented tibial prosthesis was developed to measure forces in vivo after total tibial arthroplasty. This prosthesis was implanted in a 67-kg, 80-year-old man. The prosthesis measured forces at the 4 quadrants of the tibial tray. Tibial forces were measured postoperatively during rehabilitation, rising from a chair, standing, walking, and climbing stairs. By the sixth postoperative week, the peak tibial forces during walking averaged 2.2 times body weight (BW). Stair climbing increased from 1.9 times BW on day 6 to 2.5 times BW at 6 weeks. This represents the first direct in vivo measurement of tibial forces, which should lead to refined surgical techniques and enhanced prosthetic designs. Technical design improvements will enhance function, quality of life, and longevity of total knee arthroplasty.

  15. Unreamed intramedullary nailing in distal tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Salem, Khaled Hamed

    2013-10-01

    Unreamed nailing has gained acceptance in the treatment of diaphyseal long bone fractures, especially in cases with polytrauma or high-energy injuries. Its application in distal tibial fractures, however, remains controversial. In this study, 101 distal tibial fractures treated using closed unreamed nailing were reviewed after a mean follow-up of 32 months. There were 59 type A und 42 type B fractures. The most common fracture pattern was the A1 spiral fracture (n = 40) followed by the B2 wedge fracture (n = 18). Intra-articular extension was encountered in 14 cases. One-fourth of the patients (n = 24) had open injuries. Forty-seven patients had additional injuries, and nearly one-third of them were polytraumatised. Union occurred after a mean time of 23.9 (range, 11-134) weeks. There were 13 cases of delayed union and seven non-unions; all healed eventually with additional surgery in only six fractures. Malunion was seen in 12 cases (five valgus, two varus and five external torsion), ten of which were associated with unplated fibular fractures. Three fractures (two open) were treated for deep infection. The most common complication seen was fatigue failure of the locking screws (27 cases). Unreamed nailing of distal tibial fractures is associated with a rather high rate of bone healing complications and locking screw failure. The decision for its use in the notoriously challenging fractures of this segment should be critically considered.

  16. Radiographic features of the development of the anterior tibial tuberosity.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Amador, E; Davalos Herrera, D; Moreno, L Á

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the radiologic characteristics of the development of the anterior tibial tuberosity. This study aimed to evaluate the radiologic characteristics of the anterior tibial tuberosity in a pediatric population broken down into age groups. We assessed 210 plain-film X-rays of the knee from patients aged from 10 to 17 years, divided into groups according to age and sex, for the presence of ossification of the anterior tibial tuberosity, the distance between the anterior tibial tuberosity and the metaphysis, and fusion with the epiphysis. At 10 years of age, the anterior tibial tuberosity was ossified in 50% of the girls but in only 25% of the boys. In all the girls, the anterior tibial tuberosity was ossified at 11 years, fusion of the anterior tibial tuberosity with the epiphysis had started at 12 years, and fusion was complete by 17 years. In boys, the process is delayed by one year compared to girls. A single center of ossification was found in all cases. The ossification of the anterior tibial tuberosity starts distally, then the proximal part fuses with the rest of the epiphysis, and finally the distal part fuses with the tibia. The results of this study help enable a better analysis of the anterior tibial tuberosity in cases of knee pain. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Tibial tunnel aperture location during single-bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: comparison of tibial guide positions.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young-Soo; Han, Seung-Beom; Hwang, Yeok-Ku; Suh, Dong-Won; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to compare posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tibial tunnel location after tibial guide insertion medial (between the PCL remnant and the medial femoral condyle) and lateral (between the PCL remnant and the anterior cruciate ligament) to the PCL stump as determined by in vivo 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT). Tibial tunnel aperture location was analyzed by immediate postoperative in vivo CT in 66 patients who underwent single-bundle PCL reconstruction, 31 by over-the-PCL and 35 by under-the-PCL tibial guide insertion techniques. Tibial tunnel positions were measured in the medial to lateral and proximal to distal directions of the posterior proximal tibia. The center of the tibial tunnel aperture was located more laterally (by 2.7 mm) in the over-the-PCL group than in the under-the-PCL group (P = .040) and by a relative percentage (absolute value/tibial width) of 3.2% (P = .031). Tibial tunnel positions in the proximal to distal direction, determined by absolute value and relative percentage, were similar in the 2 groups. Tibial tunnel apertures were located more laterally after lateral-to-the-PCL tibial guide insertion than after medial-to-the-PCL tibial guide insertion. There was, however, no significant difference between these techniques in distance from the joint line to the tibial tunnel aperture. Insertion lateral to the PCL stump may result in better placement of the PCL in its anatomic footprint. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tibial Tray Thickness Significantly Increases Medial Tibial Bone Resorption in Cobalt-Chromium Total Knee Arthroplasty Implants.

    PubMed

    Martin, J Ryan; Watts, Chad D; Levy, Daniel L; Miner, Todd M; Springer, Bryan D; Kim, Raymond H

    2017-01-01

    Stress shielding is an uncommon complication associated with primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients are frequently identified radiographically with minimal clinical symptoms. Very few studies have evaluated risk factors for postoperative medial tibial bone loss. We hypothesized that thicker cobalt-chromium tibial trays are associated with increased bone loss. We performed a retrospective review of 100 posterior stabilized, fixed-bearing total knee arthroplasty where 50 patients had a 4-mm-thick tibial tray (thick tray cohort) and 50 patients had a 2.7-mm-thick tibial tray (thin tray cohort). A clinical evaluation and a radiographic assessment of medial tibial bone loss were performed on both cohorts at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Mean medial tibial bone loss was significantly higher in the thick tray cohort (1.07 vs 0.16 mm; P = .0001). In addition, there were significantly more patients with medial tibial bone loss in the thick tray group compared with the thin tray group (44% vs 10%, P = .0002). Despite these differences, there were no statistically significant differences in range of motion, knee society score, complications, or revision surgeries performed. A thicker cobalt-chromium tray was associated with significantly more medial tibial bone loss. Despite these radiographic findings, we found no discernable differences in clinical outcomes in our patient cohort. Further study and longer follow-up are needed to understand the effects and clinical significance of medial tibial bone loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Histological analysis of the tibial anterior cruciate ligament insertion.

    PubMed

    Oka, Shinya; Schuhmacher, Peter; Brehmer, Axel; Traut, Ulrike; Kirsch, Joachim; Siebold, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the morphology of the tibial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) by histological assessment. The native (undissected) tibial ACL insertion of six fresh-frozen cadaveric knees was cut into four sagittal sections parallel to the long axis of the medial tibial spine. For histological evaluation, the slices were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, Safranin O and Russell-Movat pentachrome. All slices were digitalized and analysed at a magnification of 20×. The anterior tibial ACL insertion was bordered by a bony anterior ridge. The most medial ACL fibres inserted from the medial tibial spine and were adjacent to the articular cartilage of the medial tibial plateau. Parts of the bony insertions of the anterior and posterior horns of the lateral meniscus were in close contact with the lateral part of the tibial ACL insertion. A small fat pad was located just posterior to the functional ACL fibres. The anterior-posterior length of the medial ACL insertion was an average of 10.8 ± 1.1 mm compared with the lateral, which was only 6.2 ± 1.1 mm (p < 0.001). There were no central or posterolateral inserting ACL fibres. The shape of the bony tibial ACL insertion was 'duck-foot-like'. In contrast to previous findings, the functional mid-substance fibres arose from the most posterior part of the 'duck-foot' in a flat and 'c-shaped' way. The most anterior part of the tibial ACL insertion was bordered by a bony anterior ridge and the most medial by the medial tibial spine. No posterolateral fibres nor ACL bundles have been found histologically. This histological investigation may improve our understanding of the tibial ACL insertion and may provide important information for anatomical ACL reconstruction.

  20. Medial tibial stress syndrome: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Moen, Maarten H; Tol, Johannes L; Weir, Adam; Steunebrink, Miriam; De Winter, Theodorus C

    2009-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common leg injuries in athletes and soldiers. The incidence of MTSS is reported as being between 4% and 35% in military personnel and athletes. The name given to this condition refers to pain on the posteromedial tibial border during exercise, with pain on palpation of the tibia over a length of at least 5 cm. Histological studies fail to provide evidence that MTSS is caused by periostitis as a result of traction. It is caused by bony resorption that outpaces bone formation of the tibial cortex. Evidence for this overloaded adaptation of the cortex is found in several studies describing MTSS findings on bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scan and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The diagnosis is made based on physical examination, although only one study has been conducted on this subject. Additional imaging such as bone, CT and MRI scans has been well studied but is of limited value. The prevalence of abnormal findings in asymptomatic subjects means that results should be interpreted with caution. Excessive pronation of the foot while standing and female sex were found to be intrinsic risk factors in multiple prospective studies. Other intrinsic risk factors found in single prospective studies are higher body mass index, greater internal and external ranges of hip motion, and calf girth. Previous history of MTSS was shown to be an extrinsic risk factor. The treatment of MTSS has been examined in three randomized controlled studies. In these studies rest is equal to any intervention. The use of neoprene or semi-rigid orthotics may help prevent MTSS, as evidenced by two large prospective studies.

  1. Comparison of the operation of arthroscopic tibial inlay and traditional tibial inlay for posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Daifeng; Xiao, Mochao; Lian, Yongyun; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Xuefeng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To perform dual-bundle reconstruction of posterior cruciate ligament using full arthroscopic tibial inlay technology with self-designed tibia tunnel drilling system and to compare the effect of arthroscopic tibial inlay versus traditional technique for posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Material and methods: 32 patients were randomly divided into experiment group (improved tibial inlay, n = 17) and control group (traditional tibial inlay, n = 15). Self-designed tibia tunnel drill system was used to produce intraoperative deep-limited bone tunnel. During follow-up, the location of the bone block and the healing situation were checked by knee X-ray and spiral CT scan. Blood loss, operation time and nerve vascular injuries were evaluated. Results: Mean intraoperative blood loss was 123.53 ± 74.05 ml in the improved tibial inlay group compared with 332 ± 114.26 ml in the traditional tibial inlay group (t = 6.12, P < 0.05). Mean operation time was 235.27 ± 58.88 min in the improved tibial inlay group compared with 346.37 ± 59.67 min in the traditional tibial inlay group (t = 5.19, P < 0.05). Posterior drawer test were negative in 15 cases, slight positive in 2 with improved tibial inlay technique compared with 14 negative cases and 2 positive cases of traditional tibial Inlay technique. The X-ray and spiral CT scan showed the location of the bone block were perfect and healed well with the patent who received improved tibial inlay technology after 12 weeks postoperatively. Conclusion: Accurate depth-limited bone tunnel can be produced by the tibia tunnel drill system with minor trauma, less bleeding and reducing of nerves or vessels and the recent clinical effects of PCL reconstruction were pretty good. PMID:25419349

  2. Can Tibial Cementation Be Enhanced in Knee Arthroplasty Surgery?

    PubMed

    Westerman, Richard W

    2016-07-01

    Aseptic loosening of the tibial component continues to be a significant mode of failure in total knee arthroplasty surgery. Surface cemented components preserve tibial bone stock, but are reliant on a strong bone-cement interface. This study compares standard surface cemented tibial component design to a tibial component with the addition of an undersurface cement containment skirt. The hypothesis was that the addition of a 2-mm underside skirt would allow cement containment and pressurization during implantation, which might improve the overall survival. Two identical tibial components were used, out of which one had the 2-mm underside skirt removed for the purposes of this study. Overall, 12 tibial Sawbones were prepared identically and transducers placed in the medial and lateral plateau. Each component was implanted six times, according to the manufacturer's operative technique. The series of implantation experiments showed no difference in cement pressurization (p = 0.86) regardless of the tibial component design used, with a wide variation in pressure measurements occurring in both groups. The tibial component skirt has not demonstrated any enhancement in cement pressurization. The cement containment skirt might still be advantageous by increasing the cement mantle thickness without causing excessive bone penetration; however, the biological effects cannot be predicted without further clinical evaluation. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. High tibial osteotomy in knee laxities: Concepts review and results

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Jonathan G.; Neyret, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Patients with unstable, malaligned knees often present a challenging management scenario, and careful attention must be paid to the clinical history and examination to determine the priorities of treatment. Isolated knee instability treated with ligament reconstruction and isolated knee malalignment treated with periarticular osteotomy have both been well studied in the past. More recently, the effects of high tibial osteotomy on knee instability have been studied. Lateral closing-wedge high tibial osteotomy tends to reduce the posterior tibial slope, which has a stabilising effect on anterior tibial instability that occurs with ACL deficiency. Medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy tends to increase the posterior tibia slope, which has a stabilising effect in posterior tibial instability that occurs with PCL deficiency. Overall results from recent studies indicate that there is a role for combined ligament reconstruction and periarticular knee osteotomy. The use of high tibial osteotomy has been able to extend the indication for ligament reconstruction which, when combined, may ultimately halt the evolution of arthritis and preserve their natural knee joint for a longer period of time. Cite this article: Robin JG, Neyret P. High tibial osteotomy in knee laxities: Concepts review and results. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:3-11. doi: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000001. PMID:28461908

  4. The soleal line: a cause of tibial pseudoperiostitis.

    PubMed

    Levine, A H; Pais, M J; Berinson, H; Amenta, P S

    1976-04-01

    An unusually prominent soleal line (a normal anatomic variant) may mimic periosteal reaction along the posterior margin of the proximal tibial shaft. This area of pseudoperiostitis is differentiated from hyperostoses arising from the anterior tibial tubercle and the interosseous membrane. It is always associated with normal, undisturbed architecture of the underlying bone.

  5. Effects of tibial rotation on Ober's test and patellar tracking.

    PubMed

    Park, Joo-Hee; Kang, Sun-Young; Choung, Sung-Dae; Jeon, Hye-Seon; Kwon, Oh-Yun

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tibial position on ITB flexibility and patellar position. A total of 31 asymptomatic subjects (21 males, 10 females) were recruited for this investigation. Adduction angle was measured by Ober's test, and PCD was measured by ultrasonography in three different tibial rotation conditions: N, IR, and ER. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant difference in adduction angle and PCD among three different tibial positions (P<0.05). Adduction angle was significantly greater in the N tibial position than in ER (P<0.05). The PCD was significantly greater in N position than in IR (P<0.05). However, the PCD was significantly smaller in IR compared with the N position (P<0.05). These findings support that tibial rotation influences the flexibility of ITB and patellar positions. Therefore, excessive tibial rotation can cause inappropriate patellar positions that eventually lead to knee injury. Therapists should consider tibial rotation when measuring adduction angles because tibial rotation can change Ober's test results and contribute to the consistency of ITB length measurements. Level IV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Primary Ilizarov ankle fusion for nonreconstructable tibial plafond fractures].

    PubMed

    Feibel, Robert J; Uhthoff, Hans K

    2005-10-01

    Ankle arthrodesis in a plantigrade position. In high-energy open injuries with segmental bone loss: proximal tibial metaphyseal corticotomy with distal Ilizarov bone transport for compensation of leg length discrepancy. Posttraumatic loss of the tibial plafond, usually resulting from open fracture type IIIC. Ipsilateral foot injuries impairing ambulation after fusion. Severe injury to the posterior tibial nerve with absent plantar sensation. Soft-tissue injury not manageable surgically. Inadequate patient compliance. Advanced age. Severe osteoporosis. Acute infection. Standard technique: anteromedial longitudinal incision. Removal of remaining articular cartilage. Passing of Ilizarov wires through the distal fibula, talar neck and body. Placement of 5-mm half-pins through stab incisions, perpendicular to the medial face of the tibial shaft. A lateral to medial 1.8-mm Ilizarov wire in the proximal tibial metaphysis is optional. Callus distraction/Ilizarov bone transport: exposure through an anteromedial incision or transverse traumatic wound. Removal of small residual segment of tibial plafond blocking transport. Retain small vascularized bone fragments not blocking transport. For Ilizarov external fixation, two rings in the proximal tibial region. Drill osteoclasis of the tibial metaphysis 1 cm distal to the tibial tuberosity and complete with Ilizarov osteotome. Secure the Ilizarov threaded rods or clickers. Weight bearing as tolerated. Begin distraction 14 days after corticotomy at a rate of 0.5-1 mm per day depending on patient's age. After docking: Ilizarov ankle arthrodesis. Between January 1993 and September 1996, four patients (two men, two women) with severe, nonreconstructable fractures of the tibial plafond were treated. Callus distraction and Ilizarov bone transport in three patients. Age range 19-68 years (average age 45.7 years). Mean follow-up 6.6 years (4 years 9 months to 7 years 4 months). Average duration of the entire treatment in external

  7. Tibial lengthening over humeral and tibial intramedullary nails in patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daoyun; Chen, Jianmin; Jiang, Yao; Liu, Fanggang

    2011-06-01

    Leg discrepancy is common after poliomyelitis. Tibial lengthening is an effective way to solve this problem. It is believed lengthening over a tibial intramedullary nail can provide a more comfortable lengthening process than by the conventional technique. However, patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis typically have narrow intramedullary canals allowing limited space for inserting a tibial intramedullary nail and Kirschner wires. To overcome this problem, we tried using humeral nails instead of tibial nails in the lengthening procedure. In this study, we used humeral nails in 20 tibial lengthening procedures and compared the results with another group of patients who were treated with tibial lengthening over tibial intramedullary nails. The mean consolidation index, percentage of increase and external fixation index did not show significant differences between the two groups. However, less blood loss and shorter operating time were noted in the humeral nail group. More patients encountered difficulty with the inserted intramedullary nail in the tibial nail group procedure. The complications did not show a statistically significant difference between the two techniques on follow-up. In conclusion, we found the humeral nail lengthening technique was more suitable in leg discrepancy patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis.

  8. Growth disturbances after distal tibial physeal fractures.

    PubMed

    Berson, L; Davidson, R S; Dormans, J P; Drummond, D S; Gregg, J R

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-four patients with distal tibial growth disturbance were reviewed. Disturbances were classified as physeal bar (prior to deformity), angular, linear or combined deformities. Treatment consisted of osteotomy in fourteen, epiphyseodesis in seven, excision of bony bar in two, and observation in one patient. Follow up was an average 36.6 months (range 4-129 months) after treatment of growth disturbance. The age at time of injury was 10.4 years of age average (range 3-15 years). There were 12 SH2, 2 SH3, 7 SH4, and 3 SH5 distal tibial physeal fractures. Thirteen of 15 fractures considered high energy and only 1 of 9 fractures considered low energy resulted in angular deformity. Angular and linear deformities presented an average 46 months (range 12-120 months) and physeal bars at an average 14 months (range 6-25 months) after injury. Patients with a delay in presentation of growth disturbance greater than 24 months had angular deformities in 92% compared with 33% in children presenting less than or at 24 months. Treatment based on type of deformity, age at time of injury, and growth remaining was considered successful in 83%. Patients with angular or linear deformities were more likely to present late, have high energy injuries, be male patients and have Salter-Harris types IV and V. Early diagnosis and treatment of growth disturbance can prevent severe deformity.

  9. Evaluation of the posterior tibial slope on MR images in different population groups using the tibial proximal anatomical axis.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Behrooz; Konan, Sujith; Mannan, Ken; Scott, Gareth

    2012-12-01

    We measured the posterior tibial slope for the medial and lateral tibial plateau separately in MR images of 143 knees (71 women, 72 men) and compared the measurements between genders and different ethnic groups. For the whole population the mean medial slope was 5.7 degrees and the mean lateral slope 5.6 degrees. There was a significant difference between the medial and lateral posterior tibial slope in the Asian patients compared with other ethnic groups (p < 0.001). We have shown that measurement of the posterior tibial slope (PTS) could be reliably performed on MR images, revealing a gender difference. These findings might have clinical relevance when performing reconstructive surgery at the knee in determining ideal placement of the tibial component.

  10. Sagittal realignment osteotomy for increased posterior tibial slope after opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A 40 year old welder who underwent opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy for correction of alignment in a varus knee developed persistent pain with loss of knee extension. The posterior tibial slope increased from 9 degrees to 20 degrees after the osteotomy and caused the anteromedial knee pain and limited extension. The patient then underwent a revision osteotomy using a closing wedge technique to correct tibial slope. The osteotomy was performed, first from the medial cortex in the lateral direction, and second in the anteroposterior direction to remove the tibial bone in wedge shape and obtain full extension of the knee. The posterior tibial slope decreased to 8 degrees after the revision osteotomy and the patients returned to pain-free daily life. We reviewed this unique technique for correction of sagittal malalignment using a closing-wedge osteotomy for revision after opening-wedge osteotomy. PMID:19941664

  11. Full versus surface tibial baseplate cementation in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Galasso, Olimpio; Jenny, Jean-Yves; Saragaglia, Dominique; Miehlke, Rolf K

    2013-02-01

    The use of a keel in the tibial component during modern primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has become common, and its cementation may affect the future performance of the prosthesis. Although proponents of cementing the entire tibial component argue that this technique provides better initial fixation and may prevent aseptic loosening, reasons exist to apply cement only to the tibial baseplate. In this study, 232 patients who underwent TKA using full or surface cementation of the tibial baseplate were evaluated at an average 5.6-year follow-up to assess survivorship and clinical results. The cumulative survival rate at 8 years was 97.1%. With revision of either component for any reason considered the endpoint, no significant difference was noted between full and surface cemented groups. Knee Society Score, range of motion, and femoro-tibial mechanical angle significantly increased postoperatively. Multivariate analysis revealed that good preoperative range of motion and Knee Society Scores were related to good postoperative range of motion and Knee Society Scores. Follow-up length was a negative predictor of postoperative Knee Society Score. The use of full or surface cementation of the baseplate was unrelated to the postoperative clinical outcomes. Clinical outcomes did not differ according to the tibial component cementation technique. The results of this study suggest that cementing the keel of the tibial component during primary TKA has no advantage for patients. Longer-term follow-up and proper patient randomization are required to confirm these findings.

  12. Trabecular metal tibial knee component still stable at 10 years.

    PubMed

    Henricson, Anders; Nilsson, Kjell G

    2016-10-01

    Background and purpose - Total knee replacement (TKR) in younger patients using cemented components has shown inferior results, mainly due to aseptic loosening. Excellent clinical results have been reported with components made of trabecular metal (TM). In a previous report, we have shown stabilization of the TM tibial implants for up to 5 years. In this study, we compared the clinical and RSA results of these uncemented implants with those of cemented implants. Patients and methods - 41 patients (47 knees) aged ≤ 60 years underwent TKR. 22 patients (26 knees) received an uncemented monoblock cruciate-retaining (CR) tibial component (TM) and 19 patients (21 knees) received a cemented NexGen Option CR tibial component. Follow-up examination was done at 10 years, and 16 patients (19 knees) with TM tibial components and 17 patients (18 knees) with cemented tibial components remained for analysis. Results - 1 of 19 TM implants was revised for infection, 2 of 18 cemented components were revised for knee instability, and no revisions were done for loosening. Both types of tibial components migrated in the first 3 months, the TM group to a greater extent than the cemented group. After 3 months, both groups were stable during the next 10 years. Interpretation - The patterns of migration for uncemented TM implants and cemented tibial implants over the first 10 years indicate that they have a good long-term prognosis regarding fixation.

  13. Trabecular metal tibial knee component still stable at 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Henricson, Anders; Nilsson, Kjell G

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Total knee replacement (TKR) in younger patients using cemented components has shown inferior results, mainly due to aseptic loosening. Excellent clinical results have been reported with components made of trabecular metal (TM). In a previous report, we have shown stabilization of the TM tibial implants for up to 5 years. In this study, we compared the clinical and RSA results of these uncemented implants with those of cemented implants. Patients and methods 41 patients (47 knees) aged ≤ 60 years underwent TKR. 22 patients (26 knees) received an uncemented monoblock cruciate-retaining (CR) tibial component (TM) and 19 patients (21 knees) received a cemented NexGen Option CR tibial component. Follow-up examination was done at 10 years, and 16 patients (19 knees) with TM tibial components and 17 patients (18 knees) with cemented tibial components remained for analysis. Results 1 of 19 TM implants was revised for infection, 2 of 18 cemented components were revised for knee instability, and no revisions were done for loosening. Both types of tibial components migrated in the first 3 months, the TM group to a greater extent than the cemented group. After 3 months, both groups were stable during the next 10 years. Interpretation The patterns of migration for uncemented TM implants and cemented tibial implants over the first 10 years indicate that they have a good long-term prognosis regarding fixation PMID:27357222

  14. [Treatment of Tibial Shaft Fractures with the Stable Angle Tibial Nail Targon TX].

    PubMed

    Chmielnicki, M; Prokop, A

    2016-10-01

    Tibial shaft fractures are among the most common long bone fractures in humans. The incidence is 1-2 per 100,000. The gold standard of treatment for AO type 42 A-C fractures is a locking intramedullary nail. The development of new implants has extended the indications for this minimally invasive technique, so that now AO types 41 and 43 can also be treated with special nails. Fixed-angle screw anchors increase primary stability and supplemental locking devices located proximally and distally extend the spectrum of use to metaphyseal fractures. The cannulated Targon TX titanium nail can be introduced, either with or without reaming. Using an operative video, the treatment of a tibial fracture with an intramedullary nail is demonstrated in stages and the operative steps further illustrated on artificial bone. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Inflammatory cytokine response is greater in acute tibial plafond fractures than acute tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Haller, Justin M; Marchand, Lucas; Rothberg, David L; Kubiak, Erik N; Higgins, Thomas F

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the inflammatory cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) concentrations in synovial fluid after acute plafond fracture with acute tibial plateau fracture. Between December 2011 and August 2014, we prospectively enrolled patients with acute tibial plateau and plafond fractures. Synovial fluid aspirations were obtained from injured and uninjured joints. The concentrations of IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MCP-1, TNF-α, MMP-1, -3, -9, -10, -12, and -13 were quantified using multiplex assays. A Bonferroni correction was used so that the adjusted alpha level for significance was p < 0.004. We enrolled 45 tibial plateau fractures and 19 plafond fractures. Mean patient age was 42 years (range, 20-60) and 64% were male patients. There were 24 low-energy (OTA 41B) plateau fractures and eight low-energy (OTA 43B) plafond fractures. There were 21 high-energy (6 OTA 41B3 and 15 OTA 41C) plateau fractures and 11 high-energy (OTA43C) plafond fractures. All cytokines and MMPs except MMP-13 were significantly elevated in plafond fractures compared to uninjured ankles. When comparing acutely injured joints, IL-8 (p < 0.001), IL-1β (p = 0.002), and MMP-12 (p = 0.001) were significantly higher in plafond fractures compared to plateau fractures. Concentrations of IL-1RA (p = 0.008) and MCP-1 (p = 0.005) were higher in plafond fractures, and MMP-10 (p = 0.01) was higher in plateau fractures, but these differences did not reach significance. In conclusion, several cytokines and MMPs were significantly elevated in acute plafond fractures as compared to acute tibial plateau fractures. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Fibular segment bone bridging in trans-tibial amputation.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M A G S; Harris, W W

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative method of achieving a synostosis between tibia and fibula in trans-tibial amputations by means of a fibular segment in place of tibial osteoperiosteal flaps as described by Ertl, in 1949. From May 1997 through to February 2003, 15 patients were submitted to the proposed procedure. As a result, all patients produced a solid synostosis between tibia and fibula and were rehabilitated with the use of prostheses. The capacity of these patients for distal weight-bearing on the stump was remarkable when compared to patients submitted to the conventional trans-tibial amputation technique.

  17. Suprapatellar Nailing of Tibial Shaft Fractures in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Woyski, Dustin; Emerson, Jason

    2016-12-01

    Fractures of the tibial shaft in patients with ipsilateral total knee arthroplasty are rare but difficult to treat. Nonoperative treatment of these fractures with casting or bracing limits weight bearing for an extended period and can result in unacceptable malalignment. Operative fixation with plate and screws also limits early weight bearing and requires healing of soft tissue that is of poor quality. The authors present a method of internal fixation that uses a standard intramedullary tibial nail and suprapatellar instrumentation. This method can easily be performed, avoids the tibial baseplate, and does not require alteration of the instrumentation or intramedullary nail.

  18. In vitro comparison of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy with and without use of a tibial plateau leveling jig.

    PubMed

    Schmerbach, Kay Ingo; Boeltzig, Christian Konrad Matthias; Reif, Ullrich; Wieser, Jan Carsten; Keller, Thomas; Grevel, Vera

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of a tibial plateau leveling jig on osteotomy orientation, fragment reduction, and postoperative tibial plateau angle (TPA) during tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). In vitro experimental study. Large-breed canine cadavers (n=20). TPLO was performed on 40 hindlimbs using 4 methods. Group 1: Jig; dogs in dorsal recumbency with the osteotomy parallel to the distal jig pin. Groups 2-4: No jig; dogs in lateral recumbency with the osteotomy in a vertical orientation (group 2: tibia parallel to the table top; group 3: controlled superimposition of the femoral condyles; group 4: internal rotation of the tibia). Postoperative TPA, fragment reduction, and osteotomy orientation relative to the tibial plateau were compared. Positive or negative values denoted deviation from parallel relative to the tibial plateau. Postoperative TPA, fragment reduction, and proximodistal osteotomy orientation were not significantly different between groups. Craniocaudal osteotomy orientation was significantly different (P<.005) from the tibial plateau. Median deviations were -4.0 degrees (group 1), 11.8 degrees (group 2), 11.2 degrees (group 3), and 0.2 degrees (group 4). Group 1 was not significantly different from group 4. A jig is not essential for osteotomy orientation, tibial plateau rotation, or fragment reduction. Comparable results were achieved performing a vertical osteotomy with the tibia slightly internally rotated (10 degrees -15 degrees) and parallel to the table surface. TPLO without use of a jig reduces surgical trauma, is less time consuming, and reduces cost.

  19. [Tibial abscess caused by histoplasma capsulatum].

    PubMed

    de Fernández, M I; Negroni, R; Arechavala, A

    2001-01-01

    Disseminated histoplasmosis is the most serious form of the disease produced by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Histoplasmosis was first described by Darling in 1906, and it is endemic in certain areas of Central and Southeastern regions of USA, and most Latin America countries, including the Pampa húmeda and Mesopotamia regions in Argentina, but in other continents it has a limited regional distribution. Lung involvement predominates in 90% of cases, but H. capsulatum may involve bone and soft tissues. Bone lesions without other signs of infection are very rare, and are often misdiagnosed as cancer. We report a case of disseminated histoplasmosis in a man with a myelodysplasia who presented a left tibial abscess, without any clinical evidence of pulmonary involvement. The patient was successfully treated with itraconazole.

  20. Posterior tibial nerve lesions in ankle arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cugat, Ramon; Ares, Oscar; Cuscó, Xavier; Garcia, Montserrat; Samitier, Gonzalo; Seijas, Roberto

    2008-05-01

    Ankle arthroscopy provides a minimally invasive approach to the diagnosis and treatment of certain ankle disorders. Neurological complications resulting from ankle arthroscopy have been well documented in orthopaedic and podiatric literature. Owing to the superficial location of the ankle joint and the abundance of overlying periarticular neurovascular structures, complications reported in ankle arthroscopy are greater than those reported for other joints. In particular, all reported neurovascular injuries following ankle arthroscopy have been the direct result of distractor pin or portal placement. The standard posteromedial portal has recognized risks because of the proximity of the posterior neurovascular structures. There can be considerable variability in the course of these portals and their proximity to the neurovascular structures. We found one report of intra-articular damage to the posterior tibial nerve as a result of ankle arthroscopy in the English-language literature and we report this paper as a second case described in the literature.

  1. The Effect of Hinge Position on Posterior Tibial Slope in Medial Open-Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sang Won; Park, Sin Hyung; Lee, Byung Hoon; Oh, Minkyung; Chang, Minho; Ahn, Jin Hwan; Wang, Joon Ho

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate whether hinge position affects the change in posterior tibial slope in medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO). We retrospectively evaluated 19 knees from 17 patients who underwent medial open-wedge HTO by 3-dimensional computed tomography scan before and after surgery. A 3-dimensional image model was constructed by applying reverse-engineering software to the computed tomography DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) files. The hinge axis (i.e., the position of the hinge compared with the anteroposterior axis on an axial view), posterior tibial slope, medial-proximal tibial angle, and gap ratio (i.e., the ratio of anterior gap to posterior gap in the opened wedge) were measured. The mean hinge axis was 4.92° ± 3.86°. Posterior tibial slope increased from 7.29° ± 2.56° preoperatively to 10.48° ± 3.01° postoperatively (P = .001). The mean medial-proximal tibial angle was 85.96° ± 1.97° preoperatively and 93.13° ± 3.17° postoperatively (P = .001). The mean gap ratio was 62.48% ± 7.26%. Linear regression analysis determined that the hinge axis (P = .0001) was a significant factor changing posterior tibial slope. Hinge position affected the change in posterior tibial slope in medial open-wedge HTO; in particular, a posterolateral hinge position led to an increase in posterior tibial slope. Level IV, therapeutic study. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in posterior tibial slope angle in patients undergoing open-wedge high tibial osteotomy for varus gonarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Ozel, Omer; Yucel, Bulent; Mutlu, Serhat; Orman, Osman; Mutlu, Harun

    2017-01-01

    In this study, postoperative changes in the posterior tibial slope angle and clinical outcomes following open-wedge high tibial osteotomy were evaluated. This study included 39 knees (18 left, 21 right) of 35 patients (three male, 32 female; median age, 53 years; age range 37-64 years) with symptomatic isolated medial joint osteoarthritis who underwent open-wedge high tibial osteotomy and fixation with a Puddu plate. The patients were clinically assessed according to the Lysholm knee score, a visual analogue pain scale, and a patient satisfaction questionnaire. Radiological assessment was made according to the changes in the posterior tibial slope angle and the correlation between these changes and clinical signs. The median follow-up period was 11 years (range 7-14 years). Significant improvements were observed in the preoperative and postoperative clinical scores of the Lysholm knee scale, visual analogue pain scale, and patient satisfaction questionnaire (p < 0.05). Radiological assessment showed that the posterior tibial slope angle was significantly higher during the postoperative and follow-up periods (p  0.05). There was no correlation between the postoperative Lysholm scores and the increase in the posterior tibial slope angle (p = n.s.). We conclude that both the conventional Puddu plate design and its anteromedial plate placement are what increase the tibial slope after an opening-wedge proximal tibial osteotomy. Therefore, current new plate design may help preserve the posterior tibial slope angle. IV.

  3. [The role of the posterior tibial slope on rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament].

    PubMed

    Stijak, Lazar; Blagojević, Zoran; Kadija, Marko; Stanković, Gordana; Djulejić, Vuk; Milovanović, Darko; Filipović, Branislav

    2012-10-01

    Posterior tibial slope is one of the most citated factors wich cause rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The aim of this study was to determine the association of a greather posterior tibial slope on the lateral condyle, that is a lesser posterior tibial slope on the medial condyle, with ACL rupture. The patients were divided into two groups. The study group included the patients with chronic instability of the knee besause of a previous rupture of ACL. The control group included the patients with knee lesion, but without ACL rupture. Posterior tibial slope measuring was performed by sagittal MR slices supported by lateral radiograph of the knee. We measured posterior tibial slope on lateral and medial condyles of the tibia. Using these values we calculated an average posterior tibial slope as well as the difference between slopes on lateral and medial condyles. Patients with ACL rupture have highly statistically significantly greather posterior tibial slope (p < 0.01) on lateral tibial condyle (7.1 degrees : 4.5 degrees) as well as statistically significantly lesser posterior tibial slope (p < 0.05) on medial tibial condyle (5.9 degrees : 6.6 degrees) than patients with intact ACL. Great posterior tibial slope on lateral tibial condyle associated with the small posterior tibial slope on the medial tibial condyle, that is a positive differentce between lateral and medial tibial condyles are factors wich may cause ACL rupture.

  4. Change in Posterior Tibial Slope After Open-Wedge and Closed-Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nha, Kyung-Wook; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Ahn, Hyeong-Sik; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-11-01

    It is unclear whether open- or closed-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) results in significant changes in posterior tibial slope, with no consensus on the magnitude of such changes. Furthermore, methods of measuring posterior tibial slope differ among studies. This meta-analysis was therefore designed to evaluate whether posterior tibial slope increases after open-wedge HTO and decreases after closed-wedge HTO and to quantify the magnitudes of the slope changes after open- and closed-wedge HTO using various methods of measuring posterior tibial slope. Posterior tibial slope increases after open-wedge and decreases after closed-wedge HTO. The magnitude of change is similar for the 2 methods, and the value obtained for posterior tibial slope change is affected by the method of measurement. Meta-analysis. Multiple comprehensive databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed, were searched for studies that evaluated the posterior slope of the proximal tibia in patients who had undergone open- and/or closed-wedge HTO. Studies were included that compared pre- and postoperative posterior tibial slopes, regardless of measurement method, including anterior and posterior tibial cortex or tibial shaft axis as a reference line, in patients who underwent open- or closed-wedge HTO. The quality of each included study was appraised with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Twenty-seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled data, which included subgroups of 3 methods, showed that posterior tibial slope increased 2.02° (95% CI, 2.66° to 1.38°; P = .005) after open-wedge HTO and decreased 2.35° (95% CI, 1.38° to 3.32°; P < .001) after closed-wedge HTO. This meta-analysis confirmed that posterior tibial slope increased after open-wedge HTO and decreased after closed-wedge HTO when the results of a variety of measurement methods were pooled. The magnitude of change after open- and closed-wedge HTO was similar and small (approximately 2°), suggesting

  5. Safe surgical technique: intramedullary nail fixation of tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Zelle, Boris A; Boni, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Statically locked, reamed intramedullary nailing remains the standard treatment for displaced tibial shaft fractures. Establishing an appropriate starting point is a crucial part of the surgical procedure. Recently, suprapatellar nailing in the semi-extended position has been suggested as a safe and effective surgical technique. Numerous reduction techiques are available to achieve an anatomic fracture alignment and the treating surgeon should be familiar with these maneuvers. Open reduction techniques should be considered if anatomic fracture alignment cannot be achieved by closed means. Favorable union rates above 90 % can be achieved by both reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing. Despite favorable union rates, patients continue to have functional long-term impairments. In particular, anterior knee pain remains a common complaint following intramedullary tibial nailing. Malrotation remains a commonly reported complication after tibial nailing. The effect of postoperative tibial malalignment on the clinical and radiographic outcome requires further investigation.

  6. Total knee arthroplasty and fractures of the tibial plateau

    PubMed Central

    Softness, Kenneth A; Murray, Ryan S; Evans, Brian G

    2017-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are common injuries that occur in a bimodal age distribution. While there are various treatment options for displaced tibial plateau fractures, the standard of care is open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). In physiologically young patients with higher demand and better bone quality, ORIF is the preferred method of treating these fractures. However, future total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a consideration in these patients as post-traumatic osteoarthritis is a common long-term complication of tibial plateau fractures. In older, lower demand patients, ORIF is potentially less favorable for a variety of reasons, namely fixation failure and the need for delayed weight bearing. In some of these patients, TKA can be considered as primary mode of treatment. This paper will review the literature surrounding TKA as both primary treatment and as a salvage measure in patients with fractures of the tibial plateau. The outcomes, complications, techniques and surgical challenges are also discussed. PMID:28251061

  7. Rotational alignment of the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Graceffa, Angelo; Marcucci, Massimiliano; Baldini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Many surgical techniques, correlated to different anatomical landmarks, have been proposed to allow a satisfactory rotational alignment of the tibial component in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Unfortunately, an accurate landmark has not yet been established although many computer models using CT reconstructions and standard radiologic studies have been performed. In this review article, the authors propose a new anatomical rotational reference for a correct positioning of the tibial component during primary TKA; the authors compared the results of their studies with the current literature on rotational alignment references and previously proposed surgical techniques. The authors also analyzed the correlation between classic and newer tibial baseplate designs and different tibial rotational landmarks. PMID:26855939

  8. Tibial tubercle osteotomy for patello-femoral joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew J; Mandalia, Vipul I

    2016-03-01

    Tibial tubercle osteotomy has a long history in the management of patella instability and patello-femoral arthritis. This review aims to provide a comprehensive review of the literature describing the biomechanics of the patello-femoral joint and the rationale behind the use of the tibial tubercle osteotomy in modern day practice. Several different tibial tubercle osteotomies are available and we aim to detail the concepts behind their use and the subsequent clinical results. With continued developments of chondrocyte implantation techniques, the potential to fill defects on the chondral surface of either the patella or trochlea in conjunction with a tibial tubercle osteotomy may well become more commonplace in a group that is commonly young and difficult to manage. Level of evidence III.

  9. Computation of three-phase capillary entry pressures and arc menisci configurations in pore geometries from 2D rock images: A combinatorial approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yingfang; Helland, Johan Olav; Hatzignatiou, Dimitrios G.

    2014-07-01

    We present a semi-analytical, combinatorial approach to compute three-phase capillary entry pressures for gas invasion into pore throats with constant cross-sections of arbitrary shapes that are occupied by oil and/or water. For a specific set of three-phase capillary pressures, geometrically allowed gas/oil, oil/water and gas/water arc menisci are determined by moving two circles in opposite directions along the pore/solid boundary for each fluid pair such that the contact angle is defined at the front circular arcs. Intersections of the two circles determine the geometrically allowed arc menisci for each fluid pair. The resulting interfaces are combined systematically to allow for all geometrically possible three-phase configuration changes. The three-phase extension of the Mayer and Stowe - Princen method is adopted to calculate capillary entry pressures for all determined configuration candidates, from which the most favorable gas invasion configuration is determined. The model is validated by comparing computed three-phase capillary entry pressures and corresponding fluid configurations with analytical solutions in idealized triangular star-shaped pores. It is demonstrated that the model accounts for all scenarios that have been analyzed previously in these shapes. Finally, three-phase capillary entry pressures and associated fluid configurations are computed in throat cross-sections extracted from segmented SEM images of Bentheim sandstone. The computed gas/oil capillary entry pressures account for the expected dependence of oil/water capillary pressure in spreading and non-spreading fluid systems at the considered wetting conditions. Because these geometries are irregular and include constrictions, we introduce three-phase displacements that have not been identified previously in pore-network models that are based on idealized pore shapes. However, in the limited number of pore geometries considered in this work, we find that the favorable displacements are

  10. Physeal growth arrest after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Bilateral tibial lengthening has become one of the standard treatments for upper segment-lower segment disproportion and to improve quality of life in achondroplasia. We determined the effect of tibial lengthening on the tibial physis and compared tibial growth that occurred at the physis with that in non-operated patients with acondroplasia. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of serial radiographs until skeletal maturity in 23 achondroplasia patients who underwent bilateral tibial lengthening before skeletal maturity (lengthening group L) and 12 achondroplasia patients of similar height and age who did not undergo tibial lengthening (control group C). The mean amount of lengthening of tibia in group L was 9.2 cm (lengthening percentage: 60%) and the mean age at the time of lengthening was 8.2 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 9.8 years. Results Skeletal maturity (fusion of physis) occurred at 15.2 years in group L and at 16.0 years in group C. The actual length of tibia (without distraction) at skeletal maturity was 238 mm in group L and 277 mm in group C (p = 0.03). The mean growth rates showed a decrease in group L relative to group C from about 2 years after surgery. Physeal closure was most pronounced on the anterolateral proximal tibial physis, with relative preservation of the distal physis. Interpretation Our findings indicate that physeal growth rate can be disturbed after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia, and a close watch should be kept for such an occurrence—especially when lengthening of more than 50% is attempted. PMID:22489887

  11. Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    observed in 5% of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 ( NF1 ), typically identified in infancy. The majority of NF1 individuals with tibial bowing...will sustain a fracture that will not heal (i.e. pseudarthrosis) resulting in multiple surgeries, poor limb function, and amputation. Some NF1 ...pseudarthrosis and better understand its pathophysiology. We have begun recruitment and assessed many individuals with NF1 with and with tibial bowing. QUS

  12. TIBIAL TUBERCLE AVULSION FRACTURE IN A MALE ADOLESCENT.

    PubMed

    Matoković, Damir; Šimić-Klarić, Andrea; Rajić, Marijana Tomić; Crnković, Helena Tesari; Jurinić, Mislav; Jovanović, Savo

    2015-06-01

    Tibial tuberosity fractures are rare in childhood, most frequently due to excessive quadriceps muscle contraction. On performing long jump, a 15-year-old boy sustained tibial tuberosity avulsion fracture type II according to Watson-Jones. The patient was treated operatively with fragment repositioning and screw fixation. Ten months after the injury and rehabilitation, he resumed his sports activities with full range knee motion.

  13. Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    anterolateral bowing of the lower leg prior to fracture in neurofibromatosis type 1. J Pediatr Orthop 2009;29:385-92. 3. Stevenson DA, Yan J, He Y, Li H...neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), typically identified in infancy. The majority of NF1 individuals with tibial bowing will sustain a fracture that will not...not fracture and the bowing improves over time. Clinical predictors to help drive management are lacking, and the pathophysiology of tibial bowing

  14. The medial tibial stress syndrome. A cause of shin splints.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, S J; Gould, R N; Lee, Y F; Schmidt, D A; Hargens, A R

    1982-01-01

    The medial tibial stress syndrome is a symptom complex seen in athletes who complain of exercise-induced pain along the distal posterior-medial aspect of the tibia. Intramuscular pressures within the posterior compartments of the leg were measured in 12 patients with this disorder. These pressures were not elevated and therefore this syndrome is a not a compartment syndrome. Available information suggests that the medial tibial stress syndrome most likely represents a periostitis at this location of the leg.

  15. Patient-specific instrumentation improves tibial component rotation in TKA.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alcindo; Sampaio, Ricardo; Pinto, Elisabete

    2014-03-01

    To compare the femoral and tibial components rotational alignment in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) performed either with conventional or with patient-specific instrumentation. Forty-five patients underwent primary TKA and were prospectively randomized into two groups: 22 patients into the conventional instrumentation group (group A) and 23 patients into the Signature™ patient-specific instrumentation group (group B). All patients underwent computed tomography of the operated knee in the first week after surgery to measure the components rotation. The femoral component rotation was 0.0° (-0.25, 1.0) in group A, and 0.0° (0.0, 1.0) in group B. The tibial component rotation was -16.0° (-18.5, 11.8) in group A, and -16.0° (-19.0, -14.0) in group B. There were no significant differences between the two groups in tibial and femoral components rotation. The difference between the tibial component rotation and the neutral tibial rotation was similar in both groups [2.0° (-0.5, 6.3) in group A and 2.0° (-1.0, 4.0) in group B], but the dispersion around the median was different between the two groups. The amplitude of the difference between tibial rotation and neutral position was 27° (-13, 14) in group A and 9° (-3, 6) in group B. There is a smaller chance of internal malrotation of the tibial component with the Signature™ patient-specific instrumentation system, with less dispersion and amplitude of the tibial component rotation around the neutral position. II.

  16. Understanding the etiology of the posteromedial tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Charles; Burr, David B; Finestone, Aharon S; Voloshin, Arkady

    2015-09-01

    Previous human in vivo tibial strain measurements from surface strain gauges during vigorous activities were found to be below the threshold value of repetitive cyclical loading at 2500 microstrain in tension necessary to reduce the fatigue life of bone, based on ex vivo studies. Therefore it has been hypothesized that an intermediate bone remodeling response might play a role in the development of tibial stress fractures. In young adults tibial stress fractures are usually oblique, suggesting that they are the result of failure under shear strain. Strains were measured using surface mounted unstacked 45° rosette strain gauges on the posterior aspect of the flat medial cortex just below the tibial midshaft, in a 48year old male subject while performing vertical jumps, staircase jumps and running up and down stadium stairs. Shear strains approaching 5000 microstrain were recorded during stair jumping and vertical standing jumps. Shear strains above 1250 microstrain were recorded during runs up and down stadium steps. Based on predictions from ex vivo studies, stair and vertical jumping tibial shear strain in the test subject was high enough to potentially produce tibial stress fracture subsequent to repetitive cyclic loading without necessarily requiring an intermediate remodeling response to microdamage.

  17. Analysis of an early intervention tibial component for medial osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, M E; Walker, P S

    2014-06-01

    Tibial component loosening is an important failure mode in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) which may be due to the 6-8 mm of bone resection required. To address component loosening and fixation, a new early intervention (EI) design is proposed which reverses the traditional material scheme between femoral and tibial components. The EI design consists of a plastic inlay for the distal femur and a thin metal plate for the proximal tibia. With this reversed materials scheme, the EI design requires minimal tibial bone resection compared with traditional UKA. This study investigated, by means of finite element (FE) simulations, the advantages of a thin metal tibial component compared with traditional UKA tibial components, such as an all-plastic inlay or a metal-backed onlay. We hypothesized that an EI tibial component would produce comparable stress, strain, and strain energy density (SED) characteristics to an intact knee and more favorable values than UKA components, due primarily to the preservation of dense cancellous bone near the surface. Indeed, FE results showed that stresses in the supporting bone for an EI design were close to intact, while stresses, strains, and strain energy densities were reduced compared with an all-plastic UKA component. Analyzed parameters were similar for an EI and a metal-backed onlay, but the EI component had the advantage of minimal resection of the stiffest bone.

  18. RADIOGRAPHIC ASSESSMENT OF THE OPENING WEDGE PROXIMAL TIBIAL OSTEOTOMY

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Carlos Francisco Bittencourt; Camara, Eduardo Kastrup Bittencourt; Vieira, Luiz Antonio; Adolphsson, Fernando; Rodarte, Rodrigo Ribeiro Pinho

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To radiographically evaluate individuals who underwent opening wedge proximal tibial osteotomy, with the aim of analyzing the proximal tibial slope in the frontal and sagittal planes, and the patellar height. Method: The study included 22 individuals who were operated at the National Traumatology and Orthopedics Institute (INTO) for correction of varus angular tibial deviation using the opening wedge osteotomy (OWO) technique with the Orthofix monolateral external fixator. Patients with OWO whose treatment was completed between January 2000 and December 2006 were analyzed. The measurement technique consisted of using anteroposterior radiographs with loading and lateral views with the operated knees flexed at 30°. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the pre and postoperative tibial slope and patellar height values in the patients evaluated. Conclusion: Opening wedge proximal tibial osteotomy is a technique that avoids the problems presented by high proximal tibial osteotomy, since it is done without causing changes to the extensor mechanism, ligament imbalance or distortions in the proximal tibia. PMID:27022577

  19. Irreducible Salter Harris type II distal tibial physeal fracture secondary to interposition of the posterior tibial tendon: a case report.

    PubMed

    Soulier, Robert; Fallat, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric distal tibial fractures generally occur without significant long-term sequelae, and patients are commonly able to return to their preinjury activities after proper management. The literature reports excellent outcomes after anatomical reduction of distal tibial and ankle physeal fractures with closed or open treatment. Treatment options include simple immobilization of nondisplaced fractures, and closed or open reduction for restoration of anatomic alignment of displaced fractures. Soft tissue interposition within the fracture can threaten successful closed reduction, and may warrant open management if closed reduction fails to produce a satisfactory result. Despite the documented possibility of soft tissue interposition preventing closed reduction of pediatric ankle fractures, there is a paucity of literature reporting this complication. We report a unique case of an irreducible Salter-Harris type II distal tibial physeal fracture secondary to interposition of the posterior tibial tendon. Copyright 2010 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased revision rate with posterior tibial tunnel placement after using the 70-degree tibial guide in ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Inderhaug, Eivind; Raknes, Sveinung; Østvold, Thomas; Solheim, Eirik; Strand, Torbjørn

    2017-01-01

    To map knee morphology radiographically in a population with a torn ACL and to investigate whether anatomic factors could be related to outcomes after ACL reconstruction at mid- to long-term follow-up. Further, we wanted to assess tibial tunnel placement after using the 70-degree "anti-impingement" tibial tunnel guide and investigate any relation between tunnel placement and revision surgery. Patients undergoing ACL reconstruction involving the 70-degree tibial guide from 2003 to 2008 were included. Two independent investigators analysed pre- and post-operative radiographs. Demographic data and information on revision surgery were collected from an internal database. Anatomic factors and post-operative tibial tunnel placements were investigated as predictors of revision. Three-hundred and seventy-seven patients were included in the study. A large anatomic variation with significant differences between men and women was seen. None of the anatomic factors could be related to a significant increase in revision rate. Patients with a posterior tibial tunnel placement, defined as 50 % or more posterior on the Amis and Jakob line, did, however, have a higher risk of revision surgery compared to patients with an anterior tunnel placement (P = 0.03). Use of the 70-degree tibial guide did result in a high incidence (47 %) of posterior tibial tunnel placements associated with an increased rate of revision surgery. The current study was, however, not able to identify any anatomic variation that could be related to a higher risk of revision surgery. Avoiding graft impingement from the femoral roof in anterior tibial tunnel placements is important, but the insight that overly posterior tunnel placement can lead to inferior outcome should also be kept in mind when performing ACL surgery. IV.

  1. Opening wedge high tibial osteotomy: plate position and biomechanics of the medial tibial plateau.

    PubMed

    Martinez de Albornoz, Pilar; Leyes, Manuel; Forriol, Francisco; Del Buono, Angelo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2014-11-01

    To ascertain whether changing position and size of the spacer may modify the load and displacement of the tibial plateau when performing an opening wedge high tibial osteotomy. Fifteen sawbones tibia models were used. In the axial plane, the anterior, medial, and posterior thirds of the tibial plateau were marked, and the medial and posterior thirds were called "point 1" and "point 2", respectively. A 7.5-mm-stainless steel indenter was used to apply the load over these two points: the load applied to point 1 simulated the load to that site when the knee was extended, and the load to point 2 simulated the load to the same area when the knee was flexed. Maximum load (N) and displacement (mm) were calculated. The system was shown to withstand higher loads with less displacement when the plate was posterior than it could do with the plate in the middle position. Significant differences were also found when comparing the anterior and middle position of the plate with the greatest displacement when the plate was anterior. The differences were increased when comparing the anterior and posterior positions of the plate. No statistical differences (n.s.) were found when using different spacers. The maximum stiffness was achieved if the plate was posterior and in point 1 indenter position, in which the force vector stands on the points of the lateral and medial supports (Fμ = 198.8 ± 61.5 N). The lowest stiffness was observed when the plate was anterior, and the force was applied to point 2 (Fμ = 29.7 ± 5.1 N). Application of the plate in a more posterior position provides greater stability.

  2. The accuracy of two different extra-medullary tibial cutting guides for posterior tibial slope in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bek, Doğan; Ege, Tolga; Yıldız, Cemil; Tunay, Servet; Başbozkurt, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of two different external tibial cutting guides with and without a spike anchoring to the intercondylar eminentia to achieve a desired posterior tibial slope. Between January 2008 and December 2011, 120 posterior cruciate ligament protecting total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgeries of 83 patients in which two different external tibial cutting guides used were included. Fifty-nine knees were included into the spiked and 61 knees were included into the spikeless cutting guide group. Posterior tibial slope angles were measured using the postoperative X-rays. There was no significant difference between two groups in terms of age, sex, and body mass indexes (p<0.05). While the mean postoperative slope angle was 2.66°±2.001°(range 0°-7°) in spiked group, it was 2.46°±2.277° (range 0°-7°) in spikeless group. Both systems had identical accuracy, indicating a low rate. The comparison of variances of two groups showed that both cutting guides had similar precision (p=0.234). There was no effect of body mass index on the results in both groups. Although different extra-medullary tibial cutting guides with and without a spike can reproducibly impart a desired posterior tibial slope in TKA, we concluded that a spiked guide was considered user-friendly.

  3. Tibial osteotomy for the varus osteoarthritic knee.

    PubMed

    Aglietti, P; Rinonapoli, E; Stringa, G; Taviani, A

    1983-06-01

    High tibial osteotomy is a reliable method for relieving pain in the varus osteoarthritic knee. In a review of 139 osteotomies, excellent and good results were noted in 64% of the knees after a follow-up period of at least ten years. The ideal candidate for this operation has Grade I or II osteoarthritis; less than 10 degrees of varus deformity, as measured by a single leg standing roentgenogram; no lateral subluxation; and no instability. The lateral closed wedge osteotomy without internal fixation is the preferred technique, and correction beyond the normal anatomic position, to 5 degrees of valgus, is advised. Protected weight-bearing after the second postoperative day is allowed. Complications have been infrequent and minor. Forty-seven knees were managed in this manner, and 88% had an excellent or good result at a four-year follow-up evaluation. In the majority of the well corrected knees, the alignment did not change with time, and the osteoarthritis did not progress. No failures in this series were attributable to the associated patellofemoral osteoarthritis; the reaction of the patellofemoral joint to osteotomy is obscure.

  4. Shape optimization of tibial prosthesis components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Mraz, P. J.; Davy, D. T.

    1993-01-01

    NASA technology and optimal design methodologies originally developed for the optimization of composite structures (engine blades) are adapted and applied to the optimization of orthopaedic knee implants. A method is developed enabling the shape tailoring of the tibial components of a total knee replacement implant for optimal interaction within the environment of the tibia. The shape of the implant components are optimized such that the stresses in the bone are favorably controlled to minimize bone degradation, to improve the mechanical integrity of the implant/interface/bone system, and to prevent failures of the implant components. A pilot tailoring system is developed and the feasibility of the concept is demonstrated and evaluated. The methodology and evolution of the existing aerospace technology from which this pilot optimization code was developed is also presented and discussed. Both symmetric and unsymmetric in-plane loading conditions are investigated. The results of the optimization process indicate a trend toward wider and tapered posts as well as thicker backing trays. Unique component geometries were obtained for the different load cases.

  5. Fractures of the tibial plateau involve similar energies as the tibial pilon but greater articular surface involvement.

    PubMed

    Dibbern, Kevin; Kempton, Laurence B; Higgins, Thomas F; Morshed, Saam; McKinley, Todd O; Marsh, J Lawrence; Anderson, Donald D

    2017-03-01

    Patients with tibial pilon fractures have a higher incidence of post-traumatic osteoarthritis than those with fractures of the tibial plateau. This may indicate that pilon fractures present a greater mechanical insult to the joint than do plateau fractures. We tested the hypothesis that fracture energy and articular fracture edge length, two independent indicators of severity, are higher in pilon than plateau fractures. We also evaluated whether clinical fracture classification systems accurately reflect severity. Seventy-five tibial plateau fractures and 52 tibial pilon fractures from a multi-institutional study were selected to span the spectrum of severity. Fracture severity measures were calculated using objective CT-based image analysis methods. The ranges of fracture energies measured for tibial plateau and pilon fractures were 3.2-33.2 Joules (J) and 3.6-32.2 J, respectively, and articular fracture edge lengths were 68.0-493.0 mm and 56.1-288.6 mm, respectively. There were no differences in the fracture energies between the two fracture types, but plateau fractures had greater articular fracture edge lengths (p < 0.001). The clinical fracture classifications generally reflected severity, but there was substantial overlap of fracture severity measures between different classes. Similar fracture energies with different degrees of articular surface involvement suggest a possible explanation for dissimilar rates of post-traumatic osteoarthritis for fractures of the tibial plateau compared to the tibial pilon. The substantial overlap of severity measures between different fracture classes may well have confounded prior clinical studies relying on fracture classification as a surrogate for severity. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:618-624, 2017.

  6. Posterior tibial slope in medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy: 2-D versus 3-D navigation.

    PubMed

    Yim, Ji Hyeon; Seon, Jong Keun; Song, Eun Kyoo

    2012-10-01

    Although opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) is used to correct deformities, it can simultaneously alter tibial slope in the sagittal plane because of the triangular configuration of the proximal tibia, and this undesired change in tibial slope can influence knee kinematics, stability, and joint contact pressure. Therefore, medial opening-wedge HTO is a technically demanding procedure despite the use of 2-dimensional (2-D) navigation. The authors evaluated the posterior tibial slope pre- and postoperatively in patients who underwent navigation-assisted opening-wedge HTO and compared posterior slope changes for 2-D and 3-dimensional (3-D) navigation versions. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups based on the navigation system used: group A (2-D guidance for coronal alignment; 17 patients) and group B (3-D guidance for coronal and sagittal alignments; 17 patients). Postoperatively, the mechanical axis was corrected to a mean valgus of 2.81° (range, 1°-5.4°) in group A and 3.15° (range, 1.5°-5.6°) in group B. A significant intergroup difference existed for the amount of posterior tibial slope change (Δ slope) pre- and postoperatively (P=.04).Opening-wedge HTO using navigation offers accurate alignment of the lower limb. In particular, the use of 3-D navigation results in significantly less change in the posterior tibial slope postoperatively than does the use of 2-D navigation. Accordingly, the authors recommend the use of 3-D navigation systems because they provide real-time intraoperative information about coronal, sagittal, and transverse axes and guide the maintenance of the native posterior tibial slope. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Properties of the tibial component regarding impact load.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Kazunori; Koga, Yoshio; Segawa, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Yuichi; Tanabe, Yuji; Endo, Naoto; Omori, Go

    2004-06-01

    Load transmission through knee prostheses was examined to clarify how the tibial component behaves under dynamic loading conditions. We did Genesis II total knee arthroplasty using sawbones and measured impact load transmission ratios using the split-Hopkinson pressure bar technique. We also measured the polyethylene strain when an impact load was applied using a strain gauge bonded to the anterior surface of the polyethylene. The impact load transmission ratios of metal-backed and all-polyethylene tibial components were less than 4%. Greater load transmission was observed with metal-backed components, which suggests that some of the applied dynamic load is transferred directly to the tibial cortical bone. Increasing polyethylene thickness decreased impact load transmission ratios in both components, which might lower the cancellous bone stresses beneath tibial implants. Greater strain in the tibial component was observed in all-polyethylene components. Increased polyethylene thickness did not significantly decrease the polyethylene strain, probably because of the nonlinear elastic behavior of the polyethylene material. The distant positioning of the strain gauge may, however, have prevented the detection of local contact strains. Recent clinical studies did not confirm our theoretical predictions, suggesting that other factors contribute more significantly to the clinical outcome in current total knee arthroplasty.

  8. Biomechanical evaluation of tibial eminence fractures using suture fixation.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Stephen K; Curtis, Stuart H

    2011-12-06

    This study evaluates the initial fixation strength of tibial eminence fracture repair using 1, 2, 3, and 4 sutures to determine the optimal number of sutures required to adequately secure the avulsed fragment to the tibia. Sixteen skeletally immature porcine knees were stripped of all soft tissues, isolating the femur-anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-tibia complex. Type III tibial eminence fractures were simulated in the specimens, and each specimen was randomly assigned to a repair group using 1, 2, 3, or 4 #2 FiberWire sutures (Arthrex, Inc, Naples, Florida). Initial fixation strength of the repair was measured by single cycle pull to failure testing using a materials testing machine (Instron, Norwood, Massachusetts). The mean ultimate failure force during anterior tibial translation was 389±128, 627±66, 703±77, and 802±29 N for 1, 2, 3, and 4 sutures, respectively. The lower limit of the 95% confidence interval was >500 N (estimated force of native ACL during activities of daily living) for each group with ≥2 sutures. In this study, at least 2 high-strength sutures were needed for tibial eminence fracture repairs to withstand potential forces seen across the ACL in the postoperative period. Suture fixation of tibial eminence fractures is a reproducible method requiring a minimum of 2 high-strength polyester sutures to resist forces seen during early rehabilitation.

  9. Forefoot flexibility and medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Shintarou; Hatanaka, Yasuhiko

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the association between medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) and morphology and flexibility of the foot arches. 131 feet from 74 healthy subjects and 31 feet from 27 patients with MTSS were classified as normal feet (n=78 in 40 subjects), flat feet (n=53 in 34 subjects), or MTSS feet (n=31 in 27 patients). The medial longitudinal arch (MLA) ratio and the transverse arch length (TAL) were measured in both rearfoot and forefoot loading positions. The difference between the 2 positions indicated the flexibility of the MLA (diff-MLA ratio) and the transverse arch (diff- TAL). The MLA ratio was higher in normal feet than MTSS feet or flat feet (15.1% vs. 12.8% vs. 12.3%, p<0.001). The diff-TAL was lower in MTSS feet than normal feet or flat feet (0.4% vs. 0.8% vs. 0.9%, p<0.001]). The 3 groups were comparable in terms of the diff-MLA ratio and the TAL. Respectively for the MLA ratio and the diff-TAL, the cut-off value was 11.9% and 0.61% based on the Youden index. The sensitivity, specificity, and odds ratio of the cut-off value were 0.4, 0.9, and 4.8 for the MLA ratio, and 0.6, 0.7, and 9.8 for the diff-TAL, respectively. Decreased flexibility of the transverse arch and decreased MLA ratio are risk factors for MTSS. In contrast, the flexibility of the MLA and the height of the transverse arch were not risk factors for MTSS.

  10. Tibial nerve neuropathy following medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy-case report of a rare technical complication.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young-Soo; Sim, Hyun-Bo; Yoon, Jung-Ro

    2017-03-21

    A 63-year-old woman developed tibial nerve injury caused by an overlong K wire and 4.5-mm cortical lag screw through the first distal hole below the osteotomy during medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO), leading to a lack of sensation on the sole of the foot with no disturbances in motor functions. The temporary lag screw in the first distal hole below the osteotomy is often inserted by an excessive length in order to compress the potentially fractured opposite cortex. By doing so, posterior neurovascular structures including the tibial nerve and the popliteal vessels can be injured. To avoid this type of injury during medial opening-wedge HTO, proper knee position and appropriate Hohmann retractor position in combination with meticulous insertion of the K wire or screw under fluoroscopic control are essential. In addition, our study reinforces the fact that different presentations of injury to the tibial nerve should be carefully considered in the absence of common diagnostic features, including weakness of the toe flexors and posterior tibial muscle of the leg with intractable pain.

  11. Effect of Wedge Insertion Angle on Posterior Tibial Slope in Medial Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Matsumoto, Kazu; Ogawa, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Kentaro; Akiyama, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a well-established surgery for medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA) wherein the lower extremity is realigned to shift the load distribution from the medial compartment of the knee to the lateral compartment. However, this surgery is known to affect the posterior tibial slope angle (PTSA), which could lead to abnormal knee kinematics and instability, and eventually to knee OA. Although PTSA control is as important as coronal realignment, few appropriate measurements for this parameter have been reported. The placement of a wedge spacer might have an effect on PTSA. Purpose: To elucidate the relationship between the PTSA and the direction of insertion of a wedge spacer. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: This study assessed 43 knees from 34 patients who underwent medial opening wedge HTO for knee OA. Pre- and postoperative lateral radiographs of the knee as well as postoperative computed tomography scans were performed to evaluate the relationship among PTSA, wedge insertion angle (WIA), and opening gap ratio (distance of the anterior opening gap/distance of the posterior opening gap at the osteotomy site). Results: The PTSA significantly increased from 9.0° ± 2.8° preoperatively to 13.2° ± 4.1° postoperatively (P < .001), resulting in a mean ΔPTSA of 4.7° ± 4.5°. The mean opening gap ratio was 0.86 ± 0.11, and the mean WIA was 25.9° ± 8.4°. The WIA and opening gap ratio were both highly correlated with ΔPTSA (r = 0.71 and 0.72, respectively), implying that a smaller WIA or smaller gap ratio leads to less increase in posterior slope. Conclusion: The direction of wedge insertion is highly correlated with PTSA increase, which suggests that the PTSA can be controlled for by adjusting the direction of wedge insertion during surgery. Clinical Relevance: Study results suggest that it is possible to adjust the PTSA by controlling the WIA during surgery. Proper

  12. Bilateral tibial agenesis and syndactyly in a cat.

    PubMed

    Di Dona, Francesco; Murino, Carla; Della Valle, Giovanni; Fatone, Gerardo

    2016-07-19

    A three-year-old cat was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Naples, Italy. The cat had severe pelvic limb deformity, and abnormal development of all four paws. Radiographs revealed bilateral tibial agenesis, syndactyly, and digital hypoplasia. No treatment was instituted because of the severity of the injury, the adaptation of the cat to the abnormal condition, and the owner's refusal to permit any treatment. Congenital limb deformities are rarely reported in the cat and tibial agenesis is considered a very rare disease. This congenital anomaly is well documented and classified in man, and it has been associated with other abnormalities in more complex syndromes. This paper reports clinical and radiographic findings in a cat affected by bilateral complete tibial agenesis associated with other congenital anomalies.

  13. [Anatomical quantification of the tibial part of the plantar aponeurosis].

    PubMed

    Hiramoto, Y

    1983-03-01

    The metrical analysis of the anatomical characteristics is important because of its objectiveness. As it is concerned with the organs belonging to the locomotor system, the metrical method of the bones has already been systematized by Martin (1928), whereas the same kind of method for use on other organs remains undeveloped. The author aims to establish the metrical method of the plantar aponeurosis. The method for measuring the tibial part of the aponeurosis developed in this paper is sufficiently applicable for obtaining its principal anatomical characteristics. The results show that the tibial portion of the plantar aponeurosis becomes statistically significantly wider and thinner in its anterior part, and that the thickness of the tibial portion of the aponeurosis in the anterior part is larger on the right side than on the left side.

  14. Primary Ankle Arthrodesis for Severely Comminuted Tibial Pilon Fractures.

    PubMed

    Al-Ashhab, Mohamed E

    2017-03-01

    Management of severely comminuted, complete articular tibial pilon fractures (Rüedi and Allgöwer type III) remains a challenge, with few treatment options providing good clinical outcomes. Twenty patients with severely comminuted tibial pilon fractures underwent primary ankle arthrodesis with a retrograde calcaneal nail and autogenous fibular bone graft. The fusion rate was 100% and the varus malunion rate was 10%. Fracture union occurred at a mean of 16 weeks (range, 13-18 weeks) postoperatively. Primary ankle arthrodesis is a successful method for treating highly comminuted tibial pilon fractures, having a low complication rate and a high satisfaction score. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e378-e381.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm of the popliteal artery following corrective tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Szyber, P; Skóra, J; Rybak, W; Pupka, A

    2011-09-01

    Due to its anatomical location the popliteal artery is exposed to injury during surgical procedures in the region of the knee joint, in particular during high-level corrective osteotomies of the proximal tibial epiphysis. Nevertheless, posttraumatic (iatrogenic) pseudoaneurysm constitutes a very rare complication of the procedure. Only few reports of such complication have been published and they were usually connected with lateral tibial osteotomy - the accidents after medial osteotomy are seldom. The complication we report was observed in a 52-year-old female patient after corrective osteotomy of the medial portion of the proximal tibial epiphysis. The complication was diagnosed 7 days after surgery on US-examination and subsequently confirmed by emergently performed angio-CT. The patient was referred for urgent reconstructive surgery. No significant complications were observed, neither postoperatively nor during follow-up visits.

  16. Computer-Assisted Navigation in High Tibial Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sang Jun

    2016-01-01

    Computer-assisted navigation is used to improve the accuracy and precision of correction angles during high tibial osteotomy. Most studies have reported that this technique reduces the outliers of coronal alignment and unintended changes in the tibial posterior slope angle. However, more sophisticated studies are necessary to determine whether the technique will improve the clinical results and long-term survival rates. Knowledge of the navigation technology, surgical techniques and potential pitfalls, the clinical results of previous studies, and understanding of the advantages and limitations of the computer-assisted navigation are crucial to successful application of this new technique in high tibial osteotomy. Herein, we review the evidence concerning this technique from previous studies. PMID:27904715

  17. The radiographic union scale in tibial (RUST) fractures

    PubMed Central

    Clement, N. D.; Tawonsawatruk, T.; Simpson, C. J.; Simpson, A. H. R. W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The radiographic union score for tibial (RUST) fractures was developed by Whelan et al to assess the healing of tibial fractures following intramedullary nailing. In the current study, the repeatability and reliability of the RUST score was evaluated in an independent centre (a) using the original description, (b) after further interpretation of the description of the score, and (c) with the immediate post-operative radiograph available for comparison. Methods A total of 15 radiographs of tibial shaft fractures treated by intramedullary nailing (IM) were scored by three observers using the RUST system. Following discussion on how the criteria of the RUST system should be implemented, 45 sets (i.e. AP and lateral) of radiographs of IM nailed tibial fractures were scored by five observers. Finally, these 45 sets of radiographs were rescored with the baseline post-operative radiograph available for comparison. Results The initial intraclass correlation (ICC) on the first 15 sets of radiographs was 0.67 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.71). However, the original description was being interpreted in different ways. After agreeing on the interpretation, the ICC on the second cohort improved to 0.75. The ICC improved even further to 0.79, when the baseline post-operative radiographs were available for comparison. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the RUST scoring system is a reliable and repeatable outcome measure for assessing tibial fracture healing. Further improvement in the reliability of the scoring system can be obtained if the radiographs are compared with the baseline post-operative radiographs. Cite this article: Mr J.M. Leow. The radiographic union scale in tibial (RUST) fractures: Reliability of the outcome measure at an independent centre. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:116–121. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.54.2000628. PMID:27073210

  18. Does the Taylor Spatial Frame Accurately Correct Tibial Deformities?

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Kira; Ilizarov, Svetlana; Fragomen, Austin T.; Ilizarov, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    Background Optimal leg alignment is the goal of tibial osteotomy. The Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF) and the Ilizarov method enable gradual realignment of angulation and translation in the coronal, sagittal, and axial planes, therefore, the term six-axis correction. Questions/purposes We asked whether this approach would allow precise correction of tibial deformities. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 102 patients (122 tibiae) with tibial deformities treated with percutaneous osteotomy and gradual correction with the TSF. The proximal osteotomy group was subdivided into two subgroups to distinguish those with an intentional overcorrection of the mechanical axis deviation (MAD). The minimum followup after frame removal was 10 months (average, 48 months; range, 10–98 months). Results In the proximal osteotomy group, patients with varus and valgus deformities for whom the goal of alignment was neutral or overcorrection experienced accurate correction of MAD. In the proximal tibia, the medial proximal tibial angle improved from 80° to 89° in patients with a varus deformity and from 96° to 85° in patients with a valgus deformity. In the middle osteotomy group, all patients had less than 5° coronal plane deformity and 15 of 17 patients had less that 5° sagittal plane deformity. In the distal osteotomy group, the lateral distal tibial angle improved from 77° to 86° in patients with a valgus deformity and from 101° to 90° for patients with a varus deformity. Conclusions Gradual correction of all tibial deformities with the TSF was accurate and with few complications. Level of Evidence Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19911244

  19. Periprosthetic tibial bone mineral density changes after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jaroma, Antti; Soininvaara, Tarja; Kröger, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may cause postoperative periprosthetic bone loss due to stress shielding. Bone also adapts to mechanical alterations such as correction of malalignment. We investigated medium-term changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in tibial periprosthetic bone after TKA. Patients and methods 86 TKA patients were prospectively measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the baseline measurement being within 1 week after TKA and the follow-up measurements being at 3 and 6 months, and at 1, 2, 4, and 7 years postoperatively. Long standing radiographs were taken and clinical evaluation was done with the American Knee Society (AKS) score. Results The baseline BMD of the medial tibial metaphyseal region of interest (ROI) was higher in the varus aligned knees (25%; p < 0.001). Medial metaphyseal BMD decreased in subjects with preoperatively varus aligned knees (13%, p < 0.001) and in those with preoperatively valgus aligned knees (12%, p = 0.02) between the baseline and 7-year measurements. No statistically significant changes in BMD were detected in lateral metaphyseal ROIs. No implant failures or revision surgery due to tibial problems occurred. Interpretation Tibial metaphyseal periprosthetic bone is remodeled after TKA due to mechanical axis correction, resulting in more balanced bone stock below the tibial tray. The diaphyseal BMD remains unchanged after the initial drop, within 3–6 months. This remodeling process was related to good component survival, as there were no implant failures or revision operations due to tibial problems in this medium-term follow-up. PMID:27120266

  20. Bone stress in runners with tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Meardon, Stacey A; Willson, John D; Gries, Samantha R; Kernozek, Thomas W; Derrick, Timothy R

    2015-11-01

    Combinations of smaller bone geometry and greater applied loads may contribute to tibial stress fracture. We examined tibial bone stress, accounting for geometry and applied loads, in runners with stress fracture. 23 runners with a history of tibial stress fracture & 23 matched controls ran over a force platform while 3-D kinematic and kinetic data were collected. An elliptical model of the distal 1/3 tibia cross section was used to estimate stress at 4 locations (anterior, posterior, medial and lateral). Inner and outer radii for the model were obtained from 2 planar x-ray images. Bone stress differences were assessed using two-factor ANOVA (α=0.05). Key contributors to observed stress differences between groups were examined using stepwise regression. Runners with tibial stress fracture experienced greater anterior tension and posterior compression at the distal tibia. Location, but not group, differences in shear stress were observed. Stepwise regression revealed that anterior-posterior outer diameter of the tibia and the sagittal plane bending moment explained >80% of the variance in anterior and posterior bone stress. Runners with tibial stress fracture displayed greater stress anteriorly and posteriorly at the distal tibia. Elevated tibial stress was associated with smaller bone geometry and greater bending moments about the medial-lateral axis of the tibia. Future research needs to identify key running mechanics associated with the sagittal plane bending moment at the distal tibia as well as to identify ways to improve bone geometry in runners in order to better guide preventative and rehabilitative efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Periprosthetic tibial bone mineral density changes after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Jaroma, Antti; Soininvaara, Tarja; Kröger, Heikki

    2016-06-01

    Background and purpose - Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may cause postoperative periprosthetic bone loss due to stress shielding. Bone also adapts to mechanical alterations such as correction of malalignment. We investigated medium-term changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in tibial periprosthetic bone after TKA. Patients and methods - 86 TKA patients were prospectively measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the baseline measurement being within 1 week after TKA and the follow-up measurements being at 3 and 6 months, and at 1, 2, 4, and 7 years postoperatively. Long standing radiographs were taken and clinical evaluation was done with the American Knee Society (AKS) score. Results - The baseline BMD of the medial tibial metaphyseal region of interest (ROI) was higher in the varus aligned knees (25%; p < 0.001). Medial metaphyseal BMD decreased in subjects with preoperatively varus aligned knees (13%, p < 0.001) and in those with preoperatively valgus aligned knees (12%, p = 0.02) between the baseline and 7-year measurements. No statistically significant changes in BMD were detected in lateral metaphyseal ROIs. No implant failures or revision surgery due to tibial problems occurred. Interpretation - Tibial metaphyseal periprosthetic bone is remodeled after TKA due to mechanical axis correction, resulting in more balanced bone stock below the tibial tray. The diaphyseal BMD remains unchanged after the initial drop, within 3-6 months. This remodeling process was related to good component survival, as there were no implant failures or revision operations due to tibial problems in this medium-term follow-up.

  2. Principles of tibial fracture management with circular external fixation.

    PubMed

    Lowenberg, David W; Githens, Michael; Boone, Christopher

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing mass of literature to suggest that circular external fixation for high-energy tibial fractures has advantages over traditional internal fixation, with potential improved rates of union, decreased incidence of posttraumatic osteomyelitis, and decreased soft tissue problems. To further advance our understanding of the role of circular external fixation in the management of these tibial fractures, randomized controlled trials should be implemented. In addition to complication rates and radiographic outcomes, validated functional outcome tools and cost analysis of this method should be compared with open reduction with internal fixation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Posterior tibial vein aneurysm presenting as tarsal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Micheal; Whisenhunt, Anumeha; Hong, EnYaw; Heller, Josh; Salvatore, Dawn; Abai, Babak; DiMuzio, Paul J

    2015-06-01

    Tarsal tunnel syndrome is a compressive neuropathy of the posterior tibial nerve within the tarsal tunnel. Its etiology varies, including space occupying lesions, trauma, inflammation, anatomic deformity, iatrogenic injury, and idiopathic and systemic causes. Herein, we describe a 46-year-old man who presented with left foot pain. Work up revealed a venous aneurysm impinging on the posterior tibial nerve. Following resection of the aneurysm and lysis of the nerve, his symptoms were alleviated. Review of the literature reveals an association between venous disease and tarsal tunnel syndrome; however, this report represents the first case of venous aneurysm causing symptomatic compression of the nerve.

  4. Pes Anserinus Bursitis due to Tibial Spurs in Children.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vivek; Sampath Kumar, Venkatesan; Poudel, Rishi R; Kumar, Ashok; Khan, Shah Alam

    2017-07-05

    Osteochondromas are the most common bone tumours. Although these tumors are relatively common in the long bones of children, the varied clinical and radiographic presentation of such neoplasms around the knee joint can cause diagnostic delays, especially when not associated with a palpable swelling. Proximal tibial osteochondromas can sometimes unusually present as spurs/ rose thorns leading to pes anserinus bursitis and vague knee pain. We describe the clinico-radiographic features of such proximal tibial metaphyseal osteochondromas giving rise to pes anserinus bursitis in three children, including bilaterally symmetrical osteochondroma in one of the cases, who were treated conservatively with good outcomes.

  5. Stemmed knee replacement in a patient with an irremovable tibial nail.

    PubMed

    Ward, William G; Cooper, Joshua M

    2013-01-01

    A patient with a cemented centrally located intramedullary tibial nail that occluded the proximal tibial canal underwent knee reconstruction with a total knee design utilizing a custom hollow tibial stem. In this oncology case, a rotating-hinge knee design was used that incorporates an intra-articular inverted post-in-channel central rotational post design. This design allowed for a rather straightforward reconstruction that functioned well for 3 years. Although rarely encountered, utilization of a hollow-stemmed tibial total knee component may allow salvage of an extremity with central occlusion of the proximal tibial canal.

  6. Automated Measurement of Patient-Specific Tibial Slopes from MRI

    PubMed Central

    Amerinatanzi, Amirhesam; Summers, Rodney K.; Ahmadi, Kaveh; Goel, Vijay K.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Nyman, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multi-planar proximal tibial slopes may be associated with increased likelihood of osteoarthritis and anterior cruciate ligament injury, due in part to their role in checking the anterior-posterior stability of the knee. Established methods suffer repeatability limitations and lack computational efficiency for intuitive clinical adoption. The aims of this study were to develop a novel automated approach and to compare the repeatability and computational efficiency of the approach against previously established methods. Methods: Tibial slope geometries were obtained via MRI and measured using an automated Matlab-based approach. Data were compared for repeatability and evaluated for computational efficiency. Results: Mean lateral tibial slope (LTS) for females (7.2°) was greater than for males (1.66°). Mean LTS in the lateral concavity zone was greater for females (7.8° for females, 4.2° for males). Mean medial tibial slope (MTS) for females was greater (9.3° vs. 4.6°). Along the medial concavity zone, female subjects demonstrated greater MTS. Conclusion: The automated method was more repeatable and computationally efficient than previously identified methods and may aid in the clinical assessment of knee injury risk, inform surgical planning, and implant design efforts. PMID:28952547

  7. Tibial dyschondroplasia associated proteomic changes in chicken growth plate cartilage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a poultry leg problem that affects the proximal growth plate of tibia preventing its transition to bone. To understand the disease-induced proteomic changes we compared the protein extracts of cartilage from normal and TD- affected growth plates. TD was induced by fe...

  8. Leg Muscle Usage Effects on Tibial Elasticity during Running

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    appear to show an association between low elasticity and fracture incidence in osteoporotic patients treated with bisphosphonate [3]. In this study...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Tibial stress fractures (TSFs...strength but has not been tested in TSF, or even studied in runners. However, clinical studies of osteoporotic patients given bisphosphonates have shown

  9. Treatment results of bicondylar tibial fractures using hybrid external fixator.

    PubMed

    Sales, Jafar Ganjpour; Soleymaopour, Jafar; Ansari, Maroof; Afaghi, Farhad; Goldust, Mohamad

    2013-05-15

    Tibial condyle fractures affect knee stability and motion. Treatment of bicondylar type of tibial plateau fracture is a challenging problem. This study aimed at evaluating the application of hybrid external fixators with minimum deformation in these patients and the resulted outcomes. In this descriptive analytical study, 28 patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated by HEF device were evaluated. The surgeon used a semicircular and one circular wire instead of the one or two loop of conventional HEF device for a better range of motion of the knee joint. Treatment outcomes including quality of walking, union condition, knee range of motion, complications and the final outcome according to the knee score (rusmussen) were checked. Twenty-eight male patients, with the mean age of 40.54 +/- 13.83 years were enrolled in the study. Complications occurred in 8 (28.6%) patients; 7 cases with superficial infection and 1 patient with deep vein thrombosis. All complications were managed medically with no significant consequences left. All the patients were able to walk with no aid except in one case. In 96.4% and 89.3% of the cases, the clinical and radiological outcomes were good to excellent, respectively according to the knee score. In 85.7% of the patients, the knee range of motion was in normal limits. Application of hybrid external fixator using one and half ring instead of one or two fixator rings in treating bicondylar tibial fractures was associated with desired clinical and radiological results.

  10. Wear patterns on tibial plateau from varus osteoarthritic knees.

    PubMed

    Moschella, D; Blasi, A; Leardini, A; Ensini, A; Catani, F

    2006-02-01

    The knowledge of cartilage wear patterns at the medial tibial plateau is important to understand the main causes of arthritis in varus knees. The most important factors influencing knee arthritis in fact seem to be the severity of the degenerative changes determined by the lower limb mechanical axis and the abnormal knee joint kinematics which frequently results from dysfunction of the anterior cruciate ligament. We studied the wear patterns of cartilage damage in 70 medial tibial plateaus resected at operation during total knee arthroplasty indicated for varus osteoarthritic knee. Anterior cruciate ligament and medial meniscus integrity was assessed intra-operatively. Calibrated digital images were used to measure the wear patterns with a standard software tool. The medial compartment of the tibial plateau was divided into six zones, and the amount of cartilage and bone destruction in each zone was classified into two grades. The wear pattern was found to be highly dependent upon knee varus deformity (Mann Whitney P<0.001) and anterior cruciate ligament integrity (Friedman P<0.0005). Anterior cruciate ligament was found intact in 35.7% of the cases. Wear patterns on intact anterior cruciate ligament knees occurred in the central to medial aspect of the tibial plateau. Anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees had significantly larger wear patterns anteriorly and posteriorly in the most medial region of the medial plateau. These observations suggest altered joint mechanics exist in anterior cruciate ligament deficient varus knees, which would worsen cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis progression.

  11. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation for patients with faecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Allison, Marion

    Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) is a new, non-invasive treatment for faecal incontinence. It is given in an outpatient setting and has few side effects. An increasing number of studies confirm its efficacy. This article discusses the procedure, reports early experiences of using PTNS at one centre in the UK and considers cost effectiveness.

  12. Tibial inlay for posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Papalia, Rocco; Osti, Leonardo; Del Buono, Angelo; Denaro, Vincenzo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2010-08-01

    Although no consensus has been reached regarding the management of PCL deficiency, in vitro and in vivo studies have investigated whether the tibial inlay technique restores the anatomical site of insertion of the PCL, prevents elongation, stretching, graft failure, and improves long-term PCL stability. A systematic search using PubMed, Ovid, the Cochrane Reviews, and Google Scholar databases using 'posterior cruciate ligament tear', 'Tibial inlay technique' and 'posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction' as keywords identified 71 publications, of which 10 were relevant to the topic, and included a total of 255 patients. The tibial inlay technique restores the anatomic insertion site of the PCL, eliminates the killer turn effect, and places the graft at lower potential risk for abrasion and subsequent rupture. It has the disadvantages of increased operating time and risk to the posterior neurovascular structures. There was no evidence of an association between outcome results and Coleman methodology score, but the Coleman methodology scores correlated positively with the level-of-evidence rating. The methodological quality of the studies included has not improved over the years. Given the few reported published findings, we cannot ascertain whether this procedure may provide a consistent alternative to commonly used PCL surgical strategies. The lack of published randomized clinical trials and few reported findings did not allow to ascertain whether the tibial inlay for posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction may provide a consistent alternative to commonly used PCL surgical strategies and to demonstrate procedure efficacy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Leg Muscle Usage on Tibial Elasticity During Running

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Tibial stress fractures (TSFs) are a substantial problem for military recruits, elite athletes, and adults transitioning from a sedentary lifestyle to...were being taken by the co-investigators to minimize the Greater than Minimal Risk assigned to the transition from a sedentary lifestyle to moderate-to

  14. Changes in serum protein profiles of chickens with tibial dyschondroplasia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Differences in serum protein profiles were analyzed to identify biomarkers associated with a poultry leg problem named tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) that can cause lameness. We used a bead-based affinity matrix containing a combinatorial library of hexapeptides (ProteoMinerTM) to deplete high abundan...

  15. Arteriovenous fistula complicating operative treatment of an ununited tibial fracture.

    PubMed

    Ward, A S; Carty, N J

    1995-01-01

    We report the case of a traumatic arteriovenous fistula of the peroneal vessels following a bone graft operation for an un-united tibial fracture. The fistula was recognised as a result of a bruit at the site of the fracture. The fistula was repaired and the fracture subsequently united.

  16. Unusual Tibial Stress Fracture in a Basketball Player.

    PubMed

    Selesnick, H

    1990-09-01

    In brief Stress fractures of the proximal middle third of the tibia are common; those of the distal tibia are less common; and longitudinal stress fractures are rare. The basketball player in this case report had a rare longitudinal tibial pilon stress fracture, for which few diagnostic or treatment guidelines existed.

  17. Biomechanical techniques to evaluate tibial rotation. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lam, Mak-Ham; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Yung, Patrick Shu-Hang; Chan, Kai-Ming

    2012-09-01

    This article systematically reviewed the biomechanical techniques to quantify tibial rotation, for an overview of how to choose a suitable technique for specific clinical application. A systematic search was conducted and finally 110 articles were included in this study. The articles were categorized by the conditions of how the knee was examined: external load application, physical examination and dynamic task. The results showed that two-thirds of the included studies measured tibial rotation under external load application, of which over 80% of the experiments employed a cadaveric model. The common techniques used included direct displacement measurement, motion sensor, optical tracking system and universal force moment sensor. Intra-operative navigation system was used to document tibial rotation when the knee was examined by clinical tests. For dynamic assessment of knee rotational stability, motion analysis with skin reflective markers was frequently used although this technique is less accurate due to the skin movement when compared with radiographic measurement. This study reports various biomechanical measurement techniques to quantify tibial rotation in the literatures. To choose a suitable measurement technique for a specific clinical application, it is suggested to quantify the effectiveness of a new designed surgical technique by using a cadaveric model before applying to living human subjects for intra-operative evaluation or long-time functional stability assessment. Attention should also be paid on the study's purpose, whether to employ a cadaveric model and the way of stress applied to the knee. IV.

  18. The Effect of Malrotation of Tibial Component of Total Knee Arthroplasty on Tibial Insert during High Flexion Using a Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Todo, Mitsugu

    2014-01-01

    One of the most common errors of total knee arthroplasty procedure is a malrotation of tibial component. The stress on tibial insert is closely related to polyethylene failure. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of malrotation of tibial component for the stress on tibial insert during high flexion using a finite element analysis. We used Stryker NRG PS for analysis. Three different initial conditions of tibial component including normal, 15° internal malrotation, and 15° external malrotation were analyzed. The tibial insert made from ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene was assumed to be elastic-plastic while femoral and tibial metal components were assumed to be rigid. Four nonlinear springs attached to tibial component represented soft tissues around the knee. Vertical load was applied to femoral component which rotated from 0° to 135° while horizontal load along the anterior posterior axis was applied to tibial component during flexion. Maximum equivalent stresses on the surface were analyzed. Internal malrotation caused the highest stress which arose up to 160% of normal position. External malrotation also caused higher stress. Implanting prosthesis in correct position is important for reducing the risk of abnormal wear and failure. PMID:24895658

  19. Comparison of volumetric bone mineral density in the tibial region of interest for ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Klein, Scott A; Nyland, John; Caborn, David N M; Kocabey, Yavuz; Nawab, Akbar

    2005-12-01

    Adequate tibial bone mineral density (BMD) is essential to soft tissue graft fixation during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to compare volumetric bone plug density measurements at the tibial region of interest for ACL reconstruction using a standardized immersion technique and Archimedes' principle. Cancellous bone cores were harvested from the proximal, middle, and distal metaphyseal regions of the lateral tibia and from the standard tibial tunnel location used for ACL reconstruction of 18 cadaveric specimens. Proximal tibial cores displayed 32.6% greater BMD than middle tibial cores and 31.8% greater BMD than distal tibial cores, but did not differ from the BMD of the tibial tunnel cores. Correlational analysis confirmed that the cancellous BMD in the tibial tunnel related to the cancellous BMD of the proximal and distal lateral tibial metaphysis. In conjunction with its adjacent cortical bone, the cancellous BMD of the region used for standard tibial tunnel placement provides an effective foundation for ACL graft fixation. In tibia with poor BMD, bicortical fixation that incorporates cortical bone from the distal tibial tunnel region is recommended.

  20. Tibial tunnel placement in posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nicodeme, J-D; Löcherbach, C; Jolles, B M

    2014-07-01

    Reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) yields less satisfying results than anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with respect to laxity control. Accurate tibial tunnel placement is crucial for successful PCL reconstruction using arthroscopic tibial tunnel techniques. A discrepancy between anatomical studies of the tibial PCL insertion site and surgical recommendations for tibial tunnel placement remains. The objective of this study was to identify the optimal placement of the tibial tunnel in PCL reconstruction based on clinical studies. In a systematic review of the literature, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Review, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were screened for articles about PCL reconstruction from January 1990 to September 2011. Clinical trials comparing at least two PCL reconstruction techniques were extracted and independently analysed by each author. Only studies comparing different tibial tunnel placements in the retrospinal area were included. This systematic review found no comparative clinical trial for tibial tunnel placement in PCL reconstruction. Several anatomical, radiological, and biomechanical studies have described the tibial insertion sites of the native PCL and have led to recommendations for placement of the tibial tunnel outlet in the retrospinal area. However, surgical recommendations and the results of morphological studies are often contradictory. Reliable anatomical landmarks for tunnel placement are lacking. Future randomized controlled trials could compare precisely defined tibial tunnel placements in PCL reconstruction, which would require an established mapping of the retrospinal area of the tibial plateau with defined anatomical and radiological landmarks.

  1. Do ethnicity and gender influence posterior tibial slope?

    PubMed

    Bisicchia, Salvatore; Scordo, Gavinca M; Prins, Johan; Tudisco, Cosimo

    2017-02-02

    Ethnicity and gender can affect posterior tibial slope; however, studies on this topic have limitations and are in disagreement. The aim of the present study was to evaluate posterior tibial slope in a large group of consecutive patients, determining whether ethnicity and gender can influence its value. Secondly, to determine intra- and inter-rater reliability of the two radiographic methods adopted. Posterior tibial slope was calculated (rater 1) in lateral view X-rays of the knee according to the posterior tibial cortex (PTC) and tibial proximal anatomical axis (TPAA) methods. Data were matched with ethnicity and gender. For determination of intra- and inter-rater reliability, 50 random X-rays were selected, and blindly measured by two other raters (2 and 3). A total of 581 radiographs were included (413 white and 168 black knees). Comparing white and black subjects, a statistically significant difference was found for both PTC (4.9 ± 1.2 vs 7.1 ± 2.9, p < 0.0001), and for TPAA (7.7 ± 1.1 vs 10.2 ± 3.0, p < 0.0001). In white subjects, an influence of gender was found only for TPAA (6.4 ± 1.1 in males vs 7.6 ± 1.1 in females, p < 0.0001). In black subjects, an influence of gender was found only for PTC (7.4 ± 3.0 in males vs 6.2 ± 2.9 in females, p = 0.01). Intra-rater reliability was good for both methods for rater 1, and very good for rater 2. Inter-rater reliability among the 3 raters was very good for both methods. Differences in posterior tibial slope between different ethnic groups exist. Differences observed between genders are conflicting and might be too small to have implications in clinical practice. The TPAA method is recommended for the evaluation of posterior tibial slope because of higher intra- and inter-rater reliability. Level of evidence 3 Case-control study.

  2. MRI Based Comparison of Tibial Bone Coverage by Five Knee Prosthesis: Anthropometric Study in Indians.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sourabh; Agarwal, Naresh; Jain, Anuj; Srivastav, Shekhar; Thomas, Simon; Agarwal, Shekhar

    2015-09-01

    This MRI based study evaluates morphological differences of proximal tibia (total cross-sectional area, mediolateral and anteroposterior distance) 8-10 mm distal to the lateral tibial plateau. We evaluated the difference in the coverage of the tibial surface between symmetric and asymmetric tibial trays and difference in coverage between males and females. 150 patients who underwent MRI scans for sports related soft tissue injury without osteoarthritis were studied. The tibial trays of the 5 total knee arthroplasty designs (4 symmetric and 1 asymmetric) were scanned. Mean total tibial coverage of all designs was more than 80%. Asymmetric baseplate had maximum total tibial coverage and maximum rate of optimal fit, with only 2% absolute overhang posterolaterally. Females had better tibial coverage as compared to males.

  3. Sagittal plane deformity in bicondylar tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Streubel, Philipp N; Glasgow, Donald; Wong, Ambrose; Barei, David P; Ricci, William M; Gardner, Michael J

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and magnitude of sagittal plane deformity in bicondylar tibial plateau fractures. Retrospective radiographic review. Two Level I trauma centers. Sagittal inclination of the medial and lateral plateau measured in relation to the longitudinal axis of the tibia using computed tomographic reconstruction images. Seventy-four patients (mean age, 49 years; range, 16-82 years; 64% male) with acute bicondylar tibial plateau fractures (Orthopaedic Trauma Association 41C, Schatzker VI) treated from October 2006 to July 2009. The average sagittal plane angulation of the lateral plateau was 9.8° posteriorly (range, 17° anteriorly to 37° posteriorly). The medial plateau was angulated 4.1° posteriorly on average (range, 16° anteriorly to 31° posteriorly). Forty-two lateral plateaus were angulated more than 5° from the "normal" anatomic slope (defined as 5° of posterior tibial slope). Of these, 76% were angulated posteriorly. Forty-three (58%) of the medial plateaus were angulated greater than 5° from normal, of which only 47% were inclined posteriorly (P = 0.019 compared with lateral plateaus). In 68% of patients, the difference between medial and lateral plateaus was greater than 5°; the average intercondylar slope difference was 9° (range, 0°-31°; P < 0.001). Spanning external fixation did not affect the slope of either the medial or lateral tibial plateau. Intraobserver and interobserver correlations were high for both the medial and lateral plateaus (r > 0.81, P < 0.01). Considerable sagittal plane deformity exists in the majority of bicondylar tibial plateau fractures. The lateral plateau has a higher propensity for sagittal angulation and tends to have increased posterior slope. Most patients have a substantial difference between the lateral and medial plateau slopes. The identification of this deformity allows for accurate preoperative planning and specific reduction maneuvers to restore anatomic alignment.

  4. Long-term follow up of single-stage anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and high tibial osteotomy and its relation with posterior tibial slope.

    PubMed

    Arun, G R; Kumaraswamy, Vinay; Rajan, David; Vinodh, K; Singh, Ashutosh Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep; Chandrasekaran, Karthik; Santosh, Sahanand; Kishore, Chandan

    2016-04-01

    Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy is considered to be an effective treatment for medial compartmental osteoarthritis. It is generally admitted that tibial slope increases after open-wedge high tibial osteotomy and decreases after closing-wedge high tibial osteotomy. Young patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency along with medial compartment osteoarthritis need a combined procedure of ACL reconstruction along with high tibial osteotomy to regain physiological knee kinematics and to avoid chondral damage. We retrospectively analysed data from 30 patients who underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction along with medial opening-wedge osteotomy from Jan 2004 to June 2012 with a minimum follow up of 2 years. The pre-operative and post-operative posterior tibial slopes were measured. Functional outcome was analysed using clinico-radiological criteria, IKDC scoring and Lysholm score. Post-operative patients improved both clinically and functionally. The patients who had posterior tibial slope >5° decrease, compared to patients who had less <5° decrease, had better functional scores (IKDC and Lysholm score), which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Our study has shown that decreasing the tibial slope >5° compared to pre-operative value has functionally favourable effect on the reconstructed ACL graft and outcome. It is known that increasing slope causes an anterior shift in tibial resting position that is accentuated under axial loads. This suggests that decreasing tibial slope may be protective in an ACL deficient knee. Hence by placing the tricortical graft posterior to midline in the opening wedge reduces the posterior tibial slope and thereby reduces the stress on the graft leading to better functional outcome.

  5. Tibial component considerations in bicruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty: A 3D MRI evaluation of proximal tibial anatomy.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Vishal; Anari, Jason B; Ruutiainen, Alexander T; Voleti, Pramod B; Stephenson, Jason W; Lee, Gwo-Chin

    2016-08-01

    Restoration of normal anatomy and proper ligament balance are theoretical prerequisites for reproducing physiological kinematics with bicruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to use a 3D MRI technique to evaluate the topography of the proximal tibia and outline considerations in tibial component design for bicruciate-retaining TKA. We identified 100 consecutive patients (50 males and 50 females) between ages 20 and 40 years with knee MRIs without arthritis, dysplasia, ACL tears, or prior knee surgery. A novel 3D MRI protocol coordinating axial, coronal, and sagittal images was used to measure: 1) medial and lateral posterior tibial slopes; 2) medial and lateral coronal slopes; and 3) distance from the anterior tibia to the ACL footprint. There was no overall difference in medial and lateral posterior tibial slopes (5.5° (95% CI 5.0 to 6.0°) vs. 5.4° (95% CI 4.8 to 6.0°), respectively (p=0.80)), but 41 patients had side-to-side differences greater than 3°. The medial coronal slope was greater than the lateral coronal slope (4.6° (95% CI 4.0 to 5.1°) vs. 3.3° (95% CI 2.9 to 3.7°), respectively (p<0.0001)). Females had less clearance between the anterior tibia and ACL footprint than males (10.8mm (95% CI 10.4 to 11.2mm) vs. 13.0mm (95% CI 12.5 to 13.5mm), respectively (p<0.0001)). Due to highly variable proximal tibial topography, a monoblock bicruciate-retaining tibial baseplate may not reproduce normal anatomy in all patients. Level IV - Anatomic research study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the anterior tibial artery secondary to tibial shaft fracture. Case report].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Salazar, J; Tovar-López, J; Hernández-Rodríguez, G; De la Concha-Ureta, H

    2016-01-01

    Arterial pseudoaneurysm of the lower limb is an infrequent entity, particularly in the infrapopliteal segment. It is commonly associated to vascular repairs or follows a localized arterial lesion, a fracture or a surgical procedure. There is little information in Mexico about this entity in cases involving the anterior tibial artery, and secondary to trauma and osteosynthesis. Given that sudden bleeding due to rupture of the pseudoaneurysm is a possible catastrophic outcome for the viability of the segment, it is important to timely detect and diagnose the pseudoaneurysm. Treatment indications contained in the international literature are controversial. Solution-oriented approaches may be either surgical or endovascular. Current reports show that the best treatment option is an autologous saphenous vein graft, which maintains blood flow and minimizes the risk of peripheral ischemia. The purpose of this paper is to report the case of a patient who sustained the above mentioned complication and provide a literature review. This topic should be further investigated, as this condition may go unnoticed in a large number of cases, given that its symptoms are silent.

  7. Quantification of tibial bone loss in antegrade versus retrograde tunnel placement for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Osti, Michael; Krawinkel, Alessa; Hoffelner, Thomas; Benedetto, Karl Peter

    2015-08-01

    Tibial bone destruction during primary graft tunnel placement and tibial bone loss following tunnel enlargement represent major challenges in revision reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Initial all-inside ACL reconstruction facilitates the preparation of tibial bone sockets rather than full tunnels that potentially preserve tibial bone stock. The purpose of this study was to comparatively assess length, diameter and volume of tibial graft tunnels following all-inside and conventional ACL reconstruction. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans of 59 patients were assessed following ACL reconstruction. In 35 patients we used conventional antegrade tibial tunnel drilling and in 24 all-inside retrograde tibial bone sockets. Imaging analysis included total, minimal and maximal tunnel length and tunnel diameter. Tunnel volumes were calculated corresponding to these parameters. Statistically significant group differences (p < 0.01) could be detected for tibial tunnel volume, length and diameter between conventional antegrade and all-inside retrograde tibial bone tunnels and sockets, respectively. Compared with conventional techniques, all-inside retrograde drilling of tibial bone sockets is effective in preserving significant bone stock, which might be beneficial for revision reconstruction in cases of eventual primary graft failure.

  8. Measurements of tibial rotation during a simulated pivot shift manoeuvre using a gyroscopic sensor.

    PubMed

    Petrigliano, Frank A; Borgstrom, Per Henrik; Kaiser, William J; McAllister, David R; Markolf, Keith L

    2015-08-01

    The pivot shift has been correlated with patient-reported outcomes and knee function following ACL injury and reconstruction. Tibial rotation has been recognized as an important component to the pivot shift motion path. However, few methodologies exist to quantify tibial rotation in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to validate the use of a wireless gyroscopic sensor to measure axial rotation of the tibia during a manually simulated pivot shift manoeuvre in cadaveric specimens. We hypothesized that integrated gyroscopic measurements of tibial rotation velocity (tibial rotation) would be highly correlated with tibial rotations simultaneously recorded with a rotary potentiometer during a simulated pivot shift motion under intact and ACL-deficient conditions. Gyroscopic measurements of rotational velocity were integrated and calibrated to a known arc of rotation. The gyroscope was mounted on the distal tibia with its axis aligned to the tibial shaft. Ten simulations of a pivot shift motion pathway were performed on nine cadaveric knees under intact and ACL-deficient conditions. Logistic regression was used to compare gyroscopic and potentiometer measurements of tibial rotation for both test conditions. Gyroscopic measurements of maximum external tibial rotation during the simulated pivot shift motion pathway were strongly correlated with potentiometer measurements of external tibial rotation in both the intact and ACL-deficient states (R (2) = 0.984). The gyroscope evaluated in this cadaveric study was capable of accurately recording tibial rotation during a simulated pivot shift motion pathway.

  9. A tibial-based coordinate system for three-dimensional data.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Clare; FitzPatrick, David; Auger, Daniel; Lee, Jordan

    2007-03-01

    An accurate and repeatable tibial measurement system will aid in the definition of tibial geometry and improving tibial prosthesis design. Unlike in the femur, there is no standardized method for constructing a tibial coordinate frame. Most tibial measurements are given relative to femoral axes or the coordinate frame of the CT/MRI scanner or radiograph machine. The objective of this study was to establish an independent tibial coordinate frame. Data consisted of CT scans from 34 subjects. The tibial anatomical axis was chosen as the axial axis. The anteroposterior (AP) axis was selected to be parallel to the lateral surface of the tibial shaft and orthogonal to the anatomical axis and from this the mediolateral axis could be derived. The selected AP axis was compared with the surgical tibial AP axis by measuring their variability relative to a common axis, the posterior tibial condylar line (PTCL). The mean angle between the selected AP axis and the perpendicular to the PTCL was measured as -4.07 degrees, standard deviation of 4.28 degrees. The mean angle between the surgical AP axis and the perpendicular to the PTCL was measured as -18.56 degrees, standard deviation of 4.66 degrees. There was no significant difference in the variance of the two sets of measurements (p=0.63). Variability of the selected AP axis was even smaller (standard deviation of 2.74 degrees) when measured independently from the PTCL reference axis, by aligning virtual resection profiles. Anatomically, the selected AP axis was almost perpendicular to the posterior tibial condylar axis. This coordinate system can aid in gathering consistent and repeatable anthropometric data that can be used to improve tibial implant design and could also, in combination with CT/MR imaged-based computer assisted surgery, be used as a guideline for tibial component positioning in TKR.

  10. Tibial Eminence Involvement With Tibial Plateau Fracture Predicts Slower Recovery and Worse Postoperative Range of Knee Motion.

    PubMed

    Konda, Sanjit R; Driesman, Adam; Manoli, Arthur; Davidovitch, Roy I; Egol, Kenneth A

    2017-07-01

    To examine 1-year functional and clinical outcomes in patients with tibial plateau fractures with tibial eminence involvement. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. Academic Medical Center. All patients who presented with a tibial plateau fracture (Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) 41-B and 41-C). Patients were divided into fractures with a tibial eminence component (+TE) and those without (-TE) cohorts. All patients underwent similar surgical approaches and fixation techniques for fractures. No tibial eminence fractures received fixation specifically. Short musculoskeletal functional assessment (SMFA), pain (Visual Analogue Scale), and knee range-of-motion (ROM) were evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively and compared between cohorts. Two hundred ninety-three patients were included for review. Patients with OTA 41-C fractures were more likely to have an associated TE compared with 41-B fractures (63% vs. 28%, P < 0.01). At 3 months postoperatively, the +TE cohort was noted to have worse knee ROM (75.16 ± 51 vs. 86.82 ± 53 degree, P = 0.06). At 6 months, total SMFA and knee ROM was significantly worse in the +TE cohort (29 ± 17 vs. 21 ± 18, P ≤ 0.01; 115.6 ± 20 vs. 124.1 ± 15, P = 0.01). By 12 months postoperatively, only knee ROM remained significantly worse in the +TE cohort (118.7 ± 15 vs. 126.9 ± 13, P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that tibial eminence involvement was a significant predictor of ROM at 6 and 12 months and SFMA at 6 months. Body mass index was found to be a significant predictor of ROM and age was a significant predictor of total SMFA at all time points. Knee ROM remains worse throughout the postoperative period in the +TE cohort. Functional outcome improves less rapidly in the +TE cohort but achieves similar results by 1 year. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  11. High tibial osteotomy in varus knees: indications and limits

    PubMed Central

    LOIA, MARCO CORGIAT; VANNI, STEFANIA; ROSSO, FEDERICA; BONASIA, DAVIDE EDOARDO; BRUZZONE, MATTEO; DETTONI, FEDERICO; ROSSI, ROBERTO

    2016-01-01

    Opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) is a surgical procedure that aims to correct the weight-bearing axis of the knee, moving the loads laterally from the medial compartment. Conventional indications for OWHTO are medial compartment osteoarthritis and varus malalignment of the knee; recently OWHTO has been used successfully in the treatment of double and triple varus. OWHTO, in contrast to closing wedge high tibial osteotomy, does not require fibular osteotomy or peroneal nerve dissection, or lead to disruption of the proximal tibiofibular joint and bone stock loss. For these reasons, interest in this procedure has grown in recent years. The aim of this study is to review the literature on OWHTO, considering indications and prognostic factors (body mass index, grade of osteoarthritis, instability, range of movement and age), outcomes at mid-term follow-up, and limits of the procedure (slope modifications, patellar height changes and difficulties in conversion to a total knee arthroplasty). PMID:27602350

  12. The electrical stimulation of tibial osteotomies. Double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Mammi, G I; Rocchi, R; Cadossi, R; Massari, L; Traina, G C

    1993-03-01

    The effect of electromagnetic field stimulation was investigated in a group of 40 consecutive patients treated with valgus tibial osteotomy for degenerative arthrosis of the knee. All patients were operated on by the same author and followed the same postoperative program. After surgery, patients were randomly assigned to a control group (dummy stimulators) or to a stimulated one (active stimulators). Four orthopedic surgeons, unaware of the experimental conditions, were asked to evaluate the roentgenograms taken 60 days postoperatively and to rate the osteotomy healing according to four categories (the fourth category being the most advanced stage of healing). In the control group, 73.6% of the patients were included in the first and second category. In the stimulated group, 72.2% of the patients were included in the third and fourth category. On a homogeneous group of patients, electromagnetic field stimulation had positive effects on the healing of tibial osteotomies.

  13. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation and sacral neuromodulation: an update.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Priyanka; Ehlert, Michael J; Sirls, Larry T; Peters, Kenneth M

    2015-02-01

    Neuromodulation is an important treatment modality for a variety of pelvic floor disorders. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) and sacral neuromodulation (SNM) are currently the two approved methods for delivering this therapy. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation is a minimally invasive office-based procedure that has shown efficacy in the treatment of overactive bladder, fecal incontinence, and pelvic pain. It has the advantage of minimal side effects but is limited by the need for patients to make weekly office visits to receive the series of treatments. Sacral neuromodulation uses an implanted device that stimulates the S3 nerve root and can improve symptoms of overactive bladder, non-obstructive urinary retention, fecal incontinence, and pelvic pain. This paper will review the most recent literature regarding this topic and discuss their advantages and limitations and recent innovations in their use.

  14. [Minimally invasive treatment of tibial plateau fracture under arthroscopy monitoring].

    PubMed

    Chen, Lixin; Ma, Shaoyun; Li, Xianpeng

    2014-05-01

    Twenty six patients with fracture of tibial plateau was under arthroscopy assisted reduction, the joint surface of bone graft, and USES the steel plate fixation treatment. Average surgery time was 65 min (70-120 min), average fracture healing time was 15 weeks (12-17 weeks), joint surface anatomical reattachment rate was 92.9%. Using break knee function criteria evaluation of curative effect: 18 cases great 6 cases wed, 2 cases ok, fine rate was 92.3%. No infection, deep venous thrombosis and small leg fascia chamber syndrome and other complications. Conclusion is that treatment of tibial plateau fractures under arthroscope has advantages of small trauma, check intuitively and reset accurately, functional recovery of patients are satisfied, the treatment has certain clinical application value.

  15. Expandable intramedullary nails for fixation of tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Ghafil, Dior; Ackerman, Pieter; Baillon, Renaud; Verdonk, Rene; Delince, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Interlocking intramedullary nailing is currently the preferred treatment for most tibial fractures requiring operative treatment, with good results and a relatively low complication rate as reported in large clinical series. However, vascular and neurological complications caused by interlocking screws have been reported. In addition, insertion of distal interlocking screws can be technically demanding and may entail substantial exposure. We present the results with an expandable self-locking nail in the management of 52 AO type A and B tibial shaft fractures. The mean time to union was 15.8 weeks and the rate of union was 98%. The average surgical time was 60 minutes. Complications were those usually seen in diaphysis nailing and no complication was noted during nail expansion. Interlocking screws are not necessary, which reduces the risk of iatrogenic lesions. The expandable nail allows effective management of AO type A and B diaphyseal fractures of the tibia, a lower radiation exposure and shorter operative time.

  16. Computational comparison of reamed versus unreamed intramedullary tibial nails.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Benito, María José; Fornells, Pere; García-Aznar, José Manuel; Seral, Belén; Seral-Iñnigo, Fernando; Doblaré, Manuel

    2007-02-01

    We compared, via a computational model, the biomechanical performance of reamed versus unreamed intramedullary tibial nails to treat fractures in three different locations: proximal, mid-diaphyseal, and distal. Two finite element models were analyzed for the two nail types and the three kinds of fractures. Several biomechanical variables were determined: interfragmentary strains in the fracture site, von Mises stresses in nails and bolts, and strain distributions in the tibia and fibula. Although good mechanical stabilization was achieved in all the simulated fractures, the best results were obtained in the proximal fracture for the unreamed nail and in the mid-diaphyseal and distal fractures for the reamed nail. The interlocking bolts, in general, were subjected to higher stresses in the unreamed tibial nail than in the reamed one; thus the former stabilization technique is more likely to fail due to fatigue.

  17. Intramedullary Tibial Nail Fixation of Simple Intraarticular Distal Tibia Fractures.

    PubMed

    Scolaro, John A; Broghammer, Francis H; Donegan, Derek J

    2016-11-01

    The optimal treatment strategy for distal tibia fractures, especially those with intraarticular extension, remains controversial. Although open reduction and internal fixation with a plate and screw device is commonly performed for these injuries, the risk of soft tissue complications using this approach is significant. Staged treatment protocols and alternative means of fixation have been proposed to address these undesired events. Although potentially more technically demanding than fixation of diaphyseal or extraarticular tibial fractures, intramedullary nail (IMN) fixation of simple intraarticular distal tibia fractures is a viable treatment alternative with unique advantages. This article presents a review of the literature and rationale for intramedullary tibial nail fixation of simple intraarticular distal tibia fractures and a surgical approach commonly utilized for successful implementation.

  18. Osteokeratoprosthesis Using Tibial Bone: Surgical Technique and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Charoenrook, Victor; Michael, Ralph; de la Paz, Maria Fideliz; Ding, Angela; Barraquer, Rafael I; Temprano, Jose

    2016-10-01

    To analyze the anatomical and functional results of keratoprosthesis using tibial bone autograft. We reviewed 113 charts of patients who underwent tibial bone osteokeratoprothesis implantation at the Centro de Oftalmologia Barraquer. Kaplan-Meier survival curves with 95% confidence interval were calculated for functional success, defined as best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ≥0.05 on the decimal scale, and for anatomical success, defined as retention of the keratoprosthesis lamina. Multivariate analysis was used to test the impact of clinical factors on anatomical and functional survival rates. Based on Kaplan-Meier analyses, tibial bone keratoprosthesis 5-year and 10-year anatomical survival rates were 69.5% and 53.5%, respectively. Functional survival rate at 5 years was 33% and at 10 years was 19.2%. Considering primary diagnosis, chemical burn had better anatomical and functional survival rates than autoimmune or infectious diseases. Patient age did not have a significant effect on keratoprosthesis survival rates. About 48.7% of the patients who underwent surgery had complications: keratoprosthesis extrusion, glaucoma, retinal detachment and buccal mucosa necrosis were the most frequent ones. Half of the patients with tibial bone KPro had retained the keratoprosthesis after 10 years post-surgery and one-fifth of them had visual acuity of 0.05 or better at the same period. Considering that these patients have no other way to recover their vision either because they have no canine tooth or their buccal or dental conditions are not adequate for OOKP, this modified surgery is their only hope. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomechanical Factors in the Etiology of Tibial Stress Fractures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    section in a comparison with a matched control group of subjects who have not sustained a fracture. Due to the low number of tibial stress...operationally defined as bony pain specifically along the distribution of the tibia that is worsened with impact loading and relieved with rest. There is...been operationally defined as bony pain specifically along the distribution of the tibia that is worsened with impact loading and relieved with rest

  20. Evaluation of alveolar grafting with tibial graft in adolescent patients.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sadique

    2013-01-01

    In a resource-limited setting, use of advanced reconstruction procedures for cleft patient is unaffordable. The autogenous graft sites such as iliac or rib are not favored owing to socio-ethno-economic and cosmetic reasons. In such situations, tibial graft is an excellent alternative. There is limited literature on the use of tibial graft from India and this manuscript attempts to address this lacuna. Archives of a single department on cleft palate cases treated with tibial graft were collected. Cases fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected. The efficiency of treatment was evaluated from the orthopantomogram (OPG) and/or computed tomogram (CT) imaging using previously described methodology. All the data collected were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. The mean age of the patients was 17.78 ± 3.29 years with a range of 13-23 years. Three patients had been treated with secondary bone grafting, while the remainder had been treated with tertiary bone grafting. The median age of the study population was 17.39 years, while the mode was 17 years. The mean efficiency in terms of preoperative and post-operative size of defects as measured in OPG was 74.32 ± 7.31, while it was 73.15 ± 9.9 as measured in CT. All the patients were comfortable with closure of the defect. Patients treated with secondary bone grafting had a mean efficiency was 79.53 ± 9.07, while for tertiary grafting, it was 71.72 ± 4.86. The tibial graft offers an excellent alternative to the conventional standard grafts such as iliac crest or rib grafts. The efficiency of the treatment measured at 6 months period on standard OPG or CT is comparable to the results obtained with the rib/iliac crest.

  1. Pigmented villonodular synovitis after TKA associated with tibial component loosening.

    PubMed

    Chung, Byung June; Park, Yong Bum

    2011-08-08

    There is no known causal link between total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS). There also is no known relationship between PVNS and implant loosening after TKA in the literature. This article presents a case of PVNS in a patient undergoing revision TKA for tibial component loosening. A 74-year-old woman who had undergone cemented bilateral TKA 5 years earlier presented with painful swelling in her right knee. At the time of the primary TKA, no abnormal signs were found in the synovial membrane. Routine follow-up radiographs did not indicate implant loosening. At the patient's final follow-up examination before revision surgery, a radiolucent lesion was found below the tibial component. During revision surgery, there was focal proliferation of the synovial tissue with heavy pigmentation around the anteromedial part of the tibial component. The abnormal tissue was removed, and the tibial component was exchanged. The articular surface of the polyethylene was not damaged, and backside wear was not found. For the revision surgery, 5-mm thick medial metal block and extension stem were used. Histological analysis of the resected tissue revealed the typical appearance of PVNS. We present a typical case of PVNS found during revision TKA 5 years after primary TKA. It is hoped this report will encourage surgeons to consider PVNS in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with painful swelling of the knee and to consider PVNS as one of the causes of implant loosening after TKA. Further research about causal factors between PVNS and implant loosening are needed. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Tibial acceleration profiles during the menstrual cycle in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Erik; Bryant, Adam L; Livingstone, Elisabeth; Reaburn, Peter; Tetsworth, Kevin; Imhoff, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Fluctuating levels of endogenous estrogen are thought to have an adverse effect on lower limb biomechanics, given the observed higher rate of ACL injury at certain phases of the menstrual cycle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of fluctuating endogenous estrogen levels during the menstrual cycle on acceleration transients at the proximal tibia in young physically active females. Eleven females aged 16-18 years participated in this study and were compared to a male control group. Female subjects were tested at each of the four phases of the menstrual cycle: menses, follicular, ovulation and luteal. On each test occasion, acceleration transients at the proximal tibia were measured while subjects performed an abrupt deceleration task (simulated netball landing). No significant differences were found between the different phases of the menstrual cycle for peak tibial acceleration (PTA; P = 0.57), and time to zero tibial acceleration (TZTA; P = 0.59). However, there was a significant difference for time to peak tibial acceleration (TPTA) between menstruation and follicular (P = 0.04), menstruation and ovulation (P = 0.001), menstruation and luteal phase (P = 0.002), and follicular phase and ovulation (P = 0.007). In the male control group, no significant between-test session differences were observed for PTA (P = 0.48), TZTA (P = 0.08) and TPTA (P = 0.29). While there were no significant between-group differences for PTA (P = 0.21) and TZTA (P = 0.48), significant between-group differences were observed for TPTA (P = 0.001). The results of this project strongly suggest that serum estrogen fluctuations have an effect on tibial acceleration profiles in young female athletes during different phases of the menstrual cycle.

  3. Anterior tibial plateau fracture: An often missed injury.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Jitendra; Pandey, Vinay Kumar; Mhaskar, Vikram Arun

    2014-09-01

    In most classifications of tibial plateau fractures, including one used most widely-Schatzker classification, fractures are described as a combination of medial and lateral condyle, primarily in the sagittal plane. Coronal component of these fractures, affecting the posterior tibial condyle is now well recognized. What is not described is anterior coronal component of the fracture, what we are calling "anterior tibial condyle fracture". These fractures are often missed on routine antero-posterior and lateral knee X-rays due to an overlap between the fracture and the normal bone. Eight cases of anterior tibial condyle fractures with posterior subluxation of the tibia, six of which were missed by the initial surgeon and two referred to us early, are described. Two of the six late cases and both the early ones were operated. Reconstruction of the anterior condyle and posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was done. Primary outcome measures such as union of the fracture, residual flexion deformity, range of motion and stability were studied at the end of 6 months. All operated fractures united. There was no posterior sag in any. In those presenting late and were operated, the flexion deformity got corrected in all (average from 15° to 0°) and mean flexion achieved was 100° (range: 80-120°). In those presenting early and were operated, there was no flexion deformity at 6 months and a mean flexion achieved was 115° (range: 100-130°). None of the operated patients had instability. This article attempts to highlight that this injury is often missed. They should be suspected, diagnosed early and treated by reconstruction of anterior condyle, posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

  4. Anterior tibial plateau fracture: An often missed injury

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Jitendra; Pandey, Vinay Kumar; Mhaskar, Vikram Arun

    2014-01-01

    Background: In most classifications of tibial plateau fractures, including one used most widely-Schatzker classification, fractures are described as a combination of medial and lateral condyle, primarily in the sagittal plane. Coronal component of these fractures, affecting the posterior tibial condyle is now well recognized. What is not described is anterior coronal component of the fracture, what we are calling “anterior tibial condyle fracture”. These fractures are often missed on routine antero-posterior and lateral knee X-rays due to an overlap between the fracture and the normal bone. Materials and Methods: Eight cases of anterior tibial condyle fractures with posterior subluxation of the tibia, six of which were missed by the initial surgeon and two referred to us early, are described. Two of the six late cases and both the early ones were operated. Reconstruction of the anterior condyle and posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was done. Primary outcome measures such as union of the fracture, residual flexion deformity, range of motion and stability were studied at the end of 6 months. Results: All operated fractures united. There was no posterior sag in any. In those presenting late and were operated, the flexion deformity got corrected in all (average from 15° to 0°) and mean flexion achieved was 100° (range: 80-120°). In those presenting early and were operated, there was no flexion deformity at 6 months and a mean flexion achieved was 115° (range: 100-130°). None of the operated patients had instability. Conclusion: This article attempts to highlight that this injury is often missed. They should be suspected, diagnosed early and treated by reconstruction of anterior condyle, posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. PMID:25298560

  5. Double metal tibial blocks augmentation in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyu Sung; Lee, Jin Kyu; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Choong Hyeok

    2016-01-01

    Severe uncontained tibial bone defects occurring during total knee arthroplasty are challenging, and which treatment method is the best remains unknown. In this study, clinical and radiographic outcomes of double metal blocks augmentation were examined. Between 2004 and 2012, double metal blocks augmentation was carried out in 17 patients with severe asymmetric uncontained tibial bone defects. The first block was attached to the tibial tray with screws, and then the second block was cemented to the first block. Out of 17 patients, 13 (8 primary, 5 revision) were available for final follow-up at a median of 69 months (range 24-99). For clinical assessment, range of motion and Knee Society score were evaluated preoperatively and annually thereafter. At the final follow-up, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, Oxford knee, Short Form-36, Lower extremity functional scale, and Lower extremity activity scale scores were evaluated. Radiographic assessment for radiolucent lines at the block-cement-bone interfaces and signs of failure was performed annually using fluoroscopy and standard radiographs. Range of motion and Knee Society score were significantly improved post-operatively. Other clinical outcomes were favourable. Radiolucent lines were seen on fluoroscopy in three knees, but no sign of failure, such as loosening, collapse, or instability, was observed at the final follow-up. Double metal blocks augmentation is a favourable and useful method, which does not cause mechanical failure or protrusion of the prosthetic because of its modularity, to manage severe asymmetric uncontained proximal tibial bone defects >15 mm in total knee arthroplasty. Case series, Level IV.

  6. Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    bowed tibia. We have extracted DNA from peripheral blood of all individuals with tibial bowing and will continue to monitor them for development of...to improve bone quality prior to fracture in a non-invasive and age specific manner • DNA extraction from peripheral blood for somatic mutation...Johnson B, Rauen KA. Peripheral muscle weakness in RASopathies. Oral presentation at the Western Society for Pediatric Research, Carmel, California

  7. Retrograde tibial nail: anatomical implantation and surgical feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, S; Appelmann, P; Pairon, P; Gruszka, D; Rommens, P M

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The treatment of distal tibial fractures requires a stable fixation while minimizing the secondary trauma to the soft tissues by the surgical approach and implant. The experimental Retrograde Tibial Nail is currently investigated as a minimally invasive alternative to plating and antegrade nailing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical feasibility in a cadaver model for all distal tibial fracture types generally considered treatable by nailing. MATERIAL AND METHODS Five different fracture types (AO/OTA 43-A1/A2/A3 and 43-C1/C2) were created on separate cadaveric limbs. In simple fractures (AO/OTA 43-A1/A2/A3) primary nailing was performed. In intraarticular fractures (AO/OTA 43-C1/2) reduction of the articular block and lag screw fixation was performed before nailing. Intraoperative complications, quality of reduction, fluoroscopy duration and operative time were evaluated. RESULTS Retrograde intramedullary nailing is feasible in simple fracture types by closed manual reduction and percutaneous reduction forceps. Retrograde nailing is possible in fractures with simple intraarticular involvement after primary lag screw fixation. The duration of surgery averaged 51.8 minutes (range 40-62 min). No major complications occurred during nailing. CONCLUSIONS The minimally invasive retrograde nail combines a minimally invasive local osteosynthesis with the ability to adequately fix extraarticular and simple intraarticular distal tibial fractures. The results suggests that retrograde tibia nailing is a promising new concept for the treatment of distal tibia fractures. Key words: minimally invasive surgery, tibia, metaphyseal fractures, intramedullary nailing, retrograde nailing.

  8. Combined distal tibial rotational osteotomy and proximal growth plate modulation for treatment of infantile Blount's disease.

    PubMed

    Abdelgawad, Amr A

    2013-04-18

    Infantile Blount's disease is a condition that causes genu varum and internal tibial torsion. Treatment options include observation, orthotics, corrective osteotomy, elevation of the medial tibial plateau, resection of a physeal bar, lateral hemi-epiphysiodesis, and guided growth of the proximal tibial physis. Each of these treatment options has its disadvantages. Treating the coronal deformity alone (genu varum) will result in persistence of the internal tibial torsion (the axial deformity). In this report, we describe the combination of lateral growth modulation and distal tibial external rotation osteotomy to correct all the elements of the disease. This has not been described before for treatment of Blount's disease. Both coronal and axial deformities were corrected in this patient. We propose this combination (rather than the lateral growth modulation alone) as the method of treatment for early stages of Blount's disease as it corrects both elements of the disease and in the same time avoids the complications of proximal tibial osteotomy.

  9. Comparison of functional knee braces for control of anterior tibial displacement.

    PubMed

    Liu, S H; Lunsford, T; Gude, S; Vangsness, C T

    1994-06-01

    Using a surrogate knee model, the ten custom functional knee braces that previous studies had shown to be most effective were tested for restraint to anterior tibial displacement. Testing was performed at 20 degrees knee flexion with applied forces ranging from 50 to 400 N. All braces reduced anterior tibial displacement. Resistance to anterior tibial displacement depends directly on the brace design and is inversely related to the applied force. Post-bilateral hinge shell braces exhibited the most resistance to anterior tibial displacement. Few braces were effective in controlling anterior tibial displacement comparable with a normal knee at low forces. Most of the braces were less effective at controlling anterior tibial displacement at high forces.

  10. Recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of posterior tibial plateau fractures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongwei; Chang, Shimin; Pan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The posterior tibial plateau fracture is drawing increasing attention from orthopedists in recent years with the popularity of CT. However, due to the particular and severity of posterior tibial plateau fracture, there is still controversy in its classification and treatment. It is very difficult to achieve the ideal reduction and fixation by conventional techniques and approaches. The modified posterior approach is favorable for posterior tibial plateau fracture, but disadvantages remain. Recently, the lateral approach is applied by doctors. It is ideal for treatment of posterior tibial plateau fracture. Because of the complexity of local anatomical structure, the operative management of posterior tibial plateau fractures is a contentious issue as revealed in the recent surge of published literature addressing the surgical approach. This review mainly summaries the diagnosis, classification and surgery of the posterior tibial plateau fractures. PMID:26131147

  11. Bilateral synchronous tibial periosteal osteosarcoma with familial incidence.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Aditya V; Jelinek, James S; Seibel, Nita L; Meloni-Ehrig, Aurelia M; Kumar, Dhruv; Henshaw, Robert M

    2012-08-01

    Multifocal or multicentric osteosarcoma (OS) has been described as tumor occurrence at two or more sites in a patient without visceral metastasis. These may be synchronous (more than one lesion at presentation) or metachronous (new tumor developing after the initial treatment). The incidence of multifocal OS has ranged from 1.5 to 5.4% in large series, with the synchronous type being rarer. Similarly, periosteal OS is another rare subtype of surface OS and constitutes less than 2% of all OS. An 11-year-old female was diagnosed with bilateral synchronous tibial periosteal OS, which were confirmed by CT-guided biopsies. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the patient underwent a staged wide local resection of the tumors. The defect was reconstructed with a proximal tibial replacement on the left side and autologous bone grafting on the right side. The patient did well after surgery and is free of disease at 5.5 years of follow-up. However, her brother also developed a right tibial periosteal osteosarcoma 4 years after her index surgery. Genetic analysis of blood sample from both patients showed a similar missense mutation in at least one allele of TP53 gene (exon 8). To the best of our knowledge, a case of bilateral 'synchronous' periosteal OS with a familial incidence has not been reported before.

  12. Arthroscopy-assisted operative management of tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Asik, Mehmet; Cetik, Ozgur; Talu, Ufuk; Sozen, Yunus V

    2002-11-01

    This retrospective review evaluated the results of arthroscopy-assisted surgery for tibial plateau fractures in 45 patients with closed tibial plateau fractures. The fracture involved articular depression in 27 patients in whom lifting and bone grafting with autogenous corticocancellous iliac bone graft was required. In 23 patients there were also meniscal lesions, which were treated by partial resection in 16 and repaired in 7. Internal fixation was performed using screws in 36 knees and plate in 10 knees. Radiological results were evaluated according to the Resnic-Niwoyama criteria; mean follow-up was 36 months (range 14-72). There was no intraoperative complication in the series, but postoperatively there were one infection and one loss of correction. Results were satisfactory in 89% of cases, according the Rasmussen criteria. Arthroscopy is thus an excellent and minimally invasive method for assessment and treatment of tibial plateau fractures. The advantages are complete and anatomical reduction in the fractured articular surface and evaluation of other concomitant intra-articular pathology and entails only little additional morbidity, especially compared to arthrotomy.

  13. Suprapatellar nailing of tibial fractures-Indications and technique.

    PubMed

    Franke, J; Hohendorff, B; Alt, V; Thormann, U; Schnettler, R

    2016-02-01

    Intramedullary nailing is the standard procedure for surgical treatment of closed and Gustilo-Anderson Grade I-II° open fractures of the tibial shaft. The use of intramedullary nailing for the treatment of proximal metaphyseal tibia fractures is frequently followed by postoperative malalignment, whereas plate osteosynthesis is associated with higher rates of postoperative infection. Intramedullary nailing of tibial fractures is generally performed through an infrapatellar approach. The injured extremity must be positioned at a minimum of 90° of flexion in the knee joint to achieve optimal exposure of the correct entry point. The tension of the quadriceps tendon causes a typical apex anterior angulation of the proximal fragment. The suprapatellar approach improves reduction of the fracture and reduces the occurrence of malalignment during intramedullary nailing of extra-articular proximal tibial fractures. The knee is positioned in 20° of flexion to neutralise traction forces secondary to the quadriceps muscle, thus preventing an apex anterior angulation of the proximal fragment. An additional advantage of the technique is that it allows the surgeon to avoid or minimise further soft tissue damage because of the distance between the optimal incision point and the usual area of soft tissue damage.

  14. Leg tissue mass composition affects tibial acceleration response following impact.

    PubMed

    Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Burkhart, Timothy A; Andrews, David M

    2012-02-01

    To date, there has not been a direct examination of the effect that tissue composition (lean mass/muscle, fat mass, bone mineral content) differences between males and females has on how the tibia responds to impacts similar to those seen during running. To evaluate this, controlled heel impacts were imparted to 36 participants (6 M and 6 F in each of low, medium and high percent body fat [BF] groups) using a human pendulum. A skin-mounted accelerometer medial to the tibial tuberosity was used to determine the tibial response parameters (peak acceleration, acceleration slope and time to peak acceleration). There were no consistent effects of BF or specific tissue masses on the un-normalized tibial response parameters. However, females experienced 25% greater peak acceleration than males. When normalized to lean mass, wobbling mass, and bone mineral content, females experienced 50%, 62% and 70% greater peak acceleration, respectively, per gram of tissue than males. Higher magnitudes of lean mass and bone mass significantly contributed to decreased acceleration responses in general.

  15. Critical analysis of tibial fracture healing following unreamed nailing.

    PubMed

    Salem, Khaled Hamed

    2012-07-01

    Unreamed nails have revolutionised the treatment of tibial shaft fractures. Many authors, however, have reported increasing bone healing complications with these implants. Unfortunately, few studies have addressed the factors affecting bone healing after unreamed tibial nailing. One-hundred and sixty tibial fractures in 158 patients (mean age 39.5 years) fixed using unreamed nails were reviewed. There were 78 AO type-A, 65 type-B and 17 type-C fractures (115 closed and 45 open fractures). Twelve patient, injury and surgery variables were analysed for their influence on fracture healing. Union occurred in all fractures after a mean time of 24.3 weeks. Additional surgery to achieve union, apart from dynamisation, was done in nine (6%) cases. The most important variables affecting healing were the mechanism of trauma (p=0.005), fracture site gap (p=0.01), degree of comminution (p=0.0003), associated soft tissue injuries (p=0.02) and the time to dynamisation (p=0.0001). High-energy trauma and fracture comminution have a negative impact on bone union and require close follow-up. It is essential to avoid distraction over three millimetres with unreamed nailing. Dynamisation is advised within ten weeks in axially stable fractures to encourage bone healing and avoid failure of the locking screws.

  16. Deep intramedullary infection in tibial lengthening over an intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Ju; Cielo Balce, Gracia; Huh, Young-Jae; Song, Sang-Yoon; Song, Hae-Ryong; Kim, Seung-Ju

    2011-08-01

    Tibial lengthening over an intramedullary (IM) device is associated with a risk of deep intramedullary infection; there is so far no guideline for decision making between early removal and delayed removal of the nail. Tibial lengthening over an intramedullary nail/Rush pin was performed in 118 limb segments (63 patients) from 2004 to 2008 in our institution. Fifty five patients had bilateral tibial lengthening. Ninety nine of the 118 segments went on to healing without infection, while 13 segments developed superficial infection and 6 segments developed deep infection. Among 6 patients with deep infection, 4 patients underwent early removal of the nail when deep infection signs and symptoms occurred and 2 patients underwent delayed removal of the nail at 11 months. The 6 segments with deep infection differed significantly with respect t to the callus pattern (p < 0.05) and density (p = 0.0001) from those without infection and with superficial infection. In this small sugroup, removal of the nail was delayed in two patients as there was visible callus bridging at more than one cortex, and deep infection subsided after local drainage.

  17. Infectious Complications of Open Type III Tibial Fractures among Combat Casualties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-15

    Infection of Combat-Related Fractures • CID 2007:45 (15 August) • 409 M A J O R A R T I C L E Infectious Complications of Open Type III Tibial...associated with high-energy explosive injuries, often resulting in open tibial fractures complicated by nonunion and infection . We characterize the... infections seen in conjunction with combat-associated type III tibial fractures. Methods. We performed a retrospective medical records review to identify US

  18. Tibial Growth Disturbance Following Distal Femoral Resection and Expandable Endoprosthetic Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Arteau, Annie; Lewis, Valerae O.; Moon, Bryan S.; Satcher, Robert L.; Bird, Justin E.; Lin, Patrick P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In growing children, an expandable endoprosthesis is commonly used after distal femoral resection to compensate for loss of the distal femoral physis. Our hypothesis was that such prostheses can affect proximal tibial growth, which would contribute to an overall leg-length discrepancy and cause angular deformity. Methods: Twenty-three skeletally immature patients underwent the placement of a distal femoral expandable endoprosthesis between 1994 and 2012. Tibial length, femoral length, and mechanical axis were measured radiographically to determine the growth rate. Results: No patient had radiographic evidence of injury to the proximal tibial physis at the time of surgery other than insertion of the tibial stem. Fifteen (65%) of the patients experienced less proximal tibial growth in the operative compared with the contralateral limb. In ten (43%) of the patients, the discrepancy progressively worsened, whereas in five (22%) of the patients, the discrepancy stabilized. Seven patients did not develop tibial length discrepancy, and one patient had overgrowth of the tibia. For the ten patients with progressive shortening, the proximal tibial physis grew an average of 4.0 mm less per year in the operative limb. Five (22%) of the patients had ≥20 mm of tibial length discrepancy at last follow-up. Three of these patients underwent contralateral tibial epiphysiodesis. Three patients required corrective surgery for angular deformity. Conclusions: The tibial growth plate may not resume normal growth after implantation of a distal femoral prosthesis. Physeal bar resection, prosthesis revision, and contralateral tibial epiphysiodesis may be needed to address tibial growth abnormalities. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:26582624

  19. Posterior tibial tendon tear combined with a fracture of the accessory navicular: a new subclassification?

    PubMed

    Chen, Y J; Shih, H N; Huang, T J; Hsu, R W

    1995-11-01

    A 58-year-old woman with a diagnosis of a tear of the posterior tibial tendon associated with the os accessory navicular fracture was treated surgically. We believe that the dysfunction of the posterior tibial tendon was associated with an os accessory navicular fracture. This case is proposed as a new subclassification that was separate from the traditional classification of the tear of the posterior tibial tendon.

  20. [Clinical practice guideline on closed tibial plateau fractures in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Ocegueda-Sosa, Miguel Ángel; Valenzuela-Flores, Adriana Abigail; Aldaco-García, Víctor Daniel; Flores-Aguilar, Sergio; Manilla-Lezama, Nicolás; Pérez-Hernández, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Closed tibiae plateau fractures are common injuries in the emergency room. The optimal treatment is not well defined or established. For this reason, there are several surgical management options: open reduction and internal fixation, closed reduction and percutaneous synthesis, external fixation, and even conservative treatment for this kind of fracture. The mechanism of production of this fracture is through large varus or valgus deformation to which is added a factor of axial load. The trauma may be direct or indirect. The degree of displacement, fragmentation and involvement of soft tissues like ligaments, menisci, vascular and nerve structures are determined by the magnitude of the force exerted. Any intra-articular fracture treatment can lead to an erroneous instability, deformity and limitation of motion with subsequent arthritic changes, leading to joint incongruity, limiting activity and significantly altering the quality of life. Open reduction and internal fixation with anatomic restitution is the method used in this type of fracture. However, the results of numerous publications can be questioned due to the inclusion in the same study of fractures treated with very different methods.

  1. Three-column fixation for complex tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Luo, Cong-Feng; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Bo; Zeng, Bing-Fang

    2010-11-01

    1) To introduce a computed tomography-based "three-column fixation" concept; and 2) to evaluate clinical outcomes (by using a column-specific fixation technique) for complex tibial plateau fractures (Schatzker classification Types V and VI). Prospective cohort study. Level 1 trauma center. Twenty-nine cases of complex tibial plateau fractures were included. Based on routine x-ray and computed tomography images, all the fractures were classified as a "three-column fracture," which means at least one separate fragment was found in lateral, medial, and posterior columns in the proximal tibia (Schatzker classification Types V and VI). The patients were operated on in a "floating position" with a combined approach, an inverted L-shaped posterior approach combined with an anterior-lateral approach. All three columns of fractures were fixed. Operative time, blood loss, quality of reduction and alignment, fracture healing, complications, and functional outcomes based on Hospital for Special Surgery score and lower-extremity measure were recorded. All the cases were followed for average 27.3 months (range, 24-36 months). All the cases had satisfactory reduction except one case, which had a 4-mm stepoff at the anterior ridge of the tibial plateau postoperatively. No case of secondary articular depression was found. One case had secondary varus deformity, one case had secondary valgus deformity, and two cases of screw loosening occurred postoperatively. No revision surgery was performed. Two cases had culture-negative wound drainage. No infection was noted. The average radiographic bony union time and full weightbearing time were 13.1 weeks (range, 11-16 weeks) and 16.7 weeks (range, 12-24 weeks), respectively. The mean Short Form 36, Hospital for Special Surgery score, and lower-extremity measure at 24 months postoperatively were 89 (range, 80-98), 90 (range, 84-98), and 87 (range, 80-95), respectively. The average range of motion of the affected knee was 2.7° to 123.4° at

  2. Analysis of Knee Joint Line Obliquity after High Tibial Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kwang-Jun; Ko, Young Bong; Bae, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Suk Tae; Kim, Jae Gyoon

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate which lower extremity alignment (knee and ankle joint) parameters affect knee joint line obliquity (KJLO) in the coronal plane after open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO). Overall, 69 knees of patients that underwent OWHTO were evaluated using radiographs obtained preoperatively and from 6 weeks to 3 months postoperatively. We measured multiple parameters of knee and ankle joint alignment (hip-knee-ankle angle [HKA], joint line height [JLH], posterior tibial slope [PS], femoral condyle-tibial plateau angle [FCTP], medial proximal tibial angle [MPTA], mechanical lateral distal femoral angle [mLDFA], KJLO, talar tilt angle [TTA], ankle joint obliquity [AJO], and the lateral distal tibial ground surface angle [LDTGA]; preoperative [-pre], postoperative [-post], and the difference between -pre and -post values [-Δ]). We categorized patients into two groups according to the KJLO-post value (the normal group [within ± 4 degrees, 56 knees] and the abnormal group [greater than ± 4 degrees, 13 knees]), and compared their -pre parameters. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the contribution of the -pre parameters to abnormal KJLO-post. The mean HKA-Δ (-9.4 ± 4.7 degrees) was larger than the mean KJLO-Δ (-2.1 ± 3.2 degrees). The knee joint alignment parameters (the HKA-pre, FCTP-pre) differed significantly between the two groups (p < 0.05). In addition, the HKA-pre (odds ratio [OR] = 1.27, p = 0.006) and FCTP-pre (OR = 2.13, p = 0.006) were significant predictors of abnormal KJLO-post. However, -pre ankle joint parameters (TTA, AJO, and LDTGA) did not differ significantly between the two groups and were not significantly associated with the abnormal KJLO-post. The -pre knee joint alignment and knee joint convergence angle evaluated by HKA-pre and FCTP-pre angle, respectively, were significant predictors of abnormal KJLO after OWHTO. However, -pre ankle joint parameters

  3. A novel technique using sensor-based technology to evaluate tibial tray rotation.

    PubMed

    Roche, Martin W; Elson, Leah C; Anderson, Christopher R

    2015-03-01

    Rotational tibiofemoral congruency and centralized patellar tracking are critical technical factors that affect the postoperative success of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Several techniques are used to position the femoral component, but there is no validated method for achieving the ideal rotational position of the tibial component. It has been suggested that referencing the midmedial third of the tibial tubercle intraoperatively mitigates positional outliers. This study used data collected from intraoperative sensors to quantify the variability associated with using the midmedial third of the tibial tubercle in 170 patients undergoing primary TKA. With the sensor-equipped trial insert in place, the knee was taken into extension and the location of the femoral condylar contact point on the articular surface of the tibial insert was displayed. Rotational adjustments of the tibial tray were evaluated in real time as the surgeon corrected tray malpositioning. The initial and final angles of tibial tray rotation were captured and recorded with intraoperative video feed. When referencing the tubercle, 53% of patients had asymmetric tibiofemoral congruency in extension. Of those patients, 68% had excessive internal rotation of the tibial tray relative to the femur and 32% had excessive external rotation. The average tibiofemoral incongruency deviated from a neutral position by 6° (range, 0.5°-19.2°). Data from this evaluation suggest that use of the tibial tubercle to maximize tibiofemoral congruency is highly variable and inconsistent for confirming the final rotation of the tibial tray. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. The effect of tibial diaphyseal lengthening on the longitudinal growth of the tibia.

    PubMed

    Cai, Gang; Yang, Lang; Saleh, Michael; Coulton, Les

    2007-11-01

    Limb lengthening by tibial callotasis is usually performed in the metaphysis but may cause growth inhibition. Is diaphyseal lengthening more advantageous? Sixteen immature rabbits underwent 30% diaphyseal lengthening by tibial callotasis. The tibial length was measured on radiographs at the end of the distraction period and after an additional 5 weeks. The proximal and distal growth plates were assessed histomorphometrically. Osteotomy stimulated tibial elongation; however, combined with diaphyseal lengthening the stimulation was suppressed resulting in longitudinal growth that matched the control side. In longer lengthenings of limbs diaphyseal callotasis may be more advantageous than metaphyseal by not inhibiting longitudinal growth.

  5. Low Rates of Aseptic Tibial Loosening in Obese Patients With Use of High-Viscosity Cement and Standard Tibial Tray: 2-Year Minimum Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Crawford, David A; Berend, Keith R; Nam, Denis; Barrack, Robert L; Adams, Joanne B; Lombardi, Adolph V

    2017-09-01

    Total knee arthroplasty is overall a very successful surgery, but complications do occur. These complications include aseptic loosening of the tibial component, and obese patients are among the highest risk group. High-viscosity cement (HVC) has been implicated as a possible cause for aseptic loosening of the tibial component. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of aseptic loosening of the tibial component in obese patients with the use of HVC and standard tibial tray. We identified 1366 obese patients (1851 knees) with a body mass index >35 kg/m(2) and 2-year minimum follow-up who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty using HVC and a symmetrical, grit-blasted, cobalt-chrome tibial component with 40-mm stem. Preoperative and postoperative range of motion, Knee Society (KS) scores, complications, and reoperations were evaluated. Specifically, we assessed the rate of tibial aseptic loosening. At a mean 5.4 years follow-up, only 1 in 1851 knees had aseptic loosening of the tibial component for an incidence of 0.054%. There was a mean increase of 3.3 degrees of knee range of motion. KS pain level decreased by 38.6 points (50 point scale). KS clinical scores improved by 52.2, Knee Society functional scores improved by 19.5, University of California, Los Angeles, activity score improved by 0.9, and Oxford Knee Score by 15.7. All these improvements were statistically significant with P < .001. Standard tibial components and HVC can be used in most patients, including the high-risk obese group, with low rates of tibial aseptic loosening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Increase in posterior tibial slope would result in correction loss in frontal plane after medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Asada, Shigeki; Akagi, Masao; Mori, Shigeshi; Matsushita, Tetsunao; Hashimoto, Kazuki; Hamanishi, Chiaki

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the causes of the increase in the posterior tibial slope during open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) and to investigate whether its changes influenced the correction angle in frontal plane. We retrospectively reviewed 20 patients (26 knees) treated with open-wedge HTO. They were divided into the following two groups. Group A consisted of the knees whose opening gaps were fixed using a spacer plate having the trapezoidal block with a 2° posterior slope. In Group B, anterior and posterior opening gaps were fixed separately. The posterior tibial slope and the hip-knee-ankle angle were measured based on CT data. The relationship between the correction rate in frontal plane and the changes of posterior tibial slope was investigated. Increase in the posterior tibial slope was 2.1 ± 2.5° in Group A and 0.2 ± 1.2° in Group B, which showed a statistical difference (P = 0.02). The difference between the hip-knee-ankle angles before and after operation was 5.2 ± 2.3° in Group A and 5.5 ± 2.5° in Group B. The correction rate was statistically correlated with the changes of posterior tibial slope (R = -0.55, P = 0.003). To avoid increase in the posterior tibial slope, the trapezoidal block with a only 2° posterior slope in a spacer plate was not sufficient, and it was necessary to fix anterior and posterior gaps separately. The correction angle in frontal plane had a trade-off relationship with the changes in posterior tibial slope. Thus, we thought that increase in the posterior tibial slope might result in correction loss. Therapeutic study, Retrospective comparative study, Level III.

  7. Minimizing alteration of posterior tibial slope during opening wedge high tibial osteotomy: a protocol with experimental validation in paired cadaveric knees.

    PubMed

    Westermann, Robert W; DeBerardino, Thomas; Amendola, Annunziato

    2014-01-01

    The High Tibial Osteotomy (HTO) is a reliable procedure in addressing uni- compartmental arthritis with associated coronal deformities. With osteotomy of the proximal tibia, there is a risk of altering the tibial slope in the sagittal plane. Surgical techniques continue to evolve with trends towards procedure reproducibility and simplification. We evaluated a modification of the Arthrex iBalance technique in 18 paired cadaveric knees with the goals of maintaining sagittal slope, increasing procedure efficiency, and decreasing use of intraoperative fluoroscopy. Nine paired cadaveric knees (18 legs) underwent iBalance medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomies. In each pair, the right knee underwent an HTO using the modified technique, while all left knees underwent the traditional technique. Independent observers evaluated postoperative factors including tibial slope, placement of hinge pin, and implant placement. Specimens were then dissected to evaluate for any gross muscle, nerve or vessel injury. Changes to posterior tibial slope were similar using each technique. The change in slope in traditional iBalance technique was -0.3° ±2.3° and change in tibial slope using the modified iBalance technique was -0.4° ±2.3° (p=0.29). Furthermore, we detected no differences in posterior tibial slope between preoperative and postoperative specimens (p=0.74 traditional, p=0.75 modified). No differences in implant placement were detected between traditional and modified techniques. (p=0.85). No intraoperative iatrogenic complications (i.e. lateral cortex fracture, blood vessel or nerve injury) were observed in either group after gross dissection. Alterations in posterior tibial slope are associated with HTOs. Both traditional and modified iBalance techniques appear reliable in coronal plane corrections without changing posterior tibial slope. The present modification of the Arthrex iBalance technique may increase the efficiency of the operation and decrease radiation

  8. Minimizing Alteration of Posterior Tibial Slope During Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy: a Protocol with Experimental Validation in Paired Cadaveric Knees

    PubMed Central

    Westermann, Robert W; DeBerardino, Thomas; Amendola, Annunziato

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The High Tibial Osteotomy (HTO) is a reliable procedure in addressing uni- compartmental arthritis with associated coronal deformities. With osteotomy of the proximal tibia, there is a risk of altering the tibial slope in the sagittal plane. Surgical techniques continue to evolve with trends towards procedure reproducibility and simplification. We evaluated a modification of the Arthrex iBalance technique in 18 paired cadaveric knees with the goals of maintaining sagittal slope, increasing procedure efficiency, and decreasing use of intraoperative fluoroscopy. Methods Nine paired cadaveric knees (18 legs) underwent iBalance medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomies. In each pair, the right knee underwent an HTO using the modified technique, while all left knees underwent the traditional technique. Independent observers evaluated postoperative factors including tibial slope, placement of hinge pin, and implant placement. Specimens were then dissected to evaluate for any gross muscle, nerve or vessel injury. Results Changes to posterior tibial slope were similar using each technique. The change in slope in traditional iBalance technique was -0.3° ±2.3° and change in tibial slope using the modified iBalance technique was -0.4° ±2.3° (p=0.29). Furthermore, we detected no differences in posterior tibial slope between preoperative and postoperative specimens (p=0.74 traditional, p=0.75 modified). No differences in implant placement were detected between traditional and modified techniques. (p=0.85). No intraoperative iatrogenic complications (i.e. lateral cortex fracture, blood vessel or nerve injury) were observed in either group after gross dissection. Discussion & Conclusions Alterations in posterior tibial slope are associated with HTOs. Both traditional and modified iBalance techniques appear reliable in coronal plane corrections without changing posterior tibial slope. The present modification of the Arthrex iBalance technique may increase the

  9. THE TIBIAL APERTURE SURFACE ANALYSIS IN ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION PROCESS.

    PubMed

    Milojević, Zoran; Tabaković, Slobodan; Vićević, Marija; Obradović, Mirko; Vranjes, Miodrag; Milankov, Miroslav Z

    2016-01-01

    The tibial tunnel aperture in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is usually analyzed as an ellipse, generated as an intersection between a tibial plateau and a tibial bone tunnel. The aim of this study is to show that the tibial tunnel aperture, which utilizes 3D tibial surface bone model, differs significantly from common computations which present the tibial tunnel anterior cruciate ligament aperture surface as an ellipse. An interactive program system was developed for the tibial tunnel aperture analysis which included the real tibia 3D surface bone model generated from a series of computed tomography images of ten male patients, their mean age being 25 years. In aperture calculation, the transverse drill angle of 10 degrees was used, whereas sagittal drill angles of 40 degrees, 50 degrees and 60 degrees were used with the drill-bit diameter set to 10 mm. The real 3D and 2D tibial tunnel aperture surface projection was calculated and compared with an ellipse. According to the calculations, generated 3D aperture surfaces were different for every patient even though the same drill parameters were used. For the sagittal drill angles of 40 degrees, 50 degrees and 60 degrees, the mean difference between the projected 3D and 2D area on the tibial plateau was 19.6 +/- 5.4%, 21.1 +/- 8.0% and 21.3 +/- 9.6%, respectively. The difference between the projected 3D area on the tibial plateau and ellipse surface was 54.8 +/- 16.3%, 39.6 +/- 10.4% and 25.0 +/- 8.0% for sagittal drill angles of 40 degrees, 50 degrees and 60 degrees, respectively. The tibial tunnel aperture surface area differs significantly from the ellipse surface area, which is commonly used in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction analysis. Inclusion of the 3D shape of the tibial attachment site in the preoperative anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction planning process can lead to a more precise individual anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction on the tibial bone. Both

  10. Sagittal osteotomy inclination in medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Yup; Lim, Hong-Chul; Bae, Ji Hoon; Kim, Jae Gyoon; Yun, Se-Hyeok; Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Yoon, Jung-Ro

    2017-03-01

    Unlike postoperative changes in posterior tibial slope after medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy, sagittal osteotomy inclination has not been examined. It has been recommended that the osteotomy line in the sagittal plane be parallel to the medial posterior tibial slope. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of parallel osteotomy in medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy. To determine the sagittal osteotomy inclination, the angle between the medial joint line and the osteotomy line was measured in the lateral radiograph. A positive angle value indicates that the osteotomy is anteriorly inclined relative to the medial posterior tibial slope. Correlation between the sagittal osteotomy inclination and posterior tibial slope was also evaluated. The mean sagittal osteotomy inclination was 15.1 ± 7.5°. The majority 87.1 % of knees showed an anterior-inclined osteotomy. There was a significantly positive correlation between the postoperative posterior tibial slope and the sagittal osteotomy inclination (r, 0.33; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.19-0.46; P < 0.001). The postoperative change in posterior tibial slope also showed a significantly positive correlation with the sagittal osteotomy inclination (r, 0.35; 95 % CI 0.21-0.47; P < 0.001). Although parallel osteotomy in the sagittal plane relative to the medial joint line was planned, only 12.9 % of cases achieved osteotomy parallel to the medial posterior tibial slope in the sagittal plane. Because of high rate of the anterior-inclined osteotomy and their correlations with posterior tibial slope, surgeons should make all efforts to perform parallel osteotomy relative to medial posterior tibial slope. IV.

  11. Bilateral transcutaneous tibial nerve stimulation for chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, F; Collins, B; Thomas, G P; Askari, A; Tan, E; Nicholls, R J; Vaizey, C J

    2016-02-01

    Chronic constipation is difficult to treat when symptoms are intractable. Colonic propulsion may be altered by distal neuromodulation but this is conventionally delivered percutaneously. Transcutaneous tibial nerve stimulation is noninvasive and cheap: this study aimed to assess its efficacy in chronic constipation. Eighteen patients (median age 46 years, 12 female) with chronic constipation were recruited consecutively. Conservative and behavioural therapy had failed to improve symptoms in all 18. Thirty minutes of daily bilateral transcutaneous tibial nerve stimulation was administered by each patient at home for 6 weeks. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life (PAC-QoL) score. Change in Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms (PAC-SYM), weekly bowel frequency and visual analogue scale (VAS) score were also measured. Fifteen patients (12 female) completed the trial. The PAC-QoL score improved significantly with treatment [pretreatment, median 2.95, interquartile range (IQR) 1.18; posttreatment, median 2.50, IQR 0.70; P = 0.047]. There was no change in PAC-SYM score (pretreatment, median 2.36, IQR 1.59; posttreatment, median 2.08, IQR 0.92; P = 0.53). Weekly stool frequency improved as did VAS score, but these did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.229 and 0.161). The PAC-QoL and PAC-SYM scores both improved in four (26%) patients. Two patients reported complete cure. There were no adverse events reported. Bilateral transcutaneous tibial nerve stimulation appears to be effective in a quarter of patients with chronic constipation. Carefully selected patients with less severe disease may benefit more. This requires further study. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  12. Treatment strategy for tibial plateau fractures: an update

    PubMed Central

    Prat-Fabregat, Salvi; Camacho-Carrasco, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are complex injuries produced by high- or low-energy trauma. They principally affect young adults or the ‘third age’ population. These fractures usually have associated soft-tissue lesions that will affect their treatment. Sequential (staged) treatment (external fixation followed by definitive osteosynthesis) is recommended in more complex fracture patterns. But one should remember that any type of tibial plateau fracture can present with soft-tissue complications. Typically the Schatzker or AO/OTA classification is used, but the concept of the proximal tibia as a three-column structure and the detailed study of the posteromedial and posterolateral fragment morphology has changed its treatment strategy. Limb alignment and articular surface restoration, allowing early knee motion, are the main goals of surgical treatment. Partially articular factures can be treated by minimally-invasive methods and arthroscopy is useful to assist and control the fracture reduction and to treat intra-articular soft-tissue injuries. Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is the gold standard treatment for these fractures. Complex articular fractures can be treated by ring external fixators and minimally-invasive osteosynthesis (EFMO) or by ORIF. EFMO can be related to suboptimal articular reduction; however, outcome analysis shows results that are equal to, or even superior to, ORIF. The ORIF strategy should also include the optimal reduction of the articular surface. Anterolateral and anteromedial surgical approaches do not permit adequate reduction and fixation of posterolateral and posteromedial fragments. To achieve this, it is necessary to reduce and fix them through specific posterolateral or posteromedial approaches that allow optimal reduction and plate/screw placement. Some authors have also suggested that primary total knee arthroplasty could be an option in specific patients and with specific fracture patterns. Cite this article: Prat

  13. Dynamic knee loads during gait predict proximal tibial bone distribution.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, D E; Sumner, D R; Andriacchi, T P; Sugar, D A

    1998-05-01

    This study tested the validity of the prediction of dynamic knee loads based on gait measurements. The relationship between the predicted loads at the knee and the distribution of bone between the medial and lateral sides of the tibia was examined. The motion and external forces and moments at the knee were measured during gait and a statically determinate muscle model was used to predict the corresponding forces on the medial and lateral tibial plateaus. In particular, the relationship between the knee adduction moment during gait and the ratio or distribution of medial to lateral tibial bone mineral content was studied. Bone mineral content was measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in four regions, two proximal regions 20 mm in height, one medial and one lateral and two distal regions 20 mm in height, one medial and one lateral. The best single predictor of the medial lateral ratio of proximal bone mineral content (bone distribution) was the adduction moment (R2=0.31, p=0.003). Adding weight (negative coefficient. p=0.0004) and the ratio of the average predicted peak force on the medial plateau to the predicted peak force on the lateral plateau (positive coefficient, p=0.0033) to the regression model significantly increased the ability to predict the proximal medial lateral bone distribution (R2=0.72, p=0.0001). Distally neither the subject characteristics nor the gait moments and predicted forces were significant predictors of the bone distribution. The lack of a correlation distally may be reflective of the forces being more evenly distributed further from the tibial plateau. While it has long been suggested that the adduction moment is the primary determinate of the distribution of load between the medial and lateral plateaus, this is the first evidence of its relationship to the underlying bone distribution.

  14. Tibial Tuberosity Osteotomy for Patellofemoral Realignment Alters Tibiofemoral Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Saandeep; Kirkpatrick, Marcus S.; Saranathan, Archana; Smith, Laura G.; Cosgarea, Andrew J.; Elias, John J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Tibial tuberosity realignment surgery is performed to improve patellofemoral alignment, but could also alter tibiofemoral kinematics. Hypothesis Following tuberosity realignment in the malaligned knee, the reoriented patella tendon will pull the tuberosity back toward the pre-operative position, thereby altering tibiofemoral kinematics. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Ten knees were tested at 40°, 60° and 80° of flexion in vitro. The knees were loaded with a quadriceps force of 586 N, with 200 N divided between the medial and lateral hamstrings. The position of the tuberosity was varied to represent lateral malalignment, with the tuberosity 5 mm lateral of the normal position, tuberosity medialization, with the tuberosity 5 mm medial of the normal position, and tuberosity anteromedialization, with the tuberosity 10 mm anterior of the medial position. Tibiofemoral kinematics were measured using magnetic sensors secured to the femur and tibia. A repeated measures ANOVA with a post-hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test was used to identify significant (p < 0.05) differences in the kinematic data between the tuberosity positions at each flexion angle. Results Medializing the tibial tuberosity primarily rotated the tibia externally, compared to the lateral malalignment condition. The largest average increase in external rotation was 13° at 40° of flexion, with the increase significant at each flexion angle. The varus orientation also increased significantly by an average of 1.5° at 40° and 80°. The tibia shifted significantly posteriorly at 40° and 60° by an average of 4 mm and 2 mm, respectively. Shifting the tuberosity from the medial to the anteromedial position translated the tibia significantly posteriorly by an average of 2 mm at 40°. Conclusions Following tibial tuberosity realignment in the malaligned knee, the altered orientation of the patella tendon alters tibiofemoral kinematics. Clinical Relevance The kinematic changes reduce

  15. Medial tibial pain: a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI study.

    PubMed

    Mattila, K T; Komu, M E; Dahlström, S; Koskinen, S K; Heikkilä, J

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity of different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences to depict periosteal edema in patients with medial tibial pain. Additionally, we evaluated the ability of dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCES) to depict possible temporal alterations in muscular perfusion within compartments of the leg. Fifteen patients with medial tibial pain were examined with MRI. T1-, T2-weighted, proton density axial images and dynamic and static phase post-contrast images were compared in ability to depict periosteal edema. STIR was used in seven cases to depict bone marrow edema. Images were analyzed to detect signs of compartment edema. Region-of-interest measurements in compartments were performed during DCES and compared with controls. In detecting periosteal edema, post-contrast T1-weighted images were better than spin echo T2-weighted and proton density images or STIR images, but STIR depicted the bone marrow edema best. DCES best demonstrated the gradually enhancing periostitis. Four subjects with severe periosteal edema had visually detectable pathologic enhancement during DCES in the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Percentage enhancement in the deep posterior compartment of the leg was greater in patients than in controls. The fast enhancement phase in the deep posterior compartment began slightly slower in patients than in controls, but it continued longer. We believe that periosteal edema in bone stress reaction can cause impairment of venous flow in the deep posterior compartment. MRI can depict both these conditions. In patients with medial tibial pain, MR imaging protocol should include axial STIR images (to depict bone pathology) with T1-weighted axial pre and post-contrast images, and dynamic contrast enhanced imaging to show periosteal edema and abnormal contrast enhancement within a compartment.

  16. Correction of tibial deformity in Paget's disease using the Taylor spatial frame.

    PubMed

    Tsaridis, E; Sarikloglou, S; Papasoulis, E; Lykoudis, S; Koutroumpas, I; Avtzakis, V

    2008-02-01

    A 64-year-old man presented with a severe deformity of the tibia caused by Paget's disease and osteoarthritis of the ipsilateral knee. Total knee replacement required preliminary correction of the tibial deformity. This was successfully achieved by tibial osteotomy followed by distraction osteogenesis using the Taylor spatial frame. The subsequent knee replacement was successful, with no recurrence of deformity.

  17. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... uncemented prosthesis. 888.3590 Section 888.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted...

  18. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... uncemented prosthesis. 888.3590 Section 888.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted...

  19. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... uncemented prosthesis. 888.3590 Section 888.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted...

  20. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... uncemented prosthesis. 888.3590 Section 888.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted...

  1. Metachronous Bilateral Posterior Tibial Artery Aneurysms in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV

    SciTech Connect

    Hagspiel, Klaus D.; Bonatti, Hugo; Sabri, Saher; Arslan, Bulent; Harthun, Nancy L.

    2011-04-15

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV is a life-threatening genetic connective tissue disorder. We report a 24-year-old woman with EDS-IV who presented with metachronous bilateral aneurysms/pseudoaneurysms of the posterior tibial arteries 15 months apart. Both were treated successfully with transarterial coil embolization from a distal posterior tibial approach.

  2. Strong Association Between Tibial Plateau Bone Mineral Density and Cartilage Damage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tibial bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with radiographic features of osteoarthritis (OA), but no study has looked at its relationship with a direct measure of cartilage damage. We hypothesize that a relative increase in medial and lateral tibial BMD will be associated with cartilage damage...

  3. Return to Sport After Tibial Shaft Fractures: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Greg A J; Wood, Alexander M

    2016-07-01

    Acute tibial shaft fractures represent one of the most severe injuries in sports. Return rates and return-to-sport times after these injuries are limited, particularly with regard to the outcomes of different treatment methods. To determine the current evidence for the treatment of and return to sport after tibial shaft fractures. OVID/MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Collaboration Database, Web of Science, PEDro, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and Google Scholar were all searched for articles published from 1988 to 2014. Inclusion criteria comprised studies of level 1 to 4 evidence, written in the English language, that reported on the management and outcome of tibial shaft fractures and included data on either return-to-sport rate or time. Studies that failed to report on sporting outcomes, those of level 5 evidence, and those in non-English language were excluded. Systematic review. Level 4. The search used combinations of the terms tibial, tibia, acute, fracture, athletes, sports, nonoperative, conservative, operative, and return to sport. Two authors independently reviewed the selected articles and created separate data sets, which were subsequently combined for final analysis. A total of 16 studies (10 retrospective, 3 prospective, 3 randomized controlled trials) were included (n = 889 patients). Seventy-six percent (672/889) of the patients were men, with a mean age of 27.7 years. Surgical management was assessed in 14 studies, and nonsurgical management was assessed in 8 studies. Return to sport ranged from 12 to 54 weeks after surgical intervention and from 28 to 182 weeks after nonsurgical management (mean difference, 69.5 weeks; 95% CI, -83.36 to -55.64; P < 0.01). Fractures treated surgically had a return-to-sport rate of 92%, whereas those treated nonsurgically had a return rate of 67% (risk ratio, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.57; P < 0.01). The general principles are to undertake surgical management for displaced fractures and to attempt nonsurgical

  4. Tibial sesamoidectomy: a review of the literature and retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Kaiman, M E; Piccora, R

    1983-01-01

    Tibial sesamoid afflictions have been subject to various methods of treatment. A review of current concepts was challenged by a retrospective study involving patients in whom surgical intervention was performed. Data was collected from pre- and postoperative radiographs to determine if a change in the osseous relationships around the first metatarsophalangeal joint had occurred, thereby necessitating adjunctive procedures to compensate. The results obtained from our patient population substantiate the fact that a need does exist to evaluate these surgical candidates adequately in order to include additional procedures necessary to decrease morbidity.

  5. Tibial slope in total ankle arthroplasty: Anterior or lateral approach.

    PubMed

    Usuelli, Federico Giuseppe; Maccario, Camilla; Indino, Cristian; Manzi, Luigi; Gross, Christopher Edward

    2017-06-01

    A new total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) system performed through a lateral approach provides direct visualization of the centre of rotation, allowing for accurate reconstruction of the joint alignment and less bone resection. Radiographic references are needed to describe deformities and plan the surgical procedures. The tibial slope is an important factor when treating malalignment. The aim of this study is to show if there is any difference regarding the post-operative tibial slope (β angle) measurement comparing a fixed-bearing TAA through a lateral approach and a mobile-bearing TAA through an anterior approach. The study included 217 ankles. Between May 2011 and April 2015, 77 patients underwent a TAA with a mobile-bearing implant through an anterior approach and 45 with a fixed-bearing implant through a lateral approach: in these patients the β angle was measured 2 and 12 months postoperatively. 95 subjects with unilateral post-traumatic ankle arthritis composed the control group: in these patients we measured the anterior distal tibial angle (ADTA) of the controlateral, non arthritic tibiotalar joint. In the mobile-bearing group, the mean β angle at 2 and 12 months postoperatively was 86.4±3.1 and 86.8±3.1 (p-value=0.12). In the fixed-bearing group, the mean β angle at 2 and 12 months postoperatively was 83.1±5.4 and 83.9±6.5 (p-value=0.26). A statistically significant difference was found between the β angle of the two groups. In the control group the mean ADTA was 84.9±2.5. A non-statistically significant difference was observed only between β angle of the fixed-bearing group and the ADTA of the control group. Regarding the tibial slope, fixed-bearing TAA through a lateral approach showed a more anatomic placement. In contrast, β angle in mobile-bearing group appeared more reproducible than fixed-bearing group. Copyright © 2016 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Structural changes in the tibial bones from an excessive load].

    PubMed

    Moshiashvili, B I

    1977-10-01

    80 cases of pathological reconstruction of the tibia in young men at the age of 18--20 are described. The pathology developed as a result of intense regular physical exercise. In 53 patients the process was localized in the upper third of the tibia, in 20--in the middle third and in 7--in the lower third of the bone. In 6 cases the fracture of the tibial proximal metaphysis happened against the background of pathological reconstruction of the tibia; 3 of them sustained simultaneously a fracture of the fibular head. Some recommendations of practical importance are suggested.

  7. The effect of the posterior slope of the tibial plateau osteotomy with a rotational error on tibial component malalignment in total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Tsukeoka, T; Tsuneizumi, Y; Lee, T H

    2013-09-01

    We performed a CT-based computer simulation study to determine how the relationship between any inbuilt posterior slope in the proximal tibial osteotomy and cutting jig rotational orientation errors affect tibial component alignment in total knee replacement. Four different posterior slopes (3°, 5°, 7° and 10°), each with a rotational error of 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, 25° or 30°, were simulated. Tibial cutting block malalignment of 20° of external rotation can produce varus malalignment of 2.4° and 3.5° with a 7° and a 10° sloped cutting jig, respectively. Care must be taken in orientating the cutting jig in the sagittal plane when making a posterior sloped proximal tibial osteotomy in total knee replacement.

  8. Multiple Looping Technique for Tibial Fixation in Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jung Ho; Yoon, Kyoung Ho; Song, Sang Jun; Roh, Young Hak; Lee, Jae Woo

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction may be negatively affected by insufficient tibial tunnel fixation due to relatively lower bone density of the proximal tibia. We introduce a new technique of tibial fixation for posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using free tendon Achilles allograft that is less affected by the bone density of the tibial metaphysis. PMID:25973367

  9. In vivo evaluation of femoral and tibial graft tunnel placement following all-inside arthroscopic tibial inlay reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Osti, Michael; Krawinkel, Alessa; Benedetto, Karl Peter

    2014-12-01

    The arthroscopic all-inside tibial inlay technique represents a novel procedure for posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction. However, in vivo investigations that evaluate the accuracy of this technique regarding anatomic graft tunnel placement are few. The objective of this study was to analyse the femoral and tibial tunnel apertures using computed tomography (CT) and compare these findings to recommendations in the literature. CT scans were obtained in 45 patients following single-bundle PCL reconstruction. The centres of the tibial and femoral tunnel apertures were correlated to measurement grid systems used as a radiographic reference. The centre of the femoral tunnel aperture was located at 42.9% ± 9.4% of the total intercondylar depth and at 12.9% ± 7.2% of the total intercondylar height. The angle α for the femoral tunnel position was measured at 64.2° ± 10.0°. The centre of the tibial tunnel aperture was found at 51.8% ± 4.1% of the total mediolateral diameter of the tibial plateau. The superoinferior distance of the tibial tunnel aperture to the joint line was 9.6 mm ± 4.4 mm on frontal and 9.3 mm ± 3.4 mm on sagittal 3D-CT scans. The distance of the tibial tunnel aperture to the former physis line averaged to 0.8 mm ± 3.4 mm. Comparison to the corresponding reference values revealed no statistically significant difference. Arthroscopic tibial inlay reconstruction is an efficient procedure for precise replication of the anatomical footprint of the PCL. IV, prospective case series. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tibial component alignment after total knee arthroplasty with intramedullary instrumentation: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Talmo, Carl T; Cooper, Andrew J; Wuerz, Tom; Lang, Jason E; Bono, James V

    2010-12-01

    The best operative technique for achieving appropriate postoperative alignment following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains controversial, with proponents of extramedullary, intramedullary and computer-assisted techniques. One hundred ninety-two consecutive patients undergoing TKA were prospectively evaluated with full-length lower extremity radiographs. Patients underwent cemented TKA using femoral and tibial intramedullary instrumentation. Digital radiographs were analyzed using PACS (AGFA Healthcare, Ridgefield Park, NJ) software. Tibial component alignment was measured in the coronal and sagittal planes. Tibial component slope averaged 3.89° + 1.96 for the cruciate-retaining components and averaged 1.7° + 1.92 for PS components. The average coronal tibial component alignment was 90.00°, and 99% were within 3° of neutral mechanical alignment with only 2 (1%) outliers. Intramedullary instrumentation resulted in excellent postoperative tibial component and lower extremity alignment.

  11. Tibial stress fractures in an active duty population: long-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kilcoyne, Kelly G; Dickens, Jonathan F; Rue, John-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Tibial stress fractures are a common overuse injury among military recruits. The purpose of this study was to determine what, if any, long-term effects that tibial stress fractures have on military personnel with respect to physical activity level, completion of military training, recurrence of symptoms, and active duty service. Twenty-six military recruits included in a previous tibial stress fracture study were contacted 10 years after initial injury and asked a series of questions related to any long-term consequences of their tibial stress fracture. Of the 13 patients available for contact, no patients reported any necessary limited duty while on active duty, and no patient reported being separated or discharged from the military as a result of stress fracture. Tibial stress fractures in military recruits are most often an isolated injury and do not affect ability to complete military training or reflect a long-term need for decreased physical activity.

  12. Unintended Rotational Changes of the Distal Tibia After Biplane Medial Open-Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ki-Mo; Lee, Jong-Hee; Park, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Jeong Lae; Han, Seung-Beom

    2016-01-01

    This study involved 35 knees undergoing biplane medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) to assess the axial rotation of the distal tibia. The distal tibiae were internally rotated by 3.0° ± 7.1° after OWHTO. The opening width showed a Pearson correlation coefficient of -0.743 (P < .001), and the tuberosity osteotomy angle showed that of -0.678 (P < .001) with distal tibial rotation. However, changes in hip-knee-ankle angle, medial proximal tibial angle, and posterior tibial slope were not significantly correlated with the change in distal tibial rotation. In conclusion, there was an unintended tendency of increasing internal rotation of the distal tibia after biplane medial OWHTO, and this tendency was positively related to the opening width and tuberosity osteotomy angle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. External tibial torsion and the effectiveness of the solid ankle-foot orthoses.

    PubMed

    Vankoski, S J; Michaud, S; Dias, L

    2000-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the influence of external tibial torsion on the effectiveness of the ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) in children with lumbosacral myelomeningocele. Forty patients with normal tibial rotation and 18 patients with excessive external tibial torsion were evaluated with three-dimensional gait analysis at their comfortable walking speed. The group with normal tibial rotation showed significantly greater knee extension and lower mean extension moment compared with the group with external tibial torsion (p < 0.05). The posteriorly and laterally deviated ground-reaction force relative to the knee-flexion axis compromises the ability of this force to facilitate knee extension. Patients with torsional magnitudes >20 degrees demand close inspection as candidates for derotation osteotomy. The AFO will continue to stabilize the ankle-foot complex, but improved knee motion, knee-extensor activity, and ultimately walking efficiency may be compromised.

  14. Standing balance in people with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Seth, Mayank; Lamberg, Eric

    2017-08-01

    Balance is an important variable to consider during the rehabilitation process of individuals with trans-tibial amputation. Limited evidence exists on the balance abilities of people with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes. The purpose of this article is to review literature and determine if standing balance is diminished in people with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes. Literature review. Data were obtained from PubMed, Google Scholar, OandP.org , CINHAL, and Science Direct. Studies were selected only if they included standing balance assessment of people with unilateral trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes. The review yielded seven articles that met the inclusion criteria. The general test methodology required participants to stand still on force platforms, with feet together, while center of pressure or postural sway was recorded. According to the findings of this review, individuals with trans-tibial amputees due to vascular causes have diminished balance abilities. Limited evidence suggests their balance might be further diminished as compared to individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to trauma. Although the evidence is limited, because of the underlying pathology and presence of comorbidities in individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes, one cannot ignore these findings, as even a minor injury from a fall may develop into a non-healing ulcer and affect their health and well-being more severely than individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to trauma. Clinical relevance Individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes have diminished balance abilities compared to healthy individuals and individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to trauma. This difference should be considered when designing and fabricating prostheses. Prosthetists and rehabilitation clinicians should consider designing amputation cause-specific rehabilitation interventions, focussing on balance and other

  15. Is posterior tibial slope associated with noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury?

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chao; Yang, Tuo; Wu, Song; Gao, Shu-guang; Li, Hui; Deng, Zhen-han; Zhang, Yi; Lei, Guang-hua

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to: (1) examine whether the association between posterior tibial slope and noncontact ACL injury exists in Chinese population; (2) compare the reliability and consistency of the three methods (longitudinal axis, posterior and anterior tibial cortex axis) in lateral radiograph. Case-control study contained 146 patients in total (73 noncontact ACL injuries and 73 meniscus injuries, matched for age and gender), which were verified by arthroscopy, MRI and physical examination. For the total population and the male subgroup, the mean posterior tibial slope of the ACL-injured group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < 0.001). In addition, the longitudinal axis method exhibited the highest inter-rater (0.898) and intrarater reliability (0.928), whereas the anterior tibial cortex was the most variable (inter-rater reliability, 0.805; intrarater reliability, 0.824). The anterior tibial cortex method produced largest posterior tibial slope measurements (13.8 ± 3.3 for injury group; 11.6 ± 2.7 for control group), while the posterior tibial cortex method was the smallest (9.1 ± 3.1 for injury group; 7.2 ± 2.6 for control group). All three methods were not affected by age, sex, height, weight and BMI (n.s.). The results of this study suggested that an increased posterior tibial slope was associated with the risk of noncontact ACL injury in Chinese population. Meanwhile, the longitudinal axis method is recommended for measuring posterior tibial slope in lateral radiograph in future studies. Posterior tibial slope measured by longitudinal axis method may be used as predictor of ACL injury. Case-control study, Level III.

  16. Tibial rotation influences anterior knee stability--a robot-aided in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Andrea; Röttgerkamp, Heike; Bobrowitsch, Evgenij; Leichtle, Carmen I; Leichtle, Ulf G

    2016-02-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament rupture can lead to symptomatic instability, especially during pivoting activities, which are often associated with increased anterior and rotational tibial loading. Therefore, the purpose of our robot-aided in-vitro study was to analyze the influence of tibial rotation on anterior knee stability under three anterior cruciate ligament conditions. Ten human knee specimens were examined using a robotic system. Anterior tibial translations were measured during anterior force application at internally and externally rotated positions of the tibia (5° steps until 4 Nm was reached) at 20°, 60°, and 90° of flexion. The native knee was compared with the knee with deficient and replaced anterior cruciate ligament. Tibial rotation significantly influenced anterior tibial translation (P<0.001), with differences of up to 12 mm between the largest and smallest anterior translation in the deficient knee. The largest influence of the anterior cruciate ligament on anterior translation was found in slightly externally rotated positions of the tibia (5°-10° at 20° of flexion; 0°-5° at 90° of flexion). Significantly increased anterior tibial translation (up to 7 mm) was measured after anterior cruciate ligament resection, which could be almost completely restored by the replacement (remaining difference<1mm) over a wide range of tibial rotations. Tibial rotation clearly influences anterior tibial translation. Because the greatest effect of the anterior cruciate ligament was found in slightly externally rotated positions of the tibia, increased attention to tibial rotation should be paid when performing the Lachman and anterior drawer tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A safe zone for the passage of screws through the posterior tibial cortex in tibial tubercle transfer.

    PubMed

    Shetty, A A; Tindall, A J; Nickolaou, N; James, K D; Ignotus, P

    2005-04-01

    In tibial tubercle transfer, surgery drills and screws can put the popliteal vessels at risk if the posterior cortex is breached. This complication can be devastating. We have looked at arteriograms of 50 knees and identified a safe zone through which an instrument can be passed with more confidence. In our study we found no vessels directly posterior to the supero-medial aspect of the proximal metaphysis in any knee. Whilst care must still be taken, this area will allow surgeons greater confidence to obtain a stronger bicortical hold with any fixation device.

  18. Diverse muscle architecture adaptations in a rabbit tibial lengthening model.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Yasui, Natsuo; Enishi, Tetsuya; Sato, Nori; Mizobuchi, Takatoshi; Homma, Yukako; Sairyo, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    during limb lengthening, muscles are thought to increase the number of sarcomeres. However, this adaptation may differ among muscles with diverse architecture. this study wish to clarify the differences in muscle adaptation in a rabbit model of tibial lengthening. twelve rabbits underwent tibial lengthening (0.7 mm/day for 4 weeks), with the contralateral limb serving as a control, and were euthanized after either the lengthening or the consolidation period. Six muscles around the tibia were investigated in terms of muscle belly length, muscle weight, sarcomere length and serial sarcomere number. muscle belly length increased in all the lengthened muscles. No increases in muscle mass were noted. Sarcomere length increased in the ankle plantar-flexors and was kept longer than the optimal sarcomere length after the consolidation period. Nevertheless, significant increases in sarcomere number were observed in two ankle plantar-flexors. this study demonstrated that muscle belly length largely adapted to the lengthening. The increase in sarcomere number did not match the increase in muscle belly length. We estimated that elongation of the intramuscular aponeuroses is another mechanism of the adaptation in addition to the increase in sarcomere number.

  19. Rare case of tibial hemimelia, preaxial polydactyly, and club foot.

    PubMed

    Granite, Guinevere; Herzenberg, John E; Wade, Ronald

    2016-12-16

    A seven-month old female presented with left tibial hemimelia (or congenital tibial aplasia; Weber type VIIb, Jones et al type 1a), seven-toed preaxial polydactyly, and severe club foot (congenital talipes equinovarus). Definitive amputation surgery disarticulated the lower limb at the knee. This case report describes the anatomical findings of a systematic post-amputation examination of the lower limb's superficial dissection, X-rays, and computed tomography (CT) scans. From the X-rays and CT scans, we found curved and overlapping preaxial supernumerary toes, hypoplastic first metatarsal, lack of middle and distal phalanges in one supernumerary toe, three tarsal bones, hypoplastic middle phalanx and no distal phalanx for fourth toe, and no middle or distal phalanges for fifth toe. The fibula articulated with the anteromedial calcaneus and the tibia was completely absent. We identified numerous muscles and nerves in the superficial dissection that are described in the results section of the case report. Due to the rarity of this combination of anatomical findings, descriptions of such cases are very infrequent in the literature.

  20. Rare case of tibial hemimelia, preaxial polydactyly, and club foot

    PubMed Central

    Granite, Guinevere; Herzenberg, John E; Wade, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    A seven-month old female presented with left tibial hemimelia (or congenital tibial aplasia; Weber type VIIb, Jones et al type 1a), seven-toed preaxial polydactyly, and severe club foot (congenital talipes equinovarus). Definitive amputation surgery disarticulated the lower limb at the knee. This case report describes the anatomical findings of a systematic post-amputation examination of the lower limb’s superficial dissection, X-rays, and computed tomography (CT) scans. From the X-rays and CT scans, we found curved and overlapping preaxial supernumerary toes, hypoplastic first metatarsal, lack of middle and distal phalanges in one supernumerary toe, three tarsal bones, hypoplastic middle phalanx and no distal phalanx for fourth toe, and no middle or distal phalanges for fifth toe. The fibula articulated with the anteromedial calcaneus and the tibia was completely absent. We identified numerous muscles and nerves in the superficial dissection that are described in the results section of the case report. Due to the rarity of this combination of anatomical findings, descriptions of such cases are very infrequent in the literature. PMID:28035313

  1. Fibula-related complications during bilateral tibial lengthening

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Complications related to the fibula during distraction osteogenesis could cause malalignment. Most published studies have analyzed only migration of the fibula during lengthening, with few studies examining the effects of fibular complications. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed 120 segments (in 60 patients) between 2002 and 2009. All patients underwent bilateral tibial lengthening of more than 5 cm. The mean follow-up time was 4.9 (2.5–6.9) years. Results The average lengthening percentage was 34% (21–65). The ratio of mean fibular length to tibial length was 1.05 (0.91–1.11) preoperatively and 0.83 (0.65–0.95) postoperatively. The mean proximal fibular migration (PFM) was 15 (4–31) mm and mean distal fibular migration (DFM) was 9.7 (0–24) mm. Premature consolidation occurred in 10 segments, nonunion occurred in 12, and angulation of fibula occurred in 8 segments after lengthening. Valgus deformities of the knee occurred in 10 segments. Interpretation PFM induced valgus deformity of the knee, and premature consolidation of the fibula was associated with the distal migration of the proximal fibula. These mechanical malalignments could sometimes be serious enough to warrant surgical correction. Thus, during lengthening repeated radiographic examinations of the fibula are necessary to avoid complications. PMID:22329670

  2. Simultaneous ipsilateral femoral and tibial lengthening with the Ilizarov method.

    PubMed

    Curran, A R; Kuo, K N; Lubicky, J P

    1999-01-01

    Eight pediatric patients who underwent nine simultaneous ipsilateral femoral and tibial lengthenings with the Ilizarov external fixator were reviewed. The patient's demographics, diagnoses, corticotomy levels, mechanical axes, healing indices, amounts of lengthening, and complications were recorded. The patients' average age was 8 years 10 months (5 years 4 months-15 years 10 months) with an average follow-up of 49 months (30-88 months). The percentage of femoral lengthening averaged 16.7% (8-23%) with an average healing index of 28 days/cm (20-38 days/cm). The percentage of tibial lengthening averaged 18% (9.6-23.6%) with an average healing index of 29 days/cm (1940 days/cm). Four complications in three patients occurred as a direct result of the lengthening process. Three of the complications involved soft-tissue contractures, which were each successfully treated with one additional surgical procedure, whereas the fourth complication involved poor bone regeneration and required bone grafting and additional immobilization.

  3. Bone Transport for Limb Reconstruction Following Severe Tibial Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Fürmetz, Julian; Soo, Chris; Behrendt, Wolf; Thaller, Peter H.; Siekmann, Holger; Böhme, Jörg; Josten, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    A common treatment of tibial defects especially after infections is bone transport via external fixation. We compare complications and outcomes of 25 patients treated with a typical Ilizarov frame or a hybrid system for bone reconstruction of the tibia. Average follow up was 5.1 years. Particular interest was paid to the following criteria: injury type, comorbidities, development of osteitis and outcome of the different therapies. The reason for segmental resection was a second or third grade open tibia fractures in 24 cases and in one case an infection after plate osteosynthesis. Average age of the patients was 41 years (range 19 to 65 years) and average defect size 6.6 cm (range 3.0 to 13.4 cm). After a mean time of 113 days 23 tibial defects were reconstructed, so we calculated an average healing index of 44.2 days/cm. Two patients with major comorbidities needed a below knee amputation. The presence of osteitis led to a more complicated course of therapy. In the follow up patients with an Ilizarov frame had better results than patients with hybrid systems. Bone transport using external fixation is suitable for larger defect reconstruction. With significant comorbidities, however, a primary amputation or other methods must be considered. PMID:27114814

  4. Effect of interstitial low level laser therapy on tibial defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangyeob; Ha, Myungjin; Hwang, Donghyun; Yu, Sungkon; Jang, Seulki; Park, Jihoon; Radfar, Edalat; Kim, Hansung; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    Tibial defect is very common musculoskeletal disorder which makes patient painful and uncomfortable. Many studies about bone regeneration tried to figure out fast bone healing on early phase. It is already known that low level laser therapy (LLLT) is very convenient and good for beginning of bone disorder. However, light scattering and absorption obstruct musculoskeletal therapy which need optimal photon energy delivery. This study has used an interstitial laser probe (ILP) to overcome the limitations of light penetration depth and scattering. Animals (mouse, C57BL/6) were divided into three groups: laser treated test group 1 (660 nm; power 10 mW; total energy 5 J) and test group 2 (660 nm; power 20 mW; total energy 10 J); and untreated control group. All animals were taken surgical operation to make tibial defect on right crest of tibia. The test groups were treated every 48 hours with ILP. Bone volume and X-ray attenuation coefficient were measured on 0, 14th and 28th day with u-CT after treatment and were used to evaluate effect of LLLT. Results show that bone volume of test groups has been improved more than control group. X-ray attenuation coefficients of each groups have slightly different. The results suggest that LLLT combined with ILP may affect on early phase of bone regeneration and may be used in various musculoskeletal disease in deep tissue layer.

  5. Do CT scans aid assessment of distal tibial physeal fractures?

    PubMed

    Cutler, L; Molloy, A; Dhukuram, V; Bass, A

    2004-03-01

    Distal tibial physeal fractures are the second most common growth plate injury and the most common cause of growth arrest and deformity. This study assesses the accuracy of pre-operative planning for placement of the screws in these fractures using either standard radiographs or CT scans. We studied 62 consecutive physeal fractures over a period of four years. An outline of a single cut of the CT scan was used for each patient. An ideal position for the screw was determined as being perpendicular to and at the midpoint of the fracture. The difference in entry point and direction of the screw between the ideal and the observers' assessments were compared using the paired Student's t-test. There was a statistically significant improvement (p < 0.0001) in the accuracy of the point of insertion and the direction of the screw on the pre-operative plan when CT scans were used rather than plain radiographs. We would, therefore, recommend that CT scans are routinely used in the pre-operative assessment and treatment of distal tibial physeal fractures.

  6. Complications of Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Plating for Distal Tibial Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Muzaffar, Nasir; Bhat, Rafiq; Yasin, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background The management of distal tibia fractures continues to remain a source of controversy and debate. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the various complications of minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) using a locking plate for closed fractures of distal tibia in a retrospective study. Patients and Methods Twenty-five patients with distal tibial fractures, treated by minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis, were evaluated in a retrospective study. We studied the rate, probable etiological factors and preventive and corrective measures of various complications associated with minimally invasive plating of distal tibia. Results Mean age of the patients was 41.16 years (range 22 - 65). There were 13 male and 12 female patients. All fractures united at an average duration of 16.8 weeks. There were two cases of superficial and two cases of deep infection, and deep infections required removal of hardware for cure. There were four cases of ankle stiffness, most of them occurring in intra-articular fractures, three cases of palpable implant, three cases of malunion, one case of loss of reduction and one patient required reoperation. The average AO foot and ankle score was 83.6. Conclusions We found MIPPO using locking plate to be a safe and effective method for the treatment of distal tibial fractures in properly selected patients yet can result in a variety of complications if proper precautions before, during and after surgery are not taken care of. PMID:28182170

  7. Conversion Total Knee Arthroplasty after Failed High Tibial Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sang Jun; Kim, Kang Il; Lee, Chung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Clinical results of high tibial osteotomy (HTO) deteriorate over time despite the initial satisfactory results. Several knees may require a conversion to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) because of failure such as the progression of degenerative osteoarthritis and the loss of the correction angle. It is important to know the long-term survival rate and common reason of failure in HTO to inform patients of postoperative expectations before surgery and to prevent surgical errors during surgery. In addition, it has been reported that clinical and radiological results, revision rate, and complication rate were poorer than those in patients without a previous HTO. There are few review articles that describe why conversion TKA after HTO is surgically difficult and the results are poor. Surgeons have to avoid the various complications and surgical errors in this specific situation. We would like to present the considering factors and technical difficulties during conversion TKA after HTO with a review of the literature. We could conclude through the review that the correction of deformity, lower amount of tibial bone resection, and sufficient polyethylene insert thickness, restoration of the joint line height, and adequate ligament balancing can be helpful in overcoming the technical challenges encountered during TKA following HTO. PMID:27274465

  8. Radiographic predictors of compartment syndrome in tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Ziran, Bruce H; Becher, Stephen John

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article was to evaluate the relationship of radiographic features of tibial plateau fractures to the development of compartment syndrome. We hypothesized that the direction and degree of initial displacement of the femur on the tibia, and the amount of tibial widening (TW), were correlated with the development of compartment syndrome. Retrospective case-control study. Single level 1 trauma center. Retrospective evaluation of 158 patients with 162 plateau fractures. Grouping with and without compartment syndrome. The following data were obtained: age, sex, Schatzker and OTA/AO classification, open/closed status, TW, and femoral displacement (FD). A univariate statistical and a logistical regression analysis were performed to determine significance. The overall rate of compartment syndrome was 11%. Univariate analysis found both the TW and FD to be significant with respect to development of compartment syndrome (P < 0.05). Higher Schatzker (IV-VI) and OTA/AO grades were also correlated (P < 0.05) with increased incidence of compartment syndrome. Logistic regression found FD and Schatzker grade to be significant. Our study is the first to identify easily obtained radiographic parameters that correlate to the occurrence compartment syndrome. There may also be a relationship between TW and FD, as noted by regression result. This study helps to assess which patients with a fracture are at higher risk for developing a compartment syndrome. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  9. Chondroclasts in fusarium-induced tibial dyschondroplasia. A histomorphometric study.

    PubMed Central

    Lawler, E. M.; Fletcher, T. F.; Walser, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    The role of chondroclasts in the pathogenesis of Fusarium roseum-induced tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) was examined in a histomorphometric study. TD developed rapidly in broiler chickens placed at 1 day of age on rations containing either 3% (Experiment 1) or 2% (Experiment 2) F roseum cultures. In Experiment 1 the frequency of TD in birds killed at 4 weeks of age was 90%. In Experiment 2, birds were killed at intervals from 4 days until 4 weeks of age. By 1 week of age, 70% of birds examined had characteristic accumulations of prehypertrophic cartilage at the proximal tibial physis, and the frequency of TD in 4-week-old birds was 80%. Sections of hypertrophic cartilage from F roseum-fed and control birds from both experiments were examined for determination of the volume density of chondroclasts along the vascular channel boundary. Chondroclast density was consistently lower in F roseum-fed than in control birds, but the difference was significant only at 4 weeks of age. The fact that gross lesions were evident before a significant decrease in chondroclast density occurred indicates that a decrease in the density of chondroclasts was not an essential factor in the accumulation of cartilage characteristic of TD. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:4025512

  10. A 3D finite element model to investigate prosthetic interface stresses of different posterior tibial slope.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Li, Xiaomiao; Fu, Xiaodong; Wang, Weili

    2015-11-01

    Posterior tibial slope that is created during proximal tibial resection in total knee arthroplasty has emerged as an important factor in the mechanics of the knee joint and the surgical outcome. But the ideal degree of posterior tibial slope for recovery of the knee joint function and preventions of complications remains controversial and should vary in different racial groups. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of posterior tibial slope on contact stresses in the tibial polyethylene component of total knee prostheses. Three-dimensional finite element analysis was used to calculate contact stresses in tibial polyethylene component of total knee prostheses subjected to a compressive load. The 3D finite element model of total knee prosthesis was constructed from the images produced by 3D scanning technology. Stresses in tibial polyethylene component were calculated with four different posterior tibial slopes (0°, 3°, 6° and 9°). The 3D finite element model of total knee prosthesis we presented was well validated. We found that the stress distribution in the polythene as evaluated by the distributions of the von Mises stress, the maximum principle stress, the minimum principle stress and the Cpress were more uniform with 3° and 6° posterior tibial slopes than with 0° and 9° posterior tibial slopes. Moreover, the peaks of the above stresses and trends of changes with increasing degree of knee flexion were more ideal with 3° and 6° posterior slopes. The results suggested that the tibial component inclination might be favourable to 7°-10° so far as the stress distribution is concerned. The range of the tibial component inclination also can decrease the wear of polyethylene. Chinese posterior tibial slope is bigger than in the West, and the current domestic use of prostheses is imported from the West, so their demands to tilt back bone cutting can lead to shorten the service life of prostheses; this experiment result is of important

  11. The influence of posterior tibial slope changes on joint gap and range of motion in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Koji; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Muratsu, Hirotsugu; Ishida, Kazunari; Araki, Daisuke; Matsushita, Takehiko; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2016-06-01

    The effect of posterior slope on joint gap in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has yet to be quantified. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of the tibial slope on the joint component gap and postoperative range of motion in UKA. Forty consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled. The correlation between the tibial slope changes and the component gap, the component gap difference between flexion angles, the postoperative extension or flexion angles was examined. The correlation of joint looseness with tibial slope changes and postoperative extension angle was also examined. Increased tibial slope positively correlated with the differences between the component gap at 90° and 10°, 120° and 10°, or 135° and 10° knee flexion angle. Although tibial slope change did not affect postoperative flexion angle, increased tibial slope reduced postoperative extension angle. Moreover, increased tibial slope resulted in decreased joint looseness during 10° of knee flexion and decreased joint looseness during 10° of knee flexion resulted in reduced postoperative extension angle. Increased tibial slope resulted in tight component gap at knee extension compared with that at knee flexion. Furthermore, tight component gap at extension lead to decreased postoperative extension angle. These results indicate that an individual anatomical tibial slope should be considered when tibial sagittal osteotomy was performed and increasing tibial slope should be avoided to achieve full extension angle after UKA. II. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Tibial Acceleration and Spatiotemporal Mechanics in Distance Runners During Reduced-Body-Weight Conditions.

    PubMed

    Moran, Matthew F; Rickert, Brendan J; Greer, Beau K

    2017-05-01

    Treadmills that unload runners via a differential air-pressure (DAP) bladder (eg, AlterG Anti-Gravity Treadmill) are commonly used to reduce effective body weight (BW) in a clinical setting. However, the relationship between the level of unloading and tibial stress is currently unknown. To determine the relationship between tibial impact acceleration and level of BW unloading during running. Cross-sectional. University motion-analysis laboratory. 15 distance runners (9 male, 6 female; 20.4 ± 2.4 y, 60.1 ± 12.6 kg). Peak tibial acceleration and peak-to-peak tibial acceleration were measured via a uniaxial accelerometer attached to the tibia during a 37-min continuous treadmill run that simulated reduced-BW conditions via a DAP bladder. The trial began with a 10-min run at 100% BW followed by nine 3-min stages where BW was systematically reduced from 95% to 60% in 5% increments. There was no significant relationship between level of BW and either peak tibial acceleration or peak-to-peak tibial acceleration (P > .05). Both heart rate and step rate were significantly reduced with each 5% reduction in BW level (P < .01). Although ground-reaction forces are reduced when running in reduced-BW conditions on a DAP treadmill, tibial shock magnitudes are unchanged as an alteration in spatiotemporal running mechanics (eg, reduced step rate) and may nullify the unloading effect.

  13. Ultrasound Guidance in Performing a Tendoscopic Surgery to Treat Posterior Tibial Tendinitis: A Useful Tool?

    PubMed Central

    Nakazora, Shigeto; Fukuda, Aki; Kato, Ko

    2016-01-01

    A 25-year-old man with a pronation-external rotation type of fracture was surgically treated using a fibular plate. Five years later, he underwent resection of bone hyperplasia because of the ankle pain and limitation of range of motion. Thereafter, the left ankle became intermittently painful, which persisted for about one year. He presented at the age of 43 with persistent ankle pain. Physical and image analysis findings indicated a diagnosis of posttraumatic posterior tibial tendinitis, which we surgically treated using tendoscopy. Endoscopic findings showed tenosynovitis and fibrillation on the tendon surface. We cleaned and removed the synovium surrounding the tendon and deepened the posterior tibial tendon groove to allow sufficient space for the posterior tibial tendon. Full weight-bearing ambulation was permitted one day after surgery and he returned to his occupation in the construction industry six weeks after surgery. The medial aspect of the ankle was free of pain and symptoms at a review two years after surgery. Although tendoscopic surgery for stage 1 posterior tibial tendon dysfunction has been reported, tendoscopic surgery to treat posttraumatic posterior tibial tendinitis has not. Our experience with this patient showed that tendoscopic surgery is useful not only for stage 1 posterior tibial dysfunction, but also for posttraumatic posterior tibial tendinitis. PMID:27478666

  14. [Suprapatellar approach to tibial medullary nailing with electromagnetic field-guided distal locking].

    PubMed

    Rueger, J M; Rücker, A H; Hoffmann, M

    2015-04-01

    Closed tibial shaft fractures are the domain of intramedullary nailing. With the introduction of new nail designs and technologies, even small, dislocated distal fragments can be anatomically aligned and safely fixed. Unsolved or to a lesser degree controlled are the problems of distal locking in the freehand technique, which can still be difficult and can lead to a significant radiation exposure, and how to control very short proximal tibial fragments in metaphyseal tibial fractures or tibial segmental fractures, where the proximal fracture line also runs through the metaphysis.By using a suprapatellar approach, i.e. a skin incision proximal to the patella with an entry point into the tibial bone from within the knee at the same site as for a standard infrapatellar approach, and then nailing the tibia in a semi-extended position, i.e. the knee is only flexed 10-20°, the intraoperative dislocation of a short proximal fragment can be avoided. The main indications for semi-extended tibial nailing are a short diaphyseal fragment in an isolated tibial shaft fracture, a segmental fracture where the proximal fracture line is metaphyseal and in patients where infrapatellar soft tissues are compromised.The use of the electromagnetic guidance system SureShot® generates reliable and reproducible results, reduces the operating time and is independent from radiation for distal locking.

  15. The relationship between posterior tibial slope and anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Ristić, Vladimir; Maljanović, Mirsad C; Pericin, Branislav; Harhaji, Vladimir; Milankov, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify an increased posterior tibial slope as a possible risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament injury. Sixty patients were divided into two groups (with and without anterior cruciate ligament rupture). The posterior tibial slope on the lateral and medial condyles was measured by sagittal magnetic resonance imaging slices by means of computerized method using circles to determine tibial axis. The patients with anterior cruciate ligament rupture had a statistically significantly (p = 0.06) greater posterior tibial slope on the lateral tibial condyle than the control group (6.68 degrees:5.64 degrees), and a greater slope on the medial condyle (5.49 degrees:4.67 degrees) in comparison to the patients with the intact anterior cruciate ligament. No significant difference in the average values of angles was observed between males and females with anterior cruciate ligament rupture, the average value being 6.23 degrees in men and 5.84 degrees in women on the lateral condyle, and 4.53 degrees in men and 4.53 degrees in women on the medial condyle. A statistically significant difference between the values of posterior tibial slope was observed between the groups with and without anterior cruciate ligament rupture, the sex having no affect on the value of the posterior tibial slope. The method of measuring angles should be unique.

  16. Bifocal tibial corrective osteotomy with lengthening in achondroplasia: an analysis of results and complications.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Sandeep V; Song, Hae-Ryong; Lee, Seok-Hyun; Suh, Seung-Woo; Keny, Swapnil M; Telang, Shailendra S

    2006-01-01

    The results and complications of bifocal tibial osteotomies with gradual correction and lengthening by Ilizarov ring fixator performed in 47 tibiae in 24 achondroplastic patients were analyzed. Comparison was made between the parameters of angular and torsional deformities of the tibia preoperatively, at fixator removal, and at last follow-up. Of these parameters, statistically significant change was seen postoperatively in the values of medial proximal tibial angle, lateral distal tibial angle, mechanical axis deviation, and tibial torsion, which changed from 78.8 +/- 7.05 degrees, 103.2 +/- 11.8 degrees, 25.1 +/- 14.6 mm (medial), and 22.7 +/- 10 degrees (internal) preoperatively to 87.3 +/- 6.3 degrees, 90.9 +/- 5.4 degrees, 5.3 +/- 10 cm (medial), and 15.8 +/- 4.2 degrees (external), respectively, at the time of fixator removal; and this correction was maintained during the follow-up period. Mean total tibial lengthening was 6.84 +/- 1.3 cm. Average healing index was 26.06 days/cm. Complications observed were 15 pin tract infections, 1 residual varus, 1 overcorrection into valgus, 2 recurrence of varus, 22 equinus contractures, 2 premature consolidations, and 3 fibula malalignments. Recurrence of varus was observed in limbs with a residual abnormal medial mechanical axis deviation due to femoral deformity. A hundred percent incidence of equinus was observed in limbs with tibial lengthening of more than 40%, with distal tibial lengthening of more than 15%. To minimize the risk for occurrence of equinus, we recommend restriction of distal tibial lengthening in achondroplasia to less than 15%, although total tibial lengthening may exceed 40%. Fibula malalignment was not observed after double fibula osteotomy. This procedure is safe and efficacious if performed with strict adherence to prescribed technique.

  17. Postnatal Changes in Tibial Bone Speed of Sound of Preterm and Term Infants during Infancy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Lee, Wei-Te; Lee, Pei-Lun; Liu, Po-Len; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in tibial bone speed of sound (SOS) over time, in preterm and term infants during infancy, in addition to identifying factors influencing the development of tibial SOS during infancy. Preterm (n = 155) and term (n = 65) infants were enrolled in this study. Tibial bone SOS was measured using quantitative ultrasonography (QUS) on the left tibia of newborn infants after birth (within 7 days), at 1 month old, and then every 2 months until subjects were approximately 12-15 months old. Follow-up checks included anthropometric measurements and tibial bone SOS. Mean tibial bone SOS at birth was significantly higher in term infants (mean ± SD, 2968.5 ± 99.7 m/s) than in preterm infants (2912.2 ± 122.6 m/s). Values of follow-up tibial bone SOS declined for the first 4 months, and then increased gradually until 12-15 months old. This increasing trend was greater in preterm infants after 2 months of corrected age than in term infants. There were no significant differences by 12-15 months of age between preterm and term infants. A longitudinal mixed-effect model controlling for internal correlations and other covariates in the two groups showed that age and the SOS value at birth were important factors affecting the tibial bone SOS in both preterm and term newborn infants during infancy. There are significant differences in the pattern of change in tibial bone SOS values between preterm and term infants during the first 12-15 months of life. Age and SOS value at birth were important factors affecting the pattern of tibial bone SOS change in both preterm and term newborn infants during infancy.

  18. Relationship between Tibial Baseplate Design and Rotational Alignment Landmarks in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Indelli, Pier Francesco; Graceffa, Angelo; Baldini, Andrea; Payne, Brielle; Pipino, Gennaro; Marcucci, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of modern tibial baseplate designs when using the anterior tibial cortex as a primary rotational landmark for the tibial baseplate in TKA. Eighty patients undergoing TKA were randomized in two groups. Group 1 included 25 females and 15 males receiving a posterior-stabilized (PS) symmetric tibial baseplate while Group 2 included 24 females and 16 males receiving a PS anatomical tibial component. Identical surgical technique, including the use of the surgical transepicondylar femoral axis (sTEA) and the anterior tibial cortex (“Curve-on-Curve”) as rotational alignment landmarks, was used. All patients underwent CT evaluation performed with the knee in full extension. Three observers independently measured the rotational alignment of the tibial component in relation to the sTEA. The rotational alignment of the symmetric baseplate showed an average external rotation of 1.3° (minimum 5°, maximum −1°): 91% of the knees showed 0 ± 3° with respect to the surgical sTEA, being internally rotated in 20%. The rotational alignment of the anatomical baseplate showed an average external rotation of 4.1° (minimum 0.4°, maximum 8.9°): only 47.5% of the knees showed 0 ± 3°, being externally rotated in 100%. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. This study confirms the reliability of the “Curve-on-Curve” technique as an adequate rotational alignment anatomical landmark in TKA: the use of an asymmetric tibial baseplate might lead to external rotation of the tibial component when this technique is intraoperatively chosen. PMID:26491564

  19. What mechanisms are associated with tibial component failure after kinematically-aligned total knee arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Nedopil, Alexander J; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2017-08-01

    Eight patients treated with kinematically-aligned (KA) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) presented with tibial component failure. We determined whether radiographic measurements and clinical characteristics are different between patients with and without tibial component failure to identify mechanisms of failure and strategies to reduce the risk. Out of 3,212 primary TKAs (2,725 TKAs with a two-year minimum follow up), of which all were performed with KA, eight patients presented with tibial component failure. Radiographic measurements, clinical characteristics (e.g. age, gender, BMI, etc.), revision surgical records, and Oxford knee scores were compared to control cohort patients matched 1:3. Tibial component failure presented at an average of 28 ± 15 months after primary TKA. Patients with tibial component failure had a 6 kg/m(2) greater body mass index (p = 0.034) and 5° greater posterior slope of the tibia component (p = 0.002) than controls. Final follow-up averaged 56 ± 19 months after the primary TKA and 28 ± 24 months after the revision TKA. The final Oxford knee score was 39 ± 4.6 for patients with tibial component failure and 44 ± 6.5 for the controls (p = 0.005). The incidence of tibial component failure after KA TKA was 0.3% and was caused by posterior subsidence or posterior edge wear and not varus subsidence. The strategy for lowering the risk of tibial component failure when performing KA is to set the tibial component parallel to the flexion-extension plane (slope) and varus-valgus plane of the native joint line.

  20. Synovial C-Shaped Tibial Footprint of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    PubMed Central

    Janovsky, César; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Alves, Maria Teresa Seixas; Ferretti, Mario; Cohen, Moises

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although numerous anatomic studies about the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) structure and attachments have been performed, these studies have not reached consensus on the ACL footprint. Purpose: To investigate the existing controversy regarding the morphology of the tibial ACL insertion (footprint) and confirm histologically that the tibial ACL footprint is not completely filled with ligament tissue. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: The tibial ACL footprint was dissected from 20 different fresh-frozen cadaveric knees (all males; mean age, 68.8 ± 5.4 years [range, 55-80 years]; mean weight, 78 ± 6.6 kg [range, 45-93 kg]). Two knees, 1 with severe osteoarthritis and 1 with previous knee surgery, were excluded. The tibial ACL insertion was observed, and this area was longitudinally divided into 4 parallel slices (0%-25%, 25-50%, 50%-75%, and 75%-100%), embedded in paraffin wax, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, alcian blue, and picrosirius-polarization. The specimens were measured using a microscope to determine the distances from the anterior to the posterior border of the ACL ligament tibial insertion and the distance from the posterior border to the end of the ligament fibers of the ACL ligament tibial insertions. Results: The 18 evaluated knee specimens confirmed the finding of a C-shaped tibial insertion of the ACL. The measurements showed that the ligament (vertical parallel collagen fibers) occupied only 30.8% of the complete insertion. The remaining area was filled with synovial tissue, demonstrating histologically the “C” shape. Conclusion: This study confirms macroscopically the C-shaped tibial insertion of the ACL and shows histologically that synovial tissue is an indirect insertion filling the major part of the footprint. Clinical Relevance: This anatomic study suggests a different shape of the ACL tibial footprint, which may be useful for new perspectives regarding ACL reconstruction surgery research. PMID

  1. Influence of the posterior tibial slope on the flexion gap in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ken; Tashiro, Yasutaka; Mizu-uchi, Hideki; Hamai, Satoshi; Doi, Toshio; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2014-08-01

    Adjusting the joint gap length to be equal in both extension and flexion is an important issue in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). It is generally acknowledged that posterior tibial slope affects the flexion gap; however, the extent to which changes in the tibial slope angle directly affect the flexion gap remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the influence of tibial slope changes on the flexion gap in cruciate-retaining (CR) or posterior-stabilizing (PS) TKA. The flexion gap was measured using a tensor device with the femoral trial component in 20 cases each of CR- and PS-TKA. A wedge plate with a 5° inclination was placed on the tibial cut surface by switching its front-back direction to increase or decrease the tibial slope by 5°. The flexion gap after changing the tibial slope was compared to that of the neutral slope measured with a flat plate that had the same thickness as that of the wedge plate center. When the tibial slope decreased or increased by 5°, the flexion gap decreased or increased by 1.9 ± 0.6mm or 1.8 ± 0.4mm, respectively, with CR-TKA and 1.2 ± 0.4mm or 1.1 ± 0.3mm, respectively, with PS-TKA. The influence of changing the tibial slope by 5° on the flexion gap was approximately 2mm with CR-TKA and 1mm with PS-TKA. This information is useful when considering the effect of manipulating the tibial slope on the flexion gap when performing CR- or PS-TKA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Management of tibial non-unions according to a novel treatment algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Nando; Marais, Leonard Charles

    2015-12-01

    Tibial non-unions represent a spectrum of conditions that are challenging to treat. The optimal management remains unclear despite the frequency with which these diagnoses are encountered. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of tibial non-unions managed according to a novel tibial non-union treatment algorithm. One hundred and eighteen consecutive patients with 122 uninfected tibial non-unions were treated according to our proposed tibial non-union treatment algorithm. All patients were followed-up clinically and radiologically for a minimum of six months after external fixator removal. Four patients were excluded because they did not complete the intended treatment process. The final study population consisted of 94 men and 24 women with a mean age of 34 years. Sixty-seven non-unions were stiff hypertrophic, 32 mobile atrophic, 16 mobile oligotrophic and one true pseudoarthrosis. Six non-unions were classified as type B1 defect non-unions. Bony union was achieved after the initial surgery in 113/122 (92.6%) tibias. Nine patients had failure of treatment. Seven persistent non-unions were successfully retreated according to the tibial non-union treatment algorithm. This resulted in final bony union in 120/122 (98.3%) tibias. The proposed tibial non-union treatment algorithm appears to produce high union rates across a diverse group of tibial non-unions. Tibial non-unions however, remain difficult to treat and should be referred to specialist units where advanced reconstructive techniques are practiced on a regular basis.

  3. Return to sport following tibial plateau fractures: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Greg A J; Wong, Seng J; Wood, Alexander M

    2017-01-01

    AIM To systemically review all studies reporting return to sport following tibial plateau fracture, in order to provide information on return rates and times to sport, and to assess variations in sporting outcome for different treatment methods. METHODS A systematic search of CINAHAL, Cochrane, EMBASE, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PEDro, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science was performed in January 2017 using the keywords “tibial”, “plateau”, “fractures”, “knee”, “athletes”, “sports”, “non-operative”, “conservative”, “operative”, “return to sport”. All studies which recorded return rates and times to sport following tibial plateau fractures were included. RESULTS Twenty-seven studies were included: 1 was a randomised controlled trial, 7 were prospective cohort studies, 16 were retrospective cohort studies, 3 were case series. One study reported on the outcome of conservative management (n = 3); 27 reported on the outcome of surgical management (n = 917). Nine studies reported on Open Reduction Internal Fixation (ORIF) (n = 193), 11 on Arthroscopic-Assisted Reduction Internal Fixation (ARIF) (n = 253) and 7 on Frame-Assisted Fixation (FRAME) (n = 262). All studies recorded “return to sport” rates. Only one study recorded a “return to sport” time. The return rate to sport for the total cohort was 70%. For the conservatively-managed fractures, the return rate was 100%. For the surgically-managed fractures, the return rate was 70%. For fractures managed with ORIF, the return rate was 60%. For fractures managed with ARIF, the return rate was 83%. For fractures managed with FRAME was 52%. The return rate for ARIF was found to be significantly greater than that for ORIF (OR 3.22, 95%CI: 2.09-4.97, P < 0.001) and for FRAME (OR 4.33, 95%CI: 2.89-6.50, P < 0.001). No difference was found between the return rates for ORIF and FRAME (OR 1.35, 95%CI: 0.92-1.96, P = 0.122). The recorded return time was 6.9 mo (median), from a study

  4. [Arthroscopic percutaneous osteosynthesis of low-energy tibial plateau fractures].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ziguang

    2009-11-01

    To explore the treatment of low-energy tibial plateau fractures with arthroscopic percutaneous osteosynthesis. From May 2004 to April 2008, 27 cases of tibial plateau fractures were treated with arthroscopic management. There were 19 males and 8 females, aged 18-61 years old (mean 41.5 years old). Fracture was caused by traffic accident in 18 cases, by falling from height in 6 cases, by bruise in 2 cases, and by other in 1 case. There were 8 cases of type I, 12 cases of type II, 2 cases of type III and 5 cases of type IV according to Schatzker classification. The time from injury to operation was 3-15 days (mean 5.2 days). After symptomatic managements were performed arthroscopically in 11 cases of meniscus tear, 4 cases of medial collateral ligament rupture of knee joint, 3 cases of anterior cruciate ligament rupture of knee joint and 2 cases of cartilage fracture resulting in joint bodies, fracture was reduced and fixed with 2 or 4 cannulated screws (7 mm in diameter). Autograft of ilium was given 6 cases of bone defect. Early functional exercise was done. The operation time was 55-150 minutes (mean 93 minutes); the hospitalization days were 7-22 days (mean 16 days). All incision healed primarily. Edema of the affected leg occurred in all patients and subsided after 3 days of symptomatic management. In one patient who did not cooperate in functional exercise, adhesion occurred and normal function was recovered after by manual dissolution under conditions of anesthesia after 3 months of operation. All patients were followed up 6-36 months (mean 16.6 months). The range of motion of knee joint was 105-140 degrees (mean 121 degrees). According to Lysholm scale of knee joint, the score was 72-100 points (mean 93.6 points) 6 months after operation. The X-ray film showed no signs of osteoarthritis. Arthroscopic percutaneous osteosynthesis yields satisfactory results and can be accepted as an alternative and effective method for the treatment of low-energy tibial plateau

  5. Medial tibial pain. A prospective study of its cause among military recruits.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, C; Giladi, M; Stein, M; Kashtan, H; Margulies, J; Chisin, R; Steinberg, R; Swissa, A; Aharonson, Z

    1986-12-01

    In a prospective study of 295 infantry recruits during 14 weeks of basic training, 41% had medial tibial pain. Routine scintigraphic evaluation in cases of medial tibial bone pain showed that 63% had abnormalities. A stress fracture was found in 46%. Only two patients had periostitis. None had ischemic medial compartment syndrome. Physical examination could not differentiate between cases with medial tibial bone pain secondary to stress fractures and those with scintigraphically normal tibias. When both pain and swelling were localized in the middle one-third of the tibia, the lesion most likely proved to be a stress fracture.

  6. Tibial nerve intraneural ganglion cyst in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Squires, Judy H; Emery, Kathleen H; Johnson, Neil; Sorger, Joel

    2014-04-01

    Intraneural ganglion cysts are uncommon cystic lesions of peripheral nerves that are typically encountered in adults. In the lower extremity, the peroneal nerve is most frequently affected with involvement of the tibial nerve much less common. This article describes a tibial intraneural ganglion cyst in a 10-year-old boy. Although extremely rare, intraneural ganglion cysts of the tibial nerve should be considered when a nonenhancing cystic structure with intra-articular extension is identified along the course of the nerve. This report also details the unsuccessful attempt at percutaneous treatment with US-guided cyst aspiration and steroid injection, an option recently reported as a viable alternative to open surgical resection.

  7. Remodeling of tibial fractures in children younger than 12 years.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Amitabh Jitendra; John, Bobby; Krishen, Maharaj; Hora, Rajeev

    2007-05-01

    Forty-eight children with an average age of 7.2 years (range: 3-12 years) were examined clinically and radiographically at an average 4-year follow-up (range: 2-10 years), between 1989 and 2000 to analyze correction of deformities following tibial shaft fractures. An inconsistent alteration in the length of the fractured tibia was observed. Anterior angular deformity realigned maximally (52.7%) followed by varus (40.9%) and valgus (23.9%) deformities. Posterior deformity corrected the least (18.5%). In the sagittal plane, acceptable critical anterior and posterior angular deformities that corrected completely were 12 degrees and 6 degrees respectively. In the coronal plane, acceptable critical angular deformities were 10 degrees varus and 8 degrees valgus.

  8. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation: the Urgent PC device.

    PubMed

    van Balken, Michael R

    2007-09-01

    Lower urinary tract disorders, with its main representative the overactive bladder, are an increasing problem that impact patients' quality of life tremendously. Neuromodulative treatment may fill the gap between conservative measures and invasive surgery. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (Urgent PC) is a neuromodulation technique that is minimally invasive and easy to perform. Stimulation is carried out in 12 weekly sessions of 30 min each, through a percutaneously placed needle cephalad to the medial malleolus. Success can be obtained in approximately two-thirds of patients, but the therapy has the disadvantage of the necessity of maintenance therapy. The development of a small implantable device may be the future next step in the evolution of the technique.

  9. Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa complicated with chronic tibial osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Turhan, Egemen; Ege, Ahmet; Keser, Selcuk; Bayar, Ahmet

    2008-10-01

    Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa represents an infrequent clinical entity with cutaneous changes characterized by dermal fibrosis, hyperkeratotic verrucous and papillamotous lesions resulting from chronic non-filarial lymphedema secondary to infections, surgeries, tumor obstruction, radiation, congestive heart failure, and obesity. Although recurrent streptococcal lymphangitis is believed to play a critical role in the origin of elephantiasis nostras verrucosa, the exact pathogenesis of the disorder is not yet clear. Therapeutic efforts should aim to reduce lymph stasis, which will also lead to improvement of the cutaneous changes but unfortunately there is no specific treatment for advanced cases. In this report, we present a patient who was treated by below knee amputation as a result of elephantiasis nostras verrucosa complicated with chronic tibial osteomyelitis.

  10. The effect of muscle fatigue on in vivo tibial strains.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Charles; Radeva-Petrova, Denitsa R; Finestone, Aharon; Nyska, Meir; Mendelson, Stephen; Benjuya, Nisim; Simkin, Ariel; Burr, David

    2007-01-01

    Stress fracture is a common musculoskeletal problem affecting athletes and soldiers. Repetitive high bone strains and strain rates are considered to be its etiology. The strain level necessary to cause fatigue failure of bone ex vivo is higher than the strains recorded in humans during vigorous physical activity. We hypothesized that during fatiguing exercises, bone strains may increase and reach levels exceeding those measured in the non-fatigued state. To test this hypothesis, we measured in vivo tibial strains, the maximum gastrocnemius isokinetic torque and ground reaction forces in four subjects before and after two fatiguing levels of exercise: a 2km run and a 30km desert march. Strains were measured using strain-gauged staples inserted percutaneously in the medial aspect of their mid-tibial diaphysis. There was a decrease in the peak gastrocnemius isokinetic torque of all four subjects' post-march as compared to pre-run (p=0.0001), indicating the presence of gastrocnemius muscle fatigue. Tension strains increased 26% post-run (p=0.002, 95 % confidence interval (CI) and 29% post-march (p=0.0002, 95% CI) as compared to the pre-run phase. Tension strain rates increased 13% post-run (p=0.001, 95% CI) and 11% post-march (p=0.009, 95% CI) and the compression strain rates increased 9% post-run (p=0.0004, 95% CI) and 17% post-march (p=0.0001, 95% CI). The fatigue state increases bone strains well above those recorded in rested individuals and may be a major factor in the stress fracture etiology.

  11. Load along the tibial shaft during activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    D'Angeli, V; Belvedere, C; Ortolani, M; Giannini, S; Leardini, A

    2014-03-21

    External load at the tibia during activities of daily living provides baseline measures for the improvement of the design of the bone-implant interface for relevant internal and external prostheses. A motion analysis system was used together with an established protocol with skin markers to estimate three-dimensional forces and moments acting on ten equidistant points along the tibial shaft. Twenty young and able-bodied volunteers were analysed while performing three repetitions of the following tasks: level walking at three different speeds, in a straight-line and with sudden changes of direction to the right and to the left, stair ascending and descending, squatting, rising from a chair and sitting down. Moment and force patterns were normalised to the percentage of body weight per height and body weight, respectively, and then averaged over all subjects for each point, about the three tibial anatomical axes, and for each task. Load patterns were found to be consistent over subjects, but different among the anatomical axes, tasks and points. Generally, moments were higher in the medio/lateral axis and influenced by walking speed. In all five walking tasks and in ascending stairs with alternating feet, the more proximal the point was the smaller the mean moment was. For the remaining tasks the opposite trend was observed. The overall largest value was observed in the medio/lateral direction at the ankle centre in level walking at high speed (9.1% body weight * height on average), nearly three times larger than that of the anterior/posterior axis (2.9) during level walking with a sidestep turn. The present results should be of value also for in-vitro mechanical tests and finite element models.

  12. Effect of step width manipulation on tibial stress during running.

    PubMed

    Meardon, Stacey A; Derrick, Timothy R

    2014-08-22

    Narrow step width has been linked to variables associated with tibial stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of step width on bone stresses using a standardized model of the tibia. 15 runners ran at their preferred 5k running velocity in three running conditions, preferred step width (PSW) and PSW±5% of leg length. 10 successful trials of force and 3-D motion data were collected. A combination of inverse dynamics, musculoskeletal modeling and beam theory was used to estimate stresses applied to the tibia using subject-specific anthropometrics and motion data. The tibia was modeled as a hollow ellipse. Multivariate analysis revealed that tibial stresses at the distal 1/3 of the tibia differed with step width manipulation (p=0.002). Compression on the posterior and medial aspect of the tibia was inversely related to step width such that as step width increased, compression on the surface of tibia decreased (linear trend p=0.036 and 0.003). Similarly, tension on the anterior surface of the tibia decreased as step width increased (linear trend p=0.029). Widening step width linearly reduced shear stress at all 4 sites (p<0.001 for all). The data from this study suggests that stresses experienced by the tibia during running were influenced by step width when using a standardized model of the tibia. Wider step widths were generally associated with reduced loading of the tibia and may benefit runners at risk of or experiencing stress injury at the tibia, especially if they present with a crossover running style.

  13. Contributing factors to medial tibial stress syndrome: a prospective investigation.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Tricia J; Carpenter, Erica Mullis; Cordova, Mitchell L

    2009-03-01

    To conduct a prospective, multisite, cohort study investigating the possible risk factors for medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) in college athletes. One hundred and forty-six healthy, collegiate athletes from NCAA Division I and Division II institutions participated in the study. Subjects first completed a health history questionnaire to establish previous history of injury and underwent a physical examination to assess their ankle/foot strength, ankle/foot range of motion, tibial varum, and navicular drop before the start of their respective athletic season. Athletes were instructed to report to a certified athletic trainer if they developed pain on their tibia. If MTSS was present, subjects were then placed into the symptomatic group. Independent t-tests and chi-square analyses were used to determine whether differences existed between MTSS and healthy athletes for the continuous and the discrete dependent variables, respectively. The significant dependent variables were then used in the discriminant function analysis. Twenty-nine subjects developed MTSS during this study. Athletes that had been participating in athletic activity for fewer than 5 yr were significantly more likely to develop MTSS (P = 0.002). Additionally, athletes with a previous history of MTSS (P = 0.0001), a previous history of stress fracture (P = 0.039), and the use of orthotics (P = 0.031) were more likely to develop MTSS compared with those who did not develop MTSS. This study established that the factors most influencing MTSS development were previous history of MTSS and stress fracture, years of running experience, and orthotic use. These data demonstrate the importance of establishing a thorough history before the start of the season so that athletes who might be at risk for MTSS development can be identified.

  14. How to Minimize Rotational Conflict between Femoral & Tibial Component in Total Knee Arthroplasty: The Use of Femoro-Tibial Axial Synchronizer (Linker)

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jai-Gon; Moon, Young-Wan; Kim, Sang-Min

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between rotational axes of femur and tibia with the use of Linker. Materials and Methods This study was carried out from August 2009 to February 2010 on 54 patients (106 knees), who were diagnosed with simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty. With the use of postoperative computed tomography scans, it was investigated how much the rotational angle of femoral and tibial components matched. Results The tibial component was internally rotated for the femoral component at an angle of 0.8°. The femoral component was externally rotated for the surgical transepicondylar axis (TEA) at an angle of 1.6 (range: from 4.8° of internal rotation to 7.9° of external rotation, SD=2.2°), and the tibial component was externally rotated for the surgical TEA at an average angle of 0.9 (range: from 5.1° of internal rotation to 8.3° of external rotation, SD=3.1°). Conclusion The femoro-tibial synchronizer helped to improve the orientation and positioning of both femoral component and tibial component, and also increase the correlation of the rotational axes of the two components. PMID:25683995

  15. Effect of Modularity on the Fatigue Performance of Tibial Tray Designs in TKA Prostheses.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Ahilan Anantha; Ghyar, Rupesh; Ravi, Bhallamudi

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue performance of tibial tray in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is of critical importance in terms of longevity of the prosthesis. Standards have been proposed by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to ensure its long-term structural integrity. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of modularity in the tibial tray following the testing standards, using finite element analysis. Goodman and Sines criteria were used to compare the fatigue safety factor (FSF) of four modular designs versus the two conventional designs. Cruciate-retaining (CR) type modular tibial tray designs were better than posterior-stabilized (PS) type tibial tray designs. More cutouts in the tray and absence of keel were reasons for poor fatigue performance.

  16. [Investigation of tibial bones of the rats exposed on board "Spacelab-2":histomorphometric analysis].

    PubMed

    Durnova, G N; Kaplanskii, A S; Morey-Holton, E R; Vorobéva, V N

    1996-01-01

    Proximal metaphyses of tibial bones from the Sprague-Dowly rats exposed in US dedicated space life sciences laboratory SLS-2 for 13-14 days and sacrificed on day 13 in microgravity and within 5 hours and 14 days following recovery were the subject of histological, histochemical, and histomorphometric analyses. After the 13-day flight of SLS-2 the rats showed initial signs of osteopenia in the spongy tissue of tibial bones, secondary spongiosis affected first. Resorption of the secondary spongiosis was consequent to enhanced resorption and inhibition of osteogenesis. In rats sacrificed within 5 hours of recovery manifestations of tibial osteopenia were more evident than in rats sacrificed during the flight. Spaceflight-induced changes in tibial spongiosis were reverse by character the amount of spongy bone was fully compensated and following 14 days of readaptation to the terrestrial gravity.

  17. A geometric morphometric analysis of the medial tibial condyle of African hominids.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Adam D

    2013-10-01

    Although the hominid knee has been heavily scrutinized, shape variation of the medial tibial condyle has yet to be described. Humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas differ in the shape of their medial femoral condyles and in their capacity for external and internal rotation of the tibia relative to the femur. I hypothesize that these differences should be reflected in the shape of the medial tibial condyle of these hominids. Here I use geometric morphometric techniques to uncover shape differences between the medial tibial condyles of humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas. Humans are distinguished from the other two species by having a much more oval-shaped medial tibial condyle, while those of chimpanzees and gorillas are more triangular in outline. Gorillas (especially males) are distinguished by having more concavely-curved condyles (mediolateral direction), which is interpreted as an effect of heavy loading through the medial compartment of the knee in conjunction with differences in the degree of arboreality. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Early complications after high tibial osteotomy: a comparison of two techniques.

    PubMed

    van den Bekerom, Michel P J; Patt, Thomas W; Kleinhout, Miriam Y; van der Vis, Harm M; Albers, G H Rob

    2008-01-01

    This prospective cohort study compared opening wedge high tibial osteotomy with use of the Puddu plate and the Vitoss synthetic cancellous bone versus closing wedge high tibial osteotomy with use of the AO/ASIF L-plate, focusing on complications (nonunions, infections, loss of correction, reoperations) and patient satisfaction (visual linear analog scale). During a 10-month period, we performed high tibial osteotomy for 40 patients experiencing medial knee osteoarthritis and a varus deformity. The average follow-up was 11 months. The complication rate in patients treated with the opening wedge technique was significantly higher regarding tibial nonunion, loss of correction, and material failure. Patients in the closing wedge group were more satisfied with the postoperative result. This study found that the Puddu plate, despite 6 weeks of non-weight bearing facilitating the osseous consolidation with Vitoss cement, was not able to maintain the correction during the time required for bone healing.

  19. The use of deep frozen and irradiated bone allografts in the reconstruction of tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Fu, Li; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Dongsong; Qi, Xin

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the clinical behavior of deep frozen and irradiated bone allografts in the treatment of depressed tibial plateau fractures. Twenty-two patients with a tibial plateau fracture were treated with cancellous bone allografts. The bone allograft preparation process included fresh-freezing at -70 °C for 4 weeks and gamma-irradiation at 25 kGy. All of the patients were followed for 1-2 years. The clinical effects were assessed using the Rasmussen score for tibial head fractures and X-rays. Postoperatively, the average excellent and fair Rasmussen scores were 88.9%. Only one patient developed an infection, with no integration between allograft and recipient bone observed. All of the other bone allografts were incorporated successfully, and no osteoporosis or sclerosis was observed. The frozen and gamma-irradiated bone allograft is a good alternative in the treatment of tibial plateau fractures, which we have shown can integrate with the surrounding host bone.

  20. Tarsal tunnel syndrome associated with a perforating branch from posterior tibial artery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kosiyatrakul, Arkaphat; Luenam, Suriya; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2015-03-01

    Tarsal tunnel syndrome, a compressive neuropathy of the tibial nerve or its branches with in the tarsal tunnel, is an uncommon condition. Various etiologies of the syndrome have been described. We report a rare case of tarsal tunnel syndrome associated with a perforating branch from the posterior tibial artery. A 56-year-old woman presented with 1-year history of paresthesia and hypoesthesia in the medial and lateral plantar area of the left foot. Tinel's sign was elicited at the tarsal tunnel. Electrodiagnostic studies confirmed the diagnosis of left tarsal tunnel syndrome. Intraoperatively, the perforating branch from posterior tibial artery which traveled through a split in the tibial nerve was encountered. The patient's symptom improved significantly at 2 years after tarsal tunnel release and vascular ligation. Only a minor degree of paresthesia remains in the forefoot.

  1. Clinical Outcomes of Tibial Components with Modular Stems Used in Primary TKA

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Thomas; Broome, Brandon; Osuji, Obi; Harman, Melinda K.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the known potential for fretting and corrosion at modular junctions in orthopaedic implants, this retrospective study evaluated radiographic and clinical outcomes of 85 primary TKA patients implanted with modular stemmed tibial components and followed up for an average of 82 months. There was low incidence of tibial radiolucent lines, excellent functional outcomes, and no complications associated with stem modularity. The findings were comparable to the historical control study involving 107 TKA with a nonmodular tibial stem design. When using surface cemented tibial components combined with a constrained polyethylene bearing, modular stems appear to be a viable option for primary TKA when adequate fixation and rotational stability are maintained. PMID:24669319

  2. [Investigation of tibial bones of the rats exposed on board "Spacelab-2":histomorphometric analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durnova, G. N.; Kaplanskii, A. S.; Morey-Holton, E. R.; Vorobeva, V. N.

    1996-01-01

    Proximal metaphyses of tibial bones from the Sprague-Dowly rats exposed in US dedicated space life sciences laboratory SLS-2 for 13-14 days and sacrificed on day 13 in microgravity and within 5 hours and 14 days following recovery were the subject of histological, histochemical, and histomorphometric analyses. After the 13-day flight of SLS-2 the rats showed initial signs of osteopenia in the spongy tissue of tibial bones, secondary spongiosis affected first. Resorption of the secondary spongiosis was consequent to enhanced resorption and inhibition of osteogenesis. In rats sacrificed within 5 hours of recovery manifestations of tibial osteopenia were more evident than in rats sacrificed during the flight. Spaceflight-induced changes in tibial spongiosis were reverse by character the amount of spongy bone was fully compensated and following 14 days of readaptation to the terrestrial gravity.

  3. Osteochondroma of the Tibial Sesamoid: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Kazuo; Hakozaki, Michiyuki; Kikuchi, Shin-Ichi; Yabuki, Shoji; Konno, Shin-Ichi

    2017-02-15

    Osteochondroma, one of the most common benign bone tumors, frequently occurs in the metaphysis of the long bones. We report an extremely rare case of osteochondroma that occurred in the tibial sesamoid. The patient was a 62-year-old Japanese male. He presented with a 1-year history of pain and a hard mass on the plantar aspect of the right forefoot sole. The osteochondroma protruded toward the sole from the tibial sesamoid, leading to pain on weightbearing. After tibial sesamoidectomy, the patient's symptoms were eliminated, and no pain or complications such as hallux valgus occurred after the surgery. Although a potential risk exists of postoperative hallux valgus deformity, tibial sesamoidectomy seems to be an appropriate surgical option for both osteochondroma and bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation to avoid residual pain or local recurrence.

  4. Successful stabilisation of a type III paediatric tibial eminence fracture using a tensioned wire technique.

    PubMed

    Archer, Matthew; Parkin, Tom; Latimer, Mark David

    2016-09-19

    We report the case of an 11-year-old boy presenting with a type III tibial eminence fracture. The fracture fragment was reduced arthroscopically. Two 1.6 mm retrograde K-wires were inserted from the tibial metaphysis across the physis and into the fracture fragment using a standard anterior cruciate ligament tibial tunnel guide. Once the wires were clearly visible within the joint the tips were bent over by ∼120°. The wires were then tensioned around a single small fragment screw inserted into the tibial metaphysis. An exceptionally strong fixation was achieved. The boy was mobilised without a brace. The wires were removed at 12 weeks and he returned to full activity at 14 weeks.

  5. Study of the anatomy of the tibial nerve and its branches in the distal medial leg

    PubMed Central

    Torres, André Leal Gonçalves; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

    2012-01-01

    Objective Determine, through dissection in fresh cadavers, the topographic anatomy of the tibial nerve and its branches at the ankle, in relation to the tarsal tunnel. Methods Bilateral dissections were performed on 26 fresh cadavers and the locations of the tibial nerve bifurcation and its branches were measured in millimeters. For the calcaneal branches, the amount and their respective nerves of origin were also analyzed. Results The tibial nerve bifurcation occurred under the tunnel in 88% of the cases and proximally in 12%. As for the calcaneal branches, the medial presented with one (58%), two (34%) and three (8%) branches, with the most common source occurring in the tibial nerve (90%) and the lower with a single branch per leg and lateral plantar nerve as the most common origin (70%). Level of Evidence, V Expert opinion. PMID:24453596

  6. Removal of a bent tibial intramedullary nail: a rare case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Aggerwal, Sameer; Soni, Ashwani; Saini, Uttam-C; Gahlot, Nitesh

    2011-04-01

    Intramedullary interlocking nailing is a gold standard for treatment of tibial shaft fractures. Bending of a nail secondary to trauma is a rare complication, which may be encountered in healed or unhealed tibial shaft fractures. Removal of such bent nail is always a challenge. We reported this case to discuss various techniques for removal of bent nails and to share our experience in removing a bent tibial intramedullary nail in a 30-year-old man, who was admitted in our department with re-fracture of the right tibial shaft due to a roadside accident two years after the initial surgical treatment. The intramedullary nail, bent by 30 degrees and visible on anterioposterior as well as on lateral radiographs, was firstly weakened by partially cutting the convex wall, then straightened by applying external force, and finally removed by using the standard nail removal method.

  7. 21 CFR 888.3590 - Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Classification. Class II. ...) translation in one or more planes. It has no linkage across-the-joint. This prosthesis is made of alloys, such as cobalt-chromium-molybdenum, and is intended to resurface one tibial condyle. The generic type...

  8. Patellofemoral Joint Reconstruction for Patellar Instability: Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction, Trochleoplasty, and Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Dean, Chase S; Chahla, Jorge; Serra Cruz, Raphael; Cram, Tyler R; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-02-01

    Recurrent patellar instability can be very debilitating and may require surgical intervention. A thorough workup must be completed in this subset of patients. Risk factors for recurrent instability include patella alta, trochlear dysplasia, an increased tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distance, and insufficiencies in the medial retinacular structures. Necessary treatment of these risk factors, once identified, should be addressed surgically. Patellofemoral reconstruction must be individually tailored to each patient's anatomy and may necessitate medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction, tibial tubercle osteotomy, or trochleoplasty in any combination or as a standalone procedure. This article details our technique for surgical treatment of recurrent patellar instability with a medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction, an open trochleoplasty, and a tibial tubercle osteotomy for patients with severe trochlear dysplasia, an increased tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distance, or patella alta.

  9. Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of the Tibial Plateau Through the Anterolateral Approach.

    PubMed

    Hake, Mark E; Goulet, James A

    2016-08-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are challenging injuries to treat. The lateral tibial plateau is fractured more commonly than the medial plateau and the workhorse approach for these fractures is the anterolateral approach. This approach allows visualization of the lateral joint, metaphysis, and can be extensile if there is shaft extension. We present our technique for performing the anterolateral approach while treating a Schatzker III tibial plateau fracture. Special attention is given to performing a submeniscal arthrotomy to view the joint surface and judge the reduction. A femoral distractor is placed to assist with elevation the joint surface and visualization of the lateral plateau. A cortical window is created using a triple reamer from the sliding hip screw set. The reduction is performed and supported with cancellous bone chips. Finally, a lateral locking plate with rafting screws is placed. Knowledge of this approach and the strategies needed to address lateral and some bicondlar tibial plateau fractures are crucial to good patient outcomes.

  10. Posterior Tibial Tendoscopy: Endoscopic Synovectomy and Assessment of the Spring (Calcaneonavicular) Ligament.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-12-01

    A tear of the spring ligament is frequently associated with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. Repair of the damaged spring ligament is an important component of surgical reconstruction in the treatment of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction because it is a major anatomic contributor to the integrity of the medial longitudinal arch, particularly if the dynamic support of the posterior tibial tendon is compromised. Extensive dissection is required for exposure and repair of the ligament because it is a deep-seated structure. It is beneficial to confirm the presence of ligament tears before surgical exploration to avoid unnecessary dissection. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound studies have moderate sensitivity in the detection of these tears. We report an arthroscopic technique for assessment of the integrity of the spring ligament during endoscopic or open reconstruction of the posterior tibial tendon. This allows the surgeon to confirm the presence of a ligament tear before additional dissection to explore and repair the ligament.

  11. Comparative study of anatomical landmark technique and self-aligned tibial component rotation determined by computer-assisted TKA.

    PubMed

    Chotanaphuti, Thanainit; Panichcharoen, Watcharin; Laoruengthana, Artit

    2012-10-01

    An improper femoral and tibial component rotation is one of a major reason leading to a failed TKA. There is controversial on determination of rotational alignment particularly on a tibial component. An anatomical landmarks and a self-aligned technique have been proposed. It is the authors' purpose to determine the difference between two techniques in setting the rotation of tibial component. The authors conducted a prospective, comparative study of 30 consecutive primary total knee arthroplasty. There were 4 men and 26 women with mean age of 68.6 years. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon with a navigation system. The degree of rotation of the tibial trial component established by a just-medial to the tibial tuberosity and self-aligned technique was compared. A mean of the degree of the tibial component rotation with the self-aligned of the center-post technique was 3 degrees more externally rotated than the just-medial to the tibial tuberosity technique. The self-aligned technique had standard deviations of 4.41 degrees, of which was significantly less variable (p < 0.05) than 5.94 degrees of the just-medial to the tibial tuberosity technique. The authors conclude that establishment of the tibial component rotation by using the self-aligned of the center-post technique will rotate the component more external compared with the just-medial to the tibial tuberosity technique.

  12. Computer-assisted navigation decreases the change in the tibial posterior slope angle after closed-wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Bae, Dae Kyung; Ko, Young Wan; Kim, Sang Jun; Baek, Jong Hun; Song, Sang Jun

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the change in tibial posterior slope angle (PSA) between patients treated via computer-assisted and conventional closed-wedge high tibial osteotomy (CWHTO). It was hypothesized that a decrease in the PSA would be less in the computer-assisted group than in the conventional group. Data on a total of 75 computer-assisted CWHTOs (60 patients) and 75 conventional CWHTOs (49 patients) were retrospectively compared using matched pair analysis. The pre- and postoperative mechanical axis (MA) and the PSA were radiographically evaluated. The parallel angle was defined as the angle between the joint line and the osteotomy surface. The data were compared between the two groups. The postoperative radiographic MA averaged 1.3° ± 2.6° valgus in the computer-assisted group and 0.3° ± 3.1° varus in the conventional group. The change in PSA averaged -0.8° ± 0.9° in the computer-assisted group and -4.0° ± 2.2° in the conventional group. The parallel angle averaged 0.2° ± 3.0° in the computer-assisted group and 6.2° ± 5.3° in the conventional group. Computer-assisted CWHTO using four guide pins could avoid inadvertent change in the PSA. The navigation can be used in anticipation of decreasing the risk of change in the PSA in CWHTO, especially in patients whose preoperative PSA is small. The special attention should be paid to locate the hinge axis acutely and to make the parallel proximal and distal osteotomy surfaces during CWHTO. III.

  13. Dynamic and static tibial translation in patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency initially treated with a structured rehabilitation protocol.

    PubMed

    Sonesson, Sofi; Kvist, Joanna

    2017-08-01

    To compare dynamic and static tibial translation, in patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency, at 2- to 5-year follow-up, with the tibial translation after 4 months of rehabilitation initiated early after the injury. Secondarily, to compare tibial translation in the injured knee and non-injured knee and explore correlations between dynamic and static tibial translation. Twelve patients with ACL rupture were assessed at 3-8 weeks after ACL injury, after 4 months of structured rehabilitation, and 2-5 years after ACL injury. Sagittal tibial translation was measured during the Lachman test (static translation) and during gait (dynamic translation) using a CA-4000 electrogoniometer. Static tibial translation was increased bilateral 2-5 years after ACL injury, whereas the dynamic tibial translation was unchanged. Tibial translation was greater in the injured knee compared with the non-injured knee (Lachman test 134 N 9.1 ± 1.0 vs. 7.0 ± 1.7 mm, P = 0.001, gait 5.6 ± 2.1 vs. 4.7 ± 1.8 mm, P = 0.011). There were no correlations between dynamic and static tibial translation. Dynamic tibial translation was unchanged in spite of increased static tibial translation in the ACL-deficient knee at 2- to 5-year follow-up compared to directly after rehabilitation. Dynamic tibial translation did not correlate with the static tibial translation. A more normal gait kinematics may be maintained from completion of a rehabilitation programme to mid-term follow-up in patients with ACL deficiency treated with rehabilitation only. IV.

  14. Bi-cruciate stabilized total knee arthroplasty can reduce the risk of knee instability associated with posterior tibial slope.

    PubMed

    Hada, Masaru; Mizu-Uchi, Hideki; Okazaki, Ken; Kaneko, Takao; Murakami, Koji; Ma, Yuan; Hamai, Satoshi; Nakashima, Yasuharu

    2017-09-22

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between posterior tibial slope and knee kinematics in bi-cruciate stabilized (BCS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA), which has not been previously reported. This computer simulation study evaluated Journey 2 BCS components (Smith & Nephew, Inc., Memphis, TN, USA) implanted in a female patient to simulate weight-bearing stair climbing. Knee kinematics, patellofemoral contact forces, and quadriceps forces during stair climbing (from 86° to 6° of flexion) were computed in the simulation. Six different posterior tibial slope angles (0°-10°) were simulated to evaluate the effect of posterior tibial slope on knee kinematics and forces. At 65° of knee flexion, no anterior sliding of the tibial component occurred if the posterior tibial slope was less than 10°. Anterior contact between the anterior aspect of the tibial post- and the femoral component was observed if the posterior tibial slope was 6° or more. An increase of 10° in posterior tibial slope (relative to 0°) led to a 4.8% decrease in maximum patellofemoral contact force and a 1.2% decrease in maximum quadriceps force. BCS TKA has a wide acceptable range of posterior tibial slope for avoiding knee instability if the posterior tibial slope is less than 10°. Surgeons should prioritize avoiding adverse effects over trying to achieve positive effects such as decreasing patellofemoral contact force and quadriceps force by increasing posterior tibial slope. Our study helps surgeons determine the optimal posterior tibial slope during surgery with BCS TKA; posterior tibial slope should not exceed 10° in routine clinical practice.

  15. Effect of ACL Transection on Internal Tibial Rotation in an in Vitro Simulated Pivot Landing

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Youkeun K.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Wojtys, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The amount of resistance provided by the ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) to axial tibial rotation remains controversial. The goal of this study was to test the primary hypotheses that ACL transection would not significantly affect tibial rotation under the large impulsive loads associated with a simulated pivot landing but would increase anterior tibial translation. Methods: Twelve cadaveric knees (mean age of donors [and standard deviation] at the time of death, 65.0 ± 10.5 years) were mounted in a custom testing apparatus to simulate a single-leg pivot landing. A compound impulsive load was applied to the distal part of the tibia with compression (∼800 N), flexion moment (∼40 N-m), and axial tibial torque (∼17 N-m) in the presence of five trans-knee muscle forces. A differential variable reluctance transducer mounted on the anteromedial aspect of the ACL measured relative strain. With the knee initially in 15° of flexion, and after five combined compression and flexion moment (baseline) loading trials, six trials were conducted with the addition of either internal or external tibial torque (internal or external loading), and then six baseline trials were performed. The ACL was then sectioned, six baseline trials were repeated, and then six trials of either the internal or the external loading condition, whichever had initially resulted in the larger relative ACL strain, were carried out. Tibiofemoral kinematics were measured optoelectronically. The results were analyzed with a nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Following ACL transection, the increase in the normalized internal tibial rotation was significant but small (0.7°/N-m ± 0.3°/N-m to 0.8°/N-m ± 0.3°/N-m, p = 0.012), while anterior tibial translation increased significantly (3.8 ± 2.9 to 7.0 ± 2.9 mm, p = 0.017). Conclusions: ACL transection leads to a small increase in internal tibial rotation, equivalent to a 13% decrease in the dynamic rotational resistance

  16. Outcomes of selective tibial artery repair following combat-related extremity injury.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Gabriel E; Cox, Mitchell; Clouse, W Darrin; Porras, Chantel; Gifford, Shaun M; Williams, Ken; Propper, Brandon W; Rasmussen, Todd E

    2010-07-01

    Selective tibial revascularization refers to the practice of vessel repair vs ligation or observation based on factors observed at the time of injury. Although commonly employed, the effectiveness of this strategy and its impact on sustained limb salvage is unknown. The objective of this study is to define the factors most relevant in selective tibial artery revascularization and to characterize limb salvage following tibial-level vascular injury. The cohort of active-duty military patients undergoing infrapopliteal artery repair comprises the tibial Bypass group. A similarly injured cohort of patients that did not undergo operative vascular intervention (No Bypass group) was identified. All tibial vessel injuries were documented by angiography. Data were compiled via medical records and patient interview. The primary outcome measure was failure of limb salvage. Multivariate regression was performed to identify factors associated with revascularization and to describe factors associated with amputation. Between March 2003 and September 2008, 135 of 1332 patients with battle-related vascular injuries had documented tibial vessel disruption or occlusion. Of these, 104 were included for analysis. Twenty-one underwent autologous vein bypass at the time of injury (Bypass group), and the remaining 83 patients were managed without revascularization (No Bypass group). Mean follow-up (39 vs 41 months; P = .27), age (25 vs 27 years; P = .66), and mechanism of injury (88% vs 92% penetrating blast; P = .56) were similar, but the No Bypass group had higher Injury Severity Scores (ISS; 16.3 vs 11.7; P < .01). Injury characteristics, including Gustilo III classification (49% vs 43%; P = .81) and nerve injury (55% vs 53%; P = 1.0), were similar. Subjects were more likely to receive tibial bypass with an increasing number of tibial vessel occlusions and documented ischemia on initial exam. However, of the 23 in the No Bypass group with initially unobtainable Doppler signals, 17 (74

  17. Combined radial-tibial access strategy and radial-tibial reverse CART in a patient with aortobifemoral graft and complex superficial femoral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Elias B; Prout, Davey L

    2017-09-01

    We present the case of a patient with a history of aortobifemoral grafting who presented with left lower extremity ischemic rest pain. Aortofemoral angiography was performed through a left radial access and showed a long, calcified total occlusion of the left superficial femoral artery (SFA) and a subtotal popliteal occlusion. The popliteal artery and SFA were crossed retrogradely through a 4-Fr anterior tibial access; the retrograde devices went subintimally and did not reenter at the common femoral level. Subsequently, the radial access was used for antegrade subintimal crossing and dilatation of the SFA, which allowed reentry of the retrograde devices (radial-tibial reverse controlled antegrade-retrograde tracking [CART]). The SFA was then successfully treated retrogradely with orbital atherectomy and drug-coated balloon angioplasty, through a 4-Fr equivalent tibial sheath. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Are knee mechanics during early stance related to tibial stress fracture in runners?

    PubMed

    Milner, Clare E; Hamill, Joseph; Davis, Irene

    2007-07-01

    Tibial stress fractures are a serious overuse injury in runners. Greater vertical loading rates and tibial shock have been found in runners with previous tibial stress fracture compared to controls. The timing of these variables occurs very early in the stance phase and suggests that conditions shortly after footstrike may be important in determining injury risk. The purpose of this study was to further investigate lower extremity mechanics in early stance in runners with a history of tibial stress fracture. In addition, the relationships between these variables were explored. Twenty-three runners with a history of tibial stress fracture were investigated. They were compared with 23 age and mileage matched control subjects with no previous lower extremity bony injuries. Data were collected as subjects ran at 3.7 m/s. All variables of interest were computed over the period from footstrike to the impact peak of the vertical ground reaction force. Independent t-tests and effect sizes were used to assess the differences between the groups. Pearson Product Moment correlations were used to determine whether initial stance variables were related to tibial shock in the two groups. Sagittal plane knee stiffness was significantly greater in the tibial stress fracture group. Stiffness was also positively correlated with shock. Knee excursion, knee angle at footstrike and shank angle at footstrike were not different between groups. These findings provide further support for the relationship between mechanics during initial loading and tibial stress fractures in runners. This relationship may be important in terms of retraining gait to reduce the risk of stress fracture in runners.

  19. Physeal growth arrest after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia: 23 children followed to skeletal maturity.

    PubMed

    Song, Sang-Heon; Agashe, Mandar Vikas; Huh, Young-Jae; Hwang, Soon-Young; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2012-06-01

    Bilateral tibial lengthening has become one of the standard treatments for upper segment-lower segment disproportion and to improve quality of life in achondroplasia. We determined the effect of tibial lengthening on the tibial physis and compared tibial growth that occurred at the physis with that in non-operated patients with achondroplasia. We performed a retrospective analysis of serial radiographs until skeletal maturity in 23 achondroplasia patients who underwent bilateral tibial lengthening before skeletal maturity (lengthening group L) and 12 achondroplasia patients of similar height and age who did not undergo tibial lengthening (control group C). The mean amount of lengthening of tibia in group L was 9.2 cm (lengthening percentage: 60%) and the mean age at the time of lengthening was 8.2 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 9.8 years. Skeletal maturity (fusion of physis) occurred at 15.2 years in group L and at 16.0 years in group C. The actual length of tibia (without distraction) at skeletal maturity was 238 mm in group L and 277 mm in group C (p = 0.03). The mean growth rates showed a decrease in group L relative to group C from about 2 years after surgery. Physeal closure was most pronounced on the anterolateral proximal tibial physis, with relative preservation of the distal physis. Our findings indicate that physeal growth rate can be disturbed after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia, and a close watch should be kept for such an occurrence-especially when lengthening of more than 50% is attempted.

  20. Treatment of complex tibial fractures in children with the taylor spatial frame.

    PubMed

    Eidelman, Mark; Katzman, Alexander

    2008-10-01

    Most tibial shaft fractures in children can be treated with closed reduction and cast fixation, but some fractures need external or internal fixation. The Taylor spatial frame (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, Tennessee) is a relatively new external fixator that can correct 6-axis deformities with computer accuracy. This article reports our experience using the Taylor spatial frame as a rewarding treatment modality for complex tibial fractures in children and adolescents.

  1. Tibial Fixation of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Allograft Tendons. Comparison of 1-, 2-, and 4-Stranded Constructs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Tibial Fixation of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Allograft Tendons 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...2009 The Author(s) Tibial Fixation of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Allograft Tendons Comparison of 1-, 2-, and 4-Stranded Constructs Daniel K. Park,* MD...4-stranded allografts are used for soft tissue anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; however, the fixation properties of fixation devices are

  2. SIMULTANEOUS BILATERAL AVULSION FRACTURE OF THE TIBIAL TUBEROSITY IN A TEENAGER: CASE REPORT AND THERAPY USED

    PubMed Central

    e Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires; Giordano, Vincenzo; Carvalho, Antônio Carlos Pires; Puell, Thiago; e Albuquerque, Maria Isabel Pires; do Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral avulsion fracture of the tibial tuberosity in teenagers is a rare lesion. We describe the first case in the literature, in a teenage girl who sustained a fall while jumping during a volleyball match. No predisposing factors were iden tified. The lesions were treated with open surgical reduction and internal fixation. The aim of the present study was to present a case of simultaneous bilateral avulsion fracture of the tibial tuberosity in a teenage girl and the therapy used. PMID:27042651

  3. Aging is Not a Risk Factor for Femoral and Tibial Fractures in Motor Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Ryb, Gabriel; Dischinger, Patricia; Kleinberger, Michael; Burch, Cynthia; Ho, Shiu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of aging on the occurence of femoral and tibial fractures during vehicular crashes. Methods The Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN), which includes occupants of a vehicle < 8 years old with at least one AIS ≥3 or two AIS ≥2 injuries in different body regions, comprised the study population. The occurrence of femoral and tibial fractures during vehicular crashes was analyzed in relation to age and other confounders [gender, BMI, stature, change in velocity (Δv), restraint use, occupant position (driver vs. passenger) and principal direction of force (PDOF)] using χ2, Mantel-Haenszel χ2 and student t test. Multiple logistic regression (MLR) models were built for the prediction of femoral and tibial fractures with age as the independent variable and possible confounders as co-variates. An α = 0.05 was used for all statistics. Results The incidence of femoral and tibial fractures in the study population (N=1,418) was 23% and 27%, respectively. Univariate analyses revealed a negative association between increasing age and femoral fractures and no association between age and tibial fractures. MLR models revealed no clear effect of increasing age on the occurrence of either femoral or tibial fractures. Obesity, frontal PDOF, and high Delta;v affected the occurrence of femoral fractures. Tibial fractures were influenced by occupant position (driver), frontal PDOF, high Δv and shorter stature. Conclusion Despite the known changes in bone composition and strength with aging, elderly vehicular occupants do not experience higher odds of incurring femoral and tibial fractures during crashes. PMID:19026239

  4. Posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by means of tibial tunnel: anatomical study on cadavers for tunnel positioning.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Antônio Altenor Bessa; Janovsky, César; da Silveira Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo; Ramos, Leonardo Addêo; Granata Junior, Geraldo Sérgio Mello; Luzo, Marcos Vinicius Malheiros; Cohen, Moises

    2014-01-01

    to determine the reference points for the exit of the tibial guidewire in relation to the posterior cortical bone of the tibia. sixteen knees from fresh cadavers were used for this study. Using a viewing device and a guide marked out in millimeters, three guidewires were passed through the tibia at 0, 10 and 15 mm distally in relation to the posterior crest of the tibia. Dissections were performed and the region of the center of the tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) was determined in each knee. The distances between the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL and the posterior tibial border (CB) and between the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL and wires 1, 2 and 3 (CW1, CW2 and CW3) were measured. in the dissected knees, we found the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL at 1.09 ± 0.06 cm from the posterior tibial border. The distances between the wires 1, 2 and 3 and the center of the tibial insertion of the PCL were respectively 1.01 ± 0.08, 0.09 ± 0.05 and 0.5 ± 0.05 cm. the guidewire exit point 10 mm distal in relation to the posterior crest of the tibia was the best position for attempting to reproduce the anatomical center of the PCL.

  5. Atypical presentation of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: involvement of the anterior tibial artery.

    PubMed

    Bou, Steven; Day, Carly

    2014-11-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a rare condition that should be suspected in a young patient with exertional lower extremity pain. We report the case of an 18-year-old female volleyball player with bilateral exertional lower extremity pain who had been previously diagnosed with tendinitis and periostitis. Diagnostic studies showed entrapment of the left popliteal artery and the left anterior tibial artery. To our knowledge, there has only been 1 previous report of anterior tibial artery involvement in PAES.

  6. Unicompartmental Knee Osteoarthritis (UKOA): Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty (UKA) or High Tibial Osteotomy (HTO)?

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Merchan, E. Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to analyze the results of high tibial osteotomy compared to unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in patients with unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis. The search engine used was PubMed. The keywords were: “high tibial osteotomy versus unicompartmental knee arthroplasty”. Twenty-one articles were found on 28 February 2015, but only eighteen were selected and reviewed because they strictly focused on the topic. In a meta-analysis the ratio for an excellent outcome was higher in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty than high tibial osteotomy and the risks of revision and complications were lower in the former. A prospective comparative study showed that unicompartmental knee arthroplasty offers better long-term success (77% for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty and 60% for high tibial osteotomy at 7-10 years). However, a review of the literature showed no evidence of superior results of one treatment over the other. A multicenter study stated that unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis without constitutional deformity should be treated with unicompartmental knee arthroplasty while in cases with constitutional deformity high tibial osteotomy should be indicated. A case control study stated that unicompartmental knee arthroplasty offers a viable alternative to high tibial osteotomy if proper patient selection is done. The literature is still controversial regarding the best surgical treatment for unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis (high tibial osteotomy or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty). However, unicompartmental knee arthroplasty utilization is increasing, while high tibial osteotomy utilization is decreasing, and a meta-analysis has shown better outcomes and less risk of revision and complications in the former. A systematic review has found that with correct patient selection, both procedures show effective and reliable results. However, prospective randomized studies are needed in order to answer the question of this article

  7. A Modified Levering Technique for Removing a Broken Solid Intramedullary Tibial Nail: A Technical Tip.

    PubMed

    Pullen, W Michael; Erdle, Nicholas J; Crickard, Colin; Smith, Christopher S

    Intramedullary tibial fixation is a commonly used and highly successfully treatment in acute fractures, nonunion settings, and correctional procedures. In the setting of a nonunion, removal of a failed implant can add to operative time and surgeon frustration while further compromising bone in an area already at risk for failure. Here we present a technique, using readily accessible equipment, for removing a distal solid tibial nail fragment in a manner that preserves bone.

  8. The biomechanical characteristics of arthroscopic tibial inlay techniques for posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: in vitro comparison of tibial graft tunnel placement.

    PubMed

    Benedetto, Karl Peter; Hoffelner, Thomas; Osti, Michael

    2014-11-01

    The hypothesis of the present study was that the biomechanical properties of arthroscopic tibial inlay procedures depend on tibial graft bone block position. Five paired fresh-frozen human cadaveric knee specimens were randomized to a reconstruction with quadriceps tendon placing the replicated footprint either to the more proximal margin of the remnants of the anatomical PCL fibrous attachments (group A) or to the distal margin of the anatomical PCL fibrous attachments at the edge of the posterior tibial facet to the posterior tibial cortex in level with the previous physis line (group B). The relative graft-tibia motions, post cycling pull-out failure load and failure properties of the tibia-graft fixation were measured. Cyclic displacement at 5, 500 and 1,000 cycles, stiffness and yield strength were calculated. The cyclic displacement at 5, 500 and 1,000 cycles measured consistently more in group A without statistically significant difference (4.11 ± 1.37, 7.73 ± 2.73 and 8.18 ± 2.75 mm versus 2.81 ± 1.33, 6.01 ± 2.37 and 6.46 ± 2.37 mm). Mean ultimate load to failure (564.6 ± 212.3) and yield strength (500.2 ± 185.9 N) were significantly higher in group B (p < 0.05). Replicating the anatomical PCL footprint at the posterior edge of the posterior tibial facet yields higher pull-out strength and less cycling loading displacement compared to a tunnel position at the centre of the posterior tibial facet.

  9. Tibial tubercle osteotomy in patello-femoral instability and in patellar height abnormality.

    PubMed

    Caton, Jacques H; Dejour, David

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to present the different surgical procedures of tibial tubercle osteotomies for patellar instability or patellar mispositioning such as patella alta or patella infera. This study analysed the Caton-Deschamps index used for assessment of vertical patella height in order to make a precise plan for tibial tuberosity osteotomies. This study included 61 knees (50 patients) treated for patellar instability with patella alta and 24 patients treated for patella infera of mechanical origin. The results of medial transfer of the tibial tuberosity, with or without distal transfer in cases of patellar instability with patella alta, gives excellent results for stability in 76.8% of the cases. The results of the proximal transfer of the tibial tuberosity in cases of patella infera were excellent or good in 80% of the cases in our series of 24 patients. A precise preoperative plan is needed with determination of the vertical patellar height using the Caton-Deschamps index and the situation of the tibial tuberosity and the Tibial Tubercle to Trochlear Groove distance (TT-TG) of the knee on CT scan in order to obtain satisfactory results.

  10. Tibial tubercle osteotomy in patello-femoral instability and in patellar height abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Dejour, David

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present the different surgical procedures of tibial tubercle osteotomies for patellar instability or patellar mispositioning such as patella alta or patella infera. This study analysed the Caton–Deschamps index used for assessment of vertical patella height in order to make a precise plan for tibial tuberosity osteotomies. This study included 61 knees (50 patients) treated for patellar instability with patella alta and 24 patients treated for patella infera of mechanical origin. The results of medial transfer of the tibial tuberosity, with or without distal transfer in cases of patellar instability with patella alta, gives excellent results for stability in 76.8% of the cases. The results of the proximal transfer of the tibial tuberosity in cases of patella infera were excellent or good in 80% of the cases in our series of 24 patients. A precise preoperative plan is needed with determination of the vertical patellar height using the Caton–Deschamps index and the situation of the tibial tuberosity and the Tibial Tubercle to Trochlear Groove distance (TT-TG) of the knee on CT scan in order to obtain satisfactory results. PMID:20066411

  11. Biomechanical analysis on transverse tibial fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions☆

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Edmar Stieven; Mendes, Mariane Henseler Damaceno; Claudino, Stephanie; Baracho, Filipe; Borges, Paulo César; da Cunha, Luiz Antonio Munhoz

    2015-01-01

    Objective To verify whether the combination of tibial cross pin fixation and femoral screw fixation presents biomechanical advantages when compared to femoral cross pin fixation and tibial screw fixation for the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Methods Thirty-eight porcine knees and bovine extensor digitorum tendons were used as the graft materials. The tests were performed in three groups: (1) standard, used fourteen knees, and the grafts were fixated with the combination of femoral cross pin and a tibial screw; (2) inverted, used fourteen knees with an inverted combination of tibial cross pin and a femoral screw; (3) control, ten control tests performed with intact ACL. After the grafts fixation, all the knees were subjected to tensile testing to determine yield strength and ultimate strength. Results There was no statistically significant difference in survival techniques in regard to strength, yield load and tension. There was a higher survival compared in the standard curves of yield stress (p < 0.05). Conclusion There is no biomechanical advantage, observed in animal models testing, in the combination of tibial cross pin fixation and femoral screw when compared to femoral cross pin fixation and tibial screw. PMID:26229913

  12. Manufacturing lot affects polyethylene tibial insert volume, thickness, and surface geometry.

    PubMed

    Teeter, Matthew G; Milner, Jaques S; MacDonald, Steven J; Naudie, Douglas D R

    2013-08-01

    To perform wear measurements on retrieved joint replacement implants, a reference geometry of the implant's original state is required. Since implants are rarely individually scanned before implantation, a different, new implant of the same kind and size is frequently used. However, due to manufacturing variability, errors may be introduced into these measurements, as the dimensions between the retrieved and reference components may not be exactly the same. The hypothesis of this study was that new polyethylene tibial inserts from different manufacturing lots would demonstrate greater variability than those from the same lot. In total, 12 new tibial inserts of the same model and size were obtained, 5 from the same lot and the remainder from different lots. The geometry of each tibial insert was obtained using microcomputed tomography. Measurements of tibial insert volume, thickness, and three-dimensional surface deviations were obtained and compared between tibial inserts from the same and different manufacturing lots. Greater variability was found for the tibial inserts from different manufacturing lots for all types of measurements, including a fourfold difference in volume variability (p < 0.001) and a maximum of 0.21 mm difference in thickness (p < 0.001). Investigators should be aware of this potential confounding error and take steps to minimize it, such as by averaging together the geometries of multiple new components from different manufacturing lots for use as the reference geometry.

  13. Lumbosacral spinal segmental contributions to tibial and pudendal neuromodulation of bladder overactivity in cats.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Utsav; Fuller, Thomas W; Jiang, Xuewen; Bandari, Jathin; Zhang, Zhaocun; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2017-08-01

    To determine the spinal segmental afferent contributions to tibial and pudendal inhibition of bladder overactivity. Intravesical infusion of 0.5% acetic acid was used to irritate the bladder and induce bladder overactivity in anesthetized cats. Tibial or pudendal nerve stimulation was used to suppress the bladder overactivity and increase bladder capacity during cystometry. L5-S3 dorsal roots ipsilateral to the stimulation were exposed by a laminectomy and transected sequentially during the experiments to determine the role of individual dorsal roots in tibial or pudendal neuromodulation. Transection of L5 dorsal root had no effect. Transection of L6 dorsal root in four cats produced an average 18% reduction in tibial inhibition, which is not a significant change when averaged in the group of 10 cats. Transection of L7 dorsal root completely removed the tibial inhibition without changing reflex bladder activity or pudendal inhibition. Transection of S1 dorsal root reduced the pudendal inhibition, after which transection of S2 dorsal root completely removed the pudendal inhibition. Transection of S3 dorsal root had no effect. The control bladder capacity was increased only by transection of S2 dorsal root. This study in cats revealed that tibial and pudendal neuromodulation of reflex bladder overactivity depends on activation of primary afferent pathways that project into different spinal segments. This difference may be related to the recent observation in cats that the two types of neuromodulation have different mechanisms of action. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Irritation Induced Bladder Overactivity Is Suppressed by Tibial Nerve Stimulation in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Changfeng; Chen, Mang; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R.; de Groat, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of tibial nerve stimulation on bladder overactivity induced by acetic acid (AA) irritation. Material and Methods Cystometry was performed in 10 α-chloralose anesthetized female cats by infusing saline or AA through a urethral catheter that was secured by a ligature around the urethra. Intravesical infusion of 0.25% AA was used to irritate the bladder and induce bladder overactivity. Multiple cystometrograms (CMGs) were performed before, during, and after tibial nerve stimulation to determine the inhibitory effect on the micturition reflex. Results Infusion of 0.25% AA irritated the bladder, induced bladder overactivity, and significantly reduced the bladder capacity to about 20% of the control capacity measured during saline infusion. Tibial nerve stimulation at either low (5 Hz) or high (30 Hz) frequency significantly increased bladder capacity to about 40% of the saline control capacity when it was applied during AA infusion CMG. The amplitude of bladder contractions was smaller during AA irritation than during saline distention due to a significantly smaller bladder capacity. Tibial nerve stimulation at 5 Hz not only increased bladder capacity but also increased the amplitude of bladder contractions. Conclusion Activation of somatic afferents in the tibial nerve of cats can partially reverse the bladder overactivity induced by intravesical administration of a chemical irritant that activates C-fiber afferent nerves. These data are consistent with clinical studies showing that tibial nerve neuromodulation is effective in treating overactive bladder symptoms. PMID:21600604

  15. Irritation induced bladder overactivity is suppressed by tibial nerve stimulation in cats.

    PubMed

    Tai, Changfeng; Chen, Mang; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the effects of tibial nerve stimulation on bladder overactivity induced by acetic acid irritation. Cystometry was performed in 10 α-chloralose anesthetized female cats by infusing saline or acetic acid through a urethral catheter that was secured by a ligature around the urethra. Intravesical infusion of 0.25% acetic acid was used to irritate the bladder and induce bladder overactivity. Multiple cystometrograms were done before, during and after tibial nerve stimulation to determine the inhibitory effect on the micturition reflex. Infusion of 0.25% acetic acid irritated the bladder, induced bladder overactivity and significantly decreased bladder capacity to about 20% of control capacity measured during saline infusion. Tibial nerve stimulation at low (5 Hz) or high (30 Hz) frequency significantly increased bladder capacity to about 40% of saline control capacity when it was applied during acetic acid infusion cystometrogram. Bladder contraction amplitude was smaller during acetic acid irritation than during saline distention due to significantly smaller bladder capacity. Tibial nerve stimulation at 5 Hz increased bladder capacity and bladder contraction amplitude. Activation of somatic afferents in the tibial nerve of cats can partially reverse the bladder overactivity induced by intravesical administration of a chemical irritant that activates C-fiber afferent nerves. These data are consistent with clinical studies showing that tibial nerve neuromodulation is effective treatment for overactive bladder symptoms. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An Innovative Intra-articular Osteotomy in the Treatment of Posterolateral Tibial Plateau Fracture Malunion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yukai; Luo, Congfeng; Hu, Chengfang; Sun, Hui; Zhan, Yu

    2016-07-13

    Posterolateral tibial plateau fractures are not uncommon and the diagnosis can be easily missed. The treatment is technically demanding, which can easily lead to malunion of the posterolateral tibial plateau fracture. Here, we describe an innovative intra-articular osteotomy for the treatment of posterolateral tibial plateau fracture malunion. From 2010 through 2012, 13 patients with a posterolateral tibial plateau fracture malunion were treated in our trauma center. The patients were referred because of instability or knee pain. The instability was confirmed by physical examinations preoperatively. The depression malunion and lower limb alignment were evaluated on X-rays and computed tomography scans. All posterolateral tibial plateau fracture malunions were treated with an innovative intra-articular osteotomy via an extended anterolateral approach. The mean follow-up was 19.6 months (range, 14-28 months). The posterolateral osteotomy healed at an average of 15.1 weeks. The depression malunion was corrected in all patients, which was from 15.4 mm preoperatively to 3.3 mm at 12 months postoperatively. The average Lysholm, Knee Society Score, and visual analog scale scores were 91.7, 92.5, and 0.5, respectively. No loss of reduction, nonunion, or wound infection was observed. An innovative intra-articular osteotomy via an extended anterolateral approach is an effective treatment for posterolateral tibial plateau fracture malunion. The treatment achieved satisfactory functional results and knee stability restoration.

  17. Molybdenum but not copper counteracts cysteine-induced tibial dyschondroplasia in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Bai, Y; Sunde, M L; Cook, M E

    1994-04-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the ability of copper and molybdenum to prevent cysteine-induced tibial dyschondroplasia in broiler chicks. Experiment 1 was a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments used to investigate the interaction between Cu (0, 150 or 300 mg/kg diet) and Mo (0, 10, or 100 mg/kg diet) on cysteine-induced tibial dyschondroplasia. Molybdenum at both supplemental levels, but not Cu, prevented cysteine-induced tibial dyschondroplasia. In Experiment 2 (a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with 0, 5 or 10 g/kg diet of cysteine and 0, 10 or 100 mg/kg diet of Mo), Mo prevented cysteine-induced but not spontaneous tibial dyschondroplasia. Cysteine and Mo did not affect the mechanical properties of the tibiotarsus. In Experiment 3, cysteine (0 or 10 g/kg diet) and Mo (0 or 100 mg/kg diet) were used to study the tissue concentrations of mineral and hepatic sulfite oxidase activity. Supplemental Mo increased Mo concentrations in the plasma and liver. Cysteine prevented these increases; however, cysteine, in the absence of supplemental Mo, did not affect concentrations of Mo in these tissues. Dietary cysteine and/or Mo did not affect tissue levels of Cu. We conclude that Mo prevents cysteine-induced tibial dyschondroplasia and that the induction of tibial dyschondroplasia by cysteine is not related to the Mo and Cu deficiency.

  18. Measuring movement symmetry using tibial-mounted accelerometers for people recovering from total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Cory L.; Bade, Michael J.; Paxton, Roger J.; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this investigation was to examine movement symmetry changes over the first 26 weeks following unilateral total knee arthroplasty in community environments using skin-mounted tibial accelerometers. Comparisons to healthy participants of similar age were also made. Methods Patients (N = 24) with unilateral knee osteoarthritis (mean (SD), 65.2 (9.2) years) scheduled to undergo total knee arthroplasty and a control group (N = 19 healthy people; mean (SD), 61.3 (9.2) years) were recruited. The total knee arthroplasty group participated in a standardized course of physical rehabilitation. Tibial acceleration data were recorded during a Stair Climb Test and 6-Minute Walk Test. Tibial acceleration data were reduced to initial peak acceleration for each step. An inter-limb absolute symmetry index of tibial initial peak acceleration values was calculated. Findings The total knee arthroplasty group had greater between limb asymmetry for tibial initial peak acceleration and initial peak acceleration absolute symmetry index values five weeks after total knee arthroplasty, during the Stair Climb Test and the 6-Minute Walk Test. Interpretation Tibial accelerometry is a potential tool for measuring movement symmetry following unilateral total knee arthroplasty in clinical and community environments. Accelerometer-based symmetry outcomes follow patterns similar to published measures of limb loading recorded in laboratory settings. PMID:25979222

  19. Evaluation of intraoperative radioscopy on the coronal alignment of the tibial component in primary knee arthroplasty☆

    PubMed Central

    Cobra, Hugo; Hadid, Marcio Bruno; Jácome, Daniel Torres; de Sousa, Eduardo Branco; de Paula Mozella, Alan; e Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study had the objective of evaluating the effect of the use of intraoperative radioscopy in cases of primary knee arthroplasty, on the final alignment of the tibial component. Methods Patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) between April 13, 2013, and April 20, 2013, were included in the study. These patients were evaluated retrospectively and two groups were identified: one in which intraoperative radioscopy was used to assess the positioning of the tibial component during the surgery and the other in which this resource was not used. Results The mean angle of alignment of the tibial component in relation to the tibial diaphysis was greater in the group without use of intraoperative radioscopy (90.82) than in the group with radioscopy (90.63), which was a statistically significant result (p < 0.05). Conclusion Use of intraoperative radioscopy during TKA produced a better mean angle of alignment between the tibial component and the tibial diaphysis, in comparison with nonuse. PMID:26535200

  20. Patellar height and posterior tibial slope after open- and closed-wedge high tibial osteotomy: a radiological study on 100 patients.

    PubMed

    El-Azab, Hosam; Glabgly, Parpakorn; Paul, Jochen; Imhoff, Andreas B; Hinterwimmer, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Valgus high tibial osteotomy (HTO) may be associated with changes in the patellar height and posterior tibial slope. Patellar height increases and posterior tibial slope decreases after closed-wedge HTO, whereas patellar height decreases and tibial slope increases after open-wedge osteotomy. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Lateral radiographs of 100 knees were assessed for patellar height (PH) (Insall-Salvati index [ISI], Caton-De Champ index [CDI], and Blackburne-Peel index [BPI]) as well as posterior tibial slope. Measurements were done before HTO (50 closed wedge [CW], 50 open wedge [OW]), direct postoperatively, and before removal of the hardware. In the CW group, all 3 PH indices were increased direct postoperatively and at removal of the hardware, with changes in CDI and BPI being significant (P<.05). The effect size (ES) for the direct postoperative PH increase was medium (ES = 0.48) according to CDI. In the OW group, all 3 indices showed a significant (P <.05) PH decrease direct postoperatively and at hardware removal. The ES for the direct postoperative PH decrease was large according to CDI (ES = 0.92) and BPI (ES = 0.80). There were no significant changes between the 2 follow-up measurements (P > .05) with a small ES each. Posterior tibial slope showed a significant (P <.05) decrease of 3.1 degrees +/- 3.4 degrees after CW HTO and a significant (P <.05) increase of 2.1 degrees +/- 3.6 degrees after OW HTO direct postoperatively. These changes did not change at the second follow-up. In CW HTO, the correlations between frontal plane correction and PH changes were moderate (CDI: r = .57; BPI: r = .64). In OW HTO, these correlations were weak (CDI: r = .44; BPI: r = .46). According to ISI, there was no correlation (CW: r = .11; OW: r = .16). There was no correlation between PH changes and slope changes (CDI) and no correlation between frontal plane HTO correction and slope changes in both CW and OW HTO. The results confirm our hypothesis for PH and

  1. Sagittal patellar tilt and concomitant quadriceps hypotrophy after tibial nailing.

    PubMed

    Aksahin, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Serdar; Karasoy, Ismail; Duran, Semra; Yuksel, H Yalcin; Dogan, Ozgur; Yildirim, A Ozgur; Bicimoglu, Ali

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the patellofemoral alignment in the sagittal plane following tibial fracture surgery with intramedullary nailing and its relationship to parapatellar muscle status. The patellofemoral MRI results of 27 patients (15 males and 12 females) treated with locked intramedullary nailing following tibia shaft fracture were reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 41.8 (±15) years. The patella-patellar tendon angle (P-PT) and the distance between the inferior patellar pole and the tibial tubercle (DP-TT) were evaluated for both the operated extremity and the contralateral normal side. MRI assessment of the infrapatellar fat pad, quadriceps, sartorius, gracilis, semi-membranosus muscles and biceps muscles was also carried out. The correlation between the changes in skeletal muscle mass, the volume of the infrapatellar fat pad and the alterations in the DP-TT distances and P-PT angles were analysed. The quadriceps muscle cross-sectional diameter had a mean of 157.2 mm(2) (115.6/319.5) in the operated extremity, and it was 193 mm(2) (77.6/282.2) in the non-operated normal side (p = 0.001). For the Gracilis muscle, the mean was 84.4 mm(2) (19.7/171) at the operated extremity and 75.7 mm(2) (26.9/238.2) on the normal side (p = 0.05). The cross-sectional areas of the semi-membranosus, sartorius and biceps muscles in the operated and non-operated extremity were not noticeably different (n.s). The P-PT angle was 153° (129.7/156.4) in the operated extremity and 145.7° (137.6/163.4) in the non-operated normal extremity (p < 0.05). While DP-TT distance was 11.4 mm (9.4/20.4) in the operated extremity, it was 14.1 mm (7.3/17.1) in the non-operated extremity (p = 0.001). The correlation analyses revealed that the quadriceps hypotrophy negatively correlated (r = -0.4, p = 0.02) with the P-PT angle but positively correlated with the increase in gracilis muscle volume (r = 0.4, p = 0.03). This study revealed that patellofemoral

  2. Higher Rate of Revision in PFC Sigma Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty With Mismatch of Femoro-Tibial Component Sizes.

    PubMed

    Young, Simon W; Clarke, Henry D; Graves, Stephen E; Liu, Yen-Liang; de Steiger, Richard N

    2015-05-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) systems permit a degree of femoro-tibial component size mismatch. The effect of mismatched components on revision rates has not been evaluated in a large study. We reviewed 21,906 fixed-bearing PFC Sigma primary TKAs using the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry, dividing patients into three groups: no femoro-tibial size mismatch, tibial component size > femoral component size, and femoral component > tibial component. Revision rates were higher when the femoral size was greater than the tibia, compared to both equal size (HR = 1.20 (1.00, 1.45), P = 0.047) and to tibial size greater than femoral (HR = 1.60 (1.08, 2.37), P = 0.019). Potential mechanisms to explain these findings include edge loading of polyethylene and increased tibial component stresses.

  3. [The geometry of the keel determines the behaviour of the tibial tray against torsional forces in total knee replacement].

    PubMed

    García David, S; Cortijo Martínez, J A; Navarro Bermúdez, I; Maculé, F; Hinarejos, P; Puig-Verdié, L; Monllau, J C; Hernández Hermoso, J A

    2014-01-01

    The keel design of the tibial tray is essential for the transmission of the majority of the forces to the peripheral bone structures, which have better mechanical proprieties, thus reducing the risk of loosening. The aim of the present study was to compare the behaviour of different tibial tray designs submitted to torsional forces. Four different tibial components were modelled. The 3-D reconstruction was made using the Mimics software. The solid elements were generated by SolidWorks. The finite elements study was done by Unigraphics. A torsional force of 6 Nm. applied to the lateral aspects of each tibial tray was simulated. The GENUTECH® tibial tray, with peripheral trabecular bone support, showed a lower displacement and less transmitted tensions under torsional forces. The results suggest that a tibial tray with more peripheral support behaves mechanically better than the other studied designs.

  4. Fatigue strength of common tibial intramedullary nail distal locking screws

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Lanny V; Harris, Robert M; Zubak, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    Background Premature failure of either the nail and/or locking screws with unstable fracture patterns may lead to angulation, shortening, malunion, and IM nail migration. Up to thirty percent of all unreamed nail locking screws can break after initial weight bearing is allowed at 8–10 weeks if union has not occurred. The primary problem this presents is hardware removal during revision surgery. The purposes of our study was to evaluate the relative fatigue resistance of distal locking screws and bolts from representative manufacturers of tibial IM nail systems, and develop a relative risk assessment of screws and materials used. Evaluations included quantitative and qualitative measures of the relative performance of these screws. Methods Fatigue tests were conducted to simulate a comminuted fracture that was treated by IM nailing assuming that all load was carried by the screws. Each screw type was tested ten times in a single screw configuration. One screw type was tested an additional ten times in a two-screw parallel configuration. Fatigue tests were performed using a servohydraulic materials testing system and custom fixturing that simulated screws placed in the distal region of an appropriately sized tibial IM nail. Fatigue loads were estimated based on a seventy-five kilogram individual at full weight bearing. The test duration was one million cycles (roughly one year), or screw fracture, whichever occurred first. Failure analysis of a representative sample of titanium alloy and stainless steel screws included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantitative metallography. Results The average fatigue life of a single screw with a diameter of 4.0 mm was 1200 cycles, which would correspond roughly to half a day of full weight bearing. Single screws with a diameter of 4.5 mm or larger have approximately a 50 percent probability of withstanding a week of weight bearing, whereas a single 5.0 mm diameter screw has greater than 90 percent probability of

  5. Exposed tibial bone after burns: Flap reconstruction versus dermal substitute.

    PubMed

    Verbelen, Jozef; Hoeksema, Henk; Pirayesh, Ali; Van Landuyt, Koenraad; Monstrey, Stan

    2016-03-01

    A 44 years old male patient had suffered extensive 3rd degree burns on both legs, undergoing thorough surgical debridement, resulting in both tibias being exposed. Approximately 5 months after the incident he was referred to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the University Hospital Gent, Belgium, to undergo flap reconstruction. Free flap surgery was performed twice on both lower legs but failed on all four occasions. In between flap surgery, a dermal substitute (Integra(®)) was applied, attempting to cover the exposed tibias with a layer of soft tissue, but also without success. In order to promote the development of granulation tissue over the exposed bone, small holes were drilled in both tibias with removal of the outer layer of the anterior cortex causing the bone to bleed and subsequently negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was applied. The limited granulation tissue resulting from this procedure was then covered with a dermal substitute (Glyaderm(®)), consisting of acellular human dermis with an average thickness of 0.25mm. This dermal substitute was combined with a NPWT-dressing, and then served as an extracellular matrix (ECM), guiding the distribution of granulation tissue over the remaining areas of exposed tibial bone. Four days after initial application of Glyaderm(®) combined with NPWT both tibias were almost completely covered with a thin coating of soft tissue. In order to increase the thickness of this soft tissue cover two additional layers of Glyaderm(®) were applied at intervals of approximately 1 week. One week after the last Glyaderm(®) application both wounds were autografted. The combination of an acellular dermal substitute (Glyaderm(®)) with negative pressure wound therapy and skin grafting proved to be an efficient technique to cover a wider area of exposed tibial bone in a patient who was not a candidate for free flap surgery. An overview is also provided of newer and simpler techniques for coverage of

  6. Fatigue strength of common tibial intramedullary nail distal locking screws.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Lanny V; Harris, Robert M; Zubak, Joseph J

    2009-04-16

    Premature failure of either the nail and/or locking screws with unstable fracture patterns may lead to angulation, shortening, malunion, and IM nail migration. Up to thirty percent of all unreamed nail locking screws can break after initial weight bearing is allowed at 8-10 weeks if union has not occurred. The primary problem this presents is hardware removal during revision surgery. The purposes of our study was to evaluate the relative fatigue resistance of distal locking screws and bolts from representative manufacturers of tibial IM nail systems, and develop a relative risk assessment of screws and materials used. Evaluations included quantitative and qualitative measures of the relative performance of these screws. Fatigue tests were conducted to simulate a comminuted fracture that was treated by IM nailing assuming that all load was carried by the screws. Each screw type was tested ten times in a single screw configuration. One screw type was tested an additional ten times in a two-screw parallel configuration. Fatigue tests were performed using a servohydraulic materials testing system and custom fixturing that simulated screws placed in the distal region of an appropriately sized tibial IM nail. Fatigue loads were estimated based on a seventy-five kilogram individual at full weight bearing. The test duration was one million cycles (roughly one year), or screw fracture, whichever occurred first. Failure analysis of a representative sample of titanium alloy and stainless steel screws included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantitative metallography. The average fatigue life of a single screw with a diameter of 4.0 mm was 1200 cycles, which would correspond roughly to half a day of full weight bearing. Single screws with a diameter of 4.5 mm or larger have approximately a 50 percent probability of withstanding a week of weight bearing, whereas a single 5.0 mm diameter screw has greater than 90 percent probability of withstanding more than a week of

  7. Fluoroscopic determination of the tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament in the sagittal plane.

    PubMed

    Salim, Rodrigo; Salzler, Matthew J; Bergin, Mark A; Zheng, Liying; Carey, Robert E; Kfuri, Mauricio; Zhang, Xudong; Harner, Christopher D

    2015-05-01

    Currently, placement of the tibial tunnel for arthroscopic transtibial posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction relies on a limited arthroscopic view of the native insertion or the use of intraoperative imaging. No widely accepted method exists for intraoperative determination of PCL tibial tunnel placement, and current descriptions are cumbersome. To identify the center of the PCL's anatomic tibial insertion site as a percentage of the PCL facet length on a lateral radiograph of the knee so that it may be reliably located in the sagittal plane during surgical reconstruction. Descriptive laboratory study. Twenty fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were dissected and the tibial insertions of the PCL were digitized with an optical tracing system. The digitized PCL footprints were mapped onto 3-dimensional computed tomography-acquired tibial models, and their center points were determined. A K-wire was then inserted into the center of the PCL's tibial insertion under direct visualization, a direct lateral radiograph was obtained, and the center point was measured. The center locations for both methods were defined as a percentage of PCL facet length from anterior and proximal to posterior and distal, and intraobserver and interobserver reliability was tested with 4 different observers. The average location of the PCL center on the 3-dimensional bone model method was 71.7%±5.6% along the PCL facet from anterior/proximal to posterior/distal. In the lateral radiographic method, the center of the PCL was at an average of 69.7%±4.9% of the facet length. There was no significant difference between the percentage measurements of the 2 methods (P=.13). Interobserver reliability (κ=0.57) and intraobserver reliability (κ=0.71) were moderate to strong. Locating the center of the tibial PCL insertion with fluoroscopy at a point that is 70% of the PCL tibial facet length on a true lateral radiograph is a reliable method for locating the PCL tibial insertion. The method

  8. Improved tibial component rotation in TKA using patient-specific instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Heyse, Thomas J; Tibesku, Carsten O

    2015-05-01

    Patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) was introduced in an attempt to reduce positional outliers of components in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). It was hypothesized that PSI could help with the positioning of tibial components in optimal rotational alignment. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis of 58 patients following TKA was conducted. Of these, 30 operations were performed using PSI and 28 using conventional instrumentation. The rotation of the tibial components was determined in MRI using three different reference lines: a tangent to the dorsal tibial condyles, the tibial epicondylar line, and the tibial tubercle. Deviations >9° were considered outliers. Also internal rotation >1° was considered an outlier. Data were analyzed statistically for positional outliers using the Chi-squared test. There was excellent inter- and intraobserver reliability with low standard deviations for the determination of tibial component rotation using the tangent to the dorsal condyles and the tibial epicondylar line as reference. Using the dorsal tangent as reference, there were eight components in excessive external rotation (28.6 %) and one component being in relative internal rotation (5.4°) in the conventional group, while there were two components in excessive external rotation in the PSI group (6.7 %). Using the tibial epicondyles as reference, there were seven components in excessive external rotation (21.4 %) and one component being in relative internal rotation (4.4°) in the conventional group; while there were two components in excessive external rotation in the PSI group (6.7 %). These differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Measurements based on the tibial tubercle showed poor reproducibility in terms of intra- and interobserver reliability and was of little use in the context of the research question. In this setup, PSI was effective in significantly reducing outliers of optimal rotational tibial component alignment during TKA. Anatomy of

  9. Static and dynamic tibial translation before, 5 weeks after, and 5 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tagesson, Sofi; Öberg, Birgitta; Kvist, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate static and dynamic tibial translation before, 5 weeks after, and 5 years after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. To explore whether static and dynamic tibial translation are correlated. Ten patients undergoing quadruple hamstring tendon graft ACL reconstruction were evaluated before, 5 weeks after, and 5 years after ACL reconstruction. Sagittal tibial translation was measured during the Lachman test (static translation) and during gait (dynamic translation) using a CA-4000 electrogoniometer. Five years after ACL reconstruction, static tibial translation did not differ between knees (Lachman test 90 N and 134 N n.s.). In contrast, there was greater maximal anterior tibial translation during gait in ACL-reconstructed knees than in uninjured knees (5.5 ± 1.4 vs. 4.5 ± 1.6 mm, P = 0.028). There were no differences in static or dynamic tibial translation between the 5-year follow-up and before ACL reconstruction or between the 5-year follow-up and the 5-week follow-up. There were no correlations between static and dynamic tibial translation. Although static tibial translation did not differ between knees 5 years after ACL reconstruction, dynamic tibial translation during gait was greater in ACL-reconstructed knees than in uninjured knees. Neither static nor dynamic tibial translation changed 5 years after ACL reconstruction as compared to before surgery and 5 weeks after surgery. Static tibial translation did not correlate with dynamic tibial translation. This study indicates that although the knee is stable during static measurements, kinematics during gait is impaired 5 years after ACL reconstruction. This may affect the return to sport and risk of osteoarthritis. Case series, Level IV.

  10. A Finite-Element Study of Metal Backing and Tibial Resection Depth in a Composite Tibia Following Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Susumu; Rogge, Renee D; Small, Scott R; Berend, Michael E; Ritter, Merrill A

    2016-04-01

    Prosthetic alignment, patient characteristics, and implant design are all factors in long-term survival of total knee arthroplasty (TKA), yet the level at which each of these factors contribute to implant loosening has not been fully described. Prior clinical and biomechanical studies have indicated tibial overload as a cause of early TKA revision. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between tibial component design and bone resection on tibial loading. Finite-element analysis (FEA) was performed after simulated implantation of metal backed (MB) and all-polyethylene (AP) TKA components in 5 and 15 mm of tibial resection into a validated intact tibia model. Proximal tibial strains significantly increased between 13% and 199% when implanted with AP components (p < 0.05). Strain significantly increased between 12% and 209% in the posterior tibial compartment with increased bone resection (p < 0.05). This study indicates elevated strains in AP implanted tibias across the entirety of the proximal tibial cortex, as well as a posterior shift in tibial loading in instances of increased resection depth. These results are consistent with trends observed in prior biomechanical studies and may associate the documented device history of tibial collapse in AP components with increased bone strain and overload beneath the prosthesis.

  11. [Results of treatment of tibial fractures in children].

    PubMed

    Antabak, Anko; Luetić, Tomislav; Cavar, Stanko; Davila, Slavko; Bogović, Marko; Batinica, Stipe

    2012-01-01

    Diaphyseal fractures of both lower leg bones are the most common fractures of lower extremities, and account for about 15% of all fractures of long bones in children. These fractures are usully unstabilae, difficult to reposition, and retention of the fragments, and the process of their treatment is not fully compliant. The paper analyzes the late results of treating 234 children with tibial fractures, depending on the method of treatment (surgical and conservative method). Twenty-three children had open fractures (9.8%). Nonsurgical method was used in the treatment of 194 children, and surgical in 40 children. The most frequent surgical method was closed reposition of the fragments, and percutaneous elastic stable intramedullary nailing with titanium wires. The success of the treatment was measured: residual angular deformities and difference in length between treated and healthy leg. Secondary displacement of fragments after primary conservative treatment was found in 32 children. Angular deformities of the treated tibia was seen in 80 children, 68 (35.0%) treated conservatively and 12 (30.0%) surgically. In 131 (67.5%) conservatively treated and 29 (72.5%) surgically treated children there were no differences in the length of sick and healthy leg. Results of treatment in our children confirmed that there were no statistically significant differences in late effects depending on treatment methods.

  12. High tibial osteotomy: factors influencing the duration of satisfactory function.

    PubMed

    Giagounidis, E M; Sell, S

    1999-01-01

    In 94 patients 112 knees were examined after high tibial osteotomy for varus and valgus gonarthrosis. Preoperatively, there were 71 varus and 23 valgus deformities. The mean follow-up period was 9.0 years (range 2-21 years). Concerning the pain on walking and the pain at rest, we noted good and excellent results in 73% and 65%, respectively. The radiological evaluation showed an improvement or a persistence of the stage of arthrosis in 69.5% of the reviewed cases. The results according to the HSS score as an objective parameter showed in over 50% an improvement of the patients' situation. The data were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis in which three of four evaluated risk factors were found to be associated with the duration of pain-free survival: certain preoperative injuries, preoperative meniscopathies and a deterioration of the stage of arthrosis (P < 0.05). There was no significance for weight in excess of 10% above the normal body mass index (BMI) limits. However, in a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis this parameter could be determined as a significant factor for a reduced pain-free survival interval (P < 0.05): patients with a BMI of more than 10% above normal limits had a pain-free period of 5.07 years, whereas those with a BMI of less than 10% had a pain-free period of 7.80 years.

  13. Relationships of hamstring muscle volumes to lateral tibial slope.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Randy J; Kulas, Anthony S; Shultz, Sandra J; Waxman, Justin P; Wang, Hsin-Min; Kraft, Robert A

    2017-09-29

    Greater posterior-inferior directed slope of the lateral tibial plateau (LTS) has been demonstrated to be a prospective ACL injury risk factor. Trainable measures to overcome a greater LTS need to be identified for optimizing injury prevention protocols. It was hypothesized that Healthy individuals with greater LTS who have not sustained an ACL injury would have a larger lateral hamstring volume. Eleven healthy females (mean +/- standard deviation) (1.63±0.07m, 62.0±8.9kg, 22.6±2.9years) & 10 healthy males (1.80±0.08m, 82.3±12.0kg, 23.2±3.4years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the left knee and thigh. LTS, semitendinosus muscle volume, and biceps femoris long head muscle volume were obtained from imaging data. After controlling for potential sex confounds (R(2)=.00; P=.862), lesser semitendinosus volume and greater biceps femoris-long head volume were indicative of greater LTS (R(2)∆=.30, P=.008). Healthy individuals with greater LTS have a muscular morphologic profile that includes a larger biceps femoris-long head volume. This may be indicative of a biomechanical strategy that relies more heavily on force generation of the lateral hamstring and is less reliant on force generation of the medial hamstring. Level IV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Early migration of tibial components is associated with late revision

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We performed two parallel systematic reviews and meta-analyses to determine the association between early migration of tibial components and late aseptic revision. Methods One review comprised early migration data from radiostereometric analysis (RSA) studies, while the other focused on revision rates for aseptic loosening from long-term survival studies. Thresholds for acceptable and unacceptable migration were determined according to that of several national joint registries: < 5% revision at 10 years. Results Following an elaborate literature search, 50 studies (involving 847 total knee prostheses (TKPs)) were included in the RSA review and 56 studies (20,599 TKPs) were included in the survival review. The results showed that for every mm increase in migration there was an 8% increase in revision rate, which remained after correction for age, sex, diagnosis, hospital type, continent, and study quality. Consequently, migration up to 0.5 mm was considered acceptable during the first postoperative year, while migration of 1.6 mm or more was unacceptable. TKPs with migration of between 0.5 and 1.6 mm were considered to be at risk of having revision rates higher than 5% at 10 years. Interpretation There was a clinically relevant association between early migration of TKPs and late revision for loosening. The proposed migration thresholds can be implemented in a phased, evidence-based introduction of new types of knee prostheses, since they allow early detection of high-risk TKPs while exposing only a small number of patients. PMID:23140091

  15. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence: where are we?

    PubMed

    George, Anil Thomas; Maitra, Rudra Krishna; Maxwell-Armstrong, Charles

    2013-12-28

    Neurostimulation remains the mainstay of treatment for patients with faecal incontinence who fails to respond to available conservative measures. Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is the main form of neurostimulation that is in use today. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS)--both the percutaneous and the transcutaneous routes--remains a relatively new entry in neurostimulation. Though in its infancy, PTNS holds promise to be an effective, patient friendly, safe and cheap treatment. However, presently PTNS only appears to have a minor role with SNS having the limelight in treating patients with faecal incontinence. This seems to have arisen as the strong, uniform and evidence based data on SNS remains to have been unchallenged yet by the weak, disjointed and unsupported evidence for both percutaneous and transcutaneous PTNS. The use of PTNS is slowly gaining acceptance. However, several questions remain unanswered in the delivery of PTNS. These have raised dilemmas which as long as they remain unsolved can considerably weaken the argument that PTNS could offer a viable alternative to SNS. This paper reviews available information on PTNS and focuses on these dilemmas in the light of existing evidence.

  16. Ovine Model for Critical-Size Tibial Segmental Defects

    PubMed Central

    Christou, Chris; Oliver, Rema A; Pelletier, Matthew H; Walsh, William R

    2014-01-01

    A segmental tibial defect model in a large animal can provide a basis for testing materials and techniques for use in nonunions and severe trauma. This study reports the rationale behind establishing such a model and its design and conclusions. After ethics approval of the study, aged ewes (older than 5 y; n = 12) were enrolled. A 5-cm mid diaphyseal osteoperiosteal defect was made in the left tibia and was stabilized by using an 8-mm stainless-steel cross-locked intramedullary nail. Sheep were euthanized at 12 wk after surgery and evaluated by using radiography, microCT, and soft-tissue histology techniques. Radiology confirmed a lack of hard tissue callus bridging across the defect. Volumetric analysis based on microCT showed bone growth across the 16.5-cm3 defect of 1.82 ± 0.94 cm3. Histologic sections of the bridging tissues revealed callus originating from both the periosteal and endosteal surfaces, with fibrous tissue completing the bridging in all instances. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the quality of the healing response. Clinical, radiographic, and histologic union was not achieved by 12 wk. This model may be effective for the investigation of surgical techniques and healing adjuncts for nonunion cases, where severe traumatic injury has led to significant bone loss. PMID:25402178

  17. Ovine model for critical-size tibial segmental defects.

    PubMed

    Christou, Chris; Oliver, Rema A; Pelletier, Matthew H; Walsh, William R

    2014-10-01

    A segmental tibial defect model in a large animal can provide a basis for testing materials and techniques for use in nonunions and severe trauma. This study reports the rationale behind establishing such a model and its design and conclusions. After ethics approval of the study, aged ewes (older than 5 y; n = 12) were enrolled. A 5-cm mid diaphyseal osteoperiosteal defect was made in the left tibia and was stabilized by using an 8-mm stainless-steel cross-locked intramedullary nail. Sheep were euthanized at 12 wk after surgery and evaluated by using radiography, microCT, and soft-tissue histology techniques. Radiology confirmed a lack of hard tissue callus bridging across the defect. Volumetric analysis based on microCT showed bone growth across the 16.5 cm(3) defect of 1.82 ± 0.94 cm(3). Histologic sections of the bridging tissues revealed callus originating from both the periosteal and endosteal surfaces, with fibrous tissue completing the bridging in all instances. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the quality of the healing response. Clinical, radiographic, and histologic union was not achieved by 12 wk. This model may be effective for the investigation of surgical techniques and healing adjuncts for nonunion cases, where severe traumatic injury has led to significant bone loss.

  18. Nanoindentation Results from Direct Molded vs. Machined UHMWPE Tibial Bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, J.E.; Joy, D.C.; Pharr, G.M.; Schmidt, M.A.; Swadener, J.G.

    1999-11-13

    Nanoindentation has been used to compare the micromechanical properties of direct molded vs. machined bearing surfaces on UHMWPE tibial components. Differences in micromechanical properties (hardness and elastic storage modulus) were observed between these two types of bearing surfaces, and are believed to result from (1) differences in surface roughness, and (2) differences in morphology of the UHMWPE. Clinical studies of in-vivo UHMWPE wear rates in acetabular cups have reported differences between direct molded and machined bearings.{sup 1,2} Other studies of retrieved components have reported differences as well.{sup 3} Variations in surface characteristics (rather than bulk properties) may cause these differences in wear behavior. This study's objective was to compare micro-mechanical interactions at the bearing surfaces of direct molded components with those of machined components. A nanoindenter was used to perform instrumented microindentations on these surfaces. Da ta was analyzed to study both the load vs. displacement behavior during the indentation cycle, and also to measure the elastic storage modulus and hardness as a function of depth.

  19. Genu Recurvatum Deformity in a Child due to Salter Harris Type V Fracture of the Proximal Tibial Physis Treated with High Tibial Dome Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Beslikas, Theodoros; Christodoulou, Andreas; Chytas, Anastasios; Gigis, Ioannis; Christoforidis, John

    2012-01-01

    Salter-Harris type V fracture is a very rare injury in the immature skeleton. In most cases, it remains undiagnosed and untreated. We report a case of genu recurvatum deformity in a 15-year-old boy caused by a Salter-Harris type V fracture of the proximal tibial physis. The initial X-ray did not reveal fracture. One year after injury, genu recurvatum deformity was detected associated with significant restriction of knee flexion and limp length discrepancy (2 cm) as well as medial and posterior instability of the joint. Further imaging studies revealed anterior bone bridge of the proximal tibial physis. The deformity was treated with a high tibial dome osteotomy combined with a tibial tubercle osteotomy stabilized with malleolar screws and a cast. Two years after surgery, the patient gained functional knee mobility without clinical instability. Firstly, this case highlights the importance of early identification of this rare lesion (Salter-Harris type V fracture) and, secondly, provides an alternative method of treatment for genu recurvatum deformity.

  20. Genu Recurvatum Deformity in a Child due to Salter Harris Type V Fracture of the Proximal Tibial Physis Treated with High Tibial Dome Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Beslikas, Theodoros; Christodoulou, Andreas; Chytas, Anastasios; Gigis, Ioannis; Christoforidis, John

    2012-01-01

    Salter-Harris type V fracture is a very rare injury in the immature skeleton. In most cases, it remains undiagnosed and untreated. We report a case of genu recurvatum deformity in a 15-year-old boy caused by a Salter-Harris type V fracture of the proximal tibial physis. The initial X-ray did not reveal fracture. One year after injury, genu recurvatum deformity was detected associated with significant restriction of knee flexion and limp length discrepancy (2 cm) as well as medial and posterior instability of the joint. Further imaging studies revealed anterior bone bridge of the proximal tibial physis. The deformity was treated with a high tibial dome osteotomy combined with a tibial tubercle osteotomy stabilized with malleolar screws and a cast. Two years after surgery, the patient gained functional knee mobility without clinical instability. Firstly, this case highlights the importance of early identification of this rare lesion (Salter-Harris type V fracture) and, secondly, provides an alternative method of treatment for genu recurvatum deformity. PMID:23259115

  1. The Anatomic Relationship of the Tibial Nerve to the Common Peroneal Nerve in the Popliteal Fossa: Implications for Selective Tibial Nerve Block in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Eric R.; Vydyanathan, Amaresh; Gritsenko, Karina; Shaparin, Naum; Singh, Nair; Downie, Sherry A.

    2017-01-01

    Background. A recently described selective tibial nerve block at the popliteal crease presents a viable alternative to sciatic nerve block for patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. In this two-part investigation, we describe the effects of a tibial nerve block at the popliteal crease. Methods. In embalmed cadavers, after the ultrasound-guided dye injection the dissection revealed proximal spread of dye within the paraneural sheath. Consequentially, in the clinical study twenty patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty received the ultrasound-guided selective tibial nerve block at the popliteal crease, which also resulted in proximal spread of local anesthetic. A sensorimotor exam was performed to monitor the effect on the peroneal nerve. Results. In the cadaver study, dye was observed to spread proximal in the paraneural sheath to reach the sciatic nerve. In the clinical observational study, local anesthetic was observed to spread a mean of 4.7 + 1.9 (SD) cm proximal to popliteal crease. A negative correlation was found between the excess spread of local anesthetic and bifurcation distance. Conclusions. There is significant proximal spread of local anesthetic following tibial nerve block at the popliteal crease with possibility of the undesirable motor blocks of the peroneal nerve. PMID:28260964

  2. Medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: does tibial component position influence clinical outcomes and arthroplasty survival?

    PubMed

    Chatellard, R; Sauleau, V; Colmar, M; Robert, H; Raynaud, G; Brilhault, J

    2013-06-01

    In several recent studies, unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) produced better functional outcomes than did total knee arthroplasty with 10-year prosthesis survival rates greater than 95%. Nevertheless, UKA is still widely viewed as producing inconsistent results. Tibial component loosening is the leading cause of failure. We consequently sought to identify tibial component position criteria associated with outcomes of medial UKA. We conducted a retrospective multicentre study of 559 medial UKAs performed between 1988 and 2010 in 421 patients (262 females and 159 males) with a mean age of 69.51±8.72 years at surgery. We recorded the following radiographic parameters: joint space height, obliquity and slope of the tibial implant, whether the tibial component was perpendicular to the femoral component, and lower limb malalignment. The International Knee Society (IKS) score was used to assess clinical outcomes. Mean follow-up at re-evaluation was 5.17±4.33 years. The mean 10-year prosthesis survival rate was 83.7±3.5%. Factors associated with decreased prosthesis survival were a greater than 2-mm change in joint space height, a greater than 3° change in tibial component obliquity, a slope value greater than 5° or a change in slope greater than 2°, and more than 6° of divergence between the tibial and femoral components. Residual mechanical varus of 5° or more was also associated with mechanical failure. The only factor associated with worse functional score values was joint space elevation by more than 2mm. The high level of accuracy required for optimal positioning of the tibial component during medial UKA indicates a need for considerable technical expertise and emphasises the conservative nature of the procedure. Optimal positioning is crucial to restore normal knee kinematics and to prevent implant wear and lesions to adjacent compartments. IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiographic study on the tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament☆

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Julio Cesar; Esquerdo, Paulo; Almagro, Marco Antonio Pires; da Silva, Phelipe Augusto Cintra

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish the radiographic distances from posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tibial insertions centers to the lateral and medial tibial cortex in the anteroposterior view, and from these centers to the PCL facet most proximal point on the lateral view, in order to guide anatomical tunnels drilling in PCL reconstruction and for tunnel positioning postoperative analysis. Study design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Twenty cadaver knees were evaluated. The PCL's bundles tibial insertions were identified and marked out using metal tags, and the knees were radiographed. On these radiographs, the bundles insertion sites center location relative to the tibial mediolateral measure, and the distances from the most proximal PCL facet point to the bundle's insertion were determined. All measures were calculated using the ImageJ software. Results On the anteroposterior radiographs, the mean distance from the anterolateral (AL) bundle insertion center to the medial tibial edge was 40.68 ± 4.10 mm; the mean distance from the posteromedial (PM) bundle insertion center to the medial tibial edge was 38.74 ± 4.40 mm. On the lateral radiographs, the mean distances from the PCL facet most proximal point to AL and PM bundles insertion centers were 5.49 ± 1.29 mm and 10.53 ± 2.17 mm respectively. Conclusions It was possible to establish a radiographic pattern for PCL tibial bundles insertions, which may be useful for intraoperative tunnels locations control and for postoperative tunnels positions analysis. PMID:26229941

  4. Relationship Between Posterior-Inferior Tibial Slope and Bilateral Noncontact ACL Injury.

    PubMed

    Hendrix, Steven T; Barrett, Austin M; Chrea, Bopha; Replogle, William H; Hydrick, Josie M; Barrett, Gene R

    2017-01-01

    Is there a correlation between increased posterior-inferior tibial slope angle and noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury? Does increasing the posterior-inferior tibial slope angle increase the risk of bilateral ACL injury? A computerized relational database (Access 2007; Microsoft Inc, Redmond, Washington) was used to conduct a retrospective review of patients undergoing bilateral or unilateral ACL reconstruction surgery or treatment by a single surgeon between 1995 and 2013. Included in the study were patients with bilateral and unilateral ACL injuries and patellofemoral pain syndrome with no associated ACL deficiency. Exclusion criteria included concomitant ligament injury, previous ACL reconstruction, and previous knee surgery. Also excluded were patients who did not have plain lateral radiographs. Fifty patients were randomly selected from each group. After controlling for age and Tegner activity level, the authors found that the posterior-inferior tibial slope angle was a significant predictor (P=.002) of noncontact ACL injury. Mean posterior-inferior tibial slope angle for the bilateral, unilateral, and control groups was 11.8°±2.3°, 9.3°±2.4°, and 7.5°±2.3°, respectively. In the group with unilateral ACL injury vs the group without ACL deficiency, a 1° increase in posterior-inferior tibial slope angle (P=.03) was associated with a 20% increase in unilateral ACL injury. In those with bilateral ACL injury vs those without ACL deficiency, a 1° increase in posterior-inferior tibial slope angle (P=.001) increased bilateral knee injury by 34%. The difference between the mean angles of the control group without ACL deficiency and both the bilateral injury and unilateral injury cohorts was statistically significant (P=.003). Increased posterior-inferior tibial slope angle is associated with an increased risk of noncontact bilateral and unilateral ACL injury. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):e136-e140.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Correlation between posterior offset of femoral condyles and sagittal slope of the tibial plateau.

    PubMed

    Cinotti, G; Sessa, P; Ripani, F R; Postacchini, R; Masciangelo, R; Giannicola, G

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to address, in normal knees, the variability of posterior offset of femoral condyles and tibial slope, and the presence of any correlation between the two that might be needed to achieve an adequate joint motion in flexion. Magnetic resonance images of normal knees of 80 subjects, 45 males and 35 females, with a mean age of 38.9 years, were analysed. Measurements were performed by two independent observers using an imaging visualization software. The tibial slope averaged 8 and 7.7 °, on the medial and lateral sides, respectively (P = 0.2); the mean posterior offset of femoral condyles was 27.4 and 25.2 mm on the two sides, respectively (P = 0.0001). The variation coefficient of the condylar offset and tibial slope was 11.5 and 38%, respectively. In the medial compartment, a significant correlation was found between the femoral condylar offset and the tibial slope, while the same was not observed in the lateral compartment of the knee. Magnetic resonance imaging allows the assessment of tibial slope and femoral condylar offset in the medial and lateral side separately, taking into account any difference between the two compartments. The sagittal tibial slope exhibits a greater variability compared with the posterior offset of femoral condyles. The correlation found, in the medial compartment, between the tibial slope and femoral condylar offset suggests that the reconstitution of the proper morphology of the posterior part of the knee joint may be necessary to obtain a full range of motion in flexion after total knee replacement.

  6. The effect of posterior tibial slope on knee flexion in posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaojun; Shen, Bin; Kang, Pengde; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Zongke; Pei, Fuxing

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate and quantify the effect of the tibial slope on the postoperative maximal knee flexion and stability in the posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Fifty-six patients (65 knees) who had undergone TKA with the posterior-stabilized prostheses were divided into the following 3 groups according to the measured tibial slopes: Group 1: ≤4°, Group 2: 4°-7° and Group 3: >7°. The preoperative range of the motion, the change in the posterior condylar offset, the elevation of the joint line, the postoperative tibiofemoral angle and the preoperative and postoperative Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) scores were recorded. The tibial anteroposterior translation was measured using the Kneelax 3 Arthrometer at both the 30° and the 90° flexion angles. The mean values of the postoperative maximal knee flexion were 101° (SD 5), 106° (SD 5) and 113° (SD 9) in Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. A significant difference was found in the postoperative maximal flexion between the 3 groups (P < 0.001). However, no significant differences were found between the 3 groups in the postoperative HSS scores, the changes in the posterior condylar offset, the elevation of the joint line or the tibial anteroposterior translation at either the 30° or the 90° flexion angles. A 1° increase in the tibial slope resulted in a 1.8° flexion increment (r = 1.8, R (2) = 0.463, P < 0.001). An increase in the posterior tibial slope can significantly increase the postoperative maximal knee flexion. The tibial slope with an appropriate flexion and extension gap balance during the operation does not affect the joint stability.

  7. Correlation between posterior offset of femoral condyles and sagittal slope of the tibial plateau

    PubMed Central

    Cinotti, G; Sessa, P; Ripani, F R; Postacchini, R; Masciangelo, R; Giannicola, G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to address, in normal knees, the variability of posterior offset of femoral condyles and tibial slope, and the presence of any correlation between the two that might be needed to achieve an adequate joint motion in flexion. Magnetic resonance images of normal knees of 80 subjects, 45 males and 35 females, with a mean age of 38.9 years, were analysed. Measurements were performed by two independent observers using an imaging visualization software. The tibial slope averaged 8 and 7.7 °, on the medial and lateral sides, respectively (P = 0.2); the mean posterior offset of femoral condyles was 27.4 and 25.2 mm on the two sides, respectively (P = 0.0001). The variation coefficient of the condylar offset and tibial slope was 11.5 and 38%, respectively. In the medial compartment, a significant correlation was found between the femoral condylar offset and the tibial slope, while the same was not observed in the lateral compartment of the knee. Magnetic resonance imaging allows the assessment of tibial slope and femoral condylar offset in the medial and lateral side separately, taking into account any difference between the two compartments. The sagittal tibial slope exhibits a greater variability compared with the posterior offset of femoral condyles. The correlation found, in the medial compartment, between the tibial slope and femoral condylar offset suggests that the reconstitution of the proper morphology of the posterior part of the knee joint may be necessary to obtain a full range of motion in flexion after total knee replacement. PMID:22946518

  8. The biomechanical and histological effects of posterior cruciate ligament rupture on the medial tibial plateau.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhenhan; Li, Yusheng; Lin, Zhangyuan; Zhu, Yong; Zhao, Ruibo

    2017-03-23

    The objective of this study was to investigate the biomechanical and histological effects of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) on the medial tibial plateau. A total of 12 cadaveric human knee specimens were collected and grouped as follows: the PCL intact group (n = 12), the anterolateral bundle rupture group (n = 6), the postmedial bundle rupture group (n = 6), and the PCL rupture group (n = 12). The strain on the anterior, middle, and posterior parts of the medial tibial plateau with an axial loading force at different flexion angles was measured and analyzed, respectively. Forty-eight rabbits were chosen for animal study: surgery was performed on the one side of each rabbit randomly (experimental group), while the other side was taken as control (control group). Every 12 rabbits were culled at each of the four selected time points to collect the medial tibial plateau for morphological and histological observation. The PCL rupture, either partial or complete, may generate an abnormal load on all the parts of the medial tibial plateau with axial loading at all positions. Noticeable time-dependent degenerative histological changes of the medial tibial plateau were observed in the rabbit models of PCL rupture. Compared with the control group, all the PCL rupture groups exhibited a higher expression of the matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) at all the time points. Either partial or complete PCL rupture may generate an abnormal load on all the parts of the medial tibial plateau with axial loading at all the positions and may cause cartilage degeneration on the medial tibial plateau.

  9. Surgical Management of Tibial Plateau Fractures With 3.5 mm Simple Plates

    PubMed Central

    Bagherifard, Abolfazl; Jabalameli, Mahmoud; Hadi, Hosseinali; Rahbar, Mohammad; Minator Sajjadi, Mohammadreza; Jahansouz, Ali; Karimi Heris, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Tibial plateau fractures can be successfully fixed utilizing 3.5 mm locking plates. However, there are some disadvantages to using these plates. Objectives In the current prospective study, we investigated the outcome of treating different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates which, to our knowledge, has not been evaluated in previous studies. Materials and Methods Between 2011 and 2013, 32 patients aged 40 ± 0.2 years underwent open reduction and internal fixation for tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates. The patients were followed for 16.14 ± 2.1 months. At each patient’s final visit, the articular surface depression, medial proximal tibial angle, and slope angle were measured and compared with measurements taken early after the operation. The functional outcomes were measured with the WOMAC and Lysholm knee scores. Results The mean union time was 13 ± 1.2 weeks. The mean knee range of motion was 116.8° ± 3.3°. The mean WOMAC and Lysholm scores were 83.5 ± 1.8 and 76.8 ± 1.6, respectively. On the early postoperative and final X-rays, 87.5% and 84% of patients, respectively, had acceptable reduction. Medial proximal tibial and slope angles did not change significantly by the last visit. No patient was found to have complications related to the type of plate. Conclusions In this case series study, the fixation of different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple non-locking and non-precontoured plates was associated with acceptable clinical, functional, and radiographic outcomes. Based on the advantages and costs of these plates, the authors recommend using 3.5 mm simple plates for different types of tibial plateau fractures. PMID:27626010

  10. Anatomic ACL reconstruction: the normal central tibial footprint position and a standardised technique for measuring tibial tunnel location on 3D CT.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, B; Gogna, R; Robb, C; Thompson, P; Spalding, T

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to define the normal ACL central tibial footprint position and describe a standardised technique of measuring tibial tunnel location on 3D CT for anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction. The central position of the ACL tibial attachment site was determined on 76 MRI scans of young individuals. The central footprint position was referenced in the anterior-posterior (A-P) and medial-lateral (M-L) planes on a grid system over the widest portion of the proximal tibia. 3D CT images of 26 young individuals had a simulated tibial tunnel centred within the bony landmarks of the ACL footprint, and the same grid system was applied over the widest portion of the proximal tibia. The MRI central footprint position was compared to the 3D CT central footprint position to validate the technique and results. The median age of the 76 MRI subjects was 24 years, with 32 females and 44 males. The ACL central footprint position was at 39 (±3 %) and 48 (±2 %), in the A-P and M-L planes, respectively. There was no significant difference in this position between sexes. The median age of the 26 CT subjects was 25.5 years, with 10 females and 16 males. The central position of the bony ACL footprint was at 38 (±2 %) and 48 (±2 %), in the A-P and M-L planes, respectively. The MRI and CT central footprint positions were not significantly different in relation to the medial position, but were different in relation to the anterior position (A-P 39 % vs. 38 %, p = 0.01). The absolute difference between the central MRI and CT reference positions was 0.45 mm. The ACL's normal central tibial footprint reference position has been defined, and the technique of measuring tibial tunnel location with a standardised grid system is described. This study will assist surgeons in evaluating tibial tunnel position in anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction. III.

  11. Pressure distributions on the medial tibial plateau after medial meniscal surgery and tibial plateau levelling osteotomy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, A; Litsky, A S; Field, J; Apelt, D; Meadows, C; Johnson, K A

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of medial meniscal release (MMR) and medial, caudal pole hemimeniscectomy (MCH) on pressure distribution in the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) deficient canine stifle, and with tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO). Twelve adult dogs. In experiment one, six pairs of cadaveric canine stifles with an intact CCL were axially loaded with a servo-hydraulic material testing machine and pressure distributions were mapped and quantified using pressure sensitive films. Axial loading of each joint was then repeated following MMR, and again after MCH. In experiment two, six pairs of cadaveric canine stifles with or without TPLO were tested before and after CCL transection, and each MMR and MCH procedure using the same methods of experiment 1. In experiment one, MMR and MCH had significant effects on the pressure distribution resulting in a 2.5-fold increase in the percentage of surface area with pressure higher than 10 MPa. In experiment two, CCL transection resulted in a significant change in pressure distribution only in the stifle without TPLO (P<0.05). Both MMR and MCH resulted in a 1.7-fold increase in the percentage of area with peak pressure in the stifle with TPLO (P<0.05). Meniscal surgery results in a change in pressure distribution and magnitude within the medial compartment of the stifle. Compromised function of the meniscus by either MMR or MCH result in stress concentration which may predispose to osteoarthritis.

  12. [Evaluation of methods for radiographic measurement of the tibial slope. A study of 83 healthy knees].

    PubMed

    Brazier, J; Migaud, H; Gougeon, F; Cotten, A; Fontaine, C; Duquennoy, A

    1996-01-01

    We compared on lateral X-rays of 83 healthy knees, 6 methods measuring the tibial sagittal slope. Each method determined the tibial slope according to an independent anatomical axis. The goals of the study were to: 1) detect the differences between the 6 methods; 2) determine if any mathematical relation could be observed between the 6 methods; 3) compare accuracy of proximal anatomical axis versus long anatomical axis to evaluate the tibial slope. 50 healthy patients (83 knees) knees were included in the study. The patients (26 male and 24 females) were 39.3 +/- 15.8 years old. We obtained true lateral X-rays orientated with an image intensifier in order to obtain the exact superposition of the femoral condyles. The measurements were carried out by an observer according to two procedures: 1) by manual goniometric measurements twice; the mean value between both lectures was recorded; 2) with a digitizer (Orthographics TM, Salt Lake City, Ut). We measured the angle between the tangent to the medial tibial plateau and the perpendicular direction to each of the studied anatomical axis: tibial proximal anatomical axis (TPAA); tibial shaft anatomical axis (TSAA); posterior tibial cortex (PTC); fibular proximal anatomical axis (FPAA); fibular shaft axis (FSA); anterior tibial cortex (ATC). The values obtained with the digitizer were used to compare the six methods. The values obtained with the TSAA were considered as reference. Tibial slope values were different with the 6 methods. ATC gave the higher values and PTC the smaller. The difference could be 5 degrees between two methods measuring the same posterior tibial slope. However different, the values obtained with the 6 methods were strongly correlated (R > 0.85; p = 0.0001). We determined mathematical relationships between the values obtained with the 6 methods according to the regression analysis. The correlation with the values obtained with TSAA (reference values) was stronger for TPAA and TPC (respectively R = 0

  13. Using the anatomical tibial axis for total knee arthroplasty alignment may lead to an internal rotation error.

    PubMed

    Forster-Horvath, Csaba; Kremo, Valerie; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena; Nowakowski, Andrej Maria

    2015-12-01

    Despite intensive research, current total knee arthroplasty (TKA) designs do not always provide the correct kinematics for the native joint and thus further optimisation is necessary. Several studies support the importance of malrotation of the tibial components in the failure of TKA. We hypothesise that using the anatomical tibial axis (ATA) to align tibial component rotation on the resected tibial surface may lead to an internal rotation error due to relative anterior shift of the lateral articular surface centre compared to the medial one. The aim of this study was to compare the anatomical tibial axis of the physiological tibial joint surface to the resected one. Twenty formalin-fixed cadaveric knees were obtained for study. After computed tomography scanning the data of each specimen were entered into a standardised coordinate system and virtual bone cuts were performed with 6, 8 and 10 mm resection depths. The positions of the articular surface centres were determined at each resection depth. The lateral articular surface centre had moved anteriorly after the resection by a mean 1.475 mm, while the medial one had not changed significantly. Resecting the tibia at a 6-mm cut and using the transverse tibial axis to align the prosthetic tibial plateau will result in a mean 4.0° (95 % confidence interval, 2.5-5.5°) of internal rotation compared to the uncut tibia. The ATA lies in 6 degrees of external rotation compared to the perpendicular to the posterior tibial condylar axis (PTCA). Graw et al. suggest aligning the tibial component in 10 degrees of external rotation to the latter. Thus, if we accept the above suggestion, the ATA is 4 degrees internally rotated compared to the same line on the resected proximal tibia. These prior studies appear to be in accordance with our findings. We conclude that using the ATA on the resected tibial surface may contribute to an internal rotation error.

  14. The influence of tibial tray design on the wear of fixed-bearing total knee replacements.

    PubMed

    Galvin, A; Jennings, L M; McEwen, H M; Fisher, J

    2008-11-01

    Debris-induced osteolysis due to surface wear is a potential long-term problem in total knee replacements (TKRs). Wear between the tibial tray and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene insert is thought to contribute to the wear. This study investigated the influence of tibial tray design on the wear of fixed-bearing TKRs. Specifically, this study investigated the influence of the material's surface finish and design characteristics of the locking mechanism of the tibial tray on the wear in fixed-bearing knees for both cruciate-retaining (CR) and posterior-stabilized designs. A new fixed-bearing tibial tray design using Co-Cr and with an improved locking mechanism significantly reduced polyethylene wear from 22.8 +/- 6.0 mm3 per 10(6) cycles to 15.9 +/- 2.9 mm3 per 10(6) cycles compared with a previous titanium alloy tray with a CR design. The wear rates were similar to those of a fixed-bearing insert clamped into a tibial tray, suggesting that the decrease in wear was due to a reduction in backside wear. There was no significant difference between the wear rates of a cruciate-retaining design and a posterior-stabilized design under the two kinematic conditions tested.

  15. Effect of motion control running shoes compared with neutral shoes on tibial rotation during running.

    PubMed

    Rose, Alice; Birch, Ivan; Kuisma, Raija

    2011-09-01

    To determine whether a motion control running shoe reduces tibial rotation in the transverse plane during treadmill running. An experimental study measuring tibial rotation in volunteer participants using a repeated measures design. Human Movement Laboratory, School of Health Professions, University of Brighton. Twenty-four healthy participants were tested. The group comprised males and females with size 6, 7, 9 and 11 feet. The age range for participants was 19 to 31 years. The total range of proximal tibial rotation was measured using the Codamotion 3-D Movement Analysis System. A one-tailed paired t-test indicated a statistically significant decrease in the total range of proximal tibial rotation when a motion control shoe was worn (mean difference 1.38°, 95% confidence interval 0.03 to 2.73, P=0.04). There is a difference in tibial rotation in the transverse plane between a motion control running shoe and a neutral running shoe. The results from this study have implications for the use of supportive running shoes as a form of injury prevention. Copyright © 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Similarities and dissimilarities of the blood supplies of the human sciatic, tibial, and common peroneal nerves.

    PubMed

    Ugrenovic, Sladjana Z; Jovanovic, Ivan D; Kovacevic, Predrag; Petrović, Sladjana; Simic, Tamara

    2013-10-01

    The aim was to investigate the arterial supply of the sciatic, tibial, and common peroneal nerves. Thirty-six lower limbs of 18 human fetuses were studied. The fetuses had been fixed in buffered formalin and the blood vessels injected with barium sulfate. Fetal age ranged from 12 to 28 weeks of gestation. Microdissection of the fetal lower extremities was done under ×5 magnifying lenses. The sciatic nerves of 10 lower extremities were dissected and excised and radiographs taken. The extraneural arterial chain of the sciatic nerve was composed of 2-6 arterial branches of the inferior gluteal artery, the medial circumflex femoral artery, the perforating arteries, and the popliteal artery. The extraneural arterial chain of tibial nerve was composed of 2-5 arteries, which were branches of the popliteal, the peroneal, and the posterior tibial arteries. Radiographs showed the presence of complete intraneural arterial chains in the sciatic and tibial nerves, formed from anastomosing vessels. Dissection showed that, in 97.2% of the specimens, the common peroneal nerve was supplied only by one popliteal artery branch, the presence of which was confirmed radiologically. The sciatic and tibial nerves are supplied by numerous arterial branches of different origins, which provide for collateral circulation. In contrast, the common peroneal nerve is most frequently supplied only by one elongated longitudinal blood vessel, a branch of the popliteal artery. Such a vascular arrangement may make the common peroneal nerve less resistant to stretching and compression. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Apophysitis of the Tibial Tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter Disease): A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vaishya, Raju; Azizi, Ahmad Tariq; Vijay, Vipul

    2016-01-01

    Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD) is a condition in which the patellar tendon insertion on the tibial tuberosity becomes inflamed. It is a well-known condition in late childhood characterized by pain and a bony prominence over the tibial tuberosity. The pain is usually exacerbated by physical activities like running, jumping, and climbing stairs. In the acute stage, the margins of the patellar tendon become blurred in radiographs due to the soft tissue swelling. After three to four months, bone fragmentation at the tibial tuberosity is viewed. In the sub-acute stage, soft tissue swelling resolves, but the bony ossicle remains. In the chronic stage, the bone fragment may fuse with the tibial tuberosity which can appear normal. The primary goal in the treatment of OSD is the reduction of pain and swelling over the tibial tuberosity. The patient should limit physical activities until the symptoms are resolved. In some cases, the patient should restrict physical activities for several months. The presence of pain with kneeling because of an ossicle that does not respond to conservative measures is the indication for surgery. In these cases, the removal of the ossicle, surrounding bursa, and the bony prominence is the treatment of choice. PMID:27752406

  18. Balloon tibioplasty: a useful tool for reduction of tibial plateau depression fractures.

    PubMed

    Pizanis, Antonius; Garcia, Patric; Pohlemann, Tim; Burkhardt, Markus

    2012-07-01

    Reduction of the articular surface in displaced tibial plateau fractures is still challenging and may result in joint incongruence, leading to posttraumatic arthrosis. Conventional techniques use bone tamps and similar instruments, which can increase the surgical trauma due to their size. "Balloon tibioplasty" is a novel minimally invasive technique for the reduction of depressed tibial plateau fractures. We successfully applied an inflatable balloon, commercially available from kyphoplasty, to elevate the depressed articular fragments. This technique allowed for reduction of the depressed tibial plateau fragment without classic fenestration of the tibia, thereby minimizing surgical trauma. Furthermore, under fluoroscopic control, optimal centering of the expanding tibioplasty balloon allows a widespread and continuously increasing reduction force to the fracture area. After fluoroscopy or arthroscopic confirmation of reduction of the articular surface, the cavity resulting from tibioplasty was filled with ceramic bone cement through small incisions and fractures were fixed with a small fragment locking T-plate (3.5 mm). Balloon tibioplasty was applied in 5 patients with displaced tibial plateau fractures (OTA type B2/3). No intra- or postoperative complications were observed. This new technique may be a useful tool to facilitate the reduction of select depressed tibial fractures in the future.

  19. Knee braces can decrease tibial rotation during pivoting that occurs in high demanding activities.

    PubMed

    Giotis, Dimitrios; Tsiaras, Vasilios; Ristanis, Stavros; Zampeli, Franceska; Mitsionis, Grigoris; Stergiou, Nicholas; Georgoulis, Anastasios D

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether knee braces could effectively decrease tibial rotation during high demanding activities. Using an in vivo three-dimensional kinematic analysis, 21 physically active, healthy, male subjects were evaluated. Each subject performed two tasks that were used extensively in the literature because they combine increased rotational and translational loads on the knee, (1) descending from a stair and subsequent pivoting and (2) landing from a platform and subsequent pivoting under three conditions: (A) wearing a prophylactic brace (braced), (B) wearing a patellofemoral brace (sleeved), and (C) unbraced condition. In the first task, tibial rotation during the pivoting phase was significantly decreased in the braced condition as compared to the sleeved condition (P = 0.019) and the non-braced condition (P = 0.002). In the second task, the same variable was significantly decreased in the braced condition as compared to the sleeved (P = 0.001) and the unbraced condition (P < 0.001). The sleeved condition also produced significantly decreased tibial rotation with respect to the unbraced condition (P = 0.021). Bracing decreased tibial rotation in activities where increased translational and rotational forces were applied. Because knee braces decreased tibial rotation, they can possibly be used with ACL-reconstructed and ACL-deficient patients to prevent such problems. Case-control study, Level III.

  20. Does Tibial Slope Affect Perception of Coronal Alignment on a Standing Anteroposterior Radiograph?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Adam J; Ravi, Bheeshma; Kransdorf, Mark J; Clarke, Henry D

    2017-07-01

    A standing anteroposterior (AP) radiograph is commonly used to evaluate coronal alignment following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The impact of coronal alignment on TKA outcomes is controversial, perhaps due to variability in imaging and/or measurement technique. We sought to quantify the effect of image rotation and tibial slope on coronal alignment. Using a standard extramedullary tibial alignment guide, 3 cadaver legs were cut to accept a tibial tray at 0°, 3°, and 7° of slope. A computed tomography scan of the entire tibia was obtained for each specimen to confirm neutral coronal alignment. Images were then obtained at progressive 10° intervals of internal and external rotation up to 40° maximum in each direction. Images were then randomized and 5 blinded TKA surgeons were asked to determine coronal alignment. Continuous data values were transformed to categorical data (neutral [0], valgus [L], and varus [R]). Each 10° interval of external rotation of a 7° sloped tibial cut (or relative internal rotation of a tibial component viewed in the AP plane) resulted in perception of an additional 0.75° of varus. The slope of the proximal tibia bone cut should be taken into account when measuring coronal alignment on a standing AP radiograph. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Anterior tibial translation during different isokinetic quadriceps torque in anterior cruciate ligament deficient and nonimpaired individuals.

    PubMed

    Kvist, J; Karlberg, C; Gerdle, B; Gillquist, J

    2001-01-01

    Factorial quasi-experimental design. To quantify the effect of different levels of isokinetic concentric and eccentric knee extensor torques on the anterior tibial translation in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency. Electromyogram (EMG) activity of 4 leg muscles was recorded in order to detect any co-activation of extensors and flexors. The rehabilitation after an ACL injury is of importance for the functional outcome of the patient. In order to construct a rehabilitation program after that injury, it is important to understand the in vivo relationships between muscle force and tibial translation. Twelve patients with unilateral ACL injury and 11 uninjured volunteers performed 36 repetitions of a quadriceps contraction at different isokinetic concentric and eccentric torque levels, on a KinCom machine (60 degrees x s(-1)), with simultaneous recordings of tibial translation (CA-4000) and EMG activity from quadriceps and hamstrings muscles. Tibial translations and EMG levels were normalized to the maximum of each subject. The individual anterior tibial translation increased with increased quadriceps torque in a similar manner in both quadriceps contraction modes in all legs tested. During concentric mode, translation was similar in all groups, but during eccentric mode, the mean translation was 38% larger in the ACL injured knees. No quadriceps-hamstrings co-activation occurred in any test or group. An ACL deficient knee can limit the translation within a normal space during concentric muscle activity but not during eccentric activity. That limitation depends on other mechanisms than hamstrings co-activation.

  2. Ceramic hemi-unicondylar arthroplasty in an adolescent patient with idiopathic tibial chondrolysis.

    PubMed

    Dombroski, Derek; Garino, Jonathan; Lee, Gwo-Chin

    2009-06-01

    Despite recent advances in cartilage regeneration and restoration procedures, isolated, large, full-thickness cartilage lesions in young patients continue to pose significant challenges to patients and orthopedic surgeons. Treatment options for this difficult problem have traditionally included arthrodesis, osteotomy, osteochondral allograft, and prosthetic reconstruction. We present a case of an adolescent patient with isolated idiopathic lateral tibial chondrolysis treated with a custom ceramic hemi-unicondylar hemiarthroplasty. Preoperatively, a 3-dimensional computed tomography scan of the patient's knee was obtained to begin manufacturing a conforming custom ceramic insert that would articulate between the tibial base plate and the patient's native lateral femoral cartilage. Through a lateral parapatellar approach, the tibial preparation was carried out using the Zimmer M/G unicompartmental knee system (Warsaw, Indiana), and the tibial base plate was cemented into position in the standard fashion. A custom, conforming, prefabricated ceramic insert (CeramTec, Memphis, Tennessee) was then inserted onto the tibial base plate. At 5-year follow-up, this salvage procedure was successful in relieving pain and restoring function in this young patient. There were no signs of implant loosening or lysis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the knee at last follow-up revealed that the cartilage thickness of the patient's lateral femoral condyle remained unchanged. Unicondylar hemiarthroplasty performed in patients with large unipolar lesions in the knee can provide durable and reliable pain relief. Ceramic is a viable material that can be considered for articulation with native cartilage.

  3. Mechanical testing of a modified stabilisation method for tibial tuberosity advancement.

    PubMed

    Etchepareborde, S; Barthelemy, N; Mills, J; Pascon, F; Ragetly, G R; Balligand, M

    2010-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated three modified techniques of tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA). Loads to failure were calculated for each technique. A 9 mm TTA procedure was performed in the tibiae of dogs weighing between 32 and 38 kg. In group 1 (n = 12), the distal part of the tibial crest was left attached to the tibia by the cranial cortex, and a figure-of-eight wire was added for stabilisation. In group 2 (n = 12), the tibial crest was left attached but no additional device was used for stabilisation. In group 3 (n = 12), the tibial crest was completely separated from the tibia and fixed by a figure-of-eight wire so that, in this group, only the wire opposed avulsion of the tibial crest. Unidirectional axial force was applied via the patella to determine the maximal load to failure of the model. There was no significant difference between group 1 and group 2. These two groups both had a significantly stronger construct than that of group 3. We described modifications to the TTA procedure without plate fixation that warrant clinical investigation. When the crest is broken during its advancement, the tension sustained by the repair is significantly weaker from a biomechanical point of view and the use of such a repair clinically is not recommended by the authors.

  4. Effects of physical exertion on trans-tibial prosthesis users' ability to accommodate alignment perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Goeran; Slavens, Brooke A; O'Connor, Kristian M; Smith, Roger O; Hafner, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    Background It has long been reported that a range of prosthesis alignments is acceptable in trans-tibial prosthetics. This range was shown to be smaller when walking on uneven surfaces. It has also been argued that findings on gait with prostheses that were obtained under laboratory conditions are limited in their applicability to real-life environments. Objectives This study investigated the hypothesis that efforts to compensate for suboptimal alignments by active users of trans-tibial prostheses become less effective when levels of physical exertion increase. Study design A 2 × 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare the effects of physical exertion and subtle alignment perturbations on gait with trans-tibial prostheses. Methods The gait of eight subjects with trans-tibial amputation was analyzed when walking with two different prosthesis alignments and two different physical exertion levels. The main and interaction effects were statistically evaluated. Results Bilateral step length symmetry and measures of step variability within the same leg were found to be affected by the intervention. There was no significant effect on index variables that combined kinematic or kinetic measures. Conclusion Findings showed that persons with trans-tibial prostheses responded heterogeneously to the interventions. For most variables, the research hypothesis could not be confirmed. PMID:25138114

  5. Computer model to predict subsurface damage in tibial inserts of total knees.

    PubMed

    Sathasivam, S; Walker, P S

    1998-09-01

    Two designs of total knee replacements were analysed to determine how the geometry of their bearing surface would affect the susceptibility of their ultra high molecular weight polyethylene tibial inserts to delamination. Orientations of the femoral components on the tibial surfaces were calculated with use of rigid body analysis for discrete intervals during the stance phase of gait. For each successive orientation, finite element analysis was used to compress the components together to determine the stresses in the tibial inserts. A damage function analogous to strain energy density was defined to account for the accumulated amplitudes and frequencies of the maximum shear stress cycles and hence to predict fatigue failure. The damage function was applied to each polyethylene element in the tibial insert, and the highest value calculated for each design was its damage score. One knee had a damage score more than three times less than that of the other because of lower stresses and because the contact points moved in the medial-lateral as well as anterior-posterior directions during internal-external rotation. The femoral and tibial components of this knee had large outer frontal radii and close conformity in the frontal plane. We propose that this method, which accounts for the motions and stresses endured during walking, makes different predictions regarding the likelihood of delamination compared with the predictions made by conventional static compression tests performed when the knee is in a neutral position.

  6. Degeneration of the accessory navicular synchondrosis presenting as rupture of the posterior tibial tendon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y J; Hsu, R W; Liang, S C

    1997-12-01

    Degeneration of the accessory navicular synchondrosis may be associated with decreased function of the posterior tibial tendon in patients who are middle-aged or older. We investigated the role of ultrasonography in differentiating between degeneration of the accessory navicular synchondrosis with separation of the accessory navicular from the navicular, which has not been previously reported to our knowledge, and a rupture of the posterior tibial tendon. We studied fourteen patients (mean age, fifty-five years; range, forty-one to seventy-two years) who had an operatively confirmed injury of the accessory navicular synchondrosis. The mean duration of follow-up was thirty-nine months (range, twenty-seven to fifty-four months). Preoperative radiographs demonstrated a type-II accessory navicular (an accessory navicular with a synchondrosis) in all fourteen patients. Ultrasonography, which was performed for twelve patients, demonstrated a defect in the synchondrosis in eleven patients and a normal posterior tibial tendon in all twelve. The operative findings included incomplete separation of the synchondrosis in four of the fourteen patients, complete separation of the synchondrosis and the periosteum in eight, and avulsion of the accessory navicular in two. On the basis of our findings, we concluded that post-traumatic degeneration of an accessory navicular synchondrosis may present clinically as a variant type of avulsion or rupture of the posterior tibial tendon in this age-group. Ultrasonography is useful for distinguishing between complete or partial separation through the synchondrosis and rupture or attenuation of the posterior tibial tendon.

  7. Triple plating of tibia in a complex bicondylar tibial plateau fracture.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Atin; Kachchhap, Naiman-Deepak; Tanwar, Yashwant S; Kumar, Birendra; Yadav, Sachin K

    2014-01-01

    High-energy tibial plateau fracture poses a significant challenge and difficulty for orthopaedic surgeons. Fracture of tibial plateau involves major weight bearing joint and may alter knee kinematics. Anatomic reconstruction of the proximal tibial articular surfaces, restoration of the limb axis (limb alignment) and stable fixation permitting early joint motion are the goals of the treatment. In cases of complex bicondylar tibial plateau fractures, isolated lateral plating is frequently associated with varus malalignment and better results have been obtained with bilateral plating through dual incisions. However sometimes a complex type of bicondylar tibial plateau fractures is encountered in which medial plateau has a biplaner fracture in posterior coronal plane as well as sagittal plane. In such fractures it is imperative to fix the medial plateau with buttressing in both planes. One such fracture pattern of the proximal tibia managed by triple plating through dual posteromedial and anterolateral incisions is discussed in this case report with emphasis on mechanisms of this type of injury, surgical approach and management.

  8. The location of the tibial accelerometer does influence impact acceleration parameters during running.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Encarnación-Martínez, Alberto; Camacho-García, Andrés; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro

    2017-09-01

    Tibial accelerations have been associated with a number of running injuries. However, studies attaching the tibial accelerometer on the proximal section are as numerous as those attaching the accelerometer on the distal section. This study aimed to investigate whether accelerometer location influences acceleration parameters commonly reported in running literature. To fulfil this purpose, 30 athletes ran at 2.22, 2.78 and 3.33 m · s(-1) with three accelerometers attached with double-sided tape and tightened to the participants' tolerance on the forehead, the proximal section of the tibia and the distal section of the tibia. Time-domain (peak acceleration, shock attenuation) and frequency-domain parameters (peak frequency, peak power, signal magnitude and shock attenuation in both the low and high frequency ranges) were calculated for each of the tibial locations. The distal accelerometer registered greater tibial acceleration peak and shock attenuation compared to the proximal accelerometer. With respect to the frequency-domain analysis, the distal accelerometer provided greater values of all the low-frequency parameters, whereas no difference was observed for the high-frequency parameters. These findings suggest that the location of the tibial accelerometer does influence the acceleration signal parameters, and thus, researchers should carefully consider the location they choose to place the accelerometer so that equivalent comparisons across studies can be made.

  9. The Effect of Different Sagittal Angles of the Tibial Guide on Aperture Widening of the Tibial Tunnel during Modified Transtibial Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Randomized In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Chan; Tawonsawatruk, Tulyapruek; Woon, Hyeong Hwa; Yum, Ji Woong; Shin, Myung Jin; Bravo, Rodolfo S.; Nha, Kyung Wook

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The effect of sagittal plane angle of the tibial tunnel on the severity of tibial intra-articular aperture expansion caused by iatrogenic re-reaming in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using a modified transtibial technique is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the severity of intra-articular aperture widening at different angles (40°, 45°, and 50°) of the tibial guide (TG). Materials and Methods Ninety-seven patients who underwent modified transtibial ACL reconstruction were randomly allocated to TG 40°, 45°, and 50° groups. Intra-articular tibial aperture width (TW) and tibial tunnel length (TTL) were measured intraoperatively using an arthroscopic ruler and a depth gauge. Results The TG 50° group had significantly greater tibial aperture widening than the TG 40° group. There was a significant difference among TG 40°, 45°, and 50° groups and the percentage of knees with TTL <35 mm was 8%, 9% and 3%, respectively. There were 2 females with TTL <35 mm in TG 40° and 45° groups each. The average mediolateral length of the tibial plateau was 75 mm. Conclusions This study shows that the TG angle of 40° would reduce the severity of intra-articular aperture widening of the tibial tunnel compared to 45° or 50° in modified transtibial ACL reconstruction. PMID:28231645

  10. Double tibial osteotomy for bow leg patients: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Nazem, Khalilollah; Fouladi, Arash; Chinigarzadeh, Mozhdeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: High tibia osteotomy (HTO) is a common surgical operation for correction of genu varum deformity. In some patients, there are concurrent tibia vara and genu varum (bow leg). This study aimed to consider the possibility of better correction of bow leg deformity after double level tibial osteotomy (DLTO). Materials and Methods: A case series of 10 patients of genu varum in addition to tibia vara (bow leg) deformity who were referred to orthopedic ward of an academic hospital of Isfahan- Iran during 2009–2011 were included in the study. The mean age was 17.3 ± 3.1 years and all of them underwent DLTO. The results of treatment have been assessed based on clinical and radiological parameters before and after surgery. Results: The mean pre- and post operative values for Tibia-Femoral Angle, Medial Proximal of Tibia Angle (MPTA), and Lateral Distal of Tibia Angle (LDTA) were 18.13 ± 3.05° vs. 3.93 ± 0.66°, 79.13 ± 3.4° vs. 89.7 ± 1.8° and 96.40 ± 1.8° vs. 88.73 ± 3.0° respectively (P < 0.05). Improvement of all radiological parameters was meaningful. Seventy three percent of patients had normal mechanical axis of limb after surgery. The remaining cases had varus deformity in distal femur that was corrected by valgus supracondylar osteotomy in an additional operation. Limited range of motion (ROM) near knee and ankle was not observed. Conclusion: DLTO correct bow leg deformity in the point of alignment of limb and paralleling of knee and ankle joint more effectively. This method can be used in metabolic and congenital bow leg which deformities are present in throughout of the lower limb. We described this technique for the first time. PMID:24523802

  11. Treatment of tibial plateau fractures by limited internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Duwelius, P J; Rangitsch, M R; Colville, M R; Woll, T S

    1997-06-01

    Seventy-five adults who sustained 76 tibial plateau fractures were treated according to a prospective protocol using instability in extension as the principal indication for operative fixation. Patients showing instability underwent closed manipulative reduction under fluoroscopic guidance. If significant joint depression persisted after reduction, elevation of the fracture was performed either from below using bone punches through a cortical window or via limited arthrotomy. Iliac crest bone graft was used to buttress depressed fractures. Fixation was then secured using 7-mm cannulated screws with washers or buttress plates and screws. Postoperatively, 58 of 76 knees were managed in a hinged knee brace, allowing the patient early range of motion and protected weightbearing for 8 weeks. Patients who were found to have a stable knee were treated with Bledsoe braces according to the postoperative protocol. In the 75 patients, 18 of the 76 knees were unsuitable for percutaneous screw fixation because of fracture complexity requiring plates, severe open injuries, or inadequate reductions with limited fixation had been done. A minimum followup of 12 months was obtained in 55 patients (range, 12-59 months). All fractures had healed at the time of followup. Eighty-seven percent of the patients at followup had a successful outcome using Rasmussen's criteria. Fourteen of these patients had arthroscopic assisted reduction or evaluation. All seven patients who had poor outcomes had AO Type C3 fracture patterns. Severely depressed or comminuted fractures or fractures with significant metaphyseal diaphyseal extension may not be suitable for this technique and require the addition of an external fixation device or buttress plate to maintain the reduction and allow for early range of motion.

  12. Micromotion at the tibial plateau in primary and revision total knee arthroplasty: fixed versus rotating platform designs

    PubMed Central

    Rogge, R. D.; Malinzak, R. A.; Reyes, E. M.; Cook, P. L.; Farley, K. A.; Ritter, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Initial stability of tibial trays is crucial for long-term success of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in both primary and revision settings. Rotating platform (RP) designs reduce torque transfer at the tibiofemoral interface. We asked if this reduced torque transfer in RP designs resulted in subsequently reduced micromotion at the cemented fixation interface between the prosthesis component and the adjacent bone. Methods Composite tibias were implanted with fixed and RP primary and revision tibial trays and biomechanically tested under up to 2.5 kN of axial compression and 10° of external femoral component rotation. Relative micromotion between the implanted tibial tray and the neighbouring bone was quantified using high-precision digital image correlation techniques. Results Rotational malalignment between femoral and tibial components generated 40% less overall tibial tray micromotion in RP designs than in standard fixed bearing tibial trays. RP trays reduced micromotion by up to 172 µm in axial compression and 84 µm in rotational malalignment models. Conclusions Reduced torque transfer at the tibiofemoral interface in RP tibial trays reduces relative component micromotion and may aid long-term stability in cases of revision TKA or poor bone quality. Cite this article: Mr S. R. Small. Micromotion at the tibial plateau in primary and revision total knee arthroplasty: fixed versus rotating platform designs. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:122–129. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.54.2000481. PMID:27095658

  13. Oxidation and other property changes of retrieved sequentially annealed UHMWPE acetabular and tibial bearings.

    PubMed

    Reinitz, Steven D; Currier, Barbara H; Van Citters, Douglas W; Levine, Rayna A; Collier, John P

    2015-04-01

    This investigation analyzed retrieved sequentially crosslinked and annealed (SXL) ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene bearings to determine whether the material is chemically stable in vivo. A series of retrieved tibial and acetabular components were analyzed for changes in ketone oxidation, crosslink density, and free radical concentration. Oxidation was observed to increase with in vivo duration, and the rate of oxidation in tibial inserts was significantly greater than in acetabular liners. SXL acetabular bearings oxidized at a rate comparable to gamma-sterilized liners, while SXL tibial inserts oxidized at a significantly faster rate than their gamma-sterilized counterparts. A significant decrease in crosslink density with increased mean ketone oxidation index was observed, suggesting that in vivo oxidation may be causing material degradation. Furthermore, a subsurface whitened damage region was also found in a subset of the bearings, indicating the possibility of a clinically relevant decrease in mechanical properties of these components.

  14. Cannulated screw and hexapodal fixator reconstruction for compound upper tibial fractures

    PubMed Central

    Uzun, Metin; Bilen, Fikri Erkal; Eralp, Levent

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the treatment of tibial plateau fractures is to obtain a pain-free and fully functional knee with closed reduction, percutaneous cannulated screw fixation and hexapodal external fixator reconstruction for high energy compound upper tibial fractures. Methods: Patients with comminuted tibial plateau fractures underwent closed reduction, percutaneous fixation with cannulated screws, and reconstruction with hexapodal external fixator. The follow-up period was 24 months. Results: The clinical and radiological results were good or excellent. The average knee flexion was 125°. Conclusion: Our results are successful in the initial stage, however, it should be pointed out that during the long term follow-up osteoarthritis may develop leading to worsening of the condition. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24644420

  15. The all-polyethylene tibial component in primary total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gioe, Terence J; Maheshwari, Aditya V

    2010-02-01

    Outcomes of total knee arthroplasties performed with modern all-polyethylene tibial components have been found to be comparable with or better than those of arthroplasties done with metal-backed modular components in numerous mid-to-long-term follow-up studies, radiostereometric analyses, and the few prospective randomized trials available. Advantages of an all-polyethylene tibial component over a metal-backed modular component include lower cost, avoidance of locking-mechanism issues and backside wear, and increased polyethylene thickness after identical bone resections. Disadvantages of an all-polyethylene tibial component compared with a metal-backed modular component include a lack of modularity, limiting intraoperative options; no option for liner removal in the setting of acute irrigation and débridement; and no option for late liner exchange. Primary total knee arthroplasty with a modern all-polyethylene design can be done in many patients, with substantial cost savings across the health-care system.

  16. Angled polyethylene insert exchange for sagittal tibial malalignment in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sah, Alexander P; Scott, Richard D; Iorio, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Tibial component malposition in total knee arthroplasty can cause early failure and result in the need for revision surgery. Excessive posterior slope of the tibial component is an uncommon, but difficult problem to correct. Component revision risks additional loss of deficient posterior tibial bone stock. As an alternative, a custom-made angled insert can correct for component malalignment and possibly avoid prosthesis revision. In this report, we present the use of a custom-angled bearing for sagittal alignment correction with 6-year follow-up. The procedure is simple and has little risk, but the cost, potential limitations for correcting excessive deformity, and uncertainty of long-term results make the use of angled inserts a rare and selective procedure. However, when possible to use, an angled insert may be a useful alternative to complete prosthetic revision.

  17. A Qualitative Study of Recovery from Type III-B and III-C Tibial Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Shauver, Melissa S.; Aravind, Maya S.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    The literature has shown that long-term outcomes for both below-knee amputation and reconstruction following type III-B and III-C tibial fracture are poor. Yet, patients often report satisfaction with their treatment and/or outcomes. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between patient outcomes and satisfaction after open tibial fractures via qualitative methodology. Twenty patients who were treated for open tibial fractures at one institution were selected using purposeful sampling and interviewed in-person in a semi-structured manner. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Despite reporting marked physical and psychosocial deficits, participants relayed high satisfaction. We hypothesize that the use adaptive coping techniques successfully reduces stress, which leads to an increase in coping self-efficacy that results in the further use of adaptive coping strategies, culminating in personal growth. This stress reduction and personal growth leads to satisfaction despite poor functional and emotional outcomes. PMID:20948418

  18. Tibial plateau coverage in UKA: a comparison of patient specific and off-the-shelf implants.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Dylan P; Holmberg, Rebecca R; Quartulli, Marc J; Barnes, C Lowry

    2014-09-01

    Poor tibial component fit can lead to issues including pain, loosening and subsidence. Morphometric data, from 30 patients undergoing UKA were utilized; comparing size, match and fit between patient-specific and off-the-shelf implants. CT images were prospectively obtained and implants modeled in CAD, utilizing sizing templates with off-the-shelf and CAD designs with patient-specific implants. Virtual surgery was performed, maximizing tibial plateau coverage while minimizing implant overhang. Each implant evaluated to examine tibial fit. Patient-specific implants provided significantly greater cortical rim surface area coverage versus off-the-shelf implants: 77% v. 43% medially and 60% v. 37% laterally. Significantly less cortical rim overhang and undercoverage were observed with patient-specific implants. Patient-specific implants provide superior cortical bone coverage and fit while minimizing overhang and undercoverage seen in off-the-shelf implants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Is There A Difference in Bone Ingrowth in Modular Versus Monoblock Porous Tantalum Tibial Trays?

    PubMed Central

    Hanzlik, Josa A.; Day, Judd S.; Rimnac, Clare M.; Kurtz, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary total knee designs incorporating highly porous metallic surfaces have demonstrated promising clinical outcomes. However, stiffness differences between modular and monoblock porous tantalum tibial trays may affect bone ingrowth. This study investigated effect of implant design, spatial location and clinical factors on bone ingrowth in retrieved porous tantalum tibial trays. Three modular and twenty-one monoblock tibial trays were evaluated for bone ingrowth. Nonparametric statistical tests were used to investigate differences in bone ingrowth measurements by implant design, spatial location on the tray, substrate depth and clinical factors. Modular trays (5.3±3.2%) exhibited higher bone ingrowth than monoblock trays (1.6±1.9%, p=0.032). Bone ingrowth in both designs was highest in the initial 500 μm from the surface. Implantation time was positively correlated with bone ingrowth for monoblock trays. PMID:25743106

  20. Tibial tubercle-posterior cruciate ligament distance: a new measurement to define the position of the tibial tubercle in patients with patellar dislocation.

    PubMed

    Seitlinger, Gerd; Scheurecker, Georg; Högler, Richard; Labey, Luc; Innocenti, Bernardo; Hofmann, Siegfried

    2012-05-01

    In patients with patellar instability, a pathological tibial tubercle-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance is a risk factor. However, the TT-TG distance gives no information about the location of the malformation. Not all patients with a pathological TT-TG distance (≥20 mm) had lateralization of the tibial tubercle. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Fifty-eight knees in 49 patients with 2 or more patellar dislocations and 60 knees in 30 volunteers with no history of dislocation were analyzed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The tibial tubercle-posterior cruciate ligament (TT-PCL) distance was defined as the mediolateral distance between the tibial tubercle midpoint and the medial border of the posterior cruciate ligament. The distance was measured parallel to the dorsal aspect of the proximal tibia (dorsal tibia condylar line). Three observers performed the measurements. Significant differences in the TT-PCL distance between the patient and the control group were estimated using an unpaired t test. The inter- and intraobserver variability of the measurement was performed. The intraclass correlation coefficients for inter- and intraobserver variability of the TT-PCL distance were higher than 0.74 and 0.93, respectively. A statistically significant difference (P < .05) was found between the TT-PCL distance in the control group (mean [SD], 18.4 [3.35] mm) and in patients (21.9 [4.30] mm). The mean (SD) TT-TG was 18.9 (5.16) mm in the patient group and 11.9 (4.67) mm in the control group (P < .05). In the control group, 95% had a TT-PCL distance <24 mm. In the patient group, 22 of 58 knee joints (38%) had a TT-PCL distance ≥24 mm. Seventeen of 40 knee joints (43%) with a TT-TG distance ≥20 mm had a TT-PCL distance <24 mm. Only 57% of the patients with a pathological TT-TG distance (≥20 mm) had lateralization of the tibial tubercle in relation to the posterior cruciate ligament. The TT-PCL distance is an alternative method for determining the

  1. Effect of a too posterior placement of the tibial tunnel on the outcome 10-12 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the 70-degree tibial guide.

    PubMed

    Inderhaug, Eivind; Strand, Torbjørn; Fischer-Bredenbeck, Cornelia; Solheim, Eirik

    2014-05-01

    To examine the relationship between the radiographically assessed placement of the tibial tunnel and the long-term clinical and subjective outcome in anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed patients. Patients were examined clinically, with subjective score systems and with standardised radiographs 10-12 years postoperatively. Only patients reconstructed with the aid of the 70-degree tibial drill guide were included. A posterior placement of the tibial tunnel was defined as >50% along the Amis and Jakob line (AJL). A high tunnel inclination was defined as >75° in the coronal plane. The possible linear relationships between clinical findings, subjective scores and tibial tunnel placement were investigated. Eighty-six percentage of the 96 patients were available for examination. Mean tibial tunnel inclination was 71.1° (SD 4.2). No difference was found in subjective scores and knee stability between high (14%) and low (86%) inclination groups. Mean placement of the tibial tunnel along the AJL was 46% (SD 5). Patients with a posterior tibial tunnel placement (24%) had a higher incidence of rotational instability (P = 0.02). Patients with rotational instability (grade 2 pivot shift) had significant lower Lysholm score than those with grade 0 and 1 rotational instability (P = 0.001). The use of a tibial drill guide that relates to the femoral roof leads to a posterior tibial tunnel placement (>50% of the tibial AP-diameter) in 24% of the patients. These patients have a significant higher proportion of rotational instability and worse subjective outcome. Case series, Level IV.

  2. Comparison of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Isometry between Paired Femoral and Tibial Tunnels.

    PubMed

    Cain, E Lyle; Biggers, Marcus D; Beason, David P; Emblom, Benton A; Dugas, Jeffrey R

    2017-03-10

    Accurate tunnel placement is important for a successful anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Controversy exists concerning the preferred method of femoral tunnel preparation, with proponents of both medial portal and transtibial drilling techniques. Current ACL literature suggests that placement of the femoral ACL attachment site posterior or "low" in the ACL footprint leads to more anatomically correct ACL mechanics and better rotational control. There is limited literature focusing on ACL graft displacement through knee range of motion based on specific paired placement of femoral and tibial tunnels. Our purpose was to assess ACL isometry between multiple combinations of femoral and tibial tunnels. We hypothesized that placement of the graft at the posterior aspect of the ACL footprint on the femur would be significantly less isometric and lead to more graft displacement as compared with central or anterior placement. The ACL of matched pairs of cadaveric knees was arthroscopically debrided while leaving the soft tissue footprint on the femur and tibia intact. One knee from each pair underwent notchplasty. In all knees, three femoral and three tibial tunnels were created at the anterior, central, and posterior aspects of the ACL footprint. A suture was passed through each tunnel combination (nine potential pairs), and the change in isometry was measured throughout full knee range of motion. Placement of the femoral tunnel along the posterior aspect of the ACL footprint was less isometric compared with a central or anterior position in the femoral footprint. Placement of a posterior tibial tunnel also led to decreased isometry, but tibial tunnel placement affected isometry to a lesser extent than femoral tunnel placement. The combination of a posterior femoral and posterior tibial tunnel resulted in greater than 1 cm of graft excursion from full flexion to extension. Placement of ACL tunnels at anisometric sites may adversely affect the mechanical

  3. Effects of foot orthoses on the work of friction of the posterior tibial tendon.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Takaaki; McCullough, Matthew B A; Kitaoka, Harold B; Ikoma, Kazuya; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2009-11-01

    Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is a significant contributor to flatfeet. Non-operative treatments, like in-shoe orthoses, have varying degrees of success. This study examined changes to the work of friction of the posterior tibial tendon under three conditions: intact, simulated flatfoot, and flatfoot with an orthosis. It was hypothesized that work of friction of the posterior tibial tendon would significantly increase in the flatfoot, yet return to normal with an orthosis. Changes to bone orientation were also expected. Six lower limb cadavers were mounted in a foot simulator, that applied axial and a posterior tibial tendon load. Posterior tibial tendon excursion, gliding resistance, and foot kinematics were monitored, and work of friction calculated. Each specimen moved through a range of motion in the coronal, transverse, and sagittal planes. Mean work of friction during motion in the coronal plane were 0.17 N cm (SD 0.07 N cm), 0.25 N cm (SD 0.09 N cm), and 0.23 N cm (SD 0.09 N cm) for the intact, flatfoot, and orthosis conditions, respectively. Motion in the transverse plane yielded average WoF of 0.36 N cm (SD 0.28 N cm), 0.64 N cm (SD 0.25 N cm), and 0.57 N cm (SD 0.38 N cm) in the same three conditions, respectively. The average tibio-calcaneal and tibio-metatarsal valgus angles significantly increased in the flatfoot condition (5.8 degrees and 9 degrees , respectively). However, the orthosis did slightly correct this angle. The prefabricated orthosis did not consistently restore normal work of friction, though it did correct the flatfoot visually. This implies that patients with flatfeet may be predisposed to developing posterior tibial tendon dysfunction due to abnormal gliding resistance, though bone orientations are restored.

  4. Outcome of sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence in patients refractory to percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hotouras, Alexander; Murphy, Jamie; Thin, Noel N; Allison, Marion; Horrocks, Emma; Williams, Norman S; Knowles, Charles H; Chan, Christopher L

    2013-07-01

    Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation and sacral nerve stimulation are both second-line treatments for fecal incontinence, but the comparative efficacy of the 2 therapies is unknown. In our institution, patients with refractory fecal incontinence are generally treated with percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation before being considered for sacral nerve stimulation. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome associated with this treatment algorithm in order to guide future management strategies. All patients with fecal incontinence treated over a 3-year period with tibial nerve stimulation before receiving sacral nerve stimulation were identified from a prospectively recorded database. Demographics and pretreatment anorectal physiological data were available for all patients. This study was conducted at an academic colorectal unit in a tertiary center. Twenty patients (17 female:3 male, median age 55 (33-79) years) were identified to be refractory to percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation. Clinical outcome data were collected prospectively before and after treatment, including 1) Cleveland Clinic Florida-Fecal Incontinence scores and 2) number of incontinence episodes per week. The mean (±SD) pretreatment incontinence score (11.7 ± 3.5) did not differ from the mean incontinence score after 12 sessions of tibial nerve stimulation (10.9 ± 3.6, p = 0.42). All patients were subsequently counseled for sacral nerve stimulation, and 68.4% of them reported a significant therapeutic benefit with an improved incontinence score (7.7 ± 4.1, p = 0.014). This was a nonrandomized study with a relatively small number of patients Sacral nerve stimulation appears to be an effective treatment for patients who do not gain an adequate therapeutic benefit from percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation and, thus, should be routinely considered for this patient cohort.

  5. An observational, prospective study comparing tibial and humeral intraosseous access using the EZ-IO.

    PubMed

    Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Chan, Yiong Huak; Oh, Jen Jen; Ngo, Adeline Su-Yin

    2009-01-01

    Intraosseous (IO) access is an alternative to conventional intravenous access. The proximal tibia and proximal humerus have been proposed as suitable sites for IO access. A nonrandomized, prospective, observational study comparing flow rates and insertion success with tibial and humeral IO access in adults using the EZ-IO-powered drill device was conducted. The tibia was the first site of insertion, and a second IO was inserted in the humerus if clinically indicated for the same patient. Twenty-four patients were recruited, with 24 tibial and 11 humeral insertions. All EZ-IO insertions were successful at the first attempt except for 1 tibial insertion that was successful on the second attempt. All insertions were achieved within 20 seconds. Mean ease of IO insertion score (1=easiest to 10=most difficult) was 1.1 for both sites. We found tibial flow rates to be significantly faster using a pressure bag (165 mL/min) compared with those achieved without a pressure bag (73 mL/min), with a difference of 92 mL/min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 52, 132). Similarly, humeral flow rates were significantly faster using a pressure bag (153 mL/min) compared with humeral those achieved without pressure bag (84 mL/min), with a difference of 69 mL/min (95% CI: 39, 99). Comparing matched pairs (same patient), there was no significant difference in flow rates between tibial and humeral sites, with or without pressure bag infusion. Both sites had high-insertion success rates. Flow rates were significantly faster with a pressure bag infusion than without. However, we did not find any significant difference in tibial or humeral flow rates.

  6. The relationship between posterior tibial slope and anterior cruciate ligament injuries.

    PubMed

    Todd, Michael S; Lalliss, Steve; Garcia, E'Stephan; DeBerardino, Thomas M; Cameron, Kenneth L

    2010-01-01

    Two previous studies have examined the association between an increased posterior tibial slope and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries as measured on plain radiographs. The study results were contradictory, with 1 reporting a statistical difference and the other showing no association. To determine if there is a difference in posterior tibial slope angle between patients with a history of noncontact ACL injury and a control group with no history of ACL injury. A secondary objective was to examine differences in tibial slope angle between male and female subjects within each group. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. We identified all noncontact ACL injuries that were treated operatively at the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York, from 2004 to 2007. We digitally measured the posterior tibial slope from plain film radiographs of 140 noncontact ACL injuries, stratified them by sex, and compared them with a control cohort of 179 patients and radiographs. Subjects in the noncontact ACL group had significantly greater slope angles (9.39 degrees +/- 2.58 degrees) than did control subjects (8.50 degrees +/- 2.67 degrees) (P = .003). The trend toward greater tibial slope angles in the noncontact ACL group was also observed when each sex was examined independently; however, the difference was only statistically significant for the female subjects between the injury and control groups (9.8 degrees +/- 2.6 degrees vs 8.20 degrees +/- 2.4 degrees) (P = .002). Despite the identification of an increased posterior tibial slope as a possible risk factor for women, more research that combines the multifactorial nature of an ACL injury must be performed.

  7. Reconstruction of the oropharynx with free posterior tibial flap after tonsillar cancer extirpation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Liu, Jun; Lv, Dan; Wang, Lihong; Liu, Yafeng

    2014-10-01

    Oropharyngeal reconstruction after tonsillar tumor resection is a great challenge for head and neck surgeons. The aim of the present study was to explore the reconstruction efficacy of the free posterior tibial flap in the primary reconstruction of oropharynx defects after tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) ablation. From August 2009 to March 2012, 12 patients with tonsillar SCC underwent oropharynx reconstruction with a free posterior tibial flap at the Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University. Their clinical and surgical data were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Of the 12 patients, 8 were male and 4 were female (age range 41 to 66 years, mean 55.1). The average size of the free posterior tibial flap was 9.2 × 6.3 cm (range 7 × 5 to 12 × 7), the average flap thickness was 1.1 cm (range 0.9 to 1.3), and the average pedicle length was 10 cm (range 7 to 12). Despite the multistep and time-consuming procedure, all patients tolerated oropharynx reconstruction with the free posterior tibial flap. The transferred free posterior tibial flaps survived well. No donor site complications were observed during the follow-up period. All 12 patients acquired satisfactory swallowing and speech function preservation. Satisfactory reconstruction results were achieved for all 12 patients, indicating the free posterior tibial flap should be considered a potential treatment option for reconstruction of oropharynx defects. However, additional prospective studies with a larger sample size are required to validate our results. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation vs parasacral transcutaneous neuromodulation for overactive bladder in children.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Ubirajara; Viterbo, Walter; Bittencourt, Joana; Farias, Tiago; Lordêlo, Patrícia

    2013-08-01

    Parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and posterior tibial nerve stimulation have emerged as effective methods to treat overactive bladder in children. However, to our knowledge no study has compared the 2 methods. We evaluated the results of parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and posterior tibial nerve stimulation in children with overactive bladder. We prospectively studied children with overactive bladder without dysfunctional voiding. Success of treatment was evaluated by visual analogue scale and dysfunctional voiding symptom score, and by level of improvement of each specific symptom. Parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation was performed 3 times weekly and posterior tibial nerve stimulation was performed once weekly. A total of 22 consecutive patients were treated with posterior tibial nerve stimulation and 37 with parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. There was no difference between the 2 groups regarding demographic characteristics or types of symptoms. Concerning the evaluation by visual analogue scale, complete resolution of symptoms was seen in 70% of the group undergoing parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and in 9% of the group undergoing posterior tibial nerve stimulation (p = 0.02). When the groups were compared, there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.55). The frequency of persistence of urgency and diurnal urinary incontinence was nearly double in the group undergoing posterior tibial nerve stimulation. However, this difference was not statistically significant. We found that parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is more effective in resolving overactive bladder symptoms, which matches parental perception. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the evaluation by dysfunctional voiding symptom score, or in complete resolution of urgency or diurnal incontinence. Copyright © 2013 American Urological

  9. Ultrasound improves the success rate of a tibial nerve block at the ankle.

    PubMed

    Redborg, Kirsten E; Antonakakis, John G; Beach, Michael L; Chinn, Christopher D; Sites, Brian D

    2009-01-01

    The tibial nerve provides the majority of sensation to the foot. Although multiple techniques have been described, there exists little evidence-based medicine evaluating different techniques for blocking the tibial nerve at the ankle. We hypothesized that an ultrasound (US)-guided tibial nerve block at the ankle would prove more successful than a conventional approach based on surface landmarks. Eighteen healthy volunteers were prospectively randomized into this controlled and blinded study. Each subject was placed prone, and one ankle was randomly assigned to receive either an US-guided tibial nerve block (group US) or a traditional landmark-based tibial nerve block (group LM). The subject's other ankle then received the alternate approach. All blocks were performed with 5 mL of 3% chloroprocaine. We evaluated sensory and motor blocks. A successful block was defined as complete loss of sensation to both ice and pinprick at 5 cutaneous sites. Secondary outcome variables included performance times, number of needle passes, participant satisfaction, and presence of any complications. At 30 mins, the block was complete in 72% of participants in group US as compared with 22% in group LM. At all times, the proportion of complete blocks was higher in group US. Ultrasound-guided blocks took longer on average to perform than traditional blocks (159 vs 79 secs; P < 0.001). There were more needle redirects in group US, with 8 subjects requiring 3 or more redirects versus none in group LM. Subjects preferred the US block 78% of the time (95% confidence interval, 52%-95%). In healthy volunteers, US guidance results in a more successful tibial nerve block at the ankle than does a traditional approach using surface landmarks.

  10. Chronic shin splints. Classification and management of medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Detmer, D E

    1986-01-01

    A clinical classification and treatment programme has been developed for chronic medial tibial stress syndrome. Medial tibial stress syndrome has been reported to be either tibial stress fracture or microfracture, tibial periostitis, or distal deep posterior chronic compartment syndrome. Three chronic types exist and may coexist: Type I (tibial microfracture, bone stress reaction or cortical fracture); type II (periostalgia from chronic avulsion of the periosteum at the periosteal-fascial junction); and type III (chronic compartment syndrome syndrome). Type I disease is treated nonoperatively. Operations for resistant types II and III medial tibial stress syndrome were performed in 41 patients. Bilaterality was common (type II, 50% type III, 88%). Seven had coexistent type II/III; one had type I/II. Preoperative symptoms averaged 24 months in type II, 6 months in type III, and 33 months in types II/III. Mean age was 22 years (15 to 51). Resting compartment pressures were normal in type II (mean 12 mm Hg) and elevated in type III and type II/III (mean 23 mm Hg). Type II and type II/III patients received fasciotomy plus periosteal cauterisation. Type III patients had fasciotomy only. All procedures were performed on an outpatient basis using local anaesthesia. Follow up was complete and averaged 6 months (2 to 14 months). Improved performance was as follows: type II, 93%, type III, 100%; type II/III, 86%. Complete cures were as follows: type II, 78%; type III, 75%; and type II/III, 57%. This experience suggests that with precise diagnosis and treatment involving minimal risk and cost the athlete has a reasonable chance of return to full activity.

  11. In vitro biomechanical study of femoral torsion disorders: effect on femoro-tibial kinematics.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, S; Dugailly, P-M; Baillon, B; Lefevre, P; Rooze, M; Salvia, P; Feipel, V

    2012-12-01

    Gonarthrosis is a degenerative disease mainly found in elderly persons. Frontal plane deviations are known to induce lateral and medial gonarthrosis. Nevertheless, patients suffer from gonarthrosis without frontal deviations. Lower limb torsions disorders have been considered as a factor inducing lateral and medial gonarthrosis. This paper reports an in vitro study aiming at quantifying the relationships between experimental femoral torsion disorders and femoro-tibial kinematics. Five fresh-frozen lower limbs were used. Specimens were fixed on an experimental jig and muscles were loaded. A six-degree-of-freedom Instrumented Spatial Linkage was used to measure femoro-tibial kinematics. Experimental femoral osteotomies were performed to simulate various degrees of medial and lateral torsion. Internal tibial rotation, abduction/adduction and proximo-distal, medio-lateral and antero-posterior translations were measured during knee flexion. Internal tibial rotation and abduction/adduction were significantly influenced (P<0.001) by femoral torsion disorder conditions. Medial femoral torsion increased tibial adduction and decreased internal rotation during knee flexion. Opposite changes were observed during lateral femoral torsion. Concerning translations, medial femoral torsion induced a significant (P<0.05) decrease of medial translation and inversely for lateral femoral torsion. No interactions between femoral torsion disorders and range of motion were observed. Our results showed that medial and lateral femoral torsion disorders induced alterations of femoro-tibial kinematics when applied in normally aligned lower limbs. These results highlight a potential clinical relevance of the effect of femoral torsion alterations on knee kinematics that may be related to the development of long-term knee disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Distal tibial derotational osteotomy with external fixation to treat torsional deformities: a review of 71 cases.

    PubMed

    Erschbamer, Matthias; Gerhard, Pascal; Klima, Harry; Ellenrieder, Birte; Zdenek-Lehnen, Katja; Giesinger, Karlmeinrad

    2017-03-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the safety and efficacy of operative treatment of torsional malalignment of the tibia in 44 children, on whom we performed 71 derotational osteotomies of the distal tibia to treat tibial torsion. We placed four pins using an alignment jig, performed a percutaneous osteotomy, and applied an external fixator after derotation. Postoperative radiographs showed accurate tibial derotation and pin placement in all patients. Nine patients developed superficial pin-tract infections that resolved with antibiotic treatment. Two developed fractures after removal of the external fixator, which healed in a plaster cast. Operative treatment of these cases with an external fixator is safe, effective, and well tolerated.

  13. Mechanobiology in the management of mobile atrophic and oligotrophic tibial nonunions

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Nando; Marais, Leonard Charles; Aldous, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent research indicates that atrophic nonunions are biologically active and may heal in the optimal biomechanical environment. Methods Thirty-three patients with mobile atrophic and oligotrophic tibial nonunions were treated with circular external fixation and functional rehabilitation. Seven patients required autogenous bone graft procedures. Results Bony union was achieved after the initial surgery in 31/33 (93.9%) tibias. Two persistent nonunions were successfully treated with repeat circular external fixation without bone graft. This resulted in final bony union in 33/33 (100%) patients. Conclusion Mechanobiological stimulation of tibial nonunions can produce union even if the biological activity appears to be low. PMID:27047221

  14. [Lateral approach of the knee with tibial tubercle osteotomy for prosthetic surgery].

    PubMed

    Mertl, P; Jarde, O; Blejwas, D; Vives, P

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe a lateral approach to the knee associated with a tibial tubercle osteotomy and a plasty using the fat pad to provide a complete closure of the wound. This lateral approach has been performed successfully in 98 cases, with only 3 skin necrosis. It offers a large exposure of the joint, facilitates placement of tibial component trial fit, and allows the self centering of the quadriceps patellar-tendon mechanism at the end of the intervention. The lateral approach disputable in case of genu varum is recommended in all cases of genu valgum or important deformities.

  15. Advances in Intramedullary Nailing: Suprapatellar Nailing of Tibial Shaft Fractures in the Semiextended Position.

    PubMed

    Zelle, Boris A; Boni, Guilherme; Hak, David J; Stahel, Philip F

    2015-12-01

    Reamed locked intramedullary nailing remains the standard treatment for displaced tibial shaft fractures. Supra-patellar tibial nailing in the semiextended position has been suggested as a safe and effective surgical technique that allows mitigating certain challenges of the standard subpatellar approach. Suprapatellar nailing seems to facilitate achieving and maintaining fracture reduction, particularly in proximal third tibia fractures. Preliminary investigations have suggested that this technique is associated with a low rate of complications, including a reduced incidence of postoperative anterior knee pain. Further clinical investigations are necessary to establish overall complication rates and long-term subjective outcomes.

  16. Gait characteristics and quality of life perception of patients following tibial plateau fracture.

    PubMed

    Warschawski, Yaniv; Elbaz, Avi; Segal, Ganit; Norman, Doron; Haim, Amir; Jacov, Elis; Grundshtein, Alon; Steinberg, Ely

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the long-term functional outcome as measured by gait patterns and quality of life assessment of patients with high-energy tibial plateau fracture compared to matched controls. Thirty-eight patients were evaluated in a case-controlled comparison. Twenty-two patients with tibial plateau fracture were evaluated after 3.1 (1.63) years (sd) from injury. Patients underwent a computerized spatiotemporal gait test and completed the SF-12 health survey. 16 healthy subjects, matched for age and gender served as a control group. The main outcome measures for this study were spatiotemporal gait characteristics, physical quality of life and mental quality of life. Significant differences were found in all gait parameters between patients with tibial plateau fracture and healthy controls. Patients with tibial plateau fracture walked slower by 18% compared to the control group (p < 0.001), had slower cadence by 8% compared (p = 0.002) to the control group and had shorter step length in the involved leg by 11% and in the uninvolved leg by 12% compared to the control group (p = 0.006 and p = 0.003, respectively). Patients with tibial plateau fracture also showed shorter single limb support (SLS) in the involved leg by 12% compared to the uninvolved leg and 5% in the uninvolved leg compared to the control group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.017, respectively). Significant differences were found in the Short Form (SF)-12 scores. Physical Health Score of patients with tibial plateau fracture was 65% lower compared to healthy controls (p < 0.001), and Mental Health Score of the patients was 40% lower compared to healthy controls (p < 0.001). Finally, significant correlations were found between SF-12 and gait patterns. Long-term deviations in gait and quality of life exist in patients following tibial plateau fracture. Patients following tibial plateau fracture present altered spatiotemporal gait patterns compared to healthy controls, as well as

  17. Case Reports: Tantalum Debris Dispersion During Revision of a Tibial Component for TKA

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez Marquez, Jose Miguel; Del Sel, Nicolas; Leali, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Porous tantalum nonmodular tibial components for TKA were introduced in 1999. We revised three well-fixed tantalum tibial trays. For removal, we used osteotomes and revision oscillating saw blades. Removal of the components was laborious and resulted in generation of abundant tantalum debris that seeded the periarticular soft tissues despite meticulous protection with gauze. The retained metallic debris that is visible on postoperative radiographs has the potential for generation of third-body wear. We alert the orthopaedic community about this phenomenon and recommend minimizing the use of motorized revision instruments for removal of trabecular metal implants. PMID:18941849

  18. Larger medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension may trigger posterior root tear of medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jun Young; Song, Hyung Keun; Jung, Myung Kuk; Oh, Hyeong Tak; Kim, Joon Ho; Yoon, Ji-Sang; Min, Byoung-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    The major meniscal functions are load bearing, load distribution, and shock absorption by increasing the tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) contact area and dissipating axial loads by conversion into hoop stresses. The increased hoop strain stretches the meniscus in outward direction towards radius, causing extrusion, which is associated with the root tear and resultant degenerative osteoarthritis. Since the larger contact area of medial TFJ may increase the hoop stresses, we hypothesized that the larger medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension would contribute to the development of medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT). Thus, the purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between MMPRT and medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension. A case-control study was conducted to compare medial femoral to tibial condylar dimensions of patients with complete MMPRT (n = 59) with those of demography-matched controls (n = 59) during the period from 2010 to 2013. In each patient, MRIs were reviewed and several parameters were measured including articulation width of medial femoral condyle (MFC) at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°, medial tibial condyle (MTC) width, degree of meniscal extrusion, and medial femoral to tibial condylar width ratio (MFC/MTC) at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°, respectively. Demographic and radiographic data were assessed. A larger medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension was associated with MMPRT at 0° and 30° knee angles. Patients with MFC/MTC greater than 0.9 at 0° also showed about 2.5-fold increase in the chance of MMPRT. Those with meniscal extrusion greater than 3 mm also had about 17.1 times greater chance for the presence of MMPRT accordingly. A larger medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension may be considered as one of the regional contributors to the outbreak of MMPRT, and medial femoral to tibial condylar width ratio greater than 0.9 at 0° knee angle may be considered as a significant risk factor for MMPRT. III.

  19. Spiral tibial fractures of children: a commonly accidental spiral long bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Mellick, L B; Reesor, K

    1990-05-01

    Pediatric training in child abuse has consistently emphasized a strong association between nonaccidental injuries and spiral fractures of long bones. Isolated spiral tibial fractures of childhood have previously been recognized by the orthopedic specialty to most frequently be accidental in etiology. The authors present evidence that supports a predominantly accidental etiology for isolated spiral tibial fractures of young children. This article presents a series in which 9 of 10 such spiral fractures were most likely the result of an accident and not child abuse or gross neglect. Additionally, almost all of these fractures presented as a gait disturbance and should be included in the differential of this complaint.

  20. Anterior tibial stress fracture treated with intramedullary nailing: a case report.

    PubMed

    Plasschaert, V F; Johansson, C G; Micheli, L J

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the use of intramedullary rodding as a treatment for an anterior tibial stress fracture in a patient with high functional demands: a professional ballet dancer. In our patient, a year of conservative treatment and later tibial drilling was unsuccessful. After sustaining a complete fracture at the site of the stress fracture, he was treated with intramedullary rodding and was able to dance 21 weeks after surgery. The fracture went on to complete healing. The role of prophylactic intramedullary nailing in this difficult fracture is discussed.

  1. Preoperative Measurement of Tibial Resection in Total Knee Arthroplasty Improves Accuracy of Postoperative Limb Alignment Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei-Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Qi; Fang, Shu-Ying; Yang, Zi-Bo; Kang, Yan; Fu, Ming; Liao, Wei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: Accuracy of implant placement in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is crucial. Traditional extramedullary alignment instruments are fairly effective for achieving the desired mean tibial component coronal alignment. We modified the traditional tibial plateau resection technique and evaluated its effect on alignment restoration. Methods: Two hundred and eighty-two primary TKAs in our hospital between January 2013 and December 2014 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Group A consisted of 128 primary TKAs performed by one senior surgeon. Preoperative measurement of the tibial resection was conducted on radiographs, and the measured thicknesses of the lateral and medial plateau resection were used to place the tibial alignment guide. Group B consisted of 154 primary TKAs performed by the other senior surgeon, using a traditional tibial plateau resection technique. In all patients, an extramedullary guide was used for tibial resection, and preoperative and postoperative full-leg standing radiographs were used to assess the hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA), femoral component alignment angle (FA), and tibial component alignment angle (TA). A deviation ≥3° was considered unsatisfactory. Data were analyzed by unpaired Student's t-test. Results: The mean postoperative HKA and TA angles were significantly different between Groups A and B (178.2 ± 3.2° vs. 177.0 ± 3.0°, t = 2.54, P = 0.01; 89.3 ± 1.8° vs. 88.3 ± 2.0°, t = 3.75, P = 0.00, respectively). The mean postoperative FA was 88.9 ± 2.5° in Group A and 88.9 ± 2.6° in Group B, and no significant difference was detected (t = 0.10, P = 0.92). There were 90 (70.3%) limbs with restoration of the mechanical axis to within 3° of neutral alignment and 38 (29.7%) outliers (>3° deviation) in Group A, whereas there were 89 (57.8%) limbs with restoration of the mechanical axis to within 3° of neutral alignment and 65 (42.2%) outliers (>3° deviation) in Group B. The severity of the preoperative alignment

  2. Canine stifle joint biomechanics associated with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy predicted by use of a computer model.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nathan P; Bertocci, Gina E; Marcellin-Little, Denis J

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate effects of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) on canine stifle joint biomechanics in a cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifle joint by use of a 3-D computer model simulating the stance phase of gait and to compare biomechanics in TPLO-managed, CrCL-intact, and CrCL-deficient stifle joints. Computer simulations of the pelvic limb of a Golden Retriever. A previously developed computer model of the canine pelvic limb was used to simulate TPLO stabilization to achieve a tibial plateau angle (TPA) of 5° (baseline value) in a CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for tibial fragment rotation of 13° to -3°. Ligament loads, relative tibial translation, and relative tibial rotation were determined and compared with values for CrCL-intact and CrCL-deficient stifle joints. TPLO with a 5° TPA converted cranial tibial translation to caudal tibial translation and increased loads placed on the remaining stifle joint ligaments, compared with results for a CrCL-intact stifle joint. Lateral collateral ligament load was similar, medial collateral ligament load increased, and caudal cruciate ligament load decreased after TPLO, compared with loads for a CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Relative tibial rotation after TPLO was similar to that of a CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Stifle joint biomechanics were affected by TPLO fragment rotation. In the model, stifle joint biomechanics were partially improved after TPLO, compared with CrCL-deficient stifle joint biomechanics, but TPLO did not fully restore CrCL-intact stifle joint biomechanics. Overrotation of the tibial fragment negatively influenced stifle joint biomechanics by increasing caudal tibial translation.

  3. ACL injury while jumping rope in a patient with an unintended increase in the tibial slope after an opening wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwang Am; Lee, Su Chan; Hwang, Seung Hyun; Song, Moon Bok

    2009-08-01

    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is an accepted surgical technique for the treatment of medial compartmental arthrosis of the knee in younger patients. Compared to total knee arthroplasty, HTO may be a good choice in patients who wish to continue with heavy labor and/or impact sports. Based on the rehabilitation protocol after HTO, impact sports, such as running, jumping rope, and full sports activities, are generally permitted 6 months postoperatively. Jumping rope is an excellent form of aerobic exercise, and when done properly, jumping rope can lead to a dramatic improvement in rehabilitation and full sports activities. However, an adequate evaluation should be performed prior to initiating impact sports. We present the case of a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament that occurred in a patient with an unintended increase in the tibial slope after an opening wedge HTO who was jumping rope.

  4. Defining the Role of the Tibial Tubercle-Trochlear Groove and Tibial Tubercle-Posterior Cruciate Ligament Distances in the Work-up of Patients With Patellofemoral Disorders.

    PubMed

    Anley, Cameron Michael; Morris, Guy Vernon; Saithna, Adnan; James, Steven Laurence; Snow, Martyn

    2015-06-01

    The radiological work-up of patients with patellofemoral disorders continues to be debated. The interchangeability of the tibial tubercle-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance between computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has recently been questioned. In addition, a new measurement-the tibial tubercle-posterior cruciate ligament (TT-PCL) distance-has shown that not all patients with a pathological TT-TG distance (>20 mm) have lateralization of the tibial tubercle. Another factor to consider when looking at the position of the tibial tubercle is the knee joint rotation, defined as the angle between the femoral dorsal condylar line and the tibial dorsal condylar line. To determine, with a larger population, if the TT-TG measurements can be used interchangeably between CT and MRI and to confirm the correlation between the TT-PCL and TT-TG distances in determining tibial tubercle lateralization. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Patients with patellofemoral disorders and MRI and CT scans of the same knee (n = 141) were identified. The TT-PCL, the knee joint rotation, and TT-TG were measured independently by 2 fellowship-trained orthopaedic surgeons. Thirty measurements were repeated on a separate occasion to allow for an assessment of the intrarater reliability. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess reliability of the measurements. The mean TT-TG was 4.16 mm less on MRI (P < .05), with the mean TT-TG ± SD being 17.72 ± 5.15 mm on CT (range, 6.97-31.33 mm) and 13.56 ± 6.07 mm on MRI (range, 2-30.04 mm). The ICC for each rater comparing the 2 imaging modalities was only fair (0.54 and 0.48). The mean TT-PCL measurement was 20.32 ± 3.45 mm (range, 10.11-32.01 mm) with excellent interobserver and intraobserver reliability (>0.75). Based on the TT-TG and TT-PCL measurements, 4 groups of patients can be established. When knee joint rotation is compared among groups, an increased TT-TG may result from true

  5. Tibial subchondral bone mineral density: sources of variability and reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Boudenot, A; Pallu, S; Toumi, H; Loiseau Peres, S; Dolleans, E; Lespessailles, E

    2013-10-01

    It has been shown that subchondral bone mineral density (sBMD) measurement may be a relevant parameter of osteoarthritis (OA) progression. However, factors implicating the reproducibility and contributing to the variability of the measurement have not been fully described. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the reproducibility of sBMD by Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) and to further examine its sources of variability. In this study, short-term, intra and inter-observer reproducibility of sBMD was examined on knee images obtained on DXA scans. The influence of software (lumbar spine and forearm modes), knee positioning (flexion or extension), site and size of regions of interest (ROI) and use of rice, on both lateral and medial tibial sBMD, were assessed. Root mean square coefficient of variation (RMS CV) and least significant changes (LSC) were calculated. The short-term precision of sBMD ranged between 2.24% and 5.12% for RMS CV and between 0.053 and 0.135 g/cm(2) for LSC. Good intra-observer precision was found for knee flexion conditions whatever the software used (RMS CV ranging from 0.43 to 1.41%). The reproducibility was dependant from the ROI size (the ROI including joint space exhibiting better precision results than ROI including solely the subchondral plate). For a constant size of the ROI, the precision results were site-dependant. Inter-observer RMS CV results ranged from 0.59 to 5.01% according to ROI and software used. For the specific task of monitoring medial sBMD in the ROI including solely subchondral plate, forearm flexion condition produced the highest intra-observer and short-term precision (respectively RMS CV: 0.45% and 2.77%; LSC: 0.013 and 0.080 g/cm(2)). Taking account into the excellent precision of the sBMD measurements expressed as RMS CV with the protocol proposed in the present study, clinical application of these measurements might be envisaged. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International

  6. Neuromodulative treatment of overactive bladder--noninvasive tibial nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Svihra, J; Kurca, E; Luptak, J; Kliment, J

    2002-01-01

    Conservative treatment of overactive bladder employes behavioral or invasive neuromodulatory inhibition of miction reflex and administration of anticholinergic drugs. The aim of this study was to use non-invasive stimulation of the tibial nerve with the intention to achieve desired therapeutic effects without iatrogenic nerve damage using a superficial electrostimulation. All patients suffered from overactive bladder (OAB) without bladder outlet obstruction. OAB was examined by the Behavioral urge score BUS (0.0--the best and 1.0--the worst score), the International prostate symptom score IPSS (0--the best and 35--the worst score) and the Incontinence quality of life questionnaire IQOL (0.0--the worst and 1.0--the best index). The patients were divided into 3 groups: Group I--patients with electrode attached behind the medial ankle of the left lower extremity. The intensity of stimulation corresponded to 70% of the maximum amplitude of response from musculus abductor hallucis. Frequency of stimulation was 1 Hz and duration of the square impulse was 0.1 ms. Surface stimulation lasted 30 minutes and was repeated once a week. Group II--patients were treated by oral oxybutynin 5 mg t.i.d. Group III--patients without treatment. The BUS, IPSS, and IQOL were repeated after the treatment. The study included 28 females of average age 54 year (range 45 to 63). Mean IPSS was 17 (range 12 to 21), mean index of quality of life IQOL was 30 (range 12 to 78) and mean BUS score was 0.68 (range 0.50 to 0.86). Group I with stimulation did achieve statistically significant changes following the treatment: decrease of mean IPSS from 17 +/- 3 points to 6 +/- 4 points after the treatment, increase in mean IQOL from 36 +/- 10 to 68 +/- 20 and decrease of mean BUS from 0.65 +/- 0.12 to 0.43 +/- 0.16. Group II had similar statistically significant differences after the treatment of OAB. Group III noted no changes in the complaints. Noninvasive stimulation had improved subjective symptom

  7. Short-term comparison of tibial tuberosity advancement and tibial plateau levelling osteotomy in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament disease using kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Márcio P; Ferrigno, Cássio R A; de Souza, Alexandre N A; Caquias, Daniela F I; de Figueiredo, Adriana V

    2016-05-18

    This study set out to compare the outcomes of tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) and tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) procedures in the treatment of dogs affected with unilateral cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD) based on subjective parameters and objective pressure platform analysis (baropodometry). Twenty-seven adult dogs weighing over 20 kg that were presented with unilateral CCLD and were treated by the TTA (12 dogs) or TPLO (15 dogs) surgical procedure. Patient allocation to either group was based on tibial plateau angle (TPA), according to clinical guidelines (indication for TTA for dogs was a TPA up to 25°, and indication for TPLO was any TPA). Pressure platform analysis was performed prior to surgery and at four different postoperative time points (14, 30, 60 and 90 days). Limb function significantly improved following TTA and TPLO, with no significant differences between groups. The TTA and TPLO surgical procedures were considered to be equally effective in promoting weight bearing capacity recovery in dogs affected with unilateral CCLD under the conditions of this trial.

  8. ACL Roof Impingement Revisited: Does the Independent Femoral Drilling Technique Avoid Roof Impingement With Anteriorly Placed Tibial Tunnels?

    PubMed

    Tanksley, John A; Werner, Brian C; Conte, Evan J; Lustenberger, David P; Burrus, M Tyrrell; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Gwathmey, F Winston; Miller, Mark D

    2017-05-01

    Anatomic femoral tunnel placement for single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is now well accepted. The ideal location for the tibial tunnel has not been studied extensively, although some biomechanical and clinical studies suggest that placement of the tibial tunnel in the anterior part of the ACL tibial attachment site may be desirable. However, the concern for intercondylar roof impingement has tempered enthusiasm for anterior tibial tunnel placement. To compare the potential for intercondylar roof impingement of ACL grafts with anteriorly positioned tibial tunnels after either transtibial (TT) or independent femoral (IF) tunnel drilling. Controlled laboratory study. Twelve fresh-frozen cadaver knees were randomized to either a TT or IF drilling technique. Tibial guide pins were drilled in the anterior third of the native ACL tibial attachment site after debridement. All efforts were made to drill the femoral tunnel anatomically in the center of the attachment site, and the surrogate ACL graft was visualized using 3-dimensional computed tomography. Reformatting was used to evaluate for roof impingement. Tunnel dimensions, knee flexion angles, and intra-articular sagittal graft angles were also measured. The Impingement Review Index (IRI) was used to evaluate for graft impingement. Two grafts (2/6, 33.3%) in the TT group impinged upon the intercondylar roof and demonstrated angular deformity (IRI type 1). No grafts in the IF group impinged, although 2 of 6 (66.7%) IF grafts touched the roof without deformation (IRI type 2). The presence or absence of impingement was not statistically significant. The mean sagittal tibial tunnel guide pin position prior to drilling was 27.6% of the sagittal diameter of the tibia (range, 22%-33.9%). However, computed tomography performed postdrilling detected substantial posterior enlargement in 2 TT specimens. A significant difference in the sagittal graft angle was noted between the 2 groups. TT grafts were

  9. Stability of Menisci in Detached Bridgman Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin; Volz, Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    Detached growth, also referred to as dewetted growth, is a Bridgman crystal growth process in which the melt is in contact with the crucible wall but the crystal is not. A meniscus bridges the gap between the top of the crystal and the crucible wall. The meniscus shape depends on the contact angle of the melt with the crucible wall, the growth angle of the melt with respect to the solidifying crystal, the gas pressure differential, the Weber number describing the rotation rate of the crucible, and the Bond number. Only some of the meniscus shapes are stable and the stability criterion is the sign of the second variation of the potential energy upon admissible meniscus shape perturbations. The effects of confined gas volumes above and below the melt and crucible rotation are evaluated. The analysis is applicable to the non-stationary case where the crystal radius changes during growth. Static stability maps (crystal radius versus pressure differential) are obtained for a series of Bond numbers, growth angles and Weber numbers. Also, the specific cases of Ge and InSb, in both terrestrial and microgravity conditions, are analyzed. Stability was found to depend significantly on whether the interior surface was considered to be microscopically rough or smooth, corresponding to pinned or unpinned states. It was also found that all meniscus shapes are statically stable in a microgravity environment.

  10. Radial tears of the menisci: MR findings.

    PubMed

    Tuckman, G A; Miller, W J; Remo, J W; Fritts, H M; Rozansky, M I

    1994-08-01

    Radial meniscal tears have a plane of cleavage oriented across the short axis of the meniscus in the same plane in which radial images are oriented. These tears are important to recognize, because they have clinical implications different from those of other meniscal tears with respect to meniscal function, orthopedic treatment, and clinical course. Depending on their size, location, and orientation, radial tears can have different appearances on standard MR images. Certain types can be fairly subtle to diagnose. The purpose of this essay is to illustrate the varied appearances of radial tears on MR images and the findings commonly associated with radial tears.

  11. Management of combined knee medial compartmental and patellofemoral osteoarthritis with lateral closing wedge osteotomy with anterior translation of the distal tibial fragment: Does the degree of anteriorization affect the functional outcome and posterior tibial slope?

    PubMed

    Sadek, Ahmed F; Osman, Mohammed K; Laklok, Mohamed A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of degree of anterior translation of the distal tibial fragment after lateral closing wedge high tibial osteotomy in patients having combined knee medial compartmental and patellofemoral osteoarthritis. A retrospective study was conducted on 64 patients who were operated on for combined knee medial compartmental and patellofemoral osteoarthritis, by lateral closing wedge high tibial osteotomy with anterior translation of the distal tibial fragment. They were divided into two groups; Group I comprising 32 patients (34 knees, mean age of 51.4±7years) whose degree of anterior translation was <1cm and Group II comprising 32 patients (33 knees, mean age of 52.2±8.3years) whose degree of anterior translation was >1.5cm. The final assessment was performed via: visual analog scale, postoperative Knee Society clinical rating system function score, active range of motion, time to union, degree of correction of mechanical axis, posterior tibial slope, and Insall-Salvati ratio. Group II patients exhibited statistically superior mean postoperative score and better return to their work than Group I (P=0.013, 0.076, respectively). Both groups showed statistically significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative evaluation parameters (P<0.001). The posterior tibial slope was decreased in both groups but with no significant difference (P=0.527). Lateral closing wedge high tibial osteotomy combined with anterior translation of the distal tibial fragment more than 1.5cm achieved significantly better postoperative functional knee score. Both groups exhibited comparatively decreased posterior tibial slope. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Serum chemistry and histopathology of broiler femoral head necrosis and tibial dyschondroplasia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Femoral head necrosis (FHN) and tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) are two major leg problems in young meat type poultry which cause lameness, bone deformity and infections. Whereas FHN results from disarticulation of the femoral growth plate from the articular cartilage, TD lesions are characterized by i...

  13. Osteonecrosis of the distal tibial metaphysis after Salter-Harris type-2 injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Atanu; Singh, Jaspreet; Mangham, David C; Freeman, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Osteonecrosis of the distal tibial metaphysis following a Salter-Harris type-2 injury is a rare complication with no previous reports in the literature. We report a case of osteonecrosis of the metaphysis in distal tibia, confirmed radiologically and histologically. The natural history was followed with serial MRI scans and we comment on the possible pathophysiology.

  14. Baseline Vitamin D Status is Predictive of Longitudinal Change in Tibial BMD in Knee Osteoarthritis (OA)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With its lack of effective treatment and high prevalence, the public health impact of OA is substantial. Peri-articular bone in OA can be evaluated with the medial:lateral tibial BMD ratio (M:L BMD) obtained from dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Higher M:L BMD is associated with medial OA features...

  15. TIBIAL PLATEAU PROXIMAL AND DISTAL BONE BEHAVE SIMILARLY: BOTH ARE ASSOCIATED WITH FEATURES OF KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a growing imperative to understand how changes in peri-articular bone relate to pathological progression of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Peri-articular bone density can be measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The medial:lateral tibial BMD ratio (M:L BMD) is associated with MRI and...

  16. Growth factors in human serum during operative tibial lengthening with the Ilizarov method.

    PubMed

    Stogov, Maksim V; Luneva, Svetlana N; Novikov, Konstantin I

    2013-12-01

    Despite the widespread clinical use of distraction osteogenesis for limb lengthening, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which this surgical treatment promotes new bone formation in humans are not well understood. The aim of the research was to study the levels of growth factors (GFs) in the serum of patients that were undergoing tibial lengthening with the Ilizarov method of distraction osteogenesis. Those were patients with unilateral congenital discrepancy of the tibia (n = 12), unilateral posttraumatic tibial shortening (n = 7), and healthy patients that underwent cosmetic bilateral tibial lengthening (n = 10). The study established that unlike the congenital group, the posttraumatic group and healthy subjects showed a significantly evident increase in the levels of angiogenic GFs in their serum on day 10 of distraction. In the congenital group, the changes were not significant at this time point. The levels of TGF-α, TGF-β1, and TGF-β2 tended to decrease on day 10 of distraction and on day 30 of the post-distraction period in the cosmetic and posttraumatic groups while they grew in the congenital group. Most dynamic changes in the GFs levels during tibial lengthening were noted in the subjects undergoing cosmetic lengthening, and the least ones were in the congenital group.

  17. Increased risk of revision for high flexion total knee replacement with thicker tibial liners.

    PubMed

    Namba, R S; Inacio, M C S; Cafri, G

    2014-02-01

    The outcome of total knee replacement (TKR) using components designed to increase the range of flexion is not fully understood. The short- to mid-term risk of aseptic revision in high flexion TKR was evaluated. The endpoint of the study was aseptic revision and the following variables were investigated: implant design (high flexion vs non-high flexion), the thickness of the tibial insert (≤ 14 mm vs > 14 mm), cruciate ligament (posterior stabilised (PS) vs cruciate retaining), mobility (fixed vs rotating), and the manufacturer (Zimmer, Smith & Nephew and DePuy). Covariates included patient, implant, surgeon and hospital factors. Marginal Cox proportional hazard models were used. In a cohort of 64 000 TKRs, high flexion components were used in 8035 (12.5%). The high flexion knees with tibial liners of thickness > 14 mm had a density of revision of 1.45/100 years of observation, compared with 0.37/100 in non-high flexion TKR with liners ≤ 14 mm thick. Relative to a standard fixed PS TKR, the NexGen (Zimmer, Warsaw, Indiana) Gender Specific Female high flexion fixed PS TKR had an increased risk of revision (hazard ratio (HR) 2.27 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48 to 3.50)), an effect that was magnified when a thicker tibial insert was used (HR 8.10 (95% CI 4.41 to 14.89)). Surgeons should be cautious when choosing high flexion TKRs, particularly when thicker tibial liners might be required.

  18. Intermittent foot claudication caused by a dynamic compression of the posterior tibial artery.

    PubMed

    Kaczynski, Jakub; Topliss, Claire; Fligelstone, Louis

    2016-07-14

    A young adult presented with an atypical intermittent foot claudication caused by a dynamic compression of the posterior tibial artery by a ganglion. This case highlights the diagnostic challenges when dealing with an entrapment syndrome. Subsequent open surgical treatment was successful, and the patient has made a good recovery.

  19. Pre-tibial synovial cyst after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: case report.

    PubMed

    Bulisani, Luís Eduardo Pedigoni; Bulisani, Erickson

    2014-01-01

    Arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament has been modernized through new surgical techniques and new materials. When tibial fixation is performed using an absorbable screw, complications may occur, such as formation of a pre-tibial cyst. The case described here is about a patient who presented an anteromedial synovial cyst in his right knee, three years after having undergone ACL reconstruction. The patient did not present any pain nor any complaints other than a mass that progressively increased in size, worsened after physical activities. Imaging examinations were requested: simple radiography of the knee and magnetic resonance. Anteromedial imaging of the knee showed a mass with well-delimited borders and internal fluid content, suggestive of a synovial cyst, with communication with the joint cavity through the tibial tunnel, without presenting enlargement or absorption of the bone tunnel. The cyst was surgically resected and the tibial tunnel occlusion was performed using a bone plug. The diagnosis of a synovial cyst was subsequently confirmed through the results from the anatomopathological examination. The patient presented good clinical evolution, with disappearance of the symptoms and a return to physical activities.

  20. Adjustable bracing technique for the prevention of knee flexion contracture during tibial lengthening.

    PubMed

    Segev, Eitan; Hayek, Shlomo

    2003-01-01

    The authors present a simple thigh-knee brace that prevents flexion contracture during tibial lengthening. The brace is strapped to the thigh and connected to the Ilizarov frame via two simple hinges. While in the brace the knee can be mobilized for physiotherapy and locked in extension during rest.

  1. Arthroscopic treatment of tibial spine fracture in children with a cannulated Herbert screw.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, N; Naumov, I; Vámhidy, L; Nöt, L G

    2014-03-01

    Avulsion fractures of the anterior tibial intercondylar eminence in childhood are rare and are severe injuries of the knee. Since the injury is equivalent in aetiology with ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament, the treatment requires anatomic reduction and preservation of the stability of the joint. The aim of the study was to demonstrate our experiences with the arthroscopy-guided Herbert-screw fixation in the treatment of displaced tibial eminence fractures in children. Between January 2004 and December 2011, a total of eight children were treated surgically with Type II or Type III anterior tibial eminence fractures; another four children with undisplaced, Type I fractures were treated conservatively, applying with cast fixation for 6 weeks. Radiological consolidation, stability and functional outcome were assessed during the follow-up examinations. On the 12th postoperative week, we did not find instability in any of the patients by physical examination. There were only minimal differences found in the functional outcome, comparing the conservatively and operatively treated groups (Lysholm functional scale, average scores: Type I: 97, Type II: 95 and Type III: 94 points). The range of motion (ROM) of the injured knees was identical with healthy sides on the postoperative 6th week. Our results indicate that the presented method can successfully be applied in the treatment of displaced tibial spine fractures; providing excellent stability and preserving the function of the injured knee in the short-term. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Insertion of intramedullary nails from the suprapatellar pouch for proximal tibial shaft fractures. A technical note.

    PubMed

    Jakma, Tijs; Reynders-Frederix, Peter; Rajmohan, Rai

    2011-12-01

    Intramedullary nailing of proximal tibial fractures can be difficult when using the standard entry portal. We evaluated the suprapatellar portal, using a midline quadriceps tendon incision, to perform intramedullary nailing of the tibia. Seven patients were treated with this adaptation of the standard intramedullary nailing procedure. An arthroscopy was done before and after the nailing procedure. No special equipment was used to perform the intramedullary nailing. We evaluated the handling and necessary modifications of the standard intramedullary technique to introduce the locked tibial nail through the suprapatellar approach. We found this technique not necessarily more difficult than the standard intramedullary nailing of the tibia through the infrapatellar entry portal. Although the patients did not complain of patellofemoral discomfort after the suprapatellar nailing, definitive scuffing of the cartilage in the lower part of the femoral trochlea was visible. Introduction of a locked tibial nail via the suprapatellar approach was found to be possible and even advantageous for some complex upper tibial shaft fractures in compromised limbs. Some possible downsides of this approach need to be taken into account but, in some cases, they can be outweighed by the benefits.

  3. An in vitro comparison of tibial tray cementation using gun pressurization or pulsed lavage.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Ulf J; Püschel, Klaus; Morlock, Michael M; Nagel, Katrin

    2014-05-01

    Aseptic loosening of the tibial component remains a limitation to the highly successful procedure of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Pulsed lavage improves bone cement penetration and interface strength in tibial tray cementation. This study tested whether pressurized cement application with a cement gun can compensate the use of jet lavage for bone surface preparation. Tibial components were implanted in six pairs of cadaveric tibiae. On one side, pulsed lavage of the tibial bone was combined with finger packing of bone cement; on the other side, syringe lavage and gun cementing was used. Cement penetration into the bone was determined from computed tomography scans, and Interface strength was determined by pull-out testing. Cement penetration was greater (p = 0.004) and interface strength was higher (p = 0.028) in the pulsed lavage group. Pressurization of cement by gun application could not compensate for the omission of pulsed lavage. Thus, pulsed lavage should be considered a crucial factor in TKA to improve implant fixation, which cannot be compensated for by cement application technique.

  4. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation for treatment of overactive bladder and urinary retention in an elderly population.

    PubMed

    Zinkgraf, Kristine; Quinn, Annette O'Leary; Ketterhagen, Debra; Kreuziger, Betty; Stevenson, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) is a treatment option for patients who present with urinary urgency, frequency, urge incontinence, or urinary retention. When behavior modification and/or pharmacotherapy did not adequately relieve symptoms, this treatment was found to decrease incidence of overactive bladder or retention symptoms in the authors' patient population.

  5. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation for treating neurologic bladder in women: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Eftekhar, Tahereh; Teimoory, Nastaran; Miri, Elahe; Nikfallah, Abolghasem; Naeimi, Mahsa; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a disabling disorder. Treatment of cases with OAB includes behavioral, pharmacological, surgical interventions and peripheral electrical stimulation. The goal of this study was to determine effects of posterior tibial nerve stimulation on sexual function and pelvic disorders in women with Overactive bladder (OAB). Fifty women were randomly assigned to PTNS (posterior tibial nerve stimulation) plus tolterodine or tolterodine alone treatment. Tolterodine group received 4 mg tolterodine daily for three months while the other group received this treatment plus percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation for 12 consequence weeks. Two in PTNS group and 8 in the control group withdrew from the study. Age, education level, and occupation status were not significantly different between two groups. Mean total FSFI and its subscales were not significantly different before and after treatment between two groups. Urine leakage associated with a feeling of urgency and loss of stool or gas from the rectum beyond patient's control became significantly different after treatment between two groups. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation could help urinary problems in women with a neurologic bladder.

  6. Analysis of the characteristics of patients with open tibial fractures of Gustilo and Anderson type III☆

    PubMed Central

    Jaña Neto, Frederico Carlos; de Paula Canal, Marina; Alves, Bernardo Aurélio Fonseca; Ferreira, Pablício Martins; Ayres, Jefferson Castro; Alves, Robson

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the characteristics of patients with Gustilo–Anderson Type III open tibial fractures treated at a tertiary care hospital in São Paulo between January 2013 and August 2014. Methods This was a cross-sectional retrospective study. The following data were gathered from the electronic medical records: age; gender; diagnosis; trauma mechanism; comorbidities; associated fractures; Gustilo and Anderson, Tscherne and AO classifications; treatment (initial and definitive); presence of compartment syndrome; primary and secondary amputations; MESS (Mangled Extremity Severity Score) index; mortality rate; and infection rate. Results 116 patients were included: 81% with fracture type IIIA, 12% IIIB and 7% IIIC; 85% males; mean age 32.3 years; and 57% victims of motorcycle accidents. Tibial shaft fractures were significantly more prevalent (67%). Eight patients were subjected to amputation: one primary case and seven secondary cases. Types IIIC (75%) and IIIB (25%) predominated among the patients subjected to secondary amputation. The MESS index was greater than 7 in 88% of the amputees and in 5% of the limb salvage group. Conclusion The profile of patients with open tibial fracture of Gustilo and Anderson Type III mainly involved young male individuals who were victims of motorcycle accidents. The tibial shaft was the segment most affected. Only 7% of the patients underwent amputation. Given the current controversy in the literature about amputation or salvage of severely injured lower limbs, it becomes necessary to carry out prospective studies to support clinical decisions. PMID:27069881

  7. Arthrofibrosis after surgical fixation of tibial eminence fractures in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vander Have, Kelly L; Ganley, Theodore J; Kocher, Mininder S; Price, Charles T; Herrera-Soto, Jose A

    2010-02-01

    Tibial eminence fractures are rare injuries in children and adolescents. Displaced fractures require reduction and fixation. Operative stabilization can be accomplished with either open or arthroscopic reduction and fixation. Whereas loss of extension has been reported, there are no reports in the literature that quantify loss of motion or provide guidance for treatment. To report a series of patients who developed knee stiffness after operative treatment for displaced tibial eminence fractures. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Review of medical records and imaging studies of pediatric patients with displaced tibial eminence fractures who developed arthrofibrosis after surgical intervention. Thirty-two patients were identified. Twenty-four required reoperation for loss of flexion (n = 9), loss of extension (n = 4), or both (n = 11). Manipulation under anesthesia resulted in distal femoral fractures and subsequent growth arrest in 3 patients. Twenty-nine patients were able to achieve near full knee motion at final follow-up. Children with tibial spine fractures are at risk for arthrofibrosis. Stabilization of the fracture is important to allow early postoperative rehabilitation. Should stiffness occur, manipulation of the knee should be performed only in conjunction with lysis of adhesions.

  8. High altitude hypoxia as a factor that promotes tibial growth plate development in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shucheng; Zhang, Lihong; Rehman, Mujeeb Ur; Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Lan, Yanfang; Mehmood, Khalid; Zhang, Hui; Qiu, Gang; Nabi, Fazul; Yao, Wangyuan; Wang, Meng; Li, Jiakui

    2017-01-01

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is one of the most common problems in the poultry industry and leads to lameness by affecting the proximal growth plate of the tibia. However, due to the unique environmental and geographical conditions of Tibet, no case of TD has been reported in Tibetan chickens (TBCs). The present study was designed to investigate the effect of high altitude hypoxia on blood parameters and tibial growth plate development in chickens using the complete blood count, morphology, and histological examination. The results of this study showed an undesirable impact on the overall performance, body weight, and mortality of Arbor Acres chickens (AACs) exposed to a high altitude hypoxic environment. However, AACs raised under hypoxic conditions showed an elevated number of red blood cells (RBCs) and an increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit values on day 14 compared to the hypobaric normoxia group. Notably, the morphology and histology analyses showed that the size of tibial growth plates in AACs was enlarged and that the blood vessel density was also higher after exposure to the hypoxic environment for 14 days, while no such change was observed in TBCs. Altogether, our results revealed that the hypoxic environment has a potentially new role in increasing the blood vessel density of proximal tibial growth plates to strengthen and enhance the size of the growth plates, which may provide new insights for the therapeutic manipulation of hypoxia in poultry TD.

  9. Thiram-Induced Changes in the Expression of Genes Relating to Vascularization and Tibial Dyschondroplasia.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), a major metabolic cartilage disease in poultry, is characterized by the distension of proximal growth plates of tibia which fail to form bone, lack blood vessels, and contain nonviable cells. Thiram, a carbamate pesticide, when fed to young broiler chicks induces TD wi...

  10. High altitude hypoxia as a factor that promotes tibial growth plate development in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shucheng; Zhang, Lihong; Rehman, Mujeeb Ur; Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Lan, Yanfang; Mehmood, Khalid; Zhang, Hui; Qiu, Gang; Nabi, Fazul; Yao, Wangyuan; Wang, Meng; Li, Jiakui

    2017-01-01

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is one of the most common problems in the poultry industry and leads to lameness by affecting the proximal growth plate of the tibia. However, due to the unique environmental and geographical conditions of Tibet, no case of TD has been reported in Tibetan chickens (TBCs). The present study was designed to investigate the effect of high altitude hypoxia on blood parameters and tibial growth plate development in chickens using the complete blood count, morphology, and histological examination. The results of this study showed an undesirable impact on the overall performance, body weight, and mortality of Arbor Acres chickens (AACs) exposed to a high altitude hypoxic environment. However, AACs raised under hypoxic conditions showed an elevated number of red blood cells (RBCs) and an increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit values on day 14 compared to the hypobaric normoxia group. Notably, the morphology and histology analyses showed that the size of tibial growth plates in AACs was enlarged and that the blood vessel density was also higher after exposure to the hypoxic environment for 14 days, while no such change was observed in TBCs. Altogether, our results revealed that the hypoxic environment has a potentially new role in increasing the blood vessel density of proximal tibial growth plates to strengthen and enhance the size of the growth plates, which may provide new insights for the therapeutic manipulation of hypoxia in poultry TD. PMID:28282429

  11. A trial of measuring the displacement of tibial fragments with pinless external fixator.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Ye, Datian; Wang, Guangzhi; Ding, Haishu

    2005-01-01

    Currently, the mechanical performances of pinless external fixator are primarily evaluated for application to long bone fractures. A new method that detecting the relative displacement changes of the tibial fragments with the pinless external fixator by the three dimensional measurement system was introduced to evaluate the performance of the pinless external fixator. And such testing item was taken as the complement for the mechanical performances of the pinless external fixator. In this paper, a high precision optical 3D measurement system was used to detect the displacement change in the anterior and posterior fracture part of the tibial bones which was fixed by a clamp pattern pinless external fixator in open tibial fractures. Furthermore, the relative displacement change and relative angle rotation were analyzed after obtaining the trajectory of the markers which fixed on the tibial fragments, the results were used to evaluate the stability of the pinless external fixator, and taken as the reference for revising the design of the pinless external fixator as well.

  12. Fracture of the anteromedial tibial plateau associated with posterolateral complex injury: case study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Conesa, Xavier; Minguell, Joan; Cortina, Josep; Castellet, Enric; Carrera, Lluís; Nardi, Joan; Cáceres, Enric

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of anteromedial tibial plateau compression fracture following hyperextension and forced varus of the knee, resulting in an anterior bone fragment large enough to require osteosynthesis. This uncommon lesion was associated with posterolateral complex injury, diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while both cruciate ligaments were preserved. After proceeding with tibial plateau osteosynthesis, a peroneal tendon allograft was used for supplementation repair of the lateral collateral ligament and biceps tendon in a single surgical intervention. Tibial plateau fractures are often associated with soft-tissue involvement, mainly of the anterior cruciate ligament and external meniscus. Posterolateral complex injuries also occur with a mechanism of forced varus and hyperextension. These lesions require an accurate diagnosis to avoid future knee instability; moreover, adequate treatment in the acute phase provides a better functional outcome. Physicians should suspect associated posterolateral complex injury when an anteromedial tibial plateau fracture is diagnosed. MRI allows adequate diagnosis and permits surgical treatment in one procedure. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Bilateral distal tibial stress fractures in a healthy field-hockey goalkeeper

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Barry James; Ryan, Katie; Burke, Neil G; Moroney, Paul John

    2014-01-01

    Stress fractures occurring within the lower limbs are relatively common in athletes and military personnel. The specific bones affected are often predictable when the patient's activities are considered. We present an unusual case of bilateral distal tibial stress fractures sustained while playing as a goalkeeper in field hockey, in an otherwise healthy 46-year-old woman. PMID:25188931

  14. Neuroanatomy of the complex tibial organ of Stenopelmatus (Orthoptera: Ensifera: Stenopelmatidae).

    PubMed

    Strauss, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2008-11-01

    Stenopelmatidae (or "Jerusalem crickets") belong to the atympanate Ensifera, lacking hearing organs in the foreleg tibiae. Their phylogenetic position is controversial, either as a taxon in Tettigonioidea or within the clade of Gryllacridoidea. Similarly, the origin of tibial auditory systems in Ensifera is controversial. Therefore, we investigated the neuronal structures of the proximal tibiae of Stenopelmatus spec. with the hypothesis that internal sensory structures are similar to those in tympanate Ensifera. In Stenopelmatus the complex tibial organ consists of three neuronal parts: the subgenual organ, the intermediate organ, and a third part with linearly arranged neurons. This tripartite organization is also found in tympanate Ensifera, verifying our hypothesis. The third part of the sense organ found in Stenopelmatus can be regarded by the criterion of position as homologous to auditory receptors of hearing Tettigonioidea. This crista acustica homolog is found serially in all thoracic leg pairs and contains 20 +/- 2 chordotonal neurons in the foreleg. The tibial organ was shown to be responsive to vibration, with a broad threshold of about 0.06 ms(-2) in a frequency range from 100-600 Hz. The central projection of tibial sensory neurons terminates into two equally sized lobes in the primary sensory neuropil, the medial ventral association center. The data are discussed comparatively to those of other Ensifera and mapped phylogenetically onto recently proposed phylogenies for Ensifera. The crista acustica homolog could represent a neuronal rudiment of a secondarily reduced ear, but neuronal features are also consistent with an evolutionary preadaptation.

  15. Blood vessels of the shin - posterior tibial artery - anatomy - own studies and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Przemysław; Warchoł, Łukasz; Gala-Błądzińska, Agnieszka; Mróz, Izabela; Walocha, Jerzy; Malczak, Michał; Jaworek, Joanna; Mizia, Ewa; Walocha, Ewa; Depukat, Paweł; Bachul, Piotr; Bereza, Tomasz; Kurzydło, Wojciech; Gach-Kuniewicz, Barbara; Mazur, Małgorzata; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof

    Anatomy of the vascular system of the leg was studied using classical anatomical dissection methods. Based also on literature we have reviewed the current knowledge on the vascularization of the lower leg and its embryological background with special respect toward the posterior tibial artery and its branches.

  16. Surgical site infection in tibial plateau fractures with ipsilateral compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dubina, Andrew G; Paryavi, Ebrahim; Manson, Theodore T; Allmon, Christopher; O'Toole, Robert V

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of compartment syndrome and timing of fasciotomy wound closure on surgical site infection (SSI) after surgical fixation of tibial plateau fractures. Our primary hypothesis was that SSI rate is increased for fractures with compartment syndrome versus those without, even accounting for confounders associated with infection. Our secondary hypothesis was that infection rates are unrelated to timing of fasciotomy closure or fixation. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of operative tibial plateau fractures with ipsilateral compartment syndrome (n=71) treated with fasciotomy at our level I trauma center from 2003 through 2011. A control group consisted of 602 patients with 625 operatively treated tibial plateau fractures without diagnosis of compartment syndrome. The primary outcome measure was deep SSI after ORIF. Fractures with compartment syndrome had a higher rate of SSI (25% versus 8%, p<0.001). The difference remained significant in our multivariate model (odds ratio, 7.27; 95% confidence interval, 3.8-13.9). Delay in timing of fasciotomy closure was associated with a 7% increase per day in odds of infection (95% confidence interval, 0.2-13; p<0.05). Tibial plateau fractures with ipsilateral compartment syndrome have a significant increase in rates of SSI compared with those without compartment syndrome (p<0.001). Delays in fasciotomy wound closure were also associated with increased odds of SSI (p<0.05). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The functional results of tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary nail compressed by proximal tube.

    PubMed

    Karaarslan, Ahmet Adnan; Acar, Nihat; Aycan, Hakan; Sesli, Erhan

    2016-04-01

    Nailing of tibial shaft fractures is considered the gold standard surgical method by many surgeons. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate and compare the clinical outcome of tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary nails compressed by proximal tube and conventional intramedullary interlocking nails. Fifty-seven patients with tibial shaft fractures, treated with intramedullary nails compressed by proximal tube (n = 32) and the conventional interlocking nails (n = 25), were reviewed. All fractures except for one were united without any additional surgical intervention in the proximal compression tube nail group, whereas in the conventional interlocking nail group, six patients needed dynamization surgery (p = 0.005) and three cases of nonunion were recorded. In the proximal compression tube nail group, faster union occurred in 20 ± 2 (16-24) weeks (mean ± SD; range) without failure of locking screws and proximal nail migration, whereas in the conventional interlocking nail group, union occurred in 22 ± 2.5 (17-27) weeks (p = 0.001) with two failures of locking screws and two proximal nail migration. The proximal compression tube nail system is safer than the conventional nailing methods for the treatment for transverse and oblique tibial shaft fractures with a less rate of nonunion, proximal locking screw failure and proximal nail migration.

  18. Quantitative comparison of the microscopic anatomy of the human ACL femoral and tibial entheses.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Mélanie L; Carey, Grace E; Schlecht, Stephen H; Wojtys, Edward M; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2015-12-01

    The femoral enthesis of the human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is known to be more susceptible to injury than the tibial enthesis. To determine whether anatomic differences might help explain this difference, we quantified the microscopic appearance of both entheses in 15 unembalmed knee specimens using light microscopy, toluidine blue stain and image analysis. The amount of calcified fibrocartilage and uncalcified fibrocartilage, and the ligament entheseal attachment angle were then compared between the femoral and tibial entheses via linear mixed-effects models. The results showed marked differences in anatomy between the two entheses. The femoral enthesis exhibited a 3.9-fold more acute ligament attachment angle than the tibial enthesis (p<0.001), a 43% greater calcified fibrocartilage tissue area (p<0.001), and a 226% greater uncalcified fibrocartilage depth (p<0.001), with the latter differences being particularly pronounced in the central region. We conclude that the ACL femoral enthesis has more fibrocartilage and a more acute ligament attachment angle than the tibial enthesis, which provides insight into why it is more vulnerable to failure.

  19. A non-invasive device to objectively measure tibial rotation: verification of the device.

    PubMed

    Lorbach, Olaf; Wilmes, P; Maas, S; Zerbe, T; Busch, L; Kohn, D; Seil, R

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was the correlation of the results of a new measurement device for tibial rotation (Rotameter) in comparison with the measurements of a knee navigation system as standard method. In a biomechanical laboratory study, all soft tissues were removed from 20 human cadaveric knees leaving only the intact capsule and the bone. Specific tracers were bicortically fixed in the bone in order to measure tibial rotation using a knee navigation system. The knees were fixed to a custom-made inside-boot to rule out undesirable rotation of the reconstruction inside the Rotameter measurement device. Internal and external rotation values were measured at an applied torque of 5, 10 and 15 Nm. The different methods to evaluate tibial rotation were compared using the Pearson correlation coefficient. The correlations were deemed to be reliable if a value of >or=0.80 was achieved. At 5 Nm of applied torque, high correlations for the internal rotation, external rotation and the entire rotational range were found in the Pearson correlation coefficient between the Rotameter testing device in comparison with the knee navigation system as invasive reference method. These results were also confirmed at an applied torque of 10 and 15 Nm. In conclusion, the Rotameter testing device showed high correlations compared with the knee navigation system as an invasive standard method. It might be used as a non-invasive and easy alternative to investigate tibial rotation.

  20. Influence of Different Tibial Fixation Techniques on Initial Stability in Single-Stage Anterior Cruciate Ligament Revision With Confluent Tibial Tunnels: A Biomechanical Laboratory Study.

    PubMed

    Schliemann, Benedikt; Treder, Maximilian; Schulze, Martin; Müller, Viktoria; Vasta, Sebastiano; Zampogna, Biaggio; Herbort, Mirco; Kösters, Clemens; Raschke, Michael J; Lenschow, Simon

    2016-01-01

    To kinematically and biomechanically compare 4 different types of tibial tunnel management in single-stage anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) revision reconstruction with the control: primary ACL reconstruction using a robotic-based knee testing setup. Porcine knees and flexor tendons were used. One hundred specimens were randomly assigned to 5 testing groups: (1) open tibial tunnel, (2) bone plug technique, (3) biodegradable interference screw, (4) dilatation technique, and (5) primary ACL reconstruction. A robotic/universal force-moment sensor testing system was used to simulate the KT-1000 (MEDmetric, San Diego, CA) and pivot-shift tests. Cyclic loading and load-to-failure testing were performed. Anterior tibial translation increased significantly with all of the techniques compared with the intact ACL (P < .05). In the simulated KT-1000 test, groups 2 and 3 achieved results equal to those of primary ACL reconstruction (P > .05). The open tunnel and dilated tunnel techniques showed significantly greater anterior tibial translation (P < .05). The results of the simulated pivot-shift test were in accordance with those of the KT-1000 test. No significant differences could be observed regarding stiffness or maximum load to failure. However, elongation was significantly lower in the primary ACL reconstruction group compared with groups 1 and 3 (P = .02 and P = .03, respectively). Filling an incomplete and incorrect tibial tunnel with a press-fit bone plug or a biodegradable interference screw in a standardized laboratory situation provided initial biomechanical properties and knee stability comparable with those of primary ACL reconstruction. In contrast, the dilatation technique or leaving the malplaced tunnel open did not restore knee kinematics adequately in this model. Backup extracortical fixation should be considered because the load to failure depends on the extracortical fixation when an undersized interference screw is used for aperture fixation. Our

  1. In Vivo Evidence for Tibial Plateau Slope as a Risk Factor for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wordeman, Samuel C.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background In vivo studies reporting tibial plateau slope as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury have been published with greatly increasing frequency. Purpose To examine and summarize the in vivo evidence comparing tibial slope in ACL-injured and uninjured populations. Study Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods We reviewed publications in Scopus, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and PubMed to identify all studies reporting a measure of tibial plateau slope between ACL-injured groups and controls. A meta-analysis was performed including calculation of effect size and 95% confidence interval as well as 95% confidence intervals for the mean values of the measurement in each study. Results Fourteen studies met our inclusion/exclusion criteria. Five of 6 radiographic studies reporting medial tibial plateau slope (MTPS) demonstrated significant differences between controls and ACL-injured groups, while only 1 of 7 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies reported significant differences between groups. Mean MTPS measurements and standard deviations reported for controls ranged from 2.9° ± 2.8° anterior to 9.5° ± 3° posterior. For ACL-injured patients, MTPS ranged from 1.8° ± 3.5° anterior to 12.1° ± 3.3° posterior. Lateral tibial plateau slope (LTPS) was reported to be significantly greater in ACL-injured groups in all 5 MRI-based studies reporting group comparisons. Mean values for LTPS in controls ranged from 0.3° ± 3.6° anterior slope to 9° ± 4° posterior slope. In ACL-injured groups, mean reported LTPS values ranged from 1.8° ± 3.2° to 11.5° ± 3.54° posterior slope. Conclusion Despite high measures of reliability for the various methods reported in current studies, there is vast disagreement regarding the actual values of the slope that would be considered “at risk.” Reported tibial slope values for control groups vary greatly between studies. In many cases, the study-to-study differences in “normal” tibial

  2. Restrained tibial rotation may prevent ACL injury during landing at different flexion angles.

    PubMed

    Mokhtarzadeh, Hossein; Ng, Andrew; Yeow, Chen Hua; Oetomo, Denny; Malekipour, Fatemeh; Lee, Peter Vee Sin

    2015-01-01

    Internal tibial rotation is a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The effect of restraining tibial rotation (RTR) to prevent ACL injury during single-leg landing is not well understood. We aimed to investigate the effect of impact load and RTR on ACL injury with respect to flexion angle. We hypothesized that RTR could protect the knee from ACL injury compared to free tibial rotation (FTR) regardless of flexion angle and create a safety zone to protect the ACL. Thirty porcine specimens were potted in a rig manufactured to replicate single-leg landing maneuvers. A mechanical testing machine was used to apply external forces in the direction of the tibial long axis. A 3D displacement sensor measured anterior tibial translation (ATT). The specimens were divided into 3 groups of 10 specimens and tested at flexion angles of 22 ± 1°, 37 ± 1° and 52 ± 1° (five RTR and five FTR) through a consecutive range of actuator displacements until ACL failure. After dissection, damage to the joint was visually recorded. Two-way ANOVA were utilized in order to compare compressive forces, torques and A/P displacements with respect to flexion angle. The largest difference between peak axial compressive forces (~3.4 kN) causing ACL injury between RTR and FTR was reported at a flexion angle of 22°. Tibial torques with RTR was in the same range and < 20 Nm at the instance and just before ACL failure, compared to a significant reduction when cartilage/bone damage (no ACL failure) was reported. Isolated ACL injuries were observed in ten of the 15 FTR specimens. Injuries to bone and cartilage were more common with RTR. RTR increases the threshold for ACL injury by elevating the compressive impact load required at lower flexion angles. These findings may contribute to neuromuscular training programs or brace designs used to avoid excessive internal/external tibial rotation. Caution must be exercised as bone/cartilage damage may result. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  3. Neuroanatomy of the complex tibial organ in the splay-footed cricket Comicus calcaris Irish 1986 (Orthoptera: Ensifera: Schizodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Strauss, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2010-11-15

    The subgenual chordotonal organ complex in insects is modified in ensiferan taxa like Gryllidae and Tettigoniidae into hearing organs with specific sets of auditory receptors. Here, this sensory organ complex is documented in the nonhearing splay-footed cricket Comicus calcaris. The tibial chordotonal organ consists of three parts: the subgenual organ, the intermediate organ, and the crista acustica homolog. The latter is an array of linearly organized neurons homologous to auditory receptors in the tibial hearing organs of Tettigoniidae. The tibial organ is structurally similar in all three leg pairs, with similar neuron numbers in the fore- and midleg, but lower numbers in the hindleg. The foreleg crista acustica homolog consists of 34±4 neurons, the highest number in an atympanate Ensiferan. Additionally, an accessory chordotonal organ with 15±5 neurons innervated by nerve 5B1 is present in the foreleg. The central projection of the tibial organreveals ipsilateral sensory terminals in the primary sensory neuropil, the medial ventral association center with terminations close to the midline. As determined from extracellular recordings, the entire tibial organ is vibrosensitive. The organization of the tibial organ is compared to other ensiferan auditory and nonauditory tibial organs. Spatial orientation of neurons in the crista acustica homolog is not reminiscent of auditory structures, and the neuroanatomy is discussed with respect to stridulation behavior and the evolutionary origin of hearing in Ensifera.

  4. Classical conditioning of a flexor nerve response in spinal cats: effects of tibial nerve CS and a differential conditioning paradigm.

    PubMed

    Beggs, A L; Steinmetz, J E; Patterson, M M

    1985-06-01

    Previous studies have shown flexor nerve response increases produced by classical conditioning procedures in spinal cats when the conditioned stimulus (CS) was delivered to the superficial peroneal nerve and the unconditioned stimulus (US) was delivered to the ankle skin. In this study, these effects were produced when the CS was delivered to the whole tibial nerve or to the medial plantar branch. The finding that response increases followed by extinction effects could be obtained when either the superficial peroneal or the tibial nerve was utilized allowed the assessment of the effects of a differential conditioning paradigm. The responses to CS-US presentations on the superficial peroneal nerve increased, whereas responses to CS presentations on the tibial nerve remained unchanged. However, lack of extinction effects in the superficial peroneal data suggested that stimulation of the tibial nerve potentiated superficial peroneal evoked responses. Furthermore, responses evoked by stimulation of either nerve increased when paired trials were given on the tibial nerve. These data demonstrate that stimulation of the tibial nerve potentiates responses to superficial peroneal nerve stimulation but that superficial peroneal nerve stimulation has no effect on responses to CS presentations to the tibial nerve.

  5. Intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures in the semi-extended position using a suprapatellar portal technique.

    PubMed

    Zelle, Boris A

    2017-03-30

    Intramedullary nail fixation remains the standard treatment for displaced tibial shaft fractures. Establishing an appropriate starting point remains a crucial step in the surgical procedure. Tibial nailing using an infrapatellar starting point with the knee flexed over a radiolucent triangle has been established as a widely-used standard technique. Tibial nail insertion with the knee in the semi-extended position was introduced with the goal to counteract post-operative procurvatum deformities that frequently have been reported as a common problem in proximal third tibial shaft fractures. Early reports on tibial nailing in the semi-extended position used a knee arthrotomy in order to establish the proximal tibial starting point. Recent technological advances have provided the surgical community with instrumentation systems that allow for tibial nailing in the semi-extended position using a suprapatellar portal with nail insertion through the patellofemoral joint. Preliminary clinical studies have suggested favorable outcomes that can be achieved with this technique. This article provides a description of the surgical technique and a review of the currently available evidence.

  6. Surgical treatment of a proximal diaphyseal tibial deformity associated with partial caudal and cranial cruciate ligament deficiency and patella baja.

    PubMed

    Vincenti, S; Knell, S; Pozzi, A

    2017-04-01

    Caudal cruciate ligament injury can be a complication following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) (Slocum und Slocum, 1993) especially if the post-operative Tibial Plateau Angle (TPA) is less than 5 degree. We describe a case of negative TPA associated with partial cranial and caudal ligament rupture treated with a center of rotation of angulation (CORA) based cranial tibial opening wedge osteotomy and tibial tuberosity transposition. A 13 kg, mixed breed dog was presented for right pelvic limb lameness. Radiographically a bilateral patella baja and a malformed tibia tuberosity along with a bilateral TPA of -8 degree were detected. Arthroscopically a partial rupture of the cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments were found. A cranial tibial opening wedge osteotomy of 23 degree and a fibular ostectomy were performed. The osteotomy was fixed with a 8 holes ALPS 9 (KYON, Switzerland) and a 3-holes 2.0mm UniLock plate (Synthes, Switzerland). Then a proximal tibial tuberosity transposition of 10mm was performed and fixed with a pin and tension band construct. The postoperative TPA was 15 degree. The radiographic controls at 6, 10 weeks, 6 months and 1 year after surgery revealed an unchanged position of the implants and progressive healing of the osteotomies. At the 6 and 12 months recheck evaluation the dog had no evidence of lameness or stifle pain and radiographs revealed complete healing of the osteotomy site and no implant failure. The diaphyseal CORA based osteotomy allowed accurate correction of a proximal tibial deformity associated with negative TPA.

  7. Effect of Tibial Posterior Slope on Knee Kinematics, Quadriceps Force, and Patellofemoral Contact Force After Posterior-Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Shigetoshi; Mizu-uchi, Hideki; Okazaki, Ken; Hamai, Satoshi; Nakahara, Hiroyuki; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2015-08-01

    We used a musculoskeletal model validated with in vivo data to evaluate the effect of tibial posterior slope on knee kinematics, quadriceps force, and patellofemoral contact force after posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty. The maximum quadriceps force and patellofemoral contact force decreased with increasing posterior slope. Anterior sliding of the tibial component and anterior impingement of the anterior aspect of the tibial post were observed with tibial posterior slopes of at least 5° and 10°, respectively. Increased tibial posterior slope contributes to improved exercise efficiency during knee extension, however excessive tibial posterior slope should be avoided to prevent knee instability. Based on our computer simulation we recommend tibial posterior slopes of less than 5° in posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mean tensile strength of the PCL in TKA depends on the preservation of the tibial insertion site.

    PubMed

    Van Opstal, N; Feyen, H; Luyckx, J P; Bellemans, J

    2016-01-01

    The tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) frequently becomes damaged when performing a tibial cut in a PCL-retaining total knee replacement (TKA). The aim of this study was to quantify the functional effect of this structural damage on the tensile strength and failure load. Six paired knees from fresh-frozen cadaver specimens were used. All soft tissues but the PCL were removed. In the left-sided specimens, a classic tibial cut at a depth of 9 mm with 3° of posterior slope was made, while in the right-sided specimens, a bone block was left in front of the tibial PCL insertion. After cementing a tibial tray, the specimens were mounted in a loading frame in 60° of flexion. The femur was translated anteriorly at a constant velocity rate of 0.5 mm/s. Tensions in the PCL were measured continuously until failure occurred. In one specimen, the tibial PCL insertion was completely removed by the tibial cut. In the other five paired specimens, the mean tensile strength of the PCL was 380.6 ± 154.7 N in the left-sided knees. In the right-sided knees, the mean tensile strength was 738.4 ± 166.7. The average right-to-left ratio was 2.2 ± 0.7 (p = 0.006). The results of this study indicate that the conventional technique for tibial preparation in cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty can result in a significant decrease in tensile strength of the PCL, rendering it susceptible to failure and subsequent midflexion instability. Therefore, we recommend leaving the posterior tibial cortex anterior to the PCL insertion intact when performing a cruciate-retaining TKA.

  9. Posterior tibial slope and further anterior cruciate ligament injuries in the anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed patient.

    PubMed

    Webb, Justin M; Salmon, Lucy J; Leclerc, Etienne; Pinczewski, Leo A; Roe, Justin P

    2013-12-01

    An injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a multifactorial event influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Recently, the geometry of the proximal tibia has come under focus as a possible risk factor for an ACL injury. An increased posterior tibial slope is associated with an increased risk of further ACL injuries in the previously ACL-reconstructed patient. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 200 consecutive patients with isolated ACL ruptures who underwent primary reconstruction with hamstring autografts were enrolled in a prospective longitudinal study over 15 years. The posterior tibial slope was measured from a lateral knee radiograph by 2 blinded observers. The data were analyzed for the association between an increased posterior tibial slope and the incidence of further ACL injuries. Interobserver reliability of the posterior tibial slope measurements was assessed. Radiographs and follow-up were available for 181 of the 200 enrolled patients. Fifty patients had a further injury to either the ACL graft or the contralateral knee. The mean posterior tibial slope of those with a further ACL injury was 9.9° compared with 8.5° for those with no further injury (P = .001). The mean posterior tibial slope for those with both an ACL graft and contralateral ACL rupture was 12.9°. The odds of further ACL injuries after reconstruction were increased by a factor of 5, to an incidence of 59%, in those with a posterior tibial slope of ≥12°. An increased posterior tibial slope is associated with increased odds of a further ACL injury after ACL reconstruction. The increased risk is most pronounced in those with a posterior tibial slope of ≥12°.

  10. An Improved Tibial Force Sensor to Compute Contact Forces and Contact Locations In Vitro After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Roth, Joshua D; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2017-04-01

    Contact force imbalance and contact kinematics (i.e., motion of the contact location in each compartment during flexion) of the tibiofemoral joint are both important predictors of a patient's outcome following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Previous tibial force sensors have limitations in that they either did not determine contact forces and contact locations independently in the medial and lateral compartments or only did so within restricted areas of the tibial insert, which prevented them from thoroughly evaluating contact force imbalance and contact kinematics in vitro. Accordingly, the primary objective of this study was to present the design and verification of an improved tibial force sensor which overcomes these limitations. The improved tibial force sensor consists of a modified tibial baseplate which houses independent medial and lateral arrays of three custom tension-compression transducers each. This sensor is interchangeable with a standard tibial component because it accommodates tibial articular surface inserts with a range of sizes and thicknesses. This sensor was verified by applying known loads at known locations over the entire surface of the tibial insert to determine the errors in the computed contact force and contact location in each compartment. The root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) in contact force are ≤ 6.1 N which is 1.4% of the 450 N full-scale output. The RMSEs in contact location are ≤ 1.6 mm. This improved tibial force sensor overcomes the limitations of the previous sensors and therefore should be useful for in vitro evaluation of new alignment goals, new surgical techniques, and new component designs in TKA.

  11. Finite Element Analysis of Mobile-bearing Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty: The Influence of Tibial Component Coronal Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guang-Duo; Guo, Wan-Shou; Zhang, Qi-Dong; Liu, Zhao-Hui; Cheng, Li-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background: Controversies about the rational positioning of the tibial component in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) still exist. Previous finite element (FE) studies were rare, and the results varied. This FE study aimed to analyze the influence of the tibial component coronal alignment on knee biomechanics in mobile-bearing UKA and find a ration range of inclination angles. Methods: A three-dimensional FE model of the intact knee was constructed from image data of one normal subject. A 1000 N compressive load was applied to the intact knee model for validating. Then a set of eleven UKA FE models was developed with the coronal inclination angles of the tibial tray ranging from 10° valgus to 10° varus. Tibial bone stresses and strains, contact pressures and load distribution in all UKA models were calculated and analyzed under the unified loading and boundary conditions. Results: Load distribution, contact pressures, and contact areas in intact knee model were validated. In UKA models, von Mises stress and compressive strain at proximal medial cortical bone increased significantly as the tibial tray was in valgus inclination >4°, which may increase the risk of residual pain. Compressive strains at tibial keel slot were above the high threshold with varus inclination >4°, which may result in greater risk of component migration. Tibial bone resection corner acted as a strain-raiser regardless of the inclination angles. Compressive strains at the resected surface slightly changed with the varying inclinations and were not supposed to induce bone resorption and component loosening. Contact pressures and load percentage in lateral compartment increased with the more varus inclination, which may lead to osteoarthritis progression. Conclusions: Static knee biomechanics after UKA can be greatly affected by tibial component coronal alignment. A range from 4° valgus to 4° varus inclination of tibial component can be recommended in mobile-bearing UKA. PMID

  12. Are somatosensory evoked potentials of the tibial nerve the most sensitive test in diagnosing multiple sclerosis?

    PubMed

    Djuric, S; Djuric, V; Zivkovic, M; Milosevic, V; Jolic, M; Stamenovic, J; Djordjevic, G; Calixto, M

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is mostly diagnosed clinically, but the diagnosis has significantly improved through the use of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), testing of cerebrospinal fluid, and multimodal evoked potentials (MEPs). Even though MRI is the superior method in diagnosing this illness, MEPs remain important because they can detect clinically silent lesions in the sensory and motor pathways of the central nervous system (CNS). The aim of the study is to test the diagnostic sensitivity of MEPs and MRI and the ratio of their sensitivity in patients with MS. The study subjects included 293 patients with MS with disease duration of two to six years: 249 patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) MS and 44 with primary-progressive (PP) MS. All patients were subjected to an MRI brain scan, visual evoked potentials (VEPs), median somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), tibial somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). Abnormal Findings Included : changed wave morphology, interside difference in wave amplitude, absolute and interwave latency increased by 2.5 SD as compared with the control group. The control group comprised of 35 healthy subjects. Results : In this study the most abnormal findings were tibial SEPs, median SEPs, and VEPs. Our results suggest different sensitivity of MEPs in patients suffering from different forms of MS. In RR-MS the sensitivity of tibial SEPs was statically significant (Fischer's exact probability test) as compared to other evoked potential modalities. Similarly VEPs were more sensitive as compared to AEPs. In the PP-MS, median SEPs have been found to be more sensitive than VEPs, while tibial SEPs have been found to be more sensitive than AEPs. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity of MRI and MEPs both the forms of MS. Tibial SEPs produce the most abnormal results and the highest sensitivity in the RR-MS. We propose that this test as useful criterion for the diagnosis of MS.

  13. The "Hoop" Plate for Posterior Bicondylar Shear Tibial Plateau Fractures: Description of a New Surgical Technique.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Vincenzo; Schatzker, Joseph; Kfuri, Mauricio

    2017-07-01

    High-energy fractures of the proximal tibia with extensive fragmentation of the posterior rim of the tibial plateau are challenging. This technique aims to describe a method on how to embrace the posterior rim of the tibial plateau by placing a horizontal precontoured one-third tubular plate wrapped around its corners. This method, which we named "hoop plating," is mainly indicated for cases of crushed juxta-articular rim fractures, aiming to restore cortical containment of the tibial plateau. Through a lateral approach with a fibular head osteotomy (Lobenhoffer approach), both anterolateral and posterolateral fragments are directly reduced and supported by a one-third tubular plate of adequate length. The plate is inserted from lateral to medial deep to all soft tissues, and its position is checked with fluoroscopy. The implant sits exactly on the posterior cortex of the tibial plateau and provides containment for the reduced juxta-articular posterior cortex and rim. We begin with immediate range of motion. Toe-touch weight-bearing with crutches is allowed with the operated knee in full extension. Weight-bearing is gradually increased only after 6 weeks as bone healing is taking place. Clinical follow-up is performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 weeks. If the radiological exam confirms that the fracture is healed, the patient is allowed to proceed to muscle strengthening and bear weight entirely. The "hoop plating" may be a good option for the management in cases of extensive posterior tibial plateau articular surface fracture and impaction with rim and posterior cortical wall fragmentation. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Evaluation of cranial tibial and extensor carpi radialis reflexes before and after anesthetic block in cats.

    PubMed

    Tudury, Eduardo Alberto; de Figueiredo, Marcella Luiz; Fernandes, Thaiza Helena Tavares; Araújo, Bruno Martins; Bonelli, Marília de Albuquerque; Diogo, Camila Cardoso; Silva, Amanda Camilo; Santos, Cássia Regina Oliveira; Rocha, Nadyne Lorrayne Farias Cardoso

    2017-02-01

    Objectives This study aimed to test the extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial reflexes in cats before and after anesthetic block of the brachial and lumbosacral plexus, respectively, to determine whether they depend on a myotatic reflex arc. Methods Fifty-five cats with a normal neurologic examination that were referred for elective gonadectomy were divided into group 1 (29 cats) for testing the extensor carpi radialis reflex, and group 2 (26 cats) for testing the cranial tibial reflex. In group 1, the extensor carpi radialis reflex was tested after anesthetic induction and 15 mins after brachial plexus block with lidocaine. In group 2, the cranial tibial, withdrawal and patellar reflexes were elicited in 52 hindlimbs and retested 15 mins after epidural anesthesia. Results In group 1, before the anesthetic block, 55.17% of the cats had a decreased and 44.83% had a normal extensor carpi radialis reflex. After the block, 68.96% showed a decreased and 27.59% a normal reflex. No cat had an increased or absent reflex before anesthetic block. In group 2, prior to the anesthetic block, 15.38% of the cats had a decreased cranial tibial reflex and 84.62% had a normal response, whereas after the block it was decreased in 26.92% and normal in 73.08% of the cats. None of the cats had an increased or absent reflex. Regarding the presence of both reflexes before and after anesthetic block, there was no significant difference at 1% ( P = 0.013). Conclusions and relevance The extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial reflexes in cats are not strictly myotatic reflexes, as they are independent of the reflex arc, and may be idiomuscular responses. Therefore, they are not reliable for neurologic examination in this species.

  15. A modified technique to reduce tibial keel cutting errors during an Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Inui, Hiroshi; Taketomi, Shuji; Tahara, Keitarou; Yamagami, Ryota; Sanada, Takaki; Tanaka, Sakae

    2017-03-01

    Bone cutting errors can cause malalignment of unicompartmental knee arthroplasties (UKA). Although the extent of tibial malalignment due to horizontal cutting errors has been well reported, there is a lack of studies evaluating malalignment as a consequence of keel cutting errors, particularly in the Oxford UKA. The purpose of this study was to examine keel cutting errors during Oxford UKA placement using a navigation system and to clarify whether two different tibial keel cutting techniques would have different error rates. The alignment of the tibial cut surface after a horizontal osteotomy and the surface of the tibial trial component was measured with a navigation system. Cutting error was defined as the angular difference between these measurements. The following two techniques were used: the standard "pushing" technique in 83 patients (group P) and a modified "dolphin" technique in 41 patients (group D). In all 123 patients studied, the mean absolute keel cutting error was 1.7° and 1.4° in the coronal and sagittal planes, respectively. In group P, there were 22 outlier patients (27 %) in the coronal plane and 13 (16 %) in the sagittal plane. Group D had three outlier patients (8 %) in the coronal plane and none (0 %) in the sagittal plane. Significant differences were observed in the outlier ratio of these techniques in both the sagittal (P = 0.014) and coronal (P = 0.008) planes. Our study demonstrated overall keel cutting errors of 1.7° in the coronal plane and 1.4° in the sagittal plane. The "dolphin" technique was found to significantly reduce keel cutting errors on the tibial side. This technique will be useful for accurate com