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Sample records for mental health depression

  1. Perinatal depression: implications for child mental health.

    PubMed

    Muzik, Maria; Borovska, Stefana

    2010-12-01

    Perinatal depression is common and primary care holds a crucial role for detecting, treating or, if necessary, providing referrals to mental health care for affected women. Family doctors should be aware of risk factors for peripartum depression, including previous history of depression, life events and interpersonal conflict. Perinatal depression has been associated with many poor outcomes, including maternal, child and family unit challenges. Infants and young children of perinatally depressed mothers are more likely to have a difficult temperament, as well as cognitive and emotional delays. The primary care setting is uniquely poised to be the screening and treatment site for perinatal depression; however, several obstacles, both at patient and systems level, have been identified that interfere with women's treatment engagement. Current published treatment guidelines favour psychotherapy above medicines as first line treatment for mild to moderate perinatal depression, while pharmacotherapy is first choice for severe depression, often in combination with psychosocial or integrative approaches. Among mothers who decide to stop taking their antidepressants despite ongoing depression during the perinatal period, the majority suffer from relapsing symptoms. If depression continues post-partum, there is an increased risk of poor mother-infant attachment, delayed cognitive and linguistic skills in the infant, impaired emotional development and risk for behavioural problems in later life. Complex, comprehensive and multilevel algorithms are warranted to treat perinatal depression. Primary care doctors are best suited to initiate, carry out and evaluate the effectiveness of such interventions designed to prevent adverse outcomes of maternal perinatal depression on mother and child wellbeing.

  2. Determinants of Mental Health Service Use Among Depressed Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Breland, David J.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Zhou, Chuan; McCauley, Elizabeth; Rockhill, Carol; Katon, Wayne; Richardson, Laura P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate determinants of mental health service use among depressed adolescents. Method We assessed mental health services use over the 12 months following screening among 113 adolescents (34 males, 79 females) from an integrated healthcare system who screened positive for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score > 11). Youth characteristics (demographics, depression severity, and co-morbidity) and parent characteristics (parent history of depression, parent-report of youth externalizing and internalizing problems) were compared among youth who had received mental health services and those who had not. Multivariate regression was used to evaluate the strongest factors associated with mental health service use. Results Overall, 52% of adolescents who screened positive for depression received mental health service in the year following screening. Higher parent-reported youth internalizing problems (OR 5.37 CI 1.77–16.35), parental history of depression/anxiety (OR 4.12 CI 1.36–12.48) were significant factors associated with mental health service use. Suicidality and functional impairment were not associated with increased mental health services use. Conclusion Parental factors including recognition of the adolescent’s internalizing symptoms and parental experience with depression/anxiety are strongly associated with mental health service use for depressed adolescents. This highlights the importance of educating parents about depression and developing systems to actively screen and engage youth in treatment for depression. PMID:24417955

  3. Mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD and depression

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Thomas; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Kohler, Michaela; Carraro, Giovanni E.; Schnyder, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, mental health professionals’ attitudes toward posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), compared to other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or depression, have rarely been studied. Objective We assessed mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD compared to patients suffering from depression. Method Case vignettes of a patient with either PTSD or depression were presented to two samples of mental health professionals: attendees of a conference on posttraumatic stress (N=226) or of a lecture for psychiatry residents (N=112). Participants subsequently completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude reactions to the presented case. Results Participants showed similarly positive attitudes toward depression and PTSD. PTSD elicited a more favorable attitude with regard to prosocial reactions, estimated dependency, attributed responsibility, and interest in the case, particularly in mental health professionals specializing in psychotraumatology. Across diagnoses, higher age and longer professional experience were associated with more positive attitudes toward patients. Conclusions Mental health professionals’ positive attitudes toward patients with depression and PTSD correlate with their specific knowledge about the disorder, their level of professional training, and their years of professional experience. Limitations The instruments used, although based on established theoretical concepts in attitude research, were not validated in their present versions. PMID:26507340

  4. Overeducation and depressive symptoms: diminishing mental health returns to education.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Piet; Pattyn, Elise; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2013-11-01

    In general, well-educated people enjoy better mental health than those with less education. As a result, some wonder whether there are limits to the mental health benefits of education. Inspired by the literature on the expansion of tertiary education, this article explores marginal mental health returns to education and studies the mental health status of overeducated people. To enhance the validity of the findings we use two indicators of educational attainment - years of education and ISCED97 categories - and two objective indicators of overeducation (the realised matches method and the job analyst method) in a sample of the working population of 25 European countries (unweighted sample N = 19,089). Depression is measured using an eight-item version of the CES-D scale. We find diminishing mental health returns to education. In addition, overeducated people report more depression symptoms. Both findings hold irrespective of the indicators used. The results must be interpreted in the light of the enduring expansion of education, as our findings show that the discussion of the relevance of the human capital perspective, and the diploma disease view on the relationship between education and modern society, is not obsolete.

  5. Mental health literacy about depression: a survey of portuguese youth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is a common disorder in adolescents and young adults, but help seeking is low. Mental health literacy about depression is a key concept to plan interventions for improving help seeking. This study aimed to evaluate youth mental literacy about depression in order to design school-based interventions. Methods During 2012, a survey was conducted with a stratified cluster sample of 4938 Portuguese young people between 14 and 24 years of age. Following the presentation of a vignette describing depression, a series of questions was asked concerning: recognition of the disorder; knowledge of professional help and treatments available; knowledge of effective self-help strategies; knowledge and skills to give first aid and support to others; and knowledge of how to prevent this disorder. Results In response to an open-ended question, around a quarter of the participants failed to recognize depression in the vignette. When asked about the potential helpfulness of various people, most of the participants considered mental health professionals, family and friends to be helpful. However, teachers, social workers and a helpline were less likely to be considered as helpful. With regard to medications, vitamins received more positive views than psychotropics. Some interventions were frequently rated as likely to be helpful, whereas for others there was a lack of knowledge about their effectiveness. A positive finding is that alcohol and tobacco consumption were seen as harmful. When asked about mental health first aid strategies, participants supported the value of listening to the person in the vignette and advising professional help, but some unhelpful strategies were commonly endorsed as well. Conclusion Deficits were found in some aspects of depression literacy in Portuguese youth. Therefore intervention in this area is needed. PMID:23651637

  6. Depression Research at the National Institute of Mental Health. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is committed to reducing the burden of mental illness through research on mind, brain, and behavior. This report presents the latest information on what is known about depression. The symptoms and types of depression are considered. Research on the treatments of depression is described, including the…

  7. Flourishing after depression: Factors associated with achieving complete mental health among those with a history of depression.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Agbeyaka, Senyo; LaFond, Deborah M; Bern-Klug, Mercedes

    2016-08-30

    This study investigated factors associated with complete mental health among a nationally representative sample of Canadians with a history of depression by conducting secondary analysis of the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey- Mental Health (n=20,955). Complete mental health was defined as 1) the absence of mental illness, substance abuse, or suicidal ideation in the past year; 2) happiness or life satisfaction almost every day/past month, and 3) social and psychological well-being. The prevalence of complete mental health among those with and without a history of depression was determined. In a sample of formerly depressed respondents (n=2528), a series of logistic regressions were completed controlling for demographics, socioeconomic status, health and lifetime mental health conditions, health behaviours, social support, adverse childhood experiences, and religiosity. Two in five individuals (39%) with a history of depression had achieved complete mental health in comparison to 78% of those without a history of depression. In comparison to the formally depressed adults who were not in complete mental health, those in complete mental health were more likely to be female, White, older, affluent, married, with a confidant, free of disabling pain, insomnia, and childhood adversities and without a history of substance abuse. They were also more likely to exercise regularly and use spirituality to cope. PMID:27267442

  8. Evaluating Mental Health Literacy and Adolescent Depression: What Do Teenagers "Know?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, John; Bruno, Michelle; Fernandes, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of depression increases markedly during adolescence, yet many youth are not receiving the support that they need. One factor that has been speculated as contributing to low rates of care is a lack of mental health literacy about depression and viable sources of support. This pilot study focused on mental health literacy as it…

  9. Measuring depression and stigma towards depression and mental health treatment among adolescents in an Arab-American community

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, R.M.; Farroukh, M.; Ismail, M.; Najda, J.; Sobh, H.; Hammad, A.; Dalack, G.W.

    2014-01-01

    There has been limited research that has examined the prevalence of depression and attitudes towards depression and mental health treatment in Arab-American adolescents; we sought to assess these in a predominantly Arab-American community in metro Detroit. A health survey of adolescents aged 12–17 years was conducted (n=98). Participants were recruited from two local community organizations in Dearborn, MI. Depression was assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) Depression Scale, and attitude towards depression and willingness to seek help for mental health conditions were assessed by the Self-Stigma of Depression Scale (SSDS). To assess whether attitudes might be affected by information about mental health treatment, adolescents were randomized to view either an educational video about mental health, or a control video before responding to questions about their willingness to seek help for mental health conditions. Overall, 14% of Arab-American adolescents in this study endorsed moderate or moderately severe depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 11), suggesting a need to increase awareness of and access to mental health services and screening for Arab-American youth. PMID:26257824

  10. Adverse childhood experiences, depression and mental health barriers to work among low-income women.

    PubMed

    Cambron, Christopher; Gringeri, Christina; Vogel-Ferguson, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has connected childhood abuse to decreased physical and mental health for low-income women in Utah. Further, mental health has established a link to employment problems. This study conducted a secondary analysis of data collected from individuals accessing public assistance to investigate the relationships among retrospective self-reports of childhood emotional, physical and sexual abuse and prospective indicators of mental health and mental health barriers to work. Logistic regression models found strong relationships between childhood abuse and increased odds of depression and mental health barriers to work. Path models highlight the relative importance of depression for those reporting mental health as the biggest barrier to work. Recommendations for social workers, public health professionals, and program administrators are provided.

  11. Adolescent Mental Health Literacy: Young People's Knowledge of Depression and Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, John R.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the mental health literacy of a group of adolescents, with particular reference to their ability to recognize symptoms of depression in their peers. Respondents were 202 Australian adolescents (122 males, 80 females) aged 15-17 years. Their mental health literacy was examined through a questionnaire that presented them with…

  12. A "Mental-Health-at-the-Workplace" Educational Workshop Reduces Managers' Stigma Toward Depression.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Johannes; Mendel, Rosmarie; Reichhart, Tatjana; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Kissling, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination are important factors hindering people with mental health conditions to stay employed or successfully make their careers. We surveyed 580 German managers before and after visiting a "mental-health-at-the-workplace" educational workshop using the Depression Stigma Scale. The workshop significantly reduced stigma toward depression. Managers at baseline already exhibited lower stigma toward depression compared with the general population. In addition, female gender and higher education predicted lower stigma, which is in line with findings from other studies. We conclude that an educational workshop giving practical guidance regarding "mental-health-at-the-workplace" reduces managers' stigma toward depression and improves knowledge regarding depression, its course, and its treatment. PMID:26704465

  13. Recession Depression: Mental Health Effects of the 2008 Stock Market Crash*

    PubMed Central

    McInerney, Melissa; Mellor, Jennifer M.; Nicholas, Lauren Hersch

    2013-01-01

    Do sudden, large wealth losses affect mental health? We use exogenous variation in the interview dates of the 2008 Health and Retirement Study to assess the impact of large wealth losses on mental health among older U.S. adults. We compare cross-wave changes in wealth and mental health for respondents interviewed before and after the October 2008 stock market crash. We find that the crash reduced wealth and increased feelings of depression and use of antidepressant drugs, and that these effects were largest among respondents with high levels of stock holdings prior to the crash. These results suggest that sudden wealth losses cause immediate declines in subjective measures of mental health. However, we find no evidence that wealth losses lead to increases in clinically-validated measures of depressive symptoms or indicators of depression. PMID:24113241

  14. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Mental Health Service Use among Adolescents with Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Janet R.; Druss, Benjamin G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in the receipt of treatment for major depression in adolescents. This study examined differences in mental health service use in non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian adolescents who experienced an episode of major depression. Method: Five years of data (2004-2008) were pooled…

  15. Women's Use of Multi sector Mental Health Services in a Community-Based Perinatal Depression Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Sarah Kye

    2010-01-01

    Low-income and ethnic minority women have been described as at risk for experiencing depression during and around the time of pregnancy, a finding complicated by low levels of mental health service use within this population. This study retrospectively examined data from a community-based perinatal depression project targeting low-income women in…

  16. Treating tobacco dependence in clinically depressed smokers: effect of smoking cessation on mental health functioning.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Judith J; Hall, Sharon M; Tsoh, Janice Y; Eisendrath, Stuart; Rossi, Joseph S; Redding, Colleen A; Rosen, Amy B; Meisner, Marc; Humfleet, Gary L; Gorecki, Julie A

    2008-03-01

    We analyzed data from a randomized trial of 322 actively depressed smokers and examined the effect of smoking cessation on their mental health functioning. Only 1 of 10 measures at 4 follow-up time points was significant: participants who successfully stopped smoking reported less alcohol use than did participants who continued smoking. Depressive symptoms declined significantly over time for participants who stopped smoking and those who continued smoking; there were no group differences. Individuals in treatment for clinical depression can be helped to stop smoking without adversely affecting their mental health functioning. PMID:17600251

  17. Treating Tobacco Dependence in Clinically Depressed Smokers: Effect of Smoking Cessation on Mental Health Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Hall, Sharon M.; Tsoh, Janice Y.; Eisendrath, Stuart; Rossi, Joseph S.; Redding, Colleen A.; Rosen, Amy B.; Meisner, Marc; Humfleet, Gary L.; Gorecki, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed data from a randomized trial of 322 actively depressed smokers and examined the effect of smoking cessation on their mental health functioning. Only 1 of 10 measures at 4 follow-up time points was significant: participants who successfully stopped smoking reported less alcohol use than did participants who continued smoking. Depressive symptoms declined significantly over time for participants who stopped smoking and those who continued smoking; there were no group differences. Individuals in treatment for clinical depression can be helped to stop smoking without adversely affecting their mental health functioning. PMID:17600251

  18. Depression Screening Using Daily Mental-Health Ratings from a Smartphone Application for Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junetae; Lim, Sanghee; Min, Yul Ha; Shin, Yong-Wook; Lee, Byungtae; Sohn, Guiyun; Jung, Kyung Hae; Lee, Jae-Ho; Son, Byung Ho; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Shin, Soo-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile mental-health trackers are mobile phone apps that gather self-reported mental-health ratings from users. They have received great attention from clinicians as tools to screen for depression in individual patients. While several apps that ask simple questions using face emoticons have been developed, there has been no study examining the validity of their screening performance. Objective In this study, we (1) evaluate the potential of a mobile mental-health tracker that uses three daily mental-health ratings (sleep satisfaction, mood, and anxiety) as indicators for depression, (2) discuss three approaches to data processing (ratio, average, and frequency) for generating indicator variables, and (3) examine the impact of adherence on reporting using a mobile mental-health tracker and accuracy in depression screening. Methods We analyzed 5792 sets of daily mental-health ratings collected from 78 breast cancer patients over a 48-week period. Using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) as the measure of true depression status, we conducted a random-effect logistic panel regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to evaluate the screening performance of the mobile mental-health tracker. In addition, we classified patients into two subgroups based on their adherence level (higher adherence and lower adherence) using a k-means clustering algorithm and compared the screening accuracy between the two groups. Results With the ratio approach, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) is 0.8012, indicating that the performance of depression screening using daily mental-health ratings gathered via mobile mental-health trackers is comparable to the results of PHQ-9 tests. Also, the AUC is significantly higher (P=.002) for the higher adherence group (AUC=0.8524) than for the lower adherence group (AUC=0.7234). This result shows that adherence to self-reporting is associated with a higher accuracy of depression screening. Conclusions Our results

  19. Mental health resilience in the adolescent offspring of parents with depression: a prospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Collishaw, Stephan; Hammerton, Gemma; Mahedy, Liam; Sellers, Ruth; Owen, Michael J; Craddock, Nicholas; Thapar, Ajay K; Harold, Gordon T; Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Young people whose parents have depression have a greatly increased risk of developing a psychiatric disorder, but poor outcomes are not inevitable. Identification of the contributors to mental health resilience in young people at high familial risk is an internationally recognised priority. Our objectives were to identify protective factors that predict sustained good mental health in adolescents with a parent with depression and to test whether these contribute beyond what is explained by parent illness severity. Methods The Early Prediction of Adolescent Depression study (EPAD) is a prospective longitudinal study of offspring of parents with recurrent depression. Parents with recurrent major depressive disorder, co-parents, and offspring (aged 9–17 years at baseline) were assessed three times over 4 years in a community setting. Offspring outcomes were operationalised as absence of mental health disorder, subthreshold symptoms, or suicidality on all three study occasions (sustained good mental health); and better than expected mental health (mood and behavioural symptoms at follow-up lower than predicted given severity of parental depression). Family, social, cognitive, and health behaviour predictor variables were assessed using interview and questionnaire measures. Findings Between February and June, 2007, we screened 337 families at baseline, of which 331 were eligible. Of these, 262 completed the three assessments and were included in the data for sustained mental health. Adolescent mental health problems were common, but 53 (20%) of the 262 adolescents showed sustained good mental health. Index parent positive expressed emotion (odds ratio 1·91 [95% CI 1·31–2·79]; p=0·001), co-parent support (1·90 [1·38–2·62]; p<0·0001), good-quality social relationships (2·07 [1·35–3·18]; p=0·001), self-efficacy (1·49 [1·05–2·11]; p=0·03), and frequent exercise (2·96 [1·26–6·92]; p=0·01) were associated with sustained good

  20. Long term life dissatisfaction and subsequent major depressive disorder and poor mental health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Poor mental health, especially due to depression, is one of the main public health problems. Early indicators of poor mental health in general population are needed. This study examined the relationship between long-term life dissatisfaction and subsequent mental health, including major depressive disorder. Method Health questionnaires were sent to a randomly selected population-based sample in 1998 and repeated in 1999 and 2001. In 2005, a clinically studied sub-sample (n = 330) was composed of subjects with (n = 161) or without (n = 169) repeatedly reported adverse mental symptoms at all three previous data collection times. Clinical symptom assessments were performed with several psychometric scales: life satisfaction (LS), depression (HDRS, BDI), hopelessness (HS), mental distress (GHQ), dissociative experiences (DES), and alexithymia (TAS). The long-term life dissatisfaction burden was calculated by summing these life satisfaction scores in 1998, 1999, 2001 and dividing the sum into tertiles. Psychiatric diagnoses were confirmed by SCID-I for DSM-IV in 2005. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the studied relationship. Results The previous life dissatisfaction burden associated with adverse socio-demographic, life style and clinical factors. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, it was independently and strongly associated with subsequent major depressive disorder in 2005, even when the concurrent LS score in 2005 was included in the model. Excluding those with reported major depressive disorder in 1999 did not alter this finding. Limitations MDD in 1999 was based on self-reports and not on structured interview and LS data in 2001-2005 was not available. Conclusions The life satisfaction burden is significantly related to major depressive disorder and poor mental health, both in cross-sectional and longitudinal settings. PMID:21861908

  1. Mental Health for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Sexual health for men Urinary health for ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Other mental health conditions include bipolar disorder , ...

  2. The Role of an Early Head Start Mental Health Coordinator: Screening for Maternal Depression in a Comprehensive Approach to Mental Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canuso, Regina

    2007-01-01

    Screening for maternal depression was a core component of the P.E.A.C.E., Inc., Early Head Start program's comprehensive approach to supporting the mental health needs of low-income pregnant women and families with infants and toddlers. The addition of a mental health coordinator as a full-time staff member created an opportunity to develop a…

  3. Mental Health Literacy in Hmong and Cambodian Elderly Refugees: A Barrier to Understanding, Recognizing, and Responding to Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lytle, Kathy; Yang, Pa Nhia; Lum, Terry

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore mental health literacy, specifically focusing on depression, among Southeast Asian (SEA) elderly refugees residing in the Twin Cities of St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minnesota. Three focus groups were held with nine mental health professionals who work with SEA elders. Jorm's mental health literacy framework guided the…

  4. Late Life Recurrent Depression: Challenge to Mental Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichsen, Gregory A.

    For the vast majority of persons of all ages who suffer from major depression, it is recurrent. A traditional wisdom has been that elderly persons respond more poorly to treatment for serious depression than younger persons. The psychiatric status of 127 elderly persons hospitalized for an episode of major depression was systematically assessed…

  5. Desired mental health resources for urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished women struggling with anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen; Warpinski, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are mental health issues that disproportionately affect women-particularly when access to culturally sensitive care is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify mental health concerns in three urban, ethnically diverse, underserved, and impoverished neighborhoods using the ideological perspective of community-based participatory research. In the context of long-term partnerships between a department of nursing and these neighborhoods, we recruited 61 women aged 18 to 69 years and collected data via homogeneous focus groups comprised of Black, Hispanic, and White women, respectively. We conducted five of the focus groups in English and one in Spanish. The women perceived anxiety and depression as significant concerns for themselves, their families, and their communities. They used unique community resources to manage mental health issues and desired new resources, including support groups and education.

  6. Have Mental Health Education Programs Influenced the Mental Health Literacy of Those with Major Depression and Suicidal Ideation? A Comparison between 1998 and 2008 in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Peter N.; Goldney, Robert D.; Taylor, Anne W.; Eckert, Kerena A.

    2012-01-01

    Mental health literacy is the knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders that aid their recognition, management, or prevention and is considered to be an important determinant of help-seeking. This has relevance in suicide prevention, as depression, the clinical condition most frequently associated with suicidality, has been the target of…

  7. Social class and mental health: testing exploitation as a relational determinant of depression.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Carles; Ng, Edwin; Prins, Seth J; Bones-Rocha, Katia; Espelt, Albert; Chung, Haejoo

    2015-01-01

    This study tests whether social class exploitation operates as a relational mechanism that generates mental health inequalities in the nursing home industry. We ask, does social class exploitation (i.e., the acquisition of economic benefits from the labor of those who are dominated) have a systematic and predictable impact on depression among nursing assistants? Using cross-sectional data from 868 nursing assistants employed in 50 nursing homes in three U.S. states, we measure social class exploitation as "ownership type" (private for-profit, private not-for-profit, and public) and "managerial domination" (labor relations violations, perceptions of labor-management conflict). Depression is assessed using the original and revised versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and CESD-R). Using two-level logistic regressions, we find that private for-profit ownership and higher managerial domination are predictive of depression among nursing assistants even after adjustment for potential confounders and mediators. Our findings confirm the theoretical and empirical value of applying a social class approach to understanding how mental health inequalities are generated through exploitative mechanisms. Ownership type and managerial domination appear to affect depression through social relations that generate mental health inequalities through the process of acquiring profits, controlling production, supervising and monitoring labor, and enforcing disciplinary sanctions.

  8. Social Class and Mental Health: Testing Exploitation as a Relational Determinant of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Muntaner, Carles; Ng, Edwin; Prins, Seth J.; Bones-Rocha, Katia; Espelt, Albert; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-01-01

    This study tests whether social class exploitation operates as a relational mechanism that generates mental health inequalities in the nursing home industry. We ask, does social class exploitation (i.e., the acquisition of economic benefits from the labor of those who are dominated) have a systematic and predictable impact on depression among nursing assistants? Using cross-sectional data from 868 nursing assistants employed in 50 nursing homes in three U.S. states, we measure social class exploitation as “ownership type” (private for-profit, private not-for-profit, and public) and “managerial domination” (labor relations violations, perceptions of labor-management conflict). Depression is assessed using the original and revised versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and CESD-R). Using two-level logistic regressions, we find that private for-profit ownership and higher managerial domination are predictive of depression among nursing assistants even after adjustment for potential confounders and mediators. Our findings confirm the theoretical and empirical value of applying a social class approach to understanding how mental health inequalities are generated through exploitative mechanisms. Ownership type and managerial domination appear to affect depression through social relations that generate mental health inequalities through the process of acquiring profits, controlling production, supervising and monitoring labor, and enforcing disciplinary sanctions. PMID:25813501

  9. Dissemination of behavioural activation for depression to mental health nurses: training evaluation and benchmarked clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ekers, D M; Dawson, M S; Bailey, E

    2013-03-01

    Depression causes significant distress, disability and cost within the UK. Behavioural activation (BA) is an effective single-strand psychological approach which may lend itself to brief training programmes for a wide range of clinical staff. No previous research has directly examined outcomes of such dissemination. A 5-day training course for 10 primary care mental health workers aiming to increase knowledge and clinical skills in BA was evaluated using the Training Acceptability Rating Scale. Depression symptom level data collected in a randomized controlled trial using trainees were then compared to results from meta-analysis of studies using experienced therapists. BA training was highly acceptable to trainees (94.4%, SD 6%). The combined effect size of BA was unchanged by the addition of the results of this evaluation to those of studies using specialist therapists. BA offers a promising psychological intervention for depression that appears suitable for delivery by mental health nurses following brief training.

  10. Depression, Social Support, and Mental Health: A Longitudinal Mediation Analysis in African American Custodial Grandmothers.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Deborah M; Kelley, Susan J; Lamis, Dorian A

    2016-03-01

    Custodial grandparents raising grandchildren experience intense levels of stress that can lead to depression and other forms of psychological distress. Drawing on a coping model of family stress, adjustment, and adaptation, we explored the relationship between depression and mental health quality of life mediated by social support and moderated by grandparent's age. The sample consisted of 667 African American custodial grandmothers, dichotomized into two age groupings, ≤55 (n = 306) and 55 + (n = 361). All grandmothers participated in a 12-month support intervention. The prospective analysis revealed social support was a mediator in the association between depressive symptoms and mental health quality of life for older African American grandmothers; however, this same relationship did not hold for their younger counterparts. Study limitations and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26798077

  11. Depression, Social Support, and Mental Health: A Longitudinal Mediation Analysis in African American Custodial Grandmothers.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Deborah M; Kelley, Susan J; Lamis, Dorian A

    2016-03-01

    Custodial grandparents raising grandchildren experience intense levels of stress that can lead to depression and other forms of psychological distress. Drawing on a coping model of family stress, adjustment, and adaptation, we explored the relationship between depression and mental health quality of life mediated by social support and moderated by grandparent's age. The sample consisted of 667 African American custodial grandmothers, dichotomized into two age groupings, ≤55 (n = 306) and 55 + (n = 361). All grandmothers participated in a 12-month support intervention. The prospective analysis revealed social support was a mediator in the association between depressive symptoms and mental health quality of life for older African American grandmothers; however, this same relationship did not hold for their younger counterparts. Study limitations and future research directions are discussed.

  12. Limitations of the Patient Health Questionnaire in Identifying Anxiety and Depression in Community Mental Health: Many Cases Are Undetected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Lee, Bong-Jae

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the concordance between the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) in diagnosing anxiety and depressive disorders. Method: Fifty women seeking psychiatric services for their children at two mental health centers in western Pennsylvania were assessed for anxiety and…

  13. How People with Depression Receive and Perceive Mental Illness Information: Findings from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Graham, Annette L; Hasking, Penelope; Clarke, David; Meadows, Graham

    2015-11-01

    Despite the recognised importance of accurate mental illness information in help-seeking and improving recovery, little is known about the dissemination of such information to people with depression. With a view to informing effective communication to those most in need, we explored the extent to which mental illness information is received by people with depression, its perceived helpfulness and we characterise those who do not receive such information. Using data from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing we observed that mental illness information was received by 54.7 % of those with depression. Most (76.7 %) found it helpful. Pamphlets were the most frequently cited source of information. People who did not receive information were less educated, unlikely to have accessed mental health services and unlikely to believe they had mental health needs. Targeted information campaigns which shape perceptions of need in relation to depression have the potential to reduce the resultant disease burden.

  14. Mental health and migration: depression, alcohol abuse, and access to health care among migrants in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena

    2014-12-01

    One-fifth of Kazakhstan's population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N = 450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia.

  15. A Framework for Classifying Online Mental Health-Related Communities With an Interest in Depression.

    PubMed

    Saha, Budhaditya; Nguyen, Thin; Phung, Dinh; Venkatesh, Svetha

    2016-07-01

    Mental illness has a deep impact on individuals, families, and by extension, society as a whole. Social networks allow individuals with mental disorders to communicate with others sufferers via online communities, providing an invaluable resource for studies on textual signs of psychological health problems. Mental disorders often occur in combinations, e.g., a patient with an anxiety disorder may also develop depression. This co-occurring mental health condition provides the focus for our work on classifying online communities with an interest in depression. For this, we have crawled a large body of 620 000 posts made by 80 000 users in 247 online communities. We have extracted the topics and psycholinguistic features expressed in the posts, using these as inputs to our model. Following a machine learning technique, we have formulated a joint modeling framework in order to classify mental health-related co-occurring online communities from these features. Finally, we performed empirical validation of the model on the crawled dataset where our model outperforms recent state-of-the-art baselines. PMID:27008680

  16. Women and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... to other mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder , research has not found differences in rates that ... Featured Health Topics Anxiety Disorders Depression Eating Disorders Bipolar Disorder (Manic-Depressive Illness) Schizophrenia Borderline Personality Disorder Suicide ...

  17. Barriers to Mental Health Service Use Among Workers With Depression and Work Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This article estimates the decrease in workplace productivity losses associated with removal of three types of barriers to mental health service use among workers with depression. Methods: A model of productivity losses based on the results of a population-based survey of Canadian workers was used to estimate the impact of three types of barriers to mental health service use among workers with depression. Results: Removing the service need recognition barrier is associated with a 33% decrease in work productivity losses. There is a 49% decrease when all three barriers are removed. Conclusions: Our results suggest recognizing the need for treatment is only one barrier to service use; attitudinal and structural barriers should also be considered. The greatest decrease in productivity losses is observed with the removal of all three barriers. PMID:26147540

  18. Dystonia: Emotional and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coping Tips & Strategies Are You Severely Depressed? Dystonia & Depression Dystonia & Anxiety Finding a Mental Health Professional When a Child is Diagnosed Online Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is ...

  19. Depression, a Hidden Mental Health Disparity in an Asian Indian Immigrant Community

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lisa R.; Mann, Semran K.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Cultural influences are deeply rooted, and continue to affect the lives of Asian-Indian (AI) immigrants living in Western culture. Emerging literature suggests the powerful nature of traditions and culture on the lives, mental and physical health of AI immigrants, particularly women. The purpose of this study was to explore depression among AI women in Central California (CC). This mixed-methods research was conducted in collaboration with the CC Punjabi community and the support of local religious leaders. All interviews were conducted in Punjabi and English. Whenever possible we utilized validated scales aligned with emerging themes from the qualitative data, which also provided contextualization to survey responses. In all we conducted 11 key informant interviews, four focus groups (n = 47) and a rigorously developed anonymous survey (n = 350). Social dynamics and traditional expectations including gendered roles significantly affected mental health among women participants. Subgroups along the lines of language choice (Punjabi vs. English) experience and report depression differently in part due to the highly stigmatized nature of mental health issues in this model minority community. The findings of this study highlight the importance of utilizing mixed methods to access hard to reach populations regarding sensitive topics such as mental health. PMID:26703654

  20. Depression, a Hidden Mental Health Disparity in an Asian Indian Immigrant Community.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lisa R; Mann, Semran K; Montgomery, Susanne B

    2015-12-23

    Cultural influences are deeply rooted, and continue to affect the lives of Asian-Indian (AI) immigrants living in Western culture. Emerging literature suggests the powerful nature of traditions and culture on the lives, mental and physical health of AI immigrants, particularly women. The purpose of this study was to explore depression among AI women in Central California (CC). This mixed-methods research was conducted in collaboration with the CC Punjabi community and the support of local religious leaders. All interviews were conducted in Punjabi and English. Whenever possible we utilized validated scales aligned with emerging themes from the qualitative data, which also provided contextualization to survey responses. In all we conducted 11 key informant interviews, four focus groups (n = 47) and a rigorously developed anonymous survey (n = 350). Social dynamics and traditional expectations including gendered roles significantly affected mental health among women participants. Subgroups along the lines of language choice (Punjabi vs. English) experience and report depression differently in part due to the highly stigmatized nature of mental health issues in this model minority community. The findings of this study highlight the importance of utilizing mixed methods to access hard to reach populations regarding sensitive topics such as mental health.

  1. Nutrition and depression: implications for improving mental health among childbearing-aged women.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Lisa M; Wisner, Katherine L

    2005-11-01

    Adequate nutrition is needed for countless aspects of brain functioning. Poor diet quality, ubiquitous in the United States, may be a modifiable risk factor for depression. The objective was to review and synthesize the current knowledge of the role of nutrition in depression, and address implications for childbearing-aged women. Poor omega-3 fatty acid status increases the risk of depression. Fish oil and folic acid supplements each have been used to treat depression successfully. Folate deficiency reduces the response to antidepressants. Deficiencies of folate, vitamin B12, iron, zinc, and selenium tend to be more common among depressed than nondepressed persons. Dietary antioxidants have not been studied rigorously in relation to depression. Childbearing-aged women are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of poor nutrition on mood because pregnancy and lactation are major nutritional stressors to the body. The depletion of nutrient reserves throughout pregnancy and a lack of recovery postpartum may increase a woman's risk of depression. Prospective research studies are needed to clarify the role of nutrition in the pathophysiology of depression among childbearing-aged women. Greater attention to nutritional factors in mental health is warranted given that nutrition interventions can be inexpensive, safe, easy to administer, and generally acceptable to patients. PMID:16040007

  2. Adequacy of Mental Health Services for HIV-Positive Patients with Depression: Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Stephanie K. Y.; Boyle, Eleanor; Cairney, John; Gardner, Sandra; Collins, Evan J.; Bacon, Jean; Rourke, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depression can profoundly impact clinical and quality-of-life outcomes of people living with HIV, and this disease is underdiagnosed and undertreated in many HIV-positive individuals. Here, we describe the prevalence of publicly funded primary and secondary mental health service use and antidepressant use, as well as mental health care for depression in accordance with existing Canadian guidelines for HIV-positive patients with depression in Ontario, Canada. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study linking data from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study with administrative health databases in the province of Ontario, Canada. Current depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize prevalence outcomes. Results Of 990 HIV-positive patients with depression, 493 (50%) patients used mental health services; 182 (18%) used primary services (general practitioners); 176 (18%) used secondary services (psychiatrists); and 135 (14%) used both. Antidepressants were used by 407 (39%) patients. Patients who identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual, as having low income or educational attainment, or as non-native English speakers or immigrants to Canada were less likely to obtain care. Of 493 patients using mental health services, 250 (51%) received mental health care for depression in accordance with existing Canadian guidelines. Conclusions Our results showed gaps in delivering publicly funded mental health services to depressed HIV-positive patients and identified unequal access to these services, particularly among vulnerable groups. More effective mental health policies and better access to mental health services are required to address HIV-positive patient needs and reduce depression’s impact on their lives. PMID:27280751

  3. Reconsidering the role of social disadvantage in physical and mental health: stressful life events, health behaviors, race, and depression.

    PubMed

    Mezuk, Briana; Rafferty, Jane A; Kershaw, Kiarri N; Hudson, Darrell; Abdou, Cleopatra M; Lee, Hedwig; Eaton, William W; Jackson, James S

    2010-12-01

    Prevalence of depression is associated inversely with some indicators of socioeconomic position, and the stress of social disadvantage is hypothesized to mediate this relation. Relative to whites, blacks have a higher burden of most physical health conditions but, unexpectedly, a lower burden of depression. This study evaluated an etiologic model that integrates mental and physical health to account for this counterintuitive patterning. The Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (Maryland, 1993-2004) was used to evaluate the interaction between stress and poor health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, poor diet, and obesity) and risk of depression 12 years later for 341 blacks and 601 whites. At baseline, blacks engaged in more poor health behaviors and had a lower prevalence of depression compared with whites (5.9% vs. 9.2%). The interaction between health behaviors and stress was nonsignificant for whites (odds ratio (OR = 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 0.98, 1.11); for blacks, the interaction term was significant and negative (β: -0.18, P < 0.014). For blacks, the association between median stress and depression was stronger for those who engaged in zero (OR = 1.34) relative to 1 (OR = 1.12) and ≥2 (OR = 0.94) poor health behaviors. Findings are consistent with the proposed model of mental and physical health disparities. PMID:20884682

  4. Mental health literacy towards depression among non-medical students at a Malaysian university.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tahir M; Sulaiman, Syed A; Hassali, Mohamed A

    2010-03-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge and perception of depression among students of University Sains Malaysia (USM), in Penang, Peninsular Malaysia.Method Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a pre-validated 21-item questionnaire among students at USM.Results A total of 500 respondents participated in the survey comprising 24.6% (n=123) males and 75.4% (n=377) females. Half (50.0%, n=250) were Malays, followed by Chinese (44.0%, n=220) and Indians (6.0%, n=30). Whilst exploring the respondents' knowledge of the symptoms of depression, it was found that Chinese females had a comparatively better knowledge (P=0.058) of the symptoms of depression in comparison with Malays and Indians. Overall, social issues were attributed as the possible cause of depression. A cursory knowledge level was observed regarding medication for depression. Female students were more inclined towards the use of alternative and traditional medicines. However, with regard to seeking professional help, consultation with a psychiatrist was preferred by the majority.Conclusion Overall, a moderate level of knowledge about the symptoms of depression and a cursory knowledge of its therapy were observed. Those with personal experience of depression had better knowledge of the symptoms and therapy. Alternative treatments and traditional medicines were also favoured. There is a risk that this may affect the ability of Malaysian youths to seek evidence-based mental health care. PMID:22477920

  5. Mental health literacy towards depression among non‐medical students at a Malaysian university

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge and perception of depression among students of University Sains Malaysia (USM), in Penang, Peninsular Malaysia. Method Face‐to‐face interviews were conducted using a pre‐validated 21‐item questionnaire among students at USM. Results A total of 500 respondents participated in the survey comprising 24.6% (n=123) males and 75.4% (n=377) females. Half (50.0%, n=250) were Malays, followed by Chinese (44.0%, n=220) and Indians (6.0%, n=30). Whilst exploring the respondents' knowledge of the symptoms of depression, it was found that Chinese females had a comparatively better knowledge (P=0.058) of the symptoms of depression in comparison with Malays and Indians. Overall, social issues were attributed as the possible cause of depression. A cursory knowledge level was observed regarding medication for depression. Female students were more inclined towards the use of alternative and traditional medicines. However, with regard to seeking professional help, consultation with a psychiatrist was preferred by the majority. Conclusion Overall, a moderate level of knowledge about the symptoms of depression and a cursory knowledge of its therapy were observed. Those with personal experience of depression had better knowledge of the symptoms and therapy. Alternative treatments and traditional medicines were also favoured. There is a risk that this may affect the ability of Malaysian youths to seek evidence‐based mental health care. PMID:22477920

  6. Perceptions of Depression and Access to Mental Health Care Among Latino Immigrants: Looking Beyond One Size Fits All.

    PubMed

    Martinez Tyson, Dinorah; Arriola, Nora B; Corvin, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    Compared with non-Latino Whites, Latino immigrants have a lower prevalence of depression. However, they are also less likely to seek professional mental health services. Our objective was to compare and contrast perceptions of depression and access to mental health care among four of the largest Latino immigrant subgroups in Florida (Puerto Rican, Cuban, Mexican, and Colombian). We conducted a total of 120 interviews (30 men and women from each subgroup). Thematic analysis of qualitative data revealed that participants across the four groups were aware of the signs and symptoms of depression and had similar perceptions of depression. However, notable differences by subgroup emerged with regard to perceptions of access to mental health care. We suggest that the variation stems from differences in life experiences and the immigration context. Understanding the variances and nuances of Latino immigrants' cultural construction of depression and immigration experience will enable practitioners to better serve this community.

  7. A Review of Energy Drinks and Mental Health, with a Focus on Stress, Anxiety, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Concerns have been expressed regarding the potential for caffeinated energy drinks to negatively affect mental health, and particularly so in young consumers at whom they are often targeted. The products are frequently marketed with declarations of increasing mental and physical energy, providing a short-term boost to mood and performance. Although a certain amount of evidence has accumulated to substantiate some of these claims, the chronic effects of energy drinks on mental health also need to be addressed. Methods: To review the relevant literature, PubMed and PsycINFO were searched for all peer-reviewed articles published in English that addressed associations between energy drink use and mental health outcomes. Case reports were also considered, though empirical studies investigating acute mood effects were excluded as a review of such articles had recently been published. Fifty-six articles were retrieved: 20 of these (along with eight more identified through other means) were included in the current review, and, because the majority addressed aspects of stress, anxiety, and depression, particular focus was placed on these outcomes. Results: Though a number of null findings (and one negative relationship) were observed, the majority of studies examined reported positive associations between energy drink consumption and symptoms of mental health problems. Conclusions: Though the findings imply that energy drink use may increase the risk of undesirable mental health outcomes, the majority of research examined utilized cross-sectional designs. In most cases, it was therefore not possible to determine causation or direction of effect. For this reason, longitudinal and intervention studies are required to increase our understanding of the nature of the relationships observed. PMID:27274415

  8. Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  9. Self-Rated Mental Health: Screening for Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Women Exposed to Perinatal Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Kastello, Jennifer C; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Gaffney, Kathleen F; Kodadek, Marie P; Bullock, Linda C; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the validity of a single-item, self-rated mental health (SRMH) measure in the identification of women at risk for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Baseline data of 239 low-income women participating in an intimate partner violence (IPV) intervention study were analyzed. PTSD was measured with the Davidson Trauma Scale. Risk for depression was determined using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. SRMH was assessed with a single item asking participants to rate their mental health at the time of the baseline interview. Single-item measures can be an efficient way to increase the proportion of patients screened for mental health disorders. Although SRMH is not a strong indicator of PTSD, it may be useful in identifying pregnant women who are at increased risk for depression and need further comprehensive assessment in the clinical setting. Future research examining the use of SRMH among high-risk populations is needed.

  10. [Regular physical activity and mental health. The role of exercise in the prevention of, and intervention in depressive disorders].

    PubMed

    Takács, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    In our review we examine the relationship between physical activity and mental health; especially we determine the effectiveness of exercise in the prevention and treatment of depression. Over the past two decades the literature in the area of physical activity and mental health has been growing. However it seems that the findings and evidences not being utilized by mental health agencies and health practitioners. Depression is the most common disorder in the world, generally has a higher prevalence among women. In our study we overview and demonstrate that the exercise is a powerful intervention for prevention and treatment not only in non-clinical but also in clinical levels of depression. In sub-clinical levels of depression the meta-analytic findings and population surveys suggest that the exercise is associated with a significant moderate reduction of depression in different groups by gender and age; as well as a physically active lifestyle associates with lower levels of depression. In clinical levels of depression the physical activity is an effective tool in the prevention, studies support an association between higher levels of physical activity and lower levels of depression. In the treatment of clinical depression the randomized-controlled trials suggest the clear positive effects of exercise. This effect is similar to psychotherapeutic interventions and it was appeared under relatively short time (4-8 weeks). The exercise is one of the most important preventive health-related behaviors. Our review suggests a protective effect from activity on the development of clinical levels of depression and depressive symptoms. In addition the randomized controlled trials support a causal connection between exercise and reduction of depression. In sum the reviewed studies clearly support the antidepressant effect of exercise. PMID:25569828

  11. [Regular physical activity and mental health. The role of exercise in the prevention of, and intervention in depressive disorders].

    PubMed

    Takács, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    In our review we examine the relationship between physical activity and mental health; especially we determine the effectiveness of exercise in the prevention and treatment of depression. Over the past two decades the literature in the area of physical activity and mental health has been growing. However it seems that the findings and evidences not being utilized by mental health agencies and health practitioners. Depression is the most common disorder in the world, generally has a higher prevalence among women. In our study we overview and demonstrate that the exercise is a powerful intervention for prevention and treatment not only in non-clinical but also in clinical levels of depression. In sub-clinical levels of depression the meta-analytic findings and population surveys suggest that the exercise is associated with a significant moderate reduction of depression in different groups by gender and age; as well as a physically active lifestyle associates with lower levels of depression. In clinical levels of depression the physical activity is an effective tool in the prevention, studies support an association between higher levels of physical activity and lower levels of depression. In the treatment of clinical depression the randomized-controlled trials suggest the clear positive effects of exercise. This effect is similar to psychotherapeutic interventions and it was appeared under relatively short time (4-8 weeks). The exercise is one of the most important preventive health-related behaviors. Our review suggests a protective effect from activity on the development of clinical levels of depression and depressive symptoms. In addition the randomized controlled trials support a causal connection between exercise and reduction of depression. In sum the reviewed studies clearly support the antidepressant effect of exercise.

  12. Mental Health and Migration: Depression, Alcohol Abuse, and Access to Health Care among Migrants in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena

    2014-01-01

    Background One fifth of Kazakhstan’s population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Methods Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N=450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Results Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. Conclusions This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia. PMID:24186359

  13. Chronological and subjective age differences in flourishing mental health and major depressive episode.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Corey L M; Westerhof, Gerben J

    2012-01-01

    Mental health is more than the absence of psychopathology, but few studies use positive mental health along with a measure of past year major depressive episode (MDE). This study addresses this gap by investigating the association of MDE and flourishing mental health (FMH) with chronological age and subjective (felt and ideal) age. Data are from the Midlife in the United States random digit dialing sample of adults ages 25 to 74, collected in 1995 (n = 3032). Rates of MDE were lowest, and FMH highest, among the three oldest age cohorts (45-54, 55-64, 65-74 years). Subjective age was linked with chronological age; with age, adults tend to feel younger, and want to be an age that is younger, than their actual age. As predicted by the model of subjective age as an adaptive strategy, feeling younger was related to a lower risk of MDE and a higher risk of FMH. However, wanting to be younger was related to a lower risk of FMH and unrelated to MDE. PMID:21780972

  14. The Effectiveness of Clinician Feedback in the Treatment of Depression in the Community Mental Health System

    PubMed Central

    Connolly Gibbons, Mary Beth; Kurtz, John E.; Thompson, Donald L.; Mack, Rachel A.; Lee, Jacqueline K.; Rothbard, Aileen; Eisen, Susan V.; Gallop, Robert; Crits-Christoph, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objective We describe the development and evaluation of a clinician feedback intervention for use in community mental health settings. The Community Clinician Feedback System (CCFS) was developed in collaboration with a community partner to meet the needs of providers working in such community settings. Method The CCFS consists of weekly performance feedback to clinicians as well as a clinical feedback report that assists clinicians with patients who are not progressing as expected. Patients in the randomized sample (N=100) were pre-dominantly female African-Americans, with a mean age of 39. Results Satisfaction ratings of the CCFS indicate that the system was widely accepted by clinicians and patients. An HLM analysis comparing rates of change across conditions controlling for baseline gender, age, and racial group indicated a moderate effect in favor of the feedback condition for symptom improvement (t(94) = 2.41, p = .017, d = .50). Thirty-six percent of feedback patients compared to only 13% of patients in the no feedback condition demonstrated clinically significant change across treatment (χ2(1) = 6.13, p = .013). Conclusions These results indicate that our CCFS is acceptable to providers and patients of mental health services, and has the potential to improve the effectiveness of services for clinically meaningful depression in the community mental health setting. PMID:26052874

  15. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Predictors of Mental Health Treatment in Persons with Comorbid Diabetes and Depression.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Jaclynn; Watkins, Daphne C; Bonner, Timethia; Thompson, Terry L

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes and depression are two of the most frequently diagnosed health conditions in the United States and often co-occur. The present study examines racial/ethnic differences in predictors of mental health service use among a national sample of African Americans, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Whites with a self-reported diabetes and depression diagnosis. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze a cross-sectional sample (N = 3377) of the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. African Americans were less likely to have visited a mental health professional in the last 12 months (odds ratio [OR] = .634, confidence interval [CI] [0.429, 0.911]). Significant odds ratios also uncovered results for the "never married" (OR = 1.737, CI [1.322, 2.281]) category. Also for the entire sample, being 55 years or older (OR = .352, CI [0.234, 0.533]) was found to be strongly associated with mental health service use for individuals with diabetes. Being unemployed or not in the labor force increased the odds of mental health service use in persons with diabetes and depression, whereas having less than a high school diploma or Graduate Equivalency Diploma decreased odds of visits (OR = .611, CI [0.394, 0.945]) as did not having health insurance (OR = .540, CI [0.365, 0.800]). Racial/ethnic variation in mental health service utilization exists among persons with self-reported diabetes and depression. Due to the challenges associated with comorbid depression and diabetes, as well as the impact depression can have on diabetes self-management, it is imperative that more strategies for managing both depression and diabetes be explored.

  16. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Predictors of Mental Health Treatment in Persons with Comorbid Diabetes and Depression.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Jaclynn; Watkins, Daphne C; Bonner, Timethia; Thompson, Terry L

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes and depression are two of the most frequently diagnosed health conditions in the United States and often co-occur. The present study examines racial/ethnic differences in predictors of mental health service use among a national sample of African Americans, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Whites with a self-reported diabetes and depression diagnosis. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze a cross-sectional sample (N = 3377) of the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. African Americans were less likely to have visited a mental health professional in the last 12 months (odds ratio [OR] = .634, confidence interval [CI] [0.429, 0.911]). Significant odds ratios also uncovered results for the "never married" (OR = 1.737, CI [1.322, 2.281]) category. Also for the entire sample, being 55 years or older (OR = .352, CI [0.234, 0.533]) was found to be strongly associated with mental health service use for individuals with diabetes. Being unemployed or not in the labor force increased the odds of mental health service use in persons with diabetes and depression, whereas having less than a high school diploma or Graduate Equivalency Diploma decreased odds of visits (OR = .611, CI [0.394, 0.945]) as did not having health insurance (OR = .540, CI [0.365, 0.800]). Racial/ethnic variation in mental health service utilization exists among persons with self-reported diabetes and depression. Due to the challenges associated with comorbid depression and diabetes, as well as the impact depression can have on diabetes self-management, it is imperative that more strategies for managing both depression and diabetes be explored. PMID:27215768

  17. Health beliefs and perceived need for mental health care of anxiety and depression--the patients' perspective explored.

    PubMed

    Prins, Marijn A; Verhaak, Peter F M; Bensing, Jozien M; van der Meer, Klaas

    2008-07-01

    Patients' illness representations and beliefs about treatment for depression and anxiety, as well as their perceived needs, are important for treatment. A systematic review was conducted of 71 studies describing the beliefs or perceived needs of patients and non-patients. Patients give multi-dimensional explanations for depression and see both psychological and medication treatment as helpful. People who suffer from depression have more positive beliefs about biological etiology and medication treatment than healthy people, or those with less severe depressive symptoms. Anxiety patients view psychological interventions as their best treatment option. Between 49% and 84% of the patients with depression or anxiety perceive a need for treatment, mostly for counseling and medication. All patients prefer psychological treatment forms to medication. A majority of patients view antidepressants as addictive and many perceive stigma and see practical and economic barriers to care. The most vulnerable groups in terms of seeking and receiving mental health care for depression and anxiety seem to be minority groups, as well as younger and older patients. More research is required into the specific needs of anxiety and depression patients. Open communication between patient and provider could lead to valuable improvements in treatment.

  18. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... talk therapy, that helps people change negative thinking styles and behaviors that may contribute to their depression. ... Mental Health Office of Science Policy, Planning, and Communications Science Writing, Press, and Dissemination Branch 6001 Executive ...

  19. Women's Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... a group that has the same age, race, religion, cultural background as you, or one that speaks ... mental health problems, like depression or having a history of trauma or abuse. If you or someone ...

  20. Treatment for Cigarette Smoking Among Depressed Mental Health Outpatients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sharon M.; Tsoh, Janice Y.; Prochaska, Judith J.; Eisendrath, Stuart; Rossi, Joseph S.; Redding, Colleen A.; Rosen, Amy B.; Meisner, Marc; Humfleet, Gary L.; Gorecki, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. Using a brief contact control, we tested the efficacy of a staged care intervention to reduce cigarette smoking among psychiatric patients in outpatient treatment for depression. Methods. We conducted a randomized clinical trial that included assessments at baseline and at months 3, 6, 12, and 18. Three hundred twenty-two patients in mental health outpatient treatment who were diagnosed with depression and smoked ≥1 cigarette per day participated. The desire to quit smoking was not a prerequisite for participation. Staged care intervention participants received computerized motivational feedback at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months and were offered a 6-session psychological counseling and pharmacological cessation treatment program. Brief contact control participants received a self-help guide and referral list of local smoking-treatment providers. Results. As we hypothesized, abstinence rates among staged care intervention participants exceeded those of brief contact control participants at months 12 and 18. Significant differences favoring staged care intervention also were found in occurrence of a quit attempt and stringency of abstinence goal. Conclusion. The data suggest that individuals in psychiatric treatment for depression can be aided in quitting smoking through use of staged care interventions and that smoking cessation interventions used in the general population can be implemented in psychiatric outpatient settings. PMID:17008577

  1. Public-academic partnerships: improving depression care for disadvantaged adults by partnering with non-mental health agencies.

    PubMed

    Dobransky-Fasiska, Deborah; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Pincus, Harold Alan; Castillo, Enrico; Lee, Brenda E; Walnoha, Adrienne L; Reynolds, Charles F; Brown, Charlotte

    2010-02-01

    Reaching disadvantaged adults who need mental health care is challenging, partly because of mistrust of institutions, cultural insensitivity, and stigma. Researchers from Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic and leaders of 11 non-mental health community organizations formed a partnership to improve depression care, especially for elders and individuals from difficult-to-reach racial and ethnic minority groups. The overarching goal is to reduce disparities by providing and improving care. This column describes challenges overcome in working with a heterogeneous group of agencies to address issues of mental illness, stigma, inadequate staff training, and privacy--challenges that influenced the direction of research and ensuing projects.

  2. Family Matters: The Role of Mental Health Stigma and Social Support on Depressive Symptoms and Subsequent Help Seeking among African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Michael A.; Joe, Sean; Nebbitt, Von

    2010-01-01

    African American adolescent boys underutilize mental health service due to stigma associated with depression. Gaining an increased understanding of how depressed, African American adolescent boys perceive their mental health needs and engage in help-seeking behaviors might play an essential role in efforts to improve their symptoms and access to…

  3. IRRITABLE MOOD IN ADULT MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER: RESULTS FROM THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEYS

    PubMed Central

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, María E.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). Methods The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. Results Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. Conclusion Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood. PMID:23364997

  4. Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... mental health should be part of your complete medical evaluation before starting antiretroviral medications. And you should ...

  5. Policy for Promotion of Women's Mental Health: Insight from Analysis of Policy on Postnatal Depression in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Place, Jean Marie S; Billings, Deborah L; Frongillo, Edward A; Blake, Christine E; Mann, Joshua R; deCastro, Filipa

    2016-03-01

    This article critically examines federal, state and facility-level policies, as well as clinical practice guidelines regarding postnatal depression in Mexico. Thirteen documents including national health plans, national action plans, federal and state laws and regulations, clinical practice guidelines, and public-sector healthcare facility policies were collected and evaluated according to whether they included a statement of intent and/or actions related to the care of women at risk for or experiencing postnatal depression. While postnatal depression is included in several policies in Mexico, it is not addressed in ways that guide actions to manage postnatal depression. Specific direction on postnatal depression in policies would bridge a gap in maternal mental healthcare given that medication, treatment, and timing of interventions is unique in the postpartum context.

  6. Depressive Symptoms in a Sample of Social Work Students and Reasons Preventing Students from Using Mental Health Services: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Limited research exists on social work students' level of depression and help-seeking beliefs. This study empirically examined the rates of depression among 215 BSW students and explored students' reasons for not using mental health services. Approximately 50% scored at or above the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale cutoff;…

  7. Persistent reflux symptoms cause anxiety, depression, and mental health and sleep disorders in gastroesophageal reflux disease patients.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yoshihide; Kamiya, Takeshi; Senoo, Kyouji; Tsuchida, Kenji; Hirano, Atsuyuki; Kojima, Hisayo; Yamashita, Hiroaki; Yamakawa, Yoshihiro; Nishigaki, Nobuhiro; Ozeki, Tomonori; Endo, Masatsugu; Nakanishi, Kazuhisa; Sando, Motoki; Inagaki, Yusuke; Shikano, Michiko; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Kubota, Eiji; Tanida, Satoshi; Kataoka, Hiromi; Katsumi, Kohei; Joh, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    Some patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease experience persistent reflux symptoms despite proton pump inhibitor therapy. These symptoms reduce their health-related quality of life. Our aims were to evaluate the relationship between proton pump inhibitor efficacy and health-related quality of life and to evaluate predictive factors affecting treatment response in Japanese patients. Using the gastroesophageal reflux disease questionnaire, 145 gastroesophageal reflux disease patients undergoing proton pump inhibitor therapy were evaluated and classified as responders or partial-responders. Their health-related quality of life was then evaluated using the 8-item Short Form Health Survey, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaires. Sixty-nine patients (47.6%) were partial responders. These patients had significantly lower scores than responders in 5/8 subscales and in the mental health component summary of the 8-item Short Form Health Survey. Partial responders had significantly higher Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, including anxiety and depression scores, than those of responders. Non-erosive reflux disease and double proton pump inhibitor doses were predictive factors of partial responders. Persistent reflux symptoms, despite proton pump inhibitor therapy, caused mental health disorders, sleep disorders, and psychological distress in Japanese gastroesophageal reflux disease patients.

  8. [Physical exercise and mental health: cognition, anxiety, depression and self-concept].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan-Lin; Wang, John; Yao, Jia-Xin; Ji, Cheng-Shu; Dai, Qun; Jin, Ya-Hong

    2014-10-01

    This review focuses on the benefits of regular physical activity participation have mainly focused on cognitive functioning, anxiety and depression, and self-concept. It is well documented that ex- ercise can enhance cognitive functioning, improve executive function at old age, and improve mental abil- ity of children labeled as educational subnormal or disability. Regular exercise has been used to reduce stress and ward off anxiety and feelings of depression. In addition, exercise can improve self-esteem and positive outlook in life. Studies in these three main areas were reviewed and issues and future directions were highlighted. PMID:25764792

  9. [Physical exercise and mental health: cognition, anxiety, depression and self-concept].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan-Lin; Wang, John; Yao, Jia-Xin; Ji, Cheng-Shu; Dai, Qun; Jin, Ya-Hong

    2014-10-01

    This review focuses on the benefits of regular physical activity participation have mainly focused on cognitive functioning, anxiety and depression, and self-concept. It is well documented that ex- ercise can enhance cognitive functioning, improve executive function at old age, and improve mental abil- ity of children labeled as educational subnormal or disability. Regular exercise has been used to reduce stress and ward off anxiety and feelings of depression. In addition, exercise can improve self-esteem and positive outlook in life. Studies in these three main areas were reviewed and issues and future directions were highlighted.

  10. No health without mental health.

    PubMed

    Prince, Martin; Patel, Vikram; Saxena, Shekhar; Maj, Mario; Maselko, Joanna; Phillips, Michael R; Rahman, Atif

    2007-09-01

    About 14% of the global burden of disease has been attributed to neuropsychiatric disorders, mostly due to the chronically disabling nature of depression and other common mental disorders, alcohol-use and substance-use disorders, and psychoses. Such estimates have drawn attention to the importance of mental disorders for public health. However, because they stress the separate contributions of mental and physical disorders to disability and mortality, they might have entrenched the alienation of mental health from mainstream efforts to improve health and reduce poverty. The burden of mental disorders is likely to have been underestimated because of inadequate appreciation of the connectedness between mental illness and other health conditions. Because these interactions are protean, there can be no health without mental health. Mental disorders increase risk for communicable and non-communicable diseases, and contribute to unintentional and intentional injury. Conversely, many health conditions increase the risk for mental disorder, and comorbidity complicates help-seeking, diagnosis, and treatment, and influences prognosis. Health services are not provided equitably to people with mental disorders, and the quality of care for both mental and physical health conditions for these people could be improved. We need to develop and evaluate psychosocial interventions that can be integrated into management of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Health-care systems should be strengthened to improve delivery of mental health care, by focusing on existing programmes and activities, such as those which address the prevention and treatment of HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria; gender-based violence; antenatal care; integrated management of childhood illnesses and child nutrition; and innovative management of chronic disease. An explicit mental health budget might need to be allocated for such activities. Mental health affects progress towards the achievement of several

  11. Cannabis use and mental health-related quality of life among individuals with depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Aspis, Itay; Feingold, Daniel; Weiser, Mark; Rehm, Jurgen; Shoval, Gal; Lev-Ran, Shaul

    2015-12-15

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance among individuals with depressive disorders. This study aimed to evaluate whether among individuals with depressive disorders, higher frequency of cannabis use would be associated with poorer Quality of Life (QoL), based on a large nationally representative US sample. Individuals with depressive disorders (N=3416) were divided into categories according to no use (N=3096), occasional use (less than weekly, N=176) and regular (at least weekly, N=144) use of cannabis in the past 12 months. QoL was assessed using the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) questionnaire. Women who used cannabis regularly had a significantly lower SF-12 Mental Component Summary score (MCS) compared to non-users, with a mean difference of 0.4 Standard Deviations (SDs). Comparison of subscale scores showed no significant differences. No significant difference was noted when comparing women who used cannabis occasionally to non-users. No differences were found among men when comparing MCS and mental subscale scores of both regular and occasional users to non-users. Our findings highlight the importance of taking gender and the frequency of cannabis use into account, when assessing functional and emotional aspects of cannabis use among individuals with depressive disorders.

  12. Cannabis use and mental health-related quality of life among individuals with depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Aspis, Itay; Feingold, Daniel; Weiser, Mark; Rehm, Jurgen; Shoval, Gal; Lev-Ran, Shaul

    2015-12-15

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance among individuals with depressive disorders. This study aimed to evaluate whether among individuals with depressive disorders, higher frequency of cannabis use would be associated with poorer Quality of Life (QoL), based on a large nationally representative US sample. Individuals with depressive disorders (N=3416) were divided into categories according to no use (N=3096), occasional use (less than weekly, N=176) and regular (at least weekly, N=144) use of cannabis in the past 12 months. QoL was assessed using the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) questionnaire. Women who used cannabis regularly had a significantly lower SF-12 Mental Component Summary score (MCS) compared to non-users, with a mean difference of 0.4 Standard Deviations (SDs). Comparison of subscale scores showed no significant differences. No significant difference was noted when comparing women who used cannabis occasionally to non-users. No differences were found among men when comparing MCS and mental subscale scores of both regular and occasional users to non-users. Our findings highlight the importance of taking gender and the frequency of cannabis use into account, when assessing functional and emotional aspects of cannabis use among individuals with depressive disorders. PMID:26388103

  13. An interprofessional nurse-led mental health promotion intervention for older home care clients with depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms in older home care clients are common but poorly recognized and treated, resulting in adverse health outcomes, premature institutionalization, and costly use of health services. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a new six-month interprofessional (IP) nurse-led mental health promotion intervention, and to explore its effects on reducing depressive symptoms in older home care clients (≥ 70 years) using personal support services. Methods A prospective one-group pre-test/post-test study design was used. The intervention was a six-month evidence-based depression care management strategy led by a registered nurse that used an IP approach. Of 142 eligible consenting participants, 98 (69%) completed the six-month and 87 (61%) completed the one-year follow-up. Outcomes included depressive symptoms, anxiety, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and the costs of use of all types of health services at baseline and six-month and one-year follow-up. An interpretive descriptive design was used to explore clients’, nurses’, and personal support workers’ perceptions about the intervention’s appropriateness, benefits, and barriers and facilitators to implementation. Results Of the 142 participants, 56% had clinically significant depressive symptoms, with 38% having moderate to severe symptoms. The intervention was feasible and acceptable to older home care clients with depressive symptoms. It was effective in reducing depressive symptoms and improving HRQoL at six-month follow-up, with small additional improvements six months after the intervention. The intervention also reduced anxiety at one year follow-up. Significant reductions were observed in the use of hospitalization, ambulance services, and emergency room visits over the study period. Conclusions Our findings provide initial evidence for the feasibility, acceptability, and sustained effects of the nurse-led mental health promotion

  14. Positive mental health and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Heather

    2014-09-01

    Based on the Mental Health Continuum Short Form administered in the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health (CCHS-MH), the percentages of Canadians aged 15 or older classified as having flourishing, moderate or languishing mental health were 76.9%, 21.6% and 1.5%, respectively. Compared with estimates for other countries, a higher percentage of Canadians were flourishing. In accordance with the complete mental health model, mental health was also assessed in combination with the presence or absence of mental illness (depression; bipolar disorder; generalized anxiety disorder; alcohol, cannabis or other drug abuse or dependence). An estimated 72.5% of Canadians (19.8 million) were classified as having complete mental health; that is they were flourishing and did not meet the criteria for any of the six past 12-month mental or substance use disorders included in the CCHS-MH. Age, marital status, socio-economic status, spirituality and physical health were associated with complete mental health. Men and women were equally likely to be in complete mental health. PMID:25229895

  15. Effects of Group Drumming Interventions on Anxiety, Depression, Social Resilience and Inflammatory Immune Response among Mental Health Service Users

    PubMed Central

    Fancourt, Daisy; Perkins, Rosie; Ascenso, Sara; Carvalho, Livia A.; Steptoe, Andrew; Williamon, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Growing numbers of mental health organizations are developing community music-making interventions for service users; however, to date there has been little research into their efficacy or mechanisms of effect. This study was an exploratory examination of whether 10 weeks of group drumming could improve depression, anxiety and social resilience among service users compared with a non-music control group (with participants allocated to group by geographical location.) Significant improvements were found in the drumming group but not the control group: by week 6 there were decreases in depression (-2.14 SE 0.50 CI -3.16 to -1.11) and increases in social resilience (7.69 SE 2.00 CI 3.60 to 11.78), and by week 10 these had further improved (depression: -3.41 SE 0.62 CI -4.68 to -2.15; social resilience: 10.59 SE 1.78 CI 6.94 to 14.24) alongside significant improvements in anxiety (-2.21 SE 0.50 CI -3.24 to -1.19) and mental wellbeing (6.14 SE 0.92 CI 4.25 to 8.04). All significant changes were maintained at 3 months follow-up. Furthermore, it is now recognised that many mental health conditions are characterised by underlying inflammatory immune responses. Consequently, participants in the drumming group also provided saliva samples to test for cortisol and the cytokines interleukin (IL) 4, IL6, IL17, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) 1. Across the 10 weeks there was a shift away from a pro-inflammatory towards an anti-inflammatory immune profile. Consequently, this study demonstrates the psychological benefits of group drumming and also suggests underlying biological effects, supporting its therapeutic potential for mental health. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01906892 PMID:26974430

  16. Stress buffering effects of social support on depressive symptoms in middle age: reciprocity and community mental health.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Tohru; Kondo, Tsuyoshi; Sakihara, Seizou; Ariizumi, Makoto; Watanabe, Naoki; Oyama, Hirofumi

    2006-12-01

    Little is known about the association between depression and the buffering effects of social support in mid-life crisis. The aim of this study is to determine the buffering effects of social support on depression concerning middle-aged individuals, while also taking reciprocity and gender differences into careful consideration. A cross-sectional survey of all middle-aged individuals (40-69 years of age) using a large sample (n = 4558) from a community-living population, who resided in Rokunohe town, Aomori prefecture in northern Japan (response rate = 69.8%), was undertaken. This town recently had a lot of suicides. Two-way anova was used to analyze the effects of stressor and social support on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale scores. The authors found a stress buffering effect of social support on the depressive symptoms occurring in middle age, however, a significant difference in the stress buffer effect was only observed in male subjects. Moreover, when the authors take reciprocity into account, the effect of the buffer on depression was found not only in males receiving support but in males providing support as well. In conclusion, pertaining to males, social support reduces depressive symptoms under stressful circumstances in middle age, not only when they receive such support but also when they provide it. Therefore, these findings suggest that reciprocal social support is important for males in relation to community mental health.

  17. Utilization of Professional Mental Health Services Related to Population-Level Screening for Anxiety, Depression, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Among Public High School Students.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, John D; Le, Vi Donna; Baillargeon, Jacques; Temple, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    This study examines results from three mental health screening measures in a cohort of adolescent public school students in seven public schools in Southeast Texas affiliated with the Dating it Safe study. We estimated the odds of receiving professional mental health treatment in the previous year given results from different mental health screening batteries: the CES-D 10 battery for depression screening, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, and the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder screen. Overall, students with higher scores on screening instruments for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and combinations of screening instruments were more likely to have sought past-year professional mental health treatment than non-symptomatic youth. However, the proportion of students screening positive and receiving professional treatment was low, ranging from 11 to 16 %. This study emphasizes the need for broader evaluation of population-based mental health screening among adolescents.

  18. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Correlates of Mental Health Services Use among Pregnant Women with Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jen Jen; Tabet, Maya; Elder, Keith; Kiel, Deborah W; Flick, Louise H

    2016-09-01

    Objectives To examine correlates of lifetime mental health services (MHS) use among pregnant women reporting prenatal depressive symptoms by race/ethnicity. Methods This cross-sectional population-based study included 81,910 pregnant women with prenatal depressive symptoms using data from the Florida Healthy Start prenatal screening program (2008-2012). Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to ascertain adjusted odds ratios and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals for racial/ethnic differences in the correlates of lifetime MHS use. Results Findings of this study revealed racial/ethnic differences in MHS use among women with prenatal depressive symptoms, the highest rates being among non-Hispanic Whites and the lowest rates among Mexicans and other Hispanics. Most need for care factors, including illness, tobacco use, and physical or emotional abuse, consistently predicted MHS use across racial/ethnic groups after adjusting for covariates. Adjusted associations between predisposing and enabling/restricting factors and MHS use were different for different racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions Racial/ethnic differences in MHS use were found, with pregnant Hispanic women reporting prenatal depressive symptoms being the least likely to use MHS. Our study findings have significant public health implications for targeted intervention for pregnant women with prenatal depressive symptoms. PMID:27126445

  19. Self-harm in postpartum depression and referrals to a perinatal mental health team: an audit study.

    PubMed

    Healey, Christine; Morriss, Richard; Henshaw, Carol; Wadoo, Ovais; Sajjad, Aamer; Scholefield, Helen; Kinderman, Peter

    2013-06-01

    There is a paucity of research on self-harm during pregnancy and the postpartum period despite suicide being a leading cause of death and high rates of mental disorder during this time. This audit describes a cohort of women referred to a new perinatal mental health team (PMHT) based in a large maternity hospital in the UK over a 12-month period. The audit was conducted in two stages. Stage one describes the clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of 225 pregnant women referred to the team after screening positive for a significant mental health history. Stage two determines the veracity of data on a subgroup of 73 pregnant women referred for previous postpartum depression (PPD), 58 % of whom disclosed an episode of self-harm with the 'intent to kill themselves' to the maternity staff when they first booked in for antenatal care. Previous PPD accounted for the largest majority of referrals (32 %) to the PMHT followed by depression (27 %) and self-harm (10 %). The majority of women (85 %) referred to the PMHT were engaged. Eight percent were so unwell at the point of referral they required an admission to the hospital. Attempted suicide in the subgroup of 73 women with previous PPD ranged from 24-49 %. The findings from this audit suggest that self-harm in PPD warrants further investigation. PMID:23462983

  20. The Onset of Depression During the Great Recession: Foreclosure and Older Adult Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Cagney, Kathleen A.; Browning, Christopher R.; Iveniuk, James; English, Ned

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined neighborhood-level foreclosure rates and their association with onset of depressive symptoms in older adults. Methods. We linked data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (2005–2006 and 2010–2011 waves), a longitudinal, nationally representative survey, to data on zip code–level foreclosure rates, and predicted the onset of depressive symptoms using logit-linked regression. Results. Multiple stages of the foreclosure process predicted the onset of depressive symptoms, with adjustment for demographic characteristics and changes in household assets, neighborhood poverty, and visible neighborhood disorder. A large increase in the number of notices of default (odds ratio [OR] = 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14, 2.67) and properties returning to ownership by the bank (OR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.06, 2.47) were associated with depressive symptoms. A large increase in properties going to auction was suggestive of such an association (OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 0.96, 2.19). Age, fewer years of education, and functional limitations also were predictive. Conclusions. Increases in neighborhood-level foreclosure represent an important risk factor for depression in older adults. These results accord with previous studies suggesting that the effects of economic crises are typically first experienced through deficits in emotional well-being. PMID:24446830

  1. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and Alzheimer's disease: towards an omega-3 index for mental health?

    PubMed

    Milte, Catherine M; Sinn, Natalie; Howe, Peter R C

    2009-10-01

    Interest in the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly long-chain (LC) omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs, in mental health is increasing. This review investigates whether n-3 PUFA levels are abnormal in people with three prevalent mental health problems - attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and dementia. Data sources included PubMed, Web of Science, and bibliographies of papers published in English that describe PUFA levels in the circulation of individuals who have these mental health conditions. Although abnormal blood PUFA levels were reported in a number of studies, weighted comparisons of PUFA status showed no significant differences overall between people with mental health problems and controls. Whether those with low n-3 PUFA status are likely to be more responsive to n-3 PUFA supplementation is not yet resolved. Further studies assessing PUFA levels and mental status with greater uniformity are required in order to clarify the relationship between LC n-3 PUFA status and mental health.

  2. Insomnia brings soldiers into mental health treatment, predicts treatment engagement, and outperforms other suicide-related symptoms as a predictor of major depressive episodes.

    PubMed

    Hom, Melanie A; Lim, Ingrid C; Stanley, Ian H; Chiurliza, Bruno; Podlogar, Matthew C; Michaels, Matthew S; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M; Silva, Caroline; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    Given the high rates of suicide among military personnel and the need to characterize suicide risk factors associated with mental health service use, this study aimed to identify suicide-relevant factors that predict: (1) treatment engagement and treatment adherence, and (2) suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, and major depressive episodes in a military sample. Army recruiters (N = 2596) completed a battery of self-report measures upon study enrollment. Eighteen months later, information regarding suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, major depressive episodes, and mental health visits were obtained from participants' military medical records. Suicide attempts and suicidal ideation were very rare in this sample; negative binomial regression analyses with robust estimation were used to assess correlates and predictors of mental health treatment visits and major depressive episodes. More severe insomnia and agitation were significantly associated with mental health visits at baseline and over the 18-month study period. In contrast, suicide-specific hopelessness was significantly associated with fewer mental health visits. Insomnia severity was the only significant predictor of major depressive episodes. Findings suggest that assessment of sleep problems might be useful in identifying at-risk military service members who may engage in mental health treatment. Additional research is warranted to examine the predictive validity of these suicide-related symptom measures in a more representative, higher suicide risk military sample. PMID:27218816

  3. Early Cannabis Use and Estimated Risk of Later Onset of Depression Spells: Epidemiologic Evidence From the Population-based World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    PubMed Central

    de Graaf, Ron; Radovanovic, Mirjana; van Laar, Margriet; Fairman, Brian; Degenhardt, Louisa; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Fayyad, John; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Huang, Yueqin; Kostychenko, Stanislav; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Neumark, Yehuda; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Stein, Dan J.; Tachimori, Hisateru; Wells, J. Elisabeth; Anthony, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Early-onset cannabis use is widespread in many countries and might cause later onset of depression. Sound epidemiologic data across countries are missing. The authors estimated the suspected causal association that links early-onset (age <17 years) cannabis use with later-onset (age ≥17 years) risk of a depression spell, using data on 85,088 subjects from 17 countries participating in the population-based World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative (2001–2005). In all surveys, multistage household probability samples were evaluated with a fully structured diagnostic interview for assessment of psychiatric conditions. The association between early-onset cannabis use and later risk of a depression spell was studied using conditional logistic regression with local area matching of cases and controls, controlling for sex, age, tobacco use, and other mental health problems. The overall association was modest (controlled for sex and age, risk ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 1.7), was statistically robust in 5 countries, and showed no sex difference. The association did not change appreciably with statistical adjustment for mental health problems, except for childhood conduct problems, which reduced the association to nonsignificance. This study did not allow differentiation of levels of cannabis use; this issue deserves consideration in future research. PMID:20534820

  4. Depression and Psychological Trauma: An Overview Integrating Current Research and Specific Evidence of Studies in the Treatment of Depression in Public Mental Health Services in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Vitriol, Verónica; Cancino, Alfredo; Weil, Kristina; Salgado, Carolina; Asenjo, Maria Andrea; Potthoff, Soledad

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, different research has demonstrated the high prevalence of childhood trauma, including sexual abuse, among depressive women. These findings are associated with a complex, severe, and chronic psychopathology. This can be explained considering the neurobiological changes secondary to early trauma that can provoke a neuroendocrine failure to compensate in response to challenge. It suggests the existence of a distinguishable clinical-neurobiological subtype of depression as a function of childhood trauma that requires specific treatments. Among women with depression and early trauma receiving treatment in a public mental health service in Chile, it was demonstrated that a brief outpatient intervention (that screened for and focused on childhood trauma and helped patients to understand current psychosocial difficulties as a repetition of past trauma) was effective in reducing psychiatric symptoms and improving interpersonal relationships. However, in this population, this intervention did not prevent posttraumatic stress disorder secondary to the extreme earthquake that occurred in February 2010. Therefore in adults with depression and early trauma, it is necessary to evaluate prolonged multimodal treatments that integrate pharmacotherapy, social support, and interpersonal psychotherapies with trauma focused interventions (specific interventions for specific traumas). PMID:24695633

  5. Teen Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... worthless could be warning signs of a mental health problem. Mental health problems are real, painful, and sometimes severe. You ... things that could harm you or others Mental health problems can be treated. To find help, talk ...

  6. Nutritional Factors Affecting Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Lim, So Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Arang; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals are important factors affecting mental health and the development of psychiatric disorders. Majority of scientific evidence relating to mental health focuses on depression, cognitive function, and dementia, and limited evidence is available about other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As life span of human being is increasing, the more the prevalence of mental disorders is, the more attention rises. Lists of suggested nutritional components that may be beneficial for mental health are omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Saturated fat and simple sugar are considered detrimental to cognitive function. Evidence on the effect of cholesterol is conflicting; however, in general, blood cholesterol levels are negatively associated with the risk of depression. Collectively, the aims of this review are to introduce known nutritional factors for mental health, and to discuss recent issues of the nutritional impact on cognitive function and healthy brain aging. PMID:27482518

  7. Nutritional Factors Affecting Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Lim, So Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Arang; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Hyun Jin; Yang, Soo Jin

    2016-07-01

    Dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals are important factors affecting mental health and the development of psychiatric disorders. Majority of scientific evidence relating to mental health focuses on depression, cognitive function, and dementia, and limited evidence is available about other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As life span of human being is increasing, the more the prevalence of mental disorders is, the more attention rises. Lists of suggested nutritional components that may be beneficial for mental health are omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Saturated fat and simple sugar are considered detrimental to cognitive function. Evidence on the effect of cholesterol is conflicting; however, in general, blood cholesterol levels are negatively associated with the risk of depression. Collectively, the aims of this review are to introduce known nutritional factors for mental health, and to discuss recent issues of the nutritional impact on cognitive function and healthy brain aging. PMID:27482518

  8. Mental Health in Women With Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review on Depression and Hope.

    PubMed

    Oyesanya, Tolu O; Ward, Earlise C

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in women has recently increased from 25% to 40%. Current literature inadequately captures challenges women face after injury, including depression. The limited focus on depression is problematic as rates of depression are increasing simultaneously with rates of TBI. A disabling symptom of depression is lack of hope; thus, depression, comorbid with TBI, leads to disability among women. Unfortunately, depression and hope among women with TBI has yet to be systematically examined. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine and synthesize current literature focusing on women with TBI, comorbid with depression, and hope.

  9. Mental health in hypertension: assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress on anti-hypertensive medication adherence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic conditions like hypertension may experience many negative emotions which increase their risk for the development of mental health disorders particularly anxiety and depression. For Ghanaian patients with hypertension, the interaction between hypertension and symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress remains largely unexplored. To fill this knowledge gap, the study sought to ascertain the prevalence and role of these negative emotions on anti-hypertensive medication adherence while taking into account patients’ belief systems. Methods The hospital-based cross-sectional study involving 400 hypertensive patients was conducted in two tertiary hospitals in Ghana. Data were gathered on patient’s socio-demographic characteristics, anxiety, depression and stress symptoms, spiritual beliefs, and medication adherence. Results Hypertensive patients experienced symptoms of anxiety (56%), stress (20%) and depression (4%). As a coping mechanism, a significant relation was observed between spiritual beliefs and anxiety (x2 = 13.352, p = 0.010), depression (x2 = 6.205, p = 0.045) and stress (x2 = 14.833, p = 0.001). Stress among patients increased their likelihood of medication non-adherence [odds ratio (OR) = 2.42 (95% CI 1.06 – 5.5), p = 0.035]. Conclusion The study has demonstrated the need for clinicians to pay attention to negative emotions and their role in medication non-adherence. The recommendation is that attention should be directed toward the use of spirituality as a possible mechanism by which negative emotions could be managed among hypertensive patients. PMID:24987456

  10. Mental health: everyone's business.

    PubMed

    Dragon, Natalie

    2010-06-01

    Mental health is everyone's business the Australian College of Mental Health Nurses and the Wesley Mission affirmed last month. In the midst of a burgeoning demand for mental health services, the lack of funds allocated to mental health as part of a $7.3 billion health package in the federal budget does not add up.

  11. Mobile Phone and Web-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Depressive Symptoms and Mental Health Comorbidities in People Living With Diabetes: Results of a Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression is often comorbid with diabetes; however, undertreatment of depressive symptoms in people affected is common. Objective We studied preliminary acceptability and effectiveness of a fully automated, mobile phone, and web-based public health intervention, myCompass, for reducing depressive symptoms and improving mental health comorbidities in people with diabetes. Methods In this single-group feasibility study, 89 volunteers with type 1 (n=34) or type 2 (n=55) diabetes and at least mild depressive symptoms used myCompass for 7 weeks. Web-based measures of depressive and anxious symptoms, functional impairment, diabetes-specific variables, and user satisfaction were completed at baseline, postintervention, and 3-month follow-up. Results Retention rates were 54% (n=48) at postintervention and 36% (n=32) at follow-up. Depressive symptoms were significantly improved at postintervention (P<.001; within-group effect size d=1.05), with gains persisting at follow-up. Mental health comorbidities, including anxiety (P<.001), functioning (P<.001), and diabetes-specific distress (P<.001), also showed significant and sustained improvement. Satisfaction with myCompass was high, with convenience and ease of program use, and relevance of program content rated positively by participants. Conclusions The myCompass program shows promise as an acceptable and effective treatment for depression and comorbid mental health problems in people with diabetes. The program is broadly available, free to use, and may benefit patients with diabetes who do not access services and/or wish to manage their mental health themselves. Replication of these findings in a controlled study is warranted. PMID:27245948

  12. Intimate partner violence, depression, PTSD, and use of mental health resources among ethnically diverse black women.

    PubMed

    Sabri, Bushra; Bolyard, Richelle; McFadgion, Akosoa L; Stockman, Jamila K; Lucea, Marguerite B; Callwood, Gloria B; Coverston, Catherine R; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2013-01-01

    This study examined exposure to violence and risk for lethality in intimate partner relationships as factors related to co-occurring MH problems and use of mental health (MH) resources among women of African descent. Black women with intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences (n = 431) were recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in the United States and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Severity of IPV was significantly associated with co-occurring MH problems, but was not associated with the use of MH resources among African-American women. Risk for lethality and co-occurring problems were also not significantly related to the use of resources. African Caribbean women with severe physical abuse experiences were significantly less likely to use resources. In contrast, severity of physical abuse was positively associated with the use of resources among Black women with mixed ethnicity. Severe IPV experiences are risk factors for co-occurring MH problems, which in turn, increases the need for MH services. However, Black women may not seek help for MH problems. Thus, social work practitioners in health care settings must thoroughly assess women for their IPV experiences and develop tailored treatment plans that address their abuse histories and MH needs.

  13. Nonlinear digital signal processing in mental health: characterization of major depression using instantaneous entropy measures of heartbeat dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Valenza, Gaetano; Garcia, Ronald G.; Citi, Luca; Scilingo, Enzo P.; Tomaz, Carlos A; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear digital signal processing methods that address system complexity have provided useful computational tools for helping in the diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of pathologies. More specifically, nonlinear measures have been successful in characterizing patients with mental disorders such as Major Depression (MD). In this study, we propose the use of instantaneous measures of entropy, namely the inhomogeneous point-process approximate entropy (ipApEn) and the inhomogeneous point-process sample entropy (ipSampEn), to describe a novel characterization of MD patients undergoing affective elicitation. Because these measures are built within a nonlinear point-process model, they allow for the assessment of complexity in cardiovascular dynamics at each moment in time. Heartbeat dynamics were characterized from 48 healthy controls and 48 patients with MD while emotionally elicited through either neutral or arousing audiovisual stimuli. Experimental results coming from the arousing tasks show that ipApEn measures are able to instantaneously track heartbeat complexity as well as discern between healthy subjects and MD patients. Conversely, standard heart rate variability (HRV) analysis performed in both time and frequency domains did not show any statistical significance. We conclude that measures of entropy based on nonlinear point-process models might contribute to devising useful computational tools for care in mental health. PMID:25821435

  14. Nonlinear digital signal processing in mental health: characterization of major depression using instantaneous entropy measures of heartbeat dynamics.

    PubMed

    Valenza, Gaetano; Garcia, Ronald G; Citi, Luca; Scilingo, Enzo P; Tomaz, Carlos A; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear digital signal processing methods that address system complexity have provided useful computational tools for helping in the diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of pathologies. More specifically, nonlinear measures have been successful in characterizing patients with mental disorders such as Major Depression (MD). In this study, we propose the use of instantaneous measures of entropy, namely the inhomogeneous point-process approximate entropy (ipApEn) and the inhomogeneous point-process sample entropy (ipSampEn), to describe a novel characterization of MD patients undergoing affective elicitation. Because these measures are built within a nonlinear point-process model, they allow for the assessment of complexity in cardiovascular dynamics at each moment in time. Heartbeat dynamics were characterized from 48 healthy controls and 48 patients with MD while emotionally elicited through either neutral or arousing audiovisual stimuli. Experimental results coming from the arousing tasks show that ipApEn measures are able to instantaneously track heartbeat complexity as well as discern between healthy subjects and MD patients. Conversely, standard heart rate variability (HRV) analysis performed in both time and frequency domains did not show any statistical significance. We conclude that measures of entropy based on nonlinear point-process models might contribute to devising useful computational tools for care in mental health.

  15. MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHAMBERLAIN, IDA

    WEST VIRGINIA IS A RURAL STATE HAVING A LARGE POVERTY STRICKEN POPULATION. SINCE THIS GROUP HAD NO ACCESS TO MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES, THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF MENTAL HEALTH SPONSORED A VISTA PROGRAM IN MENTAL HEALTH AND MENTAL RETARDATION, AND ENCOURAGED THE VOLUNTEERS TO USE THEIR OWN CREATIVITY AND INGENUITY IN PROVIDING SUCH SERVICES AS--(1)…

  16. Inflammatory insults and mental health consequences: does timing matter when it comes to depression?

    PubMed

    Du Preez, A; Leveson, J; Zunszain, P A; Pariante, C M

    2016-07-01

    It has become widely accepted that the immune system, and specifically increased levels of inflammation, play a role in the development of depression. However, not everyone with increased inflammation develops depression, and as with all other diseases, there are risk factors that may contribute to an increased vulnerability in certain individuals. One such risk factor could be the timing of an inflammatory exposure. Here, using a combination of PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid Medline and PsycINFO, we systematically reviewed whether exposure to medically related inflammation in utero, in childhood, and in adolescence, increases the risk for depression in adulthood. Moreover, we tried to determine whether there was sufficient evidence to identify a particular time point during the developmental trajectory in which an immune insult could be more damaging. While animal research shows that early life exposure to inflammation increases susceptibility to anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour, human studies surprisingly find little evidence to support the notion that medically related inflammation in utero and in adolescence contributes to an increased risk of developing depression in later life. However, we did find an association between childhood inflammation and later life depression, with most studies reporting a significantly increased risk of depression in adults who were exposed to inflammation as children. More robust clinical research, measuring direct markers of inflammation throughout the life course, is greatly needed to expand on, and definitively address, the important research questions raised in this review. PMID:27181594

  17. Comparing barriers to mental health treatment and substance use disorder treatment among individuals with comorbid major depression and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Mojtabai, Ramin; Chen, Lian-Yu; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Crum, Rosa M

    2014-02-01

    Barriers to both mental health and substance use disorder treatments have rarely been examined among individuals with comorbid mental health and substance use disorders. In a sample of 393 adults with 12-month major depressive episodes and substance use disorders, we compared perceived barriers to these two types of treatments. Data were drawn from the 2005-2011 U.S. National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Overall, the same individuals experienced different barriers to mental health treatment versus substance use disorder treatment. Concerns about negative views of the community, effects on job, and inconvenience of services were more commonly reported as reasons for not receiving substance use disorder treatment. Not affording the cost of care was the most common barrier to both types of treatments, but more commonly reported as a barrier to mental health treatment. Improved financial access through the Affordable Care Act and parity legislation and integration of mental health and substance use disorder services may help to reduce treatment barriers among individuals with comorbid mental health and substance disorders.

  18. Mindfulness as an Alternative for Supporting University Student Mental Health: Cognitive-Emotional and Depressive Self-Criticism Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azam, Muhammad Abid; Mongrain, Myriam; Vora, Khushboo; Pirbaglou, Meysam; Azargive, Saam; Changoor, Tina; Wayne, Noah; Guglietti, Crissa; Macpherson, Alison; Irvine, Jane; Rotondi, Michael; Smith, Dawn; Perez, Daniel; Ritvo, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Increases in university-based mental health problems require alternative mental health programs, applicable to students with elevated psychological risks due to personality traits. This study examined the cognitive-emotional outcomes of a university mindfulness meditation (MM) program and their relationship with Self-Criticism (SC), a personality…

  19. Strategies to improve anxiety and depression in patients with COPD: a mental health perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tselebis, Athanasios; Pachi, Argyro; Ilias, Ioannis; Kosmas, Epaminondas; Bratis, Dionisios; Moussas, Georgios; Tzanakis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease characterized by progressive and only partially reversible symptoms. Worldwide, the incidence of COPD presents a disturbing continuous increase. Anxiety and depression are remarkably common in COPD patients, but the evidence about optimal approaches for managing psychological comorbidities in COPD remains unclear and largely speculative. Pharmacological treatment based on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors has almost replaced tricyclic antidepressants. The main psychological intervention is cognitive behavioral therapy. Of particular interest are pulmonary rehabilitation programs, which can reduce anxiety and depressive symptoms in these patients. Although the literature on treating anxiety and depression in patients with COPD is limited, we believe that it points to the implementation of personalized strategies to address their psychopathological comorbidities. PMID:26929625

  20. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder among Haitian immigrant students: implications for access to mental health services and educational programming

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies of Haitian immigrant and refugee youth have emphasized "externalizing" behaviors, such as substance use, high risk sexual behavior, and delinquency, with very little information available on "internalizing" symptoms, such as depression and anxiety. Analyzing stressors and "internalizing" symptoms offers a more balanced picture of the type of social and mental health services that may be needed for this population. The present study aims to: 1) estimate the prevalence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Haitian immigrant students; and 2) examine factors associated with depression and PTSD to identify potential areas of intervention that may enhance psychosocial health outcomes among immigrant youth from Haiti in the U.S. Methods A stratified random sample of Haitian immigrant students enrolled in Boston public high schools was selected for participation; 84% agreed to be interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. Diagnosis of depression and PTSD was ascertained using the best estimate diagnosis method. Results The prevalence estimates of depression and PTSD were 14.0% and 11.6%; 7.9% suffered from comorbid PTSD and depression. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated factors most strongly associated with depression (history of father's death, self-report of schoolwork not going well, not spending time with friends) and PTSD (concern for physical safety, having many arguments with parents, history of physical abuse, and lack of safety of neighborhood). Conclusions A significant level of depression and PTSD was observed. Stressors subsequent to immigration, such as living in an unsafe neighborhood and concern for physical safety, were associated with an increased risk of PTSD and should be considered when developing programs to assist this population. Reducing exposure to these stressors and enhancing access to social support and appropriate school-based and mental health services may improve educational

  1. Implementing a knowledge application program for anxiety and depression in community-based primary mental health care: a multiple case study research protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anxiety and depressive disorders are increasingly recognized as a health care policy priority. Reducing the treatment gap for common mental disorders requires strengthening the quality of primary mental health care. We developed a knowledge application program designed to improve the organization and delivery of care for anxiety and depression in community-based primary mental health care teams in Quebec, Canada. The principal objectives of the study are: to implement and evaluate this evidence-based knowledge application program; to examine the contextual factors associated with the selection of local quality improvement strategies; to explore barriers and facilitators associated with the implementation of local quality improvement plans; and to study the implementation of local quality monitoring strategies. Methods The research design is a mixed-methods prospective multiple case study. The main analysis unit (cases) is composed of the six multidisciplinary community-based primary mental health care teams, and each of the cases has identified at least one primary care medical clinic interested in collaborating with the implementation project. The training modules of the program are based on the Chronic Care Model, and the implementation strategies were developed according to the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services conceptual framework. Discussion The implementation of an evidence-based knowledge application program for anxiety and depression in primary care aims to improve the organization and delivery of mental health services. The uptake of evidence to improve the quality of care for common mental disorders in primary care is a complex process that requires careful consideration of the context in which innovations are introduced. The project will provide a close examination of the interplay between evidence, context and facilitation, and contribute to the understanding of factors associated with the process of

  2. Depression or Endocrine Disorder?: What Mental Health Counselors Need to Know about Hypothyroidism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Paula Helen

    1997-01-01

    Describes hypothyroidism, an endocrine disorder characterized by symptoms that resemble those of depression. Discusses features of the disorder, types and grades of hypothyroidism, causes, valuative techniques for the disorder, and implications of hypothyroidism in counseling and in treating patients suffering from this disorder. (RJM)

  3. Smartphone Applications for Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Radovic, Ana; Vona, Pamela L; Santostefano, Antonella M; Ciaravino, Samantha; Miller, Elizabeth; Stein, Bradley D

    2016-07-01

    Many adolescents and adults do not seek treatment for mental health symptoms. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist individuals with mental health concerns in alleviating symptoms or increasing understanding. This study seeks to characterize apps readily available to smartphone users seeking mental health information and/or support. Ten key terms were searched in the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores: mental health, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar, trauma, trauma in schools, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), child trauma, and bullying. A content analysis of the first 20 application descriptions retrieved per category was conducted. Out of 300 nonduplicate applications, 208 (70%) were relevant to search topic, mental health or stress. The most common purported purpose for the apps was symptom relief (41%; n = 85) and general mental health education (18%; n = 37). The most frequently mentioned approaches to improving mental health were those that may benefit only milder symptoms such as relaxation (21%; n = 43). Most app descriptions did not include information to substantiate stated effectiveness of the application (59%; n = 123) and had no mention of privacy or security (89%; n = 185). Due to uncertainty of the helpfulness of readily available mental health applications, clinicians working with mental health patients should inquire about and provide guidance on application use, and patients should have access to ways to assess the potential utility of these applications. Strategic policy and research developments are likely needed to equip patients with applications for mental health, which are patient centered and evidence based. PMID:27428034

  4. Post-conflict mental health needs: a cross-sectional survey of trauma, depression and associated factors in Juba, Southern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Bayard; Damundu, Eliaba Yona; Lomoro, Olivia; Sondorp, Egbert

    2009-01-01

    Background The signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in January 2005 marked the end of the civil conflict in Sudan lasting over 20 years. The conflict was characterised by widespread violence and large-scale forced migration. Mental health is recognised as a key public health issue for conflict-affected populations. Studies revealed high levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst populations from Southern Sudan during the conflict. However, no studies have been conducted on mental health in post-war Southern Sudan. The objective of this study was to measure PTSD and depression in the population in the town of Juba in Southern Sudan; and to investigate the association ofdemographic, displacement, and past and recent trauma exposure variables, on the outcomes of PTSD and depression. Methods A cross-sectional, random cluster survey with a sample of 1242 adults (aged over 18 years) was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Levels of exposure to traumatic events and PTSD were measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (original version), and levels of depression measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse the association ofdemographic, displacement and trauma exposure variables on the outcomes of PTSD and depression. Multivariate logistic regression was also conducted to investigate which demographic and displacement variables were associated with exposure to traumatic events. Results Over one third (36%) of respondents met symptom criteria for PTSD and half (50%) of respondents met symptom criteria for depression. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed strong associations of gender, marital status, forced displacement, and trauma exposure with outcomes of PTSD and depression. Men, IDPs, and refugees and persons displaced more than once were all significantly more likely to have experienced eight or more traumatic events. Conclusion

  5. Depression in Europe: does migrant integration have mental health payoffs? A cross-national comparison of 20 European countries.

    PubMed

    Levecque, Katia; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Depression is a leading cause of ill health and disability. As migrants form an increasing group in Europe, already making up about 8.7% of the population in 2010, knowledge on migrant-related inequalities in depression is of main public health interest. In this study, we first assess whether migrants in Europe are at higher risk for depression compared to the native population. Second, we assess whether the association between migration and depression is dependent on different forms of migrant integration. Migrant integration is looked at both from the individual and from the national level. Design. Hierarchical linear regression analyses based on data for 20 countries in the European Social Survey 2006/2007 (N = 37,076 individuals aged 15 or more). Depression is measured using the center for Epidemiologic Depression Scale. We consider migrant integration over time (first- and second-generation migrants, differentiated according to European Union (EU) or non-EU origin), barriers to integration (low educational level, financial difficulties, being out of the labor market, ethnic minority status, discrimination), and the host country environment (national migrant integration policy). Controls are gender, age, partner relationship, social support, and welfare state regime. Results. Natives and second-generation migrants do not differ significantly in their risk profile for depression. First-generation migrants show higher levels of depression, with those born outside of Europe to be the worst off. This higher risk for depression is not attributable to ethnic minority status but is mainly due to experienced barriers to socioeconomic integration and processes of discrimination. A country's national policy on migrant integration shows not to soften the depressing effect of being a first-generation migrant nor does it have indirect beneficial health effects by reducing barriers to integration. Conclusion. In Europe, first-generation EU and non-EU migrants

  6. Previous mental health service utilization and change in clients' depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Boswell, James F; McAleavey, Andrew A; Castonguay, Louis G; Hayes, Jeffrey A; Locke, Benjamin D

    2012-07-01

    Although a potentially important factor in case conceptualization and treatment planning, the impact of previous treatment on subsequent counseling response has received little empirical attention. Using archival data, this study aimed to (a) report the prevalence of previous treatment utilization in a counseling population, (b) examine potential differences in symptom severity by treatment history, and (c) test whether the rate of change in symptoms over a course of counseling is moderated by previous treatment utilization, when also accounting for initial severity. A sample of 1,262 college students presenting for treatment in university/college counseling centers across the United States provided information on previous treatment history and completed the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms, administered at intake and up to 4 additional time points, with an average of 3-5 weeks between assessments. Data from the 13-item Depression subscale were used for the present study. Half the clients reported previous counseling, one third psychotropic medication, and one tenth psychiatric hospitalization. Previous treatment was associated with increased baseline depressive symptom severity. Results from latent growth curve models showed that previous counseling and medication correlated with a slower rate of symptom response, and previous counseling reduced the probability of being labeled a treatment responder. Previous counseling remained a significant predictor of counseling response when controlling for baseline severity. Hypothesized mechanisms through which previous treatment experience impacts subsequent treatment response remain largely theoretical and should be the focus of future research. PMID:22545802

  7. Mental Health of Young Refugees.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Teena M; Durand, Simone C

    2015-12-01

    Children and adolescents exposed to violence and upheaval of war and relocation are at high risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Rates of PTSD among refugee children may exceed 50%. Additional stressors encountered while adjusting to host cultures add another layer of difficulty. Most refugee children struggling with symptoms of PTSD or depression are never linked with appropriate mental health care resources. Psychiatric nurses can serve a critical function in the identification and treatment of refugee children experiencing PTSD and depression. PMID:26653091

  8. Impact of intimate partner violence on pregnant women's mental health: mental distress and mental strength.

    PubMed

    Rose, Linda; Alhusen, Jeanne; Bhandari, Shreya; Soeken, Karen; Marcantonio, Kristen; Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis

    2010-02-01

    The mental health consequences of living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are substantial. Despite the growing awareness of the incidence of depression and PTSD in women experiencing IPV, few studies have examined prospectively the experience of IPV during pregnancy and the impact of the abuse on women's mental health. As a component of a larger clinical trial of an intervention for pregnant abused women, 27 women participated in a qualitative study of their responses to the abuse in the context of pregnancy and parenting. Results indicate that women's changing perceptions of self was related to mental distress, mental health, or both mental distress and mental health. PMID:20070224

  9. Preferred Features of E-Mental Health Programs for Prevention of Major Depression in Male Workers: Results From a Canadian National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Raymond W; Ho, Kendall; Attridge, Mark; Lashewicz, Bonnie M; Patten, Scott B; Marchand, Alain; Aiken, Alice; Schmitz, Norbert; Gundu, Sarika; Rewari, Nitika; Hodgins, David; Bulloch, Andrew; Merali, Zul

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depression is a prevalent mental disorder and imposes considerable burden on health and productivity. Men are not immune to major depression, yet they often delay seeking help because of perceived stigma and gender norms. E-mental health programs hold potential for early prevention of major depression. However, we have little knowledge about men’s preferences for design features of e-mental health programs. Objectives The objective of this study was to (1) estimate and compare the proportions of Internet use for medical information, preferred design features, and likely use of e-mental health programs; (2) examine factors associated with the likely use of e-mental health programs; and (3) understand potential barriers to the use of e-mental health programs among Canadian working men, who were at high risk of a major depressive episode (MDE). Methods A cross-sectional survey in 10 Canadian provinces was conducted between March and December 2015. Random digit dialing method was used through household landlines and cell phones to collect data from 511 working men who were at high risk of having an MDE and 330 working men who were at low risk of having an MDE. Results High-risk men were more likely to endorse the importance of accessing health resources on the Internet than low-risk men (83.4% vs 75.0%, respectively; P=.01). Of the 17 different features assessed, the top three features most likely to be used by high-risk men were: “information about improving sleep hygiene” (61.3%), “practice and exercise to help reduce symptoms of stress and depression” (59.5%), and “having access to quality information and resources about work stress issues” (57.8%). Compared with men at low risk for MDE, men at high risk for MDE were much more likely to consider using almost every one of the different design features. Differences in preferences for the design features by age among men at high risk of MDE were found only for 3 of 17 features

  10. Reducing depression in older home care clients: design of a prospective study of a nurse-led interprofessional mental health promotion intervention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Very little research has been conducted in the area of depression among older home care clients using personal support services. These older adults are particularly vulnerable to depression because of decreased cognition, comorbid chronic conditions, functional limitations, lack of social support, and reduced access to health services. To date, research has focused on collaborative, nurse-led depression care programs among older adults in primary care settings. Optimal management of depression among older home care clients is not currently known. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of a 6-month nurse-led, interprofessional mental health promotion intervention aimed at older home care clients with depressive symptoms using personal support services. Methods/Design This one-group pre-test post-test study aims to recruit a total of 250 long-stay (> 60 days) home care clients, 70 years or older, with depressive symptoms who are receiving personal support services through a home care program in Ontario, Canada. The nurse-led intervention is a multi-faceted 6-month program led by a Registered Nurse that involves regular home visits, monthly case conferences, and evidence-based assessment and management of depression using an interprofessional approach. The primary outcome is the change in severity of depressive symptoms from baseline to 6 months using the Centre for Epidemiological Studies in Depression Scale. Secondary outcomes include changes in the prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety, health-related quality of life, cognitive function, and the rate and appropriateness of depression treatment from baseline to 12 months. Changes in the costs of use of health services will be assessed from a societal perspective. Descriptive and qualitative data will be collected to examine the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention and identify barriers and facilitators to implementation. Discussion

  11. Disentangling the directions of associations between structural social capital and mental health: Longitudinal analyses of gender, civic engagement and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Landstedt, Evelina; Almquist, Ylva B; Eriksson, Malin; Hammarström, Anne

    2016-08-01

    The present paper analysed the directions of associations between individual-level structural social capital, in the form of civic engagement, and depressive symptoms across time from age 16-42 years in Swedish men and women. More specifically, we asked whether civic engagement was related to changes in depressive symptoms, if it was the other way around, or whether the association was bi-directional. This longitudinal study used data from a 26-year prospective cohort material of 1001 individuals in Northern Sweden (482 women and 519 men). Civic engagement was measured by a single-item question reflecting the level of engagement in clubs/organisations. Depressive symptoms were assessed by a composite index. Directions of associations were analysed by means of gender-separate cross-lagged structural equation models. Models were adjusted for parental social class, parental unemployment, parental health, and family type at baseline (age 16). Levels of both civic engagement and depressive symptoms were relatively stable across time. The model with the best fit to data showed that, in men, youth civic engagement was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in adulthood, thus supporting the hypothesis that involvement in social networks promotes health, most likely through provision of social and psychological support, perceived influence, and sense of belonging. Accordingly, interventions to promote civic engagement in young men could be a way to prevent poor mental health for men later on in life. No cross-lagged effects were found among women. We discuss this gender difference in terms of gendered experiences of civic engagement which in turn generate different meanings and consequences for men and women, such as civic engagement not being as positive for women's mental health as for that of men. We conclude that theories on structural social capital and interventions to facilitate civic engagement for health promoting purposes need to acknowledge gendered life

  12. Disentangling the directions of associations between structural social capital and mental health: Longitudinal analyses of gender, civic engagement and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Landstedt, Evelina; Almquist, Ylva B; Eriksson, Malin; Hammarström, Anne

    2016-08-01

    The present paper analysed the directions of associations between individual-level structural social capital, in the form of civic engagement, and depressive symptoms across time from age 16-42 years in Swedish men and women. More specifically, we asked whether civic engagement was related to changes in depressive symptoms, if it was the other way around, or whether the association was bi-directional. This longitudinal study used data from a 26-year prospective cohort material of 1001 individuals in Northern Sweden (482 women and 519 men). Civic engagement was measured by a single-item question reflecting the level of engagement in clubs/organisations. Depressive symptoms were assessed by a composite index. Directions of associations were analysed by means of gender-separate cross-lagged structural equation models. Models were adjusted for parental social class, parental unemployment, parental health, and family type at baseline (age 16). Levels of both civic engagement and depressive symptoms were relatively stable across time. The model with the best fit to data showed that, in men, youth civic engagement was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in adulthood, thus supporting the hypothesis that involvement in social networks promotes health, most likely through provision of social and psychological support, perceived influence, and sense of belonging. Accordingly, interventions to promote civic engagement in young men could be a way to prevent poor mental health for men later on in life. No cross-lagged effects were found among women. We discuss this gender difference in terms of gendered experiences of civic engagement which in turn generate different meanings and consequences for men and women, such as civic engagement not being as positive for women's mental health as for that of men. We conclude that theories on structural social capital and interventions to facilitate civic engagement for health promoting purposes need to acknowledge gendered life

  13. Brazil's mental health adventure.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This is an account of my trips to Brazil in 2001 where I worked on a series of mental health projects with Brazilian colleagues. I first got interested in Brazil after I graduated from college when I was a Peace Corps volunteer in Northeast Brazil (Bahia state). After I got out of the Peace Corps I moved to Rio de Janeiro and went to work for United Press International (UPI) in their Rio bureau. I was UPI foreign news correspondent for a year and a half. Those years in Brazil were probably the happiest years of my life. Later on, after I became ill in the U.S., my Brazilian connection played an important role in my recovery. Raised in a Victorian family in a small town in the Midwest, and schooled in a traditional boarding school for boys and then at an all men's college, Brazil's lively Latino culture served as a healthy antidote for my tendency to be reserved and often depressed. My contact with Brazilians and Brazilian culture always beckoned me on. I maintained contact with my friends in Brazil and they stuck by me through my illness years. What seemed like my emotional and intellectual "excess" to me, was easily accepted by my Brazilian friends. I felt much more myself interacting with Brazilians and connected to a larger sense of self I developed in Brazil. I traveled to Brazil at every opportunity and made friends with Brazilians I met in the States. I initiated Portuguese classes at John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1990s and then was invited to teach Brazilian culture to undergraduates. These appointments and my own resilience moved me past one depression and a dysthymia condition and into the wider community. I regained my confidence as a teacher, a role I had before and during the years of my illness. From this position, I organized a club for Brazilian students studying in the Cleveland area. After this teaching stint, I felt ready to pursue full time employment and began a job search that would eventually land me in New Haven at

  14. Brazil's mental health adventure.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This is an account of my trips to Brazil in 2001 where I worked on a series of mental health projects with Brazilian colleagues. I first got interested in Brazil after I graduated from college when I was a Peace Corps volunteer in Northeast Brazil (Bahia state). After I got out of the Peace Corps I moved to Rio de Janeiro and went to work for United Press International (UPI) in their Rio bureau. I was UPI foreign news correspondent for a year and a half. Those years in Brazil were probably the happiest years of my life. Later on, after I became ill in the U.S., my Brazilian connection played an important role in my recovery. Raised in a Victorian family in a small town in the Midwest, and schooled in a traditional boarding school for boys and then at an all men's college, Brazil's lively Latino culture served as a healthy antidote for my tendency to be reserved and often depressed. My contact with Brazilians and Brazilian culture always beckoned me on. I maintained contact with my friends in Brazil and they stuck by me through my illness years. What seemed like my emotional and intellectual "excess" to me, was easily accepted by my Brazilian friends. I felt much more myself interacting with Brazilians and connected to a larger sense of self I developed in Brazil. I traveled to Brazil at every opportunity and made friends with Brazilians I met in the States. I initiated Portuguese classes at John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1990s and then was invited to teach Brazilian culture to undergraduates. These appointments and my own resilience moved me past one depression and a dysthymia condition and into the wider community. I regained my confidence as a teacher, a role I had before and during the years of my illness. From this position, I organized a club for Brazilian students studying in the Cleveland area. After this teaching stint, I felt ready to pursue full time employment and began a job search that would eventually land me in New Haven at

  15. Effects of 6-Times-Weekly Versus 3-Times-Weekly Hemodialysis on Depressive Symptoms and Self-reported Mental Health: Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) Trials

    PubMed Central

    Unruh, Mark L.; Larive, Brett; Chertow, Glenn M; Eggers, Paul W.; Garg, Amit X.; Gassman, Jennifer; Tarallo, Maria; Finkelstein, Fredric O.; Kimmel, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis frequently exhibit poor mental health. We studied the effects of frequent in-center and nocturnal hemodialysis on depressive symptoms and self-reported mental health. Study Design 1-year randomized-controlled clinical trials. Setting & Participants Hemodialysis centers in the United States and Canada. A total of 332 patients were randomized to frequent (six times per week) as compared with conventional (three times per week) hemodialysis in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) Daily (n=245) and Nocturnal (n=87) Trials. Intervention Daily Trial was a trial of frequent (six times per week), as compared with conventional (three times per week) in-center hemodialysis. The Nocturnal Trial assigned patients to either frequent nocturnal hemodialysis (six times per week) or conventional hemodialysis (three times per week). Outcomes Self-reported depressive symptoms and mental health. Measurements Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the mental health composite (MHC) score and emotional subscale of the RAND 36-Item Health Survey at baseline, 4 and 12 months. The MHC score is derived by summarizing these domains of the RAND 36-Item Health Survey: emotional, role emotional, energy/fatigue, and social functioning scales. Results In the Daily Trial, subjects randomized to frequent as compared with conventional in-center hemodialysis demonstrated no significant change over 12 months in adjusted mean BDI (−1.9 ± 0.7 vs. −0.6 ± 0.7; p=0.2), but experienced clinically significant improvements in adjusted mean MHC (3.7 ± 0.9 vs. 0.2 ± 1.0; P<0.01) and the emotional subscale (5.2 ± 1.6 vs. −0.3 ± 1.7; p=0.01). In the Nocturnal Trial, there were no significant changes among subjects randomized to nocturnal as compared with conventional hemodialysis on the same metrics. Limitations The trial interventions were not blinded. Conclusions Frequent in-center hemodialysis, as compared with conventional in

  16. Monitoring fluid intake in mental health patients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Daniel

    2016-08-17

    During my second year of nurse training, I had a clinical placement on an acute male psychiatric ward with around 20 male patients. They had a variety of mental health conditions, including depression, bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia. PMID:27533410

  17. Monitoring fluid intake in mental health patients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Daniel

    2016-08-17

    During my second year of nurse training, I had a clinical placement on an acute male psychiatric ward with around 20 male patients. They had a variety of mental health conditions, including depression, bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia.

  18. [Mental health services in Australia].

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Lesage, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Canada is 1.5 times the size of Australia. Australia's population of 20 million is located principally on the east coast. Like Canada, the Australia has a federal system of Government with 5 States and two territories. Each State and territory has its own legislation on mental health. The federal (Commonwealth) Government is responsible for health care planning. In addition, the federal Government subsidizes an insurance program (Medicare) that covers visits to specialists and family physicians, while provincial governments are involved in the provision of hospital care and community mental health services. The Commonwealth government also subsidises the cost of medication through the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. These funds are supplemented by private health insurance. Mental health costs account for 6.5 per cent of all health care costs. Primary care treats the majority of common psychological disorders such as anxiety or depression, while specialist mental health services concentrate on those with severe mental illness. There have been 4 national mental health plans since 1992 with the long term aims of promoting mental health, increasing the quality and responsiveness of services, and creating a consistent approach to mental health service system reform among Australian states and territories. These systematic cycles of planning have first allowed a shift from psychiatric hospitals to community services, from reliance on psychiatric hospitals as pivotal to psychiatric care system. Community care budgets have increased, but overall have decreased with money not following patients; but recent deployment of federally funded through Medicare access to psychotherapy by psychologists for common mental disorders in primary care have increased overall budget. Concerns remain that shift to youth first onset psychosis clinics may come from older long-term psychotic patients, a form of discrimination whilst evidence amount of excess mortality by cardio

  19. [Mental health services in Australia].

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Lesage, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Canada is 1.5 times the size of Australia. Australia's population of 20 million is located principally on the east coast. Like Canada, the Australia has a federal system of Government with 5 States and two territories. Each State and territory has its own legislation on mental health. The federal (Commonwealth) Government is responsible for health care planning. In addition, the federal Government subsidizes an insurance program (Medicare) that covers visits to specialists and family physicians, while provincial governments are involved in the provision of hospital care and community mental health services. The Commonwealth government also subsidises the cost of medication through the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. These funds are supplemented by private health insurance. Mental health costs account for 6.5 per cent of all health care costs. Primary care treats the majority of common psychological disorders such as anxiety or depression, while specialist mental health services concentrate on those with severe mental illness. There have been 4 national mental health plans since 1992 with the long term aims of promoting mental health, increasing the quality and responsiveness of services, and creating a consistent approach to mental health service system reform among Australian states and territories. These systematic cycles of planning have first allowed a shift from psychiatric hospitals to community services, from reliance on psychiatric hospitals as pivotal to psychiatric care system. Community care budgets have increased, but overall have decreased with money not following patients; but recent deployment of federally funded through Medicare access to psychotherapy by psychologists for common mental disorders in primary care have increased overall budget. Concerns remain that shift to youth first onset psychosis clinics may come from older long-term psychotic patients, a form of discrimination whilst evidence amount of excess mortality by cardio

  20. Subjective Versus Objective: An Exploratory Analysis of Latino Primary Care Patients With Self-Perceived Depression Who Do Not Fulfill Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire Criteria for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Alvidrez, Jennifer; Paris, Manuel; Escobar, Javier I.; Dixon, Jane K.; Desai, Mayur M.; Whittemore, Robin; Scahill, Lawrence D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Identification and treatment of depression may be difficult for primary care providers when there is a mismatch between the patient's subjective experiences of illness and objective criteria. Cultural differences in presentation of symptoms among Latino immigrants may hinder access to care for treatment of depression. This article seeks to describe the self-perceptions and symptoms of Latino primary care patients who identify themselves as depressed but do not meet screening criteria for depression. Method: A convenience sample of Latino immigrants (N = 177) in Corona, Queens, New York, was obtained from a primary care practice from August 2008 to December 2008. The sample was divided into 3 groups according to whether participants met Patient Health Questionnaire diagnostic criteria for depression and whether or not participants had a self-perceived mental health problem and self-identified their problem as “depression” from a checklist of cultural idioms of distress. Psychosocial, demographic, and treatment variables were compared between the 3 groups. Results: Participants’ descriptions of symptoms had a predominantly somatic component. The most common complaints were ánimo bajo (low energy) and decaimiento (weakness). Participants with “subjective” depression had mean scores of somatic symptoms and depression severity that were significantly lower than the participants with “objective” depression and significantly higher than the group with no depression (P < .0001). Conclusions: Latino immigrants who perceive that they need help with depression, but do not meet screening criteria for depression, still have significant distress and impairment. To avoid having these patients “fall through the cracks,” it is important to take into account culturally accepted expressions of distress and the meaning of illness for the individual. PMID:21274360

  1. Debt trajectories and mental health.

    PubMed

    Hojman, Daniel A; Miranda, Álvaro; Ruiz-Tagle, Jaime

    2016-10-01

    In the last few decades, there was a marked increase in consumer debt in the United States, Latin America and other emerging countries, spurring a debate about the real costs and benefits of household credit. Using a unique longitudinal dataset with detailed health and balance sheet information from a large sample of 10,900 Chilean households we study the relationship between debt trajectories in a three-year time window and mental health. We find that depressive symptoms are higher for those who have been persistently over-indebted, followed by those who transit from moderate to high debt levels. We also find that those who transition from over-indebtedness to moderate debt levels have no additional depressive symptoms compared to those with trajectories of moderate debt throughout (never over-indebted). This suggests that the debt-related contribution to depressive symptoms vanishes as debt levels fall. The association between debt and depressive symptoms seems to be driven by non-mortgage debt -primarily consumer credit- or late mortgage payments; secured debt (secured by collateral) per se is not associated with depressive symptoms. Policy interventions to reduce the negative association of over-indebtedness on mental health are discussed. PMID:27598550

  2. Debt trajectories and mental health.

    PubMed

    Hojman, Daniel A; Miranda, Álvaro; Ruiz-Tagle, Jaime

    2016-10-01

    In the last few decades, there was a marked increase in consumer debt in the United States, Latin America and other emerging countries, spurring a debate about the real costs and benefits of household credit. Using a unique longitudinal dataset with detailed health and balance sheet information from a large sample of 10,900 Chilean households we study the relationship between debt trajectories in a three-year time window and mental health. We find that depressive symptoms are higher for those who have been persistently over-indebted, followed by those who transit from moderate to high debt levels. We also find that those who transition from over-indebtedness to moderate debt levels have no additional depressive symptoms compared to those with trajectories of moderate debt throughout (never over-indebted). This suggests that the debt-related contribution to depressive symptoms vanishes as debt levels fall. The association between debt and depressive symptoms seems to be driven by non-mortgage debt -primarily consumer credit- or late mortgage payments; secured debt (secured by collateral) per se is not associated with depressive symptoms. Policy interventions to reduce the negative association of over-indebtedness on mental health are discussed.

  3. The role of daily mobility in mental health inequalities: the interactive influence of activity space and neighbourhood of residence on depression.

    PubMed

    Vallée, Julie; Cadot, Emmanuelle; Roustit, Christelle; Parizot, Isabelle; Chauvin, Pierre

    2011-10-01

    The literature reports an association between neighbourhood deprivation and individual depression after adjustment for individual factors. The present paper investigates whether vulnerability to neighbourhood features is influenced by individual "activity space" (i.e., the space within which people move about or travel in the course of their daily activities). It can be assumed that a deprived residential environment can exert a stronger influence on the mental health of people whose activity space is limited to their neighbourhood of residence, since their exposure to their neighbourhood would be greater. Moreover, we studied the relationship between activity space size and depression. A limited activity space could indeed reflect spatial and social confinement and thus be associated with a higher risk of being depressed, or, conversely, it could be linked to a deep attachment to the neighbourhood of residence and thus be associated with a lower risk of being depressed. Multilevel logistic regression analyses of a representative sample consisting of 3011 inhabitants surveyed in 2005 in the Paris, France metropolitan area and nested within 50 census blocks showed, after adjusting for individual-level variables, that people living in deprived neighbourhoods were significantly more depressed that those living in more advantaged neighbourhoods. We also observed a statistically significant cross-level interaction between activity space and neighbourhood deprivation, as they relate to depression. Living in a deprived neighbourhood had a stronger and statistically significant effect on depression in people whose activity space was limited to their neighbourhood than in those whose daily travels extended beyond it. In addition, a limited activity space appeared to be a protective factor with regard to depression for people living in advantaged neighbourhoods and a risk factor for those living in deprived neighbourhoods. It could therefore be useful to take activity space

  4. Does Interpersonal Psychotherapy improve clinical care for adolescents with depression attending a rural child and adolescent mental health service? Study protocol for a cluster randomised feasibility trial

    PubMed Central

    Bearsley-Smith, Cate; Browne, Mark Oakley; Sellick, Ken; Villanueva, Elmer V; Chesters, Janice; Francis, Karen; Reddy, Prasuna

    2007-01-01

    Background Depression amongst adolescents is a costly societal problem. Little research documents the effectiveness of public mental health services in mapping this problem. Further, it is not clear whether usual care in such services can be improved via clinician training in a relevant evidence based intervention. One such intervention, found to be effective and easily learned amongst novice clinicians, is Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT). The study described in the current paper has two main objectives. First, it aims to investigate the impact on clinical care of implementing Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Adolescents for the treatment of adolescent depression within a rural mental health service compared with Treatment as Usual (TAU). The second objective is to record the process and challenges (i.e. feasibility, acceptability, sustainability) associated with implementing and evaluating an evidence-based intervention within a community service. This paper outlines the study rationale and design for this community based research trial. Methods/design The study involves a cluster randomisation trial to be conducted within a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service in rural Australia. All clinicians in the service will be invited to participate. Participating clinicians will be randomised via block design at each of four sites to (a) training and delivery of IPT, or (b) TAU. The primary measure of impact on care will be a clinically significant change in depressive symptomatology, with secondary outcomes involving treatment satisfaction and changes in other symptomatology. Participating adolescents with significant depressive symptomatology, aged 12 to 18 years, will complete assessment measures at Weeks 0, 12 and 24 of treatment. They will also complete a depression inventory once a month during that period. This study aims to recruit 60 adolescent participants and their parent/guardian/s. A power analysis is not indicated as an intra-class correlation

  5. A collaborative approach to identifying effective incentives for mental health clinicians to improve depression care in a large managed behavioral healthcare organization.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Lisa S; Branstrom, Robert B; Azocar, Francisca; Fikes, Ruth; Ettner, Susan L

    2011-05-01

    This descriptive study used stakeholder input to prioritize evidence-based strategies for improving depression care and to select incentives for mental health clinicians to adopt those strategies, and to conduct a feasibility test of an incentive-based program in a managed behavioral healthcare organization (MBHO). In two rounds of interviews and a stakeholder meeting, MBHO administrators and clinicians selected increasing combination treatment (antidepressant plus psychotherapy) rates as the program goal; and paying a bonus for case reviews, clinician feedback, and clinician education as incentives. We assessed program feasibility with case review and clinician surveys from a large independent practice association that contracts with the MBHO. Findings suggest that providing incentives for mental health clinicians is feasible and the incentive program did increase awareness. However, adoption may be challenging because of administrative barriers and limited clinical data available to MBHOs. PMID:20957427

  6. A collaborative approach to identifying effective incentives for mental health clinicians to improve depression care in a large managed behavioral healthcare organization

    PubMed Central

    Branstrom, Robert B.; Fikes, Ruth; Azocar, Francisca; Ettner, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive study used stakeholder input to prioritize evidence-based strategies for improving depression care and to select incentives for mental health clinicians to adopt those strategies, and to conduct a feasibility test of an incentive-based program in a managed behavioral healthcare organization (MBHO). In two rounds of interviews and a stakeholder meeting, MBHO administrators and clinicians selected increasing combination treatment (antidepressant plus psychotherapy) rates as the program goal; and paying a bonus for case reviews, clinician feedback, and clinician education as incentives. We assessed program feasibility with case review and clinician surveys from a large independent practice association that contracts with the MBHO. Findings suggest that providing incentives for mental health clinicians is feasible and the incentive program did increase awareness. However, adoption may be challenging because of administrative barriers and limited clinical data available to MBHOs. PMID:20957427

  7. Mental health literacy: a cross-cultural approach to knowledge and beliefs about depression, schizophrenia and generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Altweck, Laura; Marshall, Tara C; Ferenczi, Nelli; Lefringhausen, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Many families worldwide have at least one member with a behavioral or mental disorder, and yet the majority of the public fails to correctly recognize symptoms of mental illness. Previous research has found that Mental Health Literacy (MHL)-the knowledge and positive beliefs about mental disorders-tends to be higher in European and North American cultures, compared to Asian and African cultures. Nonetheless quantitative research examining the variables that explain this cultural difference remains limited. The purpose of our study was fourfold: (a) to validate measures of MHL cross-culturally, (b) to examine the MHL model quantitatively, (c) to investigate cultural differences in the MHL model, and (d) to examine collectivism as a predictor of MHL. We validated measures of MHL in European American and Indian samples. The results lend strong quantitative support to the MHL model. Recognition of symptoms of mental illness was a central variable: greater recognition predicted greater endorsement of social causes of mental illness and endorsement of professional help-seeking as well as lesser endorsement of lay help-seeking. The MHL model also showed an overwhelming cultural difference; namely, lay help-seeking beliefs played a central role in the Indian sample, and a negligible role in the European American sample. Further, collectivism was positively associated with causal beliefs of mental illness in the European American sample, and with lay help-seeking beliefs in the Indian sample. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding cultural differences in beliefs about mental illness, particularly in relation to help-seeking beliefs.

  8. Mental health literacy: a cross-cultural approach to knowledge and beliefs about depression, schizophrenia and generalized anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Altweck, Laura; Marshall, Tara C.; Ferenczi, Nelli; Lefringhausen, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Many families worldwide have at least one member with a behavioral or mental disorder, and yet the majority of the public fails to correctly recognize symptoms of mental illness. Previous research has found that Mental Health Literacy (MHL)—the knowledge and positive beliefs about mental disorders—tends to be higher in European and North American cultures, compared to Asian and African cultures. Nonetheless quantitative research examining the variables that explain this cultural difference remains limited. The purpose of our study was fourfold: (a) to validate measures of MHL cross-culturally, (b) to examine the MHL model quantitatively, (c) to investigate cultural differences in the MHL model, and (d) to examine collectivism as a predictor of MHL. We validated measures of MHL in European American and Indian samples. The results lend strong quantitative support to the MHL model. Recognition of symptoms of mental illness was a central variable: greater recognition predicted greater endorsement of social causes of mental illness and endorsement of professional help-seeking as well as lesser endorsement of lay help-seeking. The MHL model also showed an overwhelming cultural difference; namely, lay help-seeking beliefs played a central role in the Indian sample, and a negligible role in the European American sample. Further, collectivism was positively associated with causal beliefs of mental illness in the European American sample, and with lay help-seeking beliefs in the Indian sample. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding cultural differences in beliefs about mental illness, particularly in relation to help-seeking beliefs. PMID:26441699

  9. Religion and mental health

    PubMed Central

    Behere, Prakash B.; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, the relation between religion and mental health and vice versa has been described. From primitive times different religions have different beliefs and systems of worshipping. Every religion with their belief system has implications on mental health and illness. We described how Hindu system of beliefs and rituals may have an effect in causation of various mental illnesses. It is also described how religion can help an individual to sustain one's life in various domains. The relationship between different religion and symptomatology is described. The impact and outcome of religion on mental health have been highlighted. PMID:23858253

  10. Evidence in mental health.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Susan Mace

    2014-12-01

    Health practitioners wishing to positively improve health outcomes for their clients have access to a unique set of collated tools to guide their practice. Systematic reviews provide guidance in the form of synthesized evidence that can form the basis of decision making as they provide care for their clients. This article describes systematic reviews as a basis for informed decision making by mental health practitioners. The process of systematic review is discussed, examples of existing systematic review topics relevant to mental health are presented, a sample systematic review is described, and gaps and emerging topics for mental health systematic reviews are addressed.

  11. Potential long-term effects of a mind-body intervention for women with major depressive disorder: sustained mental health improvements with a pilot yoga intervention.

    PubMed

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Elswick, R K; Kornstein, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Despite pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic advances over the past decades, many individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience recurrent depressive episodes and persistent depressive symptoms despite treatment with the usual care. Yoga is a mind-body therapeutic modality that has received attention in both the lay and research literature as a possible adjunctive therapy for depression. Although promising, recent findings about the positive mental health effects of yoga are limited because few studies have used standardized outcome measures and none of them have involved long-term follow-up beyond a few months after the intervention period. The goal of our research study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of a yoga intervention for women with MDD using standardized outcome measures and a long follow-up period (1year after the intervention). The key finding is that previous yoga practice has long-term positive effects, as revealed in both qualitative reports of participants' experiences and in the quantitative data about depression and rumination scores over time. Although generalizability of the study findings is limited because of a very small sample size at the 1-year follow-up assessment, the trends in the data suggest that exposure to yoga may convey a sustained positive effect on depression, ruminations, stress, anxiety, and health-related quality of life. Whether an individual continues with yoga practice, simple exposure to a yoga intervention appears to provide sustained benefits to the individual. This is important because it is rare that any intervention, pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic, for depression conveys such sustained effects for individuals with MDD, particularly after the treatment is discontinued.

  12. Potential long-term effects of a mind-body intervention for women with major depressive disorder: sustained mental health improvements with a pilot yoga intervention.

    PubMed

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Elswick, R K; Kornstein, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Despite pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic advances over the past decades, many individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience recurrent depressive episodes and persistent depressive symptoms despite treatment with the usual care. Yoga is a mind-body therapeutic modality that has received attention in both the lay and research literature as a possible adjunctive therapy for depression. Although promising, recent findings about the positive mental health effects of yoga are limited because few studies have used standardized outcome measures and none of them have involved long-term follow-up beyond a few months after the intervention period. The goal of our research study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of a yoga intervention for women with MDD using standardized outcome measures and a long follow-up period (1year after the intervention). The key finding is that previous yoga practice has long-term positive effects, as revealed in both qualitative reports of participants' experiences and in the quantitative data about depression and rumination scores over time. Although generalizability of the study findings is limited because of a very small sample size at the 1-year follow-up assessment, the trends in the data suggest that exposure to yoga may convey a sustained positive effect on depression, ruminations, stress, anxiety, and health-related quality of life. Whether an individual continues with yoga practice, simple exposure to a yoga intervention appears to provide sustained benefits to the individual. This is important because it is rare that any intervention, pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic, for depression conveys such sustained effects for individuals with MDD, particularly after the treatment is discontinued. PMID:25457687

  13. Valuing mental health staff.

    PubMed

    2016-09-21

    Ben Thomas is the mental health, learning disabilities and dementia care professional officer at the Department of Health (DH). He has held senior clinical, academic and management posts in England and Australia, and was a director of nursing. Before working at the DH, Ben was head of mental health and learning disabilities at the National Patient Safety Agency. He is a member of the RCNi editorial board. PMID:27654559

  14. Religion, Senescence, and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Van Ness, Peter H.; Larson, David B.

    2015-01-01

    The authors review epidemiological and survey research relevant to the relationships between religiousness/spirituality and mental health in people at the end of life, with the end of helping psychiatrists, psychologists, and other mental health professionals dealing with older Americans. They give special attention to well-being, religious coping, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety, depression, and suicide, and consider the extent to which hope is a mediator of the purported salutary effects of religiousness. Studies were selected from the comprehensive and systematic review of 20th-century scientific literature concerning religion and health. Authors also review current studies relevant to religion and end-of-life issues. Religious persons reported generally higher levels of well-being. The review also found fairly consistent inverse associations of religiousness with rates of depression and suicide. There was some negative association between religious participation and cognitive dysfunction, but the association with anxiety was inconsistent, with some studies showing a correlation between higher levels of religion and anxiety. Religion’s effects on mental health are generally protective in direction but modest in strength. PMID:12095898

  15. MENTAL HEALTH DIRECTORY, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    YOLLES, STANLEY F.; AND OTHERS

    THE DIRECTORY IS INTENDED AS A REFERENCE GUIDE TO MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAMS AND SERVICES THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES. IT IS ORGANIZED INTO A FEDERAL SECTION AND A STATE AND COMMUNITY SECTION, EACH OF WHICH IS PRECEDED BY AN INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT CONCERNING THE LISTINGS IN THAT SECTION. ADDRESSES AND SHORT DESCRIPTIONS OF THE MAJOR MENTAL HEALTH…

  16. Physical activity and mental health: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Paluska, S A; Schwenk, T L

    2000-03-01

    Physical activity may play an important role in the management of mild-to-moderate mental health diseases, especially depression and anxiety. Although people with depression tend to be less physically active than non-depressed individuals, increased aerobic exercise or strength training has been shown to reduce depressive symptoms significantly. However, habitual physical activity has not been shown to prevent the onset of depression. Anxiety symptoms and panic disorder also improve with regular exercise, and beneficial effects appear to equal meditation or relaxation. In general, acute anxiety responds better to exercise than chronic anxiety. Studies of older adults and adolescents with depression or anxiety have been limited, but physical activity appears beneficial to these populations as well. Excessive physical activity may lead to overtraining and generate psychological symptoms that mimic depression. Several differing psychological and physiological mechanisms have been proposed to explain the effect of physical activity on mental health disorders. Well controlled studies are needed to clarify the mental health benefits of exercise among various populations and to address directly processes underlying the benefits of exercise on mental health.

  17. Health policy and mental health.

    PubMed

    Dekker, E

    1987-01-01

    Health policy can be described as policy directed at the determinants of health, i.e. biological and environmental factors, lifestyle and the health care system. This type of policy now has become a policy objective in an increasing number of countries. In this article mental health is placed in the broad context of this policy. The central question is: can the mental health field grasp the opportunity of a growing interest in prevention and health promotion in general, as major objectives of health policy? Or will it stay more or less isolated from the mainstream of current developments? Answering this question means looking at the conditions of health policy. For health policy it is required that a definition be given of health problems and "causing" conditions. There should further be available intervention possibilities of a preventive and intersectoral character and also preventive strategies. It is stated that there is enough standardized information on mental health problems and experience with community-based research to let mental health participate in drawing up a community diagnosis. It also appears possible to construct an ecological health status model for mental health. Research on the factors in this model shows a shift in focus from risk populations to risk situations, e.g. unemployment, industrial disability, divorce and isolation. Further it is recognized that the search for causal factors is substituted by that for precipitating factors. Social-demographic factors, taken alone, are not precipitating factors. What matters is the combination of an underdeveloped coping mechanism, little social support, and prolonged stressful conditions or sudden stressful events.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10287174

  18. Mental health for nations.

    PubMed

    Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-08-01

    Mental ill health is a universal phenomenon: that is, it is seen across all cultures and societies, even though the presentation may be culture-specific and affected by cultural norms and more. Governments have a moral and ethical duty to develop mental health services which are accessible, appropriate, and non-discriminatory. Equity in funding mental health services is critical. As globally services and their quality vary dramatically, one should be proposing and agreeing on minimum standards of care. In this paper the basic components and minimum standards of care are described. It is imperative that services are non-discriminatory. It is important that governments work with psychiatrists, other mental health professionals, and individuals with mental illness, their families, and carers to plan, develop, and deliver services with adequate funding. Employers and psychological first aid must also be remembered. Services must be geographically accessible. In this endeavour primary care services have a major role to play. Training and clinical decision-making must be part of the change in service delivery. It is imperative that every effort is made to keep the population mentally as well as physically healthy, and people who develop mental illness must have access to evidence-based treatment at the earliest possible opportunity. PMID:27686156

  19. Self versus Others' Perception of Youths' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viviano, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Data was analyzed in the National Longitudinal Survey Study from 1997 specifically relating to questions regarding depression in youth. In the analysis it was found that how the respondent defined their own depression and poor mental health was different than the perceptions about their mental health from those that live with them in the same…

  20. What about the mental health of adults?

    PubMed

    Maeda, Masaharu; Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji; Abe, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression have surfaced and are affecting many residents in Fukushima prefecture as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent nuclear disaster. It has also been reported that such mental health problems appeared and persisted after large-scale nuclear accidents in the past, such as the Chernobyl and Three Mile Island accidents, widely affecting the disaster victims. PMID:25747615

  1. Depressed but not legally mentally impaired.

    PubMed

    Wondemaghen, Meron

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the mental impairment (insanity) defense in the Australian state of Victoria and argues that the defense is successful only when offenders suffer from psychotic mental illnesses. This raises the question about how non-psychotic offenders are dealt with by the courts when they claim 'mental impairment' for serious acts of violence such as homicide, particularly when a relatively large number of perpetrators involved in homicide suffer from non-psychotic illnesses like depression. The analysis shows that depressive illnesses do not reach the threshold for mental impairment (legal insanity) such that they mitigate violent criminal behavior, although they can, arguably, diminish culpability. This article draws upon existing literature, qualitative analysis of two court cases and semi-structured interviews with four legal representatives to make its conclusions.

  2. Depressed but not legally mentally impaired.

    PubMed

    Wondemaghen, Meron

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the mental impairment (insanity) defense in the Australian state of Victoria and argues that the defense is successful only when offenders suffer from psychotic mental illnesses. This raises the question about how non-psychotic offenders are dealt with by the courts when they claim 'mental impairment' for serious acts of violence such as homicide, particularly when a relatively large number of perpetrators involved in homicide suffer from non-psychotic illnesses like depression. The analysis shows that depressive illnesses do not reach the threshold for mental impairment (legal insanity) such that they mitigate violent criminal behavior, although they can, arguably, diminish culpability. This article draws upon existing literature, qualitative analysis of two court cases and semi-structured interviews with four legal representatives to make its conclusions. PMID:24268825

  3. Atheism and mental health.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of the impact of religiosity on mental health is an enduring, if somewhat quiet, tradition. There has been virtually no exploration, however, of the influence of atheism on mental health. Though not a "religion," atheism can be an orienting worldview that is often consciously chosen by its adherents, who firmly believe in the "truth" of atheism-a phenomenon known as "positive atheism." Atheism, especially positive atheism, is currently enjoying something of a renaissance in the Western liberal democracies-a trend often referred to as the "new atheism." I argue that atheism, especially positive atheism, should be treated as a meaningful sociocultural variable in the study of mental health. I argue that atheism (just like theism) is an appropriate domain of study for social and cultural psychiatrists (and allied social scientists) interested in exploring socio-environmental stressors and buffers relating to mental health. Specifically, I argue that (1) atheism needs to be accurately measured as an individual-level exposure variable, with the aim of relating that variable to psychiatric outcomes, (2) there needs to be greater systematic investigation into the influence of atheism on psychiatry as an institution, and (3) the relation of atheism to mental health needs to be explored by examining atheistic theory and its practical application, especially as it relates to the human condition, suffering, and concepts of personhood.

  4. Mental Health, Racism, and Sexism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others

    This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…

  5. Understanding the Usage of Content in a Mental Health Intervention for Depression: An Analysis of Log Data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Web-based interventions for the early treatment of depressive symptoms can be considered effective in reducing mental complaints. However, there is a limited understanding of which elements in an intervention contribute to effectiveness. For efficiency and effectiveness of interventions, insight is needed into the use of content and persuasive features. Objective The aims of this study were (1) to illustrate how log data can be used to understand the uptake of the content of a Web-based intervention that is based on the acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and (2) to discover how log data can be of value for improving the incorporation of content in Web-based interventions. Methods Data from 206 participants (out of the 239) who started the first nine lessons of the Web-based intervention, Living to the Full, were used for a secondary analysis of a subset of the log data of the parent study about adherence to the intervention. The log files used in this study were per lesson: login, start mindfulness, download mindfulness, view success story, view feedback message, start multimedia, turn on text-message coach, turn off text-message coach, and view text message. Differences in usage between lessons were explored with repeated measures ANOVAs (analysis of variance). Differences between groups were explored with one-way ANOVAs. To explore the possible predictive value of the login per lesson quartiles on the outcome measures, four linear regressions were used with login quartiles as predictor and with the outcome measures (Center for Epidemiologic Studies—Depression [CES-D] and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale—Anxiety [HADS-A] on post-intervention and follow-up) as dependent variables. Results A significant decrease in logins and in the use of content and persuasive features over time was observed. The usage of features varied significantly during the treatment process. The usage of persuasive features increased during the third part of the

  6. The Relationship of Parental Mental Health and Dietary Pattern With Adolescent Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Mesgarani, Mohsen; Hosseinbor, Mohsen; Shafiee, Shahla; Sarkoubi, Roghayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Today, ensuring people’s health and well-being has become a concern for societies. Health status results from an interaction of an individuals’ various psychological, social, and physical aspects. Objectives This study aims to investigate the relationship of parental mental health and dietary pattern with adolescent mental health. Patients and Methods In this study, 250 high school students in Shiraz were selected using random cluster sampling. The samples were analyzed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Results According to the findings, parental mental health explains 22% of the variance in children’s mental health, so that in simultaneous regression, physical dimensions, anxiety, social functioning, and depression predicted 13%, 24%, 11%, and 24% of the variance of criterion variables, respectively. No significant relationship was observed between dietary pattern and adolescent mental health dimensions. There was a significant negative relationship only between depression and vegetable intake. Moreover, fruit (r = 0.15, P < 0.05) and vegetable (r = 0.16, P < 0.05) intake had a significant relationship with parental mental health dimensions. Conclusions Parents’ mental health and their psychological characteristics can be related to children’s mental health and affect their dietary intake patterns. PMID:27218068

  7. Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Pregnant Women’s Mental Health: Mental Distress and Mental Strength

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Linda; Alhusen, Jeanne; Bhandari, Shreya; Soeken, Karen; Marcantonio, Kristen; Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis

    2011-01-01

    The mental health consequences of living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are substantial. Despite the growing awareness of the incidence of depression and PTSD in women experiencing IPV, few studies have examined prospectively the experience of IPV during pregnancy and the impact of the abuse on women’s mental health. As a component of a larger clinical trial of an intervention for pregnant abused women, 27 women participated in a qualitative study of their responses to the abuse in the context of pregnancy and parenting. Results indicate that women’s changing perceptions of self was related to mental distress, mental health, or both mental distress and mental health. PMID:20070224

  8. Mental health and welfare in Australian anaesthetists.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, N J; Kaye, R M; Hood, S; Shrivastava, P; Khursandi, D C S

    2013-09-01

    This survey was designed to evaluate the factors affecting mental health and welfare in Australian anaesthetists and to investigate current sources of support. An electronic survey was sent to 500 randomly selected Fellows and trainees of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists. Questions were related to: anxiety, stress, depression, substance misuse, self-medication, suicide, reporting illness, and help-seeking. Current psychological wellbeing was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). A total of 191 completed surveys were received (a response rate of 38%): 26% had attended their general practitioner for mental health issues, of whom half had been diagnosed with a mental illness; 7% of all respondents were currently prescribed medication for this; 25% had previously self-prescribed psychoactive medication; 17% admitted to using alcohol to deal with stress, anxiety or depression; and 8% responded that mental illness had at some point impaired clinical care. Sixteen percent of all respondents reported previous suicidal ideation. Despite a low response rate, and the possibility of responder bias, the mental health of Australian anaesthetists would appear to be subject to common and persistent risk factors, many of which are well described in previous studies. We identify general practitioners as particularly valuable in targeting initiatives for improvements in mental health and welfare. The significant prevalence of suicidal ideation and reluctance to approach senior colleagues with concerns about mental health or welfare issues are specific causes for concern and suggest that further investigation, education and a potential review of support networks is required.

  9. HIV and Elevated Mental Health Problems: Diagnostic, Treatment, and Risk Patterns for Symptoms of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in a National Community-Based Cohort of Gay Men Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Heywood, Wendy; Lyons, Anthony

    2016-08-01

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) have almost double the risk of depression than the rest of the population, and depression and anxiety among PLHIV have been linked with greater disease progression and other physical health problems. Studies to date, however, have focused almost exclusively on depression or general mental health. Much less research has investigated predictors of anxiety and generalized stress among HIV-positive gay men. This paper reports findings from a national community-based sample of 357 HIV-positive Australians gay men aged 18 years and older. Participants reported elevated rates of depression, anxiety, and generalized stress symptoms. A significant proportion of men with elevated depression and anxiety symptoms were not receiving treatment or had not been diagnosed. Risk factors for elevated mental health concerns included experiences of internalized stigma and discrimination. Anxiety was also associated with lower T-cell CD4 counts. A key protective factor was access to social support. The type of support, in particular emotional support, was found to be more important than the source of support. Our findings suggest that greater emphasis is needed on mental health screening and the provision of emotional support for PLHIV.

  10. Lifestyle and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Mental health professionals have significantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle factors (a) as contributors to and treatments for multiple psychopathologies, (b) for fostering individual and social well-being, and (c) for preserving and optimizing cognitive function. Consequently, therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) are underutilized…

  11. Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    PubMed

    SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.

  12. Pennsylvania Women's Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towns, Kathryn; And Others

    Women have undergone a revolution in their self-perception and their traditional relationships to work, money, marriage, and family. These social changes have implications for every aspect of women's lives, including their mental health. Because of the special problems and conflicts confronting women today, data need to be analyzed on policies,…

  13. Mental Health in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strother, Deborah Burnett

    1983-01-01

    This article's review of recent educational materials dealing with mental health and the classroom includes research into school setting and organization, early detection and remediation, curriculum, and teaching and counseling. The authors also describe a model program in Memphis, Tennessee, and offer various steps for teaching social skills.…

  14. Selected Mental Health Audiovisuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    Presented are approximately 2,300 abstracts on audio-visual Materials--films, filmstrips, audiotapes, and videotapes--related to mental health. Each citation includes material title; name, address, and phone number of film distributor; rental and purchase prices; technical information; and a description of the contents. Abstracts are listed in…

  15. Latina Mothers' Perceptions of Mental Health and Mental Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Conner, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Latina mothers' perceptions of mental health and factors that promote/restore mental health were explored in this qualitative study. Participants discussed the importance of community, safety, and financial stability in addition to conventional factors that are related to mental health. Implications for working with urban Latinas and their…

  16. [psychenet - The Hamburg Network for Mental Health].

    PubMed

    Härter, Martin; Brandes, Andreas; Hillebrandt, Bernd; Lambert, Martin

    2015-07-01

    With the research and development project psychenet: the Hamburg Network for Mental Health (2011 - 2015), the Federal Ministry of Education and Research contributes to strengthening healthcare regions in Germany by establishing new transsectoral cooperations and implementing evaluated innovations. More than 300 partners from research, health care, health industry and government in the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg are promoting innovative measures to improve the detection, diagnosis, and treatment for mental disorders. The main objective is to implement integrated healthcare networks based on evidence for effective treatment methods, deriving from high-quality research throughout five indications such as psychosis, depression, somatoform and functional syndromes, anorexia and bulimia and addiction illnesses in adolescence. Those networks are accompanied by additional measures, for example, for improving awareness, information and education for mental health, addressing occupational health or strengthening the participation of patients and their families suffering from mental illness. PMID:26135279

  17. Mental health and housing.

    PubMed

    Kari-Koskinen, O; Karvonen, P

    1976-01-01

    With the present trend away from the designing of individual buildings and towards the systematic planning of whole residential communities, it should be possible to take mental health requirements into account at the planning stage. At present, sociologists are all too seldom consulted on matters of residential planning. When discussing the relationship between housing and mental health one cannot restrict oneself only to the external aspects of the house, but rather one must also consider the opportunities available for the members of the family to satisfy their own needs, both within the home and in its immediate surroundings. Factors which may affect residential requirements include geographical location, type and standard of dwelling and time and continuity of occupation. A move between two districts or groups representing different housing norms and values may lead to withdrawal symptoms in the individual. This may arise equally well from the remoteness of the country districts as from the conflicting pressures brought on by the abundance of contacts available in the large towns. Town life tends to heighten susceptibility to neuroses and personality conflicts. The character of a residential area may affect the mental health of its occupants. Faris & Dunham (4), in studying the incidence of various types of mental illness with an urban population, observed that schizophrenia was most common among people who were in some way isolated from social involvement. The striving for spaciousness in residential areas and the creation of a "summer city" or "garden city" image or a "family-centred way of life" may lead to unexpected problems and have a variety of social consequences. Mental health difficulties have been noted, for example, among housewives in "dormitory" towns or suburbs (11). The institutions required by a community may be grouped into four categories, representing the basic needs of its members. These are (1) economic institutions, (2) social and

  18. Australia's national mental health policy.

    PubMed

    Whiteford, H A

    1993-10-01

    In April 1992 the health ministers of all Australian states, territories, and the federal government endorsed Australia's first National Mental Health Policy. The major principles outlined in the policy include protecting consumers' rights, setting national service standards, mainstreaming mental health services with general health services, better integrating inpatient and community mental health services to ensure continuity of care, and linking mental health services and other social and disability services. A five-year National Mental Health Plan, accompanied by additional federal funding, has also been released, with time frames for implementing the policy in all states and territories and at the federal level. PMID:8225277

  19. Components of Positive Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Logan

    1971-01-01

    Thirty items designed to measure behavior in the six areas described by Jahoda as comprising positive mental health were administered. The data contraindicate the hypothesis that positive mental health is a unitary factor. (Author)

  20. Is income inequality 'toxic for mental health'? An ecological study on municipal level risk factors for depression.

    PubMed

    Hiilamo, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Most inequality research on the relationship between inequality and mental health has focused on cross-country variation. Findings from within-country data are mixed. We examined whether changes in municipal Gini index or in the share of people living in relative poverty were linked to changes in the use of antidepressants in several Finnish municipalities between 1995 and 2010. We found that more young adult females used antidepressants in municipalities where relative poverty had increased. Changes in municipal-level Gini index were not positively associated with changes in the use of antidepressants in the municipalities between 1995 and 2010. However, fewer elderly females used antidepressants in municipalities where the Gini index increased. In addition, more young adults used antidepressants in municipalities where the number of those not being educated or trained had also increased. An increase in the number of persons over 65 years of age living alone was positively associated with an increase in the use of antidepressants among elderly females.

  1. Mental health concerns of gay and bisexual men seeking mental health services.

    PubMed

    Berg, Michael B; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Safren, Steven A

    2008-01-01

    Little data exist about the mental health needs of gay and bisexual men. This is due to limitations of existing studies such as small and nonrepresentative samples, failure to assess sexual orientation, and concerns about stigmatization, possibly causing sexual minority individuals to be reluctant to disclose their sexual orientation to researchers. Fenway Community Health is a large urban health center that serves the LGBT community. The large number of gay and bisexual men who present for mental health treatment allows for a unique opportunity to gain insight into mental health, prevention, and intervention needs for this group. The current study is a review of the mental health information from all of the gay and bisexual men who reported that they were HIV-negative during their mental health intake over a six-month period at Fenway Community Health (January to June 2000; N = 92). The most frequent presenting problems were depression, anxiety, and relationship issues. Additionally, presenting problems included current or past abuse, substance abuse, finance and employment, recent loss, and family issues. The most frequent diagnoses were depression, anxiety disorders, and adjustment disorders. These findings support the notion that presenting problems and mental health concerns among gay and bisexual men are similar to those frequently reported by individuals in other mental health facilities, however, specific psychosocial stressors are unique to this population. PMID:18825866

  2. Preventing and Treating Child Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuellar, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Children's mental health covers a wide range of disorders. Some, such as ADHD and autism, tend to manifest themselves when children are young, while others, such as depression and addiction, are more likely to appear during the teenage years. Some respond readily to treatment or tend to improve as children grow older, while others, such as autism,…

  3. Mental Health Program Reports - 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Julius, Ed.

    The volume is reported to reflect the broad range of National Institute of Mental Health activities in areas of research, development of mental health manpower, and delivery of mental health services. Twenty papers examine, respectively, relationship of life histories and biochemistry of siblings and twins to schizophrenia, training of Navaho…

  4. Externalizing symptoms moderate associations among interpersonal skills, parenting, and depressive symptoms in adolescents seeking mental health treatment.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Erin M; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W; Javdani, Shabnam

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents' interpersonal skills are associated with fewer teen depressive symptoms and more positive parenting, but little is known about how teens' externalizing problems moderate these relationships. This study examines links among teens' interpersonal skills, parenting, and withdrawn-depressed symptoms in adolescents seeking outpatient psychiatric treatment with elevated or non-elevated externalizing problems. Adolescents (N = 346; 42 % female; 61 % African-American) ages 12-19 years old (M = 14.9; SD = 1.8) and parents completed assessments at baseline and 6 months. At baseline parents and teens reported on teen withdrawn-depressed and externalizing symptoms, and were observed interacting to assess teen interpersonal skills. At 6 months adolescents reported on parenting, and parents and teens reported on teen withdrawn-depressed symptoms. Structural equation modeling tested two models (one with teen reported symptoms and one with parent reported symptoms). Model fit was better for youth with elevated externalizing problems regardless of reporter. For youth with elevated externalizing problems, baseline teen positive interpersonal skills were not directly associated with 6-month withdrawn-depressed symptoms, but more positive parenting was associated with fewer withdrawn-depressed symptoms. In the teen report model, more positive teen interpersonal skills were associated with more positive parenting, and there was a trend for parenting to indirectly account for the relationship between interpersonal skills and withdrawn-depressed symptoms. The findings extend research on the role of externalizing problems in teens' depression risk. Interventions for depression that target interpersonal skills may be particularly effective in youth with elevated externalizing problems.

  5. Mental Health Utilization Among Diverse Parenting Young Couples

    PubMed Central

    Angley, Meghan; Gibson, Crystal; Sipsma, Heather; Kershaw, Trace

    2016-01-01

    Mental health issues often become apparent as adolescents emerge into young adulthood. The use of mental health services is low among adolescents and young adults, and use is particularly low among minorities. In this study, we examine mental health utilization among diverse young parenting couples. The sample consisted of 296 couples. We used the social–personal framework to examine personal, family, partner relationship, and environmental predictors for using mental health services. We used the Actor–Partner Interdependence Model to assess actor and partner effects on mental health utilization. We also examined moderator effects for gender and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. We found that being female, being White, higher income, more conduct problems, and less anxious romantic attachment predicted mental health utilization. Significant moderator effects included depression × gender, depression × medical insurance, and stress × Latino. Implications for community mental health practice include conducting mental health assessments during medical visits and systematic mental health follow-up for individuals and couples with identified mental health and support needs. Future research should include married couples and the spouse’s influence on mental health use and examine relevant parenting factors that may also predict mental health utilization among couples. PMID:26163272

  6. Mental Health Utilization Among Diverse Parenting Young Couples.

    PubMed

    Albritton, Tashuna; Angley, Meghan; Gibson, Crystal; Sipsma, Heather; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-09-01

    Mental health issues often become apparent as adolescents emerge into young adulthood. The use of mental health services is low among adolescents and young adults, and use is particularly low among minorities. In this study, we examine mental health utilization among diverse young parenting couples. The sample consisted of 296 couples. We used the social-personal framework to examine personal, family, partner relationship, and environmental predictors for using mental health services. We used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to assess actor and partner effects on mental health utilization. We also examined moderator effects for gender and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. We found that being female, being White, higher income, more conduct problems, and less anxious romantic attachment predicted mental health utilization. Significant moderator effects included depression × gender, depression × medical insurance, and stress × Latino. Implications for community mental health practice include conducting mental health assessments during medical visits and systematic mental health follow-up for individuals and couples with identified mental health and support needs. Future research should include married couples and the spouse's influence on mental health use and examine relevant parenting factors that may also predict mental health utilization among couples. PMID:26163272

  7. Mental Health Utilization Among Diverse Parenting Young Couples.

    PubMed

    Albritton, Tashuna; Angley, Meghan; Gibson, Crystal; Sipsma, Heather; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-09-01

    Mental health issues often become apparent as adolescents emerge into young adulthood. The use of mental health services is low among adolescents and young adults, and use is particularly low among minorities. In this study, we examine mental health utilization among diverse young parenting couples. The sample consisted of 296 couples. We used the social-personal framework to examine personal, family, partner relationship, and environmental predictors for using mental health services. We used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to assess actor and partner effects on mental health utilization. We also examined moderator effects for gender and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. We found that being female, being White, higher income, more conduct problems, and less anxious romantic attachment predicted mental health utilization. Significant moderator effects included depression × gender, depression × medical insurance, and stress × Latino. Implications for community mental health practice include conducting mental health assessments during medical visits and systematic mental health follow-up for individuals and couples with identified mental health and support needs. Future research should include married couples and the spouse's influence on mental health use and examine relevant parenting factors that may also predict mental health utilization among couples.

  8. The importance of functional impairment to mental health outcomes: A case for reassessing our goals in depression treatment research

    PubMed Central

    McKnight, Patrick E.; Kashdan, Todd B.

    2009-01-01

    Outcomes in depression treatment research include both changes in symptom severity and functional impairment. Symptom measures tend to be the standard outcome but we argue that there are benefits to considering functional outcomes. An exhaustive literature review shows that the relationship between symptoms and functioning remains unexpectedly weak and often bidirectional. Changes in functioning often lag symptom changes. As a result, functional outcomes might offer depression researchers more critical feedback and better guidance when studying depression treatment outcomes. The paper presents a case for the necessity of both functional and symptom outcomes in depression treatment research by addressing three aims–1) review the research relating symptoms and functioning, 2) provide a rationale for measuring both outcomes, and 3) discuss potential artifacts in measuring functional outcomes. The three aims are supported by an empirical review of the treatment outcome and epidemiological literatures. PMID:19269076

  9. School Mental Health Resources and Adolescent Mental Health Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…

  10. Factors influencing mental health nurses' attitudes towards people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Lu, Huei-Lan; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors influencing mental health nurses' attitudes towards people with mental illness. A descriptive correlation design was used. A sample of 180 Taiwanese mental health nurses was recruited from mental health-care settings. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Pearson's product-moment correlation, Student's t-test, one-way anova, and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Negative attitudes were found among mental health nurses, especially with respect to individuals with substance abuse compared with those with schizophrenia and major depression. Mental health nurses who were older, had more clinical experiences in mental health care, and demonstrated greater empathy expressed more positive attitudes towards people with mental illness. Mental health nurses working at acute psychiatric units demonstrated more negative attitudes towards mental illness compared with those working in psychiatric rehabilitation units and outpatient clinics or community psychiatric rehabilitation centres. Particularly, length of mental health nursing practice and empathy significantly accounted for mental health nurses' attitudes towards mental illness. Understanding nurses' attitudes and their correlates towards people with mental illness is critical to deliver effective mental health nursing care.

  11. Correlates of Mental Health among Latino Farmworkers in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Crain, Rebecca; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Schwantes, Melody; Isom, Scott; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Latino farmworkers are a vulnerable population who confront multiple threats to their mental health. Informed by the stress-process model of psychiatric disorder, the goal of this paper is to determine personal and situational correlates of poor mental health among Latino farmworkers. Structured interview data were obtained from farmworkers (N=69) in six counties in eastern and western North Carolina. Results indicated that a substantial number of farmworkers have poor mental health, as indicated by elevated depressive symptoms (52.2%) and anxiety (16.4%). Results also indicated that each mental health outcome had different predictors. Addressing the mental health issues of farmworkers requires a comprehensive, multifaceted approach. PMID:22757952

  12. Mental Health Systems in Scandinavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, David J.

    The guidebook is introduced by general observations on the Scandinavian countries concerning history, social policy, medicine, mental health, and psychiatric diagnosis. Discussed individually for Norway, Sweden, and Denmark are the following areas: mental health programs and statistics; mental illness programs, regional, hospital, aftercare,…

  13. Mental Health, United States, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This document presents timely statistical information on the nation's organized mental health service delivery system. Included are: (1) "Chronic Mental Disorder in the United States" (Howard H. Goldman and Ronald W. Manderscheid); (2) "Specialty Mental Health System Characteristics" (Michael J. Witkin, Joanne E. Atay, Adele S. Fell, and Ronald W.…

  14. Chicano Aging and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Manuel, Ed.; Ruiz, Rene A., Ed.

    Focusing on the direction future research on the Chicano elderly should take, the 10 papers address theory development, methodological approach, social policy and problems, mental health service delivery, and issues of mental illness. The first seven papers discuss: the theoretical perspectives of research pertaining to mental health and the…

  15. What Is Infant Mental Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

  16. Improving Mental Health in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.

    2015-01-01

    Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…

  17. Latino Adolescents' Mental Health: Exploring the Interrelations among Discrimination, Ethnic Identity, Cultural Orientation, Self-Esteem, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2007-01-01

    Guided by a risk and resilience framework, the current study used cross-sectional data to examine the degree to which Latino adolescents' (N=274; M age=16.3; 47.1% female) self-esteem, ethnic identity, and cultural orientations mediated or moderated the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. Utilizing a multiple group…

  18. Resilience and mental health.

    PubMed

    Davydov, Dmitry M; Stewart, Robert; Ritchie, Karen; Chaudieu, Isabelle

    2010-07-01

    The relationship between disease and good health has received relatively little attention in mental health. Resilience can be viewed as a defence mechanism, which enables people to thrive in the face of adversity and improving resilience may be an important target for treatment and prophylaxis. Though resilience is a widely-used concept, studies vary substantially in their definition, and measurement. Above all, there is no common underlying theoretical construct to this very heterogeneous research which makes the evaluation and comparison of findings extremely difficult. Furthermore, the varying multi-disciplinary approaches preclude meta-analysis, so that clarification of research in this area must proceed firstly by conceptual unification. We attempt to collate and classify the available research around a multi-level biopsychosocial model, theoretically and semiotically comparable to that used in describing the complex chain of events related to host resistance in infectious disease. Using this underlying construct we attempt to reorganize current knowledge around a unitary concept in order to clarify and indicate potential intervention points for increasing resilience and positive mental health. PMID:20395025

  19. Perceived discrimination and children's mental health symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Cheryl L; Bowie, Bonnie H; Carrère, Sybil

    2014-01-01

    Perceived discrimination has been shown to be strongly associated with mental health outcomes, such as depression, anxiety, chronic stress, post traumatic stress disorder, and low self-esteem. This study (N = 88) examined the effects of perceived discrimination and its association with child mental health symptoms. African American children had a significantly stronger association between social stress and a sense of exclusion/rejection than Multiracial or European American children. Nurses need to assess and counsel families of color about their experiences with perceived discriminatory acts.

  20. Have Broad-Based Community and Professional Education Programs Influenced Mental Health Literacy and Treatment Seeking of those with Major Depression and Suicidal Ideation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldney, Robert D.; Fisher, Laura J.

    2008-01-01

    "Mental health literacy" is the knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders that aid in their recognition, management, or prevention; it is also a determinant of help seeking. As such, it is presumed to be important in community suicide prevention programs. In Australia there have been a number of government, professional, and charitable…

  1. Mental Health and Education Decisions. CEE DP 136

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornaglia, Francesca; Crivellaro, Elena; McNally, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Mental health problems--and depression in particular--have been rising internationally. The link between poor mental health and poor educational outcomes is particularly interesting in the case of the UK which has a low international ranking both on measures of child wellbeing and the probability of early drop-out from the labour market and…

  2. The National Mental Health Registry (NMHR).

    PubMed

    Aziz, A A; Salina, A A; Abdul Kadir, A B; Badiah, Y; Cheah, Y C; Nor Hayati, A; Ruzanna, Z Z; Sharifah Suziah, S M; Chee, K Y

    2008-09-01

    The National Mental Health Registry (NMHR) collects information about patients with mental disorder in Malaysia. This information allows us to estimate the incidence of selected mental disorders, and to evaluate risk factors and treatment in the country. The National Mental Health Registry (NMHR) presented its first report in 2004, a year after its establishment. The report focused on schizophrenia as a pioneer project for the National Mental Health Registry. The development of the registry has progressed with data collected from government-based facilities, the academia and the private sector. The 2003-2005 report was recently published and distributed. Since then the registry has progressed to include suicides and other mental illnesses such as depression. The NMHR Report 2003-2005 provides detailed information about the profile of persons with Schizophrenia who presented for the first time to various psychiatry and mental health providers throughout Malaysia. More detailed description regarding pharmacotherapy is reported and few cross tabulations done in an effort to provide better understanding and more clinically meaningful reports. PMID:19227671

  3. The National Mental Health Registry (NMHR).

    PubMed

    Aziz, A A; Salina, A A; Abdul Kadir, A B; Badiah, Y; Cheah, Y C; Nor Hayati, A; Ruzanna, Z Z; Sharifah Suziah, S M; Chee, K Y

    2008-09-01

    The National Mental Health Registry (NMHR) collects information about patients with mental disorder in Malaysia. This information allows us to estimate the incidence of selected mental disorders, and to evaluate risk factors and treatment in the country. The National Mental Health Registry (NMHR) presented its first report in 2004, a year after its establishment. The report focused on schizophrenia as a pioneer project for the National Mental Health Registry. The development of the registry has progressed with data collected from government-based facilities, the academia and the private sector. The 2003-2005 report was recently published and distributed. Since then the registry has progressed to include suicides and other mental illnesses such as depression. The NMHR Report 2003-2005 provides detailed information about the profile of persons with Schizophrenia who presented for the first time to various psychiatry and mental health providers throughout Malaysia. More detailed description regarding pharmacotherapy is reported and few cross tabulations done in an effort to provide better understanding and more clinically meaningful reports.

  4. Depression in Mentally Retarded Persons: Research Findings and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.

    1983-01-01

    Depression in mentally retarded persons is examined in terms of incidence and prevalence, diagnostic issues (including assessment approaches), and treatment procedures (including drug therapy and behavioral approaches). (CL)

  5. Mental health and quality of mental health care.

    PubMed

    Taipale, V

    2001-01-01

    Mental health is an intrinsic part of health. Its prevailing position as secondary to physical health and its consequent neglect are based on inaccurate assumptions about mental health. Nowhere in the world, in either the developed or the developing countries, has mental health work been given priority as part of social policy, health policy or public policy. Yet all countries readily admit the major impact of mental health disturbances on the national economy and public health. The mentally sick are at the bottom of the list in service systems the world over, and the common attitude towards them tends to be highly negative. Meanwhile there is convincing evidence of the global and growing need for mental health services. The international debate on mental health policy has its origins in two arenas: in human rights issues and in service reform issues. The debate on human rights concerns legislation on mental health, compulsory treatment and coercive measures. As to the service reform process, the universal focus has been on the financing of health care, on cuts and downsizing, where no priority has been given to the quality of care. The social consequences of mental illnesses may be far more seriously marginalising for the patient than is the illness itself. They are caused by the inexperience and the exclusion mechanisms of the social community. They are evident also in non-institutional services, causing isolation and rejection. The state of mental health patients will not improve without the strong involvement of health policy planners, quality assurance developers and the medical and scientific community. We need far more studies and research in the field. We need also the empowerment of the patients themselves and their relatives.

  6. The built environment and mental health.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gary W

    2003-12-01

    The built environment has direct and indirect effects on mental health. High-rise housing is inimical to the psychological well-being of women with young children. Poor-quality housing appears to increase psychological distress, but methodological issues make it difficult to draw clear conclusions. Mental health of psychiatric patients has been linked to design elements that affect their ability to regulate social interaction (e.g., furniture configuration, privacy). Alzheimer's patients adjust better to small-scale, homier facilities that also have lower levels of stimulation. They are also better adjusted in buildings that accommodate physical wandering. Residential crowding (number of people per room) and loud exterior noise sources (e.g., airports) elevate psychological distress but do not produce serious mental illness. Malodorous air pollutants heighten negative affect, and some toxins (e.g., lead, solvents) cause behavioral disturbances (e.g., self-regulatory ability, aggression). Insufficient daylight is reliably associated with increased depressive symptoms. Indirectly, the physical environment may influence mental health by altering psychosocial processes with known mental health sequelae. Personal control, socially supportive relationships, and restoration from stress and fatigue are all affected by properties of the built environment. More prospective, longitudinal studies and, where feasible, randomized experiments are needed to examine the potential role of the physical environment in mental health. Even more challenging is the task of developing underlying models of how the built environment can affect mental health. It is also likely that some individuals may be more vulnerable to mental health impacts of the built environment. Because exposure to poor environmental conditions is not randomly distributed and tends to concentrate among the poor and ethnic minorities, we also need to focus more attention on the health implications of multiple

  7. The neighborhood context of adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Aneshensel, C S; Sucoff, C A

    1996-12-01

    Mental health disorders in adolescence are pervasive, often carry into adulthood, and appear to be inversely associated with social status. We examine how structural aspects of neighborhood context, specifically, socioeconomic stratification and racial/ethnic segregation, affect adolescent emotional well-being by shaping subjective perceptions of their neighborhoods. Using a community-based sample of 877 adolescents in Los Angeles County, we find that youth in low socioeconomic status (SES) neighborhoods perceive greater ambient hazards such as crime, violence, drug use, and graffiti than those in high SES neighborhoods. The perception of the neighborhood as dangerous, in turn, influences the mental health of adolescents: the more threatening the neighborhood, the more common the symptoms of depression, anxiety, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. Social stability and, to a lesser extent, social cohesion, also emerge as contributors to adolescent disorder. This investigation demonstrates that research into the mental health of young people should consider the socioeconomic and demographic environments in which they live.

  8. Afghan refugees in California: mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Lipson, J G

    1993-01-01

    Refugees are a particularly vulnerable population that is at risk for mental health problems for a variety of reasons: traumatic experiences in and escapes from their countries of origin, difficult camp or transit experiences, culture conflict and adjustment problems in the country of resettlement, and multiple losses--family members, country, and way of life. Afghan refugees comprise the largest refugee population in the world, at its peak numbering more than 6 million, living mainly in Pakistan and Iran. Based on an ethnographic study of Afghan refugees in Northern California, this article describes common antecedents to and examples of mental health problems in this population, such as depression, somatic symptoms, and posttraumatic stress disorder. It reviews some of the literature on traumatized refugees and makes some suggestions to mental health providers.

  9. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    PubMed

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  10. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    PubMed

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  11. Patience and Mental Health in Iranian Students

    PubMed Central

    Aghababaei, Naser; Tabik, Mohammad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Background: While the role of some personality traits has been comprehensively explored, scientific study of others, such as patience has been neglected. Psychologists have paid scant attention to patience as a personality trait, character strength or virtue. Objectives: The current study examined the relationship between patience and life satisfaction, mental health, and personality. Materials and Methods: A sample of 252 Iranian college students (129 females and 123 males) completed the 3-factor patience scale, satisfaction with life scale, general health questionnaire, anxiety and depression scales and mini international personality item pool-big five. Results: The three types of patience (interpersonal, life hardship, and daily hassles) were associated with higher levels of life satisfaction and lower levels of depression, anxiety and psychological dysfunction. Patience also showed moderate relationship with the Big-Five factors of personality. After controlling the personality factors, patience managed to explain additional unique variance in life satisfaction and mental health indicators. Conclusions: Patience is a unique predictor of mental well-being. It is suggested that long-term patience is more important for depression and general health, whereas short-term patience is more beneficial for hedonic well-being. PMID:26576165

  12. [Anomie and public mental health].

    PubMed

    Parales-Quenza, Carlos J

    2008-01-01

    This article uses the concept of anomie for understanding public mental-health issues and constructing strategies aimed at promoting health and preventing disease. Studying anomie involves many definitions and approaches; this article conceptualises anomie as dérréglement or derangement and as a total social fact as its effects and consequences are pervasive across all areas of human experience. The article suggests the pertinence of the concept to public health based on several authors' observations depicting Latin-America as being a set of anomic societies and Colombia as the extreme case. Current definitions of mental health in positive terms (not just as being the absence of mental illness) validate the need for considering anomie as an indicator of public mental health. The article proposes that if anomie expresses itself through rules as basic social structure components, then such rules should also be considered as the point of intervention in promoting mental health.

  13. Mental Health and Sociocultural Determinants in an Asian Indian Community

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lisa R.; Mann, Semran K.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    In a US population of adult male and female Sikh immigrant participants (N = 350), we explored sociocultural factors related to depression, giving participants a choice between English or Punjabi surveys. Language preference pointed to a subgroup with higher levels of depression and lower satisfaction with life. Underreporting of depression suggests a general reluctance to discuss depression. While multiple sociocultural variables were associated with depression bivariably, multivariate analysis identified negative religious coping and anxiety as unique predictors of depression. Community interventions should tap into the protective close-knit social fabric of this community as an opportunity to change the stigma of mental health. PMID:26605953

  14. Mental Health and Sociocultural Determinants in an Asian Indian Community.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lisa R; Mann, Semran K; Montgomery, Susanne B

    2016-01-01

    In a US population of adult male and female Sikh immigrant participants (N = 350), we explored sociocultural factors related to depression, giving participants a choice between English or Punjabi surveys. Language preference pointed to a subgroup with higher levels of depression and lower satisfaction with life. Underreporting of depression suggests a general reluctance to discuss depression. While multiple sociocultural variables were associated with depression bivariably, multivariate analysis identified negative religious coping and anxiety as unique predictors of depression. Community interventions should tap into the protective close-knit social fabric of this community as an opportunity to change the stigma of mental health.

  15. Sufism and mental health.

    PubMed

    Nizamie, S Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N A

    2013-01-01

    Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health. PMID:23858257

  16. Sufism and mental health

    PubMed Central

    Nizamie, S. Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health. PMID:23858257

  17. Psychedelics and Mental Health: A Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Teri S.; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan

    2013-01-01

    Background The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. Objective To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population. Method Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale), mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive), symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis), and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events. Results 21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted) reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote), or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems. Conclusion We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems. PMID:23976938

  18. Adolescent mental health in China.

    PubMed

    McClure, G M

    1988-03-01

    Adolescent Mental Health in China is the responsibility of the wider society and is supported by social, educational and health care resources. With limited facilities, China emphasizes community mental health care, with prevention and health promotion as priorities. Mental health is considered in the context of an orderly socialist society with stable family life supported by the state. Society is currently influenced by a mixture of Communist ideology, ancient tradition and newer Western approaches. Difficulties in reconciling these factors are affecting the attitudes and behaviour of China's youth. PMID:3290295

  19. A roadmap for mental health.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alison

    2016-09-21

    The Five Year Forward View could be a turning point in the battle to get mental health parity with physical health, address long waiting times and unmet need, and ensure people get care close to home.

  20. A roadmap for mental health.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alison

    2016-09-21

    The Five Year Forward View could be a turning point in the battle to get mental health parity with physical health, address long waiting times and unmet need, and ensure people get care close to home. PMID:27654538

  1. Mental Health, United States, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manderscheid, Ronald W., Ed.; Henderson, Marilyn J., Ed.

    In recent years, the mental health community has made great strides in understanding more about the delivery of mental health services, improving efficiency and quality in services, and also about how to build strengths and resilience in the face of lifes stresses. This volume adds to the knowledge base so that the important task of system change…

  2. International Collaboration in Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bertram S., Ed.; Torrey, E. Fuller, Ed.

    Presented in five parts on research, services, training, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse are 31 reports of mental health studies and programs supported by the U.S. and other countries. Explained in the introduction are reasons the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has supported international collaboration. The following are among subjects…

  3. International Students and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…

  4. Child Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... important to recognize and treat mental illnesses in children early on. Once mental illness develops, it becomes a regular part of your child's behavior. This makes it more difficult to treat. ...

  5. Correlates of Mental Depression Among Female Sex Workers in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sangram Kishor; Saggurti, Niranjan; Pachauri, Saroj; Prabhakar, Parimi

    2015-11-01

    Mental health is an integral part of overall health status but has been a largely neglected issue in the developing world especially among female sex workers (FSWs). This study examines the prevalence and correlates of major depression among FSWs in southern India. Major depression was assessed using Patient Health Questionnaire-2 depression scale data from a cross-sectional Behavioral Tracking Survey, 2010-2011 conducted among FSWs (n = 1986) in Andhra Pradesh, a state in southern India. Almost two-fifths of FSWs (39%) reported major depression. Multivariate logistic regression analysis shows a significant association between major depression and the following characteristics for FSWs: low autonomy, alcohol use, experience of violence, police arrest, inconsistent condom use with clients, mobility for sex work, and being HIV positive or not wanting to disclose HIV status. Research and advocacy efforts are needed to ensure that the mental health issues of marginalized groups are appropriately addressed in HIV prevention programs. PMID:26307144

  6. Perceptions of mental health among recently immigrated Mexican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Carolyn M; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2007-01-01

    Rates of anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation are high among Latino adolescents in the U.S., many of whom are immigrants. Immigration during adolescence creates risk factors for mental health problems. The purpose of this study was to explore the health-related perceptions of Mexican-origin immigrant adolescents to inform the design of culturally and developmentally appropriate mental health services. This focused ethnography was guided by Bronfenbrenner's ecological framework and symbolic interactionism. Fourteen adolescents were recruited from two non-health-based community settings. Data from one-to-one semi-structured interviews and a visual narrative project were coded and analyzed inductively. Three thematic patterns were identified: "mentally healthy," "mentally unhealthy," and "health promotion." Increased awareness of cultural influences and immigration on Latino adolescents' mental health is needed. Mental health nurses are in a unique position to educate and to influence accessibility of services. PMID:17130006

  7. Competencies for disaster mental health.

    PubMed

    King, Richard V; Burkle, Frederick M; Walsh, Lauren E; North, Carol S

    2015-03-01

    Competencies for disaster mental health are essential to domestic and international disaster response capabilities. Numerous consensus-based competency sets for disaster health workers exist, but no prior study identifies and discusses competency sets pertaining specifically to disaster mental health. Relevant competency sets were identified via MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and Google Scholar searches. Sixteen competency sets are discussed, some providing core competencies for all disaster responders and others for specific responder groups within particular professions or specialties. Competency sets specifically for disaster mental health professionals are lacking, with the exception of one set that focused only on cultural competence. The identified competency sets provide guidance for educators in developing disaster mental health curricula and for disaster health workers seeking education and training in disaster mental health. Valid, criterion-based competencies are required to guide selection and training of mental health professionals for the disaster mental health workforce. In developing these competencies, consideration should be given to the requirements of both domestic and international disaster response efforts.

  8. Bulgaria mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Tomov, Toma; Mladenova, Maya; Lazarova, Irina; Sotirov, Vladimir; Okoliyski, Mihail

    2004-01-01

    The mental health profile of Bulgaria has been compiled and following analysis of both the factual findings and the process of data collection a report has been prepared. The subject of discussion in the paper concerns several major findings: the discrepancy between what the policy documents state and the actual situation in mental health; the organizational culture, which alienates; and the peculiarities of the process of change and how it is driven under political pressure from outside the country. Analysis extends to encompass the influence of the general health reform on the mental health sector, the deficits of the leadership and how they impact on the effectiveness of the system, and the interdependence between the country's economy and the health sector. A conclusion is made about the need to consolidate the public health approach using the lever of international collaboration in the field of mental health. PMID:15276942

  9. Bulgaria mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Tomov, Toma; Mladenova, Maya; Lazarova, Irina; Sotirov, Vladimir; Okoliyski, Mihail

    2004-01-01

    The mental health profile of Bulgaria has been compiled and following analysis of both the factual findings and the process of data collection a report has been prepared. The subject of discussion in the paper concerns several major findings: the discrepancy between what the policy documents state and the actual situation in mental health; the organizational culture, which alienates; and the peculiarities of the process of change and how it is driven under political pressure from outside the country. Analysis extends to encompass the influence of the general health reform on the mental health sector, the deficits of the leadership and how they impact on the effectiveness of the system, and the interdependence between the country's economy and the health sector. A conclusion is made about the need to consolidate the public health approach using the lever of international collaboration in the field of mental health.

  10. Economic stress and mental health.

    PubMed

    Butts, H F

    1979-04-01

    This paper correlates economic stress with minority status, resource allocations for mental health programs, and vulnerability to mental disability. Several hypotheses are advanced:1. A major and recurring psychological pattern of the American national character is prowhite, antiblack paranoia.2. Mental health fiscal allocations and programmatic determinations in ghetto, lower socioeconomic, minority-populated urban areas are predicated on political and racist considerations, the underlying motivation being to keep minorities at greater risk of mental disability.3. Economic privation and stress increase vulnerability to mental illness, especially in a minority population for whom health, mental health, educational, and social services are grossly inadequate.4. Poverty and economic stress combine with health systems that are unresponsive to the needs of blacks and other minorities, resulting in the perpetuation of disabilities and other conditions in blacks that are potentially preventable.5. Health and mental health resources should be increased rather than diminished during periods of economic stress, especially in the public sector.6. In order to provide each citizen with access to quality health and mental health care regardless of race and/or economic status, there must be enacted a national health insurance program based on tax-levy monies that will cover all aspects of health and mental health care.7. Racism and social status will continue to be powerful determinants of the quality of service that white professionals render to black patients and to poor white patients, unless our training institutions mount a massive campaign to train appropriately and to include significant numbers of minority candidates and trainees in the effort. To date this effort is virtually nonexistent.

  11. Economic Stress and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Hugh F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper correlates economic stress with minority status, resource allocations for mental health programs, and vulnerability to mental disability. Several hypotheses are advanced: 1. A major and recurring psychological pattern of the American national character is prowhite, antiblack paranoia. 2. Mental health fiscal allocations and programmatic determinations in ghetto, lower socioeconomic, minority-populated urban areas are predicated on political and racist considerations, the underlying motivation being to keep minorities at greater risk of mental disability. 3. Economic privation and stress increase vulnerability to mental illness, especially in a minority population for whom health, mental health, educational, and social services are grossly inadequate. 4. Poverty and economic stress combine with health systems that are unresponsive to the needs of blacks and other minorities, resulting in the perpetuation of disabilities and other conditions in blacks that are potentially preventable. 5. Health and mental health resources should be increased rather than diminished during periods of economic stress, especially in the public sector. 6. In order to provide each citizen with access to quality health and mental health care regardless of race and/or economic status, there must be enacted a national health insurance program based on tax-levy monies that will cover all aspects of health and mental health care. 7. Racism and social status will continue to be powerful determinants of the quality of service that white professionals render to black patients and to poor white patients, unless our training institutions mount a massive campaign to train appropriately and to include significant numbers of minority candidates and trainees in the effort. To date this effort is virtually nonexistent. PMID:439171

  12. Mental Health Problems and Symptoms among Male Adolescents Attending a Teen Health Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peggy B.; Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the frequency and nature of mental health problems and symptoms among a group of 51 inner city male adolescents attending a teen health clinic. Results indicated participants experienced significant mental health problems and symptoms, such as relationship problems, problems with time and money, and symptoms of anger, depression, and…

  13. Child rights and mental health.

    PubMed

    Carlson, M

    2001-10-01

    This article introduces the principles and articles of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and discusses the implications of this new conceptualization of childhood for child mental health. Consistent with the articles of the CRC, Canadian and US health administrations call for including the perspectives and participation of children in promotion of their own mental health and in the planning of mental health services. Examples of the incorporation of the CRC into programs and services for children and youth are described.

  14. Metal music and mental health in France.

    PubMed

    Recours, Robin; Aussaguel, François; Trujillo, Nick

    2009-09-01

    Although numerous authors have associated metal music with social problems such as suicide, self-destruction and Satanism, few studies have been undertaken to examine the mental health of fans of heavy metal music. This study attempts to determine if there is a link between mental health and the enjoyment of this type of music in France. The researchers surveyed 333 fans of metal music. Their mental health was evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), a widely used instrument that measures anxiety and depression. The scores of the sample of metal music fans were then compared to the scores that reveal possible, probable, or severe mental disorders. Qualifying variables included age, gender, status, education, motivation and participation in metal music culture. The results indicated that fans of metal music are mainly young adults (median age = 22.67, SD = 5.29) and tend to be male (87.85 percent). As a whole, metal music fans have levels of anxiety and depression that are similar to and lower than levels in the general population. Specifically, <5 percent of metal music fans surveyed showed pathological symptoms. Subjects that scored higher levels of anxiety and depression were those that had literary and/or arts backgrounds rather than scientific backgrounds, that wrote metal music lyrics, that consumed alcohol and that engaged in the body modification practice of scarification. This study suggests that opponents of metal music should re-examine the basis for their criticism. More scholarly research is needed to better understand the effects of metal music on fans and on society.

  15. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C.

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of ‘preventive medicine’ This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six ‘R’s such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073

  16. College Health: Mental Health Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... or depressed at college. What if it’s more serious than feeling down—am I’m depressed? Sometimes, ... and affects your vision. Don’t play drinking games such as “beer pong”, “flip cup”, “power hour”, ...

  17. Telepsychiatry and school mental health.

    PubMed

    Grady, Brian J; Lever, Nancy; Cunningham, Dana; Stephan, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The provision of mental health services in schools has been one effective strategy for reaching out to a greater number of youth to identify and provide treatment for mental health issues. With the increasing challenges related to shortages in child and adolescent psychiatrists, it is critical to develop models of care that can maximize a full range of mental health services for all children and adolescents who need them. Telehealth offers an innovative distance technology strategy to effectively and efficiently provide access to psychiatric services in schools. Telepsychiatry has the potential to better link and enhance the provision of health services, and can be particularly beneficial in addressing geographic distance and/or capacity issues. This article describes the clinical, educational, and administrative uses of telemental health in the school environment with mental health professionals and staff.

  18. Mental Health Comorbidity in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yaghmaie, Pouya; Koudelka, Caroline W.; Simpson, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent data, primarily from Europe, suggest children with atopic dermatitis may be at increased risk of developing mental health disorders. Objective We aimed to quantify the mental health burden associated with pediatric atopic dermatitis in the United States. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used analyzing data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health – a survey reporting on the health status of 92,642 non-institutionalized children ages 0-17. The lifetime prevalence of various provider-diagnosed mental health conditions was calculated for those with and without a history of atopic dermatitis. Results The odds of having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was significantly increased in children with atopic dermatitis compared to non-atopic dermatitis controls, OR 1.87 (95% CI 1.54, 2.27) even after controlling for known confounders. The adjusted odds ratios for depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and autism were 1.81 (95% CI 1.33,2.46) , 1.77 (95% CI 1.36, 2.29), 1.87 (1.46, 2.39), and 3.04 (95% CI 2.13, 4.34), respectively, and these estimates were all statistically significant. A clear dose-dependent relationship was observed between the prevalence of a mental health disorder and the reported severity of the skin disease. Conclusions Our data reveal a striking association between mental health disorders and atopic dermatitis in the U.S. pediatric population. The severity of the skin disease alters the strength of the association. Prospective cohort studies are needed to verify these associations and to explore underlying mechanisms. Strategies to prevent atopic dermatitis or to aggressively treat early skin inflammation may modify the risk of developing mental health disorders in at-risk children. PMID:23245818

  19. Addressing the mental health needs of pregnant and parenting adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, Stacy; Beers, Lee; Southammakosane, Cathy; Lewin, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent parenthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes for young mothers, including mental health problems such as depression, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Teen mothers are also more likely to be impoverished and reside in communities and families that are socially and economically disadvantaged. These circumstances can adversely affect maternal mental health, parenting, and behavior outcomes for their children. In this report, we provide an overview of the mental health challenges associated with teen parenthood, barriers that often prevent teen mothers from seeking mental health services, and interventions for this vulnerable population that can be integrated into primary care services. Pediatricians in the primary care setting are in a unique position to address the mental health needs of adolescent parents because teens often turn to them first for assistance with emotional and behavioral concerns. Consequently, pediatricians can play a pivotal role in facilitating and encouraging teen parents' engagement in mental health treatment. PMID:24298010

  20. Online Social Networking and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract During the past decade, online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. It is unclear, however, whether some of these changes may affect certain normal aspects of human behavior and cause psychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. In addition, some authors have indicated that certain SNS activities might be associated with low self-esteem, especially in children and adolescents. Other studies have presented opposite results in terms of positive impact of social networking on self-esteem. The relationship between SNS use and mental problems to this day remains controversial, and research on this issue is faced with numerous challenges. This concise review focuses on the recent findings regarding the suggested connection between SNS and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem, and Internet addiction. PMID:25192305

  1. Online social networking and mental health.

    PubMed

    Pantic, Igor

    2014-10-01

    During the past decade, online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. It is unclear, however, whether some of these changes may affect certain normal aspects of human behavior and cause psychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. In addition, some authors have indicated that certain SNS activities might be associated with low self-esteem, especially in children and adolescents. Other studies have presented opposite results in terms of positive impact of social networking on self-esteem. The relationship between SNS use and mental problems to this day remains controversial, and research on this issue is faced with numerous challenges. This concise review focuses on the recent findings regarding the suggested connection between SNS and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem, and Internet addiction.

  2. Online social networking and mental health.

    PubMed

    Pantic, Igor

    2014-10-01

    During the past decade, online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. It is unclear, however, whether some of these changes may affect certain normal aspects of human behavior and cause psychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. In addition, some authors have indicated that certain SNS activities might be associated with low self-esteem, especially in children and adolescents. Other studies have presented opposite results in terms of positive impact of social networking on self-esteem. The relationship between SNS use and mental problems to this day remains controversial, and research on this issue is faced with numerous challenges. This concise review focuses on the recent findings regarding the suggested connection between SNS and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem, and Internet addiction. PMID:25192305

  3. Home care assistants’ perspectives on detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health among community-dwelling seniors with multimorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Grundberg, Åke; Hansson, Anna; Religa, Dorota; Hillerås, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elderly people with multiple chronic conditions, or multimorbidity, are at risk of developing poor mental health. These seniors often remain in their homes with support from home care assistants (HCAs). Mental health promotion by HCAs needs to be studied further because they may be among the first to observe changes in clients’ mental health status. Aim To describe HCAs’ perspectives on detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health among homebound seniors with multimorbidity. Methods We applied a descriptive qualitative study design using semi-structured interviews. Content analyses were performed on five focus group interviews conducted in 2014 with 26 HCAs. Results Most HCAs stated that they were experienced in caring for clients with mental health problems such as anxiety, depression, sleep problems, and high alcohol consumption. The HCAs mentioned as causes, or risk factors, multiple chronic conditions, feelings of loneliness, and social isolation. The findings reveal that continuity of care and seniors’ own thoughts and perceptions were essential to detecting mental health problems. Observation, collaboration, and social support emerged as important means of detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health. Conclusion The HCAs had knowledge of risk factors, but they seemed insecure about which health professionals had the primary responsibility for mental health. They also seemed to have detected early signs of mental health problems, even though good personal knowledge of the client and continuity in home visits were crucial to do so. When it came to mental health promotion, the suggestions related to the aim of ending social isolation, decreasing feelings of loneliness, and increasing physical activity. The results indicate that the HCAs seemed dependent on supervision by district nurses and on care managers’ decisions to support the needed care, to schedule assignments related to the detection of mental health

  4. The Role of Mental Imagery in Depression: Negative Mental Imagery Induces Strong Implicit and Explicit Affect in Depression.

    PubMed

    Görgen, Stefanie Maria; Joormann, Jutta; Hiller, Wolfgang; Witthöft, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mental imagery, seeing with the mind's eyes, can induce stronger positive as well as negative affect compared to verbal processing. Given this emotion-amplifying effect, it appears likely that mental images play an important role in affective disorders. According to the subcomponents model of depression, depressed mood is maintained by both negative imagery (which amplifies negative mood) and less efficient positive imagery processes. Empirical research on the link between mental imagery and affect in clinical depression, however, is still sparse. This study aimed at testing the role of mental imagery in depression, using a modified version of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP) and the self-assessment manikin (SAM) to assess implicit (AMP) and explicit (SAM) affect elicited by mental images, pictures, and verbal processing in clinically depressed participants (n = 32) compared to healthy controls (n = 32). In individuals with a depressive disorder, compared to healthy controls, negative mental images induced stronger negative affect in the explicit as well as implicit measure. Negative mental imagery did not, however, elicit greater increases in explicitly and implicitly assessed negative affect compared to other processing modalities (verbal processing, pictures) in the depressed group. Additionally, a positive imagery deficit in depression was observed in the explicit measure. Interestingly, the two groups did not differ in implicitly assessed affect after positive imagery, indicating that depressed individuals might benefit from positive imagery on an implicit or automatic level. Overall, our findings suggest that mental imagery also plays an important role in depression and confirm the potential of novel treatment approaches for depression, such as the promotion of positive imagery. PMID:26217240

  5. The Role of Mental Imagery in Depression: Negative Mental Imagery Induces Strong Implicit and Explicit Affect in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Görgen, Stefanie Maria; Joormann, Jutta; Hiller, Wolfgang; Witthöft, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mental imagery, seeing with the mind’s eyes, can induce stronger positive as well as negative affect compared to verbal processing. Given this emotion-amplifying effect, it appears likely that mental images play an important role in affective disorders. According to the subcomponents model of depression, depressed mood is maintained by both negative imagery (which amplifies negative mood) and less efficient positive imagery processes. Empirical research on the link between mental imagery and affect in clinical depression, however, is still sparse. This study aimed at testing the role of mental imagery in depression, using a modified version of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP) and the self-assessment manikin (SAM) to assess implicit (AMP) and explicit (SAM) affect elicited by mental images, pictures, and verbal processing in clinically depressed participants (n = 32) compared to healthy controls (n = 32). In individuals with a depressive disorder, compared to healthy controls, negative mental images induced stronger negative affect in the explicit as well as implicit measure. Negative mental imagery did not, however, elicit greater increases in explicitly and implicitly assessed negative affect compared to other processing modalities (verbal processing, pictures) in the depressed group. Additionally, a positive imagery deficit in depression was observed in the explicit measure. Interestingly, the two groups did not differ in implicitly assessed affect after positive imagery, indicating that depressed individuals might benefit from positive imagery on an implicit or automatic level. Overall, our findings suggest that mental imagery also plays an important role in depression and confirm the potential of novel treatment approaches for depression, such as the promotion of positive imagery. PMID:26217240

  6. Mental health effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Sarkar, Sidharth; Panigrahi, Mahima; Paul, Surender

    2015-01-01

    We all know that 2014 has been declared as the hottest year globally by the Meteorological department of United States of America. Climate change is a global challenge which is likely to affect the mankind in substantial ways. Not only climate change is expected to affect physical health, it is also likely to affect mental health. Increasing ambient temperatures is likely to increase rates of aggression and violent suicides, while prolonged droughts due to climate change can lead to more number of farmer suicides. Droughts otherwise can lead to impaired mental health and stress. Increased frequency of disasters with climate change can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and depression. Changes in climate and global warming may require population to migrate, which can lead to acculturation stress. It can also lead to increased rates of physical illnesses, which secondarily would be associated with psychological distress. The possible effects of mitigation measures on mental health are also discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of what can and should be done to tackle the expected mental health issues consequent to climate change.

  7. Mental health effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Sarkar, Sidharth; Panigrahi, Mahima; Paul, Surender

    2015-01-01

    We all know that 2014 has been declared as the hottest year globally by the Meteorological department of United States of America. Climate change is a global challenge which is likely to affect the mankind in substantial ways. Not only climate change is expected to affect physical health, it is also likely to affect mental health. Increasing ambient temperatures is likely to increase rates of aggression and violent suicides, while prolonged droughts due to climate change can lead to more number of farmer suicides. Droughts otherwise can lead to impaired mental health and stress. Increased frequency of disasters with climate change can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and depression. Changes in climate and global warming may require population to migrate, which can lead to acculturation stress. It can also lead to increased rates of physical illnesses, which secondarily would be associated with psychological distress. The possible effects of mitigation measures on mental health are also discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of what can and should be done to tackle the expected mental health issues consequent to climate change. PMID:26023264

  8. Changing Roles of Mental Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garai, Josef E.

    The roles that mental health professionals must play to facilitate the prevention of mental illness and the introduction of mentally healthy attitudes in our society is discussed. Mental health professionals must re-examine the meaning of mental health in the context of the current world situation and ask themselves to what extent they are…

  9. [Impact of disasters on the mental health].

    PubMed

    Cernuda Martínez, José Antonio; Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael

    2013-12-01

    The study on the impact of disasters on the mental health is a relatively recent research field. Despite this, there are a significant number of studies showing the epidemiological data of the psychiatric pathology present in survivors and those affected by disasters This review attempts to summarize current knowledge and give an integrated vision of the effects of the disasters on the mental health, either natural or manmade disasters, as well as identify the effects prevalence and differences in each type of disaster. Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety disorders, suicidal ideation or suicide attempts are some of the pathologies observed in people affected by disasters and with an ineffective adaptation, jointly with an increase in the consumption of toxic substances, generating an additional public health problem within another problem. The consequences will be different depending on the type of population and its cultural pattern, sex and gender of the affected people and type of disasters.

  10. Mental Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Mechanic, Mindy B.; Weaver, Terri L.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Battered women are exposed to multiple forms of intimate partner abuse. This article explores the independent contributions of physical violence, sexual coercion, psychological abuse, and stalking on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among a sample of 413 severely battered, help-seeking women. The authors test the unique effects of psychological abuse and stalking on mental health outcomes, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Mean scores for the sample fall into the moderate to severe range for PTSD and within the moderate category for depression scores. Hierarchical regressions test the unique effects of stalking and psychological abuse, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Psychological abuse and stalking contribute uniquely to the prediction of PTSD and depression symptoms, even after controlling for the effects of physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Results highlight the importance of examining multiple dimensions of intimate partner abuse. PMID:18535306

  11. State mental health directors' priorities for mental health care.

    PubMed

    Ahr, P R; Holcomb, W R

    1985-01-01

    The National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors surveyed all state mental health directors, through a series of mail questionnaires, to determine their national priorities for mental health care in the 1980s. In a ranking of 62 issues, the directors considered the top two priorities to be providing services and support programs in the community for the chronically mentally ill. Other highly ranked priorities included developing community residential programs, assuring continuation and funding of programs in a period of financial retrenchment, and developing a continuum of services for children and adolescents. A cluster analysis showed that within the overall group four different patterns of priorities emerged: issues related to certification and accreditation, to expansion of community programs both with and without a decrease in institution-based care, and to financial accountability.

  12. Religion, Guilt, and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faiver, Christopher M.; O'Brien, Eugene M.; Ingersoll, R. Elliott

    2000-01-01

    Article reviews the constructs of religion, guilt, and mental health, and explores relationships between these constructs as they pertain to the counseling profession. General therapeutic approaches are identified and summarized for counseling practice. (Author/JDM)

  13. Menopause and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... how you feel about yourself) Not having the social support you need Feeling disappointed that you can't have children anymore Return to top Ways to feel better Treating depression MHT is not an antidepressant. If you are ...

  14. Mental Health Screening Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center For Clinicians resources, publications Publications for Your Office Resources for Your Patients Information about Depression Information about Bipolar Disorder Wellness Tools DBSA Support Groups Active Research Studies Mood Disorders ...

  15. Mental health in Tamil cinema.

    PubMed

    Mangala, R; Thara, R

    2009-06-01

    Tamil cinema is a vibrant part of the lives of many in south India. A chequered history and a phenomenal growth have made this medium highly influential not only in Tamil Nadu politics, but also in the social lives of the viewers. This paper provides an overview of the growth of Tamil cinema, and discusses in detail the way mental health has been handled by Tamil films. Cinema can be used very effectively to improve awareness about mental health issues.

  16. Mental health services. Poor relations.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J; Sashidharan, S

    1999-04-01

    The case for London requiring greater resources for mental health services than other parts of the country has not been proved. Liverpool, Birmingham and Manchester are among the six most deprived areas in England. Spending per capita on mental health services in inner London is double that in Birmingham and Liverpool and 40 per cent higher than in Manchester. A national strategy is needed to address inequities in funding.

  17. Quality of Life, Health Status, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Nancy A.; Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Doering, Lynn V.; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B.; Child, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QOL) in adolescents and adults who have undergone the Fontan procedure and are living with only 1 ventricle is presumed to be diminished. Objectives This study aimed to compare QOL, health status, and prevalence of depression in adolescents/adults after the Fontan procedure with healthy counterparts and to identify predictors of QOL in the Fontan group. Methods Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescents and adults with single ventricle congenital heart disease who have undergone the Fontan procedure were compared with 66 age-matched healthy counterparts. Quality of life, health status, depression, and social support were measured using the Satisfaction With Life Scale, Short Form Survey Version 2, Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Module, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Clinical variables were abstracted from medical records. Predictors of QOL were determined using multiple linear regression. Results Adolescents and adults in the Fontan group reported lower physical health status (mean [SD] = 46.5 [9.3] vs mean [SD] = 55.9 [5.1], P < .001) and were more depressed (mean [SD] = 7.3 [5.9] vs mean [SD] = 4.5 [4.3], P < .004) than their healthy counterparts. There were no differences in QOL, mental health status, or social support between the 2 groups. Functional status (New York Heart Association class), depression, and social support accounted for 55% of the variance in QOL in the Fontan group. Conclusions Despite lower levels of physical health, the QOL of Fontan patients was comparable with that of their healthy counterparts; this finding contradicts previous proxy reports, self-reports, and assumptions that QOL is lower in patients with complex single ventricle congenital heart disease. However, because Fontan patients were more depressed than their healthy counterparts, the need for early screening and detection is warranted. PMID:21912272

  18. [Mental health mainstreaming: promotion and recovery].

    PubMed

    Chang, Chueh; Hsieh, Chia-Jung

    2014-02-01

    Mental health is a human right and fundamental to good personal health. Developing, planning, and implementing mental health programs is a key part of health policies worldwide. This paper uses the perspective of "mental health mainstreaming" to define mental health and explore its relationship with mental illness and psychiatric disease. Further, we apply this perspective to Taiwan's three-tiered community mental illness prevention strategy as a reference for mental health promotion and rehabilitation programs in hopes that all healthcare providers help facilitate holistic community health. PMID:24519340

  19. No Mental Health without Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve

    2016-05-01

    The poor physical health faced by people with mental illness has been the subject of growing attention, but there has been less focus on the issue of oral health even though it is an important part of physical health. This article discusses the two-way association between oral and mental health. In one direction, the prospect of dental treatment can lead to anxiety and phobia. In the other, many psychiatric disorders, such as severe mental illness, affective disorders, and eating disorders, are associated with dental disease: These include erosion, caries, and periodontitis. Left untreated, dental diseases can lead to teeth loss such that people with severe mental illness have 2.7 times the likelihood of losing all their teeth, compared with the general population. Possible interventions include oral health assessments using standard checklists that can be completed by nondental personnel, help with oral hygiene, management of iatrogenic dry mouth, and early dental referral. PMID:27254802

  20. Screening Mental Health Problems in Schools. A Center Policy Issues Analysis Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Long-standing policy controversies have heated up as a result of increasing proposals for using schools to screen for mental health problems (e.g., depression screening). This brief highlights the following issues: (1) How appropriate is large-scale screening for mental health problems? (2) Will the costs of large-scale mental health screening…

  1. Review of mental-health-related stigma in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ando, Shuntaro; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Aoki, Yuta; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the nature and characteristics of mental-health-related stigma among Japanese people. We searched relevant studies in English or Japanese published since 2001 using MEDLINE and PsycINFO, and found 19 studies that examined mental-health-related stigma in Japan. Regarding knowledge about mental illness, reviewed studies showed that in the Japanese general population, few people think that people can recover from mental disorders. Psychosocial factors, including weakness of personality, are often considered the cause of mental illness, rather than biological factors. In addition, the majority of the general public in Japan keep a greater social distance from individuals with mental illness, especially in close personal relationships. Schizophrenia is more stigmatized than depression, and its severity increases the stigmatizing attitude toward mental illness. The literature also showed an association between more direct social contact between health professionals and individuals with mental illness and less stigmatization by these professionals. Less stigmatization by mental health professionals may be associated with accumulation of clinical experience and daily contact with people who have mental illness. Stigmatizing attitudes in Japan are stronger than in Taiwan or Australia, possibly due to institutionalism, lack of national campaigns to tackle stigma, and/or society's valuing of conformity in Japan. Although educational programs appear to be effective in reducing mental-health-related stigma, future programs in Japan need to address problems regarding institutionalism and offer direct social contact with people with mental illness. PMID:24118217

  2. Review of mental-health-related stigma in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ando, Shuntaro; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Aoki, Yuta; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the nature and characteristics of mental-health-related stigma among Japanese people. We searched relevant studies in English or Japanese published since 2001 using MEDLINE and PsycINFO, and found 19 studies that examined mental-health-related stigma in Japan. Regarding knowledge about mental illness, reviewed studies showed that in the Japanese general population, few people think that people can recover from mental disorders. Psychosocial factors, including weakness of personality, are often considered the cause of mental illness, rather than biological factors. In addition, the majority of the general public in Japan keep a greater social distance from individuals with mental illness, especially in close personal relationships. Schizophrenia is more stigmatized than depression, and its severity increases the stigmatizing attitude toward mental illness. The literature also showed an association between more direct social contact between health professionals and individuals with mental illness and less stigmatization by these professionals. Less stigmatization by mental health professionals may be associated with accumulation of clinical experience and daily contact with people who have mental illness. Stigmatizing attitudes in Japan are stronger than in Taiwan or Australia, possibly due to institutionalism, lack of national campaigns to tackle stigma, and/or society's valuing of conformity in Japan. Although educational programs appear to be effective in reducing mental-health-related stigma, future programs in Japan need to address problems regarding institutionalism and offer direct social contact with people with mental illness.

  3. Rural Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... Tools Maps Funding & Opportunities News Events Models and Innovations About This Guide Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics ...

  4. Malaysia mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Parameshvara Deva, M

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be

  5. Malaysia mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Parameshvara Deva, M

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be

  6. Why do Chinese Canadians not consult mental health services: health status, language or culture?

    PubMed

    Chen, Alice W; Kazanjian, Arminée; Wong, Hubert

    2009-12-01

    Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1 showed that Chinese immigrants to Canada and Chinese individuals born in Canada were less likely than other Canadians to have contacted a health professional for mental health reasons in the previous year in the province of British Columbia. The difference persisted among individuals at moderate to high risk for depressive episode. Both immigrant and Canadian-born Chinese showed similar characteristics of mental health service use. The demographic and health factors that significantly affected their likelihood to consult mental health services included Chinese language ability, restriction in daily activities, frequency of medical consultations, and depression score. Notwithstanding lower levels of mental illness in ethnic Chinese communities, culture emerged as a major factor explaining differences in mental health consultation between Chinese and non-Chinese Canadians.

  7. Social determinants of mental health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jessica; Balfour, Reuben; Bell, Ruth; Marmot, Michael

    2014-08-01

    A person's mental health and many common mental disorders are shaped by various social, economic, and physical environments operating at different stages of life. Risk factors for many common mental disorders are heavily associated with social inequalities, whereby the greater the inequality the higher the inequality in risk. The poor and disadvantaged suffer disproportionately, but those in the middle of the social gradient are also affected. It is of major importance that action is taken to improve the conditions of everyday life, beginning before birth and progressing into early childhood, older childhood and adolescence, during family building and working ages, and through to older age. Action throughout these life stages would provide opportunities for both improving population mental health, and for reducing risk of those mental disorders that are associated with social inequalities. As mental disorders are fundamentally linked to a number of other physical health conditions, these actions would also reduce inequalities in physical health and improve health overall. Action needs to be universal: across the whole of society and proportionate to need. Policy-making at all levels of governance and across sectors can make a positive difference. PMID:25137105

  8. Social determinants of mental health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jessica; Balfour, Reuben; Bell, Ruth; Marmot, Michael

    2014-08-01

    A person's mental health and many common mental disorders are shaped by various social, economic, and physical environments operating at different stages of life. Risk factors for many common mental disorders are heavily associated with social inequalities, whereby the greater the inequality the higher the inequality in risk. The poor and disadvantaged suffer disproportionately, but those in the middle of the social gradient are also affected. It is of major importance that action is taken to improve the conditions of everyday life, beginning before birth and progressing into early childhood, older childhood and adolescence, during family building and working ages, and through to older age. Action throughout these life stages would provide opportunities for both improving population mental health, and for reducing risk of those mental disorders that are associated with social inequalities. As mental disorders are fundamentally linked to a number of other physical health conditions, these actions would also reduce inequalities in physical health and improve health overall. Action needs to be universal: across the whole of society and proportionate to need. Policy-making at all levels of governance and across sectors can make a positive difference.

  9. Religious practices, beliefs, and mental health: Variations across Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Sternthal, Michelle J.; Williams, David R.; Musick, Marc A.; Buck, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether Black Americans and Hispanic Americans experienced greater mental health benefits from religious involvement than White Americans, and whether these benefits would be mediated through three psychosocial factors—social support, meaning and forgiveness. Methods Utilizing data from a probability sample of Chicago-based adults (n=3103), ethnicity-stratified multivariate regression models estimated the association of religiosity with depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and major depressive disorder. Models controlled for potential confounders and psychosocial mediators. Results Contrary to our hypotheses, religiously involved Black Americans and Hispanic Americans did not experience greater mental health benefits than their White counterparts. For White Americans alone, service attendance was inversely related to depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and major depressive disorder. Religious saliency was consistently associated with worse mental health for Hispanic Americans only. However, both meaning and forgiveness conferred mental health benefits for all three groups. Conclusions The benefits of specific aspects of religious involvement vary across ethnicity. Caution is necessary in any effort to bring religion into the health domain. Our findings, if replicated, suggest that initiatives that facilitate a sense of purpose or forgiveness are likely to prove promising in improving mental health, regardless of race or ethnicity. PMID:22296590

  10. Mental health emergencies.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Anita

    I gained experience of psychiatric assessment in previous roles when working in a secure psychiatric ward and within the prison service. Although I have often performed mental state assessments and assessments of suicidal intent as part of my work, I read the CPD article to refresh my knowledge in this area.

  11. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children’s mental disorders affect many children and families. Boys and girls of all ages, ethnic/racial backgrounds, and regions ... highest among 6 to 11 year old children.  Boys were more likely than girls to have ADHD, behavioral or conduct problems, autism ...

  12. Managing workplace depression: an untapped opportunity for occupational health professionals.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Kelly; McKibbin, Laura

    2004-03-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and costly health issues affecting the American work force. Despite well established research demonstrating the association between employee depression and reduced on-the-job productivity, increased absenteeism, and higher health care use, most employers remain largely unresponsive to the need for company based depression initiatives. Organizational and individual barriers can prevent companies from effectively managing employee depression. Organizational barriers include information gaps, lack of data to justify increased investment in employee mental health programs, and employers' ambiguous roles in addressing depression. Individual barriers such as an inability to recognize signs and symptoms; stigma; confidentiality and privacy concerns; and unavailability of easily accessible, quality resources can keep employees who are depressed from seeking treatment. Many occupational health professionals may feel ill prepared or uncomfortable taking the lead in creating more aggressive worksite responses to depression, but they are, perhaps, in the best of all possible positions within an organization to succeed. Occupational health professionals have the credentials, credibility, training, and experience necessary to build a strong case for business leaders for why investing in workplace depression programs is so important. Occupational health professionals are the most qualified to design and deliver destigmatized, customer friendly programs and services for employees to access for help with depression, and to integrate their services with other departments such as benefits, health promotion, EAP, and human resources, to create an effective, organization-wide depression initiative.

  13. Body Dissatisfaction and Mental Health Outcomes Among Korean College Students.

    PubMed

    You, Sukkyung; Shin, Kyulee

    2016-06-01

    For many years, body dissatisfaction and mental health were thought of as Western phenomena and were studied mostly in Caucasian women. Recent studies, however, suggest that these issues are also present in men and in other ethnic groups. This study examined the association between body dissatisfaction and mental health outcomes, with personality traits and neuroticism playing possible predictive roles, using a Korean sample. A total of 545 college students, from five private universities in South Korea, completed assessment measures for depression, self-esteem, neuroticism, and body esteem scales. After controlling for covariates including body mass index and exercise time, body dissatisfaction was seen to play a mediating role between neuroticism and mental health outcomes. Differences between the sexes were also found in this relationship. For men, body dissatisfaction acted as a mediator between neuroticism and depression. For women, body dissatisfaction acted as a mediator between neuroticism and both depression and self-esteem. PMID:27173851

  14. Assessing Bisexual Stigma and Mental Health Status: A Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Bostwick, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Bisexual women often report higher rates of depression and mental health problems than their heterosexual and lesbian counterparts. These disparities likely occur, in part, as a result of the unique stigma that bisexual women face and experience. Such stigma can in turn operate as a stressor, thereby contributing to poor mental health status. The current pilot study tested a new measure of bisexual stigma and its association with mental health. Results suggest a moderate positive correlation between the two, and point to areas for future consideration when measuring bisexual stigma. PMID:24683314

  15. Preventing mental health problems among lesbian and gay college students.

    PubMed

    D'Augelli, A R

    1993-06-01

    Young adults who self-identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual experience major stresses in managing their sexual orientation. They are at risk for serious mental health problems, including suicide and depression. The mental health concerns of lesbian and gay male college students are reviewed. These problems result from the difficulties involved in developing a lesbian or gay personal identity, and are exacerbated by widespread negative attitudes, harassment, and violence directed toward lesbians and gay men on college campuses. Several systemic preventive interventions are recommended to decrease mental health problems in this population.

  16. Assessing Bisexual Stigma and Mental Health Status: A Brief Report.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Bisexual women often report higher rates of depression and mental health problems than their heterosexual and lesbian counterparts. These disparities likely occur, in part, as a result of the unique stigma that bisexual women face and experience. Such stigma can in turn operate as a stressor, thereby contributing to poor mental health status. The current pilot study tested a new measure of bisexual stigma and its association with mental health. Results suggest a moderate positive correlation between the two, and point to areas for future consideration when measuring bisexual stigma. PMID:24683314

  17. Influencing factors of mental health of medical students in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Meng, Heng; Chen, Hui; Xu, Xin-hao; Liu, Zhuo; Luo, Ai; Feng, Zhan-chun

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the mental health status of medical students in China, and analyzed the influencing factors in order to provide evidence for mental health education for medical students. A stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit medical students from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China. The questionnaire survey on general information and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were used for investigation and analysis. The results showed among the 1137 valid questionnaires, 278 (24.45%) participants had SCL-90 score ≥ 160. The top three mental problems of medical students were obsessive-compulsive disorder, interpersonal sensitivity and depression in terms of the factor score ≥ 2.5 and the number of participants who reflected on the diseases. The third-year medical students had the worst mental health status, and fifth-year medical students had the best mental health status. Students from rural area had more psychological problems than those from urban area; furthermore, students with high professional satisfaction, those who were the single child of the family, non-poor students, and those whose parents had high education level had better mental health status. It was concluded that the mental health of medical students is not optimistic in China. Medical students have some mental health problems of different degrees. Factors that influence the mental health of medical students include academic pressure, professional satisfaction level and family environment.

  18. Health sciences librarians and mental health laws.

    PubMed

    Hartz, F R

    1978-10-01

    Two U.S. Supreme Court decisions, O'Connor v. Donaldson and Bounds v. Smith, hold important implications for health sciences librarians serving in mental health facilities. The first, O'Connor, with its many ancillary holdings, puts mental health personnel on notice that patients have certain basic rights, which courts all over the country will now be required to enforce. In Bounds the court has ruled that prison authorities must assist prison inmates in preparing and filing legal papers. The ruling will most likely benefit all mentally disabled prisoners, and future litigation may expand this category to include: (1) persons committed under the criminal code, (2) persons under involuntary commitment not related to the criminal code, and (3) persons voluntarily committed. A selective annotated bibliography, consisting of background readings in mental health and the law, basic rights, law library materials, and mental health legal services, has been compiled to help librarians establish and develop legal collections in anticipation of court decisions that will expand the conditions of Bounds to include all mentally disabled patients. PMID:361117

  19. Health sciences librarians and mental health laws.

    PubMed Central

    Hartz, F R

    1978-01-01

    Two U.S. Supreme Court decisions, O'Connor v. Donaldson and Bounds v. Smith, hold important implications for health sciences librarians serving in mental health facilities. The first, O'Connor, with its many ancillary holdings, puts mental health personnel on notice that patients have certain basic rights, which courts all over the country will now be required to enforce. In Bounds the court has ruled that prison authorities must assist prison inmates in preparing and filing legal papers. The ruling will most likely benefit all mentally disabled prisoners, and future litigation may expand this category to include: (1) persons committed under the criminal code, (2) persons under involuntary commitment not related to the criminal code, and (3) persons voluntarily committed. A selective annotated bibliography, consisting of background readings in mental health and the law, basic rights, law library materials, and mental health legal services, has been compiled to help librarians establish and develop legal collections in anticipation of court decisions that will expand the conditions of Bounds to include all mentally disabled patients. PMID:361117

  20. The Mental Health Status of California Veterans.

    PubMed

    Tran, Linda Diem; Grant, David; Aydin, May

    2016-04-01

    Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2011--2013 showed approximately 90,000 veterans had mental health needs and 200,000 reported serious thoughts of suicide during the 12 months prior to participating in CHIS. Although the proportion of veterans reporting mental health need or serious psychological distress was no higher than the general population, California veterans were more likely to report lifetime suicide ideation. This policy brief uses CHIS data to examine the mental health status, needs, and barriers to care among veterans in California. Veterans were more likely to receive mental health or substance use treatment than nonveterans, yet three of four veterans with mental health needs received either inadequate or no mental health care. Integrating mental and physical health services, increasing access to care, retaining veterans who seek mental health treatment, and reducing stigma are among the strategies that might improve the mental health of California's veterans. PMID:27416644

  1. The Mental Health Status of California Veterans.

    PubMed

    Tran, Linda Diem; Grant, David; Aydin, May

    2016-04-01

    Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2011--2013 showed approximately 90,000 veterans had mental health needs and 200,000 reported serious thoughts of suicide during the 12 months prior to participating in CHIS. Although the proportion of veterans reporting mental health need or serious psychological distress was no higher than the general population, California veterans were more likely to report lifetime suicide ideation. This policy brief uses CHIS data to examine the mental health status, needs, and barriers to care among veterans in California. Veterans were more likely to receive mental health or substance use treatment than nonveterans, yet three of four veterans with mental health needs received either inadequate or no mental health care. Integrating mental and physical health services, increasing access to care, retaining veterans who seek mental health treatment, and reducing stigma are among the strategies that might improve the mental health of California's veterans.

  2. Intimate partner violence and mental health in Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Latin America has among the highest rates of intimate partner violence. While there is increasing evidence that intimate partner violence is associated with mental health problems, there is little such research for developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between Bolivian women’s experiences with physical, psychological, and sexual intimate partner violence and mental health outcomes. Methods This study analyzes data from the 2008 Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey. 10,119 married or cohabiting women ages 15–49 are included in the analysis. Probit regression models are used to assess the association between intimate partner violence and mental health, after controlling for other demographic factors and partner characteristics. The questionnaire uses selected questions from the SRQ-20 to measure symptoms of mental health problems. Results Intimate partner violence is common in Bolivia, with 47% of women experiencing some type of spousal abuse in the 12 months before the survey. Women exposed to physical spousal violence in the past year are more likely to experience symptoms of depression, anxiety, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and psychotic disorders, after controlling for other demographic and partner characteristics. Women who experienced sexual abuse by a partner are most likely to suffer from all mental health issues. Psychological abuse is also associated with an increased risk of experiencing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and psychogenic seizures. Women who experienced only psychological abuse report mental health problems similar to those who were physically abused. Conclusion This study demonstrates an urgent need for research on the prevalence and health consequences of psychological abuse in developing countries. Our findings highlight the need for mental health services for victims of intimate partner violence. Because physical and psychological violence are often experienced concurrently

  3. Good Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... all the difference. Mind/Body Connection: How Your Emotions Affect Your Health (Copyright © American Academy of Family Physicians) - This site discusses ways to improve your emotional health in order to have better ...

  4. Leadership and mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; Deacon, Maureen; Jackson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    This discussion paper argues for the critical importance of successful leadership for effective mental health nursing, observing that nursing leadership has long been regarded problematically by the profession. Using empirical and theoretical evidence we debate what leadership styles and strategies are most likely to result in effective, recovery-orientated mental health nursing. Models of transformational and distributed leadership are found to be highly congruent with mental health nursing values, yet the literature suggests it is a type of leadership more often desired than experienced. We note how the scholarly literature tends to ignore the "elephant in the room" that is organizational power, and we question whether transformational leadership pursued within a specific clinical context can influence beyond those confines. Nevertheless it is within these contexts that consumers experience nursing, effective or otherwise, thus we should advocate what is known about effective leadership wherever it is required.

  5. Issues in Mental Health Counseling with Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prout, H. Thompson; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews mental-health issues concerning persons with mental retardation, particularly as these issues apply to mental-health counseling. Included in this review is a discussion of the prevalence of psychopathology, types of problems presented, issues in clinical bias, access to community services, assessment techniques, and specific…

  6. Survey of mental health of foreign students.

    PubMed

    Sam, D L; Eide, R

    1991-01-01

    The multifaceted nature of problems foreign students face have led some researchers to conclude that these students tend to suffer from poor health during their overseas sojourn. This assertion is examined among foreign students at the University of Bergen by means of a questionnaire survey. Loneliness, tiredness, sadness and worrying were reported as a frequent source of problem by nearly one in four of over 300 respondents. Students reported a decline in their general state of health as well as a rise in the occurrence of syndrome-like tendencies resembling paranoia, anxiety, depression and somatic complaints. These tendencies were attributed to certain psychosocial factors such as information received regarding study opportunities, social contacts with other tenants in the hall of residence and future job opportunities. Scandinavian students on the whole tended to have better mental health than students from the other countries. The implications of impaired health among foreign students is discussed. PMID:2047794

  7. Misdiagnosing the Problem: Mental Health Profiles of Incarcerated Juveniles

    PubMed Central

    Odgers, Candice L.; Burnette, Mandi L.; Chauhan, Preeti; Moretti, Marlene M.; Reppucci, N. Dickon

    2005-01-01

    Aggression, antisocial and delinquent behavior frequently result in the incarceration of a large number of young people, but these problems pale in comparison to the mental health challenges faced by many of these youth. Recent studies show a high prevalence of mental disorders among adolescents within the justice system. These findings have led researchers, clinicians and policy-makers to re-evaluate the assessment and treatment options that are available for youth within correctional facilities. This article provides a concise review of the most recent research related to mental health disorders among incarcerated juveniles within Canada and the United States. Rates of some of the most common mental health disorders among juveniles, including depression, anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity and substance use are summarized. Throughout the review, issues related to co-morbidity and gender differences are highlighted. The implications of mental health disorders for juvenile justice policy and practice are discussed. PMID:19030498

  8. Food policies for physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Jacka, Felice N; Sacks, Gary; Berk, Michael; Allender, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) account for the largest burden of early mortality and are predicted to cost the global community more than US $30 trillion over the next 20 years. Unhealthy dietary habits, in large part driven by substantial changes to global food systems, are recognised as major contributors to many of the common NCDs, including cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. Recent evidence now indicates that unhealthy diets are also risk factors for mental disorders, particularly depression and dementia. This affords substantial scope to leverage on the established and developing approaches to the nutrition-related NCDs to address the large global burden of these mental disorders and reinforces the imperative for governments take substantial actions in regards to improving the food environment and consequent population health via policy initiatives. PMID:24884515

  9. Violent oppression: implications for mental health priorities in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mkhize, H

    1994-01-01

    This study explores the complex nature of mental health challenges and priorities in a post-apartheid South Africa. Special reference is made to indigenous people's experiences of poverty, racism, sexism and the machinery of political repression as critical bases for determining the priorities in mental health services. Whilst the provision of mental health services for all is sought by mental health professionals and legal systems in Western countries and other African states, South Africa has not developed a coherent sociolegal policy which aims at preventing, alleviating and healing mental health problems for all its citizens. Research gathered through a phenomenological approach amongst the oppressed seeks to define the terrain of people's psychological problems. Although data used are deduced mainly from the 'oppressed' on one white owned farm, questions raised and conclusions drawn address national as opposed to regional solutions, and also facilitate thinking about mental health priorities for all South Africans living under similar conditions. Commonly experienced problems are the effects of organized violence, child and adolescent problems, the prevalence of alcohol and drug use, depression, lack of facilities for the disabled and psychological care for homeless children, families and the youth. Participants were ignorant about mental health services, they experienced them as inaccessible and they were generally suspicious of an lacked faith in mental health workers. The author proposes broad future mental health options, like the restoration of family life in oppressed communities, the training of lay counsellors and the introduction of community mental health programmes. A suggestion is made that health workers in community mental health centres should adopt an advocacy position against all forms of unfair practices and violence and lobby for the protection of human rights.

  10. Violent oppression: implications for mental health priorities in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mkhize, H

    1994-01-01

    This study explores the complex nature of mental health challenges and priorities in a post-apartheid South Africa. Special reference is made to indigenous people's experiences of poverty, racism, sexism and the machinery of political repression as critical bases for determining the priorities in mental health services. Whilst the provision of mental health services for all is sought by mental health professionals and legal systems in Western countries and other African states, South Africa has not developed a coherent sociolegal policy which aims at preventing, alleviating and healing mental health problems for all its citizens. Research gathered through a phenomenological approach amongst the oppressed seeks to define the terrain of people's psychological problems. Although data used are deduced mainly from the 'oppressed' on one white owned farm, questions raised and conclusions drawn address national as opposed to regional solutions, and also facilitate thinking about mental health priorities for all South Africans living under similar conditions. Commonly experienced problems are the effects of organized violence, child and adolescent problems, the prevalence of alcohol and drug use, depression, lack of facilities for the disabled and psychological care for homeless children, families and the youth. Participants were ignorant about mental health services, they experienced them as inaccessible and they were generally suspicious of an lacked faith in mental health workers. The author proposes broad future mental health options, like the restoration of family life in oppressed communities, the training of lay counsellors and the introduction of community mental health programmes. A suggestion is made that health workers in community mental health centres should adopt an advocacy position against all forms of unfair practices and violence and lobby for the protection of human rights. PMID:8065247

  11. International Committee on Mental Health in Cystic Fibrosis: Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and European Cystic Fibrosis Society consensus statements for screening and treating depression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Quittner, Alexandra L; Abbott, Janice; Georgiopoulos, Anna M; Goldbeck, Lutz; Smith, Beth; Hempstead, Sarah E; Marshall, Bruce; Sabadosa, Kathryn A; Elborn, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Studies measuring psychological distress in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) have found high rates of both depression and anxiety. Psychological symptoms in both individuals with CF and parent caregivers have been associated with decreased lung function, lower body mass index, worse adherence, worse health-related quality of life, more frequent hospitalisations and increased healthcare costs. To identify and treat depression and anxiety in CF, the CF Foundation and the European CF Society invited a panel of experts, including physicians, psychologists, psychiatrists, nurses, social workers, a pharmacist, parents and an individual with CF, to develop consensus recommendations for clinical care. Over 18 months, this 22-member committee was divided into four workgroups: Screening; Psychological Interventions; Pharmacological Treatments and Implementation and Future Research, and used the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome methodology to develop questions for literature search and review. Searches were conducted in PubMed, PsychINFO, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Psychiatry online and ABDATA by a methodologist at Dartmouth. The committee reviewed 344 articles, drafted statements and set an 80% acceptance for each recommendation statement as a consensus threshold prior to an anonymous voting process. Fifteen guideline recommendation statements for screening and treatment of depression and anxiety in individuals with CF and parent caregivers were finalised by vote. As these recommendations are implemented in CF centres internationally, the process of dissemination, implementation and resource provision should be closely monitored to assess barriers and concerns, validity and use.

  12. International Committee on Mental Health in Cystic Fibrosis: Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and European Cystic Fibrosis Society consensus statements for screening and treating depression and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Quittner, Alexandra L; Abbott, Janice; Georgiopoulos, Anna M; Goldbeck, Lutz; Smith, Beth; Hempstead, Sarah E; Marshall, Bruce; Sabadosa, Kathryn A; Elborn, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Studies measuring psychological distress in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) have found high rates of both depression and anxiety. Psychological symptoms in both individuals with CF and parent caregivers have been associated with decreased lung function, lower body mass index, worse adherence, worse health-related quality of life, more frequent hospitalisations and increased healthcare costs. To identify and treat depression and anxiety in CF, the CF Foundation and the European CF Society invited a panel of experts, including physicians, psychologists, psychiatrists, nurses, social workers, a pharmacist, parents and an individual with CF, to develop consensus recommendations for clinical care. Over 18 months, this 22-member committee was divided into four workgroups: Screening; Psychological Interventions; Pharmacological Treatments and Implementation and Future Research, and used the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome methodology to develop questions for literature search and review. Searches were conducted in PubMed, PsychINFO, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Psychiatry online and ABDATA by a methodologist at Dartmouth. The committee reviewed 344 articles, drafted statements and set an 80% acceptance for each recommendation statement as a consensus threshold prior to an anonymous voting process. Fifteen guideline recommendation statements for screening and treatment of depression and anxiety in individuals with CF and parent caregivers were finalised by vote. As these recommendations are implemented in CF centres internationally, the process of dissemination, implementation and resource provision should be closely monitored to assess barriers and concerns, validity and use. PMID:26452630

  13. Mental Health in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrick, Stephen J.

    1978-01-01

    There is no component of the school program that has as its declared objective the enhancement of the health and quality of life of the child, the elimination of health problems that impede learning, and the prevention of disease and illness. The author finds this situation objectionable. (MM)

  14. Mental Health. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This comprehensive course from the Practical Nursing series of competency-based curricula is designed to prepare students for employment by systematically guiding the students' learning activities from the simple to the complex. These materials prepare health care practitioners to function effectively in the rapidly changing health care industry.…

  15. The mental health of refugee children.

    PubMed

    Fazel, M; Stein, A

    2002-11-01

    The UK is facing a major increase in the number of people seeking asylum each year, of whom approximately a quarter are children. The stressors to which refugees are exposed are described in three stages: (1) while in their country of origin; (2) during their flight to safety; and (3) when having to settle in a country of refuge. The evidence concerning the impact of displacement on children's mental health is reviewed and a framework for conceptualising the risk factors is proposed. The available literature shows consistently increased levels of psychological morbidity among refugee children, especially post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety disorders. The principles underlying the delivery of mental health care for these children are also considered. It is argued that much primary prevention can be undertaken in the school context. Some key aspects of British immigration law are examined and the tension between the law and the best interests of the child principle is discussed. There is particular concern for the plight of unaccompanied children. Attention to the mental health needs of this vulnerable group is urgently required. PMID:12390902

  16. Mental Health Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Illness & disability Drugs, alcohol & smoking Your feelings Relationships Bullying Safety Your future Environmental health Skip section navigation ( ... to what’s called conduct disorder. This sometimes includes bullying, destroying property, and being cruel to animals — plus ...

  17. Prevention Through Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicary, Judith R.

    1978-01-01

    Three rationales for affective, school-based prevention activities are to: (1) deter or lessen self- and socially-destructive behavior; (2) enhance cognitive development; and (3) promote maximum total growth, health, and development of each individual. (Author/MJB)

  18. The Workplace and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierre, Karin Domnick

    1986-01-01

    Findings of the Canadian Mental Health and the Workplace Project are that (1) the quality of interpersonal relations in the workplace is a major factor in emotional well-being and (2) work must be balanced with other parts of one's life. These findings imply the need for social support networks and alternative work patterns. (SK)

  19. Child Mental Health Services, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Betty

    School and residential therapeutic programs of Child Health Mental Services, Inc. serving schizophrenic, autistic, and emotionally disturbed children and youth (2-21 years old) are described. The residential components include a family unit home as well as a supervised apartment living program. Admissions procedures for the school program are…

  20. Mental health care in Cambodia.

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, D. J.; van de Put, W. A.

    1999-01-01

    An effort is being made in Cambodia to involve grass-roots personnel in the integration of the care of the mentally ill into a broad framework of health services. This undertaking is examined with particular reference to the work of the Transcultural Psychosocial Organization. PMID:10212521

  1. Mental Health and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Henry C.

    1982-01-01

    Briefly reviews historical development of mental health and the law as a multidisciplinary field and considers variety of information seekers addressing certain topics of special importance. Pertinent information sources and services are outlined. Fifteen references and a recommended core library for fellowship programs in forensic psychiatry are…

  2. Volunteers in Community Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet gives detailed accounts of mental health programs in operation around the nation. A total of nine different types of activities is included. "Helping Children" describes a program whereby students from nearby colleges give troubled children, at home, an experience in friendship by serving as big brothers or sisters. "Helping the…

  3. Ethnic Lifestyles and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia-Weber, Gloria, Ed.

    This document presents two overview essays (one on the ethnic history of the United States and one on multicultural society) and seven articles on various aspects of the relationship between ethnic values and mental health. Articles were originally presented as papers at a series of seminars convened to encourage humanists from four ethnic groups…

  4. Children's Mental Health. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plattner, Ilse Elisabeth; Haugen, Kirsten; Cohen, Alan; Levin, Diane E.

    2003-01-01

    Presents four articles discussing mental health issues that pertain to early childhood education: "Granting Children Their Emotions" (Ilse Elisabeth Plattner); "Double Vision: Parent and Professional Perspectives on Our Family's Year in Crisis" (Kirsten Haugen); "Coping with Stress and Surviving Challenging Times" (Alan Cohen); and "When the World…

  5. Toward Explaining Mental Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aneshensel, Carol S.

    2009-01-01

    Mental health disparities refer to the disproportionate amount of psychopathology found among persons of disadvantageous social standing, such as persons of low socioeconomic status (SES). Although social and self selection cannot entirely be ruled out as explanations for these differences, the accumulation of evidence supports a social causation…

  6. Mental Health Care: Who's Who

    MedlinePlus

    ... degree in social work (M.S.W.); Licensed Clinical Social Workers (L.C.S.W.) have additional supervised training and clinical work experience. Licensed Professional Counselor: Master’s degree in psychology, counseling or a related field. Mental Health Counselor: ...

  7. The treatment gap in mental health care.

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Robert; Saxena, Shekhar; Levav, Itzhak; Saraceno, Benedetto

    2004-01-01

    Mental disorders are highly prevalent and cause considerable suffering and disease burden. To compound this public health problem, many individuals with psychiatric disorders remain untreated although effective treatments exist. We examine the extent of this treatment gap. We reviewed community-based psychiatric epidemiology studies that used standardized diagnostic instruments and included data on the percentage of individuals receiving care for schizophrenia and other non-affective psychotic disorders, major depression, dysthymia, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and alcohol abuse or dependence. The median rates of untreated cases of these disorders were calculated across the studies. Examples of the estimation of the treatment gap for WHO regions are also presented. Thirty-seven studies had information on service utilization. The median treatment gap for schizophrenia, including other non-affective psychosis, was 32.2%. For other disorders the gap was: depression, 56.3%; dysthymia, 56.0%; bipolar disorder, 50.2%; panic disorder, 55.9%; GAD, 57.5%; and OCD, 57.3%. Alcohol abuse and dependence had the widest treatment gap at 78.1%. The treatment gap for mental disorders is universally large, though it varies across regions. It is likely that the gap reported here is an underestimate due to the unavailability of community-based data from developing countries where services are scarcer. To address this major public health challenge, WHO has adopted in 2002 a global action programme that has been endorsed by the Member States. PMID:15640922

  8. Mental Health Service Delivery Systems and Perceived Qualifications of Mental Health Service Providers in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Decia Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…

  9. The influence of psychological symptoms on mental health literacy of college students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin E; Saw, Anne; Zane, Nolan

    2015-11-01

    Psychological problems, such as depression and anxiety, are common among college students, but few receive treatment for it. Mental health literacy may partially account for low rates of mental health treatment utilization. We report 2 studies that investigated mental health literacy among individuals with varying degrees of psychological symptoms, using cross-sectional online survey methodology. Study 1 involved 332 college students, of which 32% were categorized as high depressed using an established measure of depression, and mental health literacy for depression was assessed using a vignette. Logistic regression results showed that high depressed individuals were less likely to recognize depression compared to low depressed individuals, and depression recognition was associated with recommendations to seek help. Study 2 replicated and extended findings of Study 1 using a separate sample of 1,321 college students with varying degrees of psychological distress (32% no/mild distress, 55% moderate distress, and 13% serious distress) and examining mental health literacy for anxiety in addition to depression. Results indicated that compared to those with no/mild distress, those with moderate distress had lower recognition of depression, and those with moderate and serious distress were less likely to recommend help-seeking. In contrast, there were no differences in mental health literacy for anxiety, which was low across all participants. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms can impact certain aspects of mental health literacy, and these results have implications for targeting mental health literacy to increase mental health services utilization among individuals in need of help. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Work-related Mental Consequences: Implications of Burnout on Mental Health Status Among Health Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Burnout can create problems in every aspect of individual’s’ human life. It may have an adverse effect on interpersonal and family relations and can lead to a general negative attitude towards life. Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether burnout is associated with the mental health status of health care providers. Material and Methods: The sample in this study consisted of 240 health care employees. The Greek version of Maslach’s Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used for measuring burnout levels and the Greek version of the Symptoms Rating Scale for Depression and Anxiety (SRSDA) questionnaire was used to evaluate health care providers’ mental health status. Descriptive statistics were initially generated for sample characteristics. Normality was checked by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and data was processed with parametric tests. General linear models with MBI dimensions as independent variables and SRSDA subscales as dependent variables were used to determine the relation between burnout and mental health status. Statistics were processed with SPSS v. 17.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical significance was set at p=0.05. Results: The average age of the sample is 40.00±7.95 years. Regarding gender the percentage of men is 21.40% (N=49) and of women is 78.60% (N=180). Overall the professional burnout of health care workers is moderate. The mean score for emotional exhaustion is 26.41, for personal accomplishment 36.70 and for depersonalization 9.81. The mean for each subscale of SRSDA is 8.23±6.79 for Depression Beck-21, 3.96±4.26 for Depression Beck-13, 4.91±4.44 for Melancholia, 6.32±4.35 for Asthenia and 6.36±4.72 for Anxiety. The results of general linear models with the MBI dimensions as independent variables and the SRSDA subscales as dependent variables are shown that emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment are statistically correlated with all subscales of SRSDA, while depersonalization is not correlated

  11. Use of technology to enhance mental health for older adults.

    PubMed

    Cangelosi, Pamela R; Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2014-09-01

    Recent research suggests that older adults may gain significant mental health benefits from health resources made available through emerging modern technologies, especially because this population is becoming more Internet savvy. Technology-enhanced interventions for older adults have been shown to be helpful not only for general wellness activities (i.e., exercise), but also to specifically enhance mental health. This article focuses on two types of interventions for mental health: (a) cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression and anxiety and (b) assistive technology for individuals with dementia. Nurses should reevaluate their assumptions that older adults fear technology and explore whether different types of modern technology might be effective in enhancing mental health for these clients.

  12. Social Rhythm and Mental Health: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Margraf, Jürgen; Lavallee, Kristen; Zhang, XiaoChi; Schneider, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Background Social rhythm refers to the regularity with which one engages in social activities throughout the week, and has established links with bipolar disorder, as well as some links with depression and anxiety. The aim of the present study is to examine social rhythm and its relationship to various aspects of health, including physical health, negative mental health, and positive mental health. Method Questionnaire data were obtained from a large-scale multi-national sample of 8095 representative participants from the U.S., Russia, and Germany. Results Results indicated that social rhythm irregularity is related to increased reporting of health problems, depression, anxiety, and stress. In contrast, greater regularity is related to better overall health state, life satisfaction, and positive mental health. The effects are generally small in size, but hold even when controlling for gender, marital status, education, income, country, and social support. Further, social rhythm means differ across Russia, the U.S., and Germany. Relationships with mental health are present in all three countries, but differ in magnitude. Conclusions Social rhythm irregularity is related to mental health in Russia, the U.S., and Germany. PMID:26954568

  13. [Sleep electroencephalography in depression and mental disorders with depressive comorbidity].

    PubMed

    Eiber, R; Escande, M

    1999-01-01

    Traditional scoring of sleep EEG in depressed patients shows abnormalities in sleep maintenance, sleep architecture, REM sleep, the distribution of slow wave and REM sleep during the night. Computerized analysis that comprises the period-amplitude analysis procedure and spectral analysis discloses changes in delta activity and distribution of delta activity. However, these methods of analysing EEG sleep are not able to distinguish the various concepts of depression: endogenous and non-endogenous depression, unipolar and bipolar depression, psychotic and non-psychotic depression. Polysomnographical data in patients with recurrent depression show alteration during remission suggesting trait-like abnormalities of sleep in depression illness. Shortened REM latency is not specific in depression. This sleep parameter is defined in many different ways explaining the heterogeneousness of study results and the failure of constituting a biological marker. Many sleep parameters are affected by several factors such as age, gender and severity. Several physiopathological hypotheses have been proposed to explain EEG sleep alterations. They refer either to circadian rhythms such as the two process model of Borbély, the phase advance hypothesis and the circadian amplitude hypothesis, or to neurotransmitter abnormalities such as the cholinergic hypothesis. None of them takes sufficient account of all the sleep abnormalities. Sleep abnormalities have also been described in other psychiatric disorders such as mania, panic and obsessional-compulsive disorders, generalized anxiety, phobias, post-traumatic stress disorder, eating disorders, borderline personality, schizophrenia and dementia. None of them have a particular sleep EEG profile which allows to differentiate between them. A concomitant episode of major depression cannot be uncovered by sleep recordings.

  14. Mental health and psychosocial functioning in adolescence: an investigation among Indian students from Delhi.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kamlesh; Bassi, Marta; Junnarkar, Mohita; Negri, Luca

    2015-02-01

    While developmental studies predominantly investigated adolescents' mental illness and psychosocial maladjustment, the present research focused on positive mental health of Indian adolescents within the Mental Health Continuum model. Aims were to estimate their prevalence of mental health and to examine its associations with mental distress and psychosocial functioning, taking into account age and gender. A group of 539 students (age 13-18; 43.2% girls) in the National Capital Territory of Delhi completed Mental Health Continuum Short Form, Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales-21, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Findings showed that 46.4% participants were flourishing, 51.2% were moderately mentally healthy, and only 2.4% were languishing. A higher number of girls and younger adolescents were flourishing compared to boys and older adolescents. Moreover, flourishing youths reported lower prevalence of depression and adjustment difficulties, and more prosocial behavior. Findings support the need to expand current knowledge on positive mental health for well-being promotion in adolescence.

  15. Malayalam cinema and mental health.

    PubMed

    Menon, Koravangattu Valsraj; Ranjith, Gopinath

    2009-06-01

    There is a tradition of using films to teach various aspects of psychiatry and we feel that Malayalam cinema can also be used suitably to teach effectively. These films can be an invaluable resource in cultural competency training as they depict the effects of culture on psychopathology and cultural and regional influences on attitudes to mental illness and stigma. We also note that the portrayal is often far from reality but this is not a barrier for using the films as an effective alternative to traditional and didactic teaching methods. This method of teaching can stimulate interest and discussion and demystify the myths of novice students and others about mental health.

  16. Prospective evaluation of mental health training for occupational health practitioners

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational health (OH) practitioners need to be confident in identifying and managing mental health problems in the workforce. Aims To evaluate the effectiveness of a one-day workshop in improving the knowledge, attitude and confidence of OH practitioners in detecting and managing depression, anxiety, suicide risk, alcohol misuse and drug abuse. Methods Interactive mental health workshops for 164 OH practitioners held in five regions in England were evaluated by self-administered questionnaire. Data were collected immediately prior to the workshop (T1), immediately after the workshop (T2) and 4 months following the workshop (T3). Results At T1, the response rate was 97% (159/164), 90% at T2 and 63% at T3. The mean improvement in participants’ knowledge was 8% (95% CI 6–10) at T2 compared with T1. The biggest improvement was in participants with no previous training in the management of common mental health problems in the workplace, mean improvement 9% (95% CI 6–12). Participants’ confidence improved in all areas assessed at T2, and the improvement in confidence compared with that at baseline was sustained at 4 months (T3). Participants reported using the knowledge gained in clinical practice in all topic areas covered. Use of knowledge gained at the workshop was significantly higher in those who had had previous training in managing common mental health disorders. Conclusions This one-day interactive workshop was a feasible and effective method of improving OH professionals’ confidence, knowledge and application of skills in practice in key areas of mental health. PMID:23447034

  17. Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and subsequent heart disease onset: beyond depression

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Kate M.; de Jonge, Peter; Alonso, Jordi; Viana, Maria Carmen; Liu, Zhaorui; O’Neill, Siobhan; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Stein, Dan J.; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia E.; Hu, Chiyi; Taib, Nezar Ismet; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José A.; Uda, Hidenori; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J.; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior studies on the depression-heart disease association have not usually used diagnostic measures of depression, nor taken other mental disorders into consideration. As a result, it is not clear whether the association between depression and heart disease onset reflects a specific association, or the comorbidity between depression and other mental disorders. Additionally, the relative magnitude of associations of a range of mental disorders with heart disease onset is unknown. Methods Face-to-face household surveys were conducted in 19 countries (n=52,095; person years=2,141,194). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders. Heart disease was indicated by self-report of physician’s diagnosis, or self-report of heart attack, together with their timing (year). Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent heart disease onset. Results After comorbidity adjustment, depression, panic disorder, specific phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol use disorders were associated with heart disease onset (ORs 1.3–1.6). Increasing number of mental disorders was associated with heart disease in a dose-response fashion. Mood disorders and alcohol abuse were more strongly associated with earlier onset than later onset heart disease. Associations did not vary by gender. Conclusions Depression, anxiety and alcohol use disorders were significantly associated with heart disease onset; depression was the weakest predictor. If confirmed in future prospective studies, the breadth of psychopathology’s links with heart disease onset has substantial clinical and public health implications. PMID:23993321

  18. Mental Health and Mental Retardation Services in Nevada. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, J. S.; And Others

    Summarized are the findings and recommendations of a 2-year study of all major services and service delivery systems in Nevada for persons with mental health disorders, mentally retarded persons, and abusers of alcohol and other drugs. Considered are the following areas of basic service needs: prevention of the mentally handicapping conditions,…

  19. Promoting Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee

    2016-01-01

    In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.

  20. Maternal mental health: The missing "m" in the global maternal and child health agenda.

    PubMed

    Atif, Najia; Lovell, Karina; Rahman, Atif

    2015-08-01

    While the physical health of women and children is emphasized, the mental aspects of their health are often ignored by maternal and child health programs, especially in low- and middle-income countries. We review the evidence of the magnitude, impact, and interventions for common maternal mental health problems with a focus on depression, the condition with the greatest public health impact. The mean prevalence of maternal depression ranges between 15.6% in the prenatal and 19.8% in the postnatal period. It is associated with preterm birth, low birth weight, and poor infant growth and cognitive development. There is emerging evidence for the effectiveness of interventions, especially those that can be delivered by non-specialists, including community health workers, in low-income settings. Strategies for integrating maternal mental health in the maternal and child health agenda are suggested.

  1. Nourishing Students' Mental Health in a Difficult Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Nicole; McFaul, Mimi; Mohatt, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on the mental health of college students conducted by Daniel Eisenberg, principal investigator in the multiyear Healthy Minds study, indicates that as many as one in five college students may suffer from depression, generalized anxiety disorder, or a panic disorder. Although it's too early to assess the effect of the economic…

  2. Committed Dating Relationships and Mental Health among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitton, Sarah W.; Weitbrecht, Eliza M.; Kuryluk, Amanda D.; Bruner, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether involvement in committed dating relationships is associated with university students’ mental health (depressive symptoms and problem alcohol use, including binge drinking), and whether these associations differ by gender. Participants: A sample of 889 undergraduate students aged 18 to 25. Methods: Self-report measures…

  3. Neighborhood Processes, Self-Efficacy, and Adolescent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupere, Veronique; Leventhal, Tama; Vitaro, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs are central to mental health. Because adolescents' neighborhoods shape opportunities for experiences of control, predictability, and safety, we propose that neighborhood conditions are associated with adolescents' self-efficacy and, in turn, their internalizing problems (i.e., depression/anxiety symptoms). We tested these…

  4. Leveraging Mental Health Dollars into Your District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilkenny, Robert; Katz, Nechama; Baron, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    By addressing common reasons that schools and mental health partners often cannot sustain sufficient school-based mental health services, Connecting With Care (CWC)--a mental health collaboration that places full-time clinicians in schools in Boston's most under-served urban neighborhood--is demonstrating how schools and districts can leverage…

  5. Perceived Age Discrimination and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt

    2007-01-01

    Although perceived discrimination (especially due to race-ethnicity) decreases mental health, the influence of perceived discrimination due to other reasons on mental health needs to be explored. This study examines the relationship between perceived age discrimination and mental health and determines whether psychosocial resources explain or…

  6. The first mental health law of China.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yang; Wang, Jijun; Xie, Bin

    2015-02-01

    The first mental health law of China entered into effect on May 1, 2013. This was the biggest event in the mental health field in China. The present review introduces its legislative process, its main idea, and the principle and essence of formulating this mental health law. Current problems of the law and possible countermeasures are also discussed.

  7. Families, Managed Care, & Children's Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Marilyn C., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue of a bulletin on family support and children's mental health focuses on managed care and the impact on children who are in need of mental health services. Articles include: "Private Sector Managed Care and Children's Mental Health" (Ira S. Lourie and others); "Just What Is Managed Care?" (Chris Koyanagi); "Managed Behavioral…

  8. Handbook of Infant Mental Health. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H., Jr., Ed.

    This revised edition offers an interdisciplinary analysis of the developmental, clinical, and social aspects of mental health from birth to age 3. Chapters are organized into five areas, covering the context of mental health, risk and protective factors, assessment, psychopathology, intervention, and applications of infant mental health. The…

  9. Hispanics and Culturally Sensitive Mental Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hispanic Research Center Research Bulletin, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The objective of improving mental health care for Hispanics has been reviewed, most often, as dependent upon the provision of culturally sensitive mental health services. "Cultural sensitivity," however, is an imprecise term, especially when efforts are made to put it into operation when providing mental health services to Hispanic clients.…

  10. Experience Placements. Mental Health Career Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    The purpose of the Mental Health Career Development Program (MHCD) is to recruit and develop talented professionals for major roles in the multidisciplinary Federal mental health effort at the National Institute of Mental Health and other agencies. This booklet is intended to assist MHCD members and their advisors in planning for the transition…

  11. Ethnic Issues in Adolescent Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiffman, Arlene Rubin, Ed.; Davis, Larry E., Ed.

    The essays collected in this book examine the effects of ethnicity on the mental health of adolescents. A dual set of issues emerges throughout the volume: the importance of adolescent mental health in contributing to adult well-being, and the necessity of understanding ethnicity in studying and treating mental health problems. The book is divided…

  12. Factors associated with mental health service utilization among Korean American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Park, So Youn; Cho, Sunhee; Park, Yeddi; Bernstein, Kunsook S; Shin, Jinah K

    2013-12-01

    This study adapted Andersen's Health Belief Model to examine the predictors of mental health services utilization among Korean American (KA) immigrants. A cross-sectional survey was used to gather data on 363 KA immigrants 18 years and older residing in New York City. Predisposing factors included gender, age, marital status, education, length of stay in the US, and religion; the need factor was depression; and enabling factors included health insurance, English proficiency, income, and perceived need for help. Approximately 8.5 % of participants reported having utilized mental health services, while 23 % reported having depressive symptoms. Shorter duration of residence in the US, lower income, and the presence of perceived need for help were significantly related to use of mental health services. The perceived need for help mediated the relationship between depression and mental health service utilization. Failure to perceive the need for psychological help continues to be a major reason that KA immigrants do not use mental health services.

  13. Improving competence in emergency mental health triage.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, M; Jarman, H; Berk, M

    2002-07-01

    The Emergency Department is an important contact point for people with mental health problems (Tobin et al. 1999, p. 2). The Barwon Health Emergency Department is no exception. Approximately 1000 clients per year, or 2.6% of the 38,000 people seen annually in the Barwon Health, Geelong Hospital Emergency Department present with a primary mental health complaint or associated issue. The triage scale used in the Emergency Department contained little guidance for the triage of clients with mental health problems. A triage scale specifically designed to highlight mental health emergencies was implemented and its impact on practice was assessed. Improvements in communication, nurses' confidence in triaging clients with mental health problems and time to intervention by mental health staff were made. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of a mental health triage scale and changes to practice that resulted.

  14. Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bottino, Sara Mota Borges; Bottino, Cássio M C; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Correia, Aline Villa Lobo; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva

    2015-03-01

    Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.

  15. Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bottino, Sara Mota Borges; Bottino, Cássio M C; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Correia, Aline Villa Lobo; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva

    2015-03-01

    Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents. PMID:25859714

  16. Education, mental health, and education-labor market misfit.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Piet; van de Straat, Vera; Missinne, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    Higher-educated people experience enhanced mental health. We ponder whether the mental health benefits of educational attainment are limitless. At the individual level, we look at the impact of job-education mismatch. At the societal level, we hypothesize that diminishing economic returns on education limit its mental health benefits. Using a subsample of individuals aged 20 to 65 years (N = 28,288) from 21 countries in the European Social Survey (ESS 2006), we estimate the impact on depressive symptoms of characteristics at both the employee level (years of education and job-education mismatch) and the labor market/country level (the gap between the nontertiary and tertiary educated in terms of unemployment risks and earnings). The results show that educational attainment produces mental health benefits in most European countries. However, in some of the countries, these benefits are limited or even completely eliminated by education-labor market misfit.

  17. Perinatal mental health: midwives and health visitors working together.

    PubMed

    Halnan, Bridget

    2014-03-01

    The Healthy Child Programme (HCP) focuses on the care offered to pregnant women and children in the first five years of life. It is delivered by a range of professionals, with the health visitor as lead. Effective delivery of the HCP depends on services for children and families being fully integrated, and partnership working between different agencies on a local level seems to be the key to success. This article focuses on how effective implementation of the HCP facilitates the recognition and care of women with anxiety, mild to moderate depression and other perinatal mental disorders during both the antenatal period and after the birth.

  18. Social contagion of mental health: Evidence from college roommates

    PubMed Central

    Golberstein, Ezra; Whitlock, Janis L.; Downs, Marilyn F.

    2015-01-01

    From a policy standpoint the spread of health conditions in social networks is important to quantify, because it implies externalities and possible market failures in the consumption of health interventions. Recent studies conclude that happiness and depression may be highly contagious across social ties. The results may be biased, however, due to selection and common shocks. We provide unbiased estimates by using exogenous variation from college roommate assignments. Our findings are consistent with no significant overall contagion of mental health and no more than small contagion effects for specific mental health measures, with no evidence for happiness contagion and modest evidence for anxiety and depression contagion. The weakness of the contagion effects cannot be explained by avoidance of roommates with poor mental health or by generally low social contact among roommates. We also find that similarity of baseline mental health predicts the closeness of roommate relationships, which highlights the potential for selection biases in studies of peer effects that do not have a clearly exogenous source of variation. Overall our results suggest that mental health contagion is lower, or at least more context-specific, than implied by the recent studies in the medical literature. PMID:23055446

  19. Social contagion of mental health: evidence from college roommates.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Daniel; Golberstein, Ezra; Whitlock, Janis L; Downs, Marilyn F

    2013-08-01

    From a policy standpoint, the spread of health conditions in social networks is important to quantify, because it implies externalities and possible market failures in the consumption of health interventions. Recent studies conclude that happiness and depression may be highly contagious across social ties. The results may be biased, however, because of selection and common shocks. We provide unbiased estimates by using exogenous variation from college roommate assignments. Our findings are consistent with no significant overall contagion of mental health and no more than small contagion effects for specific mental health measures, with no evidence for happiness contagion and modest evidence for anxiety and depression contagion. The weakness of the contagion effects cannot be explained by avoidance of roommates with poor mental health or by generally low social contact among roommates. We also find that similarity of baseline mental health predicts the closeness of roommate relationships, which highlights the potential for selection biases in studies of peer effects that do not have a clearly exogenous source of variation. Overall, our results suggest that mental health contagion is lower, or at least more context specific, than implied by the recent studies in the medical literature.

  20. Efficacy of Attribution Retraining on Mental Health of Epileptic Children

    PubMed Central

    Pourmohamadreza Tajrishi, Masoume; Abbasi, Saeid; Najafi Fard, Tahereh; Yousefi, Saheb; Mohammadi Malek Abadi, Athar; Delavar Kasmaei, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy affects children’s quality of life and leads to social and mental problems. Promoting the mental health of children, especially epileptic ones, and preventing problems affecting them constitute major concerns for every country. Mental health promotion requires intervention programs. Objectives: We sought to assess the efficacy of attribution retraining on the mental health of epileptic children. Patients and Methods: The present study is a semi-experimental investigation with a pretest and posttest design and includes a control group. Thirty children, comprising 17 boys and 13 girls, were selected randomly from the Iranian epilepsy association in Tehran and assigned to experimental and control groups. They answered to the general health questionnaire (Goldberg and Hiller, 1979). The experimental group participated in 11 training sessions (twice a week; 45 minutes for each session) and received attribution retraining. The data were analyzed using the multiple analysis of covariance. Results: The findings showed that the experimental group, in comparison with the control group, experienced a reduction in physical symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, and depression and an increase in mental health significantly (P < 0.01) after the training sessions. There were no significant differences, however, between the two groups at 6 weeks’ follow-up. Conclusions: Attribution retraining improved mental health in the epileptic children in our study. It, therefore, seems to be an appropriate intervention for promoting the mental health of children. PMID:26568854

  1. Proband Mental Health Difficulties and Parental Stress Predict Mental Health in Toddlers at High-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crea, Katherine; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Hudry, Kristelle

    2016-01-01

    Family-related predictors of mental health problems were investigated among 30 toddlers at familial high-risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 28 controls followed from age 2- to 3-years. Parents completed the self-report Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the parent-report Behavior Assessment System for Children. High-risk toddlers were…

  2. Independent mental health nurse prescribing.

    PubMed

    Jones, A; Harborne, G C

    2009-08-01

    Independent prescribing (IP) is a new form of prescriptive authority for mental health services. Very little is known about where IP is being implemented and factors to support or constrain its adoption. An opportunistic sample of 119 respondents made up of nurses, doctors, support workers, occupational therapists and social workers completed an online survey. The sample worked in adult, old age and substance misuse services. Hospital wards and community mental health teams were identified as the highest ranked areas for implementation. A total of 68% of the sample identified pharmacology as the area for further training. And 40% of the sample felt that IP had been introduced to make services more effective. This opportunistic sample supported IP as a means to offer greater patient choice and as a method to broaden the boundaries of nursing practice. Integral to this development is the link between the psychiatrist and IP nurse in terms of work allocation and supervision.

  3. Ethical issues in mental health

    PubMed Central

    DuBois, James; Bailey-Burch, Brendolyn; Bustillos, Dan; Campbell, Jean; Cottler, Linda; Fisher, Celia; Hadley, Whitney B.; Hoop, Jinger G.; Roberts, Laura; Salter, Erica K.; Sieber, Joan E.; Stevenson, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review To describe community engaged research (CEnR) and how it may improve the quality of a research study while addressing ethical concerns that communities may have with mental health and substance abuse research. This article includes a review of the literature as well as recommendations from an expert panel convened with funding from the US National Institute of Mental Health. Recent findings CEnR represents a broad spectrum of practices including representation on institutional ethics committees, attitude research with individuals from the study population, engaging community advisory boards, forming research partnerships with community organizations, and including community members as co-investigators. Summary CEnR poses some challenges; for example, it requires funding and training for researchers and community members. However, it offers many benefits to researchers and communities and some form of CEnR is appropriate and feasible in nearly every study involving human participants. PMID:21460643

  4. Institutions, Politics, and Mental Health Parity

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Elaine M.; Uggen, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Mental health parity laws require insurers to extend comparable benefits for mental and physical health care. Proponents argue that by placing mental health services alongside physical health services, such laws can help ensure needed treatment and destigmatize mental illness. Opponents counter that such mandates are costly or unnecessary. The authors offer a sociological account of the diffusion and spatial distribution of state mental health parity laws. An event history analysis identifies four factors as especially important: diffusion of law, political ideology, the stability of mental health advocacy organizations and the relative health of state economies. Mental health parity is least likely to be established during times of high state unemployment and under the leadership of conservative state legislatures. PMID:24353902

  5. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Mama, Scherezade K; Li, Yisheng; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W; Nguyen, Nga T; Reitzel, Lorraine R; McNeill, Lorna H

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans. PMID:27119366

  6. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E.; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans. PMID:27119366

  7. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Mama, Scherezade K; Li, Yisheng; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W; Nguyen, Nga T; Reitzel, Lorraine R; McNeill, Lorna H

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans.

  8. Positive mental health: is there a cross-cultural definition?

    PubMed

    Vaillant, George E

    2012-06-01

    SEVEN MODELS FOR CONCEPTUALIZING POSITIVE MENTAL HEALTH ARE REVIEWED: mental health as above normal, epitomized by a DSM-IV's Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score of over 80; mental health as the presence of multiple human strengths rather than the absence of weaknesses; mental health conceptualized as maturity; mental health as the dominance of positive emotions; mental health as high socio-emotional intelligence; mental health as subjective well-being; mental health as resilience. Safeguards for the study of mental health are suggested, including the need to define mental health in terms that are culturally sensitive and inclusive, and the need to empirically and longitudinally validate criteria for mental health.

  9. Rural mental health: neither romanticism nor despair.

    PubMed

    Wainer, J; Chesters, J

    2000-06-01

    This paper explores the relationship between rural places and mental health. It begins with a definition of mental health and an outline of the data that have led to the current concern with promoting positive mental health. We then consider aspects of rural life and place that contribute to positive mental health or increase the likelihood of mental health problems. Issues identified include environment, place, gender identity, violence and dispossession and the influence of the effects of structural changes in rural communities. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the determinants of resilience in rural places, including social connectedness, valuing diversity and economic participation. PMID:11249401

  10. Internalized stigma of mental illness and depressive and psychotic symptoms in homeless veterans over 6 months.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jennifer E; Hayward, H'Sien; Bassett, Elena D; Hoff, Rani

    2016-06-30

    We investigated the relationship between internalized stigma of mental illness at baseline and depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, controlling for baseline symptoms. Data on homeless veterans with severe mental illness (SMI) were provided by the Northeast Program Evaluation Center (NEPEC) Special Needs-Chronic Mental Illness (SN-CMI) study (Kasprow and Rosenheck, 2008). The study used the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale to measure internalized stigma at baseline and the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) to measure depressive and psychotic symptoms at baseline and 3 and 6 month follow-ups. Higher levels of internalized stigma were associated with greater levels of depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, even controlling for symptoms at baseline. Alienation and Discrimination Experience were the subscales most strongly associated with symptoms. Exploratory analyses of individual items yielded further insight into characteristics of potentially successful interventions that could be studied. Overall, our findings show that homeless veterans with SMI experiencing higher levels of internalized stigma are likely to experience more depression and psychosis over time. This quasi-experimental study replicates and extends findings of other studies and has implications for future controlled research into the potential long-term effects of anti-stigma interventions on mental health recovery.

  11. Perceived Need for Mental Health Care Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Robert L.; Kaas, Merrie; Kane, Rosalie A.

    2009-01-01

    Only half of older adults with a mental disorder use mental health services, and little is known about the causes of perceived need for mental health care (MHC). We used logistic regression to examine relationships among depression, anxiety, chronic physical illness, alcohol abuse and/or dependence, sociodemographics, and perceived need among a national sample of community-dwelling individuals 65 years of age and older (the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys data set). Less than half of respondents with depression or anxiety perceived a need for care. Perceived need was greater for respondents with more symptoms of depression regardless of whether they met diagnostic criteria for a mental illness. History of chronic physical conditions, history of depression or anxiety, and more severe mental illness were associated with greater perceived need for MHC. Future studies of perceived need should account for individual perceptions of mental illness and treatment and the influence of social networks. PMID:19820231

  12. Psychosocial work environment and mental health among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Boschman, J S; van der Molen, H F; Sluiter, J K; Frings-Dresen, M H W

    2013-09-01

    We assessed psychosocial work environment, the prevalence of mental health complaints and the association between these two among bricklayers and construction supervisors. For this cross-sectional study a total of 1500 bricklayers and supervisors were selected. Psychosocial work characteristics were measured using the Dutch Questionnaire on the Experience and Evaluation of Work and compared to the general Dutch working population. Mental health effects were measured with scales to assess fatigue during work, need for recovery after work, symptoms of distress, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. The prevalence of self-reported mental health complaints was determined using the cut-off values. Associations between psychosocial work characteristics and self-reported mental health complaints were analysed using logistic regression. Total response rate was 43%. Compared to the general working population, bricklayers experienced statistically significant worse job control, learning opportunities and future perspectives; supervisors experienced statistically significant higher psychological demands and need for recovery. Prevalence of self-reported mental health effects among bricklayers and supervisors, respectively, were as follows: high need for recovery after work (14%; 25%), distress (5%, 7%), depression (18%, 20%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (11%, 7%). Among both occupations, high work speed and quantity were associated with symptoms of depression. Further, among construction supervisors, low participation in decision making and low social support of the direct supervisor was associated with symptoms of depression. The findings in the present study indicate psychosocial risk factors for bricklayers and supervisors. In each occupation a considerable proportion of workers was positively screened for symptoms of common mental disorders.

  13. Women at war: implications for mental health.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Lissa; Grubbs, Kathleen; Greene, Carolyn; Trego, Lori L; McCartin, Tamarin L; Kloezeman, Karen; Morland, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of deployment stressors on the mental health outcomes of women deployed to Iraq in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. This pilot study examined exposure to combat experiences and military sexual harassment in a sample of 54 active duty women and assessed the impact of these stressors on post-deployment posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and depressive symptoms. Within 3 months of returning from deployment to Iraq, participants completed (a) the Combat Experiences Scale and the Sexual Harassment Scale of the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory, (b) the Primary Care PTSD Screen, and (c) an abbreviated version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. Approximately three quarters of the sample endorsed exposure to combat experiences, and more than half of the sample reported experiencing deployment-related sexual harassment, with nearly half of the sample endorsing both stressors. Approximately one third of the sample endorsed clinical or subclinical levels of PTSD symptoms, with 11% screening positive for PTSD and 9% to 14% of the sample endorsing depressive symptoms. Regression analyses revealed that combat experiences and sexual harassment jointly accounted for significant variance in post-deployment PTSD symptoms, whereas military sexual harassment was identified as the only unique significant predictor of these symptoms. Findings from the present study lend support to research demonstrating that military sexual trauma may be more highly associated with post-deployment PTSD symptoms than combat exposure among female service members and veterans. PMID:21240736

  14. Mental health policy developments in Latin America.

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, R. D.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    New assessment guidelines for measuring the overall impact of mental health problems in Latin America have served as a catalyst for countries to review their mental health policies. Latin American countries have taken various steps to address long-standing problems such as structural difficulties, scarce financial and human resources, and social, political, and cultural obstacles in the implementation of mental health policies and legislation. These policy developments, however, have had uneven results. Policies must reflect the desire, determination, and commitment of policy-makers to take mental health seriously and look after people's mental health needs. This paper describes the development of mental health policies in Latin American countries, focusing on published data in peer-reviewed journals, and legislative change and its implementation. It presents a brief history of mental health policy developments, and analyzes the basis and practicalities of current practice. PMID:10885167

  15. Caregiving, alcohol use, and mental health symptoms among HMO members.

    PubMed

    Polen, M R; Green, C A

    2001-08-01

    Using data from a survey of 5841 HMO members, we examined alcohol consumption, depression and anxiety symptoms, and health services use among 689 informal caregivers. Characteristics of caregivers included whom they cared for, types of care provided, number of people cared for, and whether care was provided in the caregiver's home. Outcome measures in hierarchical linear and logistic stepwise regression models included indicators of alcohol drinking pattern, symptoms of anxiety and depression, role limits due to emotional problems and self-reported doctor's visits. Adjusting for age and gender differences, caregivers reported more bodily pain, worse role functioning related to emotional problems, were more likely to screen as depressed, and were more likely to report symptoms of anxiety. Older caregivers, and those with greater vitality, had better mental health outcomes; caregivers with higher levels of education reported better psychological well-being and less interference with role functioning due to emotional problems. Caregivers did not make more doctor's visits than non-caregivers. No caregiving characteristics were consistently associated with both mental health and alcohol consumption outcomes. The relationship of the care recipient to the caregiver predicted mental health outcomes better than either the type of care, number cared for, or location of care. Both the type of care and relationship to the care provider were associated with alcohol consumption, and several gender interactions were identified. Our results confirm previous findings of greater mental health problems among caregivers, yet suggest that caregivers may not be seeking services commensurate to their needs. PMID:11488517

  16. Gun Violence, mental health, and Connecticut physicians.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Peter R; Anderson, Caitlyn O; Dodds, Jon H

    2014-01-01

    While there is a public perception that gun violence is associated with mental illness we present evidence that it is a complex public health problem which defies simple characterizations and solutions. Only a small percentage of individuals with mental illness are at risk for extreme violence and they account for only a small percentage of gun-related homicides. Individuals who are at risk for gun violence are difficult to identify and successfully treat. The incidence, and perhaps the demographics, of gun violence vary substantially from state to state. We make a case for Connecticut physicians to study gun violence at the state level. We recommend that Connecticut physicians promote and expand upon the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommendation for creating a "safe home environment. "We suggest that guns be secured in all homes in which there are children. In addition we suggest that guns be voluntarily removed from homes in which there are individuals with a history of violence, threats of violence, depression, drug and/or alcohol abuse, and individuals with major mental illnesses who are not cooperating with therapy. PMID:25745735

  17. Gun Violence, mental health, and Connecticut physicians.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Peter R; Anderson, Caitlyn O; Dodds, Jon H

    2014-01-01

    While there is a public perception that gun violence is associated with mental illness we present evidence that it is a complex public health problem which defies simple characterizations and solutions. Only a small percentage of individuals with mental illness are at risk for extreme violence and they account for only a small percentage of gun-related homicides. Individuals who are at risk for gun violence are difficult to identify and successfully treat. The incidence, and perhaps the demographics, of gun violence vary substantially from state to state. We make a case for Connecticut physicians to study gun violence at the state level. We recommend that Connecticut physicians promote and expand upon the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommendation for creating a "safe home environment. "We suggest that guns be secured in all homes in which there are children. In addition we suggest that guns be voluntarily removed from homes in which there are individuals with a history of violence, threats of violence, depression, drug and/or alcohol abuse, and individuals with major mental illnesses who are not cooperating with therapy.

  18. Manic Depressive Disorder in Mental Handicap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berney, T. P.; Jones, P. M.

    1988-01-01

    Eight cases of early onset bipolar affective disorder in adolescents with mental impairment are described, focusing on age of onset; common characteristics such as rapid cycling, mixed affective states, and lithium resistance; and the likelihood that cerebral dysfunction might cause a secondary form of bipolar disorder. (JDD)

  19. Climate change: the next challenge for public mental health?

    PubMed

    Bourque, François; Willox, Ashlee Cunsolo

    2014-08-01

    Climate change is increasingly recognized as one of the greatest threats to human health of the 21st century, with consequences that mental health professionals are also likely to face. While physical health impacts have been increasingly emphasized in literature and practice, recent scholarly literature indicates that climate change and related weather events and environmental changes can profoundly impact psychological well-being and mental health through both direct and indirect pathways, particularly among those with pre-existing vulnerabilities or those living in ecologically sensitive areas. Although knowledge is still limited about the connections between climate change and mental health, evidence is indicating that impacts may be felt at both the individual and community levels, with mental health outcomes ranging from psychological distress, depression and anxiety, to increased addictions and suicide rates. Drawing on examples from diverse geographical areas, this article highlights some climate-sensitive impacts that may be encountered by mental health professionals. We then suggest potential avenues for public mental health in light of current and projected changes, in order to stimulate thought, debate, and action. PMID:25137107

  20. Climate change: the next challenge for public mental health?

    PubMed

    Bourque, François; Willox, Ashlee Cunsolo

    2014-08-01

    Climate change is increasingly recognized as one of the greatest threats to human health of the 21st century, with consequences that mental health professionals are also likely to face. While physical health impacts have been increasingly emphasized in literature and practice, recent scholarly literature indicates that climate change and related weather events and environmental changes can profoundly impact psychological well-being and mental health through both direct and indirect pathways, particularly among those with pre-existing vulnerabilities or those living in ecologically sensitive areas. Although knowledge is still limited about the connections between climate change and mental health, evidence is indicating that impacts may be felt at both the individual and community levels, with mental health outcomes ranging from psychological distress, depression and anxiety, to increased addictions and suicide rates. Drawing on examples from diverse geographical areas, this article highlights some climate-sensitive impacts that may be encountered by mental health professionals. We then suggest potential avenues for public mental health in light of current and projected changes, in order to stimulate thought, debate, and action.

  1. Defendants with Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Health Diagnoses: Faring in a Mental Health Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, M. M.; Griggs, M.; Dykens, E. M.; Hodapp, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Begun in the late 1990s, mental health courts are specialty criminal courts developed to address the needs of persons with mental illness. Methods: As many persons with intellectual disabilities (IDs) may overlap in the mental health court system, we used mental health court records to examine the phenomenology and outcomes of 224…

  2. States Pass Diverse Slate of Mental Health Legislation in 2013. Mental Health: 2013 Legislative Session

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Recent violence in schools and on college campuses has brought into sharp focus the need to address mental health issues in educational settings. Getting students with mental health problems the help they need, without stigmatizing mental illness, may help prevent future tragedies. Children with mental health problems face a host of challenges,…

  3. The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738

  4. Brave new world: mental health experiences of Puerto Ricans, immigrant Latinos, and Brazilians in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Mónica; Cardemil, Esteban; Adams, Sara Trillo; Calista, Joanne L; Connell, Joy; Depalo, Alexandra; Ferreira, Juliana; Gould, Diane; Handler, Jeffrey S; Kaminow, Paula; Melo, Tatiana; Parks, Allison; Rice, Eric; Rivera, Ismael

    2014-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are of the most commonly occurring mental health disorders in the United States. Despite a variety of efficacious interventions for depression and anxiety, it is clear that ethnic minorities experience mental health care disparities in their access to mental health services and the quality of treatment they receive. Research indicates that Latino heterogeneity impacts access to depression and anxiety treatment. In addition, Brazilians are becoming an increasingly visible minority within the United States and are often depicted as Latinos. The current study sought to understand the role of acculturation and stigma in mental health symptom endorsement and treatment seeking among Puerto Ricans, immigrant Latinos, and Brazilians. A total of 250 self-identified Latinos and Brazilians were interviewed about their mental health symptom and treatment experience, acculturation, and stigma toward mental illness. Results indicated considerable variability across the three groups, with Puerto Ricans endorsing higher rates of depression and anxiety, as well as higher rates of treatment seeking, than either the immigrant Latinos or the Brazilians. Acculturation played a differential role in the endorsement of anxiety treatment seeking for Brazilians. Finally, although the three groups differed in the extent to which they experienced stigma about mental health issues, stigma did not predict symptom endorsement or treatment-seeking behavior for any of the three groups. These findings underscore the importance of attending to both between-groups and within-group differences in the mental health and mental health treatment experiences of different ethnic groups.

  5. The effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on recurrence of depressive episodes, mental health and quality of life: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Godfrin, K A; van Heeringen, C

    2010-08-01

    Depression is characterized by a large risk of relapse/recurrence. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a recent non-drug psychotherapeutic intervention to prevent future depressive relapse/recurrence in remitted/recovered depressed patients. In this randomized controlled trial, the authors investigated the effects of MBCT on the relapse in depression and the time to first relapse since study participation, as well as on several mood states and the quality of life of the patients. 106 recovered depressed patients with a history of at least 3 depressive episodes continued either with their treatment as usual (TAU) or received MBCT in addition to TAU. The efficacy of MBCT was assessed over a study period of 56 weeks. At the end of the study period relapse/recurrence was significantly reduced and the time until first relapse increased in the MBCT plus TAU condition in comparison with TAU alone. The MBCT plus TAU group also showed a significant reduction in both short and longer-term depressive mood and better mood states and quality of the life. For patients with a history of at least three depressive episodes who are not acutely depressed, MBCT, added to TAU, may play an important role in the domain of relapse prevention in depression.

  6. Mental Health Counseling: A Stakeholder's Manifesto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Edward S.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the original dreams of the founders of the American Mental Health Counselors Association; looks at history and comments on the state of mental health counseling as it has struggled to evolve as a profession. Urges those in the counseling profession to consider an acquisitions and mergers corporate mentality to ensure and enhance the…

  7. Early Intervention Services in Youth Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Darryl; Johnston, Amy; Campbell, Bronwyn; Littlefield, Lyn

    2007-01-01

    Mental and substance use disorders are leading contributors to the burden of disease among young people in Australia, but young people experience a range of barriers to accessing appropriate treatment for their mental health concerns. The development of early intervention services that provide accessible and effective mental health care has the…

  8. NIMH Support of Rural Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutner, Michael; Windle, Charles

    1991-01-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) aims to improve mental health services by funding research projects and research centers. NIMH also supports state planning, protection of and advocacy for the mentally ill, disaster relief, professional training, and public information programs. (DM)

  9. Mental Health Is Served by Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris

    For more than 35 years the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has been the nation's major instrument of support for research in mental health. The yield from this ongoing research effort has been substantial, with a substantive increase of information about the causes, treatment, and prevention of mental illness as well as the factors that…

  10. Issues in Children's Mental Health. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmo, Margaret L.

    This Kids Count report examines issues related to children's mental health in Virginia. The report discusses the effects of children's mental illness, presents risk and protective factors, and describes the incidence of children's mental health problems. Information specific to Virginia is presented, including the prevalence of youth suicide,…

  11. An Integrated Web-Based Mental Health Intervention of Assessment-Referral-Care to Reduce Stress, Anxiety, and Depression in Hospitalized Pregnant Women With Medically High-Risk Pregnancies: A Feasibility Study Protocol of Hospital-Based Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Janes-Kelley, Selikke; Tyrrell, Janie; Clark, Lorna; Hamza, Deena; Holmes, Penny; Parkes, Cheryl; Moyo, Nomagugu; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2015-01-01

    Background At prevalence rates of up to 40%, rates of depression and anxiety among women with medically complex pregnancies are 3 times greater than those in community-based samples of pregnant women. However, mental health care is not a component of routine hospital-based antenatal care for medically high-risk pregnant women. Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of the hospital-based implementation of a Web-based integrated mental health intervention comprising psychosocial assessment, referral, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for antenatal inpatients. Methods This study is a quasi-experimental design. Pregnant women are eligible to participate if they are (1) <37 weeks gestation, (2) admitted to the antenatal inpatient unit for >72 hours, (3) able to speak and read English or be willing to use a translation service to assist with completion of the questionnaires and intervention, (4) able to complete follow-up email questionnaires, (5) >16 years of age, and (6) not actively suicidal. Women admitted to the unit for induction (eg, <72-hour length of stay) are excluded. A minimum sample of 54 women will be recruited from the antenatal high-risk unit of a large, urban tertiary care hospital. All women will complete a Web-based psychosocial assessment and 6 Web-based CBT modules. Results of the psychosocial assessment will be used by a Web-based clinical decision support system to generate a clinical risk score and clinician prompts to provide recommendations for the best treatment and referral options. The primary outcome is self-reported prenatal depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment. Secondary outcomes are postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms; self-efficacy; mastery; self-esteem; sleep; relationship quality; coping; resilience; Apgar score; gestational age; birth weight; maternal-infant attachment; infant behavior and development; parenting stress/competence at 3

  12. [Economic crisis and mental health: effects on the prevalence of common mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Economou, M; Peppou, L; Fousketaki, S; Theleritis, Ch; Patelakis, A; Alexiou, T; Madianos, M; Stefanis, C

    2013-01-01

    Economic crises have been found to bring adverse repercussions on physical and mental health internationally through various pathways. Research corroborates a link between financial distress and common mental disorders. In this context, the University Mental Health Research Institute conducted epidemiological nationwide surveys in an endeavour to gauge the impact of the ongoing financial crisis on the mental health of the Greek population. The purpose of the present analysis pertains to investigating changes in the prevalence of common mental disorders in the population as a whole as well as in various population sub-groups between years 2009 and 2011. In addition, the association of financial strain with common mental disorders was also explored. For investigating the particular research objectives, two cross-sectional surveys following the same methodology were conducted. A random and representative sample of 2192 respondents in 2009 and 2256 respondents in 2011 took part in telephone interviews. Generalized anxiety disorder and major depression were assessed with the germane modules of Structured Clinical Interview, while financial difficulties with the Index of Personal Economic Distress (IPED), an original scale developed for the purposes of the particular surveys. All measures displayed good psychometric properties. Between the two years, a noteworthy, albeit non-significant, increase in one-prevalence of major depression was documented. On the other hand, the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder remained largely unchanged. Statistically significant differences in the prevalence of both disorders were reported for particular population subgroups, with married persons and employed people emerging as the most afflicted individuals. Regarding financial distress, it was found to bear a statistically significant association with major depression but not with generalized anxiety disorder. For mitigating the mental health effects of the crisis on the general

  13. Mental Health Mobile Apps: From Infusion to Diffusion in the Mental Health Social System.

    PubMed

    East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C

    2015-01-01

    The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations

  14. Mental Health Mobile Apps: From Infusion to Diffusion in the Mental Health Social System

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations

  15. Mental Health and Mental Illness in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    Statistics of mental illness in Maryland are provided in the areas of diagnostic distribution of admissions and resident patients, size and nature of patient population, percentage change in daily cost per patient, employee-patient ratios, length of hospitalization, diagnostic treatment trends, patient mortality, and Baltimore's specific problems…

  16. Contemporary Perspectives on Spirituality and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pulkit; Charak, Ruby; Sharma, Vibha

    2009-01-01

    The paper strives to elucidate the complex yet intimate relation between spirituality and mental health from contemporary perspectives. The diverse and constantly evolving views that spiritualists and mental health professionals have held toward each other over last century are discussed with special accent on the transpersonal spiritual framework within psychology. The role of spirituality in promoting mental health and alleviating mental illness is highlighted. The paper is concluded with an increasing need to integrate spirituality within the mental health field albeit there are several impediments in achieving the same, which need to be worked through circumspectly. PMID:21938086

  17. Mental Health under National Health Care Reform: The Empirical Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Christopher G.; DeVito, Jo Anne

    1994-01-01

    Reviews research pertinent to mental health services under health care reform proposals. Examines redistributional impact of inclusion of outpatient mental health benefits, optimal benefit packages, and findings that mental health services lower medical utilization costs. Argues that extending minimalist model of time-limited benefits to national…

  18. American Christian Engagement With Mental Health and Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Kinghorn, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    Although religious belief and practice are relevant to mental health outcomes, many clinicians lack knowledge of particular religious traditions required to make informed judgments about referral to and collaboration with faith-based organizations and clinicians. This Open Forum examines five diverse American Christian approaches to mental health and mental illness-pastoral care and counseling, biblical counseling, integrationism, Christian psychology, and the work of the Institute for the Psychological Sciences--that are relevant for contemporary mental health service delivery. Each of these movements is briefly described and placed in historical, conceptual, and organizational context. Knowledge of the diverse and varied terrain of American Christian engagement with mental health care can inform clinicians' interactions with faith-based providers, clarify opportunities for responsible collaboration, and provide important insight into religious subcultures with faith-based concerns about contemporary psychiatric care.

  19. Polygamy and mental health of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Sami; Auerbach, Judy; Apter, Alan

    2009-12-01

    The objective is to study the influence of polygamous versus monogamous marriage on the mental health of adolescents in an Israeli Bedouin population. Pupils aged 11-18 years attending schools in Bedouin Arab communities in southern Israel were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire and a panel of psychological instruments measuring competence and behavioral problems, anxiety and depression. Findings were compared between pupils of families with one wife and pupils of families with more than one wife. The population comprised 406 pupils of mean age 14.5 years; 56% were female. Fifty-three percent were from polygamous marriages and 47% from monogamous marriages. After allowing for the influence of socioeconomic factors, there were no differences between offspring of polygamous marriages and those of monogamous marriages for any of the psychological scales. When polygamy is the accepted practice in a particular social milieu, it does not have a deleterious psychological effect on adolescents. PMID:19551327

  20. Polygamy and mental health of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Sami; Auerbach, Judy; Apter, Alan

    2009-12-01

    The objective is to study the influence of polygamous versus monogamous marriage on the mental health of adolescents in an Israeli Bedouin population. Pupils aged 11-18 years attending schools in Bedouin Arab communities in southern Israel were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire and a panel of psychological instruments measuring competence and behavioral problems, anxiety and depression. Findings were compared between pupils of families with one wife and pupils of families with more than one wife. The population comprised 406 pupils of mean age 14.5 years; 56% were female. Fifty-three percent were from polygamous marriages and 47% from monogamous marriages. After allowing for the influence of socioeconomic factors, there were no differences between offspring of polygamous marriages and those of monogamous marriages for any of the psychological scales. When polygamy is the accepted practice in a particular social milieu, it does not have a deleterious psychological effect on adolescents.

  1. [Mental health care for immigrants in Germany].

    PubMed

    Schouler-Ocak, M

    2015-11-01

    Immigrants represent a very heterogeneous population, with various stress factors for mental disorders. These individuals are confronted with numerous access barriers within the health care system, which are reflected in limited utilization of the mental health system and psychotherapy services. A particularly large gap in health service provision exists among refugees and asylum-seekers. There is an urgent need for action in terms of opening up of the mental health system, improving and simplifying routes of access, and facilitating treatment options.

  2. The Mental Health of Older LGBT Adults.

    PubMed

    Yarns, Brandon C; Abrams, Janet M; Meeks, Thomas W; Sewell, Daniel D

    2016-06-01

    There are approximately one million older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults in the USA. Their mental health issues result from interactions between genetic factors and stress associated with membership in a sexual minority group. Although advancements in acceptance and equal treatment of LGBT individuals have been occurring, sexual minority status remains associated with risks to physical and mental well-being. Older LGBT adults are more likely to have experienced mistreatment and discrimination due to living a majority of their lives prior to recent advancements in acceptance and equal treatment. All LGBT adults experience one common developmental challenge: deciding if, when, and how to reveal to others their gender identity and/or sexual orientation. LGBT individuals have higher rates of anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders and also are at increased risk for certain medical conditions like obesity, breast cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Improved education and training of clinicians, coupled with clinical research efforts, holds the promise of improved overall health and life quality for older LGBT adults.

  3. The Mental Health of Older LGBT Adults.

    PubMed

    Yarns, Brandon C; Abrams, Janet M; Meeks, Thomas W; Sewell, Daniel D

    2016-06-01

    There are approximately one million older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults in the USA. Their mental health issues result from interactions between genetic factors and stress associated with membership in a sexual minority group. Although advancements in acceptance and equal treatment of LGBT individuals have been occurring, sexual minority status remains associated with risks to physical and mental well-being. Older LGBT adults are more likely to have experienced mistreatment and discrimination due to living a majority of their lives prior to recent advancements in acceptance and equal treatment. All LGBT adults experience one common developmental challenge: deciding if, when, and how to reveal to others their gender identity and/or sexual orientation. LGBT individuals have higher rates of anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders and also are at increased risk for certain medical conditions like obesity, breast cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Improved education and training of clinicians, coupled with clinical research efforts, holds the promise of improved overall health and life quality for older LGBT adults. PMID:27142205

  4. Mental health utilization of new-to-care Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans following suicidal ideation assessment.

    PubMed

    Denneson, Lauren M; Corson, Kathryn; Helmer, Drew A; Bair, Matthew J; Dobscha, Steven K

    2014-07-30

    We evaluated the impact of brief structured suicidal ideation (SI) assessments on mental health care among new-to-care Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans. National datasets provided military, demographic, and clinical information. For all new-to-care OEF/OIF veterans administered depression screens (PHQ-2: Patient Health Questionnaire-2) and structured SI assessments in primary care or ambulatory mental health settings of three Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Centers between April 2008 and September 2009 (N=465), generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations between SI and number of subsequent-year specialty mental health visits and antidepressant prescriptions. Approximately one-third of the veterans reported SI. In multivariate models, PTSD and anxiety diagnoses, severe depression symptoms, being married, and SI assessment by a mental health clinician were associated with more mental health visits in the subsequent year. Depression, PTSD, and anxiety diagnoses, and SI assessment by a mental health clinician were associated with receiving antidepressants. Presence of SI did not significantly affect subsequent year mental health utilization when adjusting for diagnostic and clinician variables, but inaugural visits involving mental health clinicians were consistently associated with subsequent mental health care. PMID:24726814

  5. HIV-infected mental health patients: characteristics and comparison with HIV-infected patients from the general population and non-infected mental health patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of developing mental health symptoms, which negatively influence the treatment of the HIV-infection. Mental health problems in HIV-infected patients may affect public health. Psychopathology, including depression and substance abuse, can increase hazardous sexual behaviour and, with it, the chance of spreading HIV. Therefore, it is important to develop an optimal treatment plan for HIV-infected patients with mental health problems. The majority of HIV-infected patients in the Netherlands (almost 60%) are homosexual men. The main objectives of this study were to describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with HIV who seek treatment for their mental health symptoms in the Netherlands. Secondly, we tested whether HIV infected and non-infected homosexual patients with a lifetime depressive disorder differed on several mental health symptoms. Methods We compared a cohort of 196 patients who visited the outpatient clinic for HIV and Mental Health with HIV-infected patients in the general population in Amsterdam (ATHENA-study) and with non-HIV infected mental health patients (NESDA-study). DSM-IV diagnoses were determined, and several self-report questionnaires were used to assess mental health symptoms. Results Depressive disorders were the most commonly occurring diagnoses in the cohort and frequent drug use was common. HIV-infected homosexual men with a depressive disorder showed no difference in depressive symptoms or sleep disturbance, compared with non-infected depressive men. However, HIV-positive patients did express more symptoms like fear, anger and guilt. Although they showed significantly more suicidal ideation, suicide attempts were not more prevalent among HIV-infected patients. Finally, the HIV-infected depressive patients displayed a considerably higher level of drug use than the HIV-negative group. Conclusion Habitual drug use is a risk factor for spreading HIV. It is also more

  6. Global Mental Health: An Introduction.

    PubMed

    Verdeli, Helen

    2016-08-01

    In this introductory paper to the Global Mental Health volume, the inception and development of the filed in the last 15 years is reviewed, placing an emphasis on a series of pivotal turning points. A critical delivery strategy, task-shifting is briefly described, as well as the fundamental principles of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT), an evidence-based psychotherapy being adapted and delivered in low-resource settings. Nine case studies by the trainees, supervisors, or local providers from India, the United States, Haiti, Israel, Colombia, and Kenya, presented in this volume, illustrate the prevention and treatment processes or in-depth assessment of "psychological distress" as locally defined and expressed. PMID:27532521

  7. Mental health in adolescence: is America's youth flourishing?

    PubMed

    Keyes, Corey L M

    2006-07-01

    A continuous assessment and a categorical diagnosis of the presence of mental health, described as flourishing, and the absence of mental health, characterized as languishing, are proposed and applied to data from the second wave of the Child Development Supplement (CDS-II) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), in which a comprehensive set of subjective well-being items were administered to a sample of 1,234 youth ages 12-18. Flourishing was the most prevalent diagnosis among youth ages 12-14; moderate mental health was the most prevalent diagnosis among youth ages 15-18. Depressive symptoms decreased as mental health increased. Prevalence of conduct problems (arrested, skipped school, alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use) also decreased and measures of psychosocial functioning (global self-concept, self-determination, closeness to others, and school integration) increased as mental health increased. Findings suggest the importance of positive mental health in future research on adolescent development. PMID:16981819

  8. Unemployment and mental health in a favorable labor market.

    PubMed

    Houssemand, Claude; Meyers, Raymond

    2011-10-01

    Labour market variables may moderate the link between unemployment and mental health, as has been found in numerous research papers. The aim of this study was to test, in the context of a very favorable labor market, (1) the detrimental effect of unemployment on mental health and (2) the predictive validity of mental health on further employment status. The population of the study comprised 384 newly registered unemployed persons. Mental health was assessed through four variables: self-esteem, psychological distress, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms. The results did not confirm previous studies. Using analyses of variance for repeated measures and linear regression, a negative change of mental health was not found after 6 and 12 months' unemployment, and the four measurements of mental health at registration did not predict employment status 6 and 12 months later. Results are discussed in terms of moderating variables that capture Luxembourg labor market specificities. This research was supported by the Luxembourg National Research Fund in the framework of the VIVRE Program; grant no. FNR/02/05/07. We would like to thank Mary Devine for the linguistic revision of the text.

  9. Policy issues in mental health among the elderly.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Karen M

    2010-12-01

    Americans are living longer than ever before in history. With age comes an increased risk for chronic mental health disorders. About 1 in 8 baby boomers is expected to be diagnosed with Alzheimer disease, which will amount to some ten million members of this age cohort. The prevalence of mental health disorders among the elderly is often unrecognized. One in four older adults lives with depression, anxiety disorders, or other significant psychiatric disorders. Mental health disorders are frequently comorbid in older adults, occurring with a number of common chronic illnesses such as in diabetes, cardiac disease, and arthritis. The public is becoming more aware of the aging of the population and the difficulties that are exacerbated by unmet services and limited access to mental health services. This article describes policy issues related to chronic mental health disorders and the older population. Mental health parity, a recent policy issue occurring at the national level, is discussed first followed by workforce issues specific to the discipline of nursing.

  10. Hispanic Women and Mental Health: An Overview of Contemporary Issues in Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaro, Hortensia; Russo, Nancy Felipe

    1987-01-01

    Presents an overview of the mental health of Hispanic women in the hope of remedying the dearth of information on their psychology. Addresses Hispanic women's social and economic circumstances, and mental health research and service issues, including access to service, cultural sensitivity, gender roles and depression, acculturation and…

  11. The Mental Health of Canadians with Self-Reported Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Alexander M.; Deri Armstrong, Catherine; Furrie, Adele; Walcot, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    There has been growing concern as to the mental health status of persons with learning disabilities (PWLD). This study examined rates of mental health problems among PWLD aged 15 to 44 years using a large, nationally representative data set. PWLD were more than twice as likely to report high levels of distress, depression, anxiety disorders,…

  12. Chronic Family Economic Hardship, Family Processes and Progression of Mental and Physical Health Symptoms in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tae Kyoung; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Research has documented the relationship between family stressors such as family economic hardship and marital conflict and adolescents' mental health symptoms, especially depressive symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby supportive parenting lessens this effect and the progression of mental health and physical health…

  13. A Critical Interpretive Synthesis of the Literature Linking Music and Adolescent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerran, Katrina Skewes; Garrido, Sandra; Saarikallio, Suvi

    2016-01-01

    There is a diverse literature that explores the relationship between youth, music, and mental health, with few attempts at systematic synthesis. This critical interpretive review included 33 studies published between 2000 and 2012 investigating the relationship between music and the mental health of young people, particularly targeting depression.…

  14. Perinatal mental health: What every neonatologist should know.

    PubMed

    Khalifeh, Hind; Brauer, Ruth; Toulmin, Hilary; Howard, Louise M

    2015-11-01

    Perinatal mental disorders are common and can impact adversely both on maternal functioning and on foetal and neonatal outcomes. For the more severe disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and severe depression, medication may be needed during pregnancy and breastfeeding, and there is a growing but complex evidence based on the effects of psychotropic medication on the foetus and neonate. In addition, the neonatologist needs to be aware of the co-morbid problems that women with mental disorders are more likely to have as these may also impact on the neonate. Close liaison with family physicians and primary care where there are concerns about mental health is important to ensure maternal mental health is optimal for the mother and her infant. PMID:26386609

  15. Enhancing early engagement with mental health services by young people

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Jane; Birrell, Emma

    2014-01-01

    International studies have shown that the prevalence of mental illness, and the fundamental contribution it make to the overall disease burden, is greatest in children and young people. Despite this high burden, adolescents and young adults are the least likely population group to seek help or to access professional care for mental health problems. This issue is particularly problematic given that untreated, or poorly treated, mental disorders are associated with both short- and long-term functional impairment, including poorer education and employment opportunities, potential comorbidity, including drug and alcohol problems, and a greater risk for antisocial behavior, including violence and aggression. This cycle of poor mental health creates a significant burden for the young person, their family and friends, and society as a whole. Australia is enviably positioned to substantially enhance the well-being of young people, to improve their engagement with mental health services, and – ultimately – to improve mental health. High prevalence but potentially debilitating disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are targeted by the specialized youth mental health service, headspace: the National Youth Mental Health Foundation and a series of Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centres, will provide early intervention specialist services for low prevalence, complex illnesses. Online services, such as ReachOut.com by Inspire Foundation, Youthbeyondblue, Kids Helpline, and Lifeline Australia, and evidence-based online interventions, such as MoodGYM, are also freely available, yet a major challenge still exists in ensuring that young people receive effective evidence-based care at the right time. This article describes Australian innovation in shaping a comprehensive youth mental health system, which is informed by an evidence-based approach, dedicated advocacy and, critically, the inclusion of young people in service design, development, and ongoing

  16. A Bibliography for Schools on Mental Health/Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.

    This bibliography for schools lists 49 print resources on mental health and mental illness published from 1989 through 1994. Resources are listed alphabetically by author within the categories of directories and bibliographies, and other print resources. The names, addresses, and telephone numbers of publishers are provided at the end of the…

  17. Mental Health and Mental Retardation Services in Nevada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, J. S.; And Others

    Summarized are the findings and recommendations of a 2-year study of all major mental health, and mental retardation, alcohol, and drug abuse services and programs in Nevada. Fourteen chapters are given to the following topics (sample subtopics are in parentheses): description of the survey (scope of the project); summary and recommendations…

  18. Exploring the relationship between social class, mental illness stigma and mental health literacy using British national survey data.

    PubMed

    Holman, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between social class and mental illness stigma has received little attention in recent years. At the same time, the concept of mental health literacy has become an increasingly popular way of framing knowledge and understanding of mental health issues. British Social Attitudes survey data present an opportunity to unpack the relationships between these concepts and social class, an important task given continuing mental health inequalities. Regression analyses were undertaken which centred on depression and schizophrenia vignettes, with an asthma vignette used for comparison. The National Statistics Socio-economic Classification, education and income were used as indicators of class. A number of interesting findings emerged. Overall, class variables showed a stronger relationship with mental health literacy than stigma. The relationship was gendered such that women with higher levels of education, especially those with a degree, had the lowest levels of stigma and highest levels of mental health literacy. Interestingly, class showed more of an association with stigma for the asthma vignette than it did for both the depression and schizophrenia vignettes, suggesting that mental illness stigma needs to be contextualised alongside physical illness stigma. Education emerged as the key indicator of class, followed by the National Statistics Socio-economic Classification, with income effects being marginal. These findings have implications for targeting health promotion campaigns and increasing service use in order to reduce mental health inequalities.

  19. Public and Private Responsibility for Mental Health: Mental Health's Fourth Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dokecki, Paul R.

    Three revolutions in the history of mental health were identified by Nicholas Hobbs: the humane revolution, the scientific and therapeutic revolution, and the public health revolution. The shift of responsibilities for mental health and substance abuse services from the public to the private sector may constitute a fourth mental health revolution.…

  20. Promoting and Protecting Mental Health as Flourishing: A Complementary Strategy for Improving National Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Corey L. M.

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the conception and diagnosis of the mental health continuum, the findings supporting the two continua model of mental health and illness, and the benefits of flourishing to individuals and society. Completely mentally healthy adults--individuals free of a 12-month mental disorder and flourishing--reported the fewest missed…

  1. Factors for success in mental health advocacy

    PubMed Central

    Hann, Katrina; Pearson, Heather; Campbell, Doris; Sesay, Daniel; Eaton, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Background Mental health advocacy groups are an effective way of pushing the mental health agenda and putting pressure on national governments to observe the right to health; however, there is limited research that highlights best practices for such groups in low-resource settings. In an effort to improve the scaling up of mental health in Sierra Leone, stakeholders came together to form the country's first mental health advocacy group: the Mental Health Coalition – Sierra Leone. Since its inception, the group has worked towards raising the profile of mental health in Sierra Leone and developing as an advocacy organisation. Design The study's aim was to investigate views on enabling factors and barriers associated with mental health advocacy in a low-income country using a community-based participatory approach and qualitative methodology. Focus groups (N=9) were held with mental health stakeholders, and key informant interviews (N=15) were conducted with advocacy targets. Investigators analysed the data collaboratively using coding techniques informed by grounded theory. Results Investigators reveal viewpoints on key factors in networking, interacting with government actors, and awareness raising that enabled mental health advocacy aims of supporting policy, service delivery, service user rights, training for service delivery, and awareness raising. The investigators outline viewpoints on barriers for advocacy aims in framing the issue of mental health, networking, interacting with government actors, resource mobilization, and awareness raising. Conclusions The findings outline enabling factors, such as networking with key stakeholders, and barriers, such as lack of political will, for achieving mental health advocacy aims within a low-resource setting, Sierra Leone. Stakeholder coalitions can further key policy development aims that are essential to strengthen mental health systems in low-resource settings. PMID:26689456

  2. Pilot mental health: expert working group recommendations.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    Following a March 27, 2012, incident in which a pilot of a major commercial airline experienced a serious disturbance in his mental health, the Aerospace Medical Association formed an Ad Hoc Working Group on Pilot Mental Health. The working group met several times and analyzed current medical standards for evaluating pilot mental health. The result of the working group was a letter sent to the FAA and other organizations worldwide interested in medical standards. The Committee found that it is neither productive nor cost effective to perform extensive psychiatric evaluations as part of the routine pilot aeromedical assessment. However it did recommend greater attention be given to mental health issues by aeromedical examiners, especially to the more common and detectable mental health conditions and life stressors that can affect pilots and flight performance. They encouraged this through increased education and global recognition of the importance of mental health in aviation safety.

  3. Childhood and adolescence: challenges in mental health.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Saurabh Rambiharilal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh

    2013-05-01

    Mental health is an integral and essential component of health. The World Health Organization (WHO) constitution states: "Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." More than 450 million people suffer from mental disorders worldwide. In India, mental health services, especially for children and adolescents, are limited both in terms of number of facilities as well as trained professionals. The majority of mental health services are restricted to urban areas, that is, medical colleges or regional mental health institutes. Mere presence of a treatment facility does not guarantee that all children/adolescents suffering from mental illness will utilize such services. In fact, most of the time there is a significant delay from the patient side in accessing mental health services either because of lack of awareness or associated stigma. It is high time to promote positive mental health in children, adolescents and their parents through health education. Parental counseling is of utmost importance in order to avoid the delay in treatment seeking.

  4. Screening for Antepartum Depression Through Community Health Outreach in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Målqvist, Mats; Clarke, Kelly; Matsebula, Themba; Bergman, Mattias; Tomlinson, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Maternal depression, including antepartum and postpartum depression, is a neglected public health issue with potentially far-reaching effects on maternal and child health. We aimed to measure the burden of antepartum depression and identify risk factors among women in a peri-urban community in Swaziland. We conducted a cross-sectional study within the context of a community outreach peer support project involving "Mentor Mothers". We used of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to screen women for depression during the third trimester of pregnancy, using a cut-off score of ≥13 to indicate depression. We also collected demographic and socioeconomic factors, and assessed the association of these factors with EPDS score using logistic regression models. A total of 1038 pregnant women were screened over a period of 9 months. Almost a quarter (22.7 %) had EPDS scores ≥13 and 41.2 % were HIV positive. A fifth, 17.5 % were teenagers and 73.7 % were unemployed. Depression was not associated with HIV status, age or employment status. However, women with multiple socioeconomic stressors were found to be more likely to score highly on the EPDS. Depression was common among pregnant women in the peri-urban areas of Swaziland. Screening for depression using the EPDS is feasible and can be included in the community health worker standard tool box as a way to improve early detection of depression and to highlight the importance of maternal mental health as a core public health concern.

  5. Mental Health Promotion Education in Multicultural Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanlou, Nazilla

    2003-01-01

    A mental health promotion perspective provides a system-based understanding of relationships between culture and health. Educating nurses for multicultural practice should adopt an interdisciplinary approach that fosters critical awareness of diverse influences on mental health and their intersections. (Contains 38 references.) (SK)

  6. Mental Capacity and Mental Health Acts part 1: advance decisions.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    The Department of Health is undertaking a review of the Mental Health Act 1983 code of practice and as part of that review has opened a consultation on what changes should be made. One key area for change is a chapter that provides clearer information about the interface between the Mental Health Act 1983 and the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Both the House of Commons Health Select Committee and the House of Lords Mental Capacity Act Committee have argued that poor understanding of the interface has led to flawed decision making by doctors and nurses. In the first of a short series of articles, Richard Griffith considers the interface between these two important statutes, beginning with advance decisions to refuse treatment (ADRT).

  7. Maternal mental health and nutritional status of six-month-old infants

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Bruna Kulik; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Hasselmann, Maria Helena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if maternal mental health is associated with infant nutritional status at six month of age. METHODS A cross-sectional study with 228 six-month-old infants who used primary health care units of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Mean weight-for-length and mean weight-for-age were expressed in z-scores considering the 2006 World Health Organization reference curves. Maternal mental health was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The following cutoff points were used: ≥ 3 for common mental disorders, ≥ 5 for more severe mental disorders, and ≥ 9 for depression. The statistical analysis employed adjusted linear regression models. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders, more severe mental disorders and depression was 39.9%, 23.7%, and 8.3%, respectively. Children of women with more severe mental disorders had, on average, a weight-for-length 0.37 z-scores lower than children of women without this health harm (p = 0.026). We also observed that the weight-for-length indicator of children of depressed mothers was, on average, 0.67 z-scores lower than that of children of nondepressed women (p = 0.010). Maternal depression was associated with lower mean values of weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS Maternal mental health is positively related to the inadequacy of the nutritional status of infants at six months. PMID:27007683

  8. Flooding and Mental Health: A Systematic Mapping Review

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Ana; Black, John; Jones, Mairwen; Wilson, Leigh; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Black, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Background Floods are the most common type of global natural disaster. Floods have a negative impact on mental health. Comprehensive evaluation and review of the literature are lacking. Objective To systematically map and review available scientific evidence on mental health impacts of floods caused by extended periods of heavy rain in river catchments. Methods We performed a systematic mapping review of published scientific literature in five languages for mixed studies on floods and mental health. PUBMED and Web of Science were searched to identify all relevant articles from 1994 to May 2014 (no restrictions). Results The electronic search strategy identified 1331 potentially relevant papers. Finally, 83 papers met the inclusion criteria. Four broad areas are identified: i) the main mental health disorders—post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety; ii] the factors associated with mental health among those affected by floods; iii) the narratives associated with flooding, which focuses on the long-term impacts of flooding on mental health as a consequence of the secondary stressors; and iv) the management actions identified. The quantitative and qualitative studies have consistent findings. However, very few studies have used mixed methods to quantify the size of the mental health burden as well as exploration of in-depth narratives. Methodological limitations include control of potential confounders and short-term follow up. Limitations Floods following extreme events were excluded from our review. Conclusions Although the level of exposure to floods has been systematically associated with mental health problems, the paucity of longitudinal studies and lack of confounding controls precludes strong conclusions. Implications We recommend that future research in this area include mixed-method studies that are purposefully designed, using more rigorous methods. Studies should also focus on vulnerable groups and include analyses of policy and practical

  9. The Clinical Neuroscience Course: Viewing Mental Health from Neurobiological Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Kelly G.

    2005-01-01

    Although the field of neuroscience is booming, a challenge for researchers in mental health disciplines is the integration of basic research findings into applied clinical approaches leading to effective therapies. Recently the National Institute of Mental Health called for translational research grants to encourage collaboration between neuroscientists and mental health professionals. In order for this “clinical neuroscience” to emerge and thrive, an important first step is the provision of appropriate course offerings so that future neuroscience researchers and mental health practitioners will have a common neurobiological base from which to make informed decisions about the most efficacious treatments for mental illnesses. Accordingly, an integrative course, Clinical Neuroscience, was developed to address these issues. After reviewing the historical origins of this emerging discipline, students are exposed to fundamental overviews of neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and neural development before approaching the neurobiological components of several disorders (e.g., schizophrenia, depression, Tourette’s syndrome, drug abuse, obsessive compulsive disorder). Finally, the maintenance of mental health is emphasized as topics such as psychoneuroimmunology, coping with stress, and eating regulation are discussed. Important themes emphasized in this course include (1) the consideration of only empirically based evidence, (2) the view that mental illness represents a disruption of neurobiological homeostasis, (3) the acknowledgement that, because the brain is a plastic organ, the clinical relevance of environmental and behavioral influences is difficult to overestimate, and (4) the recognition of the value of ecologically relevant animal models in the investigation of various aspects of mental illness. Because of the importance of stress maintenance in mental health, exercises have been developed to increase students’ awareness of their own coping strategies

  10. Relationship between mental health and job efficiency.

    PubMed

    Barnes, B L

    1984-06-01

    A homogeneous group of 153 Merchant Marine Officers were analysed on Seafarers' Mental Health Questionnaire (SMHQ) to evaluate their mental health state. The confidential reports of the officers relating to their job performance were scrutinised to determine the level of job efficiency. Individuals obtaining more than the mean effective percentage score were allotted to the high-efficiency group and those obtaining less, to the low-efficiency group. The results obtained show significant mean differences on almost all the mental health dimensions except sexual satisfaction, thus revealing that the job efficiency of seafarers is influenced by different aspects of mental health adjustments. PMID:6741596

  11. Mental health policy development in Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Gureje, O.; Alem, A.

    2000-01-01

    Mental health issues are usually given very low priority in health service policies. Although this is changing, African countries are still confronted with so many problems caused by communicable diseases and malnutrition that they have not waken up to the impact of mental disorders. Every country must formulate a mental health policy based on its own social and cultural realities. Such policies must take into account the scope of mental health problems, provide proven and affordable interventions, safeguard patients' rights, and ensure equity. PMID:10885166

  12. Mental Health: An Interdisciplinary and International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klineberg, Otto

    The World Federation for Mental Health was founded as an international apolitical organization concerned with quality of life rather than merely the absence or prevention of mental illness. An examination of the manner and extent to which mental problems arise in different cultural settings can provide data needed to understand the relationship…

  13. Modeling the mental health effects of victimization among homeless persons.

    PubMed

    Perron, Brian Edward; Alexander-Eitzman, Ben; Gillespie, David F; Pollio, David

    2008-11-01

    Homeless persons are victims of violent and non-violent crime at higher rates than housed populations. While studies have suggested that victimization can induce or exacerbate mental health problems, there is very little known about factors that may buffer the effects of victimization. This cross-sectional study examined the influence of victimization on depressive symptoms in over 9600 homeless and mentally ill adults participating in the Access to Community Care and Effective Services and Supports study (ACCESS) conducted in multiple cities across the USA relationships between victimization, depressive symptoms, and perceived safety were tested within a structural equation modeling framework using data collected at the baseline interview. The overall model exhibited a good fit with the data. Non-physical victimization was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, and physical victimization was associated with lower levels of perceived safety. As hypothesized, perceived safety was a significant partial mediator of depressive symptoms. These results underscore the complexity of the relationships between victimization and depression in homeless adults and the importance of addressing different types of victimization in homeless and mentally ill adults.

  14. Mental health status can reflect disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sokolovic, Sekib; Dervisevic, Vedina; Fisekovic, Saida

    2014-01-01

    Objective A significant number of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) link the start of illness with psychological trauma or severe stress. Impaired mental health (IMH), defined as depression and anxiety with psychoneuroimmunological factors, can play a significant role in RA. The main objective of this research was to investigate the mutual correlation of IMH and RA activity, estimated by the laboratory and clinical parameters in RA patients. Material and Methods An open clinical prospective study that lasted for 6 months was designed. There were 72 patients included, 58 women and 14 men, aged 34 to 80 years and screened for mental health status. The study population was randomized following the Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI) scale, comprised of 53 questions with a range from 0 (no symptoms) to 4 (severe). This mental test was done only once during the study. Following the results from the BSI scale, RA patients were divided into mentally stable and mentally unstable patients to investigate the influence of RA activity on mental health. The following laboratory and clinical parameters were analyzed: sex, age, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), rheumatoid factor (RF), C-reactive protein (CRP), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody, and disease activity score (DAS28). All RA patients did not express extra-articular manifestations or Sjögren’s syndrome. The chi-square test, ANOVA, Pearson’s coefficient, and IBM Statistics - SPSS v19 were used. Results From a total of 72 RA patients, there were 44 mentally stable and 28 mentally unstable patients. All patients had either moderate or severe active disease. The only significant correlation of IMH and activity of RA was found in CRP and DAS28, but no significance was observed in ESR, RF, and anti-CCP. The DAS28 showed high disease activity with an average of 5.3 and CRP of 20.9 mg/L in patients with unstable mental health compared to stable mental health patients, where RA was associated with

  15. Reducing the silent burden of impaired mental health.

    PubMed

    Jané-Llopis, Eva; Anderson, Peter; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Weare, Katherine; Wahlbeck, Kristian; McDaid, David; Cooper, Cary; Litchfield, Paul

    2011-08-01

    Mental and behavioral disorders account for about one third of the world's disability caused by all ill health among adults, with unipolar depressive disorders set to be the world's number one cause of illhealth and premature death in 2030, affecting high- and low-income countries. There is a range of evidence-based cost-effective interventions that can be implemented in parenting, at schools, at the workplace, and in older age that can promote health and well-being, reduce mental disorders, lead to improved productivity, and increase resilience to cope with many of the stressors in the world. These facts need to be better communicated to policymakers to ensure that the silent burden of impaired mental health is adequately heard and reduced.

  16. Multiple trauma and mental health in former Ugandan child soldiers.

    PubMed

    Klasen, Fionna; Oettingen, Gabriele; Daniels, Judith; Adam, Hubertus

    2010-10-01

    The present study examines the effect of war and domestic violence on the mental health of child soldiers in a sample consisting of 330 former Ugandan child soldiers (age: 11-17 years, female: 49%). All children had experienced at least 1 war-related event and 78% were additionally exposed to at least 1 incident of domestic violence. Prevalences of posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder were 33%, and 36%, respectively. Behavioral and emotional problems above clinical cutoff were measured in 61%. No gender differences were found regarding mental health outcomes. War experience and domestic violence were significantly associated with all mental health outcomes. The authors' findings point to the detrimental effects of domestic violence in addition to traumatizing war experiences in child soldiers.

  17. Labor migration and mental health in Cambodia: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sarah R; Robinson, W Courtland; Chhim, Sotheara; Bass, Judith K

    2014-03-01

    Labor migration is thought to have significant mental and physical health impacts, given the risks for exploitation and abuse of migrant workers, particularly among those in semiskilled and unskilled positions, although empirical data are limited. This qualitative study, conducted in July 2010 in Banteay Meanchey Province, Cambodia, focused on psychosocial and mental health signs and symptoms associated with labor migration among Cambodian migrant workers to Thailand. Two qualitative methods identified a number of mental health problems faced by Cambodian migrant workers in Thailand, including the presence of anxiety and depression-like problems among this population, described in local terminology as pibak chet (sadness), keut chreun (thinking too much), and khval khvay khnong chet (worry in heart). Key informants revealed the extent to which psychosocial well-being is associated with conditions of poverty, including debt and lack of access to basic services. PMID:24566505

  18. Mental health care use by soldiers conducting counterinsurgency operations.

    PubMed

    Applewhite, Larry; Keller, Nathan; Borah, Adam

    2012-05-01

    Counterinsurgency (COIN) has become the cornerstone of the military's strategy to combat terrorist threats. COIN operations are complex and often expose soldiers to unfamiliar stressors as they fight the enemy while developing and maintaining rapport with the local populace. Utilizing a retrospective record review protocol, we examined 282 mental health files of soldiers assigned to a brigade combat team that operated from a large forward operating base in Iraq during the counterinsurgency campaign. Most reported sleep disturbance, depression, anxiety, irritability, and conflict with supervisors related to either operational stress, exposure to direct combat, or home front concerns. Most received brief individual supportive therapy or attended solution-focused group counseling emphasizing life skills training, post-traumatic stress treatment, women's support, or relationship skills. Psychopharmacologic treatment was an essential adjunct to the counseling program. Results indicate that supporting a COIN deployment requires a comprehensive mental health program that can respond to a wide range of mental health problems. PMID:22645874

  19. Mental Health and Health-Related Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis Caregivers in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Marilyn; Arelis, Adriana Aguayo; Islas, Miguel Angel Macias; Barajas, Brenda Viridiana Rábago

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) rates are increasing in Latin America, and caregiving for an individual with MS is associated with poorer mental and physical health outcomes. No existing research has examined the relation between mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in MS caregivers in Latin America. Methods: The present study examined the association between mental health (Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and HRQOL (36-item Short Form Health Status Survey) in 81 Mexican MS caregivers. Results: A canonical correlation analysis uncovered a large, significant overall association between mental health and HRQOL, with 52.7% of the variance shared between the two sets of constructs. When individual canonical loadings were examined in this analysis, the most substantial pattern that emerged was between depression and general health. Four regressions controlling for demographic variables found that HRQOL uniquely accounted for 19.0% of the variance in caregiver anxiety, 32.5% in depression, 13.5% in satisfaction with life, and 14.3% in self-esteem. Conclusions: These findings demonstrated a strong association between HRQOL and mental health, which points to directions for future studies on interventions for MS caregivers, particularly in Mexican and other Latino populations. PMID:26917994

  20. Beyond workers' compensation: men's mental health in and out of work.

    PubMed

    Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina S E

    2014-01-01

    The mental health of men is an important issue with significant direct and indirect costs emerging from work-related depression and suicide. Although the merits of men's community-based and workplace mental health promotion initiatives have been endorsed, few programs are mandated or formally evaluated and reported on. Conspicuously absent also are gender analyses detailing connections between masculinities and men's work-related depression and suicide on which to build men-centered mental health promotion programs. This article provides an overview of four interconnected issues, (a) masculinities and men's health, (b) men and work, (c) men's work-related depression and suicide, and (d) men's mental health promotion, in the context of men's diverse relationships to work (including job insecurity and unemployment). Based on the review, recommendations are made for advancing the well-being of men who are in as well as of those out of work. PMID:23727792

  1. A review of the mental health issues of diabetes conference.

    PubMed

    Ducat, Lee; Rubenstein, Arthur; Philipson, Louis H; Anderson, Barbara J

    2015-02-01

    Individuals with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk for depression, anxiety disorder, and eating disorder diagnoses. People with type 1 diabetes are also at risk for subclinical levels of diabetes distress and anxiety. These mental/behavioral health comorbidities of diabetes are associated with poor adherence to treatment and poor glycemic control, thus increasing the risk for serious short- and long-term physical complications, which can result in blindness, amputations, stroke, cognitive decline, decreased quality of life, as well as premature death. When mental health comorbidities of diabetes are not diagnosed and treated, the financial cost to society and health care systems is catastrophic, and the human suffering that results is profound. This review summarizes state-of-the-art presentations and working group scholarly reports from the Mental Health Issues of Diabetes Conference (7-8 October 2013, Philadelphia, PA), which included stakeholders from the National Institutes of Health, people living with type 1 diabetes and their families, diabetes consumer advocacy groups, the insurance industry, as well as psychologists, psychiatrists, endocrinologists, and nurse practitioners who are all nationally and internationally recognized experts in type 1 diabetes research and care. At this landmark conference current evidence for the incidence and the consequences of mental health problems in type 1 diabetes was presented, supporting the integration of mental health screening and mental health care into routine diabetes medical care. Future research directions were recommended to establish the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of paradigms of diabetes care in which physical and mental health care are both priorities.

  2. Undergraduate mental health nursing education in Australia: More than Mental Health First Aid.

    PubMed

    Happell, Brenda; Wilson, Rhonda; McNamara, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Mental Health First Aid training is designed to equip people with the skills to help others who may be developing mental health problems or experiencing mental health crises. This training has consistently been shown to increase: (1) the recognition of mental health problems; (2) the extent to which course trainees' beliefs about treatment align with those of mental health professionals; (3) their intentions to help others; and (4) their confidence in their abilities to assist others. This paper presents a discussion of the potential role of Mental Health First Aid training in undergraduate mental health nursing education. Three databases (CINAHL, Medline, and PsycINFO) were searched to identify literature on Mental Health First Aid. Although Mental Health First Aid training has strong benefits, this first responder level of education is insufficient for nurses, from whom people expect to receive professional care. It is recommended that: (1) Mental Health First Aid training be made a prerequisite of preregistration nurse education, (2) registered nurses make a larger contribution to addressing the mental health needs of Australians requiring care, and (3) current registered nurses take responsibility for ensuring that they can provided basic mental health care, including undertaking training to rectify gaps in their knowledge. PMID:26775530

  3. Rural Mental Health Ecology: A Framework for Engaging with Mental Health Social Capital in Rural Communities.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rhonda L; Wilson, G Glenn; Usher, Kim

    2015-09-01

    The mental health of people in rural communities is influenced by the robustness of the mental health ecosystem within each community. Theoretical approaches such as social ecology and social capital are useful when applied to the practical context of promoting environmental conditions which maximise mental health helping capital to enhance resilience and reduce vulnerably as a buffer for mental illness. This paper explores the ecological conditions that affect the mental health and illness of people in rural communities. It proposes a new mental health social ecology framework that makes full use of the locally available unique social capital that is sufficiently flexible to facilitate mental health helping capital best suited to mental health service delivery for rural people in an Australian context.

  4. Global mental health: from science to action.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    This article charts the historical development of the discipline of global mental health, whose goal is to improve access to mental health care and reduce inequalities in mental health outcomes between and within nations. The article begins with an overview of the contribution of four scientific foundations toward the discipline's core agenda: to scale up services for people with mental disorders and to promote their human rights. Next, the article highlights four recent, key events that are indicative of the actions shaping the discipline: the Mental Health Gap Action Programme to synthesize evidence on what treatments are effective for a range of mental disorders; the evidence on task shifting to nonspecialist health workers to deliver these treatments; the Movement for Global Mental Health's efforts to build a common platform for professionals and civil society to advocate for their shared goal; and the Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health, which has identified the research priorities that, within the next decade, can lead to substantial improvements in the lives of people living with mental disorders. The article ends by examining the major challenges for the field, and the opportunities for addressing them in the future.

  5. Global mental health: from science to action.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    This article charts the historical development of the discipline of global mental health, whose goal is to improve access to mental health care and reduce inequalities in mental health outcomes between and within nations. The article begins with an overview of the contribution of four scientific foundations toward the discipline's core agenda: to scale up services for people with mental disorders and to promote their human rights. Next, the article highlights four recent, key events that are indicative of the actions shaping the discipline: the Mental Health Gap Action Programme to synthesize evidence on what treatments are effective for a range of mental disorders; the evidence on task shifting to nonspecialist health workers to deliver these treatments; the Movement for Global Mental Health's efforts to build a common platform for professionals and civil society to advocate for their shared goal; and the Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health, which has identified the research priorities that, within the next decade, can lead to substantial improvements in the lives of people living with mental disorders. The article ends by examining the major challenges for the field, and the opportunities for addressing them in the future. PMID:22335178

  6. Global Mental Health: From Science to Action

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    This article charts the historical development of the discipline of global mental health, whose goal is to improve access to mental health care and reduce inequalities in mental health outcomes between and within nations. The article begins with an overview of the contribution of four scientific foundations toward the discipline's core agenda: to scale up services for people with mental disorders and to promote their human rights. Next, the article highlights four recent, key events that are indicative of the actions shaping the discipline: the Mental Health Gap Action Programme to synthesize evidence on what treatments are effective for a range of mental disorders; the evidence on task shifting to nonspecialist health workers to deliver these treatments; the Movement for Global Mental Health's efforts to build a common platform for professionals and civil society to advocate for their shared goal; and the Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health, which has identified the research priorities that, within the next decade, can lead to substantial improvements in the lives of people living with mental disorders. The article ends by examining the major challenges for the field, and the opportunities for addressing them in the future. (harv rev psychiatry 2012;20:6–12.) PMID:22335178

  7. Neighborhood residential segregation and mental health: a multilevel analysis on Hispanic Americans in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Ah

    2009-06-01

    Compared with the relationship between neighborhood-level residential segregation and physical health of Hispanic Americans, less is known about how neighborhood residential segregation affects mental health. This study examines if, and how, neighborhood residential segregation is associated with the mental health of Puerto Rican and Mexican Americans in Chicago. Multilevel analyses reveal that neighborhood residential segregation is positively associated with depressive symptoms and anxiety in both groups. Neighborhood segregation, however, has more salient effects on the mental health of Mexican Americans. For Puerto Rican Americans, the effects of neighborhood segregation on mental health become nonsignificant after controlling for neighborhood-level income and individual-level covariates, whereas neighborhood segregation is strongly associated with the mental health of Mexican Americans even after controlling for other covariates. These findings show that living in a Mexican American-dominated community is not beneficial to mental health, in contrast to findings for physical health shown in previous studies.

  8. Common mental health problems and antiretroviral therapy adherence.

    PubMed

    Nel, Adriaan; Kagee, Ashraf

    2011-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature on various mental health problems and their impact on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Depression, anxiety disorders, and disorders related to substance abuse were identified as key role-players influencing adherence. The severity of symptoms related to these disorders was found to be inversely related to ART adherence, with the possible exception of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD was found to have both positive and negative implications for adherence, with severity of symptoms ranging from health-protective concern to disabling distress. Possible solutions aimed at addressing the adverse effects of mental health problems on adherence are discussed. Routine screening in ART settings is suggested in settings where follow-up of positive screen scores are possible, along with the necessary interventions to resolve the disorder of concern. Suggested interventions include utilising psychotherapeutic treatment, both in isolation and in conjunction with medication, to address mental health problems. Furthermore, finding effective ways of marshalling social support is recommended for ensuring optimal adherence, and possibly mitigating the adverse effects of mental health problems. Further research is needed to find feasible ways of identifying, assessing and treating patients with mental health problems in resource-constrained settings where HIV prevalence is highest.

  9. Mental health of students: position statement.

    PubMed

    Blackborow, May; Tuck, Christine; Lambert, Patrice; Disney, Jody; Porter, Jessica; Jordan, Alicia

    2014-11-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that mental health is as critical to academic success as physical well-being. Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) serve a vital role in the school community by promoting positive mental health outcomes in students through school/community evidence-based programs and curricula. As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses collaborate with school personnel, community health care professionals, students, and families, in the assessment, identification, intervention, referral, and follow-up of children in need of mental health services. School nurses are uniquely qualified to identify students with potential mental health problems. In addition, school nurses serve as advocates, facilitators, and counselors of mental health services both within the school environment and in the community. PMID:25417334

  10. Refugee children: mental health and effective interventions.

    PubMed

    Pacione, Laura; Measham, Toby; Rousseau, Cécile

    2013-02-01

    The mental health consequences of war and other forms of organized violence for children represent a serious global public health issue. Much of the research on the mental health of war-affected civilians has focused on refugees who have sought asylum in high-income countries and face the dual stress of a traumatic past and resettlement. This review will focus on the mental health of refugee children who have fled war as well as interventions to both prevent and treat adverse mental health outcomes. While war can have devastating mental health consequences, children raised in the midst of armed conflict also display resilience. Effective interventions for refugee children will be discussed both in terms of prevention and treatment of psychopathology, with a focus on recent developments in the field.

  11. MENTAL HEALTH: THE SEARCH FOR A DEFINITION.

    PubMed

    TUCKER, D K; LERICHE, W H

    1964-05-16

    Various attempts to define the concept of "mental health" are examined. Value judgments permeate much mental health literature. Their use militates against obtaining an objective definition, capable of universal application. The acceptance of a definition including a value judgment implies taking an attitude toward a particular society and its social ideals.Present limits of competence only allow us to describe "mental health" conceptually. Such "untechnical" proposals are liable to be confused with "technical" ("scientific") propositions. Multiple criteria are likely to be helpful in improving our concept of "mental health".The intrusion of morals into the world of health is discussed as part of the contemporary intellectual dilemma of determined human behaviour versus human responsibility and the reality of moral values.It is suggested that "mental health" might consist simply of an individual's possession of insight into his own personality, combined with an honest recognition and acceptance of his condition.

  12. Mental health of students: position statement.

    PubMed

    Blackborow, May; Tuck, Christine; Lambert, Patrice; Disney, Jody; Porter, Jessica; Jordan, Alicia

    2014-11-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that mental health is as critical to academic success as physical well-being. Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) serve a vital role in the school community by promoting positive mental health outcomes in students through school/community evidence-based programs and curricula. As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses collaborate with school personnel, community health care professionals, students, and families, in the assessment, identification, intervention, referral, and follow-up of children in need of mental health services. School nurses are uniquely qualified to identify students with potential mental health problems. In addition, school nurses serve as advocates, facilitators, and counselors of mental health services both within the school environment and in the community.

  13. Refugee children: mental health and effective interventions.

    PubMed

    Pacione, Laura; Measham, Toby; Rousseau, Cécile

    2013-02-01

    The mental health consequences of war and other forms of organized violence for children represent a serious global public health issue. Much of the research on the mental health of war-affected civilians has focused on refugees who have sought asylum in high-income countries and face the dual stress of a traumatic past and resettlement. This review will focus on the mental health of refugee children who have fled war as well as interventions to both prevent and treat adverse mental health outcomes. While war can have devastating mental health consequences, children raised in the midst of armed conflict also display resilience. Effective interventions for refugee children will be discussed both in terms of prevention and treatment of psychopathology, with a focus on recent developments in the field. PMID:23307563

  14. [Financial crisis and mental health].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O

    2010-01-01

    Most studies investigating the effects of the economic crisis on the quality of life indicate a correlation between unemployment or other economic indexes and the general levels of death rates, depression, and suicide tendencies. The most common effects of an economic crisis are unemployment, spending power cuts, general insecurity and public spending retrenchment, including health related budget cuts. Under conditions of economic crisis, the poor represent a high risk group since they are the first ones to be put at risk. At the same time, due to their pre-existing functionality reduction, individuals already experiencing psychiatric diseases also represent a high risk group, thus creating a vice circle where poverty nurtures psychiatric disorders and vice-versa. For every country in the midst of a recession, protecting high risk target groups is the first priority. In these cases, research showcases that social security networks' reinforcement represents the first strategic priority. Other factors, for instance personality features related to increased vulnerability to psychosocial threat -such as low tolerance to frustration or low self esteem- also play an important role. At the organizational level, one has to research practices and policies that employers use to respond to changing conditions. An economic recession is a chance to revamp essential services toward weaker populations that need to be protected. This translates into a buttressing of the social welfare system while promoting timely interventions. Amongst others, the registration of high risk population groups, the rehabilitation and social inclusion of unemployed individuals and individuals with psychiatric problems, the training of first responders and primary care physicians, the tracing and curing of depression and other usual disorders, as well as an improved access to the psychiatric-health provision system.

  15. Insights on unemployment, unemployment insurance, and mental health.

    PubMed

    Tefft, Nathan

    2011-03-01

    This paper contributes to the growing literature on the relationship between business cycles and mental health. It is one of the first applications in the economics literature to incorporate data on web searches from Google Insights for Search, and these unique data allow the opportunity to estimate the association between weekly unemployment insurance (UI) claims, in addition to monthly unemployment rates, and search indexes for "depression" and "anxiety". Results from state fixed effects models yield (1) a positive relationship between the unemployment rate and the depression search index and (2) a negative relationship between initial UI claims on the one hand and the depression and anxiety search indexes on the other. A lag analysis also shows that an extended period of higher levels of continued UI claims is associated with a higher depression search index.

  16. Women's mental health in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Niaz, Unaiza

    2004-01-01

    In Pakistan, societal attitudes and norms, as well as cultural practices (Karo Kari, exchange marriages, dowry, etc.), play a vital role in women's mental health. The religious and ethnic conflicts, along with the dehumanizing attitudes towards women, the extended family system, role of in-laws in daily lives of women, represent major issues and stressors. Such practices in Pakistan have created the extreme marginalisation of women in numerous spheres of life, which has had an adverse psychological impact. Violence against women has become one of the acceptable means whereby men exercise their culturally constructed right to control women. Still, compared to other South Asian countries, Pakistani women are relatively better off than their counterparts. PMID:16633458

  17. Occupational stress, coping and mental health in Jamaican police officers

    PubMed Central

    Smith, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Police are exposed to a wide range of stressors and this is especially true in developing countries such as Jamaica. Exposure to psychosocial stressors and use of maladaptive coping styles can result in mental ill-health. Aims To examine the relationship between work characteristics, coping and mental health in Jamaican police officers and to test whether work characteristics are indirectly associated with mental health outcomes through perceived job stress and job satisfaction. Methods Police officers from the Jamaican police force completed a questionnaire using a cross-sectional design. We analysed the data using hierarchical regression. Results The study group consisted of 134 police officers; the response rate was 94%. Negative work characteristics, lower levels of positive work factors and work support and emotion-focused coping styles were associated with increased levels of depression (F(8, 125) = 7.465, P < 0.001). Subjective feelings of anxiety were positively associated with negative work characteristics and emotion-focused coping (F(8, 125) = 7.586, P < 0.001). The relationship between work characteristics and mental health outcomes was mediated by perceived stress. Job satisfaction mediated the relationship between positive work characteristics and depression. Conclusions Stress management and intervention programmes should address modifiable work conditions, monitor stress levels and reduce maladaptive coping. PMID:27131386

  18. [Mental health support for nurses].

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Burnout specific to human service workers has been reported in the U.S. in the 1970s. Since then, such burnout has become widely known and the mental health of nurses has attracted attention. Stressors in the work environment and complexity have increased with advancement in increasingly complicated medical care. One of the major roles of a psychiatric liaison nurse is to provide support to improve the mental health of nurses. In our hospital, a psychiatric liaison nurse has a staff position under the direct supervision of the director of the nursing department but operates outside the chain of command. A psychiatric liaison nurse is not involved in the performance review of nurses. Thus, the nursing staff and the nursing manager can discuss their problems with the psychiatric liaison nurse without risks. Psychiatric liaison nurses provide support as counselors through individual and group interviews so that nurses can become re-energized about their work. In addition, psychiatric liaison nurses provide consultations and education. They perform coordination function to organize an environment to promote consultations regarding nurse support to the staff nurses and the nursing manager and to promote support by supervisors. For support after reinstatement of a nurse following a medical leave, it is particularly important to work with not only the individual nurse but also the entire nursing team. In our hospital, newly graduated nurses are given the GHQ-28 after one month of employment to assess the support they might need. In our study, nurses with high risks were divided into a group with a score of at least 6 points but less than 10 points and a group with a score of at least 10 points. The group with at least 10 points had significantly higher rates of leave of absence and resignation. Thus, early intervention was thought to be necessary in newly graduated nurses with a score of at least 10 points in the GHQ.

  19. Portrayal of Depression and Other Mental Illnesses in Australian Nonfiction Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Catherine; Pirkis, Jane; Blood, R. Warwick; Dunt, David; Burgess, Philip; Morley, Belinda; Stewart, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This study describes Australian media portrayal of mental illnesses, focusing on depression. A random sample of 1,123 items was selected for analysis from a pool of 13,389 nonfictional media items about mental illness collected between March 2000 and February 2001. Depression was portrayed more frequently than other mental illnesses. Items about…

  20. Segmenting the mental health care market.

    PubMed

    Stone, T R; Warren, W E; Stevens, R E

    1990-03-01

    The authors report the results of a segmentation study of the mental health care market. A random sample of 387 residents of a western city were interviewed by telephone. Cluster analysis of the data identified six market segments. Each is described according to the mental health care services to which it is most sensitive. Implications for targeting the segments are discussed.

  1. Mental Health Education: Where Do We Start?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Faith

    1988-01-01

    Addresses the question of the most appropriate mental health curriculum by examining 10 models of mental health and illness upon which the content of courses might be based. Urges teachers to analyze evidence supporting or negating the usefulness of theories and to be aware of the difference between the models' orientation toward process or…

  2. Child Mental Health in the '70's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Edwin J.; And Others

    The Center for Studies of Child and Family Mental Health has made an assessment of national programs during the last decade, and found that the Nation took the course of child-centered intervention programs for mental health. There were many startling and promising programs developed during that time such as Head Start. However, many of the…

  3. Global mental health and neuroscience: potential synergies.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; He, Yanling; Phillips, Anthony; Sahakian, Barbara J; Williams, John; Patel, Vikram

    2015-02-01

    Global mental health has emerged as an important specialty. It has drawn attention to the burden of mental illness and to the relative gap in mental health research and services around the world. Global mental health has raised the question of whether this gap is a developmental issue, a health issue, a human rights issue, or a combination of these issues-and it has raised awareness of the need to develop new approaches for building capacity, mobilising resources, and closing the research and treatment gap. Translational neuroscience has also advanced. It comprises an important conceptual approach to understanding the neurocircuitry and molecular basis of mental disorders, to rethinking how best to undertake research on the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of these disorders, with the ultimate aim to develop entirely new approaches to prevention and intervention. Some apparent contrasts exist between these fields; global mental health emphasises knowledge translation, moving away from the bedside to a focus on health systems, whereas translational neuroscience emphasises molecular neuroscience, focusing on transitions between the bench and bedside. Meanwhile, important opportunities exist for synergy between the two paradigms, to ensure that present opportunities in mental health research and services are maximised. Here, we review the approaches of global mental health and clinical neuroscience to diagnosis, pathogenesis, and intervention, and make recommendations for facilitating an integration of these two perspectives. PMID:26359754

  4. Mental Health Professionals and the Bereaved.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterweis, Marian; Townsend, Jessica

    This booklet provides mental health professionals with an analytic framework for understanding psychosocial reactions to bereavement of adults and children and for selecting appropriate intervention strategies. It also identifies those people most likely to need the intervention of a mental health professional to help prevent or mitigate…

  5. Mental Health of Students. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of School Nurses (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that mental health is as critical to academic success as physical well-being. School nurses play a vital role in the school community by promoting positive mental health development in students through school/community-based programs and curricula. As members of…

  6. College Mental Health at the Cutting Edge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Victor

    2013-01-01

    As someone who has been involved in college mental health in three different roles, the author would say those who work in this field inhabit a strange space. College mental health centers are generally seen as somewhat peripheral to the core mission of universities by upper administration. Counseling centers do not reside within academic…

  7. Unemployment Impairs Mental Health: Meta-Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Karsten I.; Moser, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The effect of unemployment on mental health was examined with meta-analytic methods across 237 cross-sectional and 87 longitudinal studies. The average overall effect size was d = 0.51 with unemployed persons showing more distress than employed persons. A significant difference was found for several indicator variables of mental health (mixed…

  8. Mental Health and Work: Issues and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Lou, Ed.; Verins, Irene, Ed.; Willis, Eileen, Ed.

    In Australia, there is increasing attention being paid to the promotion of mental health and the prevention of serious mental disorder by policymakers, funders, academics and service providers. This has required a shift in thinking to focus on health and well being, not just on illness and treatment. The National Action Plan for Promotion,…

  9. Team management in community mental health.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, M

    2000-02-01

    The community mental health team is now the established model for mental health service delivery in the community. Managing CMHTs requires a diverse range of managerial skills, role clarity and authority. More research needs to be undertaken on the role and effectiveness of the CMHT manager.

  10. Promoting School-Wide Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussell, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    Although schools are not traditionally designed to provide intensive mental health services to children, they are in a position to create systems that foster mental health. By creating school-wide systems in which students are academically, behaviorally and socially successful, schools can integrate those essential protective factors shown to…

  11. Online Access to Mental Health Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Barbara A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents overview of commercially available databases useful to field of mental health. The availability, costs, coverage, currency, update frequency, and access points are compared for four major files--PsychINFO, National Clearinghouse for Mental Health Information, Social SciSearch, and MEDLINE. Forty-nine references are provided. (EJS)

  12. Spirituality and Mental Health among Homeless Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…

  13. Migrant Farmworker Stress: Mental Health Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiott, Ann E.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Davis, Stephen W.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The number of Latinos in rural regions of the United States is increasing. Little is known about factors that undermine the mental health of this segment of the rural population. Purpose: The goal of this study is to determine which stressors inherent in farmwork and the farmworker lifestyle contribute to poor mental health. Methods: An…

  14. Explorations in Mental Health Training: Project Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Ralph, Ed.; And Others

    The report contains summaries of 176 pilot projects demonstrating new and innovative approaches for training mental health personnel. Projects were conducted under grants awarded by the Experimental and Special Training Branch of the Division of Manpower and Training Programs, National Institute of Mental Health. The projects have been developed…

  15. Young People's Perceptions of Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Claire; Hill, Malcolm; Secker, Jenny

    2000-01-01

    Examined 12- to 14-year-olds' understanding of mental health and illness, responses to negative feelings, and perceived differences between themselves and adults. Found that the term "mental health" was little understood. Relationships with family and friends were considered a positive influence. Youth, especially boys, reported unsophisticated…

  16. Mental Health Services for Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    This article reviews the progress made in meeting United States' existing mental health goals for adolescents, and identifies issues that will have to be considered in setting new goals. The article examines the substantial need for child mental health services, particularly among young, socioeconomically disadvantaged youth. The unmet need for…

  17. Commonalities in Values among Mental Health Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consoli, Andres J.; Williams, Laurie M.

    1999-01-01

    Mental-health counselors (N=161) from Buenos Aires, Argentina, who ascribed to distinct theoretical orientations were surveyed with regard to their personal and mental-health values. This study provides further empirical input on what the values commonalities are even among counselors who profess distinct theoretical orientations and have a…

  18. Report of Mental Health Survey Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atcheson, J. D.; And Others

    Three psychiatrists and a consulting psychologist investigated mental health problems in the Yukon and Northwest Territories. Specific purposes of the investigation were (1) to comment on the adequacy of existing mental health services and facilities, (2) to make recommendations for improvement of consulting services and facilities, (3) to consult…

  19. Children's Mental Health and School Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSocio, Janiece; Hootman, Janis

    2004-01-01

    An integrative review of literature was undertaken to examine the impact of children's mental health on their school success. The literature confirmed a confluence of problems associated with school performance and child and adolescent mental health. Poor academic functioning and inconsistent school attendance were identified as early signs of…

  20. The Crisis in Mental Health Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bertram S.

    Presented is a speech by Bertram Brown, director of the National Institute of Mental Health, on the effects of decreased federal funding of mental health research. Brown notes that there has been a 56% slash in the purchasing power of the research grant program when inflation is accounted for. It is suggested that causes of the dwindling support…

  1. A Call to Arms: Children's Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Morton

    2008-01-01

    The author, a superintendent of schools, discusses a rising tide of social and emotional needs among school children as educators struggle with the issue of whether to deal with students' mental health issues. Readers are asked to consider this statement from "Children's Mental Health: Developing a National Action Agenda," a report prepared by the…

  2. Synergy, 2003. Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network, Parramatta.

    Each issue in the 2002 edition of the Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network (ATMHN) newsletter represents a theme critical to mental health practitioners. The Winter 2002 issue features articles on the psychological consequences of interpreters in relation to working with torture and trauma clients, addressing language issues on mental…

  3. Mental health outcomes at the Jersey Shore after Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Boscarino, Joseph A; Hoffman, Stuart N; Kirchner, H Lester; Erlich, Porat M; Adams, Richard E; Figley, Charles R; Solhkhah, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy made landfall in the most densely populated region in the US. In New Jersey, thousands of families were made homeless and entire communities were destroyed in the worst disaster in the history of the state. The economic impact of Sandy was huge, comparable to Hurricane Katrina. The areas that sustained the most damage were the small- to medium-sized beach communities along New Jersey's Atlantic coastline. Six months following the hurricane, we conducted a random telephone survey of 200 adults residing in 18 beach communities located in Monmouth County. We found that 14.5% (95% CI = 9.9-20.2) of these residents screened positive for PTSD and 6.0% (95% CI = 3.1-10.2) met criteria for major depression. Altogether 13.5% (95% CI = 9.1-19.0) received mental health counseling and 20.5% (95% CI = 15.1-26.8) sought some type of mental health support in person or online, rates similar to those reported in New York after the World Trade Center disaster In multivariate analyses, the best predictors of mental health status and service use were having high hurricane exposure levels, having physical health limitations, and having environmental health concerns. Research is needed to assess the mental health status and service use of Jersey Shore residents over time, to evaluate environmental health concerns, and to better understand the storm's impact among those with physical health limitations. PMID:24558743

  4. Mental health outcomes at the Jersey Shore after Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Boscarino, Joseph A; Hoffman, Stuart N; Kirchner, H Lester; Erlich, Porat M; Adams, Richard E; Figley, Charles R; Solhkhah, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy made landfall in the most densely populated region in the US. In New Jersey, thousands of families were made homeless and entire communities were destroyed in the worst disaster in the history of the state. The economic impact of Sandy was huge, comparable to Hurricane Katrina. The areas that sustained the most damage were the small- to medium-sized beach communities along New Jersey's Atlantic coastline. Six months following the hurricane, we conducted a random telephone survey of 200 adults residing in 18 beach communities located in Monmouth County. We found that 14.5% (95% CI = 9.9-20.2) of these residents screened positive for PTSD and 6.0% (95% CI = 3.1-10.2) met criteria for major depression. Altogether 13.5% (95% CI = 9.1-19.0) received mental health counseling and 20.5% (95% CI = 15.1-26.8) sought some type of mental health support in person or online, rates similar to those reported in New York after the World Trade Center disaster In multivariate analyses, the best predictors of mental health status and service use were having high hurricane exposure levels, having physical health limitations, and having environmental health concerns. Research is needed to assess the mental health status and service use of Jersey Shore residents over time, to evaluate environmental health concerns, and to better understand the storm's impact among those with physical health limitations.

  5. Comorbid Mental Health Symptoms and Heart Diseases: Can Health Care and Mental Health Care Professionals Collaboratively Improve the Assessment and Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ai, Amy L.; Rollman, Bruce L.; Berger, Candyce S.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of current epidemiological and clinical research, this article describes how mental health symptoms are associated with heart disease, a major chronic condition that occurs primarily in middle and late life. The article describes the culturally and historically important link between heart and mind. It then describes depression and…

  6. Latino Adults’ Access to Mental Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Zayas, Luis H.; Hansen, Marissa C.

    2008-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, epidemiological studies using state-of-the-art methodologies have documented the unmet mental health needs of Latinos adults in the U.S. and Puerto Rico. This paper reviews 16 articles based on seven epidemiological studies, examines studies methodologies, and summarizes findings about how Latino adults access mental health services. Studies consistently report that, compared to non-Latino Whites, Latinos underutilize mental health services, are less likely to receive guideline congruent care, and rely more often on primary care for services. Structural, economic, psychiatric, and cultural factors influence Latinos’ service access. In spite of the valuable information these studies provide, methodological limitations (e.g., reliance on cross-sectional designs, scarcity of mixed Latino group samples) constrict knowledge about Latinos access to mental health services. Areas for future research and development needed to improve Latinos’ access and quality of mental health care are discussed. PMID:16598658

  7. Payment by results in forensic mental health.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Luke; McCarthy, Lucy

    2015-10-01

    Forensic mental health services are low-volume, high-cost services. Payment by results (PbR) is the UK s latest attempt to improve efficiency and controls pending behaviours within the secure services. This article discusses the utility of the PbR mechanic in forensic mental health. It explores PbR implementation in non-forensic mental health settings, similar funding processes internationally, and early PbR implementation work in the UK's secure services. Finally, the article discusses the challenges faced when implementing PbR in forensic mental health services and puts forward possible next steps in determining the utility of PbR in forensic mental health.

  8. Engagement in mental health treatment among veterans returning from Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Stecker, Tracy; Fortney, John; Hamilton, Francis; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Ajzen, Icek

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Many veterans return from combat experiencing a variety of mental health concerns. Previous research has documented a stigma associated with seeking treatment that interferes with the decision to seek treatment. This study, conceptualized using the theory of planned behavior, assessed beliefs about mental health treatment in order to understand mental health treatment seeking behavior among a group of returning National Guard soldiers who served in the war in Iraq. Methods: Participants were one hundred and fifty Operation Iraqi Freedom National Guard soldiers who screened positive for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder or alcohol abuse disorder on the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing beliefs about mental health treatment and treatment-seeking behavior. Results: Beliefs related to symptom reduction and work were significantly related to mental health treatment-seeking behavior. Conclusions: Interventions developed to engage veterans into care must be directed toward cognitive factors that motivate treatment seeking in addition to traditionally targeted structural barriers. PMID:20390058

  9. Previous Violent Events and Mental Health Outcomes in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Puac-Polanco, Victor D.; Lopez-Soto, Victor A.; Kohn, Robert; Xie, Dawei; Richmond, Therese S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed a probability sample of Guatemalans to determine if a relationship exists between previous violent events and development of mental health outcomes in various sociodemographic groups, as well as during and after the Guatemalan Civil War. Methods. We used regression modeling, an interaction test, and complex survey design adjustments to estimate prevalences and test potential relationships between previous violent events and mental health. Results. Many (20.6%) participants experienced at least 1 previous serious violent event. Witnessing someone severely injured or killed was the most common event. Depression was experienced by 4.2% of participants, with 6.5% experiencing anxiety, 6.4% an alcohol-related disorder, and 1.9% posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Persons who experienced violence during the war had 4.3 times the adjusted odds of alcohol-related disorders (P < .05) and 4.0 times the adjusted odds of PTSD (P < .05) compared with the postwar period. Women, indigenous Maya, and urban dwellers had greater odds of experiencing postviolence mental health outcomes. Conclusions. Violence that began during the civil war and continues today has had a significant effect on the mental health of Guatemalans. However, mental health outcomes resulting from violent events decreased in the postwar period, suggesting a nation in recovery. PMID:25713973

  10. Biofeedback Intervention for Stress, Anxiety, and Depression among Graduate Students in Public Health Nursing

    PubMed Central

    Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Ratanasiripong, Nop; Hanklang, Suda; Chumchai, Pornlert

    2015-01-01

    Globally, graduate students have been found to have high prevalence of mental health problems. With increasing severity of mental health problems on university campuses and limited resources for mental health treatment, alternative interventions are needed. This study investigated the use of biofeedback training to help reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. A sample of 60 graduate students in public health nursing was randomly assigned to either the biofeedback intervention or the control group. Results indicated that biofeedback intervention was effective in significantly reducing the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression over the 4-week period, while the control group had increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression over the same timeframe. As future leaders in the public health nursing arena, the more psychologically healthy the graduate students in public health nursing are, the better the public health nursing professionals they will be as they go forth to serve the community after graduation. PMID:25954515

  11. Biofeedback Intervention for Stress, Anxiety, and Depression among Graduate Students in Public Health Nursing.

    PubMed

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Ratanasiripong, Nop; Hanklang, Suda; Chumchai, Pornlert

    2015-01-01

    Globally, graduate students have been found to have high prevalence of mental health problems. With increasing severity of mental health problems on university campuses and limited resources for mental health treatment, alternative interventions are needed. This study investigated the use of biofeedback training to help reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. A sample of 60 graduate students in public health nursing was randomly assigned to either the biofeedback intervention or the control group. Results indicated that biofeedback intervention was effective in significantly reducing the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression over the 4-week period, while the control group had increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression over the same timeframe. As future leaders in the public health nursing arena, the more psychologically healthy the graduate students in public health nursing are, the better the public health nursing professionals they will be as they go forth to serve the community after graduation. PMID:25954515

  12. Mental health literacy in an educational elite – an online survey among university students

    PubMed Central

    Lauber, Christoph; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Fritschi, Nadja; Stulz, Niklaus; Rössler, Wulf

    2005-01-01

    Background Mental health literacy is a prerequisite for early recognition and intervention in mental disorders. The aims of this paper are to determine whether a sample of university students recognise different symptoms of depression and schizophrenia and to reveal factors influencing correct recognition. Methods Bivariate and correspondence analyses of the results from an online survey among university students (n = 225). Results Most participants recognised the specific symptoms of depression. The symptoms of schizophrenia were acknowledged to a lower extent. Delusions of control and hallucinations of taste were not identified as symptoms of schizophrenia. Repeated revival of a trauma for depression and split personality for schizophrenia were frequently mistaken as symptoms of the respective disorders. Bivariate analyses demonstrated that previous interest in and a side job related to mental disorders, as well as previous personal treatment experience had a positive influence on symptom recognition. The correspondence analysis showed that male students of natural science, economics and philosophy are illiterate in recognising the symptoms depression and schizophrenia. Conclusion Among the educational elite, a wide variability in mental health literacy was found. Therefore, it's important for public mental health interventions to focus on the different recognition rates in depression and schizophrenia. Possibilities for contact must be arranged according to interest and activity (e.g., at work). In order to improve mental health literacy, finally, education and/or internship should be integrated in high school or apprenticeship curricula. Special emphasis must be given towards the effects of gender and stereotypes held about mental illnesses. PMID:15882465

  13. Mental health system historians: adults with schizophrenia describe changes in community mental health care over time.

    PubMed

    Stein, Catherine H; Leith, Jaclyn E; Osborn, Lawrence A; Greenberg, Sarah; Petrowski, Catherine E; Jesse, Samantha; Kraus, Shane W; May, Michael C

    2015-03-01

    This qualitative study examined changes in community mental health care as described by adults diagnosed with schizophrenia with long-term involvement in the mental health system to situate their experiences within the context of mental health reform movements in the United States. A sample of 14 adults with schizophrenia who had been consumers of mental health services from 12 to 40 years completed interviews about their hospital and outpatient experiences over time and factors that contributed most to their mental health. Overall, adults noted gradual changes in mental health care over time that included higher quality of care, more humane treatment, increased partnership with providers, shorter hospital stays, and better conditions in inpatient settings. Regardless of the mental health reform era in which they were hospitalized, participants described negative hospitalization experiences resulting in considerable personal distress, powerlessness, and trauma. Adults with less than 27 years involvement in the system reported relationships with friends and family as most important to their mental health, while adults with more than 27 years involvement reported mental health services and relationships with professionals as the most important factors in their mental health. The sample did not differ in self-reported use of services during their initial and most recent hospitalization experiences, but differences were found in participants' reported use of outpatient services over time. Findings underscore the importance of the lived experience of adults with schizophrenia in grounding current discourse on mental health care reform.

  14. Feasibility of integrating mental health screening and services into routine elder abuse practice to improve client outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sirey, Jo Anne; Berman, Jacquelin; Salamone, Aurora; DePasquale, Alyssa; Halkett, Ashley; Raeifar, Elmira; Banerjee, Samprit; Bruce, Martha L; Raue, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this pilot program was to test the feasibility of mental health screening among elder abuse victims and of offering those victims a brief psychotherapy for depression and anxiety. Elder abuse victims who sought assistance from a large, urban elder abuse service were screened for depression and anxiety using standardized measures. Clients with clinically significant depression (PHQ-9) or anxiety (GAD-7) were randomized to receive one of three different interventions concurrent with abuse resolution services. Staff were able to screen 315 individuals, with 34% of clients scoring positive for depression or anxiety. Of those with mental health needs, only 15% refused all services. The mental health intervention (PROTECT) was successfully implemented in two different formats with collaboration between staff workers. These findings support both the need for mental health care among elder abuse victims and the feasibility of integrating mental health screening and treatment into routine elder abuse practice.

  15. Mental health policy in Eastern Europe: a comparative analysis of seven mental health systems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this international comparative study is to describe and compare the mental health policies in seven countries of Eastern Europe that share their common communist history: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia. Methods The health policy questionnaire was developed and the country-specific information was gathered by local experts. The questionnaire includes both qualitative and quantitative information on various aspects of mental health policy: (1) basic country information (demography, health, and economic indicators), (2) health care financing, (3) mental health services (capacities and utilisation, ownership), (4) health service purchasing (purchasing organisations, contracting, reimbursement of services), and (5) mental health policy (policy documents, legislation, civic society). Results The social and economic transition in the 1990s initiated the process of new mental health policy formulation, adoption of mental health legislation stressing human rights of patients, and a strong call for a pragmatic balance of community and hospital services. In contrast to the development in the Western Europe, the civic society was suppressed and NGOs and similar organizations were practically non-existent or under governmental control. Mental health services are financed from the public health insurance as any other health services. There is no separate budget for mental health. We can observe that the know-how about modern mental health care and about direction of needed reforms is available in documents, policies and programmes. However, this does not mean real implementation. Conclusions The burden of totalitarian history still influences many areas of social and economic life, which also has to be taken into account in mental health policy. We may observe that after twenty years of health reforms and reforms of health reforms, the transition of the mental health systems still continues. In spite of

  16. Quality Enhancement Research Initiative in Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Fischer, E P; Marder, S R; Smith, G R; Owen, R R; Rubenstein, L; Hedrick, S C; Curran, G M

    2000-06-01

    The Veterans Administration (VA) recently introduced its Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) to facilitate the translation of best practices into usual clinical care. The Mental Health QUERI (MHQ) was charged with developing strategic plans for major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia. Twenty percent or more of VA service users are affected by 1 of these 2 disorders, disorders that often have a devastating impact on affected individuals. Despite the increasing availability of efficacious treatments for each disorder, substantial gaps remain between best practices and routine care. In this context, the MHQ identified steps critical to the success of a sustained process of rapid-cycle health care improvement for MDD and schizophrenia, including research initiatives to close gaps in knowledge of best treatment practices, demonstration projects to close gaps in practice and to expand understanding of effective strategies for implementing clinical guidelines, targeted enhancements of the VA information system, and research and dissemination initiatives to increase the availability of resources to support the accelerated incorporation of best practices into routine care. This article presents an overview of the elements in the initial MHQ strategic plans and the rationale behind them.

  17. Trucking organization and mental health disorders of truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Shattell, Mona; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Collins, Chad; Sönmez, Sevil; Fehrenbacher, Caitlin

    2012-07-01

    There are over 3 million truck drivers employed in the commercial transportation and material moving occupations, one of the largest occupational groups in the United States. Workers in this large and growing occupational segment are at risk for a range of occupational health-induced conditions, including mental health and psychiatric disorders due to high occupational stress, low access and use of health care, and limited social support. The purpose of this study was to explore male truck drivers' mental health risks and associated comorbidities, using a cross-sectional and quantitative design. Data were collected from a random sample of 316 male truckers between the ages of 23 and 76 at a large truck stop located within a 100-mile radius of Greensboro, North Carolina, USA, using a self-administered 82-item questionnaire. Surveyed truckers were found to have significant issues affecting their mental health, such as loneliness (27.9%), depression (26.9%), chronic sleep disturbances (20.6%), anxiety (14.5%), and other emotional problems (13%). Findings have potential to help researchers develop interventions to improve the emotional and occupational health of truck drivers, a highly underserved population. Mental health promotion, assessment, and treatment must become a priority to improve the overall trucking environment for truckers, the transportation industry, and safety on US highways. PMID:22757596

  18. Trucking organization and mental health disorders of truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Shattell, Mona; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Collins, Chad; Sönmez, Sevil; Fehrenbacher, Caitlin

    2012-07-01

    There are over 3 million truck drivers employed in the commercial transportation and material moving occupations, one of the largest occupational groups in the United States. Workers in this large and growing occupational segment are at risk for a range of occupational health-induced conditions, including mental health and psychiatric disorders due to high occupational stress, low access and use of health care, and limited social support. The purpose of this study was to explore male truck drivers' mental health risks and associated comorbidities, using a cross-sectional and quantitative design. Data were collected from a random sample of 316 male truckers between the ages of 23 and 76 at a large truck stop located within a 100-mile radius of Greensboro, North Carolina, USA, using a self-administered 82-item questionnaire. Surveyed truckers were found to have significant issues affecting their mental health, such as loneliness (27.9%), depression (26.9%), chronic sleep disturbances (20.6%), anxiety (14.5%), and other emotional problems (13%). Findings have potential to help researchers develop interventions to improve the emotional and occupational health of truck drivers, a highly underserved population. Mental health promotion, assessment, and treatment must become a priority to improve the overall trucking environment for truckers, the transportation industry, and safety on US highways.

  19. Migration and mental health in Europe (the state of the mental health in Europe working group: appendix 1)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background This paper is a part of the work of the group that carried out the report "The state of the mental health in Europe" (European Commission, DG Health and Consumer Protection, 2004) and deals with the mental health issues related to the migration in Europe. Methods The paper tries to describe the social, demographical and political context of the emigration in Europe and tries to indicate the needs and (mental) health problems of immigrants. A review of the literature concerning mental health risk in immigrant is also carried out. The work also faces the problem of the health policy toward immigrants and the access to health care services in Europe. Results Migration during the 1990s has been high and characterised by new migrations. Some countries in Europe, that have been traditionally exporters of migrants have shifted to become importers. Migration has been a key force in the demographic changes of the European population. The policy of closed borders do not stop migration, but rather seems to set up a new underclass of so-called "illegals" who are suppressed and highly exploited. In 2000 there were also 392.200 asylum applications. The reviewed literature among mental health risk in some immigrant groups in Europe concerns: 1) highest rate of schizophrenia; suicide; alcohol and drug abuse; access of psychiatric facilities; risk of anxiety and depression; mental health of EU immigrants once they returned to their country; early EU immigrants in today disadvantaged countries; refugees and mental health Due to the different condition of migration concerning variables as: motivation to migrations (e.g. settler, refugees, gastarbeiters); distance for the host culture; ability to develop mediating structures; legal residential status it is impossible to consider "migrants" as a homogeneous group concerning the risk for mental illness. In this sense, psychosocial studies should be undertaken to identify those factors which may under given conditions, imply

  20. Effects of Structural Family Therapy on Child and Maternal Mental Health Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Addie; Greeno, Catherine G.; Marcus, Steven C.; Fusco, Rachel A.; Zimmerman, Tina; Anderson, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined the effect of structural family therapy (SFT) on children's impairment and depressive symptomatology and mothers' depressive symptomatology and anxiety for 31 families served by a community mental health clinic. Method: A one group predesign/postdesign, with a baseline and two follow-up time points,…

  1. Parent Groups, Preventive Mental Health in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Frances W.; Bornman, Kemper L.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes an approach utilized by Margaret Dumas Mental Health Center to produce an effective preventive mental health program with the school incorporating the concept of clear communication and consultation between the school and mental health personnel. (Author)

  2. Stigma and Mental Illness: Investigating Attitudes of Mental Health and Non-Mental-Health Professionals and Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…

  3. Mental health services in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Orotaloa, Paul; Blignault, Ilse

    2012-06-01

    The Solomon Islands comprise an archipelago of nearly 1,000 islands and coral atolls and have an estimated population of 549,574 people. Formal mental health services date back to 1950 when an asylum was established. Since then the process of mental health service development has been largely one of incremental change, with a major boost to community services in the last two decades. During the 1990s a mental health outpatient clinic was established in Honiara, together with attempts to recruit nursing staff as psychiatric coordinators in the provinces. In 1996, the Ministry commenced sending registered nurses for psychiatric training in Papua New Guinea. By 2010, there were 13 psychiatric nurses and one psychiatrist, with a second psychiatrist in training. A National Mental Health Policy was drafted in 2009 but is yet to be endorsed by Cabinet. A significant portion of the population still turns to traditional healers or church leaders for purposes of healing, seeking help from Western medicine only after all other alternatives in the community have been exhausted. There is still a long way to go before mental health services are available, affordable and accessible to the whole population, including people living in geographically remote areas. Realization of this vision requires increased resourcing for mental health services; improved communication and collaboration between the centrally-based, national mental health services and the provincial health services; and closer, ongoing relationships between all stakeholders and partners, both locally and internationally. PMID:26767360

  4. Mental health services in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Orotaloa, Paul; Blignault, Ilse

    2012-06-01

    The Solomon Islands comprise an archipelago of nearly 1,000 islands and coral atolls and have an estimated population of 549,574 people. Formal mental health services date back to 1950 when an asylum was established. Since then the process of mental health service development has been largely one of incremental change, with a major boost to community services in the last two decades. During the 1990s a mental health outpatient clinic was established in Honiara, together with attempts to recruit nursing staff as psychiatric coordinators in the provinces. In 1996, the Ministry commenced sending registered nurses for psychiatric training in Papua New Guinea. By 2010, there were 13 psychiatric nurses and one psychiatrist, with a second psychiatrist in training. A National Mental Health Policy was drafted in 2009 but is yet to be endorsed by Cabinet. A significant portion of the population still turns to traditional healers or church leaders for purposes of healing, seeking help from Western medicine only after all other alternatives in the community have been exhausted. There is still a long way to go before mental health services are available, affordable and accessible to the whole population, including people living in geographically remote areas. Realization of this vision requires increased resourcing for mental health services; improved communication and collaboration between the centrally-based, national mental health services and the provincial health services; and closer, ongoing relationships between all stakeholders and partners, both locally and internationally.

  5. Mental health services in the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Ahmed; Karam, Elie; Okasha, Tarek

    2012-02-01

    This paper summarizes the current situation of mental health services in the Arab world. Out of 20 countries for which information is available, six do not have a mental health legislation and two do not have a mental health policy. Three countries (Lebanon, Kuwait and Bahrain) had in 2007 more than 30 psychiatric beds per 100,000 population, while two (Sudan and Somalia) had less than 5 per 100,000. The highest number of psychiatrists is found in Qatar, Bahrain and Kuwait, while seven countries (Iraq, Libya, Morocco, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen) have less than 0.5 psychiatrists for 100,000 population. The budget allowed for mental health as a percentage from the total health budget, in the few countries where information is available, is far below the range to promote mental health services. Some improvement has occurred in the last decade, but the mental health human resources and the attention devoted to mental health issues are still insufficient.

  6. Mental health services in the Arab world

    PubMed Central

    OKASHA, AHMED; KARAM, ELIE; OKASHA, TAREK

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current situation of mental health services in the Arab world. Out of 20 countries for which information is available, six do not have a mental health legislation and two do not have a mental health policy. Three countries (Lebanon, Kuwait and Bahrain) had in 2007 more than 30 psychiatric beds per 100,000 population, while two (Sudan and Somalia) had less than 5 per 100,000. The highest number of psychiatrists is found in Qatar, Bahrain and Kuwait, while seven countries (Iraq, Libya, Morocco, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen) have less than 0.5 psychiatrists for 100,000 population. The budget allowed for mental health as a percentage from the total health budget, in the few countries where information is available, is far below the range to promote mental health services. Some improvement has occurred in the last decade, but the mental health human resources and the attention devoted to mental health issues are still insufficient. PMID:22295010

  7. Transitions: A Mental Health Literacy Program for Postsecondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin-Boucher, Jacqueline; Szumilas, Magdalena; Sheikh, Tabinda; Kutcher, Stan

    2010-01-01

    Enhancement of mental health literacy is a mental health promotion strategy that may be effective at destigmatizing mental illness and increasing self-seeking behavior. Transitions is a mental health literacy program intended to heighten students' awareness and discussion of mental health problems and promote help-seeking behaviors. Transitions…

  8. Mental Health Literacy and Help-Giving Responses in Irish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Sadhbh; Swords, Lorraine; Nixon, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed mental health literacy in Irish adolescents (N = 187), and explored participants' help-giving responses toward hypothetical depressed peers. Participants read five vignettes, each describing an adolescent experiencing a life difficulty; two of the characters met "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders"…

  9. A Suffering Generation: Six Factors Contributing to the Mental Health Crisis in North American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruisselbrink Flatt, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    The number of students on university and college campuses that are struggling with depression, anxiety, suicidal thoughts, and psychosis across North America is rising (Gallagher, 2008). This intensification of students' psychological needs has become a mental health crisis. The age at which many mental disorders manifest themselves is…

  10. Mental health surveillance and information systems.

    PubMed

    Gater, R; Chisholm, D; Dowrick, C

    2015-07-01

    Routine information systems for mental health in many Eastern Mediterranean Region countries are rudimentary or absent, making it difficult to understand the needs of local populations and to plan accordingly. Key components for mental health surveillance and information systems are: national commitment and leadership to ensure that relevant high quality information is collected and reported; a minimum data set of key mental health indicators; intersectoral collaboration with appropriate data sharing; routine data collection supplemented with periodic surveys; quality control and confidentiality; and technology and skills to support data collection, sharing and dissemination. Priority strategic interventions include: (1) periodically assessing and reporting the mental health resources and capacities available using standardized methodologies; (2) routine collection of information and reporting on service availability, coverage and continuity, for priority mental disorders disaggregated by age, sex and diagnosis; and (3) mandatory recording and reporting of suicides at the national level (using relevant ICD codes). PMID:26442892

  11. Ethnic Differences in Mental Illness and Mental Health Service Use Among Black Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Sean; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We have presented nationally representative data on the prevalence and correlates of mental illness and mental health service use among African American and Caribbean Black (US-born and foreign-born) fathers in the United States. Methods. We have reported national estimates of lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of mental illness, correlates, and service use among African American (n = 1254) and Caribbean Black (n = 633) fathers using data from the National Survey of American Life, a national household survey of Black Americans. We used bivariate cross-tabulations and Cox proportional hazards regression approaches and adjusted for the National Survey of American Life's complex sample design. Results. The prevalence of mental illness, sociodemographic correlates, and service use among Black fathers varied by ethnicity and nativity. US-born Caribbean Black fathers had alarmingly high rates of most disorders, including depression, anxiety, and substance disorders. Mental health service use was particularly low for African American and foreign-born Caribbean Black fathers. Conclusions. These results demonstrate the need for more research on the causes and consequences of mental illness and the help-seeking behavior of ethnically diverse Black fathers. PMID:22401518

  12. The mental patients' rights movement and mental health institutional change.

    PubMed

    Brown, P

    1981-01-01

    The mental patients' rights movement has added to the widespread critique of institutional psychiatry and provided leadership in opposing treatment methods such as electroshock, psychosurgery, and overdrugging, which are dangerous and regressive not only to patients, but to the expanded population of non-institutionalized persons as well. The movement has had some success in court cases for democratic rights, such as the right to treatment, the right to refuse treatment, patient labor, and commitment law. At the same time patients' rights demands have been partly coopted by mental health administrators. In a number to cases, mental health officials supported patients' rights litigation because it enabled them to speed up their deinstitutionalization programs. Overall, the conjuncture of the movement with economic impetus toward deinstitutionalization has allowed mental health planners to use the patients' rights issues to justify their essentially fiscal policy. Providers and administrators have set up advocacy offices, posted patients' bills of rights, and incorporated ex-patient representatives on advisory boards. Yet mental health administrators are generally opposed to a broad application of patients' rights. PMID:7333723

  13. Mental health concerns among African immigrants.

    PubMed

    Venters, Homer; Adekugbe, Olayinka; Massaquoi, Jacob; Nadeau, Cheryl; Saul, Jack; Gany, Francesca

    2011-08-01

    African immigrants represent a rapidly expanding group of immigrants in the United States. In New York City, Africans constitute the fastest growing segment of immigrants but the needs and practices of African immigrants in the U.S. remain poorly understood. A community based organization (CBO) serving African immigrants in Staten Island, NY began a health screening program in 2008 with the goal of promoting access to primary care. Over 18 months, 296 visits were recorded at African Refuge health screenings, representing a total of 87 people who averaged just over 3 visits per person. The screenings identified mental health among the top three medical problems of clients but referral to mental health services was rare. Dedicated services are required to better screen for mental health concerns and refer African immigrants to mental health care.

  14. Perceived discrimination and mental health symptoms among Black men with HIV.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Laura M; Wagner, Glenn J; Galvan, Frank H; Landrine, Hope; Klein, David J; Sticklor, Laurel A

    2011-07-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) exhibit more severe mental health symptoms, including depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, than do members of the general public. We examined whether perceived discrimination, which has been associated with poor mental health in prior research, contributes to greater depression and PTSD symptoms among HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men (MSM), who are at high risk for discrimination from multiple stigmatized characteristics (HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation). A total of 181 Black MSM living with HIV completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) that included measures of mental health symptoms (depression, PTSD) and scales assessing perceived discrimination due to HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation. In bivariate tests, all three perceived discrimination scales were significantly associated with greater symptoms of depression and PTSD (i.e., reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal subscales; all p values < .05). The multivariate model for depression yielded a three-way interaction among all three discrimination types (p < .01), indicating that perceived racial discrimination was negatively associated with depression symptoms when considered in isolation from other forms of discrimination, but positively associated when all three types of discrimination were present. In multivariate tests, only perceived HIV-related discrimination was associated with PTSD symptoms (p < .05). Findings suggest that some types of perceived discrimination contribute to poor mental health among PLWH. Researchers need to take into account intersecting stigmata when developing interventions to improve mental health among PLWH.

  15. Promoting and protecting mental health as flourishing: a complementary strategy for improving national mental health.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Corey L M

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the conception and diagnosis of the mental health continuum, the findings supporting the two continua model of mental health and illness, and the benefits of flourishing to individuals and society. Completely mentally healthy adults--individuals free of a 12-month mental disorder and flourishing--reported the fewest missed days of work, the fewest half-day or greater work cutbacks, the healthiest psychosocial functioning (i.e., low helplessness, clear goals in life, high resilience, and high intimacy), the lowest risk of cardiovascular disease, the lowest number of chronic physical diseases with age, the fewest health limitations of activities of daily living, and lower health care utilization. However, the prevalence of flourishing is barely 20% in the adult population, indicating the need for a national program on mental health promotion to complement ongoing efforts to prevent and treat mental illness. Findings reveal a Black advantage in mental health as flourishing and no gender disparity in flourishing among Whites.

  16. EPA guidance on mental health and economic crises in Europe.

    PubMed

    Martin-Carrasco, M; Evans-Lacko, S; Dom, G; Christodoulou, N G; Samochowiec, J; González-Fraile, E; Bienkowski, P; Gómez-Beneyto, M; Dos Santos, M J H; Wasserman, D

    2016-03-01

    This European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance paper is a result of the Working Group on Mental Health Consequences of Economic Crises of the EPA Council of National Psychiatric Associations. Its purpose is to identify the impact on mental health in Europe of the economic downturn and the measures that may be taken to respond to it. We performed a review of the existing literature that yields 350 articles on which our conclusions and recommendations are based. Evidence-based tables and recommendations were developed through an expert consensus process. Literature dealing with the consequences of economic turmoil on the health and health behaviours of the population is heterogeneous, and the results are not completely unequivocal. However, there is a broad consensus about the deleterious consequences of economic crises on mental health, particularly on psychological well-being, depression, anxiety disorders, insomnia, alcohol abuse, and suicidal behaviour. Unemployment, indebtedness, precarious working conditions, inequalities, lack of social connectedness, and housing instability emerge as main risk factors. Men at working age could be particularly at risk, together with previous low SES or stigmatized populations. Generalized austerity measures and poor developed welfare systems trend to increase the harmful effects of economic crises on mental health. Although many articles suggest limitations of existing research and provide suggestions for future research, there is relatively little discussion of policy approaches to address the negative impact of economic crises on mental health. The few studies that addressed policy questions suggested that the development of social protection programs such as active labour programs, social support systems, protection for housing instability, and better access to mental health care, particularly at primary care level, is strongly needed.

  17. EPA guidance on mental health and economic crises in Europe.

    PubMed

    Martin-Carrasco, M; Evans-Lacko, S; Dom, G; Christodoulou, N G; Samochowiec, J; González-Fraile, E; Bienkowski, P; Gómez-Beneyto, M; Dos Santos, M J H; Wasserman, D

    2016-03-01

    This European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance paper is a result of the Working Group on Mental Health Consequences of Economic Crises of the EPA Council of National Psychiatric Associations. Its purpose is to identify the impact on mental health in Europe of the economic downturn and the measures that may be taken to respond to it. We performed a review of the existing literature that yields 350 articles on which our conclusions and recommendations are based. Evidence-based tables and recommendations were developed through an expert consensus process. Literature dealing with the consequences of economic turmoil on the health and health behaviours of the population is heterogeneous, and the results are not completely unequivocal. However, there is a broad consensus about the deleterious consequences of economic crises on mental health, particularly on psychological well-being, depression, anxiety disorders, insomnia, alcohol abuse, and suicidal behaviour. Unemployment, indebtedness, precarious working conditions, inequalities, lack of social connectedness, and housing instability emerge as main risk factors. Men at working age could be particularly at risk, together with previous low SES or stigmatized populations. Generalized austerity measures and poor developed welfare systems trend to increase the harmful effects of economic crises on mental health. Although many articles suggest limitations of existing research and provide suggestions for future research, there is relatively little discussion of policy approaches to address the negative impact of economic crises on mental health. The few studies that addressed policy questions suggested that the development of social protection programs such as active labour programs, social support systems, protection for housing instability, and better access to mental health care, particularly at primary care level, is strongly needed. PMID:26874960

  18. Integrating mental health into chronic care in South Africa: the development of a district mental healthcare plan

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Inge; Fairall, Lara; Bhana, Arvin; Kathree, Tasneem; Selohilwe, One; Brooke-Sumner, Carrie; Faris, Gill; Breuer, Erica; Sibanyoni, Nomvula; Lund, Crick; Patel, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Background In South Africa, the escalating prevalence of chronic illness and its high comorbidity with mental disorders bring to the fore the need for integrating mental health into chronic care at district level. Aims To develop a district mental healthcare plan (MHCP) in South Africa that integrates mental healthcare for depression, alcohol use disorders and schizophrenia into chronic care. Method Mixed methods using a situation analysis, qualitative key informant interviews, theory of change workshops and piloting of the plan in one health facility informed the development of the MHCP. Results Collaborative care packages for the three conditions were developed to enable integration at the organisational, facility and community levels, supported by a human resource mix and implementation tools. Potential barriers to the feasibility of implementation at scale were identified. Conclusions The plan leverages resources and systems availed by the emerging chronic care service delivery platform for the integration of mental health. This strengthens the potential for future scale up. PMID:26447176

  19. Addressing Parental Mental Health Within Interventions for Children: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Acri, Mary C.; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Untreated parent mental health problems have deleterious effects upon the family, yet caregivers are unlikely to receive services for their emotional health. We conducted a review of treatments and services for children and adolescents that also offered services to parents. Methods Child treatment and service studies were included in the present study if they analyzed parent symptoms or diagnoses over time, and the intervention contained a parent component. Results Of 200 studies reviewed, 20 contained a component for the parent and assessed the parent’s emotional health at multiple time points. Depression and anxiety were the most commonly studied parental mental health problem; most parent components consisted of behavioral strategies in service of the child’s psychological health. Conclusion Major shifts in health care policy affecting mental health services provide an opportunity to create integrated and coordinated health and behavioral health systems. Attention must be given to ensure that the workforce of providers, the administrative structures, and the reimbursement strategies are strengthened and connected to serve the needs of parents/caregivers and children in order to enhance family outcomes. PMID:26527857

  20. Associations between mental health, substance use, and sexual abuse experiences among Latinas.

    PubMed

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Ulloa, Emilio C; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18-34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues.

  1. Women, catastrophe and mental health.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Beverley; Taylor, Mel; McAndrew, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of catastrophic experience, its relationship to the range of acute and prolonged stressors to which women may be exposed and the broad impacts on their mental health and well-being. It identifies catastrophe in terms of multiple accumulated stresses including death, loss, victimization, demoralization, shame, stigmatization, helplessness and identity. Catastrophic experiences include personal violence in domestic circumstances of intimate partner abuse, sexual assault and child physical and sexual abuse. Women's experiences of loss through the violent deaths of children and loved ones may also have such enduring impacts. Terrorism victimizes men and women in this way, with the enduring impacts for women in terms of threat of ongoing attacks as well as acute effects and their aftermath. The catastrophes of war, conflict, genocide, sexual exploitation and refugee status differentially affect large numbers of women, directly and through their concerns for the care of their children and loved ones. Ultimate catastrophes such as Hiroshima and the Holocaust are discussed but with recognition of the very large numbers of women currently experiencing catastrophe in ongoing ways that may be silent and unrecognized. This is significant for clinical care and population impacts, and in the losses for women across such contexts.

  2. Public school teachers’ perceptions about mental health

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Amanda Gonçalves Simões; Estanislau, Gustavo; Brietzke, Elisa; Lefèvre, Fernando; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6%) showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools. PMID:26039397

  3. Mental health nurses' contributions to community mental health care: An Australian study.

    PubMed

    Heslop, Brett; Wynaden, Dianne; Tohotoa, Jenny; Heslop, Karen

    2016-10-01

    Australian mental health policy is focused on providing mental health care in the community setting and community mental health teams provide services to clients in a shared model with primary care. The historical literature reports that community mental health nurses' experience high levels of stress and are often allocated the most complex and challenging clients managed by the team. Yet information on their specific roles remains limited. This paper reports on research conducted at one Australian public mental health service to identify the components of the community mental health nursing role and to quantify the time nurses spent in each component during the study period. Six focus groups were conducted with community mental health nurses to identify their perceived role within the team. Data analysis identified 18 components of which 10 were related to direct clinical contact with clients and eight covered administrative and care coordination activities. A data collection tool based on the findings of the focus groups was designed and nurses recorded workload data on the tool in 15-min intervals over a 4-week period. Seventeen nurses collected 1528 hours of data. Internal coordination of care was identified as the top workload item followed by clinical documentation and national data collection responsibilities supporting the complexity of the community mental health nursing role. The high rating attached to the internal coordination of care role demonstrates an important contribution that community mental health nurses make to the functioning of the team and the delivery of quality mental health care.

  4. [Mental health and the nurse's work].

    PubMed

    Coimbra, Valéria Cristina Christello; da Silva, Emília Nalva Ferreira; Kantorski, Luciane Prado; Oliveira, Michele Mandagará

    2005-04-01

    The study aimed at knowing, with three nurses from a hospital in Pelotas, Brazil, how they perceive their mental health in relation to their work and which factors cause pleasure/suffering in their job. It relates to a descriptive, analytical research within a qualitative approach. The data were collected by means of a semi-structured interview. The results were presented through central themes such as: pleasure manifestations, suffering and the mental health upon working. Knowing the factors that propitiate mental health, pleasure, suffering at work opens up possibilities of changes for nursing activity, contributing to the struggle for more human and fair work labor issues.

  5. Recent mental health litigation: a critical perspective.

    PubMed

    Stone, A A

    1977-03-01

    The author considers the effect of recent mental health litigation involving involuntary confinement, the right to refuse treatment, the least restrictive alternative, and the right to treatment on the role of the psychiatrist and the provision of mental health care. His thesis is that the implicit analogies between psychiatrists and agents of the criminal justice system and between patients and criminal defendants are misleading and that the recent changes in the law based on these analogies adversely affect the provision of mental health care.

  6. Mental health and global well-being.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; Jané-Llopis, Eva

    2011-12-01

    A range of evidence-based, cost-effective interventions can be implemented in parenting, at schools, at the workplace and in older age to promote mental health and well-being. Such programmes need to be supplemented with actions to build mental health capital and promote resilience to manage and cope with the global risks that face humankind over the coming years. Actions need to connect mental and physical health and individuals need to be connected through health-promoting social networks; living environments need to be designed to support mental health and well-being; well-being indicators that include material living conditions, quality of life and sustainability can help drive healthy public policy. There is an urgent need to invest in skills training in decision-making, social interactions, building trust and cooperative behaviour that support the family of humanity as a whole as it faces the unprecedented stressors resulting from climate change. PMID:22079934

  7. Impact of Mental Health Visits on Healthcare Cost in Patients with Diabetes and Comorbid Mental Health Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Egede, Leonard E.; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Zhao, Yumin; Dismuke, Clara E.; Walker, Rebekah J.; Hunt, Kelly J.; Axon, R. Neal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the impact of mental health visits (MHV) on the cost of care for Veterans with diabetes and comorbid mental health conditions. Methods A national cohort of 120,852 Veterans with diabetes and at least one mental health diagnosis (i.e., substance abuse, depression or psychoses) in 2002 was followed through 2006. Outcomes were pharmacy, inpatient and outpatient costs in 2012 dollars. Results Least-square covariate adjusted estimates from the joint model of total VA costs of the number of MHV using December 31, 2012 value dollars indicate that relative to those with fewer MHV, those with 3+ MHV had the lowest mean inpatient cost ($21,406), but the highest mean outpatient and pharmacy cost ($9,727 and $2,015, respectively). If all Veterans who received zero MHV actually received 3+ MHV, we estimate through simulated scenarios that between $32,272,329 and $181,460,247 in inpatient costs would be saved. However, these savings would be offset by additional expenditures of between $1,166,017,547 and $1,166,224,787 in outpatient costs and between $151,604,683 and $161,439,632 in pharmacy costs. Conclusions Among Veterans with diabetes and comorbid mental disorders having three or more mental health visits is associated with marginally decreased inpatient cost, but these potential savings seem to be offset by increased outpatient and pharmacy costs. PMID:25083903

  8. Predictors of Using Mental Health Services After Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Price, Matthew; Davidson, Tatiana M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual assault increases the risk for psychopathology. Despite the availability of effective interventions, relatively few victims who need treatment receive care in the months following an assault. Prior work identified several factors associated with utilizing care, including ethnicity, insurance, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined predictors of treatment utilization prospectively from the time of assault. The present study hypothesized that White racial status, younger age, being partnered, having health insurance, having previously received mental health treatment, and having more PTSD and depression symptoms would predict utilization of care in the 6 months postassault. This was examined in a sample of 266 female sexual assault victims with an average age of 26.2 years, of whom 62.0% were White and 38.0% were African American assessed at 1.5 and 6 months postassault. Available information on utilizing care varied across assessments (1.5 months, n = 214; 3 months, n = 126; 6 months, n = 204). Significant predictors included having previously received mental health treatment (OR = 4.09), 1 day depressive symptoms (OR = 1.06), and having private insurance (OR = 2.24) or Medicaid (OR = 2.19). Alcohol abuse and prior mental health care were associated with a substantial increase in treatment utilization (OR = 4.07). The findings highlight the need to help victims at risk obtain treatment after sexual assault. PMID:24852357

  9. Environmental Quality Index and Childhood Mental Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Childhood mental disorders affect between 13%-20% of children in the United States (US) annually and impact the child, family, and community. Literature suggests associations exist between environmental and children’s mental health such as air pollution with autism and ADHD...

  10. The Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carty, Lee; Burley, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law is the nation's leading legal advocate for the rights of adults and children with mental disabilities. The Center uses a coordinated strategy of federal policy advocacy, legal support for a nationwide network of advocates, and creation of educational materials to help families, professionals,…

  11. Rethinking funding priorities in mental health research.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Betts, Virginia Trotter; Greenman, Lisa; Essock, Susan M; Escobar, Javier I; Barch, Deanna; Hogan, Michael F; Areán, Patricia A; Druss, Benjamin G; DiClemente, Ralph J; McGlashan, Thomas H; Jeste, Dilip V; Proctor, Enola K; Ruiz, Pedro; Rush, A John; Canino, Glorisa J; Bell, Carl C; Henry, Renata; Iversen, Portia

    2016-06-01

    Mental health research funding priorities in high-income countries must balance longer-term investment in identifying neurobiological mechanisms of disease with shorter-term funding of novel prevention and treatment strategies to alleviate the current burden of mental illness. Prioritising one area of science over others risks reduced returns on the entire scientific portfolio. PMID:27251688

  12. Rethinking funding priorities in mental health research.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Betts, Virginia Trotter; Greenman, Lisa; Essock, Susan M; Escobar, Javier I; Barch, Deanna; Hogan, Michael F; Areán, Patricia A; Druss, Benjamin G; DiClemente, Ralph J; McGlashan, Thomas H; Jeste, Dilip V; Proctor, Enola K; Ruiz, Pedro; Rush, A John; Canino, Glorisa J; Bell, Carl C; Henry, Renata; Iversen, Portia

    2016-06-01

    Mental health research funding priorities in high-income countries must balance longer-term investment in identifying neurobiological mechanisms of disease with shorter-term funding of novel prevention and treatment strategies to alleviate the current burden of mental illness. Prioritising one area of science over others risks reduced returns on the entire scientific portfolio.

  13. Families, Juvenile Justice and Children's Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Marilyn C., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The theme issue of this bulletin is a discussion of youth with emotional disturbances who are in the juvenile justice system and how to meet their needs. Articles include: (1) "Responding to the Mental Health Needs of Youth in the Juvenile Justice System" (Susan Rotenberg); (2) "Prevalence of Mental Disorders among Youth in the Juvenile Justice…

  14. How Stigma Interferes with Mental Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Many people who would benefit from mental health services opt not to pursue them or fail to fully participate once they have begun. One of the reasons for this disconnect is stigma; namely, to avoid the label of mental illness and the harm it brings, people decide not to seek or fully participate in care. Stigma yields 2 kinds of harm that may…

  15. Integrating Mental Health Promotion and Substance Abuse Prevention on College Campuses. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the American Psychiatric Association, college can be an exciting time, though for some it can be overwhelming and stressful. Depression, anxiety, substance use, and eating disorders are common mental health issues on college campuses. The 2010 American College Health Association National College Health Assessment found that 28 percent…

  16. New mental health indicators provide a snapshot on performance of the mental health system in Canada.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Carolyn; Couris, Chantal; Leeb, Kira

    2012-01-01

    Although the general hospital remains an important place for stabilizing crises, most services for mental illnesses are provided in outpatient/community settings. In the absence of comprehensive data at the community level, data that are routinely collected from general hospitals can provide insights on the performance of mental health services for people living with mental illness or poor mental health. This article describes three new indicators that provide a snapshot on the performance of the mental health system in Canada: self-injury hospitalization rate, 30-day readmission rate for mental illness and percentage of patients with repeat hospitalizations for mental illness. Findings suggest a need for the early detection and treatment of mental illnesses and for optimal transitions between general hospitals and community services.

  17. The Centre for International Mental Health Approach to Mental Health System Development

    PubMed Central

    Minas, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Although mental disorders are a major public health problem, the development of mental health services has been a low priority everywhere, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Recent years have seen a growing understanding of the importance of population mental health and increased attention to the need to developmental health systems for responding to population mental health service needs. In countries and regions where mental health services are all but nonexistent, and in postconflict and postdisaster settings, there are many impediments to establishing or scaling up mental health services. It is frequently necessary to act simultaneously on multiple fronts: generating local evidence that will inform decision makers; developing a policy framework; securing investment; determining the most appropriate service model for the context; training and supporting mental health workers; establishing or expanding existing services; putting in place systems for monitoring and evaluation; and strengthening leadership and governance capabilities. This article presents the approach of the Centre for International Mental Health in the Melbourne School of Population Health to mental health system development, and illustrates the way in which the elements of the program are integrated by giving a brief case example from Sri Lanka. (harv rev psychiatry 2012;20:37–46.) PMID:22335181

  18. Mental Health Functioning Among Men who Use the Internet Specifically to Find Partners for Unprotected Sex

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a link between mental health functioning and involvement in HIV risk practices. The present research examines how well one specific group of men who have sex with other men (MSM) fare in terms of their mental health functioning, and then focuses on how mental health functioning relates to HIV risk practices in this population. The study was based on a national random sample of 332 MSM who use the Internet to seek men with whom they can engage in unprotected sex. Data collection was conducted via telephone interviews between January 2008 and May 2009. Depression is more common among men in this population than in the adult male population-at-large. All other measures of mental health functioning that were examined (self-esteem, impulsivity, current life satisfaction, optimism about the future) indicated low rates of mental health problem. Contrary to expectations, in nearly all instances, mental health functioning was not related to HIV risk practices. More work needs to be done to understand the causes of depression among these men, and to assess how, if at all, depression relates to risk practices in this population. These findings suggest that factors other than mental health problems must be considered if one wishes to understand HIV risk taking in this population. PMID:25478130

  19. Dysbiotic drift: mental health, environmental grey space, and microbiota.

    PubMed

    Logan, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    Advances in research concerning the mental health implications of dietary patterns and select nutrients have been remarkable. At the same time, there have been rapid increases in the understanding of the ways in which non-pathogenic microbes can potentially influence many aspects of human health, including those in the mental realm. Discussions of nutrition and microbiota are often overlapping. A separate, yet equally connected, avenue of research is that related to natural (for example, green space) and built environments, and in particular, how they are connected to human cognition and behaviors. It is argued here that in Western industrial nations a 'disparity of microbiota' might be expected among the socioeconomically disadvantaged, those whom face more profound environmental forces. Many of the environmental forces pushing against the vulnerable are at the neighborhood level. Matching the developing microbiome research with existing environmental justice research suggests that grey space may promote dysbiosis by default. In addition, the influence of Westernized lifestyle patterns, and the marketing forces that drive unhealthy behaviors in deprived communities, might allow dysbiosis to be the norm rather than the exception in those already at high risk of depression, subthreshold (subsyndromal) conditions, and subpar mental health. If microbiota are indeed at the intersection of nutrition, environmental health, and lifestyle medicine (as these avenues pertain to mental health), then perhaps the rapidly evolving gut-brain-microbiota conversation needs to operate through a wider lens. In contrast to the more narrowly defined psychobiotic, the term eco-psychotropic is introduced. PMID:25947328

  20. Mental Health Worker. Student's Manual [and] Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Kathy

    The student's manual of this set consists of materials for use by students enrolled in an extension course to train them for employment as mental health workers. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: mental health, mental illness, mental health professionals, diagnosis of mental disorders, treatment of mental…