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Sample records for mental acuity tests

  1. Development of microcomputer-based mental acuity tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnage, J. J.; Kennedy, R. S.; Smith, M. G.; Baltzley, D. R.; Lane, N. E.

    1992-01-01

    Recent disasters have focused attention on performance problems due to the use of alcohol and controlled substances in the workplace. Environmental stressors such as thermal extremes, mixed gases, noise, motion, and vibration also have adverse effects on human performance and operator efficiency. However, the lack of a standardized, sensitive, human performance assessment battery has probably delayed the systematic study of the deleterious effects of various toxic chemicals and drugs at home and in the workplace. The collective goal of the research reported here is the development of a menu of tests embedded in a coherent package of hardware and software that may be useful in repeated-measures studies of a broad range of agents that can degrade human performance. A menu of 40 tests from the Automated Performance Test System (APTS) is described, and the series of interlocking studies supporting its development is reviewed. The APTS tests, which run on several versions of laptop portables and desktop personal computers, have been shown to be stable, reliable, and factorially rich, and to have predictive validities with holistic measures of intelligence and simulator performances. In addition, sensitivity studies have been conducted in which performance changes due to stressors, agents, and treatments were demonstrated. We believe that tests like those described here have prospective use as an adjunct to urine testing for the screening for performance loss of individuals who are granted access to workplaces and stations that impact public safety.

  2. Visual acuity test

    MedlinePlus

    Eye test -- acuity; Vision test -- acuity; Snellen test ... from your face. This will test your near vision. ... examination, particularly if there is a change in vision or a problem with vision. In children, the ...

  3. Development of microcomputer-based mental acuity tests for repeated-measures studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Wilkes, R. L.; Baltzley, D. R.; Fowlkes, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to detail the development of the Automated Performance Test System (APTS), a computer battery of mental acuity tests that can be used to assess human performance in the presence of toxic elements and environmental stressors. There were four objectives in the development of APTS. First, the technical requirements for developing APTS followed the tenets of the classical theory of mental tests which requires that tests meet set criteria like stability and reliability (the lack of which constitutes insensitivity). To be employed in the study of the exotic conditions of protracted space flight, a battery with multiple parallel forms is required. The second criteria was for the battery to have factorial multidimensionality and the third was for the battery to be sensitive to factors known to compromise performance. A fourth objective was for the tests to converge on the abilities entailed in mission specialist tasks. A series of studies is reported in which candidate APTS tests were subjected to an examination of their psychometric properties for repeated-measures testing. From this work, tests were selected that possessed the requisite metric properties of stability, reliability, and factor richness. In addition, studies are reported which demonstrate the predictive validity of the tests to holistic measures of intelligence.

  4. Preschool visual acuity screening tests.

    PubMed Central

    Friendly, D S

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relative merits of two screening tests used for visual acuity assessment of preschool children. The tests that were compared were the Good-Lite Company versions of the E-Test and of the STYCAR (Screening Test for Young Children and Retardates). The former is the most popular method for evaluating central acuity in young children in this nation; the STYCAR is a relatively new letter-matching-test developed in England, where it is widely employed. The E-Test poses left-right orientation problems which are eliminated by the symmetrical letters H, T, O and V utilized in the Letter-Matching-Test. Both visual acuity tests were administered on two separate occasions by personnel from the Prevention of Blindness Society of Metropolitan Washington to 633 preschool children in Washington, D.C. By random selection, 150 of the children received the E-Test at both sessions, 162 children received the Letter-Matching-Test at both sessions, 160 chilt athe the second session, and 161 children received the Letter-Matching-Test at the first session and the E-Test at the second session. The author medically examined the eyes of 408 of the 633 children without knowledge of which test had been initially administered. Statistical analysis of the data obtained from the study indicated that the Letter-Matching-Test was significantly better in terms of testability rates, group and individual instruction time, and performance time. The E-Test was more reliable in terms of test-retest acuity scores and was also more valid in terms of agreement between pass-fail results obtained at the first screening session and two levels of pass-fail refraction criteria. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B PMID:754379

  5. Assessment of Visual Acuity in Relation to Central Nervous System Activation in Children with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Karl; Grottland, Havar; Flaten, Magne Arve

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of visual acuity, using Teller Acuity Cards, was combined with observations of behavioral state to indicate central nervous system activation in 24 individuals with mental retardation. Results indicate that forced-choice preferential-looking technique can be used to test visual acuity in this population unless the participant is drowsy.…

  6. THE EVALUATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES FOR TESTING THE VISUAL AND AUDITORY ACUITY OF TRAINABLE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WOLFE, WILLIAM G.; AND OTHERS

    AUDIOMETRIC AND VISUAL PROCEDURES WERE COMPARED ANALYTICALLY AND/OR DESIGNED TO ESTABLISH TEST METHODS FOR TRAINABLE MENTAL RETARDATES IN THE IQ RANGE OF 23-47 AND BELOW THE MENTAL AGE OF 4 YEARS. THE NUMBER OF SUBJECTS WAS 26 FOR THE AUDITORY PROGRAM AND 25 FOR THE VISUAL. EACH OF THE SUBJECTS WAS STUDIED ON AN INDIVIDUAL BASIS. DATA WERE…

  7. The Role of Vision and Hearing Acuity Assessment in the Psycho-Educational Diagnosis of Mild/Educable Mental Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dave

    1990-01-01

    Elementary-aged students (n=106) who had been referred for evaluation as possibly mildly/educably mentally handicapped were administered audiometric and visual acuity tests. Discriminant function analysis found no relationship between test results and classification/placement as mildly handicapped. Alternate testing procedures are recommended for…

  8. Dynamic visual acuity testing for screening patients with vestibular impairments.

    PubMed

    Peters, Brian T; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Cohen, Helen S; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) may be a useful indicator of the function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) but most DVA tests involve active head motion in the yaw plane. During gait the passive, vertical VOR may be more relevant and passive testing would be less likely to elicit compensatory strategies. The goal of this study was to determine if testing dynamic visual acuity during passive vertical motion of the subject would differentiate normal subjects from patients with known vestibular disorders. Subjects, normals and patients who had been diagnosed with either unilateral vestibular weaknesses or were post-acoustic neuroma resections, sat in a chair that could oscillate vertically with the head either free or constrained with a cervical orthosis. They viewed a computer screen 2 m away that showed Landholt C optotypes in one of 8 spatial configurations and which ranged in size from 0.4 to 1.0 logMAR. They were tested while the chair was stationary and while it was moving. Scores were worse for both groups during the dynamic condition compared to the static condition. In the dynamic condition patients' scores were significantly worse than normals' scores. Younger and older age groups differed slightly but significantly; the sample size was too small to examine age differences by decade. The data suggest that many well-compensated patients have dynamic visual acuity that is as good as age-matched normals. Results of ROC analyses were only moderate, indicating that the differences between patients and normals were not strong enough, under the conditions tested, for this test to be useful for screening people to determine if they have vestibular disorders. Modifications of the test paradigm may make it more useful for screening potential patients.

  9. Dynamic visual acuity testing for screening patients with vestibular impairments.

    PubMed

    Peters, Brian T; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Cohen, Helen S; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) may be a useful indicator of the function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) but most DVA tests involve active head motion in the yaw plane. During gait the passive, vertical VOR may be more relevant and passive testing would be less likely to elicit compensatory strategies. The goal of this study was to determine if testing dynamic visual acuity during passive vertical motion of the subject would differentiate normal subjects from patients with known vestibular disorders. Subjects, normals and patients who had been diagnosed with either unilateral vestibular weaknesses or were post-acoustic neuroma resections, sat in a chair that could oscillate vertically with the head either free or constrained with a cervical orthosis. They viewed a computer screen 2 m away that showed Landholt C optotypes in one of 8 spatial configurations and which ranged in size from 0.4 to 1.0 logMAR. They were tested while the chair was stationary and while it was moving. Scores were worse for both groups during the dynamic condition compared to the static condition. In the dynamic condition patients' scores were significantly worse than normals' scores. Younger and older age groups differed slightly but significantly; the sample size was too small to examine age differences by decade. The data suggest that many well-compensated patients have dynamic visual acuity that is as good as age-matched normals. Results of ROC analyses were only moderate, indicating that the differences between patients and normals were not strong enough, under the conditions tested, for this test to be useful for screening people to determine if they have vestibular disorders. Modifications of the test paradigm may make it more useful for screening potential patients. PMID:23000614

  10. Sensitivity of The Dynamic Visual Acuity Test To Sensorimotor Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Helen; Bloomberg, Jacob; Elizalde, Elizabeth; Fregia, Melody

    1999-01-01

    Post-flight astronauts, acutely post-vestibular nerve section patients, and patients with severe chronic bilateral vestibular deficits have oscillopsia caused by reduced vestibulocular reflex gains and decreased postural stability. Therefore, as previous work has shown, a test of dynamic visual acuity (DVA), in which the subject must read numbers from a computer screen while standing still or walking in place provides a composite measure of sensorimotor integration. This measure may be useful for determining the level of recovery, post-flight, post-operatively, or after vestibular rehabilitation. To determine the sensitivity of DVA to change in impaired populations we have tested patients with acoustic neuromas before and during the first post-operative week after resection of the tumors, and with bilaterally labyrinthine deficient subjects before and after six weeks of balance rehabilitation therapy.

  11. Mental status testing

    MedlinePlus

    Mental status exam; Neurocognitive testing; Dementia-mental status testing ... A health care provider will ask a number of questions. The test can be ... cognitive assessment (MoCA). The following may be tested: ...

  12. [Temporal integration in diseased eyes. III. Fixation movements in visual acuity testing].

    PubMed

    Kono, M; Yamade, S

    1992-03-01

    The fixation movements which occur during visual acuity testing were observed in order to clarify the mechanism behind the critical duration in visual acuity testing, which we found in a previous study to be significantly longer in central serous retinopathy and macular edema. Photoelectric oculography (p-EOG) was used to record horizontal eye movement in this study. In normal eyes the frequency and amplitude of the microsaccades were smaller while the acuity target was shown than when it was not shown. This phenomenon was also observed in eyes with macular edema. These results suggest that microsaccades play no positive role in the reading of visual acuity targets, and that they bear little relation to the phenomenon of critical duration in visual acuity testing. PMID:1580224

  13. Crowding and visual acuity measured in adults using paediatric test letters, pictures and symbols.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Sarah J H; Formankiewicz, Monika A; Waugh, Sarah J

    2016-04-01

    Crowding refers to the degradation of visual acuity for target optotypes with, versus without, surrounding features. Crowding is important clinically, however the effect of target-flanker spacing on acuity for symbols and pictures, compared to letters, has not been investigated. Five adults with corrected-to-normal vision had visual acuity measured for modified single target versions of Kay Pictures, Lea Symbols, HOTV and Cambridge Crowding Cards, tests. Single optotypes were presented in isolation and with surrounding features placed 0-5 stroke-widths away. Visual acuity measured with Kay Picture optotypes is 0.13-0.19logMAR better than for other test optotypes and varies significantly across picture. The magnitude of crowding is strongest when the surrounding features abut, or are placed 1 stroke-width away from the target optotype. The slope of the psychometric function is steeper in the region just beyond maximum crowding. Crowding is strongest and the psychometric function steepest, with the Cambridge Crowding Cards arrangement, than when any single optotype is surrounded by a box. Estimates of crowding extent are less variable across test when expressed in units of stroke-width, than optotype-width. Crowding for single target presentations of letters, symbols and pictures used in paediatric visual acuity tests can be maximised and made more sensitive to change in visual acuity, by careful selection of optotype, by surrounding the target with similar flankers, and by using a closer target-flanker separation than half an optotype-width.

  14. Visual Acuity Testing: Feedback Affects Neither Outcome nor Reproducibility, but Leaves Participants Happier

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Michael; Schäfer, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of visual acuity is a well standardized procedure at least for expert opinions and clinical trials. It is often recommended not giving patients feedback on the correctness of their responses. As this viewpoint has not been quantitatively examined so far, we quantitatively assessed possible effects of feedback on visual acuity testing. In 40 normal participants we presented Landolt Cs in 8 orientations using the automated Freiburg Acuity Test (FrACT, acuity threshold was measured with an adaptive staircase procedure. In an ABCDDCBA scheme, trial-by-trial feedback was provided in 2 x 4 conditions: (A) no feedback, (B) acoustic signals indicating correctness, (C)visual indication of correct orientation, and (D) a combination of (B) and (C). After each run the participants judged comfort. Main outcome measures were absolute visual acuity (logMAR), its test-retest agreement (limits of agreement) and participants’ comfort estimates on a 5-step symmetric Likert scale. Feedback influenced acuity outcome significantly (p = 0.02), but with a tiny effect size: 0.02 logMAR poorer acuity for (D) compared to (A), even weaker effects for (B) and (C). Test-retest agreement was high (limits of agreement: ± 1.0 lines) and did not depend on feedback (p>0.5). The comfort ranking clearly differed, by 2 steps on the Likert scale: the condition (A)–no feedback–was on average “slightly uncomfortable”, the other three conditions were “slightly comfortable” (p<0.0001). Feedback affected neither reproducibility nor the acuity outcome to any relevant extent. The participants, however, reported markedly greater comfort with any kind of feedback. We conclude that systematic feedback (as implemented in FrACT) offers nothing but advantages for routine use. PMID:26824693

  15. Visual Acuity Testing: Feedback Affects Neither Outcome nor Reproducibility, but Leaves Participants Happier.

    PubMed

    Bach, Michael; Schäfer, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of visual acuity is a well standardized procedure at least for expert opinions and clinical trials. It is often recommended not giving patients feedback on the correctness of their responses. As this viewpoint has not been quantitatively examined so far, we quantitatively assessed possible effects of feedback on visual acuity testing. In 40 normal participants we presented Landolt Cs in 8 orientations using the automated Freiburg Acuity Test (FrACT, acuity threshold was measured with an adaptive staircase procedure. In an ABCDDCBA scheme, trial-by-trial feedback was provided in 2 x 4 conditions: (A) no feedback, (B) acoustic signals indicating correctness, (C)visual indication of correct orientation, and (D) a combination of (B) and (C). After each run the participants judged comfort. Main outcome measures were absolute visual acuity (logMAR), its test-retest agreement (limits of agreement) and participants' comfort estimates on a 5-step symmetric Likert scale. Feedback influenced acuity outcome significantly (p = 0.02), but with a tiny effect size: 0.02 logMAR poorer acuity for (D) compared to (A), even weaker effects for (B) and (C). Test-retest agreement was high (limits of agreement: ± 1.0 lines) and did not depend on feedback (p>0.5). The comfort ranking clearly differed, by 2 steps on the Likert scale: the condition (A)-no feedback-was on average "slightly uncomfortable", the other three conditions were "slightly comfortable" (p<0.0001). Feedback affected neither reproducibility nor the acuity outcome to any relevant extent. The participants, however, reported markedly greater comfort with any kind of feedback. We conclude that systematic feedback (as implemented in FrACT) offers nothing but advantages for routine use.

  16. [Temporal integration in diseased eyes. I. Exposure duration in visual acuity testing].

    PubMed

    Kono, M; Yamade, S; Hukami, K

    1991-02-01

    Critical duration in visual acuity testing can be viewed as an expression of temporal integration in the human visual system. We examined this phenomenon in 13 eyes with central serous retinopathy (CSR) and 6 eyes with macular edema, by measuring visual acuity at several limited exposure times. The results were then compared with those for 17 normal eyes. The acuity target was a single Landolt ring projected upon a small square screen. The size, direction, and exposure time of the target were computer controlled. The mean critical durations of the CSR and macular edema groups were 1.78 sec. and 2.69 sec. respectively. These values were significantly (p less than 0.01) longer than the mean critical duration of the normal control group (0.62 sec.). Although the mechanism behind the longer critical duration in diseased eyes remains poorly understood, we believe this method provides a possible approach to the study of diseased visual conditions. PMID:2053529

  17. Visual Vestibular Interaction in the Dynamic Visual Acuity Test during Voluntary Head Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Moo Hoon; Durnford, Simon; Crowley, John; Rupert, Angus

    1996-01-01

    Although intact vestibular function is essential in maintaining spatial orientation, no good screening tests of vestibular function are available to the aviation community. High frequency voluntary head rotation was selected as a vestibular stimulus to isolate the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) from visual influence. A dynamic visual acuity test that incorporates voluntary head rotation was evaluated as a potential vestibular function screening tool. Twenty-seven normal subjects performed voluntary sinusoidal head rotation at frequencies from 0.7-4.0 Hz under three different visual conditions: visually-enhanced VOR, normal VOR, and visually suppressed VOR. Standardized Baily-Lovie chart letters were presented on a computer monitor in front of the subject, who then was asked to read the letters while rotating his head horizontally. The electro-oculogram and dynamic visual acuity score were recorded and analyzed. There were no significant differences in gain or phase shift among three visual conditions in the frequency range of 2.8 to 4.0 Hz. The dynamic visual acuity score shifted less than 0.3 logMAR at frequencies under 2.0 Hz. The dynamic visual acuity test at frequencies a round 2.0 Hz can be recommended for evaluating vestibular function.

  18. Visual discrimination learning in the water maze: a novel test for visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Robinson, L; Bridge, H; Riedel, G

    2001-02-15

    Learning about space, the environment and specific objects comprising three-dimensional arrangements requires processing of visual information. As learning and memory experiments in mammals rely heavily on normal processing of visual cues, drug-induced disruption of acquisition learning or memory formation necessitates the important control for visual acuity. A popular task used frequently for rats is the Morris water maze. However, previously used visual tasks in the water maze only control for gross visual disturbances. Here we describe a new training procedure enabling visual acuity to be tested in the water maze. Animals were trained to discriminate between two cue cards containing a pattern of vertical black and white stripes. Cards were presented in two adjacent quadrants separated by a barrier with the escape platform located in front of the smaller stripes (1 cm wide). Once 80% correct responses were attained, the wider cue card (normally 5 cm wide stripes) was randomly changed to gratings of 1,2,3,4,5, and 10 cm width. Animals learned the discrimination with acuity of 1.5 c/deg. A detailed analysis of the swim patterns further suggests that, independent of the grating used, animals make a choice immediately after release and swim along the walls towards the cue. In a further acuity test taken a few weeks later when animals were given saline infusions, performance was better than in the first test suggesting an effect of learning. This novel test may prove useful in determining subtle drug-induced deficits in visual acuity that may contribute to disruption of spatial performance in the water maze.

  19. Test Re-Test Reliability and Validity of Different Visual Acuity and Stereoacuity Charts Used in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Moganeswari, Diana; Srinivasan, Krithica; Jacob, George P

    2015-01-01

    Background Preschool vision screenings are cost effective ways to detect children with vision impairments. The use of any vision tests in children must be age appropriate, testable, repeatable and valid. Aim To compare the test re-test reliability, sensitivity and specificity of different visual acuity and stereo acuity charts used in preschool children. Materials and Methods Monocular visual acuity of 90 subjects (180 eyes) of age 36 to 71 months was assessed with HOTV, Lea and E-chart in a preschool located in a semi urban area, Manipal, Karnataka. After the vision assessment, stereo acuity was recorded using Frisby and Titmus stereo charts followed by comprehensive eye examination. Repeated measurements of visual acuity and stereo acuity were done one week after the initial assessment. Results Mean age of children was 53± 10 months with equal gender distribution. Intra class correlation (ICC) of Lea, HOTV, E-chart, Frisby and Titmus charts were 0.96, 0.99, 0.92, 1.0 and 1.0 respectively. The area under receiver operating curve (ROC) for Lea and E-chart was 0.892 and 0.776. HOTV was considered as the gold standard as it showed the least difference on repeated measurements. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of E-chart was 99, 15, 45, 94 and 21.8 percent, and Lea was 93, 56, 59 and 92 percent. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of Frisby was 75, 27, 9, 92 percent were as of Titmus was 75, 13, 8 and 85 percent respectively. Conclusion HOTV chart can be used as the gold standard for measuring visual acuity of pre-schoolers in a semi urban area. Lea chart can be used in the absence of HOTV chart. Frisby and Titmus charts are good screening tools, but with poor diagnostic criteria. PMID:26675120

  20. Comparison on testability of visual acuity, stereo acuity and colour vision tests between children with learning disabilities and children without learning disabilities in government primary schools

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, Nurul Farhana; Chen, Ai-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Context: Children with learning disabilities might have difficulties to communicate effectively and give reliable responses as required in various visual function testing procedures. Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the testability of visual acuity using the modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) and Cambridge Crowding Cards, stereo acuity using Lang Stereo test II and Butterfly stereo tests and colour perception using Colour Vision Test Made Easy (CVTME) and Ishihara's Test for Colour Deficiency (Ishihara Test) between children in mainstream classes and children with learning disabilities in special education classes in government primary schools. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 primary school children (50 children from mainstream classes and 50 children from special education classes) matched in age were recruited in this cross-sectional comparative study. The testability was determined by the percentage of children who were able to give reliable respond as required by the respective tests. ‘Unable to test’ was defined as inappropriate response or uncooperative despite best efforts of the screener. Results: The testability of the modified ETDRS, Butterfly stereo test and Ishihara test for respective visual function tests were found lower among children in special education classes (P < 0.001) but not in Cambridge Crowding Cards, Lang Stereo test II and CVTME. Conclusion: Non verbal or “matching” approaches were found to be more superior in testing visual functions in children with learning disabilities. Modifications of vision testing procedures are essential for children with learning disabilities. PMID:24008790

  1. The Use of Dynamic Visual Acuity as a Functional Test of Gaze Stabilization Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R.; Miller, C. A.; Richards, J. T.; Warren, L. E.; Cohen, H. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    After prolonged exposure to a given gravitational environment the transition to another is accompanied by adaptations in the sensorimotor subsystems, including the vestibular system. Variation in the adaptation time course of these subsystems, and the functional redundancies that exist between them make it difficult to accurately assess the functional capacity and physical limitations of astro/cosmonauts using tests on individual subsystems. While isolated tests of subsystem performance may be the only means to address where interventions are required, direct measures of performance may be more suitable for assessing the operational consequences of incomplete adaptation to changes in the gravitational environment. A test of dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is currently being used in the JSC Neurosciences Laboratory as part of a series of measures to assess the efficacy of a countermeasure to mitigate postflight locomotor dysfunction. In the current protocol, subjects visual acuity is determined using Landolt ring optotypes presented sequentially on a computer display. Visual acuity assessments are made both while standing and while walking at 1.8 m/s on a motorized treadmill. The use of a psychophysical threshold detection algorithm reduces the required number of optotype presentations and the results can be presented immediately after the test. The difference between the walking and standing acuity measures provides a metric of the change in the subject s ability to maintain gaze fixation on the visual target while walking. This functional consequence is observable regardless of the underlying subsystem most responsible for the change. Data from 15 cosmo/astronauts have been collected following long-duration (approx. 6 months) stays in space using a visual target viewing distance of 4.0 meters. An investigation of the group mean shows a change in DVA soon after the flight that asymptotes back to baseline approximately one week following their return to earth. The

  2. Ethanol consumption impairs vestibulo-ocular reflex function measured by the video head impulse test and dynamic visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Roth, Thomas N; Weber, Konrad P; Wettstein, Vincent G; Marks, Guy B; Rosengren, Sally M; Hegemann, Stefan C A

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol affects many parts of the nervous system, from the periphery to higher cognitive functions. Due to the established effects of ethanol on vestibular and oculomotor function, we wished to examine its effect on two new tests of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR): the video head impulse test (vHIT) and dynamic visual acuity (DVA). We tested eight healthy subjects with no history of vestibular disease after consumption of standardized drinks of 40% ethanol. We used a repeated measures design to track vestibular function over multiple rounds of ethanol consumption up to a maximum breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) of 1.38 per mil. All tests were normal at baseline. VOR gain measured by vHIT decreased by 25% at the highest BrAC level tested in each subject. Catch-up saccades were negligible at baseline and increased in number and size with increasing ethanol consumption (from 0.13° to 1.43° cumulative amplitude per trial). DVA scores increased by 86% indicating a deterioration of acuity, while static visual acuity (SVA) remained unchanged. Ethanol consumption systematically impaired the VOR evoked by high-acceleration head impulses and led to a functional loss of visual acuity during head movement.

  3. Measuring acuity of the approximate number system reliably and validly: the evaluation of an adaptive test procedure

    PubMed Central

    Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter; Poom, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigated the reliability and predictive validity of commonly used measures and models of Approximate Number System acuity (ANS). Study 1 investigated reliability by both an empirical approach and a simulation of maximum obtainable reliability under ideal conditions. Results showed that common measures of the Weber fraction (w) are reliable only when using a substantial number of trials, even under ideal conditions. Study 2 compared different purported measures of ANS acuity as for convergent and predictive validity in a within-subjects design and evaluated an adaptive test using the ZEST algorithm. Results showed that the adaptive measure can reduce the number of trials needed to reach acceptable reliability. Only direct tests with non-symbolic numerosity discriminations of stimuli presented simultaneously were related to arithmetic fluency. This correlation remained when controlling for general cognitive ability and perceptual speed. Further, the purported indirect measure of ANS acuity in terms of the Numeric Distance Effect (NDE) was not reliable and showed no sign of predictive validity. The non-symbolic NDE for reaction time was significantly related to direct w estimates in a direction contrary to the expected. Easier stimuli were found to be more reliable, but only harder (7:8 ratio) stimuli contributed to predictive validity. PMID:23964256

  4. Measuring acuity of the approximate number system reliably and validly: the evaluation of an adaptive test procedure.

    PubMed

    Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter; Poom, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigated the reliability and predictive validity of commonly used measures and models of Approximate Number System acuity (ANS). Study 1 investigated reliability by both an empirical approach and a simulation of maximum obtainable reliability under ideal conditions. Results showed that common measures of the Weber fraction (w) are reliable only when using a substantial number of trials, even under ideal conditions. Study 2 compared different purported measures of ANS acuity as for convergent and predictive validity in a within-subjects design and evaluated an adaptive test using the ZEST algorithm. Results showed that the adaptive measure can reduce the number of trials needed to reach acceptable reliability. Only direct tests with non-symbolic numerosity discriminations of stimuli presented simultaneously were related to arithmetic fluency. This correlation remained when controlling for general cognitive ability and perceptual speed. Further, the purported indirect measure of ANS acuity in terms of the Numeric Distance Effect (NDE) was not reliable and showed no sign of predictive validity. The non-symbolic NDE for reaction time was significantly related to direct w estimates in a direction contrary to the expected. Easier stimuli were found to be more reliable, but only harder (7:8 ratio) stimuli contributed to predictive validity. PMID:23964256

  5. Two-Point Orientation Discrimination Versus the Traditional Two-Point Test for Tactile Spatial Acuity Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Jonathan; Mao, Oliver; Goldreich, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Two-point discrimination is widely used to measure tactile spatial acuity. The validity of the two-point threshold as a spatial acuity measure rests on the assumption that two points can be distinguished from one only when the two points are sufficiently separated to evoke spatially distinguishable foci of neural activity. However, some previous research has challenged this view, suggesting instead that two-point task performance benefits from an unintended non-spatial cue, allowing spuriously good performance at small tip separations. We compared the traditional two-point task to an equally convenient alternative task in which participants attempt to discern the orientation (vertical or horizontal) of two points of contact. We used precision digital readout calipers to administer two-interval forced-choice versions of both tasks to 24 neurologically healthy adults, on the fingertip, finger base, palm, and forearm. We used Bayesian adaptive testing to estimate the participants’ psychometric functions on the two tasks. Traditional two-point performance remained significantly above chance levels even at zero point separation. In contrast, two-point orientation discrimination approached chance as point separation approached zero, as expected for a valid measure of tactile spatial acuity. Traditional two-point performance was so inflated at small point separations that 75%-correct thresholds could be determined on all tested sites for fewer than half of participants. The 95%-correct thresholds on the two tasks were similar, and correlated with receptive field spacing. In keeping with previous critiques, we conclude that the traditional two-point task provides an unintended non-spatial cue, resulting in spuriously good performance at small spatial separations. Unlike two-point discrimination, two-point orientation discrimination rigorously measures tactile spatial acuity. We recommend the use of two-point orientation discrimination for neurological assessment. PMID

  6. Normative Scores for the NIH Toolbox Dynamic Visual Acuity Test from 3 to 85 Years.

    PubMed

    Li, Carol; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Rine, Rose Marie; Slotkin, Jerry; Schubert, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    As part of the National Institutes of Health Toolbox initiative, a computerized test of dynamic visual acuity (cDVA) was developed and validated as an easy-to-administer, cost- and time-efficient test of vestibular and visual function. To establish normative reference values, 3,992 individuals, aged 3-85 years, without vestibular pathology underwent cDVA testing at multiple clinical research testing facilities across the United States. Test scores were stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. cDVA was worse in males (p < 0.001) and those subjects 50 years or older, while there was no difference in dynamic visual acuity across age groups binned from 3 to 49 years. Furthermore, we used these normative cDVA data as a criterion reference to compare both the long (validated) and short versions of the test. Both versions can distinguish between those with and without vestibular pathology (p = 0.0002 long; p = 0.0025 short). The intraclass correlation coefficient between long- and short-cDVA tests was 0.86.

  7. Use of the Dynamic Visual Acuity Test as a screener for community-dwelling older adults who fall.

    PubMed

    Honaker, Julie A; Shepard, Neil T

    2011-01-01

    Adequate function of the peripheral vestibular system, specifically the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR; a network of neural connections between the peripheral vestibular system and the extraocular muscles) is essential for maintaining stable vision during head movements. Decreased visual acuity resulting from an impaired peripheral vestibular system may impede balance and postural control and place an individual at risk of falling. Therefore, sensitive measures of the vestibular system are warranted to screen for the tendency to fall, alerting clinicians to recommend further risk of falling assessment and referral to a falling risk reduction program. Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) testing is a computerized VOR assessment method to evaluate the peripheral vestibular system during head movements; reduced visual acuity as documented with DVA testing may be sensitive to screen for falling risk. This study examined the sensitivity and specificity of the computerized DVA test with yaw plane head movements for identifying community-dwelling adults (58-78 years) who are prone to falling. A total of 16 older adults with a history of two or more unexplained falls in the previous twelve months and 16 age and gender matched controls without a history of falls in the previous twelve months participated. Computerized DVA with horizontal head movements at a fixed velocity of 120 deg/sec was measured and compared with the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) a gold standard gait assessment measurement for identifying falling risk. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis and area under the ROC curve (AUC) were used to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the computerized DVA as a screening measure for falling risk as determined by the DGI. Results suggested a link between computerized DVA and the propensity to fall; DVA in the yaw plane was found to be a sensitive (92%) and accurate screening measure when using a cutoff logMAR value of >0.25.

  8. Tactile acuity charts: a reliable measure of spatial acuity.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Patrick; Camargo, Carlos J; Campanella, Humberto; Esteve, Jaume; Dinse, Hubert R; Röder, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    For assessing tactile spatial resolution it has recently been recommended to use tactile acuity charts which follow the design principles of the Snellen letter charts for visual acuity and involve active touch. However, it is currently unknown whether acuity thresholds obtained with this newly developed psychophysical procedure are in accordance with established measures of tactile acuity that involve passive contact with fixed duration and control of contact force. Here we directly compared tactile acuity thresholds obtained with the acuity charts to traditional two-point and grating orientation thresholds in a group of young healthy adults. For this purpose, two types of charts, using either Braille-like dot patterns or embossed Landolt rings with different orientations, were adapted from previous studies. Measurements with the two types of charts were equivalent, but generally more reliable with the dot pattern chart. A comparison with the two-point and grating orientation task data showed that the test-retest reliability of the acuity chart measurements after one week was superior to that of the passive methods. Individual thresholds obtained with the acuity charts agreed reasonably with the grating orientation threshold, but less so with the two-point threshold that yielded relatively distinct acuity estimates compared to the other methods. This potentially considerable amount of mismatch between different measures of tactile acuity suggests that tactile spatial resolution is a complex entity that should ideally be measured with different methods in parallel. The simple test procedure and high reliability of the acuity charts makes them a promising complement and alternative to the traditional two-point and grating orientation thresholds.

  9. Comparison of energy expenditure during the Y-balance test in older adults with different visual acuities

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sun-Shil; An, Duk-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the energy expenditure during the Y-balance test (YBT) between elderly women with good binocular visual acuity (BVA) and those with poor BVA. [Subjects] Twenty-one elderly women who could walk independently were recruited from a community dwelling. Eleven participants had a BVA equal to or less than 0.4 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR), and the other 10 participants had a BVA equal to or better than 0.3 logMAR. [Methods] The participants had an accelerometer attached over the L3 spinous process for measurement of energy expenditure and performed the YBT in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions. [Results] The normalized reach distance in the good BVA group during the YBT in three directions and composite reach distance were significantly longer compared with the values in the poor BVA group. The energy expenditure in the good BVA group during the YBT in the three directions was significantly reduced compared with the values in the poor BVA group. [Conclusion] We suggest that visual acuity in the elderly influences dynamic balance and energy expenditure. Elderly subjects with poor BVA showed poor dynamic balance control and an inefficient biomechanical cost strategy compared to subjects with good BVA. PMID:25931711

  10. A pilot trial of the iPad tablet computer as a portable device for visual acuity testing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhao-tian; Zhang, Shao-chong; Huang, Xiong-gao; Liang, Ling-yi

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of an app for the iPad tablet computer (Eye Chart Pro) as a portable method of visual acuity (VA) testing. A total of 120 consecutive patients (240 eyes) underwent visual acuity test with an iPad 2 and a conventional light-box chart. The logMAR VA results from the iPad were significantly higher than those from the light-box (P < 0.001). Bland-Altman analysis revealed a mean difference (bias) of 0.02 logMAR units between the VA results from the iPad chart and the light-box chart, with 95% limits of agreement of -0.14 to 0.19. Two groups of patients were defined: in Group 1 there were 182 eyes with VA better than 0.1 according to the light-box VA test. The median logMAR VA by the iPad was 0.54 and by the light-box chart it was 0.52; there was no significant difference between them (P = 0.69). In Group 2 there were 58 eyes with VA equal to or worse than 0.1 according to the light-box VA test. The median logMAR VA by the iPad was 1.26 and was 1.10 by the light box; the result from the iPad was significantly lower (P < 0.001). The Eye Chart Pro app installed on the iPad is reliable for VA testing only when the Snellen VA is better than 0.1 (20/200).

  11. Development of a Test of Suprathreshold Acuity in Noise in Brazilian Portuguese: A New Method for Hearing Screening and Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Vaez, Nara; Desgualdo-Pereira, Liliane; Paglialonga, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a speech-in-noise test for hearing screening and surveillance in Brazilian Portuguese based on the evaluation of suprathreshold acuity performances. The SUN test (Speech Understanding in Noise) consists of a list of intervocalic consonants in noise presented in a multiple-choice paradigm by means of a touch screen. The test provides one out of three possible results: “a hearing check is recommended” (red light), “a hearing check would be advisable” (yellow light), and “no hearing difficulties” (green light) (Paglialonga et al., Comput. Biol. Med. 2014). This novel test was developed in a population of 30 normal hearing young adults and 101 adults with varying degrees of hearing impairment and handicap, including normal hearing. The test had 84% sensitivity and 76% specificity compared to conventional pure-tone screening and 83% sensitivity and 86% specificity to detect disabling hearing impairment. The test outcomes were in line with the degree of self-perceived hearing handicap. The results found here paralleled those reported in the literature for the SUN test and for conventional speech-in-noise measures. This study showed that the proposed test might be a viable method to identify individuals with hearing problems to be referred to further audiological assessment and intervention. PMID:25247181

  12. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Bušić, Mladen; Bjeloš, Mirjana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Kuzmanović Elabjer, Biljana; Bosnar, Damir; Ramić, Senad; Miletić, Daliborka; Andrijašević, Lidija; Kondža Krstonijević, Edita; Jakovljević, Vid; Bišćan Tvrdi, Ana; Predović, Jurica; Kokot, Antonio; Bišćan, Filip; Kovačević Ljubić, Mirna; Motušić Aras, Ranka

    2016-01-01

    Aim To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children. Methods Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at re-test, the child was referred to comprehensive eye examination at the Eye Clinic. Results 78.04% of children passed the screening test. Estimated prevalence of amblyopia was 8.08%. Testability, sensitivity, and specificity of the ZAPS study protocol were 99.19%, 100.00%, and 96.68% respectively. Conclusion The ZAPS study used the most discriminative VA test with optotypes in lines as they do not underestimate amblyopia. The estimated prevalence of amblyopia was considerably higher than reported elsewhere. To the best of our knowledge, the ZAPS study protocol reached the highest sensitivity and specificity when evaluating diagnostic accuracy of VA tests for screening. The pass level defined at ≤0.1 logMAR for 4-year-old children, using Lea Symbols in lines missed no amblyopia cases, advocating that both near and distance VA testing should be performed when screening for amblyopia. PMID:26935612

  13. Fixation Preference and Visual Acuity Testing in a Population-based Cohort of Preschool Children with Amblyopia Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Susan A.; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Song, Erin; Lin, Jesse; Borchert, Mark; Azen, Stanley P.; Varma, Rohit

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To compare the clinical assessment of fixation preference (FP) to visual acuity (VA) in a population-based sample of preschool children with amblyopia risk factors. Design Evaluation of diagnostic test in a population-based study. Participants Two hundred forty-three children with amblyopia and/or strabismus, aged 30–72 months, living in Los Angeles County, California. Methods Before measuring VA, FP testing was performed at near and usually without correction, using the binocular fixation pattern in children with strabismus >10 diopters (D), or the induced tropia test for children with strabismus ≤10D, or without strabismus. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of FP testing for predicting unilateral amblyopia, defined by optotype VA, among children with amblyopia risk factors. Main Outcome Measure Grade of FP. Results Sensitivity of FP testing for amblyopia among children with anisometropia was 20% (9/44) and specificity was 94% (102/109). Among strabismic children, sensitivity was 69% (9/13; worse in children 30–47 than 48–72 months old) and specificity was 79% (70/89), with similar findings for esotropia and exotropia. Conclusion The ability of FP testing to correctly identify amblyopia in preschool children with amblyopia risk factors is poor. Clinicians should be wary of using FP as a surrogate measure of intraocular difference in VA in young children. PMID:18962921

  14. Incremental exercise in dynamic visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Millslagle, Duane; DeLaRosby, Anna; VonBank, Sara

    2005-10-01

    As research is limited the purpose of this study was to investigate dynamic visual acuity while cycling at different exercise loads. Accuracy of dynamic visual acuity scores of 20 college-age participants was analyzed by a repeated-measures analysis of variance which indicated improved dynamic visual acuity during cycling as the intensity of exercise increased. A retention test conducted two days after testing yielded evidence of trainability of dynamic visual acuity. In the discussion findings were compared to other visual functions associated with exercise.

  15. [The child's vision and its measurement. Comparative results of different tests of visual acuity in children as a function of age].

    PubMed

    Ardouin, M; Urvoy, M; Senecal, J; Etchessahar, F; Rouaux, M

    1978-01-01

    The authors describe a new test for determining the visual acuity in pre-school children. It is a picture-test which is composed by pictures of animals of varying sizes, the child being asked to name them in turn. The six pictures (duck, rabbit, cock, elephant, fish, and butterfly) with an homogeneous density, can be utilized according to several manners-appariement or verbal expression--and several distances: 2,50 m or 5 m. That test gave good results on children aged from three years upwards, however the performances could be increased by prectising exercises.

  16. 38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent. (b) Evaluation of visual acuity. (1) Evaluate central visual acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central scotoma is present. However, when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer...

  17. 38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent. (b) Evaluation of visual acuity. (1) Evaluate central visual acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central scotoma is present. However, when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer...

  18. 38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent. (b) Evaluation of visual acuity. (1) Evaluate central visual acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central scotoma is present. However, when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer...

  19. 38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent. (b) Evaluation of visual acuity. (1) Evaluate central visual acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central scotoma is present. However, when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer...

  20. 38 CFR 4.76 - Visual acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... distance and near vision using Snellen's test type or its equivalent. (b) Evaluation of visual acuity. (1) Evaluate central visual acuity on the basis of corrected distance vision with central fixation, even if a central scotoma is present. However, when the lens required to correct distance vision in the poorer...

  1. Visual acuity for optotypes made visible by relative motion.

    PubMed

    Regan, D; Hong, X H

    1990-01-01

    There are several visual mechanisms for analyzing spatial information additional to the much researched mechanism sensitive to luminance contrast. We describe a Snellen-type acuity test for motion-defined (MD) letters. Acuity for these MD letters collapsed at dot speeds slower than 0.05 deg/s, but acuity for contrast-defined (CD) letters was unaffected by speed over the entire 0 to 0.3 deg/s range used. Acuity was a power function of presentation duration for both kinds of letter, but the exponent was higher for MD than for CD letters. Acuity for MD letters was comparatively unaffected by dot density from 50 to 0.05%, below which it suddenly collapsed to zero. On the other hand, acuity for CD letters progressively fell as dot density was reduced from 50%, and below about 0.5% approximated acuity for MD letters.

  2. Prediction of visual acuity recovery in cystoid macular edema.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, P J; Ryan, S J; Walonker, A F; Miller-Scholte, A

    1992-05-01

    Three consecutive patients participated in a prospective evaluation of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema. The duration of the macular edema ranged from 6 to 8 months. On the initial visit, the best corrected acuity with spectacles was determined and a potential acuity meter reading was obtained; this test suggested potential for visual recovery in two of the three patients. Sub-tenon's injections of methylprednisolone acetate (20 mg) were administered along with topical 1% prednisolone acetate and 1% atropine. One month later, visual acuity was improved by more than 2 Snellen lines in all three of the patients. A visual acuity measurement with the potential acuity meter that is better than the best corrected acuity with spectacles may reflect the presence of intact, but dysfunctional photoreceptors that are capable of restoring visual acuity upon resolution of the edema.

  3. Effect of static visual acuity on dynamic visual acuity: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Mieko; Ueda, Tetsuo; Nawa, Yoshiaki; Yukawa, Eiichi; Hara, Tokuko; Hara, Yoshiaki

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate whether dynamic visual acuity changes with or without refractive correction. 42 healthy enrolled subjects with normal vision were divided into two age-matched groups. In Group A, dynamic visual acuity was measured first with the refractive error fully corrected and then without. In Group B, dynamic visual acuity measurements were taken in the reverse order of that performed by Group A. The measurements were binocularly performed five times using free-head viewing after dynamic visual acuity values were stable. Significant changes in dynamic visual acuity (static visual acuity 20/20 vs 12/20) were observed in both Group A (171.6 +/- 36.0 deg./sec. vs 151.8 +/- 39.6 deg./sec., Wilcoxon test, p < .001) and Group B (169.8 +/- 30.0 deg./sec. vs 151.2 +/- 36.0 deg./sec., Wilcoxon test, p < .001). The interaction was significant (F1.20 = 8.12, p = .009). These results indicated that refractive correction affected dynamic visual acuity.

  4. The importance of measuring dynamic visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Muzdalo, Natasa Vujko

    2013-04-01

    In their everyday life, people interact with different objects, static as well as those in motion. However, dynamic acuity is rarely checked in medical examinations, even those preceding the issue of driving license. In order for driving to be safe, good eyesight or good correction with visual aids is imperative. Beside good eyesight, drivers also have to have good reflexes and short reaction span. The aim of this study was to compare dynamic and static visual acuity in order to observe how they vary among individuals. Twenty female and male participants, 65 years of age, took part in the study and the comparison was made with the results provided by 20 20-year old participants. Dynamic acuity was tested using the Landolt-ring optotype which was simulating movement velocity of 72 km/h. T-test demonstrated the presence of a statistically significant difference between dynamic and static acuity among the participants from 62 to 68 years of age (t = 15.852; df = 39; p < 0.01). Within the same group, dynamic acuity (mean = 0.887; std. deviation = 0.297) proved to be significantly worse than static acuity (mean = 1.40; std. deviation = 0.317). By comparing the results measured within the older group of participants with those measured in the younger group, it was shown that there exists a statistically significant difference (t = 0.275; df = 58; p < 0,05) between the older and younger group in their dynamic binocular acuity with correction. Younger participants had better dynamic binocular acuity with correction (mean = 1.063; std. deviation = 0.259) than the older participants (mean = 0.884; std. deviation = 0.298). The differences between dynamic and static acuity and its degradation in the older age groups have to be taken into account when issuing driving licenses. The future of research lies within the study of correlation between the age and acuity in order that the results can be applied in practice.

  5. Set shot shooting performance and visual acuity in basketball.

    PubMed

    Applegate, R A; Applegate, R A

    1992-10-01

    Common sense suggests that decreasing visual acuity will have a negative effect on basketball shooting performance. To test the hypothesis that basketball shooting performance monotonically decreases with decreasing acuity, 19 subjects attempted 25 set shots from a fixed location at each of 5 different acuity levels: 6/6 or better and vision blurred (by optical defocus) to visual acuities of 6/12, 6/24, 6/48, and 6/75. Our results revealed a small but statistically nonsignificant decrease in shooting performance between the 6/6+ and 6/12 conditions. For visual acuities between 6/12 and 6/75, the number of baskets made remained constant. We conclude that decreases in visual acuity over the range of 6/6+ to 6/75 resulting from defocus do not significantly reduce set shot shooting performance.

  6. Mental status tests and the capacity for self-care.

    PubMed

    Winograd, C H

    1984-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that self-care capacity can be predicted by tests of mental functioning, the performances of patients in a long-term care institution on a Self-Care Scale were compared with their scores on the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ) and a Mental Competence Scale. The Self-Care Scale measures ability to perform activities of daily living; the SPMSQ assesses memory, orientation, and calculation; and the Mental Competence Scale measures ability to respond sensibly to interview questions and to judge the environment. Many people who had poor scores on the SPMSQ were able to perform activities of daily living in the nursing home setting, but none whose scores on the Mental Competence Scale were fair or poor were independent in activities of daily living. Despite the fact that both the Self-Care Scale and the Mental Competence Scale are still in the developmental stages, the author concludes that the SPMSQ is not an adequate predictor of capacity for self-care. Moreover, the ability to respond appropriately to an interview may be more relevant for daily functioning than are tests of mental status. The three methods of assessment used in this study measure distinct yet complementary components of functioning that need to be considered in evaluating a mentally impaired elderly person. PMID:6690576

  7. The point-to-point test: A new diagnostic tool for measuring lumbar tactile acuity? Inter and intra-examiner reliability study of pain-free subjects.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Wacław; Sługocka, Anna; Saulicz, Oskar; Saulicz, Edward

    2016-04-01

    A two-point discrimination test (TPD) is commonly used to investigate lumbar tactile acuity. However, low inter-examiner reliability and difficulties in execution significantly limit its application. Therefore the aim of this study was to compare the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of a new approach, the point-to-point test (PTP), with the TPD. Twenty-one pain-free subjects attended the inter-examiner stage of the study. Eighteen of them were further recruited into an intra-examiner (reproducibility and repeatability) reliability study. PTP was performed on the three points plotted at the L3 spinal level. Point '0' overlapped with the L3 spinous process, from which points '1' and '2' were horizontally separated by 5 and 10 cm, respectively. Participants manually indicated a point previously touched by the examiner, while the distance (error) was measured. Reliability was determined with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,3). The results revealed good and moderate inter- and intra-examiner reliability at point '1' (ICC2,3 = 0.68-0.84) and good reliability at point '2' (ICC2,3 = 0.84-0.86). At point '0', reliability was moderate to poor (ICC2,3 = 0.13-0.63). TPD was characterised by a poor to moderate level of inter- (ICC2,1 = 0.51; ICC2,3 = 0.56) and intra-examiner reliability (ICC(2,1) = 0.50; ICC2,3 = 0.74). Our findings suggest that PTP is more reliable than TPD at two investigated points at the L3 spinal level. However, further research on PTP validity data is strongly warranted. PMID:26797175

  8. The point-to-point test: A new diagnostic tool for measuring lumbar tactile acuity? Inter and intra-examiner reliability study of pain-free subjects.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Wacław; Sługocka, Anna; Saulicz, Oskar; Saulicz, Edward

    2016-04-01

    A two-point discrimination test (TPD) is commonly used to investigate lumbar tactile acuity. However, low inter-examiner reliability and difficulties in execution significantly limit its application. Therefore the aim of this study was to compare the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of a new approach, the point-to-point test (PTP), with the TPD. Twenty-one pain-free subjects attended the inter-examiner stage of the study. Eighteen of them were further recruited into an intra-examiner (reproducibility and repeatability) reliability study. PTP was performed on the three points plotted at the L3 spinal level. Point '0' overlapped with the L3 spinous process, from which points '1' and '2' were horizontally separated by 5 and 10 cm, respectively. Participants manually indicated a point previously touched by the examiner, while the distance (error) was measured. Reliability was determined with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,3). The results revealed good and moderate inter- and intra-examiner reliability at point '1' (ICC2,3 = 0.68-0.84) and good reliability at point '2' (ICC2,3 = 0.84-0.86). At point '0', reliability was moderate to poor (ICC2,3 = 0.13-0.63). TPD was characterised by a poor to moderate level of inter- (ICC2,1 = 0.51; ICC2,3 = 0.56) and intra-examiner reliability (ICC(2,1) = 0.50; ICC2,3 = 0.74). Our findings suggest that PTP is more reliable than TPD at two investigated points at the L3 spinal level. However, further research on PTP validity data is strongly warranted.

  9. Genetic testing and mental health: the model of Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Williams, J K; Schutte, D L

    2000-01-01

    Genetic aspects of mental health disorders are being identified through human genome and family research. Gene discovery makes diagnostic and presymptomatic testing possible. The discovery of a gene mutation for Huntington Disease (HD) enables at-risk persons to request presymptomatic genetic testing. When HD genetic testing is offered through HD testing centers, a multi-visit protocol is followed in which education and counseling are provided for persons considering the option to have HD gene testing. A case study illustrates the clinical and ethical issues regarding privacy and disclosure as well as the personal and family consequences of gene mutation knowledge. Analysis of the impact of genetic knowledge on persons being tested for HD provides a model for the integration of emerging genetic information into mental health nursing practice for other mental health disorders.

  10. Writing Chinese characters and success on Mental Rotation Test.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Nuttall, R L; Zhu, W

    1999-06-01

    Our recent study with Chinese and Chinese-American undergraduates indicated that writing Chinese characters was associated with better performance on the Piagetian Water-Level Task for Chinese-American men. The current study investigated whether the same effects would apply to the Vandenberg Mental Rotation Test. Two alternative hypotheses (bilingualism and birth place) were also tested. Participants were two groups of Chinese-American undergraduates: 48 writers of Chinese (21 men, 27 women) and 130 nonwriters of Chinese (58 men, 72 women). Analysis suggested that writing Chinese and birth in the USA contributed significantly to the success on Mental Rotation Test. Students who were born in the USA and able to write Chinese scored the highest on this test. Being bilingual was not associated with performance on the Mental Rotation Test. Men performed significantly better than women.

  11. Writing Chinese characters and success on Mental Rotation Test.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Nuttall, R L; Zhu, W

    1999-06-01

    Our recent study with Chinese and Chinese-American undergraduates indicated that writing Chinese characters was associated with better performance on the Piagetian Water-Level Task for Chinese-American men. The current study investigated whether the same effects would apply to the Vandenberg Mental Rotation Test. Two alternative hypotheses (bilingualism and birth place) were also tested. Participants were two groups of Chinese-American undergraduates: 48 writers of Chinese (21 men, 27 women) and 130 nonwriters of Chinese (58 men, 72 women). Analysis suggested that writing Chinese and birth in the USA contributed significantly to the success on Mental Rotation Test. Students who were born in the USA and able to write Chinese scored the highest on this test. Being bilingual was not associated with performance on the Mental Rotation Test. Men performed significantly better than women. PMID:10485110

  12. Photometric Compliance of Tablet Screens and Retro-Illuminated Acuity Charts As Visual Acuity Measurement Devices.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, I A T; Tarbert, C M; Giardini, M E; Bastawrous, A; Middleton, D; Hamilton, R

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technology is increasingly used to measure visual acuity. Standards for chart-based acuity tests specify photometric requirements for luminance, optotype contrast and luminance uniformity. Manufacturers provide some photometric data but little is known about tablet performance for visual acuity testing. This study photometrically characterised seven tablet computers (iPad, Apple inc.) and three ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study) visual acuity charts with room lights on and off, and compared findings with visual acuity measurement standards. Tablet screen luminance and contrast were measured using nine points across a black and white checkerboard test screen at five arbitrary brightness levels. ETDRS optotypes and adjacent white background luminance and contrast were measured. All seven tablets (room lights off) exceeded the most stringent requirement for mean luminance (≥ 120 cd/m2) providing the nominal brightness setting was above 50%. All exceeded contrast requirement (Weber ≥ 90%) regardless of brightness setting, and five were marginally below the required luminance uniformity threshold (Lmin/Lmax ≥ 80%). Re-assessing three tablets with room lights on made little difference to mean luminance or contrast, and improved luminance uniformity to exceed the threshold. The three EDTRS charts (room lights off) had adequate mean luminance (≥ 120 cd/m2) and Weber contrast (≥ 90%), but all three charts failed to meet the luminance uniformity standard (Lmin/Lmax ≥ 80%). Two charts were operating beyond manufacturer's recommended lamp replacement schedule. With room lights on, chart mean luminance and Weber contrast increased, but two charts still had inadequate luminance uniformity. Tablet computers showed less inter-device variability, higher contrast, and better luminance uniformity than charts in both lights-on and lights-off environments, providing brightness setting was >50%. Overall, iPad tablets matched or marginally out

  13. Photometric Compliance of Tablet Screens and Retro-Illuminated Acuity Charts As Visual Acuity Measurement Devices

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, I. A. T.; Tarbert, C. M.; Giardini, M. E.; Bastawrous, A.; Middleton, D.; Hamilton, R.

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technology is increasingly used to measure visual acuity. Standards for chart-based acuity tests specify photometric requirements for luminance, optotype contrast and luminance uniformity. Manufacturers provide some photometric data but little is known about tablet performance for visual acuity testing. This study photometrically characterised seven tablet computers (iPad, Apple inc.) and three ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study) visual acuity charts with room lights on and off, and compared findings with visual acuity measurement standards. Tablet screen luminance and contrast were measured using nine points across a black and white checkerboard test screen at five arbitrary brightness levels. ETDRS optotypes and adjacent white background luminance and contrast were measured. All seven tablets (room lights off) exceeded the most stringent requirement for mean luminance (≥ 120 cd/m2) providing the nominal brightness setting was above 50%. All exceeded contrast requirement (Weber ≥ 90%) regardless of brightness setting, and five were marginally below the required luminance uniformity threshold (Lmin/Lmax ≥ 80%). Re-assessing three tablets with room lights on made little difference to mean luminance or contrast, and improved luminance uniformity to exceed the threshold. The three EDTRS charts (room lights off) had adequate mean luminance (≥ 120 cd/m2) and Weber contrast (≥ 90%), but all three charts failed to meet the luminance uniformity standard (Lmin/Lmax ≥ 80%). Two charts were operating beyond manufacturer’s recommended lamp replacement schedule. With room lights on, chart mean luminance and Weber contrast increased, but two charts still had inadequate luminance uniformity. Tablet computers showed less inter-device variability, higher contrast, and better luminance uniformity than charts in both lights-on and lights-off environments, providing brightness setting was >50%. Overall, iPad tablets matched or marginally out

  14. Item Type and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) as a function of item and response types. Accordingly, 86 male and 109 female undergraduate students completed the MRT without time limits. Responses were coded as reflecting two correct (CC), one correct and one wrong (CW), two wrong (WW), one correct and one blank…

  15. A Simple Technique for Estimating Latent Trait Mental Test Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensema, Carl

    1976-01-01

    A simple and economical method for estimating initial parameter values for the normal ogive or logistic latent trait mental test model is outlined. The accuracy of the method in comparison with maximum likelihood estimation is investigated through the use of Monte-Carlo data. (Author)

  16. Confidence and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke-Simpson, Amanda; Voyer, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between self-reported confidence ratings, performance on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT), and guessing behavior on the MRT. Eighty undergraduate students (40 males, 40 females) completed the MRT while rating their confidence in the accuracy of their answers for each item. As expected, gender differences in…

  17. RETENTION OF HIGH TACTILE ACUITY THROUGHOUT THE LIFESPAN IN BLINDNESS

    PubMed Central

    Legge, Gordon E.; Madison, Cindee; Vaughn, Brenna N.; Cheong, Allen M.Y.; Miller, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of tactile acuity on the fingertip using passive touch have demonstrated an age-related decline in spatial resolution for both sighted and blind subjects. We have re-examined this age dependence with two newly designed tactile-acuity charts requiring active exploration of the test symbols. One chart used dot patterns similar to Braille and the other used embossed Landolt rings. Groups of blind Braille readers and sighted subjects, ranging in age from 12 to 85 years, were tested in two experiments. We replicated previous findings for sighted subjects by showing an age related decrease in tactile acuity by nearly 1% per year. Surprisingly, the blind subjects retained high acuity into old age showing no age-related decline. For the blind subjects, tactile acuity did not correlate with braille reading speed, the amount of daily reading, or the age at which braille was learned. We conclude that when measured with active touch, blind subjects retain high tactile acuity into old age, unlike their aging sighted peers. We propose that blind people's use of active touch in daily activities, not specifically Braille reading, results in preservation of tactile acuity across the lifespan. PMID:19064491

  18. Visual acuity in the short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, James C.; Nguyen, Hoang; Seelke, Adele M. H.; Krubitzer, Leah

    2013-01-01

    Monodelphis domestica (short-tailed opossum) is an emerging animal model for studies of neural development due to the extremely immature state of the nervous system at birth and its subsequent rapid growth to adulthood. Yet little is known about its normal sensory discrimination abilities. In the present investigation, visual acuity was determined in this species using the optokinetic test (OPT), which relies on involuntary head tracking of a moving stimulus and can be easily elicited using a rotating visual stimulus of varying spatial frequencies. Using this methodology, we determined that the acuity of Monodelphis is 0.58 cycles per degree (cpd), which is similar to the acuity of rats using the same methodology, and higher than in mice. However, acuity in the short-tailed opossum is lower than in other marsupials. This is in part due to the methodology used to determine acuity, but may also be due to differences in diel patterns, lifestyle and phylogeny. We demonstrate that for the short-tailed opossum, the OPT is a rapid and reliable method of determining a baseline acuity and can be used to study enhanced acuities due to cortical plasticity. PMID:22871523

  19. Mental and physical countermeasures reduce the accuracy of polygraph tests.

    PubMed

    Honts, C R; Raskin, D C; Kircher, J C

    1994-04-01

    Effects of countermeasures on the control-question polygraph test were examined in an experiment with 120 Ss recruited from the general community. Ss were given polygraph tests by an examiner who used field techniques. Twenty Ss were innocent, and of the 100 guilty Ss, 80 were trained in the use of either a physical countermeasure (biting the tongue or pressing the toes to the floor) or a mental countermeasure (counting backward by 7) to be applied while control questions were being presented during their examinations. The mental and physical countermeasures were equally effective: Each enabled approximately 50% of the Ss to defeat the polygraph test. The strongest countermeasure effects were observed in the cardiovascular measures. Moreover, the countermeasures were difficult to detect either instrumentally or through observation.

  20. Visual Acuity and the Eye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beynon, J.

    1985-01-01

    Shows that visual acuity is a function of the structure of the eye and that its limit is set by the structure of the retina, emphasizing the role of lens aberrations and difraction on image quality. Also compares human vision with that of other vertebrates and insects. (JN)

  1. Knowledge of mental illnesses: Two studies using a new test.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Gee, Marcus; Weis, Laura

    2016-10-30

    While the benefits of public knowledge of physical diseases are widely recognised, knowledge about mental disorders (mental health literacy, MHL) has received much less attention. This paper reports on two studies using the new Multiple-Choice Knowledge of Mental Illness Test (MC-KOMIT), a 33 item test of MHL (Compton et al., 2011). In Study 1, we examined cross-cultural associations between country of origin and their MHL in an online sample of 250 adults. In line with previous findings, we demonstrate that British and American participants outperform respondents from India. Furthermore, males showed significantly lower MHL, but - contrary to expectations - age did not have a significant impact. Study 2 was conducted to validate and extend findings of study 1 concerning the impact of demographics and individual difference factors on MHL. Results of the second study, using American participants are consistent with findings of study 1. In addition we show that while religious beliefs may reduce MHL, higher levels of education and self-confidence are associated with higher levels of MHL.

  2. Knowledge of mental illnesses: Two studies using a new test.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Gee, Marcus; Weis, Laura

    2016-10-30

    While the benefits of public knowledge of physical diseases are widely recognised, knowledge about mental disorders (mental health literacy, MHL) has received much less attention. This paper reports on two studies using the new Multiple-Choice Knowledge of Mental Illness Test (MC-KOMIT), a 33 item test of MHL (Compton et al., 2011). In Study 1, we examined cross-cultural associations between country of origin and their MHL in an online sample of 250 adults. In line with previous findings, we demonstrate that British and American participants outperform respondents from India. Furthermore, males showed significantly lower MHL, but - contrary to expectations - age did not have a significant impact. Study 2 was conducted to validate and extend findings of study 1 concerning the impact of demographics and individual difference factors on MHL. Results of the second study, using American participants are consistent with findings of study 1. In addition we show that while religious beliefs may reduce MHL, higher levels of education and self-confidence are associated with higher levels of MHL. PMID:27525825

  3. Association of Visual Acuity and Cognitive Impairment in Older Individuals: Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Mine, Masashi; Miyata, Kimie; Morikawa, Masayuki; Nishi, Tomo; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kawasaki, Ryo; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Kurumatani, Norio; Ogata, Nahoko

    2016-01-01

    Both visual impairment and cognitive impairment are essential factors that determine the quality of life in the aged population. The aim of this study was to determine if a correlation existed between visual acuity and cognitive impairment in an elderly Japanese population. The Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study was a cross-sectional study of individuals aged ≥68 years who lived in Nara Prefecture of Japan. Participants underwent ophthalmological examinations and cognitive function test. A mild visual impairment was defined as having a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >0.2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units in the better eye. Cognitive impairment was defined as having a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of ≤23 points. A total to 2818 individuals completed the examinations. The mean age of the participants was 76.3 ± 4.8 years (mean ± standard deviation). The mean BCVA of the better eye was -0.02 ± 0.13 logMAR units and 6.6% subjects were classified as being mildly visually impaired. The mean MMSE score was 27.3 ± 2.3 and 5.7% subjects were classified as being cognitively impaired. The proportion of subjects with cognitive or moderate visual impairment increased with age, and there was a significant correlation between the visual acuity and MMSE score (r = -0.10, p < 0.0001). Subjects with mild visual impairments had 2.4 times higher odds of having cognitive impairment than those without visual impairment (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval, 1.5-3.8, p < 0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, and length of education. We conclude that it may be important to maintain good visual acuity to reduce the risk of having cognitive impairment.

  4. Association of Visual Acuity and Cognitive Impairment in Older Individuals: Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Mine, Masashi; Miyata, Kimie; Morikawa, Masayuki; Nishi, Tomo; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kawasaki, Ryo; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Kurumatani, Norio; Ogata, Nahoko

    2016-01-01

    Both visual impairment and cognitive impairment are essential factors that determine the quality of life in the aged population. The aim of this study was to determine if a correlation existed between visual acuity and cognitive impairment in an elderly Japanese population. The Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study was a cross-sectional study of individuals aged ≥68 years who lived in Nara Prefecture of Japan. Participants underwent ophthalmological examinations and cognitive function test. A mild visual impairment was defined as having a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >0.2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units in the better eye. Cognitive impairment was defined as having a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of ≤23 points. A total to 2818 individuals completed the examinations. The mean age of the participants was 76.3 ± 4.8 years (mean ± standard deviation). The mean BCVA of the better eye was -0.02 ± 0.13 logMAR units and 6.6% subjects were classified as being mildly visually impaired. The mean MMSE score was 27.3 ± 2.3 and 5.7% subjects were classified as being cognitively impaired. The proportion of subjects with cognitive or moderate visual impairment increased with age, and there was a significant correlation between the visual acuity and MMSE score (r = -0.10, p < 0.0001). Subjects with mild visual impairments had 2.4 times higher odds of having cognitive impairment than those without visual impairment (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval, 1.5-3.8, p < 0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, and length of education. We conclude that it may be important to maintain good visual acuity to reduce the risk of having cognitive impairment. PMID:27610269

  5. Association of Visual Acuity and Cognitive Impairment in Older Individuals: Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Mine, Masashi; Miyata, Kimie; Morikawa, Masayuki; Nishi, Tomo; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kawasaki, Ryo; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Kurumatani, Norio; Ogata, Nahoko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Both visual impairment and cognitive impairment are essential factors that determine the quality of life in the aged population. The aim of this study was to determine if a correlation existed between visual acuity and cognitive impairment in an elderly Japanese population. The Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study was a cross-sectional study of individuals aged ≥68 years who lived in Nara Prefecture of Japan. Participants underwent ophthalmological examinations and cognitive function test. A mild visual impairment was defined as having a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >0.2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units in the better eye. Cognitive impairment was defined as having a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of ≤23 points. A total to 2818 individuals completed the examinations. The mean age of the participants was 76.3 ± 4.8 years (mean ± standard deviation). The mean BCVA of the better eye was −0.02 ± 0.13 logMAR units and 6.6% subjects were classified as being mildly visually impaired. The mean MMSE score was 27.3 ± 2.3 and 5.7% subjects were classified as being cognitively impaired. The proportion of subjects with cognitive or moderate visual impairment increased with age, and there was a significant correlation between the visual acuity and MMSE score (r = −0.10, p < 0.0001). Subjects with mild visual impairments had 2.4 times higher odds of having cognitive impairment than those without visual impairment (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval, 1.5–3.8, p < 0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, and length of education. We conclude that it may be important to maintain good visual acuity to reduce the risk of having cognitive impairment. PMID:27610269

  6. Association of Visual Acuity and Cognitive Impairment in Older Individuals: Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Mine, Masashi; Miyata, Kimie; Morikawa, Masayuki; Nishi, Tomo; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kawasaki, Ryo; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Kurumatani, Norio; Ogata, Nahoko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Both visual impairment and cognitive impairment are essential factors that determine the quality of life in the aged population. The aim of this study was to determine if a correlation existed between visual acuity and cognitive impairment in an elderly Japanese population. The Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study was a cross-sectional study of individuals aged ≥68 years who lived in Nara Prefecture of Japan. Participants underwent ophthalmological examinations and cognitive function test. A mild visual impairment was defined as having a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >0.2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units in the better eye. Cognitive impairment was defined as having a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of ≤23 points. A total to 2818 individuals completed the examinations. The mean age of the participants was 76.3 ± 4.8 years (mean ± standard deviation). The mean BCVA of the better eye was −0.02 ± 0.13 logMAR units and 6.6% subjects were classified as being mildly visually impaired. The mean MMSE score was 27.3 ± 2.3 and 5.7% subjects were classified as being cognitively impaired. The proportion of subjects with cognitive or moderate visual impairment increased with age, and there was a significant correlation between the visual acuity and MMSE score (r = −0.10, p < 0.0001). Subjects with mild visual impairments had 2.4 times higher odds of having cognitive impairment than those without visual impairment (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval, 1.5–3.8, p < 0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, and length of education. We conclude that it may be important to maintain good visual acuity to reduce the risk of having cognitive impairment.

  7. Color improves “visual” acuity via sound

    PubMed Central

    Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Riemer, Dar; Amedi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Visual-to-auditory sensory substitution devices (SSDs) convey visual information via sound, with the primary goal of making visual information accessible to blind and visually impaired individuals. We developed the EyeMusic SSD, which transforms shape, location, and color information into musical notes. We tested the “visual” acuity of 23 individuals (13 blind and 10 blindfolded sighted) on the Snellen tumbling-E test, with the EyeMusic. Participants were asked to determine the orientation of the letter “E.” The test was repeated twice: in one test, the letter “E” was drawn with a single color (white), and in the other test, with two colors (red and white). In the latter case, the vertical line in the letter, when upright, was drawn in red, with the three horizontal lines drawn in white. We found no significant differences in performance between the blind and the sighted groups. We found a significant effect of the added color on the “visual” acuity. The highest acuity participants reached in the monochromatic test was 20/800, whereas with the added color, acuity doubled to 20/400. We conclude that color improves “visual” acuity via sound. PMID:25426015

  8. [Comparison of the threshold interpolation and whole-line method on logMAR chart and Snellen chart for visual acuity testing].

    PubMed

    Veselý, P; Ventruba, J

    2009-10-01

    The main goal of our study was to prove the statistical significant difference between the threshold interpolation logMAR method on ETDRS chart and the whole-line method on Snellen chart with Sloan letters. We had 108 measurements with the threshold interpolation method and the whole-line method on ETDRS chart and the whole-line method on Snellen chart. The average value measured with the threshold method in ETDRS was 1,132 (min. 0,660, max. 1,580), with the whole-line method on ETDRS it was 1,134 (min. 0,630, max. 1,580) and with the whole-line method on Snellen chart it was 1,183 (min. 0,630, max. 1,600). We have proved statistical significant difference between the threshold interpolation method made on ETDRS chart and the whole-line method made on Snellen chart (p < 0.001). The values measured with the whole-line method on Snellen chart were overvalued. The exact and reliable measuring of visual acuity is an important component of further examinations (e.g. contrast sensitivity, perimetry, tonometry), which enable us to make a correct diagnosis of pathological changes on human eye structures.

  9. Reducing Short-Wavelength Blue Light in Dry Eye Patients with Unstable Tear Film Improves Performance on Tests of Visual Acuity

    PubMed Central

    Kaido, Minako

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether suppression of blue light can improve visual function in patients with short tear break up time (BUT) dry eye (DE). Methods Twenty-two patients with short BUT DE (10 men, 12 women; mean age, 32.4 ± 6.4 years; age range, 23–43 years) and 18 healthy controls (10 men, 8 women; mean age, 30.1 ± 7.4 years; age range, 20–49 years) underwent functional visual acuity (VA) examinations with and without wearing eyeglasses with 50% blue light blocked lenses. The functional VA parameters were starting VA, functional VA, and visual maintenance ratio. Results The baseline mean values (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, logMAR) of functional VA and the visual maintenance ratio were significantly worse in the DE patients than in the controls (P < 0.05), while no significant difference was observed in the baseline starting VA (P > 0.05). The DE patients had significant improvement in mean functional VA and visual maintenance ratio while wearing the glasses (P < 0.05), while there were no significant changes with and without the glasses in the control group (P > 0.05), Conclusions Protecting the eyes from short-wavelength blue light may help to ameliorate visual impairment associated with tear instability in patients with DE. This finding represents a new concept, which is that the blue light exposure might be harmful to visual function in patients with short BUT DE. PMID:27045760

  10. Commercialisation of Biomarker Tests for Mental Illnesses: Advances and Obstacles.

    PubMed

    Chan, Man K; Cooper, Jason D; Bahn, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    Substantial strides have been made in the field of biomarker research for mental illnesses over the past few decades. However, no US FDA-cleared blood-based biomarker tests have been translated into routine clinical practice. Here, we review the challenges associated with commercialisation of research findings and discuss how these challenges can impede scientific impact and progress. Overall evidence indicates that a lack of research funding and poor reproducibility of findings were the most important obstacles to commercialization of biomarker tests. Fraud, pre-analytical and analytical limitations, and inappropriate statistical analysis are major contributors to poor reproducibility. Increasingly, these issues are acknowledged and actions are being taken to improve data validity, raising the hope that robust biomarker tests will become available in the foreseeable future. PMID:26549771

  11. A test for mental capacity to request assisted suicide.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Cameron; Peisah, Carmelle; Draper, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The mental competence of people requesting aid-in-dying is a key issue for the how the law responds to cases of assisted suicide. A number of cases from around the common law world have highlighted the importance of competence in determining whether assistants should be prosecuted, and what they will be prosecuted for. Nevertheless, the law remains uncertain about how competence should be tested in these cases. This article proposes a test of competence that is based on the existing common law but which is tailored to cases of assisted suicide. The test will help doctors, other health professionals and lawyers determine whether the suicidal person was able to competently request assistance. Such knowledge will help to reduce some of the current uncertainty about criminal liability in cases of assisted suicide.

  12. Whole-Body Mapping of Spatial Acuity for Pain and Touch

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Flavia; Bauleo, Armando; Cole, Jonathan; Lui, Fausta; Porro, Carlo A; Haggard, Patrick; Iannetti, Gian Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tactile spatial acuity is routinely tested in neurology to assess the state of the dorsal column system. In contrast, spatial acuity for pain is not assessed, having never been systematically characterized. More than a century after the initial description of tactile acuity across the body, we provide the first systematic whole-body mapping of spatial acuity for pain. Methods We evaluated the 2-point discrimination thresholds for both nociceptive-selective and tactile stimuli across several skin regions. Thresholds were estimated using pairs of simultaneous stimuli, and also using successive stimuli. Results and interpretation These two approaches produced convergent results. The fingertip was the area of highest spatial acuity, for both pain and touch. On the glabrous skin of the hand, the gradient of spatial acuity for pain followed that observed for touch. On the hairy skin of the upper limb, spatial acuity for pain and touch followed opposite proximal–distal gradients, consistent with the known innervation density of this body territory. Finally, by testing spatial acuity for pain in a rare participant completely lacking Aβ fibers, we demonstrate that spatial acuity for pain does not rely on a functioning system of tactile primary afferents. This study represents the first systematic characterization of spatial acuity for pain across multiple regions of the body surface. Ann Neurol 2014;75:917–924 PMID:24816757

  13. Visual Handicaps of Mentally Handicapped People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, David

    1979-01-01

    Recent literature concerning visual handicaps of mentally handicapped people is reviewed. Topic areas considered are etiology and epidemiology, visual acuity, color vision, and educational techniques. (Author)

  14. Mental Rotation Performance in Primary School Age Children: Are There Gender Differences in Chronometric Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, P.; Schmelter, A.; Quaiser-Pohl, C.; Neuburger, S.; Heil, M.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the well documented male advantage in psychometric mental rotation tests, gender differences in chronometric experimental designs are still under dispute. Therefore, a systematic investigation of gender differences in mental rotation performance in primary-school children is presented in this paper. A chronometric mental rotation…

  15. Experimenter Effects on Cardiovascular Reactivity and Task Performance during Mental Stress Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegwarth, Nicole; Larkin, Kevin T.; Kemmner, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Experimenter effects have long been hypothesized to influence participants' responses to mental stress testing. To explore the influence of experimenter warmth on responses to two mental stress tasks (mental arithmetic, mirror tracing), 32 young women participated in a single 45-min experimental session. Participants were randomized into warm…

  16. Diagnostic test for prenatal identification of Down's syndrome and mental retardation and gene therapy therefor

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Desmond J.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2000-01-01

    A a diagnostic test useful for prenatal identification of Down syndrome and mental retardation. A method for gene therapy for correction and treatment of Down syndrome. DYRK gene involved in the ability to learn. A method for diagnosing Down's syndrome and mental retardation and an assay therefor. A pharmaceutical composition for treatment of Down's syndrome mental retardation.

  17. Infant visual acuity as a function of viewing distance.

    PubMed

    Salapatek, P; Bechtold, A G; Bushnell, E W

    1976-09-01

    Dynamic retinoscopy has suggested that near vision may be more acute than far vision during early infancy. To test this, acuity thresholds were determined by presenting square wave gratings in a preference paradigm to 1- and 2-month-old human infants at 4 viewing distances. Gratings were paired with unpatterned fields; direction of first fixation was the dependent measure. Infants exhibited the same acuity at each of the distances at which gratings were presented. The results were interpreted as compatible with the fact that considerable optical defocusing does not seriously affect a visual system, such as the infant's, that is sensitive only to low spatial frequencies.

  18. Functional Visual Acuity of Early Presbyopia

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Shigeno, Yuta; Saiki, Megumi; Torii, Hidemasa; Kaido, Minako; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate visual function in patients with early presbyopia using the functional visual acuity (FVA) test. Methods This study included 27 eyes of 27 healthy older volunteers (mean age, 44.1 ± 2.6 years) and 14 eyes of 14 healthy young volunteers (mean age, 28.4±4.8 years). The distance-corrected visual acuity (DCVA), distance-corrected near VA (DCNVA), subjective amplitude of accommodation (AA), and distance and near pupillary diameters were measured. The distance FVA and distance-corrected near FVA (DCNFVA) were measured using the FVA Measurement System. The standard Schirmer test and standard tear break-up time measurement also were performed. Results The logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) DCVA was better than 0 in all subjects. The percentages of subjects with logMAR DCNVA below 0 was significantly lower in the presbyopia group than in the young group. The DCNFVA in the presbyopia group was significantly (P < 0.001) poorer than the DCNVA in that group. Significant linear negative correlations were seen between the DCNVA and AA (r = -0.507, P < 0.001) and the DCNFVA and AA (r = -0.681, P < 0.001) in the older subjects. Stepwise regression analysis showed that only the AA was a significant factor predictive of the DCNFVA in the presbyopia group. Tear function parameters were not adopted in the regression model. Conclusions Measurement of the DCNFVA can detect decreased AA in early presbyopia better than measurement of the conventional near VA. The DCNFVA is a good index for early presbyopia. PMID:26959362

  19. [Incidence of intra-individual lateral differences in interference fringe acuity and entoptic functions and their prognostic value with reference to lateral differences in optotypic acuity].

    PubMed

    Mörsch, C; Höh, H R

    1996-08-01

    No adequate research results are available on the frequency and medical significance of intraindividual side differences in the entoptic functions and interference fringe acuity. We have collected data on these topics from examinations of 312 people with no eye defects; the subjects in this group were aged between 6 and 85 years and were divided into ten age-groups of approximately the same size. We were trying to find out to what extent a real side difference in the distant or near visual acuity can be deduced from an intraindividual side difference in the entoptic function test and/or laser interferometry as in healthy people. To allow grading of macular chagrin patches for the first time we defined the "microsymptoms of macular chagrin" patches. Moreover, we described the changes in interference fringe acuity and in entoptic function with advancing age. By using already established research approaches, we have evaluated the following parameters of examination: distant visual acuity with optotypes, near visual acuity (Nieden), entoptic functions (vessel figure of Purkinje and macular chagrin patches), laser interferometry (Retinometer) and ophthalmological findings. We found that of macular chagrin varied in appearance with the age of the patient. Patients with no eye defects seldom have an intraindividual side difference in the distant or near visual acuity, and any present is only marginal. This is why there seems to be too narrow a correlation with the results of the laser interferometry and of the entoptic function test. The negative predictive value is between 89% and 95%. This means that patients who have no side difference in interference fringe acuity or in the entoptic function test also have no intraindividual side difference in distant visual acuity with optotypes or near visual acuity (Nieden). This is the medical significance of our results in respect to more marked side differences such as are found in patients with eye defects. The predictive

  20. Training and testing ERP-BCIs under different mental workload conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Yufeng; Wang, Peiyuan; Chen, Yuqian; Gu, Bin; Qi, Hongzhi; Zhou, Peng; Ming, Dong

    2016-02-01

    Objective. As one of the most popular and extensively studied paradigms of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), event-related potential-based BCIs (ERP-BCIs) are usually built and tested in ideal laboratory settings in most existing studies, with subjects concentrating on stimuli and intentionally avoiding possible distractors. This study is aimed at examining the effect of simultaneous mental activities on ERP-BCIs by manipulating various levels of mental workload during the training and/or testing of an ERP-BCI. Approach. Mental workload was manipulated during the training or testing of a row-column P300-speller to investigate how and to what extent the spelling performance and the ERPs evoked by the oddball stimuli are affected by simultaneous mental workload. Main results. Responses of certain ERP components, temporal-occipital N200 and the late reorienting negativity evoked by the oddball stimuli and the classifiability of ERP features between targets and non-targets decreased with the increase of mental workload encountered by the subject. However, the effect of mental workload on the performance of ERP-BCI was not always negative but depended on the conditions where the ERP-BCI was built and applied. The performance of ERP-BCI built under an ideal lab setting without any irrelevant mental activities declined with the increasing mental workload of the testing data. However, the performance was significantly improved when an ERP-BCI was built under an appropriate mental workload level, compared to that built under speller-only conditions. Significance. The adverse effect of concurrent mental activities may present a challenge for ERP-BCIs trained in ideal lab settings but which are to be used in daily work, especially when users are performing demanding mental processing. On the other hand, the positive effects of the mental workload of the training data suggest that introducing appropriate mental workload during training ERP-BCIs is of potential benefit to the

  1. Reliability of acuities determined with the sweep visual evoked potential (sVEP).

    PubMed

    Ridder, William H; Tong, Anna; Floresca, Theresa

    2012-04-01

    sVEPs are generally used to rapidly obtain visual acuity. Several studies have determined the reliability of acuity measurements with psychophysical techniques. The aim of this study was to determine the intersession and intrasession variabilities of sVEP measurements. Twenty-four normal, adult subjects took part in this project. Stimulus production and data analyses were done using an Enfant 4010. Standard VEP recording techniques were employed. Data were collected on two separate days (at least 1 week apart). At each visit, two complete sets of sVEP data were collected and averaged. A logMAR acuity chart was also used to determine the acuity at each visit. Paired t tests, 95% confidence intervals, intraclass correlation coefficients, and coefficients of repeatability were used to determine whether there was a difference in the intrasession and intersession acuities. The mean acuity difference and coefficient of repeatability were +0.01 and 0.191 for visit 1 and -0.019 and 0.186 for visit 2, respectively. The mean acuity difference and coefficient of repeatability across visits were +0.008 and 0.176 for the first acuity and-0.02 and 0.170 for the second acuity, respectively. Paired t tests did not find a significant difference between any set of data or the average for visits one and two (all P values > 0.05). The intraclass correlation coefficients comparing the average sVEP data and the logMAR data for visits 1 and 2 were 0.71 and 0.88, respectively. The coefficients of repeatability for the averaged sVEP acuity and the logMAR acuity for the two visits were 0.11 and 0.07, respectively. The repeatability of the sVEP acuity estimate in a large population of adults is similar to that of previous published reports on infants and is nearly as high as that of logMAR acuity chart data. The repeatability is the same for single best estimates of acuity and averaged estimates of acuity across visits. PMID:22262233

  2. Wrist proprioceptive acuity: A comprehensive robot-aided assessment.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Leonardo; Contu, Sara; Konczak, Juergen; Masia, Lorenzo

    2015-08-01

    Proprioception is the sense of the body awareness. Proprioceptive deficits represent frequent consequences of several neurological conditions like stroke, Parkinson's disease and others. The assessment of such somatosensory function is crucial, although the available clinical tests are not sensitive enough. The human wrist is a crucial joint for many activities of daily living and to address the lack of its characterization in terms of proprioceptive acuity the authors in previous studies proposed a novel method that combined the use of a 3-DoF robot and a threshold haunting paradigm. Further experiments were performed to characterize the proprioceptive acuity of the dominant wrist for adduction, extension, pronation and supination by using a 2-alternative-forced-choice test. The acuity thresholds obtained from six subjects (mean values ± standard deviation of 1.65±0.39 for extension, 1.13±0.34 for adduction, 1.90±0.58 for pronation and 1.70±0.30 for supination) were finally combined with the ones harvested in the previous studies for flexion and abduction in order to build the first comprehensive database of human wrist proprioceptive acuity.

  3. Degraded Time-Frequency Acuity to Time-Reversed Notes

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheim, Jacob N.; Isakov, Pavel; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

    2013-01-01

    Time-reversal symmetry breaking is a key feature of many classes of natural sounds, originating in the physics of sound production. While attention has been paid to the response of the auditory system to “natural stimuli,” very few psychophysical tests have been performed. We conduct psychophysical measurements of time-frequency acuity for stylized representations of “natural”-like notes (sharp attack, long decay) and the time-reversed versions of these notes (long attack, sharp decay). Our results demonstrate significantly greater precision, arising from enhanced temporal acuity, for such sounds over their time-reversed versions, without a corresponding decrease in frequency acuity. These data inveigh against models of auditory processing that include tradeoffs between temporal and frequency acuity, at least in the range of notes tested and suggest the existence of statistical priors for notes with a sharp-attack and a long-decay. We are additionally able to calculate a minimal theoretical bound on the sophistication of the nonlinearities in auditory processing. We find that among the best studied classes of nonlinear time-frequency representations, only matching pursuit, spectral derivatives, and reassigned spectrograms are able to satisfy this criterion. PMID:23799012

  4. Use of the Dexamethasone Suppression Test with Mentally Retarded Persons: Review and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolkowitz, Owen M.

    1990-01-01

    Studies on the use of the Dexamethasone Suppression Test to detect depression are described, with special emphasis on use of the test with children, demented elderly persons, and mentally retarded persons. (Author/JDD)

  5. Dynamic Visual Acuity: a Functionally Relevant Research Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Wood, Scott J.; Cohen, Helen S.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    Coordinated movements between the eyes and head are required to maintain a stable retinal image during head and body motion. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) plays a significant role in this gaze control system that functions well for most daily activities. However, certain environmental conditions or interruptions in normal VOR function can lead to inadequate ocular compensation, resulting in oscillopsia, or blurred vision. It is therefore possible to use acuity to determine when the environmental conditions, VOR function, or the combination of the two is not conductive for maintaining clear vision. Over several years we have designed and tested several tests of dynamic visual acuity (DVA). Early tests used the difference between standing and walking acuity to assess decrements in the gaze stabilization system after spaceflight. Supporting ground-based studies measured the responses from patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction and explored the effects of visual target viewing distance and gait cycle events on walking acuity. Results from these studies show that DVA is affected by spaceflight, is degraded in patients with vestibular dysfunction, changes with target distance, and is not consistent across the gait cycle. We have recently expanded our research to include studies in which seated subjects are translated or rotated passively. Preliminary results from this work indicate that gaze stabilization ability may differ between similar active and passive conditions, may change with age, and can be affected by the location of the visual target with respect to the axis of motion. Use of DVA as a diagnostic tool is becoming more popular but the functional nature of the acuity outcome measure also makes it ideal for identifying conditions that could lead to degraded vision. By doing so, steps can be taken to alter the problematic environments to improve the man-machine interface and optimize performance.

  6. Factors affecting tactile spatial acuity.

    PubMed

    Craig, J C; Kisner, J M

    1998-01-01

    Tactile spatial acuity on the fingerpad was measured using a grating orientation task. In this task, subjects are required to identify the orientation of square-wave gratings placed on the skin. Previous studies have shown that performance varies as a function of the width of the grooves in the gratings. In the present study, both groove width and the overall size and configuration of the contactors were varied. Sensitivity improved with wider grooves and with larger contactors. Additional measurements showed that the improved sensitivity is not the result of the increase in total area contacted, but rather is due to two other factors associated with larger contactors. One is the greater linear extent of the larger contactors. The other appears to be due to the reduction in the interference produced by the outer edge of the contactor. Specifically, as the contactor increases in size, the distance between the outer edge and the center portion of the grooves also increases. It was also shown that subjects are more sensitive to a single, continuous groove as compared with two grooves of the same total length but spatially discontinuous. Similarly, subjects are more sensitive to a contactor with a continuous groove than to a contactor in which just the end points of the groove are presented. The results are generally consistent with the results of peripheral, neurophysiological recordings. The results are discussed in terms of the way in which both spatial and intensive factors may affect sensitivity to grating orientation.

  7. Comparison of Snellen and interferometer visual acuity in an aging noncataractous population.

    PubMed

    Geddes, L A; Patel, B J; Bradley, A

    1990-05-01

    Using standard clinical procedures we have compared visual acuity (VA) estimates made with a hand-held white light interferometer to those obtained with a Snellen acuity chart. Fifty noncataractous patients with a mean age of 45 years (SD = 18) were tested. Snellen and interferometric acuity measures were obtained with and without refractive correction. On average, aided Snellen VA's were better (decimal acuity = 0.98) than the unaided interferometric VA's (decimal acuity = 0.67). Although we found a statistically significant p less than 0.01) correlation between unaided interferometric and aided Snellen VA's, the correlation was poor (r = 0.36). This poor correlation may account for the often observed failure to estimate postoperative aided Snellen VA with preoperative interferometric VA in cataract patients.

  8. Night vision in barn owls: visual acuity and contrast sensitivity under dark adaptation.

    PubMed

    Orlowski, Julius; Harmening, Wolf; Wagner, Hermann

    2012-12-06

    Barn owls are effective nocturnal predators. We tested their visual performance at low light levels and determined visual acuity and contrast sensitivity of three barn owls by their behavior at stimulus luminances ranging from photopic to fully scotopic levels (23.5 to 1.5 × 10⁻⁶). Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity decreased only slightly from photopic to scotopic conditions. Peak grating acuity was at mesopic (4 × 10⁻² cd/m²) conditions. Barn owls retained a quarter of their maximal acuity when luminance decreased by 5.5 log units. We argue that the visual system of barn owls is designed to yield as much visual acuity under low light conditions as possible, thereby sacrificing resolution at photopic conditions.

  9. Tactile Spatial Acuity in Childhood: Effects of Age and Fingertip Size

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Ryan M.; Goldreich, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Tactile acuity is known to decline with age in adults, possibly as the result of receptor loss, but less is understood about how tactile acuity changes during childhood. Previous research from our laboratory has shown that fingertip size influences tactile spatial acuity in young adults: those with larger fingers tend to have poorer acuity, possibly because mechanoreceptors are more sparsely distributed in larger fingers. We hypothesized that a similar relationship would hold among children. If so, children’s tactile spatial acuity might be expected to worsen as their fingertips grow. However, concomitant CNS maturation might result in more efficient perceptual processing, counteracting the effect of fingertip growth on tactile acuity. To investigate, we conducted a cross-sectional study, testing 116 participants ranging in age from 6 to 16 years on a precision-controlled tactile grating orientation task. We measured each participant's grating orientation threshold on the dominant index finger, along with physical properties of the fingertip: surface area, volume, sweat pore spacing, and temperature. We found that, as in adults, children with larger fingertips (at a given age) had significantly poorer acuity, yet paradoxically acuity did not worsen significantly with age. We propose that finger growth during development results in a gradual decline in innervation density as receptive fields reposition to cover an expanding skin surface. At the same time, central maturation presumably enhances perceptual processing. PMID:24454612

  10. The Stroop Color-Word Test: Genetic and Environmental Influences; Reading, Mental Ability, and Personality Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.; Segal, Nancy L.; Keyes, Margaret; Samuels, Jay

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates prior findings of reading, mental ability, and personality correlates of Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT) scores. In spite of significant correlations between the SCWT scores and selected measures of mental ability, genetic influence on SCWT scores was relatively unaffected when the influences of correlated ability measures were removed.…

  11. Using Epidemiologic Methods to Test Hypotheses regarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiology uses strong sampling methods and study designs to test refutable hypotheses regarding the causes of important health, mental health, and social outcomes. Epidemiologic methods are increasingly being used to move developmental psychopathology from studies that catalogue correlates of child and adolescent mental health to designs that…

  12. Directional acuity of whole-body perturbations during standing balance.

    PubMed

    Puntkattalee, M Jane; Whitmire, Clarissa J; Macklin, Alix S; Stanley, Garrett B; Ting, Lena H

    2016-07-01

    The ability to perceive the direction of whole-body motion during standing may be critical to maintaining balance and preventing a fall. Our first goal was to quantify kinesthetic perception of whole-body motion by estimating directional acuity thresholds of support-surface perturbations during standing. The directional acuity threshold to lateral deviations in backward support-surface motion in healthy, young adults was quantified as 9.5±2.4° using the psychometric method (n=25 subjects). However, inherent limitations in the psychometric method, such as a large number of required trials and the predetermined stimulus set, may preclude wider use of this method in clinical populations. Our second goal was to validate an adaptive algorithm known as parameter estimation by sequential testing (PEST) as an alternative threshold estimation technique to minimize the required trial count without predetermined knowledge of the relevant stimulus space. The directional acuity threshold was estimated at 11.7±3.8° from the PEST method (n=11 of 25 subjects, psychometric threshold=10.1±3.1°) using only one-third the number of trials compared to the psychometric method. Furthermore, PEST estimates of the direction acuity threshold were highly correlated with the psychometric estimates across subjects (r=0.93) suggesting that both methods provide comparable estimates of the perceptual threshold. Computational modeling of both techniques revealed similar variance in the estimated thresholds across simulations of about 1°. Our results suggest that the PEST algorithm can be used to more quickly quantify whole-body directional acuity during standing in individuals with balance impairments. PMID:27477713

  13. A double dissociation of the acuity and crowding limits to letter identification, and the promise of improved visual screening

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shuang; Levi, Dennis M.; Pelli, Denis G.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we systematically explore the size and spacing requirements for identifying a letter among other letters. We measure acuity for flanked and unflanked letters, centrally and peripherally, in normals and amblyopes. We find that acuity, overlap masking, and crowding each demand a minimum size or spacing for readable text. Just measuring flanked and unflanked acuity is enough for our proposed model to predict the observer's threshold size and spacing for letters at any eccentricity. We also find that amblyopia in adults retains the character of the childhood condition that caused it. Amblyopia is a developmental neural deficit that can occur as a result of either strabismus or anisometropia in childhood. Peripheral viewing during childhood due to strabismus results in amblyopia that is crowding limited, like peripheral vision. Optical blur of one eye during childhood due to anisometropia without strabismus results in amblyopia that is acuity limited, like blurred vision. Furthermore, we find that the spacing:acuity ratio of flanked and unflanked acuity can distinguish strabismic amblyopia from purely anisometropic amblyopia in nearly perfect agreement with lack of stereopsis. A scatter diagram of threshold spacing versus acuity, one point per patient, for several diagnostic groups, reveals the diagnostic power of flanked acuity testing. These results and two demonstrations indicate that the sensitivity of visual screening tests can be improved by using flankers that are more tightly spaced and letter like. Finally, in concert with Strappini, Pelli, Di Pace, and Martelli (submitted), we jointly report a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Two clinical conditions—anisometropic amblyopia and apperceptive agnosia—each selectively impair either acuity A or the spacing:acuity ratio S/A, not both. Furthermore, when we specifically estimate crowding, we find a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Models of human object recognition will need

  14. A double dissociation of the acuity and crowding limits to letter identification, and the promise of improved visual screening.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuang; Levi, Dennis M; Pelli, Denis G

    2014-05-05

    Here, we systematically explore the size and spacing requirements for identifying a letter among other letters. We measure acuity for flanked and unflanked letters, centrally and peripherally, in normals and amblyopes. We find that acuity, overlap masking, and crowding each demand a minimum size or spacing for readable text. Just measuring flanked and unflanked acuity is enough for our proposed model to predict the observer's threshold size and spacing for letters at any eccentricity. We also find that amblyopia in adults retains the character of the childhood condition that caused it. Amblyopia is a developmental neural deficit that can occur as a result of either strabismus or anisometropia in childhood. Peripheral viewing during childhood due to strabismus results in amblyopia that is crowding limited, like peripheral vision. Optical blur of one eye during childhood due to anisometropia without strabismus results in amblyopia that is acuity limited, like blurred vision. Furthermore, we find that the spacing:acuity ratio of flanked and unflanked acuity can distinguish strabismic amblyopia from purely anisometropic amblyopia in nearly perfect agreement with lack of stereopsis. A scatter diagram of threshold spacing versus acuity, one point per patient, for several diagnostic groups, reveals the diagnostic power of flanked acuity testing. These results and two demonstrations indicate that the sensitivity of visual screening tests can be improved by using flankers that are more tightly spaced and letter like. Finally, in concert with Strappini, Pelli, Di Pace, and Martelli (submitted), we jointly report a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Two clinical conditions-anisometropic amblyopia and apperceptive agnosia-each selectively impair either acuity A or the spacing:acuity ratio S/A, not both. Furthermore, when we specifically estimate crowding, we find a double dissociation between acuity and crowding. Models of human object recognition will need to

  15. Development of Pocket Vision Screener and its effectiveness at screening visual acuity deficits

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Monica; Ramamurthy, Dharani; Srinivasan, Krithica; Varadharajan, L. Srinivasa

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to construct a visual acuity chart and find its effectiveness at screening visual acuity deficits. Materials and Methods: Two phases were involved in this study. Construction of the screener: Ten Sloan letters (C, D, H, K, N, O, R, S, V, and Z) were selected and the letters were constructed and reduced to 0.2 logMAR acuity size (6.92 mm) for viewing at 3 m. The screener contains three lines with seven letters in each. Few combinations of the seven letter sequences were chosen based on the row legibility scores. Three seven letter combinations close to the median of all combinations were selected, such that maximum difficulty score difference between the lines are <1%. Finding the effectiveness of the screener: 100 literate subjects with unaided visual acuity better than or equal to 6/60 were recruited for the study. Unaided visual acuity was tested using both the newly constructed Pocket Vision Screener and a logMAR visual acuity chart and the time taken to measure the visual acuity using both the charts was noted. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 43 ± 17 years. Subjects were classified as normal or deficient based on the logMAR visual acuity measurement. The screener was found to have 81% sensitivity, 94% specificity. The positive and negative predictive values were found to be 91% and 87%, respectively. A significant difference (P < 0.001) was found in the time taken to record visual acuity using both the charts. Conclusion: The Pocket Vision Screener can be used as a quick and accurate tool to screen subjects for visual acuity deficits, being highly sensitive, specific, and cost-effective. PMID:25579360

  16. Acuity, crowding, reading and fixation stability.

    PubMed

    Falkenberg, Helle K; Rubin, Gary S; Bex, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    People with age-related macular disease frequently experience reading difficulty that could be attributed to poor acuity, elevated crowding or unstable fixation associated with peripheral visual field dependence. We examine how the size, location, spacing and instability of retinal images affect the visibility of letters and words at different eccentricities. Fixation instability was simulated in normally sighted observers by randomly jittering single or crowded letters or words along a circular arc of fixed eccentricity. Visual performance was assessed at different levels of instability with forced choice measurements of acuity, crowding and reading speed in a rapid serial visual presentation paradigm. In the periphery: (1) acuity declined; (2) crowding increased for acuity- and eccentricity-corrected targets; and (3), the rate of reading fell with acuity-, crowding- and eccentricity-corrected targets. Acuity and crowding were unaffected by even high levels of image instability. However, reading speed decreased with image instability, even though the visibility of the component letters was unaffected. The results show that reading performance cannot be standardised across the visual field by correcting the size, spacing and eccentricity of letters or words. The results suggest that unstable fixation may contribute to reading difficulties in people with low vision and therefore that rehabilitation may benefit from fixation training.

  17. HIV Testing Among Adults with Mental Illness in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Wanjun; Thompson, William W.; Zack, Matthew M.; McKnight-Eily, Lela; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Rose, Charles E.; Blank, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nationally representative data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to compare HIV testing prevalence among US adults with mental illness (schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, and/or anxiety) to those without, providing an update of prior work using 1999 and 2002 NHIS data. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the probability of ever being tested for HIV by mental illness status, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, substance abuse, excessive alcohol or tobacco use, and HIV risk factors. Based on data from 21,785 respondents, 15% of adults had a psychiatric disorder and 37% ever had an HIV test. Persons with schizophrenia (64%), bipolar disorder (63%), and depression and/or anxiety (47%) were more likely to report ever being tested for HIV than those without mental illness (35%). In multivariable models, individuals reporting schizophrenia (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.68, 95% confidence interval=1.33–2.13), bipolar disease (1.58, 1.39–1.81), and depression and/or anxiety (1.31, 1.25–1.38) were more likely to be tested for HIV than persons without these diagnoses. Similar to previous analyses, persons with mental illness were more likely to have been tested than those without mental illness. However, the elevated prevalence of HIV in populations with mental illness suggests that high levels of testing along with other prevention efforts are needed. PMID:25459230

  18. HIV testing among adults with mental illness in the United States.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Baligh R; Cui, Wanjun; Thompson, William W; Zack, Matthew M; McKnight-Eily, Lela; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Rose, Charles E; Blank, Michael B

    2014-12-01

    Nationally representative data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to compare HIV testing prevalence among US adults with mental illness (schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, and/or anxiety) to those without, providing an update of prior work using 1999 and 2002 NHIS data. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the probability of ever being tested for HIV by mental illness status, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, substance abuse, excessive alcohol or tobacco use, and HIV risk factors. Based on data from 21,785 respondents, 15% of adults had a psychiatric disorder and 37% ever had an HIV test. Persons with schizophrenia (64%), bipolar disorder (63%), and depression and/or anxiety (47%) were more likely to report ever being tested for HIV than those without mental illness (35%). In multivariable models, individuals reporting schizophrenia (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.68, 95% confidence interval=1.33-2.13), bipolar disease (1.58, 1.39-1.81), and depression and/or anxiety (1.31, 1.25-1.38) were more likely to be tested for HIV than persons without these diagnoses. Similar to previous analyses, persons with mental illness were more likely to have been tested than those without mental illness. However, the elevated prevalence of HIV in populations with mental illness suggests that high levels of testing along with other prevention efforts are needed.

  19. Visual Acuity Assessment in Persons with Dementia. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Alan R.; Teresi, Jeanne; Rosenthal, Bruce; Holmes, Douglas; Yatzkan, Elaine S.

    2004-01-01

    Most studies of vision in persons with Alzheimer's disease either exclude those with advanced dementia or are unable to assess their vision adequately, and therefore, improperly report these persons' visual acuity status. In this study, visual acuity was assessed using the ETDRS Snellen-type acuity chart and Teller Acuity Cards. The Teller Acuity…

  20. [Some basic aspects in statistical analysis of visual acuity data].

    PubMed

    Ren, Ze-Qin

    2007-06-01

    All visual acuity charts used currently have their own shortcomings. Therefore, it is difficult for ophthalmologists to evaluate visual acuity data. Many problems present in the use of statistical methods for handling visual acuity data in clinical research. The quantitative relationship between visual acuity and visual angle varied in different visual acuity charts. The type of visual acuity and visual angle are different from each other. Therefore, different statistical methods should be used for different data sources. A correct understanding and analysis of visual acuity data could be obtained only after the elucidation of these aspects.

  1. A study of field independent biased mental ability tests in community college science classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, Linda W.; Kime Piper, Martha

    Many schools use mental ability test scores as a basis for grouping students and planning their educational needs. The widespread use of these test scores throughout public and private schools demands that test items be unbiased. One way in which tests could be biased, that has not been thoroughly investigated, is the inadvertent use of analytical skill items favoring one perceptual orientation over another. This study investigated analytical skill items on the Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test for field independent bias. Using as analysis of variance and discriminant analysis, the results indicated that the Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test was biased in favor of individuals with a field of independent perceptual orientation.

  2. Beyond Genetics in Mental Rotation Test Performance: The Power of Effort Attribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Angelica; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the effects on Mental Rotation Test (MRT) performance of instructions that stress the importance of (a) personal effort, and (b) genetically driven ability. A total of 120 high-school students were assigned to three groups, and administered two sub-tests of the MRT. Between the first and second sub-tests, the groups received…

  3. Potential acuity meter for predicting visual acuity after Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy

    SciTech Connect

    Smiddy, W.E.; Radulovic, D.; Yeo, J.H.; Stark, W.J.; Maumenee, A.E.

    1986-03-01

    We studied 30 patients with opacifications of the posterior capsule to determine if the potential acuity meter (PAM) could accurately predict final visual outcome after Nd:YAG discussion. The final visual acuity was within one line of the PAM prediction in 22 of 30 patients (73%), better by two or more lines in seven patients (23%), and worse in one patient (4%) by two lines. Although in thicker capsules the final acuity was occasionally better than the PAM prediction, the rates of false negative and false positive predictions were very low. Mild cystoid macular edema (3 patients), age-related macular degeneration (3 patients), intraocular lens status, and level of initial acuity did not diminish PAM accuracy. The PAM effectively predicts final visual acuity after YAG posterior capsulotomy, when used in a patient, unhurried manner.

  4. Effect of reduced visual acuity on precision of two-dimensional tracing movements

    PubMed Central

    Domkin, Dmitry; Richter, Hans O.; Zetterlund, Christina; Lundqvist, Lars-Olov

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We intended to assess consequences of reduced visual acuity for performance in a natural simple motor task (tracing) using objective kinematic performance measures. Specifically, we intended to elucidate the kind of relationship between the task performance and best corrected binocular visual acuity and to determine the threshold of visual acuity when task performance starts to deteriorate. Methods Ninety-five individuals with different best corrected visual acuity participated in the study (age 49 ± 12 years, mean ± SD, 27 men and 68 women). The participants manually traced maze-like visual patterns of different spatial complexity presented on the screen of a portable notebook computer using Clinical Kinematic Assessment Tool software. Tracing error was computed as performance measure in each trial with a spatial pattern matching technique – rigid point set registration method. Results The segmented linear regression analysis showed that the relation between visual acuity and tracing errors was best described with a regression function having a break point between two data segments. Tracing performance was unaffected by values of visual acuity below 0.2 on logMAR scale, but when logMAR values increased above this critical limit (i.e. when visual acuity is further reduced), tracing errors linearly increased. The rate of the increase of the tracing error correlated with the complexity of visual stimulus shape. Conclusion Testing of fine motor functions with objective kinematic measures during visuomotor tasks may help differentiating between actual effects of reduced visual acuity on eye–hand coordination in individuals with similar levels of impairment of visual acuity. PMID:26002409

  5. Standardized Mental Status Testing on the Sideline After Sport-Related Concussion.

    PubMed

    McCrea, Michael

    2001-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: The effects of concussion on mental status are often difficult to assess on routine clinical examination. I investigated the efficacy of standardized mental status testing on the sport sideline to detect abnormalities that result from concussion and provide an objective measure of postinjury cognitive recovery. DESIGN AND SETTING: All subjects underwent a standardized preseason baseline mental status evaluation. Standardized testing of injured and uninjured control subjects was repeated on the sideline immediately after concussion and 48 hours after injury. SUBJECTS: Sixty-three high school and collegiate football players with concussion and 55 uninjured control subjects were studied. MEASUREMENTS: The Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) was administered to evaluate neurocognitive functioning and neurologic status. RESULTS: Immediately after concussion, injured subjects performed significantly below preinjury baseline and below uninjured controls on the SAC. Measurable deficits in orientation, concentration, and memory were evident immediately after concussion. A decline in SAC score at time of injury was 95% sensitive and 76% specific in accurately classifying injured and uninjured subjects on the sideline. Injured subjects demonstrated significant improvements in SAC score 48 hours after injury. CONCLUSIONS: Standardized mental status testing can be a valuable tool to assist the sports medicine clinician in detecting the immediate effects of concussion on mental status, tracking resolution of immediate postconcussive mental status abnormalities, and making more informed decisions on return to play after injury.

  6. A Comparison of an Achievement Battery with Two Tests of Ability with Educable Mental Retardates. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Ronald C.; Elliott, Charles

    To find the concurrent validity of two scholastic aptitude tests when a scholastic achievement test was used as a criterion for use in placement of mentally retarded children, 127 subjects were involved. The California Achievement Test (CAT) was used as a criterion measure, and the Primary Mental Abilities test (PMA) and the Slosson Intelligence…

  7. Comparison of horizontal and vertical dynamic visual acuity in patients with vestibular dysfunction and nonvestibular dizziness.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Richard A; Gans, Richard E

    2007-03-01

    Blurred vision with head movement is a common symptom reported by patients with vestibular dysfunction affecting the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Impaired VOR can be measured by comparing visual acuity in which there is no head movement to visual acuity obtained with head movement. A previous study demonstrated that dynamic visual acuity (DVA) testing using vertical head movement revealed deficits in impaired VOR. There is evidence that horizontal head movement is more sensitive to impaired VOR. The objective of this investigation was to compare horizontal and vertical DVA in participants with normal vestibular function (NVF), impaired vestibular function (IVF), and participants with nonvestibular dizziness (NVD). Participants performed the visual acuity task in a baseline condition with no movement and also in two dynamic conditions, horizontal head movement and vertical head movement. Horizontal DVA was twice as sensitive to impaired VOR than vertical DVA. Results suggest that horizontal volitional head movement should be incorporated into tasks measuring functional deficits of impaired VOR.

  8. Stochastic Processes as True-Score Models for Highly Speeded Mental Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, William E.

    The previous theoretical development of the Poisson process as a strong model for the true-score theory of mental tests is discussed, and additional theoretical properties of the model from the standpoint of individual examinees are developed. The paper introduces the Erlang process as a family of test theory models and shows in the context of…

  9. Visual Acuity of Children: United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    National estimates based on the findings from the Health Examination Survey in 1963 to 1965 of uncorrected monocular and binocular visual-acuity levels of children were studied. A nationwide sample of 7,417 children was selected to represent the approximately 24 million noninstitutionalized American children between ages 6 and 11 years. Testing…

  10. The influence of corrected visual acuity on visual attention and incidental learning in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Andrew S; Hertza, Jeremy; Williams, Ronald N; Gupta, Ajay S; Ohly, Johann G

    2009-07-01

    Visual disturbance is one of the hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS), yet clinical neuropsychologists rarely quantitatively assess visual acuity using standardized and norm-referenced measures. This is a significant oversight because disturbances in visual acuity can have an obvious and profound impact on neuropsychological tests which rely upon visual attention and/or scanning. This study investigated the relationship between corrected visual acuity and a widely used measure of visual attention and incidental learning in a group of 35 patients with MS. Regression analysis indicated that corrected visual acuity accounted for 21.3% of the variance in a Coding subtest. The results suggest neuropsychologists and other health care providers should exercise caution in interpreting visually based tests for patients with MS and should assess visual acuity with standardized and norm-referenced measures. PMID:20183167

  11. Sympathetic neural reactivity to mental stress in humans: test-retest reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Fonkoue, Ida T; Carter, Jason R

    2015-12-01

    Mental stress consistently increases arterial blood pressure, but this reliable pressor response is often associated with highly variable muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) responsiveness between individuals. Although MSNA has been shown to be reproducible within individuals at rest and during the cold pressor test (CPT), intraindividual reproducibility of MSNA responsiveness to mental stress has not been adequately explored. The purpose of this study was to examine MSNA reactivity to mental stress across three experimental sessions. Sixteen men and women (age 21 ± 1 yr) performed two experimental sessions within a single laboratory visit and a third experimental session 1 mo later. Each experimental session consisted of a mental stress trial via mental arithmetic and a CPT trial. Blood pressure, heart rate (HR), and MSNA were measured, and the consistencies of these variables were determined using intraclass correlation (Cronbach's α coefficient). MSNA, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and HR were highly reproducible across the baselines preceding mental stress (Cronbach's α ≥ 0.816, P ≤ 0.001) and CPT (Cronbach's α ≥ 0.782, P ≤ 0.001). Across the three mental stress trials, changes in MSNA (Cronbach's α = 0.875; P = 0.001), MAP (Cronbach's α = 0.749; P < 0.001), and HR (Cronbach's α = 0.919; P < 0.001) were reproducible. During CPT, changes in MSNA (Cronbach's α = 0.805; P = 0.008), MAP (Cronbach's α = 0.878; P < 0.001), and HR (Cronbach's α = 0.927; P < 0.001) remained consistent across the three sessions. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that MSNA reactivity to mental stress is consistent within a single laboratory visit and across laboratory sessions conducted on separate days. PMID:26400186

  12. [The best corrected presenting distance visual acuity in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui-Jue

    2011-06-01

    At present the sight impairment evaluation in forensic medicine of China is based on the international classification of disease by WHO in 1973. The main measured indicator is "best corrected visual acuity". It is different from "presenting distance visual acuity" in some situations. In the new blindness and vision loss classification made by WHO in 2003, "presenting distance visual acuity" took the place of the "best corrected visual acuity". In the practice of forensic medicine, "presenting distance visual acuity" can not reflect the real visual acuity duo to the exaggeration or disguise of the wounded. We suggest to use "the best corrected presenting distance visual acuity" instead of "presenting distance visual acuity" in order to avoid the influences of the exaggeration or disguise of the wounded.

  13. Preliminary analysis of non-dominant proprioceptive acuity and interlimb asymmetry in the human wrist.

    PubMed

    Contu, Sara; Cappello, Leonardo; Konczak, Jurgen; Masia, Lorenzo

    2015-08-01

    Proprioception provides information about limb configuration which are essential for planning and controlling its posture and movement. Asymmetries in the way dominant and non-dominant limbs exploit proprioceptive information have been previously evaluated, with contradictory results due to the difference in the employed methodology. A measure of proprioceptive acuity that does not reflect the influence of one limb on the other consists in the evaluation of the psychophysical threshold. This metric, evaluated separately for each limb and involving only passive movements, reflects a reliable measure of proprioceptive acuity. The aim of this work is to first evaluate the proprioceptive acuity of the non-dominant wrist joint in flexion/extension and adduction/abduction and to compare these results to the acuity of the dominant wrist. Data were collected during a unidirectional 2-alternative-forcedchoice test performed by six right-handed subjects. We found acuity of 1.31°, 1.26°, 1.33° and 1.63° respectively for abduction, adduction, extension and flexion of the non-dominant wrist. Acuity of the dominant wrist was assessed for five of the subjects for abduction and flexion and resulted lower (mean values were respectively 1.64° and 2.14°). The preliminary results suggest a leading role of the non-dominant wrist in the processing of the proprioceptive feedback.

  14. Nurse-patient assignment models considering patient acuity metrics and nurses' perceived workload.

    PubMed

    Sir, Mustafa Y; Dundar, Bayram; Barker Steege, Linsey M; Pasupathy, Kalyan S

    2015-06-01

    Patient classification systems (PCSs) are commonly used in nursing units to assess how many nursing care hours are needed to care for patients. These systems then provide staffing and nurse-patient assignment recommendations for a given patient census based on these acuity scores. Our hypothesis is that such systems do not accurately capture workload and we conduct an experiment to test this hypothesis. Specifically, we conducted a survey study to capture nurses' perception of workload in an inpatient unit. Forty five nurses from oncology and surgery units completed the survey and rated the impact of patient acuity indicators on their perceived workload using a six-point Likert scale. These ratings were used to calculate a workload score for an individual nurse given a set of patient acuity indicators. The approach offers optimization models (prescriptive analytics), which use patient acuity indicators from a commercial PCS as well as a survey-based nurse workload score. The models assign patients to nurses in a balanced manner by distributing acuity scores from the PCS and survey-based perceived workload. Numerical results suggest that the proposed nurse-patient assignment models achieve a balanced assignment and lower overall survey-based perceived workload compared to the assignment based solely on acuity scores from the PCS. This results in an improvement of perceived workload that is upwards of five percent.

  15. Effects of molting on the visual acuity of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Jamie; Johnsen, Sönke

    2011-09-15

    In crustaceans with compound eyes, the corneal lens of each facet is part of the exoskeleton and thus shed during molting. Here we used an optomotor assay to evaluate the impact of molting on visual acuity (as measured by the minimum resolvable angle, α(min)) in the female blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. We found that visual acuity decreases substantially in the days prior to molting and is gradually recovered after molting. Four days prior to molting, α(min) was 1.8 deg (N=5), a value approximating the best possible acuity in this species. In the 24 h before ecdysis occurred, α(min) increased to 15.0 deg (N=12), corresponding to an eightfold drop in visual acuity. Within 6 days after molting, α(min) returned to the pre-molting value. Micrographs of C. sapidus eyes showed that a gap between the corneal lens and the crystalline cone first appeared approximately 5 days prior to shedding and increased in width as the process progressed. This separation was likely responsible for the loss of visual acuity observed in behavioral tests. In blue crabs, mating is limited to the period of the female's pubertal molt, and a reduction in acuity during this time may have an effect on the sensory cues used in female mate choice. The results described here may be broadly applicable to all arthropods that molt and have particular importance for crustaceans that molt multiple times in their lifetime or have mating cycles that are paired with molting.

  16. Test Use and Test Reliability in a Curriculum for Educable Mentally Retarded Children. Working Paper Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leon I.; Greenberg, Sandra

    A discussion of selected applications of new tests developed within the context of a large-scale curriculum for educable mentally retarded (EMR) children, the Social Learning Curriculum (SLC), is presented in this paper which investigates three types of reliability that need to be demonstrated in order to provide a basis of these applications. The…

  17. Understanding and Testing Risk Mechanisms for Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 50 years there has been a virtual revolution in thinking about risk mechanisms. The key areas of challenge and opportunity include: identification of environmental causes; use of natural experiments; gene-environment interaction; testing for mediation; developmental moderation; biological programming; and developmental perturbations.

  18. 21 CFR 886.1150 - Visual acuity chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Visual acuity chart. 886.1150 Section 886.1150...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1150 Visual acuity chart. (a) Identification. A visual acuity chart is a device that is a chart, such as a Snellen chart with block letters...

  19. Exploring the Flynn Effect in Mentally Retarded Adults by Using a Nonverbal Intelligence Test for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijman, E. E.; Scheirs, J. G. M.; Prinsen, M. J. H.; Abbink, C. D.; Blok, J. B.

    2010-01-01

    Increases in the scores on IQ tests across generations have been called the Flynn effect (FE). One of the unresolved questions is whether the FE affects all subsamples of the intellectual ability distribution equally. The present study was aimed at determining the size of the FE in moderately mentally retarded individuals. A nonverbal intelligence…

  20. Mental Abilities and School Achievement: A Test of a Mediation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vock, Miriam; Preckel, Franzis; Holling, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the interplay of four cognitive abilities--reasoning, divergent thinking, mental speed, and short-term memory--and their impact on academic achievement in school in a sample of adolescents in grades seven to 10 (N = 1135). Based on information processing approaches to intelligence, we tested a mediation hypothesis, which states…

  1. THE VISUAL ACUITY OF THE HONEY BEE.

    PubMed

    Hecht, S; Wolf, E

    1929-07-20

    1. Bees respond by a characteristic reflex to a movement in their visual field. By confining the field to a series of parallel dark and luminous bars it is possible to determine the size of bar to which the bees respond under different conditions and in this way to measure the resolving power or visual acuity of the eye. The maximum visual acuity of the bee is lower than the lowest human visual acuity. Under similar, maximal conditions the fineness of resolution of the human eye is about 100 times that of the bee. 2. The eye of the bee is a mosaic composed of hexagonal pyramids of variable apical angle. The size of this angle determines the angular separation between adjacent ommatidia and therefore sets the structural limits to the resolving power of the eye. It is found that the visual angle corresponding to the maximum visual acuity as found experimentally is identical with the structural angular separation of adjacent ommatidia in the region of maximum density of ommatidia population. When this region of maximum ommatidia population is rendered non-functional by being covered with an opaque paint, the maximum visual acuity then corresponds to the angular separation of those remaining ommatidia which now constitute the maximum density of population. 3. The angular separation of adjacent ommatidia is much smaller in the vertical (dorso-ventral) axis than in the horizontal (anterio-posterior) axis. The experimentally found visual acuity varies correspondingly. From this and other experiments as well as from the shape of the eye itself, it is shown that the bee's eye is essentially an instrument for uni-directional visual resolution, functional along the dorso-ventral axis. The resolution of the visual pattern is therefore determined by the vertical angular separation of those ocular elements situated in the region of maximum density of ommatidia population. 4. The visual acuity of the bee varies with the illumination in much the same way that it does for the human

  2. Variable acuity remote viewing system flight demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Variable Acuity Remote Viewing System (VARVS), originally developed under contract to the Navy (ONR) as a laboratory brassboard, was modified for flight demonstration. The VARVS system was originally conceived as a technique which could circumvent the acuity/field of view/bandwidth tradeoffs that exists in remote viewing to provide a nearly eye limited display in both field of view (160 deg) and resolution (2 min arc) while utilizing conventional TV sensing, transmission, and display equipment. The modifications for flight demonstration consisted of modifying the sensor so it could be installed and flow in a Piper PA20 aircraft, equipped for remote control and modifying the display equipment so it could be integrated with the NASA Research RPB (RPRV) remote control cockpit.

  3. Generalisation, decision making, and embodiment effects in mental rotation: A neurorobotic architecture tested with a humanoid robot.

    PubMed

    Seepanomwan, Kristsana; Caligiore, Daniele; Cangelosi, Angelo; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2015-12-01

    Mental rotation, a classic experimental paradigm of cognitive psychology, tests the capacity of humans to mentally rotate a seen object to decide if it matches a target object. In recent years, mental rotation has been investigated with brain imaging techniques to identify the brain areas involved. Mental rotation has also been investigated through the development of neural-network models, used to identify the specific mechanisms that underlie its process, and with neurorobotics models to investigate its embodied nature. Current models, however, have limited capacities to relate to neuro-scientific evidence, to generalise mental rotation to new objects, to suitably represent decision making mechanisms, and to allow the study of the effects of overt gestures on mental rotation. The work presented in this study overcomes these limitations by proposing a novel neurorobotic model that has a macro-architecture constrained by knowledge held on brain, encompasses a rather general mental rotation mechanism, and incorporates a biologically plausible decision making mechanism. The model was tested using the humanoid robot iCub in tasks requiring the robot to mentally rotate 2D geometrical images appearing on a computer screen. The results show that the robot gained an enhanced capacity to generalise mental rotation to new objects and to express the possible effects of overt movements of the wrist on mental rotation. The model also represents a further step in the identification of the embodied neural mechanisms that may underlie mental rotation in humans and might also give hints to enhance robots' planning capabilities.

  4. Large state-level fluctuations in mental retardation classifications related to introduction of renormed intelligence test.

    PubMed

    Scullin, Matthew H

    2006-09-01

    Oppositely valenced forces may be at work to influence rates of placement of children into mental retardation programs. On one hand, educational policies regarding intellectual disability and concerns about overrepresentation of minorities in special education may contribute to lower placement rates; on the other hand, more difficult intelligence test norms may be a countervailing force, increasing placement rates. An analysis of longitudinal data on state and national level placement rates reveals that a lengthy and steep 12-year decline in students receiving mental retardation services reversed shortly after the introduction of the WISC-III in 1991. This phenomenon has relevance for death-penalty cases, because this historical pattern may affect the ability to establish whether an adult meets the developmental period onset criterion for mental retardation.

  5. Childhood Family Instability and Mental Health Problems during Late Adolescence: A Test of Two Mediation Models--The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether childhood family instability is associated with mental health problems during adolescence through continued family instability and/or through a preadolescent onset of mental health problems. This test use data from a prospective population cohort of 2,230 Dutch adolescents ("M" age = 11.09, "SD" = 0.56 at the initial…

  6. Cognitive interviewing methods for questionnaire pre-testing in homeless persons with mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Adair, Carol E; Holland, Anna C; Patterson, Michelle L; Mason, Kate S; Goering, Paula N; Hwang, Stephen W

    2012-02-01

    In this study, cognitive interviewing methods were used to test targeted questionnaire items from a battery of quantitative instruments selected for a large multisite trial of supported housing interventions for homeless individuals with mental disorders. Most of the instruments had no published psychometrics in this population. Participants were 30 homeless adults with mental disorders (including substance use disorders) recruited from service agencies in Vancouver, Winnipeg, and Toronto, Canada. Six interviewers, trained in cognitive interviewing methods and using standard interview schedules, conducted the interviews. Questions and, in some cases, instructions, for testing were selected from existing instruments according to a priori criteria. Items on physical and mental health status, housing quality and living situation, substance use, health and justice system service use, and community integration were tested. The focus of testing was on relevance, comprehension, and recall, and on sensitivity/acceptability for this population. Findings were collated across items by site and conclusions validated by interviewers. There was both variation and similarity of responses for identified topics of interest. With respect to relevance, many items on the questionnaires were not applicable to homeless people. Comprehension varied considerably; thus, both checks on understanding and methods to assist comprehension and recall are recommended, particularly for participants with acute symptoms of mental illness and those with cognitive impairment. The acceptability of items ranged widely across the sample, but findings were consistent with previous literature, which indicates that "how you ask" is as important as "what you ask." Cognitive interviewing methods worked well and elicited information crucial to effective measurement in this unique population. Pretesting study instruments, including standard instruments, for use in special populations such as homeless

  7. Visual Acuity Using Head-fixed Displays During Passive Self and Surround Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Scott J.; Black, F. Owen; Stallings, Valerie; Peters, Brian

    2007-01-01

    The ability to read head-fixed displays on various motion platforms requires the suppression of vestibulo-ocular reflexes. This study examined dynamic visual acuity while viewing a head-fixed display during different self and surround rotation conditions. Twelve healthy subjects were asked to report the orientation of Landolt C optotypes presented on a micro-display fixed to a rotating chair at 50 cm distance. Acuity thresholds were determined by the lowest size at which the subjects correctly identified 3 of 5 optotype orientations at peak velocity. Visual acuity was compared across four different conditions, each tested at 0.05 and 0.4 Hz (peak amplitude of 57 deg/s). The four conditions included: subject rotated in semi-darkness (i.e., limited to background illumination of the display), subject stationary while visual scene rotated, subject rotated around a stationary visual background, and both subject and visual scene rotated together. Visual acuity performance was greatest when the subject rotated around a stationary visual background; i.e., when both vestibular and visual inputs provided concordant information about the motion. Visual acuity performance was most reduced when the subject and visual scene rotated together; i.e., when the visual scene provided discordant information about the motion. Ranges of 4-5 logMAR step sizes across the conditions indicated the acuity task was sufficient to discriminate visual performance levels. The background visual scene can influence the ability to read head-fixed displays during passive motion disturbances. Dynamic visual acuity using head-fixed displays can provide an operationally relevant screening tool for visual performance during exposure to novel acceleration environments.

  8. Evaluation of vestibular and dynamic visual acuity in adults with congenital deafness.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yukinori; Kaga, Kimitaka; Takekoshi, Hideki; Sakuraba, Keisyoku

    2012-10-01

    This study compared vestibular and dynamic visual acuity in 19 adult athletes with deafness participating in Deaflympics to those of 25 young adults with normal hearing. Balance capability was evaluated using a one-leg standing test with eyes open and stabilometry. Caloric tests and vestibular evoked myogenic potential tests were conducted to test vestibular function. Visual function was evaluated using a dynamic visual acuity test. No significant difference was found between results of the one-leg standing test with eyes open and stabilometry with eyes open. Athletes with deafness performed better than normal hearing young adults with eyes closed. The caloric test indicated hypofunction of the lateral semicircular canal function in 5 of the 19 athletes with deafness. Balance-function tests showed normal results for both groups. The results for athletes with deafness on visual acuity were better than those of controls. Young Deaflympics athletes with deafness can adjust their balance function as well as or better than normal hearing young adults using dynamic visual acuity.

  9. Modeling acuity for optotypes varying in complexity.

    PubMed

    Watson, Andrew B; Ahumada, Albert J

    2012-01-01

    Watson and Ahumada (2008) described a template model of visual acuity based on an ideal-observer limited by optical filtering, neural filtering, and noise. They computed predictions for selected optotypes and optical aberrations. Here we compare this model's predictions to acuity data for six human observers, each viewing seven different optotype sets, consisting of one set of Sloan letters and six sets of Chinese characters, differing in complexity (Zhang, Zhang, Xue, Liu, & Yu, 2007). Since optical aberrations for the six observers were unknown, we constructed 200 model observers using aberrations collected from 200 normal human eyes (Thibos, Hong, Bradley, & Cheng, 2002). For each condition (observer, optotype set, model observer) we estimated the model noise required to match the data. Expressed as efficiency, performance for Chinese characters was 1.4 to 2.7 times lower than for Sloan letters. Efficiency was weakly and inversely related to perimetric complexity of optotype set. We also compared confusion matrices for human and model observers. Correlations for off-diagonal elements ranged from 0.5 to 0.8 for different sets, and the average correlation for the template model was superior to a geometrical moment model with a comparable number of parameters (Liu, Klein, Xue, Zhang, & Yu, 2009). The template model performed well overall. Estimated psychometric function slopes matched the data, and noise estimates agreed roughly with those obtained independently from contrast sensitivity to Gabor targets. For optotypes of low complexity, the model accurately predicted relative performance. This suggests the model may be used to compare acuities measured with different sets of simple optotypes. PMID:23024356

  10. Evaluation of vernier acuity near healed retinal laser lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeisser, Elmar T.

    1997-05-01

    Seven Cynomolgus fasciculata who had graded laser lesions placed in own eye 6 years previously were evaluated for their vernier acuity by electrophysiologic recording techniques. In these experiments, 95 percent contrast vernier acuity targets were presented at high luminance levels to anesthetized primates. Visual evoked potentials were recorded by conventional means form scalp electrodes through hospital grade amplifiers. All animal testing was performed under IACUC approved protocols. The single q-switched pulses form a neodymium-YAG laser had produced lesions of 4 types: no visible change, minimal visible lesions, 'white dot' lesions and 'red dot' lesions in the eye at the time of placement. Single exposures had been made in four locations: 5 degrees superior, inferior and temporal to the fovea, and one foveally. Vernier recording proved somewhat successful in smaller animals with less than contained retinal hemorrhage lesions in the fovea. Initial analyses demonstrated a significant decrease of the pattern response signal/noise in the experimental eye overall, and an apparent relative loss of vernier signal in some lesioned eyes. Animals with the more severe lesions have somewhat degraded small patten responses and no recordable vernier response. Apparent lesser losses produced less effect.

  11. Mental representation of spatial cues in microgravity: Writing and drawing tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Gilles; Lathan, Corinna; Lockerd, Anna; Bukley, Angie

    2009-04-01

    Humans have mental representation of their environment based on sensory information and experience. A series of experiments has been designed to allow the identification of disturbances in the mental representation of three-dimensional space during space flight as a consequence of the absence of the gravitational frame of reference. This NASA/ESA-funded research effort includes motor tests complemented by psychophysics measurements, designed to distinguish the effects of cognitive versus perceptual-motor changes due to microgravity exposure. Preliminary results have been obtained during the microgravity phase of parabolic flight. These results indicate that the vertical height of handwritten characters and drawn objects is reduced in microgravity compared to normal gravity, suggesting that the mental representation of the height of objects and the environment change during short-term microgravity. Identifying lasting abnormalities in the mental representation of spatial cues will establish the scientific and technical foundation for development of preflight and in-flight training and rehabilitative schemes, enhancing astronaut performance of perceptual-motor tasks, for example, interaction with robotic systems during exploration-class missions.

  12. Sex Differences on the Mental Rotation Test: An Analysis of Item Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bors, Douglas A.; Vigneau, Francois

    2011-01-01

    Replicating a finding now common in the literature, the present study revealed a significant difference between the performance of men (M = 19.66; SD = 5.34; SK = 0.52) and the performance of women (M = 14.85; SD = 6.06; SK = -0.38, Cohen's d = 0.90) on the Mental Rotation Test (Vandenberg & Kuse, 1978). In an attempt to identify determinants of…

  13. A quick screening test of competency to stand trial for defendants with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Smith, S A; Hudson, R L

    1995-02-01

    19 terms and concepts from evaluations of competency to stand trial of 55 defendants with mental retardation were rated to examine whether a quick screening test could be devised that would differentiate those who were judged competent or not competent. A multiple regression and discriminant analysis gave four items that yielded maximum predictability (R = .84): court strategy, plead, testify, and jury. Guilty, trial, and prosecutor were also significantly more difficult for those who were not competent than those who were.

  14. Visual acuity estimation from simulated images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, William J.

    Simulated images can provide insight into the performance of optical systems, especially those with complicated features. Many modern solutions for presbyopia and cataracts feature sophisticated power geometries or diffractive elements. Some intraocular lenses (IOLs) arrive at multifocality through the use of a diffractive surface and multifocal contact lenses have a radially varying power profile. These type of elements induce simultaneous vision as well as affecting vision much differently than a monofocal ophthalmic appliance. With myriad multifocal ophthalmics available on the market it is difficult to compare or assess performance in ways that effect wearers of such appliances. Here we present software and algorithmic metrics that can be used to qualitatively and quantitatively compare ophthalmic element performance, with specific examples of bifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) and multifocal contact lenses. We anticipate this study, methods, and results to serve as a starting point for more complex models of vision and visual acuity in a setting where modeling is advantageous. Generating simulated images of real- scene scenarios is useful for patients in assessing vision quality with a certain appliance. Visual acuity estimation can serve as an important tool for manufacturing and design of ophthalmic appliances.

  15. Dark adaptation and the acuity/luminance response in senile macular degeneration (SMD).

    PubMed

    Brown, B; Kitchin, J L

    1983-08-01

    Patients with senile macular degeneration (SMD) often complain of problems with adaptation and have best acuity under a restricted range of lighting conditions. We investigated dark adaptation and acuity over a wide range of luminances in eight SMD patients and six age-matched controls. Some patients showed evidence of altered dark adaptation, with a much longer time required to reach asymptotic sensitivity levels than shown by normals; others had difficulty with spatial resolution at different light levels. There was good correlation between symptoms and test findings; all but one patient who reported difficulties with adaptation demonstrated either retarded adaptation, aberrant acuity/luminance response, or both. These data provide evidence that the processes which adjust the sensitivity of the retina and the spatial summation properties of the retina are disrupted in SMD.

  16. Developing a reliable and valid scale to measure psychosocial acuity.

    PubMed

    Klett, Stacey; Firn, Janice; Abney, Nina; Battles, Alethia; Harrington, Jack; Vantine, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    This tool is a unique comprehensive scale and methodology to measure the psychosocial acuity of patients and families across a health care continuum. Coupled with other measures, psychosocial acuity can tell a complete and compelling story of social work contributions and aid in resource alignment. Accurately conveying the full scope of social work value to anyone, especially health system leadership, requires that the psychosocial acuity of the patient and family be measured and factored into the equation, along with productivity, time spent, and services provided. The development and utilization of the Psychosocial Acuity Tool is the focus of this publication.

  17. Development and pilot testing of a mental healthcare plan in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Jordans, M. J. D.; Luitel, N. P.; Pokhrel, P.; Patel, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental health service delivery models that are grounded in the local context are needed to address the substantial treatment gap in low- and middle-income countries. Aims To present the development, and content, of a mental healthcare plan (MHCP) in Nepal and assess initial feasibility. Method A mixed methods formative study was conducted. Routine monitoring and evaluation data, including client flow and reports of satisfaction, were obtained from patients (n = 135) during the pilot-testing phase in two health facilities. Results The resulting MHCP consists of 12 packages, divided over community, health facility and organisation platforms. Service implementation data support the real-life applicability of the MHCP, with reasonable treatment uptake. Key barriers were identified and addressed, namely dissatisfaction with privacy, perceived burden among health workers and high drop-out rates. Conclusions The MHCP follows a collaborative care model encompassing community and primary healthcare interventions. PMID:26447173

  18. Multiple encounter simulation for high-acuity multipatient environment training.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Leo; Shapiro, Marc J; Gutman, Deborah C; Jay, Gregory

    2007-12-01

    Patient safety interventions for multitasking, multipatient, error-prone work settings such as the emergency department (ED) must improve assorted clinical abilities, specific cognitive strategies, and teamwork functions of the staff to be effective. Multiple encounter simulation scenarios explore and convey this specialized mental work-set through use of multiple high-fidelity medical simulation (SIM) manikins in realistic surroundings. Multipatient scenarios reflect the work situations being targeted yet have the benefit of scripted control and instructor guidance to advance specific educational objectives. The use of two or more SIM patients promotes the exploration not only of multiple distinct clinical issues but also of interdependent processes pervasive in EDs. Cascading shortages of time, personnel, equipment, and supplies are re-created, thereby replicating process limitations at various levels, in a safe environment in which compensatory actions and adaptive behaviors can be learned. Distinguishing features of multipatient exercises include 1) broadened educational scope and expanded indications for SIM application, 2) enhanced scenario complexity, 3) controlled exposure to high workload environments, 4) expanded communication requirements, and 5) increased potential for reflective learning. Widespread and effective training in well-replicated, carefully coordinated representations of complex multipatient work environments may strengthen educational interventions for personnel working in high acuity and work-overloaded settings such as the ED. The use of concurrent patient encounter SIM exercises to elicit calculated stressors and to foster compensatory staff behaviors is an educational advance toward this objective. The authors present SIM methodology using concurrent patient encounters to replicate these environments.

  19. Test Bias in the Intermediate Mental Alertness, Mechanical Comprehension, Blox and High Level Figure Classification Tests. An NTB/HSRC Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holburn, P. T.

    Research is reported on four tests commonly used in South Africa to select apprentices, the Intermediate Mental Alertness Test, the High Level Figure Classification Test, the Blox Test, and the Mechanical Comprehension Test. Samples were as follows: (1) 206 Asian, 208 Black, 102 Coloured, and 99 White mostly male applicants for sugar industry…

  20. Can defendants with mental retardation successfully fake their performance on a test of competence to stand trial?

    PubMed

    Everington, Caroline; Notario-Smull, Heidi; Horton, Mel L

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether criminal defendants with mental retardation can feign poor performance on a test of competence to stand trial. Four groups of adjudicated criminal defendants were given a test of competence to stand trial. In the experimental condition, defendants with mental retardation (MR) and mentally typical defendants (non-MR) were given instructions to fake their performance on the test. In the control, MR defendants and non-MR defendants took the test under standard conditions. The results indicated that both the MR and non-MR fakers scored significantly lower than the MR and non-MR controls. There was no significant difference in the scores of the MR and non-MR fakers. The results suggest that defendants with mental retardation may be able to successfully fake their performance in certain circumstances. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Identifying student mental models from their response pattern to a physics multiple-choice test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro Maggio, Maximiliano Jose

    Previous work has shown that students present different misconceptions across different but similar physical situations, but the cause of these differences is still not clear. In this study, a novel analysis method was introduced to help to gain a better understanding of how different physical situations affect students' responses and learning. This novel analysis groups students into mental model groups (MMG) by similarities in their responses to multiple-choice test items, under the assumption that they have similar mental models. The Mass and Energy Conservation test was developed to probe the common misconception that objects with greater mass fall faster than objects with lesser mass across four physical situations and four knowledge sub-domains: information, dynamics, work, and energy. The test was applied before and after energy instruction to 144 college students in a large Midwestern university attending a calculus-based introductory physics course. Test time along with instruction and physical situation were the two factors. It was found that physical situation did not have a significant effect on mental models: The number of MMGs identified and the fraction of students belonging to the same MMG were not significantly different (p > .05) across physical situations. However, there was a significant effect of test time on mental models (p < .05): the fraction of students belonging to the same MMG changed from the pretest to the posttest, in that the MMG representing higher performance became predominant than the MMG with lower performance for the posttest results. A MANOVA for the average scores for each sub-domain and physical situation combination was applied to validate the previous results. It was found that a significant effect (p < .01) by physical situation resulted due to a lower average dynamics sub-domain score for the friction physical-situation attribute when compared to the no-friction physical-situation attribute. A significant effect (p < .01

  2. Social class and mental health: testing exploitation as a relational determinant of depression.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Carles; Ng, Edwin; Prins, Seth J; Bones-Rocha, Katia; Espelt, Albert; Chung, Haejoo

    2015-01-01

    This study tests whether social class exploitation operates as a relational mechanism that generates mental health inequalities in the nursing home industry. We ask, does social class exploitation (i.e., the acquisition of economic benefits from the labor of those who are dominated) have a systematic and predictable impact on depression among nursing assistants? Using cross-sectional data from 868 nursing assistants employed in 50 nursing homes in three U.S. states, we measure social class exploitation as "ownership type" (private for-profit, private not-for-profit, and public) and "managerial domination" (labor relations violations, perceptions of labor-management conflict). Depression is assessed using the original and revised versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and CESD-R). Using two-level logistic regressions, we find that private for-profit ownership and higher managerial domination are predictive of depression among nursing assistants even after adjustment for potential confounders and mediators. Our findings confirm the theoretical and empirical value of applying a social class approach to understanding how mental health inequalities are generated through exploitative mechanisms. Ownership type and managerial domination appear to affect depression through social relations that generate mental health inequalities through the process of acquiring profits, controlling production, supervising and monitoring labor, and enforcing disciplinary sanctions.

  3. Social Class and Mental Health: Testing Exploitation as a Relational Determinant of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Muntaner, Carles; Ng, Edwin; Prins, Seth J.; Bones-Rocha, Katia; Espelt, Albert; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-01-01

    This study tests whether social class exploitation operates as a relational mechanism that generates mental health inequalities in the nursing home industry. We ask, does social class exploitation (i.e., the acquisition of economic benefits from the labor of those who are dominated) have a systematic and predictable impact on depression among nursing assistants? Using cross-sectional data from 868 nursing assistants employed in 50 nursing homes in three U.S. states, we measure social class exploitation as “ownership type” (private for-profit, private not-for-profit, and public) and “managerial domination” (labor relations violations, perceptions of labor-management conflict). Depression is assessed using the original and revised versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and CESD-R). Using two-level logistic regressions, we find that private for-profit ownership and higher managerial domination are predictive of depression among nursing assistants even after adjustment for potential confounders and mediators. Our findings confirm the theoretical and empirical value of applying a social class approach to understanding how mental health inequalities are generated through exploitative mechanisms. Ownership type and managerial domination appear to affect depression through social relations that generate mental health inequalities through the process of acquiring profits, controlling production, supervising and monitoring labor, and enforcing disciplinary sanctions. PMID:25813501

  4. Mental arithmetic stress as a test for evaluation of diabetic sympathetic autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, A; Franzetti, I; Lepore, G; Maglio, M L; Gaudio, E; Caviezel, F; Pozza, G

    1989-08-01

    The effects of a 1-min mental arithmetic stress test on heart rate change were studied in 72 Type 1 diabetic patients, 36 without and 36 with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (mean age 33 and 44 yr, respectively), and in 80 matched normal subjects. Variation in hand skin temperature was also recorded in 25 normal subjects and 30 diabetic patients without and 32 with autonomic neuropathy. While mental arithmetic rapidly reduced skin temperature of normal volunteers and of patients without autonomic neuropathy, no effect was found in autonomic neuropath (a drop of 0.63 +/- 0.05 (+/- SE), 0.52 +/- 0.04 and 0.16 +/- 0.02 degrees C (p less than 0.001), respectively). In control subjects and in diabetic patients without and with autonomic neuropathy the heart rate increase was 22.9 +/- 6.8 (+/- SD), 21.4 +/- 8.4 and 7.0 +/- 3.7 beats min-1, respectively (p less than 0.001). The ratio between maximum mental arithmetic-induced heart rate and basal heart rate was 1.29 +/- 0.10, 1.24 +/- 0.10 and 1.07 +/- 0.05 (p less than 0.001) for healthy subjects, non-neuropathic patients, and neuropathic patients. Cut-off values (the low normal limit for these variables) are proposed: skin temperature 0.23 degrees C, heart rate increase 11.6 beats min-1 and heart rate ratio 1.12. Anxiety state, blood glucose concentration (excluding hypoglycaemia), body position, basal heart rate, and age did not interfere with responses to mental arithmetic stress. PMID:2527129

  5. Brief Report: Visual Acuity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Matthew A.; Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Falkmer, Marita; Ordqvist, Anna; Leung, Denise; Foster, Jonathan K.; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been heightened interest in suggestions of enhanced visual acuity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) which was sparked by evidence that was later accepted to be methodologically flawed. However, a recent study that claimed children with ASD have enhanced visual acuity (Brosnan et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord"…

  6. Social marketing's unique contribution to mental health stigma reduction and HIV testing: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Keller, Heidi; Heilbronner, Jennifer Messenger; Dellinger, Laura K Lee

    2011-03-01

    Since its inception in 2005, articles in Health Promotion Practice's social marketing department have focused on describing social marketing's unique contributions and the application of each to the practice of health promotion. This article provides a brief review of six unique features (marketing mix, consumer orientation, segmentation, exchange, competition, and continuous monitoring) and then presents two case studies-one on reducing stigma related to mental health and the other a large-scale campaign focused on increasing HIV testing among African American youth. The two successful case studies show that social marketing principles can be applied to a wide variety of topics among various population groups. PMID:21427270

  7. Graded changes in balancing behavior as a function of visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Schmid, M; Casabianca, L; Bottaro, A; Schieppati, M

    2008-06-01

    In a dynamic postural task, visual information plays a fundamental role in the selection of the balancing strategy. While standing on a platform oscillating in the antero-posterior direction, subjects almost fix their head in space when vision is allowed and oscillate with the platform with eyes closed. We investigated two competing hypotheses regarding the relationship between visual acuity and balance control strategy. One hypothesis refers to the existence of a threshold value of visual acuity as a turning point between the eyes-open and eyes-closed strategy. The other assumes that the change from eyes-open to eyes-closed behavior is continuous and parallels the progressive worsening of visual acuity. Ten subjects balanced on the mobile platform wearing an examination frame and a facemask occluding peripheral vision. Seven different test lenses were used in different trials to modify visual acuity, from a visus value of 10/10 to severely blurred vision. Head stabilization in space progressively worsened with the decrease in visual acuity and turned toward the eyes-closed behavior when vision was blurred. The increase in head oscillation as a function of visual acuity was best fitted by a logarithmic function. In five of the subjects, additional trials were performed without facemask, to add peripheral vision to each visual acuity level, and with black lenses to allow peripheral vision alone. Addition of peripheral vision gave a significant contribution to head stabilization. With peripheral vision alone, head stabilization was intermediate between the eyes-closed and 10/10 visus value condition. We conclude that, in order to stabilize the head in space, visual information of the environment must be definite and worsening of central vision leads to a graded modification of the 'head fixed in space' behavior. Thus, the more conservative hypothesis of two different fundamental balancing strategies is not supported. Instead, the body exhibits a continuous mode of

  8. 10-minute delayed recall from the modified mini-mental state test predicts Alzheimer's disease pathology.

    PubMed

    Lyness, Scott A; Lee, Ae Young; Zarow, Chris; Teng, Evelyn L; Chui, Helena C

    2014-01-01

    We compared the sensitivity and specificity of two delayed recall scores from the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) test with consensus clinical diagnosis to differentiate cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) versus non-AD pathologies. At a memory disorders clinic, 117 cognitively impaired patients were administered a baseline 3MS test and received a contemporaneous consensus clinical diagnosis. Their brains were examined after death about 5 years later. Using logistic regression with forward selection to predict pathologically defined AD versus non-AD, 10-min delayed recall entered first (p = 0.001), followed by clinical diagnosis (p = 0.02); 1-min delayed recall did not enter. 10-min delayed recall scores ≤4 (score range = 0-9) were 87% sensitive and 47% specific in predicting AD pathology; consensus clinical diagnosis was 82% sensitive and 45% specific. For the 57 patients whose initial Mini-Mental State Examination scores were ≥19 (the median), 3MS 10-min delayed recall scores ≤4 showed some loss of sensitivity (80%) but a substantial gain in specificity (77%). In conclusion, 10-min delayed recall score on the brief 3MS test distinguished between AD versus non-AD pathology about 5 years before death at least as well as consensus clinical diagnosis that requires much more comprehensive information and complex deliberation.

  9. The association between higher education and approximate number system acuity.

    PubMed

    Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Humans are equipped with an approximate number system (ANS) supporting non-symbolic numerosity representation. Studies indicate a relationship between ANS-precision (acuity) and math achievement. Whether the ANS is a prerequisite for learning mathematics or if mathematics education enhances the ANS remains an open question. We investigated the association between higher education and ANS acuity with university students majoring in subjects with varying amounts of mathematics (mathematics, business, and humanities), measured either early (First year) or late (Third year) in their studies. The results suggested a non-significant trend where students taking more mathematics had better ANS acuity and a significant improvement in ANS acuity as a function of study length that was mainly confined to the business students. The results provide partial support for the hypothesis that education in mathematics can enhance the ANS acuity. PMID:24904478

  10. The association between higher education and approximate number system acuity.

    PubMed

    Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Humans are equipped with an approximate number system (ANS) supporting non-symbolic numerosity representation. Studies indicate a relationship between ANS-precision (acuity) and math achievement. Whether the ANS is a prerequisite for learning mathematics or if mathematics education enhances the ANS remains an open question. We investigated the association between higher education and ANS acuity with university students majoring in subjects with varying amounts of mathematics (mathematics, business, and humanities), measured either early (First year) or late (Third year) in their studies. The results suggested a non-significant trend where students taking more mathematics had better ANS acuity and a significant improvement in ANS acuity as a function of study length that was mainly confined to the business students. The results provide partial support for the hypothesis that education in mathematics can enhance the ANS acuity.

  11. The association between higher education and approximate number system acuity

    PubMed Central

    Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Humans are equipped with an approximate number system (ANS) supporting non-symbolic numerosity representation. Studies indicate a relationship between ANS-precision (acuity) and math achievement. Whether the ANS is a prerequisite for learning mathematics or if mathematics education enhances the ANS remains an open question. We investigated the association between higher education and ANS acuity with university students majoring in subjects with varying amounts of mathematics (mathematics, business, and humanities), measured either early (First year) or late (Third year) in their studies. The results suggested a non-significant trend where students taking more mathematics had better ANS acuity and a significant improvement in ANS acuity as a function of study length that was mainly confined to the business students. The results provide partial support for the hypothesis that education in mathematics can enhance the ANS acuity. PMID:24904478

  12. Coincidence anticipation and dynamic visual acuity in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Millslagle, Duane

    2004-12-01

    Research involving college-age students and women fast pitch softball players indicated that coincidence anticipation and dynamic visual acuity are different visual abilities. This study used an alternative procedure to measure dynamic visual acuity to re-examine their relationship. Coincidence anticipation and dynamic visual acuity were measured in 24 young adolescents (12 boys, 12 girls) 11 to 14 years of age. During the dynamic visual acuity procedure, the subject tracked an object of a constant size while the researcher manipulated the object's velocity. Analysis indicated that they are different visual abilities. Findings indicated that the dynamic visual acuity of boys was significantly better than that of girls, and coincidence anticipation between boys and girls did not differ.

  13. Interferometer assessment of potential visual acuity before YAG capsulotomy: relative performance of three instruments.

    PubMed

    Strong, N

    1992-01-01

    The accuracy of white light and laser interferometers in predicting visual acuity after YAG laser capsulotomy was compared. 42 eyes of 41 patients were tested with both a Haag-Streit (Lotmar) white light interferometer and a Rodenstock laser interferometer, and 14 were also tested with a Site white light machine. The laser interferometer predicted a final visual acuity to within one line of that actually achieved in 93%, and to within two lines in 98%, whereas for the Haag-Streit these figures were 64% and 81%, and for the Site 77% and 92%. In patients with poor initial visual acuity, the difference in the relative performance of the two instruments was increased further. When interferometry was repeated after capsulotomy, the values obtained with all instruments agreed closely with Snellen acuity. This difference in predictive accuracy shows that capsular thickening causes a greater degree of optical degradation of the image produced by a white light interferometer than occurs when a laser interferometer is employed.

  14. Concurrent Validity Study of the Slosson Intelligence Test-Revised in Mental Retardation Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunen, Seth; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Concurrent validity testing of the Slosson Intelligence Test-Revised with the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (Fourth Edition), involving 191 individuals (ages 5-69 and IQs of 36 to 110), found a high correlation between the two scales. However, the Slosson unsatisfactorily matched the Stanford-Binet's assignment of individuals to IQ categories.…

  15. Graded exercise testing of mentally retarded adults: a study of feasibility.

    PubMed

    Fernhall, B; Tymeson, G

    1987-06-01

    There is a striking absence of data on the cardiovascular fitness of mentally retarded adults and what limited data are reported reflect field or submaximal laboratory tests. This study sought to develop a protocol that would allow maximal aerobic testing (VO2max) of mentally retarded adults in the laboratory. Of 21 subjects recruited, 17 (eight men and nine women) were successfully tested. Their mean IQ (+/- SD) was 52.68 +/- 16.3; their weight was 149.76 +/- 35.3 lbs, height 64.4 +/- 4.2 in, and age 29.29 +/- 6.6 yr. The testing occurred in three phases: (1) familiarization with the laboratory environs; (2) training to walk on the treadmill and breathe through the respiratory collection system; and (3) data collection via graded exercise testing. The treadmill protocol consisted of walking at 3 mph at 0% grade for two minutes, followed by 3 mph at a 2.5% grade for two minutes. The speed was then held constant at 3 mph and the grade increased 2.5% every minute until exhaustion. Metabolic data were collected every minute using a Beckman MCC cart connected to the subjects through a Hans-Rudolph valve. Heart rates (HR) were collected with a Quinton electrocardiograph. The mean maximal cardiorespiratory data were as follows (+/- SD):VO2max = 26.3 +/- 8.0 ml X kg-1 X min-1; HRmax = 171 +/- 14 beats/min; VEmax = 62.8 +/- 21.8 L/min; and respiratory quotient (R) = 1.09 +/- .07. The R values obtained were within an acceptable range for valid maximal data. In addition, 15 subjects produced supramaximal work and showed a decline in VO2 during the last minute of exercise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3592950

  16. Effects of psychotropic drugs on intelligence test performance of institutionalized mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Breuning, S E; Davidson, N A

    1981-05-01

    Twenty-four institutionalized mentally retarded persons received intelligence tests under both standard and reinforcement conditions while on and off psychotropic medication. Medications included chlorpromazine (Thorazine), thioridazine (Mellaril), haloperidol (Haldol), mesoridazine (Serentil), and lithium carbonate (Lithane). Results showed that when on medication there were no differences between IQs obtained under standard and reinforcement conditions. When off medication there were significant increases in scores obtained under both standard and reinforcement conditions. The increase in scores under the reinforcement condition was 23 points greater than the increase obtained under the standard condition (increases of 30.2 and 6.9 points, respectively). Results were discussed in terms of the sensitivity--insensitivity of intelligence test scores to medication effects, medications impairing responding to external reinforcement contingencies, and legal implications.

  17. Malingering or simulation in ophthalmology-visual acuity

    PubMed Central

    Incesu, Ali Ihsan; Sobacı, Güngör

    2011-01-01

    Simulation can be defined as malingering, or sometimes functional visual loss (FVL). It manifests as either simulating an ophthalmic disease (positive simulation), or denial of ophthalmic disease (negative simulation). Conscious behavior and compensation or indemnity claims are prominent features of simulation. Since some authors suggest that this is a manifestation of underlying psychopathology, even conversion is included in this context. In today's world, every ophthalmologist can face with simulation of ophthalmic disease or disorder. In case of simulation suspect, the physician's responsibility is to prove the simulation considering the disease/disorder first, and simulation as an exclusion. In simulation examinations, the physician should be firm and smart to select appropriate test(s) to convince not only the subject, but also the judge in case of indemnity or compensation trials. Almost all ophthalmic sensory and motor functions including visual acuity, visual field, color vision and night vision can be the subject of simulation. Examiner must be skillful in selecting the most appropriate test. Apart from those in the literature, we included all kinds of simulation in ophthalmology. In addition, simulation examination techniques, such as, use of OCT (optical coherence tomography), frequency doubling perimetry (FDP), and modified polarization tests were also included. In this review, we made a thorough literature search, and added our experiences to give the readers up-to-date information on malingering or simulation in ophthalmology. PMID:22553721

  18. Brief screening tests for the diagnosis of dementia: comparison with the mini-mental state exam.

    PubMed

    Kilada, Sandy; Gamaldo, Alyssa; Grant, Elizabeth A; Moghekar, Abhay; Morris, John C; O'Brien, Richard J

    2005-01-01

    Dementia is a common and under-diagnosed problem among the elderly. An accurate screening test would greatly aid the ability of physicians to evaluate dementia and memory problems in clinical practice. We sought to determine whether simple and brief psychometric tests perform similarly to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in screening for dementia. Using a retrospective analysis, a series of standard, brief, psychometric tests were compared with each other and to the MMSE as screening tests for very mild dementia, using DSM-III-R criterion as the gold standard. Two independent cohorts from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging and the Washington University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center were evaluated. We found that two brief and simple-to-administer tests appear to offer similar degrees of sensitivity and specificity to the MMSE. These are the recall of a five-item name and address, "John Brown 42 Market Street Chicago" and the one-minute verbal fluency for animals. Combining these two tests further improves sensitivity and specificity, surpassing the MMSE, to detect dementia in individuals with memory complaints. PMID:15764865

  19. New Evidence on Causal Relationship between Approximate Number System (ANS) Acuity and Arithmetic Ability in Elementary-School Students: A Longitudinal Cross-Lagged Analysis.

    PubMed

    He, Yunfeng; Zhou, Xinlin; Shi, Dexin; Song, Hairong; Zhang, Hui; Shi, Jiannong

    2016-01-01

    Approximate number system (ANS) acuity and mathematical ability have been found to be closely associated in recent studies. However, whether and how these two measures are causally related still remain less addressed. There are two hypotheses about the possible causal relationship: ANS acuity influences mathematical performances, or access to math education sharpens ANS acuity. Evidences in support of both hypotheses have been reported, but these two hypotheses have never been tested simultaneously. Therefore, questions still remain whether only one-direction or reciprocal causal relationships existed in the association. In this work, we provided a new evidence on the causal relationship between ANS acuity and arithmetic ability. ANS acuity and mathematical ability of elementary-school students were measured sequentially at three time points within one year, and all possible causal directions were evaluated simultaneously using cross-lagged regression analysis. The results show that ANS acuity influences later arithmetic ability while the reverse causal direction was not supported. Our finding adds a strong evidence to the causal association between ANS acuity and mathematical ability, and also has important implications for educational intervention designed to train ANS acuity and thereby promote mathematical ability. PMID:27462291

  20. New Evidence on Causal Relationship between Approximate Number System (ANS) Acuity and Arithmetic Ability in Elementary-School Students: A Longitudinal Cross-Lagged Analysis

    PubMed Central

    He, Yunfeng; Zhou, Xinlin; Shi, Dexin; Song, Hairong; Zhang, Hui; Shi, Jiannong

    2016-01-01

    Approximate number system (ANS) acuity and mathematical ability have been found to be closely associated in recent studies. However, whether and how these two measures are causally related still remain less addressed. There are two hypotheses about the possible causal relationship: ANS acuity influences mathematical performances, or access to math education sharpens ANS acuity. Evidences in support of both hypotheses have been reported, but these two hypotheses have never been tested simultaneously. Therefore, questions still remain whether only one-direction or reciprocal causal relationships existed in the association. In this work, we provided a new evidence on the causal relationship between ANS acuity and arithmetic ability. ANS acuity and mathematical ability of elementary-school students were measured sequentially at three time points within one year, and all possible causal directions were evaluated simultaneously using cross-lagged regression analysis. The results show that ANS acuity influences later arithmetic ability while the reverse causal direction was not supported. Our finding adds a strong evidence to the causal association between ANS acuity and mathematical ability, and also has important implications for educational intervention designed to train ANS acuity and thereby promote mathematical ability. PMID:27462291

  1. Mental Health Stigma Prevention: Pilot Testing a Novel, Language Arts Curriculum-Based Approach for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, Hannah L.; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Lippincott, Ann; Taylor, Zachary; Zheng, Jimmy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Researchers have emphasized the importance of integrating mental health education with academic curriculum. The focus of the current studies was "Mental Health Matters" (MHM), a mental health curriculum that is integrated with English language arts. It is taught by trained community member volunteers and aims to increase…

  2. Comparison of Mental Toughness and Power Test Performances in High-Level Kickboxers by Competitive Success

    PubMed Central

    Slimani, Maamer; Miarka, Bianca; Briki, Walid; Cheour, Foued

    2016-01-01

    Background Kickboxing is a high-intensity intermittent striking combat sport, which is characterized by complex skills and tactical key actions with short duration. Objectives The present study compared and verified the relationship between mental toughness (MT), countermovement jump (CMJ) and medicine ball throw (MBT) power tests by outcomes of high-level kickboxers during National Championship. Materials and Methods Thirty two high-level male kickboxers (winner = 16 and loser = 16: 21.2 ± 3.1 years, 1.73 ± 0.07 m, and 70.2 ± 9.4 kg) were analyzed using the CMJ, MBT tests and sports mental toughness questionnaire (SMTQ; based in confidence, constancy and control subscales), before the fights of the 2015 national championship (16 bouts). In statistical analysis, Mann-Withney test and a multiple linear regression were used to compare groups and to observe relationships, respectively, P ≤ 0.05. Results The present results showed significant differences between losers vs. winners, respectively, of total MT (7(7;8) vs. 11(10.2;11), confidence (3(3;3) vs. 4(4;4)), constancy (2(2;2) vs. 3(3;3)), control (2(2;3) vs. 4(4;4)) subscales and MBT (4.1(4;4.3) vs. 4.6(4.4;4.8)). The multiple linear regression showed a strong associations between MT results and outcome (r = 0.89), MBT (r = 0.84) and CMJ (r = 0.73). Conclusions The findings suggest that MT will be more predictive of performance in those sports and in the outcome of competition. PMID:27625755

  3. Comparison of Mental Toughness and Power Test Performances in High-Level Kickboxers by Competitive Success

    PubMed Central

    Slimani, Maamer; Miarka, Bianca; Briki, Walid; Cheour, Foued

    2016-01-01

    Background Kickboxing is a high-intensity intermittent striking combat sport, which is characterized by complex skills and tactical key actions with short duration. Objectives The present study compared and verified the relationship between mental toughness (MT), countermovement jump (CMJ) and medicine ball throw (MBT) power tests by outcomes of high-level kickboxers during National Championship. Materials and Methods Thirty two high-level male kickboxers (winner = 16 and loser = 16: 21.2 ± 3.1 years, 1.73 ± 0.07 m, and 70.2 ± 9.4 kg) were analyzed using the CMJ, MBT tests and sports mental toughness questionnaire (SMTQ; based in confidence, constancy and control subscales), before the fights of the 2015 national championship (16 bouts). In statistical analysis, Mann-Withney test and a multiple linear regression were used to compare groups and to observe relationships, respectively, P ≤ 0.05. Results The present results showed significant differences between losers vs. winners, respectively, of total MT (7(7;8) vs. 11(10.2;11), confidence (3(3;3) vs. 4(4;4)), constancy (2(2;2) vs. 3(3;3)), control (2(2;3) vs. 4(4;4)) subscales and MBT (4.1(4;4.3) vs. 4.6(4.4;4.8)). The multiple linear regression showed a strong associations between MT results and outcome (r = 0.89), MBT (r = 0.84) and CMJ (r = 0.73). Conclusions The findings suggest that MT will be more predictive of performance in those sports and in the outcome of competition.

  4. Lingual tactile acuity and food texture preferences among children and their mothers

    PubMed Central

    Lukasewycz, Laura D.; Mennella, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite anecdotal reports of children being more sensitive to texture than adults, and of texture being one of the main drivers of food aversions, there is a paucity of scientific knowledge on the influence of texture perception on food choice in children. The primary goals of this study were to assess the use of a modified letter-identification task to study lingual tactile acuity, one aspect of oral sensitivity, in children and to examine age-related differences in sensitivity. The secondary goal was to explore whether lingual tactile acuity and age relate to various measures of food choice and preference. To this end, children 7–10 years old (31 girls, 21 boys) and their mothers were tested using identical procedures. To assess lingual tactile acuity, children and mothers were asked to use the tips of their tongues to identify raised alphabetical letters of varying size (2.5–8.0 mm) on Teflon strips. To relate lingual tactile acuity to food texture preferences, a forced-choice questionnaire assessed preferences for foods similar in flavor but different in texture (e.g., smooth versus crunchy peanut butter). Children were able to complete the lingual acuity task as well as their mothers and took less time to assess each letter stimulus (p < 0.001); however, there were no age-related differences in lingual acuity (p = 0.14). Age, but not lingual acuity, related to food texture preferences: mothers preferred harder foods (p < 0.001) and those containing more particles (p < 0.04) than did children, although children‘s preferences became more adult-like with increasing age. The availability of a rapid, child-friendly method for assessing oral sensitivity opens up new possibilities of examining differences in oral tactile perceptions across the life span. That food preferences changed with age and were not related to oral sensitivity underscores the fact that factors such as experience, culture and family food practices have a significant impact on children

  5. Dynamic Visual Acuity and Landing Sickness in Crewmembers Returning from Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, M.J.F; Peters, B.T.; Reschke, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term exposure to microgravity causes sensorimotor adaptations that result in functional deficits upon returning to a gravitational environment. At landing the vestibular system and the central nervous system, responsible for coordinating head and eye movements, are adapted to microgravity and must re-adapt to the gravitational environment. This re-adaptation causes decrements in gaze control and dynamic visual acuity, with astronauts reporting oscillopsia and blurred vision. Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is assessed using an oscillating chair developed in the Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC. This chair is lightweight and easily portable for quick deployment in the field. The base of the chair is spring-loaded and allows for manual oscillation of the subject. Using a metronome, the chair is vertically oscillated plus or minus 2 cm at 2 Hz by an operator, to simulate walking. While the subject is being oscillated, they are asked to discern the direction of Landolt-C optotypes of varying sizes and record their direction using a gamepad. The visual acuity thresholds are determined using an algorithm that alters the size of the optotype based on the previous response of the subject using a forced-choice best parameter estimation that is able to rapidly converge on the threshold value. Visual acuity thresholds were determined both for static (seated) and dynamic (oscillating) conditions. Dynamic visual acuity is defined as the difference between the dynamic and static conditions. Dynamic visual acuity measures will be taken prior to flight (typically L-180, L-90, and L-60) and up to eight times after landing, including up to 3 times on R plus 0. Follow up measurements will be taken at R plus 1 (approximately 36 hours after landing). Long-duration International Space Station crewmembers will be tested once at the refueling stop in Europe and once again upon return to Johnson Space Center. In addition to DVA, subjective ratings of motion sickness will be recorded

  6. Instruments for predicting visual acuity. A clinical comparison.

    PubMed

    Spurny, R C; Zaldivar, R; Belcher, C D; Simmons, R J

    1986-02-01

    A series of 54 eyes in 50 patients had preoperative predictions of postoperative visual acuity, using both a white-light interferometer (Lotmar Visometer) and a Snellen chart projector (Guyton-Minkowski Potential Acuity Meter). The predicted vision by each instrument was compared with the actual postoperative vision. Forty eyes in 36 of these patients, 25 with concurrent eye disease, had cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation. Fifteen eyes in 15 patients, 11 with concurrent eye disease, had neodymium-YAG laser posterior capsulotomy. The Visometer gave more accurate predictions than the Potential Acuity Meter in cataract patients with open angle glaucoma, even with glaucomatous visual field loss, and in patients with a visual acuity of less than 20/400 due to advanced cataract formation.

  7. Blocks and Bodies: Sex Differences in a Novel Version of the Mental Rotations Test

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Gerianne M.; Evardone, Milagros

    2009-01-01

    A novel version of the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) that alternated the standard block figures with three-dimensional human figures was administered to 99 men and 129 women. Women and men differed predictably in their retrospective reports of childhood play and digit ratios, a putative measure of prenatal androgen action. Compared to the block figure items, human figure items on the modified MRT were associated with an improvement in performance in both sexes. However, consistent with the study hypothesis, the enhancing effect of the human figure condition on performance as measured by conventional scores was smaller in men compared to women and not at all evident in men when performance was measured by ratio scores. A closer inspection of the human figures effects on test scores showed performance in women improved for both male and female figure items. In contrast, relative to scores on block figure items, performance in men improved when stimuli were male figures but did not improve when stimuli were female figures. These results add to the evidence that the magnitude of sex differences in scores on the MRT may vary according to the test content and item properties. The findings suggest that online measures of cognitive processing in response to different classes of test stimuli (e.g., animate vs. inanimate objects, self-relevant vs. neutral stimuli) may prove useful in research aimed at understanding the hormonal and social factors contributing to the sex difference in performance on the MRT. PMID:18036595

  8. 49 CFR 242.117 - Vision and hearing acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... required in 29 CFR 1910.95(h) (OSHA); (2) As required in § 227.111 of this chapter; or (3) Conducted using... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vision and hearing acuity. 242.117 Section 242.117... Requirements § 242.117 Vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with a program...

  9. 49 CFR 242.117 - Vision and hearing acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... required in 29 CFR 1910.95(h) (OSHA); (2) As required in § 227.111 of this chapter; or (3) Conducted using... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vision and hearing acuity. 242.117 Section 242.117... Requirements § 242.117 Vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with a program...

  10. 49 CFR 242.117 - Vision and hearing acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... required in 29 CFR 1910.95(h) (OSHA); (2) As required in § 227.111 of this chapter; or (3) Conducted using... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vision and hearing acuity. 242.117 Section 242.117... Requirements § 242.117 Vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with a program...

  11. Foveal visual acuity is worse and shows stronger contour interaction effects for contrast-modulated than luminance-modulated Cs.

    PubMed

    Hairol, Mohd Izzuddin; Formankiewicz, Monika A; Waugh, Sarah J

    2013-05-01

    Contrast-modulated (CM) stimuli are processed by spatial mechanisms that operate at larger spatial scales than those processing luminance-modulated (LM) stimuli and may be more prone to deficits in developing, amblyopic, and aging visual systems. Understanding neural mechanisms of contour interaction or crowding will help in detecting disorders of spatial vision. In this study, contour interaction effects on visual acuity for LM and CM C and bar stimuli are assessed in normal foveal vision. In Experiment 1, visual acuity is measured for all-LM and all-CM stimuli, at ~3.5× above their respective modulation thresholds. In Experiment 2, visual acuity is measured for Cs and bars of different type (LM C with CM bars and vice versa). Visual acuity is degraded for CM compared with LM Cs (0.46 ± 0.04 logMAR vs. 0.18 ± 0.04 logMAR). With nearby bars, CM acuity is degraded further (0.23 ± 0.01 logMAR or ~2 lines on an acuity chart), significantly more than LM acuity (0.11 ± 0.01 logMAR, ~1 line). Contour interaction for CM stimuli extends over greater distances (arcmin) than it does for LM stimuli, but extents are similar with respect to acuities (~3.5× the C gap width). Contour interaction is evident when the Cs and bars are defined differently: it is stronger when an LM C is flanked by CM bars (0.17 ± 0.03 logMAR) than when a CM C is flanked by LM bars (0.08 ± 0.02 logMAR). Our results suggest that contour interaction for foveally viewed acuity stimuli involves feature integration, such that the outputs of receptive fields representing Cs and bars are combined. Contour interaction operates at LM and CM representational stages, it can occur across stage, and it is enhanced at the CM stage. Greater contour interaction for CM Cs and bars could hold value for visual acuity testing and earlier diagnosis of conditions for which crowding is important, such as in amblyopia.

  12. [Decrease of hearing acuity from use of portable headphones].

    PubMed

    Kawada, T; Koyama, H; Suzuki, S

    1990-01-01

    The association between headphone use and hearing acuity was studied among 155 medical students aged 22-29 years. Hearing levels were measured and subjects were classified into three groups: A: n = 14), off-line or portable headphone users (group B: n = 16), and the control group. Past or present headphone use frequency for group A and B is two or more times per week, with an average duration of 30-120 minutes per use. No significant differences between mean hearing acuity of the three groups were found by one-way analysis of variance. After standardization of the average hearing acuity of the control group to 0 dB, group A or B levels were plotted for each of the octave band frequencies. The mean hearing acuity at 4,000 Hz of group B showed a tendency of being lower than that of the control group. Further, percentages of group B members whose hearing acuity decreased 15, 25, 30 dB or more were significantly larger than those of the control. These results suggest that more than 10% of the young generation is at risk for damaged hearing acuity from use of portable headphones.

  13. Objective evaluation of the visual acuity in human eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales, M. A.; López-Olazagasti, E.; Ramírez-Zavaleta, G.; Varillas, G.; Tepichín, E.

    2009-08-01

    Traditionally, the quality of the human vision is evaluated by a subjective test in which the examiner asks the patient to read a series of characters of different sizes, located at a certain distance of the patient. Typically, we need to ensure a subtended angle of vision of 5 minutes, which implies an object of 8.8 mm high located at 6 meters (normal or 20/20 visual acuity). These characters constitute what is known as the Snellen chart, universally used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the human eyes. The mentioned process of identification of characters is carried out by means of the eye - brain system, giving an evaluation of the subjective visual performance. In this work we consider the eye as an isolated image-forming system, and show that it is possible to isolate the function of the eye from that of the brain in this process. By knowing the impulse response of the eye´s system we can obtain, in advance, the image of the Snellen chart simultaneously. From this information, we obtain the objective performance of the eye as the optical system under test. This type of results might help to detect anomalous situations of the human vision, like the so called "cerebral myopia".

  14. Effect of pupil size on dynamic visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Tetsuo; Nawa, Yoshiaki; Okamoto, Masahiro; Hara, Yoshiaki

    2007-02-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of pupil size on dynamic visual acuity (DVA). 60 young healthy men (M = 28.1 yr., SD = 3.9) with normal vision were divided into three age-matched groups by pupil size: dilated (n=20), unchanged (n=20), and constricted (n=20). DVA was measured binocularly with freehead viewing before and at 30 min. after each drop was instilled. Each of the three groups got a different amount. The sizes of the constricted, unchanged, and dilated pupils were 2.8 mm (SD = 0.5), 4.1 mm (SD = 0.3), and 7.8 mm (SD = 0.5), respectively. The pupil size x DVA interaction was significant (F(2,114)= 6.07). DVA in the constricted pupil decreased, but that in the dilated pupil increased (paired t test). DVA in the unchanged pupil did not change significantly (paired t test). Pupil size is possibly one of the factors which may affect DVA measurement.

  15. From innervation density to tactile acuity: 1. Spatial representation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paul B; Koerber, H Richard; Millecchia, Ronald

    2004-06-11

    We tested the hypothesis that the population receptive field representation (a superposition of the excitatory receptive field areas of cells responding to a tactile stimulus) provides spatial information sufficient to mediate one measure of static tactile acuity. In psychophysical tests, two-point discrimination thresholds on the hindlimbs of adult cats varied as a function of stimulus location and orientation, as they do in humans. A statistical model of the excitatory low threshold mechanoreceptive fields of spinocervical, postsynaptic dorsal column and spinothalamic tract neurons was used to simulate the population receptive field representations in this neural population of the one- and two-point stimuli used in the psychophysical experiments. The simulated and observed thresholds were highly correlated. Simulated and observed thresholds' relations to physiological and anatomical variables such as stimulus location and orientation, receptive field size and shape, map scale, and innervation density were strikingly similar. Simulated and observed threshold variations with receptive field size and map scale obeyed simple relationships predicted by the signal detection model, and were statistically indistinguishable from each other. The population receptive field representation therefore contains information sufficient for this discrimination. PMID:15140641

  16. [Amblyopia: reading speed in comparison with visual acuity for gratings, single Landolt Cs and series Landolt Cs].

    PubMed

    Bach, M; Strahl, P; Waltenspiel, S; Kommerell, G

    1990-01-01

    In the treatment of amblyopia in preschool children, a means of predicting later reading ability would be helpful. This prediction might be possible using a test for visual acuity where the results correlate with reading ability in adult patients with amblyopia. We measured the following four parameters in 18 experienced readers with strabismic amblyopia: (1) time spent reading ten lines of a standard text in one of three magnifications, (2) visual acuity for gratings, (3) visual acuity for single Landolt Cs, and (4) visual acuity for crowded Landolt Cs (one Landolt C flanked by two full rings on each side each at a distance of 2.6 min of arc). The reading text was presented on paper at a distance of 40 cm; the subject had a choice of three magnifications. The acuity tests were generated by a computer on a VDU at 4.6 m. The relative impairment of the amblyopic eye was defined as the quotient between the performance of the amblyopic and the good eye. In addition, the difference between the times spent reading the ten lines with the amblyopic and with the good eye was calculated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2272583

  17. [Amblyopia: reading speed in comparison with visual acuity for gratings, single Landolt Cs and series Landolt Cs].

    PubMed

    Bach, M; Strahl, P; Waltenspiel, S; Kommerell, G

    1990-01-01

    In the treatment of amblyopia in preschool children, a means of predicting later reading ability would be helpful. This prediction might be possible using a test for visual acuity where the results correlate with reading ability in adult patients with amblyopia. We measured the following four parameters in 18 experienced readers with strabismic amblyopia: (1) time spent reading ten lines of a standard text in one of three magnifications, (2) visual acuity for gratings, (3) visual acuity for single Landolt Cs, and (4) visual acuity for crowded Landolt Cs (one Landolt C flanked by two full rings on each side each at a distance of 2.6 min of arc). The reading text was presented on paper at a distance of 40 cm; the subject had a choice of three magnifications. The acuity tests were generated by a computer on a VDU at 4.6 m. The relative impairment of the amblyopic eye was defined as the quotient between the performance of the amblyopic and the good eye. In addition, the difference between the times spent reading the ten lines with the amblyopic and with the good eye was calculated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Dynamic visual acuity during passive head thrusts in canal planes.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Michael C; Migliaccio, Americo A; Della Santina, Charles C

    2006-12-01

    We sought to determine whether the dynamic visual acuity (DVA) test, which has been used to measure the function of the two horizontal semicircular canals (SCCs), could be adapted to measure the individual function of all six SCCs using transient, rapid, unpredictable head rotation stimuli (head thrusts) in the direction of maximum sensitivity of each SCC. We examined head-thrust DVA (htDVA) performance in 19 healthy control subjects, five patients before and six patients after plugging of one superior SCC for treatment of superior canal dehiscence, and two subjects with unilateral vestibular deafferentation (UVD) by vestibular neurectomy. We compared htDVA results for each SCC to vestibulo-ocular reflex gains measured using 3-D scleral coil recordings during a passive head-thrust-test paradigm. Individuals with normal vestibular function had similar htDVA scores for each of the six directions (canals) tested (mean 0.058 +/- 0.050 LogMAR). Individuals tested after surgical plugging of one superior SCC were similar to normal for all SCCs except the plugged SCC, which had significantly worse htDVA scores (mean 0.270 +/- 0.08 LogMAR). Individuals with UVD had significantly worse htDVA scores for head rotations maximally exciting any of the ipsilesional SCC (mean 0.317 +/- 0.129 LogMAR) and scores similar to normal subjects for contralesional rotations (0.063 +/- 0.051 LogMAR). These findings suggest that the htDVA test, which does not require scleral coil placement, magnetic field coils, or expensive oculography equipment, can provide a useful quantitative measure of individual SCC function.

  19. Using basketball test battery to monitor players with mental retardation across 2 sports seasons.

    PubMed

    Baldari, Carlo; Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Reis, Victor Machado; Guidetti, Laura

    2009-11-01

    Although sport for athletes with mental retardation (MR) is achieving an important role, literature concerning basketball test and training is still poor. The aims of this study were to assess basketball ability before (PRE) and after (POST) a 6-month training in athletes with MR across 2 sports seasons (ss) and to analyze the variation of basketball abilities by subjects' MR level. Fifteen trained basketball players with MR participated (11 men and 4 women; age range 19-43 years; MR: 3 Mild, 8 Moderate, 3 Severe, and 1 Profound). Athletes were tested PRE and POST a 6-month training during 2 following sports seasons (ss1 and ss2). The tests assessed 4 ability levels, each one characterized by the analysis of 4 fundamental areas (ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting), divided into 5 specific components. The athletes' global score improved after training in both ss1 (41.5 +/- 12.0 vs. 48.6 +/- 15.4; p < 0.01) and ss2 (41.7 +/- 12.4 vs. 50.8 +/- 16.2; p < 0.01). Levels II, III, and IV showed an increase both after each ss and the 2 following ss (p < 0.01). No significant difference was found between POST-ss1 and POST-ss2 due to score decrease during the resting period between the 2 ss. In both ss, global and level scores were negatively correlated to MR level indicating that athletes with a lower MR obtained higher ability scores. In conclusion, a 6-month training caused a general improvement, especially evident in levels II and III in both ss. Global and level scores were negatively correlated to MR level (p < 0.05) indicating that athletes with a lower MR obtained higher scores. Therefore, the basketball test battery could be useful for improving and monitoring training.

  20. Basketball ability testing and category for players with mental retardation: 8-month training effect.

    PubMed

    Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Guidetti, Laura

    2012-06-01

    Although sport for athletes with mental retardation (MR) is achieving an important role, the literature concerning basketball tests and training is still poor. The aims of this study were to verify whether the basketball test battery could be an appropriate modality to classify the players in the Promotion (Pro) category, to assess basketball abilities before (PRE) and after (POST) an 8-month training in players with MR in relation to Competitive (Comp) and Pro categories, to analyze the variation of specific basketball abilities based on subjects' MR diagnosis. Forty-one male basketball players with MR (17 Comp and 24 Pro; age range 18-45 years; MR: 15% mild, 54% moderate, 29% severe, and 2% profound) were assessed PRE and POST training through the basketball test battery, which assessed 4 ability levels of increasing difficulty (from I to IV), each one characterized by the analysis of fundamental areas (ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting). Level I was significantly changed after the intervention period regardless of the Category, whereas shooting was affected by the interaction between Category and Intervention. The results showed significant differences between categories in the scores of individual global, level I, level II, level III, and in all fundamental areas. Individual global score in both categories significantly increased. The players of Comp significantly improved in level III, in ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting scores. The players of Pro improved significantly in level II, in ball handling, reception, and passing scores. Individual global, ability levels I-III, and fundamental area scores were negatively correlated to the MR level indicating that the players with a lower MR obtained higher ability scores. In conclusion, it was found that the basketball test battery could be useful for improving and monitoring training in both Comp and Pro players.

  1. Community Mental Health Services for Hispanics: A Test of the Culture Compatibility Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Michael J.; Lasso, Bethsabe

    1992-01-01

    Among 161 Hispanic clients in the community mental health system of Seattle-King County (Washington), the dropout rate (after 1 session) was lower, and number of therapy sessions was greater for those who received services from Hispanic staff or at a Hispanic community mental health center than those who received services from non-Hispanic staff…

  2. Validating the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test with Persons Who Have a Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Thomas; Sherrer, Margaret V.; LaButti, Annamaria; Emrick, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Objective/Method: The use of brief, reliable, valid, and practical measures of substance use is critical for conducting individual assessments and program evaluation for integrated mental health-substance abuse services for persons with serious mental illness. This investigation examines the internal consistency reliability, concurrent validity,…

  3. Sensory evaluation of boar loins: trained assessors' olfactory acuity affects the perception of boar taint compounds.

    PubMed

    Meier-Dinkel, Lisa; Sharifi, Ahmad Reza; Tholen, Ernst; Frieden, Luc; Bücking, Mark; Wicke, Michael; Mörlein, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the impact of assessors' varying olfactory acuity on the perceived intensity of androstenone and skatole odour and flavour in boar loins. To discriminate sensitive (SENS) and highly sensitive (SENSHIGH) panellists, two levels of androstenone were used on smell strips. Sensitivity was defined as the correct identification of the androstenone strip in three replicate triangle tests. Judges then assessed loins from boars, castrated pigs and gilts. SENSHIGH assessors scored low-fat boar loins with 1.5 to 2.0μg of androstenone per gram of melted back fat which is significantly different from castrate and gilt loins for androstenone odour and flavour whereas SENS assessors were less discriminating. Panellists' olfactory acuity should thus be considered for selection and training. The presented paper strip system is suggested for objective screening and training purposes and to be used as quantitative references in descriptive analysis. PMID:23357575

  4. Development and Initial Psychometric Evaluation of the Post-Acute Acuity Rating for Children

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Jane E.; Dumas, Helene M.

    2015-01-01

    The Post-Acute Acuity Rating for Children (PAARC) is the first known acuity rating intended to reflect medical severity based on age, reason for admission, diagnoses, dependence in activities of daily living, and technology reliance for children admitted to post-acute care rehabilitation hospitals. Content validity was tested using an expert panel scoring the Content Validity Index (CVI). Concurrent validity was examined using clinician's opinion of acuity at admission, the Complexity Index, and All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Group (APR-DRG) codes. Predictive validity was examined with acute care readmission within 30 days. Interrater reliability was assessed using admission histories from closed cases. Content validity was established and concurrent validity was moderate to high with clinician opinion (rho = .76, p < .001), the Complexity Index (rho = .76, p < .001), and APR-DRGs (rho = .349, p = .001). Predictive validity was moderate (rho = .504, p = .005) and returns to acute care within 30 days. Interrater reliability was excellent (ICC = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.92–0.90, p < .001). Experts agreed that the PAARC's content is relevant, simple, and representative of the population. The PAARC measured well against indicators of medical complexity for pediatric outpatient care and medical record coding and was reliable between raters. This work supports proceeding with additional development and validity testing of the PAARC. PMID:26609433

  5. Visual Acuity of Simulated Thalamic Visual Prostheses in Normally Sighted Humans

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, Ailsa; Pezaris, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Simulation in normally sighted individuals is a crucial tool to evaluate the performance of potential visual prosthesis designs prior to human implantation of a device. Here, we investigated the effects of electrode count on visual acuity, learning rate and response time in 16 normally sighted subjects using a simulated thalamic visual prosthesis, providing the first performance reports for thalamic designs. A new letter recognition paradigm using a multiple-optotype two-alternative forced choice task was adapted from the Snellen eye chart, and specifically devised to be readily communicated to both human and non-human primate subjects. Validation of the method against a standard Snellen acuity test in 21 human subjects showed no significant differences between the two tests. The novel task was then used to address three questions about simulations of the center-weighted phosphene patterns typical of thalamic designs: What are the expected Snellen acuities for devices with varying numbers of contacts, do subjects display rapid adaptation to the new visual modality, and can response time in the task provide clues to the mechanisms of perception in low-resolution artificial vision? Population performance (hit rate) was significantly above chance when viewing Snellen 20/200 optotypes (Log MAR 1.0) with 370 phosphenes in the central 10 degrees of vision, ranging to Snellen 20/800 (Log MAR 1.6) with 25 central phosphenes. Furthermore, subjects demonstrated learning within the 1–2 hours of task experience indicating the potential for an effective rehabilitation and possibly better visual performance after a longer period of training. Response time differences suggest that direct letter perception occurred when hit rate was above 75%, whereas a slower strategy like feature-based pattern matching was used in conditions of lower relative resolution. As pattern matching can substantially boost effective acuity, these results suggest post-implant therapy should specifically

  6. Comparative studies of color fields, visual acuity fields, and movement perception limits among varsity athletes and non-varsity groups.

    PubMed

    Mizusawa, K; Sweeting, R L; Knouse, S B

    1983-06-01

    This paper examined effects of sports practice on patterns of color fields, limits of peripheral movement perception, and visual acuity field by comparing varsity ball players and non-varsity control groups. The first study measured extent of color fields and limits of horizontal and vertical meridians for peripheral movement perception of 139 college students. The second study tested visual acuity fields of female and male basketball players and female and male controls. The first study indicated that athletes had wider limits for horizontal movement perception, while the non-athletes had better vertical movement perception limits. Basketball players demonstrated color fields and limits for peripheral movement perception superior to those of soccer players. In the second study, athletes did not have any wider visual acuity fields than non-athletes, but their movement-perception limits were significantly wider than those of non-athletes.

  7. Quality of life in relation to future mental health problems and offending: Testing the good lives model among detained girls.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Lore; Hoeve, Machteld; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Colins, Olivier F

    2016-06-01

    Detained girls bear high levels of criminal behavior and mental health problems that are likely to persist into young adulthood. Research with these girls began primarily from a risk management perspective, whereas a strength-based empowering perspective may increase knowledge that could improve rehabilitation. This study examines detained girls' quality of life (QoL) in relation to future mental health problems and offending, thereby testing the strength-based good lives model of offender rehabilitation (GLM). At baseline, 95 girls (Mage = 16.25) completed the World Health Organization QoL instrument to assess their QoL prior to detention in the domains of physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. Six months after discharge, mental health problems and offending were assessed by self-report measures. Structural equation models were conducted to test GLM's proposed (in)direct pathways from QoL (via mental health problems) toward offending. Although we could not find support for GLM's direct negative pathway from QoL to offending, our findings did provide support for GLM's indirect negative pathway via mental health problems to future offending. In addition, we found a direct positive pathway from detained girls' satisfaction with their social relationships to offending after discharge. The current findings support the potential relevance of addressing detained girls' QoL, pursuing the development of new skills, and supporting them to build constructive social contacts. Our findings, however, also show that clinicians should not only focus on strengths but that detecting and modifying mental health problems in this vulnerable group is also warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26844913

  8. Alcohol and marijuana effects on static visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Adams, A J; Brown, B; Flom, M C; Jones, R T; Jampolsky, A

    1975-11-01

    Static visual acuity was measured at two contrast levels (12 and 49%) in ten subjects in a double blind experiment involving five drug conditions of alcohol and marijuana (0.5 ml and 1.0 ml/kg body weight of 95% ethanol, 8 and 15 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and a placebo). We found no statistically significant change in static visual acuity for any of the dose levels at any of the measurement time up to six hours following drug ingestion; this is sharply contrasted with the marked decrements in acuity which were found in the same subjects under the same drug conditions when the targets were in motion and required corrdinated eye movements for their resolution.

  9. Visual acuity trade-offs and microhabitat-driven adaptation of searching behaviour in psyllids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Aphalaridae).

    PubMed

    Farnier, Kevin; Dyer, Adrian G; Taylor, Gary S; Peters, Richard A; Steinbauer, Martin J

    2015-05-15

    Insects have evolved morphological and physiological adaptations in response to selection pressures inherent to their ecology. Consequently, visual performance and acuity often significantly vary between different insect species. Whilst psychophysics has allowed for the accurate determination of visual acuity for some Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera, very little is known about other insect taxa that cannot be trained to positively respond to a given stimulus. In this study, we demonstrate that prior knowledge of insect colour preferences can be used to facilitate acuity testing. We focused on four psyllid species (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Aphalaridae), namely Ctenarytaina eucalypti, Ctenarytaina bipartita, Anoeconeossa bundoorensis and Glycaspis brimblecombei, that differ in their colour preferences and utilization of different host-plant modules (e.g. apical buds, stems, leaf lamellae) and tested their visual acuity in a modified Y-maze adapted to suit psyllid searching behaviour. Our study revealed that psyllids have visual acuity ranging from 6.3 to 8.7 deg. Morphological measurements for different species showed a close match between inter-ommatidial angles and behaviourally determined visual angles (between 5.5 and 6.6 deg) suggesting detection of colour stimuli at the single ommatidium level. Whilst our data support isometric scaling of psyllids' eyes for C. eucalypti, C. bipartita and G. brimblecombei, a morphological trade-off between light sensitivity and spatial resolution was found in A. bundoorensis. Overall, species whose microhabitat preferences require more movement between modules appear to possess superior visual acuity. The psyllid searching behaviours that we describe with the help of tracking software depict species-specific strategies that presumably evolved to optimize searching for food and oviposition sites.

  10. The Effect of Zeaxanthin on the Visual Acuity of Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Saidi, Eric A.; Davey, Pinakin Gunvant; Cameron, D. Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Oral supplementation of carotenoids such as zeaxanthin or lutein which naturally occur in human retina have been shown to improve vision and prevent progression of damage to advanced AMD in some studies. The zebrafish eye shares many physiological similarities with the human eye and is increasingly being used as model for vision research. We hypothesized that injection of zeaxanthin into the zebrafish eye would improve the visual acuity of the zebrafish over time. Visual acuity, calculated in cycles per degree, was measured in adult zebrafish to establish a consistent baseline using the optokinetic response. Zeaxanthin dissolved into phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or PBS only was injected into the anterior chamber of the right and left eyes of the Zebrafish. Visual acuities were measured at 1 week and 3, 8 and 12 weeks post-injection to compare to baseline values. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare visual acuities between fish injected with PBS and zeaxanthin. A significant improvement in visual acuity, 14% better than before the injection (baseline levels), was observed one week after injection with zeaxanthin (p = 0.04). This improvement peaked at more than 30% for some fish a few weeks after the injection and improvement in vision persisted at 3 weeks after injection (p = 0.006). The enhanced visual function was not significantly better than baseline at 8 weeks (p = 0.19) and returned to baseline levels 12 weeks after the initial injection (p = 0.50). Zeaxanthin can improve visual acuity in zebrafish eyes. Further studies are required to develop a better understanding of the role zeaxanthin and other carotenoids play during normal visual function. PMID:26267864

  11. Measurement of Vibration Detection Threshold and Tactile Spatial Acuity in Human Subjects.

    PubMed

    Moshourab, Rabih; Frenzel, Henning; Lechner, Stefan; Haseleu, Julia; Bégay, Valérie; Omerbašić, Damir; Lewin, Gary R

    2016-01-01

    Tests that allow the precise determination of psychophysical thresholds for vibration and grating orientation provide valuable information about mechanosensory function that are relevant for clinical diagnosis as well as for basic research. Here, we describe two psychophysical tests designed to determine the vibration detection threshold (automated system) and tactile spatial acuity (handheld device). Both procedures implement a two-interval forced-choice and a transformed-rule up and down experimental paradigm. These tests have been used to obtain mechanosensory profiles for individuals from distinct human cohorts such as twins or people with sensorineural deafness. PMID:27684317

  12. Higher Cognitive Function in Elderly Individuals with Previous Cataract Surgery: Cross-Sectional Association Independent of Visual Acuity in the HEIJO-KYO Cohort.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Kimie; Obayashi, Kenji; Saeki, Keigo; Tone, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Nishi, Tomo; Morikawa, Masayuki; Kurumatani, Norio; Ogata, Nahoko

    2016-06-01

    Cataract surgery improves visual acuity and drastically increases the capacity for light reception to the retina. Although previous studies suggested that both light exposure and visual acuity were associated with cognitive function, the relationships between cataract surgery, visual acuity, and cognitive function have not been evaluated in large populations. In this cross-sectional study, we measured cognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination and best-corrected visual acuity in pseudophakic (previous cataract surgery) and phakic (no previous cataract surgery) elderly individuals. Of 945 participants (mean age 71.7 years), 166 (17.6%) had pseudophakia and 317 (33.5%) had impaired cognitive function (score ≤26). The pseudophakic group showed significantly better visual acuity than the phakic group (p = 0.003) and lower age-adjusted odds ratio (ORs) for cognitive impairment (OR 0.66; p = 0.038). Consistently, in multivariate logistic regression models, after adjusting for confounding factors, including visual acuity and socioeconomic status, ORs for cognitive impairment were significantly lower in the pseudophakic group than in the phakic group (OR 0.64; 95% confidence interval 0.43-0.96; p = 0.031). This association remained significant in sensitivity analysis, excluding participants with low cognitive score ≤23 (n = 36). In conclusion, in a general elderly population, prevalence of cognitive impairment was significantly lower in pseudophakic individuals independently of visual acuity. The association was also independent of several major causes of cognitive impairment such as aging, gender, obesity, socioeconomic status, hypertension, diabetes, sleep disturbances, depressive symptoms, and physical inactivity.

  13. Human Time-Frequency Acuity Beats the Fourier Uncertainty Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheim, Jacob N.; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

    2013-01-01

    The time-frequency uncertainty principle states that the product of the temporal and frequency extents of a signal cannot be smaller than 1/(4π). We study human ability to simultaneously judge the frequency and the timing of a sound. Our subjects often exceeded the uncertainty limit, sometimes by more than tenfold, mostly through remarkable timing acuity. Our results establish a lower bound for the nonlinearity and complexity of the algorithms employed by our brains in parsing transient sounds, rule out simple “linear filter” models of early auditory processing, and highlight timing acuity as a central feature in auditory object processing.

  14. Visual acuity and pupillary reactions after peribulbar anaesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    Talks, S J; Chong, N H; Gibson, J M; Francis, I R

    1994-01-01

    The effect of peribulbar anaesthesia on optic nerve function in 20 patients, before and after cataract surgery, was measured. All the patients had decreased visual acuity. Five (25%) had no perception of light. Seventeen (85%) developed a relative afferent pupil defect (RAPD). No patients saw the operating instruments. Seven (35%) had improved visual acuity immediately postoperatively. Patients should be warned that they may lose vision completely on being given a peribulbar anaesthetic; however their vision will improve, but not necessarily immediately, postoperatively. Examination for an RAPD is a good method of providing reassurance that the operating instruments will not be seen. PMID:8110698

  15. Human time-frequency acuity beats the Fourier uncertainty principle.

    PubMed

    Oppenheim, Jacob N; Magnasco, Marcelo O

    2013-01-25

    The time-frequency uncertainty principle states that the product of the temporal and frequency extents of a signal cannot be smaller than 1/(4 π). We study human ability to simultaneously judge the frequency and the timing of a sound. Our subjects often exceeded the uncertainty limit, sometimes by more than tenfold, mostly through remarkable timing acuity. Our results establish a lower bound for the nonlinearity and complexity of the algorithms employed by our brains in parsing transient sounds, rule out simple "linear filter" models of early auditory processing, and highlight timing acuity as a central feature in auditory object processing.

  16. The Influence of Auditory Acuity on Acoustic Variability and the Use of Motor Equivalence during Adaptation to a Perturbation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Jana; Ghosh, Satrajit; Hoole, Philip; Matthies, Melanie; Tiede, Mark; Perkell, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to relate speakers' auditory acuity for the sibilant contrast, their use of motor equivalent trading relationships in producing the sibilant /[esh]/, and their produced acoustic distance between the sibilants /s/ and /[esh]/. Specifically, the study tested the hypotheses that during adaptation to a perturbation…

  17. Pilot test of cooperative learning format for training mental health researchers and black community leaders in partnership skills.

    PubMed Central

    Laborde, Danielle J.; Brannock, Kristen; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; Parrish, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    To support reduction of racial disparities in mental health diagnosis and treatment, mental health researchers and black community-based organization (CBO) leaders need training on how to engage in collaborative research partnerships. In this study, we pilot tested a series of partnership skills training modules for researchers and CBO leaders in a collaborative learning format. Two different sets of three modules, designed for separate training of researchers and CBO leaders, covered considering, establishing and managing mental health research partnerships and included instructions for self-directed activities and discussions. Eight CBO leaders participated in 10 sessions, and six researchers participated in eight sessions. The effectiveness of the training content and format was evaluated through standardized observations, focus group discussions, participant evaluation forms and retrospective pre-/posttests to measure perceived gains in knowledge. Participants generally were satisfied with the training experience and gained new partnership knowledge and skills. Although the CBO leaders were more engaged in the cooperative learning process, this training format appealed to both audiences. Pilot testing demonstrated that: 1) our modules can equip researchers and CBO leaders with new partnership knowledge and skills and 2) the cooperative learning format is a well-received and suitable option for mental health research partnership training. PMID:18229772

  18. Diminutive Digits Discern Delicate Details: Fingertip Size and the Sex Difference in Tactile Spatial Acuity

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Ryan M.; Hackeman, Erik

    2009-01-01

    We have observed that passive tactile spatial acuity, the ability to resolve the spatial structure of surfaces pressed upon the skin, differs subtly but consistently between the sexes, with women able to perceive finer surface detail than men. Eschewing complex central explanations, we hypothesized that this sex difference in somatosensory perception might result from simple physical differences between the fingers of women and men. To investigate, we tested 50 women and 50 men on a tactile grating orientation task and measured the surface area of the participants' index fingertips. In subsets of participants, we additionally measured finger skin compliance and optically imaged the fingerprint microstructure to count sweat pores. We show here that tactile perception improves with decreasing finger size, and that this correlation fully explains the better perception of women, who on average have smaller fingers than men. Indeed, when sex and finger size are both considered in statistical analyses, only finger size predicts tactile acuity. Thus, a man and a woman with fingers of equal size will, on average, enjoy equal tactile acuity. We further show that sweat pores, and presumably the Merkel receptors beneath them, are packed more densely in smaller fingers. PMID:20016091

  19. Manual aiming in healthy aging: does proprioceptive acuity make the difference?

    PubMed

    Helsen, Werner F; Van Halewyck, Florian; Levin, Oron; Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Lavrysen, Ann; Elliott, Digby

    2016-04-01

    The present study examines whether non-active older adults are more dependent on visual information when executing aiming movements and whether age-related declines in proprioception play a mediating role herein. Young (N = 40) and older adults (N = 38) were divided into physically active and non-active subgroups based on self-reported sports participation levels. In experiment 1, participants executed wrist-aiming movements with and without visual feedback. In experiment 2, passive proprioceptive acuity was assessed using wrist motion detection and position matching tests. Results showed similar aiming accuracy across age groups both with and without visual feedback, but older adults exhibited longer movement times, prolonged homing-in phase, and made more corrective submovements. Passive proprioceptive acuity was significantly affected by physical activity level and age, with participants in the active group scoring better than their non-active peers. However, these declines did not predict performance changes on the aiming task. Taken together, our observations suggest that decline in proprioceptive acuity did not predict performance changes on the aiming task and older adults were able to compensate for their decreased motion and position sense when allowed sufficient time. In line with these observations, we proposed that older adults are able to compensate for their decline in proprioception by increasing their reliance on predictive models.

  20. Vision-guided ocular growth in a mutant chicken model with diminished visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Ritchey, Eric R; Zelinka, Christopher; Tang, Junhua; Liu, Jun; Code, Kimberly A; Petersen-Jones, Simon; Fischer, Andy J

    2012-09-01

    Visual experience is known to guide ocular growth. We tested the hypothesis that vision-guided ocular growth is disrupted in a model system with diminished visual acuity. We examine whether ocular elongation is influenced by form-deprivation (FD) and lens-imposed defocus in the Retinopathy, Globe Enlarged (RGE) chicken. Young RGE chicks have poor visual acuity, without significant retinal pathology, resulting from a mutation in guanine nucleotide-binding protein β3 (GNB3), also known as transducin β3 or Gβ3. The mutation in GNB3 destabilizes the protein and causes a loss of Gβ3 from photoreceptors and ON-bipolar cells (Ritchey et al., 2010). FD increased ocular elongation in RGE eyes in a manner similar to that seen in wild-type (WT) eyes. By comparison, the excessive ocular elongation that results from hyperopic defocus was increased, whereas myopic defocus failed to significantly decrease ocular elongation in RGE eyes. Brief daily periods of unrestricted vision interrupting FD prevented ocular elongation in RGE chicks in a manner similar to that seen in WT chicks. Glucagonergic amacrine cells differentially expressed the immediate early gene Egr1 in response to growth-guiding stimuli in RGE retinas, but the defocus-dependent up-regulation of Egr1 was lesser in RGE retinas compared to that of WT retinas. We conclude that high visual acuity, and the retinal signaling mediated by Gβ3, is not required for emmetropization and the excessive ocular elongation caused by FD and hyperopic defocus. However, the loss of acuity and Gβ3 from RGE retinas causes enhanced responses to hyperopic defocus and diminished responses to myopic defocus.

  1. Vision-guided ocular growth in a mutant chicken model with diminished visual acuity

    PubMed Central

    Ritchey, Eric R.; Zelinka, Christopher; Tang, Junhua; Liu, Jun; Code, Kimberly A.; Petersen-Jones, Simon; Fischer, Andy J.

    2012-01-01

    Visual experience is known to guide ocular growth. We tested the hypothesis that vision-guided ocular growth is disrupted in a model system with diminished visual acuity. We examine whether ocular elongation is influenced by form-deprivation (FD) and lens-imposed defocus in the Retinopathy, Globe Enlarged (RGE) chicken. Young RGE chicks have poor visual acuity, without significant retinal pathology, resulting from a mutation in guanine nucleotide-binding protein β3 (GNB3), also known as transducin β3 or Gβ3. The mutation in GNB3 destabilizes the protein and causes a loss of Gβ3 from photoreceptors and ON-bipolar cells. (Ritchey et al. 2010)FD increased ocular elongation in RGE eyes in a manner similar to that seen in wild-type (WT) eyes. By comparison, the excessive ocular elongation that results from hyperopic defocus was increased, whereas myopic defocus failed to significantly decrease ocular elongation in RGE eyes. Brief daily periods of unrestricted vision interrupting FD prevented ocular elongation in RGE chicks in a manner similar to that seen in WT chicks. Glucagonergic amacrine cells differentially expressed the immediate early gene Egr1 in response to growth-guiding stimuli in RGE retinas, but the defocus-dependent up-regulation of Egr1 was lesser in RGE retinas compared to that of WT retinas. We conclude that high visual acuity, and the retinal signaling mediated by Gβ3, is not required for emmetropization and the excessive ocular elongation caused by FD and hyperopic defocus. However, the loss of acuity and Gβ3 from RGE retinas causes enhanced responses to hyperopic defocus and diminished responses to myopic defocus. PMID:22824538

  2. Comparison of myocardial ischemia during intense mental stress using flight simulation in airline pilots with coronary artery disease to that produced with conventional mental and treadmill exercise stress testing.

    PubMed

    Doorey, Andrew; Denenberg, Barry; Sagar, Vidya; Hanna, Tracy; Newman, Jack; Stone, Peter H

    2011-09-01

    Mental stress increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although laboratory mental stress often causes less myocardial ischemia than exercise stress (ES), it is unclear whether mental stress is intrinsically different or differences are due to less hemodynamic stress with mental stress. We sought to evaluate the hemodynamic and ischemic response to intense realistic mental stress created by modern flight simulators and compare this response to that of exercise treadmill testing and conventional laboratory mental stress (CMS) testing in pilots with coronary disease. Sixteen airline pilots with angiographically documented coronary disease and documented myocardial ischemia during ES were studied using maximal treadmill ES, CMS, and aviation mental stress (AMS) testing. AMS testing was done in a sophisticated simulator using multiple system failures as stressors. Treadmill ES testing resulted in the highest heart rate, but AMS caused a higher blood pressure response than CMS. Maximal rate-pressure product was not significantly different between ES and AMS (25,646 vs 23,347, p = 0.08), although these were higher than CMS (16,336, p <0.0001). Despite similar hemodynamic stress induced by ES and AMS, AMS resulted in significantly less ST-segment depression and nuclear ischemia than ES. Differences in induction of ischemia by mental stress compared to ES do not appear to be due to the creation of less hemodynamic stress. In conclusion, even with equivalent hemodynamic stress, intense realistic mental stress induced by flight simulators results in significantly less myocardial ischemia than ES as measured by ST-segment depression and nuclear ischemia.

  3. How well do you see what you hear? The acuity of visual-to-auditory sensory substitution

    PubMed Central

    Haigh, Alastair; Brown, David J.; Meijer, Peter; Proulx, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Sensory substitution devices (SSDs) aim to compensate for the loss of a sensory modality, typically vision, by converting information from the lost modality into stimuli in a remaining modality. “The vOICe” is a visual-to-auditory SSD which encodes images taken by a camera worn by the user into “soundscapes” such that experienced users can extract information about their surroundings. Here we investigated how much detail was resolvable during the early induction stages by testing the acuity of blindfolded sighted, naïve vOICe users. Initial performance was well above chance. Participants who took the test twice as a form of minimal training showed a marked improvement on the second test. Acuity was slightly but not significantly impaired when participants wore a camera and judged letter orientations “live”. A positive correlation was found between participants' musical training and their acuity. The relationship between auditory expertise via musical training and the lack of a relationship with visual imagery, suggests that early use of a SSD draws primarily on the mechanisms of the sensory modality being used rather than the one being substituted. If vision is lost, audition represents the sensory channel of highest bandwidth of those remaining. The level of acuity found here, and the fact it was achieved with very little experience in sensory substitution by naïve users is promising. PMID:23785345

  4. Dynamic Visual Acuity of Varsity Women Volleyball and Basketball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, G. S. Don; Kreighbaum, Ellen

    1977-01-01

    Comparison of the dynamic visual acuity (DVA) scores of high-ability and low-ability female basketball players, and between these two groups and a group of female volleyball players, resulted in the conclusion that there were no differences in the mean DVA scores between any of the groups. (MB)

  5. A Comparison of Patched HOTV Visual Acuity and Photoscreening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Rachel; Clausen, Michelle M.; Bates, Janice; Stark, Lee; Arnold, Koni K.; Arnold, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Early detection of significant vision problems in children is a high priority for pediatricians and school nurses. Routine vision screening is a necessary part of that detection and has traditionally involved acuity charts. However, photoscreening in which "red eye" is elicited to show whether each eye is focusing may outperform routine acuity…

  6. On Using Vernier Acuity to Assess Magnocellular Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skottun, Bernt C.; Skoyles, John R.

    2010-01-01

    A recent study [Keri, S., & Benedek, G. (2009). Visual pathway deficit in female fragile x premutation carriers: A potential endophenotype. "Brain and Cognition", 69, 291-295] has found Vernier acuity deficiencies together with contrast sensitivity defects consistent with a magnocellular deficit in female fragile x premutation carriers. This may…

  7. The Approximate Number System Acuity Redefined: A Diffusion Model Approach

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joonkoo; Starns, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    While all humans are capable of non-verbally representing numerical quantity using so-called the approximate number system (ANS), there exist considerable individual differences in its acuity. For example, in a non-symbolic number comparison task, some people find it easy to discriminate brief presentations of 14 dots from 16 dots while others do not. Quantifying individual ANS acuity from such a task has become an essential practice in the field, as individual differences in such a primitive number sense is thought to provide insights into individual differences in learned symbolic math abilities. However, the dominant method of characterizing ANS acuity—computing the Weber fraction (w)—only utilizes the accuracy data while ignoring response times (RT). Here, we offer a novel approach of quantifying ANS acuity by using the diffusion model, which accounts both accuracy and RT distributions. Specifically, the drift rate in the diffusion model, which indexes the quality of the stimulus information, is used to capture the precision of the internal quantity representation. Analysis of behavioral data shows that w is contaminated by speed-accuracy tradeoff, making it problematic as a measure of ANS acuity, while drift rate provides a measure more independent from speed-accuracy criterion settings. Furthermore, drift rate is a better predictor of symbolic math ability than w, suggesting a practical utility of the measure. These findings demonstrate critical limitations of the use of w and suggest clear advantages of using drift rate as a measure of primitive numerical competence. PMID:26733929

  8. Acuity systems dialogue and patient classification system essentials.

    PubMed

    Harper, Kelle; McCully, Crystal

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining resources for quality patient care is a major responsibility of nurse leaders and requires accurate information in the political world of budgeting. Patient classification systems (PCS) assist nurse managers in controlling cost and improving patient care while appropriately using financial resources. This paper communicates acuity systems development, background, flaws, and components while discussing a few tools currently available. It also disseminates the development of a new acuity tool, the Patient Classification System. The PCS tool, developed in a small rural hospital, uses 5 broad concepts: (1) medications, (2) complicated procedures, (3) education, (4) psychosocial issues, and (5) complicated intravenous medications. These concepts embrace a 4-tiered scale that differentiates significant patient characteristics and assists in staffing measures for equality in patient staffing and improving quality of care and performance. Data obtained through use of the PCS can be used by nurse leaders to effectively and objectively lobby for appropriate patient care resources. Two questionnaires distributed to registered nurses on a medical-surgical unit evaluated the nurses' opinion of the 5 concepts and the importance for establishing patient acuity for in-patient care. Interrater reliability among nurses was 87% with the author's acuity tool. PMID:17909428

  9. Motor Testing at 1 Year Improves the Prediction of Motor and Mental Outcome at 2 Years after Perinatal Hypoxic-Ischaemic Encephalopathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Schie, Petra Em; Becher, Jules G.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Barkhof, Frederik; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M.; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the predictive value of motor testing at 1 year for motor and mental outcome at 2 years after perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) in term neonates. Method: Motor and mental outcome at 2 years was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID-II) in 32 surviving children (20 males, 12…

  10. A Meta-Analysis on Gender Differences in Mental Rotation Ability Measured by the Purdue Spatial Visualization Tests: Visualization of Rotations (PSVT:R)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Yukiko; Yoon, So Yoon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the magnitude of gender difference in three-dimensional (3-D) mental rotation ability and to investigate how factors related to test administration conditions play a role in varying gender difference effect sizes and threatening validity. Individuals' 3-D mental rotation ability was measured by the…

  11. The Two Sides of Sensory-Cognitive Interactions: Effects of Age, Hearing Acuity, and Working Memory Span on Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    DeCaro, Renee; Peelle, Jonathan E; Grossman, Murray; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Reduced hearing acuity is among the most prevalent of chronic medical conditions among older adults. An experiment is reported in which comprehension of spoken sentences was tested for older adults with good hearing acuity or with a mild-to-moderate hearing loss, and young adults with age-normal hearing. Comprehension was measured by participants' ability to determine the agent of an action in sentences that expressed this relation with a syntactically less complex subject-relative construction or a syntactically more complex object-relative construction. Agency determination was further challenged by inserting a prepositional phrase into sentences between the person performing an action and the action being performed. As a control, prepositional phrases of equivalent length were also inserted into sentences in a non-disruptive position. Effects on sentence comprehension of age, hearing acuity, prepositional phrase placement and sound level of stimulus presentations appeared only for comprehension of sentences with the more syntactically complex object-relative structures. Working memory as tested by reading span scores accounted for a significant amount of the variance in comprehension accuracy. Once working memory capacity and hearing acuity were taken into account, chronological age among the older adults contributed no further variance to comprehension accuracy. Results are discussed in terms of the positive and negative effects of sensory-cognitive interactions in comprehension of spoken sentences and lend support to a framework in which domain-general executive resources, notably verbal working memory, play a role in both linguistic and perceptual processing. PMID:26973557

  12. The Two Sides of Sensory-Cognitive Interactions: Effects of Age, Hearing Acuity, and Working Memory Span on Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    DeCaro, Renee; Peelle, Jonathan E; Grossman, Murray; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Reduced hearing acuity is among the most prevalent of chronic medical conditions among older adults. An experiment is reported in which comprehension of spoken sentences was tested for older adults with good hearing acuity or with a mild-to-moderate hearing loss, and young adults with age-normal hearing. Comprehension was measured by participants' ability to determine the agent of an action in sentences that expressed this relation with a syntactically less complex subject-relative construction or a syntactically more complex object-relative construction. Agency determination was further challenged by inserting a prepositional phrase into sentences between the person performing an action and the action being performed. As a control, prepositional phrases of equivalent length were also inserted into sentences in a non-disruptive position. Effects on sentence comprehension of age, hearing acuity, prepositional phrase placement and sound level of stimulus presentations appeared only for comprehension of sentences with the more syntactically complex object-relative structures. Working memory as tested by reading span scores accounted for a significant amount of the variance in comprehension accuracy. Once working memory capacity and hearing acuity were taken into account, chronological age among the older adults contributed no further variance to comprehension accuracy. Results are discussed in terms of the positive and negative effects of sensory-cognitive interactions in comprehension of spoken sentences and lend support to a framework in which domain-general executive resources, notably verbal working memory, play a role in both linguistic and perceptual processing.

  13. The Two Sides of Sensory–Cognitive Interactions: Effects of Age, Hearing Acuity, and Working Memory Span on Sentence Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    DeCaro, Renee; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Grossman, Murray; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Reduced hearing acuity is among the most prevalent of chronic medical conditions among older adults. An experiment is reported in which comprehension of spoken sentences was tested for older adults with good hearing acuity or with a mild-to-moderate hearing loss, and young adults with age-normal hearing. Comprehension was measured by participants’ ability to determine the agent of an action in sentences that expressed this relation with a syntactically less complex subject-relative construction or a syntactically more complex object-relative construction. Agency determination was further challenged by inserting a prepositional phrase into sentences between the person performing an action and the action being performed. As a control, prepositional phrases of equivalent length were also inserted into sentences in a non-disruptive position. Effects on sentence comprehension of age, hearing acuity, prepositional phrase placement and sound level of stimulus presentations appeared only for comprehension of sentences with the more syntactically complex object-relative structures. Working memory as tested by reading span scores accounted for a significant amount of the variance in comprehension accuracy. Once working memory capacity and hearing acuity were taken into account, chronological age among the older adults contributed no further variance to comprehension accuracy. Results are discussed in terms of the positive and negative effects of sensory–cognitive interactions in comprehension of spoken sentences and lend support to a framework in which domain-general executive resources, notably verbal working memory, play a role in both linguistic and perceptual processing. PMID:26973557

  14. A phytochemical-rich diet may explain the absence of age-related decline in visual acuity of Amazonian hunter-gatherers in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    London, Douglas S; Beezhold, Bonnie

    2015-02-01

    Myopia is absent in undisturbed hunter-gatherers but ubiquitous in modern populations. The link between dietary phytochemicals and eye health is well established, although transition away from a wild diet has reduced phytochemical variety. We hypothesized that when larger quantities and greater variety of wild, seasonal phytochemicals are consumed in a food system, there will be a reduced prevalence of degenerative-based eye disease as measured by visual acuity. We compared food systems and visual acuity across isolated Amazonian Kawymeno Waorani hunter-gatherers and neighboring Kichwa subsistence agrarians, using dietary surveys, dietary pattern observation, and Snellen Illiterate E visual acuity examinations. Hunter-gatherers consumed more food species (130 vs. 63) and more wild plants (80 vs. 4) including 76 wild fruits, thereby obtaining larger variety and quantity of phytochemicals than agrarians. Visual acuity was inversely related to age only in agrarians (r = -.846, P < .001). As hypothesized, when stratified by age (<40 and ≥ 40 years), Mann-Whitney U tests revealed that hunter-gatherers maintained high visual acuity throughout life, whereas agrarian visual acuity declined (P values < .001); visual acuity of younger participants was high across the board, however, did not differ between groups (P > .05). This unusual absence of juvenile-onset vision problems may be related to local, organic, whole food diets of subsistence food systems isolated from modern food production. Our results suggest that intake of a wider variety of plant foods supplying necessary phytochemicals for eye health may help maintain visual acuity and prevent degenerative eye conditions as humans age. PMID:25636674

  15. A Test of the Inventory of Attitudes towards Seeking Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Philip; Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Shevlin, Mark; Maguire, Rebecca; Morley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the construct validity, composite reliability and concurrent validity of the "Inventory of attitudes towards seeking mental health services" (IASMHS). A large sample of Irish police officers (N = 331) participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the three-factor structure of the scale, while…

  16. Large State-Level Fluctuations in Mental Retardation Classifications Related to Introduction of Renormed Intelligence Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scullin, Matthew H.

    2006-01-01

    Oppositely valenced forces may be at work to influence rates of placement of children into mental retardation programs. On one hand, educational policies regarding intellectual disability and concerns about overrepresentation of minorities in special education may contribute to lower placement rates; on the other hand, more difficult intelligence…

  17. Combinatorial Versus Individual Gene Pharmacogenomic Testing in Mental Health: A Perspective on Context and Implications on Clinical Utility.

    PubMed

    Winner, Joel G; Dechairo, Bryan

    2015-12-01

    Pharmacogenomic testing in mental health has not yet reached its full potential. An important reason for this involves differentiating individual gene testing (IGT) from a combinatorial pharmacogenomic (CPGx) approach. With IGT, any given gene reveals specific information that may, in turn, pertain to a smaller number of medications. CPGx approaches attempt to encompass more complete genomic information by combining moderate risk alleles and synergistically viewing the results from the perspective of the medication. This manuscript will discuss IGT and CPGx approaches to psychiatric pharmacogenomics and review the clinical validity, clinical utility, and economic parameters of both. PMID:26604861

  18. Combinatorial Versus Individual Gene Pharmacogenomic Testing in Mental Health: A Perspective on Context and Implications on Clinical Utility

    PubMed Central

    Winner, Joel G.; Dechairo, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacogenomic testing in mental health has not yet reached its full potential. An important reason for this involves differentiating individual gene testing (IGT) from a combinatorial pharmacogenomic (CPGx) approach. With IGT, any given gene reveals specific information that may, in turn, pertain to a smaller number of medications. CPGx approaches attempt to encompass more complete genomic information by combining moderate risk alleles and synergistically viewing the results from the perspective of the medication. This manuscript will discuss IGT and CPGx approaches to psychiatric pharmacogenomics and review the clinical validity, clinical utility, and economic parameters of both. PMID:26604861

  19. THE VISUAL ACUITY AND INTENSITY DISCRIMINATION OF DROSOPHILA

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Selig; Wald, George

    1934-01-01

    Drosophila possesses an inherited reflex response to a moving visual pattern which can be used to measure its capacity for intensity discrimination and its visual acuity at different illuminations. It is found that these two properties of vision run approximately parallel courses as functions of the prevailing intensity. Visual acuity varies with the logarithm of the intensity in much the same sigmoid way as in man, the bee, and the fiddler crab. The resolving power is very poor at low illuminations and increases at high illuminations. The maximum visual acuity is 0.0018, which is 1/1000 of the maximum of the human eye and 1/10 that of the bee. The intensity discrimination of Drosophila is also extremely poor, even at its best. At low illuminations for two intensities to be recognized as different, the higher must be nearly 100 times the lower. This ratio decreases as the intensity increases, and reaches a minimum of 2.5 which is maintained at the highest intensities. The minimum value of ΔI/I for Drosophila is 1.5, which is to be compared with 0.25 for the bee and 0.006 for man. An explanation of the variation of visual acuity with illumination is given in terms of the variation in number of elements functional in the retinal mosaic at different intensities, this being dependent on the general statistical distribution of thresholds in the ommatidial population. Visual acuity is thus determined by the integral form of this distribution and corresponds to the total number of elements functional. The idea that intensity discrimination is determined by the differential form of this distribution—that is, that it depends on the rate of entrance of functional elements with intensity—is shown to be untenable in the light of the correspondence of the two visual functions. It is suggested that, like visual acuity, intensity discrimination may also have to be considered as a function of the total number of elements active at a given intensity. PMID:19872798

  20. Mental health disparities research: the impact of within and between group analyses on tests of social stress hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Sharon; Meyer, Ilan H

    2010-04-01

    Social stress models are the predominant theoretical frame for studies of the relationship between social statuses and mental health (Dressler, Oths, & Gravlee, 2005; Horwitz, 1999). These models propose that prejudice, discrimination and related social ills exert an added burden on socially disadvantaged populations (populations subjected to stigma, prejudice and discrimination) that can generate mental health problems. Researchers have used a variety of methodological approaches to study this hypothesis. In this paper we argue that researchers have not paid sufficient attention to the implications of this methodological variability, particularly the distinction between studies of within-group and studies of between-groups variation, in interpreting empirical tests of social stress theory. To fully evaluate the evidence, we need to carefully consider the convergence and divergence of results across diverse methodologies. PMID:20100631

  1. [Relation between hearing acuity and individual diurnal rhythm of body temperature].

    PubMed

    Karnicki, C

    1989-01-01

    The author examined the circadian rhythm of body temperature and acuity of hearing in two groups each of 15 persons. The highest acuity of hearing was discovered in the night when the body temperature was the lowest. The lowest acuity of hearing was in the day with the highest body temperature.

  2. Prospective Evaluation of Visual Acuity Assessment: A Comparison of Snellen Versus ETDRS Charts in Clinical Practice (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Peter K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to prospectively compare visual acuity (VA) scores obtained with Snellen charts versus Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) charts in a “real world” retinal practice, and second, to see if there was a difference in visual acuity measurements obtained with ETDRS charts starting at 4 or 2 meters. Methods: Prospective, consecutive evaluation of patients who underwent best-corrected visual acuity testing of their right eye performed at a single seating by the same experienced, certified vision examiner in the same room with standardized low light conditions using a projected Snellen chart at 20 feet, and two different back-illuminated ETDRS charts placed 4 and 2 meters from the patient. Results: One hundred sixty-three eyes were included in the study. The mean Snellen VA was 0.67 logMAR (20/94), ETDRS VA at 4 meters was 0.54 logMAR (~20/69), and ETDRS VA at 2 meters was 0.51 logMAR (~20/65). The mean difference was 6.5 letters better on the ETDRS chart (P=.000000001). As the VA worsened, there was increased variability between the charts and the mean discrepancy between charts also increased. Subgroup analysis revealed the greatest difference between charts was in the poor vision subgroup (<20/200) with a difference of 0.2 logMAR (10 letters; P=.0000002). Patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) had the greatest disparity on vision testing, but patients with dry AMD and diabetic retinopathy also exhibited significant differences. Conclusions: Visual acuity scores were significantly better on ETDRS charts compared to Snellen charts. The difference was greatest with poor visual acuity (<20/200) and in patients with exudative AMD. Thus, caution should be exercised when comparing data using the different charts. PMID:20126505

  3. Effect of ethanol on dynamic visual acuity during vertical body oscillation in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Schmäl, F; Kunz, R; Ortmann, C; Stoll, W; Nieschalk, M; Fechner, G

    2000-11-01

    Visual orientation is the most important sensory input during locomotion (e.g. walking, driving a car, riding a bicycle). We investigated dynamic visual acuity (DVA) during vertical body-oscillations (amplitude 5 cm; frequency 1.5 Hz) in 12 healthy subjects before and twice after ethanol consumption. During oscillation, vertical eye movements were recorded under two test conditions: with eyes closed (EC) and during DVA testing. A significant increase in vertical eye-amplitude after ethanol ingestion occurred only during EC tests, as a possible sign of vestibular hyperreaction. During vestibular stimulation alone (EC), ethanol did not affect the phase shift between stimulus and eye movements. However, when the subjects were given an additional visual stimulus (DVA), the post-alcohol phase shift rose significantly. Surprisingly, the post-alcohol phase shift values for the two test conditions showed no significant differences. After ethanol ingestion we found no changes in static visual acuity but a significant loss of DVA. Volunteers with a change of DVA threshold (DVAT) showed significantly (P = 0.004) higher post-alcoholic changes in the phase shift. In summary, low doses of ethanol disturbed the visually guided oculomotor response during fixation of an earth-fixed target while the observer was subject to linear vertical acceleration. This effect led to an increasing delay between the beginning of body and eye movements. The consequence was an increasing phase shift and thus a decrease in DVA during whole-body oscillation which was comparable to movements during human locomotion.

  4. Evaluation of visual acuity with Gen 3 night vision goggles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur; Kaiser, Mary K.

    1994-01-01

    Using laboratory simulations, visual performance was measured at luminance and night vision imaging system (NVIS) radiance levels typically encountered in the natural nocturnal environment. Comparisons were made between visual performance with unaided vision and that observed with subjects using image intensification. An Amplified Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS6) binocular image intensifier was used. Light levels available in the experiments (using video display technology and filters) were matched to those of reflecting objects illuminated by representative night-sky conditions (e.g., full moon, starlight). Results show that as expected, the precipitous decline in foveal acuity experienced with decreasing mesopic luminance levels is effectively shifted to much lower light levels by use of an image intensification system. The benefits of intensification are most pronounced foveally, but still observable at 20 deg eccentricity. Binocularity provides a small improvement in visual acuity under both intensified and unintensified conditions.

  5. Accommodation, Acuity, and their Relationship to Emmetropization in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Mutti, Donald O.; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Jones, Lisa A.; Friedman, Nina E.; Frane, Sara L.; Lin, Wendy K.; Moeschberger, Melvin L.; Zadnik, Karla

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relationship between accommodation, visual acuity, and emmetropization in human infancy. Methods Defocus at distance and near (57cm) was assessed using Mohindra and dynamic retinoscopy, respectively, in 262 normal birthweight infants at 3, 9, and 18 months of age. Preferential looking provided acuity data at the same ages. The spherical equivalent refractive error was measured by cycloplegic retinoscopy (cyclopentolate 1%). Results Univariate linear regression analyses showed no associations between the change in refractive error and defocus at distance or near. Change in refractive error was linearly related to the accommodative response at distance (R2 = 0.17, p<0.0001) and near (R2 = 0.13, p<0.0001). The ten subjects with the poorest emmetropization relative to the change predicted by the linear effects of their refractive error had higher average levels of hyperopic defocus at distance and near (p-values <0.043). Logistic regression showed a decrease in the odds of reaching +2.00D or less hyperopia by 18 months with increasing levels of hyperopia at 3 months, or if Mohindra retinoscopy was myopic combined with acuity better than the median level of 1.25 logMAR (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.78 (95% CI = 0.68, 0.88)). Conclusions The level of cycloplegic refractive error was the best single factor for predicting emmetropization by 18 months of age, with smaller contributions from visual acuity and Mohindra retinoscopy. The lack of correlation between defocus and change in refractive error does not support a simple model of emmetropization in response to the level of hyperopic defocus. Infants were capable of maintaining accurate average levels of accommodation across a range of moderate hyperopic refractive errors at 3 months of age. The association between the change in refractive error and accommodative response suggests that the amount of accommodation is a plausible visual signal for emmetropization. PMID

  6. Crowding is proportional to visual acuity in young and aging eyes.

    PubMed

    Yehezkel, Oren; Sterkin, Anna; Lev, Maria; Polat, Uri

    2015-01-01

    Spatial crowding decreases object recognition and conscious visual perception in clutter. In a previous study we used brief presentation times to reveal the effects of a crowded presentation in the fovea. Here we aimed to test the relationships between varying visual acuity (VA) and crowding in the fovea, under the assumption that in uncorrected presbyopia, the processing is relatively normal, whereas the retinal input is blurred. We tested whether normal participants whose near VA is gradually reduced due to age-related deterioration (presbyopia, or "aging eye") will show an acuity-dependent increase in foveal crowding. We used brief presentations and acuity-threshold letter targets in order to magnify the crowding-effect amplitude in the fovea. A total of 195 participants with an age range of 20-68 years and an average of 44.3 ± 11.7 years (M ± SD) were divided into four age groups, all without any optical correction for the near distance. Our findings show that crowding is proportional to VA. This proportionality is affected by VA-age dependency, with a nonlinear S-shaped pattern: A steep VA reduction begins to develop, which is compatible with the normal onset age of presbyopia symptoms and a saturation in the VA-age dependency in the oldest age group, for which we propose a VA-eccentricity account. Finally, there is a high variance in the crowding amplitude in the young, even before the onset age of presbyopia symptoms, suggesting crowding conditions with limited presentation times as a highly sensitive measure of VA, which predicts visual performance in complex tasks, such as reading.

  7. Hypoxia impairs visual acuity in snapper (Pagrus auratus).

    PubMed

    Robinson, Esme; Jerrett, Alistair; Black, Suzanne; Davison, William

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the effect of environmental hypoxia on vision in snapper (Pagrus auratus). Juvenile snapper inhabit estuarine environments where oxygen conditions fluctuate on a seasonal basis. Optomotor experiments demonstrated that visual acuity is impaired by environmental hypoxia, but not until levels approach the critical oxygen tension (P crit) of this species (around 25% air-saturated seawater). In 100, 80, and 60% air-saturated seawater, a positive optomotor response was present at a minimum separable angle (M SA) of 1°. In 40% air-saturated seawater, vision was partially impaired with positive responses at M SAs of 2° and above. However, in 25% air-saturated seawater, visual acuity was seriously impaired, with positive responses only present at M SAs of 6° and above. Snapper were found to possess a choroid rete, facilitating the maintenance of high ocular oxygen partial pressures (PO2) during normoxia and moderate hypoxia (PO2, between 269 and 290 mmHg). However, at 40 and 25% water oxygen saturation, ocular PO2 was reduced to below 175 mmHg, which is perhaps linked to impairment of visual acuity in these conditions. The ability to preserve visual function during moderate hypoxia is beneficial for the maintenance of a visual lifestyle in the fluctuating oxygen environments of estuaries.

  8. Effects of horizontal acceleration on human visual acuity and stereopsis.

    PubMed

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Tsai, Ming-Ling; Chang, Wei-Kang; Yang, Tzu-Hung; Yauan, Chien-Han; Wang, Chih-Hung; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Wu, Yi-Chang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of horizontal acceleration on human visual acuity and stereopsis is demonstrated in this study. Twenty participants (mean age 22.6 years) were enrolled in the experiment. Acceleration from two different directions was performed at the Taiwan High-Speed Rail Laboratory. Gx and Gy (< and >0.1 g) were produced on an accelerating platform where the subjects stood. The visual acuity and stereopsis of the right eye were measured before and during the acceleration. Acceleration <0.1 g in the X- or Y-axis did not affect dynamic vision and stereopsis. Vision decreased (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.25 logMAR) and stereopsis declined significantly (mean from 40 s to 60.2 s of arc) when Gx > 0.1 g. Visual acuity worsened (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.19 logMAR) and poor stereopsis was noted (mean from 40 s to 50.2 s of arc) when Gy > 0.1 g. The effect of acceleration from the X-axis on the visual system was higher than that from the Y-axis. During acceleration, most subjects complained of ocular strain when reading. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the exact levels of visual function loss during Gx and Gy. PMID:25607601

  9. Effects of horizontal acceleration on human visual acuity and stereopsis.

    PubMed

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Tsai, Ming-Ling; Chang, Wei-Kang; Yang, Tzu-Hung; Yauan, Chien-Han; Wang, Chih-Hung; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Wu, Yi-Chang

    2015-01-19

    The effect of horizontal acceleration on human visual acuity and stereopsis is demonstrated in this study. Twenty participants (mean age 22.6 years) were enrolled in the experiment. Acceleration from two different directions was performed at the Taiwan High-Speed Rail Laboratory. Gx and Gy (< and >0.1 g) were produced on an accelerating platform where the subjects stood. The visual acuity and stereopsis of the right eye were measured before and during the acceleration. Acceleration <0.1 g in the X- or Y-axis did not affect dynamic vision and stereopsis. Vision decreased (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.25 logMAR) and stereopsis declined significantly (mean from 40 s to 60.2 s of arc) when Gx > 0.1 g. Visual acuity worsened (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.19 logMAR) and poor stereopsis was noted (mean from 40 s to 50.2 s of arc) when Gy > 0.1 g. The effect of acceleration from the X-axis on the visual system was higher than that from the Y-axis. During acceleration, most subjects complained of ocular strain when reading. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the exact levels of visual function loss during Gx and Gy.

  10. Effects of Horizontal Acceleration on Human Visual Acuity and Stereopsis

    PubMed Central

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Tsai, Ming-Ling; Chang, Wei-Kang; Yang, Tzu-Hung; Yauan, Chien-Han; Wang, Chih-Hung; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Wu, Yi-Chang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of horizontal acceleration on human visual acuity and stereopsis is demonstrated in this study. Twenty participants (mean age 22.6 years) were enrolled in the experiment. Acceleration from two different directions was performed at the Taiwan High-Speed Rail Laboratory. Gx and Gy (< and >0.1 g) were produced on an accelerating platform where the subjects stood. The visual acuity and stereopsis of the right eye were measured before and during the acceleration. Acceleration <0.1 g in the X- or Y-axis did not affect dynamic vision and stereopsis. Vision decreased (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.25 logMAR) and stereopsis declined significantly (mean from 40 s to 60.2 s of arc) when Gx > 0.1 g. Visual acuity worsened (mean from 0.02 logMAR to 0.19 logMAR) and poor stereopsis was noted (mean from 40 s to 50.2 s of arc) when Gy > 0.1 g. The effect of acceleration from the X-axis on the visual system was higher than that from the Y-axis. During acceleration, most subjects complained of ocular strain when reading. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the exact levels of visual function loss during Gx and Gy. PMID:25607601

  11. Electrocardiographic markers of ischemia during mental stress testing in postinfarction patients. Role of body surface mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Bosimini, E.; Galli, M.; Guagliumi, G.; Giubbini, R.; Tavazzi, L. )

    1991-04-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease, radionuclide investigations have documented a high incidence of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in the absence of significant electrocardiographic changes and/or angina. To investigate the causes of the low electrocardiographic sensitivity, we recorded body surface maps during mental arithmetic in 22 normal volunteers and 37 postinfarction patients with residual exercise ischemia. Myocardial perfusion was studied with thallium-201 or technetium-99 (SESTAMIBI) planar scans. In 14 patients, body surface maps were also recorded during atrial pacing at the heart rate values achieved during mental stress. While taking the body surface maps, the area from J point to 80 msec after this point (ST-80) was analyzed by integral maps, difference maps, and departure maps. The body surface mapping criteria for ischemia were a new negative area on the integral maps, a negative potential of more than 2 SD from mean normal values on the difference maps, and a negative departure index of more than 2. Scintigraphy showed asymptomatic myocardial hypoperfusion in 33 patients. Eight patients had significant ST segment depression. The ST-80 integral and difference maps identified 17 ischemic patients. Twenty-four patients presented abnormal departure maps. One patient presented ST depression and abnormal body surface maps without reversible tracer defect. In 14 of 14 patients, atrial pacing did not reproduce the body surface map abnormalities. The analyses of the other electrocardiographic variables showed that in patients with mental stress-induced perfusion defects, only changes of T apex-T offset (aT-eT) interval in Frank leads and changes of maximum negative potential value of aT-eT integral maps significantly differed from those of normal subjects.

  12. The Systematic Medical Appraisal, Referral and Treatment (SMART) Mental Health Project: Development and Testing of Electronic Decision Support System and Formative Research to Understand Perceptions about Mental Health in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Maulik, Pallab K; Tewari, Abha; Devarapalli, Siddhardha; Kallakuri, Sudha; Patel, Anushka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Common mental disorders (CMD) such as depression, suicidal risk and emotional/medically unexplained complaints affect a large number of people in India, but few receive appropriate care. Key reasons for this include few trained mental health professionals and stigma associated with mental health. A potential approach to address poor access to care is by training village healthcare workers in providing basic mental health care, and harnessing India’s vast mobile network to support such workers using mobile-based applications. We propose an intervention to implement such an approach that incorporates the use of mobile-based electronic decision support systems (EDSS) to provide mental health services for CMD, combined with a community-based anti-stigma campaign. This will be implemented and evaluated across 42 villages in Andhra Pradesh, a south Indian state. This paper discusses the development and testing of the EDSS, and the formative research that informed the anti-stigma campaign. Materials and Methods The development of the EDSS used an iterative process that was validated against clinical diagnosis. A mixed methods approach tested the user acceptability of the EDSS. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews provided community-level perceptions about mental health. This study involved 3 villages and one primary health centre. Results The EDSS application was found to be acceptable, but some modifications were needed. The community lacked adequate knowledge about CMD and its treatment and there was stigma associated with mental illness. Faith and traditional healers were considered to be important mental health service providers. Discussion A number of barriers and facilitators were identified in implementing the intervention analysed in a framework using Andersen’s behavioural model of health services use. Conclusion The findings assisted with refining the intervention prior to large-scale implementation and evaluation. PMID:27732652

  13. Impact on stereo-acuity of two presbyopia correction approaches: monovision and small aperture inlay

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Enrique J.; Schwarz, Christina; Prieto, Pedro M.; Manzanera, Silvestre; Artal, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Some of the different currently applied approaches that correct presbyopia may reduce stereovision. In this work, stereo-acuity was measured for two methods: (1) monovision and (2) small aperture inlay in one eye. When performing the experiment, a prototype of a binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer was employed. The system allowed simultaneous measurement and manipulation of the optics in both eyes of a subject. The apparatus incorporated two programmable spatial light modulators: one phase-only device using liquid crystal on silicon technology for wavefront manipulation and one intensity modulator for controlling the exit pupils. The prototype was also equipped with a stimulus generator for creating retinal disparity based on two micro-displays. The three-needle test was programmed for characterizing stereo-acuity. Subjects underwent a two-alternative forced-choice test. The following cases were tested for the stimulus placed at distance: (a) natural vision; (b) 1.5 D monovision; (c) 0.75 D monovision; (d) natural vision and small pupil; (e) 0.75 D monovision and small pupil. In all cases the standard pupil diameter was 4 mm and the small pupil diameter was 1.6 mm. The use of a small aperture significantly reduced the negative impact of monovision on stereopsis. The results of the experiment suggest that combining micro-monovision with a small aperture, which is currently being implemented as a corneal inlay, can yield values of stereoacuity close to those attained under normal binocular vision. PMID:23761846

  14. Charles Bonnet syndrome and visual acuity--the involvement of dynamic or acute sensory deprivation.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Yasuko; Terao, Takeshi; Ibi, Kenji; Nakamura, Jun; Tawara, Akihiko

    2004-12-01

    A 61-year-old patient suffered from Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) while his visual acuity declined, whereas CBS subsided after he became blind. These findings suggest that reduction of visual acuity (dynamic or acute impairment) has a greater impact on the onset of CBS than low visual acuity (static or chronic impairment) per se in some patients. They may also explain why patients with low visual acuity do not always suffer from CBS. Although further studies are required, the present case highlights the importance of the differentiation between lowering and low visual acuity in the etiology of CBS.

  15. Effect of Myopic Defocus on Visual Acuity after Phakic Intraocular Lens Implantation and Wavefront-guided Laser in Situ Keratomileusis

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Kazutaka; Shimizu, Kimiya; Igarashi, Akihito; Kawamorita, Takushi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of myopic defocus on visual acuity after phakic intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (wfg-LASIK). Our prospective study comprised thirty eyes undergoing posterior chamber phakic IOL implantation and 30 eyes undergoing wfg-LASIK. We randomly measured visual acuity under myopic defocus after cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic correction. We also calculated the modulation transfer function by optical simulation and estimated visual acuity from Campbell & Green’s retinal threshold curve. Visual acuity in the phakic IOL group was significantly better than that in the wfg-LASIK group at myopic defocus levels of 0, –1, and –2 D (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.02, Mann-Whitney U-test), but not at a defocus of –3 D (p = 0.30). Similar results were also obtained in a cycloplegic condition. Decimal visual acuity values at a myopic defocus of 0, −1, −2, and -3 D by optical simulation were estimated to be 1.95, 1.21, 0.97, and 0.75 in the phakic IOL group, and 1.39, 1.11, 0.94, and 0.71 in the wfg-LASIK group, respectively. From clinical and optical viewpoints, phakic IOL implantation was superior to wfg-LASIK in terms of the postoperative visual performance, even in the presence of low to moderate myopic regression. PMID:25994984

  16. The effect of zinc deficiency on salt taste acuity, preference, and dietary sodium intake in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Mi; Kim, Miyeon; Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Soon Bae; Chang, Jai Won; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2016-07-01

    Introduction High sodium intake is the main cause of fluid overload in hemodialysis (HD) patients, leading to increased cardiovascular mortality. High sodium intake is known to be associated with low salt taste acuity and/or high preference. As the zinc status could influence taste acuity, we analyzed the effect of zinc deficiency on salt taste acuity, preference, and dietary sodium intake in HD patients. Methods A total of 77 HD patients was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Zinc deficiency was defined as serum zinc level with below 70 µg/mL. The patients were divided into two groups based on serum zinc level. Salt taste acuity and preference were determined by a sensory test using varying concentrations of NaCl solution, and dietary sodium intake was estimated using 3-day dietary recall surveys. Findings The mean salt recognition threshold and salt taste preference were significantly higher in the zinc deficient group than in the non-zinc deficient group. And there was significant positive correlation between salt taste preference and dietary sodium intake in zinc deficient group (r = 0.43, P = 0.002). Although, the dietary sodium intake showed a high tendency with no significance (P = 0.052), interdialytic weight gain was significantly higher in the zinc deficient group than in the non-zinc deficient group (2.68 ± 1.02 kg vs. 3.18 ± 1.02 kg; P = 0.047). Discussion Zinc deficiency may be related to low salt taste acuity and high salt preference, leading to high dietary sodium intake in HD patients.

  17. Are Individual Differences in Reading Speed Related to Extrafoveal Visual Acuity and Crowding?

    PubMed Central

    Frömer, Romy; Dimigen, Olaf; Niefind, Florian; Krause, Niels; Kliegl, Reinhold; Sommer, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Readers differ considerably in their speed of self-paced reading. One factor known to influence fixation durations in reading is the preprocessing of words in parafoveal vision. Here we investigated whether individual differences in reading speed or the amount of information extracted from upcoming words (the preview benefit) can be explained by basic differences in extrafoveal vision—i.e., the ability to recognize peripheral letters with or without the presence of flanking letters. Forty participants were given an adaptive test to determine their eccentricity thresholds for the identification of letters presented either in isolation (extrafoveal acuity) or flanked by other letters (crowded letter recognition). In a separate eye-tracking experiment, the same participants read lists of words from left to right, while the preview of the upcoming words was manipulated with the gaze-contingent moving window technique. Relationships between dependent measures were analyzed on the observational level and with linear mixed models. We obtained highly reliable estimates both for extrafoveal letter identification (acuity and crowding) and measures of reading speed (overall reading speed, size of preview benefit). Reading speed was higher in participants with larger uncrowded windows. However, the strength of this relationship was moderate and it was only observed if other sources of variance in reading speed (e.g., the occurrence of regressive saccades) were eliminated. Moreover, the size of the preview benefit—an important factor in normal reading—was larger in participants with better extrafoveal acuity. Together, these results indicate a significant albeit moderate contribution of extrafoveal vision to individual differences in reading speed. PMID:25789812

  18. Are individual differences in reading speed related to extrafoveal visual acuity and crowding?

    PubMed

    Frömer, Romy; Dimigen, Olaf; Niefind, Florian; Krause, Niels; Kliegl, Reinhold; Sommer, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Readers differ considerably in their speed of self-paced reading. One factor known to influence fixation durations in reading is the preprocessing of words in parafoveal vision. Here we investigated whether individual differences in reading speed or the amount of information extracted from upcoming words (the preview benefit) can be explained by basic differences in extrafoveal vision--i.e., the ability to recognize peripheral letters with or without the presence of flanking letters. Forty participants were given an adaptive test to determine their eccentricity thresholds for the identification of letters presented either in isolation (extrafoveal acuity) or flanked by other letters (crowded letter recognition). In a separate eye-tracking experiment, the same participants read lists of words from left to right, while the preview of the upcoming words was manipulated with the gaze-contingent moving window technique. Relationships between dependent measures were analyzed on the observational level and with linear mixed models. We obtained highly reliable estimates both for extrafoveal letter identification (acuity and crowding) and measures of reading speed (overall reading speed, size of preview benefit). Reading speed was higher in participants with larger uncrowded windows. However, the strength of this relationship was moderate and it was only observed if other sources of variance in reading speed (e.g., the occurrence of regressive saccades) were eliminated. Moreover, the size of the preview benefit--an important factor in normal reading--was larger in participants with better extrafoveal acuity. Together, these results indicate a significant albeit moderate contribution of extrafoveal vision to individual differences in reading speed.

  19. Lumbar tactile acuity is near identical between sides in healthy pain-free participants.

    PubMed

    Wand, Benedict Martin; Catley, Mark Jon; Luomajoki, Hannu Antero; O'Sullivan, Kieran James; Di Pietro, Flavia; O'Connell, Neil Edward; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2014-10-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that alterations in brain structure and function are a feature of chronic back pain. Tactile acuity is considered a clinical signature of primary somatosensory representation and offers a simple measure of cortical reorganisation. Clinical interpretation of test scores from an individual patient is hampered by variance in published normative values and less than ideal inter-rater reliability. These problems might be mitigated in people with unilateral back pain by using the patient as their own control and comparing tactile acuity at the painful site to performance at the corresponding position on the non-painful side. The first step in exploring this approach is to quantify the normal side-to-side difference in healthy populations. We pooled data from three previous studies that measured lumbar tactile acuity bilaterally in healthy controls using similar protocols. We calculated the mean and variance of the absolute error between sides, the standard error of measurement and the reliable change index (RCI). The mean difference between sides was 3.2 mm (±5.2) when assessed vertically and 1.9 mm (±3.2) when assessed horizontally. The standard error of measurement was 4.2 mm when assessed vertically and 2.7 mm when assessed horizontally. The RCI suggests that differences of greater than 13 mm when assessed horizontally and 17 mm when assessed vertically equate to 95% confidence that a difference truly exists. Several assumptions related to the application of this approach need to be investigated further.

  20. The Concept of Visual Acuity Ratio to the Maximum Level of Individual Visual Acuity—The Evaluation Method of Background Luminance and Visual Distance on Visibility Taking into Account of Individual Visual Acuity—

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akizuki, Yuki; Inoue, Youko

    We use the maximum level of individual visual acuity (MVA) as an index for the individual visual ability. Also, we define the concept of the ratio of visual acuity under various environmental conditions for the MVA as Visual Acuity Ratio (VAR), in order to describe differences between individual visibilities. An experiment was carried out using various levels of background luminance and visual distance. The visual acuity of subjects in two age groups (Young and Aged) was measured by using Landolt’s eye chart (luminance contrast: 0.93). The Aged subjects’ vision was corrected by two kinds of spectacles: ones for myopia / presbyopia. Under conditions providing sufficient visual acuity, the subjects’ order of individual visual acuity was unchanged. Therefore, MVA can be used as an index for the visual ability of the individual. Regardless of corrected conditions, the individual visual acuity reaches the maximum level under 800cd/m2 and the corrected position. The results of the eyesight test can be used as a substitution for MVA. Visual acuity is changing under environmental conditions, and a degree of the changes varies with age, corrected conditions, and differences in visual acuity. Under the corrected position, the relationship between background luminance and VAR is constant regardless of age group, corrected conditions and differences of visual acuity. The relationship between visual distance and VAR differs by age and corrected conditions. However, in the neighborhood of the corrected position, the relationship between visual distance and VAR is constant regardless of differences between individual visibilities. The concept of VAR is applicable to past studies.

  1. Validation of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test in a Swedish sample of suspected offenders with signs of mental health problems: results from the Mental Disorder, Substance Abuse and Crime study.

    PubMed

    Durbeej, Natalie; Berman, Anne H; Gumpert, Clara H; Palmstierna, Tom; Kristiansson, Marianne; Alm, Charlotte

    2010-12-01

    Substance abuse is common among offenders. One method widely used for the detection of substance abuse is screening. This study explored the concurrent validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) screening tools in relation to (a) substance abuse and dependency diagnoses and (b) three problem severity domains of the sixth version of the Addiction Severity Index in a sample of 181 suspected offenders with signs of mental health problems. The screening tools showed moderate to high accuracy for identification of dependency diagnoses. The AUDIT was associated with alcohol problem severity, whereas the DUDIT was associated with drug and legal problem severity. Administering the screening tools in the current population yields valid results. However, the suggested cutoff scores should be applied with caution due to the discrepancy between present and previous findings.

  2. Visual acuity and patient satisfaction at varied distances and lighting conditions after implantation of an aspheric diffractive multifocal one-piece intraocular lens

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Daniel H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study is to evaluate the visual acuity and patient satisfaction at varied distances under photopic and mesopic lighting conditions in patients bilaterally implanted with aspheric diffractive multifocal one-piece intraocular lenses. Methods In this retrospective–prospective study, 16 patients with a mean age of 66.2±9.2 years (range: 50–81 years) who had undergone bilateral phacoemulsification surgery with implantation of a Tecnis multifocal one-piece intraocular lens (ZMB00) were evaluated. Monocular and binocular uncorrected and distance-corrected visual acuities were measured at distance (20 ft), intermediate (70–80 cm), and near (35–40 cm) under photopic (85 cd/m2) and mesopic (3 cd/m2) lighting conditions and were compared using the paired t-test. All patients also completed a subjective questionnaire. Results At a mean follow-up of 9.5±3.9 months, distance, near, and intermediate visual acuity improved significantly from preoperative acuity. Under photopic and mesopic conditions, 93.8% and 62.5% of patients, respectively, had binocular uncorrected intermediate visual acuity of 20/40 or better, and 62.5% and 31.3% of patients had binocular uncorrected near visual acuity of 20/20 or better. All patients were satisfied with their overall vision without using glasses and/or contact lenses when compared with before surgery. A total of 87.5% of patients reported no glare and 68.8% of patients reported no halos around lights at night. Conclusion Tecnis multifocal one-piece intraocular lenses provide good distance, intermediate, and near visual acuity under photopic as well as mesopic lighting conditions. High levels of spectacle independence with low levels of photic phenomenon were achieved, resulting in excellent patient satisfaction. PMID:27536061

  3. A word association response approach toward lexical relationships within the mental lexicon of second language learners: pedagogic ideas from testing McCarthy's theories on Japanese students.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert S; Post, Michael D

    2009-06-01

    Through use of word association as detailed in McCarthy (1990) this paper will explore pedagogic implications derived from the following three points in relation to the lexical development of Japanese learners of English: 1) the ability of word association tests to examine the mental links between words in learners' developing mental lexicon, 2) the importance of phonological similarities for lower level students and 3) the correlation between the results from a word association test with the characteristic types of word association patterns discussed in McCarthy (1990). It will be argued that while lexical development within the mental lexicon is difficult to delineate due to overlap of organizational categories, the patterns of syntactic, semantic and conceptual relations between learned words is apparent within the retrieval process for word association and that additionally, context may play a vital role in how words are construed along the links within the mental lexicon. Pedagogic ideas and future research ideas are detailed.

  4. Determination of myopes' visual acuity using stimuli with different contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikaunieks, G.; Caure, E.; Kassaliete, E.; Meskovska, Z.

    2012-10-01

    The influence of different contrast stimuli on the myopes’ visual acuity (VA) was studied using positive (35.7), negative (-0.97) and low contrast (-0.11) Landolt optotypes. Test subjects were 13 myopes with corrected eyesight and 8 emmetropes, all of them being 20-22 years old. For VA determination the FrACT computer program was employed. In the tests it was found that for emmetropes the positive and negative contrast VA values do not differ significantly, while for myopes the respective values are better with positive than with negative contrast stimuli. These differences were the same in the measurements taken with spectacles or contact lenses. Our results also show that the retinal straylight created by clean spectacles or soft contact lenses is similar in both cases. Dažu autoru pētījumi rāda, ka miopijas gadījumā redzes asums ir labāks ar pozitīva Vēbera kontrasta stimuliem (balts stimuls uz melna fona) nekā negatīva kontrasta stimuliem (melns stimuls uz balta fona). Šis fenomens tiek saistītas ar neirālām izmaiņām ON un OFF ceļos un miopiskās acīs. Citi pētījumi rāda, ka arī acī izkliedētās gaismas ietekmē labāks redzes asums ir ar pozitīviem kontrasta stimuliem nekā negatīva. Miopijas gadījumā papildus gaismas izkliedi rada briļļu lēcas vai kontaktlēcas. Mēs savā pētījumā vēlējāmies noskaidrot, cik lielā mērā labāks redzes asums ar pozitīva kontrasta stimuliem miopiskās acīs ir saistāms ar optiskās korekcijas radīto gaismas izkliedi. Pētījumā piedalījās 21 dalībnieks - 8 emetropi un 13 miopi ar sfērisko refrakcijas lielumu no -1.25 līdz -6,25 D. Dalībnieku vecums bija no 20 līdz 22 gadi. Izmantojot FrACT datorprogrammu, tika noteiks monokulārais redzes asums VA ar Landolta gredzeniem pie pozitīva, negatīva un zema kontrasta fotopiskos apstākļos. Vēbera kontrasti stimuliem attiecīgi bija 35.7, -0.97 un -0.11. Miopiem mērījumi tika veikti gan ar brillēm, gan

  5. Contour interaction for foveal acuity targets at different luminances.

    PubMed

    Bedell, Harold E; Siderov, John; Waugh, Sarah J; Zemanová, Romana; Pluháček, František; Musilová, Lenka

    2013-08-30

    Single-letter visual acuity is impaired by nearby flanking stimuli, a phenomenon known as contour interaction. We showed previously that when foveal acuity is degraded by a reduction of letter contrast, both the magnitude and angular spatial extent of foveal contour interaction remain unchanged. In this study, we asked whether contour interaction also remains unchanged when foveal visual acuity is degraded by a reduction of the target's background luminance. Percent correct letter identification was measured for isolated, near-threshold black Sloan letters and for letters surrounded by 4 flanking bars in 10 normal observers, 5 at Anglia Ruskin University, UK (ARU) and 5 at Palacky University, Czech Republic (PU). A stepwise reduction in the background luminance over 3 log units resulted in an approximately threefold increase in the near-threshold letter size. At each background luminance, black flanking bars with a width equal to 1 letter stroke were presented at separations between approximately 0.45 and 4.5 min arc (ARU) or 0.32 and 3.2 min arc (PU). The results indicate that the angular extent of contour interaction remains unchanged at approximately 4 min arc at all background luminances. On the other hand, the magnitude of contour interaction decreases systematically as luminance is reduced, from approximately a 50% reduction to a 30% reduction in percent correct. The constant angular extent and decreasing magnitude of contour interaction with a reduction of background luminance suggest foveal contour interaction is mediated by luminance-dependent lateral inhibition within a fixed angular region.

  6. Training on spatiotemporal masking improves crowded and uncrowded visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Yehezkel, Oren; Sterkin, Anna; Lev, Maria; Polat, Uri

    2015-01-01

    Spatial crowding impairs conscious visual perception and object recognition in clutter.Short presentation times produce crowding in the normal fovea, in young participants and in uncorrected presbyopes ("aging eye"), measured as reduced visual acuity (VA). On the other hand, perceptual learning improves near VA in healthy young adults, in presbyopia, and in amblyopia. Here we aimed at exploring the effects of perceptual training on crowded VA in uncorrected presbyopes with naturally decreased VA, with two specific objectives: (a) to objectively measure crowded VA, taking advantage of the natural deterioration of near visual acuity from being normal or better than normal (i.e., 20/20 or better) in young participants to naturally decreasing in uncorrected presbyopes; and (b) to explore whether perceptual training previously shown to improve visual functions as complex as reading will affect crowded VA. Visual acuity was measured under crowded and uncrowded conditions by having subjects identify letters presented for short durations ranging from 34 to 116 msec. Training consisted of detecting brief Gabor stimuli under spatial and temporal masking conditions, using the GlassesOff mobile application (GlassesOff, Inc., New York, NY)on iOS devices from a distance of 40 cm. Before training, a robust reduction in crowded VA was found in the fovea of presbyopes. Training resulted in significant improvement of letter identification under both crowded and uncrowded VA conditions for all stimulus durations. After training, the crowded condition threshold reached the level of the uncrowded threshold measured before training. Thus, training enabled the subjects to overcome the effect of reduced VA under the crowded condition. We suggest that more efficient spatial and temporal processing induced by perceptual learning allows one to improve crowded VA, including that found on naturally reduced near VA, and that this effect may transfer to improve complex visual functions, such as

  7. Laterality of mental imagery generation and operation: tests with brain-damaged patients and normal adults.

    PubMed

    Hatta, T; Koike, M; Langman, P

    1994-08-01

    The relationships between hemispheric function and components of the imagery process were examined in patients with unilateral right and left brain damage and in intact adult subjects. In the image generation condition, subjects were required to mentally generate Katakana letters corresponding to Hiragana letters displayed on a CRT. The results for the intact adults suggested a left hemisphere superiority, but the unilaterally brain-damaged subjects showed no hemispheric difference in this task. In the imagery operation task (transformation or lateral translation), subjects were asked to find a genuine Kanji among distractors (pseudo-Kanji) that were constructed from two Kanji radicals (themselves real Kanji) that were either displayed in reverse order or shifted apart. The results for both intact adults and patients with unilateral brain damage suggest the superiority of the right hemisphere. PMID:7525640

  8. Taste acuity, plasma zinc levels, and weight loss during radiotherapy: a study of relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Bolze, M.S.; Fosmire, G.J.; Stryker, J.A.; Chung, C.K.; Flipse, B.G.

    1982-07-01

    Thirty-five patients who were to undergo radiotherapy and 13 normal subjects were evaluated with taste questionnaires, taste acuity tests, and plasma zinc analyses. The studies were repeated on the patients in the fifth week of radiotherapy. The mean taste thresholds for NaCl (salt), sucrose (sweet), HCl (sour), and urea (bitter) were elevated and the plasma zinc levels were lower (77.2 +/- 11.8 vs. 94.6 +/- 30.1 g/100 ml, p = 0.055) for the patients than for the controls. However, there was not a significant correlation between the taste thresholds and plasma zinc levels at any time. The mean weight loss experienced by the 14 patients who reported subjective taste alteration in the fifth week was 3.1 kg versus 0.1 kg (p = 0.005) for those who did not report taste alteration. The data suggest that alterations in taste acuity, but not plasma zinc levels, are associated with weight loss during radiotherapy.

  9. Taste acuity, plasma zinc levels, and weight loss during radiotherapy: a study of relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Bolze, M.S.; Fosmire, G.J.; Stryker, J.A.; Chung, C.K.; Flipse, B.G.

    1982-07-01

    Thirty-five patients who were to undergo radiotherapy and 13 normal subjects were evaluated with taste questionnaires, taste acuity tests, and plasma zinc analyses. The studies were repeated on the patients in the fifth week of radiotherapy. The mean taste thresholds for NaCl (salt), sucrose (sweet), HCl (sour), and urea (bitter) were elevated and the plasma zinc levels were lower (77.2 +/- 11.8 vs. 94.6 +/- 30.1 g/100 ml, p . 0.055) for the patients than for the controls. However, there was not a significant correlation between the taste thresholds and plasma zinc levels at any time. The mean weight loss experienced by the 14 patients who reported subjective taste alteration in the fifth week was 3.1 kg versus 0.1 kg (p . 0.005) for those who did not report taste alteration. The data suggest that alterations in taste acuity, but not plasma zinc levels, are associated with weight loss during radiotherapy.

  10. Developing a staffing matrix using CMI as acuity indicator.

    PubMed

    Romito, Diane

    2006-01-01

    Adequate staffing levels on an acute rehabilitation unit may not be maintained because staffing needs fluctuate according to the needs of patient groupings. Acuity regulations from some state agencies and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations require that staffing address patient acuity needs. Proposed ratio laws either require concrete patient-to-nurse ratios or neglect to consider acute rehabilitation. Neither have practical working tools to support their proposals. The questions of what to measure and how to translate this into effective nursing staffing remain unanswered. At the same time, nursing dissatisfaction grows with increased workloads, overtime, and perceptions of ineffectiveness. This article describes one effort to define and use a working tool for staffing acute rehabilitation units. The study used case mix index as an indicator of nursing time, integrated into a shift staffing matrix. Early results have shown it to be effective, quick, flexible, and efficient. Using this tool, quality patient outcomes within national length of stay benchmarks were maintained and staff satisfaction on this unit improved.

  11. Mental models or methodological artefacts? Adults' 'naïve' responses to a test of children's conceptions of the earth.

    PubMed

    Nobes, Gavin; Panagiotaki, Georgia

    2009-05-01

    Vosniadou and Brewer (1992) claim that children's drawings and answers to questions show that they have naive, theory-like 'mental models' of the earth; for example, they believe it to be flat, or hollow with people inside. However, recent studies that have used different methods have found little or no evidence of these misconceptions. The contrasting accounts, and possible reasons for the inconsistent findings, were tested by giving adults (N = 484) either the original task (designed for 5-year olds) or a new version in which the same drawing instructions and questions were rephrased and clarified. Many adults' responses to the original version were identical to children's 'naïve' drawings and answers. The new version elicited substantially fewer non-scientific responses. These findings indicate that even adults find the original instructions and questions ambiguous and confusing, and that this is the principal reason for their non-scientific drawings and answers. Since children must find the task even more confusing than adults, this explanation very probably applies to many of their non-scientific responses, too, and therefore accounts for the discrepant findings of previous research. 'Naïve' responses result largely from misinterpretation of Vosniadou and Brewer's apparently simple task, rather than from mental models of the earth. PMID:18680639

  12. Mental models or methodological artefacts? Adults' 'naïve' responses to a test of children's conceptions of the earth.

    PubMed

    Nobes, Gavin; Panagiotaki, Georgia

    2009-05-01

    Vosniadou and Brewer (1992) claim that children's drawings and answers to questions show that they have naive, theory-like 'mental models' of the earth; for example, they believe it to be flat, or hollow with people inside. However, recent studies that have used different methods have found little or no evidence of these misconceptions. The contrasting accounts, and possible reasons for the inconsistent findings, were tested by giving adults (N = 484) either the original task (designed for 5-year olds) or a new version in which the same drawing instructions and questions were rephrased and clarified. Many adults' responses to the original version were identical to children's 'naïve' drawings and answers. The new version elicited substantially fewer non-scientific responses. These findings indicate that even adults find the original instructions and questions ambiguous and confusing, and that this is the principal reason for their non-scientific drawings and answers. Since children must find the task even more confusing than adults, this explanation very probably applies to many of their non-scientific responses, too, and therefore accounts for the discrepant findings of previous research. 'Naïve' responses result largely from misinterpretation of Vosniadou and Brewer's apparently simple task, rather than from mental models of the earth.

  13. Keeping It in Three Dimensions: Measuring the Development of Mental Rotation in Children with the Rotated Colour Cube Test (RCCT)

    PubMed Central

    Lütke, Nikolay; Lange-Küttner, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study introduces the new Rotated Colour Cube Test (RCCT) as a measure of object identification and mental rotation using single 3D colour cube images in a matching-to-sample procedure. One hundred 7- to 11-year-old children were tested with aligned or rotated cube models, distracters and targets. While different orientations of distracters made the RCCT more difficult, different colours of distracters had the opposite effect and made the RCCT easier because colour facilitated clearer discrimination between target and distracters. Ten-year-olds performed significantly better than 7- to 8-year-olds. The RCCT significantly correlated with children’s performance on the Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices Test (RCPM) presumably due to the shared multiple-choice format, but the RCCT was easier, as it did not require sequencing. Children from families with a high socio-economic status performed best on both tests, with boys outperforming girls on the more difficult RCCT test sections. PMID:27375975

  14. Comparing frontal and lateral viewing in the pigeon. I. Tachistoscopic visual acuity as a function of distance.

    PubMed

    Bloch, S; Martinoya, C

    1982-07-01

    Pigeon's visual acuity has mainly been tested in free viewing conditions so that the direction of gaze could not be controlled. In order to be able to compare the resolving power of the two retinal areas of higher cellular density--the area dorsalis in the red field with frontal binocular projection and the fovea centralis with lateral monocular projection--a method of behavioural fixation was used. This method consists in a forced pecking schedule and a tachistocopic presentation of the stimulus. The pigeon has to discriminate the orientation (vertical, positive; horizontal, negative) of square gratings of increasing spatial frequency. Tests were done with the stimuli appearing 25 degrees below the beak for frontal and 80 degrees back from the beak for lateral viewing, at distances of 10, 20, 40 and 80 cm for each direction. Results show that while frontal acuity decreases with distance, lateral acuity increases with distance. These psychophysical data confirm previous dioptric measurements done on frozen eyes, showing that the pigeon is myopic in the frontal field and hyperopic in the lateral field. Pigeons seem to be well adapted for visually guided frontal tasks at near distances (feeding, landing) and for visually guided lateral tasks at far distances (warning).

  15. Dynamic Visual Acuity While Walking in Normals and Labyrinthine-Deficient Patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillman, Edward J.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; McDonald, P. Vernon; Cohen, Helen S.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a new, objective, easily administered test of dynamic visual acuity (DVA) while walking. Ten normal subjects and five patients with histories of severe bilateral vestibular dysfunctions participated in this study. Subjects viewed a visual display of numerals of different font sizes presented on a laptop computer while they stood still and while they walked on a motorized treadmill. Treadmill speed was adapted for 4 of 5 patients. Subjects were asked to identify the numerals as they appeared on the computer screen. Test results were reasonably repeatable in normals. The percent correct responses at each font size dropped slightly while walking in normals and dropped significantly more in patients. Patients performed significantly worse than normals while standing still and while walking. This task may be useful for evaluating post-flight astronauts and vestibularly impaired patients.

  16. Serious mental illness, criminal risk, parole supervision, and recidivism: testing of conditional effects.

    PubMed

    Matejkowski, Jason; Ostermann, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Adults with serious mental illness (SMI) who are released from prison tend to recidivate more quickly and at higher rates than similarly situated adults who do not have SMI. The current study examined whether this relationship with recidivism is mediated by criminal risk level and whether parole supervision can ameliorate the effects of SMI on recidivism. Findings indicate that SMI did exhibit a significant indirect effect with recidivism when considering its relationship with actuarially assessed risk. However, this indirect effect was not conditioned by whether the individual was released to parole; specifically release status did not moderate the relationship between risk and recidivism. The direct effects of SMI on recidivism were found to be conditioned upon release status. Specifically, we found no relationship between SMI and recidivism for parolees and a negative relationship between SMI and recidivism among nonparolees. Findings indicate a need for paroling authorities to find more effective ways of reducing criminal risk, which can decrease subsequent recidivism, among the individuals they supervise.

  17. Serious mental illness, criminal risk, parole supervision, and recidivism: testing of conditional effects.

    PubMed

    Matejkowski, Jason; Ostermann, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Adults with serious mental illness (SMI) who are released from prison tend to recidivate more quickly and at higher rates than similarly situated adults who do not have SMI. The current study examined whether this relationship with recidivism is mediated by criminal risk level and whether parole supervision can ameliorate the effects of SMI on recidivism. Findings indicate that SMI did exhibit a significant indirect effect with recidivism when considering its relationship with actuarially assessed risk. However, this indirect effect was not conditioned by whether the individual was released to parole; specifically release status did not moderate the relationship between risk and recidivism. The direct effects of SMI on recidivism were found to be conditioned upon release status. Specifically, we found no relationship between SMI and recidivism for parolees and a negative relationship between SMI and recidivism among nonparolees. Findings indicate a need for paroling authorities to find more effective ways of reducing criminal risk, which can decrease subsequent recidivism, among the individuals they supervise. PMID:24933170

  18. Tactile acuity in experienced Tai Chi practitioners: evidence for use dependent plasticity as an effect of sensory-attentional training.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Catherine E; Shaw, Jessica R; Wasserman, Rachel H; Chen, Vanessa W; Kanojia, Alok; Bayer, Thomas; Kelley, John M

    2008-06-01

    The scientific discovery of novel training paradigms has yielded better understanding of basic mechanisms underlying cortical plasticity, learning and development. This study is a first step in evaluating Tai Chi (TC), the Chinese slow-motion meditative exercise, as a training paradigm that, while not engaging in direct tactile stimulus training, elicits enhanced tactile acuity in long-term practitioners. The rationale for this study comes from the fact that, unlike previously studied direct-touch tactile training paradigms, TC practitioners focus specific mental attention on the body's extremities including the fingertips and hands as they perform their slow routine. To determine whether TC is associated with enhanced tactile acuity, experienced adult TC practitioners were recruited and compared to age-gender matched controls. A blinded assessor used a validated method (Van Boven et al. in Neurology 54(12): 2230-2236, 2000) to compare TC practitioners' and controls' ability to discriminate between two different orientations (parallel and horizontal) across different grating widths at the fingertip. Study results showed that TC practitioners' tactile spatial acuity was superior to that of the matched controls (P < 0.04). There was a trend showing TC may have an enhanced effect on older practitioners (P < 0.066), suggesting that TC may slow age related decline in this measure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate a long-term attentional practice's effects on a perceptual measure. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine whether TC initiates or is merely correlated with perceptual changes and whether it elicits long-term plasticity in primary sensory cortical maps. Further studies should also assess whether related somatosensory attentional practices (such as Yoga, mindfulness meditation and Qigong) achieve similar effects.

  19. Risk Factors for Possible Dementia Using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Xiao, Shifu; Rahardjo, Tri Budi; Hogervorst, Eef

    2015-01-01

    Using a combination of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), we investigated the prevalence of possible dementia (DEM) in community-dwelling elderly in Shanghai. Subsequently, we investigated significant risk factors for DEM and generated a DEM self-checklist for early DEM detection and case management. We found that among a total of 521 participants using a HVLT cut-off score of <19 and a MMSE cut-off score of <24, a total of 69 DEM cases were identified. Risk factors, such as advanced age (≥68 years), low education (no or primary level), self-reported history of hypertension, and self-reported subjective memory complaints (SMC) were significantly predictive of DEM. The presence of ≥3 out of four of the above mentioned risk factors can effectively discriminate DEM cases from non-DEM subjects. PMID:26854166

  20. Fundamental Causes of Housing Loss among Persons Diagnosed with Serious and Persistent Mental Illness: A Theoretically Guided Test

    PubMed Central

    Schutt, Russell K.; Goldfinger, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research on housing loss among severely mentally ill persons who have been placed in housing after being homeless has been largely atheoretical and has yielded inconsistent results. We develop a theory of housing loss based on identifying fundamental causes—problems in motives, means and social situation—and test these influences in a longitudinal, randomized comparison of housing alternatives. As hypothesized, individuals were more likely to lose housing if they had a history of alcohol or drug abuse, desired strongly to live independently contrary to clinician recommendations, or were African Americans placed in independent housing. Deficits in daily functioning did not explain these influences, but contributed to risk of housing loss. Our results demonstrate the importance of substance abuse, the value of distinguishing support preferences from support needs, and the necessity of explaining effects of race within a social context and thus should help to improve comparative research. PMID:20161654

  1. The Relationship between OCT-measured Central Retinal Thickness and Visual Acuity in Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare optical coherence tomography (OCT)-measured retinal thickness and visual acuity in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) both before and after macular laser photocoagulation. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Participants 210 subjects (251 eyes) with DME enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of laser techniques. Methods Retinal thickness was measured with OCT and visual acuity was measured with the electronic-ETDRS procedure. Main Outcome Measures OCT-measured center point thickness and visual acuity Results The correlation coefficients for visual acuity versus OCT center point thickness were 0.52 at baseline and 0.49, 0.36, and 0.38 at 3.5, 8, and 12 months post-laser photocoagulation. The slope of the best fit line to the baseline data was approximately 4.4 letters (95% C.I.: 3.5, 5.3) better visual acuity for every 100 microns decrease in center point thickness at baseline with no important difference at follow-up visits. Approximately one-third of the variation in visual acuity could be predicted by a linear regression model that incorporated OCT center point thickness, age, hemoglobin A1C, and severity of fluorescein leakage in the center and inner subfields. The correlation between change in visual acuity and change in OCT center point thickening 3.5 months after laser treatment was 0.44 with no important difference at the other follow-up times. A subset of eyes showed paradoxical improvements in visual acuity with increased center point thickening (7–17% at the three time points) or paradoxical worsening of visual acuity with a decrease in center point thickening (18%–26% at the three time points). Conclusions There is modest correlation between OCT-measured center point thickness and visual acuity, and modest correlation of changes in retinal thickening and visual acuity following focal laser treatment for DME. However, a wide range of visual acuity may be observed for a given degree of retinal edema and paradoxical

  2. Functional Fatigue Decreases 3-Dimensional Multijoint Position Reproduction Acuity in the Overhead-Throwing Athlete.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Brady L; Boswell, Lanny; Gansneder, Bruce M; Shultz, Sandra J

    2004-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of functional fatigue on active multijoint position reproduction in overhead-throwing athletes. DESIGN AND SETTING: A standard, repeated-measures, randomized-ordered, counterbalanced, 2-period (crossover) design was used. During the first test session, we randomly assigned subjects to either the nonfatigue or fatigue condition. Subjects underwent pretest measurements and then either a functional fatigue protocol or rest period, followed by posttest measurements. After a recovery period, subjects crossed over to the opposing condition for the second testing session. SUBJECTS: Thirteen overhead-throwing athletes competing in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I or club baseball, with no history of upper extremity or central nervous system disorders, volunteered for this study. MEASUREMENTS: We measured active multijoint position reproduction accuracy in 3 dimensions using an electromagnetic tracking device. We noted each subject's ability to reproduce 3 positions corresponding with distinct moments of his throwing motion. A variable error score was calculated to compare the locations of the reproduced points with reference to the target point. RESULTS: A significant difference occurred between the pretest and posttest error scores in the fatigue condition. Comparisons between positions indicated that more errors were seen in the arm-cocked position than in the follow-through position under both fatigue and nonfatigue conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Functional fatigue decreased joint position sense acuity in overhead-throwing athletes. Our findings using this novel testing measurement method are in agreement with past research, with one exception. The trend toward higher error scores in the arm-cocked position would appear to contradict findings that sensorimotor system acuity increases toward end ranges of motion.

  3. Collective enhancement of numerical acuity by meritocratic leadership in fish

    PubMed Central

    Bisazza, Angelo; Butterworth, Brian; Piffer, Laura; Bahrami, Bahador; Petrazzini, Maria Elena Miletto; Agrillo, Christian

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for more than a century that interacting people can generally achieve more accurate decisions than single individuals. Here we show that interacting guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) achieve a superior level of numerosity discrimination well beyond the average ability of the isolated individual fish. This enhancement of numerical acuity was observed in dyadic interactions when (Experiment 1) the dyad chose which larger shoal of guppies to join and when (Experiment 2) the dyad chose the higher or the lower numerosity among two decision options after having learned the task individually. Dyadic accuracy and that of the more competent member of each dyad matched closely, supporting the hypothesis that meritocratic leadership arises spontaneously between dyadically interacting fish, rather than the ‘many wrongs' principle that has been used to explain group superiority in many species. PMID:24691116

  4. Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Lorach, Henri; Goetz, Georges; Smith, Richard; Lei, Xin; Mandel, Yossi; Kamins, Theodore; Mathieson, Keith; Huie, Philip; Harris, James; Sher, Alexander; Palanker, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Patients with retinal degeneration lose sight due to the gradual demise of photoreceptors. Electrical stimulation of surviving retinal neurons provides an alternative route for the delivery of visual information. We demonstrate that subretinal implants with 70-μm-wide photovoltaic pixels provide highly localized stimulation of retinal neurons in rats. The electrical receptive fields recorded in retinal ganglion cells were similar in size to the natural visual receptive fields. Similarly to normal vision, the retinal response to prosthetic stimulation exhibited flicker fusion at high frequencies, adaptation to static images and nonlinear spatial summation. In rats with retinal degeneration, these photovoltaic arrays elicited retinal responses with a spatial resolution of 64 ± 11 μm, corresponding to half of the normal visual acuity in healthy rats. The ease of implantation of these wireless and modular arrays, combined with their high resolution, opens the door to the functional restoration of sight in patients blinded by retinal degeneration.

  5. Collective enhancement of numerical acuity by meritocratic leadership in fish.

    PubMed

    Bisazza, Angelo; Butterworth, Brian; Piffer, Laura; Bahrami, Bahador; Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Agrillo, Christian

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for more than a century that interacting people can generally achieve more accurate decisions than single individuals. Here we show that interacting guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) achieve a superior level of numerosity discrimination well beyond the average ability of the isolated individual fish. This enhancement of numerical acuity was observed in dyadic interactions when (Experiment 1) the dyad chose which larger shoal of guppies to join and when (Experiment 2) the dyad chose the higher or the lower numerosity among two decision options after having learned the task individually. Dyadic accuracy and that of the more competent member of each dyad matched closely, supporting the hypothesis that meritocratic leadership arises spontaneously between dyadically interacting fish, rather than the 'many wrongs' principle that has been used to explain group superiority in many species. PMID:24691116

  6. Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity

    PubMed Central

    Lorach, Henri; Goetz, Georges; Smith, Richard; Lei, Xin; Mandel, Yossi; Kamins, Theodore; Mathieson, Keith; Huie, Philip; Harris, James; Sher, Alexander; Palanker, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Patients with retinal degeneration lose sight due to gradual demise of photoreceptors. Electrical stimulation of the surviving retinal neurons provides an alternative route for delivery of visual information. We demonstrate that subretinal arrays with 70 μm photovoltaic pixels provide highly localized stimulation, with electrical and visual receptive fields of comparable sizes in rat retinal ganglion cells. Similarly to normal vision, retinal response to prosthetic stimulation exhibits flicker fusion at high frequencies, adaptation to static images and non-linear spatial summation. In rats with retinal degeneration, these photovoltaic arrays provide spatial resolution of 64 ± 11 μm, corresponding to half of the normal visual acuity in pigmented rats. Ease of implantation of these wireless and modular arrays, combined with their high resolution opens the door to functional restoration of sight. PMID:25915832

  7. Recovery of stereo acuity in adults with amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Astle, Andrew T; McGraw, Paul V; Webb, Ben S

    2011-01-01

    Disruption of visual input to one eye during early development leads to marked functional impairments of vision, commonly referred to as amblyopia. A major consequence of amblyopia is the inability to encode binocular disparity information leading to impaired depth perception or stereo acuity. If amblyopia is treated early in life (before 4 years of age), then recovery of normal stereoscopic function is possible. Treatment is rarely undertaken later in life (adulthood) because declining levels of neural plasticity are thought to limit the effectiveness of standard treatments. Here, the authors show that a learning-based therapy, designed to exploit experience-dependent plastic mechanisms, can be used to recover stereoscopic visual function in adults with amblyopia. These cases challenge the long-held dogma that the critical period for visual development and the window for treating amblyopia are one and the same. PMID:22707543

  8. Dreams as modifiers and tests of mental schemas: an emotional selection hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Richard

    2008-04-01

    A process is proposed that helps a person adapt to a social environment. During sleep, this process executes a set of dreams with social content that schemas tentatively incorporate by self-modifying. Due to vast interconnectivity that exists amongst social schemas, such modifications may introduce accidental, maladaptive conflicts. Consequently, a second set of dreams is executed in the form of test scenarios in order to evaluate the schema modifications effected by the first set of dreams. The process would monitor emotions generated during these latter dream tests. If prior, tentative modifications alleviate anxiety, frustration, sadness, or in other ways appear emotionally adaptive, they would be selected for retention. Those modifications that compare negatively to existing, unchanged schemas would be abandoned or further modified and tested. The correspondences of these hypotheses to the sleep cycle, previous dream studies, and functional neurological processes are discussed.

  9. Inhibition: Mental Control Process or Mental Resource?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im-Bolter, Nancie; Johnson, Janice; Ling, Daphne; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested 2 models of inhibition in 45 children with language impairment and 45 children with normally developing language; children were aged 7 to 12 years. Of interest was whether a model of inhibition as a mental-control process (i.e., executive function) or as a mental resource would more accurately reflect the relations among…

  10. The Amelioration of Olfactory Acuity upon Sexual Maturation Might Affect Food Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Bignetti, Enrico; Sinesio, Fiorella; Aiello, Gaetano L.; Cannella, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Upon sexual maturation, olfactory acuity in women ameliorates and starts oscillating across the cycle. During ovulation, mean olfactory threshold is 30 times lower than during bleeding. Interestingly, menstruated women undergo maleodorant trimethylaminuria. We argued that olfactory amelioration during ovulation might concur to a mating strategy, whereas olfactory impairment during bleeding might protect women against self-refusal. Testosterone and its 17β-estradiol derivative might be responsible for the synchronization of these menstrual events. Furthermore, we posed the question whether olfactory detection amelioration upon sexual maturation might provoke a change in food preferences, for instance a reduction in fish consumption. A preliminary survey in Italy provided encouraging results: 15-44 year-old women have lower fish consumption than 3-14 year-old girls. Surprisingly, men exhibited the same behaviour, so new olfactory tests as well as testosterone measurements are under way. PMID:22253964

  11. How olfactory acuity affects the sensory assessment of boar fat: a proposal for quantification.

    PubMed

    Trautmann, Johanna; Gertheiss, Jan; Wicke, Michael; Mörlein, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Due to animal welfare concerns the production of entire male pigs is one viable alternative to surgical castration. Elevated levels of boar taint may, however, impair consumer acceptance. Due to the lack of technical methods, control of boar taint is currently done using sensory quality control. While the need for control measures with respect to boar taint has been clearly stated in EU legislation, no specific requirements for selecting assessors have yet been documented. This study proposes tests for the psychophysical evaluation of olfactory acuity to key volatiles contributing to boar taint. Odor detection thresholds for androstenone and skatole are assessed as well as the subject's ability to identify odorants at various levels through easy-to-use paper smell strips. Subsequently, fat samples are rated by the assessors, and the accuracy of boar taint evaluation is studied. Considerable variation of olfactory performance is observed demonstrating the need for objective criteria to select assessors. PMID:24976560

  12. ANXIETY, PHYSIOLOGICALLY AND PSYCHOLOGICALLY MEASURED, AND ITS CONSEQUENCES ON MENTAL TEST PERFORMANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHAMBERS, ALMA C.; HOPKINS, KENNETH D.

    EXPERIMENTS WERE CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH (1) EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ANXIETY INFLUENCES ABILITY TEST PERFORMANCE AND (2) THE VARIOUS PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASURES OF ANXIETY ARE RELATED. HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS WERE ADMINISTERED THE FOLLOWING MEASURES OF ANXIETY--(1) S-R INVENTORY OF ANXIOUSNESS, (2) AFFECT ADJECTIVE…

  13. Mental Imagery as Revealed by Eye Movements and Spoken Predicates: A Test of Neurolinguistic Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elich, Matthew; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Tested Bandler and Grinder's proposal that eye movement direction and spoken predicates are indicative of sensory modality of imagery. Subjects reported images in the three modes, but no relation between imagery and eye movements or predicates was found. Visual images were most vivid and often reported. Most subjects rated themselves as visual,…

  14. Primary Mental Abilities and Metropolitan Readiness Tests as Predictors of Achievement in the First Primary Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University City School District, MO.

    The prediction of achievement provides teachers with necessary information to help children attain optimal achievement. If some skill prerequistites to learning which are not fully developed can be identified and strengthened, higher levels of achievement may result. The Metropolitan Readiness Tests (MRT) are routinely given to all University City…

  15. Psychology of computer use: IX. A menu of self-administered microcomputer-based neurotoxicology tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Baltzley, D. R.; Wilkes, R. L.; Kuntz, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of repeated self-administration of a newly developed battery of mental acuity tests which may have application in screening for fitness-for-duty or for persons who may be exposed to environmental stress, toxic agents, or disease. 16 subjects self-administered 18 microcomputer-based tests (13 new, 5 "core"), without proctors, over 10 sessions. The hardware performed well throughout the study and the tests appeared to be easily self-administered. Stabilities and reliabilities of the tests from the "core" battery were comparable to those obtained previously under more controlled experimental conditions. Eight of the new tests exceeded minimum criteria for metric and practical requirements and can be recommended as additions to the menu. Although the average retest reliability was high, cross-correlations between tests were low, implying factorial diversity. The menu can be used to form batteries with flexible total testing time which are likely to tap different mental processes and functions.

  16. Using Computerized Adaptive Testing to Reduce the Burden of Mental Health Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Robert D.; Weiss, David J.; Kupfer, David J.; Frank, Ellen; Fagiolini, Andrea; Grochocinski, Victoria J.; Bhaumik, Dulal K.; Stover, Angela; Bock, R. Darrell; Immekus, Jason C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the combination of item response theory and computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for psychiatric measurement as a means of reducing the burden of research and clinical assessments. Methods Data were from 800 participants in outpatient treatment for a mood or anxiety disorder; they completed 616 items of the 626-item Mood and Anxiety Spectrum Scales (MASS) at two times. The first administration was used to design and evaluate a CAT version of the MASS by using post hoc simulation. The second confirmed the functioning of CAT in live testing. Results Tests of competing models based on item response theory supported the scale’s bifactor structure, consisting of a primary dimension and four group factors (mood, panic-agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive, and social phobia). Both simulated and live CAT showed a 95% average reduction (585 items) in items administered (24 and 30 items, respectively) compared with administration of the full MASS. The correlation between scores on the full MASS and the CAT version was .93. For the mood disorder subscale, differences in scores between two groups of depressed patients—one with bipolar disorder and one without—on the full scale and on the CAT showed effect sizes of .63 (p<.003) and 1.19 (p<.001) standard deviation units, respectively, indicating better discriminant validity for CAT. Conclusions Instead of using small fixed-length tests, clinicians can create item banks with a large item pool, and a small set of the items most relevant for a given individual can be administered with no loss of information, yielding a dramatic reduction in administration time and patient and clinician burden. PMID:18378832

  17. 49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. 240... ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity... paragraph (e) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or exceed the standards...

  18. 49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. 240... ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity... paragraph (e) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or exceed the standards...

  19. 49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. 240.207 Section 240.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad, prior to initially...

  20. 49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. 240... ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity... paragraph (e) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or exceed the standards...

  1. 49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. 240.207 Section 240.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad, prior to initially...

  2. 49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. 240... ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity... paragraph (e) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or exceed the standards...

  3. 49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. 240.207 Section 240.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad, prior to initially...

  4. 49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. 240.207 Section 240.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad, prior to initially...

  5. 49 CFR 240.121 - Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Criteria for vision and hearing acuity data. 240... ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process § 240.121 Criteria for vision and hearing acuity... paragraph (e) of this section, a person's vision and hearing shall meet or exceed the standards...

  6. 49 CFR 240.207 - Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. 240.207 Section 240.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... making the determination on vision and hearing acuity. (a) Each railroad, prior to initially...

  7. Current Depression, Lifetime History of Depression, and Visual Acuity in Hispanic Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, David J.; Gomez-Marin, Orlando; Lam, Byron L.

    2000-01-01

    A study examined associations between bilateral visual acuity and depression among 391 Cuban Americans, 1,514 Mexican Americans, and 527 Puerto Ricans. Among Mexicans, depression was higher for those with moderate and greater impairment. Among Cubans, depression was higher for those with a distance visual acuity worse than 20/50. (Contains…

  8. Acuity of the Approximate Number System and Preschoolers' Quantitative Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Marle, Kristy; Chu, Felicia W.; Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C.

    2014-01-01

    The study assessed the relations among acuity of the inherent approximate number system (ANS), performance on measures of symbolic quantitative knowledge, and mathematics achievement for a sample of 138 (64 boys) preschoolers. The Weber fraction (a measure of ANS acuity) and associated task accuracy were significantly correlated with mathematics…

  9. Comparison of Dynamic Visual Acuity between Water Polo Players and Sedentary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quevedo-Junyent, Lluisa; Aznar-Casanova, Jose Antonio; Merindano-Encina, Dolores; Cardona, Genis; Sole-Forto, Joan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined differences in dynamic visual acuity between elite and subelite water polo players and sedentary students. To measure dynamic visual acuity binocularly, we asked participants to indicate the orientation of a broken ring, similar to the Landolt C, which increased in size as it moved across a computer screen. Two different…

  10. The Power of Selected Cognitive, Social/Emotional, Physical Motor, and Language Tests in Predicting Development Levels of Mentally Handicapped Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBay, Michael J.; Anderson, Nels M.

    Results of the research reported in this paper suggest that the development of mentally handicapped preschool children may not be measurable in distinct cognitive, social/emotional, physical motor, and language areas. This research further indicates that a testing instrument designed to measure the generalized factors of intelligence and social…

  11. The Eye Phone Study: reliability and accuracy of assessing Snellen visual acuity using smartphone technology

    PubMed Central

    Perera, C; Chakrabarti, R; Islam, F M A; Crowston, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Smartphone-based Snellen visual acuity charts has become popularized; however, their accuracy has not been established. This study aimed to evaluate the equivalence of a smartphone-based visual acuity chart with a standard 6-m Snellen visual acuity (6SVA) chart. Methods First, a review of available Snellen chart applications on iPhone was performed to determine the most accurate application based on optotype size. Subsequently, a prospective comparative study was performed by measuring conventional 6SVA and then iPhone visual acuity using the ‘Snellen' application on an Apple iPhone 4. Results Eleven applications were identified, with accuracy of optotype size ranging from 4.4–39.9%. Eighty-eight patients from general medical and surgical wards in a tertiary hospital took part in the second part of the study. The mean difference in logMAR visual acuity between the two charts was 0.02 logMAR (95% limit of agreement −0.332, 0.372 logMAR). The largest mean difference in logMAR acuity was noted in the subgroup of patients with 6SVA worse than 6/18 (n=5), who had a mean difference of two Snellen visual acuity lines between the charts (0.276 logMAR). Conclusion We did not identify a Snellen visual acuity app at the time of study, which could predict a patients standard Snellen visual acuity within one line. There was considerable variability in the optotype accuracy of apps. Further validation is required for assessment of acuity in patients with severe vision impairment. PMID:25931170

  12. The under-compensatory roll aVOR does not affect dynamic visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Michael C; Migliaccio, Americo A; Ng, Tammy W C; Shaikh, Aasef G; Zee, David S

    2012-08-01

    Rotations of the head evoke compensatory reflexive eye rotations in the orbit to stabilize images onto the fovea. In normal humans, the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) gain (eye/head velocity) changes depending on the head rotation plane. For pitch and yaw head rotations, the gain is near unity, but during roll head rotations, the aVOR gain is ∼ 0.7. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this physiological discrepancy affects dynamic visual acuity (DVA)--a functional measure of the aVOR that requires subjects to identify letters of varying acuities during head rotation. We used the scleral search coil technique to measure eye and head velocity during passive DVA testing in yaw, roll, and pitch head impulses in healthy controls and patients with unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH). For control subjects, the mean aVOR gain during roll impulses was significantly lower than the mean aVOR gain during yaw and pitch impulses; however, there was no difference in DVA between yaw, roll, or pitch. For subjects with UVH, only aVOR gain during head rotations toward the affected side (yaw) were asymmetric (ipsilesional, 0.32 ± 0.17, vs. contralesional, 0.95 ± 0.05), with no asymmetry during roll or pitch. Similarly, there was a large asymmetry for DVA only during yaw head rotations, with no asymmetry in roll or pitch. Interestingly, DVA during roll toward the affected ear was better than DVA during yaw toward the affected ear--even though the ipsilesional roll aVOR gain was 60 % lower. During roll, the axis of eye rotation remains nearly perpendicular to the fovea, resulting in minimal displacement between the fovea and fixation target image projected onto the back of the eye. For subjects with UVH, the DVA score during passive horizontal impulses is a better indicator of poor gaze stability than during passive roll or pitch.

  13. Is there a relationship between the performance in a chronometric mental-rotations test and salivary testosterone and estradiol levels in children aged 9-14 years?

    PubMed

    Quaiser-Pohl, Claudia; Jansen, Petra; Lehmann, Jennifer; Kudielka, Brigitte M

    2016-01-01

    The consistent gender differences favoring males in some spatial abilities like mental rotation have raised the question of whether testosterone or other gonadal hormones contribute to these differences--especially because such gender differences seem to appear mainly from the age of puberty on. Studies generally suggest that spatial ability is facilitated by moderately high testosterone levels (i.e., levels that are relatively high for females and relatively low for males). However, the role of sex steroids for mental-rotation performance of (pre-) pubertal children has not been the focus of research, yet. In our study, the relationships between different aspects of mental-rotation performance (accuracy, reaction time, rotation speed) and salivary testosterone and estradiol levels were investigated. Subjects were 109 children (51 boys and 58 girls) aged between 9 and 14 years (M = 11.41, SD = 1.74). They performed a chronometric mental-rotations test, in which the stimuli consisted of three-dimensional drawings of Shepard and Metzler cube figures. In addition, saliva samples were gathered for the analysis of free testosterone and estradiol levels. Results showed a significant gender difference in reaction time and rotational speed in favor of boys, and a significant age, but no gender difference in testosterone and estradiol levels. We found no significant relationships between hormonal levels and any measure of mental-rotation performance.

  14. Effect of letter separation on computerised visual acuity measurements: comparison with the gold standard Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nilpa; Laidlaw, D Alistair H; Brown, Graham; Robson, Chloe

    2010-03-01

    Contour interaction plays an important role in letter recognition and has long been known to influence clinical visual acuity measurements. LogMAR charts originally employed between-letter and line spacing of one letter width/height; however, in more recent designs, half letter width spacing has become accepted without validation. COMPlog is a computerised visual acuity measurement device being developed and validated for routine and research clinical use and is available commercially. This study was performed to investigate the effect of letter separation on computerised visual acuity measurements. An iterative series of experiments was performed in which test and retest fully interpolated five letters-per-line logMAR visual acuity measurements were taken in three groups of a total 100 adult subjects. Each group had visual acuity measured using ETDRS charts 1 and 2 and on COMPlog using various combinations of letter and line spacing. The first group consisted of 31 subjects tested using 3.75 and 2.50 stroke width spacing, the second 45 subjects using 2.50 and 1.25 stroke width spacing and the last group, 24 subjects tested using 1.90 stroke width spacing. The methods of Bland and Altman were used to analyse the data. No significant bias was noted between the gold standard ETDRS measurements and those taken using COMPlog with 3.75 stroke width spacing. Significant bias of half a logMAR line was found with crowding of 1.90 and 1.25 stroke widths. A small systematic bias with a reduction of 1 ETDRS letter was found with spacing of 2.50 stroke widths which has not been demonstrated in previous validation studies. Crowding of 2.50 stroke widths is the smallest spacing which can be used in the design of COMPlog.

  15. Evaluation of contrast acuity and defocus curve in bifocal and monofocal intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Knorz, M C; Claessens, D; Schaefer, R C; Seiberth, V; Liesenhoff, H

    1993-07-01

    We compared visual quality of the following intraocular lenses in a prospective study: monofocal, True Vista bifocal, 3M diffractive bifocal, and Nordan aspheric VariFocal silicone. Four to six months postoperatively we measured distance acuity, Snellen near acuity (Lighthouse chart), reading acuity (Nieden chart), and contrast acuity at far and near focus (Regan charts: 96%, 50%, 25%, 11% contrast) with different pupil sizes. A defocus curve was obtained by spectacle defocus (+1 diopter [D] to -5 D). Eleven patients had True Vista in one eye and monofocal in the fellow. Contrast acuity at far focus decreased with decreasing contrast and increasing pupil size. This decrease was more pronounced with the True Vista than with the monofocal lenses. These differences were significant, with a 4.5 mm pupil at lower contrast (25%, P = .02; 11%, P = .01). Depth of focus was 4.5 D (+1.0 D to -2.0 D) with True Vista lenses and 2.5 D (+1.0 D to -1.5 D) with monofocal lenses. Corrected distance acuity was 20/22 with True Vista, 20/25 with 3M, and 20/20 with VariFocal. Distance corrected Snellen near acuity was 20/39 with True Vista, 20/34 with 3M, and 20/57 with VariFocal. Distance corrected reading acuity was 20/29 with True Vista, 20/23 with 3M, and 20/44 with VariFocal (P = .005). Contrast acuity at far focus was best with the VariFocal IOL, followed by True Vista and 3M. At near focus it was best with 3M, followed by True Vista and VariFocal. Contrast acuity at near focus was lower than at far focus. Average acuity differences were as follows: VariFocal 0.43, P = .01; True Vista 0.19, P = .05; 3M 0.04, P = .3. Depth of focus was 4.5 D (+1.0 D to -3.5 D) with True Vista and 3M and was 3 D (+1.0 D to -2.0 D) with VariFocal. Each design offers unique features. VariFocal is best at distance, but near vision is not sufficient. The 3M lens is best at near vision but distance contrast acuity is somewhat reduced. The True Vista lens provides a good compromise as distance contrast

  16. Are there rapid feedback effects on Approximate Number System acuity?

    PubMed

    Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Humans are believed to be equipped with an Approximate Number System (ANS) that supports non-symbolic representations of numerical magnitude. Correlations between individual measures of the precision of the ANS and mathematical ability have raised the question of whether the precision can be improved by feedback training. A study (DeWind and Brannon, 2012) reported improvement in discrimination precision occurring within 600-700 trials of feedback, suggesting ANS malleability with rapidly improving acuity in response to feedback. We tried to replicate the rapid improvement in a control group design, while controlling for the use of perceptual cues. The results indicate no learning effects, but a minor constant advantage for the feedback group. The measures of motivation suggest that feedback has a positive effect on motivation and that the difference in discrimination is due to the greater motivation of participants with feedback. These results suggest that at least for adults the number sense may not respond to feedback in the short-term. PMID:23781191

  17. Effect of vestibular rehabilitation on passive dynamic visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Matthew; Migliaccio, Americo A; Schubert, Michael C

    2008-01-01

    While active dynamic visual acuity (DVA) has been shown to improve with gaze stabilization exercises, we sought to determine whether DVA during passive head impulses (pDVA) would also improve following a rehabilitation course of vestibular physical therapy (VPT) in patients with unilateral and bilateral vestibular hypofunction. VPT consisted of gaze and gait stabilization exercises done as a home exercise program. Scleral search coil was used to characterize the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) during pDVA before and after VPT. Mean duration of VPT was 66 +/- 24 days, over a total of 5 +/- 1.4 outpatient visits. Two of three subjects showed improvements in pDVA with a mean reduction of 43% (LogMAR 0.58 to 0.398 and 0.92 to 0.40). Our data suggest improvements in pDVA may be due in part to improvements in aVOR velocity and acceleration gains or reduced latency of the aVOR. Each subject demonstrated a reduction in the ratio of compensatory saccades to head impulses after VPT. Preliminary data suggest that active gaze stability exercises may contribute to improvements in pDVA in some individuals.

  18. Dynamic Visual Acuity Associated With Eye Movements And Pupillary Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suaste, Ernesto; García, Nadia; Rodríguez, Dolores; Zúñiga, Arturo

    2004-09-01

    Objectively was evaluate dynamic visual acuity (DVA), using moving optotypes, while monitoring eye movements and pupillary responses. Under controlled conditions of luminance and contrast the viewers were asked to look carefully at a moving alphabetic letter. The letter was moved in the horizontal plane at a determined speed by a sinusoidal frequency generator. The initial frequency was gradually incremented until the viewer reported was not able to distinguish the object. Objective measures of DVA were obtained using video-oculography (VOG) in which, pupillary images and eye movements were analyzed by image processing. We found that when a large dilatation of the pupil is presented coincided with a pause eye movement (0.1s). It was when the viewer leaves to see clearly the letter of Snellen. The changes of pupil diameter of the five viewers were found averages to nasal trajectory from 3.58 mm (0 Hz) to 3.85 mm (1Hz), and to temporal trajectory from 3.54 mm (0 Hz) to 3.96 mm (1 Hz). Also, the bandwidth since 0.6 to 1.2 Hz, of the viewers due to the response at the stimulus (letter of Snellen) with 20° of amplitude, was obtained.

  19. A portable device for the assessment of dynamic visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Al-Awar Smither, Janan; Kennedy, Robert S

    2010-03-01

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) thresholds are among the few visual functions predictive of automobile crashes. DVA is also sensitive to alcohol and aging. However, measuring DVA is awkward because there is no standardized, efficient, flexible apparatus for DVA assessment. In this project, we developed a prototype of an automated, portable DVA system using a low-energy laser, and we compared this laser DVA with the traditional device in two within-subjects, repeated measures designs. The two studies included 48 participants (22 males and 26 females with an average age of 18.33 years). The most important findings were that: (1) retest reliabilities of the two DVA devices were comparable and higher with the laser; (2) average correlations between the two devices were r=0.62 (p<0.01) and r=0.65 (p<0.01) for the two designs respectively; and (3) after correction for reliability attenuation these improved to r=0.92 and r=0.78. These findings indicate that a flexible DVA laser device can be developed to measure the same construct as the more traditional bulky DVA device.

  20. Insects groom their antennae to enhance olfactory acuity

    PubMed Central

    Böröczky, Katalin; Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Batchelor, Dale; Zhukovskaya, Marianna; Schal, Coby

    2013-01-01

    Grooming, a common behavior in animals, serves the important function of removing foreign materials from body surfaces. When antennal grooming was prevented in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, field emission gun scanning electron microscopy images revealed that an unstructured substance accumulated on nongroomed antennae, covering sensillar pores, but not on groomed antennae of the same individuals. Gas chromatography analysis of antennal extracts showed that over a 24-h period nongroomed antennae accumulated three to four times more cuticular hydrocarbons than groomed antennae. Moreover, nongroomed antennae accumulated significantly more environmental contaminants from surfaces (stearic acid) and from air (geranyl acetate) than groomed antennae. We hypothesized that the accumulation of excess native cuticular hydrocarbons on the antennae would impair olfactory reception. Electroantennogram experiments and single-sensillum recordings supported this hypothesis: antennae that were prevented from being groomed were significantly less responsive than groomed antennae to the sex pheromone component periplanone-B, as well as to the general odorants geranyl acetate and hexanol. We therefore conclude that antennal grooming removes excess native cuticular lipids and foreign chemicals that physically and/or chemically interfere with olfaction, and thus maintains the olfactory acuity of the antennae. Similar experimental manipulations of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica), carpenter ant (Camponotus pennsylvanicus), and the housefly (Musca domestica), which use different modes of antennal grooming, support the hypothesis that antennal grooming serves a similar function in a wide range of insect taxa. PMID:23382193

  1. Effect of vestibular rehabilitation on passive dynamic visual acuity

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Matthew; Migliaccio, Americo A.; Schubert, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    While active dynamic visual acuity (DVA) has been shown to improve with gaze stabilization exercises, we sought to determine whether DVA during passive head impulses (pDVA) would also improve following a rehabilitation course of vestibular physical therapy (VPT) in patients with unilateral and bilateral vestibular hypofunction. VPT consisted of gaze and gait stabilization exercises done as a home exercise program. Scleral search coil was used to characterize the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) during pDVA before and after VPT. Mean duration of VPT was 66 ± 24 days, over a total of 5 ± 1.4 outpatient visits. Two of three subjects showed improvements in pDVA with a mean reduction of 43% (LogMAR 0.58 to 0.398 and 0.92 to 0.40). Our data suggest improvements in pDVA may be due in part to improvements in aVOR velocity and acceleration gains or reduced latency of the aVOR. Each subject demonstrated a reduction in the ratio of compensatory saccades to head impulses after VPT. Preliminary data suggest that active gaze stability exercises may contribute to improvements in pDVA in some individuals. PMID:19126985

  2. Cognitive aging and hearing acuity: modeling spoken language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Wingfield, Arthur; Amichetti, Nicole M.; Lash, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The comprehension of spoken language has been characterized by a number of “local” theories that have focused on specific aspects of the task: models of word recognition, models of selective attention, accounts of thematic role assignment at the sentence level, and so forth. The ease of language understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) stands as one of the few attempts to offer a fully encompassing framework for language understanding. In this paper we discuss interactions between perceptual, linguistic, and cognitive factors in spoken language understanding. Central to our presentation is an examination of aspects of the ELU model that apply especially to spoken language comprehension in adult aging, where speed of processing, working memory capacity, and hearing acuity are often compromised. We discuss, in relation to the ELU model, conceptions of working memory and its capacity limitations, the use of linguistic context to aid in speech recognition and the importance of inhibitory control, and language comprehension at the sentence level. Throughout this paper we offer a constructive look at the ELU model; where it is strong and where there are gaps to be filled. PMID:26124724

  3. Income inequality and physical and mental health: testing associations consistent with proposed causal pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Frederick J; Bell, Janice F

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To test associations between individual health outcomes and ecological variables proposed in causal models of relations between income inequality and health. Design Regression analysis of a large, nationally representative dataset, linked to US census and other county and state level sources of data on ecological covariates. The regressions control for individual economic and demographic covariates as well as relevant potential ecological confounders. Setting The US population in the year 2000. Participants 4817 US adults about age 40, representative of the US population. Main outcome measures Two outcomes were studied: self reported general health status, dichotomised as “fair” or “poor” compared with “excellent”, “very good”, or “good”, and depression as measured by a score on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies depression instrument >16. Results State generosity was significantly associated with a reduced odds of reporting poor general health (OR 0.84, 95%CI: 0.71 to 0.99), and the county unemployment rate with reduced odds of reporting depression (OR 0.91, 95%CI: 0.84 to 0.97). The measure of income inequality is a significant risk factor for reporting poor general health (OR 1.98, CI: 1.08 to 3.62), controlling for all ecological and individual covariates. In stratified models, the index of social capital is associated with reduced odds of reporting poor general health among black people and Hispanics (OR 0.40, CI: 0.18 to 0.90), but not significant among white people. The inequality measure is significantly associated with reporting poor general health among white people (OR 2.60, CI: 1.22 to 5.56) but not black people and Hispanics. Conclusions The effect of income inequality on health may work through the influence of invidious social comparisons (particularly among white subjects) and (among black subjects and Latinos) through a reduction in social capital. Researchers may find it fruitful to recognise the cultural

  4. Is the Male Advantage in Mental-Rotation Performance Task Independent? On the Usability of Chronometric Tests and Paper-and-Pencil Tests in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaiser-Pohl, Claudia; Neuburger, Sarah; Heil, Martin; Jansen, Petra; Schmelter, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a reanalysis of the data of 862 second and fourth graders collected in two previous studies, focusing on the influence of method (psychometric vs. chronometric) and stimulus type on the gender difference in mental-rotation accuracy. The children had to solve mental-rotation tasks with animal pictures, letters, or cube…

  5. ANS acuity and mathematics ability in preschoolers from low-income homes: contributions of inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Fuhs, Mary Wagner; McNeil, Nicole M

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings by Libertus, Feigenson, and Halberda (2011) suggest that there is an association between the acuity of young children's approximate number system (ANS) and their mathematics ability before exposure to instruction in formal schooling. The present study examined the generalizability and validity of these findings in a sample of preschoolers from low-income homes. Children attending Head Start (N = 103) completed measures to assess ANS acuity, mathematics ability, receptive vocabulary, and inhibitory control. Results showed only a weak association between ANS acuity and mathematics ability that was reduced to non-significance when controlling for a direct measure of receptive vocabulary. Results also revealed that inhibitory control plays an important role in the relation between ANS acuity and mathematics ability. Specifically, ANS acuity accounted for significant variance in mathematics ability over and above receptive vocabulary, but only for ANS acuity trials in which surface area conflicted with numerosity. Moreover, this association became non-significant when controlling for inhibitory control. These results suggest that early mathematical experiences prior to formal schooling may influence the strength of the association between ANS acuity and mathematics ability and that inhibitory control may drive that association in young children.

  6. Visual acuity in the archerfish: behavior, anatomy, and neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Ben-Simon, Avi; Ben-Shahar, Ohad; Vasserman, Genadiy; Ben-Tov, Mor; Segev, Ronen

    2012-11-28

    Archerfish are known for their remarkable behavior of shooting water jets at prey hanging on vegetation above water. Motivated by the fish's capacity to knock down small prey as high as two meters above water level, we studied the role of the retina in facilitating their excellent visual acuity. First, we show behaviorally that archerfish (Toxotes jaculatrix) can detect visual structures with a minimum angle of resolution in the range of 0.075°-0.15°. Then, combining eye movement measurements with a ray tracing method, we show that the image of a target on the retina coincides with the area centralis at the ventro-temporal retina. Moving down to retinal neural circuits, we then examine the ratio by which retinal ganglion cells multiplex visual information from the photoreceptors. Measuring the anatomical densities of both cell types in the area centralis, we found photoreceptor spacing to be 5.8 μm, which supports a minimum angle of resolution as low as 0.073°. Similarly, the average spacing of the ganglion cells was 5.7 μm. Based on electrophysiological measurements we found the smallest receptive fields of ganglion cells in that area to be in the range of 8-16 μm, which translates to an angular width of 0.1°-0.2°. These findings indicate that retinal ganglion cells in the area centralis stream information to the brain at a comparable resolution with which it is sampled by the photoreceptors. Thus, the archerfish can be used as an animal model for studying how visual details are streamed to the brain by retinal output.

  7. Dynamic visual acuity during linear acceleration along the inter-aural axis.

    PubMed

    Schmäl, F; Kunz, R; Stoll, W

    2000-01-01

    We investigated visual-vestibular interactions during linear acceleration along the inter-aural axis. Eighteen healthy volunteers and two patients with central neurological diseases were subjected to transaural linear acceleration in the direction of gravity force (frequency: 0.5-1.5 Hz; amplitude: 5 cm). During linear acceleration, eye movements were recorded under three test conditions: eyes closed (EC), while staring at an imaginary target (IT) and during the testing of dynamic visual acuity (DVA). As parameters of evaluation we used the amplitude of horizontal eye movements, phase shift and the decrease of DVA threshold (DVAT). Under all test conditions, eye amplitude increased with rising stimulus frequency and exceeded, especially in the higher frequency range, a hypothetically calculated eye amplitude for smooth pursuit. The combination of a visual and vestibular input (DVA and IT) led to a better compensation (lower phase shift) than under vestibular stimulation alone (EC). Eye movements during low-frequency stimulation depended more on the visual system while responses in the higher frequency range were mainly triggered by the otolith organ. At 1.5 Hz the compensatory function of the visual-vestibular system was limited (rising phase shift) and DVAT decreased even in a significant number of healthy subjects. Patients with diseases of the central nervous system showed a higher phase shift and thus a stronger decrease of DVAT (two levels) already at a stimulus frequency of 1.25 Hz.

  8. Individual Differences in Scotopic Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity: Genetic and Non-Genetic Influences.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Alex J; Lad, Eleonora M; Cao, Dingcai; Bach, Michael; Cirulli, Elizabeth T

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large amount of variation found in the night (scotopic) vision capabilities of healthy volunteers, little effort has been made to characterize this variation and factors, genetic and non-genetic, that influence it. In the largest population of healthy observers measured for scotopic visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) to date, we quantified the effect of a range of variables on visual performance. We found that young volunteers with excellent photopic vision exhibit great variation in their scotopic VA and CS, and this variation is reliable from one testing session to the next. We additionally identified that factors such as Circadian preference, iris color, astigmatism, depression, sex and education have no significant impact on scotopic visual function. We confirmed previous work showing that the amount of time spent on the vision test influences performance and that laser eye surgery results in worse scotopic vision. We also showed a significant effect of intelligence and photopic visual performance on scotopic VA and CS, but all of these variables collectively explain <30% of the variation in scotopic vision. The wide variation seen in young healthy volunteers with excellent photopic vision, the high test-retest agreement, and the vast majority of the variation in scotopic vision remaining unexplained by obvious non-genetic factors suggests a strong genetic component. Our preliminary genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 106 participants ruled out any common genetic variants of very large effect and paves the way for future, larger genetic studies of scotopic vision. PMID:26886100

  9. Individual Differences in Scotopic Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity: Genetic and Non-Genetic Influences

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomew, Alex J.; Lad, Eleonora M.; Cao, Dingcai; Bach, Michael; Cirulli, Elizabeth T.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large amount of variation found in the night (scotopic) vision capabilities of healthy volunteers, little effort has been made to characterize this variation and factors, genetic and non-genetic, that influence it. In the largest population of healthy observers measured for scotopic visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) to date, we quantified the effect of a range of variables on visual performance. We found that young volunteers with excellent photopic vision exhibit great variation in their scotopic VA and CS, and this variation is reliable from one testing session to the next. We additionally identified that factors such as Circadian preference, iris color, astigmatism, depression, sex and education have no significant impact on scotopic visual function. We confirmed previous work showing that the amount of time spent on the vision test influences performance and that laser eye surgery results in worse scotopic vision. We also showed a significant effect of intelligence and photopic visual performance on scotopic VA and CS, but all of these variables collectively explain <30% of the variation in scotopic vision. The wide variation seen in young healthy volunteers with excellent photopic vision, the high test-retest agreement, and the vast majority of the variation in scotopic vision remaining unexplained by obvious non-genetic factors suggests a strong genetic component. Our preliminary genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 106 participants ruled out any common genetic variants of very large effect and paves the way for future, larger genetic studies of scotopic vision. PMID:26886100

  10. Individual Differences in Scotopic Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity: Genetic and Non-Genetic Influences.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Alex J; Lad, Eleonora M; Cao, Dingcai; Bach, Michael; Cirulli, Elizabeth T

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large amount of variation found in the night (scotopic) vision capabilities of healthy volunteers, little effort has been made to characterize this variation and factors, genetic and non-genetic, that influence it. In the largest population of healthy observers measured for scotopic visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) to date, we quantified the effect of a range of variables on visual performance. We found that young volunteers with excellent photopic vision exhibit great variation in their scotopic VA and CS, and this variation is reliable from one testing session to the next. We additionally identified that factors such as Circadian preference, iris color, astigmatism, depression, sex and education have no significant impact on scotopic visual function. We confirmed previous work showing that the amount of time spent on the vision test influences performance and that laser eye surgery results in worse scotopic vision. We also showed a significant effect of intelligence and photopic visual performance on scotopic VA and CS, but all of these variables collectively explain <30% of the variation in scotopic vision. The wide variation seen in young healthy volunteers with excellent photopic vision, the high test-retest agreement, and the vast majority of the variation in scotopic vision remaining unexplained by obvious non-genetic factors suggests a strong genetic component. Our preliminary genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 106 participants ruled out any common genetic variants of very large effect and paves the way for future, larger genetic studies of scotopic vision.

  11. Determinants of visual acuity outcomes in eyes with neovascular AMD treated with anti-VEGF agents: an instrumental variable analysis of the AURA study

    PubMed Central

    Holz, F G; Tadayoni, R; Beatty, S; Berger, A R; Cereda, M G; Hykin, P; Staurenghi, G; Wittrup-Jensen, K; Nilsson, J; Kim, K; Sivaprasad, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify the strongest variable(s) linked with the number of ranibizumab injections and outcomes in AURA, and to identify ways to improve outcomes using this association. Methods AURA was a large observational study that monitored visual acuity over a 2-year period in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) who received ranibizumab injections. Baseline characteristics, resource use, and outcomes were analyzed using an instrumental variable approach and regression analysis. Results Data were analyzed from 2227 patients enrolled in AURA. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and ophthalmoscopy were the most common diagnostic tests used, and this combination was the strongest instrumental variable. Use of OCT and ophthalmoscopy affected the number of injections given and resulted in an increase in visual acuity gains from baseline of 17.6 letters in year 1 and 2.5 letters in year 2. Regression models using the instrumental variable (OCT and ophthalmoscopy combined) showed that ≥5.1 (95% CI: 3.3–11.4) ranibizumab injections were needed to maintain visual acuity from baseline to year 1 and ≥8.3 (95% CI: 5.3–18.8) injections were needed to maintain visual acuity from year 1 to year 2. To gain ≥15 letters, ≥7.9 (95% CI: 5.1–17.5) ranibizumab injections would be needed in year 1 and ≥16.1 (95% CI: 10.3–36.4) injections would be needed over 2 years. Conclusions These findings highlight the role that regular monitoring plays in guiding neovascular AMD therapy and they showed that the number of ranibizumab injections needed to maintain visual acuity is higher than that administered in AURA. PMID:27197868

  12. Determinants of visual acuity outcomes in eyes with neovascular AMD treated with anti-VEGF agents: an instrumental variable analysis of the AURA study.

    PubMed

    Holz, F G; Tadayoni, R; Beatty, S; Berger, A R; Cereda, M G; Hykin, P; Staurenghi, G; Wittrup-Jensen, K; Nilsson, J; Kim, K; Sivaprasad, S

    2016-08-01

    PurposeTo identify the strongest variable(s) linked with the number of ranibizumab injections and outcomes in AURA, and to identify ways to improve outcomes using this association.MethodsAURA was a large observational study that monitored visual acuity over a 2-year period in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) who received ranibizumab injections. Baseline characteristics, resource use, and outcomes were analyzed using an instrumental variable approach and regression analysis.ResultsData were analyzed from 2227 patients enrolled in AURA. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and ophthalmoscopy were the most common diagnostic tests used, and this combination was the strongest instrumental variable. Use of OCT and ophthalmoscopy affected the number of injections given and resulted in an increase in visual acuity gains from baseline of 17.6 letters in year 1 and 2.5 letters in year 2. Regression models using the instrumental variable (OCT and ophthalmoscopy combined) showed that ≥5.1 (95% CI: 3.3-11.4) ranibizumab injections were needed to maintain visual acuity from baseline to year 1 and ≥8.3 (95% CI: 5.3-18.8) injections were needed to maintain visual acuity from year 1 to year 2. To gain ≥15 letters, ≥7.9 (95% CI: 5.1-17.5) ranibizumab injections would be needed in year 1 and ≥16.1 (95% CI: 10.3-36.4) injections would be needed over 2 years.ConclusionsThese findings highlight the role that regular monitoring plays in guiding neovascular AMD therapy and they showed that the number of ranibizumab injections needed to maintain visual acuity is higher than that administered in AURA. PMID:27197868

  13. Global motion perception is independent from contrast sensitivity for coherent motion direction discrimination and visual acuity in 4.5-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Arijit; Anstice, Nicola S.; Jacobs, Robert J.; Paudel, Nabin; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry M.; Wouldes, Trecia A.; Harding, Jane E.; Thompson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Global motion processing depends on a network of brain regions that includes extrastriate area V5 in the dorsal visual stream. For this reason, psychophysical measures of global motion perception have been used to provide a behavioural measure of dorsal stream function. This approach assumes that global motion is relatively independent of visual functions that arise earlier in the visual processing hierarchy such as contrast sensitivity and visual acuity. We tested this assumption by assessing the relationships between global motion perception, contrast sensitivity for coherent motion direction discrimination (henceforth referred to as contrast sensitivity) and habitual visual acuity in a large group of 4.5-year-old children (n = 117). The children were born at risk of abnormal neurodevelopment because of prenatal drug exposure or risk factors for neonatal hypoglycaemia. Motion coherence thresholds, a measure of global motion perception, were assessed using random dot kinematograms. The contrast of the stimuli was fixed at 100% and coherence was varied. Contrast sensitivity was measured using the same stimuli by fixing motion coherence at 100% and varying dot contrast. Stereoacuity was also measured. Motion coherence thresholds were not correlated with contrast sensitivity or visual acuity. However, lower (better) motion coherence thresholds were correlated with finer stereoacuity (rho=0.38, p=0.004). Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity were also correlated (rho= −0.26, p=0.004) with each other. These results indicate that global motion perception for high contrast stimuli is independent of contrast sensitivity and visual acuity and can be used to assess motion integration mechanisms in children. PMID:26318529

  14. [Proposal for a modified method of semantic differential diagnosis in testing for stereotyping of the mentally ill patient].

    PubMed

    Bak, O

    2000-01-01

    In the paper, a proposal of using the semantic differential (by Osgood) for the research on social perception of mentally ill is presented. It allows for investigation of the basic attributes of the stereotype of psychiatric patient: social character, evaluative aspect, simplification, over-generalization of the opinion and its stiffness. The article presents the pilot results coming from the research in a group of students of psychology (first year of studying), who had no lectures in psychiatry by that time (N = 149). The results lead to the conclusion that the picture of mentally ill has social character, that is--some of its attributes are common for a majority of responders (over 77%). They also confirm (with a high certainty--coming to 79%) that most of mentally ill persons (64-80%) are unpredictable, lost, difficult to understand, introvert, unconscious, not self-possessed, excitable, threatening, aggressive and violent. The results show that in the portrait of mentally ill negative attributes are in majority. This portrait--so one-sided and negative--can be one of the basic predictores of social rejection of mentally ill persons. PMID:11202021

  15. Grating Visual Acuity Results in the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare grating (resolution) visual acuity at 6 years of age in eyes that received early treatment (ET) for high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) versus eyes that were managed conventionally (CM). Methods In a randomized clinical trial, infants with bilateral, high-risk prethreshold ROP (N=317) had one eye treated early at high-risk prethreshold disease and the other eye managed conventionally, and treated if ROP progressed to threshold severity. For asymmetric cases (N=84), the high-risk prethreshold eye was randomized to either ET or CM. Main Outcome Measures Grating visual acuity measured at 6 years of age by masked testers using Teller acuity cards. Results Monocular grating acuity results were obtained from 317 (86%) of 370 surviving children. Analysis of grating acuity results for all subjects with high-risk prethreshold ROP showed no statistically significant overall benefit for early treatment (18.1% vs 22.8% unfavorable outcome, P=0.08). When the 6-year grating acuity results were analyzed according to a clinical algorithm (high-risk Type 1 and high-risk Type 2 prethreshold ROP), a benefit was seen in Type 1 eyes (16.4% vs 25.2%, P=0.004) that were treated early, but not in Type 2 eyes (21.3% vs 15.9%, P=0.29). Conclusion Early treatment for eyes with Type 1 ROP improved grating acuity outcomes but early treatment for eyes with Type 2 ROP did not. Application to Clinical Medicine Type I eyes should be treated early; however, based on acuity results at age 6 years, Type 2 eyes should be cautiously monitored for progression to Type 1 ROP. Trial Registration NCT00027222 PMID:21746974

  16. EN FACE SPECTRAL-DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY OUTER RETINAL ANALYSIS AND RELATION TO VISUAL ACUITY

    PubMed Central

    Kiernan, Daniel F.; Zelkha, Ruth; Hariprasad, Seenu M.; Lim, Jennifer I.; Blair, Michael P.; Mieler, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To describe a method of en face visualization and quantification of the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment junction area, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and association with visual acuity. Methods Case series of 74 eyes in 53 patients. Central 1-mm and 400-mm en face areas were analyzed with a computer algorithm. Results The presence or absence of inner segment/outer segment junction was visible on both spectral-domain optical coherence tomography en face and retinal cross sections. Thirty eyes (40.6%) had no retinal pathology and an average logMAR visual acuity of 0.116. Twenty-five eyes (33.8%) had intraretinal edema, with visual acuity of 0.494. Nineteen eyes had nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration (dry age-related macular degeneration, 25.6%), with visual acuity of 0.392. In all eyes, central 1-mm and 400-µm en face areas were 58.3 ± 25.0% and 56.4 ± 26.0%, which showed significant correlation with visual acuity (Pearson correlation, r = −0.66 and −0.56, both P < 0.001). This correlation was greater than correlation of visual acuity with central subfield thickness (r = 0.39, P < 0.001), macular volume (r = 0.36, P = 0.002), and average macular thickness (r = 0.37, P = 0.001). However, no variables were significantly correlated with dry age-related macular degeneration eyes. Conclusion Central en face inner segment/outer segment junction areas are significantly correlated with visual acuity in most eyes. This may correlate better with visual acuity than other spectral-domain optical coherence tomography values, as a reflection of photoreceptor integrity. Dry age-related macular degeneration may disrupt the plane used to formulate the en face display. Advancements in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography may provide routine en face visualization analysis. PMID:22466459

  17. Effect of Visual Acuity on the Surgical Outcomes of Secondary Sensory Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Erkan Turan, Kadriye; Taylan Şekeroğlu, Hande; Şener, Emin Cumhur; Sanaç, Ali Şefik

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the outcomes of secondary sensory strabismus surgery and to discuss the effect of visual acuity on success. Materials and Methods: The medical records of patients with sensory strabismus who underwent recession-resection on the eye with vision loss were reviewed. Only patients with visual acuity of ≤0.2 in the operated eye were enrolled. Data including age at surgery, visual acuity, etiology of vision loss, preoperative and postoperative deviations, follow-up duration, and surgical outcomes were recorded. Success was defined as a final deviation of ≤10 prism diopters (PD). To evaluate the effect of visual acuity on postoperative success, patients were grouped as follows according to the visual acuity of the operated eye: group 1, visual acuity <0.05; group 2, 0.05-0.1; and group 3, 0.125-0.2. Results: Ten females and 14 males met the inclusion criteria. The mean age at surgery was 21 years (range, 6 to 56 years). The mean preoperative deviation angle was 52.7 PD (range, 20 to 80 PD). Age at surgery, preoperative deviation and follow-up time were similar in patients with esotropia (n=7) and exotropia (n=17) (p>0.05 for all). The success rate was 62.5% at short-term and 42.1% at long-term follow-up. There was no statistically significant difference in short-term success rate among visual acuity subgroups (p=0.331), whereas the difference was statistically significant at long-term follow-up (p=0.002). The long-term success rate was higher in group 3 compared to groups 1 and 2. Conclusion: Better visual acuity seems to be a potential predictor for higher long-term success after strabismus surgery in patients with sensory strabismus. PMID:27800244

  18. Associations of Anisometropia with Unilateral Amblyopia, Interocular Acuity Difference and Stereoacuity in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Gui-shuang; Huang, Jiayan; Maguire, Maureen; Quinn, Graham; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Ciner, Elise; Cyert, Lynn; Orel-Bixler, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relation of anisometropia with unilateral amblyopia, interocular acuity difference (IAD) and stereoacuity, among Head Start preschoolers, using both clinical notation and vector notation analyses. Design Multicenter, cross-sectional study. Participants 3- to 5-year-old participants in the Vision In Preschoolers (VIP) Study (N=4040). Methods Secondary analysis of VIP data from participants who had comprehensive eye examinations including monocular visual acuity (VA) testing, stereoacuity testing, and cycloplegic refraction. VA was retested with full cycloplegic correction when retest criteria were met. Unilateral amblyopia was defined as IAD ≥2 lines in logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR). Anisometropia was defined as ≥0.25 D (diopter) difference in spherical equivalent (SE) or in cylinder power, and also two approaches using power vector notation. The percentage with unilateral amblyopia, mean IAD, and mean stereoacuity were compared between anisometropic and isometropic children. Main Outcomes Measures The percentage with unilateral amblyopia, mean IAD, and mean stereoacuity. Results Compared with isometropic children, anisometropic children had a higher percentage of unilateral amblyopia (8% vs. 2%), larger mean IAD (0.07 vs. 0.05 logMAR) and worse mean stereoacuity (145 vs.117 arc sec) (all p<0.0001). Larger amounts of anisometropia were associated with higher percentages of unilateral amblyopia, larger IAD, and worse stereoacuity (trend p<0.001). Percentage of unilateral amblyopia was significantly increased with spherical equivalent (SE) anisometropia >0.5 D, cylindrical anisometropia >0.25 D, the vertical/horizontal meridian (J0) or oblique meridian (J45) >0.125 D, or vector dioptric distance (VDD) >0.35 D (all p<0.001). VDD had higher ability in detecting unilateral amblyopia than cylinder, SE, J0 and J45 (p<0.001). Conclusions The presence of and amount of anisometropia were associated with the presence of

  19. Dynamic visual acuity during transient and sinusoidal yaw rotation in normal and unilaterally vestibulopathic humans.

    PubMed

    Tian, J R; Shubayev, I; Demer, J L

    2001-03-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) stabilizes gaze to permit clear vision during head movements. It has been supposed that VOR function might be inferred from dynamic visual acuity (DVA), the acuity during imposed head motion. We sought to determine effectiveness of DVA for detection and lateralization of unilateral vestibulopathy, using rigorous psychophysical methods. Seventeen normal and 11 unilaterally vestibulopathic subjects underwent measurement of optically best corrected DVA during head motion. A variable size letter "E" 6 m distant was displayed in oblique random orientations to determine binocular DVA by a computer controlled, forced choice method. Three types of whole-body yaw rotation were delivered by a servo-controlled chair synchronized with optotype presentation. Two types of motion were predictable: (1) steady-state 2.0-Hz rotation at 10-130 degrees/s peak velocity with repetitive optotype presentation only during head velocity exceeding 80% of peak; and (2) directionally predictable transients at peak accelerations of 1000, 1600 and 2800 degrees/s2 with optotype presentation for 300 ms. For neither of these predictable motions did DVA in vestibulopathic subjects significantly differ from normal, with suggestions from search coil recordings that this was due to predictive slow and saccadic eye movements. Unilaterally vestibulopathic subjects experienced a significant decrease in DVA from the static condition during ipsilesional rotation for all three peak head accelerations. Only during directionally unpredictable transients with 75 ms or 300 ms optotype presentation was the sensitivity of DVA in unilaterally vestibulopathic subjects significantly abnormal during ipsilesional rotation. The ipsilesional decrease in DVA with head motion was greater for 75 ms than 300 ms optotype presentation. Search coil recordings confirmed hypometric compensatory eye movements during DVA testing with unpredictable, ipsilesional rotation. Receiver

  20. Plasticity of Binocularity and Visual Acuity Are Differentially Limited by Nogo Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Stephany, Céleste-Élise; Chan, Leanne L.H.; Parivash, Sherveen N.; Dorton, Hilary M.; Piechowicz, Mariel

    2014-01-01

    The closure of developmental critical periods consolidates neural circuitry but also limits recovery from early abnormal sensory experience. Degrading vision by one eye throughout a critical period both perturbs ocular dominance (OD) in primary visual cortex and impairs visual acuity permanently. Yet understanding how binocularity and visual acuity interrelate has proven elusive. Here we demonstrate the plasticity of binocularity and acuity are separable and differentially regulated by the neuronal nogo receptor 1 (NgR1). Mice lacking NgR1 display developmental OD plasticity as adults and their visual acuity spontaneously improves after prolonged monocular deprivation. Restricting deletion of NgR1 to either cortical interneurons or a subclass of parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons alters intralaminar synaptic connectivity in visual cortex and prevents closure of the critical period for OD plasticity. However, loss of NgR1 in PV neurons does not rescue deficits in acuity induced by chronic visual deprivation. Thus, NgR1 functions with PV interneurons to limit plasticity of binocularity, but its expression is required more extensively within brain circuitry to limit improvement of visual acuity following chronic deprivation. PMID:25164659

  1. Self-perceived Mental Health Status and Uptake of Fecal Occult Blood Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening in Canada: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hategekimana, Celestin; Karamouzian, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: While colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most preventable causes of cancer mortality, it is one of the leading causes of cancer death in Canada where CRC screening uptake is suboptimal. Given the increased rate of mortality and morbidity among mental health patients, their condition could be a potential barrier to CRC screening due to greater difficulties in adhering to behaviours related to long-term health goals. Using a population-based study among Canadians, we hypothesize that self-perceived mental health (SPMH) status and fecal occult blood test (FOBT) uptake for the screening of CRC are associated. Methods: The current study is cross-sectional and utilised data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2011-2012. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was undertaken to assess whether SPMH is independently associated with FOBT uptake among a representative sample of 11 386 respondents aged 50-74 years. Results: Nearly half of the respondents reported having ever had FOBT for CRC screening, including 37.28% who have been screened within two years of the survey and 12.41% who had been screened more than two years preceding the survey. Respondents who reported excellent mental health were more likely to have ever been screened two years or more before the survey (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.08; 95% CI, 1.00-4.43) and to have been screened in the last two years preceding the survey (AOR = 1.53; 95% CI, 0.86-2.71) than those reported poor mental health status. Conclusion: This study supports the association between SPMH status and FOBT uptake for CRC screening. While the efforts to maximize CRC screening uptake should be deployed to all eligible people, those with poor mental health may need more attention. PMID:27285514

  2. Media Coverage of Youth Suicides and Its Impact on Paediatric Mental Health Emergency Department Presentations

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Stephanie L.; Cloutier, Paula; BéLair, Marc-André; Cappelli, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Background: To examine mental health (MH) presentations to the emergency department (ED) of a paediatric hospital following two highly publicized local teen suicides. Methods: Youths aged 12–18 years with a MH chief complaint and/or diagnosis were included. Differences in frequencies were analyzed using chi-square tests, and relative risks were evaluated using generalized linear modelling. Results: Significant increases in the number of ED presentations were found within the months of the publicized suicides compared to the same months of previous years. No differences were found in symptom acuity, suicidal status and psychiatric hospitalization rates. Significant increases were found in relative risk of presenting to the ED 28 and 90 days post both publicized suicides. Conclusions: Results suggest there was an association between highly publicized suicides and an increase in the number of MH presentations to the local paediatric ED. Considerations of media's potentially positive role in MH awareness are needed. PMID:25410699

  3. Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  4. "I ain't been reading while on parole": experts, mental tests, and eugenic commitment law in Illinois, 1890-1940.

    PubMed

    Rembis, Michael A

    2004-08-01

    This article analyzes professional challenges to the 1915 commitment law and the ultimate demise of eugenic institutionalization in Illinois. It reveals the pivotal role of psychologists and intelligence testing in the debate over the necessity and viability of a state-sponsored system of eugenic commitment. It focuses primarily, but not exclusively, on a specific group of young female test subjects and the female professionals who attempted to measure their intelligence. The article relies on published studies as well as case records chosen at random from the Illinois State Training School for Girls at Geneva to explain and analyze the complex relationships among mental testing, feeblemindedness, and eugenics. Focusing on Geneva enables the author to highlight and evaluate previously underanalyzed social and environmental factors that affected testing as well as the experience of women in both eugenics and intelligence testing.

  5. Neuropsychological evaluation of higher functioning homeless persons: a comparison of an abbreviated test battery to the mini-mental state exam.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, E A; Dieter, J N; Natale, R A; Tanner, S L

    2001-03-01

    This study examined neuropsychological functioning in a heterogeneous population of persons who were homeless (N = 60) and compared the value of the Abbreviated Halstead-Reitan Test Battery with the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE). A high incidence of neuropsychological dysfunction was evident with 80% of patients showing impaired test battery performance and 35% showing an impaired MMSE. Performance on the Trail Making Test, Part B was especially impaired. Patients impaired on Trails B more often showed impaired test battery performance, suggesting it may be a better screening tool than the MMSE. Neuropsychological performance was not significantly affected by the patients' gender, age, diagnosis, or past psychiatric and medical history. Regression analysis suggested that 29% of the variance in test battery performance was accounted for by the patients' education. Results support previous findings that large numbers of people who are homeless are neuropsychologically impaired; this should be considered when planning treatment and rehabilitation. PMID:11277354

  6. Effect of methylphenidate on neurocognitive test battery: an evaluation according to the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, subtypes.

    PubMed

    Durak, Sibel; Ercan, Eyup Sabri; Ardic, Ulku Akyol; Yuce, Deniz; Ercan, Elif; Ipci, Melis

    2014-08-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the neuropsychological characteristics of the restrictive (R) subtype according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition and the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) combined (CB) type and predominantly inattentive (PI) type subtypes and to evaluate whether methylphenidate (MPH) affects neurocognitive test battery scores according to these subtypes. This study included 360 children and adolescents (277 boys, 83 girls) between 7 and 15 years of age who had been diagnosed with ADHD and compared the neuropsychological characteristics and MPH treatment responses of patients with the R subtype-which has been suggested for inclusion among the ADHD subtypes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-with those of patients with the PI and CB subtypes. They did not differ from the control subjects in the complex attention domain, which includes Continuous Performance Test, Stroop test, and Shifting Attention Test, which suggests that the R subtype displayed a lower level of deterioration in these domains compared with the PI and CB subtypes. The patients with the CB and PI subtypes did not differ from the control subjects in the Continuous Performance Test correct response domain, whereas those with the R subtype presented a poorer performance than the control subjects. The R subtype requires a more detailed evaluation because it presented similar results in the remaining neuropsychological evaluations and MPH responses.

  7. Effect of Target Location on Dynamic Visual Acuity During Passive Horizontal Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, Meghan; DeDios, Yiri; Kulecz, Walter; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) generates eye rotation to compensate for potential retinal slip in the specific plane of head movement. Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) has been utilized as a functional measure of the VOR. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in accuracy and reaction time when performing a DVA task with targets offset from the plane of rotation, e.g. offset vertically during horizontal rotation. Visual acuity was measured in 12 healthy subjects as they moved a hand-held joystick to indicate the orientation of a computer-generated Landolt C "as quickly and accurately as possible." Acuity thresholds were established with optotypes presented centrally on a wall-mounted LCD screen at 1.3 m distance, first without motion (static condition) and then while oscillating at 0.8 Hz (DVA, peak velocity 60 deg/s). The effect of target location was then measured during horizontal rotation with the optotypes randomly presented in one of nine different locations on the screen (offset up to 10 deg). The optotype size (logMar 0, 0.2 or 0.4, corresponding to Snellen range 20/20 to 20/50) and presentation duration (150, 300 and 450 ms) were counter-balanced across five trials, each utilizing horizontal rotation at 0.8 Hz. Dynamic acuity was reduced relative to static acuity in 7 of 12 subjects by one step size. During the random target trials, both accuracy and reaction time improved proportional to optotype size. Accuracy and reaction time also improved between 150 ms and 300 ms presentation durations. The main finding was that both accuracy and reaction time varied as a function of target location, with greater performance decrements when acquiring vertical targets. We conclude that dynamic visual acuity varies with target location, with acuity optimized for targets in the plane of motion. Both reaction time and accuracy are functionally relevant DVA parameters of VOR function.

  8. Visual acuity and its predictors after surgery for bilateral cataracts in children.

    PubMed

    Bonaparte, L A; Trivedi, R H; Ramakrishnan, V; Wilson, M E

    2016-09-01

    PurposeThe objective of this study was to investigate preoperative factors associated with postoperative visual acuity outcomes and to develop a model to predict visual acuity prognosis.MethodsA retrospective study was conducted by reviewing clinical charts of pediatric patients who underwent bilateral cataract surgery by a single surgeon (MEW) at the Storm Eye Institute. A multiple logistic regression model was constructed to predict the odds of poor postoperative visual acuity, that is, worse than 20/40, based on age at surgery, gender, primary intraocular lens (IOL) placement, ethnicity, and preoperative nystagmus.ResultsA sample size of 157 children (314 eyes) was investigated with median duration of follow-up of 6.4 years. A total of 78% of children with bilateral cataract had postoperative visual acuity of 20/40 or better. The presence of preoperative nystagmus was highly correlated with poor postoperative visual acuity (OR=6.0; 95% CLs, 2.5-14.1; P-value<0.0001). Children of age <1 year at time of cataract extraction (OR=3.2; 95% CLs, 1.4-7.6; P-value=0.0073), male gender (OR=2.3; 95% CLs, 1.1-4.5; P-value=0.02), the absence of primary IOL placement (OR=3.0; 95% CLs, 1.05-8.4; P-value=0.04), and non-Caucasian ethnicity (OR=2.0; 95% CLs, 1.02-4.03; P-value 0.0447) were associated with poor visual acuity postoperatively.ConclusionsSatisfactory visual outcomes occurred in 78% of children operated on for bilateral cataracts. Preoperative nystagmus, age <1 year at time of cataract extraction, absence of primary IOL placement, male gender, and non-Caucasian ethnicity, were all factors associated with poor postoperative visual acuity. PMID:27472217

  9. Origins of Superior Dynamic Visual Acuity in Baseball Players: Superior Eye Movements or Superior Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Yusuke; Kudoh, Daisuke; Murakami, Akira; Honda, Masaaki; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is defined as the ability to discriminate the fine parts of a moving object. DVA is generally better in athletes than in non-athletes, and the better DVA of athletes has been attributed to a better ability to track moving objects. In the present study, we hypothesized that the better DVA of athletes is partly derived from better perception of moving images on the retina through some kind of perceptual learning. To test this hypothesis, we quantitatively measured DVA in baseball players and non-athletes using moving Landolt rings in two conditions. In the first experiment, the participants were allowed to move their eyes (free-eye-movement conditions), whereas in the second they were required to fixate on a fixation target (fixation conditions). The athletes displayed significantly better DVA than the non-athletes in the free-eye-movement conditions. However, there was no significant difference between the groups in the fixation conditions. These results suggest that the better DVA of athletes is primarily due to an improved ability to track moving targets with their eyes, rather than to improved perception of moving images on the retina. PMID:22384033

  10. Changes in Near Visual Acuity of Over Time in the Astronaut Corps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taiym, Wafa; Wear, Mary L.; Locke, James; Mason, Sara; VanBaalen, Mary

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that visual impairment due to intracranial pressure (VIIP) would increase the rate of which presbyopia would occur in the astronaut population, with long durations flyers at an especially high risk. Presbyopia is characterized as the gradual loss of near visual acuity overtime due to a loss in ability to accommodate. It generally develops in the mid-40s and progresses until about age 65. This analysis considered annual vision exams conducted on active NASA astronauts with spaceflight experience currently between the ages of 40 to 60 years of age. Onset of presbyopia was characterized as a shift of at least 20 units on the standard Snellen test from one annual exam to the next. There were 236 short duration and 48 long duration flyers, the majority of whom did experience onset of presbyopia between age 40 and 60. This shift however, did not necessarily come after spaceflight. In comparing the short and long duration flyers the mean age of onset was 47 years old (SD+/-3.7). The mean of onset within the general population is 45 to 47 years old [1, 2]. The mean age of the onset of presbyopia as compared to the general population indicates that space flight does not induce early development of presbyopia.

  11. Origins of superior dynamic visual acuity in baseball players: superior eye movements or superior image processing.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yusuke; Kudoh, Daisuke; Murakami, Akira; Honda, Masaaki; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is defined as the ability to discriminate the fine parts of a moving object. DVA is generally better in athletes than in non-athletes, and the better DVA of athletes has been attributed to a better ability to track moving objects. In the present study, we hypothesized that the better DVA of athletes is partly derived from better perception of moving images on the retina through some kind of perceptual learning. To test this hypothesis, we quantitatively measured DVA in baseball players and non-athletes using moving Landolt rings in two conditions. In the first experiment, the participants were allowed to move their eyes (free-eye-movement conditions), whereas in the second they were required to fixate on a fixation target (fixation conditions). The athletes displayed significantly better DVA than the non-athletes in the free-eye-movement conditions. However, there was no significant difference between the groups in the fixation conditions. These results suggest that the better DVA of athletes is primarily due to an improved ability to track moving targets with their eyes, rather than to improved perception of moving images on the retina.

  12. The Flex Track: Flexible Partitioning between Low- and High-Acuity Areas of an Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Laker, Lauren F.; Froehle, Craig M.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Ward, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective EDs with both low- and high-acuity treatment areas often have fixed allocation of resources, regardless of demand. We demonstrate the utility of discrete-event simulation to evaluate flexible partitioning between low- and high-acuity ED areas to identify the best operational strategy for subsequent implementation. Methods A discrete-event simulation was used to model patient flow through a 50-bed, urban, teaching ED that handles 85,000 patient visits annually. The ED has historically allocated ten beds to a Fast Track for low-acuity patients. We estimated the effect of a Flex Track policy, which involved switching up to five of these Fast Track beds to serving both low- and high-acuity patients, on patient waiting times. When the high-acuity beds were not at capacity, low-acuity patients were given priority access to flexible beds. Otherwise, high-acuity patients were given priority access to flexible beds. Wait times were estimated for patients by disposition and emergency severity index (ESI) score. Results A Flex Track policy using three flexible beds produced the lowest mean patient waiting of 30.9 (95% CI 30.6–31.2) minutes. The typical Fast Track approach of rigidly separating high- and low–acuity beds produced a mean patient wait time of 40.6 (95% CI 40.2–50.0) minutes, 31% higher than the three-bed Flex Track. A completely flexible ED, where all beds can accommodate any patient, produced mean wait times of 35.1 (95% CI 34.8–35.4) minutes. The results from the three-bed Flex Track scenario were robust, performing well across a range of scenarios involving higher and lower patient volumes and care durations. Conclusion Using discrete-event simulation, we have shown that adding some flexibility into bed allocation between low- and high-acuity can provide substantial reductions in overall patient waiting and a more efficient ED. PMID:24954578

  13. Testing the WHO responsiveness concept in the Iranian mental healthcare system: a qualitative study of service users

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Individuals' experience of interacting with the healthcare system has significant impact on their overall health and well-being. To relate patients' experiences to a common set of standards, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the concept of health system responsiveness. This study aimed to assess if the WHO responsiveness concept reflected the non-medical expectations of mental healthcare users in Teheran. Methods In this qualitative study, four mixed focus group discussions were formed, comprising 53 mental health service users in Tehran, Iran, in 2010. Content analysis was performed for data analysis. Responses were examined in relation to the eight domains of the WHO's responsiveness model. Results There were many commonalities between the findings of this study and the eight domains of the WHO responsiveness model, although some variations were found. Effective care was a new domain generated from our findings. In addition, the domain of prompt attention was included in two new labelled domains: attention and access to care. Participants could not differentiate autonomy from choice of healthcare provider, believing that free choice is part of autonomy. Therefore these domains were unified under the name of autonomy. The domains of quality of basic amenities, access to social support, dignity and confidentiality were considered to be important for the responsiveness concept. Some differences regarding how these domains should be defined were observed, however. Conclusions The results showed that the concept of responsiveness developed by the WHO is applicable to mental health services in Iran. These findings might help policy-makers' better understanding of what is useful for the improvement of mental health services. PMID:22115499

  14. Robot-Aided Mapping of Wrist Proprioceptive Acuity across a 3D Workspace.

    PubMed

    Marini, Francesca; Squeri, Valentina; Morasso, Pietro; Konczak, Jürgen; Masia, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Proprioceptive signals from peripheral mechanoreceptors form the basis for bodily perception and are known to be essential for motor control. However we still have an incomplete understanding of how proprioception differs between joints, whether it differs among the various degrees-of-freedom (DoFs) within a particular joint, and how such differences affect motor control and learning. We here introduce a robot-aided method to objectively measure proprioceptive function: specifically, we systematically mapped wrist proprioceptive acuity across the three DoFs of the wrist/hand complex with the aim to characterize the wrist position sense. Thirty healthy young adults performed an ipsilateral active joint position matching task with their dominant wrist using a haptic robotic exoskeleton. Our results indicate that the active wrist position sense acuity is anisotropic across the joint, with the abduction/adduction DoF having the highest acuity (the error of acuity for flexion/extension is 4.64 ± 0.24°; abduction/adduction: 3.68 ± 0.32°; supination/pronation: 5.15 ± 0.37°) and they also revealed that proprioceptive acuity decreases for smaller joint displacements. We believe this knowledge is imperative in a clinical scenario when assessing proprioceptive deficits and for understanding how such sensory deficits relate to observable motor impairments.

  15. Determine the effect of neck muscle fatigue on dynamic visual acuity in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Al Saif, Amer A; Al Senany, Samira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine whether neck muscle fatigue affects dynamic visual acuity in healthy young participants. [Subjects and Methods] This study was a double-blinded, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Thirty healthy young subjects (ages 21 to 30 years) participated in the study. Participants were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). The experimental group performed an exercise designed to induce neck muscle fatigue and the control group preformed non-fatiguing sham exercises. [Results] There were significant differences in mean dynamic visual acuity between the two groups (0.26±0.11 LogMar versus 0.003±0.02 LogMar). Subjects in the experimental group showed a significant decline in their dynamic visual acuity compared with the control group. Dynamic visual acuity strongly correlated with neck muscle fatigue (r = 0.79). No significant differences in joint position error were observed between the two groups and no significant correlations between joint position error and neck muscle fatigue were observed (r = 0.23). [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that neck muscle fatigue negatively impacts dynamic visual acuity. Although not statistically significant, cervical spine proprioception as measured by the joint position error in the experimental group was diminished after fatigue.

  16. Dot Display Affects Approximate Number System Acuity and Relationships with Mathematical Achievement and Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Jade Eloise; Castronovo, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Much research has investigated the relationship between the Approximate Number System (ANS) and mathematical achievement, with continued debate surrounding the existence of such a link. The use of different stimulus displays may account for discrepancies in the findings. Indeed, closer scrutiny of the literature suggests that studies supporting a link between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement in adults have mostly measured the ANS using spatially intermixed displays (e.g. of blue and yellow dots), whereas those failing to replicate a link have primarily used spatially separated dot displays. The current study directly compared ANS acuity when using intermixed or separate dots, investigating how such methodological variation mediated the relationship between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement. ANS acuity was poorer and less reliable when measured with intermixed displays, with performance during both conditions related to inhibitory control. Crucially, mathematical achievement was significantly related to ANS accuracy difference (accuracy on congruent trials minus accuracy on incongruent trials) when measured with intermixed displays, but not with separate displays. The findings indicate that methodological variation affects ANS acuity outcomes, as well as the apparent relationship between the ANS and mathematical achievement. Moreover, the current study highlights the problem of low reliabilities of ANS measures. Further research is required to construct ANS measures with improved reliability, and to understand which processes may be responsible for the increased likelihood of finding a correlation between the ANS and mathematical achievement when using intermixed displays. PMID:27195749

  17. Dynamic Visual Acuity and Landing Sickness in Crewmembers Returning from Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Peters, B. T.; Reschke, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term exposure to microgravity causes sensorimotor adaptations that result in functional deficits upon returning to a gravitational environment. At landing the vestibular system and the central nervous system, responsible for coordinating head and eye movements, are adapted to microgravity and must re-adapt to the gravitational environment. This re-adaptation causes decrements in gaze control and dynamic visual acuity, with astronauts reporting oscillopsia and blurred vision. Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is assessed using an oscillating chair (Figure 1) developed in the Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC. This chair is lightweight and easily portable for quick deployment in the field. The base of the chair is spring-loaded and allows for manual oscillation of the subject. Using a metronome, the chair is vertically oscillated +/- 2 cm at 2 Hz by an operator, to simulate walking. While the subject is being oscillated, they are asked to discern the direction of Landolt-C optotypes of varying sizes presented on a screen 1 m from the subject and record their direction using a gamepad. The visual acuity thresholds are determined using an algorithm that alters the size of the optotype based on the previous responses of the subject using a forced-choice best parameter estimation that is able to rapidly converge on the threshold value. Visual acuity thresholds are determined both for static (seated) and dynamic (oscillating) conditions. Dynamic visual acuity is defined as the difference between the dynamic and static conditions.

  18. Robot-Aided Mapping of Wrist Proprioceptive Acuity across a 3D Workspace.

    PubMed

    Marini, Francesca; Squeri, Valentina; Morasso, Pietro; Konczak, Jürgen; Masia, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Proprioceptive signals from peripheral mechanoreceptors form the basis for bodily perception and are known to be essential for motor control. However we still have an incomplete understanding of how proprioception differs between joints, whether it differs among the various degrees-of-freedom (DoFs) within a particular joint, and how such differences affect motor control and learning. We here introduce a robot-aided method to objectively measure proprioceptive function: specifically, we systematically mapped wrist proprioceptive acuity across the three DoFs of the wrist/hand complex with the aim to characterize the wrist position sense. Thirty healthy young adults performed an ipsilateral active joint position matching task with their dominant wrist using a haptic robotic exoskeleton. Our results indicate that the active wrist position sense acuity is anisotropic across the joint, with the abduction/adduction DoF having the highest acuity (the error of acuity for flexion/extension is 4.64 ± 0.24°; abduction/adduction: 3.68 ± 0.32°; supination/pronation: 5.15 ± 0.37°) and they also revealed that proprioceptive acuity decreases for smaller joint displacements. We believe this knowledge is imperative in a clinical scenario when assessing proprioceptive deficits and for understanding how such sensory deficits relate to observable motor impairments. PMID:27536882

  19. Robot-Aided Mapping of Wrist Proprioceptive Acuity across a 3D Workspace

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Francesca; Squeri, Valentina; Morasso, Pietro; Konczak, Jürgen; Masia, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Proprioceptive signals from peripheral mechanoreceptors form the basis for bodily perception and are known to be essential for motor control. However we still have an incomplete understanding of how proprioception differs between joints, whether it differs among the various degrees-of-freedom (DoFs) within a particular joint, and how such differences affect motor control and learning. We here introduce a robot-aided method to objectively measure proprioceptive function: specifically, we systematically mapped wrist proprioceptive acuity across the three DoFs of the wrist/hand complex with the aim to characterize the wrist position sense. Thirty healthy young adults performed an ipsilateral active joint position matching task with their dominant wrist using a haptic robotic exoskeleton. Our results indicate that the active wrist position sense acuity is anisotropic across the joint, with the abduction/adduction DoF having the highest acuity (the error of acuity for flexion/extension is 4.64 ± 0.24°; abduction/adduction: 3.68 ± 0.32°; supination/pronation: 5.15 ± 0.37°) and they also revealed that proprioceptive acuity decreases for smaller joint displacements. We believe this knowledge is imperative in a clinical scenario when assessing proprioceptive deficits and for understanding how such sensory deficits relate to observable motor impairments. PMID:27536882

  20. Dynamic visual acuity and coincidence-anticipation timing by experienced and inexperienced women players of fast pitch softball.

    PubMed

    Millslagle, D G

    2000-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between dynamic visual acuity and coincidence-anticipation timing in 16 inexperienced and 16 experienced women's fast pitch softball players. Pearson-product correlations indicated a low relationship between dynamic visual acuity and coincidence-anticipation timing. The correlations for dynamic visual acuity and coincidence anticipation between experienced and inexperienced dynamic visual acuity were not significant. A significant difference was found between the mean dynamic visual acuity of the two groups, i.e., experienced players had better dynamic visual acuity than inexperienced players. Analysis of variance of constant errors, variable errors, and absolute errors of coincidence anticipation indicated no significant differences between groups or across the three accuracy scores. The interaction between experience and accuracy was not significant.

  1. Acquisition of the Cardinal Principle Coincides with Improvement in Approximate Number System Acuity in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Shusterman, Anna; Slusser, Emily; Halberda, Justin; Odic, Darko

    2016-01-01

    Human mathematical abilities comprise both learned, symbolic representations of number and unlearned, non-symbolic evolutionarily primitive cognitive systems for representing quantities. However, the mechanisms by which our symbolic (verbal) number system becomes integrated with the non-symbolic (non-verbal) representations of approximate magnitude (supported by the Approximate Number System, or ANS) are not well understood. To explore this connection, forty-six children participated in a 6-month longitudinal study assessing verbal number knowledge and non-verbal numerical acuity. Cross-sectional analyses revealed a strong relationship between verbal number knowledge and ANS acuity. Longitudinal analyses suggested that increases in ANS acuity were most strongly related to the acquisition of the cardinal principle, but not to other milestones of verbal number acquisition. These findings suggest that experience with culture and language is intimately linked to changes in the properties of a core cognitive system. PMID:27078257

  2. The role of numeracy and approximate number system acuity in predicting value and probability distortion.

    PubMed

    Patalano, Andrea L; Saltiel, Jason R; Machlin, Laura; Barth, Hilary

    2015-12-01

    It is well documented that individuals distort outcome values and probabilities when making choices from descriptions, and there is evidence of systematic individual differences in distortion. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between individual differences in such distortions and two measures of numerical competence, numeracy and approximate number system (ANS) acuity. Participants indicated certainty equivalents for a series of simple monetary gambles, and data were used to estimate individual-level value and probability distortion, using a cumulative prospect theory framework. We found moderately strong negative correlations between numeracy and value and probability distortion, but only weak and non-statistically reliable correlations between ANS acuity and distortions. We conclude that low numeracy contributes to number distortion in decision making, but that approximate number system acuity might not underlie this relationship.

  3. EDUCATION ENHANCES THE ACUITY OF THE NON-VERBAL APPROXIMATE NUMBER SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Manuela; Pica, Pierre; Izard, Véronique; Spelke, Elizabeth; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2015-01-01

    All humans share a universal, evolutionarily ancient approximate number system (ANS) that estimates and combines the number of objects in sets with ratio-limited precision. Inter-individual variability in the acuity of the ANS correlates with mathematical achievement, but the causes of this correlation have never been established. We acquired psychophysical measures of ANS acuity in child and adult members of an indigene group in the Amazon, the Mundurucu, who have a very restricted numerical lexicon and highly variable access to mathematical education. By comparing Mundurucu subjects with or without access to schooling, we demonstrate that education significantly enhances the acuity with which sets of concrete objects are estimated. These results speak in favor of an important effect of culture and education on basic number perception. We hypothesize that symbolic and non-symbolic numerical thinking mutually enhance one another over the course of mathematics instruction. PMID:23625879

  4. Comparison of dynamic visual acuity between water polo players and sedentary students.

    PubMed

    Quevedo-Junyent, Lluïsa; Aznar-Casanova, José Antonio; Merindano-Encina, Dolores; Cardona, Genís; Solé-Fortó, Joan

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examined differences in dynamic visual acuity between elite and subelite water polo players and sedentary students. To measure dynamic visual acuity binocularly, we asked participants to indicate the orientation of a broken ring, similar to the Landolt C, which increased in size as it moved across a computer screen. Two different speeds, three possible trajectories, and two different levels of contrast were evaluated. There were statistically significant differences between elite players and sedentary students for each combination of speed, contrast, and trajectory. Elite players achieved better dynamic visual acuity scores, and results also improved for some combinations of speed, contrast, and trajectory. Comparison between elite and subelite groups failed to reveal any

  5. Acquisition of the Cardinal Principle Coincides with Improvement in Approximate Number System Acuity in Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Shusterman, Anna; Slusser, Emily; Halberda, Justin; Odic, Darko

    2016-01-01

    Human mathematical abilities comprise both learned, symbolic representations of number and unlearned, non-symbolic evolutionarily primitive cognitive systems for representing quantities. However, the mechanisms by which our symbolic (verbal) number system becomes integrated with the non-symbolic (non-verbal) representations of approximate magnitude (supported by the Approximate Number System, or ANS) are not well understood. To explore this connection, forty-six children participated in a 6-month longitudinal study assessing verbal number knowledge and non-verbal numerical acuity. Cross-sectional analyses revealed a strong relationship between verbal number knowledge and ANS acuity. Longitudinal analyses suggested that increases in ANS acuity were most strongly related to the acquisition of the cardinal principle, but not to other milestones of verbal number acquisition. These findings suggest that experience with culture and language is intimately linked to changes in the properties of a core cognitive system. PMID:27078257

  6. Limits of visual acuity in the frontal field of the rock pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Rounsley, Kevin J; McFadden, Sally A

    2005-01-01

    The eye of the rock pigeon is typical of a granivorous lateral-eyed bird, in that it has both a laterally projecting central fovea and a second high-density cellular area in peripheral retina (area dorsalis) which projects to the binocular frontal field below the beak. Such a dual system is faced with potentially different optical restraints arising from central and peripheral vision. We asked whether the frontal axis can support high resolution vision from a refractive resting position (predicted to be 25-33 cm; Fitzke et al, 1985 Journal of Physiology 369 33-44) to some near point of accommodation. We measured the visual acuity on the frontal axis in five pigeons using an operant discrimination of high-contrast square-wave gratings at a series of distances from 7 to 80 cm from the eye. The peak average acuity was 11.04 cycles deg(-1), which occurred 10 cm from the eye. The average of the maximum acuity of each bird at 10 cm was 12.8 +/- 1.1 cycles deg(-1), a value equal to the Nyquist frequency calculated from the peak ganglion cell density of the area dorsalis. However, this maximum acuity was restricted to a narrow depth in space, located around 10 cm from the eye, and at greater distances fell exponentially such that acuity was 50% of its maximum at 35 cm and less than 1 cycle deg(-1) at 100 cm. We propose that the range of high-acuity vision is limited in the frontal field by either increased refractive power and/or inaccuracy in frontal accommodation, and is optimized for a preferred far point located 10 cm from the eye.

  7. Posterior staphyloma in oculocutaneous albinism: another possible cause of reduced visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Susan; Schimmenti, Lisa A; King, Richard A; Brilliant, Murray; Anderson, Jennifer L; Schoonveld, Cheri; Summers, C Gail

    2015-12-01

    Posterior staphyloma is typically associated with myopic degeneration and has not been recognized as a cause of reduced visual acuity in albinism. We report 3 cases of posterior staphyloma, each with oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) defined by phenotype and genotype. Two cases are biological sisters with OCA type 2; one was myopic and the other was hyperopic. The third case involves a man with OCA associated with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS-5). Staphyloma may be another cause of reduced visual acuity in albinism, particularly with increasing age. It may occur in association with myopia or hyperopia. PMID:26691042

  8. Pupil dilatation with tropicamide. The effects on acuity, accommodation and refraction.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, D M; MacEwan, C J

    1989-01-01

    The effect of pupil dilatation with tropicamide 1% on visual acuity and accommodation was assessed in 100 eyes of 52 consecutive patients attending the general ophthalmic outpatient clinic. Snellen visual acuity remained unchanged in 55 eyes and deteriorated by one line in 41 eyes. The remaining four eyes deteriorated by two lines. Tropicamide gave rise to a reduction in the amplitude of accommodation which tended to vary inversely with the age of the patient. However, all patients who wore reading glasses for presbyopia were still able to read when their pupils had been dilated.

  9. Creation of an Accurate Algorithm to Detect Snellen Best Documented Visual Acuity from Ophthalmology Electronic Health Record Notes

    PubMed Central

    French, Dustin D; Gill, Manjot; Mitchell, Christopher; Jackson, Kathryn; Kho, Abel; Bryar, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Background Visual acuity is the primary measure used in ophthalmology to determine how well a patient can see. Visual acuity for a single eye may be recorded in multiple ways for a single patient visit (eg, Snellen vs. Jäger units vs. font print size), and be recorded for either distance or near vision. Capturing the best documented visual acuity (BDVA) of each eye in an individual patient visit is an important step for making electronic ophthalmology clinical notes useful in research. Objective Currently, there is limited methodology for capturing BDVA in an efficient and accurate manner from electronic health record (EHR) notes. We developed an algorithm to detect BDVA for right and left eyes from defined fields within electronic ophthalmology clinical notes. Methods We designed an algorithm to detect the BDVA from defined fields within 295,218 ophthalmology clinical notes with visual acuity data present. About 5668 unique responses were identified and an algorithm was developed to map all of the unique responses to a structured list of Snellen visual acuities. Results Visual acuity was captured from a total of 295,218 ophthalmology clinical notes during the study dates. The algorithm identified all visual acuities in the defined visual acuity section for each eye and returned a single BDVA for each eye. A clinician chart review of 100 random patient notes showed a 99% accuracy detecting BDVA from these records and 1% observed error. Conclusions Our algorithm successfully captures best documented Snellen distance visual acuity from ophthalmology clinical notes and transforms a variety of inputs into a structured Snellen equivalent list. Our work, to the best of our knowledge, represents the first attempt at capturing visual acuity accurately from large numbers of electronic ophthalmology notes. Use of this algorithm can benefit research groups interested in assessing visual acuity for patient centered outcome. All codes used for this study are currently

  10. Tactile perception in blind Braille readers: a psychophysical study of acuity and hyperacuity using gratings and dot patterns.

    PubMed

    Grant, A C; Thiagarajah, M C; Sathian, K

    2000-02-01

    It is not clear whether the blind are generally superior to the sighted on measures of tactile sensitivity or whether they excel only on certain tests owing to the specifics of their tactile experience. We compared the discrimination performance of blind Braille readers and age-matched sighted subjects on three tactile tasks using precisely specified stimuli. Initially, the blind significantly outperformed the sighted at a hyperacuity task using Braille-like dot patterns, although, with practice, both groups performed equally well. On two other tasks, hyperacute discrimination of gratings that differed in ridge width and spatial-acuity-dependent discrimination of grating orientation, the performance of the blind did not differ significantly from that of sighted subjects. These results probably reflect the specificity of perceptual learning due to Braille-reading experience.

  11. A novel computer software for the evaluation of dynamic visual acuity

    PubMed Central

    Quevedo, Lluïsa; Aznar-Casanova, José Antonio; Merindano-Encina, Dolores; Cardona, Genís; Solé-Fortó, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is defined as the ability to discriminate fine details in a moving target. Albeit a growing interest in DVA, there is a lack of standardized, validated instrumentation and procedures for the assessment of this visual function parameter. The aim of the present study was to analyze qualitative construct validity and test–retest reliability of a novel, computer-assisted instrument (DinVA 3.0) for the measurement of DVA. Methods Two different experiments are presented, involving the participation of 33 subjects. The first experiment aimed at testing qualitative construct validity of the DinVA 3.0 by comparing the outcome of a series of trials consisting in different speeds, contrasts and trajectories of the target stimuli with those reported in the literature. The second experiment assessed test–retest reliability by repeating a series of trials at three different time intervals, at maximum target stimuli contrast and either high or low speed configurations. Results The results of the first experiment gave support to the qualitative construct validity of DinVA 3.0, as the DVA scores were found to be modulated by the speed of the moving target (high speeds yielded lower DVA), contrast (high contrast resulted in better DVA) and trajectory (DVA was better at horizontal rather than oblique trajectories). Test–retest reliability was found to be good, with a small insignificant trend towards improvement with learning. Conclusion The DinVA 3.0 proved to be a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of DVA and may be considered a promising tool for both clinicians and researchers.

  12. Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, Dominick P.; And Others

    Evidence today indicates that the causes of mental retardation are biological, psychological, and social in origin and that a combination of these causes frequently occur in a single individual. Mental retardation is identified clinically by the presence of several signs that include, but are not limited to, a significant impairment of…

  13. Impacting patient outcomes through design: acuity adaptable care/universal room design.

    PubMed

    Brown, Katherine Kay; Gallant, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    To succeed in today's challenging healthcare environment, hospitals must examine their impact on customers--patients and families--staff and physicians. By using competitive facility design and incorporating evidence-based concepts such as the acuity adaptable care delivery model and the universal room, the hospital will realize an impact on patient satisfaction that will enhance market share, on physician satisfaction that will foster loyalty, and on staff satisfaction that will decrease turnover. At the same time, clinical outcomes such as a reduction in mortality and complications and efficiencies such as a reduction in length of stay and minimization of hospital costs through the elimination of transfers can be gained. The results achieved are dependent on the principles used in designing the patient room that should focus on maximizing patient safety and improving healing. This article will review key design elements that support the success of an acuity adaptable unit such as the use of a private room with zones dedicated to patients, families, and staff, healing environment, technology, and decentralized nursing stations that support the success of the acuity adaptable unit. Outcomes of institutions currently utilizing the acuity adaptable concept will be reviewed.

  14. The role of white light interferometry in predicting visual acuity following posterior capsulotomy.

    PubMed

    Hanna, I T; Sigurdsson, H; Baines, P S; Roxburgh, S T

    1989-01-01

    White light interferometry was performed on 21 eyes of 19 patients presenting for posterior capsulotomy following uncomplicated extracapsular cataract surgery. The white light interferometer was able to predict post-operative visual acuity to within one Snellen line in 56 per cent of eyes and to within two Snellen lines in 76 per cent of eyes.

  15. A Close Eye on the Eagle-Eyed Visual Acuity Hypothesis of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Sven; Schlitt, Sabine; Gapp, Volker; Hainz, Daniela; Schirman, Shella; Poustka, Fritz; Weber, Bernhard; Freitag, Christine; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Walter, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been associated with sensory hypersensitivity. A recent study reported visual acuity (VA) in ASD in the region reported for birds of prey. The validity of the results was subsequently doubted. This study examined VA in 34 individuals with ASD, 16 with schizophrenia (SCH), and 26 typically developing (TYP).…

  16. Short-term visual deprivation, tactile acuity, and haptic solid shape discrimination.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, Charles E; Norman, J Farley

    2014-01-01

    Previous psychophysical studies have reported conflicting results concerning the effects of short-term visual deprivation upon tactile acuity. Some studies have found that 45 to 90 minutes of total light deprivation produce significant improvements in participants' tactile acuity as measured with a grating orientation discrimination task. In contrast, a single 2011 study found no such improvement while attempting to replicate these earlier findings. A primary goal of the current experiment was to resolve this discrepancy in the literature by evaluating the effects of a 90-minute period of total light deprivation upon tactile grating orientation discrimination. We also evaluated the potential effect of short-term deprivation upon haptic 3-D shape discrimination using a set of naturally-shaped solid objects. According to previous research, short-term deprivation enhances performance in a tactile 2-D shape discrimination task - perhaps a similar improvement also occurs for haptic 3-D shape discrimination. The results of the current investigation demonstrate that not only does short-term visual deprivation not enhance tactile acuity, it additionally has no effect upon haptic 3-D shape discrimination. While visual deprivation had no effect in our study, there was a significant effect of experience and learning for the grating orientation task - the participants' tactile acuity improved over time, independent of whether they had, or had not, experienced visual deprivation.

  17. The Effects of Drift and Displacement Motion on Dynamic Visual Acuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aznar-Casanova, J. Antonio; Quevedo, Lluisa; Sinnett, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) can be measured from two types of equivalently considered movement referred to as drifting-motion and displacement-motion. Displacement motion can be best described as the horizontal displacement of a stimulus, thus implying pursuit eye movements, and involves moving the stimulus from the fixation point of gaze towards…

  18. Binocular Coordination, Acuity, and Locomotion: Interacting with Objects in the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Marie; Lee, Inkyung

    1995-01-01

    This article addresses issues of orientation and mobility for students with visual impairments, including the perception of motion, visual mechanisms of binocular coordination, perception of impending collision, and body movement to avoid collision. Emphasis is on the role of binocular coordination ability and acuity. These concepts were evaluated…

  19. Binocular Visual Acuity of Children: Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics - United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Reported were estimates of the uncorrected binocular visual acuity levels of distance and near for children aged 6 to 11 years in the noninstitutional population of the United States in relation to their demographic and socioeconomic background. A sample of 7,119 children participated in the Health Examination Survey program of 1963-65. Findings…

  20. Effects of Spatial Position and Density on Visual Acuity. Umea Psychological Reports No. 153.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannstrom, Lauritz

    Visual acuity as a function of target position and density was measured in a letter recognition task. A homogeneous pattern of equally-spaced elements was tachistoscopically exposed, where the target was never located at the boundaries of the pattern. The target was marked with a spatial cue to control attentional processes. With such a spatial…

  1. Is Theta Burst Stimulation Applied to Visual Cortex Able to Modulate Peripheral Visual Acuity?

    PubMed Central

    Brückner, Sabrina; Kammer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is usually applied to visual cortex to explore the effects on cortical excitability. Most researchers therefore concentrate on changes of phosphene threshold, rarely on consequences for visual performance. Thus, we investigated peripheral visual acuity in the four quadrants of the visual field using Landolt C optotypes before and after repetitive stimulation of the visual cortex. We applied continuous and intermittend theta burst stimulation with various stimulation intensities (60%, 80%, 100%, 120% of individual phosphene threshold) as well as monophasic and biphasic 1 Hz stimulation, respectively. As an important result, no serious adverse effects were observed. In particular, no seizure was induced, even with theta burst stimulation applied with 120% of individual phosphene threshold. In only one case stimulation was ceased because the subject reported intolerable pain. Baseline visual acuity decreased over sessions, indicating a continuous training effect. Unexpectedly, none of the applied transcranial magnetic stimulation protocols had an effect on performance: no change in visual acuity was found in any of the four quadrants of the visual field. Binocular viewing as well as the use of peripheral instead of foveal presentation of the stimuli might have contributed to this result. Furthermore, intraindividual variability could have masked the TMS- induced effects on visual acuity. PMID:24914682

  2. Teachers' Knowledge of the Relationship of Auditory Acuity and Hearing Impairment to Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Evelyn Myrtle

    Teacher's knowledge of the relationship of auditory acuity and hearing impairment to reading was evaluated with 60 teachers and specialists (regular classroom primary and upper elementary teachers, reading teachers, teachers of the learning disabled, teachers of the hearing impaired, and speech and language pathologists). Ss were administered a…

  3. Visual acuity with the ITT Night Vision Aid for patients with night blindness.

    PubMed

    Hoover, K L

    1983-09-01

    The Night Vision Aid is a photomultiplier device developed by International Telephone and Telegraph Co. (ITT) and the Retinitis Pigmentosa Foundation as a mobility aid for those with night blindness. The purpose of this study was to measure visual acuity with and without the Night Vision Aid at a variety of light levels to determine how much visual assistance it provided over a wide range of illuminations. Ten normal subjects and five patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) used the aid at nine luminance levels ranging from 10(-6) to 10(2) ml. With the device, visual acuity improved at light levels below 0.1 ml and target visibility was extended about 3 log units further into low luminance. At light levels above 0.1 mL, unassisted visual acuity was better in all normal and most RP subjects. The best visual acuity attained with the Night Vision Aid was 6/15 (20/50). Graphs and dark adaptation curves illustrate our findings.

  4. Rhythms of Mental Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Pablo; Reilly, Thomas; Waterhouse, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive performance is affected by an individual's characteristics and the environment, as well as by the nature of the task and the amount of practice at it. Mental performance tests range in complexity and include subjective estimates of mood, simple objective tests (reaction time), and measures of complex performance that require decisions to…

  5. Acuity-adaptable patient room improves length of stay and cost of patients undergoing renal transplant: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bonuel, Nena; Degracia, Alma; Cesario, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The acuity-adaptable patient room concept is an emerging care model where patient is cared for in the same room from admission through discharge regardless of the patient level of acuity. After implementation of the care cluster strategy to support the implementation of an acuity-adaptable patient room, a descriptive study was conducted looking at so whether there will be a decreased length of stay and cost on patient cared for in the acuity-adaptable patient room compared to patients cared for in a transitional care process. Result of the study showed decreased length of stay of kidney transplant patients from 9.6 (11.0) days (before acuity-adaptable patient room) to 4.1 (1.3) days (acuity-adaptable patient room). Not only that the acuity-adaptable patient room improves patient outcome and cost but with the nursing competency preparation to support the implementation of the acuity-adaptable patient room, a hybrid nurse was created who possessed both critical care and medical-surgical skills. This can be a potential trend in the professional nurse model to address the health care challenges we face today in terms of nursing shortage, abbreviated plan of care, and facility operation efficiency. PMID:23470704

  6. Acuity-adaptable patient room improves length of stay and cost of patients undergoing renal transplant: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bonuel, Nena; Degracia, Alma; Cesario, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The acuity-adaptable patient room concept is an emerging care model where patient is cared for in the same room from admission through discharge regardless of the patient level of acuity. After implementation of the care cluster strategy to support the implementation of an acuity-adaptable patient room, a descriptive study was conducted looking at so whether there will be a decreased length of stay and cost on patient cared for in the acuity-adaptable patient room compared to patients cared for in a transitional care process. Result of the study showed decreased length of stay of kidney transplant patients from 9.6 (11.0) days (before acuity-adaptable patient room) to 4.1 (1.3) days (acuity-adaptable patient room). Not only that the acuity-adaptable patient room improves patient outcome and cost but with the nursing competency preparation to support the implementation of the acuity-adaptable patient room, a hybrid nurse was created who possessed both critical care and medical-surgical skills. This can be a potential trend in the professional nurse model to address the health care challenges we face today in terms of nursing shortage, abbreviated plan of care, and facility operation efficiency.

  7. Testing a model of facilitated reflection on network feedback: a mixed method study on integration of rural mental healthcare services for older people

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Jeffrey; Oster, Candice; Muir Cochrane, Eimear; Dawson, Suzanne; Lawn, Sharon; Henderson, Julie; O'Kane, Deb; Gerace, Adam; McPhail, Ruth; Sparkes, Deb; Fuller, Michelle; Reed, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test a management model of facilitated reflection on network feedback as a means to engage services in problem solving the delivery of integrated primary mental healthcare to older people. Design Participatory mixed methods case study evaluating the impact of a network management model using organisational network feedback (through social network analysis, key informant interviews and policy review). Intervention A model of facilitated network reflection using network theory and methods. Setting A rural community in South Australia. Participants 32 staff from 24 services and 12 senior service managers from mental health, primary care and social care services. Results Health and social care organisations identified that they operated in clustered self-managed networks within sectors, with no overarching purposive older people's mental healthcare network. The model of facilitated reflection revealed service goal and role conflicts. These discussions helped local services to identify as a network, and begin the problem-solving communication and referral links. A Governance Group assisted this process. Barriers to integrated servicing through a network included service funding tied to performance of direct care tasks and the lack of a clear lead network administration organisation. Conclusions A model of facilitated reflection helped organisations to identify as a network, but revealed sensitivity about organisational roles and goals, which demonstrated that conflict should be expected. Networked servicing needed a neutral network administration organisation with cross-sectoral credibility, a mandate and the resources to monitor the network, to deal with conflict, negotiate commitment among the service managers, and provide opportunities for different sectors to meet and problem solve. This requires consistency and sustained intersectoral policies that include strategies and funding to facilitate and maintain health and social care networks in rural

  8. Visual acuity and blood lipids in term infants fed human milk or formulae.

    PubMed

    Innis, S M; Akrabawi, S S; Diersen-Schade, D A; Dobson, M V; Guy, D G

    1997-01-01

    This multicenter, parallel group study determined plasma phospholipid and red blood cell (RBC) phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine fatty acids, plasma cholesterol, apo A-1 and B, growth and visual acuity (using the acuity card procedure) in term infants fed from birth to 90 d of age with formula containing palm-olein, high oleic sunflower, coconut and soy oil (22.2% 16:0, 36.2% 18:1, 18% 18:2n-6, 1.9% 18:3n-3) (n = 59) or coconut and soy oil (10.3% 16:0 18:6% 18:1, 34.2% 18:2n-6, 4.7% 18:3n-3) (n = 57) or breast-fed (n = 56) with no formula supplementation. Different centers in North America were included to overcome potential bias due to differences in n-6 or n-3 fatty acids at birth or in breast-fed infants that might occur in a single-site study. Plasma and RBC phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), cholesterol and apo B were significantly lower in the formula- than breast-fed infants. There were no differences in looking acuity or growth among the breast-fed and formula-fed infants. No significant relations were found between DHA and looking acuity, or AA and growth within or among any of the infant groups. This study provides no evidence to suggest the formula provided inadequate n-6 or n-3 fatty acids for growth and looking acuity for the first 3 mon after birth. PMID:9075195

  9. Reduction in Dynamic Visual Acuity Reveals Gaze Control Changes Following Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris; Lawrence, Emily L.; Mulavara Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exposure to microgravity causes adaptive changes in eye-head coordination that can lead to altered gaze control. This could affect postflight visual acuity during head and body motion. The goal of this study was to characterize changes in dynamic visual acuity after long-duration spaceflight. METHODS: Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) data from 14 astro/cosmonauts were collected after long-duration (6 months) spaceflight. The difference in acuity between seated and walking conditions provided a metric of change in the subjects ability to maintain gaze fixation during self-motion. In each condition, a psychophysical threshold detection algorithm was used to display Landolt ring optotypes at a size that was near each subject s acuity threshold. Verbal responses regarding the orientation of the gap were recorded as the optotypes appeared sequentially on a computer display 4 meters away. During the walking trials, subjects walked at 6.4 km/h on a motorized treadmill. RESULTS: A decrement in mean postflight DVA was found, with mean values returning to baseline within 1 week. The population mean showed a consistent improvement in DVA performance, but it was accompanied by high variability. A closer examination of the individual subject s recovery curves revealed that many did not follow a pattern of continuous improvement with each passing day. When adjusted on the basis of previous long-duration flight experience, the population mean shows a "bounce" in the re-adaptation curve. CONCLUSION: Gaze control during self-motion is altered following long-duration spaceflight and changes in postflight DVA performance indicate that vestibular re-adaptation may be more complex than a gradual return to normal.

  10. A Systematic Investigation of Accuracy and Response Time Based Measures Used to Index ANS Acuity

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Julia Felicitas; Huber, Stefan; Klein, Elise; Willmes, Klaus; Pixner, Silvia; Moeller, Korbinian

    2016-01-01

    The approximate number system (ANS) was proposed to be a building block for later mathematical abilities. Several measures have been used interchangeably to assess ANS acuity. Some of these measures were based on accuracy data, whereas others relied on response time (RT) data or combined accuracy and RT data. Previous studies challenged the view that all these measures can be used interchangeably, because low correlations between some of the measures had been observed. These low correlations might be due to poor reliability of some of the measures, since the majority of these measures are mathematically related. Here we systematically investigated the relationship between common ANS measures while avoiding the potential confound of poor reliability. Our first experiment revealed high correlations between all accuracy based measures supporting the assumption that all of them can be used interchangeably. In contrast, not all RT based measures were highly correlated. Additionally, our results revealed a speed-accuracy trade-off. Thus, accuracy and RT based measures provided conflicting conclusions regarding ANS acuity. Therefore, we investigated in two further experiments which type of measure (accuracy or RT) is more informative about the underlying ANS acuity, depending on participants’ preferences for accuracy or speed. To this end, we manipulated participants’ preferences for accuracy or speed both explicitly using different task instructions and implicitly varying presentation duration. Accuracy based measures were more informative about the underlying ANS acuity than RT based measures. Moreover, the influence of the underlying representations on accuracy data was more pronounced when participants preferred accuracy over speed after the accuracy instruction as well as for long or unlimited presentation durations. Implications regarding the diffusion model as a theoretical framework of dot comparison as well as regarding the relationship between ANS acuity and

  11. A Systematic Investigation of Accuracy and Response Time Based Measures Used to Index ANS Acuity.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Julia Felicitas; Huber, Stefan; Klein, Elise; Willmes, Klaus; Pixner, Silvia; Moeller, Korbinian

    2016-01-01

    The approximate number system (ANS) was proposed to be a building block for later mathematical abilities. Several measures have been used interchangeably to assess ANS acuity. Some of these measures were based on accuracy data, whereas others relied on response time (RT) data or combined accuracy and RT data. Previous studies challenged the view that all these measures can be used interchangeably, because low correlations between some of the measures had been observed. These low correlations might be due to poor reliability of some of the measures, since the majority of these measures are mathematically related. Here we systematically investigated the relationship between common ANS measures while avoiding the potential confound of poor reliability. Our first experiment revealed high correlations between all accuracy based measures supporting the assumption that all of them can be used interchangeably. In contrast, not all RT based measures were highly correlated. Additionally, our results revealed a speed-accuracy trade-off. Thus, accuracy and RT based measures provided conflicting conclusions regarding ANS acuity. Therefore, we investigated in two further experiments which type of measure (accuracy or RT) is more informative about the underlying ANS acuity, depending on participants' preferences for accuracy or speed. To this end, we manipulated participants' preferences for accuracy or speed both explicitly using different task instructions and implicitly varying presentation duration. Accuracy based measures were more informative about the underlying ANS acuity than RT based measures. Moreover, the influence of the underlying representations on accuracy data was more pronounced when participants preferred accuracy over speed after the accuracy instruction as well as for long or unlimited presentation durations. Implications regarding the diffusion model as a theoretical framework of dot comparison as well as regarding the relationship between ANS acuity and

  12. Foveal photoreceptor explanation of short-term visual acuity recovery associated with laser-induced foveal damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langus, Amir; Zwick, Harry; Stuck, Bruce E.; Belkin, Michael

    2003-06-01

    Both human laser accident cases and non-human primate behavioral studies demonstrate the possibility of full visual acuity recovery following foveal laser injury. Current explanations of such recovery require suppositions of complex retinal reorganization dynamics or neural reorganization at higher order visual brain systems. However, recent investigation based on data of retinal photoreceptor and ganglion cell topography and connectivity, suggest that the amount of static inherent plasticity, already exists at the retinal level, may also explain visual acuity recovery in the presence of laser-induced foveal damage. Modeling the off-axis visual acuity while utilizing this data, produces a more gradual fall-off in visual acuity, and supports the notion that visual acuity recovery may reside in the topographical organization of the cones. Moreover, considering the filling-in phenomena, which can conceal the presence of retinal damage from being recognized, together with eye movements, could nullify scotoma, as long as the retinal damage is not too extensive.

  13. Mental rotation test performance in four cross-cultural samples (n = 3367): overall sex differences and the role of academic program in performance.

    PubMed

    Peters, Michael; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Takahira, Sayuri; Takeuchi, Yoshiaki; Jordan, Kirsten

    2006-10-01

    Two meta-analyses (Linn and Petersen, 1985; Voyer et al., 1995) discuss variables that affect mental rotation performance but they do not mention a potentially important variable, the Academic Program in which students are enrolled. Sex differences in brain size have been related to sex differences in spatial performance (e.g., Falk et al., 1999) and thus it is important to know whether mental rotation performance shows a significant interaction between Sex and Academic Program. To put our understanding of the Academic Program effect on a firmer empirical footing, we conducted a large scale multicultural study, with samples from Canada, Germany and Japan, using identical test procedures in all studies. Significant main effects for Sex and Academic Program were found in all four studies, with large effect sizes for Sex and medium to large effect sizes for Academic Program (based on Cohen's d). No significant interactions between these variables were found in the four samples. Our demonstration of a reliable Academic Program effect has clear and important pragmatic implications for a broad range of work on spatial ability and its interpretation.

  14. Baseline visual acuity strongly predicts visual acuity gain in patients with diabetic macular edema following anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment across trials

    PubMed Central

    Dugel, Pravin U; Hillenkamp, Jost; Sivaprasad, Sobha; Vögeler, Jessica; Mousseau, Marie-Catherine; Wenzel, Andreas; Margaron, Philippe; Hashmonay, Ron; Massin, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the correlation of baseline visual acuity (VA) with VA outcome in response to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in diabetic macular edema using a retrospective analysis of nine clinical trials. The result will help assess the relevance of VA gain comparisons across trials. Methods A correlation analysis was performed between mean baseline VA and VA gain at month 12 for 1,616 diabetic macular edema patients across nine randomized clinical trials (RESOLVE, RISE, RIDE, RESTORE, RETAIN, DRCR.net Protocol I, DA VINCI, VIVID, VISTA) with anti-VEGF treatment regimens ranibizumab 0.5 mg and aflibercept 2 mg. Results The mean baseline VA ranged from 56.9 to 64.8 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letters. The mean VA gain at month 12 ranged from 6.8 to 13.1 ETDRS letters across trials. There was a strong inverse correlation between mean baseline VA and VA gain at month 12 (r=−0.85). The mean VA at 12 months plateaued at ~70 (68.5–73.0) ETDRS letters (20/40 Snellen VA equivalent) for the anti-VEGF treatment groups from all trials, regardless of dosing regimens and agents. Conclusion Cross-trial comparisons based on changes in best-corrected visual acuity should be done cautiously and only after adjusting for best-corrected visual acuity at baseline. Furthermore, the total VA afforded by treatment appears to be subject to a plateau effect, which warrants further exploration. PMID:27366049

  15. Ankle proprioceptive acuity is associated with objective as well as self-report measures of balance, mobility, and physical function.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Nandini; Simonsick, Eleanor; Metter, E Jeffrey; Ko, Seunguk; Ferrucci, Luigi; Studenski, Stephanie

    2016-06-01

    Ankle proprioceptive information is integrated by the central nervous system to generate and modulate muscle contractions for maintaining standing balance. This study evaluated the association of ankle joint proprioception with objective and self-report measures of balance, mobility, and physical function across the adult life span. Seven hundred and ninety participants (age range 24-97 years, 362 women) who completed ankle proprioception assessment between 2010 and 2014 were included in the present study from the population-based cohort of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), USA. Outcome measures included ankle joint proprioception measured as threshold for perception of passive movement (TPPM); single leg stance time; perceived difficulty for standing balance; usual, fastest, and narrow-path gait speed; walking index; short physical performance battery score; and self-reported activity restriction due to fear of falling. Descriptive variables included age, sex, body mass index, education, strength, and cognition. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) in general linear model (GLM) or multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed, as appropriate, to test the hypothesis that balance, mobility, and physical function were significantly different according to TPPM quintiles even after adjusting for relevant covariates. Those with TPPM >2.2° consistently demonstrated poor balance, mobility, and physical function. However, with increase in challenge (single leg stance, fastest walking speed, and SPPB), TPPM >1.4° was associated with significantly worse performance. In conclusion, ankle proprioceptive acuity has an overall graded relationship with objective and self-report measures of balance, mobility, and physical function. However, the cutoff proprioceptive acuity associated with substantial decline or inability to perform could depend on the challenge induced.

  16. Ankle proprioceptive acuity is associated with objective as well as self-report measures of balance, mobility, and physical function.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Nandini; Simonsick, Eleanor; Metter, E Jeffrey; Ko, Seunguk; Ferrucci, Luigi; Studenski, Stephanie

    2016-06-01

    Ankle proprioceptive information is integrated by the central nervous system to generate and modulate muscle contractions for maintaining standing balance. This study evaluated the association of ankle joint proprioception with objective and self-report measures of balance, mobility, and physical function across the adult life span. Seven hundred and ninety participants (age range 24-97 years, 362 women) who completed ankle proprioception assessment between 2010 and 2014 were included in the present study from the population-based cohort of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), USA. Outcome measures included ankle joint proprioception measured as threshold for perception of passive movement (TPPM); single leg stance time; perceived difficulty for standing balance; usual, fastest, and narrow-path gait speed; walking index; short physical performance battery score; and self-reported activity restriction due to fear of falling. Descriptive variables included age, sex, body mass index, education, strength, and cognition. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) in general linear model (GLM) or multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed, as appropriate, to test the hypothesis that balance, mobility, and physical function were significantly different according to TPPM quintiles even after adjusting for relevant covariates. Those with TPPM >2.2° consistently demonstrated poor balance, mobility, and physical function. However, with increase in challenge (single leg stance, fastest walking speed, and SPPB), TPPM >1.4° was associated with significantly worse performance. In conclusion, ankle proprioceptive acuity has an overall graded relationship with objective and self-report measures of balance, mobility, and physical function. However, the cutoff proprioceptive acuity associated with substantial decline or inability to perform could depend on the challenge induced. PMID:27146830

  17. A new diagnostic workflow for patients with mental retardation and/or multiple congenital abnormalities: test arrays first.

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, Antoinet C J; Lew, Janet Y K; Bosch, Cathy A J; Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, Janneke H M; van Haeringen, Arie; den Hollander, Nicolette S; Kant, Sarina G; Bijlsma, Emilia K; Breuning, Martijn H; Bakker, Egbert; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A L

    2009-11-01

    High-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping technology enables extensive genotyping as well as the detection of increasingly smaller chromosomal aberrations. In this study, we assess molecular karyotyping as first-round analysis of patients with mental retardation and/or multiple congenital abnormalities (MR/MCA). We used different commercially available SNP array platforms, the Affymetrix GeneChip 262K NspI, the Genechip 238K StyI, the Illumina HumanHap 300 and HumanCNV 370 BeadChip, to detect copy number variants (CNVs) in 318 patients with unexplained MR/MCA. We found abnormalities in 22.6% of the patients, including six CNVs that overlap known microdeletion/duplication syndromes, eight CNVs that overlap recently described syndromes, 63 potentially pathogenic CNVs (in 52 patients), four large segments of homozygosity and two mosaic trisomies for an entire chromosome. This study shows that high-density SNP array analysis reveals a much higher diagnostic yield as that of conventional karyotyping. SNP arrays have the potential to detect CNVs, mosaics, uniparental disomies and loss of heterozygosity in one experiment. We, therefore, propose a novel diagnostic approach to all MR/MCA patients by first analyzing every patient with an SNP array instead of conventional karyotyping.

  18. Development of a test battery (NPM-X) for neuropsychological and neuromotor examination of children with developmental disabilities or mental retardation. A theoretical and clinical study.

    PubMed

    Gjaerum, B

    1997-01-01

    Biological and behavioural diagnosis often do not provide information on functional competence. This is, however, of utmost importance in planning services as well as in research on treatment effects for children with developmental disorders. For school-aged children neuropsychological assessment has proved its value in this respect. For children of chronological age (CA) below 5-7 with specific developmental disabilities, and for children with severe mental retardation there has been a lack of applicable test batteries. This thesis presents a new test battery for neuropsychological and neuromotor examination, NPM-X, for these two groups of children. The first part of the thesis reviews available medical and psychological tests and assessment procedures with respect to applicability and relevance for neuropsychological assessment to children with mental retardation and mental age (MA) below 7. The second part describes the theoretical background and the content of the new test battery. The methodology for testing these children, who due to their age and/or their developmental disabilities often co-operate poorly, is described. Scoring categories, specifically developed to enable a detailed and differentiated description of the child, are presented. Because of the instability of the behavioural function in early age as well as in cases of severe disability, the scoring system records both the child's optimal functional capacity and inconsistencies in behaviour. For the purpose of planning treatment and training according to the child's resources as well as dysfunctions, two different functional profiles are provided. In the normative functional profile the child's functional level is compared to normal expectations for the child's CA, and in the ideographic functional profile the child's function in each area is compared to the child's average functional level. In the third part of the thesis the reliability results are presented and discussed. A pair of trained M

  19. Mental health nursing and stress: maintaining balance.

    PubMed

    Ward, Louise

    2011-04-01

    The recruitment and retention of mental health nurses within acute inpatient mental health facilities continues to be an ongoing issue. Literature and current research highlight an environment fraught with pressure and stress, identifying several key factors contributing to job dissatisfaction. These factors include greater patient acuity, unpredictable and challenging workspaces, violence, increased paperwork, and reduced managerial support. This qualitative, critical, feminist exploration investigated the lived experiences of 13 female mental health nurses working in inpatient services. They were asked about their practice and perceptions of workplace culture, and they shared their thoughts on stress management and professional well-being. Positive workplace practice was highlighted, and the participants revealed an environment they were proud to be a part of. Individual interviews, focus groups, and reflective practice were all used to collect data. The findings from the investigation unanimously support current literature that clearly confirms mental health nursing to be stressful. Interestingly, however, the findings also clearly identified that the way in which the nurse participants managed their stress was intrinsically linked to their job satisfaction. The major theme identified throughout the present study revealed that the female participants' ability to manage an at times complex workspace through the notions of teamwork, diversity, and creativity. All of the participants considered these elements as significant to providing a high standard in patient care. This research might provide an opportunity for others to view mental health nursing from a different perspective, and through the lived experiences of the participants, embrace the positive and rewarding aspects of the role.

  20. Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... mental health should be part of your complete medical evaluation before starting antiretroviral medications. And you should ...

  1. Significant Improvement in Dynamic Visual Acuity after Cataract Surgery: A Promising Potential Parameter for Functional Vision

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Mingxin; Li, Xuemin; Huang, Chen; Hou, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Weiqiang; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is a relatively independent parameter for evaluating the ability to distinguish details of a moving target. The present study has been designed to discuss the extent to which age-related cataract impacts DVA in elderly individuals and to determine whether it could be restored after bilateral phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation surgery. Methods Twenty-six elderly cataract patients scheduled for binocular cataract surgery and 30 elderly volunteers without cataract were enrolled in the study. DVA at 15, 30, 60 and 90 degree per second (dps) was assessed, and velocity-dependent visual acuity decreases between consecutive speed levels were calculated. Results Compared with the control group, the patient group exhibited significantly worse DVA performance at all speed levels (p<0.001), and the decreases in velocity-dependent visual acuity were more serious in the patient group at the intervals of 0–15 dps (p<0.001), 15–30 dps (p = 0.007) and 30–60 dps (p = 0.008). Postoperatively, DVA performance at every speed level in the patient group clearly improved (p<0.001) and recovered to levels compatible to the control group. The decrease in visual acuity with increasing speed was less pronounced than during the preoperative phase (p0–15 dps = 0.001, p15–30 dps<0.001 and p30–60 dps = 0.001) and became similar to that of the control group. The postoperative visual benefit regarding DVA was more pronounced than the improvement in static visual acuity (p15 dps = 0.001 and p<0.001 at 30 dps, 60 dps and 90 dps). Conclusions The impact of age-related cataract on DVA was more severe than its effects on static visual acuity. After cataract surgery, not only static vision of the patients was restored markedly, but also the dynamic vision. DVA could be an important adjunct to the current evaluation system of functional vision, thereby meriting additional attention in clinical assessment. PMID

  2. Family, Environmental and Developmental Variables in Mental Retardation: A Multi-Dimensional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggert, Dietrich

    1982-01-01

    To assess the mental abilities of mentally retarded children, 100 tests were tried out on more than 350 German Ss and the TBGB ("Test-batterie fur geistig behinderte Kinder"Test battery for mentally retarded children") was developed. (SW)

  3. Microactuator production via high aspect ratio, high edge acuity metal fabrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guckel, H.; Christenson, T. R.

    1993-01-01

    LIGA is a procession sequence which uses x-ray lithography on photoresist layers of several hundred micrometers to produce very high edge acuity photopolymer molds. These plastic molds can be converted to metal molds via electroplating of many different metals and alloys. The end results are high edge acuity metal parts with large structural heights. The LIGA process as originally described by W. Ehrfeld can be extended by adding a surface micromachining phase to produce precision metal parts which can be assembled to form three-dimensional micromechanisms. This process, SLIGA, has been used to fabricate a dynamometer on a chip. The instrument has been fully implemented and will be applied to tribology issues, speed-torque characterization of planar magnetic micromotors and a new family of sensors.

  4. Retail Clinic Visits For Low-Acuity Conditions Increase Utilization And Spending.

    PubMed

    Ashwood, J Scott; Gaynor, Martin; Setodji, Claude M; Reid, Rachel O; Weber, Ellerie; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2016-03-01

    Retail clinics have been viewed by policy makers and insurers as a mechanism to decrease health care spending, by substituting less expensive clinic visits for more expensive emergency department or physician office visits. However, retail clinics may actually increase spending if they drive new health care utilization. To assess whether retail clinic visits represent new utilization or a substitute for more expensive care, we used insurance claims data from Aetna for the period 2010-12 to track utilization and spending for eleven low-acuity conditions. We found that 58 percent of retail clinic visits for low-acuity conditions represented new utilization and that retail clinic use was associated with a modest increase in spending, of $14 per person per year. These findings do not support the idea that retail clinics decrease health care spending. PMID:26953299

  5. Gains following perceptual learning are closely linked to the initial visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Yehezkel, Oren; Sterkin, Anna; Lev, Maria; Levi, Dennis M; Polat, Uri

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the dependence of perceptual learning gains on initial visual acuity (VA), in a large sample of subjects with a wide range of VAs. A large sample of normally sighted and presbyopic subjects (N = 119; aged 40 to 63) with a wide range of uncorrected near visual acuities (VA, -0.12 to 0.8 LogMAR), underwent perceptual learning. Training consisted of detecting briefly presented Gabor stimuli under spatial and temporal masking conditions. Consistent with previous findings, perceptual learning induced a significant improvement in near VA and reading speed under conditions of limited exposure duration. Our results show that the improvements in VA and reading speed observed following perceptual learning are closely linked to the initial VA, with only a minor fraction of the observed improvement that may be attributed to the additional sessions performed by those with the worse VA. PMID:27122254

  6. Effect of donor parameters on primary graft failure and the recovery of acuity after keratoplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, B L; Ritten, S A

    1990-01-01

    A retrospective evaluation was made of 983 penetrating corneal grafts. Donor corneas stored in either K-Sol or McCarey-Kaufman media had a significantly greater rate of primary graft failure (about 2%) than those kept in moist chamber storage (0%). Selected subgroups of 50 corneas from each storage system were studied to determine the time taken to reach a postoperative acuity of 6/12. No significant correlation was found between this time and either the duration of storage of donor corneas or the age of donor. A significant delay in recovery of visual acuity was found with increasing age of recipient. The increased average time from donor death to surgery for K-Sol (56 hours) and McCarey-Kaufman (40 hours) corneas compared with moist chamber corneas (15 hours) facilitated the scheduling of surgery at the cost of increased chance of primary graft failure. PMID:2106341

  7. Gains following perceptual learning are closely linked to the initial visual acuity

    PubMed Central

    Yehezkel, Oren; Sterkin, Anna; Lev, Maria; Levi, Dennis M.; Polat, Uri

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the dependence of perceptual learning gains on initial visual acuity (VA), in a large sample of subjects with a wide range of VAs. A large sample of normally sighted and presbyopic subjects (N = 119; aged 40 to 63) with a wide range of uncorrected near visual acuities (VA, −0.12 to 0.8 LogMAR), underwent perceptual learning. Training consisted of detecting briefly presented Gabor stimuli under spatial and temporal masking conditions. Consistent with previous findings, perceptual learning induced a significant improvement in near VA and reading speed under conditions of limited exposure duration. Our results show that the improvements in VA and reading speed observed following perceptual learning are closely linked to the initial VA, with only a minor fraction of the observed improvement that may be attributed to the additional sessions performed by those with the worse VA. PMID:27122254

  8. Changes in smell acuity induced by radiation exposure of the olfactory mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Ophir, D.; Guterman, A.; Gross-Isseroff, R.

    1988-08-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on smell acuity were assessed in 12 patients in whom the olfactory mucosa was exposed to radiation in the course of treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma or pituitary adenoma. Olfactory detection thresholds for two odorants (amyl acetate and eugenol) were determined before the start of radiation therapy, within a week of termination of therapy, and 1, 3, and 6 months later. The results show clearly that smell acuity is profoundly affected by therapeutic irradiation. Thresholds had increased in all 12 patients by the end of treatment and were still high one month later. Varying degrees of recovery were noted in most patients three to six months after cessation of treatment. The fate of the sense of smell deserves more attention when considering the disability caused by irradiation to certain head and neck tumors.

  9. DVA as a Diagnostic Test for Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Scott J.; Appelbaum, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) stabilizes vision on earth-fixed targets by eliciting eyes movements in response to changes in head position. How well the eyes perform this task can be functionally measured by the dynamic visual acuity (DVA) test. We designed a passive, horizontal DVA test to specifically study the acuity and reaction time when looking in different target locations. Visual acuity was compared among 12 subjects using a standard Landolt C wall chart, a computerized static (no rotation) acuity test and dynamic acuity test while oscillating at 0.8 Hz (+/-60 deg/s). In addition, five trials with yaw oscillation randomly presented a visual target in one of nine different locations with the size and presentation duration of the visual target varying across trials. The results showed a significant difference between the static and dynamic threshold acuities as well as a significant difference between the visual targets presented in the horizontal plane versus those in the vertical plane when comparing accuracy of vision and reaction time of the response. Visual acuity increased proportional to the size of the visual target and increased between 150 and 300 msec duration. We conclude that dynamic visual acuity varies with target location, with acuity optimized for targets in the plane of rotation. This DVA test could be used as a functional diagnostic test for visual-vestibular and neuro-cognitive impairments by assessing both accuracy and reaction time to acquire visual targets.

  10. The impact of exposure to Internet-based information about the Rorschach and the MMPI-2 on psychiatric outpatients' ability to simulate mentally healthy test performance.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Ellen; Hartmann, Terje

    2014-01-01

    To examine the impact of Internet-based information about how to simulate being mentally healthy on the Rorschach (Exner, 2003) and the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989), 87 psychiatric outpatients completed the tests under 4 conditions: uncoached and Internet-coached outpatients under faking healthy instructions (faking patients and Internet-faking patients) and patients and nonpatients under standard instructions (standard patients and standard nonpatients). On the Rorschach, faking patients and Internet-faking patients did not manage to portray healthy test performance and, like standard patients, revealed a significantly greater number of perceptual and cognitive disturbances than standard nonpatients. Faking patients scored in the psychopathological direction on most variables. Internet-faking patients produced constricted protocols with significantly higher F% (57%) and lower use of provoking and aggressive contents than the other groups. On the MMPI-2, faking patients and Internet-faking patients were able to conceal symptoms and, like standard nonpatients, scored in the normal range on the clinical scales. The validity scale L successfully detected the faking patients and the Internet-faking patients, whereas the F scale only distinguished the Internet-faking patients and K only the faking patients. We conclude that Internet-based information could threaten test validity. PMID:24528223

  11. Final Visual Acuity Results in the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare visual acuity at 6 years of age in eyes that received early treatment for high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with conventionally-managed eyes. Methods Infants with symmetrical, high-risk prethreshold ROP (N=317) had one eye randomized to earlier treatment at high-risk prethreshold disease and the other eye managed conventionally, treated if ROP progressed to threshold severity. For asymmetric cases (N=84), the high-risk prethreshold eye was randomized to either early treatment or conventional management. Main Outcome Measures ETDRS visual acuity measured at 6 years of age by masked testers. Retinal structure was assessed as a secondary outcome. Results Analysis of all subjects with high-risk prethreshold ROP showed no statistically significant benefit for early treatment (24.6% v. 29.0% unfavorable outcome, P=0.15). Analysis of 6-year visual acuity results according to the Type 1 and 2 clinical algorithm showed a benefit for Type 1 eyes (25.1% v. 32.8%, P=0.02) treated early, but not Type 2 eyes (23.6% v. 19.4%, P=0.37). Early treated eyes showed a significantly better structural outcome compared with conventionally managed eyes (8.9% v. 15.2% unfavorable outcome, P<0.001), with no greater risk of ocular complications. Conclusion Early treatment for Type 1 high-risk prethreshold eyes improved visual acuity outcomes at 6 years of age. Early treatment for Type 2 high-risk prethreshold eyes did not. Application to Clinical Practice Type 1 eyes, not Type 2 eyes should be treated early. These results are particularly important considering that 52 % of Type 2 high-risk prethreshold eyes underwent regression of ROP without requiring treatment. PMID:20385926

  12. Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity in rats with retinal degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanker, D.; Goetz, G.; Lorach, H.; Mandel, Y.; Smith, R.; Boinagrov, D.; Lei, X.; Kamins, T.; Harris, J.; Mathieson, K.; Sher, A.

    2015-03-01

    Patients with retinal degeneration lose sight due to gradual demise of photoreceptors. Electrical stimulation of the surviving retinal neurons provides an alternative route for delivery of visual information. Subretinal photovoltaic arrays with 70μm pixels were used to convert pulsed near-IR light (880-915nm) into pulsed current to stimulate the nearby inner retinal neurons. Network-mediated responses of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) could be modulated by pulse width (1-20ms) and peak irradiance (0.5-10 mW/mm2). Similarly to normal vision, retinal response to prosthetic stimulation exhibited flicker fusion at high frequencies, adaptation to static images, and non-linear spatial summation. Spatial resolution was assessed in-vitro and in-vivo using alternating gratings with variable stripe width, projected with rapidly pulsed illumination (20-40Hz). In-vitro, average size of the electrical receptive fields in normal retina was 248+/-59μm - similar to their visible light RF size: 249+/-44μm. RGCs responded to grating stripes down to 67μm using photovoltaic stimulation in degenerate rat retina, and 28μm with visible light in normal retina. In-vivo, visual acuity in normally-sighted controls was 29+/-5μm/stripe, vs. 63+/-4μm/stripe in rats with subretinal photovoltaic arrays, corresponding to 20/250 acuity in human eye. With the enhanced acuity provided by eye movements and perceptual learning in human patients, visual acuity might exceed the 20/200 threshold of legal blindness. Ease of implantation and tiling of these wireless arrays to cover a large visual field, combined with their high resolution opens the door to highly functional restoration of sight.

  13. Variance analysis. Part I, Extending flexible budget variance analysis to acuity.

    PubMed

    Finkler, S A

    1991-01-01

    The author reviews the concepts of flexible budget variance analysis, including the price, quantity, and volume variances generated by that technique. He also introduces the concept of acuity variance and provides direction on how such a variance measure can be calculated. Part II in this two-part series on variance analysis will look at how personal computers can be useful in the variance analysis process. PMID:1870002

  14. Mental models students hold of zoos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Patricia Gail

    The purpose of this study was to depict the mental models high school students, ages 14-18, hold of zoos. This study also examined how students define conservation and the role of zoos in conservation. This study examined the differences in mental models of 84 students (1) 21 students who had visited a zoo with their teacher in the same semester in which the study was conducted, (2) 21 students who had visited a zoo during another school year with their teacher, (3) 21 students who had visited the zoo without a teacher, and (4) 21 students who had never visited a zoo. It also examined the mental models of students of different ethnicities and examined differences in mental models of young men and women. This study was conducted and the data analyzed using a qualitative methodology research design. All 84 students completed a demographic questionnaire, a concept map, and a ranking concepts exercise. Twenty-four students were interviewed. The findings indicated that: (1) students who had visited a zoo have a richer mental model of zoos than students who have never visited a zoo, (2) students who had visited a zoo with their teacher provided a deeper richer understanding of the roles of zoos in conservation and education, (3) students who have never visited a zoo do have mental models of zoos, (4) students do not mention conservation with respect to zoos unless specifically asked about the role of zoos in conservation, and (5) students did not mention the zoo's connection to species survival nor did they view zoos as a source of information for conservation-related topics. The data indicated that the mental models student hold of zoos consist of seven themes: (1) organisms, (2) people, (3) amenities, (4) descriptive terms, (5) habitats, (6) education, and (7) conservation. The seven themes were defined and used to create the Zoo Acuity Model. The central constructs of the Zoo Acuity Model are the Observation Framework, the Interaction Framework, and the Information

  15. Incompatibility and Mental Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Thomas R.; Hayes, Lauren J.; Applin, Rebecca C.; Weatherly, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    A straightforward prediction from attention restoration theory is that the level of incompatibility in a person's life should be positively correlated with that person's level of mental (or directed attention) fatigue. The authors tested this prediction by developing a new self-report measure of incompatibility in which they attempted to isolate…

  16. Population-based visual acuity in the presence of defocus well predicted by classical theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeber, Henk A.; Featherstone, Kristen A.; Piers, Patricia A.

    2010-07-01

    According to classical theory, visual acuity (VA) can be modeled using the intersection of the eye's modulation transfer function with a retinal threshold function. To date, there have been limited attempts to validate this methodology by comparing theory with actual measured data. We use the methodology to predict the visual acuity in the presence of defocus of a population of cataract patients implanted with diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses. For the prediction, we used a set of physiological eye models that include chromatic and higher order aberrations. We found that the simulations correlated strongly to the clinical outcomes (R2=0.93). While the simulated VA of the eye models was systematically 0.05 logMAR units lower (better acuity) than the clinical results, this difference was independent of defocus (p=0.98). These results show that when the simple and straightforward classical theory is applied using physiological eye models, accurate predictions of the VA, and through-focus VA of a population can be made. This method may be suited for predicting visual performance of new cataract and refractive treatments.

  17. Normal Visual Acuity and Electrophysiological Contrast Gain in Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Bach, Michael; Blessing, Julia; Riedel, Andreas; Bubl, Emanuel

    2015-01-01

    A common neurodevelopmental disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is defined by specific patterns in social perception, social competence, communication, highly circumscribed interests, and a strong subjective need for behavioral routines. Furthermore, distinctive features of visual perception, such as markedly reduced eye contact and a tendency to focus more on small, visual items than on holistic perception, have long been recognized as typical ASD characteristics. Recent debate in the scientific community discusses whether the physiology of low-level visual perception might explain such higher visual abnormalities. While reports of this enhanced, “eagle-like” visual acuity contained methodological errors and could not be substantiated, several authors have reported alterations in even earlier stages of visual processing, such as contrast perception and motion perception at the occipital cortex level. Therefore, in this project, we have investigated the electrophysiology of very early visual processing by analyzing the pattern electroretinogram-based contrast gain, the background noise amplitude, and the psychophysical visual acuities of participants with high-functioning ASD and controls with equal education. Based on earlier findings, we hypothesized that alterations in early vision would be present in ASD participants. This study included 33 individuals with ASD (11 female) and 33 control individuals (12 female). The groups were matched in terms of age, gender, and education level. We found no evidence of altered electrophysiological retinal contrast processing or psychophysical measured visual acuities. There appears to be no evidence for abnormalities in retinal visual processing in ASD patients, at least with respect to contrast detection. PMID:26379525

  18. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    PubMed Central

    Rozand, Vianney; Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele M.; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Lepers, Romuald

    2014-01-01

    Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 min each: (i) high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task), (ii) moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task), (iii) low mental exertion (watching a movie). In each condition, mental exertion was combined with 10 intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 min). Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. PMID:25309404

  19. Long-term preservation of cone photoreceptors and visual acuity in rd10 mutant mice exposed to continuous environmental enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Strettoi, Enrica

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In human patients and animal models of retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a gradual loss of rod photoreceptors and decline in scotopic vision are the primary manifestations of the disease. Secondary death of cones and gradual, regressive remodeling of the inner retina follow and progress at different speeds according to the underlying genetic defect. In any case, the final outcome is near-blindness without a conclusive cure yet. We recently reported that environmental enrichment (EE), an experimental manipulation based on exposure to enhanced motor, sensory, and social stimulation, when started at birth, exerts clear beneficial effects on a mouse model of RP, by slowing vision loss. The purpose of this study was to investigate in the same mouse the long-term effects of chronic exposure to an EE and assess the outcome of this manipulation on cone survival, inner retinal preservation, and visual behavior. Methods Two groups of rd10 mutant mice were maintained in an EE or standard (ST) laboratory conditions up to 1 year of age. Then, retinal preservation was assessed with immunocytochemistry, confocal microscopy examination, cone counts, and electron microscopy of the photoreceptor layer, while visual acuity was tested behaviorally with a Prusky water maze. Results rd10 mice are a model of autosomal recessive RP with a typical rod-cone, center to the periphery pattern of photoreceptor degeneration. They carry a mutation of the rod-specific phosphodiesterase gene and undergo rod death that peaks at around P24, while cone electroretinogram (ERG) is extinct by P60. We previously showed that early exposure to an EE efficiently delays photoreceptor degeneration in these mutants, extending the time window of cone viability and cone-mediated vision well beyond the phase of maximum rod death. Here we find that a maintained EE can delay the degeneration of cones even in the long term. Confocal and electron microscopy examination of the retinas of the rd10 EE and ST mice at 1

  20. [Mentalization and theory of mind].

    PubMed

    Wyl, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Both concepts, mentalization and the theory of mind, describe metacognitive processes. Mentalization mainly concerns the reflection of affective mental states. In contrast, theory of mind focuses on epistemic states such as beliefs, intentions and persuasions. Gender differences have proved to be relevant for both, the development of mentalization and the theory of mind. However, there are few studies and findings are inconsistent. In an own study, we investigated the relationship between early competences in metacognition (tested in a false-belief-task second order) and narrative skills of kindergarten children. Results show that children who had successfully passed the theory of mind test tended to face conflicts more directly in the stories. In consequence, these children showed less narrative avoidance. However, differences were only found in girls and not in boys. The precise understanding of developmental differences in metacognition between girls and boys may be an important aspect with regards to improving mentalization based therapy of children.

  1. [Mentalization and theory of mind].

    PubMed

    Wyl, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Both concepts, mentalization and the theory of mind, describe metacognitive processes. Mentalization mainly concerns the reflection of affective mental states. In contrast, theory of mind focuses on epistemic states such as beliefs, intentions and persuasions. Gender differences have proved to be relevant for both, the development of mentalization and the theory of mind. However, there are few studies and findings are inconsistent. In an own study, we investigated the relationship between early competences in metacognition (tested in a false-belief-task second order) and narrative skills of kindergarten children. Results show that children who had successfully passed the theory of mind test tended to face conflicts more directly in the stories. In consequence, these children showed less narrative avoidance. However, differences were only found in girls and not in boys. The precise understanding of developmental differences in metacognition between girls and boys may be an important aspect with regards to improving mentalization based therapy of children. PMID:25478752

  2. The use of wide-scale mental agility testing to identify people at risk of dementia: crucial or harmful?

    PubMed

    Fox, C; Alessi, C; Ahluwalia, S; Hachinski, V

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of dementia in the UK is rising rapidly and is predicted to double over the next 30 years. The NHS in England has been told to push for a rapid rise in dementia diagnosis rates, so that by 2015, two out of three cases are identified. The Prime Minister has raised the 'dementia challenge' as a priority for the NHS. While there is agreement on the need for action, debate arises over the nature of that intervention. Some, including Professor Alessi, argue that tools exist to support the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and they should be used because the disease is amenable to interventions. He believes that we need a shift in knowledge and attitude from thresholds to a continuum of cognitive impairment, from late to early stages and from effects to causes. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCa) should become part of the routine NHS Health Check after people reach age 40. Dr Fox argues on the other hand that widespread testing could lead to unnecessary anxiety and panic among those at risk and that funding should be focused on learning more about the early stages of dementia. While the concept of early testing is appealing, there is a large knowledge gap; instruments in use have not been tested in pre-dementia patients and have limited validity. While there is debate over the approach, we can agree that the economic and social impacts of this condition need to be addressed sooner rather than later.

  3. Field test of the feasibility and validity of using the Hoosier Assurance Plan Instrument for Adults in a state mental health program.

    PubMed

    Newman, Frederick L; McGrew, John; Deliberty, Richard N

    2009-08-01

    The current paper reports on the feasibility of using the HAPI-A, an instrument designed to assess a person's level of functioning in the community: (1) to help determine eligibility to receive behavioral health services, (2) to assign reimbursement case rates; and (3) to provide data for a service provider report card. A 3-year field study of the use of the instrument across an entire state mental health system explored the effectiveness of methods to enhance data accuracy, including annual training and a professional clinical record audit, and the ability of the test to detect differences in improvement rates within risk-adjusted groupings. The combination of training and auditing produced statistically significant, cumulative reductions in data errors across all 3 years of the field test. The HAPI-A also was sensitive in detecting differences among service providers in outcome improvements for six of six risk-adjusted groups rated at the moderate level of impairment and for five of six groups rated at the mild level of impairment, but was inconsistent in detecting outcome differences for persons rated at the severe level of impairment. PMID:19551504

  4. Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A., Ed.

    Thirteen papers by different authors consider the application of research findings and theoretical formulations to the practical appraisal and treatment of mental retardation. All suggest methods for shaping appropriate and adaptive behaviors in retarded individuals. The papers include "Definition, Diagnosis, and Classification" by D.W. Brison,…

  5. Cross-cultural studies using a modified mini mental test for healthy subjects and patients with various forms of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Thajeb, Peterus; Thajeb, Teguh; Dai, Daofu

    2007-03-01

    Existing neuropsychological tests are often complex and time-consuming. We designed a modified Mini Mental Test (MMT) battery for clinical assessment of the global and regional higher cortical functions of the brain. We tested its applicability in healthy subjects with different ethnic, cultural and educational backgrounds. The usefulness of our MMT as a tool for the clinical evaluation of patients with various forms of vascular dementia was determined. The MMT comprises five subtests, including clinical evaluations of: (A) orientation (6 points); (B) attention, right-left discrimination, speech, and calculation (20); (C) immediate recall, and recent and remote memory retrieval (10); (D) praxis (10); and (E) visuospatial orientation, agnosia, hemianopsia, and visual hemineglect (14). The MMT was administered to 100 healthy subjects from two different ethnic backgrounds (Indonesian and Chinese/Taiwanese) and diverse cultural and educational backgrounds, and to 61 patients with various forms of vascular dementia. MMT scores were significantly lower in healthy subjects with a low level of education regardless of their ethnic background (p<0.001). Patients with vascular dementia had much lower MMT scores than did the comparable age-adjusted normal controls (p<0.001). Of the patients with vascular dementia, those with Binswanger's disease had the lowest MMT scores (25.5+/-28.9), followed by those with large cerebral infarcts (48.0+/-7.1), cerebral haemorrhage (49.0+/-8.5), and multiple lacunar infarctions (55.0+/-0.5) (P<0.001). With a cut-off point of 33/55 (partial score/total score), the sensitivity and positive predictive value of the MMT were 0.98 and 0.94, respectively. The MMT is a simple and useful tool for clinical assessment of the cognitive functions of healthy subjects and patients with or without vascular dementia. It can be used for individuals with different ethnic, cultural and educational backgrounds.

  6. Cross-cultural studies using a modified mini mental test for healthy subjects and patients with various forms of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Thajeb, Peterus; Thajeb, Teguh; Dai, Daofu

    2007-03-01

    Existing neuropsychological tests are often complex and time-consuming. We designed a modified Mini Mental Test (MMT) battery for clinical assessment of the global and regional higher cortical functions of the brain. We tested its applicability in healthy subjects with different ethnic, cultural and educational backgrounds. The usefulness of our MMT as a tool for the clinical evaluation of patients with various forms of vascular dementia was determined. The MMT comprises five subtests, including clinical evaluations of: (A) orientation (6 points); (B) attention, right-left discrimination, speech, and calculation (20); (C) immediate recall, and recent and remote memory retrieval (10); (D) praxis (10); and (E) visuospatial orientation, agnosia, hemianopsia, and visual hemineglect (14). The MMT was administered to 100 healthy subjects from two different ethnic backgrounds (Indonesian and Chinese/Taiwanese) and diverse cultural and educational backgrounds, and to 61 patients with various forms of vascular dementia. MMT scores were significantly lower in healthy subjects with a low level of education regardless of their ethnic background (p<0.001). Patients with vascular dementia had much lower MMT scores than did the comparable age-adjusted normal controls (p<0.001). Of the patients with vascular dementia, those with Binswanger's disease had the lowest MMT scores (25.5+/-28.9), followed by those with large cerebral infarcts (48.0+/-7.1), cerebral haemorrhage (49.0+/-8.5), and multiple lacunar infarctions (55.0+/-0.5) (P<0.001). With a cut-off point of 33/55 (partial score/total score), the sensitivity and positive predictive value of the MMT were 0.98 and 0.94, respectively. The MMT is a simple and useful tool for clinical assessment of the cognitive functions of healthy subjects and patients with or without vascular dementia. It can be used for individuals with different ethnic, cultural and educational backgrounds. PMID:17258132

  7. The CORE study protocol: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial to test a co-design technique to optimise psychosocial recovery outcomes for people affected by mental illness in the community mental health setting

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Victoria J; Chondros, Patty; Piper, Donella; Callander, Rosemary; Weavell, Wayne; Godbee, Kali; Potiriadis, Maria; Richard, Lauralie; Densely, Konstancja; Herrman, Helen; Furler, John; Pierce, David; Schuster, Tibor; Iedema, Rick; Gunn, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction User engagement in mental health service design is heralded as integral to health systems quality and performance, but does engagement improve health outcomes? This article describes the CORE study protocol, a novel stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial (SWCRCT) to improve psychosocial recovery outcomes for people with severe mental illness. Methods An SWCRCT with a nested process evaluation will be conducted over nearly 4 years in Victoria, Australia. 11 teams from four mental health service providers will be randomly allocated to one of three dates 9 months apart to start the intervention. The intervention, a modified version of Mental Health Experience Co-Design (MH ECO), will be delivered to 30 service users, 30 carers and 10 staff in each cluster. Outcome data will be collected at baseline (6 months) and at completion of each intervention wave. The primary outcome is improvement in recovery score using the 24-item Revised Recovery Assessment Scale for service users. Secondary outcomes are improvements to user and carer mental health and well-being using the shortened 8-item version of the WHOQOL Quality of Life scale (EUROHIS), changes to staff attitudes using the 19-item Staff Attitudes to Recovery Scale and recovery orientation of services using the 36-item Recovery Self Assessment Scale (provider version). Intervention and usual care periods will be compared using a linear mixed effects model for continuous outcomes and a generalised linear mixed effects model for binary outcomes. Participants will be analysed in the group that the cluster was assigned to at each time point. Ethics and dissemination The University of Melbourne, Human Research Ethics Committee (1340299.3) and the Federal and State Departments of Health Committees (Project 20/2014) granted ethics approval. Baseline data results will be reported in 2015 and outcomes data in 2017. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN

  8. A menu of self-administered microcomputer-based neurotoxicology tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Robert S.; Wilkes, Robert L.; Kuntz, Lois-Ann; Baltzley, Dennis R.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of repeated self-administration of a newly developed battery of mental acuity tests. Researchers developed this battery to be used to screen the fitness for duty of persons in at-risk occupations (astronauts, race car drivers), or those who may be exposed to environmental stress, toxic agents, or disease. The menu under study contained cognitive and motor tests implemented on a portable microcomputer including: a five-test core battery, lasting six minutes, which had demonstrable reliabilities and stability from several previous repeated-measures studies, and also 13 new tests, lasting 42 minutes, which had appeared in other batteries but had not yet been evaluated for repeated-measures implementation in this medium. Sixteen subjects self-administered the battery over 10 repeated sessions. The hardware performed well throughout the study and the tests appeared to be easily self-administered. Stabilities and reliabilities of the test from the core battery were comparable to those obtained previously under more controlled experimental conditions. Analyses of metric properties of the remaining 13 tests produced eight additional tests with satisfactory properties. Although the average retest reliability was high, cross-correlations between tests were low, indicating factorial richness. The menu can be used to form batteries of flexible total testing time which are likely to tap different mental processes and functions.

  9. Evaluation of Visual Acuity Measurements after Autorefraction versus Manual Refraction in Eyes with and without Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jennifer K.; Qin, Haijing; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Melia, Michele; Beck, Roy W.; Andreoli, Christopher M.; Edwards, Paul A.; Glassman, Adam R.; Pavlica, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare visual acuity (VA) scores after autorefraction versus research protocol manual refraction in eyes of patients with diabetes and a wide range of VA. Methods Electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (E-ETDRS) VA Test© letter score (EVA) was measured after autorefraction (AR-EVA) and after Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR.net) protocol manual refraction (MR-EVA). Testing order was randomized, study participants and VA examiners were masked to refraction source, and a second EVA utilizing an identical manual refraction (MR-EVAsupl) was performed to determine test-retest variability. Results In 878 eyes of 456 study participants, median MR-EVA was 74 (Snellen equivalent approximately 20/32). Spherical equivalent was often similar for manual and autorefraction (median difference: 0.00, 5th and 95th percentiles −1.75 to +1.13 Diopters). However, on average, MR-EVA results were slightly better than AR-EVA results across the entire VA range. Furthermore, variability between AR-EVA and MR-EVA was substantially greater than the test-retest variability of MR-EVA (P<0.001). Variability of differences was highly dependent on autorefractor model. Conclusions Across a wide range of VA at multiple sites using a variety of autorefractors, VA measurements tend to be worse with autorefraction than manual refraction. Differences between individual autorefractor models were identified. However, even among autorefractor models comparing most favorably to manual refraction, VA variability between autorefraction and manual refraction is higher than the test-retest variability of manual refraction. The results suggest that with current instruments, autorefraction is not an acceptable substitute for manual refraction for most clinical trials with primary outcomes dependent on best-corrected VA. PMID:22159173

  10. Factors influencing mental health nurses' attitudes towards people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Lu, Huei-Lan; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors influencing mental health nurses' attitudes towards people with mental illness. A descriptive correlation design was used. A sample of 180 Taiwanese mental health nurses was recruited from mental health-care settings. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Pearson's product-moment correlation, Student's t-test, one-way anova, and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Negative attitudes were found among mental health nurses, especially with respect to individuals with substance abuse compared with those with schizophrenia and major depression. Mental health nurses who were older, had more clinical experiences in mental health care, and demonstrated greater empathy expressed more positive attitudes towards people with mental illness. Mental health nurses working at acute psychiatric units demonstrated more negative attitudes towards mental illness compared with those working in psychiatric rehabilitation units and outpatient clinics or community psychiatric rehabilitation centres. Particularly, length of mental health nursing practice and empathy significantly accounted for mental health nurses' attitudes towards mental illness. Understanding nurses' attitudes and their correlates towards people with mental illness is critical to deliver effective mental health nursing care.

  11. PERSPECTIVE: Is acuity enough? Other considerations in clinical investigations of visual prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepri, Bernard P.

    2009-06-01

    Visual impairing eye diseases are the major frontier facing ophthalmic research today in light of our rapidly aging population. The visual skills necessary for improving the quality of daily function and life are inextricably linked to these impairing diseases. Both research and reimbursement programs are emphasizing outcome-based results. Is improvement in visual acuity alone enough to improve the function and quality of life of visually impaired persons? This perspective summarizes the types of effectiveness endpoints for clinical investigations of visual prostheses that go beyond visual acuity. The clinical investigation of visual prostheses should include visual function, functional vision and quality of life measures. Specifically, they encompass contrast sensitivity, orientation and mobility, activities of daily living and quality of life assessments. The perspective focuses on the design of clinical trials for visual prostheses and the methods of determining effectiveness above and beyond visual acuity that will yield outcomes that are measured by improved function in the visual world and quality of life. The visually impaired population is the primary consideration in this presentation with particular emphases on retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. Clinical trials for visual prostheses cannot be isolated from the need for medical rehabilitation in order to obtain measurements of effectiveness that produce outcomes/evidence-based success. This approach will facilitate improvement in daily function and quality of life of patients with diseases that cause chronic vision impairment. The views and opinions are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of the US Food and Drug Administration, the US Department of Health and Human Services or the Public Health Service.

  12. Seeing Steps and Ramps with Simulated Low Acuity: Impact of Texture and Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Bochsler, Tiana M.; Legge, Gordon E.; Kallie, Christopher S.; Gage, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Detecting and recognizing steps and ramps is an important component of the visual accessibility of public spaces for people with impaired vision. The present study, which is part of a larger program of research on visual accessibility, investigated the impact of two factors that may facilitate the recognition of steps and ramps during low-acuity viewing. Visual texture on the ground plane is an environmental factor that improves judgments of surface distance and slant. Locomotion (walking) is common during observations of a layout, and may generate visual motion cues that enhance the recognition of steps and ramps. Methods In two experiments, normally sighted subjects viewed the targets monocularly through blur goggles that reduced acuity to either approx. 20/150 Snellen (mild blur) or 20/880 (severe blur). The subjects judged whether a step, ramp or neither was present ahead on a sidewalk. In the texture experiment, subjects viewed steps and ramps on a surface with a coarse black-and-white checkerboard pattern. In the locomotion experiment, subjects walked along the sidewalk toward the target before making judgments. Results Surprisingly, performance was lower with the textured surface than with a uniform surface, perhaps because the texture masked visual cues necessary for target recognition. Subjects performed better in walking trials than in stationary trials, possibly because they were able to take advantage of visual cues that were only present during motion. Conclusions We conclude that under conditions of simulated low acuity, large, high-contrast texture elements can hinder the recognition of steps and ramps while locomotion enhances recognition. PMID:22863792

  13. Immediate and long-term effects on visual acuity of surgically induced strabismus in kittens.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, D E; Ruck, M; Kaye, M G; Kirby, S

    1984-01-01

    In order to isolate some of the factors responsible for strabismic amblyopia as well as to ascertain the time course of its development, frequent measurements were made of the visual acuity of the two eyes of kittens following imposition of surgically induced strabismus. Following behavioural training on a jumping stand, strabismus was induced in all but one animal by simple section of either the lateral (esotropia) or medial (exotropia) rectus muscle of one eye. The one exception was a kitten on which esotropia was induced by another common but more radical surgical procedure that involved removal of the body of both the lateral rectus and superior oblique muscles of one eye. There was a surprising difference between the immediate consequences for vision of section of the lateral and medial rectus muscles that were reflected by equally large differences in the magnitude of the amblyopia that developed eventually in the two situations. Following section of the lateral rectus muscle, there was an immediate reduction in the visual acuity of the operated eye of as much as 2 octaves after which vision returned to normal levels over 4 to 8 days. The acuity of the two eyes remained comparable for a few days after which the vision of the operated eye began to decline once more, signalling the onset of amblyopia some 10 to 12 days following imposition of strabismus. In contrast to the severity of these effects, the effects observed following section of the medial rectus were both mild and transitory. Furthermore, whereas all kittens that were rendered esotropic early developed amblyopia, none of the kittens that were made exotropic at the same age did so. Together, these results suggest that factors associated with the immediate consequences of the surgical procedure employed to produce a misalignment of the visual axes may contribute to the severity of the effects of surgically induced strabismus. PMID:6468549

  14. Implications for dynamic visual acuity with changes in aged and sex.

    PubMed

    Ishigaki, H; Miyao, M

    1994-04-01

    Using a Landolt ring with a gap of 40' of arc which moved at a decreasing velocity until the gap was discriminated, we measured the dynamic visual acuity of 826 subjects, males and females ages 5 to 92 years, and found rapid development between the ages of 5 and 15 years. This experiment showed that dynamic discrimination peaked at age 15 and then declined at a constant rate from age 20 on. The discrimination of male subjects was superior to that of female subjects at most ages, but a significant sex difference was observed only at age 5. We speculate that males may have better discrimination than females but variability is substantial.

  15. [Urgency and acuity judgment systems before medical care (emergency telephone consultation center #7119, JTAS etc.)].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hideki; Yoshida, Masashi; Sakamoto, Tetsuya

    2016-02-01

    Currently growing the demand of the emergency medical care in Japan, sharing the concept about medical urgency is needed in the whole society in order to maintain the emergency medical systems as social resources. The present conditions and challenges are outlined: Emergency Telephone Consultation Center in Tokyo Fire Department (established in June 2007) and on-site triage as representatives of "pre-hospital urgency determination systems", and JTAS (Japan Triage and Acuity System, introduced in April 2012) as a representative of "in-hospital, pre-examination urgency determination systems". PMID:26915257

  16. Mental Retirement*

    PubMed Central

    Rohwedder, Susann; Willis, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some studies suggest that people can maintain their cognitive abilities through “mental exercise.” This has not been unequivocally proven. Retirement is associated with a large change in a person’s daily routine and environment. In this paper, we propose two mechanisms how retirement may lead to cognitive decline. For many people retirement leads to a less stimulating daily environment. In addition, the prospect of retirement reduces the incentive to engage in mentally stimulating activities on the job. We investigate the effect of retirement on cognition empirically using cross-nationally comparable surveys of older persons in the United States, England, and 11 European countries in 2004. We find that early retirement has a significant negative impact on the cognitive ability of people in their early 60s that is both quantitatively important and causal. Identification is achieved using national pension policies as instruments for endogenous retirement. PMID:20975927

  17. Baseline Characteristics of the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Population: Predicting Recognition Acuity at 4.5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Lynn, Michael J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To identify patient baseline characteristics that predict recognition acuity at 4.5 years of age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, a study of patients with monocular infantile cataracts. Methods. We analyzed baseline characteristics of the 114 infants enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study to determine which were most predictive of visual outcome at 4.5 years of age. All infants underwent cataract surgery between 1 and 7 months of age. Monocular acuity was assessed at 4.5 years of age by a traveling examiner using the Amblyopia Treatment Study HOTV protocol. Results. Age at cataract surgery was weakly associated with visual acuity (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.19, P = 0.041) with median visual acuity better among the younger patients (28–48 days: 0.50 logMAR, 49–210 days: 1.10 logMAR, P = 0.046). Patients from families with private insurance had significantly better median visual acuity (0.60 vs. 1.40 logMAR, P = 0.0004). No other baseline characteristic revealed a significant bivariate relationship with visual acuity. A multiple linear regression relating visual acuity to all baseline characteristics demonstrated that only the availability of private insurance was statistically significant, accounting for 12% of the variance. Conclusions. This analysis concurs with previous studies that early surgery is important for good visual outcomes in patients with unilateral infantile cataracts. The fact that only one baseline variable (private insurance) contributed to the multivariate analysis, accounting for 12% of the variance, suggests that predicting visual outcome for these patients is complicated at best, and cannot be estimated from baseline characteristics alone. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00212134.) PMID:25503455

  18. Ocular Inflammation in Behçet’s Disease: Incidence of Ocular Complications and of Loss of Visual Acuity

    PubMed Central

    Kaçmaz, R. Oktay; Kempen, John H.; Newcomb, Craig; Gangaputra, Sapna; Daniel, Ebenezer; Levy-Clarke, Grace A.; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Suhler, Eric B.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Jabs, Douglas A.; Foster, C. Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the risk of structural ocular complications and loss of visual acuity in cases of Behçet’s Disease (BD); to evaluate potential risk and protective factors for these events Design Retrospective cohort study Methods Setting Five academic center ocular inflammation subspecialty practices Study Population A total of 168 consecutive patients with BD-associated ocular inflammation Procedures Clinical data on these patients were ascertained by standardized chart review Outcome Measures Visual acuity, structural ocular complications of inflammation, intraocular pressure (IOP) Results Over a median follow-up of 1.05 years, the incidence of specific structural complications and IOP disturbances were common: the incidence rate of any ocular complication was 0.45/eye-year (EY). Rates of loss of visual acuity to 20/50 or worse and to 20/200 or worse were 0.12/EY and 0.09/EY respectively. Risk factors for loss of visual acuity during follow-up were persistent inflammatory activity, presence of posterior synechiae, presence of hypotony, and presence of elevated IOP. In a time-dependent analysis, current activity of ocular inflammation was associated with an increased risk of loss of visual acuity to 20/50 or worse (RR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.1–5.5, p = 0.03) and to 20/200 or worse (RR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.2–5.8, p = 0.01). Conclusions Loss of visual acuity and occurrence of ocular complications were common in patients with ocular inflammation associated with Behçet’s Disease, even with aggressive therapy. Ongoing inflammation during follow-up, presence/occurrence of posterior synechiae, hypotony, and elevated IOP were associated with an increased risk of loss of visual acuity. PMID:18708181

  19. Statewide retrospective study of low acuity emergency presentations in New South Wales, Australia: who, what, where and why?

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Michael M; Berendsen Russell, Saartje; Bein, Kendall J; Chalkley, Dane R; Muscatello, David; Paoloni, Richard; Ivers, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study aims to use a statewide population-based registry to assess the prevalence of low acuity emergency department (ED) presentations, describe the trend in presentation rates and to determine whether they were associated with various presentation characteristics such as the type of hospital as well as clinical and demographic variables. Design and setting This was a retrospective analysis of a population-based registry of ED presentations in New South Wales (NSW). Generalised estimating equations with log links were used to determine factors associated with low acuity presentations to account for repeat presentations and the possibility of clustering of outcomes. Participants Patients were included in this analysis if they presented to an ED between January 2010 and December 2014. The outcomes of interest were low acuity presentation, defined as those who self-presented (were not transported by ambulance), were assigned a triage category of 4 or 5 (semiurgent or non-urgent) and discharged back to usual residence from ED. Results There were 10.7 million ED presentations analysed. Of these, 45% were classified as a low acuity presentation. There was no discernible increase in the rate of low acuity presentations across NSW between 2010 and 2014. The strongest predictors of low acuity ED presentation were age <40 years of age (OR 1.77); injury or musculoskeletal administrative and non-urgent procedures (OR 2.96); ear, nose and throat, eye or oral (OR 5.53); skin or allergy-type presenting problems (OR 2.84). Conclusions Low acuity ED presentations comprise almost half of all ED presentations. Alternative emergency models of care may help meet the needs of these patients. PMID:27165649

  20. Sound localization in common vampire bats: acuity and use of the binaural time cue by a small mammal.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Rickye S; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E

    2015-01-01

    Passive sound-localization acuity and the ability to use binaural time and intensity cues were determined for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). The bats were tested using a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure in which they drank defibrinated blood from a spout in the presence of sounds from their right, but stopped drinking (i.e., broke contact with the spout) whenever a sound came from their left, thereby avoiding a mild shock. The mean minimum audible angle for three bats for a 100-ms noise burst was 13.1°-within the range of thresholds for other bats and near the mean for mammals. Common vampire bats readily localized pure tones of 20 kHz and higher, indicating they could use interaural intensity-differences. They could also localize pure tones of 5 kHz and lower, thereby demonstrating the use of interaural time-differences, despite their very small maximum interaural distance of 60 μs. A comparison of the use of locus cues among mammals suggests several implications for the evolution of sound localization and its underlying anatomical and physiological mechanisms.

  1. Sound localization in common vampire bats: acuity and use of the binaural time cue by a small mammal.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Rickye S; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E

    2015-01-01

    Passive sound-localization acuity and the ability to use binaural time and intensity cues were determined for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). The bats were tested using a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure in which they drank defibrinated blood from a spout in the presence of sounds from their right, but stopped drinking (i.e., broke contact with the spout) whenever a sound came from their left, thereby avoiding a mild shock. The mean minimum audible angle for three bats for a 100-ms noise burst was 13.1°-within the range of thresholds for other bats and near the mean for mammals. Common vampire bats readily localized pure tones of 20 kHz and higher, indicating they could use interaural intensity-differences. They could also localize pure tones of 5 kHz and lower, thereby demonstrating the use of interaural time-differences, despite their very small maximum interaural distance of 60 μs. A comparison of the use of locus cues among mammals suggests several implications for the evolution of sound localization and its underlying anatomical and physiological mechanisms. PMID:25618037

  2. Sound localization in common vampire bats: Acuity and use of the binaural time cue by a small mammal

    PubMed Central

    Heffner, Rickye S.; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E.

    2015-01-01

    Passive sound-localization acuity and the ability to use binaural time and intensity cues were determined for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). The bats were tested using a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure in which they drank defibrinated blood from a spout in the presence of sounds from their right, but stopped drinking (i.e., broke contact with the spout) whenever a sound came from their left, thereby avoiding a mild shock. The mean minimum audible angle for three bats for a 100-ms noise burst was 13.1°—within the range of thresholds for other bats and near the mean for mammals. Common vampire bats readily localized pure tones of 20 kHz and higher, indicating they could use interaural intensity-differences. They could also localize pure tones of 5 kHz and lower, thereby demonstrating the use of interaural time-differences, despite their very small maximum interaural distance of 60 μs. A comparison of the use of locus cues among mammals suggests several implications for the evolution of sound localization and its underlying anatomical and physiological mechanisms. PMID:25618037

  3. Diagnosing Students' Mental Models via the Web-Based Mental Models Diagnosis System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tzu-Hua; Chiu, Mei-Hung; Lin, Jing-Wen; Chou, Chin-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Mental models play an important role in science education research. To extend the effectiveness of conceptual change research and to improve mental model identi?cation and diagnosis, the authors developed and tested the Web-Based Mental Models Diagnosis (WMMD) system. In this article, they describe their WMMD system, which goes beyond the…

  4. Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    PubMed

    SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.

  5. Comparison of binocular through-focus visual acuity with monovision and a small aperture inlay.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Christina; Manzanera, Silvestre; Prieto, Pedro M; Fernández, Enrique J; Artal, Pablo

    2014-10-01

    Corneal small aperture inlays provide extended depth of focus as a solution to presbyopia. As this procedure is becoming more popular, it is interesting to compare its performance with traditional approaches, such as monovision. Here, binocular visual acuity was measured as a function of object vergence in three subjects by using a binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer. Visual acuity was measured at two luminance levels (photopic and mesopic) under several optical conditions: 1) natural vision (4 mm pupils, best corrected distance vision), 2) pure-defocus monovision ( + 1.25 D add in the nondominant eye), 3) small aperture monovision (1.6 mm pupil in the nondominant eye), and 4) combined small aperture and defocus monovision (1.6 mm pupil and a + 0.75 D add in the nondominant eye). Visual simulations of a small aperture corneal inlay suggest that the device extends DOF as effectively as traditional monovision in photopic light, in both cases at the cost of binocular summation. However, individual factors, such as aperture centration or sensitivity to mesopic conditions should be considered to assure adequate visual outcomes. PMID:25360355

  6. Comparison of binocular through-focus visual acuity with monovision and a small aperture inlay

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Christina; Manzanera, Silvestre; Prieto, Pedro M.; Fernández, Enrique J.; Artal, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Corneal small aperture inlays provide extended depth of focus as a solution to presbyopia. As this procedure is becoming more popular, it is interesting to compare its performance with traditional approaches, such as monovision. Here, binocular visual acuity was measured as a function of object vergence in three subjects by using a binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer. Visual acuity was measured at two luminance levels (photopic and mesopic) under several optical conditions: 1) natural vision (4 mm pupils, best corrected distance vision), 2) pure-defocus monovision ( + 1.25 D add in the nondominant eye), 3) small aperture monovision (1.6 mm pupil in the nondominant eye), and 4) combined small aperture and defocus monovision (1.6 mm pupil and a + 0.75 D add in the nondominant eye). Visual simulations of a small aperture corneal inlay suggest that the device extends DOF as effectively as traditional monovision in photopic light, in both cases at the cost of binocular summation. However, individual factors, such as aperture centration or sensitivity to mesopic conditions should be considered to assure adequate visual outcomes. PMID:25360355

  7. Enhancement of Speech-Relevant Auditory Acuity in Absolute Pitch Possessors

    PubMed Central

    Masataka, Nobuo

    2011-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify the frequency or musical name of a specific tone, or to identify a tone without comparing it with any objective reference tone. While AP has recently been shown to be associated with morphological changes and neurophysiological adaptations in the planum temporale, a cortical area in the brain involved in speech perception processes, no behavioral evidence of speech-relevant auditory acuity in any AP possessors has hitherto been reported. In order to seek such evidence, in the present study, 15 professional musicians with AP and 14 without AP, all of whom had acquired Japanese as their first language, were asked to identify isolated Japanese syllables as quickly as possible after these syllables were presented auditorily. When the mean latency to the syllable identification was compared, it was significantly shorter in AP possessors than in non-AP possessors whether the presented syllables were those used as Japanese labels representing the 7 tones constituting an octave or not. The latency to hear the stimuli per se did not differ according to whether the participants were AP possessors or not. The results indicate the possibility that possessing AP provides one with extraordinarily enhanced acuity to individual syllables per se as fundamental units of a segmented word in the speech stream. PMID:21779258

  8. Development of retinal structure and visual acuity in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Gao, Tian-Xiang; Arimoto, Takafumi

    2000-12-01

    The retinal structure and visual acuity in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus at different stages of development were examined by light microscopy. The resolving power of the retina, the visual axis and the best visual field were estimated based on the distribution of cone cells in the retina. The visual system of the larvae appears poorly developed at hatching. The larvae with total length (TL) of less than 10 mm, have single cones only and the eyes were well pigmented. At 10 11 mm TL, most single cones fused to form double cones, with the single and double cones forming a mosaic pattern. From larvae to early juvenile the retina stretches, the cones increase in diameter and rods increase in number. Based on the highest density of the cones in the ventro-temporal region, the visual axis was orientated upforward. The resolving power of the retina in 40 530 mm TL Japanese flounder was found to range from 25.1 to 11.5 min. The results indicated continual improvements in the visual system of the growing fish towards higher resolving power, visual acuity and sensitivity.

  9. Binocular depth acuity research to support the modular multi-spectral stereoscopic night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, John O.; CuQlock-Knopp, V. Grayson; Paicopolis, Peter; Smoot, Jennifer; Kregel, Mark; Corona, Bernard

    2006-05-01

    This paper discusses the depth acuity research conducted in support of the development of a Modular Multi-Spectral Stereoscopic (M2S2) night vision goggle (NVG), a customizable goggle that lets the user select one of five goggle configurations: monocular thermal, monocular image intensifier (I2), binocular I2, binocular thermal, and binocular dual-waveband (thermal imagery to one eye and I2 imagery to the other eye). The motives for the development of this type of customizable goggle were (1) the need for an NVG that allows the simultaneous use of two wavebands, (2) the need for an alternative sensor fusion method to avoid the potential image degradation that may accompany digitally fused images, (3) a requirement to provide the observer with stereoscopic, dual spectrum views of a scene, and (4) the need to handle individual user preferences for sensor types and ocular configurations employed in various military operations. Among the increases in functionality that the user will have with this system is the ability to convert from a binocular I2 device (needed for detailed terrain analysis during off-road mobility) to a monocular thermal device (for increased situational awareness in the unaided eye during nights with full moon illumination). Results of the present research revealed potential depth acuity advantages that may apply to off-road terrain hazard detection for the binocular thermal configuration. The results also indicated that additional studies are needed to address ways to minimize binocular incompatibility for the dual waveband configuration.

  10. Mechanistic modeling of vertebrate spatial contrast sensitivity and acuity at low luminance.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, John R; Wathes, Christopher M

    2012-05-01

    The validity of the Barten theoretical model for describing the vertebrate spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and acuity at scotopic light levels has been examined. Although this model (which has its basis in signal modulation transfer theory) can successfully describe vertebrate CSF, and its relation to underlying visual neurophysiology at photopic light levels, significant discrepancies between theory and experimental data have been found at scotopic levels. It is shown that in order to describe scotopic CSF, the theory must be modified to account for important mechanistic changes, which occur as cone vision switches to rod vision. These changes are divided into photon management factors [changes in optical performance (for a dilated pupil), quantum efficiency, receptor sampling] and neural factors (changes in spatial integration area, neural noise, and lateral inhibition in the retina). Predictions of both scotopic CSF and acuity obtained from the modified theory were found to be in good agreement with experimental values obtained from the human, macaque, cat, and owl monkey. The last two species have rod densities particularly suited for scotopic conditions.

  11. Association between individual differences in non-symbolic number acuity and math performance: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qixuan; Li, Jingguang

    2014-05-01

    Many recent studies have examined the association between number acuity, which is the ability to rapidly and non-symbolically estimate the quantity of items appearing in a scene, and symbolic math performance. However, various contradictory results have been reported. To comprehensively evaluate the association between number acuity and symbolic math performance, we conduct a meta-analysis to synthesize the results observed in previous studies. First, a meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies (36 samples, N = 4705) revealed a significant positive correlation between these skills (r = 0.20, 95% CI = [0.14, 0.26]); the association remained after considering other potential moderators (e.g., whether general cognitive abilities were controlled). Moreover, a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies revealed 1) that number acuity may prospectively predict later math performance (r = 0.24, 95% CI = [0.11, 0.37]; 6 samples) and 2) that number acuity is retrospectively correlated to early math performance as well (r = 0.17, 95% CI = [0.07, 0.26]; 5 samples). In summary, these pieces of evidence demonstrate a moderate but statistically significant association between number acuity and math performance. Based on the estimated effect sizes, power analyses were conducted, which suggested that many previous studies were underpowered due to small sample sizes. This may account for the disparity between findings in the literature, at least in part. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications of our meta-analytic findings are presented, and future research questions are discussed.

  12. Evaluation of the human fragile X mental retardation 1 polymerase chain reaction reagents to amplify the FMR1 gene: testing in a clinical diagnostic laboratory.

    PubMed

    Nahhas, Fatimah A; Monroe, Thomas J; Prior, Thomas W; Botma, Patricia I; Fang, Jin; Snyder, Pamela J; Talbott, Sandi L; Feldman, Gerald L

    2012-03-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by the absence of a functional fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). In most cases, the molecular mutation is an expansion and consequent methylation of the CGG trinucleotide repeat in the 5' end of the FMR1 gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays that overcome the limitations of amplifying >100-150 CGG repeats have been designed. One such product, Human FMR1 PCR Reagents, can detect expanded mutation alleles without determining methylation status. We used this assay to amplify 70 clinical samples previously tested in three clinical laboratories, including 28 full mutation alleles, 17 premutation alleles, 6 gray zone alleles, and 21 normal samples (51 normal alleles including 5 homozygous females). The results were concordant with previously reported results. All full and premutation alleles were identifiable: repeat sizes are not assigned when the CGG repeat number is >200 and all full and premutation alleles were scored in the same category using this assay. All normal and gray zone alleles were within 0-1 repeat of their previously reported allele sizes. This method identified a mosaic premutation/full mutation pattern in 12/21 samples previously identified as full mutation only and in 5/7 samples previously reported as mosaic premutation/full mutation. These results demonstrate that this assay provides comparable results to the combination of PCR/Southern blot methodologies. Additional issues such as technologist time, reagent costs, turnaround times, and sample requirements are comparable to the PCR/Southern blotting assays currently utilized; however, methylation status cannot be determined using this assay. It is likely that PCR-only based assays will eventually replace previous methods for FXS and that Southern blotting or another methylation assay will only be utilized when determination of methylation status is necessary. This type of assay may also be utilized for other nucleotide expansion disorders.

  13. The Mental Capacity Act 2005: mental capacity and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Dimond, Bridgit

    In this series of articles on the Mental Capacity Act 2005 (MCA) the author now turns to the interrelation between mental capacity and mental disorder and between the Mental Health Act 1983 (MHA) (as amended by the Mental Health Act 2007 [MHA, 2007]) and the Bournewood safeguards. The article explains how the MCA and the MHA are designed to cover distinct situations: the one mental capacity; the other mental disorder and the different definitions are considered. The article also looks at the different principles which apply and the different powers available under each Act. The different forms of protection under each Act are contrasted. Because of criticism of the UK by the European Court of Human Rights in the Bournewood case, amendments have been made by the MHA 2007 to the MCA to provide protection for those incapable of making decisions who suffer from mental disorder and whose best interests require a loss of liberty.

  14. Mental health nursing and stress: maintaining balance.

    PubMed

    Ward, Louise

    2011-04-01

    The recruitment and retention of mental health nurses within acute inpatient mental health facilities continues to be an ongoing issue. Literature and current research highlight an environment fraught with pressure and stress, identifying several key factors contributing to job dissatisfaction. These factors include greater patient acuity, unpredictable and challenging workspaces, violence, increased paperwork, and reduced managerial support. This qualitative, critical, feminist exploration investigated the lived experiences of 13 female mental health nurses working in inpatient services. They were asked about their practice and perceptions of workplace culture, and they shared their thoughts on stress management and professional well-being. Positive workplace practice was highlighted, and the participants revealed an environment they were proud to be a part of. Individual interviews, focus groups, and reflective practice were all used to collect data. The findings from the investigation unanimously support current literature that clearly confirms mental health nursing to be stressful. Interestingly, however, the findings also clearly identified that the way in which the nurse participants managed their stress was intrinsically linked to their job satisfaction. The major theme identified throughout the present study revealed that the female participants' ability to manage an at times complex workspace through the notions of teamwork, diversity, and creativity. All of the participants considered these elements as significant to providing a high standard in patient care. This research might provide an opportunity for others to view mental health nursing from a different perspective, and through the lived experiences of the participants, embrace the positive and rewarding aspects of the role. PMID:21371222

  15. Body Awareness in Children with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Johan; Dedroog, Inge

    2009-01-01

    The body awareness of 124 toddlers with mental retardation and of 124 children developing normally matched to them on age and gender was examined. Twenty-nine of the children with mental retardation were diagnosed as Down syndrome (DS). The "Pointing and Naming" Test of Berges and Lezine [Berges, J., & Lezine, I. (1978). "Test d'imitation de…

  16. Comorbid antisocial and substance misuse proclivity and mental health service utilization by female inmates: testing the worst of both worlds hypothesis with the PAI.

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D; Magaletta, Philip R

    2015-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to establish whether female inmates with comorbid proclivity for antisocial behavior and substance misuse, as measured by the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 2007), use more mental health-related services than female inmates with either antisocial or substance misuse proclivity alone. A second purpose was to determine whether the effect of comorbid antisocial and substance misuse proclivity on mental health service utilization is cumulative or interactive. In a survey of 421 female federal prison inmates, it was noted that proclivity for both antisocial behavior and substance misuse was associated with significantly greater subsequent use of mental health services in female inmates than either proclivity alone, even after preexisting mental health diagnoses and treatment were controlled. In addition, the effect was additive rather than interactive. These findings provide further support for the "worst of both worlds" hypothesis, which holds that comorbid antisocial and substance involvement/proclivity portend poorer future outcomes than either antisocial or substance involvement/proclivity alone. The implications of these results for development of a comprehensive training model that provides mental health professionals with the skills to properly screen and effectively treat female inmates are discussed, along with the need to clarify the theory behind the "worst of both worlds" hypothesis.

  17. Vision Test in Seconds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Acuity Systems, Inc. developed an electro-optical instrument under a grant from NASA to measure the visual performance of pilots. Transferred from Ames Research Center, this instrument now allows you to have your eyes tested in seconds by relatively unskilled operators. The device automatically measures refractive error of eye and prints out proper prescription for glasses. The unit also detects cataracts and glaucoma.

  18. Development of Proprioceptive Acuity in Typically Developing Children: Normative Data on Forearm Position Sense.

    PubMed

    Holst-Wolf, Jessica M; Yeh, I-Ling; Konczak, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    This study mapped the development of proprioception in healthy, typically developing children by objectively measuring forearm position sense acuity. We assessed position sense acuity in a cross-sectional sample of 308 children (5-17 years old; M/F = 127/181) and a reference group of 26 healthy adults (18-25 years old; M/F = 12/14) using a body-scalable bimanual manipulandum that allowed forearm flexion/extension in the horizontal plane. The non-dominant forearm was passively displaced to one of three target positions. Then participants actively matched the target limb position with their dominant forearm. Each of three positions was matched five times. Position error (PE), calculated as the mean difference between the angular positions of the matching and reference arms, measured position sense bias or systematic error. The respective standard deviation of the differences between the match and reference arm angular positions (SDPdiff) indicated position sense precision or random error. The main results are as follows: First, systematic error, measured by PE, did not change significantly from early childhood to late adolescence (Median PE at 90° target: -2.85° in early childhood; -2.28° in adolescence; and 1.30° in adults). Second, response variability as measured by SDPdiff significantly decreased with age (Median SDPdiff at 90° target: 9.66° in early childhood; 5.30° in late adolescence; and 3.97° in adults). The data of this large cross-sectional sample of children document that proprioceptive development in typically developing children is characterized as an age-related improvement in precision, not as a development or change in bias. In other words, it is the reliability of the perceptual response that improves between early childhood and adulthood. This study provides normative data against which position sense acuity in pediatric patient populations can be compared. The underlying neurophysiological processes that could explain the observed

  19. Development of Proprioceptive Acuity in Typically Developing Children: Normative Data on Forearm Position Sense

    PubMed Central

    Holst-Wolf, Jessica M.; Yeh, I-Ling; Konczak, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    This study mapped the development of proprioception in healthy, typically developing children by objectively measuring forearm position sense acuity. We assessed position sense acuity in a cross-sectional sample of 308 children (5–17 years old; M/F = 127/181) and a reference group of 26 healthy adults (18–25 years old; M/F = 12/14) using a body-scalable bimanual manipulandum that allowed forearm flexion/extension in the horizontal plane. The non-dominant forearm was passively displaced to one of three target positions. Then participants actively matched the target limb position with their dominant forearm. Each of three positions was matched five times. Position error (PE), calculated as the mean difference between the angular positions of the matching and reference arms, measured position sense bias or systematic error. The respective standard deviation of the differences between the match and reference arm angular positions (SDPdiff) indicated position sense precision or random error. The main results are as follows: First, systematic error, measured by PE, did not change significantly from early childhood to late adolescence (Median PE at 90° target: −2.85° in early childhood; −2.28° in adolescence; and 1.30° in adults). Second, response variability as measured by SDPdiff significantly decreased with age (Median SDPdiff at 90° target: 9.66° in early childhood; 5.30° in late adolescence; and 3.97° in adults). The data of this large cross-sectional sample of children document that proprioceptive development in typically developing children is characterized as an age-related improvement in precision, not as a development or change in bias. In other words, it is the reliability of the perceptual response that improves between early childhood and adulthood. This study provides normative data against which position sense acuity in pediatric patient populations can be compared. The underlying neurophysiological processes that could explain the observed

  20. Development of Proprioceptive Acuity in Typically Developing Children: Normative Data on Forearm Position Sense

    PubMed Central

    Holst-Wolf, Jessica M.; Yeh, I-Ling; Konczak, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    This study mapped the development of proprioception in healthy, typically developing children by objectively measuring forearm position sense acuity. We assessed position sense acuity in a cross-sectional sample of 308 children (5–17 years old; M/F = 127/181) and a reference group of 26 healthy adults (18–25 years old; M/F = 12/14) using a body-scalable bimanual manipulandum that allowed forearm flexion/extension in the horizontal plane. The non-dominant forearm was passively displaced to one of three target positions. Then participants actively matched the target limb position with their dominant forearm. Each of three positions was matched five times. Position error (PE), calculated as the mean difference between the angular positions of the matching and reference arms, measured position sense bias or systematic error. The respective standard deviation of the differences between the match and reference arm angular positions (SDPdiff) indicated position sense precision or random error. The main results are as follows: First, systematic error, measured by PE, did not change significantly from early childhood to late adolescence (Median PE at 90° target: −2.85° in early childhood; −2.28° in adolescence; and 1.30° in adults). Second, response variability as measured by SDPdiff significantly decreased with age (Median SDPdiff at 90° target: 9.66° in early childhood; 5.30° in late adolescence; and 3.97° in adults). The data of this large cross-sectional sample of children document that proprioceptive development in typically developing children is characterized as an age-related improvement in precision, not as a development or change in bias. In other words, it is the reliability of the perceptual response that improves between early childhood and adulthood. This study provides normative data against which position sense acuity in pediatric patient populations can be compared. The underlying neurophysiological processes that could explain the observed

  1. Evaluating Explicit and Implicit Stigma of Mental Illness in Mental Health Professionals and Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Kopera, Maciej; Suszek, Hubert; Bonar, Erin; Myszka, Maciej; Gmaj, Bartłomiej; Ilgen, Mark; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-07-01

    The study investigated explicit and implicit attitudes towards people with mental illness among medical students (non-professionals) with no previous contact with mentally ill patients and psychiatrists and psychotherapists (professionals) who had at least 2 years of professional contact with mentally ill patients. Explicit attitudes where assessed by self-report. Implicit attitudes were measured with the Go/No-Go Association Task, a variant of the Implicit Association Test that does not require the use of a comparison category. Compared to non-professionals, mental health professionals reported significantly higher approach emotions than non-professionals towards people with mental illness, showed a lesser tendency to discriminate against them, and held less restrictive attitudes. Both groups reported negative implicit attitudes towards mentally ill. Results suggest that both non-professionals and professionals display ambivalent attitudes towards people with mental illness and that professional, long-term contact with people with mental illness does not necessarily modify negative implicit attitudes.

  2. Teen Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... worthless could be warning signs of a mental health problem. Mental health problems are real, painful, and sometimes severe. You ... things that could harm you or others Mental health problems can be treated. To find help, talk ...

  3. Mental Methods in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Doug

    1987-01-01

    Choosing mental, written, or calculator procedures is important for children to learn. Children should be encouraged to be flexible and consider alternatives when doing mental calculation. Developing mental skills, symbols and rules, and numbers in context are each considered. (MNS)

  4. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  5. Relation between perceived driving disability and scores of vision screening tests

    PubMed Central

    van Rijn, L J; Wilhelm, H; Emesz, M; Kaper, R; Heine, S; Nitsch, S; Grabner, G; Völker-Dieben, H J

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To determine the relation between perceived driving disability and vision screening tests. Methods: 93 subjects, aged 50 years and over, with binocular visual acuity of at least 20/80. Perceived driving disability (PDD) was assessed by a questionnaire. Subtracting daytime from night-time driving question scores revealed PDD at night (PDDN), subtracting scores of questions for driving in familiar places from those in unfamiliar places revealed PDD at unfamiliar places (PDDU). Results: PDD was strongly related to visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and useful field of view (UFOV). Specific relations existed between PDDN and Nyktotests and Mesotests and between PDDU and UFOV. These associations were enhanced in a subset of subjects with better visual acuities. Conclusions: Vision screening tests correlate well with perceived driving disabilities, especially when a subtraction method is used in the questionnaire to reveal condition dependent disabilities. Additional tests for visual acuity are useful, especially in subjects with better visual acuity. PMID:12386085

  6. [Laser pointers are not toys; eye injury with permanent loss of visual acuity].

    PubMed

    Keunen, Jan E E; Delbecq, Ann-Laure M H; Cruysberg, J R M Hans; van Meurs, Jan C; Gan, Ivan M; Berendschot, Tos T J M

    2014-01-01

    In the nineteen-nineties, there was much hype in the European media about presumed laser pointer maculopathy. However, the recent introduction of more powerful and therefore more dangerous laser pointers and their easy availability on the internet necessitates vigilance on the issue. This is an urgent matter, as here we report three cases of proven maculopathy due to an unsafe laser pointer. Three boys aged 13, 9 and 12 years used an unsafe laser pointer as a toy and looked repeatedly into the pointer, resulting in a permanent reduction in visual acuity due to macular damage. Laser pointers are not designed to be children's toys or instruments to annoy people in a crowd. Health authorities and the ophthalmic community should be aware of the potential danger of improper use of high-output laser pointers and warn the general public before the widespread availability of unsafe laser pointers and consequently laser pointer-induced macular damage becomes a true social problem.

  7. The accuracy of drivers' judgments of the effects of headlight glare on their own visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Stafford Sewall, Ashley A; Whetsel Borzendowski, Stephanie A; Tyrrell, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Drivers' judgments of the magnitude of disability glare caused by high-beam headlights may not match actual declines in visual performance. This study investigated younger and older drivers' beliefs about their own visual performance in the presence of headlight glare. Eleven older drivers and seventeen younger drivers judged the distance at which they would just be able to recognize the orientation of a white Landolt C if it were present adjacent to the headlamps of a stationary opposing vehicle at night. The younger participants were generally accurate in their estimates of the recognition distance of the stimulus, while older participants significantly overestimated both their own acuity and the effect of glare on their vision. From this study, we see that older drivers' judgments about the disabling effects of oncoming headlights may be systematically inaccurate. These misperceptions about headlight glare may help explain why drivers tend to underuse high beams. PMID:25638936

  8. Impaired acuity of the approximate number system underlies mathematical learning disability (dyscalculia).

    PubMed

    Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Many children have significant mathematical learning disabilities (MLD, or dyscalculia) despite adequate schooling. The current study hypothesizes that MLD partly results from a deficiency in the Approximate Number System (ANS) that supports nonverbal numerical representations across species and throughout development. In this study of 71 ninth graders, it is shown that students with MLD have significantly poorer ANS precision than students in all other mathematics achievement groups (low, typically, and high achieving), as measured by psychophysical assessments of ANS acuity (w) and of the mappings between ANS representations and number words (cv). This relation persists even when controlling for domain-general abilities. Furthermore, this ANS precision does not differentiate low-achieving from typically achieving students, suggesting an ANS deficit that is specific to MLD. PMID:21679173

  9. A comparison study of dynamic visual acuity between athletes and nonathletes.

    PubMed

    Rouse, M W; DeLand, P; Christian, R; Hawley, J

    1988-12-01

    A comparison study of dynamic visual acuity (DVA) was conducted using samples of nonathletic college students and college baseball players. The experimental population consisted of 17 male baseball players ranging in age from 19-24 years. The control population was made up of 25 male graduate students ranging in age from 23-29 years. Subjects reported the direction of a 20/25 "Landolt C" target exhibiting uniform angular motion produced by a projection system. Angular target velocities between 10 deg/sec and 110 deg/sec with an exposure time of 400 ms were used. The results showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups' DVA. The mean DVA for the baseball players was 82.35 deg/sec and 69.90 deg/sec for the control group.

  10. Pain sensitivity and tactile spatial acuity are altered in healthy musicians as in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Zamorano, Anna M; Riquelme, Inmaculada; Kleber, Boris; Altenmüller, Eckart; Hatem, Samar M; Montoya, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements, as it occurs in professional classical musicians, may lead to changes in tactile sensitivity and corresponding cortical reorganization of somatosensory cortices. It is also known that professional musicians frequently experience musculoskeletal pain and pain-related symptoms during their careers. The present study aimed at understanding the complex interaction between chronic pain and music training with respect to somatosensory processing. For this purpose, tactile thresholds (mechanical detection, grating orientation, two-point discrimination) and subjective ratings to thermal and pressure pain stimuli were assessed in 17 professional musicians with chronic pain, 30 pain-free musicians, 20 non-musicians with chronic pain, and 18 pain-free non-musicians. We found that pain-free musicians displayed greater touch sensitivity (i.e., lower mechanical detection thresholds), lower tactile spatial acuity (i.e., higher grating orientation thresholds) and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. Moreover, we also found that musicians and non-musicians with chronic pain presented lower tactile spatial acuity and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. The significant increment of pain sensitivity together with decreased spatial discrimination in pain-free musicians and the similarity of results found in chronic pain patients, suggests that the extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements in classical musicians could be considered as a risk factor for developing chronic pain, probably due to use-dependent plastic changes elicited in somatosensory pathways.

  11. Slanted joint axes of the stick insect antenna: an adaptation to tactile acuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujagic, Samir; Krause, André F.; Dürr, Volker

    2007-04-01

    Like many flightless, obligatory walking insects, the stick insect Carausius morosus makes intensive use of active antennal movements for tactile near range exploration and orientation. The antennal joints of C. morosus have a peculiar oblique and non-orthogonal joint axis arrangement. Moreover, this arrangement is known to differ from that in crickets (Ensifera), locusts (Caelifera) and cockroaches (Blattodea), all of which have an orthogonal joint axis arrangement. Our hypothesis was that the situation found in C. morosus represents an important evolutionary trait of the order of stick and leaf insects (Phasmatodea). If this was true, it should be common to other species of the Phasmatodea. The objective of this comparative study was to resolve this question. We have measured the joint axis orientation of the head scape and scape pedicel joints along with other parameters that affect the tactile efficiency of the antenna. The obtained result was a complete kinematic description of the antenna. This was used to determine the size and location of kinematic out-of-reach zones, which are indicators of tactile acuity. We show that the oblique and non-orthogonal arrangement is common to eight species from six sub-families indicating that it is a synapomorphic character of the Euphasmatodea. This character can improve tactile acuity compared to the situation in crickets, locusts and cockroaches. Finally, because molecular data of a recent study indicate that the Phasmatodea may have evolved as flightless, obligatory walkers, we argue that the antennal joint axis arrangement of the Euphasmatodea reflects an evolutionary adaptation to tactile near range exploration during terrestrial locomotion.

  12. Pain sensitivity and tactile spatial acuity are altered in healthy musicians as in chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Zamorano, Anna M.; Riquelme, Inmaculada; Kleber, Boris; Altenmüller, Eckart; Hatem, Samar M.; Montoya, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements, as it occurs in professional classical musicians, may lead to changes in tactile sensitivity and corresponding cortical reorganization of somatosensory cortices. It is also known that professional musicians frequently experience musculoskeletal pain and pain-related symptoms during their careers. The present study aimed at understanding the complex interaction between chronic pain and music training with respect to somatosensory processing. For this purpose, tactile thresholds (mechanical detection, grating orientation, two-point discrimination) and subjective ratings to thermal and pressure pain stimuli were assessed in 17 professional musicians with chronic pain, 30 pain-free musicians, 20 non-musicians with chronic pain, and 18 pain-free non-musicians. We found that pain-free musicians displayed greater touch sensitivity (i.e., lower mechanical detection thresholds), lower tactile spatial acuity (i.e., higher grating orientation thresholds) and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. Moreover, we also found that musicians and non-musicians with chronic pain presented lower tactile spatial acuity and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. The significant increment of pain sensitivity together with decreased spatial discrimination in pain-free musicians and the similarity of results found in chronic pain patients, suggests that the extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements in classical musicians could be considered as a risk factor for developing chronic pain, probably due to use-dependent plastic changes elicited in somatosensory pathways. PMID:25610384

  13. A Comparison of Short-Term Memory Tests as Predictors of Reading Achievement for Learning-Disabled and Educable Mentally Retarded Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Kirk R.; Rattan, Gurmal

    1991-01-01

    Examined nine measures of short-term memory (STM) used by school psychologists with group of learning-disabled (n=48) and educable mentally retarded (n=34) special education students. Results indicated that not all STM tasks were significant predictors of reading. Sentence memory task was best predictor for learning-disabled students; letter…

  14. Development and Testing of Criteria for the Identification and Selection of Mentally Handicapped Students for Vocational Programs [and] A Review of Related Literature Concerning Components of Systems and Studies That Impact on Identification and Selection of EMRs and Slow Learners for Vocational Programs [and] VERT: Vocational Education Readiness Test. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shill, James F.; And Others

    A project was developed to (1) utilize a steering committee for project planning, review, and evaluation; (2) catalog, review, and analyze systems and studies that impact on identification/selection of mentally handicapped and slow learners for vocational programs; (3) design tests involving vocational skill prediction for use with mentally…

  15. A New Visual Stimulation Program for Improving Visual Acuity in Children with Visual Impairment: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Li-Ting; Hsu, Jung-Lung; Wu, Chien-Te; Chen, Chia-Ching; Su, Yu-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of visual rehabilitation of a computer-based visual stimulation (VS) program combining checkerboard pattern reversal (passive stimulation) with oddball stimuli (attentional modulation) for improving the visual acuity (VA) of visually impaired (VI) children and children with amblyopia and additional developmental problems. Six children (three females, three males; mean age = 3.9 ± 2.3 years) with impaired VA caused by deficits along the anterior and/or posterior visual pathways were recruited. Participants received eight rounds of VS training (two rounds per week) of at least eight sessions per round. Each session consisted of stimulation with 200 or 300 pattern reversals. Assessments of VA (assessed with the Lea symbol VA test or Teller VA cards), visual evoked potential (VEP), and functional vision (assessed with the Chinese-version Functional Vision Questionnaire, FVQ) were carried out before and after the VS program. Significant gains in VA were found after the VS training [VA = 1.05 logMAR ± 0.80 to 0.61 logMAR ± 0.53, Z = –2.20, asymptotic significance (2-tailed) = 0.028]. No significant changes were observed in the FVQ assessment [92.8 ± 12.6 to 100.8 ±SD = 15.4, Z = –1.46, asymptotic significance (2-tailed) = 0.144]. VEP measurement showed improvement in P100 latency and amplitude or integration of the waveform in two participants. Our results indicate that a computer-based VS program with passive checkerboard stimulation, oddball stimulus design, and interesting auditory feedback could be considered as a potential intervention option to improve the VA of a wide age range of VI children and children with impaired VA combined with other neurological disorders. PMID:27148014

  16. A New Visual Stimulation Program for Improving Visual Acuity in Children with Visual Impairment: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Li-Ting; Hsu, Jung-Lung; Wu, Chien-Te; Chen, Chia-Ching; Su, Yu-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of visual rehabilitation of a computer-based visual stimulation (VS) program combining checkerboard pattern reversal (passive stimulation) with oddball stimuli (attentional modulation) for improving the visual acuity (VA) of visually impaired (VI) children and children with amblyopia and additional developmental problems. Six children (three females, three males; mean age = 3.9 ± 2.3 years) with impaired VA caused by deficits along the anterior and/or posterior visual pathways were recruited. Participants received eight rounds of VS training (two rounds per week) of at least eight sessions per round. Each session consisted of stimulation with 200 or 300 pattern reversals. Assessments of VA (assessed with the Lea symbol VA test or Teller VA cards), visual evoked potential (VEP), and functional vision (assessed with the Chinese-version Functional Vision Questionnaire, FVQ) were carried out before and after the VS program. Significant gains in VA were found after the VS training [VA = 1.05 logMAR ± 0.80 to 0.61 logMAR ± 0.53, Z = -2.20, asymptotic significance (2-tailed) = 0.028]. No significant changes were observed in the FVQ assessment [92.8 ± 12.6 to 100.8 ±SD = 15.4, Z = -1.46, asymptotic significance (2-tailed) = 0.144]. VEP measurement showed improvement in P100 latency and amplitude or integration of the waveform in two participants. Our results indicate that a computer-based VS program with passive checkerboard stimulation, oddball stimulus design, and interesting auditory feedback could be considered as a potential intervention option to improve the VA of a wide age range of VI children and children with impaired VA combined with other neurological disorders. PMID:27148014

  17. Patient with Macular Disease, Good Visual Acuity, and Central Visual Field Disruption and Significant Difficulties with Activities of Daily Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Donald C.; Schuchard, Ronald A.; Walker, Joseph P.; Raskauskas, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    It is generally appreciated that patients with macular disease frequently experience reduced visual acuity. It is not as widely appreciated that they often have significant central visual field disruption, which, by itself, can cause significant problems with activities of daily living, such as reading and driving, even when they maintain good…

  18. Proprioceptive acuity predicts muscle co-contraction of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis in older adults' dynamic postural control.

    PubMed

    Craig, C E; Goble, D J; Doumas, M

    2016-05-13

    Older adults use a different muscle strategy to cope with postural instability, in which they 'co-contract' the muscles around the ankle joint. It has been suggested that this is a compensatory response to age-related proprioceptive decline however this view has never been assessed directly. The current study investigated the association between proprioceptive acuity and muscle co-contraction in older adults. We compared muscle activity, by recording surface electromyography (EMG) from the bilateral tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscles, in young (aged 18-34) and older adults (aged 65-82) during postural assessment on a fixed and sway-referenced surface at age-equivalent levels of sway. We performed correlations between muscle activity and proprioceptive acuity, which was assessed using an active contralateral matching task. Despite successfully inducing similar levels of sway in the two age groups, older adults still showed higher muscle co-contraction. A stepwise regression analysis showed that proprioceptive acuity measured using variable error was the best predictor of muscle co-contraction in older adults. However, despite suggestions from previous research, proprioceptive error and muscle co-contraction were negatively correlated in older adults, suggesting that better proprioceptive acuity predicts more co-contraction. Overall, these results suggest that although muscle co-contraction may be an age-specific strategy used by older adults, it is not to compensate for age-related proprioceptive deficits.

  19. Readers' Trust, Socio-Demographic, and Acuity Influences in Citizen Journalism Credibility for Disrupted Online Newspapers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wester, Aaron Micah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to evaluate and determine if significant associations and linear correlations exist between reader socio-demographics, levels of trust and affinity in online citizen writer news story article content, brand loyalty, and acuity in newspaper organizations transitioning from print to online in a…

  20. Proprioceptive acuity predicts muscle co-contraction of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis in older adults' dynamic postural control.

    PubMed

    Craig, C E; Goble, D J; Doumas, M

    2016-05-13

    Older adults use a different muscle strategy to cope with postural instability, in which they 'co-contract' the muscles around the ankle joint. It has been suggested that this is a compensatory response to age-related proprioceptive decline however this view has never been assessed directly. The current study investigated the association between proprioceptive acuity and muscle co-contraction in older adults. We compared muscle activity, by recording surface electromyography (EMG) from the bilateral tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscles, in young (aged 18-34) and older adults (aged 65-82) during postural assessment on a fixed and sway-referenced surface at age-equivalent levels of sway. We performed correlations between muscle activity and proprioceptive acuity, which was assessed using an active contralateral matching task. Despite successfully inducing similar levels of sway in the two age groups, older adults still showed higher muscle co-contraction. A stepwise regression analysis showed that proprioceptive acuity measured using variable error was the best predictor of muscle co-contraction in older adults. However, despite suggestions from previous research, proprioceptive error and muscle co-contraction were negatively correlated in older adults, suggesting that better proprioceptive acuity predicts more co-contraction. Overall, these results suggest that although muscle co-contraction may be an age-specific strategy used by older adults, it is not to compensate for age-related proprioceptive deficits. PMID:26905952

  1. Visual Acuity of Youths 12-17 Years, United States. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 11, No. 127.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jean; Slaby, David

    Presented are the findings of a national health examination survey of uncorrected and corrected monocular and binocular visual acuity of 7,514 noninstitutionalized youth 12 to 17 years of age analyzed with respect to age, sex, race, geographic region, size of place of residence, and annual family income. Among findings reported are that 70 0/0 of…

  2. Taste acuity of obese adolescents and changes in food neophobia and food preferences during a weight reduction session.

    PubMed

    Monneuse, Marie-Odile; Rigal, Natalie; Frelut, Marie-Laure; Hladik, Claude-Marcel; Simmen, Bruno; Pasquet, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between taste acuity and food neophobia, food familiarity and liking has been studied in the context of a residential weight reduction session (WRS; mean duration: 10 months) in 39 obese adolescents. Taste acuity was assessed using recognition thresholds for sucrose, citric acid, sodium chloride and 6-n propylthiouracil (PROP) and supra-threshold perceived intensities for sucrose, sodium chloride and PROP. Food neophobia was assessed by using the food neophobia scale at the beginning and at the end of the WRS. At these time points we used also a food familiarity and liking questionnaire to assess changes in food familiarity and likes or dislikes for different food categories. Taste acuity appeared to mediate behavioural food-related changes during the WRS. High taste acuity was associated with limited reductions in food neophobia; less sensitive subjects showed greater increases in the acceptability of healthy foods, especially fruits and vegetables. Therefore, taste perception (and particularly PROP perception) appears to be a predictor of the magnitude of food-related behavioural change achieved during a WRS.

  3. Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Surgery in Elderly People over 70 Years Old: Visual Acuity, Quality of Life, and Cost-Utility Values

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Haidong; Xu, Xiaocheng; Liu, Haiyun; Bai, Lin; Xu, Xun; Zhang, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose To evaluate the influence of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) surgery on elderly patients in terms of visual acuity, vision-related quality of life and its cost-effectiveness. Methods Elderly patients over 70 years old, who were diagnosed and underwent RRD surgery at Shanghai First People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China, from January 1, 2009, through January 1, 2013. The participants received scleral buckling surgery and vitreous surgery with or without scleral buckling under retrobulbar anesthesia. We followed the patients for 1 year and collected best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), vision-related quality of life, and direct medical costs data. Utility values elicited by time-trade-off were analyzed to determine the quality of life. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained in life expectancy were calculated and discounted at 3% annually. Costs per QALY gained were reported using the bootstrap method. Further analyses were made for two age groups, age 70–79 and age over 80 years. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test stability of the results. Results 98 patients were included in the study. The BCVA significantly improved by 0.53±0.44 (Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR)) at the 1-year postoperative time point (p<0.001). Utility values increased from 0.77 to 0.84 (p<0.001), and an average of 0.4 QALYs were gained in the life expectancy. Costs per QALY gained from the RRD surgery were 33,186 Chinese Yuan (CNY) (5,276 US dollars (USD))/QALY; 24,535 CNY (3,901 USD)/QALY for the age group of 70–79 years and 71,240 CNY (11,326 USD)/QALY for the age group over 80 years. Conclusions RRD surgery improved the visual acuity and quality of life in the elderly patients over 70 years old. According to the World Health Organization’s recommendation, at a threshold of willingness to pay of 115,062 CNY (18,293 USD)/QALY, RRD surgery is cost effective in the elderly patients. PMID:25330168

  4. Pediatric emergency department overcrowding: electronic medical record for identification of frequent, lower acuity visitors. Can we effectively identify patients for enhanced resource utilization?

    PubMed

    Simon, Harold K; Hirsh, Daniel A; Rogers, Alexander J; Massey, Robert; Deguzman, Michael A

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to utilize the electronic medical record system to identify frequent lower acuity patients presenting to the Pediatric Emergency Department and to evaluate their impact on Pediatric Emergency Department overcrowding and resource utilization. The electronic medical records (EMR) of two pediatric emergency centers were reviewed from August 2002 to November 2004. Pediatric Emergency Department encounters that met any of the following criteria were classified as Visits Necessitating Pediatric Emergency Department care (VNEC): Disposition of admission, transfer or deceased; Intravenous fluids (IVF) or medications (excluding single antipyretic or antihistamine); Radiology or laboratory tests (excluding Rapid Strep); Fractures, dislocations, and febrile seizures. All other visits were classified as non-VNEC. ICD-9 (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision) codes from the Pediatric Emergency Department encounters were defined as representing chronic or non-chronic conditions. Patients were then evaluated for utilization patterns, frequency of Emergency Department (ED) visits, chronic illness, and VNEC status. There were 153,390 patients identified, representing 255,496 visits (1.7 visits/patient, range 1-49). Overall, 189,998 visits (74%) required defined ED services and were categorized as VNEC, with the remaining 65,498 visits (26%) categorized as non-VNEC. With increasing visits, a steady decline in those requiring ED services was observed, with a plateau by visit six (VNEC 77% @ one visit, 64% @ six visits, p < 0.001). There were 141,765 patients seen fewer than four times, representing 92% of the patients and 74% of all visits (1.3 visits/patient, 225 visits/day). In contrast, 2664 patients disproportionately utilized the ED more than six times (maximum 49), representing 1.7% of patients and 9.8% of visits (9.4 visit/patient, 30 visits/day, p < 0.001). Excluding patients with chronic illness, 1074 patients also

  5. Mental health emergency transport: the pot-holed road to care.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Joanne F; Ireland, Matt; Stasa, Helen

    2014-04-01

    Police have, historically, been the first point of contact for people experiencing a mental health crisis in the Australian community. Changes in the NSW Mental Health Act 2007 extended the powers and responsibilities for involuntary transport to paramedics and accredited mental health practitioners. The Mental Health Act also allows for police assistance to other agencies during transport of people living with mental illness if there are serious safety concerns. Involuntary intervention for people living with mental illness is based on risk-of-serious-harm criteria under the Mental Health Act, implying serious deterioration before the Act may be invoked. At the point of risk of serious harm, police involvement may be more frequently required according to the acuity of the situation. If the legal basis of non-consensual treatment under the Mental Health Act was lack of capacity, it would provide a more comprehensive legal and ethical basis for early intervention. Police contact is intensified in rural and remote regions, particularly after hours, where crisis assessments and intervention by health services are further stretched. Further reducing police involvement using strategies that increase access to consensual pathways of care for people living with mental illness, particularly for people in regional and remote areas, is desirable but not likely in the foreseeable future. PMID:24702097

  6. Wound center facility billing: A retrospective analysis of time, wound size, and acuity scoring for determining facility level of service.

    PubMed

    Fife, Caroline E; Walker, David; Farrow, Wade; Otto, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Outpatient wound center facility reimbursement for Medicare beneficiaries can be a challenge to determine and obtain. To compare methods of calculating facility service levels for outpatient wound centers and to demonstrate the advantages of an acuity-based billing system (one that incorporates components of facility work that is non-reimbursable by procedure codes and that represents an activity-based costing approach to medical billing), a retrospective study of 5,098 patient encounters contained in a wound care-specific electronic medical record database was conducted. Approximately 500 patient visits to the outpatient wound center of a Texas regional hospital between April 2003 and November 2004 were categorized by service level in documentation and facility management software. Visits previously billed using a time-based system were compared to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' proposed three-tiered wound size-based system. The time-based system also was compared to an acuity-based scoring system. The Pearson correlation coefficient between billed level of service by time and estimated level of service by acuity was 0.442 and the majority of follow-up visits were billed as Level 3 and above (on a time level of 1 to 5) , confirming that time is not a surrogate for actual work performed. Wound size also was found to be unrelated to service level (Pearson correlation = 0.017) and 97% of wound areas were < 100 cm2. The acuity-based scoring system produced a near-normal distribution of results, producing more mid-range billings than extremes; no other method produced this distribution. Hospital-based outpatient wound centers should develop, review, and refine acuity score-based models on which to determine billed level of service. PMID:17264354

  7. Mental health: everyone's business.

    PubMed

    Dragon, Natalie

    2010-06-01

    Mental health is everyone's business the Australian College of Mental Health Nurses and the Wesley Mission affirmed last month. In the midst of a burgeoning demand for mental health services, the lack of funds allocated to mental health as part of a $7.3 billion health package in the federal budget does not add up.

  8. MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHAMBERLAIN, IDA

    WEST VIRGINIA IS A RURAL STATE HAVING A LARGE POVERTY STRICKEN POPULATION. SINCE THIS GROUP HAD NO ACCESS TO MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES, THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF MENTAL HEALTH SPONSORED A VISTA PROGRAM IN MENTAL HEALTH AND MENTAL RETARDATION, AND ENCOURAGED THE VOLUNTEERS TO USE THEIR OWN CREATIVITY AND INGENUITY IN PROVIDING SUCH SERVICES AS--(1)…

  9. Hand Function Measurement with Educable Mental Retardates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sand, Patricia L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Reports on results of the Developmental Hand Function Test administered to 28 educable mentally retarded and 34 normal 12-and 14-year-old girls to show that manual dexterity and functional had skills are compromised in the mentally retarded. (DS)

  10. General Mental Ability: From Psychometrics to Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes empirical findings of research on a theory of general mental ability, based on laboratory studies of the relationship between measurements of individual differences on conventional psychometric tests and in speed and efficiency of information processes. The paper covers characteristics of "g" (general mental ability),…

  11. Positive mental health and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Heather

    2014-09-01

    Based on the Mental Health Continuum Short Form administered in the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health (CCHS-MH), the percentages of Canadians aged 15 or older classified as having flourishing, moderate or languishing mental health were 76.9%, 21.6% and 1.5%, respectively. Compared with estimates for other countries, a higher percentage of Canadians were flourishing. In accordance with the complete mental health model, mental health was also assessed in combination with the presence or absence of mental illness (depression; bipolar disorder; generalized anxiety disorder; alcohol, cannabis or other drug abuse or dependence). An estimated 72.5% of Canadians (19.8 million) were classified as having complete mental health; that is they were flourishing and did not meet the criteria for any of the six past 12-month mental or substance use disorders included in the CCHS-MH. Age, marital status, socio-economic status, spirituality and physical health were associated with complete mental health. Men and women were equally likely to be in complete mental health. PMID:25229895

  12. A comparison of visual function tests in eyes with maculopathy.

    PubMed

    Fish, G E; Birch, D G; Fuller, D G; Straach, R

    1986-09-01

    Several recently developed tests of visual function, including the Potential Acuity Meter (PAM), laser interferometer (LI), white-light interferometer (WLI), blue field entoptic phenomenon, and focal electroretinogram (ERG) were compared in 81 eyes with clear media and known macular disease. The results indicate that the PAM, the LI, and the WLI overread relative to Snellen acuity. Laser interferometric acuity values differed from Snellen acuity by at least 1.5 octaves in approximately 40% of all eyes, regardless of stimulus size (2, 5, or 8 degrees). Similar results were obtained with the WLI. Agreement with Snellen acuity was better for the PAM, with 91% of eyes falling within 1.5 octaves of Snellen acuity. Blue field and focal ERG results were categorized as normal or abnormal. While not producing Snellen equivalents, abnormal results from the blue field and focal ERG corresponded with poor Snellen acuity (less than 20/40) in 65% and 91% of eyes, respectively. Assuming that media opacities do not prevent adequate retinal stimulation, the present results suggest that the PAM and focal ERG are the most reliable for evaluating macular function when maculopathy is present.

  13. Dampening Spontaneous Activity Improves the Light Sensitivity and Spatial Acuity of Optogenetic Retinal Prosthetic Responses.

    PubMed

    Barrett, John Martin; Hilgen, Gerrit; Sernagor, Evelyne

    2016-09-21

    Retinitis pigmentosa is a progressive retinal dystrophy that causes irreversible visual impairment and blindness. Retinal prostheses currently represent the only clinically available vision-restoring treatment, but the quality of vision returned remains poor. Recently, it has been suggested that the pathological spontaneous hyperactivity present in dystrophic retinas may contribute to the poor quality of vision returned by retinal prosthetics by reducing the signal-to-noise ratio of prosthetic responses. Here, we investigated to what extent blocking this hyperactivity can improve optogenetic retinal prosthetic responses. We recorded activity from channelrhodopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells in retinal wholemounts in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. Sophisticated stimuli, inspired by those used in clinical visual assessment, were used to assess light sensitivity, contrast sensitivity and spatial acuity of optogenetic responses; in all cases these were improved after blocking spontaneous hyperactivity using meclofenamic acid, a gap junction blocker. Our results suggest that this approach significantly improves the quality of vision returned by retinal prosthetics, paving the way to novel clinical applications. Moreover, the improvements in sensitivity achieved by blocking spontaneous hyperactivity may extend the dynamic range of optogenetic retinal prostheses, allowing them to be used at lower light intensities such as those encountered in everyday life.

  14. Predictive factors for postoperative visual acuity in idiopathic epiretinal membrane: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Scheerlinck, Laura M E; van der Valk, Rikkert; van Leeuwen, Redmer

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to review the literature on predictive factors for postoperative visual acuity (VA) in surgery for idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM). A systematic review of the literature in the databases of PubMed and Embase was performed. The risk of bias was assessed based on predefined criteria and the results were summarized. In total, 1927 studies were retrieved of which 35 were potentially eligible. Nineteen studies were of adequate quality in terms of bias. Preoperative VA, central foveal thickness (CFT) and inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) integrity on optical coherence tomography (OCT) were most extensively studied. Other preoperative factors studied were severity of metamorphopsia, several OCT parameters, fundus autofluorescence and multifocal electroretinogram. In the current literature, preoperative VA is the only variable consistently associated with postoperative VA. IS/OS integrity on OCT is probably associated, and the severity of metamorphopsia, cone outer segment tips integrity and fundus autofluorescence are possibly associated with postoperative VA. CFT is not associated with postoperative VA. Further studies with adequate methodological quality are needed to confirm these findings. Therefore, an overall prediction model, including different parameters, is still awaited.

  15. Pediatric Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (PaedsCTAS) as a Measure of Injury Severity

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Morgan Thorn; Ishikawa, Takuro; Schneeberg, Amy; Brussoni, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    This research explored whether the pediatric version of the Canadian Triage Acuity Scale (PaedsCTAS) represented a valid alternative indicator for surveillance of injury severity. Every patient presenting in a Canadian emergency department is assigned a CTAS or PaedsCTAS score in order to prioritize access to care and to predict the nature and scope of care that is likely to be required. The five-level PaedsCTAS score ranges from I (resuscitation) to V (non-urgent). A total of 256 children, 0 to 17-years-old, who attended a pediatric hospital for an injury were followed longitudinally. Of these children, 32.4% (n = 83) were hospitalized and 67.6% (n = 173) were treated in the emergency department and released. They completed the PedsQLTM, a validated measure of health related quality of life, at baseline (pre-injury status), one-month, four- to six-months, and 12-months post-injury. In this secondary data analysis, PaedsCTAS was found to be significantly associated with hospitalization and length of stay, sensitive to the differences between PaedsCTAS II and III, and related to physical but not psychosocial HRQoL. The findings suggest that PaedsCTAS may be a useful proxy measure of injury severity to supplement or replace hospitalization status and/or length of stay, currently proxy measures. PMID:27399743

  16. Active linear head motion improves dynamic visual acuity in pursuing a high-speed moving object.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tatsuhisa; Yamashita, Masayuki; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Hisa, Yasuo; Wada, Yoshiro

    2009-04-01

    We usually move both our eyes and our head when pursuing a high-speed moving object. However, the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), evoked by head motion, seems to disturb smooth pursuit eye movement because the VOR stabilizes the gaze against head motion. To determine whether head motion is advantageous for pursuing a high-speed moving object, we examined dynamic visual acuity (DVA) for a high-speed (80 degrees /s) rightward moving object with and without active linear rightward head motion (HM) at a maximum of 50 cm/s in nine healthy subjects. Furthermore, we analyzed eye and head movements to investigate the contribution of linear VOR (LVOR) and smooth eye movement under these conditions. In most subjects, active linear head motion improved DVA for a high-speed moving object. Subjects with higher DVA scores under HM had robust rightward gaze (eye + head) velocities (>60 cm/s), i.e., rightward smooth eye movements (>10 degrees /s). With the head stationary (HS), faster smooth eye movements (>40 degrees /s) were generated when the subjects pursued a high-speed moving object. They also showed anticipatory smooth eye movements under conditions HM and HS. However, the level of suppression of their LVOR abilities was equal to that of the others. These results suggest that the ability to generate anticipatory smooth pursuit eye movements for following a high-speed moving object against the LVOR is a determining factor for improvement of DVA under HM.

  17. Dampening Spontaneous Activity Improves the Light Sensitivity and Spatial Acuity of Optogenetic Retinal Prosthetic Responses.

    PubMed

    Barrett, John Martin; Hilgen, Gerrit; Sernagor, Evelyne

    2016-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is a progressive retinal dystrophy that causes irreversible visual impairment and blindness. Retinal prostheses currently represent the only clinically available vision-restoring treatment, but the quality of vision returned remains poor. Recently, it has been suggested that the pathological spontaneous hyperactivity present in dystrophic retinas may contribute to the poor quality of vision returned by retinal prosthetics by reducing the signal-to-noise ratio of prosthetic responses. Here, we investigated to what extent blocking this hyperactivity can improve optogenetic retinal prosthetic responses. We recorded activity from channelrhodopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells in retinal wholemounts in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. Sophisticated stimuli, inspired by those used in clinical visual assessment, were used to assess light sensitivity, contrast sensitivity and spatial acuity of optogenetic responses; in all cases these were improved after blocking spontaneous hyperactivity using meclofenamic acid, a gap junction blocker. Our results suggest that this approach significantly improves the quality of vision returned by retinal prosthetics, paving the way to novel clinical applications. Moreover, the improvements in sensitivity achieved by blocking spontaneous hyperactivity may extend the dynamic range of optogenetic retinal prostheses, allowing them to be used at lower light intensities such as those encountered in everyday life. PMID:27650332

  18. Dampening Spontaneous Activity Improves the Light Sensitivity and Spatial Acuity of Optogenetic Retinal Prosthetic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, John Martin; Hilgen, Gerrit; Sernagor, Evelyne

    2016-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is a progressive retinal dystrophy that causes irreversible visual impairment and blindness. Retinal prostheses currently represent the only clinically available vision-restoring treatment, but the quality of vision returned remains poor. Recently, it has been suggested that the pathological spontaneous hyperactivity present in dystrophic retinas may contribute to the poor quality of vision returned by retinal prosthetics by reducing the signal-to-noise ratio of prosthetic responses. Here, we investigated to what extent blocking this hyperactivity can improve optogenetic retinal prosthetic responses. We recorded activity from channelrhodopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells in retinal wholemounts in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. Sophisticated stimuli, inspired by those used in clinical visual assessment, were used to assess light sensitivity, contrast sensitivity and spatial acuity of optogenetic responses; in all cases these were improved after blocking spontaneous hyperactivity using meclofenamic acid, a gap junction blocker. Our results suggest that this approach significantly improves the quality of vision returned by retinal prosthetics, paving the way to novel clinical applications. Moreover, the improvements in sensitivity achieved by blocking spontaneous hyperactivity may extend the dynamic range of optogenetic retinal prostheses, allowing them to be used at lower light intensities such as those encountered in everyday life. PMID:27650332

  19. Effect of Passive Horizontal Rotations and Vertical Oscillations on Dynamic Visual Acuity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott; Cohen, Helen; Kulecz, Walter B.; Miller, Chris; Reschke, Millard; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances after long duration space flight. These crewmembers may need to egress the vehicle within a few minutes for safety and operational reasons in various sea state conditions following a water landing. Exposure to even low frequency motions induced by sea conditions surrounding a vessel can cause significant fine and gross motor control problems affecting critical functions. The objective of this study was to document human motor and visual performance during simulated wave motion in the 0.1 to 2.0 Hz range. We examined in 12 healthy subjects the changes in accuracy when performing a seated visual target acquisition task in which the location of target was offset vertically during horizontal full body rotation at an oscillating frequency of 0.8 Hz (peak velocity of 160 deg/s). The main finding was that the accuracy of performance degraded in 7 of 12 subjects when acquiring vertical targets at perturbing frequencies of 0.8 Hz in the horizontal plane by one step size. We also examined in a separate study on 12 healthy subjects seated dynamic visual acuity (DVA) task performance during vertical full body oscillations at perturbing frequencies of 2 Hz (peak to peak motion of 5 cm). The main finding was that DVA was significantly reduced when acquiring targets at perturbing oscillations at frequencies of 2 Hz in the vertical plane by approximately 1 chart line. Thus low frequencies of perturbations in the horizontal and vertical planes can cause decrement in visual performance.

  20. Ultrananocrystalline diamond-CMOS device integration route for high acuity retinal prostheses.

    PubMed

    Ahnood, A; Escudie, M C; Cicione, R; Abeyrathne, C D; Ganesan, K; Fox, K E; Garrett, D J; Stacey, A; Apollo, N V; Lichter, S G; Thomas, C D L; Tran, N; Meffin, H; Prawer, S

    2015-01-01

    High density electrodes are a new frontier for biomedical implants. Increasing the density and the number of electrodes used for the stimulation of retinal ganglion cells is one possible strategy for enhancing the quality of vision experienced by patients using retinal prostheses. The present work presents an integration strategy for a diamond based, high density, stimulating electrode array with a purpose built application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The strategy is centered on flip-chip bonding of indium bumps to create high count and density vertical interconnects between the stimulator ASIC and an array of diamond neural stimulating electrodes. The use of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) housing prevents cross-contamination of the biocompatible diamond electrode with non-biocompatible materials, such as indium, used in the microfabrication process. Micro-imprint lithography allowed edge-to-edge micro-scale pattering of the indium bumps on non-coplanar substrates that have a form factor that can conform to body organs and thus are ideally suited for biomedical applications. Furthermore, micro-imprint lithography ensures the compatibility of lithography with the silicon ASIC and aluminum contact pads. Although this work focuses on 256 stimulating diamond electrode arrays with a pitch of 150 μm, the use of indium bump bonding technology and vertical interconnects facilitates implants with tens of thousands electrodes with a pitch as low as 10 μm, thus ensuring validity of the strategy for future high acuity retinal prostheses, and bionic implants in general. PMID:25877379

  1. Detection of Malingered Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shandera, Anne L.; Berry, David T. R.; Clark, Jessica A.; Schipper, Lindsey J.; Graue, Lili O.; Harp, Jordan P.

    2010-01-01

    In a cross-validation of results from L. O. Graue et al. (2007), standard psychological assessment instruments, as well as tests of neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning, were administered under standard instructions to 24 participants diagnosed with mild mental retardation (MR) and 10 demographically matched community volunteers (CVH). A 2nd…

  2. Genetic Counseling in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Peter

    The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…

  3. The stigma of mental illness in the labor market.

    PubMed

    Hipes, Crosby; Lucas, Jeffrey; Phelan, Jo C; White, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Mental illness labels are accompanied by devaluation and discrimination. We extend research on reactions to mental illness by utilizing a field experiment (N = 635) to test effects of mental illness labels on labor market discrimination. This study involved sending fictitious applications to job listings, some applications indicating a history of mental illness and some indicating a history of physical injury. In line with research indicating that mental illness leads to stigma, we predicted fewer callbacks to candidates with mental illness. We also predicted relatively fewer callbacks for applicants with mental illness when the jobs involved a greater likelihood for interpersonal contact with the employer. Results showed significant discrimination against applicants with mental illness, but did not indicate an effect of potential proximity to the employer. This contributes a valuable finding in a natural setting to research on labor market discrimination towards people with mental illness.

  4. Neuropsychological Profiles of Persons with Mental Retardation and Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Glen A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the use of neuropsychological tests to assist in the differential diagnosis of dementia among persons with mental retardation. The author compared performances of persons with mental retardation and dementia ("n" = 10) to persons with mental retardation without dementia ("n" = 12). Participants were matched by IQ (mild or…

  5. The Diagnosis of Reasoning in the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inhelder, Barbel

    The application of Piaget's theory of cognitive development to the assessment of mental ability of the mentally retarded is presented. Following a discussion of developmental theories and diagnosis of mental development, testing interviews demonstrate the limits of cognitive thought at each of three stages. Abnormal intellectual oscillations are…

  6. Expanding the Parameters for Excellence in Patient Assignments: Is Leveraging an Evidence-Data-Based Acuity Methodology Realistic?

    PubMed

    Gray, Joel; Kerfoot, Karlene

    2016-01-01

    Finding the balance of equitable assignments continues to be a challenge for health care organizations seeking to leverage evidence-based leadership practices. Ratios and subjective acuity strategies for nurse-patient staffing continue to be the dominant approach in health care organizations. In addition to ratio-based assignments and acuity-based assignment models driven by financial targets, more emphasis on using evidence-based leadership strategies to manage and create science for effective staffing is needed. In particular, nurse leaders are challenged to increase the sophistication of management of patient turnover (admissions, discharges, and transfers) and integrate tools from Lean methodologies and quality management strategies to determine the effectiveness of nurse-patient staffing. PMID:26636229

  7. Comparability of ophthalmic diagnoses by clinical and Reading Center examiners in the Visual Acuity Impairment Survey Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Sperduto, R D; Hiller, R; Podgor, M J; Palmberg, P; Ferris, F L; Wentworth, D

    1986-12-01

    Technologic advances in ophthalmic equipment offer the possibility of replacing direct clinical examinations with Reading Center evaluations of data recorded in epidemiologic studies. Clinical and Reading Center examiners made independent ophthalmic diagnoses of 133 right and 132 left eyes of 138 adults in the Visual Acuity Impairment Survey Pilot Study, carried out in three US cities, Boston, Detroit, and Minneapolis, in August 1981-December 1982. The Reading Center diagnosed eye conditions using only photographic and visual field data collected at the time of the clinical examination. In the comparisons of clinical and Reading Center evaluations reported here, only eyes judged by the examiners to have pathology severe enough to reduce visual acuity to 6/9 or worse were classified as having pathology. (No visual acuity criterion was required for the diagnosis of glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy.) There was agreement in diagnostic assessments between clinical and Reading Center examiners in about 80% of eyes. The kappa statistic, which adjusts for chance agreement, was in the fair to good range: 0.60 for 133 right eyes and 0.62 for 132 left eyes. When the Reading Center examiners were provided with additional information on medical history, refractive error and best corrected visual acuity, the agreement between clinical and Reading Center assessments among the subset of eyes with 6/9 or worse vision again was in the fair to good range, with kappas of 0.61 for 45 right eyes and 0.68 for 48 left eyes. Inter-observer agreement between Reading Center examiners in diagnosing pathology was in the good to excellent range. Use of Reading Centers in future epidemiologic studies should be considered, but elimination of the clinical examinations is not recommended until modifications in the protocol described here have been made and shown to improve levels of agreement between clinical and Reading Center examiners.

  8. Comparability of ophthalmic diagnoses by clinical and Reading Center examiners in the Visual Acuity Impairment Survey Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Sperduto, R D; Hiller, R; Podgor, M J; Palmberg, P; Ferris, F L; Wentworth, D

    1986-12-01

    Technologic advances in ophthalmic equipment offer the possibility of replacing direct clinical examinations with Reading Center evaluations of data recorded in epidemiologic studies. Clinical and Reading Center examiners made independent ophthalmic diagnoses of 133 right and 132 left eyes of 138 adults in the Visual Acuity Impairment Survey Pilot Study, carried out in three US cities, Boston, Detroit, and Minneapolis, in August 1981-December 1982. The Reading Center diagnosed eye conditions using only photographic and visual field data collected at the time of the clinical examination. In the comparisons of clinical and Reading Center evaluations reported here, only eyes judged by the examiners to have pathology severe enough to reduce visual acuity to 6/9 or worse were classified as having pathology. (No visual acuity criterion was required for the diagnosis of glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy.) There was agreement in diagnostic assessments between clinical and Reading Center examiners in about 80% of eyes. The kappa statistic, which adjusts for chance agreement, was in the fair to good range: 0.60 for 133 right eyes and 0.62 for 132 left eyes. When the Reading Center examiners were provided with additional information on medical history, refractive error and best corrected visual acuity, the agreement between clinical and Reading Center assessments among the subset of eyes with 6/9 or worse vision again was in the fair to good range, with kappas of 0.61 for 45 right eyes and 0.68 for 48 left eyes. Inter-observer agreement between Reading Center examiners in diagnosing pathology was in the good to excellent range. Use of Reading Centers in future epidemiologic studies should be considered, but elimination of the clinical examinations is not recommended until modifications in the protocol described here have been made and shown to improve levels of agreement between clinical and Reading Center examiners. PMID:3776982

  9. Dynamic visual acuity during passive and self-generated transient head rotation in normal and unilaterally vestibulopathic humans.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun-ru; Shubayev, Igor; Demer, Joseph L

    2002-02-01

    To determine whether dynamic visual acuity (DVA) during head rotations on the stationary body can lateralize unilateral vestibular deafferentation and detect non-labyrinthine compensation mechanisms, 15 normal and 11 subjects with unilateral vestibular deafferentation underwent manually imposed and self-generated transient yaw head rotations during measurement of binocular DVA. DVA was measured by a four-alternative, forced choice, staircase procedure with optotype presentation only when head velocity exceeded thresholds of 50 degree or 75 degree/s. Eye and head movements were recorded using search coils to characterize ocular motor strategies. During directionally unpredictable, manually imposed contralesional rotation, unilaterally deafferented subjects had decreases in DVA from the static condition of 0.36 +/- 0.22 and 0.47 +/- 0.53 log of the minimum angle resolvable (logMAR, mean +/- SD), respectively, for 50 degree and 75 degree/s thresholds, not significantly greater than those of normal subjects (0.26 +/- 0.13 and 0.36 +/- 0.14, P>0.05). However, during manually imposed ipsilesional rotation, vestibulopathic subjects had decreases in DVA of 0.66 +/- 0.36 and 1.08 +/- 0.47 logMAR, significantly greater than during contralesional rotation ( P<0.01). The DVA reduction difference for the ipsi- and contralesional directions was less during self-generated than during manually imposed head rotations. The directional difference for manually administered head rotations yielded a robust diagnostic measure with essentially no overlap in performance with normal subjects. Diagnostic performance for DVA during self-generated head rotation was poorer. Recordings of eye and head movements made using search coils during DVA testing confirmed a deficient vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during ipsilesional rotation, with most unilaterally vestibulopathic subjects employing predictive smooth eye movements and vestibular catch-up saccades. Measurement of DVA during transient head

  10. The role of ANS acuity and numeracy for the calibration and the coherence of subjective probability judgments

    PubMed Central

    Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter; Lindskog, Marcus; Nilsson, Håkan; Kerimi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how numeracy and acuity of the approximate number system (ANS) relate to the calibration and coherence of probability judgments. Based on the literature on number cognition, a first hypothesis was that those with lower numeracy would maintain a less linear use of the probability scale, contributing to overconfidence and nonlinear calibration curves. A second hypothesis was that also poorer acuity of the ANS would be associated with overconfidence and non-linearity. A third hypothesis, in line with dual-systems theory (e.g., Kahneman and Frederick, 2002) was that people higher in numeracy should have better access to the normative probability rules, allowing them to decrease the rate of conjunction fallacies. Data from 213 participants sampled from the Swedish population showed that: (i) in line with the first hypothesis, overconfidence and the linearity of the calibration curves were related to numeracy, where people higher in numeracy were well calibrated with zero overconfidence. (ii) ANS was not associated with overconfidence and non-linearity, disconfirming the second hypothesis. (iii) The rate of conjunction fallacies was slightly, but to a statistically significant degree decreased by numeracy, but still high at all numeracy levels. An unexpected finding was that participants with better ANS acuity gave more realistic estimates of their performance relative to others. PMID:25140163

  11. The role of ANS acuity and numeracy for the calibration and the coherence of subjective probability judgments.

    PubMed

    Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter; Lindskog, Marcus; Nilsson, Håkan; Kerimi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how numeracy and acuity of the approximate number system (ANS) relate to the calibration and coherence of probability judgments. Based on the literature on number cognition, a first hypothesis was that those with lower numeracy would maintain a less linear use of the probability scale, contributing to overconfidence and nonlinear calibration curves. A second hypothesis was that also poorer acuity of the ANS would be associated with overconfidence and non-linearity. A third hypothesis, in line with dual-systems theory (e.g., Kahneman and Frederick, 2002) was that people higher in numeracy should have better access to the normative probability rules, allowing them to decrease the rate of conjunction fallacies. Data from 213 participants sampled from the Swedish population showed that: (i) in line with the first hypothesis, overconfidence and the linearity of the calibration curves were related to numeracy, where people higher in numeracy were well calibrated with zero overconfidence. (ii) ANS was not associated with overconfidence and non-linearity, disconfirming the second hypothesis. (iii) The rate of conjunction fallacies was slightly, but to a statistically significant degree decreased by numeracy, but still high at all numeracy levels. An unexpected finding was that participants with better ANS acuity gave more realistic estimates of their performance relative to others. PMID:25140163

  12. Improvement of tactile roughness discrimination acuity correlates with perception of improved hand function in patients after hand surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Shuhei; Kon, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate how well patients’ perceptions related to the improvements in their hand function during hospitalization. [Subjects] Sixteen patients who were hospitalized after hand surgery. [Methods] Using the Japanese Society for Surgery of the Hand edition of the Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire; tactile roughness discrimination acuity, motor imagery, motor function, sensory function, and pain of the upper limb were assessed at admission and discharge. Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficients were calculated using the differences in all assessment items at admission and discharge. A multiple regression analysis (stepwise method) was performed to investigate factors that correlated with improvements in Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores. [Results] The improvement of tactile roughness discrimination acuity was significantly associated with patient perception of improved hand function. [Conclusion] The results suggest that an improvement in tactile roughness discrimination acuity was most strongly correlated with patient perception of improved hand function. PMID:27190473

  13. Improvement of tactile roughness discrimination acuity correlates with perception of improved hand function in patients after hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Shuhei; Kon, Noriko

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate how well patients' perceptions related to the improvements in their hand function during hospitalization. [Subjects] Sixteen patients who were hospitalized after hand surgery. [Methods] Using the Japanese Society for Surgery of the Hand edition of the Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire; tactile roughness discrimination acuity, motor imagery, motor function, sensory function, and pain of the upper limb were assessed at admission and discharge. Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficients were calculated using the differences in all assessment items at admission and discharge. A multiple regression analysis (stepwise method) was performed to investigate factors that correlated with improvements in Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores. [Results] The improvement of tactile roughness discrimination acuity was significantly associated with patient perception of improved hand function. [Conclusion] The results suggest that an improvement in tactile roughness discrimination acuity was most strongly correlated with patient perception of improved hand function. PMID:27190473

  14. Child Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... important to recognize and treat mental illnesses in children early on. Once mental illness develops, it becomes a regular part of your child's behavior. This makes it more difficult to treat. ...

  15. Help for Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mental Health America National Alliance on Mental Illness University or medical school-affiliated programs may offer treatment options. Search on the website of local university health centers for their psychiatry or psychology departments. ...

  16. Vision in avian emberizid foragers: maximizing both binocular vision and fronto-lateral visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Moore, Bret A; Pita, Diana; Tyrrell, Luke P; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2015-05-01

    Avian species vary in their visual system configuration, but previous studies have often compared single visual traits between two to three distantly related species. However, birds use different visual dimensions that cannot be maximized simultaneously to meet different perceptual demands, potentially leading to trade-offs between visual traits. We studied the degree of inter-specific variation in multiple visual traits related to foraging and anti-predator behaviors in nine species of closely related emberizid sparrows, controlling for phylogenetic effects. Emberizid sparrows maximize binocular vision, even seeing their bill tips in some eye positions, which may enhance the detection of prey and facilitate food handling. Sparrows have a single retinal center of acute vision (i.e. fovea) projecting fronto-laterally (but not into the binocular field). The foveal projection close to the edge of the binocular field may shorten the time to gather and process both monocular and binocular visual information from the foraging substrate. Contrary to previous work, we found that species with larger visual fields had higher visual acuity, which may compensate for larger blind spots (i.e. pectens) above the center of acute vision, enhancing predator detection. Finally, species with a steeper change in ganglion cell density across the retina had higher eye movement amplitude, probably due to a more pronounced reduction in visual resolution away from the fovea, which would need to be moved around more frequently. The visual configuration of emberizid passive prey foragers is substantially different from that of previously studied avian groups (e.g. sit-and-wait and tactile foragers).

  17. Transmission of colour and acuity signals by parvocellular cells in marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paul R; Blessing, Esther M; Buzás, Péter; Szmajda, Brett A; Forte, Jason D

    2011-06-01

    The red-green axis of colour vision evolved recently in primate evolutionary history. Signals serving red-green colour vision travel together with signals serving spatial vision, in the parvocellular (PC) division of the subcortical visual pathway. However, the question of whether receptive fields of PC pathway cells are specialized to transmit red-green colour signals remains unresolved. We addressed this question in single-cell recordings from the lateral geniculate nucleus of anaesthetized marmosets. Marmosets show a high proportion of dichromatic (red-green colour-blind) individuals, allowing spatial and colour tuning properties of PC cells to be directly compared in dichromatic and trichromatic visual systems. We measured spatial frequency tuning for sine gratings that provided selective stimulation of individual photoreceptor types. We found that in trichromatic marmosets, the foveal visual field representation is dominated by red-green colour-selective PC cells. Colour selectivity of PC cells is reduced at greater eccentricities, but cone inputs to centre and surround are biased to create more selectivity than predicted by a purely 'random wiring' model. Thus, one-to-one connections in the fovea are sufficient, but not necessary, to create colour-selective responses. The distribution of spatial tuning properties for achromatic stimuli shows almost complete overlap between PC cells recorded in dichromatic and trichromatic marmosets. These data indicate that transmission of red-green colour signals has been enabled by centre-surround receptive fields of PC cells, and has not altered the capacity of PC cells to serve high-acuity vision at high stimulus contrast. PMID:21486786

  18. Acuity-based nurse assignment and patient scheduling in oncology clinics.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bohui; Turkcan, Ayten

    2016-09-01

    The oncology clinics use different nursing care delivery models to provide chemotherapy treatment to cancer patients. Functional and primary care delivery models are the most commonly used methods in the clinics. In functional care delivery model, patients are scheduled for a chemotherapy appointment without considering availabilities of individual nurses, and nurses are assigned to patients according to patient acuities, nursing skill, and patient mix on a given day after the appointment schedule is determined. Patients might be treated by different nurses on different days of their treatment. In primary care delivery model, each patient is assigned to a primary nurse, and the patients are scheduled to be seen by the same nurse every time they come to the clinic for treatment. However, these clinics might experience high variability in daily nurse workload due to treatment protocols that should be followed strictly. In that case, part-time nurses can be utilized to share the excess workload of the primary nurses. The aim of this study is to develop optimization methods to reduce the time spent for nurse assignment and patient scheduling in oncology clinics that use different nursing care delivery models. For the functional delivery model, a multiobjective optimization model with the objectives of minimizing patient waiting times and nurse overtime is proposed to solve the nurse assignment problem. For the primary care delivery model, another multiobjective optimization model with the objectives of minimizing total overtime and total excess workload is proposed to solve the patient scheduling problem. Spreadsheet-based optimization tools are developed for easy implementation. Computational results show that the proposed models provide multiple nondominated solutions, which can be used to determine the optimal staffing levels.

  19. [Correlation of the grade of nuclear and cortical cataract, visual acuity, and contrast sensitivity].

    PubMed

    Yuge, T; Ozasa, K; Yamade, S

    1993-05-01

    A correlative investigation of 125 eyes with senile cataractous lenses was conducted to determine the relationships between cortical (CC) and nuclear cataracts (NC), corrected visual acuity (VA), and contrast sensitivity (CS). The CS for the spatial frequency of 1.5 cycles/degree (c/d) and 12.0 c/d was analyzed in particular detail. The results were as follows: (1) CC and CS for both 1.5 and 12.0 c/d showed statistically significant negative correlations with a coefficient (CE) of -0.250 and -0.288 respectively. No correlation was found between CC and VA. (2) NC and VA showed a significant negative correlation with CE of -2.29. No correlation was found between NC and CS for at 1.5 and 12.0 c/d. (3) VA and CS showed a significant positive correlation with a CE of +0.436 at 1.5 c/d and +0.270 at 12.0 c/d. The CS at 1.5 and the CS at 12.0 c/d also showed a significant negative correlation with a CE of +0.477. (4) NC and CC showed a significantly negative correlation (r = -0.224, p < 0.01), suggesting that scattered light from the nucleus may be interfered with by cortical opacities during slitlamp examinations. (5) In 29 cases of no cortical opacity, nuclear opacity showed significant negative correlation with VA (r = 0.556 p < 0.01) but no significant correlation with CS of both 1.5 and 12 c/d. (6) In 30 cases with less than 0.085 of nuclear opacity, cortical opacity showed significant negative correlation with CS at 12.0 c/d (r = 0.364 p < 0.01) but showed no significant correlation with VA and CS at 1.5 c/d. PMID:8337967

  20. Introduction to Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc of the United States, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define mental retardation and answer questions related to this topic. According to the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR), mental retardation is a disability that occurs before age 18. It is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviors as expressed in…